(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

Modern Descendants of Latin

385

The fate of habere is a comparatively sample story Its modern repre-
sentatives in Italian (AVERE) and in French (AVOIR) still have a pos-
sessive significance The French and Italians also use parts ofavere or
avoir as we use have or had in compound past tense-forms of all verbs
other than* (a) those which are reflexive (or pseudo-reflexive)., (6) most
intransitive verbs (including espeaaliy those which signify motion)
This is in keeping (pp. 271) with the use of the German haben and
Swedish hava. We can use the Spanish HABER to build up compound
past tenses of all verbs, but it never denotes possession The Spanish
equivalent for have in a possessive sense is TENER (Latin tenere == to
hold). TENER sometimes invades the territory of the Spanish
HABER as a helper The Portuguese equivalent TER has completely
taken over the function of habere, both in its original possessive sense
and as a helper to signify perfected action The following examples
illustrate the use of modern descendants ofhabete and tenere as helpers

CONJUGATION OF TENER (SPANISH), TER (PORTUGUESE), TENERE (LATIN)


	TENER
	TER
	TENERE
	
	TENER
	TER
	TENERE


	tengo
	tenho
	teneo
	
	tendre
	terei
	


	tienes
	tens
	tenes
	
	tendras
	teras
	


	tiene
	tern
	tenet
	
	tendra
	tera
	see


	tenemos
	temos
	tenemus
	
	tendremos
	teremos
	P 339


	ten&s
	tendes
	tenetis
	
	tendreis
	tereis
	


	tienen
	
	tenent
	
	tendran
	tei5o
	

** r
	tenia
	tinha
	tenebam
	« r
	jtendria
	tena
	

u 1
	tenias
	ripViftq
	tenebas
	1
	tendrias
	terias
	

<cl
	tenia
	tinha
	tenebat
	SJ
	tendrla
	tena
	see

g 1
	tenfamos
	tinhamos
	tenebamus
	•31
	tendriamos
	teriamos
	P 339

a
	tenfais
	tinheis
	tenebatis
	§
	tenriais
	teneis
	

Ml
	tenian
	tinham
	tenebant
	5L
	tendrian
	ten am
	

r
	tuve
	tive
	tenui
	
	tenga
	tenha
	teneam

~i)
	tuviste
	tiveste
	tenu±«!ti
	
	tengas
	tenhas
	teneas


	tuvo
	teve
	tenuit
	
	tenga
	tenha
	teneat

t2w I
	tuvimos
	tivemos
	tenuimus
	
	tengamos
	tenhaxnos
	teneamus

Q
	tuvisteis
	tivestes
	tenuisus
	
	tengais
	tenhais
	teneatis

I
	tuvieron
	tivcr3.ru
	tenuerunt
	
	tengan
	tenham
	teneant

Imper
	/ ten \ tened
	tern tende
	tene tenete
	Past\ Part/
	temendo temdo
	tendo tido
	tenendo temtum

English        he has money French        il a de Fargent Portuguese  tern dinheiro Spanish       tiene dinero Italian        ha denaro
	he has paid il a paye tern pagado ha pagado ha pagato
	he had paid il avait pay6 tinha pagado habia pagado aveva pagato

Important set expressions in which habere survives in Portuguese as
well as in French and Spanish are:
N