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Full text of "The Loom Of Language"

The Diseases of Language

409

NOMINATIVE SINGULAR

van       (water)

fatrus     (enemy)

jds         (progeny)

svdsa     (sister)

GENITIVE SINGULAR

vannas
fdtros
jds
svdsur

Many pages of this book could be filled if we set out all the flexions
of a single Sanskrit or a single Greek verb with respect to time, person,
voice, and mood The following example illustrates only the personal
flexions of one tense (present} and of both voices (active and passive)
The mood is indicative, i e the form used in simple statements.


	ACTIVE
		PASSIVE
	
	SANSKRIT
	GREEK
	SANSKRIT
	GREEK

" I,
 Sing   - 2 .3
	dadhami dadhasi dadhati
	didorm didos dfdosi(n)
	dadhe dhatse dhatte
	didomai didosai didotai

fi. Dual 4 2
 13
	dadhvas dhatthas dhattas
	didoton didoton
	dadhvahe dadhathe dadhate
	didosthon didosthon

Plur   -j 3* U
	dadhmas dhattha dadhati
	didomen didote didoasi(n)
	d^dhtnahe dhaddhve dadhate
	didometha didosthe didontai

The Anglo-American equivalents would be I, you, we, or they give
and he gives (active)., and / am, you, we, they are, he is given (passive),
making altogether three forms of the verb give and three of to be, or
six in all to represent the meaning of eighteen Sanskrit words For
eight different forms of a modern English verb we can make above
thirty-six corresponding forms of the Sanskrit or Greek verb The
complete Sanskrit verb finite, that is the verb without its infinitives,
participles, and verbal adjectives plus then: flexions, has 743 different
forms, as against the 268 of Greek From a complete Greek verb we
get the enormous number of 507 forms, from a Latin one 143, and
from a Gothic verb 94 The English verb usually has four, or at most
five forms (e g give, gives, gave, giving, given} If we add seven forms of
to be, four of to have, together with shall or will and should or would,