Pioneers of Language Planning 451 What remains for discussion is case-., mood*, and time-flexion Very properly Leibniz casts doubt on the reason d'etre of the first two with the following argument. As things are, case* and mood- flexions are useless repetitions of particles Either case- and mood-flexions can do without prepositions and conjunctions, or prepositions and conjunc- tions can do without case and mood terminal Besides, it is impossible for flexion to express the immense variety of relations which we can indicate by means of particles Aftei some wavering between a highly synthetic medium and an analytical one, Leibniz comes out in favour of the latter When all this sanitary demolition is over, the only thing left with the verb is time-flexion Leibniz considers this essential, but wishes to extend it to adjectives (as in Japanese), to adverbs, and to nouns Thus the adjective ndiculurus would qualify an object which mil "be ridiculous, the noun amamtio would signify the fact of having loved, and amatuntio the disturbing certainty of going to love Leibniz's next and most revolutionary step is to reduce the number of parts of speech Clearly, the adverbs can be merged with adjectives because they have the same relation to the verD as adjectives have to a noun, i e they qualify its meaning For reasons sufficiently familiar to readers of The Loom (p 125), distinction between adjective and substantive is also "of no great im- portance in a rational language " The only logical difference between the two is that the latter implies the idea of substance or existence Every substantive is equivalent to an adjective accompanied by the word Ens (Being) or Res (Thing) Thus Idem est Homo quod Ens hu- manum (Man is the same thing as Human Being) Similarly (as in Celtic idiom) every verb can be reduced to the single verb substantive to be and an adjective. Petrus scribit, id est est scnbens (Peter writes, i e is writing). So the irreducible elements of discourse boil down to the single noun Ens or Res, the single verb est (is), together with a congeries of adjectival qualifiers and particles which bind the other parts of a statement together by exposing relations between them A complete vocabulary is exhausted by a lexicon of roots and a list of affixes each with its own and sharply defined meaning All this tallies with the fruits of research in comparative grammar two hundred years later. Leibniz was far ahead of his time in other ways He was alive to what Mahnowski calls "the sliding of roots and meanings from one grammatical category to another9' (p. 170), and anticipates Ogden's Basic (p 473) by embarking on an analysis of the particles to ascertain their meaning and the requisite rmrnrmim number.