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THE 



MEANING 



OF THE 



SOVIET 
TRIALS 



BY E^YAROSLAVSKY 



X^Ti?s\tiV5\cu^ ^vv^tVy^ 



y\ 



INCLUDING THE OFFICIAL TEXT 
OF THE INDICTMENT OF THE 
BUKHARIN-TROTSKYITE BLOC 

INTRODUCTION 

BY WILLIAM 2^ FOf TER 



5 CENTS 



INTRODUCTION 



THE sound and the fury set up by the enemies 
o£ the Soviet Union around the Trotskyite- 
Bukharin trials should confuse no one. The first 
workers' and farmers' government is today bring- 
ing to justice the last of the leading groups of 
pro-fascist plotters, promoters of war^ and sabotagers 
of socialist progress. The Soviet people are building 
a great, new, free society, instead of the old society 
where the rich exploit the poor; they are uaidng the 
nations of one-sixth of the earth's surface into a sin- 
gle classless commonwealth. Those who are trying 
to stop this progress by treason and assassination, to 
betray the Soviet people into the hands of the fascist 
barbarians, must expect to pay the price of their 
treachery when caught. 

When Aaron Burr, one-time Vice-President of the 
United States, together with some army officers and 
about 2,000 co-conspirators, attempted to betray the 
young United States republic and was properly 
crushed, Thomas Jefferson declared concerning the 
ensuing furore: 

"On the whok-, this squall, by showing with what ease 
our governint^nt suppresses movements which in other 
countries requires armies, has greatly increased its strenL^th 
by increasing the public confidence in it." 

This well applies to the Soviet government today. 
The crushing of the Trotskyist-Bukharinist unprin- 
cipled and careerist plotters is a gain for humanity- 
To yield to the misguided liberals — who, under the 
2 



I 



i 






MYorslty of tern 

illusion that they are demanding democracy, wanf^' 
give a free hand to these wretched conspiracies — 
would be to endanger the safety of 173j000,000 So- 
viet people, not to speak of the peace of the world. 
The terrible toll of lives in Spain today, where the 
plotters did have a free hand, will convince all except 
the mentally blind and the friends of the plotting 
murderers of the correctness of the Soviet govern- 
ment's action. 

No matter what their possible liberal pretenses, 
those who in any way aid the fascist Trotskyite*; 
Bukharinite plotters arc merely uncovering their en- 
mity to the first Workers^ Republic. Such a situation 
is not new. Aaron Burr's betrayal similarly forced 
the hand of the Federalists. Jefferson wrote on 
ApriJ 20, 1807, that; 

"The Federalists, too, give all their aid, making Burr's 
cause thdr own, mortified ynly that he did not separate 
the Union, or overturn the Government, and proving, 
that had he had a littie dawn of success, they would have 
joined him to introduce his object, their favorite mon- 
archy, as they would any other enemy, foreign or do- 
mestic, who could rid th{.-m of this hateful republic for 
^ny other government in exchange," 

The mass of the American people should not be 
moved by the lyings slanderous ravings of the capi- 
talist press against the U,S.S.R. Nor should we be 
confused by a few erstwhile liberals who, under 
pressure from reaction oa a thousand issues, gave 
way at this point and were stampeded into the anti- 
Soviet lynch mob. The people and government of 
the U.S-S.R. are our friends. The Trotsky-fascist- 
Bukharinite plotters are our enemies. The latter, by 
their own confessions, wanted to give to Japan the 
Far Eastern provinces of the Soviet Union, which 

3 

889013 



would give Jap^An a better base from which to attack 
the U. S. We also know that if their betrayal o£ the 
U.S.S*R. had been successful it would have been a 
terrible defeat for world democracy and socialism. 

The capitalist press is overselling its falsifications. 
For what reason are these trials being held? In the 
earlier trials the anti-Soviet slanderers said it was to 
make the defendants the culprits in covering up eco- 
nomic failure of the U.S.S.R- But time has shown 
that there was no such economic failure. The Soviet 
Union is making the greatest economic advances of 
any country in any period of history. Then the reac- 
tionaries said the trials were to give more power to 
a few individuals and take it away from the Soviet 
peoples. This was also shown as false by the adoption, 
at the initiative of Stalin himself, of the most demo- 
cratic constitution in the world. Now they shout that 
it is all "incredible" that such crimes as charged could 
have been committed. May we again borrow Jeffer- 
son's words in a similar situation? 

**Burr's enterprise is the most extraordinary since the 
days of Don Quixote. It is so extravagant that thost 
who know his under&tandingj would not believe it if the 
proofs admitted doubt." 

Herein are published two documents — the legal 
indictment against the criminals in the March, 1938, 
trialj and a descriptive article by Comrade Yaroslav- 
sky showing the long record of reactionary and 
stool-pigeon plotting of the defendants and its pur- 
poses. While the notorious United States tory press 
pours out its lies and slanders against the noble peo- 
ple of the U.S.S.R., every American can serve peace 
and progress by spreading the truth here contained. 

William Z. Foster. 
March 4, 1938 
4 



THE MEANING 
OF THE SOVIET TRIALS 

By E. YAROSLAVSKY 



MEMBERS of a criminal conspiratorial group 
of the Bloc of Rights and Trotskyists are ap- 
pearing today before the Military Collegium of the 
Supreme Court of the U.S.S,R. 

Among the accused listed in the statement of the 
office of the Public Prosecutor of the U.S.S.R., the 
first five names^ — Nikolai Bukharinj Alexei Rykov, 
Henry Ya^oda, Nikolai Krestinsky and Christian 
Rakovsky — are more widely known. Trotky is not 
listed among the accused. He has long since been 
condemned by the Soviet people, and only the pro- 
tection of the fascists saves this scoundrel from being 
brought to justice. 

In the prisoners^ dock sits Rykov, one-time leader 
of the "Left Communists," who later, together with 
Bukharin, Tomsky and other traitors^ became an 
organizer of the Rights who sought to restore capi- 
talism in the U.S.S.R. 

In the dock sit the bourgeois-nationalists Ikramovj 
Faizulla Khodjayev and others; former Mensheviks 
like Chernov and former S-Rs* like Grinko^ the 
past and present agents-provocateurs of the tsarist se- 

* Members of the party of so-called "Socialist-Revolutionaries." 

5 



cret police, Zelensky and Ivanov; and people who 
took advantage of their diplomas as doctors and pro- 
fessors to poison some of the best people of the 
proletarian revolution — Valerian Kuibyshev, Men- 
zhinsky, Maxim Gorky, 

Trotskyism links up with any group whatsoever 
as long as it is a foe of Bolshevism, of the Soviet 
power, of the dictatorship of the proletariat, of Com- 
munism. "Lefts" seeking to restore capitalism, Right 
traitors, bourgeois-nationalists, S-Rs and Menshe- 
viks, ordinary criminal elements, provocateurs in the 
service of the tsarist secret police who betrayed many 
persons under tsarism and wormed their way into 
the ranks of the Communist Party in order to betray 
the land of Soviets to fascism — all these are suitable 
material for the espionage, bandit and diversionist 
organization of the Trotskyistsj for the ringleader 
of this organization has himself long been an agent- 
provocateur linked to foreign secret services, going 
back as far as the period of the Civil War — and very 
probably under tsarism as well, for this super- 
traitor has not hesitated to resort to the most mon- 
strous crimes to serve his masters. 

All of these people are united by their hatred of 
the Bolshevik Party^ their belief in the might of the 
bourgeoisie and their hatred of the young Soviet 
state which over a period of twenty years has ful- 
filled in the most difficult conditions a gigantic his- 
torical task by maintaining the integrity and the 
mighty development of the land of socialism over 
one-sixth of the globe. 

It is no accident that they united, for long before 
the proletarian revolution all those participants in the 
6 



BJoc of Rights and Trotskyists fought in one way or 
another against Lenin, against Bolshevism, and de- 
fended views alien to the interests of the proletariat, 
expressing the interests and outlook of classes and 
groups alien to the proletariat. 

BUKHARTN 

During the imperialist war Lenin already char- 
acterized Bukhariji as being *Mevilishly unstable in 
politics." Bukharin justified this brilliant characteri- 
zation throughout the whole of his life. During the 
imperialist war, Lenin spoke up against Bukharin on 
more than one occasion, exposing his non^Marxist 
views and his anarchist attitude towards the state. 
At that time Lenin characterized Bukharin's view- 
point as "confused, non-Marxist and non-Socialist." 
On more than one occasion Lenin pointed out that 
Bukharin was no Marxist. 

In 1917 Bukharin defended at bottom a Trot- 
skyist view of the proletarian revolution, accord- 
ing to which the proletarian revolution must take 
place not only without the peasantry, but against the 
peasantry, Bukharin was the organizer of the group 
of "Left Communists," which was an organization 
hostile to Bolshevism. This hostility reached such a 
point that, as has now been established, Bukharin, 
together with Gregory Piatakov, the enemy of the 
people who has already been executed, and Trotsky, 
organized in 1918 a plot against the Soviet power in 
league with the Left S-Rs with the intention of 
assassinating Lenin, Stalin and Sverdlov and placing 
Piatakov at the head of the government. 

It is not surprising that Znamya Truda [Banner 

7 



of Labor], the organ of the Left S-Rs, proudly 
declared in its issue of April 2, 191S; "The present 
position of our party harmonizes with the other 
trend iij Bolshevism (Bukharin, Pokrovsky and 
others)."' While Lenin and the entire Bolshevik 
Party were exerting all their forces in an exception- 
ally difficult situation to establish a new labor dis- 
cipline, to raise the productivity of labor which had 
fallen during the war, Bukharin and his associates 
among the Mensheviks and S-Rs took a stand against 
Lenin, against the Bolshevik Party. Bukharin pa- 
raded as a "Left." He declared it to be a compromise 
on the part of Lenin and the Soviet Government to 
draw outstanding bourgeois experts into work in 
Soviet institutions. At that time Lenin said of Buk- 
harin that he was "looking at the tasks of the prole- 
tarian dictatorship with his face turned to the past 
and not to the future." 

When in 1918 the Soviet Government published 
a decree designed to put the railway service in order, 
Bukharin, jointly with the Menshevik Martov and 
the Anarchist Ge, came out with the most infamous 
attacks upon this decree of the Soviet Government. 
The treacherous role played by Bukharin during 
Che period of the Brest-Litovsk peace negotiations 
is well-known. It is known how, hiding behind the 
cloak of revolutionary phrases, he disorganized the 
ranks of the Party in order to disrupt these peace 
negotiations. 

Bukharin and a group of other "Left Communists" 
— Yakovleva, Stukov, Ossinsky — adopted a decision 
declaring that it was possible to agree to the "tem- 
porary loss" of Soviet power because the Soviet 



power was only of ^^jormd significance" Lenin called 
chis decision ^^strange and monstrouSy^ seeing in it an 
extreme expression of confusion, pessimism, lack of 
perspective and lack of faith in the forces of the 
revolution. 

The activities of the "Left Communists" did tre- 
mendous harm to the Party and the Soviet power, to 
the entire people of the land of Soviets, for the 
Soviet Government was compelled as the result of 
these activities to sign a peace treaty which imposed 
more difficult conditions and involved the loss of a 
vast amount of territory and a tremendous amount of 
property seized by the Germans, 

In 1920-1921 Bukharin, together with Serebria- 
kov, the enemy of the people already executed, and 
Sokolnikov, sentenced at a previous trial, organized 
a "buffer" group which was in reality a branch of 
Trotskyism, and together with Trotsky conducted a 
furious struggle against Lenin and Stalin, against 
the Bolshevik Party. Later he established contacts 
with the Right S-R terrorists and became closely 
connected with them, particularly during the Right- 
S-R trial in 1922 — in the struggle against Bolshe- 
vism any ally was good enough for Bukharin. 

At the same time Bukharin meanwhile began to 
gather together his "school" of young professors, 
training them in the spirit of Right-wing opportun- 
ism, training ideologists for the restoration of capital- 
ism in the U.S.S*R., future members of Illegal anti- 
Soviet counter-revolutionary terrorist groups like 
Slepkov, Moretzky, Eichenwald and others. It was 
at that time that he began nursing the idea that the 
kulak would develop peacefully into socialism, and 



then already he echoed Trotsky^s view that the land 
of Soviets must take the road of capitalist develop- 
ment in agriculture. 

TemporarMyj for the purpose o£ winning the con- 
fidence of the Party membership, the Rights posed 
as enemies of the Trotskyists, but as soon as the 
Trotskyists as an organized body were expelled from 
the Party by the Fifteenth Party Congress and were 
crushed, the Rights raised their head, their leaders 
being Bukharin, Rykov and Tomsky* Tomsky pre- 
ferred suicide to avoid punishment by the people's 
court, for he was guilty of the self-same foul crimes 
as Bukharin and Rykov. In agreement with the 
S-Rs, Trotskyists, bourgeois-nationalists and Men- 
sheviks, they organized a furious campaign against 
the Party with the aim of restoring capitalism in the 
U.S.S.R. It was no difficult matter for the arch- 
Rightist Bukharin to come to an understanding with 
the arch-Leftist Rykov for they had long since been 
united by a lack of faith in the victory of socialism, 
by their admiration of the might of "organized 
capitalism." 

RYKOV 

White the first revolution of 1905 was in the 
piocess of preparation Rykov displayed his sym- 
pathies for the S-Rs when in Saratov he organized 
a joint organization of Social-Democrats and S-Rs. 
He never believed in the victory of the proletarian 
revolution and was a cojiciliator and opportunist for 
decades prior to the proletarian revolution. Lenin 
took a stand against him on more than one occasion, 
branding him an individual who attempted to hinder 
the war operation of the Bolshevik line. 
10 






At the April Party Conference in 1917, Rykov 
bluntly took a stand against the seizure of power and 
opposed the socialist revolution. He repeated the 
Menshevik argument that the "sun of socialism can- 
not rise in the East, but must rise in the West." In 
the Moscow Soviet during the days of the October 
Revolution, Rykov hindered the operation of a reso- 
lute line designed to crush the enemy, because he 
dreamed together with other Right-wingers of estab- 
lishing a coalition with the bourgeois Right-wing 
S-Rs and Mensheviks. Together with other oppor- 
tunists, he deserted from the Council of People's 
Commissars on the very day after the Soviets had 
taken power. With tongue in cheek and disagreeing 
with the Party's policy, he participated in its work, 
revealing his disagreement from time to time. 

This was the case when the Party set about draft- 
ing the first plan to industrialize the country, the 
ten-year electrification plan, Rykov and Trotsky 
opposed this plan of Lenin and Stalin j later he 
defended his contemptible two-year plan as against 
Stalin's Five- Year Plan. 

While Bukharin gathered together his cadres of 
people seeking to restore capitalism in the U.S.S.R> 
from amoiig young students of petty-bourgeois or- 
igin, Rykov enrolled into Soviet state departments 
the most bureaucratic and non-Bolshevik elements 
and from them enlisted future participants in illegal 
espionage, disruptive and provocative activity. 

Is it surprising that a bee-line for these people 
was made by the former agents-provocateurs of the 
tsarist secret police like Zelensky and Ivanov who 
were afraid that should the Soviet power live on, 

11 



their crimes would foe discovered, and dreamed of 
the return to the days of yore when their treacherous 
work as agents-provocateurs were looked upon as a 
service. 

It is diiEcult to describe the feeling of revulsion 
evoked by these two organizers of the Bloc of Rights 
and Trotskyists when the Central Committee of 
the Communist Party of the Soviet Union already 
possessed information of their treacherous activities^ 
when it became known that they were the authors of 
a so-called "Rutin Platform," a terrorist document 
which strove to provide theoretical foundation for 
the necessity to restore capitalism in the U.S*S.R, 
They swore "by all that is sacred" — and it is notorious 
how much that is "sacred" belongs to provocateurs 
and traitors — that they were loyal to the Party, and 
denied facts that had been firmly established* Thest 
pitiful comedians tried once again to play upon the 
confidence they had abused so criminally and so long 
— for the Party had actually trusted them for a 
number of years. 



V AGO DA 



The third participant in this vile affair is Ya- 
goda, in whom considerable confidence was also 
placed. This individual also knew how to camouflage 
himself with great cunning* Under an outer mask of 
modesty, he lived the life of a moral degenerate, and 
was ambitious to the extreme and filthy to the su- 
preme degree. He had become a traitor long ago, and 
also feared that the day would come when his treach- 
ery would be discovered. Therefore he urged his 
accomplices on and did everything possible to hasten 
12 



University of Tb» 

the fall of the Soviet power. He made it possible for 
the now exposed counter-revolutionaries and foreign 
secret service agents to conduct their work. He knew 
of the preparations to assassinate Kirov and Issued 
direct orders to his subordinates not to interfere in 
the carrying out of this vile deed. He is a provocateur 
who helped to cover up the chief culprits. 

The Party and the Government made a careful 
check of the suspicions against him before preferring 
any charges against him. When Yagoda was removed 
from his high post and the iron Bolshevik Yezhov 
was placed at the head of the People's Commissariat 
of Home AfFairs, Yagoda's crimes were brought to 
light, and only then did it become possible to uncover 
a whole series of counter-revolutionary groups, to 
expose and crush the organizations of the foreign 
intelligence services. 

KRKSTTNSKY AND RAKOVSK.Y 

In this group, Krestinsky and Rakovsky were the 
connectijig link between these Right-wing leaders 
and Trotsky. Krestinsky is an old lawyer who was 
long united to Trotsky by his unbelief in the victory 
of socialism. Already during the years of the Civil 
War, Krestinsky knew of Trotsky's contacts with a 
foreign secret service, was himseJf on the payroll of 
a foreign secret service, and cunningly deceived the 
Soviet Government^ — and not only the Soviet Gov- 
ernment — over the course of many years. His posi- 
tion as a diplomat helped him to cover up the espion- 
age work of Trotskyists and Right-wingers. 

Rakovsky's name was very likely highly valued 
in this contemptible group because this outright 



13 



889013 



traitor and agent of several foreign intelligence ser- 
vices—like RosengoltZj another of the accused in this 
case — always adhered to the rule, *'Even in your 
foul play, maintain some shadow of nobility." 

This sly double-dealer declared in the press that 
he had severed all connections with Trotskyism, and 
the Party returned him to its confidence j it assigned 
him to important work and he turned out to be one of 
the foulest of traitors. Long, long ago he knew, 
as did Krestinsky, of Trotsky's treason, and remained 
silent because, had he revealed this, Trotsky would 
not have been followed by many people misled by 
hftn not only in the U.S.S.R. but also in other 
countries, who believed that Trotsky had some sort 
of ideological arguments, some special program of 
his own. 

The previous trials of Trotskyists and Zinovievists 
have already shown the value to be attached to this 
ideological program of restoration of capitalism in 
the U,S.S.R. When one now turns back to the discus- 
sions in the Party with these people there becomes 
quite dear what was not clear during the discussions, 
namely, that the Trotskyists as well as the Rightists 
used "ideological" motives to cover up their scoun- 
drelly agreement with foreign secret services, with 
parties hostile to the Soviet power. 

Their programs, their stand against the Anglo- 
Russian Committee, against the alliance of the work- 
ers and peasants in China (the bloc with the Kuomin^ 
tang) — ^all these were taken at the orders of one 
or another foreign secret service of an imperialist 
country interested in having the Trotskyist policy 
pursued. 
14 



IKRAMOV AND KHODJAYEV 

Is it surprising that bourgeois-nationalists like 
Ikramov and Khodjayev, who were also in the em- 
ploy of secret services of imperialist powers inter- 
ested in the dismemberment of the U.S.S.R. and the 
severance from it of the Ukraine, White Russia, 
Trans-Caucasia, the Far East, the Central Asiati' 
Republics of the U.S.S.R., Karelia, and so on, were 
attracted to this group? 

The court will expose to the entire world the 
details of the work of this band of infamous traitors. 
Among the great mass of people who perhaps do not 
always find their bearings in Party programs, and 
even among many honest bourgeois people through- 
out the world, there is bound to arise a feeling of 
deepest indignation of contempt for this gang who, 
in order to achieve their vile aims, resorted to such 
methods of struggle as the assassination of Sergei 
Kirov and the poisoning of Comrades Kuibyshev and 
Menzhinsky and of that supreme genius of human 
thought, the great writer, Maxim Gorky* 

At this trial the whole world will see where the 
truth lies. And we have no doubt that the trial will 
rally the Soviet people still more firmly aroimd their 
Party and the Soviet Government. The working 
people of all countries will see that the Trotskyists, 
Right opportunists, Mensheviks, S-Rs and bourgeois- 
nationalists in the Soviet Union were not only pre- 
paring the death of the best people in the Soviet 
Union, but were also preparing aid to fascism which 
would have tremendously increased its power had 
they succeeded in their infamous designs. 

15 



1 



But the enemies of Communism, the enemies of 
Soviet power, will never succeed in carrying out those 
designs. No matter how cunning their camouflage, no 
matter how generously they are paid for their work 
by their capitalist masters, the Communist Party of 
Bolsheviks and the Soviet Government are sufficient- 
ly strong to crush all these organizations, to bring 
to naught the plans of all their enemies and to defend 
the ILS-S.R., the bulwark of socialism. 



THE OFFICIAL TEXT OF THE 
INDICTMENT OF THE BLOC 
OF RIGHTS AND TROTSKYITES 

THE investigation effected by the organs of thc: 
People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs es- 
tablished that, upon instructions from the ni- 
telJigence services of foreign states hostile to the 
U.S.S,R., the accused organized a group of plotters 
under the iiame, "Bloc of Rights and Trotskyists," 
aiming at the overthrow of the socialist social and 
state system in the U.S.S.R,, the restoration of capi- 
talism and the power of the bourgeoisie in the 
U.S.S.R,j the dismemberment of the U.S.S.R. and 
the separation from it of the Ukraine, White Russia, 
the Centra] Asiatic Republics, Georgia, Armenia, 
Azerbaidjan and the Maritime Provinces for the 
benefit of the above-mentioned states. 

The bloc of Rights and Trotskyists united in its 
ranks the underground anti-Soviet groups of Trot- 
skyists, Rights, Zinovievists, Mensheviks, Socialist- 
Revolutionaries, bourgeois nationalists of the Uk- 
raine, White Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaidjan, 
and the Central Asiatic Republics, which fact is con- 
firmed by material from the trial, which took place 
in various localities of the U.S.S.R. and in particular 
the court trials of the group of military plotters, 
Tukhachevsky and others, and the group of Georgian 

17 



w 



k>urgeois nationalistSj Mdivani, Okudzhava and 
others- 
Having no support whatever within the U.S.S.R., 
the participants in the bloc of Rights and Trotsky- 
ites, in their struggle against the socialist social and 
state system in the U.S.S-R. and for seizure of power, 
placed all their hopes exclusively in armed assistance 
of foreign aggressors who promised to render the 
plotters this assistance on condition of the dismem- 
berment of the U,S,S,R. and the separation of the 
Ukraine, the Maritime Provinces, White Russia, the 
Central Asiatic Republics^ Georgia, Armenia and 
Azerbaidjan from the U.S.S.R. 

This agreement was facilitated by the fact thai 
many of the leading participants in this plot had long 
since been agents of foreign intelligence services and 
in the course of many years had carried out espionage 
activities for these intelligence services. This refers in 
the first place to one of the inspirers of the plot, the 
enemy of the people, Trotsky. His connections with 
the Gestapo were exhaustively proved at the trials 
of the Trotskyist-Zinovievist Terrorist Center in Au- 
gust, 1936, and of the Anti-Soviet Trotskyist Center 
in January, 1937. The investigation definitely estab- 
lished that Trotsky had been connected with the 
German Intelligence Service since 1921 and with the 
British Intelligence Service since 1926. 

The accused Krestinsky upon direct instructions of 
the enemy of the people, Trotsky, entered into treas- 
onable connections with the German Intelligence in 
192L The accused Rosengoltz, one of the leaders of 
the Trotskyist underground organization, commenced 
his espionage work for the German General Staff in 



1 923 and for the British Intelligence Service in 1926* 
The accused Rakovsky, one of Trotsky's closest and 
particularly trusted men, had been an agent of the 
British Intelligence Service since 1924 and of the 
Japanese Intelligence Service since 1934. The ac- 
cused Chernov commenced his espionage work for 
Germany in 1928, having established connections 
with the German Intelligence Service upon the initi- 
ative and with the assistance of the notorious Men- 
shevist emigre, Dan, The accused Sharangovich was 
enlisted by the Polish Intelligence Service and sent 
to the U.S.S.R* for espionage work in 1921, The 
accused Grinko became a spy for the German and 
Polish Intelligence Services in 1932. 

The leaders of the bloc of Rights and Trotskyists, 
among them the accused Rykov, Bukharin and others, 
were fully informed about the espionage connections 
of their accomplices and in every way encouraged the 
extension of these espionage connections. 

The agreement of the bloc of Rights and Trot- 
skyists with foreign intelligence services was also 
facilitated by the fact that some of the accused were 
provocateurs and agents of the tsarist secret police. 
Constantly in fear of exposure, these plotters saw 
their only salvation in overthrowing the Soviet gov- 
ernment, the liquidation of the Soviet regime and the 
restoration of the power of the landlords and capi- 
talists in whose interest they had sold themselves to 
the tsarist secret police, and under whose power alone 
they could feel safe. The accused Zelensky had been 
an agent of Samara police headquarters since 1911. 
The accused Ivanov commenced his activities as a 
provocateur in 1911 when he was enlisted by secret 

19 



police in Tula. The accused Zubarev was enlisted by 
tsarist police in 1908, 

Upon the direct instruction of foreign secret ser- 
vices, the plotters carried out extensive espionage 
work for these intelligence services, organized and 
carried out wrecking and diversion acts with the 
object of securing the defeat of the U.S*SfR. in the 
forthcoming attack of the fascist aggressors upon the 
U.S.S.R. and did everything to provoke acceleration 
of this attack of the fascist aggressors. They also or- 
ganized and carried out a number of terroristic acts 
against the leaders of the Party and the government 
and against prominent Soviet public men. 

The majority of the ringleaders of the bloc of 
Rights and Trotskyists carried out their criminal 
activities upon the direct instructions of Trotsky and 
in accordance with plans widely conceived and elab- 
orated in the general staffs of certain foreign couji- 
tries. The accused Krestinsky, an agent of the Ger- 
man Intelligence Service, and a prominent Trotsky- 
ist, stated: 

^^I entered into espionage connections with the 
Germans upon direct instructions from Trotsky, 
who instructed me to begin negotiations on this 
matter with General Seeckt." 

Krestinsky further testified that in the winter of 

1921: 

"We arranged with Generals Seeckt and Hasse 
that we would help the Reichswehr to organize a 
number of espionage bases in the territory of the 
ILS^S.R., allowing unhindered passage into the 

20 



U.S.S.R. of spies sent by the Reichswehr, and that 
we would supply the Reichswehr with secret in- 
formation — putting it simply, that we would be 
German spies. 

"In return for this, the Reichswehr undertook 
to pay an annual subsidy of 250,000 reichsmarks 
for counter-revolutionary Trotskyite work. These 
subsidies were paid in regular installments several 
times a year, chiefly in Moscow, but sometimes in 
. Berlin. If for some reason the money was not paid 
in Moscow, I received it myself in Berlin from 
Seeckt and usually took it to Moscow myself and 
handed it to Trotsky.'' 

The accused Rosengoltz testified: 

^^My espionage activities commenced back in 
1923 when upon Trotsky's instructions, 1' com- 
municated secret information to the commander 
of the Reichswehr, Seeckt, and to the Chief of the 
German General Staff, Hasse. Subsequently a cer- 
tain Ambassador to the U.S.S.R., Mn N., estab- 
lished direct contact with me and I periodically 
communicated to him information of a secret na- 
ture. After the departure of Mr. N., I continued 
espionage connections with the new Ambassador, 
Mn N." 

, After the fascist coup in Germany, the espionage 
work of the Trotskyists assumed a still more exten- 
sive and sharply expressed defeatist nature. The 
accused Bessonov, by his own confession, not only 
personally conducted negotiations with Daitz — Ros- 
enberg's closest collaborator in the foreign politics 

21 



department of the fascist party — with the view of 
obtaining assistance for the anti-Soviet plot, but was 
also well informed about Trotsky's meetings and 
negotiations with Hess, Nidermeyer and Professor 
Haushover, with whom Trotsky had reached an 
agreement on terms which Piatakov mentioned at 
the trial of the anti-Soviet Trotskyite Center. 

In conformity with Trotsky's line, the anti-Soviet 
plotters also looked for assistance to another fascist 
aggressor — Japan. The accused Krestinsky testified 
that when he met Trotsky in Meran in October, 1933, 
Trotsky urged the necessity of establishing closer 
contact with the Japanese Intelligence Service* Kres- 
tinsky conveyed Trotsky's instructions to Piatakov 
and the other ringleaders of the plot who, through 
the accused Rakovsky and other participants in the 
plot, entered into treasonable connections with repre- 
sentatives of Japan who undertook to render the plot 
armed assistance in the overthrow of the Soviet 
power, in return for which the plotters promised to 
surrender the Soviet Maritime Provinces to Japan. 

The investigation established that in the summer 
of 1934, while in Tokyo, the accused Rakovsky, on 
Piatakov^s instructions, established criminal connec- 
tions with certain circles. About this matter the ac- 
cused Rakovsky testified: 

"After the visit to Tokyo J became the direct 
agent-spy of a certain government, being enlisted 
for this purpose on instructions of the certain gov- 
ernment by Mr. N., a highly influential statesman 
of capitalist-feudal Japan and one of her biggest 
plutocrats." 
22 



The same accused Rakovsky testified also that 
Trotsky had been an agent of the British Intelligence 
Service since the end of 1926, "Trotsky himself told 
me about it," he said. 

The groups of bourgeois nationalists which belonged 
to the bloc of Rights and Trotskyists were also very 
closely connected with foreign intelligence services. 
Thus the accused Grinko, who was an agent of the 
German and Polish Intelligence Services, referring 
to the anti-Soviet activities of the Ukrainian national- 
ist fascist organization, of which he was one of the 
leaders, testified: 

"The question of the necessity for reaching an 
agreement with Poland regarding military assist- 
ance for a rebellion in the Ukraine against the 
Soviet Government was discussed in 1930, As a 
result of these negotiations with Poland, an agree- 
ment was reached and the Polish General Staff 
increased the transportation of arms and diversion 
agents and emissaries of Petlura to the Ukraine. 

"At the end of 1932, in connection with my 
nationalistic activities, I entered into treasonable 
connections with Mr. N. We used to meet in my 
office, where Mr. N. used to come on matters con- 
cerning a German concession* In the second half 
of 1933 Mr. N. frankly told me that the German 
fascists wished to collaborate with the Ukrainian 
nationalists in the Ukrainian question. I answered 
Mr. N. that I agreed to this collaboration. Later, in 
the course of the years 1933 and 1934, 1 met Mr. 
N, several times and, before his departure from 
the U.S.S.R., he put me in touch with Mr. N., 

23 



with whom I continued my treasonable connec- 
tions." 

The accused Sharangovichj an agent of the Polish 
Intelligence Service and one of the leaders of the 
anti-Soviet organization of White Russian nationalist 
fascists, testified: 

"By that time | 1933] all differences between the 
Rights and the Trotskyists and the nationalist 
fascists were smoothed out. We all set ourselves 
a single aim— the aim to struggle against the 
Soviet power by any methods whatever including 
terrorism, acts of diversion and wrecking activities. 
Despite the fact that our instructions came from 
MoscoWj from the headquarters of the Rights 
and Trotskyists, and also from Warsaw, from cer- 
tain Polish circles, there was no difference between 
them whatever; they were identical and we carried 
them out." 

The accused Rykov fully confirmed the existence 
of the treasonable connections of the Rights with 
fascist Poland testifying: 

"In conformity with the instructions of head- 
quarters of the Rights, and my personal instruc- 
tiouj with the object of carryijig out our treason- 
able plot, a group of members of the Right or- 
ganization established contact with fascist Poland 
and, in particular, with organs of the Polish Intel- 
ligence Service, The general formula on which 
we theji agreed was that, in negotiations with the 
Poles, we will agree to the separation of the White 
Russian Soviet Republic from the U.S.S.R. and 
24 



the creation of an ^independent* White Russia un- 
der Polish protectorate." 

The investigation established that the entire crim- 
inal activities of the an ti -Soviet group of the Rights 
in the bloc of Rights and Trotskyists prove that the 
Rights were agents of foreign general staffs equally 
with other participants in this plot. This is fully 
admitted by the accused Bukharin, who testified: 

"At the time when Trotsky was negotiating 
with German fascists and promising territorial con- 
cessions, we Rights were already in the bloc with 
the Trotskyists. Radek told me that Trotsky con- 
sidered that the mnin chance of the bloc coming 
into power depended on the defeat of the U.S.S.R. 
in a war with Germany and Japan, and he pro- 
posed, after this defeat, to surrender the Ukraine 
to Germany and the Far East to Japan. Radek 
told me this in 1934." 

On this matter the accused Khodjayev testified: 

"Bukharin urged that Uzbekistan and Turk- 
menia be separated from the U.S.S.R. and become 
protectorates of Japan and Germany. But it would 
be impossible to ignore England, and therefore 
it was necessary to establish connections with Eng- 
land, An English protectorate was considered most 
practical and therefore most reliance was placed 
on England." 

On this question the accused Rykov testified: 

"As for our defeatist position, Bukharin also 
fully agreed with it and spoke in favor of it even 
more sharply than we did In particular, it was 

25 



t 



he who proposed and formulated the idea of open- 
ing the frontier to the Germans in event of war. 
Like other members of the Rights' headquarterSj 
I was aware of the treasonable negotiations be- 
tween representatives of our counter-revolution- 
ary organization and the German fascists^ whose 
support we sought. Naturally, such support was 
dependent upon making concessions to the Ger- 
man fascists, and to this we agreed," 

On direct instructions of foreign fascist intelligence 
servicesj the anti-Soviet plotters created a widely 
ramified system of cells of diversion agents and 
wreckers in industrial, transport, agricultural and 
distributing enterprises in a number of republics, 
territories and regions of the Soviet Union. After 
entering into agreement with the fascist governments 
treacherously to open the Soviet frontiers to the 
armies of these fascist governments in time of war, 
the participants in the plot of the Rights and Trot- 
skyists prepared to undermine the material and tech- 
nical base of the Red Army — the defense industry, 

The plotters planned to blow up and destroy key 
enterprises in' the defense industry of the socialist 
country in time of war. They also made preparations 
to wreck troop trains and to cause great loss of 
life. They set themselves the aim of paralyzing the 
entire economic life of the country as well as the 
food and munitions supplies of the army. The plot- 
ters have already committed a number of such act& 
of diversion and wrecking in various branches of 
the national economy. 

The hireling of foreign intelligence services, the 
26 



enemy of the people, Trotsky, in a number of letters 
and personal instructions to the leading participants 
in the anti-Soviet plot, demanded that wrecking and 
diversion activities in the Soviet Union be intensified. 
The accused Krestinsky testified that in 1933, in 
Meran, Trotsky told him personally that ^^it would 
be much easier for him, Trotsky, to negotiate with 
the Germans if he could tell them that serious work 
was really being done along line of acts of diversion 
and wrecking and preparation of terroristic acts." 

A number of acts of diversion committed in the 
Far Eastern territory were prepared and carried out 
by participants in the anti-Soviet plot on direct in- 
structions of the organs of the Japanese Intelligence 
Service and of the enemy of the people, Trotsky. 
For instance, upon the instruction of the Japanese 
Intelligence Service they organized the wreck of a 
military freight train at Volochayevka and train No. 
501 in the Hor-Dormidontovka section, where twen- 
ty-one persons were killed and forty-five injured. 
On the same Japanese instructions acts of diversion 
were committed in pits Nos. 10 and 20 in Suchan. 

Detailed testimony as to similar instructions eman- 
ating from Trotsky was given by the accused Rosen- 
goltz, who stated : 

"In addition to the instructions I received from 
Trotsky through Krestinsky and Sedov to carry on 
wrecking activities in the Commissariat of Foreign 
Trade for the purpose of rendering direct assistance 
to Germany and Japan, the character of my wreck- 
ing activities was determined by instructions from 
certain Ambassadors in the U,S.S.R.j Mr. N. and 

27 



i 



Mr. N.J connections with whom were very im- 
portant in this matter, as I had to be guided in 
my work by their definite instructions. 

"After establishing contact with Tukhachevsky 
and Rykov, I informed the former through Krcs- 
tinsky, and the latter personally, about Trotsky's 
instructions concerning wrecking work, and they 
both approved what 1 had done. As a result of 
all thisj wrecking acdvities in foreign trade pro- 
ceeded along the following three lines: First, eco- 
nomic assistance to Germany and Japan at the 
expense of the U.S.S.R.^ second, causing economic 
loss and damage to the U.S.S.R,; third, causing 
political damage to the U.S.S.R." 

On the instructions of the bloc of Rights and 
TrotskyistSj the accused Sharangovich carried on ex- 
tensive wrecking activities in agriculture and indus- 
try in the White Russian Soviet Socialist Republic. 

The accused Chernov, a German spy, testifying oji 
his criminal connections with the German spy Schef- 
fer, correspondent of the Berliner Tageblatt^ and on 
his own wrecking activities in agriculture, states: 

"When I started work on the committee for 
agricultural purchases, SchefFer communicated to 
me instructions from the Germans to carry out 
wrecking activities in connection with the work 
of the committee for agricultural purchases, 
especially in the matter of mobilization stores. 
The instructions of the intelligence service 
concerning wrecking activities coincided with the 
instructions which I, as a member of the organi- 
zation of the Rights, was receiving from Rykov. 
•28 



I was all the more ready for this reason to put 
them into execution." 

The investigation disclosed considerable under- 
mining wrecking activities in agriculture also in 
Uzbekistan, The nationalist organizations which oper- 
ated there had entered into a bloc with the headquar- 
ters of the anti-Soviet plot through the medium of 
their leaders, the accused Ikramov and Khodjayev. 
The accused Ikramov testified that the Rights and 
Trotskyist bloc set them the following tasks: 

"To carry on extensive work in preparation for 
an armed rebellion in Uzbekistan to break out at 
the moment of intervention j vigorously to carry on 
wrecking and diversion activities in all branches of 
the national economy, so that the results may cause 
resentment against the Soviet power among the 
toilers and thus create favorable grounds for 
armed rebellion at the proper moment. Further- 
more, our idea was that our undermining wrecking 
activities would hinder the strengthening of the 
defense of the U.S.S.R." 

The accused Grinko conducted wrecking activities 
in the field of finance. The accused Grinko testified: 

"The main object in undermining the work of 
the People's Commissariat of Finance was to weak- 
en the Soviet ruble, weaken the financial power 
of the U.S.S.R., dislocate Soviet economy, cause 
dissatisf miction among the population with the 
financial policy of the Soviet government, dissatis- 
faction with taxes, with bad savings banks service, 
with delays in payment of wages, etc., for the pur- 

29 



1 



p 



pose of causing wide, organized discontent with 
the Soviet government and to help the plotters 
recruit adherents and stimulate rebellious activi- 
ties," 

The accused Zelensky and the wrecking groups 
which he organized in the Centrosoyuz and the co 
operative societies dislocated planning of such com^ 
modities as sugar, butter, eggs, tobaccoj etc.^ deliber- 
ately delayed dispatch of goods to the villages, 
muddled accounts and thus facilitated stealing and 
squandering of state resources with impunity^ and 
encouraged the cheating and robbing of consumers. 
The accused Rosengoltz also carried out treasonable, 
wrecking activities on a wide scale. 

At the same time, on the order of the fascist in- 
telligence services, the plotters set themselves the 
task of arousing bandit rebel movements in the 
country and these rebel anti-Soviet bands were to rise 
in armed rebellion in the rear of the Red Army sim- 
ultaneously with the beginning of intervention against 
the U.S,S.R. The accused Rykov testified as follows: 

"We took the course of forcible overthrow ot 
the leadership of the Party and of the Soviet Gov 
ernment, and decided to carry out this by organ 
izing kulak uprisings." 

The investigation established that these kulak rebel 
uprisings in the rear of the Red Army were part and 
parcel of plans and calculations of the fascist govern- 
ments which are preparing to attack the U.S.S.R. and 
that the Rights and Trotskyist plotters were to call 
these rebellions at a signal from the general staffs 
of the fascist countries. 
30 



The accused Ikramov testified as follows: 

"We preserved the necessary men who were to 
be used for armed struggle against the Soviet Gov- 
ernment. These men were primarily kulaks, priests 
and former Basmach (bandits). We instructed 
members of our organization who were in leading 
district posts to preserve these men. We also ex- 
pected that during the armed rising the remnants 
of the Basmach bands, which had formerly fled 
from the Soviet Union, would cross the border 
and enter Soviet territory." 

In order to enlarge the rebel base to the utmost, 
the ringleaders of the plot established contact with 
the underground Socialist-Revolutionary organiza- 
tion. For instance, the accused Bukharin testified: 

"Connections with Socialist-Revolutionaries were 
established when the organizations of the Rights 
were basing their hopes on kulak uprisings. In 
view of the fact that the Rights were in favor of 
organizing these uprisings, the necessity arose of 
establishing connections with Socialist- Revolution- 
aries who had their roots in the kulak strata of the 
rural districts- I personally established through 
Semyonov contact with the underground Central 
Committee of the Socialist-Revolutionaries in the 
U.S.S.R,, and through Chlenov with the Central 
Committee of the Socialist-Revolutionaries in 
Paris." 

Having no hopes of overthrowing the Soviet sys- 
tem by means of espionage, wrecking, diversion and 
kulak rebellionsj the Right and Trotskyist plotters, 

31 



■i 



i 



filled with rage aiid hatred against the U.S.aR., be- 
gan to prepare and commit terroristic acts against the 
leaders of the Soviet Government and the Commun- 
ist Party of the Soviet Union. In direct conspiracy 
with the Japanese and German Intelligence Services, 
and on instructions from the enemy of the people, 
Trotsky, they organized ajid cominitted a number of 
terroristic acts against the finest people of the country. 
The accused Rykov gave the following reasons, why 
the Right and Trotskyist Woe began to resort to 
terrorism: 

"In view of the illegal conspiratorial character 
of the Rights' counter-revolutionary organization, 
and in the absence of a mass base for its counter- 
revolutionary work and the absence of any hope 
of coming to power by other means, the adoption 
o£ terrorism and 'palace revolution^ seemed to 
headquarters to present some sort of prospect," 

The accused Bukharin testified as follows: 

"In 1932, in meeting and conversation with 
Piatakov, I learned that he had met Sedov and 
had received from him Trotsky's direct instruc- 
tions to proceed to commit terrorisdc acts against 
the leaders of the Party and the Soviet govern- 
ment. I must confess that actually we then agreed 
to come to an arrangement with the terrorists, and 
my conversation with Piatakov was an agreement 
to coordinate our activities with Trotsky^s with 
the aim of violently overthrowing the leadership 
of the Party and of the Soviet government." 

The accused Ivanov testified that: 
32 



■ 



**Talking of terrorism, Bukharin said that the 
^liquidation/ as he expressed it, of the leaders of 
the Communist Party and of the Soviet govern- 
ment will be very important for our accession to 
power and will facilitate the defeat of the U.S.S.R. 



in war. 



3> 



The accused Rykov testified as follows: 

"We took the course of terrorism as one of the 
methods of our struggle against the Soviet govern- 
ment. This position assumed very defi.nite shape 
in our activities, and particularly in my activities, 
in preparing for terroristic acts against members 
of the Political Bureau, leaders of the Party and 
government, first of all against Stalin, Molotov, 
Kaganovich and Voroshilov. In 1934 I gave in- 
structions to the Artemenko terrorist group, which 
I had formed, to watch for the automobiles of the 
leaders of the Party and government" 

The accused Bukharin testified as follows: 

"I want to tell the truth and I say that I com- 
municated this proposal to a meeting of the head- 
quarters and we decided to instruct Semyonov to 
organize terroristic groups." 

The investigation established that the foul murder 
of Kirov was also committed by decision of the Right 
and Trotskyist bloc. One of the participants in this 
foul murder was the accused Yagoda who testified: 

"I had been informed by Yenukidze that the 
murder of Kirov was being prepared in accordance 
with the decision of the headquarters of the con- 
spiracy. Yenukidze requested me to place no ob- 

33 



I 



staclcs in the way o£ this terroristic act and 1 
agreed. For this purpose I summoned Zaporozhets 
from Leningrad and instructed him to place no 
obstacle in the way of a terroristic act being pre- 
pared against Kirov." 

This was corroborated during the investigation by 
Zaporozhets and Yenukidze, 

As was established by the investigation Gorky, 
Menzhinsky and Kuibyshev fell victims to terrorist 
acts committed on instructions from the United Cen- 
ter of the bloc of Rights and Trotskyists. The accused 
Yagoda testified: 

"The United Center of the organization of 
Rights and Trotskyists tried for a long time to 
induce Gorky to break his intimacy with Stalin. 
With this object; Kamenev, Tomsky and a number 
of others were assigned to influence Gorky. But 
this produced no tangible result. Gorky remained 
faithful to Stalin and an ardent supporter and 
champion of his policy* Seriously considering the 
question of overthrowing the Stalinist leadership 
and capturing power, the Center of Rights and 
Trotskyists could not but take into account Gorky*s 
exceptional influence in the country and his pres- 
tige abroad. If Gorky lived he would raise his 
voice in protest against us. We could not allow this. 
Consequently, having become convinced that it was 
impossible to separate Gorky from Stalin, the 
United Center was compelled to adopt a decision 
to liquidate Gorky." 

This testimony of the accused Yagoda was fully 
corroborated by the accused Rykov, who testified: 
34 



**! know that Trotsky, through his representa- 
tives in contact with the Center, did his utmost to 
rouse ill feeling against Gorky, Naturally this was 
due to the fact that Trotsky knew very well that 
Gorky regarded him as a rogue and an adventurer. 
On the other handj the intimacy between Gorky 
and Stalin was universally known and the fact 
that he was a steadfast political supporter of Stalia 
roused the hatred of our organization. In 1935 
I had a conversation with Yenukidze, who bluntly 
told me that the Trotskyist-Zinovievist section of 
the bloc insisted upon the liquidation of Gorky's 
political activity and would stop at nothing in at- 
taining this end. From this conversation it became 
clear to me that terrorist methods might also be 
used to liquidate Gorky." 

This evidence was also corroborated by the accused 
Bukharinj who testified that, beginning in 1935, 
Tomsky informed him that "the Trotskyist section 
of the United Center bloc had proposed organizing 
a hostile act against Gorky as supporter of Stalin^s 
policy/' 

The accused Bessonov personally received such a 
*^line" directly from Trotsky when he met him at 
the end of July, 1934. At that meeting, as accused 
Bessonov testified, Trotsky declared that: 

". . . it would be unpardonable prudery if we 
did not consistently proceed forthwith physically 
to eliminate Stalin and all his closest colleagues. 
Gorky is very intimate with Stalin. He plays an 
exceptional role in winning the sympathies of 
world democratic public opinion for the U.S.S.R., 

35 



t 



especially in Western Europe. Gorky is widely 
popular as Stalin's closest friend and a champion 
of the Party line. Largely owing to Gorky's influ- 
ence, pur quondam supporters among the Intellec- 
tuals are deserting us. Under these circumstances, 
my conclusion is that Gorky must be removed. 
Convey this instruction to Piatakov in the most 
categorical form: Gorky must be physically de- 
stroyed at all costs." 

On the basis of this instruction of the enemy of 
the people Trotsky, the bloc of Rights and Trotsky- 
ists adopted its monstrous decision to kill Gorky, 
"The execution of this decision was entrusted to me," 
testified the accused Yagoda. As the direct executors 
of this dastardly scheme, the accused Yagoda enlisted 
the accused Dr. Levin — former family physician of 
Gorky, Professor Pletnev, Kryuchkov— Gorky's sec- 
retary—and his own secretary, Bulanov. 

The accused Bulanov testified as follows: 

"I personally witnessed how Yagoda more than 
once summoned Kryuchkov and advised him to 
cause Gorky to catch cold, to cause him to fall ill 
in one way or another. Yagoda emphasized that 
the state of Gorky's lungs was such that any ail- 
ment due to a cold would accelerate his death. The 
rest would be done by Pletnev and Levin, who had 
received appropriate instructions." 

The accused Pletnev, who took a direct part in 
the murders of Gorky and Kuibyshev, testified: 



36 



"Yagoda told me that I must help him in the 



physical elimination of certain political leaders of 
the country. He bluntly proposed that I take ad- 
vantage of my position as physician to Kuibyshev 
and Gorky and hasten their deaths by applying 
wrong methods of treatment. I tried to refuse, but 
at last was forced to agree. After this Yagoda in- 
formed me that Dr. Levin would be my accom- 
plice, while, in regard to Gorky, the latter's secre- 
tary, Kryuchkov, would also be an accomplice. 
Having accepted this frightful commission from 
Yagoda, I, together with Dr. Levin, worked out a 
plan to kill Gorky and Kuibyshev," 

This is corroborated by the accused Levin, who 
testified as follows: 

"I plead guilty to having deliberately adopted 
wrong methods of treatment and having pre- 
scribed medicines unsuited for the given complaint, 
and thereby, in conjunction with my accomplices 
and by agreement with Yagoda, I am responsible 
for the premature death of Maxim Gorky and 
Kuibyshev." 

As established by the investigation, Kuibyshev's 
secretary, the accused Maximov, took an active part 
in the plot to kill Kuibyshev. Maximov testified; 

"I agreed to commit this crime as a member of 
the counter-revolutionary organization of Rights, 
which I joined in 1928. Yagoda also knew that I 
belonged to a counter-revolutionary organization 
and was present at one of my conversations with 
Yenukidze when we drew up a plan to remove 
Kuibyshev*" 

37 



At Yagoda's direct instructions, the accused Dr. 
Levin and Dr. Kazakov also killed Menzhinsky, the 
chairman of the O.G.P.U. The accused Kazakov 
testified as follows: 

'^Yagoda gave me the following instructions: 
1 mustj in conjunction with Dr. Levin, devise a 
method of treatment for Menzhinsky that will ac- 
celerate his death. After this conversation with 
Yagoda, I, in conjunction with Levin, devised a 
method of treating Menzhinsky that actually de- 
stroyed his remaining strength and caused his 
speedy death. In this way Levin and I, in fact, 
killed Menzhinsky. I gave Dr. Levin a mixture of 
lysates prepared by myself, which, in combination 
with alcoloids, led to the results we wanted, that is, 
the actual murder of Menzhinsky,'' 

This is fully corroborated by the accused I^vin and 
Bulanov. The accused Bulanov testified as follows: 

"Yagoda had planned the physical removal of 
Menzhinsky long ago. More than once in my pres- 
ence he expressed resentment at the fact that Men- 
zhinsky continued to live and occupy the post of 
head of the O.G.P.U. Subsequently he said point- 
blank that Menzhinsky must be removed. It was 
difficult to organize this through Dr. Levin be- 
cause Menzhinsky disliked Levin and did not want 
to be treated by him. I then suggested to Yagoda 
that some other physician be 'attached' to Menzhin- 
sky. This was done. With Dr. Levin's assistance, 
Dr. Kazakov was attached to Menzhinsky and he 
finished the job; to put it plainly, he hastened 
3j8 



Menzhinsky's death by manifestly wrong treat- 
ment." 

Besides the murder of Gorky ajid Kuibyshev, the 
accused Levin and Kryuchkov, on direct instructions 
from the accused Yagoda^ also killed Gorky's son, 
Maxim Peshkov Gorky, in 1934. The accused Kry- 
uchkov testified: 

"It was from Yagoda that 1 received instruc- 
tions forcibly to%et rid of Maxim Peshkov and 
later also of Gorky. Besides myself, Yagoda also 
enlisted the physicians Levin and Vinogradov and 
Professor Pletnev for the purpose of committing 
these crimes." 

The accused Yagoda, after he was dismissed from 
the post of People's Commissar of Internal Affairs 
o± the U.S.S.R.j also took measures to secure the 
murder of Yezhov, the present People's Commissar 
of Internal Affairs of the U.aS.R. The accused Ya- 
goda testified: 

"My dismissal from the People's Commissariat 
of Internal Affairs and Yezhov's appointment in 
my place signified complete collapse of our plot, 
for it would be impossible to prevent the smashing 
of the anti-Soviet organization. Yezhov would 
unearth everything, Yezhov had to be got rid of. 
This was the onJy decisioji I arrived at and the 
one I began vigorously to carry out." 

Yagoda tried to carry out his scheme through his 
accomplices, among whom the accused Bulanov 
played the most prominent role. As the accused Ya- 

39 



1 



goda and Bulanov confessed, it was their intention 
to murder Yezhov by poisoning him with a speciai 
poison prepared for this purpose. After describing 
in detail the methods by which the accused Yagoda 
tried to murder Yezhov, the accused Bulanov testi- 
fied that he, Bulanov himself, made a mixture of poi- 
sons intended for poisoning Yezhov. The accused 
Yagoda fully confessed his crime, testifying: 

"Yes, I must admit that I organized this crime. 
I organized arrangements to kill Yezhov as a man 
who is dangerous to the counter-revolutionary 
plot and capable of disclosing our counter-revolu- 
tionary organization," 

The investigation has established that already in 
1918, immediately after the October Revoludon, ar 
the time when the Brest peace was being concluded, 
Bukharin and his group of so-called ^'Left" Commu- 
nists and Trotsky and his group, jointly with the 
"Left" Socialist-Revolutionaries, organized a plot 
against the life of Lenin as the head of the Soviet 
government. 

As seen from the materials of the investigation, 
the object of Bukharin and the other conspirators 
was to prevent the conclusion of the Brest peace, to 
overthrow the Soviet government, to arrest and kill 
Lenin, Stalin and Sverdlov and to form a new gov- 
ernment of Bukharinites who, for purposes of 
camouflage, called themselves "Left" Communists, of 
Trotskyists and "Left*' Socialist-Revolutionaries, 
Karelin, a former member of the Central Committee 
of the party of "Left" Socialist-Revolutionaries, 
testified: 
40 



"We reached a final agreement with the ^^Left" 
Communists In the struggle against the Soviet 
Government headed by Lenin, Stalin and Sverd- 
lov after the Seventh Congress of the Communist 
Party. On instructiojis from the Central Commit- 
tee, the "Left" Socialist-Revolutionaries, Kamkov, 
Proshyan and I conducted negotiations with the 
"Left" Communists, Bukharin's proposal was not 
to confine ourselves to arresting the government, 
but to destroy physicalj^y the leaders of the Soviet 
government — in the first place, Lenin and Stalin," 

Kamkov, one of the former leaders of the Cen- 
tral Committee of the "Left" Socialist-Revolution- 
aries, testified as follows: 

"I personally had a conversation with Bukha- 
rin, who said approximately the following: *The 
struggle in our party against Lenin's position on 
the question of the Brest peace is assuming acute 
forms. The question is being debated in our ranks 
of forming a new government consisting of 
'Left' Socialist-Revolutionaries and *Left' Com- 
munists.' " 

Bukharin mentioned Piatakov as a possible candi- 
date for leadership in the new government and said 
that it was contemplated changing the government 
by arresting its members, including Lenin. Subse- 
quent negotiations with Bukharin were conducted by 
Karelin and Proshyan. 

By the end of March a final agreement was reached 
between the "Left" Communists and the "Left" So- 
cialist-Revolutionaries on the following terms: First, 

41 



the "Left" Communists would render organizational 
and political assistance to the "Left" Socialist-Revo- 
lutionaries in the struggle against the Bolsheviks and 
the Soviet government. Second, Lenin's government 
to be overthrowji by joint action of the "Left'' So- 
cialist-Revolutionaries, and "Left" Communists and 
a new government to be formed^ consisting of "Left" 
Communists and "Left" Socialist-Revolutionaries. 
After this, "Left" Socialist-Revolutionaries organ- 
ized the murder of Mirbach and the July insurrec- 
tion. The "Left" Communists were fully informed 
of the preparations for the murder of Mirbach and 
the July insurrection. 

Examined as witnesses, Yakovleva, Ossinsky, 
Mantsevj former leaders and active members of the 
group of "Left" Communists, fully corroborated the 
existence of the 1918 plot, organized on the initiative 
of the accused Bukharin by the Bloc of "Left" Com- 
munists and "Left" Socialist-Revolutionaries against 
Lenin as head of the Soviet goverimicnt. Yakovleva 
testified as follows: 

"Bukharin unfolded to me the idea that the 
political struggle was assuming ever sharper forms 
and that things cannot be limited to the mere po- 
litical formulation of lack of confidence in the 
Central Committee of the Party. Bukharin said 
that there must be an inevitable change in the lead- 
ership in connection with which there was the ques- 
tion of arresting Lenin, Stalin and Sverdlov, and 
even their physical destruction." 

Regarding Trotsky's role in the plot against Lenin 

in 1918, the accused Bukharin testified as follows- 
42 



» 



"By this time the idea again arose of a couf 
d^etat and the arrest of Lenin, Stalin and Sverdlov 
as key figures in the Pafty and Soviet leader- 
ship. This time it was o\\ Trotsky's initiative; evi- 
dently he learned of the proposal of the *Left' 
Socialist-Revolutionaries, I think from Piatakov," 

Mantsev, one of the leaders of the group of 
"Left" Communists, testified as follows: 

"A few days after the conversation with Ya- 
kovleva, Trotsky asked me to come and see him, 
I had a long conversation with him at his home, 
during which he spoke at length on the necessity 
of killing Lenin and Stalin." 

The investigating authorities now have at their 
disposal incontestable evidence that the dastardly at- 
tempt on Lenin's life, committed by the Socialist- 
Revolutionary terrorist, Kaplan, on August 30, 1918, 
was the direct outcome of the criminal designs of the 
"Left" Communists, headed by Bukharin, and their 
accomplices, the "Left" and Right Socialist-Revolu- 
tionaries, and was carried out on the initiative of the 
accused Bukharin. Karelin testified as follows: 

"I must also confess to the gravest crimCj the 
participation of the ^Left' Socialist-Revolutionaries 
and 'Left' Communists in the organization of an 
attempt on Lenin's life. This fact has been con- 
cealed from the Soviet people for twenty years. It 
has been concealed that we, jointly with Right 
Socialist-Revolutionaries, on Bukharin^s insistence, 
attempted to murder Lenin. The trial of the Right 
Socialist-Revolutionaries did not reveal the real 

43 



i 



I 



circumstances of this crime and did not bring to 
light the role which the 'Left* Socialist-Revolu- 
tionaries and 'Left' Communists played in it. 

"After the July insurrection, the Centra] 
Committee of the Teft' Socialist-Revolutionaries 
decided to adopt terrorist methods in the strug- 
gle against the Soviet government. It must be 
observed that, even after the insurrection, Proshy- 
an met Bukharin, who openly put the question to 
him of physically destroying Lenin. More pre- 
cisely, the question of committing a terrorist act 
against Lenin was raised by Bukharin in the second 
half of July, 1918, Proshyan reported this to us, 
the members of the Central Committee of the 
*Left' Socialist-Revolutionaries." 

This was also confirmed by Ossinsky, When the 
accused Bukharin was confronted with the witnesses 
Ossinsky, Yakovleva, Mantsev, Karelin and Kam- 
kov at the office of the Procurator of the U.S.S.R.j 
the witnesses fully confirmed their evidence sum- 
marized above. Under the weight of this evidence, 
the accused Bukharin admitted a number of criminal 
facts and testified as follows: 

"I must admit that we maintained direct contact 
with the ^Left' Socialist-Revolutionaries who 
adopted a platform of forcible overthrow of the 
Soviet government, headed by Lenin, Stalin and 
Sverdlov, with the subsequent arrest of Lenin, 
Stalin and Sverdlov and the establishment of a 
new government of ^Left' Communists and *Left' 
Socialist-Revolutionaries," 
44 



) 



The investigating authorities considei*< as estab- 
lished; 

1. In 1932-1933j on orders of intelligence services 
of foreign states hostile to the U.S.S.R., the accused 
in this case formed a group of plotters called the 
Bloc of Rights and Trotskyists, with the object of 
spying on behalf of foreign states, wrecking, diver- 
sions, terrorism, undermining the military power of 
the U.S,S,R,, provoking military attacks of the afore- 
said states against the U.S.S.R,, defeat of the U,S. 
S-R.j dismemberment of the U-S.S.R., and wresting 
from it the Ukraine, White Russia, the Central Asia- 
tic Republics, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaidjan and 
the Maritime Provinces of the Far East — on behalf 
of aforesaid foreign states and, finally, overthrow- 
ing the existing socialist social and state system hi 
the U.S.S.R. and restoring capitalism and the power 
of the bourgeoisie in the U,S.S.R. 

2, The Bloc of Rights and Trotskyists entered 
into communication with certain foreign states with 
the object of receiving from them armed assistance 
for the realization of their criminal designs. 

J. The Bloc of Rights and Trotskyists systematic- 
ally engaged in espionage and supplied foreign in- 
telligence services with state secret information of 
the utmost importance. 

4. The Bloc of Rights and Trotskyists systematic- 
ally carried on wrecking and diversion activities in 
various branches of socialist construction (industry, 
agriculture, railways, finance, municipal services, etc*). 

5. The Bloc of Rights and Trotskyists organized 
a number of terrorist acts against the leaders of the 

45 



1 




Communist Party of the Soviet Union and of the 
Soviet government and carried out terrorist acts 
against Kirov^ Menzhinsky, Kuibyshev and Gorky. 

All the accused stand convicted by the evidence 
of witnesses, as well as by the documents in the case 
and by material proofs, and have fully confessed 
their guilt of charges preferred against them. 

On aforementioned grounds, the following per- 
sons; Nikolai Bukharin, born 1888^ Alexei Rykov, 
born 1881 i Henry G. Yagoda, born 1891^ Nikolai 
Krestinsky, born 18835 Christian Rakovsky, born 
18733 A. !'• Rosengoltz, 1889^ Vladimir L Ivanov, 
18935 Mikhail Chernov^ 1891j Gregory T. Grinko, 
1890i Isaak Zelensky^ 1890^ Sergei BessonoVj 1892j 
Akmal Ikramov, 1898; FaysulJa Khodjayev, 1896j 
V. R Sharangovich, 18973 Pj-okopi Zubarev, 1886; 
Pavel Bulanov, 1895; Lev Levin, 1870 3 D. D. Plet- 
nev, 1872^ Ignati Kazakov, 1891^ Benjamin Maxi- 
mov-Dikovsky, 1900, and Peter Kryuchkov, 1889, 
are accused of having, as active participants in an 
anti-Soviet plot, committed the heinous crimes 
against the state enumerated in paragraphs i to 5 of 
the definition of the charge, that is, crimes covered 
by Articles 58-lA; 58-2i 58-7; 58-8; 58-9 and 
58-11 of the Criminal Code of the R,S.K.S.R,, and 
the accused Zelensky and Zubarev have, in addition, 
committed crimes covered by Article 58-13 of the 
Criminal Code of the R.S.F.S.R. 

In view of the foregoing, all the aforementioned 
accused are subject to trial by the Military 
Collegium of the Supreme Court of the U.S. 
S.R. The cases of Ossinsky, Yakovleva, Mantsev, 
Karelin, Kamkov, Stukov, Artcmenko, Zaporozhets, 
+6 



Savolainen, Semyonov and Chlenov have been set 
aside for separate trial. The case of Dr. Vinogradov 
has been dropped in view of his demise. The case of 
Yenukidze was tried by the Military Collegium of 
the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R., on December 
15, 1937. 



I 



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Behind the 

Trotsky- Bukharin Plot 

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