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Full text of "The Nash Farm Battlefield: History and Archaeology"

The Nash Farm Battlefield: 
History and Archaeology 
















(If * 



■ \ 




77ze LAMAR Institute, Inc. 



2007 



The Nash Farm Battlefield: 
History and Archaeology 



LAMAR Institute Research Publication, 
Report Number 123 

Authored by 
Daniel T. Elliott and Tracy M. Dean 

Submitted to: 
Henry County Government 

140 Henry Parkway 
McDonough, Georgia 30253 

The LAMAR Institute, Inc. 

P.O. Box 2992 

Savannah, Georgia 31402 

August 20, 2007 



Acknowledgements 

The LAMAR Institute research team was assisted in the survey by members of the Georgia Historical 
Artifacts & Research Group. Volunteers from this group included William "Bud" Campbell, Tom Dale, 
Frank Davis, William Dodd, Mike Estes, Jeremy Head, Joel Logan, John Lynch, Mike Meek, Jason Wright, 
Scott Chandler, and Dean Perry. Other volunteers included Mike Benton, B.J. Mathis, John Mathis and 
family, Alex Sanders, and Jan Loftis and Tom Loftis. 

Others offered support for the project by providing important historical information on the battle and its 
participants, or information pertaining to specific artifacts. These include: Michele Beltran, William Dodd, 
David Evans, Joel Logan, John Lynch, William Nolan, Patricia Pierce, Patrick Wallach (Guyot family 
historian), and Suzukisan. Thanks also to Bill Frazier who provided several important contacts and site 
information related to the study area several years previous, as part of the Flint River Basin Archaeological 
Survey. Mr. Frazier' s input truly planted the seed for future studies in the Lovejoy area. Michael Sabine, 
B.J. Mathis and others with the Henry County government were most supportive of the project. They 
provided logistical support and documents that were a great help toward the success of the project. Special 
thanks to Mark Pollard, Henry County Historian and ardent supporter of the Nash Farm Battlefield Park 
survey project. Mark's dedication and commitment to preserving and interpreting our shared heritage in the 
south metropolitan Atlanta region is a shining example of what one person can accomplish against daunting 
odds. 



Abstract 

The LAMAR Institute led a study of Civil War action at the Nash Farm property in Henry County, 
Georgia. This property was the scene of two important battles of Major General William Tecumseh 
Sherman's Atlanta Campaign in late August and early September, 1864. Archaeological survey was 
conducted over a portion of the study property revealing a wide assortment of Civil War era artifacts. The 
spatial patterning of the various artifact classes enabled the researchers to reconstruct many elements of the 
August 20 cavalry battle, as well as the September 2-5 Infantry engagement, and possibly two other little- 
known battles. Several C.S.A. campsites on the park property, which also date to 1864, were explored by 
the research team. Project historians gathered primary and secondary records about these battles and the 
soldiers who participated in them. The merger of the historical and archaeological evidence provides a rich 
picture of these historical military events. This information should help to clarify modern understanding of 
the final days of the Atlanta Campaign and will provide essential fodder for interpretation and future 
planning of the Nash Farm Battlefield Park. 



Contents 

I. Introduction 1 

Research Methods 2 

Historical Setting 4 

II. Kilpatrick's Charge, August 20, 1864 7 

Union Forces 11 

Major General Hugh Judson "Kill Cavalry" Kilpatrick (1836-1881) 11 

2 nd Cavalry Division 14 

Confederate Forces 22 

Major General Joseph Wheeler (Fightin' Joe Wheeler) (1836-1906) 23 

General Lawrence Sullivan 'Sul' Ross (1838- ) 23 

Union Accounts 28 

1 st Cavalry Brigade, 4' Michigan Cavalry, Commanded by Major Frank W. Mix 33 

7' Pennsylvania Cavalry, Commanded by Major William H. Jennings 36 

4 U.S. Cavalry Regulars, Commanded by Captain James B. Mclntyre 40 

2 nd Cavalry Brigade 42 

4' Ohio Cavalry, Commanded by Colonel Eli Long 42 

1 st Ohio Cavalry, Commanded by Colonel Beroth B. Eggleston 44 

3 rd Ohio Veteran Volunteer Cavalry, Commanded by Colonel Charles B. Seidel 47 

Chicago Board of Trade Battery, Commanded by Lieutenants Bennett and George Robinson 48 

Third Division, Commanded by Brigadier General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick 49 

3 r Cavalry Division, Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Robert Klein 55 

3 r Cavalry Division, Commanded by Colonel Eli H. Murray 56 



92nd Illinois Mounted Infantry, Commanded by Colonel Smith Dykins Atkins (1836-1913) [Major 
Albert Woodcock] 61 

10 th Wisconsin Battery Volunteer Light Artillery, Commanded by Captain Yates V. Beebe 62 

Union Ambulances 62 

Other Support Personnel 64 

Following Kilpatrick's Raid, Union POWs 64 

Union, Personal Accounts 66 

Confederate Accounts 71 

Confederate Personal Accounts 74 

9 th Texas Cavalry, Commanded by Colonel Dudley W. Jones (1842-1869) 77 

3 rd Texas Cavalry, Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Jiles S. Boggess 81 

1 st Mississippi Cavalry, Commanded by Colonel R. A. Pinson 82 

2 n Mississippi Cavalry, Commanded by Major John J. Perry 83 

1 st Arkansas Mounted Rifles, Commanded by Brigadier General Evander McNair 83 

Columbus Flying/Light Artillery, Commanded by Captain Edward Croft (1815-1896) 83 

Confederate Ambulances 84 

Confederate Prisoners of War (POW) 85 

Civilian Accounts 85 

Cartographic Record 86 

Battle Flags 91 

What happened after the Battle of Nash Farm? 92 

III. Battle of Lovejoy Station, September 2-5,1864 95 

Union Accounts 95 

IV. November 16" 1 Action 103 

Confederate Accounts 104 

IV. Rest and Relaxation — The Confederate Encampments 109 



vin 



V. Artifacts from Nash Farm 113 

Arms Group 113 

Heavy Ordnance 113 

Personal Weapons 115 

Edged Weapons 124 

Kitchen Group 125 

Clothing Group 126 

Buttons 126 

Buckles 126 

Military Insignia 127 

Foot-ware 128 

Other Uniform Accoutrements 128 

Furniture Group 129 

Personal Group 129 

Coins 129 

Jewelry 129 

Pocket Knives 130 

Toys 130 

Tobacco Group 130 

Activities Group 130 

Horse Equipment 130 

Musical Instruments 132 

Other Activity Items 133 

VI. Artifact Patterning 135 

Small Arms, Bullet and Blades 135 



Artillery Ordnance 135 

Horse Tack 136 

Uniform Parts 137 

Battlefield Features 138 

Campsites 138 

VI. Ground Penetrating Radar Survey 140 

VII. Site Interpretation 144 

What We Know Now 144 

Where are the Dead? 145 

Research Opportunities 148 

Interpretive History 149 

Site Stewardship 149 

Bibliography 151 



List of Figures 

Figure 1. Recent Aerial View of Study Area (Source: MapperAcme.com 2006) 1 

Figure 2. Map of the Atlanta Campaign, Showing Study Area at Extreme Lower Right 3 

Figure 3. Plowed Samples Shown in Blue 4 

Figure 4. Cavalry Raid (Kilpatrick Shown in Center), Harper's Weekly, 1863 8 

Figure 5. Kilpatrick's Cavalry at the Battle of Waynesboro, Georgia {Harper's Weekly 1865) 8 

Figure 6. Kilpatrick and His Staff, Brandy Station, Virginia, 1864 (Library of Congress 2007) 13 

Figure 7. Caricature of a U.S. Cavalryman (LaBreem 1898) 14 

Figure 8. Two Views of the 4th Michigan Cavalry's Battle Flag (Glendinning 2007) 15 

Figure 9. Unidentified Private, Company F, 4th Michigan Cavalry (civilwarmysterys.com 2007) 16 

Figure 10. Battle Flag of the 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment (Bellsouthpwp.net 2007) 16 

Figure 11. Unidentified Cavalrymen, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry (Bellsouthpwp.net 2007) 16 

Figure 12. General George Stoneman, 4 U.S. Cavalry (Harpers Weekly 1863) 17 

Figure 13. Private Wilson Farner, Company C, 3rd Ohio Cavalry (Ancestry.com 2007) 17 

Figure 14. Unidentified Cavalryman, Company C, 4th Ohio Cavalry (Pruden 2007) 18 

Figure 15. 4th Ohio Cavalry, Battle Flag (Ohio Historical Society 2007) 18 

Figure 16. Chicago Board of Trade Battery, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, 1862 (Civilwargroup.com 2007). 19 

Figure 17. Soldiers in the 3rd Indiana Cavalry at Petersburg, Virginia in 1864 (old-picture.com 2007) 20 

Figure 18. Major John Morris Young, 5th Iowa Cavalry (Iowa State Historical Society; Young 2007) 21 

Figure 19. Mealtime with Corporal Samuel Mock, Company B., 10th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry (C. Wesley 
Cowen Catalog, in Stevens 2007) 22 

Figure 20. Captain Jonathon M. Scermerhorn, 92nd Illinois Infantry, Company G (Lena Area Historical 
Society 2007) 22 

Figure 21, Confederate Cavalry Returning from a Successful Raid (Wright 1906) 24 

Figure 22. Civil War-era Caricature of a Texas Ranger (Harper's Weekly July 6, 1861: 430) 25 

Figure 23. Texas Cavalry Uniform, circa 1862, Worn by 2" Lieutenant Alf Davis, Good's Texas Battery 
(McDonald 2007) 25 

xi 



Figure 24. Veterans of the 3rd Texas Cavalry, 1915 25 

Figure 25. Battle flag of the 3rd Texas Cavalry (Lanham 2007b) 25 

Figure 26. Battleflag, 6th Texas Cavalry Battalion (Texas State Library and Archives Commission 2007). 
26 

Figure 27. Battle Flags of the 9th Texas Cavalry (Brothers 2007) 26 

Figure 28. Battle Flag, 9th Texas Cavalry, after October 1862 (The Confederate Veteran 1898:253) 27 

Figure 29. Battle Flag, 9th Texas Cavalry, 1863-1864 (Tuck 1993:389) 27 

Figure 30. Lieutenant Colonlel Robert H.G. Minty, 4th Michigan Cavalry (Vale 1886) 28 

Figure 31. Major Frank W. Mix, 4th Michigan Cavalry. (Ancestry.com 2007) 33 

Figure 32. Portrait of George W. Fish, Surgeon, 4th Michigan Cavalry (ca. 1862-1865) (Archives of 
Michigan 2007) 35 

Figure 33. Charge of the First Ohio Cavalry, at the Battle of Stone's River, Dec. 3 1st, 1862 (Sketched by N. 
Finnegan, Co. D) 45 

Figure 34. Stereoscopic View of Judson Kilpatrick (Library of Congress 2007) 50 

Figure 35. Lieutenant Colonel Robert Klein, 3rd Indiana Cavalry (Pickerill 1906:24) 56 

Figure 36. Brigadier General Eli H. Murray (U.S. Military Institute 2007) 59 

Figure 37. Union Hand Stretchers, May 1864 (civilwarhome.com 2007) 63 

Figure 38. Ammunition Train of the 3rd Division U.S. Cavalry (Old-pictures.com 2007b) 64 

Figure 39. Captain Henry Albert Potter, 4th Michigan Cavalry 67 

Figure 40. Unidentified Texas Cavalrymen (Terrystexasrangers.org 2007) 74 

Figure 41. Private Peter Acker, Company C, 3rd Texas Cavalry (Scvlonestardefenders.homestead.com 
2007) 74 

Figure 42. Portion of Ruger's 1864 Manuscript Map Showing the Nash Farm Vicinity (Ruger 1864) 87 

Figure 43. Portion of Defaced Map, September 5, 1864, Fosterville is Shown in the Lower Right (Rziha 
1864) 88 

Figure 44. Portion of Unattributed and Undated Map Entitled Lovejoy Station (NARA n.d.) 89 

Figure 45. Captain Robert Burns' Sketch of the August 20th Engagement, Nash Farm (Courtesy of David 
Evans) 90 

Figure 46. Scene of U.S. Troops and Civilians Evacuating Atlanta, 1864 109 

xii 



Figure 48. Hotchkiss Shell Base (PP768), Nash Farm 113 

Figure 49. Polygonal Bombshell Fragment (PP 103 1), Nash Farm 1 14 

Figure 50. Grapeshot, Nash Farm (PP 587) 114 

Figure 51. Faceted Cannister Shot, Nash Farm 114 

Figure 52. Enfield Trigger Guard Fragment (PP1067), Nash Farm 118 

Figure 53. Spencer Cartridge (PP157), Nash Farm 123 

Figure 54. Saber Counterguard (PP 1102), Nash Farm 125 

Figure 55. Scabbard Tip (PP470), Nash Farm 125 

Figure 16. U.S. Staff Officer's Button (PP921), Nash Farm 126 

Figure 57. Confederate Belt Buckle, Dodd Collection, Nash Farm 127 

Figure 59. Japanese-style Buckle (PP850), Nash Farm 127 

Figure 58. Guyot Buckle (PP364), Nash Farm 127 

Figure 60. U.S. Troops with Commodore Perry in Japan 127 

Figure 61. Scale-style Brass Artifact (PP591), Nash Farm 128 

Figure 62. Shoe Tap, Nash Farm (PP 1027) 128 

Figure 63. U.S. Cartridge Plate (PP1066), Nash Farm 128 

Figure 64. Pre-War U.S. Dimes (PP1028 & 1029), Nash Farm 129 

Figure 65. Human Skull Fob (PP 751), Nash Farm 129 

Figure 66. Spur from Lynch Collection, Nash Farm 131 

Figure 67. Spur from Pollard Collection, Nash Farm 131 

Figure 68. Spur from Nash Farm (PP 521) 131 

Figure 69. Heart-motif Horse Tack (Pollard Collection, Appendix 2) 131 

Figure 70. Good Luck Horse Jewelry (PP3), Nash Farm 132 

Figure 71. Harmonica Reed Plate (PP342), Nash Farm 132 

Figure 72. Organ Reed (PP861), Nash Farm 133 



Figure 73. Example of a 1907 Pump Organ in Dilapidated Condition (Kimbrell & Sons 2007) 133 

Figure 74. Distribution of Union Bullets 136 

Figure 75. Distribution of Confederate Bullets 136 

Figure 76. Distribution of Percussion Caps 135 

Figure 77. Distribution of Brass Cartridges 135 

Figure 78. Distribution of Canister Shot 136 

Figure 79. Distribution of Artillery Shell Fragments 137 

Figure 80. Distribution of Grapeshot 137 

Figure 81. Distribution of Horse Tack 137 

Figure 82. Distribution of Uniform and Clothing Parts 137 

Figure 83. Distribution of Grommets 138 

Figure 84. Distribution of Cast Iron Cookware 139 

Figure 85. GPR Survey at Block A, Facing Southwest 140 

Figure 86. GPR Block A, Aerial View at 55 cm Depth 140 

Figure 87. GPR Block A, Aerial View at 75 cm Depth 141 

Figure 88. GPR Block A, Aerial View at 1 meter Depth 141 

Figure 89. GPR Block B, Aerial View at 55 cm Depth 142 

Figure 90. GPR Block B, Aerial View at 90 cm Depth 143 

Figure 91. Captain William S. Scott, Company G, 1st Ohio Cavalry, Killed at Nash Farm 146 



List of Tables 

Table 1. Cavalry Strength, Army of Tennessee, C.S.A., August, 1864 23 

Table 2. Minty's Casualty Report, August, 1864 31 

Table 3. Casualty Report by Eli Long (OR Volume 38(2):841) 44 

Table 4. Casualty Report of Brigadier General Judson Kilpatrick, August, 1864 54 

Table 5. Casualty Report of Lieutenant Colonel F.A. Jones (OR Volume 38(2):882) 58 

Table 6. Major Firearms Used in the Civil War 116 

Table 7. Bullet Summary 121 

Table 8. Percussion Caps, Nash Farm 135 

Table 9. Grommets, Nash Farm 138 

Table 10. Partial Casualty List, 7th Pennsylvania and 3rd Ohio Cavalry, August, 1864 147 



I. Introduction 



"I can make more generals, but horses cost 
money." - 
— Abraham Lincoln 



Henry County is currently developing the Nash 
Farm Battlefield Park, which occupies a 204 acre 
tract at the Henry-Clayton County line, northeast of 
Lovejoy, Georgia. This decision by the Henry 



County Commissioners is a vital step towards 
saving the last vestiges of a battlefield that was 
extremely important in American history. The Nash 
Farm is located south and west of Babbs Mill Road 
in Henry County, south of McDonough/Jonesboro 
Road, and east of the Hastings community (or 
Hastings Farm) (Figure 1). The area consists of 
rolling topography, typical of the Georgia Piedmont. 
The land is mostly in pasture. 




Figure 1. Recent Aerial View of Study Area (Source: MapperAcme.com 2006). 



Historical research has identified this location as 
related to two important battles in the American 
Civil War — Brigadier General Judson 
Kilpatrick's Union Cavalry charge at Lovejoy 
and the final military action in the battle of 
Jonesboro (Figure 2). Kilpatrick's cavalry raid 
on Lovejoy took place from August 18-20, 1864. 
The military action associated with the study 
tract that was part of the Battle of Jonesboro took 
place on September 2-5, 1864. Archaeological 
expressions of both military events are likely 
contained within the Nash Farm property. 

This report focuses specifically within the 
property boundaries of Nash Farm and the battle 
that ensued thereon. Particular attention is 
focused on descriptions of terrain, who was 
positioned where, sequence of events, and 
specific individuals who were involved, injured, 
or killed. Primary and secondary documents have 
been reviewed and sifted to recreate what 
transpired on the specific property of "an 
abandoned plantation" known as Nash Farm on 
August 20, 1864. Some conflicting documents 
exist because some accounts tended to be blown 
out of proportion depending on who was 
reporting, and other accounts were written years 
after the event. Also, many reports and 
descriptions relied on one another. 

Additional insight into the cultural resources 
contained on the park property comes from oral 
accounts of relic collectors, who have identified 
several Civil War era encampments. Additional 
information about the battlefield was recently 
gathered during the Flint River Basin 
Archaeological Survey (FRBAS) project, which 
was conducted by the LAMAR Institute for the 
Georgia Department of Natural Resources 
(Elliott and Dean 2006). The FRBAS project 
report, as well as digital images of many Civil 
War battlefield relics collected near the Nash 
Farm, can be found at the FRBAS website 

( http://flintriversurvey.org ). 



screen. The location of each test was carefully 
mapped using a Sokkia total station and TDS 
Recon data collector. The results from this effort 
are summarized in Appendix 1 . 

Secondly, the surrounding pasture land was 
sampled for its archaeological content. This was 
done by first plowing rectangular strips across 
the study tract. The placement of these plowed 
strips was determined on the basis of existing 
knowledge of the battlefield, relic collector 
accounts, and preliminary reconnaissance. The 
location of each plowed sample was mapped 
with a total station and their distribution is 
shown in Figure 3. A variety of topographic 
settings (knolls, ridge slopes, swales, etc.) was 
sampled so that a fuller picture of the battlefield 
environment could be reconstructed. Once these 
areas were plowed a systematic survey was 
conducted using metal detectors and surface 
inspection. All non-ferrous metal detector "hits", 
or other diagnostic surface artifacts, were marked 
with pin flags and then accurately mapped with 
the total station. As the artifacts were mapped, 
they were assigned a number designation and 
then collected. In some cases, where modern 
artifacts were recognized for example, the finds 
were analyzed in the field and returned to the 
ground. 

The data gathered by the plow strip investigation 
were used to delineate sensitivity zones within 
the study property. Certain diagnostic artifacts, 
such as military insignia, buttons, and bullets, 
should allow for the geographic identity of 
specific military units. From this information a 
map of the battlefield, as it relates to the modern- 
day landscape, was constructed. This survey 
strategy will lead to a more accurate 
understanding of the military terrain and will 
result in a genuine history experience for visitors 
of the battlefield park.. The survey followed 
National Park Service, American Battlefield 
Protection Program guidelines in mapping the 
battlefield (Lowe 2000). 



RESEARCH METHODS 

The archaeological field survey consisted of two 
parts. First, the area surrounding the Nash 
farmhouse was surveyed by systematically 
placed shovel tests. These tests were spaced at 
regular intervals, 5 or 10 meters apart. All shovel 
tests were excavated to sterile depth and the 
contents of each test were sifted through % inch 



The archaeological fieldwork was directed by 
Mr. Daniel T. Elliott. Mr. Elliott serves as 
President and Research Associate of the 
LAMAR Institute. 




■'""■J' : ii x: yJ^ 




Figure 2. Map of the Atlanta Campaign, Showing Study Area at Extreme Lower Right. 




Figure 3. Plowed Samples Shown in Blue. 

Historical research was conducted by Mr. Elliott, 
Ms. Tracy Dean, and Mr. Daniel E. Battle. Mr. 
Elliott served as Principal Investigator for the 
proposed work and was assisted by two 
archaeological technicians, Daniel Battle and 
Mike Benton, from the LAMAR Institute's staff. 
Henry County provided necessary heavy 
equipment for preparing the ground of the survey 
sites. The LAMAR Institute research team was 
assisted in the survey by members of the Georgia 
Historical Artifacts & Research Group. 

Two small sample portions of the battlefield 
were surveyed using Ground Penetrating Radar 
technology. The GPR areas included one 
rectangular area immediately east of the 
driveway entrance and south of Jonesboro Road, 
and a second rectangular area south of the 



recently filled-in swimming pool, north of the 
barn, and east of the pasture fence. The LAMAR 
Institute has used this technology at other 
battlefields in Georgia with excellent results. It 
also proved successful at Nash Farm. 

HISTORICAL SETTING 

Lovejoy was a station stop on the Macon and 
Western Railroad Company line that connected 
Atlanta to Macon, Georgia. As such, the rail line 
was an important military object for the U.S. 
Army (Central of Georgia Railway Company 
1846-1873). Major General Sherman understood 
that severing this transportation artery was 
essential to capturing and controlling Atlanta and 
he made several attempts to do just that. To do 
this Sherman sent two Cavalry brigades, General 
McCook's and Stoneman's, to sever the railroad 



line south of Atlanta. Their goal, as planned, 
was not achieved. The two Union cavalry units 
were to rendezvous at Lovejoy Station. 
McCook's Cavalry arrived as planned and 
proceeded to tear up portions of the tracks. 
Stoneman's Cavalry did not comply with 
Sherman's orders and they never reached 
Lovejoy. Instead Stoneman's horsemen raided 
areas well to the south and east of Lovejoy 
before Stoneman and many of his troops were 
captured in an engagement at Sunshine Church, 
north of Clinton, Georgia. On July 29 a skirmish 
involving General McCook's Cavalry and 
General Hood's supply train took place near 
Lovejoy Station on the Atlanta and West Point 
Railroad (Jones 1999:122). This action took 
place well to the west of the Nash Farm property 
and therefore, it's history is not fully explored in 
the present study. McCook's Cavalry met with 
misfortune on July 30' at Brown's Mill, near 
Newnan, Georgia, when his raiding party was 
engaged and defeated by General Joseph 
Wheeler's Cavalry. Wheeler reported to General 
Hood that 950 prisoners were captured in that 
action (Lanham 2007a). Casualty figures for that 
engagement are vague, but apparently hundreds 
of U.S. Cavalry were killed at Brown's Mill. 
General McCook downplayed his losses in his 
battle report, estimated the number of killed, 
wounded or missing at under 500 (ehistory.com 
2007, OR Volume 38(2):763). 

Several participants in the battle at Nash Farm 
wrote descriptions of the terrain and other 
landscape features. After finding himself 
surrounded by Confederates, Kilpatrick "called 
his division commanders together and instructed 
them to cut their way out, designating as the 
point to strike an old deserted plantation" (Curry 
1984:180). This "old deserted plantation" was 
Nash Farm located in Henry County, Georgia. 
Accounts from individuals involved in the Nash 
Farm Battle on August 20, 1864 described the 
terrain of the farm. Colonel Robert H. G. Minty 
with the Union's First Cavalry Brigade described 
the land in his August 24, 1864 report as ". . . 
very disadvantageous for a charge, being very 
much cut up by rain gullies, and intersected by 
half a dozen high rail fences." (OR, Vol. 
38(2):824-826). In another account Minty 
continued to describe Nash Farm as "The ground 
indicated by Gen. Kilpatrick was a deserted 
plantation [bold added, probably referring to 
Nash Farm] creased in every direction by rain 
gullies, and there were two rail fences between 



us and the enemy, who were at work building 
rail barricades" (Minty 1903). 

John L. Sherk, a surgeon, described it in a letter 
as, "The ground from which the start was made 
and over which they charged, was a plantation of 
about two square miles; thickly strewn with 
patches of wood, deep water cuts, fences, ditches 
and morasses" (The Pottsville Miner's Journal, 
September 10, 1864). Based on these 
descriptions, the land was rugged, rough and 
presented obstacles or barriers the columns of 
cavalrymen had to charge and navigate. 

Disappointed with the performance of Generals 
McCook's and Stoneman's cavalry in the July 
1864 mission, Sherman persevered with his 
strategic use of the U.S. Cavalry and he 
dispatched Brigadier General Judson Kilpatrick' s 
cavalry to finish the job that generals Stoneman 
and McCook had failed to do. Kilpatrick's 
horsemen arrived at Lovejoy Station on August 
18, 1864 and proceeded to destroy sections of 
track. Before they had accomplished much 
destruction, however, they were distracted from 
this task by Confederate troops. Kilpatrick later 
bragged that he had severed the railroad line for 
at least 10 days, in correspondence to Sherman, 
when in fact, the railroad was again serving 
Atlanta within two days of Kilpatrick's raid. 
Although the railroad line was located several 
miles distant from the Nash Farm, it figures in 
prominently in the story of the battles there, 
since it was the primary reason that the troops 
were in the vicinity. 

Following the August 20 th action, other major 
military engagements took place in the Lovejoy 
area on September 2-5 and on November 16, 
1864. These two battles are discussed in greater 
detail later in this report. Other minor military 
action was reported on McDonough Road on 
October 2 and November 6, 1864. It was not 
determined if these events were near the Nash 
Farm property because the geographical 
descriptions about them are vague (Jones 
1999:122). 



II. Kilpatrick's Charge, August 
20, 1864 

The Civil War event that is most linked to the 
Nash Farm property is a cavalry action that took 
place on August 20, 1864. On that day, 
approximately 4,700 U.S. Cavalry troops, 
commanded by Major General Hugh Judson 
Kilpatrick, found themselves surrounded by 
massive numbers of Confederate troops. 
Kilpatrick's solution to the problem was to 
organize a cavalry charge across what he 
considered to be the most vulnerable part of the 
Confederate lines. The cavalry were quickly 
formed by Colonel Robert H.G. Minty and, at 
about 2 p.m. that hot August afternoon, they 
charged eastward with their sabers drawn, 
running over Brigadier General Sullivan Ross' 
(dismounted) Texas Cavalry Brigade. The event 
was brief, but remarkable, and it was long 
remembered by many who participated in it as an 
epic military event of the Civil War. As a result 
of this action, Kilpatrick's cavalry, at least those 
who were not killed, wounded or captured, 
escaped to fight another day. 

The Battle of Nash Farm is known as the most 
massive cavalry action in Georgia and one of the 
most memorable in the entire Civil War. This 
battle should not to be confused with the 
skirmish that took place prior to the forces 
reaching Nash Farm nor the massive Battle of 
Lovejoy Station which occurred a couple of 
weeks later on September 2-5, 1864, between 
Union Major General Sherman and Confederate 
Major General William Bell Hood, and all of 
their armies. The August 20' cavalry action was 
by no means the largest cavalry event of the 
Civil War, that being the battle at Brandy 
Station, Virginia in June, 1863, but it was 
remembered by many of the participants for 
decades afterward (Hall 1990:32-42; Pohanka 
1990:43-45). Some accounts, such as one by 
Major Frank W. Mix (4" 1 Michigan Cavalry), 
believed the battle (charge) lasted only thirty 
minutes. Meanwhile, upon returning to Atlanta, 
Kilpatrick reported to Sherman. Kilpatrick 
reported the Macon railway would be useless to 
the Confederates for ten days. It was precisely at 



this time that they heard a train whistle in the 
distance. 

Judson Kilpatrick's cavalry exploits and 
flamboyant style were highlighted in the popular 
Union press. Figure 4 is an illustration from 
Harper's Weekly apparently depicting 
Kilpatrick's Cavalry involved in a cavalry raid in 
Virginia (Harper's Weekly 1863b). Figure 5 
shows another view of Kilpatrick' Cavalry in a 
charge at Waynesborough, Georgia on December 
4, 1864. The scene at Nash Farm was likely 
similar to the actions shown in these two 
newspaper images. Unfortunately, no newspaper 
artists were present at Nash Farm to capture that 
event. 

The stage for the battle was set with Confederate 
Major General Joseph Wheeler (1836-1906) 
raiding Union supply lines, while Union Major 
General William T. Sherman sent Judson 
Kilpatrick to raid Rebel supply lines. Kilpatrick 
left Atlanta on August 18, 1864, and hit the 
Atlanta & West Point Railroad that night. On the 
19' his men attacked the Jonesboro supply depot 
on the Macon & Western Railroad around 4:00 
p.m. The next day they reached Lovejoy Station 
and engaged with the enemy around 2:00 p.m. on 
Nash Farm. Cleburne's Division of 4,500 
cavalrymen (Ross', Ferguson's and Armstrong's 
Brigades) had been pursuing Union troops since 
Jonesboro, and Kilpatrick was forced to fight. 
Confederate troops sandwiched Kilpatrick's 
Union soldiers, and Kilpatrick chose to charge 
the Confederates about four miles from the 
railroad on Nash Farm in a large corn field. 
Kilpatrick's biographer Martin summed it up, 

[Kilpatrick] called his entire force together 
and ordered Colonel Robert H. G. Minty to 
lead the men in a charge through the Rebel 
cavalry, who were dismounted along a 
defensive line to the east. He would follow 
later with the stragglers . . . "It was the most 
perfect rout," Kilpatrick wrote later, "any 
cavalry has sustained during the war . . . 
(Martin 1996:187). 




Figure 4. Cavalry Raid (Kilpatrick Shown in Center), Harper's Weekly, 1863. 




Figure 5. Kilpatrick's Cavalry at the Battle of Waynesboro, Georgia (Harper's Weekly 1865). 



Several researchers have dedicated their lives to 
compiling information and writing histories of 
events during the Civil War. An excellent book 
is David Evans' Sherman's Horsemen. In 
Chapter 24, Evans covers Kilpatrick's Raid in 
detail based on thirty years of research and his 
description reads like a novel. Mary L. 
Weigley's 2006 Kilpatrick's Raid Around 
Atlanta is a very good depiction of Kilpatrick's 
Raid and has excellent background descriptions 
of individuals involved in the Nash Farm Battle. 

Many descriptions and good histories have been 
written but this report focuses specifically within 
the property boundaries of Nash Farm and the 
battle that ensued thereon. Particular attention is 
focused on descriptions of terrain, who was 
positioned where, sequence of events, and 
individuals by name who were involved, injured, 
or killed. Primary and secondary documents have 
been reviewed and sorted to recreate what 
transpired on the specific property of "an 
abandoned plantation" known as Nash Farm on 
August 20, 1864. Some conflicting documents 
exist because some reports tended to be 
exaggerated depending on who was reporting, 
and other accounts were written years after the 
event. Also, many reports and descriptions relied 
on one another. 

Background history begins with Major General 
Joseph Wheeler (1836-1906) raiding Union 
supply lines, and Major General William T. 
Sherman sending Judson Kilpatrick to raid Rebel 
supply lines. Kilpatrick left Atlanta August 18, 
1864, hit the Atlanta & West Point Railroad that 
night. On the 19th his men attacked the 
Jonesboro supply depot on the Macon & 
Western Railroad around 4 p.m. On the 20th they 
reached Lovejoy's Station, and engaged with the 



enemy around 2 p.m. on Nash Farm. Cleburne's 
Division arrived and they were forced to fight. 
(Rebel cavalry pursuing from Jonesboro 
consisted of Ross', Ferguson's and Armstrong's 
brigades, which totaled about 4,500 men.) 
Confederates sandwiched Kilpatrick's Union 
soldiers, and Kilpatrick chose to charge the 
Confederates about four miles from the railroad 
on Nash Farm in a large corn field. Some 
accounts, such as Mix, believed the battle 
(charge) lasted thirty minutes. The remaining 
U.S. Cavalry troops continued to cover the rear 
for about an hour and a half. 

The U.S. Cavalry contained twelve troops. Each 
troop equaled one hundred men, and was 
commanded by a Captain, 1st Lieutenant, 2nd 
Lieutenant and Supernumerary Lieutenant. In 
1863 the cavalry became more flexible and the 
Squadron was dropped. Four troops were 
handier on the march due to shorter columns, and 
better size to detach. A regiment was 
commanded by a Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel, 3 
Majors, Staff of Adjutant, Quartermaster, 
Commissary, Surgeon and Assistant. Each 
regiment formed into Brigades, each Brigade 
formed into Divisions, and each Division formed 
into Corps. 

The order of battle for the August 20 
engagement at Nash Farm is presented below. 
The sources for this Order of Battle include 
research by the LAMAR Institute team and other 
information from: Evans (1996); Pollard (2006); 
NPS Soldiers and Sailors System (2007); and the 
Official Record of the Rebellion (OR Volume 
38); Love (1866:501-502, 1023-1025); Quiner 
(1866:958-961); and Dyer (Volume 2, 
1979:1672-1673). 



ORDER OF BATTLE, AUGUST 20, 1864 

Union Forces 

Major General Judson Kilpatrick 

Army of the Cumberland 

Major General George Henry Thomas 

Cavalry Corps 

Brigadier General Washington Lafayette Elliott 

2nd Cavalry Division - Brigadier General Kenner D. Garrard supplemented two brigades: 

1st Cavalry Brigade - Colonel Robert H. G. Minty 

4th Michigan Cavalry Regiment ([Colonel Robert H. G. Minty] Major Frank W. Mix) 

• 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment - Major William H. Jennings 

• 4th U.S. Cavalry Regiment - Captain James B. Mclntyre 

2nd Cavalry Brigade - Colonel Eli Long (Colonel Beroth B. Eggleston) 

• 1st Ohio Cavalry Regiment - Colonel Beroth B. Eggleston 

• 3rd Ohio Cavalry Regiment - Colonel Charles B. Seidel 

• 4th Ohio Cavalry Regiment - Lieutenant Colonel Oliver P. Robie 

• Chicago Board of Trade Battery - Lieutenants Bennett and George Robinson 

Kilpatrick's Third Cavalry Division: 

1st Cavalry Brigade - Lieutenant Robert Klein 

• 3rd Indiana Cavalry - Major Alfred Gaddis 

• 5th Iowa Cavalry - Major John Morris Young 

2nd Cavalry Brigade - Lieutenant Colonel Fielder Alsor Jones 

• 8th Indiana Cavalry - Major Thomas Herring 

• 2nd Kentucky Cavalry - Major Owen Starr 

• 10th Ohio Cavalry - Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Wakefield Sanderson 

3rd Cavalry Brigade - Colonel Eli Houston Murray 

• 92nd Illinois Mounted Infantry - Colonel Smith Dykins Atkins (Major Albert Woodcock) 

• 3rd Kentucky Cavalry - Lieutenant Colonel Robert H. King 

• 5th Kentucky Cavalry - Colonel Oliver L. Baldwin 

• 10th Wisconsin Battery Light Artillery - Captain Yates V. Beebe 

Confederate Forces 

ARMY OF MISSISSIPPI 

STEWART'S CORPS, Major General Joseph Wheeler 
Cavalry Division - Brigadier General William Hicks Jackson 

Armstrong's Brigade - Brigadier General Frank Crawford Armstrong 
1st Mississippi Cavalry Regiment--- Colonel R. A. Pinson 
2nd Mississippi Cavalry Regiment--- Major J. J. Perry 
28th Mississippi Cavalry Regiment — Major Joshua T. McBee, 
Ballentine;s (Mississippi) regiment, Lieutenant Colonel William L. Maxwell 
Company "A" 1st Confederate Cavalry--- Captain James Ruffin 
Ross's Brigade - Brigadier General Lawrence Sullivan Ross 

1st Texas Legion (or 27 th Texas Cavalry)— Colonel Edwin R. Hawkins; Lt. Col. John H. 
Broocks 

3rd Texas Cavalry Regiment—] Lieutenant Colonel Jiles S. Boggess 

10 



6th Texas Cavalry Regiment— Lieutenant Colonel Peter F. Ross 

9th Texas Cavalry Regiment — Lieutenant Colonel Thomas G. Berry; Colonel Dudley W. 
Jones 

Ferguson's Brigade - Brigadier General Samuel Wragg Ferguson 
2nd Alabama Cavalry Regiment— Colonel John N. Carpenter 
56th Alabama Cavalry Regiment— Colonel William Boyles 
9th Mississippi Cavalry Regiment— Colonel H. H. Miller 
11th Mississippi Cavalry Regiment— Colonel R. O. Perrin 
12th Mississippi Cavalry Battalion— William M. Inge 
Artillery - Captain John Waties [?] [Cherokee?] 

Croft's Battery, Georgia Light Artillery (Columbus Artillery) — 1 st Lieutenant Alfred J. Young 
Captain Farris' Battery, Missouri Light Artillery (Clark Artillery)— Captain Houston King 
Company "B", 3 rd Battalion, South Carolina Light Artillery (Palmetto Battalion)— Lieutenant 
R. B. Waddell 



UNION FORCES 

Major General Hugh Judson "Kill 
Cavalry" Kilpatrick (1836-1881) 

Brigadier General Kilpatrick commanded 
approximately 4,700 U.S. troops on August 20, 
1864. Because Kilpatrick is a controversial 
figure who played a large role in the Nash Farm 
Battle, it is important to study this complicated 
individual to better understand his character, his 
credibility, and his actions on the battlefield. 

Kilpatrick knew how to utilize influential people. 
He applied to military school in 1855 but 
couldn't gain acceptance without appointment by 
a congressman. Knowing his ultimate goal, he 
worked for New Jersey Congressman George 
Vail during his re-election campaign. Vail 
returned the favor and appointed Kilpatrick to 
the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New 
York. 

Immediately after graduating from West Point 
Kilpatrick married Alice Shailer, the niece of F. 
H. Allen, a prominent New York politician then 
left for war. Alice gave Kilpatrick a flag he 
carried throughout the war. She died in the fall of 
1863 followed by his child in January 1864. 

While Kilpatrick' s men trained outside 
Washington D.C., Kilpatrick opted to stay at 
Willard's, an expensive hotel where he could 
mingle with politicians. 



Kilpatrick was hazed While attending West 
Point. The young and diminutive Kilpatrick was 
harassed by classmates. "The upper classmen 
immediately went to work hazing the odd- 
looking plebe, but the 5'5" 140 pound Kilpatrick 
did not hesitate to fight back with his fists" 
(HistoryNet.com 2007). Kilpatrick graduated 17 
in a class of 45 in May 1861 and received a 
commission as a second lieutenant in the I s U.S. 
Artillery. 

According to biographer Samuel J. Martin, since 
Kilpatrick was hazed, his favorite diversion was 
making sure the new cadets suffered too. 
Kilpatrick attended the military academy with 
students who would become both Union and 
Confederate officers. The question is could the 
opposing officers have taken part in the hazing 
of Kilpatrick and did this affect his decisions and 
responses on the battlefield? Fifty-five of the 
sixty battles fought in the Civil War had West 
Point graduates on both sides. Further 
investigation of individual officers and West 
Point's records should be made in order to gain a 
better understanding of how these interactions 
may have affected war strategies. 

In his early career, Kilpatrick was an 
embarrassment to his superiors and engaged in 
scams for both position and money. Colonel 
Abram Duryee, the commander of the 5 1 New 
York, dispatched Kilpatrick to New York City to 
recruit more men for the regiment. Kilpatrick 
competed with Colonel J. Mansfield Davies for 
recruits. Davies was organizing a cavalry 
regiment and Kilpatrick was organizing an 
infantry regiment. "The two struck a deal. 
Instead of enrolling men into the infantry, 



11 



Kilpatrick signed them up as horsemen. When 
Davis reached his quota, he would make 
Kilpatrick a lieutenant colonel. Duryee soon 
learned of this scheme and ordered Kilpatrick to 
return to Fortress Monroe. Kilpatrick instead 
applied for sick leave, awaiting the payoff from 
his deal with Davies. Duryee was disgusted and 
suggested to his superiors that his derelict 
subordinate be replaced, to 'relieve us from what 
has been ... an embarrassment.' On September 
25, 1861, Davies fulfilled his promise and made 
Kilpatrick lieutenant colonel of his "Harris Light 
Cavalry," the 2d New York' "(HistoryNet.com 
2007). 

Kilpatrick dealt with crooked sutlers (men who 
followed the army and sold provisions to the 
soldiers) and Hiram C. Hill later testified he paid 
Lieutenant Colonel Kilpatrick twenty dollars in 
gold to steer an army contract his way. 
Kilpatrick confiscated horses from local farms 
for the Union, kept the best mounts for himself 
and sold the rest in the north. Kilpatrick stole 
tobacco from plantations and the sutlers would 
sell the tobacco to the troops giving Kilpatrick 
one-third of all monies received. Kilpatrick 
breached army regulations when he borrowed 
money from the sutlers. 



The men who served under Kilpatrick found him 
to be hard. "[Kilpatrick' s] . . . men began to 
grumble. "Many were confined to their tents 
[with] saddle boils and lameness," Lieutenant 
Henry C. Meyer recalled. The troopers began to 
call their aggressive commander "Kill-Cavalry" 
(HistoryNet.com 2007). At the second battle of 
Bull Run Lieutenant Meyer wrote, "The charge 
was a blunder. Kilpatrick was severely criticized 
in the regiment for it" (HistoryNet.com 2007). 

Admiral Dahlgren's son, Colonel Ulric Dahlgren 
was assigned 500 troopers and Kilpatrick was to 
lead 3,500 riders. Kilpatrick bungled the 
operation trying to capture President Jefferson 
Davis and Dahlgren was killed. Confederates 
claimed they found orders for Dahlgren to kill 
the Confederate President and the Union claimed 
the letters were forged. Kilpatrick was demoted 
to brigade command and assigned to serve under 
his replacement. Kilpatrick requested to move to 
the western theatre with Major General William 
T. Sherman, who thought Kilpatrick was a 
"damned fool," but wanted him anyway. In late 
spring below Dalton, Georgia, Kilpatrick was 
shot in the thigh. He recuperated at West Point, 
New York, and rejoined his command July 23, 
1864. 



Kilpatrick liked attention and submitted skewed 
reports to the press. Kilpatrick claimed in his 
report that he had captured a brigade of infantry, 
two cannon, two caissons, and a large number of 
small arms. He sent The New York Times a copy 
of this twisted account, and the editors published 
his lies. When [General] Lee saw the article, he 
was so incensed that he wrote a letter of protest 
to Meade [the opposing officer Major General 
George Gordon Meade who replaced Hooker on 
June 28th, 1863]. The Union commander looked 
to Kilpatrick for an explanation, but he was 
gone. His wife, who had visited him nine months 
ago in the Old Capitol Prison, had given birth, 
and Kilpatrick had gone to see his son 
(HistoryNet.com 2007). 



Brandy Station, Virginia was the scene of the 
largest cavalry battle of the entire Civil War, but 
Kilpatrick' s leadership there was lackluster. He 
did not align his brigade and failed. Hall 
(1990:40) noted in his summary of Kilpatrick' s 
assault, 



Kilpatrick watched horrified as these 
regiments [the 2" and 10' New York 
Cavalry Regiments] immediately 'floated 
off like feathers on a wind.' They were the 
victims of a devastating flank attack pulled 
off by Georgians of Cobb' s Legion and 
cavalrymen of the I s ' South Carolina... The 
dismayed Union colonel turned to men 
called, 'Puritans,' troops of the I s ' Maine 
Cavalry, 'Men of Maine, you must save the 
day,' Kilpatrick urged. 



Kilpatrick was reckless with the cavalry and 
ruthless in war. Under Brigadier General 
Ebenezer W. Pierce, Kilpatrick was sent to attack 
a Confederate outpost at Big Bethel. It was a 
disaster with 76 casualties, and Kilpatrick 
wounded his posterior and struggled back to 
camp on a mule. 



The heroic success of the 1 st Maine Cavalry at 
Brandy Station served as partial redemption for 
Kilpatrick' s earlier bungling of the assault. In 
General Alfred Pleasanton's report Kilpatrick 
was absent from the list of officers cited for 
gallantry. 

On June 10 [1863] Shenandoah Valley, 
Kilpatrick unwittingly slaughtered the I s 



12 



Massachusetts. He then sent the 2 n New York to 
the front and they rode into an ambush - more 
than 100 died. Kilpatrick was devastated. On 
July 2, as Pickett's Charge failed, General 
Kilpatrick saw an opportunity to be a hero, 

He ordered Farnsworth to assault the flank 
of the retreating Confederates. Farnsworth 
thought it was suicidal and argued, to which 
Kilpatrick sneered, 'If you are afraid, I'll 
lead the charge.' Angered, Farnsworth 
agreed to lead but challenged Kilpatrick to 
take the responsibility. It was a disaster and 
within minutes Farnsworth 'lay dead, killed 
in the last flurry of shots"'(HistoryNet.com 
2007). 

Kilpatrick was popular with the ladies. Although 
his banner bore the name of his wife Alice, his 
lack of discretion with various women 
throughout the war did not go unnoticed. One 
historian noted, 



Returning to duty on August 5, [1863], 
Kilpatrick found Annie Jones, a teenage 
harlot, visiting his headquarters atFalmouth, 
Virginia. The new father immediately talked 
her into sharing his tent. This was not his 
first indiscretion. H is entourage included 
several other women, and the word around 
camp was that their duties went far heyond 
cooking his meals. Two weeks later, Jones 
moved in with [George Armstrong] Custer. 
Outraged, Kilpatrick had her arrested as a 
spy and shipped off to the Old Capitol 
Prison" (HistoryNet.com 2007). 

Kilpatrick even held a Nero Ball in Virginia 
where he invited the ladies to a ball while his 
soldiers ransacked and burned their homes to the 
ground. Figure 6 shows Kilpatrick at his 
headquarters at Brandy Station, Virginia in 1864. 
The identities of the two women in this 
photograph were not determined, although 
neither of them is his wife, since she had died the 
previous year. 




Figure 6. Kilpatrick and His Staff, Brandy Station, Virginia, 1864 (Library of Congress 2007). 



Kilpatrick' s Cavalry Division was probably the 
source, in part, for Sherman's reputation among 



Georgians as scoundrels. In Atlanta, Kilpatrick's 
troopers "pillaged one plantation after another. 
They drove off cows, sheep and hogs," one 



13 



owner said, "took every bushel of corn and 
fodder, oats and wheat, and burned the house" 
(HistoryNet.com 2007). Although this was a 
common tactic in war, Kilpatrick took it a step 
further. "At another farm, Kilpatrick rounded up 
horses to replace his own worn-out mounts. His 
men gathered about 500 more animals than they 
needed, so Kilpatrick ordered the surplus killed. 
One by one the poor beasts were bashed on the 
head. The farm owner watched in horror as a 
mountain of dead horses arose in his yard. "My 
God," he gasped, knowing that he could never 
bury so many animals. "I'll have to move" 
(HistoryNet.com 2007). 

Kilpatrick plundered the Virginia countryside 
and "borrowed" two mules from a farmer. The 
farmer filed a complaint and the investigation 
exposed Kilpatrick's schemes. Kilpatrick was 
imprisoned in the Old Capitol Prison in 
Washington. The Secretary of War, the Edwin 
M. Stanton said the affidavits left "little question 
of [Kilpatrick's] guilt." He was released three 
months later on January 21, 1863. Upon his 
release, Major General Joseph Hooker 
commanded the Army of the Potomac and 
Brigadier General George Stoneman led the 
corps of 9,000 horsemen. Kilpatrick, a colonel, 
was given command of the 1 st Brigade in 
Brigadier General David McMurtie Gregg's 3 1 
Division (HistoryNet.com 2007). Apparently, 
the U.S. Army valued Kilpatrick's skills as a 
cavalry commander more than their disdain for 
his negative behavior. 

In December, 1864, Kilpatrick torched the 
Sunbury Baptist Church, an integrated church 
that had stood in Sunbury, Uiberty County, 
Georgia since about 1810. The ensuing flame 
was intended to indicate to the Union warships 
offshore that Sherman's forces had arrived on the 
Georgia coast (Elliott 2005). 

After Kilpatrick's Raid, Kilpatrick was respected 
by his men. Having just returned on July 23, 
1864 from an injury, one month later he was 
engaged in the Battle of Nash Farm. Many of the 
men involved in the Nash Farm Battle had just 
been assigned under Kilpatrick. Interestingly 
after the battle, these men admired him. Years 
later a debate raged about the facts. An 
individual who wrote a public letter under the 
guise of "M.W.H." stirred many Kilpatrick 
supporters who responded by saying M.W.H was 
erroneous and Minty's information was true. 



Regarding Kilpatrick Frank Mix said, "He was 
everywhere, was prompt in all his movements, 
and although it was the first time we had ever 
seen him or been with him, we admired him for 
his dash and perseverance, and it was not 
necessary then, much less now, to call praise for 
him taffy. He was a gallant fellow, and did his 
whole duty on that raid, and every one stands 
ready to say so" (Mix 1891). L. B. Smith 
responded to M.W.H.'s version of Kilpatrick's 
raid in The National Tribune, July 2, 1891 by 
saying Kilpatrick "was one of the very best 
cavalry Generals in the service." Needless to say, 
the Confederates had a different view of 
Kilpatrick and the U.S. Cavalry (Figure 7). 



ft 


frjjftj 


B 1 M&°\?~ 

1 '■ . ir ■■ii-ti-r ! Bui. far LiliU'i :isk- , k'll Jrn* nuk' 



Figure 7. Caricature of a U.S. 
Cavalryman (LaBreem 1898). 

2 nd Cavalry Division 

The 4' Michigan Cavalry Regiment were part of 
the 2" Cavalry Division, 1 st Brigade. The 4' 
Michigan was authorized on July 1, 1862 and 
Colonel Robert Minty was given command of 
the regiment. The regiment had a distinguished 
record of service, most notably action was 
participating in the capture of Confederate 
President Jefferson Davis in Georgia in May, 
1865. A total of 2,217 soldiers were enrolled in 
the regiment throughout its Civil War service. Of 
these, 32 were killed in action, 15 died from 
wounds, and 328 died of disease. The 4 
Michigan Cavalry was mustered out of service 
on August 29, 1865 (NPS 2007). 



14 



The 7 ( Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment were 
part of the 2 1U| Cavalry Division, 1 st Brigade. The 
7 th Pennsylvania was popularly known as the 
Saber Regiment, owing to their "daring and 
deadly use of that weapon in the mounted 
charge" (Sipes 1957, 2000). The soldiers in this 
regiment were recruited from the coal mining 
region of Pennsylvania. The regiment had 
distinguished service in the war and participated 
in more than 30 battles or skirmishes. A total of 
292 soldiers were enrolled in the 7 lh 
Pennsylvania in its Civil War service. The 
regiment was organized in Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania in September 1861 and continued 
to serve until August 13, 1865 when they were 
mustered out. Throughout their service in the 
war, the 7 1 Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment lost 
eight officers and 94 enlisted men killed or 
mortally wounded. Additionally, five officers 
and 185 enlisted men died by disease (NPS 
2007). Figure 8 shows the battle flag of the 7 lh 
Pennsylvania Cavalry. Figure 9 shows a group 
of unidentified cavalrymen in the 7' 
Pennsylvania Cavalry. 

The 4 lh U.S. Cavalry Regiment (Regular Army) 
formed part of the 2 nd Cavalry Division, 1 st 
Brigade. The 4 th U.S. Cavalry was originally 
formed in 1855 as the I s Cavalry but, at the 
beginning of the Civil War it was re-designated 
the 4 th U.S. Cavalry. Ironically, Colonel Robert 
E. Lee was appointed commander of the 1 st U.S. 
Cavalry just prior to the onset of war and before 
leaving to join the Confederacy. Approximately 
2,179 soldiers were enrolled in this regiment 
during the Civil War (NPS 2007; Military 
Service Institute 2007; Quarterhorsecav.org 
2007). Brigadier General George Stoneman was 
placed in command of the 4 1 U.S. Cavalry in 
August, 1862. Soon promoted to Major General, 
Stoneman was captured in July, 1864 at the 
Battle of Sunshine Church near Clinton, Georgia. 
Stoneman and Major Keogh (who was also 
captured at Sunshine Church and who would 
later achieve infamy with General Custer at the 
Little Bighorn) were released in a prisoner 
exchange in September, 1864 — too late for their 
participation in the battle at Nash Farm. In 
addition, between 500-600 U.S. soldiers were 
captured by the Confederates when Stoneman 
surrendered (ehistory.com 2007). 




Figure 8. Two Views of the 4th Michigan 
Cavalry's Battle Flag (Glendinning 2007). 



15 








/!*****»» ^^H 






jtJ^^^JK ^1 


^^ 


^^^^^^*^^^si 55 



Figure 10. Battle Flag of the 7th 
Pennsylvania Cavalry Regiment 
(Bellsouthpwp.net 2007) 



Figure 9. Unidentified Private, Company 
F, 4th Michigan Cavalry 
(civilwarmysterys.com 2007). 




Figure 11. Unidentified Cavalrymen, 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry (Bellsouthpwp.net 2007). 



16 



Captain James B. Mclntyre commanded the 4 
U.S. Cavalry in the August 20' action. Captain 
Mclntyre had commanded a detachment of the 
4 th U.S. Cavalry in April, 1862 in McClellan's 
Peninsular Campaign, while the rest of the 
regiment served in the western theater. That 
detachment consisted of two companies (A and 
E) consisting of four officers and 104 men. This 
detachment was loaned to General Ambrose 
Burnside in August, 1862 to scout the 
Rappahannock River in Virginia and in October, 

1862 they joined the regimental headquarters in 
Tennessee. The companies of the 4 lh U.S. 
Cavalry that participated in the Atlanta 
Campaign (at Dallas, Georgia) included 
Companies A, B, C, E, F, I, and M. The exact 
composition of the regiment on August 20th was 
not documented but likely included most of these 
companies and possibly others. Mclntyre's 
battle report cited participants from Companies 
A, C, G, H and L. Most of these companies had 
dwindled in size as a result of losses in 1862, 

1863 and 1864. Company D accompanied 
General Stoneman in his raid and were among 
those captured after his surrender. By late 
October, 1864 the 4 th U.S. Cavalry had been 
reduced to about 175 men (Military Service 
Institute 2007). Colonel Robert Minty's casualty 
report listed two officers and 40 men from the 4 th 
U.S. Cavalry who were either killed, wounded or 
missing as a result of the August 20' action. If 
these numbers are added to the 175 number, then 
the approximate troop strength of the 4 U.S. 
Cavalry on August 20' was about 217 officers 
and men. 




The 1 st Ohio Cavalry Regiment was part of the 
2"" Cavalry Division, 2 nd Brigade. The 1 st Ohio 
Cavalry Regiment (Ohio Volunteers) was 
organized in late 1861 and the regiment was 
mustered out of service in September, 1865. A 
total of 3,266 soldiers were enrolled in the I s 
Ohio in the Civil War era. The 1 st Ohio Cavalry 
lost a total of 204 men in the Civil War. These 
included 6 officers and 45 enlisted men who 
were killed or mortally wounded and 3 officers 
and 150 enlisted men who died from disease 
(NPS 2007). Captain William Leontes Curry 
normally commanded Company K in 1864, but 
Captain Curry was ordered to serve as regimental 
Quartermaster pro tern on September 12, 1864, 
which distanced him from combat operations. 
Nevertheless, Curry wrote a letter describing 
Kilpatrick's "victorious" raid on Jonesboro in 
August, 1864 (Curry 1859-1868). 

The 3' Ohio Cavalry Regiment was part of the 
2° Cavalry Division, 2 IU| Brigade. The regiment 
was organized in December, 1861. The regiment 
was mustered out in August, 1865. A Civil War- 
era photograph of Private Wilson Farner 



(Company C, 
Figure 13.) 



3 Ohio Cavalry is shown in 




Figure 12. General George Stoneman, 4 
U.S. Cavalry (Harpers Weekly 1863). 



Figure 13. Private Wilson Farner, 
Company C, 3rd Ohio Cavalry 
(Ancestry.com 2007). 



17 



The 4 Ohio Cavalry Regiment formed part of 
the 2 nd Cavalry Division, 2 1 " 1 Brigade. The 
regiment was organized in Ohio in late 1861 and 
Colonel John Kennett was placed in command. 
The regiment was mustered out on July 1 1, 1865. 
Like the other Ohio Cavalry regiments, the 4 
Ohio saw distinguished service and fought in 
many battles in the war. A total of 225 soldiers 
were enrolled in the 4 th Ohio. Of these five 
officers and 50 enlisted men were killed and 
mortally wounded and one officer and 169 
enlisted men died by disease (NPS 2007; Stevens 
2007; Pape-Findley 2002; Pike 1865; Crane 
1861-1864; Wulsin 1891). 




of Trade Independent Light Battery. The battery 
was organized in Chicago in August 1862, and 
originally formed as Stokes' Independent Battery 
Light Artillery. James H. Stokes, a graduate of 
West Point, was appointed as Captain of the 
Battery. George L. Robinson was elected Senior 
I s Lieutenant. The Battery was initially outfitted 
with six James rifled 10-pound field artillery 
guns. Soon after these were received four of the 
rifled guns were exchanged for smooth-bored 6- 
pounders (NPS 2007; Tortorelli 2007b; Nourse 
et al. 1886). The Chicago Board of Trade Battery 
proved their effectiveness in battle at Stones 
River, near Murfreesboro, Tennessee. West 
(2007) noted, 

Union artillery units at Stones River were 
generally volunteer units with a few U.S. 
Regular Army batteries part of the mix. 
Usually, there would be one battery, 
normally six to eight cannons, per brigade. 
However, the fighting near Murfreesboro 
was to prove just how effective massed 
batteries could be. 

The action of two artillery units was 
particularly important on Dec. 31. Stokes' 
Illinois Volunteers and Batteries H & M of 
the 4th U. S. Artillery helped repel 
Confederate charges that threatened to snap 
that "knife blade" completely closed. 

Stokes' unit was a unique one. It was formed 
and funded by the Chicago Board of Trade, 
which is the world's oldest futures and 
options exchange. When President Lincoln 
sent out his call for volunteers, the Board of 
Trade raised the $15,000 necessary to start 
the new battery of 156 men within 48 hours. 



Figure 14. Unidentified Cavalryman, 
Company C, 4th Ohio Cavalry (Pruden 

2007). 




Figure 15. 4th Ohio Cavalry, Battle Flag 
(Ohio Historical Society 2007). 

One of the more unique military units involved 
in the August 20 th action was the Chicago Board 



James H. Stokes, a graduate of West Point 
Military Academy, was elected and 
mustered as captain. Aug. 2, 1862, en route 
to camp, the new battery marched in review 
past the Board of Trade's offices on 
Chicago's famous Water Street. 

Ironically, Stokes was a Virginia native who 
had family members that sided with the 
Confederacy. By Dec. 20, 1962, the Chicago 
Board of Trade was attached to an even 
more unique group, the Pioneer Brigade, 
commanded by Capt. St. Clair Morton, of 
the regular Army's engineering department. 
The brigade was formed by Maj. Gen. W.S. 
Rosecrans who detailed two men from each 
company of infantry in the Army of the 
Cumberland (West 2007). 

Prior to the battles in Tennessee in December, 
1862 and January, 1863, the Battery was a 
seven-gun battery but when they arrived at 
Lovejoy only four guns were present. The 



Chicago Board of Trade Independent Light 
Battery, Guns 1, 3, 4 and 5, were assigned to 
Brigadier General Kilpatrick on August 17, 
1864. According to one history of the battery, 

On the 17th, guns 1, 3, 4 and 5, with the 
First and Second Brigades, Second Division 
Cavalry, reported to General Kilpatrick, at 
Sandtown, on the right of the line; at 6 
o'clock P.M. on the 18th, we started to make 
the raid around Atlanta, and to cut the 
railroads running into the city. Kilpatrick, 
instead of using the battery belonging to his 
own division, placed us in the advance of 



the column in the movement to Lovejoy 
Station, then, when the command was 
entirely surrounded, used us to open the way 
for his troops to retreat, throwing gun into a 
river, but captured and brought away a 6- 
pounder. We reached Decatur on the 22d,- 
four days and three nights in the saddle, 
having made a complete circle around 
Hood's army, and the city of Atlanta", and 
"First Lieutenant George I. Robinson [was] 
commissioned Captain [on] August 22, 1864 
(Tortorelli 2007; Nourse et al. 1886). 




Figure 16. Chicago Board of Trade Battery, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, 1862 
(Civilwargroup.com 2007). 



The Chicago Board of Trade Battery lost a total 
of 19 men in the war, including 10 enlisted men 
killed and mortally wounded and nine enlisted 
men by disease. No officers from the unit were 
lost in the war. A total of 430 soldiers were 
enrolled in this unit during the Civil War. The 
battery was mustered out of service on June 30, 
1865 (NPS 2007). 

The 3 r Indiana Cavalry was part of Kilpatrick' s 
3 r Cavalry Division, 1 st Brigade. The 3 r Indiana 
Cavalry was organized into eight companies on 
August 20, 1861 in Evansville, Indiana and 
Colonel Conrad Baker was placed in command 
of the regiment and Lieutenant Colonel Robert 
Klein was second in command. By December, 
1862, the 3 r Indiana was expanded to include 12 
companies (Pickerill 1906:8, 100). The regiment 
was mustered out of service on August 31, 1864. 



Goecker (2007) has researched the weapons used 
by the 3 r Indiana Cavalry. These included a 
variety of carbines such as Gallaghers, Sharps, 
Burnsides and some Smiths. In January, 1864, 
Company L was armed with 56 Gallaghers and 
Company M was armed with 31 Sharps. These 
troops also carried .36 caliber Colt Navy 
revolvers. In April, 1864 the regiment carried 
mostly Gallaghers with some Smiths and Sharps. 
Company G also brandished mostly Colt Navy 
revolvers and some Starr Army .45 calbier and 
Whitney Navy revolvers. By July, 1864 all 
companies were armed with Burnsides, except 
for Company M, which carried Sharps. Colt 
Army and Navy revolvers were reported for the 
regiment in that list. The final munitions report 
of the 3 r Indiana Cavalry dates to December, 
1864, and noted that Companies L and M carried 
Spencer revolvers. 



19 



The 5 Iowa Cavalry Regiment was part of the 
3 1 Cavalry Division, 1 st Brigade. Major John 
Morris Young commanded the regiment in the 
August 20 th action (Young 2007). The 5 th Iowa 
Cavalry was originally organized by General 
Fremont as the Curtis Horse, Companies A, B, 
C, and D at Omaha, Nebraska beginning in 
September, 1861. The regiment was mustered 
out at Nashville, Tennessee in August, 1865. 



The 5 Iowa Cavalry lost 246 men in the Civil 
War, which included seven officers and 58 
enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 
two officers and 179 enlisted men killed by 
disease (Civilwararchives.com 2007). The 5 th 
Iowa Cavalry also participated in cavalry action 
at Lovejoy on July 29 and September 2-6, 1864. 
No official reports were filed by Major Young 
pertaining to their activities on August 20' . 




Figure 17. Soldiers in the 3rd Indiana Cavalry at Petersburg, Virginia in 1864 (old-picture.com 

2007). 



The 8' Indiana Cavalry Regiment was part of the 
3 rd Cavalry Division, 2 nd Brigade. The 8 lh Indiana 
Cavalry was organized in August, 1861 at 
Indianapolis, Indiana. Major Thomas Herring 
served as commander of the regiment on August 
20 th . The 8" 1 Indiana participated in McCook's 
raid and they fought valiantly against Wheeler's 
Cavalry, including Ross' 3' Texas Brigade, at 
Brown's Mill near Newnan (ehistory.com 2007, 
OR Volume 38(2):763). The 8 th Indiana Cavalry 
lost a total of 398 in the Civil War, which 
included nine officers and 138 enlisted men 
killed and mortally wounded and one officer and 
250 enlisted men dead by disease 
(Civilwararchives.com 2007). 



The 2" Kentucky Cavalry Regiment was part of 
the 3 rd Cavalry Division, 2 nd Brigade. The 2 nd 
Kentucky was organized at Camp Joe Holt and 
Muldraugh's Hill, Kentucky beginning in 
September, 1861. They participated in many 
battles before being mustered out at Camp Joe 
Holt in July, 1865. Over the course of the war, 
the 2° Kentucky lost five officers and 51 
enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 
one officer and 122 enlisted men died of disease 
for a total of 179 dead. The 2" Kentucky 
participated in the action at Lovejoy Station of 
July 29, August 20, September 2-6, and 
November 16, so they became quite familiar 



20 



with that portion of Georgia (mosocco.com 
2007; NPS 2007). 

The 10' Ohio Volunteer Cavalry Regiment 
formed part of the 3 rd Cavalry Division, 2° 
Brigade. The 10 th Ohio was organized on 
October 1, 1862 at Cleveland, Ohio. Colonel 
Charles C. Smith was appointed its commander. 
During the winter of 1863 the regiment lost its 
horses as a result of starvation and in the spring 
of 1864 it was re-equipped. The 10' Ohio 
accompanied General Kilpatrick in several 
engagements and they had severe losses in a 
charge at Resaca, Georgia. Dyer's Compendium 
lists the engagements of the 10' Ohio Cavalry, 
which included Lovejoy Station on August 10; 
Lovejoy Station on August 20; Lovejoy Station 
on September 2-6; and Bear Creek Station, 
November 16, 1864. The regiment was mustered 
out on July 24, 1865 (Woods County Herald 
1891:1-15; Stevens 2007). Figure 19 shows a 
candid view of Corporal Samuel Mock (or 
Meek), Company B, 10' Ohio Volunteer 
Cavalry, at mealtime. The 10 Ohio Cavalry lost 
a total of 201 men in the Civil War, including 
three officers and 34 enlisted men killed and 
mortally wounded and one officer and 158 
enlisted men dead by disease. 




Figure 18. Major John Morris Young, 
5th Iowa Cavalry (Iowa State Historical 
Society; Young 2007). 



The 92° Illinois Mounted Infantry was part of 
Murray's 3' Cavalry Division, 3 rd Brigade. 
Colonel Smith D. Atkins served as the unit's 
commander. The regiment was organized in 
September 1862 in Rockford, Illinois and was 
composed of five companies. The regiment was 
assigned to Colonel John T. Wilder' s brigade of 
mounted infantry on July 10, 1863. It was while 
serving with Wilder's brigade that the 92° 
Illinois cavalrymen were issued Spencer 
repeating rifles. In early April 1864, the 92° 
Illinois was assigned to Murray's Brigade, 
Kilpatrick' s Cavalry Division. The regiment 
participated in more than 60 battles and 
skirmishes from 1862-1865. The regiment was 
mustered out of service in July, 1865, The 
regiment lost a total of 181 soldiers in the war 
including one officer and 5 1 enlisted men killed 
and mortally wounded and two officers and 127 
enlisted men by disease. (Tortorelli 2007a; King 
and Swedberg 1999; NPS 2007). 

The 3' Kentucky Cavalry was part of the 3' 
Cavalry Division, 3' Brigade. The 3' Kentucky 
was organized in 1861 in Mercer County, 
Kentucky by Colonel James S. Jackson. In 
December, 1861 the 3 rd Kentucky was mustered 
into the U.S. Cavalry and placed under command 
of 18 year old Major Eli H. Murray. Lieutenant 
Colonel Robert H. King commanded the 
regiment in the August 20' action at Nash Farm. 
The regiment was mustered out of service in 
April, 1865 near Lexington, North Carolina 
(Cross 2007; Ison 2007). 

The 5 th Kentucky Cavalry was part of the 3' 
Cavalry Division, 3' Brigade. The 5' Kentucky 
Cavalry was organized at Columbus, Kentucky 
beginning in December, 1861. Colonel Oliver L. 
Baldwin commanded the regiment on August 
20 at Nash Farm. The regiment served at many 
battles prior to their participation in the August 
20 action at Lovejoy Station. They were also 
present for the action at Lovejoy on September 
2-6, 1864. The regiment was mustered out of 
service on May 3, 1865. The 5' Kentucky 
Cavalry lost a total of 213 men in the Civil War 
and these included four officers and 32 enlisted 
men killed and mortally wounded and five 
officers and 172 enlisted men killed by disease 
(Civilwararchives.com 2007). 

The 10 th Independent Battery, Wisconsin Light 
Artillery was commanded by Captain Yates V. 
Beebe (NPS 2007). A total of 424 soldiers are 



21 



listed in this artillery battery throughout its Civil 
War activity (NPS 2007). The battery lost 28 
enlisted men in the entire war, including three 
killed or mortally wounded and 25 who died 
from disease. Beebe's artillery battery 
participated in many engagements of the Atlanta 
Campaign, including several in the Jonesboro 
and Lovejoy areas. On August 20, the 10' 
Wisconsin provided artillery support for the U.S. 
cavalry charge. Their battery was positioned on 
the north side of Jonesboro Road, a short 



distance northwest of the Nash Farm property, 
according to historian Mark Pollard. Pollard 
reported finding several cannon friction primers 
at this location, which is presently owned by 
Clayton County. 




Figure 19. Mealtime with Corporal Samuel Mock, Company B., 10th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry 
(C. Wesley Cowen Catalog, in Stevens 2007). 




Figure 20. Captain Jonathon M. 
Scermerhorn, 92nd Illinois Infantry, 
Company G (Lena Area Historical 
Society 2007). 

CONFEDERATE FORCES 

Table 1 presents a summary of the 28,051 
Confederate Cavalry troops that comprised the 
Army of the Tennessee, who were in the Atlanta 
Campaign in August, 1864. Most of these troops 
were active in the Lovejoy vicinity in August 
and September of that year. 



22 



Calvary Strength, Army of Tennessee, C.S.A., August 1864. 


Present for duty. 


Aggregate 


Cavalry Command Officers 


Men Present & Absent 


Wheeler's Corps 759 


7261 18629 


Jackson's Division 40 1 


4192 8459 


Artillery (Wheeler's) 1 8 


350 579 


Artillery (Jackson's) 13 


250 384 


Total 1191 


12053 28051 



including imports from England. Some 
Southern troopers preferred to leave their 
sabers behind and carried extra pistols 
instead of sabers, for close work. Southern 
arsenals attempted to mass produce breech 
loading carbines, even making copies of 
Union carbines made by the Sharps Rifle 
Company. Attempts at mass production of 
the weapon failed and southern cavalrymen 
relied upon a varied stock of captured and 
imported arms (civilwar.com 2007). 



Table 1. Cavalry Strength, Army of 
Tennessee, C.S.A., August, 1864. 

Major General Joseph Wheeler 
(Fightin' Joe Wheeler) (1836-1906) 

Major General Joseph Wheeler commanded the 
Confederate Cavalry Corps that fought in 
Georgia in 1864. Wheeler was born in Augusta, 
Georgia. He graduated from the U.S. Military 
Academy at West Point in 1859, was 
commissioned in the Dragoons and fought at 
Shiloh. 

Ironically Wheeler's lowest grades were in 
cavalry tactics, yet he distinguished himself in 
cavalry maneuvers earning him nicknames such 
as "Lumberjack Cavalry" and "the Horse 
Marines." During the Civil War, Wheeler wrote 
the new Confederate cavalry manual Cavalry 
Tactics (1863) advocating mounted infantry over 
heavy cavalry. He was "among the first to 
recognize that the day of the mounted charge 
was over, he advised troopers to ride to battle but 
to fight on foot. That was a lesson many officers 
had still not learned 50 years 
later"(HistoryNet.com 2007). The reason 
Wheeler advocated Mounted Infantry is because 
the men were infantry trained and could ride to 
battle, dismount and fight. Cavalry were cavalry 
trained and used sabers. With the invention of 
the repeating rifle cavalry were targets and 
Wheeler felt infantry soldiers could get into 
position faster and defend themselves 
dismounted. This information is important 
because the Confederate cavalry were 
dismounted at Nash Farm when they were run 
over by Kilpatrick's men. The Confederate 
Cavalry was highly mobile. 

Confederate cavalrymen traveled lighter 
than their Union counterparts and were not 
usually armed with the more modern 
carbines. Short, muzzle-loading carbines 
were more common in southern regiments, 



During the war, Wheeler was wounded three 
times, had sixteen horses shot under him, saw 
seven of his staff officers killed, and three 
wounded. After the war he declined a 
professorship of philosophy in the Louisiana 
Seminary in 1866. Many consider Wheeler a 
competent general, not outstanding, but efficient 
with what he had. 

The action of August 20' began on the railroad 
line at Lovejoy Station, where Kilpatrick's 
Division was busy destroying track. The U.S. 
Cavalry came under unexpected attack by 
Confederate infantry troops. The 1 st Arkansas 
Mounted Rifles were among the Confederate 
infantry who surprised Kilpatrick's men. 
(McReynolds 2007; Kempstead 1890; Allen 
1988). The 1 st Arkansas Mounted Rifles was 
organized in June, 1861 at Little Rock, Arkansas 
and Colonel Thomas J. Churchill was appointed 
its first commander. A total of 2,645 men 
enrolled in the regiment during its period of 
existence. 



General Lawrence Sullivan 
Ross (1838- ) 



Sul' 



General Ross was born in Iowa and his father 
Captain S. P. Ross moved to Texas the following 
year in 1839. As a child he and his father were 
attacked by fifteen to twenty Comanche warriors 
and had to outrun the Indians. At the age of 
twenty he commanded 135 friendly Indians 
against the Comanches. In one battle he rescued 
a little white girl he later raised as Lizzie Ross. 

Captain W. V. Lester (Co. K), Captain J. E. 
Turner (Co. I) and Captain J. A. King (Co. G) all 
of the First Mississippi Cavalry wrote Colonel 
Ross, sometime prior to August, 1864, the 
following letter not knowing they would go to 
battle together: 

Colonel L. S. Ross: The officers of the First 
M ississippi Cavalry desiring to express their 



23 



appreciation of you as an officer, have 
designated the undersigned as a committee 
to communicate their feelings. 

It is with profound regret that they part with 
you as their Brigade Commander, and will 
cherish, with kind remembrance, your 
generous and courteous conduct toward 
them, and the gallant bearing you have ever 
displayed in leading them in battle. The 
service, with all its hardships and privations, 
has been rendered pleasant under your 
direction and leadership. They deplore the 
circumstances which render it necessary that 
they should be taken from your command, 
but feel confident that, in whatever field you 
may be called upon to serve, the country 
will know no better or more efficient officer. 
Our regret is shared by all the men of the 
regiment, and you carry with you their best 
wishes for your continued success. 

In conclusion, allow us to say, we are proud 
to have served under you, and with your 
gallant Texans, and hope yours, and theirs, 
and our efforts in behalf of our bleeding 
country, will at length be crowned with 
success (Rose 1960:167-168). 

Lieutenant-General Stephen D. Lee wrote to the 
Secretary of War "Colonel L. S. Ross is one of 
the best disciplinarians in the army, and has 
distinguished himself on many battle-fields, and 
his promotion and assignment will increase the 
efficiency of the most reliable troops under my 
command" (Rose 1960:168). Colonel Ross was 
promoted to Brigadier-General in Yazoo City. 
His brother Peter F. Ross (1836-1909) was also 
with Texas Cavalry. 



The 3 r Texas Cavalry Regiment formed part of 
Ross' Texas Brigade and were active participants 
in the August 20" 1 battle. The 3 rd Texas Cavalry 
Regiment consisted of about only 200 men at the 
end of the Civil War (Nolan 2007). The 3rd 
Texas was originally composed of 10 companies, 
plus additional field and staff officers. The 
regiment was organized in Dallas, Texas on June 
13, 1861 with Colonel Elkanah B. Greer 
appointed as commander. The regiment was 
reorganized over the course of the war. On 
December 16, 1863, it was formed into a brigade 
consisting of the remnants of the 3 rd , 6' , 9 th and 
27' Texas Cavalry, which was commanded by 
Colonel Lawrence Sullivan Ross. The regiment 
arrived in Georgia in May, 1864 to support the 
Confederate defensive line. After Atlanta fell on 
September 2, 1864, Ross' Texas Brigade rode to 
join General Hood in his Tennessee campaign. 
The NPS's Civil War Soldiers and Sailors 
System lists 1,960 soldiers enrolled in the 3 r 
Regiment, Texas Cavalry over its history. The 
regiment was also known as the South Kansas- 
Texas Mounted Volunteers (NPS 2007). The 3 rd 
Texas Cavalry surrendered at Citronelle, 
Alabama in May, 1865, although only 207 men 
remained in the regiment (Barron 1908; Rose 
1960; Hale 2007). 

Figure 23 is a photograph of 2 nd Lieutenant Alf 
Davis, 3 r Texas Cavalry, Good's Battery. It was 
probably taken around 1862. A group 
photograph of veterans of the 3 rd Texas Cavalry, 
taken in 1915, is shown in Figure 24. 




Figure 21, Confederate Cavalry Returning from a Successful Raid (Wright 1906). 

Cavalry, which were the 3 rd , 6 th , 9 th and 27 th . 



Brigadier General Lawrence Sullivan Ross's 
Texas Cavalry Brigade (aka Ross' Brigade) was 
composed of four regiments of the Texas 



By the early afternoon of August 20, Ross's 
cavalry was dismounted and positioned along 
three north-south lines near the Nash farmhouse. 



24 




A TEXAN BANSfiB. 



'It. .:i iu>I a- htiac >'trv '■!.■'■ !-■■■;■ ill ilw »*iic.f tJi> li.Mor. 



Figure 22. Civil War-era Caricature of a 
Texas Ranger (Harper's Weekly July 6, 
1861:430). 




Figure 23. Texas Cavalry Uniform, circa 
1862, Worn by 2 nd Lieutenant Alf Davis, 
Good's Texas Battery (McDonald 2007). 







. ¥ -'«* ' 


ftp - 


it K 


Vir> 


/mm 

*> II k l ' it 1 ' trm 


■'{■A! 




l^wH ^wJ ^V 


L • _±a 




^^^^^ 


!^3 


B' " ^jf VL ^9^H 1 



Figure 24. Veterans of the 3rd Texas 
Cavalry, 1915. 




Figure 25. Battle flag of the 3rd Texas 
Cavalry (Lanham 2007b). 

The 6' Texas Cavalry Regiment formed part of 
Ross' Texas Brigade and were active participants 
in the August 20th battle. The regiment's 
commander on August 20 was Colonel Peter F. 
Ross. Brigadier General Sullivan Ross, brother 
of Peter F. Ross, had served in the 6 th Texas 
Cavalry, enlisting under the command of his 
brother. Ross rose in the ranks to command the 
Texas Cavalry Brigade, after General Whitfield 
became ill in late 1863 (Nolan 2007). 

The 6 1 Texas Cavalry Regiment (also known as 
Wharton's Regiment and Stone's Regiment) was 
originally composed of 10 companies, plus 
additional field and staff officers. The regiment 
was organized in 1861 in Dallas, Texas. The 6 
Texas suffered heavy losses from battles in the 
Western theatre and they were assigned to Ross' 
Brigade (NPS 2007). By June 1864, when the 6 th 
Texas participated in the Atlanta Campaign, the 
ranks were greatly dwindled and some 



25 



consolidation occurred. Many official records 
from this troop reduction and consolidation were 
either not kept, or have not survived. Company I, 
6' 1 Texas Cavalry, for example, was a 
sharpshooter company that lost so many men 
that they were not a viable company by August 
1864 and they merged with some other units. 
Colonel Lawrence S. Ross commanded the 
regiment in 1864. A total of 1,825 men belonged 
to the 6 1 Texas Cavalry Regiment throughout its 
Civil War history (NPS 2007). 




Figure 26. Battleflag, 6th Texas Cavalry 
Battalion (Texas State Library and 
Archives Commission 2007). 

The 9' Texas Cavalry Regiment formed part of 
Ross' Texas Brigade and were active participants 
in the August 20"' battle. By the time the 9 th 
Texas Cavalry Regiment went with Ross' 
Brigade back to Tennessee, their ranks had been 
reduced from approximately 1,000 to 140 men. 
These men were consolidated into one large 
company. Approximately 900 men from the 9 th 
Regiment were either dead, wounded, sick or left 
behind by late 1864 and by they time of their 
surrender in May, 1865, only 100 remained 
under the command of Colonel Dudley W. 
Jones. Colonel Jones led the 9' Regiment in 
battle on August 20 ,h (Nolan 2007). The 9 th 
Texas Cavalry Regiment (also known as Sims' 
Regiment). The 9" Texas Cavalry originally 
consisted of 1,050 men, who enlisted in Grayson 
County, Texas in 1861 but by the spring of 1862, 
it was reduced to 657 effective troops. After 
further reduction they joined with Ross' Brigade 
and participated in the Atlanta Campaign. A total 
of 1,712 soldiers was associated with the 9 th 
Texas Cavalry throughout the Civil War (NPS 
2007). The 9 Texas was commanded by 



Colonel Dudley W. Jones in mid-August 1864, 
but Colonel Jones was injured when his horse 
fell on him and Lieutenant Colonel Thomas G. 
Berry assumed command days prior to the 
August 20 th engagement. 

At least three battle flags flown by the 9" Texas 
Cavalry during the Civil War are known. The 
first one shown was captured by a soldier in the 
27' Ohio Volunteer Infantry at Corinth, 
Mississippi in 1862. It is currently curated at the 
Georgia State Capitol Museum, where it has 
been since it was mistakenly returned by the 
State of Ohio in 1972 (Brothers 2007; Livermore 
1889). 




Figure 27. Battle Flags of the 9th Texas 
Cavalry (Brothers 2007). 

Figure 28 shows black and white view of a 
banner flown by the 9 Texas Cavalry as it 
appeared in 1898 (The Confederate Veteran 
1898:253; Brothers 2007). Private A.W. Sparks, 
Company I, 9' Texas Cavalry, described this 
flag as, "a small brownish red silk flag, in the 
center of which was a crescent moon and thirteen 
five- pointed silver stars. It was trimmed with 
silk fringe and was attached to a dark mahogany 
colored staff with a gilded spear head at the top" 
(Sparks 1987). The flag shown here was 
probably retired in October, 1863, when new 
flags were issued. This specimen may be curated 
at the Layland Museum in Cleburne, Texas, 
although its status has not been confirmed 
(Brothers 2007). 



26 



W mm 


fc --%^mM !-H 




^^l^l 




" w 1 



Figure 28. Battle Flag, 9th Texas 
Cavalry, after October 1862 {The 
Confederate Veteran 1898:253). 

Figure 29 shows a black and white view of the 
9 11 Texas Cavalry flag, which was flown in 1864 
(Tuck 1993:389). The present whereabouts of 
this flag remains undetermined. Brothers (2007) 
noted that it existed in 1988, where it was in a 
private collection in Tulsa, Oklahoma. 




Figure 29. Battle Flag, 9th Texas Cavalry, 
1863-1864 (Tuck 1993:389). 

The 27 th Texas Cavalry Regiment (also known as 
the 1 st Texas Legion and Whitfield's Legion) 
was organized in early 1862 and was formed 
from Whitfield's 4' Texas Cavalry Battalion. 
The regiment was originally organized with 
1,007 soldiers. A total of 2,344 soldiers belonged 
to this regiment throughout its Civil War history. 
They lost 22 percent of 460 troops in the Battle 
of Iuka, Mississippi. They later were assigned to 
Ross' Brigade and participated in the Atlanta 
Campaign. When the regiment was reorganized 



in November, 1862, it consisted of 12 Cavalry 
companies. The commanders in August, 1864 
were Colonel Edwin R. Hawkins and Lieutenant 
Colonel John H. Broocks (NPS 2007). On 
August 20, 1864, the 27 th Texas Cavalry 
Regiment was commanded by Lieutenant 
Colonel John H. Broocks. At the time of their 
surrender on May 4, 1865, the 27 th Texas 
Cavalry Regiment consisted of only about 150 
men (NPS 2007; Nolan 2007; Wright and 
Simpson 1965; Sifakis 1995). 

Colonel Ross and his Texas Cavalry Brigade had 
hoped to be joined by two other Confederate 
Cavalry divisions, Armstrong's and Ferguson's, 
on August 20 but neither arrived in time. Colonel 
Armstrong's Cavalry did arrive in time to pursue 
Kilpatrick's Cavalry, however, and Armstrong's 
horsemen dogged Kilpatrick's Division, as the 
U.S. Cavalry escaped eastward along the 
Jonesboro Road. 

Ross' Brigade had artillery support from Croft's 
Battery of Georgia Light Artillery (also known 
as the Columbus Light Artillery) and possibly 
additional (as yet unidentified) Confederate 
artillery. Croft's Battery was organized in early 
1862 by Captain Edward Croft with members 
from Russell County, Alabama and Muscogee 
County, Georgia (Forbes 1993). By November, 
1863, Croft's Battery consisted of 139 officers 
and men. A total of 357 soldiers belonged to 
Croft's Battery throughout its history. The 
battery served with Major General John B. Hood 
in northern Georgia and the Atlanta Campaign. 
The battery was commanded by 1 st Lieutenant 
Alfred J. Young on August 20, 1864 (NPS 
2007). Croft's Battery had consisted of four 
artillery pieces and conflicting battlefield reports 
indicate that either one or four guns were present 
on August 20 . 

Captain Farris' Battery, Missouri Light Artillery 
(also known as Clark Light Battery) was 
organized in early 1862 and by September, 1862, 
it consisted of 71 active troops. A total of 341 
soldiers belonged to Farris' Battery throughout 
its Civil War history. The unit was commanded 
by Captain Houston King when it was assigned 
to the Army of the Tennessee in early 1864. 
Records show that the battery participated in the 
Atlanta Campaign (NPS 2007), although no 
records were found to indicate whether or not 
Farris' Battery participated in the August 20 
action along Jonesboro Road. 



27 



Company "B", 3 r Battalion, South Carolina 
Light Artillery (also known as the Palmetto 
Battalion) was commanded by Lieutenant R. B. 
Waddell. Waddell's Company participated in the 
Atlanta Campaign. 

UNION ACCOUNTS 

General Sherman ordered Kilpatrick from 
Sandtown to the Macon and Western Railroad 
(near Jonesboro). Kilpatrick was specifically 
instructed to stay away from the Confederates 
and only destroy railroad tracks. Kilpatrick rode 
with his Division and two of Kenner Garrard's 
cavalry brigades. Garrard's Brigades consisted of 
approximately 2,398 men bringing Kilpatrick to 
a total of 4,500 men and two batteries with eight 
guns. While destroying railroad tracks Kilpatrick 
was forced to make a decision to engage or flee 
the Confederate forces. As Vale recalled, 



sustained during the war. We captured 4 
guns (3 were destroyed and 1 brought off); 3 
battle-flags were taken; his ambulances, 
wagons, and ordnance train captured, and 
destroyed as far as possible; many prisoners 
were taken and his killed and wounded is 
known to be large. M y command was 
quickly reformed, thrown into position, 
fought successfully the enemy's infantry for 
one hour and forty minutes, and only retired 
when it was found that we had left only 
sufficient ammunition to make sure our 
retreat (General Kilpatrick, Camp Crooks, 
Ga., September 13, 1864). 

Colonel Robert H. G. Minty (1831-1906), 4 th 
Michigan Cavalry, Commanding First Brigadier, 
Second Cavalry Division, filed his report on 
August 24 with Captain Estes, Assistant 
Adjutant-General, Third Cavalry Division, on 
events in late August 1864 and it is presented 
below (OR Volume 38(2):824-826). A wartime 
portrait of Robert Minty is shown in Figure 30. 



Before Kilpatrick had time to learn what 
was coming, a spirited attack was made on 
the rear, but he soon comprehended the 
situation" (Robertson 1889:668). Kilpatrick 
found himself sandwiched between 
Confederate forces. Colonel Robert H.G. 
Minty (1 st Cavalry Brigade, 4 lb Michigan 
Cavalry) noted, "we were in a pretty tight 
box: A brigade of infantry in our front, and 
partly on our left; a division moving to hit us 
on the right, and but a little distance off; and 
three brigades of cavalry in our rear (Vale 
1886:361). 



General Kilpatrick wrote: 



The enemy were finally checked and driven 
back with heavy loss. We captured 1 battle- 
flag. At this moment a staff officer from 
Colonel Murray informed me that a large 
force of cavalry, w ith artillery, had attacked 
his rear. In twenty minutes I found that I 
[sic] was completely enveloped by cavalry 
and infantry, with artillery. I decided at once 
to ride over the enemy's cavalry and retire 
on the M cDonough road. A large number of 
my people were dismounted, fighting on 
foot, and it took some time to mount them 
and form my command for the charge. 
During the delay the enemy constructed long 
lines of barricades on every side. Those in 
front of his cavalry were very formidable. 
Pioneers were sent in advance of the 
charging columns to remove obstructions. 
Colonel Minty, with his command in three 
columns, charged, broke, and rode over the 
enemy's left. Colonel Murray, with his 
regiments, broke his center, and in a 
moment General Jackson's division, 4,000 
strong, was running in great confusion. It 
was the most perfect rout any cavalry has 




Figure 30. Lieutenant Colonlel Robert 
H.G. Minty, 4th Michigan Cavalry (Vale 
1886). 

HDQRS. FIRST BRIGADE, SECOND 
CAVALRY D IV. .DEPARTMENT OF 

THE CUMBERLAND, 

Near Atlanta, Ga., August 24, 1864. 

CAPTAIN: At 1 a. m. on the 18th instant I 
marched from camp at this place with the 



28 



First and Second Brigades of the Second 
Cavalry Division, numbering as under: 

At 6 a. m. I halted on the banks of the Utoy 
Creek, and in obedience to orders from 
Brigadier-General Garrard, commanding 
Second Cavalry Division, reported to 
Brigadier-General Kilpatrick, commanding 
Third Cavalry Division, at Sandtown. 

In accordance with orders from General 
Kilpatrick I marched at dusk same day, 
following the Third Division, and marched 
all night. 

August 19, about break of day my advance 
(the Second Brigade) crossed the Atlanta 
and Montgomery Railroad. The rear brigade 
was sharply attacked on the left flank by 
artillery and dismounted cavalry. The 
Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry cut through 
and the column divided. Major Jennings, 
commanding Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
and Major Mix commanding Fourth 
Michigan Cavalry, attacked the enemy with 
vigor, drove him from the ground, and 
reunited the column. At this point I lost 3 
ambulances, which were driven into the 
woods by the drivers and broken. I was here 
ordered to take the advance with my two 
brigades and push the enemy, Ross' brigade, 
to Flint River. The woods were thick, and 
impracticable for cavalry. The Second 
Brigade was, therefore, dismounted. We 
advanced steadily, driving the rebels before 
us, until we arrived at Flint River, where I 
found the bridge destroyed, and the enemy 
in position on the opposite bank. His guns 
were soon silenced by Lieutenant Bennett's 
section of the Board of Trade Battery. 
General Kilpatrick ordered up all the 
artillery, eight pieces, and shelled the rebel 
rifle-pits by volleys. After the firing of the 
fourth volley, my men in line advanced at 
the double-quick, and took, shelter behind a 
fence on the bank for the river, and their fire 
soon drove the enemy from his works. We 
then crossed on the stringers of the ruined 
bridge, which was quickly repaired, and one 
section of the Board of Trade Battery, under 
Lieutenant Robinson, crossed. I was directed 
by General Kilpatrick to drive the rebels 
from, and take possession of, the town of 
Jonesborough. I deployed the Fourth 
Michigan as skirmishers. The Fourth United 
States and First Ohio, with a section of 
artillery between them, moved in line, and 
Third and Fourth Ohio followed I advanced, 
steadily driving the rebels, Ross 1 and 
Ferguson's brigades, before me into the 
town, where they took possession of the 
houses and opened a sharp fire on us. I 
ordered the section of artillery into the 
skirmish line, and directed Lieutenant 
Robinson to shell every house from which a 
gun was fired, and in five minutes I had 
possession of Jonesborough. The railroad 
buildings were quickly destroyed and a 



portion of the track torn up. I was then 
ordered to take position across the railroad, 
facing toward Atlanta, to cover the Third 
Division which had been ordered to tear up 
the track. About 10 p. m. I was ordered to 
take up a new position near the Third 
Division, which was about moving farther 
south to continue the work of destruction. 
As soon as I had moved Colonel Murray 
attempted to advance, but found the enemy 
in force and strongly posted in his front. A 
flank movement was now directed. The 
general ordered that my own brigade should 
take the advance and that I myself, with the 
Second Brigade, should remain to cover the 
movement. The column marched toward 
McDonough for about five miles, then, 
turning to the right, moved directly toward 
Lovejoy's Station, on the Macon road. As 
the rear of the column turned to the right the 
rebel cavalry came up with it, and a sharp 
skirmish ensued between them and Colonel 
Long's brigade, ending in the repulse of the 
rebels a little after daybreak. 

August 20, when within one mile of 
Lovejoy's Station the Second Brigade 
rejoined the First at the head of the column. 
At this point the road forks, one branch 
leading to the station and the other to a point 
on the railroad quarter of a mile north. On 
this, the right-hand road, I detached the 
Fourth Michigan, with orders to gain 
possession of and destroy the railroad. The 
column moved directly for the station, 
driving a small squad of rebels before it. 
When within quarter of a mile of the 
railroad, I received a report from Major Mix, 
commanding Fourth Michigan, that he had 
succeeded in gaining the road, without 
meeting with any opposition, and was then 
engaged in destroying it. At this moment the 
advance was fired upon pretty sharply. I 
immediately dismounted it and, together 
with the remainder of the regiment (Seventh 
Pennsylvania), sent it forward to clear the 
woods, but finding that a fire was 
maintained on my right, I sent one battalion 
Fourth U. S. Cavalry, to extend the line in 
that direction; but before it could gain its 
position, an entire brigade of rebel infantry 
rose from the brush in our front, delivered a 
terrific volley, and rushed forward with a 
yell. Our little force, scarcely 300 men, 
appeared for a moment to be annihilated; the 
Second Brigade formed rapidly. The 
Chicago Board of Trade Battery came into 
position, and the enemy was quickly 
checked, but from the woods in our front, 
and on the left flank, a galling fire was kept 
up, and the battery was forced to fall back, 
leaving one piece, which had been disabled, 
on the ground, and having lost 7 per cent, of 
their men. The gun was, however, 
immediately after, brought in by volunteers, 
taken off the broken carriage, and placed in 
a wagon. The rebel cavalry now attacked us 
heavily in the rear. The general ordered me 
to withdraw my command and form it on the 



29 



right of the road, facing to the then rear, and 
prepare for a charge. I formed the First 
Brigade in line of regimental columns of 
fours, the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry on 
the right, the Fourth Michigan in the center, 
and the Fourth United States on the left; the 
Second Brigade in rear of the First, in close 
column, with regimental front, with orders 
to follow the First Brigade, but the ground 
being very unfavorable for such a 
movement, Colonel Long broke by fours, 
and moved down the road in rear of the 
Fourth U. S. Cavalry. Gaps were made in 
the first fence by a line of skirmishers, and I 
moved forward at the trot until we got under 
the enemy's fire, when I gave the commands 
"gallop" and "charge," and we swept down 
on the rebel breast-works. The ground we 
had to pass over was very disadvantageous 
for a charge, being very much cut up by rain 
gullies, and intersected by half a dozen high 
rail fences. The rebels held their position, 
behind their works, until we were almost on 
them, when they turned and fled in 
confusion. We were soon among them, and 
hundreds fell beneath our keen blades. The 
race and slaughter continued, through woods 
and fields, for about three miles, when I 
collected and reformed my command. In this 
charge we captured 3 pieces of artillery and 
3 stand of colors, viz: Third Texas Cavalry 
and Benjamin Infantry, captured by the 
Fourth U. S. Cavalry, and the Zachary 
Rangers, captured by the Fourth Michigan 
Cavalry. General Kilpatrick ordered me to 
cover the march of the column to 
McDonough. Colonel Long immediately 
took position with the Second Brigade, and 
before the head of the column had moved he 
was attacked by Cleburne's division of 
infantry. For nearly three hours they were 
held in check by Colonel Long, who was 
here wounded in the arm and thigh. The 
command of the brigade then devolved on 
Colonel Eggleston, First Ohio Cavalry. The 
Third Division being out of the way, I 
placed the Fourth Michigan and Seventh 
Pennsylvania in position, with Lieutenant 
Bennett's section of artillery, and directed 
Colonel Eggleston to retire with his brigade. 
Cleburne followed closely and vigorously 
attacked the new line, but our rail breast- 
works protected the men and our loss was 
comparatively small, although the enemy's 
shells were thrown with great precision. 
Shortly after the retreat of the Second 
Brigade one of our guns burst and the other 
was rendered temporarily unserviceable by 
the wedging of a shell. As soon as the road 
was clear, I withdrew, mounted the First 
Brigade. The march was continued until 2 a. 
m. on the 21st, when we bivouacked north 
of Walnut Creek. 



operation 1 man and about 50 horses and 
mules. It being impossible to bring across 
the wagon which contained the gun, it was 
destroyed and the gun buried. I camped at 
Lithonia, on the Georgia railroad. August 
22, returned to camp, near Peach Tree 
Creek, passing through Latimar's and 
Decatur. 

Every officers and soldier in the command 
acted so well, so nobly, so gallantly, that 
under ordinary circumstances they would be 
entitled to special mention. Day and night, 
from the 28th to the 23d, these gallant men 
were without sleep and almost without food. 
During that time they marched and 
skirmished incessantly, fought four pitched 
battles, and swam a flooded river, and all 
without once complaining or murmuring. 

I cannot close this necessarily long report 
without calling attention to the gallant and 
magnificent manner in which the Chicago 
Board of Trade Battery was fought, by 
Lieutenants Robinson and Bennett, on every 
occasion on which it was brought into 
action. Colonel Long, commanding Second 
Brigade, and all the regimental commanders, 
distinguished themselves by the able manner 
in which they handled their commands. 
Captain Mclntyre, commanding Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry, rendered himself conspicuous by 
his gallantry when he was attacked by a 
brigade of infantry at Lovejoy's, and also by 
the manner in which he led the charge of his 
regiment on the 20th. 

Private Samuel Waters, Seventh 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, rode in advance of 
his regiment, and made good use of his 
saber during the charge. Private Douglas, 
Fourth U. S. Cavalry, rode with Captain 
Mclntyre during the charge, and brought in 
15 prisoners, 4 of them commissioned 
officers. Private William Bailey, Fourth 
Michigan Cavalry, especially distinguished 
himself by riding through a narrow gap in 
the fence, in front of the rebel artillery, 
galloping into the battery, and shooting the 
captain dead on the spot. I beg most 
respectfully to call the attention of the 
general to these three gallant private 
soldiers. 



I also beg to call the attention of the general 
commanding to the officers and men 
mentioned in the report of Captain 
Mclntyre, commanding Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry, inclosed herewith. Captain 
Mclntyre's is the only sub-reports as yet 
received by me. 



August 21, we were in the saddle shortly 
after daybreak. At about 6 a. m. we arrived 
on the south bank of Cotton River, which 
was flooded, and the bridge destroyed. This 
we were compelled to swim, losing in the 



I regret to have to announce the loss of 
Captain Thompson, Seventh Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, my brigade inspector, and one of 
the most gallant soldiers in the service; he 



30 



was wounded, and I fear is now a prisoner in 
the hands of the enemy. 

Inclosed herewith I hand you return of 
casualties. 



Return of Casulaties... First and Second Brigades, 


Second Cavalry 


division, from 18th to 23d August 


1864. 




Command 


Killed 
Officers Men 


Wounded 
Officers 


Men 


Wounded and missing 
Officers Men 




Missing 
Officers 


Total 
Men Officers Men 


First Brigade 






1 


1 












1 


1 


4th US Cav. 


10 


1 


10 


1 






4 




16 


2 


40 


7th PA Cav. 


5 




12 


1 






11 


2 


18 


8 


41 


4th MI Cav. 


2 


1 


6 












9 


1 


17 


Total 


17 


2 


29 


3 






15 


2 


38 


7 


90 


Second Brigade 




2 
















2 




1st OH Cav. 


4 




13 












2 




19 


3rd OH Cav. 


1 7 




30 








5 




2 


1 


44 


4th OH Cav. 


3 


2 


16 










2 


5 


4 


24 


Total 


14 


4 


59 








5 


2 


9 


7 


87 


Chicago BT Bat. 


1 




4 












1 




6 


Grand Total 


1 32 


6 


92 


3 






20 


4 


48 


14 


192 










ROBT 


H 


G. 


MINTY, 
























Colonel, Commanding. 






Source: OR, Vol L:827. 























Table 2. Minty's Casualty Report, August, 1864. 



Colonel Minty later wrote that it was his 
suggestion the Union army form in columns: 

Imm ed iately after the repulse of Reynolds my 
Adjutant-General, Capt. Burns, informed me 
that Gen. K ilpatrick desired to see me at once; 
that Cleburne's Division of Infantry was 
closing in on our right, M artin's and Jackson's 
D ivisions of Cavalry we re on our left and rear 
and "we knew w hat is in front of us." I 
instructed Capt. B urns to recall the 4 th Mich., 
and galloped to the rear to report to Gen. 
Kilpatrick. I found him on the McDonough 
road. He repeated what Capt. Burns had 
already told me, and added: "Our only recourse 
is to cut our way out. You will form your 
division in line, on the right of the McDonough 
road, facing to the rear, Col. Murray will form 
in the same manner on the left of the road and 
you will charge simultaneously. 



The ground indicated by Gen. Kilpatrick was a 
deserted plantation creased in every direction 
by rain gullies, and there were two rail fences 
between us and the enemy, who were at work 
building rail barricades. I said: "General, I will 
form in any way you direct; but, if it was left to 
me, I would never charge in line over this 
ground; when we strike the enemy, if we ever 
do so, it will be a thin, wavering blow that will 
amount to nothing." He asked: "How, then, 
would you charge?" I replied: "In column, sir. 
Our momentum would be like that of a railroad 
train where we strike, something has to break." 
He paused a moment, and then said: 'Form in 
any way you please" (Minty 1903). 

Colonel Minty later reported that Colonel Murray 
told Kilpatrick that his men could not charge over 
"that ground". Kilpatrick ignored Murray, then 



31 



asked Minty if he were ready and, with Minty 
leading the charge, the cavalry charged forward 
(Minty 1903). 

The first brigade formed by Colonel Minty "on the 
right or west side of the road" about 150 yards 
between the columns. The following is an excellent 
description of the Confederate formation from 
Joseph G. Vale's 1886 book Minty and the 
Cavalry: A History of Cavalry Campaigns in the 
Western Armies: 



. . . the rebel infantry had been formed in three 
lines, about fifty yards apart, in double rank; 
the first and second lines with fixed bayonets 
and the third line firing; in both the first and 
second lines the front rank knelt on one knee, 
resting the butt of the gun on the ground, the 
bayonet at a "charge." 

Immediately on the charging columns showing 
themselves, the enemy opened with shell from 
four pieces of artillery in our front, and from 
six pieces on our right front, canister was, after 
the first or second discharge, substituted for 
shell, but the battery in our front. After the 
columns had passed the first fence, the infantry 
and cavalry opened a fire of musketry. Through 
this storm of shell, canister, and musketry, the 
charging columns, closely followed by the 
gallant Land and his brigade of intrepid 
Ohioans, in column of regiments, swept over 
the fields, broken through the ground was with 
deep gulleys or washouts, leaping over three 
sets of out-lying rail barricades, and, without 
firing a shot, reached the rebel first line, posted 
slightly in the rear of a fence. The rebel cavalry 
broke and fled in the wildest panic, just before 
we struck them, but the infantry stood firm. 
Leaping, in maddened rush at the top of speed, 
our horses over the fence, and where this could 
not be done, dashing with impetuous force 
against it, the impediment was passed, without 
drawing rein, and, with their keen blades, the 
brigade in an instant cut the rebel front line to 
pieces! rode [sic] over, and destroyed it! And 
assailed with renewed vigor their second line. 
Between the first and second lines, the columns 
obliqued slightly to the left, and, striking it thus 
in half left turn, presented somewhat the 
appearance of a movement by platoons in 
"echelon," assaulting it in many places in quick 
succession, penetrated and sabered it to pieces 
as quickly as they had the first! The third line 
now broke and ran in utter confusion and rout, 
but we were soon among them, riding down 
and sabering hundreds as they ran. 



Pennsylvania and Fourth Michigan, making a 
full left wheel, dashed upon the artillery, 
sobering gunners beside their pieces the while. 
Three of the pieces, all we had horses for, were 
brought off, and the other one was disabled by 
spiking, blowing up the caissons and chopping 
to pieces the wheels. . .(Vale 1886:347-349). 

Vale's description continues as follows: 

The Fourth regulars instead of keeping parallel 
with us, as was intended, seeing an opening in 
the fence by the side of the road, and finding 
very high fences in front of them, turned to the 
left and struck out on the main road . . . 
Colonel Long's brigade did not charge in line, 
as it was intended, but finding the ground 
impracticable for it, formed in columns and 
followed the Fourth regulars. Colonel Murray's 
command, instead of sweeping all to the left of 
the road, as we supposed they would do, turned 
to the right, and filed in after Colonel Long. 
Had he (Murray) done as was expected, both 
sides of the road would have been cleaned out. 
As it was, a good many of the rebels escaped 
off to the left (Vale 1886:363). 

Vale's account has a negative slant towards 
Colonel Eli Houston Murray (1843-1896) (3 rd 
Cavalry Brigade). The underlying tone may be 
rooted in politics and command dynamics. Murray 
was part of Kilpatrick's original command. Prior to 
leaving Atlanta, Kilpatrick was supplemented by 
two brigades from Brigadier General Kenner 
Dudley Garrard's Division. The two brigades that 
supplemented Kilpatrick made up the 2 n Cavalry 
Division (consisting of 4 th Michigan, 7 th 
Pennsylvania, 4 th U.S., 1st Ohio, 3rd Ohio, 4 th Ohio 
and the Chicago Board of Trade) who led the 
charge at Nash Farm. Colonel Murray leading the 
3 rd Cavalry Brigade was part of Kilpatrick's usual 
command. Accounts from the aforementioned 
supplemental brigades tended to be negative 
towards Colonel Murray. 

Colonel Robert H.G. Minty is certainly one of the 
more colorful and courageous leaders in the August 
20 l engagement at Nash Farm. His biography and 
involvement in the battle should be the subject of 
future historical research. That information would 
provide important interpretive history content 
guaranteed to make the battle come alive to visitors 
at Nash Farm. 



The formation of the brigade led the Seventh 
Pennsylvania squarely against the left center of 
the infantry, the Fourth Michigan against its 
right, and the rebel battery, and the Fourth 
United States against the battery, and that part 
of the rebel line held by their cavalry. After 
cutting the enemy's lines to pieces, the Seventh 



32 



th 



1 Cavalry Brigade, 4 Michigan 

Cavalry, Commanded by Major 

Frank W. Mix 



Major Frank W. Mix commanded the 4 Michigan 
Cavalry in the August 20 action. Figure 31 is a 
wartime portrait of Major Mix. Major Mix filed his 
report of operations August 18-22 (Kilpatrick's 
raid) with the Acting Assistant Adjutant General, 
I s Cavalry Brigade on August 24, and it is 
presented below (OR Volume 38 (2): 828-831), 




Figure 31. Major Frank W. Mix, 4th 
Michigan Cavalry. (Ancestry.com 2007). 

. . . On the 1 7th of Augu st I received orders to 
have my command in readiness to march at 6 p. 
m., with five days' rations, but, owing to some 
delay, we did not leave our camp until 2 a. m. 
on the morning of the 18th. Having the 
advance of the brigade, we moved off in a 
southwesterly direction. We marched very 
steady throughout the night, and about 6 a. m. 
arrived at a place called Sandtown, where we 
found the Third Cavalry Division. Here I 
received notice that we would remain through 
the day, and be ready to join the Third 
Division, under General Kilpatrick, for a raid 
on the Atlanta and Macon Railroad, which was 
to leave at sundown. At 6 p. m. I received 
orders that I would use my command as rear 
guard, and it was near 9 o'clock before I moved 
out of camp. We moved very slow though the 
night, making it very tiresome for both men 
and horses. At daylight on the morning of the 
19th, when near the East Point railroad, 
artillery was distinctly heard in our front, and, 
by the movements of the advance, I learned the 
enemy were firing into our flank. The 



ambulances of the brigade were in advance of 
me, and attempted to follow the command and 
to dash past fire (and officer having them in 
charge). Instead of following the command, 
they turned to the right into a small bridle path. 
I had followed them to this point, and felt 
bound to save them, if possible, and 
accordingly moved my command in the same 
direction. After proceeding a short distance, I 
found the ambulances halted and no opening 
for them to escape, and that we were cut off 
from the rest of the command. I sent the 
ambulances to the rear, and formed the Third 
Battalion, under Captain Eldridge, on the left 
of the path facing the main road, which we had 
just left. About this tie I was joined by a 
battalion of the Seven Pennsylvania, under 
Major Andress. Being the senior officer, I 
ordered him to form his command on the right 
of the Third Battalion of Fourth Michigan. The 
enemy were moving toward the main road, and 
had already opened a heavy fire upon us. I 
ordered Major Andress and Captain Eldridge to 
move forward with their commands as 
skirmishers, and drive the enemy from the 
road. Captain Eldridge moved forward in fine 
style, driving the enemy before him, but Major 
Andress, with his battalion, soon left me 
without my knowledge, and I found my right 
unprotected. I ordered Captain Hathaway, 
commanding First Battalion of my regiment, to 
dismount his battalion and move it forward to 
assist Captain Eldridge; but before the 
movement was completed Captain Eldrdge sent 
me word that he had possession of the main 
road. I sent my adjutant (Lieutenant 
Dickinson), to the ambulances to have them 
fall in between the First and Second Battalions, 
and to charge out with us, as the enemy had 
full command of the road with his artillery. But 
no one could be found to take charge of them, 
some of them having been turned over and 
broken. Upon gaining this information, I 
ordered the command forward on the gallop, 
crossed the railroad, thence down the railroad 
on the left for about two miles, to Fremont's 
Corners, closely followed on the gallop, 
crossed the railroad, thence down the railroad 
on the left for about two miles, to Fremont's 
Corners, closely followed by the enemy. Here I 
found two battalions of the Seventh 
Pennsylvania, under Major Jennings. Here I 
formed the regiment and built a stockade 
across the road, where we held the enemy in 
check. They soon disappeared. I then sent 
Company K, Lieutenant Bedtelyon 
commanding, back to find our pack-mules 
(which had been cut off), and see if the 
ambulances could be found and brought out. 
He soon returned with the pack animals and 
three of the ambulances, the other three having 
been broken. 

And here let me say that with proper 
management, or with some one to look after 
them, the ambulances could all have been 
brought out; but some of the drivers acted in a 
cowardly and unsoldierly manner, having 
abandoned their teams on the first appearance 



33 



of danger. Sergeant Ray, of Company M, took 
one team from an ambulance he found upset 
and drove it in ahead of his horse. I soon 
received orders from Colonel Minty to join the 
command, which was waiting for me some 
three miles to the left. Upon joining the 
command, I learned that our brigade had been 
ordered to pass the Third Division and to 
follow Colonel Long's brigade. We now moved 
forward at a good walk until 2 p. m., when 
artillery was heard again at the front, and the 
entire command was halted and artillery was 
used upon both sides for over an hour. I was 
then ordered to dismount my regiment and 
move to the front, and, under cover of the 
woods, move down to the skirmish line, which 
was then resting on Flint River, some two and a 
half miles from Jonesborough, on the Macon 
railroad. An advance was ordered, and, with 
the Second Brigade, Second Division, we 
crossed the river, driving the enemy in all 
directions. The command was now halted, and 
the advance given to the Fourth Michigan 
Cavalry. We moved forward, meeting with 
very little opposition, and reached the railroad 
at 5 p. m., Captain Van Antwerp being the first 
man on the road. The boys went to work with a 
good will, pulling up the rails and firing the 
road. Late in the evening I was ordered to 
mount my command and move in an open 
field, to unsaddle and groom my horses, and to 
build a stockade in my front, but ere it was 
completed we were ordered farther down the 
railroad to guard our left flank. Here we 
remained until 1 o'clock in the morning, the 
enemy continually trying our lines. At this time 
I was ordered to move up the road and be ready 
to fall back. At 2 a. m. the command 
commenced moving in the direction of 
McDonough, the First Brigade in the advance. 
We moved at a rapid pace until daylight, when 
we halted to feed our weary horses. 

At 8 a. m. the advance again sounded and we 
moved forward, following the Seventh 
Pennsylvania, who were in the advance. Heavy 
skirmishing had already commenced in our 
rear. The command struck off to the right, 
leaving McDonough on our left, and here I 
learned that we were to make another attempt 
on the railroad at Lovejoy's Station. We moved 
steadily along until within one mile and a half 
of the station, when I was ordered to take my 
regiment to the right, move down the railroad 
in that direction, and break the road as soon as 
possible, to prevent any trains coming to that 
point, and to lead the enemy in that direction. 
Throwing forward the Third Battalion, under 
Captain eldridge, as skirmishers, we moved 
down to the road without meeting with any 
resistance. I immediately sent forward the 
Second Battalion, Captain Van Antwerp 
commanding, to join the third, and move across 
the track and cover our front while we 
destroyed the road. By the time we had made a 
breakage in the road, heavy firing was heard on 
my left in the direction of the main column. 
Soon portions of the Seventh Pennsylvania 
came running into my lines, and I learned they 



had been attacked in large numbers by infantry, 
and that the enemy were driving our lines back. 
I immediately withdrew the Second and Third 
Battalions and formed the regiment to receive 
the enemy, should they see fit to give me a call. 
Up to this time we had taken up two lengths of 
rails from the road and had fires built for 
several rods each way. I received orders from 
Colonel Minty at this time to move back to the 
forks of the road as rapidly as possible, to 
prevent being cut off from the main column. 
As soon as we reached the point we were 
ordered into line, and to throw up a stockade in 
our front. While building the stockade, twenty 
volunteers were called for to go with Colonel 
Minty and bring off a piece of artillery, which 
had become disabled, and which the gunners 
had been unable to bring off. Lieutenant 
Purinton and Company I responded nobly, 
every man going but enough to hold the horses, 
but before they reached the ground the piece 
was withdrawn. The fight had now become 
general, both in our front and rear, and we were 
ordered to the rear for the purpose of charging 
the enemy. We were formed in a large corn- 
field, under a hill, in a column of fours, the 
Fourth U. S. Cavalry on my left and the 
Seventh Pennsylvania on my right, in the same 
formation as my own command, for it was to 
be a charge of the entire brigade. We moved 
forward at a walk until we reached the top of 
the hill, from which point we could see the 
fields we were to charge over, and the enemy's 
lines, which were in a piece of woods some 
half a mile distant, and from which they were 
sending their balls and shells in a very 
unpleasant manner. Colonel Minty gave the 
command and led off the charge in person, and 
the whole command dashed across the field, 
over ditches and fences, sobering the 
skirmishers of the enemy, who were trying to 
get out of our way, never once halting or 
faltering, although the enemy were plowing the 
field and thinning our ranks with their artillery. 
Upon reaching the woods I became separated 
from the command, and, becoming wounded 
about the same time, I did not join the 
command again for nearly an hour. After 
charging through, we moved about a mile back, 
where a line was formed composed of the 
different regiments. The command was son 
collected, and horses and mules belonging to 
the enemy, which were running in every 
direction, were picked up. 

The charge had proved a complete success, the 
enemy having been completely routed. Many 
prisoners and 1 piece of artillery were captured. 
My wound having become troublesome, I 
turned the command over to Captain Eldridge. 
The command soon moved back, closely 
followed by the enemy's infantry. Some three 
miles back, a line was formed of the Fourth 
Michigan, Seventh Pennsylvania, and the Third 
Ohio, to hold the enemy in check, and for one- 
half hour we had the hardest fighting that we 
had seen during the raid. At last we fell back, 
and the whole command moved off for 
McDonough. We passed through the town 



34 



about dark, during a heavy rain. At about lip. 
m. we halted, and were permitted to go into 
camp for the night, the first time for three days 
and four nights which the men had been 
permitted to rest or sleep. We were up and 
ready for an early start in the morning, and 8 a. 
m. the command started for Atlanta. 

The regiment is deserving of great credit for 
the manner in which they discharged their 
duties during the march. Where all did so well 
it is difficult to select any for special praise or 
notice. I am under many obligations to the 
officers of the regiment for their cordial 
support throughout the march, and particularly 
to Captains Eldridge, Hathaway, and Van 
Antwerp, battalion commanders. 

^Nominal list (omitted) shows 2 enlisted men 
killed, 5 wounded, and 7 missing; total, 14. 



The enemy's cannon were so placed as to 
enable them to command the whole field. 
There was "cannon on the right of us," and 
"cannon on the left of us," and "cannon all 
around us." The charge will never be forgotten 
by those who witnessed it . . . The enemy had 
dismounted men behind fences and temporary 
rail breastworks. Our men received their fire 
without once wavering. The front line had to 
dismount several times to throw down fences 
and demolish breastworks; . . . The ground 
over which our troopers charged presented 
ghastly evidence of the deadly nature of the 
struggle. Horses and riders together lying stark 
dead - with feet in stirrup, rein in hand, and 
saber clasped tightly, while the countenance of 
the dead warrior showed the fierceness of his 
passion. The keen blades of our sabers left 
many foemen dead, cloven down - literally 
through and through (4 th Michigan Cavalry, 
Letters of Dr. George W. Fish:89-90). 



The 4 Michigan was positioned in the center 
column during the charge. Captain Burns was to 
the left with Thompson on his right and Minty on 
Thompson's right. During the charge Mix got 
separated from command and sustained a wound in 
his hand. Captain Heber S. Thompson (Minty' s 
A.A.I.G.) was wounded, his horse killed and he 
was taken prisoner. Colonel Minty' s horse was 
wounded, fell, got up and continued at the head of 
the column. The company's losses included two 
enlisted killed, five wounded and seven missing. 

Dr. George W. Fish, a physician of Genesee 
township and, later, Flint, Michigan, enlisted in the 
4 r Michigan Cavalry in 1862 and was mustered 
out in August, 1865. He returned to private practice 
in Michigan after the war but died not long 
afterwards, either in September, 1865 or, in Tunis, 
Africa in 1871, where he served in the United 
States consulate. Dr. Fish may have been alive in 
1876, when he reportedly gave an address to the 
Genesee County Medical Society (Archives of 
Michigan 1865; NPS 2007; Wood 1916:323). 
Despite his untimely death, his writings provide us 
with important information about the battle at Nash 
Farm. His wartime portrait is shown in Figure 32. 
George W. Fish, whose medical career dated back 
to the 1830s, entered the war as a private and was 
later promoted to I s Lieutenant. He served as 
Surgeon for the 4 th Michigan Cavalry (and Brigade 
Surgeon for Minty' s Brigade) throughout his 
period of service. Dr. Fish noted Adam Kain of 
Company K was killed on the 20 th . At this point, it 
is unclear if Kain died on the Nash Farm property 
or elsewhere. Dr. Fish describes the Confederate's 
position and provides an excellent visual of the 
carnage left in the wake of the charge: 




* vti 



Figure 32. Portrait of George W. Fish, 
Surgeon, 4th Michigan Cavalry (ca. 1862- 
1865) (Archives of Michigan 2007). 

Colonel Minty wrote the following description 
about what happened after the charge. It was 
part of an ongoing debate of facts published in 
The National Tribune: 



The facts are, that as soon as we had cut our 
way through the surrounding force, Gen. 
Kilpatrick, with the Third Division, marched 
for McDonough, leaving orders for me to cover 
his retreat. I instructed my Provost-M arshall, 
Capt. Dickson, of the 7' h Pa., to at once turn 
over the prisoners to the Third Division, and I 
sent Lieut. Simpson, of the 4" 1 Mich., a 
temporary Aid on my staff, to Col. Long with 



35 



orders to dismount his brigade, form across the 
McDonough road, and hold the enemy in check 
as long as possible. When too hard pressed to 
fall back through the first brigade. At this 
moment Capt. Mclntyre, commanding 4 th U.S., 
reported that his regiment was out of 
ammunition, and I directed him to follow Gen. 
Kilpatrick. 

I dism ounted the 7 lh Pa., and 4 lh Mich., and 
placed them in position on rising ground, with 
an open space in front of them, the 7 lb Pa. and 
one section of the battery on the right and the 
4 lh Mich. On the left of the road, and instructed 
them to construct rail breastworks as quickly as 
possible. The horses of both brigades were 
strung out on the road in our rear. 

Col. Long was brought to the rear, wounded, 
and the command of his brigade devolved on 
Col. Eggleston, of the I s ' Ohio, who soon after 
reported that Cleburne's infantry was 
endeavoring to turn both of his flanks. I 
ordered him to fall back, and as he passed the 
First Brigade I instructed him to move his men 
on the double-quick, to mount and follow the 
Third Division, to take position with Lieut. 
Robinson' s guns on the high ground beyond 
the swamp in front of him ... I found Col. 
Eggleston with his brigade and Lieut. Robinson 
with his two guns in position on the high 
ground beyond the swamp (Minty 1891). 

After the Nash Farm Battle, the 4 th Michigan 
Cavalry, the men and their mounts, had reached 
their limits by the time they arrived in Atlanta. The 
4 th Michigan later gained national reputation by the 
capture of Confederate President Jefferson Davis 
(Harvey 2007). 

7 th Pennsylvania Cavalry, 

Commanded by Major William H. 

Jennings 

Major William H. Jennings, commanded the 7 
Pennsylvania Cavalry in the August 20 l action. 
Major Jennings filed two reports pertaining to the 
events of August 20 (OR Volume 38(2): 832-834). 
His reports are somewhat unique in that he 
provided detailed statistics on the horses lost by his 
cavalrymen in his regiment. By doing this Major 
Jennings provides us with a rare glimpse of another 
type of casualty of war that is not often considered 
in battlefield interpretation. 



SIR: I have the honor to report that the Seventh 
Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteer Cavalry 
started on the 30th day of April, with 919 
horses fresh from the corral at Nashville, 
Tenn., and unused to military duty; the 
majority were young horses, not aged. Three 
hundred of the enlisted men were raw recruits. 
Some had never been on a horse before they 
entered the service, and were without drill... . 

From August 1 to August 15 the command was 
five miles away from the horses. Four horses 
were groomed by one man; consequently they 
were not as well taken care off as the rider 
would give them, and for forty-eight hours the 
stock was without feed. August 15 and 16, 
received one quart per head, and marched 
twenty-four miles over a country devastated by 
the army. August 17 and 18, received one pint 
of feed from Third Division. August 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, and 24, traveled 120 miles, feeding but 
once, upon green corn. Half ration of forage 
was issued to September 9. September 9, 10, 
and 1 1, no feed and no grazing. The stock 
received no salt or hay during the campaign. 

Lost in action August 20, 112 horses. 
Horses. 

Started with 919 

Captured 42 

Total 961 

Abandoned and died.. 230 
Killed and captured.... 171 

Total loss 401 

Present in the field 560 

The regiment traveled 902 miles, not including 
picket duty and company scouting. 

The horses were without feed twenty-six days 
and scant feed twenty-seven days. For seven 
consecutive days the horses were without feed 
of any kind. The majority of the horses died 
and abandoned were literally starved. The 
seven days at Pumpkin Vine Church reduced 
the horses beyond recuperation (OR Volume 
38(2):832-833). 

Major Jennings filed a report on August 27, 1864 
with Captain Robert Burns A. A. A. C, First 
Brigade, Second Cavalry Division, and it is 
presented below: 



HDQRS. SEVENTH PENNSYLVANIA VET. 
VOL. CAVALRY, 



Pace's Ferry, Ga., August 27, 1864. 



HDQRS. SEVENTH PENNSYLVANIA 
VETERAN VOL. CAV., 



Near Blake's Mill, Ga., September 13, 1864. 



I have the honor to report that my regiment left 
camp on Peach Tree road, at 12 p. m. on the 
17th instant, as rear guard of the brigade. 
Arrived at Sandtown at 8 a. m. on the 18th 
instant. Left Sandtown at sundown, as rear 
guard to the expedition, until, daybreak on the 
19th, the order of march was changed. At 8 a. 



36 



m. my command was fired into from and 
ambush. My Third Battalion, commanded by 
Major Andress, was cut off. With two 
battalions (First and Second) I proceeded down 
the road about 300 yards, dismounted, and 
formed a line, and deployed Company E as 
skirmishers. My Third Battalion rejoined 
regiment in about one hour, by making a circuit 
through the woods; barricaded the road, and 
remained until the entire command had passed. 
Received an order from Colonel Minty to 
rejoin the brigade at a cross-roads (name 
unknown). The brigade moved with the Second 
Battalion of my regiment, commanded by 
Captain B. S. Dartt, in the advance. With the 
remainder of the command I picketed the 
cross-roads until the entire command had 
passed. Two miles west of Jonesborough my 
Second Battalion was halted, with instructions 
to rejoin the brigade upon my arrival at 
Jonesborough, which I did about dusk. Here we 
rested for three hours; received an order from 
Colonel Minty to picket along the east side of 
the Atlanta and Macon Railroad. The pickets 
and vedettes were scarcely established before I 
received an order to draw the pickets in and 
rejoin the brigade at the rallying post of the 
brigade. After a half hour's halt, the brigade 
moved out on the Lovejoy's road, my regiment 
in the center. Four miles from Jonesborough 
we halted about two hours. My regiment 
moved in the advance. One mile and a quarter 
from the railroad we met the enemy, turned to 
the left, advanced some 300 yards, and found 
the enemy enforce; dismounted and deployed 
the First and Third Battalions to the right to 
cover the front of the brigade. We held our 
position until Long's (Second) brigade was 
formed in our rear. The enemy pressed us with 
a heavy force of infantry, pouring volleys of 
musketry as they advanced. We succeeded in 
checking them twice. They advanced with 
renewed vigor, compelling us to retire in some 
disorder, owing to the loss of 3 officers and 
several sergeants commanding the companies. 
They were soon rallied, and I attempted to 
form the regiment on the right of the Second 
Brigade, which was only partially successful, 
owing to a part of my right being cut off by an 
[unexpected] move of the enemy. The center 
and left remained intact, until ordered to our 
horses, leaving the line of skirmishers out. 
After mounting, I drew in the skirmishers of 
my regiment and replenished our ammunition. 
Was ordered to form on the right of the Fourth 
Michigan Cavalry, in a corn-field, which was 
complied with. Upon the completion 
"forward," my regiment moved with alacrity, 
driving the enemy over gullies, fences, 
swamps, and through dense thickets, for two 
miles. As the rally was sounded by Colonel 
Minty, who led the charge, I halted, and found 
my regiment in very good order, considering 
the nature of the ground we charged over. 

Colonel Minty ordered me to move to the left, 
in the direction of the main road; found nothing 
but a few stragglers of the enemy. At the main 
road I met the Second Brigade endeavoring to 



form. Halted and formed a line; received an 
order to rejoin the brigade; then moved about a 
mile; received another order to protect the rear; 
dismounted and deployed a company as 
skirmishers, and remained in line, until ordered 
to move as rear guard until we passed the first 
barricade. I was relieved. Camped about five 
miles south of Cotton River. Entered our lines 
on the left wing on the 22nd instant. 

My loss is as follows: Captains, 2; lieutenant, 
1. Enlisted men- killed, 5; wounded and 
missing, 10; wounded, 11; missing, 15. Total, 
44. Horses lost, 112. (OR Volume 38(2):833- 
834). 

Major William H. Jennings' report imparts good 
information on the condition of the horses, how 
they were treated, and specifically what happened 
during the engagement at Nash Farm. In April the 
7 1 Pennsylvania received 919 fresh horses from 
Nashville, Tennessee. The majority of these horses 
were young and not used to military duty. Three 
hundred of the enlisted men were raw recruits. 
Some had never been on a horse before they 
entered service four months earlier. On August ll l 
and 18 c the horses received one pint of feed from 
the 3 r Division. Between August 19 and the 24 c 
the horses traveled 120 miles being fed green corn 



Major Jennings (7 1 Pennsylvania Cavalry) filed 
two reports reporting 112 horses lost in action on 
August 20 th . Jennings also reported the regiment 
traveled 902 miles, not including picket duty and 
company scouting. For twenty-six days the horses 
were without food. The majority of the horses died 
or were abandoned to starve to death. Jennings 
wrote, 



. . .The enemy pressed us with a heavy force 
of infantry, pouring volleys of musketry as they 
advanced. We succeeded in checking them 
twice. They advanced with renewed vigor, 
compelling us to retire in some disorder, owing 
to the loss of 3 officers and several sergeants 
commanding the companies. They were soon 
rallied, and I attempted to form the regiment on 
the right of the Second Brigade, which was 
only partially successful, owing to a part of my 
right being cut off by an [unexpected] move of 
the enemy. The center and left remained intact, 
until ordered to our horses, leaving the line of 
skirmishers out. After mounting, I drew in the 
skirmishers of my regiment and replenished 
our ammunition. Was ordered to form on the 
right of the Fourth M ichigan Cavalry, in a 
corn-field, which was complied with. Upon the 
completion "forward, " my regiment moved 
with alacrity, driving the enemy over gullies, 
fences, swamps, and through dense thickets, 
for two miles. As the rally was sounded by 



37 



Colonel Minty who led the charge, I halted, 
and found my regiment in very good order, 
considering the nature of the ground we 
charged over (OR, Vol. 38(2):834). 

By August 20 1 , the 1 [ Pennsylvania Cavalry 
replenished ammunition and formed lines to the far 
right preparing to charge Ross' Brigade. 
Companies B and M were deployed as skirmishers 
and were to throw down the fences. As soon as the 
men reached the fence, the sound followed, after 
passing the fence by the "gallop" and "charge". 



Private Samuel Waters, an orderly of Major 
Jennings, rode in advance of the 7 Pennsylvania 
Cavalry and used his saber. Waters, 



... rode upon a rebel cavalryman who threw up 
his hand to guard the blow. The saber came 
down, severing the hand from the arm. Another 
blow followed quickly, after upon the neck, 
and over the rebel rolled out of his saddle, the 
neck only clinging to the body by a thin fiber. 
Pvt. Douglass and Captain M clntyre of the 4 th 
U.S., charged side by side, killing 4 or 5 with 
the saber; capturing a Captain and a Lieut. And 
13 men, who were turned over to Douglass by 
the Captain, who rushed forward into the fray 
(The Pottsville Miner's Journal, September 10, 
1864). 

At least four officers in the 1 [ Pennsylvania 
Cavalry penned accounts of their experiences at 
Lovejoy in the decades after the war. These include 
accounts by Colonel William B. Sipes, Captain 
Joseph G. Vale, Captain Heber S. Thompson, and 
Sergeant Thomas F. Dornblaser. Colonel Sipes, 
who commanded the 7 th Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
wrote his account in 1905. Another regimental 
history of the 7 l Pennsylvania Cavalry was 
published by Sipes in 1906. Sergeant Dornblaser, 
Company E, wrote a personal account of his 
experiences as a corporal in the 7 th Pennsylvania 
Cavalry in August 1864, which was published in 
1884. Dornblaser also published another account in 
1930. 

One unidentified participant from Pennsylvania 
wrote this contemporary description of the sights 
and sounds of the battlefield, 

At the word, "Away", went the bold dragoons 
at the height of their speed. Fences were 
jumped, ditches were no impediment, the 
rattles of the sabers mingled with that of the 
mess kettles and frying pans that jingled at the 
sides of the pack mule brigade, which were 
madly pushed forward by the frightened 
darkies who straddled them (The Pottsville 
Miner's Journal, September 10, 1864). 



Captain Joseph G. Vale, Company K, 7 l 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, wrote an account of the 
cavalrymen commanded by Robert Minty, entitled, 
Minty and the Cavalry in which he discusses at 
length, 'The Great Saber Charge at Lovejoy" 
(Vale 1886:337-365). Minty's brigade was 
composed of the 4 l Michigan Cavalry, 4 l U.S. 
Cavalry, the 7 th Pennsylvania Cavalry, and 
members of the 9 th Pennsylvania Cavalry. Minty's 
account of the battle is included in Vale's book. 
Captain Vale described in some detail the initial 
U.S. Cavalry charge, 

After forming, his command faced to the rear, 
Kilpatrick directed M inty to lead the charge 
with his, the Second, division. M inty formed, 
placing the First brigade in the advance; on the 
right or west side of the road, in regimental 
columns of fours, the Seventh Pennsylvania, 
under Major Jennings, on the right, the Fourth 
United States, under Captain M clntyre, on the 
left and the Fourth M ichigan, under M ajor 
Mix, in the center; the distance between the 
columns being about one hundred and fifty 
yards. Two companies, B and M, of the 
Seventh Pennsylvania, were deployed in front 
as skirmishers, and directed, covering the 
whole front, to throw down the first of the 
intervening fences. 

As soon as the skirmishers reached this fence, 
the advance was sounded, followed, after 
passing the fence, by the 'gallop' and the 
4 charge,' and M inty hurled his three columns, 
in a terrific burst of flashing steel, upon three 
points of the rebel lines. In anticipation of 
something of this kind being attempted, the 
rebel infantry had formed in three lines, about 
fifty yards apart, in double rank; the first and 
second lines with fixed bayonets and the third 
line firing; in both the first and second lines the 
front rank knelt on one knee, resting the butt of 
the gun on the ground, the bayonet at a 
'charge.' 

Immediately on the charging columns showing 
themselves, the enemy opened with shell from 
four pieces of artillery in our front, and from 
six pieces on our right front, canister was, after 
the first or second discharge, substituted for 
shell, by the battery in our front. After the 
columns had passed the first fence, the infantry 
and cavalry opened a fire of musketry. Through 
this storm of shell, canister, and musketry, the 
charging columns, closely followed by the 
gallant Long and his brigade of intrepid 
Ohioans, in column of regiments, swept over 
the fields, broken though the ground was with 
deep gulleys or washouts, leaping over three 
sets of out-lying rail barricades, and, without 
firing a shot, reached the rebel first line, posted 
slightly in the rear of a fence. The rebel cavalry 
broke and fled in the wildest panic, just before 
we struck them, but the infantry stood firm. 
Leaping, in maddened rush at the top of speed, 



38 



our horses over the fence, and where this could 
not be done, dashing with impetuous force 
against it, the impediment was passed, without 
drawing rein, and, with their keen blades, the 
brigade in an instant cut the rebel front line to 
pieces! rode over and destroyed it! and assailed 
with renewed vigor their second line. Between 
the first and second lines, the columns obliqued 
slightly to the left, and striking it thus on a half 
left turn, presented somewhat the appearance 
of a movement by platoons in 'echelon,' 
assaulting it in many places in quick 
succession, penetrated and sabered it to pieces 
as quickly as they had the first! The third line 
now broke and ran in utter confusion and rout, 
but we were soon among them, riding down 
and sabering hundreds as they ran. 



August 20th — Saturday. About 10 o'clock 
Col. Murray was attacked from the south by a 
Brigade of Infantry under General Reynolds. 
Some little fighting but of no importance. 
About 3 o'clock at night moved off to the east, 
then south again toward Lovejoy Station. 
When within a mile of the railroad, met some 
pickets who retired, drawing on our advance. 
Capt. Vale was ordered to charge but met by a 
terrible fire, his company was driven back in 
confusion. Several companies were then 
dismounted and sent into the woods and 
immediately after, the 4th Regulars formed 
line, dismounted and had not tied their horses 
before a terrible fire was opened on them and 
the companies of the 7th in the woods, driving 
all back quite a considerable distance. 



The formation of the brigade led the Seventh 
Pennsylvania squarely against the left center of 
the infantry, the Fourth Michigan against its 
right, and the rebel battery, and the Fourth 
United States against the battery, and that part 
of the rebel line held by their cavalry. After 
cutting the enemy's lines to pieces, the Seventh 
Pennsylvania and Fourth Michigan, making a 
full left wheel, dashed upon the artillery, 
sabering the gunners beside their pieces the 
while. Three of the pieces, all we had horses 
for, were brought off, and the other one was 
disabled by spiking, blowing up the caissons 
and chopping to pieces the wheels. The race 
and slaughter among the fleeing rebels was 
then continued for three miles, when Minty 
halted and re-formed his command, now badly 
scattered. It was understood that the Second 
brigade of ours, and the Third division, should 
follow the charge of Minty' s brigade in line, 
thus securing the full fruits of the conflict, but 
by some mistake, Colonel Long formed in 
column of companies, or battalions, and joined 
in the charge, following rapidly through the 
rebel lines, while the Third division, holding 
the column of fours, followed the road; hence 
the masses of the enemy, which had been run 
over by the First brigade, were not gathered up, 
nor was any effort made to ascertain the 
number of killed and wounded. Minty's task 
being simply to crush and destroy the rebel 
lines, he made no effort to take prisoners, only 
requiring the enemy to destroy their guns as he 
passed through. This much is, however, 
known: over four thousand of the rebel infantry 
were either killed, wounded, or at one time 
disarmed prisoners in our hands (Vale 
1886:337-348). 

Captain Heber Samuel Thompson, Company I, 7 1 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, kept a diary in 1864 of his 
involvement with the l x Pennsylvania (Fryer 
2001a). Captain Thompson, was was the brigade 
inspector, participated in the engagement of August 
20 c , where he was wounded, captured and taken 
prisoner by the Confederates. His diary account for 
August 20 is presented below: 



A number of the 7th Penna. And 4th U.S. 
Cavalry were killed and wounded and a few 
taken prisoners. Kilpatrick supposing that a 
large force of Infantry had come up, concluded 
to go back and break through the Cavalry 
(Ross') which had come up in our rear. The 4th 
Mich. Was formed in column of fours about 
eighty yards on the right of the road, the 7th 
Penna. about fourty yards, in columns of fours, 
the 4th U.S. in the road in columns of fours. In 
the rear of the 1st Brigade Long's Brigade was 
formed. Murry's command was formed on the 
left of the road. Just before the command was 
given to charge, I was sent back by Col. M inty 
to order Col. Long to keep his Brigade close up 
behind the 1st. I found him on the gallop and 
rode beside him for some time, while I gave 
my mare the rein and went ahead. The shells 
from Rebel Artillery exploded in the air and 
did no damage that I saw; just as we were on 
the left flank of the artillery, it opened with 
grape and canister, but I didn't see what 
damage was done. Passing around the rear of 
the artillery I found myself with Lt. Fitzgerald 
of the 4th U.S. Cavalry leading the 4th Mich. 
Cavalry. Charging down a road through the 
woods we came into an open field directly in 
rear of the Rebel Artillery. As soon as I came 
out into the open field a rebel not more than 
fifty yards in front fired; the ball struck my 
mare full in the breast, when she reared up on 
her hind legs and fell over backwards dead. I 
extricated myself from the saddle and started 
for the rebel rear, here, however, I came upon 
about a dozen rebels. Turning back I had gone 
but a few steps before several bullets came 
whistling close by me, at the same time three or 
four Rebels ordered me to halt. Looking around 
I saw I was surrrounded by Rebels and so 
surrendered at discretion. The Rebels, however, 
were more scared than I was and every minute 
expected our Cavalry upon them. Going at a 
double quick a couple of miles and picking up 
a rebel here and there, we hid in a thicket of 
woods, about an hour, the rebels fearing every 
minute that their whole party (now about 
twenty) would fall into the hands of our men. 
Finally after much creeping through the woods 
and reconnoitering in various directions, they 
discovered that our forces had gone. Then they 
took me to Lovejoy Station where they robbed 



39 



me of my hat, boots and watch. Capt. Baglan, 
Inspector Genl. On Genl. Reynold's Staff, took 
my boots, giving me his old shoes in their 
stead. Here I met Capt. McCormick, 4th U.S. 
Cav. Who introduced me to Capt. Thompson 
and Lt. White, 4th Ohio Cav. captured in the 
first fight with the Infantry. Met also quite a 
number of our Brigade prisoners. Lt. Herman 
and Capt. White both wounded and prisoners in 
same train with me, but I could not get to see 
them. Moved up to Jonesboro (Fryer 2001a:18- 
20). 

Colonel Minty told Major Jennings to go left to the 
main road, where they found stragglers and met the 
2 n Cavalry Brigade at the road trying to reform. 
They halted, formed a line then received orders to 
rejoin the brigade. They traveled approximately 
one mile then received orders to protect the rear. 
They dismounted and deployed a company as rear 
guard until they passed first barricade. 

Louis Crossland L.C.C. (7 l Pennsylvania Cavalry) 
wrote in The Pottsville Miner's Journal, dated 
November 26, 1864: 

Of the honors which the 7 th PA Cavalry earned 
in former campaigns, the present one greatly 
exceeds them. In this move we went through 
the enemy's rear from our right; around their 
line to their left, cutting through them. We 
captured about 200 prisoners, one piece of 
artillery, a train of ambulances and an 
ammunition train, six stand of colors, a lot of 
horses, arms, etc. GeneralJackson, 
commanding their cavalry, was killed by the 
advance charge. His uniform, saber and Hdq. 
Flag fell into our hands. General Ross, 
commanding their infantry, was wounded. The 
majority of the [Confederate] prisoners taken 
were under the influence of liquor. Our loss, 
when accounted for, will not exceed 400 killed, 
wounded and missing in the Division. Our loss 
in this regiment was great. Among them are the 
following: Captain Heber S. Thompson, Co. I, 
missing in action; Captain [Percy] White, Co. 
A, missing in action; Captain [James G.] 
Taylor, Co. K, missing in action; Lieut. 
[Chauncey] Hermans, Co. C, missing in action. 
None of the men from Pottsville were hurt (The 
Pottsville Miner's Journal 1864). 

4 th U.S. Cavalry Regulars, 

Commanded by Captain James B. 

Mclntyre 

Captain James B. Mclntyre, commanded the 4 l 
U.S. Cavalry on August 20 . The Tennessean 
graduated from West Point in 1849 and there are 
several variations of spelling Mclntire/Mclntyre. It 
is unclear, which is the correct version. The 4 
U.S. Cavalry Regulars' column was positioned to 



the far left in the charge and Lieutenant Joseph 
Hedges rode at the head of the column. They had 
no carbine ammunition. Captain Mclntyre died in 
1867 and thus, was unable to provide much post- 
war analysis of his regiment's involvement at 
Nash Farm. Captain Mclntyre filed his report of 
operations in Kilpatrick's raid from August 18-22, 
1864 on August 24 with Captain Robert Burns and 
it is presented below (OR Volume 38(2):835), 

... On the night of the 17th, about 10 p. m., we 
moved camp with the First Brigade, Second 
Cavalry Division, and marched all night, 
arriving at Sandtown (General Kilpatrick's 
headquarters) about 6 a. m. on the 18th. We lay 
there all day, and started with the command at 
sundown and marched all night. At daylight on 
the 19th the enemy opened on the head of my 
regiment with artillery. I continued the march, 
crossed the West Point railroad, turned to the 
left, and took the road toward the Macon 
railroad. After marching about one mile I came 
into line on the left-hand side of the road, and 
sent one battalion, under Lieutenant Roys, to 
attack the enemy's rear. This appeared to have 
been only a feint to delay our column, and the 
line of march was resumed toward the M aeon 
railroad at Jonesborough. At Flint Creek the 
regiment was dismounted after crossing, and a 
line of battle was formed of the First Ohio and 
Fourth U. S. Cavalry, and the Fourth Michigan 
deployed as skirmishers on our front. In this 
manner we marched into Jonesborough. 
Arriving there, I was ordered with my regiment 
to destroy the railroad and burn the depot. 
About 1 a. m. the command moved out. 
Finding we were likely to be attacked by 
infantry, marched toward Woodstock, and then 
traveled toward Lovejoy's Station. At about I 
p. m., when near the railroad, we encountered 
the enemy's infantry. The First Brigade, Second 
Cavalry Division, was dismounted and 
advanced into the woods, and, after severe loss 
and heavy fighting, were compelled to fall back 
and take a new position. It was here I lost my 
adjutant, Lieutenant Sulivan, wounded, and 
Captain M ccormick, commanding Second 
Battalion, missing. Where every one did well I 
can hardly discriminate, and will mention none. 
About 2 p. m. we were ordered to mount. The 
First Brigade was formed in three columns of 
fours, the Seventh Pennsylvania on the right, 
the Fourth Regulars on the left, and the Fourth 
Michigan in the center, and, with drawn sabers, 
the brigade charged a division of rebel cavalry, 
completely routing, demoralizing, and 
scattering or killing everything in our front, 
which consisted of a battery of three guns 
(which poured into our brave men showers of 
case and canister), and a division of cavalry, 
partly dismounted. About four miles from the 
railroad the brigade was reformed, and 
marched toward McDonough. The Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry, having no carbine ammunition, were 
detached from the brigade and put in front. 
From that time until we arrived in this camp, at 



40 



sundown on the 22d, the regiment had no more 
fighting. 



army and fought like "demons." Albert Potter 
wrote: 



Captain, before closing this memorandum 
report I fell compelled to mention a few gallant 
spirits whose coolness under a heavy fire, when 
dismounted, and gallant bearing in the charge, 
deserve the highest meed of praise. Lieutenant 
Joseph Hedges, First Sergeants Harner, 
Company G, and Rossmalier, Company H, 
when dismounted, by their coolness and 
courage kept every man in his place, and Ser- 
geant Cody, Company G, Sergeants Fay and 
Walsh, Company A, were particularly noticed 
by me for their bravery. The two latter fell in 
the first line. But it was in the charge, when 
cavalry fought in the legitimate way, that the 
cool, dismounted lieutenant, sergeants, and 
soldiers became the cavalryman, and where all 
were heroes it would be invidious to make 
distinction. Lieutenant Hedges was at the head 
of the column. Sergeant Rose, of Company L, 
led us all, and almost cut a road for the rear. 
Private Douglas, Company C, was conspicuous 
in taking and keeping prisoners. Lieutenant 
Roys had his horse killed by a shell. 

Prior to arriving at Nash Farm, John Nourse 
(Chicago Board of Trade Battery) noted: 

But six hundred dismounted cavalry and four 
guns were no match for three thousand of Pat 
Cleburne's veteran infantry and we were soon 
again under a cross fire from both flanks. 
When the Fourth Regulars, Cavalry, were 
forced back on our right their commanding 
officer, Capt. M clntire, was left behind. As the 
command rallied at the rear of our battery the 
loss was noticed and word passed down the 
line. Instantly every man seemed to have the 
fury of a demon and the regiment, as one man, 
charged into the Rebel ranks and brought back 
Capt. M clntire (Nourse n.d., cited in Weigley 
2006:91). 

Captain Albert Potter (4 th Michigan Cavalry) noted 
in a letter that the night before the charge the 4 
U.S. Cavalry Regulars had lost about 36 men. After 
they formed lines and were awaiting orders to 
charge Ross' brigade, a man with the 4 Michigan 
Cavalry (about six feet from Albert Potter) was 
shot. The 4 U.S. Cavalry was already "pumped 
up" for the fight with Ross' brigade. The regiment 
had participated in an earlier charge at about 1:00 
p.m. Captain McCormick, Lieutenant Sullivan and 
others were mowed down by one shot. Having lost 
so many men the night before, losing and 
recovering their leader prior to line up, several men 
shot while awaiting orders, not to mention knowing 
the odds were against them raised the adrenaline 
levels in the ranks of the 4 U.S., causing them to 
fight with all their might. The 4 th U.S. Cavalry 
were considered merciless in hacking the opposing 



The work commences - they [Confederates] 
surrender by dozens - but many of them were 
cut down without mercy. For my part I could 
not strike them after they had given up and but 
very few did hit them in our regiment - but the 
Regulars [in the left column closes to the 
Rebels] slashing right and left and many a poor 
devil's brains lay scattered on the ground 
(Ruddy 2007). 

Private Douglas with Company C, 4 U.S. Cavalry, 
rode with Mclntyre and brought in 15 prisoners, 
four of them commissioned officers. First 
Sergeants Harner with Company G and Rossmalier 
with Company H were noted for their coolness and 
courage when dismounted. Sergeants Cody, with 
Company G, Fay, and Walsh with Company A fell 
in the first line. Sergeant Rose with Company L led 
everyone and almost cut a road for the rear and 
Lieutenant Roy's horse was killed by a shell. 

Robert M. Wilson of Illinois (4 th U.S. Cavalry) 
wrote this account, originally published in 1908 in 
S.B. Barron's The Lone Star Defenders: a 
Chronicle of the Third Texas Cavalry, Ross' 
Brigade. It is a good description of the terrain and 
positions of the Union, 

Our brigade was formed in columns of fours 
(four men abreast); the Fourth Regulars on the 
left; Fourth Michigan center; Seventh 
Pennsylvania on the right, Long's brigade 
formed in close columns with regimental front, 
that is, each regiment formed in line, the men 
side by side, boot to boot .. .We were formed 
just below the brow of the hill, skirmishers on 
the crest of it, the enemy's artillery to our left 
and front playing over us, and bullets and 
shells flying thick over our heads. We drew 
saber, trotted until we came to the crest of the 
hill and then started at a gallop. Down the hill 
we went, the enemy turning canister upon us, 
while the bullets whistled fiercely, and the 
battery away on our right threw shells. We 
leaped fences, ditches, barricades, and were 
among them, the artillery being very hot at this 
time. You could almost feel the balls as they 
passed by (Barron 1964:223). 

Wilson explained why the 4 U.S. Cavalry 
deviated from plans then criticized Colonel Murray 
(3 rd Cavalry Brigade) for deviating: 

The Fourth Michigan and Seventh 
Pennsylvania went straight forward to the 
woods, the field over which they passed being 
at least a half a mile wide, with three fences, 
one partially built barricade, and a number of 
ditches and gullies, some very wide and deep. 



41 



Of course many of the men were dismounted, 
and upon reaching the woods they (our men) 
could not move fast, and they turned to the 
right and joined the main column in the road 
about one and a half miles from the start. The 
Fourth Regulars (my regiment, as I joined it 
when the charge was ordered) could not keep 
parallel with the rest of the brigade on account 
of high fences in our front, and seeing an 
opening in the fence we turned to the left, and 
struck our on the main road, coming upon the 
enemy in the road near their battery, and 
sending them flying. We were soon among the 
led horses of the dismounted men in their rear 
and among the ambulances, and a perfect 
stampede took place, riderless horses and 
ambulances being scattered in all directions, 
we in the midst of them, shooting and cutting 
madly. A part of our regiment, with some of 
the Fourth Michigan and Seventh 
Pennsylvania, dashed at the battery, drove the 
men from the pieces, and captured three of the 
guns . . . Colonel Long's brigade did not charge 
in line as it was intended, for, finding that the 
ground was impracticable, it formed in column 
and followed the Fourth Regulars. Colonel 
Murray's command, instead of sweeping all to 
the left, as we supposed they would do, turned 
to the right and followed Long. Had Murray 
done what was expected, both sides of the road 
would have been cleaned out (Barron 
1964:223-224). 

2 nd Cavalry Brigade 

4 th Ohio Cavalry, Commanded by 
Colonel Eli Long 

Colonel Eli Long (1837-?), 4 th Ohio Cavalry, 
commanded the Second Brigade during the first 
part of the August 20 th action before he was 
wounded in action several miles west of the Nash 
Farm. Earlier in the day, Colonel Eli Long, 
commander of the 4 Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, was 
attacked by Cleburne's Division of infantry and 
held nearly three hours. Long was wounded in the 
arm and thigh, then Colonel Beroth B. Eggleston 
(I s Ohio Cavalry) took over command of the 4 l 
Ohio. Colonel Eggleston was supposed to follow 
the 4 Michigan but broke by fours and moved 
down the road behind the 4 l U.S. Cavalry. Colonel 
Eli Long relates the details in his report dated 
August 23, 1864 (OR, Vol. 38(2):840). Colonel 
Long filed his report of operations May 26-August 
22 on August 23, from Buck Head, Georgia, with 
Captain R.P. Kennedy, Assistant Adjutant-General, 
Second Cavalry Division, and it is presented 
below: 



... CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report the 
part taken by this brigade in the late expedition 



of General Kilpatrick in the enemy's rear. In 
pursuance of orders received on the evening of 
the 17th, I furnished my command with rations 
for five days, and moved from camp shortly 
after midnight, reporting to Colonel M inty, of 
First Brigade, in charge of First and Second 
Brigades, with an effective force of 72 officers 
and 1,300 men. Lieutenant Bennett's section of 
Board of Trade Battery reported for duty with 
me. Marched in rear of First Brigade for 
Sandtown, arriving there early the next 
morning. Remained in camp near Sandtown 
during the day, and reported at headquarters of 
Brigadier-General Kilpatrick. According to 
instructions received from him, marched again 
at sundown, the Third Cavalry Division being 
in column and Brigadier-General Kilpatrick 
commanding. My command now reduced 
about 100 men by the giving out of horses on 
the previous night's march. Traveling all night, 
we crossed the Atlanta and West Point 
Railroad, near Fairburn, at daylight on the 10th. 
Having orders to destroy the road at this point, 
I detailed for this work the First Ohio 
Volunteer Cavalry, who tore up half a mile of 
the track. Meanwhile, I had moved forward in 
column with the remainder of the brigade, the 
First Brigade holding the rear, and had not 
marched far when artillery was opened by a 
force of the enemy, who appeared in the woods 
on our left. I returned to the railroad, mounted 
the First Ohio, and formed line of battle in the 
woods. The First Brigade being now already 
engaged, I advanced my line to co-operate with 
the other brigade, and the enemy retired, and, 
after considerable skirmishing, was driven back 
through his camp, which we temporarily 
occupied. The column was then moved 
forward, my brigade taking the advance, and I 
soon found a force on my front; skirmished 
with them during the greater part of the day, 
driving them gradually toward Jonesborough 
until my advance guard drew near Flint River. 

The enemy had taken a strong position on the 
farther bank and at the town, and engaged us 
sharply with musketry and artillery. 
Dismounting my command, I succeeded in 
pressing them slowly back, aided by the fire 
from our artillery, which had been directed 
upon their lines. We charged down to the 
bridge over the river, and after a few shots the 
regiments crossed on the bridge, which had 
been partially torn up. An advance toward the 
town was then made in tow lines on each side 
of the road, the Fourth U. S. Cavalry and First 
Ohio forming the first line and the Third and 
Fourth Ohio the second line, the Fourth 
M ichigan being deployed as skirmishers in 
front. Some little firing occurred as the lines 
advanced, and the command moved into 
Jonesborough without further opposition. I then 
ordered forward my led horses, mean time 
employing a portion of the command in 
destroying the railroad, burning the track at and 
below the town for half a mile. At dark went 
into camp, and rested until 1 1 o'clock, when I 
was ordered forward to the breast-works on the 
south side of the town, remaining here till near 



42 



daylight. I then moved ut on the McDonough 
and Jonesborough road, covering the rear of the 
column, and, arriving at Pittsburgh, marched 
southwardly toward the railroad again, and at 
an early hour my rear guard (a battalion of First 
Ohio Volunteer Cavalry) was attacked by a 
force of cavalry and driven slowly back upon 
the column. Upon going to the rear and finding 
this battalion hard pressed, I brought the 
remainder of the regiment into position, 
ordered back the Third and Fourth Ohio 
Regiments, and succeeded in checking and 
driving the enemy. A portion of his force now 
appeared in my front, and between the brigade 
and the main column, having come in on a 
right-hand road; but the Fourth Ohio repulsed 
this demonstration, and, being then ordered 
forward, I marched in rear of First Brigade. 
Arriving near Lovejoy's, on the Atlanta and 
Macon Railroad, I found the advance brigade 
engaged with an enemy in their front, and 
received orders to throw forward a dismounted 
battalion. Before this could be accomplished 
the skirmish line was forced back, and I 
dismounted my entire command, forming a line 
across the field on my left, and threw up a line 
of rail breast-works in the rear. The firing now 
became heavy on both sides. The First Ohio 
and a portion of the Fourth repulsed the enemy, 
then, falling back to the breast-works, held him 
in check until he desisted from firing, and 
enabled a section of our artillery to be 
withdrawn from the field. The command was 
then ordered back to their horses, to mount. 
Immediately after mounting I was directed to 
take position in rear of First Brigade, Second 
Division, and to follow it out (when a general 
charge was made shortly after), which was 
done. In this charge Captain William H. Scott, 
of First Ohio Cavalry, inspector on my staff 
and a most gallant officer, was severely 
wounded. 



Third Ohio was a declivity descending to 
marshy ground, and beyond this a creek. The 
enemy were on the farther side of this creek, 
and, riding by the side of Colonel Seidel, of the 
Third, I saw the force advancing to the creek, 
and directed him to hold the fire of his men, 
protected somewhat by breast-works, until they 
should cross, and then to fire rapidly and with 
precision. Immediately after this I observed 
Colonel Seidel raise his hand and motion for 
his regiment to fall back, the cause of this 
being that the enemy was coming up in heavy 
force on his right flank and the safety of the 
regiment being endangered. Just at this 
moment I was shot in two places, my horse 
having also been shot a moment before, and I 
was then forced to retire from the field, turning 
over the command to Colonel Eggleston, of 
First Ohio. The Third Ohio fell back, and was 
soon after relieved by the First Brigade. The 
command, all now moving forward, marched 
through McDonough and camped that night 
near Cotton River. On the morning of the 21st 
crossed Cotton Indian Creek, swimming the 
horses, and camped at night at Lithonia. 



Arrived at Buck Head on the evening of the 
22d. 



during the expedition the loss in my brigade 
was severe, but not great, when considering the 
forces it engaged. The loss inflicted upon the 
enemy is, of course, unknown, but he probably 
suffered severely. 

To Lieutenant Bennett and his very efficient 
section of artillery much credit is due, as also 
to the First, Third, and Fourth Ohio for their 
admirable behavior under all circumstances. 
Officers and men all did well. 



The column was now marched on the road 
toward McDonough, my brigade covering the 
rear. The motion of forming and moving out 
was slow, and the rebel infantry now closed up 
on my rear, a battalion of Third Ohio. The 
remainder of this regiment was at once 
dismounted to strengthen this line. The enemy 
presented a formidable front, extending well to 
my right, and parted in heavy volleys of 
musketry, while his artillery opened with 
excellent precision upon the other regiments in 
column on the road. Lieutenant Bennett was in 
position in rear, and worked his one piece with 
good effect. The enemy still pressed forward 
with increased numbers. The Third Ohio stood 
well their ground, pouring repeated volleys into 
the enemy's ranks, and only fell back from 
overpowering numbers. Flushed with slight 
successes, the rebels now made a fierce onset, 
charging with their main force. In front of the 



Below will be found a summary of casualties 
during the expedition, the major part of them 
occurring on the 20th. 

To the officers of my staff who were with me 
on the expedition are due my thanks for 
promptitude on all occasions, and for efficient 
aid in the field and on the march; and I would 
recommended to the favorable notice of the 
general commanding the names of Captain 
William E. Crane, acting assistant adjutant- 
general; Captain William H. Scott, acting 
assistant inspector-general; Lieutenant E. S. 
Wood, aide-de-camp; Lieutenant H. H. Siverd, 
provost- marshal; Lieutenant J. N. Squire, 
ordnance officer; Lieutenant J. b. Hayden, 
acting commissary of subsistence, and Asst. 
Surg. John Cannan, medical director. 



43 



Table 3. Casualty Report by Eli Long (OR Volume 38(2):841). 



Casualties. 














Killed 






Wounded. Wounded and missing. 


Missing. 


Command 


Officers Men 


Officers Men Officers Men 


Officers Men 


1 st Ohio Volunteer Cavalry 






4 


1 13 


2 


3d Ohio Volunteer Cavalry 




1 


7 


30 5 


2 


4th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry 






3 


8 16 


2 5 


Total 




1 


14 


9 59 5 


2 9 



1 st Ohio Cavalry, Commanded by 
Colonel Beroth B. Eggleston 

Colonel Beroth B. Eggleston, 1 st Ohio Cavalry, 
assumed command of the Second Brigade once 
Colonel Long was incapacitated by his injuries. 
Colonel Eggleston filed his report on September 1 1 
from Blake's Mill, Georgia, with Captain J.E. 
Jacobs, Assistant Adjutant-General, Cavalry 
Command, and relevant portions of it are presented 
below (OR Volume 38(2):): 

...The brigade being stationed at Columbia, 
Tenn., marched from that place May 22, 
Colonel Eli Long commanding at that time and 
during most of the subsequent operations, but 
now absent from the command in consequence 
of wounds received 

August 15, again went on reconnaissance to 
Decatur. August 17, marched with First 
Brigade for Sandtown, Colonel Minty, First 
Brigade, in command, and from Sandtown 
moved with Brigadier-General Kilpatrick for 
an attack upon the rebel lines of 
communication. Near Fairburn the Atlanta and 
Montgomery Railroad was destroyed for half a 
mile by the First Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, and 
the brigade in or rear being here attacked by a 
force of rebel cavalry with artillery, Colonel 
Long formed in the woods and attacked the 
enemy. They were driven from their position, 
and their camp temporarily occupied. The 
brigade being then ordered to the advance of 
the column, soon encountered an enemy in 
front and skirmished with them during the 
greater part of the day, driving them to Flint 
River, where they took possession on the 
farther bank. A lively action ensued, and it was 
some time before they could be forced back, 
but while the artillery played upon their works 
a charge was made upon them, the river was 
crossed, and the rebels routed. The town of 
Jonesborough was then entered, and the 
Atlanta and Macon Railroad destroyed for 
some distance. On the morning after, the 
command moved on the McDonough road, the 



Second Brigade having the rear. We were 
attacked at en early hour by a brigade of rebel 
cavalry. This force was finally repulsed, and 
the brigade, ordered forward, to follow the 
first. Arriving near Lovejoy's Station the 
command was dismounted to re-enforce the 
First Brigade, which had been attacked on the 
railroad and was being driven back. The 
brigade was formed in line across an open 
field, and breast-works thrown up in the rear. 
The firing was now very heavy on both sides, 
but the First Ohio and a portion of the Fourth 
Ohio at length repulsed the enemy, then fell 
back to the breast-works, and held him in 
check until his firing totally ceased, enabling a 
section of our artillery to be withdrawn. The 
command was then ordered back to their 
horses. Colonel Long was subsequently 
directed to form column and follow the First 
Brigade in a charge to be made upon the 
cavalry in our rear. This was effected without 
much loss, and the brigade was ordered to take 
the rear of the main column, when it again 
formed and moved toward McDonough. Before 
we could move out, however, the rebel infantry 
closed up on our rear, attacking with great 
vigor the line of skirmishers formed by a 
dismounted battalion of the Third Ohio, and 
shelling the columns of the other two 
regiments. Lieutenant Bennett, whose section 
of artillery had been attached to the Second 
Brigade during this expedition, was in position 
in the rear with one piece (his other having 
burst), and worked it with good effect. The 
enemy still advanced with increased numbers 
and pressed the Third Ohio heavily, all of that 
regiment being now dismounted. 

They held their ground firmly, though suffering 
much, until the enemy moved a heavy force to 
their right, threatening to cut them off, when 
they were obliged to fall back. At the same 
time Colonel Long was wounded in two places 
and forced to leave the field, turning over the 
command to myself as next senior officer. The 
column was now in motion, the enemy 
following slowly, and we were relieved by the 
First Brigade. 

Marched that night to Cotton River, and, on the 
21st, swam our horses across the swollen 
waters of Cotton Indian Creek, crossed South 



44 



River, and arrived at Buck Head on the night of 
the 22d. 



The loss of the brigade during this expedition 
was in killed, wounded, and missing, 7 officers 
and 87 men, including Colonel Long and 
Captain William H. Scott, of First Ohio 
Volunteer Cavalry, inspector on the colonel's 
staff. The latter was severely wounded in the 
charge upon the rebel cavalry. The loss 
inflicted upon the enemy is unknown, but must 
have been considerable. We brought off 14 
prisoners 

Since leaving Columbia [Tennessee] the 
brigade's main column has marched 716 miles 
and has captured 151 prisoners, including 9 
officers. 

Below will be found a general summary of 
losses during the campaign: 

Recapitulation of casualties: Officers- Killed, 1; 
wounded, 6; missing, 4. Enlisted men-Killed, 
32; wounded, 124; missing, 40. 

Lieutenant Colonel Thomas J. Patten, Commander 
of the I s Ohio Cavalry, filed his report on 
September 11th with Colonel Eggleston, 
Commander of the 2 n Brigade, and relevant 
portions of it are presented below (OR Volume 
38(2): 

COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the 
following report of the First Regiment of Ohio 
Volunteer Cavalry in the campaign which has 
just come to close: On the 22nd of M ay this 
regiment left Columbia, Tenn., with the Second 
Brigade... On the 17th of August proceeded 
with brigade to Sandtown, and on the 18th 
started upon an expedition with General 
Kilpatrick to destroy the enemy's 
communications in the rear of Atlanta. On this 
expedition the regiment was engaged 
vigorously on more than one occasion. On the 
morning of the 20th, as the expedition was 
marching from Jonesborough, the regiment was 
attacked, being the rear guard, and for two 
hours was under heavy fire. Same day was 
engaged, dismounted, with rebel infantry and 
cavalry near Lovejoy's, and also in a charge, in 
all of which the loss was 4 killed, 13 wounded, 
and 2 missing. Several of the wounded have 
since died. Returned to Buck Head, via 
McDonough, Lithonia, and Decatur. 

During the late move of General Sherman the 
regiment occupied a position on the left wing, 
and was not engaged, except in slight 
skirmishers. 

The entire loss of regiment, since leaving 
Columbia Tenn., is 8 killed, 32 wounded, and 8 
missing. 



Captain William Scott, commander of the 1 st Ohio 
Volunteer was promoted to Captain in March 1864. 
Five months later, the 1 st Ohio was attached to 
Kilpatrick' s division. Captain Scott, inspector on 
staff, led the charge to break out and was severely 
wounded. He was shot through the shoulder but 
refused to have his arm amputated and died a few 
weeks later (Weigley 2006:7). 




Figure 33. Charge of the First Ohio 
Cavalry, at the Battle of Stone's River, Dec. 
31st, 1862 (Sketched by N. Finnegan, Co. 
D). 

In his diary, Captain Heber S. Thompson gives 
specific distances in the Union line up on August 

20 th , 

The 4 th Mich, was formed in column of fours 
about eighty yards on the right of the road, the 
7 th Penna. about forty yards, in columns of 
fours, the 4 th U.S. in the road in columns of 
fours. In the rear of the I s ' Brigade, Long's 
Brigade was formed. Murray' s command was 
formed on the left of the road (Fryer 2001a: 19). 

Thompson further describes entering an open field 
with a "Rebel" not more than 50 yards in front of 
him. The Confederate fired and the ball struck 
Thompson's mare. The mare reared up on her hind 
legs and fell over backwards dead. Getting up 
Thompson started for the Confederate rear and 
came upon a dozen Confederate soldiers. He turned 
to leave and the soldiers made him halt. He was 
surrounded but realized the Confederates were 
more scared than him because they expected Union 
soldiers to be on them at any moment. The party 
total was about 20. Together they crept through the 
woods then to Lovejoy Station where the 
Confederates robbed him of his hat, boots and 
watch. Captain Baglan, Inspector General of 
General Reynold's Staff, took Thompson's boots 
and gave him his old boots. Thompson met Captain 
McCormick of the 4 U.S. Cavalry. Captain 
Thompson and Lieutenant White of the 4' Ohio 



45 



Cavalry were captured in the first fight with the 
infantry. Lieutenant Herman and Captain White 
were both wounded and shared a train to Jonesboro 
with Thompson. 

In Four Years in the Saddle. History of the First 
Regiment Ohio Volunteer Cavalry compiled by W. 
L. Curry in 1898 he writes about the ammunition 
and gives a description of Confederate positions: 

Our ammunition in the First was exhausted and 
a detail was sent back to the ammunition 
wagons and got a supply in boxes and the 
boxes were broken open by stones, the 
cartridges were distributed in a few moments, 
much to the delight of the troopers. The 
brigade held this line for an hour, and during 
this time staff officers were busily engaged 
forming the led horses in columns of fours 
facing the rear. One of the guns of the Chicago 
Board of Trade Battery was disabled in a 
cornfield just to the left of the First, and it was 
haled to the rear by some troopers of the 
Second Brigade (I think the Third Ohio). 

When the Second Brigade had driven the rebel 
line back and the firing had about ceased, 
Colonel Long was ordered to withdraw his 
brigade and fall back to the led horses a few 
hundred yards in the rear. We now began to 
realize that we were surrounded, and the 
chances began to look desperate, as our 
ammunition had already been pretty well 
exhausted, and we must cut our way through 
the lines. The distance between the two lines of 
the enemy could not have been more than 
three-fourths of a mile and the situation was 
about as follows, quoting from an article 
written by an officer [Lieutenant W.S. Scott] of 
the First U.S. Cavalry: 

In the rear of the Union troops were two 
brigades of Cleburne's infantry, Ross' and 
Ferguson' s brigades of cavalry, and about a 
thousand state troops, which had been sent up 
from below Lovejoy Station; closing in on the 
right were the remaining brigades of 
Cleburne's infantry. Martin and Jackson's 
divisions of cavalry were in rear of the left. A 
brigade of infantry and six pieces of artillery 
had been sent up from Macon, and were at 
Lovejoy Station. Reynolds' infantry, as before 
stated, was along the railroad in front. There 
were also twelve pieces of artillery which had 
been sent down from Atlanta. It thus seems that 
there were surrounding the Union troops five 
brigades of infantry, eighteen pieces of 
artillery, six brigades of cavalry; in all, a force 
of twelve thousand men of the three arms. As 
before stated, Kilpatrick had the Second and 
Third Divisions, with four pieces of artillery; in 
all, four thousand seven hundred and ninety- 
eight cavalrymen and seven guns. Finding 



himself completely surrounded by such an 
overwhelming force, he called his division 
commanders together and instructed them to 
cut their way out, designating as the point to 
strike an old deserted plantation. We see that 
up to this point, although his command was 
composed exclusively of cavalrymen and field 
artillery, the cavalry had been fighting almost 
entirely as infantry; but now his troopers were 
to be accorded the privilege of a cavalry charge 
in its true sense, and their sabers, which had 
been allowed to rust in their scabbards during 
the expedition, were to be brought into 
requisition. 

Kilpatrick, a cavalry general, remembering the 
mistakes which had been made on a former 
expedition for the same purpose, instead of 
scattering his troops, massed them. 

The Second Division formed on the right of the 
road and the Third Division on the left of the 
road, facing toward McDonough, while the 
artillery, ambulances filled with wounded, and 
ammunition wagons were formed in the road, 
with orders to follow up the charging columns 
as closely as possible. The troops were all 
formed in columns with the proper intervals, as 
it was thought best to strike the rebel line and 
pierce it in several places rather than charge in 
line, as it was a long distance to charge, and in 
some places the ground was cut up by ditches 
and wash-outs, with two or three fences 
between our forces and the rebel lines. During 
the time the troops were forming, the surgeons 
and ambulance corps were busy gathering up 
the wounded and caring for them as best they 
could. 

The rebels had formed two or three lines with 
infantry behind barricades offence rails and 
logs, as it seems they had anticipated a charge, 
and they were not disappointed in their 
expectations. When our troops were forming, 
two batteries opened up on our lines from the 
front and the infantry was closing up from our 
now rear from the railroad. When all was ready 
every eye was turned intently toward the line of 
the barricades in front, from whence shells 
were now coming thick and fast, and through 
this line and over these barricades we must cut 
our way out or surrender and perhaps starve in 
Andersonville! Draw saber! And forty-five 
hundred sabers ring out as they are drawn from 
their scabbards, the reins are tightened, the 
horses are excited, with nostrils extended as it 
they "snuffed the battle afar off (Curry 
1984:179-181). 

Using Curry's description, the troop placement on 
the battlefield looked something like this: 



46 



UNION 



3 Division 
(to left of road 
covering rear 
facing McDonough) 



Road 



2 nd Division 



(to right of road) 



CONFEDERATES 



Artillery 

Ambulances (w/ wounded) 
Ammunition Wagons 
(in road) 



Martin and Jackson 
(approaching from rear left) 



Ross and Ferguson 
+ 1,000 state troops 
In rear 



3 rd Ohio Veteran Volunteer Cavalry, 

Commanded by Colonel Charles B. 

Seidel 



wounded, and 4 missing, was relieved by a 
portion of the First Brigade, Second Cavalry 

Division The aggregate loss during the 

campaign is as follows: Killed, or died of 
wounds received in action, 1 commissioned 
officer, 20 men; wounded, 1 field officer, 60 
men; missing in action, 2 commissioned 
officers, 20 men; total loss, 4 commissioned 
officers, 100 men. 



Colonel Charles B. Seidel, commander of the 3rd 
Ohio Veteran Volunteer Cavalry, filed his report 
on September 11 with the Assistant Adjutant- 
General, Military Division of the Mississippi, and 
relevant portions of it are presented below (OR 
Volume 38(2)): 

....On the 18th of August started, under 
command of General Kilpatrick, for the 
expedition to the rear of Atlanta. Left 
Sandtown at sundown, on the 18th, and 
marched all night, skirmishing most of the 
time. 19th, fought all day and got possession of 
the Macon railroad at Jonesborough, at 4 p.m.; 
burnt the pubic buildings and destroyed the 
railroad for a distance of two miles. Left 
Jonesborough at 3 a. m. of the 20th, and 
marched to Lovejoy's Station, having a brisk 
skirmish in the rear on the route. At Lovejoy's 
met the enemy in large force, cavalry, artillery, 
and infantry. After fighting an hour we formed 
in advance for brigade and charged in column 
of fours on the enemy in our rear, scattering 
them badly, and causing them to abandon one 
piece of artillery, which was brought off the 
field by our brigade (Second Cavalry); also 
captured a number of prisoners. The regiment 
was detailed for rear guard, the column 
marching toward McDonough, and was 
attacked by one division of rebel infantry. After 
fighting them an hour, losing 8 men killed, 30 



Total number of miles traveled during the 
campaign, 1,021. 

Lieutenant Colonel Oliver P. Robie, 
commander of the 4 th Ohio Cavalry, filed his 
report with Lieutenant Colonel Robie on 
September 11, 1864 and a portion of it 
pertaining to events in the Lovejoy vicinity 
and excerpts from it are presented below (OR 
Volume 38(2). 

... Returning encamped at Buck Head, Ga., 
July 31, where we remained until August 18, 
when we joined General Kilpatrick's forces on 
the raid around Atlanta, at Sandtown. During 
this raid the regimental loss was 2 
commissioned officers wounded and 2 missing, 
3 men killed, 15 wounded, and 6 missing. 
Returning, reached Buck Head August 22, 
where we remained until the 25th, when the 
regiment accompanied the army around 
Atlanta, reaching Decatur September 10, 1864. 



47 



Chicago Board of Trade Battery, 

Commanded by Lieutenants Bennett 

and George Robinson 

The Chicago Board of Trade Battery was part of 
the support supplemented by Brigadier General 
Kenner D. Garrard. Kilpatrick said his "battery is a 
good one; but the Board of Trade Battery is a better 
one, and I don't have to give myself any thought 
about the result if they get into the action" (Nourse 
1890). 

Lieutenant George I. Robinson, one of two 
commanding officers of the Chicago (Illinois) 
Board of Trade Battery filed two reports on their 
activity in late August and early September 1864 
and extracts of these are presented below (OR 
Volume 38(2):852-855): 



HDQRS. CHICAGO BOARD OF TRADE 
BATTERY, 



Near Atlanta, Ga., August 23, 1864. 

SIR: I have the honor to report to the 
brigadier-general, chief of artillery, the 
following general summary of the part taken by 
my battery in the recent operations under 
General Kilpatrick upon the enemy's 
communications south of Atlanta: 

On the evening of the 17th instant I received 
orders from Brigadier-General Garrard to 
report with four of my guns to Colonel Minty, 
commanding First Brigade, Second Division 
Cavalry, to proceed with him to join the 
command of Brigadier-General Kilpatrick at 
Sandtown, which I did, and moved with 
Colonel Minty's command at 2 a. m. the 18th 
instant, in that direction, reaching Sandtown 
about 6 o'clock the same morning. Camped for 
the day, and at sunset moved with the 
combined forces. Early the next morning (the 
19th) we commenced skirmishing with the 
enemy, which was continued during the day, 
the enemy giving away before us. During this 
day my battery was called into action to a 
considerable extent, doing some good work, 
among which was the dismounting of one of 
the enemy's guns, the same shot killing the 
gunner of the rebel piece. This day I suffered 
no loss or casualties. The following day (the 
20th), near Lovejoy's Station, on the Atlanta 
and Macon Railroad, my battery was brought 
into action and very heavily engaged with the 
enemy, during which one of my guns was 
disabled by the breaking of the trail at the 
elevating screw. At this time the enemy opened 
a severe cross-fire of musketry upon my right 
flank, compelling me to retire and leave this 
gun upon the field; but after taking a new 
position with my remaining three guns, I took a 



detachment from my command, with the 
assistance of a similar body from the cavalry 
supporting me, went to the field, and pulled 
this gun off, dismounted it from its carriage 
(which I thoroughly destroyed) and slung the 
piece under its limber, but my prolongs were 
found not sufficient strong to hold it, and I then 
loaded it into one of my wagons, which I 
happened to have close at hand, and in this way 
brought it off when our troops fell back. 
During this engagement 2 of the enemy's guns 
fell into our hands, 1 of which (a 12-pounder 
howitzer) I brought off and now have. During 
the withdrawal of our forces two of my guns 
were placed in position to assist in covering the 
movement, and were soon engaged with the 
advancing enemy, during which action one of 
these guns exploded, flying into fragments, 
rendering the carriage unserviceable, but it (the 
carriage) was brought off. I can attribute this 
explosion to no definite cause, unless the gun 
had been taxed beyond its capacity. It was 
charged at the time with a fuze shell with 2 1/2- 
second fuze. Having fallen back some ten or 
twelve miles, we came to some stream (at 
present unknown to me by name) over which it 
was found impossible to cross my wagon 
containing piece, owing to the very high and 
rapid stage of water, and the wagon was 
destroyed to prevent its falling into the hands 
of the enemy, and this gun thrown into the 
stream and sunk in over four feet of water. 

The following is a list of casualties in my 
command during this expedition, viz: Killed, 1; 
wounded, 4; missing, 1; total, 6. 

As no report has been made to your 
headquarters of the previous actions 
participated in my command, I have the honor 
to report the following loss during the 
campaign to this date, viz: Killed, 3; 
wounded, 13; missing, 5; total, 21 men. 



I am, lieutenant, very respectfully, your 
obedient servant, 



GEO. I. ROBINSON, First Lieutenant, 
Commanding Battery. 

Lieutenant E. P. STUGERS, Acting Aide-de- 
Camp. 

HDQRS. CHICAGO BOARD OF TRADE 
BATTERY, 

Near Jonesborough, Ga., September 5, 1864. 

SIR: I have the honor to make to the brigadier- 
general, chief of artillery, Department of the 
Cumberland, the following report of the part 
taken by the battery under my command during 
the late campaign. . . 



48 



On August 17, p. m., I was ordered by the 
brigadier-general commanding division to 
report with our of my guns to Colonel R. H. 
Minty, commanding First Brigade, Second 
Cavalry Division, and proceed with his to 
Sandtown, to join the command of Brigadier- 
General Kilpatrick, where I arrived early on the 
morning of the 18th. On the evening of this day 
I moved with my command, with and under the 
command of General Kilpatrick, to break the 
enemy's communication south of Atlanta, being 
more or less heavily engaged with the enemy 
on the 19th and 20th of August, near 
Jonesborough and Lovejoy's Station, suffering 
a loss of 7 men and a number of horses, and 
having 2 of my guns disabled and lost to the 
service by the severe tax then and there put 
upon them, for the detail of which I would 
respectfully call attention to my previous report 
of the part taken by my command during this 
expedition. On the 22nd of August we again 
reached the army, and my battery was again 
brought together. Since then my battery has 
moved with the division to which it belongs, 
and which are undoubtedly well known to the 
chief of artillery. 

I have the further honor to report that it is a 
gratification for me to be able to state that 
wherever I have encountered the enemy's 
artillery connected with his cavalry command 
have almost universally silenced it or caused it 
to be drawn from the field, and it is known that 
upon three different occasions one of his guns 
has been disabled by the fire from my guns, 
besides evidences of other serious damage has 
been brought to my notice. As the chief of 
artillery is undoubtedly familiar with the part 
taken by the Second Cavalry Division, he will 
readily appreciate the severe service that my 
battery was performed, as it has moved with it 
in all of its marches and countermarches and 
participated with it in all of its engagements. 

I desire to call attention to the valuable services 
rendered by Second Lieutenant Trumbull D. 
Griffin and Second Lieutenant Henry Bennett, 
to whom I am largely indebted for the 
efficiency of the battery during the campaign. 



Below please find a recapitulation of casualties 
during the campaign: Killed, 1; wounded (3 
since died), 16; missing, 5; total, 22. 

I am, lieutenant, very respectfully, your 
obedient servant, 

GEO. I. ROBINSON, First Lieutenant, 
Commanding Battery. 

Lieutenant E. P. STRUGES, Acting Aide-de- 
Camp. 

In his report, Lieutenant George Robinson (1840- 
1909) noted the Chicago Board of Trade was under 
severe cross-fire of musketry from the 
Confederates on their right flank. The Chicago 
Board of Trade had to leave one gun on the field 
yet had three remaining guns. With a detachment 
assisted by the cavalry, they recovered the gun, 
dismounted it from its carriage and destroyed it. 
Then they engaged with the Confederates and 
recovered two of their guns, one being a 12- 
pounder Howitzer. One of the guns exploded into 
fragments. It was charged with a fuze shell with a 2 
1/2 -second fuze. Overall one person was killed, 
four wounded, and one missing (OR, Vol. 
38(2):854). 

Third Division, Commanded by 

Brigadier General Hugh Judson 

Kilpatrick 

Brigadier General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, U.S. 
Army, commanded the Third Division. One of 
many Civil War-era images of Kilpatrick is shown 
in Figure 35. Kilpatrick filed several field reports 
on the actions of troops under his command in late 
August and early September 1864. Selected 
portions of these are presented below (OR Volume 
38(2): 



49 




Figure 34. Stereoscopic View of Judson Kilpatrick (Library of Congress 2007). 



Brigadier-General. 



HEADQUARTERS THIRD CAVALRY 

DIVISION, 

Sandtown, Ga., August 23, 1864. 



Brigadier-General ELLIOTT, 



Chief of Cavalry, Dept. of the Cumberland. 



GENERAL: I learn from Lieutenant-Colonel 
Klein, and from prisoners, taken y him, that the 
impression at headquarters that he had done but 
little damage to the railroad is erroneous. He 
informs me that he effectually destroyed 3 
miles of the road below Bear Creek Station; 
that he tore up the track, burned the ties, and 
bent the rails, that he captured a locomotive 
with 9 cars loaded with supplies and car 
wheels. He ran the train into a deep, long cut, 
and there burned it. He is of the opinion that 
the damage done to the road by his command 
cannot be repaired in less than four or five 
days. Between Bear Creek Station and 
Jonesborough sections of track were torn up in 
many places, Colonel Klein also captured a 
train of 20 wagons, brought home the animals, 
and destroyed the wagons, he brought in 17 
prisoners; they will be forwarded to you this 
evening. 

I omitted to mention in my report of this 
morning that one gun belonging to the Chicago 
Board of Trade Battery exploded in the 
engagement near McDonough; that a gun- 
carriage of another gun became disabled and 
the gun thrown into Cotton Indian Creek. 

I will forwarded the report of division and 
brigade commanders as soon as received. 

J. KILPATRICK 



HDQRS. THIRD CAV. DIV., DEPT. OF 
THE CUMBERLAND, 



On Flint River, August 31, 1864. 

GENERAL: I left my camp yesterday 
morning at 6.30 a. m., in advance of General 
Ransom's column. Met the enemy two miles 
out, and drove him back to the cross-roads, five 
miles from the railroad. Here he made a 
determined resistance with the assistance of 
400 infantry. He was again driven back from 
one position to another till a favorable 
opportunity offered, when I rushed the Ninety- 
second Illinois forward, saved the bridge, and 
crossed in face of rifle-pits. Captain Estes and 
the officers and men of the Ninety-second 
Illinois are alone entitled to all the praise for 
this successful exploit. Three regiments of my 
division were at once crossed and pushed in to 
the right of the infantry, and made a deliberate 
effort to reach the road below Jonesborough. 
The enemy in front of my cavalry was driven 
to within 300 yards of the track, but we could 
not reach it, owing to my small force and the 
fact that it was quite dark. My people fell back 
to a strong position, and at daylight this a. m. 
recrossed the river. 



I will send you during the day a nominal list 
of casualties. 



50 



As soon as Major-General Howard finds his 
left flank is safe, by his directions I will cross 
the river below Jonesborough, and reach the 
railroad, if possible. One hour of daylight 
would have given me the road last evening. 

I am, general, very respectfully, your 
obedient servant, 

J. KILPATRICK, 

Brigadier-General, Commanding. 

Brigadier-General ELLIOTT, 

Chief of Cavalry, Dept. of the Cumberland. 



Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. 



HEADQUARTERS THIRD CAVALRY 
DIVISION, 



Near Jonesborough, September 1, 1864. 

SIR: I have the honor to forward the 
following list of casualties of my command for 
August 31 and September 1: First Brigade - 
Killed, 1 commissioned officer; wounded, 7 
enlisted men; missing, 8 enlisted men; 2 of this 
number wounded. Second Brigade - Killed, 1 
enlisted man; wounded, 3 commissioned 
officers and 11 enlisted men; missing, 7 
enlisted men. Third Brigade - Wounded, 3 
enlisted men. 



HDQRS. THIRD CAV. DIV., DEPT. OF 
THE CUMBERLAND, 



I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, 



Near Flint River, August 31,1 864. 

I have the honor to report that I forced a 
passage on the river half a mile below 
Jonesborough, drove in the enemy's pickets 
directly in his rear to a point within half a mile 
of the town, dismounted an entire brigade, sent 
the horses back across the river, and held 
position; repulsed two determined attacks of 
rebel infantry, and only retired when nearly 
enveloped, as I have since been informed, by 
the rebel General Cleburne's entire division. 
The enemy forced me from the banks of the 
river; crossed on a bridge constructed by my 
people, attacked the Ninety-second Illinois in 
opposition a few hundred yards from the river 
on the crest of a hill, was repulsed, and retired 
across the river. In the mean time Captain 
Qualman, Third Indiana Cavalry, with a strong 
force of picked men, dashed in on the railroad 
four miles below, effectually destroyed upward 
of 50 yards of track, burning the ties and 
bending the rails, and brought with his into 
camp about half a mile of telegraph wire. He 
lost 1 man killed. My people are now guarding 
all the roads leading from fords or brigades as 
far down was the roads leading from fords or 
bridges as far down as the point where the 
Jonesborough and Fayetteville road crossed the 
river. I will make every effort to learn the 
position, strength, and movements of the 
enemy and keep you advised. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, 

J. KILPATRICK. 



Brigadier-General of Volunteers. 



Lieutenant DAVID F. HOW, 



J. KILPATRICK, 

Brigadier-General. 

Lieutenant DAVID F. HOW, 

Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. 

HEADQUARTERS THIRD CAVALRY 
DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE 
CUMBERLAND, 

Camp Crooks, Ga., September 13, 1864. 

CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the 
following report of the operations of my 
command during the recent campaign, 
commencing with the advance across Taylor's 
Ridge and battle of Resaca, and ending with 
the defeat of the rebel army and fall of 
Atlanta. . . 

On the 15th [August 1864] crossed the 
Chattahoochee, took up position on the south 
side, fortified, and remained in camp until 5 p. 
m. 15th, when, with Colonel Garrard's brigade, 
I crossed Camp creek, tore up portions of the 
railroad below Sideling, and destroyed the 
depot at Fairburn containing government 
stores. On my return scouted the country 
between Fairburn and the enemy's position at 
Sandtown. I left my camp at sandtown on the 
evening of the 18th instant with the Third 
Cavalry Division, and two brigades of the 
Second and two batteries of artillery, 
numbering 4,500 men, to attack and destroy the 
enemy's communications. Pickets from the 
Sixth Texas were met and driven across Camp 
Creek, and the regiment routed from its camp a 
mile beyond at 10 o'clock in the evening, and at 
12.30 a. m. General Ross 1 brigade, 1,100 
strong, was driven from my front in direction 
of East Point, and held from the road by the 



51 



Second Brigade, Third Division (Lieutenant- 
Colonel Jones), while the entire command 
passed. The West Point railroad was reached, 
and a portion of the track destroyed at daylight. 
Here General Ross attacked my rear. He was 
repulsed, and I moved on the Fayetteville road, 
were I again found him in my front. He slowly 
retired in the direction of Jonesborough, and 
crossed Flint River at 2 p. m., destroying the 
bridge. Under cover of my artillery Colonels 
Minty and Long, commanding detachments 
from their brigades, crossed the river and drove 
the enemy from his rifle-pits. The bridge was 
repaired, and the entire command crossed and 
occupied Jonesborough at 5 p. m., driving the 
enemy's cavalry in confusion from the town. I 
now learned that the telegraph and railroad had 
been destroyed at Bear Creel Station at 1 1 a. m. 
by a portion of my command, under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Klein, and that General 
Armstrong had passed through Jonesborough 
in that direction at 1 p. m. For six hours my 
entire command was engaged destroying the 
road. At 1 1 o'clock in the evening Colonel 
Murray's division was attacked one mile below 
the town and driven back. I now suspended 
operations upon the road and attacked the 
enemy and drove him one mile and a half. 
Fearing an attack from the direction of Atlanta, 
I moved before daylight, in direction of 
Covington, five miles, and halted and allowed 
the enemy to come up; left one brigade to 
engage his attention, and moved rapidly in 
direction of McDonough, six miles, thence 
across the country to the Fayetteville road, and 
reached the railroad one mile above Lovejoy's 
Station at 1 1 a. m. on the 20th instant. On 
attempting to move on the station I 
encountered a brigade of infantry - was 
repulsed; I and my command only saved by the 
prompt and daring [bravery] of Colonels Minty 
and Long, and Captain Estes, my assistant 
adj utant- general. 

The enemy were finally checked and driven 
back with heavy loss. We captured 1 battle- 
flag. At this moment a staff officer from 
Colonel Murray informed me that a large force 
of cavalry, with artillery, had attacked his rear. 
In twenty minutes I found that i was 
completely enveloped by cavalry and infantry, 
with artillery. I decided at once to ride over the 
enemy's cavalry and retire on the McDonough 
road. A large number of my people were 
dismounted, fighting on foot, and it took some 
time to mount them and form my command for 
the charge. During the delay the enemy 
constructed long lines of barricades on every 
side. Those in front of his cavalry were very 
formidable. Pioneers were sent in advance of 
the charging columns to remove obstructions. 
Colonel Minty, with his command in three 
columns, charged, broke, and rode over the 
enemy's left. Colonel Murray, with his 
regiments, broke his center, and in a moment 
General Jackson's division, 4,000 strong, was 
running in great confusion. It was the most 
perfect rout any cavalry has sustained during 
the war. We captured 4 guns (3 were destroyed 



and 1 brought off); 3 battle-flags were taken; 
his ambulances, wagons, and ordnance train 
captured, and destroyed as far as possible; 
many prisoners were taken, and his killed and 
wounded is known to be large. My command 
was quickly reformed, thrown into position, 
fought successfully the enemy's infantry for 
one hour and forty minutes, and only retired 
when it was found that we had left only 
sufficient ammunition to make sure our retreat. 
We swam Cotton Indian Creek and crossed 
South River on the morning of the 21st, and 
reached our lines near Decatur, by way of 
Lithonia, without molestation, at 2 p. m. 
August 22. We effectively destroyed four miles 
of the Macon road, from Jonesborough to Bear 
Creek Station, a distance often miles. One 
train of cars was fully, and a second partially, 
destroyed. We brought into camp 1 gun, 3 
battle-flags, and a large number of fresh horses 
and mules and about 50 prisoners. My entire 
loss in killed, wounded, and missing will not 
exceed 300 men. Two hundred of this number 
were killed and wounded. Only the 
dangerously wounded were left with the 
enemy. 

While it is most difficult to single out instances 
of gallantry, I cannot close this report without 
mentioning to the favorable consideration of 
the major-general commanding, the following 
named officers whose gallant conduct attracted 
my attention on so many occasions: Colonel 
Minty, commanding two brigades from the 
Second Cavalry Division, for his untiring 
energy through the march, and the consummate 
skill displayed at the moment when we were 
repulsed at Lovejoy's Station, and the 
subsequent gallant ride of his command over 
the enemy's barricades, deserves immediate 
promotion. Colonel Long was equally 
distinguished, and well deserves the promotion 
he has received. He was twice wounded, and 
yet remained on the field. Captain Estes, my 
assistance adj utant- general, and my two aide, 
Lieutenants Wilson and Northrop, deserve 
every consideration for the great service 
rendered me throughout the expedition. 
Colonel Murray, commanding division, and the 
brigades of Colonels Jones and King were 
greatly distinguished at the charge of Lovejoy's 
Station. Officers were never more gallant, and 
skillful; men were never more brave. They well 
deserve a success so great. 

August 25, 1 moved with my command to 
Steven's Cross-Roads, one miles and a half 
beyond Union Church; went into camp, 
covering the entire country in the front and the 
right flank of the Army of the Tennessee, 
which had made its first day's march with the 
grand army in its movement upon the enemy's 
communications. At 6 a. m., August 26, the 
command moved in advance of, and upon the 
right flank of, the Army of the Tennessee, 
masking its movements, drove the enemy's 
cavalry, under Brigadier-General Ross, to and 
beyond the railroad, and went into camp, 
August 27, on the right of the army and near 



52 



Fairburn. In the movements upon the Macon 
railroad at Jonesborough my command had the 
advance, and, with the assistance of two 
regiments of infantry, the Second and Seventh 
Iowa Regiments, Majors [Hamill and Mahon] 
commanding, steadily forced the enemy back 
to within three miles of Renfroe Place, the 
cavalry moving on the right flank up to this 
point. Here the Ninety-second Illinois Mounted 
Infantry, under the direction of Captain Estes, 
my assistant adjutant- general, pushed in ahead 
of the infantry, rushed the enemy back to and 
across Flint River, saved the bridge, crossed 
and took possession of the rifle-pits beyond, a 
brigade of infantry having been thrown across, 
and pushed up the hill in direction of the 
station to the left of Jonesborough. I rapidly 
crossed three regiments of cavalry, moved in, 
and drove the enemy from the high hills on the 
right, while Captain Estes, with the Ninety- 
second illinois, made a daring but unsuccessful 
attempt to reach the railroad. This attack, made 
as night was closing in, and although with 
considerable loss, yet resulted most favorably 
to the success of the operations during the night 
and the following morning. The brigade of 
infantry having been pushed in well toward the 
station far on the left of Jonesborough, this 
determined attack of cavalry, dismounted, a 
mile to the right, with considerable skirmishing 
between, forced the enemy to believe that a 
heavy force of infantry had crossed, and there 
waited instead of making an attack, which 
might have proved disastrous. My cavalry was 
relieved by infantry during the night, recrossed 
Flint River the following morning, and moved 
to Anthony's Bridge, one mile and a half 
below. The bridge having been burned, was 
quickly rebuilt, and a portion of the command 
passed over and was pushed well in upon the 
enemy's flank and rear in the direction of the 
railroad. 

During the day a daring and successful attempt 
was made by captain Qualman (Third Indiana 
Cavalry), with a portion of the Third Indiana 
Cavalry, to reach the railroad and telegraphed. 
A section of the road was torn up and one mile 
or telegraphed wire was brought away, with the 
loss of 1 man killed. At 3.30 p. m. of the same 
day (August 31) the enemy made a determined 
attack upon the infantry on my left. It seemed 
to be the intention of the enemy to break or 
turn our right flank. At first he entirely ignored 
my command. This I determined he should not 
do. Five regiments of cavalry, dismounted, 
were in position behind barricades directly in 
the flanks of the charging column. My artillery 
was in a most favorable position. I directed the 
artillery to commence firing on the advancing 
column of the enemy, and the cavalry upon the 



opposite side of the river to meet and attack 
him. This attack was determined and gallantly 
made. The enemy was forced to turn and meet 
it. He moved down in heavy columns, twice 
charged and was twice repulsed, but finally 
forced my people to retire from their rail 
barricades and across the river. A portion of the 
enemy succeeded in crossing, were met by the 
Ninety-second Illinois Mounted Infantry 
dismounted, and repulsed. We held the bridge 
until relieved by the infantry under General 
Blair in the afternoon of the following day, 
when we moved to Glass 1 Bridge below 
Lovejoy's Station, repaired the bridge, which 
had been burned by the enemy, crossed, and 
maintained our position upon the opposite side 
for two days, constantly annoying the enemy's 
flank and rear, repulsing with loss every attack 
he made, and formed a junction with the right 
of the infantry of the Army of the Tennessee 
near Lovejoy's Station, September 3; we 
remained in this position until 1 1 o'clock 
September 5, and then moved back, first to 
Anthony's Bridge, then to Red Oak, and finally 
to Sandtown, having covered the rear and flank 
of the Army of the Tennessee in its retrograde 
movement from Lovejoy's Station to its present 
position. 

Accompanying this report will be found a 
tabulated list of the casualties of this command 
during the campaign, as well as of prisoners 
and property captured. 

Before closing my report, I desire to assure the 
chief of cavalry that the officers and men of my 
command have endeavored to zealously and 
faithfully discharge every duty assigned them, 
and I only hope that he and those my seniors in 
rank are as well satisfied with my conduct and 
operations as I am with the efforts of my 
command. 



Respectfully submitted. 

J. KILPATRICK, 

Brigadier-General, U. S. Vols., 
Commanding. 

Captain J. E.JACOBS, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



53 



List of killed, wounded and missing in the Third Cavalry Division... during recent campaign. 




Killed 


Wounded Missing 


Total 


Command 


Officers Men 


Officers Men Officers Men 


Officers Men 


First Brigade 


1 


8 5 




1 13 


Second Brigade 


1 17 


5 53 6 113 




12 183 


Third Brigade 


5 7 


40 13 




5 60 


10th Wise. Batt. 




5 2 




7 


Grand Total 


7 24 


5 106 6 137 
J. KILPATRICK, 




18 263 






Brigadier- Gen eral, 


U.S. 


Volunteers, Commanding. 


Source: OR, Vo 


IL:861. 









Table 4. Casualty Report of Brigadier General Judson Kilpatrick, August, 1864. 



Someone using the initials "M.W.H." wrote to The 
National Tribune (published March 26, 1891) that 
after a dialog General Kilpatrick and Colonel 
Murray led the charge of the 4 Regular Cavalry. 
Kilpatrick had died a decade sooner (1891) and 
Minty was one of the individuals who wrote in 
response. Minty responded to the article by saying 
this was imaginary and his [Minty] brigade led the 
charge. 



the 3 Division and followed the Chicago Board of 
Trade. According to Minty' s description the troop 
positions on the battlefield would have looked 
something like this: 



Kilpatrick along with Private William Bailey (4 
Michigan Cavalry) followed the 4 Regulars. The 
2 Brigade broke into columns and followed the 
three charging regiments. The Chicago Board of 
Trade Battery followed the Ohio regiment (which 
was in the rear of the Fourth Regulars on the 
McDonough road.) Colonel Murray commanded 



Minty's Brigade 



4 th U.S. 


4 th 


Michigan 


7 th 


Pennsylvania 




(Burns 


Thompson, 


Minty) 




xxxx 






XXXX 




XXXX 


xxxx 






xxxx 




xxxx 


xxxx 






xxxx 




xxxx 


xxxx 






xxxx 




xxxx 


xxxx 






xxxx 




xxxx 



54 



Kilpatrick and 
Pvt. William Bailey 

Followed 4* Regulars 

2 Brigade of Ohio Regiments (in rear of 4 Regulars) 

Chicago Board of Trade (in rear of Ohio regiments) 

Colonel Murray - commanded Third Division, followed Chicago Board of Trade 



3 rd Cavalry Division, Commanded 
by Lieutenant Colonel Robert Klein 

Lieutenant Colonel Robert Klein, 3rd Indiana 
Cavalry, commanded the First Brigade on August 
20 (Figure 36). Klein filed two reports with 
Brigadier General W.D. Whipple, Assistant 
Adjutant-General and Captain L.G. Estes, from 
Klein's headquarters at Sandtown, Georgia on 
August 21 st and August 23 r of operations August 
18-20 (Kilpatrick's raid) and extracts of both are 
presented below (OR Volume 38(2):868-869). 
Lieutenant Robert Klein was not at Nash Farm on 
August 20 c because he was part of the group that 
divided to create a diversion. 



[August 21 st report to Brigadier General 
Whipple] SIR: I have the honor to report that 
my understanding with General Kilpatrick was 
that he would cross the West Point railroad not 
far from East Point, and strike the Macon 
railroad near Chapman's, taking down the 
railroad to Griffin, where I was to meet him. 

I left with my command, 292 men (General 
Kilpatrick with the remainder of the cavalry 
force at Stevens, seven miles from Fairburn), at 
1 1.30 p. m. of the 18th. I reached Fairburn at 
1.30 a. m. 19th, Fayetteville at 9 a. m., and 
Bear Creek Station, nine miles above Griffin, 
at 1 1 a. m. Four miles above Bear Creek 
Station, at Lovejoy's, I was driven back at 4.30 
p. m. 19th, after having torn up portions of 3 
miles of track and 3 miles of telegraph, 
captured 2 trains of cars, burned 1, and was 
driven from the other by the guard and 
Ferguson's cavalry. I could learn nothing of 
General Kilpatrick's force from either the 
conductor of the captured train from East Point 
or from some prisoners captured from 
Ferguson's brigade of cavalry which had left a 
point between Atlanta and Decatur at daylight 
of the 19th. 



Lieutenant Robert Klein continued his narrative to 
Captain Estes two days later on August 23, 1864: 

SIR: I have the honor to submit the following 
report of the operations of my command in the 
late expedition against the enemy's 
communications in the rear of Atlanta: 

At 1 1 p. m. of the 18th instant, with my 

command of 13 officers and 292 men, I left the 
main column at Stevens' farm, seven miles 
from the railroad at Fairburn. Agreeably to 
instructions, I tore up a portion of track and 
telegraph wire, and at 2 a. m. 19th moved on 
Fayetteville road, reaching that place at 7 a. m., 
meeting a small force and capturing some 
prisoners, 40 mules, and 20 wagons, the latter 
of which were burned. Moved on Griffin road 
to near M ount Zion Church, turned to left, 
crossed Flint River, eight miles from 
Fayetteville and eight miles from Fayette 
Station, on Macon railroad, at which point I 
intended striking, but, by a mistake of our 
guide, struck railroad four miles above Fayette, 
at Bear Creek Station at 1 1 a. m.; commenced 
fearing up track and telegraph wire, destroying 
over 1 solid mile of track at intervals of three 
miles railing road toward Lovejoy's Station, 
and 3 miles of wire, taking it down, reeling, 
and hiding it. The railroad ties were piled up 
and iron laid on them and burned. At Bear 
Creek captured a train of 9 cars loaded with 
whisky, meal, wheat, lard, and railroad trucks. 
This train was run off railroad in a deep cut, 
and burned. When three miles toward 
Lovejoy's heard another train coming and 
succeeded in cutting it off between Lovejoy's 
and the destroy track, but I found the guard of 
infantry too strong, and was disposing of my 
force for a united attempted to take it, when a 
cavalry force came in on my flank, compelling 
me to defend myself in that quarter. In charge 
some prisoners were captured, from whom I 
learned that Ferguson's and Armstrong's 
brigades of cavalry were upon me, and 
Reynolds' infantry brigade also advancing. 
Under the circumstances, I deemed it prudent 
to get out of there. I had one road open, across 
the bridge I had come over it the morning, or I 
could have gone toward Griffin, which would 
have been certain capture, for I had given up 



55 



the prospect of meeting the remainder of the 
expedition. Not being able to hear from them 
from prisoners captured on the train through 
from Chapman's or from Ferguson's men i 
decided to fall back on the road I had come, 
and put my decision in immediate execution, 
leaving railroad at 4.30 p. m. 19th. When I 
reached the bridge across Flint River, I found it 
torn up by the enemy; but a friendly rail fence 
supplied the place of plank, and my column 
was soon over and the bridge in flames. When 
within two miles of Fayetteville the enemy 
came in on my rear, via the ford road from 
Lovejoy's to Fayetteville, and kept up a brisk 
fire with my rear guard, warming up as we 
neared the town, when they opened on us in 
front, being posted in front and in the town. We 
scattered them by a saber charge, and were not 
much harassed by them afterward. I passed 
through Fairburn at 7.30 p. m., one hour and a 
half after and infantry force, intending to 
intercept us, and moved farther down on 
anticipation of meeting us there. I remained the 
balance of the night near Stevens' farm, 
reaching sandtown at 1 1 a. m. 20th instant. I 
brought in with me 17 prisoners and 40 mules. 
My casualties were 2 men wounded and 3 
captured (OR Volume 38(2):868-869). 



18-22 (Kilpatrick's raid) with Lieutenant J.S. 
McRea, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, and an 
extract is presented below (OR Volume 38(2):893): 

... . Arriving at Fosterville, we found the 
brigades of Colonels Minty and Long heavily 
engaged with what was supposed to be a large 
force of the enemy's infantry. The Third 
Brigade was ordered into line on the left, and 
partially in rear of these two brigades. Shortly 
afterward the Ninety-second Illinois Mounted 
Infantry was ordered from their first position 
and assigned by Colonel M urray to a different 
part of the field. The lines of the Third and 
Fifth Kentucky Cavalry were in a short time 
changed for the purpose of holding in check 
any movement of the enemy in front of my 
brigade until our forces could form for the 
purpose of forcing their way through the 
enemy's lines. Preparations for this movements 
being completed, the Third Brigade was 
ordered to form for the charge. Never did men 
obey an order with more alacrity or 
determination. When the word wa given to 
charge they moved forward with enthusiasm, 
but with the utmost precision. In fifteen 
minutes after the charge they were in column 
ready for another. 




Figure 35. Lieutenant Colonel Robert 
Klein, 3rd Indiana Cavalry (Pickerill 
1906:24). 

3 rd Cavalry Division, Commanded 
by Colonel Eli H. Murray 

Lieutenant Colonel Robert H. King, 3rd Kentucky 
Cavalry, commanding the Third Brigade, filed his 
report from his headquarters near Sandtown, 
Georgia on August 23 1 of operations from August 



To the officers and men of the brigade I 
returned my thanks for their gallant conduct on 
every occasion and for the cheerfulness with 
which they bore the fatigues of the march. 

Lieutenant Colonel Fielder A. Jones, 
commander of the 8 th Indiana Cavalry and who 
commanded the Second Brigade, filed his 
report on September 9, 1864 for operations 
July 9-September 8, 1864 with Captain Estes, 
Assistant Adjutant-General, Third Cavalry 
Division (OR Volume 38(2):875). 

... At dark on the evening of the 19 1 ' 1 [August] I 
received orders from Colonel Murray, 
commanding division, to move through the 
town, take up position, and await orders, 
Remained just outside the south limits of the 
town until 9 o'clock, when I received orders to 
move down the railroad toward Griffin, clear 
the front and flanks of the Third Brigade, 
which was detailed to tear up the railroad track. 
Moved down the road about a half mile, when I 
suddenly found myself confronted by a strong 
force of the enemy posted behind barricades. 
My advanced guard was checked, and then 
driven back. I dismounted the Eighth Indiana 
and Second Kentucky, with the Tenth Ohio on 
the right and in the road mounted, and the 
Third Kentucky dismounted on the left, and 
charged the barricade, but was unable to 
dislodge the enemy. It was dark, and we could 
only ascertain the position of the enemy by the 
line of his fire, which enveloped the Second 
Kentucky and Eighth Indiana in front and both 
flanks at point-blank range. Under orders from 



56 



Colonel Murray, I withdrew my command, and 
joined the column on the McDonough road. 
Marched all night, and early next morning 
overtook the rear of the column, skirmishing 
lightly with the enemy. About 9 a. m. of the 
20th arrived to within two miles of Lovejoy's, 
and found the head of the column heavily 
engaged with the enemy, while I was 
vigorously attacked in rear by Ross 1 and 
Armstrong's cavalry. The rear guard, under 
direction of Captain Lyon, acting inspector- 
general on my staff, barricaded the road and 
held the enemy in check long enough for me to 
form my command on an advantageous 
position and barricade it. Captain Beebe's 
battery was placed in position, covered by a 
barricade, and my command dismounted, was 
placed in line along a crest, and immediately 
were engaged with the enemy, easily holding 
him off. About noon was informed by Colonel 
Murray that our forces were to charge the 
enemy in rear, and I was ordered to mount my 
command and charge the road directly to the 
rear. Within three minutes from the time I 
received the orders my command was mounted 
and commenced the charge, with Eighth 
Indiana in advance, Second Kentucky and 
Tenth Ohio. Two companies, E and F, Eighth 
Indiana, charged and captured 1 piece of 
artillery, driving the gunners from the piece. 
Captain Lyon, of my staff, had his force shot 
while at the piece. We were unable to bring it 
off, as the enemy was not yet dislodged from 
our front. Three men were left with it, 
however, and remained with it until brought 
off. Moved back with the division to 
Sandtown. On the evening of the 26th of 
August Major Young reported to me with the 
First Brigade, and acted under my orders until 
September 7. At 11.45 p. m. August 26, in 
obedience to orders, I moved out, and occupied 
a position near Camp Creek. On the 27th 
advanced to Steven 1 Cross-Roads, and sent 
Captain Qualman, with 100 men, by Fairburn, 
to rejoin the column at or near Red Oak. He 
met some resistance, but, charging with the 
saber, drove everything before him, and 
rejoined the column at Ann [New] Hope 
Church. The Tenth Ohio was skirmishing 
heavily at this point all day, losing some horses 
and a few men wounded. On the 28th moved 
out on Fayetteville road two miles, to cover 

operations of infantry on the railroad On the 

8th of September arrived in camp at this place, 
where the Eighth Indiana and Second Kentucky 
found their baggage the first time for two 
months. 



I cannot close this report without calling 
attention to the gallant conduct of Major 
Thomas Graham and Captain Thomas N. 
Baker, Eighth Indiana, in the fight with 
General clanton on the Rousseau laid; to Major 
Herring, Captains Reeves, Stanley, and Boyer, 
Eighth Indiana; Major Star, and Captain Park, 
Second Kentucky, on the McCook raid; and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sanderson, Major Tahayer, 
Captain Norton, and Lieutenant J. M. 
Harkness, Tenth Ohio; Majors Herring, 
Graham, and Gordon, Eighth Indiana; Major 
Star and Captain Park, Second Kentucky, for 
gallantry on Kilpatrick's raid. 

My thanks are also due Major Young, 
commanding First Brigade; Captain Qualman, 
Third Indiana; Major Thayer and Captain 
Paisley, Tenth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry; Majors 
Herring and Graham, Eighth Indiana; Captain 
Park and Lieutenant Nail, Second Kentucky, 
for soldierly conduct in the fight with 
Cleburne's division; August 31 Captain park 
was wounded in the discharge of his duty, as 
commanding officer of detachment Second 
Kentucky; is a brave, dashing officer. 

I also respectfully call attention to the fact that 
many of the Eighth Indiana were serving 
overtime, and, to my knowledge, not a murmur 
or complaint. On the contrary, they refused to 
go to the rear. 

To the members of my staff I owe a debt of 
gratitude for the promptness and zeal with 
which they executed my every order. Captain 
Lyon, acting inspector-general; Lieutenants 
Norvell, Stillwell, and Winters, aides, and the 
lamented Lieutenant Crooks, proved 
themselves competent staff officers. Captain 
Lyon and Lieutenant Stillwell will soon retire 
from the service, and I can truly say that the 
army will lose two of its finest offices, and the 
Second Brigade will regret their loss from our 
ranks, but extend to them our warmest wishes 
for their success in civil life. 

Doctor Thompson, brigade surgeon, was very 
prompt in caring for the sick and wounded of 
my command, and has the thanks of all officers 
and men of the brigade. 

The casualties of the command are as follows: 

Have not been furnished with list of casualties 
of First Brigade. My command is thoroughly 
exhausted and sadly in need of rest. . . [Table 5] 



57 



Table 5. Casualty Report of Lieutenant Colonel F.A. Jones (OR Volume 38(2):882). 









Killed. Wounded. 


Missing. 


Total *Corrected 


Command 






Officers Men Officers 


Men Officers 


Men Officers Men* Men 


8th Indiana 






4 3 


23 




39 3 66 66 


10th Ohio 






1 10 1 


29 


2 


32 4 75 71 


2d Kentucky 






3 1 


1 


4 


42 5 5 46 


Total 






1 17 5 


53 


6 


113 12 192 183 


*Note: Jones 


tabulation for the total 


of men killed, wounded and missing is 






apparently in error. Adjusted 


calculations are shown. 









Lieutenant Colonel Thomas W. Sanderson, 
commanding the 10th Ohio Cavalry, filed his 
report and relevant portions of it are presented 
below (OR Volume 38(2):886). 



A summary of operations of the Tenth Ohio 
Cavalry, Second Brigade, Third Cavalry 
Division, from the 2nd day of May, 1864, to 
the 8th day of September, 1864... .As the 
Second Brigade was passing this point an 
attempt was made by the enemy to intersect the 
column, and the Tenth Ohio, being the rear 
regiment, only succeeded in passing after a 
sharp contest. At sunset of this day [August 19, 
1864] the command succeeded in driving the 
enemy from Jonesborough, on the Atlanta and 
Macon Railroad. On attempting to moved 
southward from this place, the Tenth Ohio in 
advance, the column came upon a strong 
barricade hidden by the darkness, behind which 
the enemy lay in strong force, and from which 
the advance was forced to recoil by the 
murderous fire they received. A second attempt 
to pass the point wa made with the like result, 
and the loss of valuable men killed and 
wounded. Failing to effect a passage here the 
command, by a rapid movement in another 
direction, succeeded in reaching the railroad at 
Lovejoy's Station. Here, however, before much 
had been accomplished in destroying the track, 
and attack was made by the enemy in heavy 
force, consisting of infantry, cavalry, and 
artillery, which succeeded in surrounding our 
position. A charge was ordered, and succeeded 
so far as to drive the enemy from his artillery, 
throw his cavalry into utter confusion, and 
enabled the command to pass on its way with 
little loss and in perfect order. From here the 
column moved by easy stages, by the way of 
Decatur, to the ridge of our army, and thence to 
Sandtown, arriving August 23. On the 27th of 
August at 1.30 a.m., the Tenth Ohio Cavalry, 
with the division, marched from Sandtown, 
Ga., prepared for an advance upon the enemy's 
lines... . 



. . . About noon was informed by Colonel 
M urray that our forces were to charge the 
enemy in rear, and I was ordered to mount my 
command and charge the road directly to the 
rear. W ithin three minutes from the time I 
received the orders my command was mounted 
and commenced the charge, with Eighth 
Indiana in advance, Second Kentucky and 
Tenth Ohio.Two companies, E and F, Eighth 
Indiana, charged and captured 1 piece of 
artillery, driving the gunners from the piece. 
Captain Lyon, ofmy staff, had his force shot 
w hile at the piece. W e were unable to bring it 
off, as the enemy was not yet dislodged from 
our front. Three men w ere left w ith it, 
however,and re ma in ed with it until brought off 



Also in Sanderson's report the following were 
commended for gallantry on Kilpatrick's raid: 



10 c Ohio: Lieutenant-Colonel 

Sanderson, Major Tahayer, 

Captain Norton, and Lieutenant 

J.M. Harkness; 

8 C Indiana: Majors Herring, 

Graham, and Gordon; 

2 nd Kentucky: Major Star and 

Captain Park. 

Brigade Surgeon: Doctor 

Thompson. 



Sanderson wrote the following on September 9, 
1864: 



58 




Figure 36. Brigadier General Eli H. 
Murray (U.S. Military Institute 2007). 

Murray filed his report from his headquarters 
at Camp Crooks, Georgia on September 14 of 
operations May 13-21 and August 18-23, 1864 
(OR Volume 38(2):862-864): 

I have the honor to report the operations of the 
Third Cavalry Division, Department of the 
Cumberland, from the 13 th [May] to the 21st of 
May [August?] ... On the 1 8th August, with the 
Second and Third Brigades of the Third 
Cavalry Division, commanded respectively by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Jones, Eighty Indiana 
Cavalry, and Lieutenant-Colonel King, Third 
Kentucky Cavalry, left Sandtown. The brigade 
of Colonel King in the advance met the 
enemy's pickets at Camp Creek, driving them 
to Stevens' cross-Roads. Here Colonel Jones 
taking the advance, and from there distant 
about one mile we again encountered the 
enemy, driving them down a cross-road. Here 
Colonel Jones engaged them with a severe 
fight until the whole column passed, when he 
joined the rear, Colonel King's brigade again in 
advance of the column, driving the enemy 
before them. In crossing the Atlanta and West 
Point Railroad, Colonel Jones found the enemy 
on our flank, who succeeded in entirely 
severing the column and cutting him from it. 
Charging through the enemy under a heavy fire 
of small-arms and artillery, he again it, the 
command of Colonel Minty taking the 
advance. I brought up the rear, moved with the 
column to Jonesborough. By direction of the 
general commanding the expedition, I ordered 
Colonel Jones to move and take position in the 
south part of town, afterward to move down the 
railroad, holding the front and watching the 
flank while the brigade of Colonel King 
destroyed the railroad. This work was done 
quickly and effectually for about one mile and 
a half. Colonel Jones found the enemy fully 
one mile and a half from the southern limits of 
the town. Here was a severe fight. King's 
brigade immediately prepared for action. The 



Fifth Kentucky joined on to Jones' left, the 
Ninety-second supporting Jones and the Fifth 
covering his right flank. The enemy were here 
in force, and barricaded. The darkness of the 
night would of itself make it difficult to 
dislodge even a small force. With the 
disposition above named my whole command 
advanced, and after quite a severe fight it was 
found impossible to dislodge the enemy. His 
force, as afterward ascertained and reported by 
Colonel Jones, was two brigades of cavalry, 
under Armstrong and Ross, and one brigade of 
infantry, under Colonel — . The conduct of the 
men here was shortly of high commendation. 
Everything calculated to confuse men we had 
here to contend with - an utter ignorance of the 
formation of the ground, the darkness of the 
night, with heavy rain, and the only 
information of the enemy's position was gained 
by receiving his volleys of fire. Withdrawing, 
we joined the column on the McDonough road; 
marched till daylight, and, after feeding, moved 
with the column in direction of Lovejoy's, the 
rear of Jones' command skirmishing with the 
enemy's cavalry, reaching Fosterville in 
advance. Forces under Colonel Minty were 
heavily engaged. King's brigade immediate 
formed for their support and also holding a line 
to his left, Jones on a commanding elevation 
covering our rear. Both he and King 
immediately barricaded their front. Jones was 
soon attacked heavily. With his position the 
enemy were kept at bay. Captain Beebe, Tenth 
Wisconsin Battery, here reported with his four 
guns to Colonel Jones. The led horses of the 
whole command were immediately collected to 
the rear of King's line. The enemy's shots, both 
from front and rear, covered our entire lines. 
General Kilpatrick ordered me to cover the 
withdrawal and mounting of Minty's command, 
which was done by King's brigade; also to hold 
the rear, now becoming our front, which was 
done by Jones, until due preparations were 
made to enable us to charge the enemy. 
Everything ready, Jones' men mounting and 
King's withdrawing from the enemy upon one 
side, but to meet him upon another. The order 
was given to charge, Jones' brigade charging 
down the road, King's on his left, when the 
most terrific, yet magnificent, charge ever 
witnessed was made. The enemy's guns opened 
with canister, but Beebe, true as steel, covered 
our onset, following Jones after our men had 
crossed and trampled the enemy's lines, myself 
charging with the advance of the Eighth 
Indiana; passed on to the enemy's cannon, 
which they held until we were within a few 
yards of them. No movements could have been 
more properly executed than they were 
throughout the whole charge. The saber and the 
horses' hoofs were about our only weapon. My 
command was soon massed in column in the 
rear. With orders, I moved for McDonough. . . 

Murray, filed another report from his 
headquarters at Camp Crooks on September 
10 th , which was directed to Captain L.G. Estes, 



59 



Acting Assistant Adjutant-General (OR 
Volume 38(2):888-892): 

CAPTAIN: I have the honor herewith to 
transmit a report of the operations of the Third 
Brigade, Third Cavalry Division, in the late 
summer campaign. 

The brigade, composed of the Third and Fifth 
Kentucky Cavalry, and Ninety-second Illinois 
Infantry, mounted, at the moment of the 
commencement of the campaign was 
unorganized, the Ninety-second Illinois and the 
non-veteran portion of the Third Kentucky 
being the only representative, holding an 
exposed and extended line to the west of 

Ringgold, Ga After a sojourn of several 

days moved with the division by means of a 
pontoon across the Chattahoochee at 
Sandtown, which resulted in driving the enemy 
and striking the Atlanta and West Point 
Railroad by Lieutenant-Colonel Klein, of the 
First Brigade, at Fairburn. Returning to 
Sandtown, we immediately prepared for the 
expedition, which resulted in striking the 
Macon railroad and the circuit of Atlanta by the 
cavalry command, under General Kilpatrick. 
Upon his assuming command of the 
expedition, the command of the Third Division 
falling upon me, Lieutenant- Colonel King, 
Third Kentucky Cavalry, assumed command of 
my brigade. (For the operations of the brigade 
during the raid see Lieutenant-Colonel King's 
accompanying report.) On the return of this 
expedition, again taking command of my 
brigade, and at once prepared it for the general 
move. At midnight of the 27th moved in the 
direction of the West Point railroad, taking up 
position on Camp Creek for the night. In the 
morning moved to Bethel Church, holding a 
barricaded position there that night. At 7 a. m. 
on the morning of the 28th moved direct for the 
railroad, striking it at a point midway between 
Red Oak and Fairburn, the Third Kentucky 
driving the enemy's cavalry before them. My 
command, with a section of artillery under 
command of Lieutenant Stetson, Tenth 
Wisconsin Battery, held a position faced 
toward East Point. Parts of each regiment were 
engaged skirmishing with the enemy. Upon the 
arrival of the Army of the Tennessee I moved 
to a position on their right, barricading the line 
in front held by my command. On the 30th 
moved with the division on the Jonesborough 
road. The advance brigade, under command of 
Colonel Jones, and two regiments of infantry 
found the enemy strongly posted. After a brisk 
fight, the enemy retreating from this position, 
my command was ordered forward. Taking the 
advance of our division, I moved to the 
advance of the Army of the Tennessee, which 
had arrived on another road. By direction of the 
general commanding division, the Ninety- 
second Illinois was formed by battalions, the 
Third and Fifth Kentucky Cavalry in the road 
well closed up. The command was to moved 
forward and drove what was before us ere they 
had time to barricade themselves, the Ninety- 



second Illinois to break them, and the Third 
and Fifth prepared to charge them. Scarcely 
200 yards had been passed, and emerging from 
the heavy woods we were then in, and but a 
few yards in advance of the infantry skirmish 
line, we found the enemy posted behind 
barricades. Ordered forward the Ninety- 
second; under a murderous fire charged and 
took the barricades, the enemy retreating, but 
taking position behind another and more 
formidable one but a few yards in rear of their 
first. The horses held by the reins, the men 
maintained the position, but finding it 
impracticable to charge these second works, 
mounted, and, being relieved by the infantry 
line, the Ninety-second was withdrawn. While 
here the enemy's guns shelled the whole 
command with little damage. Moving forward 
two miles with the infantry advance, and on 
their right flank, were subjected to a heavy fire 
from the enemy's guns, but owing to the 
formation of the ground they did us no damage. 
Here Lieutenant Stetson was engaged in a 
heavy artillery duel. After the dislodgment of 
the enemy we moved forward to Flint River. 
The bridge across that stream having been 
taken possession of by the Ninety-second 
Illinois with but little resistance, and a small 
command of infantry having been pushed 
across the river, my command crossed, pushing 
forward as fast as possible, and by a difficult 
road leading to the southwest part of 
Jonesborough. By direction of the general 
commanding division, the Ninety-second 
Illinois had dismounted, moved forward, and 
very soon were hotly engaged with the enemy's 
infantry. The advance of the Third Kentucky 
hastened to their assistance, the Fifth Kentucky 
following. It was just twilight. Here was a most 
bloody conflict, and here so well and so 
manfully did our men do their work, charging a 
hill held possession of by the enemy, and under 
a heavy across-fire, after ammunition was 
expended, holding it until ordered to withdraw; 
engaged thirty minutes with 200 men. They 
lost 2 killed, and 1 officer and 21 men 
wounded. The part taken and the noble bearing 
of these men is a source of just pride, for which 
too much praise cannot be given them. 
Separated from the division, my command 
remained on the east side of the river, holding a 
line to the right of Major-General Logan's them 
forming. Relieved by a portion of his command 
at daylight next morning, recrossed the river, 
and, after feeding with the division, moved to 
Anthony's Bridge. Major Breathitt, with a 
battalion of the Third Kentucky, moved to a 
burnt bridge at the crossing of the main road 
from Fayetteville to Jonesborough, skirmishing 
and driving the enemy across the river and 
holding the ford. Lieutenant-Colonel King, of 
the Third Kentucky, with the remaining two 
battalions of his regiment, moved to a ford one 
mile and a half below Anthony's Bridge. With 
the Fifth Kentucky and Ninety-second Illinois I 
remained in reserve near Anthony's Bridge. 
Our division being attacked by Cleburne's 
division of rebel infantry, and after a most 
severe engagement and the entire exhaustion of 
ammunition on the part of our men engaged, 



60 



they fell back from the bridge. My brigade then 
became the front, and held its position until 
ordered back to camp, Colonel Baldwin, of 
Fifth Kentucky Cavalry, covering the rear. 
Here the enemy had no anxiety attacking, and 
their demonstrations on my line were very 
weak. Picketing that night the scene of the 
engagement. 

The next morning took possession of our line 
of barricades on the east side of the river. 
Remained in position at the bridge that day. 
With the exception of the picket-firing by the 
Fifth kentucky and artillery firing by 
Lieutenant Stetson, nothing of importance 
occurred that day. Being relieved by the 
Seventeenth Army Corps arriving at that point, 
I retired, going into camp on a road leading to 
Galss' Bridge. The next morning moved to that 
point, took possession and held the bridge that 
day, night, and also next day. Colonel Atkins, 
Ninety-second Illinois, rejoining his regiment, 
assumed command, relieving Major 
Woodstock, who had so efficiently commanded 
it during its many engagements. At this point 
the enemy attempted to drive us away, and 
brought artillery to bear upon us, but our 
battery proved too much for them, and drove 
their artillery from the position they held and 
from whence they had so earnestly shelled us. 
Their fire, however, killed several horses. The 
position held by Colonel Atkins with Ninety- 
second was such that their attempts at 
dislodging him were ineffectual. On the night 
of the 3rd my command moved in the rear and 
right flank of the rebel army, and joined the 
division on the right of the Seventeenth Army 
Corps near Lovejoy's Station, which position 
we held until the night of the 5th, when 
withdrawing to Flint River, at Anthony's 
Bridge, taking position, remained until the 7th, 
when, forming the rear guard of the division 
and army, we moved in the direction of Red 
Oak, with but little skirmishing by the Third 
Kentucky. No force followed to interrupt or 
observe. On the 8th Colonel Baldwin moved to 
the left flank of General Howard's army, to 
meet a regiment of rebel cavalry reported there. 
The remainder of the brigade moved to our 
present encampment near Mount Gilead. 
Colonel Baldwin joined the brigade September 
9.... 



Colonel Eli H. Murray, who commanded the 
I s Brigade of the 3 r Cavalry Division later 
wrote in his report commending the valor of 
several cavalry officers under his command in 
the August 20 th action. Murray wrote, 

... Captain A. G. Sloo and Lieutenant Kelly, 
Third Kentucky Cavalry, for their gallant 
conduct in the charge at Lovejoy's, which 
resulted in the capture of two pieces of 
artillery. I also take pleasure in commending 
the gallantry of Captain E. V. Brookfield, 
commissary of subsistence, Third Cavalry 



Division, in this charge (Ehistory.com 2007, 
OR Volume 44(1):369). 



Murray also wrote these commendations: 

The honorable mentions I shall make and 
thanks to be returned are to Colonel Smith D . 
Atkins, Ninety-second Illinois, and through 
him to all his officers and men; to Colonel 
Baldwin, Fifth Kentucky Cavalry, and to his 
officers and men; and also to Lieutenant- 
Colonel King, and his officers and men. To 
Lieutenant Griffin, Company L, Fifth 
Kentucky Cavalry, is due much for his bold 
and daring conduct and reliable information. 

The efficiency and zeal of my staff officers 
throughout the whole campaign is eminently 
praiseworthy. Lieutenant Stetson, Tenth 
W isconsin Battery, well performed his part 
throughout (OR Volume 38(2):892). 

92nd Illinois Mounted Infantry, 

Commanded by Colonel Smith 

Dykins Atkins (1836-1913) [Major 

Albert Woodcock] 

The 92 n Illinois Mounted Infantry was 
commanded by Colonel Smith Dykins Atkins 
(1836-1913) but Colonel Smith was absent from 
the events of August 20, 1864. Major Albert 
Woodcock, who commanded the 92 nd Illinois 
Mounted Infantry in the August 20 1 action, filed 
his report from his headquarters near Sandtown, 
Georgia on August 25 1 of operations from July 19- 
September 2 with Lieutenant J. S. McRea, A. A. A. 
C, 3rd Brigadier, 3rd Cavalry Division, and 
relevant portions of it are presented below (OR 
Volume 38(2):897). 

In obedience to orders, I have the honor to 
submit the following report: 

Colonel Smith D . Atkins was relieved from 
command of the Ninety-second Illinois 
Volunteer M ounted Infantry, by order of 
Colonel Murray, commanding brigade, on the 
19th of July, 1864; I, being the ranking officer 
present, assumed command of the 
regiment... .M oved out at 6 a. m. of the 16th of 
August, and marched to within five miles of 
Atlanta and M aeon Railroad, between Atlanta 
and East Point, in quest of Jackson's rebel 
division. Not finding Jackson, we returned to 
Sandtown, crossed the river, and went into 
camp. On the 17th of August we lay in camp. 
On the 18th we moved out on the raid around 
Atlanta. The part taken by our regiment in this 
raid i have reported, and have made full report 
of the movements of the regiment, while I was 
in command, since the 18th of August, 1864. 



61 



Sergeant Charles Edwin Cort, Company H, 
92 n Illinois Mounted Infantry, wrote this 
description of the battle: 

Pretty soon we got the word that we were 
surrounded by superior numbers of inft and 
Cvy [Infantry and Cavalry] and were to cut our 
way out. The 92" were to take the rear of the 
artillery and the cavalry the front. By this time 
the Rebs had rind [runned?] one gun up very 
near the top of the hill and began to open on us. 
The 4 reg 1 s led the charge. On the right Co. 
Murray led the 3d and 5* Ky and charged the 
battery Captured three pieces. We brought off 
one but could not take the other two. 

The 92 nd followed in rear of the artillery. By 
the time we got to the foot of the hill the reble 
Inft on the right that were in heavy timber had 
recovered and charged the road. The left of our 
Regt wheeled into line and gave them several 
volleys from our spencers which sent them 
back running. Strange to say although they 
poured in two volleys into our regt not a man 
was disabled or a horse struck. They were not 
20 yds from us when we wheeled and fired on 
them. One ball passed through the bundle on 
the front of my saddle within three inches of 
me. We got out without losing many men got 
all our artillery and one reb gun. The 4 lb Regs 
lost most coming out. We captured one Brig 
flag and the battle flag of the 3 rd Texas Cavalry 
(Weigley 2006:50). 

10 th Wisconsin Battery Volunteer 

Light Artillery, Commanded by 

Captain Yates V. Beebe 

Captain Yates V. Beebe, who commanded the 
10th Wisconsin Volunteer Artillery Battery in 
the August 20 ! action, filed a brief report on 
September 7, 1864 with Lieutenant E.P. 
Sturges, A.A.D.C., Headquarters Chief of 
Artillery, Department of the Cumberland, and 
relevant portions of it are presented below. 

LIEUTENANT: In compliance with a 
communication from you of September 4, 
1 864, I have the honor to state that the Tenth 
Wisconsin Battery reported to General 
Kilpatrick for duty May 7, 1864, Special Field 
Orders, Numbers 125, Department of the 
Cumberland, M ay 4, 1864.... The company was 
employed in guarding railroad from Adairsville 
to M arietta from M ay 16 to August 1 8, when 



they started with General Kilpatrick on a raid. 
On the 19th struck the Atlanta and West Point 
Railroad at Red Oak about daylight in the 
morning. Engaged the enemy, silenced his 
battery, and drove him off. Struck the Atlanta 
and M aeon Railroad at Jonesborough at 4 p. m. 
Engaged the enemy and drove him off. On the 
20th struck the railroad again at Lovejoy's 
Station; engaged the enemy about 2 p. m., got 
surrounded, charged through General Ross; 
command and marched through McDonough to 
Cotton Indian Creek. Lost in this action and 
charge 3 horses killed, 1 set wheel harness for 
two horses and 1 set of lead harness for two 
horses, and 1 limber abandoned, 1 man, 
M ichael O'Connor, missing, and 4 men slightly 
wounded. On the 21st marched to Lithonia 
Station, on the Atlanta and Augusta Railroad. 
The company lost on this day's march 1 wagon 
burned at Cotton Indian River, and 1 man, 
Thomas Yargan, missing, and 6 horses 
abandoned, so badly used up that they could 
not be moved with the battery at the rate the 
command was moving. On the 22nd marched 
to General Garrard's headquarters, near 
Atlanta... .(OR Volume 38(2):903). 

Union Ambulances 



Medical care in the U.S. Army became more 
formalized as the war progressed, 

In time for Antietam, the Army of the Potomac, 
under its medical director Jonathan Letterman, 
developed the Letterman Ambulance Plan. In 
this system the ambulances of a division 
moved together, under a mounted line sergeant, 
with two stretcher-bearers and one driver per 
ambulance, to collect the wounded from the 
field, bring them to the dressing stations, and 
then take them to the field hospital. It was a 
vast improvement over the earlier "system," 
wherein bandsmen in the Union command, and 
men randomly specified in the Confederacy, 
were simply appointed to drive the ambulances 
and carry the litters. This plan was 
implemented in August 1862 when McClellan 
issued General Orders No. 147 creating the 
Ambulance Corps for the Army of the Potomac 
under the control of the Medical Director . . . 
Despite the vast improvement in the evacuation 
of the wounded from the battle field, it was not 
until M arch 1864 that Congress published the 
act (Public 22) to create an Ambulance Corps 
for all the Union Armies (civilwarhome.com 
2007). 



62 




Figure 37. Union Hand Stretchers, May 1864 (civilwarhome.com 2007). 



Brevet Major-Gen R. H. G. Minty published in The 
National Tribune dated January 22, 1903 wrote the 
following in regards to his ambulances: 

I replied: "General, I like your plan in every 
particular but one." 

Kilpatrick, in his quick, impulsive manner, 
snapped out: "What is that, sir?" 



In those ambulances I took home 103 wounded 
men, including five from the Third Division " 
(Minty 1903). 

Kilpatrick gave orders to form columns and 
"during the time the troops were forming, the 
surgeons and ambulance corps were busy gathering 
up the wounded and caring for them as best they 
could" (Curry 1984:181). 



Leaving our ambulances in camp. I do not like 
the idea of having to abandon my wounded 
men to the mercy of the enemy; and I have 
always found, and I have no doubt, General, 
that your experience is the same, that our men 
will fight with better heart when they know that 
if wounded they will be taken home with their 
comrades and not left in the hands of the 
enemy. Allow me to take my ambulances, and I 
pledge myself that you will not find them an 
incumbrance. If they are, I will destroy them. 

After a moments consideration Gen. Kilpatrick 
said: "Well, Col. Minty, you can take your 
ambulances; but if they impede our movements 
or delay us in the slightest degree you must 
burn them. Col. Murray, you will leave your 
ambulances in camp." 



Samuel J. Martin, biographer of Judson Kilpatrick, 
briefly covered Kilpatrick' s raid around Atlanta. 
Martin noted, "Minty' s assault scattered the 
Confederate horsemen, opening a path for those on 
foot, ambulances [Union] filled with the wounded, 
ammunition wagons, pack mules, and the artillery. 
The Negroes from nearby plantations, who had 
joined the raiders to gain their freedom, rode the 
mules in the wild dash. "With kettles and pans 
rattling, and darkies flying for dear life," one 
observer recalled, "the scene [was] ludicrous as 
well as grand" (Martin 1996:187). 

Robert Wilson of Illinois (4 C U.S. Cavalry) wrote: 



63 



We were soon among the led horses of the 
dismounted men in their rear and among the 
ambulances, and a perfect stampede took place, 
riderless horses and ambulances being 
scattered in all directions, we in the midst of 
them, shooting and cutting madly (Barron 
1964:223-224). 

Dr. George W. Fish (4 l Michigan Cavalry) noted, 
". . . Pack mules, led horses, ammunition wagons 
and ambulances with our wounded men, all came 
safely through. The struggle was brief but fierce 



and decisive" (4 1 Michigan Cavalry, Letters of Dr. 
George W. Fish:89-90). 

Other Support Personnel 

Many other soldiers accompanied Kilpatrick's 3 r 
Division of U.S. Cavalry in the August 20" action. 
These included many supply wagons, ammunition 
train, blacksmiths and various other 
noncombatants. 




Figure 38. Ammunition Train of the 3rd Division U.S. Cavalry (Old-pictures.com 2007b). 



Following Kilpatrick's Raid, Union 
POWs 

Dornblaser (7 1 Pennsylvania Cavalry) wrote: 

Prisoners from Captain Schaeffer's Company 
were Sergeants Hayes and Metzger who were 
sent to Andersonville, Georgia. When he was 
left Sergeant Hayes was standing among his 
fallen comrades. Confederates captured him 
and he was allowed to speak with George 
Caldwell who was badly wounded in the mouth 
and knew he would die in a short amount of 
time. Foster, Else and M cDonald were dead. 
Officers at Andersonville had a special grudge 
against cavalry raiders and they received rough 
treatment. Hayes volunteered as a nurse in the 
prison hospital (Dornblaser 1884). 



Major General J. M. Schofield wrote to Major 
General Sherman, "Nothing of importance has 
occurred on this flank. A negro who came in 
last night reports that Ross' brigade and 
battery were captured by Kilpatrick on the 
20' ; says he saw the captain of the battery 
yesterday and heard him make the statement" 
(OR, Vol. 38(5):630). Confederate deserters 
gave a similar report. 

Major General W.T. Sherman's U.S. Army 
command in Atlanta kept informed of the 
activities south of town. Major General J.M. 
Schofield wrote a brief note on August 22, 
1864 to Sherman, advising Sherman of 
Kilpatrick's Cavalry action with General Ross' 
brigade (OR Volume 38(5)630-634): Nothing 



64 



of importance has occurred on this flank. A 
negro who came in last night reports that Ross' 
brigade and battery were captured by 
Kilpatrick on the 20th; says he saw the captain 
of the battery yesterday and heard him make 
the statement" and Sherman was also informed 
that, "Rebel deserters repeat the report that 
Ross' brigade of rebel cavalry was captured by 
Kilpatrick." On the evening of August 22, 
1864, Schofield received word at Sherman's 
Headquarters in the field near Atlanta that, 
"General Thomas reports from General that 
Kilpatrick is at Decatur", which indicated that 
Kilpatrick had successfully avoided capture in 
his raid around the south side of Atlanta. 
Sherman informed General Steedman, whose 
headquarters were in Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
on August 22, 1864 that, 

General Kilpatrick is back all right; had pretty 
hard fighting with cavalry and infantry, but 
brought in 3 captured flags and 1 extra gun. 
Captured a whole battery, which he broke up. 
He destroyed enough road to last ten days, by 
which time I will reach it again (OR Volume 
38(5):630-634). 

On August 23, 1864, Captain J.C. Van Duzer 
telegraphed to Major T.T. Eckert, who was in 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, noting Kilpatrick' s 
"successes" in his raid around Atlanta (OR 
Volume 38(5):647): 

General Kilpatrick has returned, having 
destroyed a few miles of the M aeon road, and 
fought Ross' cavalry, capturing a battery and 3 
stand of colors. Wheeler has thrown part of his 
command to north bank of the Tennessee, and 
yesterday captured men, mules, and wagons 
within ten miles of here. I think Steedman is 
too late with his movement, and ten Wheeler 
will strike Nashville road. Too much rain. 

Military events in late August at Jonesboro 
overshadow those in the Lovejoy area. On August 
3 1 both armies faced off in a two day battle that 
decided the fate of Atlanta and probably that of the 
entire Civil War. 

Colonel Israel Garrard, 7' Ohio Cavalry Regiment, 
filed a brief report with Major Campbell, which 
advised the Union high command (Major General 
Schofield) of Confederate troops in the Lovejoy 
vicinity on September 3, 1864 (5 p.m.) (OR 
Volume 38(2):923-924): 



road, striking it between three and four miles 
from Lovejoy's Station. Citizens report that 
infantry from Atlanta, said to be Lee's corps, 
was moving all the morning, and that the 
stragglers were still passing when we reached 
the road. A large wagon train was moving on 
Thursday night and yesterday to Lovejoy's 
Station. Last night Ross' brigade of cavalry 
camped just this side of the road, and moved on 
this morning to Bear Creek Station, below 
Lovejoy's. The people speak of there being a 
great deal of artillery, and of the infantry being 
very great in quantity, but as near as I could 
ascertain it took the regular column some three 
or four hours to pass. 

Colonel Garrard filed another report with 
M ajor Campbell from his headquarters near 
Atlanta on September 9: 

... On the following day [August 30, 1864] I 
scouted the country between the left of the 
Twenty-third Corps and East Point. During the 
subsequent movements I covered the trains by 
a position on the right rear of the Twenty-third 
Corps, and then took position on the left of the 
corps in front of Lovejoy's Station. I picketed 
and scouted the country toward McDonough, 
and the roads traveled by the rebel army on its 
march from Atlanta, capturing some 70 
prisoners, most of them stragglers, who had 
broken down on the march. In charging into a 
cavalry camp near McDonough, the First Ohio 
Squadron lost a sergeant, killed. On the 1 1th 
day of August I was placed in command of the 
cavalry in the field with the Army of the Ohio. 
The Ninth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry was ordered 
to report to me. The command was divided into 
two brigades, one mounted, the other 
dismounted. The mounted brigade, whose 
operations I have reported above, has been 
about 1,000 strong, and has been composed as 
follows: Ninth Michigan Cavalry, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Way; Seventh Ohio Volunteer 
Cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel M iner; Ninth 
Ohio Volunteer Cavalry (detachment), Captain 
Bowlus; First Ohio Squadron, M ajor Rice- 
Colonel Acker, Ninth M ichigan Cavalry, being 
the brigade commander. A portion of the 
dismounted brigade was on duty as infantry 
with the Twenty-third Corps, another portion 
of it en route to Nashville, to be remounted, 
and the remainder on guard duty at Turner's 
Ferry, under Colonel Capron, commanding the 
brigade. 

I have the honor to submit herewith a 
detailed statement of the casualties* in the 
mounted brigade during the operations which I 
have reported... . 

*Nominal list (omitted) shows 3 men killed, 
1 officer and 8 men wounded and 1 officer and 
16 men captured or missing. 



MAJOR: I have the honor to report that I went 
across on to the M cDonough and Fayetteville 



65 



UNION, PERSONAL ACCOUNTS 

At least seven personal accounts by U.S. soldiers 
of the August 20 Cavalry action near Lovejoy are 
published and doubtless others remain unexplored 
in various archives. Captain Henry Albert Potter 
(Figure 41), Company H, 4 th Michigan Cavalry, 
wrote this personal letter home to his father four 
days after Kilpatrick's Charge. Captain Albert 
Potter (4 l Michigan Cavalry) eloquently details the 
line up, wait and charge in this letter: 

Head Quarters "H" Camp near Atlanta Ga. 
Aug. 24/64 
Dear Father; 

Since writing we have been in another 'raid' 
and it has been the hardest one, we ever were 
on. The expedition was commanded by Gen. 
Kilpatrick, the 1st and 2nd Brigades of the 2nd 
Cav Division(note 1) were along - Marched all 
night the 17th and reported to Kilpatrick in the 
morning — laid in camp all day the 18th and 
rested. At 8 PM moved out, it was a beautiful 
night the moon at its full — and a clear sky. At 
daylight we struck the Montgomery RR below 
Atlanta and commenced tearing up track, but as 
the column was not closed up as it should have 
been, a brigade of rebels cut us in two for a 
short time. They opened up on us with artillery 
and shelled us rather too close for comfort. We 
had to cross over where the bullets were flying 
thick and fast. We charged over it without any 
loss and formed up at a church to protect the 
Ambulances. The rebels had got possession of 
the road which we wanted and the 3rd battalion 
was ordered to advance in line and retake it — 
which we did in good style but I lost my 1st 
sergeant Cole he was shot through the lungs, is 
alive yet, but I have no hope of his recovery. 
The other Co's had several wounded and 
horses shot. From there we moved on across to 
the Macon RR towards Jonesboro, where drove 
out about 400 rebels and burnt the depot and 
took up the track for a mile - had orders to stay 
there until 1 1PM about that time were attacked 
by a division of rebel cavalry. They charged 
our lines twice but were unsuccessful both 
times. After the first charge our regiment was 
ordered out as a support for our line and 
everything again was quiet. You must know we 
were all very tired — when you march all night 
in your saddle without any sleep — you would 
be tired wouldn't you? Well we were resting, I 
was asleep on a lot of 'shake' spread over two 
logs when they charged again, it was like a 
thunderbolt I jumped and you ought to have 
seen the shake fly as did everyone else to our 
horses — but our line stood like a rock 
unyielding and now to show his contempt for 
the rebs, Kilpatrick brought out his band out to 
the line and they played Yankee Doodle, Hail 
Columbia and a number of others for the 
johnnies — no doubt to their supreme disgust — 
it was as much as to say come and take us if 
you can, but you can't - they thought the had 
us tight but they were mistaken, for we dived 



out of a hole before they knew it and were gone 
to the east and soon as they found it out they 
followed us. Overtook us about 10 AM next 
day. Here the general, who by the way is about 
a match for any body I ever seen in coolness 
and impudence, left colonel Murray with his 
division to fight and hold them back while he 
made another drive for the RR about ten miles 
below to Fayetteville — our Brigade in advance 
— we struck and charged their pickets killing 
some and drove them back — when the 4th was 
ordered in the night to make a big show as 
possible and tear up a few rails while the attack 
was to be made by the 7th Penn and 4th 
Regulars. They advanced and charged the 
enemy's line but were repulsed with loss and 
our boys were obliged to fall back hastily. We 
had struck two divisions of infantry, which had 
been sent there to take us-- you see we had 
struck a snag - the 7th Penn lost about 40 and 
the Regulars 36 in that fight — they charged 
dismounted. Well they drove us back so we 
had to leave one piece of Artillery in the 
ground but not so far but that our skirmishers 
covered it with their fire and with some loss we 
got it back. A number volunteered to retake it 
and they rushed down and pulled it off with 
their hands. Well shortly we begun to hear 
firing in our rear. It increased and soon we 
found we had their cavalry in our rear and 
Infantry in front — in fact we were surrounded. 
They were forming to play Stoneman(note 2) 
on us 'Yanks' too — but Kilpatrick held a 
consultation with his officers and a decision 
was agreed at which we soon found out we 
were to charge ! through their cavalry and cut 
our way out — and here I must say — there was 
no time to be lost either — for their infantry 
were moving up and extending their line and 
every minute made the matter worse. Col. 
Minty volunteered to charge with his Brigade. 
The offer was accepted. We formed in column 
of regiments facing to the rear — the 7th Penn 
on the Right, the 4th Mich in the center and the 
4th Regs on the left. We held a hill yet in our 
rear which hid our movements from the enemy. 
The 2nd Brigade was to support us then was to 
come the command, Artillery, and Ambulances 
etc. with Pack mules and all. While we stood 
there waiting the order a man in the Regulars 
was shot dead by a bullet. He stood about 6 
feet from me and although it misses even shot 
there by random shots, there is a certain feeling 
which I cannot tell you of — when a man stands 
waiting the wind which perhaps will send him 
to Eternity in an instant. You never will know 
or feel it until you are there yourself (and I 
hope you will never be) there is a sort of 
instinctive bracing of the nerves and an air of 
sternness in a brave man's looks which soon 
tells you his calibre. There is the place to detect 
a coward —I pity them — they dodge at every 
sound and sight they see like a turkey looking 
for bugs. It is laughable as well as sober. 
Presently you hear the command Draw Saber! 
and then the command Charge! — and away we 
went. As we raised that hill a shower of shot 
greeted us — but with a yell enough to wake the 
dead — we spurred on to their line. Their 
artillery belching forth grape and canister into 



66 



our line. The regulars were directly in front of 
the battery and suffered badly. Capt. 
McCormick and Lt. Sullivan and a file of men 
in their van were mowed down by one shot. 
The ground grew rough and stony. On we 
pressed — keeping up that deafening yell — our 
Sabers flashing in the sun a thousand rays of 
light — and as we got within 30 rods of their 
works they threw their arms down and run — 
but on we go dashing over their works. The 
work commences — they surrender by dozens - 
- but many of them were cut down without 
mercy, for my part I could not strike them after 
they had given up and but very few did hit 
them in our regiment — but the Regulars 
slashing right and left and many a poor devil' s 
brains lay scattered on the ground. From there 
it was nothing but a panic, their Battery we got 
, spiked the guns except the 12 LB Howitzer 
which we brought along. The rest after spiking 
we tumbled into a ditch. They had but one Inf. 
Brigade got in position in our rear but they 
were hurrying up and we were just in time — as 
we got the order to charge , a flag of truce we 
seen coming from the Infantry for our 
surrender — but we didn't wait . Well we only 
picked up 100 of them the rest got away. We 
were getting away ourselves and didn't stop to 
pick up much. The brigade we run over was 
Texans. We captured their battle flag. Well we 
marched nearly all that night — camped about 3 
AM the next evening. It rained nearly all night 
and we were wet as rats. Soon we came to a 
creek which was swollen so we had to swim 
across. Two of our men were drowned there 
and some negroes. I came very near losing a 
man there. He was on a mule which floundered 
and kept him under some time but he at last got 
out all right — were out five days and nights 
and went entirely around the whole rebel Army 
going out on the right and coming in on the 
left. In all that time I got about nine hours sleep 
as I calculated We received orders to be ready 
to move out again and the rumor is current 
through the camp that the rebels are evacuating 

Atlanta — at least I believe our whole (?).. 

either they are running or Sherman is going for 
them with a vengeance 

I received my commission as Captain 
yesterday. I'll be mustered tomorrow to date 
from the 23rd —You must consider the matter 
well this fall before you cast your vote for 
Uncle Abe — I must admit that things look 
different than they did six months ago — to me. 
I will write you my ideas and thoughts about 
matters and things before long — I must close — 
Write soon — I have reed but one letter in two 
weeks nearly 

Love to all, 

affectionately 

Albert 




Figure 39. Captain Henry Albert Potter, 
4th Michigan Cavalry. 

Captain Albert Potter (4 th Michigan Cavalry) noted 
"a flag of truce we seen coming from the Infantry 
for our surrender - but we didn't wait" (Ruddy 
2007). Also Sergeant T. F. Dornblaser wrote in 
1884 of Kilpatrick's Raid and the Capture of 
Atlanta that he may have recalled a flag of truce 
being sent in prior to their charge: 

K ilp atrick wasnow almost surrounded by the 
enemy, and if I mistake not, a flag of truce 
was sent in, demanding his surrender . . . 
Henry Yearick, a member of company "E," lost 
his horse and his hat in a ditch; but holding on 
to his carbine, he mounted one of our caissons, 
and came out bare-headed and a little shaken 
up, but the same night he reported to his 
commander for duty. Lewis Catherman, 
another comrade, had his horse shot, and 
rolling into a fence-corner, a "reb" on the other 
side of the fence said, he should just lie still 
and he would not get hurt. But Lewis watched 
his chance, and seeing a riderless horse near 
by, he mounted and rode away in triumph. . . 
the writer saw Captain Mclntyre, commanding 
the Fourth Regulars, leading his regiment 
against the battery. His white horse struck an 
artillery carriage in the road, throwing horse 
and rider against the fence, behind which a 
number of rebel horsemen were sitting in their 
saddles, with revolvers in hand, but too badly 
frightened to do any shooting. The Captain 
called for some one to catch his horse, which 
having regained his feet, shot like an arrow 
after the flying fugitives . . . (Dornblaser 1884). 



— I am commanding the 3rd Battalion and 
probably will be for a month or so. Major Mix 
was wounded and the Battalion commander 
take [text missing] (Ruddy 2007). 



At least four officers in the 1 [ Pennsylvania 
Cavalry penned accounts of their experiences 
at Lovejoy in the decades after the war. These 
include accounts by Colonel William B. Sipes, 



67 



Captain Joseph G. Vale, Captain Heber S. 
Thompson, and Sergeant Thomas F. 
Dornblaser. Colonel Sipes, who commanded 
the 7 C Pennsylvania Cavalry, wrote his 
account in 1905. Another regimental history of 
the 7 l Pennsylvania Cavalry was published by 
Sipes in 1906. Sergeant Dornblaser, Company 
E, wrote a personal account of his experiences 
as a corporal in the 1 [ Pennsylvania Cavalry in 
August 1864, which was published in 1884. 
Dornblaser also published another account in 
1930. 

Captain Joseph G. Vale, Company K, 1 [ 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, wrote an account of the 
the cavalrymen commanded by Robert Minty, 
entitled, Minty and the Cavalry in which he 
discusses at length, 'The Great Saber Charge 
at Lovejoy" (Vale 1886:337-365). Minty's 
brigade was composed of the 4 l Michigan 
Cavalry, 4 th U.S. Cavalry, the 7 th Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, and members of the 9 1 Pennsylvania 
Cavalry. Minty's account of the battle is 
included in Vale's book. Captain Vale 
described in some detail the initial U.S. 
Cavalry charge, 

After forming, his command faced to the rear, 
Kilpatrick directed Minty to lead the charge 
with his, the Second, division. Minty formed, 
placing the First brigade in the advance; on the 
right or west side of the road, in regimental 
columns of fours, the Seventh Pennsylvania, 
under Major Jennings, on the right, the Fourth 
United States, under Captain Mclntyre, on the 
left and the Fourth Michigan, under Major 
Mix, in the center; the distance between the 
columns being about one hundred and fifty 
yards. Two companies, B and M, of the 
Seventh Pennsylvania, were deployed in front 
as skirmishers, and directed, covering the 
whole front, to throw down the first of the 
intervening fences. 

As soon as the skirmishers reached this fence, 
the advance was sounded, followed, after 
passing the fence, by the 'gallop' and the 
'charge,' and Minty hurled his three columns, 
in a terrific burst of flashing steel, upon three 
points of the rebel lines. In anticipation of 
something of this kind being attempted, the 
rebel infantry had formed in three lines, about 
fifty yards apart, in double rank; the first and 
second lines with fixed bayonets and the third 
line firing; in both the first and second lines the 
front rank knelt on one knee, resting the butt of 
the gun on the ground, the bayonet at a 
'charge.' 

Immediately on the charging columns showing 
themselves, the enemy opened with shell from 
four pieces of artillery in our front, and from 



six pieces on our right front, canister was, after 
the first or second discharge, substituted for 
shell, by the battery in our front. After the 
columns had passed the first fence, the infantry 
and cavalry opened a fire of musketry. Through 
this storm of shell, canister, and musketry, the 
charging columns, closely followed by the 
gallant Long and his brigade of intrepid 
Ohioans, in column of regiments, swept over 
the fields, broken though the ground was with 
deep gulleys or washouts, leaping over three 
sets of out-lying rail barricades, and, without 
firing a shot, reached the rebel first line, posted 
slightly in the rear of a fence. The rebel cavalry 
broke and fled in the wildest panic, just before 
we struck them, but the infantry stood firm. 
Leaping, in maddened rush at the top of speed, 
our horses over the fence, and where this could 
not be done, dashing with impetuous force 
against it, the impediment was passed, without 
drawing rein, and, with their keen blades, the 
brigade in an instant cut the rebel front line to 
pieces! rode over and destroyed it! and assailed 
with renewed vigor their second line. Between 
the first and second lines, the columns obliqued 
slightly to the left, and striking it thus on a half 
left turn, presented somewhat the appearance 
of a movement by platoons in 'echelon,' 
assaulting it in many places in quick 
succession, penetrated and sabered it to pieces 
as quickly as they had the first! The third line 
now broke and ran in utter confusion and rout, 
but we were soon among them, riding down 
and sabering hundreds as they ran. 

The formation of the brigade led the Seventh 
Pennsylvania squarely against the left center of 
the infantry, the Fourth Michigan against its 
right, and the rebel battery, and the Fourth 
United States against the battery, and that part 
of the rebel line held by their cavalry. After 
cutting the enemy's lines to pieces, the Seventh 
Pennsylvania and Fourth Michigan, making a 
full left wheel, dashed upon the artillery, 
sabering the gunners beside their pieces the 
while. Three of the pieces, all we had horses 
for, were brought off, and the other one was 
disabled by spiking, blowing up the caissons 
and chopping to pieces the wheels. The race 
and slaughter among the fleeing rebels was 
then continued for three miles, when Minty 
halted and re-formed his command, now badly 
scattered. It was understood that the Second 
brigade of ours, and the Third division, should 
follow the charge of Minty's brigade in line, 
thus securing the full fruits of the conflict, but 
by some mistake, Colonel Long formed in 
column of companies, or battalions, and joined 
in the charge, following rapidly through the 
rebel lines, while the Third division, holding 
the column of fours, followed the road; hence 
the masses of the enemy, which had been run 
over by the First brigade, were not gathered up, 
nor was any effort made to ascertain the 
number of killed and wounded. Minty's task 
being simply to crush and destroy the rebel 
lines, he made no effort to take prisoners, only 
requiring the enemy to destroy their guns as he 
passed through. This much is, however, 



68 



known: over four thousand of the rebel infantry 
were either killed, wounded, or at one time 
disarmed prisoners in our hands (Vale 
1886:337-348). 

Captain Heber Samuel Thompson, Company I, 
T Pennsylvania Cavalry, kept a diary in 1864 
of his involvement with the 7 l Pennsylvania 
(Fryer 2001a). Captain Thompson participated 
in the engagement of August 20 , where he 
was captured and taken prisoner by the 
Confederates. His diary account for August 20 
is presented below: 

August 20th — Saturday. About 10 o'clock 
Col. Murray was attacked from the south by a 
Brigade of Infantry under General Reynolds. 
Some little fighting but of no importance. 
About 3 o'clock at night moved off to the east, 
then south again toward Lovejoy Station. 
When within a mile of the railroad, met some 
pickets who retired, drawing on our advance. 
Capt. Vale was ordered to charge but met by a 
terrible fire, his company was driven back in 
confusion. Several companies were then 
dismounted and sent into the woods and 
immediately after, the 4th Regulars formed 
line, dismounted and had not tied their horses 
before a terrible fire was opened on them and 
the companies of the 7th in the woods, driving 
all back quite a considerable distance. 

A number of the 7th Penna. And 4th U.S. 
Cavalry were killed and wounded and a few 
taken prisoners. Kilpatrick supposing that a 
large force of Infantry had come up, concluded 
to go back and break through the Cavalry 
(Ross') which had come up in our rear. The 4th 
Mich. W as formed in column of fours about 
eighty yards on the right of the road, the 7th 
Penna. about fourty yards, in columns of fours, 
the 4th U.S. in the road in columns of fours. In 
the rear of the 1st Brigade Long's Brigade was 
formed. Murry's command was formed on the 
left of the road. Just before the command was 
given to charge, I was sent back by Col. M inty 
to order Col. Long to keep his Brigade close up 
behind the 1st. I found him on the gallop and 
rode beside him for some time, while I gave 
my mare the rein and went ahead. The shells 
from Rebel Artillery exploded in the air and 
did no damage that I saw; just as we were on 
the left flank of the artillery, it opened with 
grape and canister, but I didn't see what 
damage was done. Passing around the rear of 
the artillery I found myself with Lt. Fitzgerald 
of the 4th U.S. Cavalry leading the 4th Mich. 
Cavalry. Charging down a road through the 
woods we came into an open field directly in 
rear of the Rebel Artillery. As soon as I came 
out into the open field a rebel not more than 
fifty yards in front fired; the ball struck my 
mare full in the breast, when she reared up on 
her hind legs and fell over backwards dead. I 
extricated myself from the saddle and started 
for the rebel rear, here, however, I came upon 



about a dozen rebels. Turning back I had gone 
but a few steps before several bullets came 
whistling close by me, at the same time three or 
four Rebels ordered me to halt. Looking around 
I saw I was surrounded by Rebels and so 
surrendered at discretion. The Rebels, however, 
were more scared than I was and every minute 
expected our Cavalry upon them. Going at a 
double quick a couple of miles and picking up 
a rebel here and there, we hid in a thicket of 
woods, about an hour, the rebels fearing every 
minute that their whole party (now about 
twenty) would fall into the hands of our men. 
Finally after much creeping through the woods 
and reconnoitering in various directions, they 
discovered that our forces had gone. Then they 
took me to Lovejoy Station where they robbed 
me of my hat, boots and watch. Capt. Bag Ian, 
Inspector Genl. On Genl. Reynold's Staff, took 
my boots, giving me his old shoes in their 
stead. Here I met Capt. McCormick, 4th U.S. 
Cav. Who introduced me to Capt. Thompson 
and Lt. White, 4th Ohio Cav. captured in the 
first fight with the Infantry. Met also quite a 
number of our Brigade prisoners. Lt. Herman 
and Capt. White both wounded and prisoners in 
same train with me, but I could not get to see 
them. Moved up to Jonesboro (Fryer 200 1 a: 1 8- 
20). 

Private Robert M. Wilson, Company M, 4 [ 
U.S. Cavalry, related his account of 
Kilpatrick' s Raid to his friend Samuel B. 
Barron, a former Confederate officer whose 
own account of the battle is presented in the 
following section. 

AFTER the war ended I made a friend of 
Robert M . W ilson of Illinois, who served in the 
Fourth United States Cavalry, and he kindly 
wrote out and sent me his account of this raid, 
and by way of parenthis I here insert it, as it 
may be of interest: The following account of 
the Kilpatrick Raid, made in August 1864, 
written partly from memory and partly from a 
letter written August 28, 1864, by Captain 
Robert Burns, acting assistant adjutant-general 
of the First Brigade, Second Cavalry Division, 
I acting as orderly for him part of the time on 
the raid. I was detailed at brigade headquarters 
as a scout during the Atlanta Campaign and 
until General W ilson took our regiment as his 
escort. On the 17th of August, 1864, at one 
o'clock, AM , ours and Colonel Long's Brigade 
(The First and Second), of the second Cavalry 
Division, all under command of Colonel M inty, 
left our camp on Peach Tree Creek, on the left 
our army northeast of Atlanta, at seven o'clock 
next morning, reported to General Kilpatrick at 
Sand Town on the right of our Army, having 
during the night passed from one end or flank 
of our Army to the other. We remained in Sand 
Town until sundown of the I8th, when we 
started out to cut the enemy's communications 
south of Atlanta. Two other expeditions, 
Stone man's and M cCook's, well equipped, 
before this had been ruined in attempting the 



69 



same thing. We, however, imagined we were 
made of sterner stuff, and started off in good 
spirits. 

The command consisted of Third Cavalry 
Division (Kilpatricks), under Colonel Murry, 
about 2700 men, and two brigades of our 
division (the Second), under the command of 
Colonel Minty, about 2700 men also-the whole 
commanded by Kilpatrick (or Kill Cavalry as 
we always called him) & away we went, Third 
Division in advance. The night was beautiful 
moonlight one, and we would have enjoyed it 
more if we had not been up all the night 
preceding. We did not go more than three miles 
before we ran into the enemy's pickets, when 
we had to go more slowly, the division driving 
them before us, dismounting to feel the woods 
on both sides, etc, etc. Consequently it was 
morning when we reached the Atlanta & West 
Point Railroad near Fairburn. At Red Oak we 
had torn up about a half mile of track when the 
rear battalion of the Seventh Pennsylvania 
Cavalry was suddenly attacked by a force of 
dismounted men and artillery. Just back of 
where our column was struck were the 
ambulances, the darkies leading officier's 
horses, pack mules, etc, etc. Several shells 
dropped among them, and they thought 
kingdom had come, sure. The Fourth United 
States Cavalry, being near the ambulances, 
soon drove the enemy away. All this time the 
head of the column kept moving on, as time 
was precious and we could not stop for slight 
scrimmages. General Kilpatrick, not being 
satisfied with the progress made by his 
advance, ordered our brigade to take the front 
and Murry the rear. (We had learned before 
starting that it was expected we, our division, 
would do all the fighting,) Long's brigade, in 
advance, had not gone more than half a mile 
when he found a strong force of the enemy in 
his front. He had to dismount his men to drive 
the enemy from the rail barricades they ahd 
made, but he would find them in the same 
position half a mile farther on. Long kept his 
men dismounted, having number 4 lead the 
horses. I was close up with the advance with 
Colonel Minty. We drove the enemy steadily 
but slowly back, until we came to the valley 
through which Flint River runs, when they 
were reinforced by Ferguson's brigade of 
cavalry (we had been fighting Ross' bigade 
thus far), and opened on us sharply with 
artillery when we commenced descending the 
hill, the shells and bullets rattling lively around 
us. Two guns of our battery-we had with us 
four guns of Chicago Board of Trade which 
belonged to our division, and Murry had with 
him four guns of the Eleventh Wisconsin 
Battery- were soon brought upand succeeded in 
silencing the enemy's artillery, the first striking 
an artilleryman and blowing him to pieces. Our 
division were then all dismounted and moved 
fowarded at the double quick under fire of our 
eight guns, and drove the enemy clear through 
Jonesboro, crossing the bridge on the stringer. 
Our brigade (First) had the advance, being 
nearly all deployed as skirmishers. When we 



seized the railroad for which we had started, 
and we commenced to smash things generally. 
The track was torn up for about two miles, the 
depot and public buildings burned, and 
destruction was let loose. While this was going 
on the enemy returned to the attack, and our 
division was sent to meet them, The Third 
Division turning the rails. The enemy were 
driven southward and we were pushed that 
way, to shove them farther back. Before was 
darkness and death, behind the burning 
buildings and smoking ruins, and now it began 
to thunder, lightning, and pour down rain in 
torrents. All this time General Kilpatrick had 
one of his bands behind us playing Yankee 
Doodle & other patriotic airs. It appeared as if 
defeat was comming, for we could hear the 
whistle of the cars in front of us and knew that 
the enemy was being reinforced from below. 
We then determined to flank them, so about 
midnight our brigade, followed by the Third 
Division, moved southeasternly direction about 
seven miles, Long's brigade being left to cover 
the rear. When seven miles out we stopped to 
feed, close to 6 AM, about a mile from Murry's 
Division, but were little protected, as both hills 
were cleared and the valley had but few trees in 
it. Our brigade was ordered to mount and move 
forward when Colonel Long's brigade was 
attacked by the cavalry that followed us from 
Jonesboro. The enemy's forces consisted of the 
brigades of Ross, Ferguson, and Armstrong, 
about 4500 men. Our brigade moved on and 
turned sharply to the right, in a southwesterly 
direction, to strike the railroad again about 
eight miles below Jonesboro. I stayed on the 
hill with captain Burns, for a short time, to 
witness the skirmishes between Long and the 
enemy. From where we were all our maneuvers 
could be distinctly seen, as also the enemy, 
who would advance upon our men, only to be 
driven back. It was a beautiful sight. "By 
Heaven, it was noble sight to see-by one who 
had no friend or brother there." & Captain 
Burns, myself following, now galloped off to 
over take our brigade, which we soon did. 
Colonel Long had orders to follow as quickly 
as possible, Colonel Murry to come after. We 
(our Brigade) pushed for Lovejoy Station. 
When within a mile and one half of the railroad 
we halted for the rest of the command to join 
us. About a mile from the railroad the road 
forks, the two prongs striking the railroad about 
a mile apart. A few hundred feet in front of and 
parallel to the railroad another road ran. The 
Fourth Michigan was sent by the righthand 
road to the railroad, whiched it reached without 
any trouble; the rest of the brigade took the 
left-hand prongof the road, having the last mile 
or two been driving off about a dozen 
cavalrymen. As we neared the railroad the 
firing became hotter and hotter. The seventh 
Pennsylvania Cavalry was dismounted and sent 
forward to the woods-one battalion, four 
companies, of it had been advance guard. 
Hotter grew the firing, and the horses of the 
advance who had been dismounted came 
hurrying back. The Fourth United States 
(Regulars) were then dismounted and sent in. 
Captain Burns was sent back to hurry up two of 



70 



Long's regiments, but before this could be done 
theSeventh Pennsylvania and Fourth Regulars 
were driven from the woods in some confusion. 
We had run on a brigade of infantry who were 
lying in the woods behind barricades at the side 
of the railroad, and a force of the enemy was 
also pushed in on the right, where the Fourth 
Michigan were at work. Long's brigade was put 
in position to check the advancing 
Confederates, and our battery brought up, as 
the woods before us were swarming with 
enemy, the Forth Regulars and Seventh 
Pennsylvania were placed in support of the 
battery. Poor fellows, they were badly cut up. 



19 1 had a skirmish at Fairburn and Jonesboro; and 
on the 20th, a sharp engagement at Lovejoy 
Station, in which Captain James G. Taylor, and 
Lieutenant Chauncey C. Hermans were among the 
killed. The loss in this raid was five killed, twenty- 
four wounded, and fifteen missing. Captain Taylor 
was in Company K and I s Lieutenant Hermans 
was in Company C of the l x Pennsylvania Cavalry 
(NPS 2007). 

CONFEDERATE ACCOUNTS 



One of Long's regiments was formed near the 
fork of the road, the Fourth Michigan was 
being placed there, and the enemy tried again 
and again to take our battery. It fought 
magnificiently, and the guns were made to 
radiate in all directions and did splindid work, 
our men supporting them well. One of the 
guns, by the rebound, had broken its trail off 
short, so that it could not be drawn from the 
field. When the rest of the pieces had been 
withdrawn Colonel Minty called for men to 
draw off the piece by hand. Captain Burns took 
about twenty men of the Fourth Michigan 
Cavalry down and helped pull it off, though the 
enemy were very close to us. While this was 
taking place, heavy firing was heard in our 
rear, for the cavalry with which we had been 
fighting had followed us, and had us in a pretty 
tight box, as follows: a brigade of infantry in 
our front and a party on our left, a division 
moving on our right and but a short distance 
off, three brigades of cavalry in our rear. 
Stoneman and McCook threw up the sponge 
under like circumstances. We decided we must 
leave the railroad alone, and crush the enemy's 
cavalry, and consequently withdrew from 
fighting the infantry, who now became very 
quiet, probably expecting to take us soon. 

The command was faced to the rear as follows: 
Our brigade was formed on the right hand side 
of the road, each regiment in columns of fours 
(four men abreast); the fourth Regulars on the 
left, fourth Michigan center, Seventh 
Pennsylvania on the right, Long's brigade 
formed in close columns with regimental front, 
that each regiment formed in line, the men side 
by side, boot to boot, thus: 



Official Confederate records of military events 
south of Atlanta in August through November, 
1864 are relatively scarce. Most correspondence in 
this period is concerned with the battle at 
Jonesboro. Direct mention of action at Lovejoy and 
nearby areas is exceeding brief. One modern author 
summarized the situation: 



On May 7, 1864, Sherman moved forward, 
starting the Confederates on a two-month-long 
retreat. Each time they made a stand, the Union 
troops slipped around a flank and it all started 
again. Wheeler did some of his best work 
during that period. Time after time his scouting 
and screening warned Johnston of Union 
moves before they could spring the trap on 
him. In spite of that, Wheeler felt the wrath of 
the Southern press once more. They did not 
want retreats, no matter how well handled. 
They wanted victories. And they wanted 
Wheeler raiding in the Union army's rear, not 
reconnoitering. 

The Confederate government, like the press, 
w anted more action. As the U nion arm y 
crossed the Chattahoochee River, wo rd came 
from Richmond that Johnston was being 
relieved ofhiscommand. John Be 11 Hood, 
promoted to the temporary rank of general, 
took his place. 

Hood's mandate was to attack. Wheeler's 
cavalry and one corps of infantry guarded the 
right, while the rest of the army hit the left at 
Peachtree Creek on July 20 . . . 
(HistoryNet.com 2007). 



MINYY'S BRIGADE 

FOURTH U. S. 

FOURTH MICHIGAN 

SEVENTH PENSYLVANIA 

LONG'S BRIGADE FIRST OHIO 

THIRD OHIO 

FOURTH OHIO (Barron 1964). 



Bates (2007) provides this summary of the losses 
of the 7 r Pennsylvania Cavalry, commanded by 
Colonel Sipes, at Lovejoy, "On the 17 th [August, 
1864], it moved with Kilpatrick on his raid; on the 



General J. B. Hood, Brigadier General F. C. 
Armstrong and Brigadier General Jackson were in 
communication on August 19, 1864. Jackson's 
scouts saw Kilpatrick on the right bank of the 
Chattahoochee. He informed General Hood that 
Kilpatrick' s targets were Fairburn and Jonesboro. 
Hood ordered the infantry brigade of Brigadier 
General Alexander W. Reynolds from Atlanta to 
defend Jonesboro. On the 19 l , at 2:00 a.m., 
Brigadier General L. S. Ross sent a message to the 
Brigadier General Division that he was convinced 



71 



he had been fighting Kilpatrick's division. At this 
time Ross sent the 3 r Texas to get in at the Union's 
front and Ross followed behind. Hood commanded 
them to move ahead with their force and beat the 
enemy. 

At 9:00 a.m., Ross reported he was following the 
Union troops on the Fairburn and Jonesboro road, 
and Kilpatrick's division had divided. The largest 
column was moving rapidly on the Fairburn and 
Jonesboro road and the other column was moving 
on the Fairburn and Fayetteville road. Ross' 
ammunition was nearly exhausted some of his 
companies had only a few rounds left so Ross 
requested a wagon "lightly loaded with 
ammunition with haste." 



Fairburn road in force. Scouts from their flanks and 
rear report at least a brigade of cavalry, followed 
closely by infantry. My pickets are now fighting 
them between Bethel and Enon Church", and a few 
minutes later Ross again wrote to Jackson stating, 
"I am convinced the enemy I have been fighting is 
Kilpatrick's division on a raid. It has passed our 
flank and gone on in the direction of Fairburn. 
Scouts from their rear now report the column two 
miles and half long and all cavalry. I have sent the 
Third Texas across to get in their front, and will 
move on after with the rest of my command at 
once. We had a severe skirmish with the enemy's 
advance and have lost several men". By 9 a.m. on 
August 19, General Ross was traveling when he 
notified Jackson, 



Brigadier General Francis A. Shoup, C.S. Army, 
Chief of Staff of operations July 25-September 7 
wrote of the Union, 

. . . Enemy' s raiding party tore up half a mile 
of railroad track at Jonesborough; burned depot 
and cut telegraph wire; they did not burn the 
cross-ties. Raiders tore up track and burned 
cross-ties five miles below East Point; enemy's 
raiders reported retreating. We killed and 
captured a number of them; are now pursuing 
(OR, Vol. 38(3):692). 

Brigadier General W.H. Jackson's Confederate 
Cavalry Division, which consisted of Armstrong's, 
Ross', and Ferguson's brigades, was aware of 
Brigadier General Judson Kilpatrick's Cavalry 
Corp's movement to the southwest of Atlanta and 
they rode to shadow, dog, and confront the U.S. 
Cavalry at every opportunity. On August 19, 1864, 
Brigadier General F.C. Armstrong wrote two short 
notes from Jonesboro to Major General Hood 
informing him that, "I am moving down toward 
Lovejoy's Station. General Ross is between here 
and Fairburn. Ferguson is behind me", and later 
Armstrong advised, "I will move on below 
Lovejoy's Station and in direction of Griffin. A 
scout from Fayetteville reports that 500 of the 
enemy passed through that place en route to Griffin 
one after sunrise" (OR Volume 38(5):976). 

Official Confederate correspondence from 
Brigadier General L.S. Ross was terse during 
August, 1864, but several informative messages 
leading up to the battle of August 20th have 
survived. Writing from his Brigade headquarters at 
Sewell's House, Brigadier General Ross advised 
Brigadier General Jackson at 1:30 a.m. on August 
19, "The enemy is advancing on Sandtown and 



I am again moving on the flank of the enemy 
on Fairburn and Jonesborough road. Their 
force has been divided. One column, the 
largest, is moving rapidly on the Fairburn and 
Jonesborough, and the other column on the 
Fairburn and Fayetteville road. My supply of 
ammunition has been nearly exhausted. Some 
companies of my command have only a few 
rounds left. Cannot you hurry forward to me a 
wagon lightly loaded with ammunition? (OR 
Volume 38(5): 977-978). 

Brigadier General Ross wrote two letters to 
Brigadier General Jackson on August 20 (OR Vol 
38(5):98 1-982). The first letter, written at 8:30 a.m. 
stated, "We came upon the enemy halted to feed, 
and have driven his rear guard from two lines of 
rail works. He is now formed, a brigade strong, on 
the hill at the far side of an open field some three 
quarters of a mile in my front, and has artillery in 
position and at work. We are on the road Leading 
toward McDonough, and from the direction the 
enemy has chosen I infer his raid be continued on 
farther down the country." The second letter, 
written at 10:30 a.m. from Ross' headquarters at 
Mrs. Carnes' Gin-House, advised Jackson, 



The enemy's whole force has been formed near 
Lee's Mill, on the south side of Cotton Indian 
creek, and is now just commencing to 
withdraw. The direction they are moving will 
lead them into the Jonesborough and McDough 
road, about half a mile from Lee's Mill, but 
whether they will continue straight across that 
road to Lovejoy's Station, or will go on through 
McDonough, is yet undecided, their force is 
large. I have had a plain view of at least 4,000 
formed in line. The road they are moving on 
intersects the Jonesborough and McDonough 
road at Noah's Ark Church. 

At 6 a.m. on August 19' , General J.B. Hood's 
Chief of Staff, Brigadier General Francis A. Shoup, 



72 



notified Brigadier General William H. Jackson 
that, "Ferguson has been ordered to you at Rough 
and Ready. The general has a brigade of infantry to 
sent at any moment. Keep us constantly advised", 
and two hours later General John Bell Hood sent 
word from his headquarters in Atlanta to Brigadier 
General Jackson, who was in East Point, ordering 
his Cavalry, "Brigade of infantry will start to 
Jonesborough without delay. Ferguson has been 
ordered to Rough and Ready. Go ahead with your 
force", and about four hours later Hood ordered 
Jackson, " A cavalry force of the enemy is reported 
moving on the Fayetteville road from Decatur, and 
also on the McDonough road. On the former road 
their advance at Mrs. Alston's. On the McDonough 
road their advance at Ousley Chapel. Look out for 
them and use your discretion" (OR Volume 
38(5):796). At 3:50 p.m. that same day, Chief of 
Staff, F.A. Shoup notified Brigadier General 
Jackson, who by that time was in Jonesboro, that, 
"General Hood desires me to say that a great deal 
depends upon your exertions. You must beat the 
enemy, if possible", and less than two hours later 
Shoup again wrote to Jackson stating, "The 

forces reported to be moving out from Decatur 
gone back. The general desires you to be careful 
not to divide your force too much; batter make sure 
of one party" (OR Volume 38(5):796). At 6 a.m. of 
the same day, General Hood sent word to Brigadier 
General Wright, who was in Macon, Georgia, 
notifying him that, "A raid has been started this 
morning from our left in the direction of Fairburn; 
will probably strike Macon road. Look out for it. 
Take means to ascertain the point of attack and 
report" (OR Volume 38(5): 977-978). 

Hood wrote from his headquarters Atlanta to J. A. 
Seddon, Major General Cleburne, and Brigadier 
General Jackson on August 21, 1864. Hood's letter 
to J.A. Seddon stated, "In the evening of the 19th 
the enemy's cavalry struck the Macon railroad near 
Jonesborough, tearing up the track a short distance. 
Brigadier-General Jackson's cavalry command and 
Brigadier Gen. D. H. Reynolds' infantry brigade 
met the enemy at Lovejoy's Station yesterday 
routed, them capturing a number of 
2 stand of colors, and 1 piece of 
Hood's letter to Major General Patrick 
who was in East Point, Georgia at that 
time, stated, "Jackson says there are four guns on 
the left reporting to you, two 3-inch at Armstrong's 
wagon train. Please send order to lieutenant Young 
at Ross' wagon train near East Point to proceed at 
once to Jonesborough with two steel guns and one 
caisson". Apparently Hood was unaware that 
Lieutenant Young's battery had been destroyed by 



evening, 
prisoners 
artillery". 
Cleburne 



Kilpatrick's Cavalry at Nash Farm the previous 
day. Hood's letter to Brigadier General W.H. 
Jackson, who was in Jonesboro, Georgia at the 
time inquired, "Do you think you have broken the 
enemy sufficiently to spare a regiment for our left? 
The cavalry serving with the several corps 
probably annoy us. What has become of the 
raiders? 

Brigadier General Shoup kept a journal of 
operations in the Atlanta Campaign from July 25- 
September 7 (OR Volume 38(3):688-696). Shoup's 
entry on August 18 began: 

August 18. -No change in our lines to-day. One 
of our scouts sent a lady in enemy's lines to- 
day to gather information of enemy's 
movements, &c. She reports having seen . . . 

August 19.-The Federals, from 3,000 to 5,000 
strong, struck the West Point railroad at 3.30 
a.m. Kilpatrick (Federal) has started on a raid, 
supposed to be making for the Macon railroad, 
&c. General Ross has engaged raiders near 
Fairburn. Enemy's cavalry occupied Fairburn at 
3.30 a.m. All quiet along our lines. There was 
some little skirmishing this morning. Enemy 
have thrown but few shell to-day. 

August 20. -No change in our lines to-day; all 
quiet along our lines. Enemy threw a few shell 
into the city, killing 2 men. Enemy continue to 
complain of short rations; enemy in and around 
Decatur have stolen every particle of 
provisions they could find in hands of citizens. 
Their excuse for this conduct was that they 
have not had meat for ten days and were now 
living on quarter rations, coffee and crackers. 
They have succeeded in getting 100 hogs and 
1,000 bushels of green corn. Prisoners taken 
report desertions are more frequent than at any 
other time during the war. Enemy's raiding 
party tore up half a mile of railroad track at 
Jonesborough; burned depot and cut telegraph 
wire; they did not burn the cross-ties. Raiders 
tore up track and burned cross-ties five miles 
below East Point; enemy's raiders reported 
retreating. We killed and captured a number of 
them; are now pursuing. 

August 21. -All quiet along our lines. Enemy 
threw a few shell in the city, but no casualties 
have been reported. The raiders are still being 
pursued by General Jackson's cavalry. They are 
retreating rapidly toward their lines, 
endeavoring to pass between Decatur and 
Covington. A force of the enemy are reported 
moving down the Tallapoosa River. It is 
supposed they will try to reach Opelika. A train 
came through on the Macon road at 
midnight 

August 28. -The enemy have made their 
appearance at Fairburn, on West Point railroad, 



73 



in quite a large force, consisting of cavalry, 
artillery, and infantry. Generals Armstrong and 
Ross have been skirmishing with their advance 
and watching their movements. General 
Morgan has been ordered to report to General 
Jackson at East Point. Reynolds' and Lewis' 
brigades of infantry (the latter of Brown's 
division) and Colonel Hannon's regiment of 
cavalry were ordered to Jonesborough to co- 
operate with General Armstrong in repelling 
raids coming in that direction. The remainder 
of Brown's division was ordered to Rough and 
Ready, and instructions given General B[rown] 
to fortify that place and keep a good lookout on 
all roads for raiders from direction of West 
Point railroad. Every precaution has been taken 
by the commanding general to keep our line of 
communication from being cut by the enemy. 
Adjutant and Inspector- General Wayne has 
been directed to arm and send the militia up as 
rapidly as possible. The enemy are reported to 
be moving down the river; their wagons are 
going down on the opposite side. Official 
dispatches of the 19th instant were received 
from Major-General Wheeler. He reports 
having captured Dalton and a lot of supplies, 
300 fine mules, and destroyed 35 miles of 
railroad with the loss of only 30 men since his 
departure from this place. On the whole the 
reports of his operations are very encouraging. 




CONFEDERATE 
ACCOUNTS 



PERSONAL 



At least five published accounts by Confederate 
soldiers of the August 20' Cavalry engagement 
near Lovejoy are known, and doubtless others 
unpublished records exist in various archives. A 
Civil War-era photograph of several Texas 
cavalrymen is shown in Figure 42. A colored 
photograph of Private Peter Acker, Company C, 
3' Texas Cavalry is shown in Figure 43. Private 
Acker may not have participated in the August 20' 
action, but his portrait provides clues to the general 
appearance of the enlisted soldiers in the 3' Texas 
Cavalry (Acker 2007). 




Figure 40. Unidentified Texas Cavalrymen 
(Terrystexasrangers.org 2007). 



Figure 41. Private Peter Acker, Company 
C, 3rd Texas Cavalry 
(Scvlonestardefenders.homestead.com 

2007). 

Sergeant Victor M. Rose (1960:154-156) was a 
veteran of Company A, 3 rd Texas Cavalry, Ross' 
Texas Brigade, Rose was captured by Kilpatrick's 
Cavalry on August 20 and spent the rest of the war 
in a Union prison. In the late 1880s, Rose 
recounted the battle from the Confederate's 
perspective: 

Not being fully satisfied with the result of 
McCook's failure, General Sherman dispatched 
General Kilpatrick on a similar mission. The 
Legion was on picket. This brave old regiment, 
handled by its gallant Colonel, John H. 
Broocks, contested the ground to the last, but 
was compelled to yield to overwhelming 
numbers, and Kilpatrick turned the flank of the 
Confederate position, and proceeded to the 
rear; but the vigilant Ross soon had his men in 
the saddle and in pursuit. A little after daylight, 
Ross struck the enemy in the flank, and 
inflicted considerable loss on him. But the 
innumerable attacks made on this raiding 
column by Ross' Brigade, are now impossible 
of description. Suffice it to say, that no 
opportunity for attack was allowed to go 
unimproved. Finally, Kilpatrick attempted to 
enter Lovejoy Station, and finding a division of 
infantry there, retired. General Ross had 
formed his brigade in the enemy's rear, 
expecting to be supported by the brigades of 



74 



Cosby and Ferguson-neither of which put in an 
appearance. Finding the infantry too strong for 
him, and meeting with an unexpected attack 
from Ross in the rear, Kilpatrick attempted to 
intimidate the Texans by a furious shelling, and 
then charged through the line-a feat by no 
means remarkable, when we consider that Ross 
did not have exceeding five hundred men, and 
Kilpatrick as many thousands. Add to this the 
fact that the Texans were dismounted, and 
armed with short guns-not having a bayonet in 
the brigade-and it will not be wondered at that 
they did not repulse a cavalry charge of ten 
times their number. Ross lost two or three men 
killed and wounded, and about thirty prisoners, 
many of whom escaped the first night. 

Scarcely had the charging column passed the 
line, when the indomitable Ross had his bugler 
to sound the rally, and, in an incredibly short 
space, renewed his unceasing attacks upon the 
enemy's rear. From this time on, Kilpatrick 
found no rest, and, evidently, was bent upon 
the sole plan of making the best of his way out 
of a bad scrape. He was somewhat more 
fortunate than his predecessor, McCook, and 
made Sherman's lines in pretty good order. As 
the author was captured in the charge at 
Lovejoy Station, the remainder of the narrative 
is told as it was told to him. Nothing like a 
minute description has been attempted in the 
hasty tracing of the Georgia campaign. Each 
day was a battle, without characteristics to 
distinguish it from the battle of the day before, 
or that of the next day; and that campaign, 
being, as it was, one series of contests, will 
always defy the efforts of the conscientious 
historian. He may deal with it in the concrete- 
in the abstract, never. (Rose 1960:154-156). 



2 Lieutenant Samuel Benton Barron, 
Company C was another 3 r Texas Cavalry 
veteran, who provided this post-war 
description of the August 20 battle: 

Just before night we passed through 
Jonesboro, which is ten or twelve miles from 
Fairburn, and allowed Kilpatrick to occupy the 
town for the night. Ross' brigade occupied a 
position south of the town near the railroad, 
while Armstrong was west; General Ferguson, 
whose brigade was numerically stronger than 
either of the others, being directed to go out on 
a road leading east. As we afterwards learned, 
they failed to find their road, or got lost, and, 
so far as I remember, were not heard from for a 
day or two. Thus posted, or intended to be 
posted, the understanding and agreement was 
that we should make a triangular attack on 
Kilpatrick at daylight the next morning. 

Our brigade moved on time and marched into 
the town, only to learn that, with the exception 
of a few stragglers who had overslept 
themselves, not a Federal soldier was to be 
found. The brigade followed them eastwardly 
from Jonesboro, and in due time came up with 



their rear-guard at breakfast behind some 
railworks near Lee's M ill, and from this time 
until along in the afternoon we had a pretty 
warm time with their rear. They were moving 
on a road that intersects the McDonough and 
Lovejoy road, and when they struck this road 
they turned in the direction of Lovejoy Station. 

We finally came up with the main force 
ensconced behind some heavy railworks on a 
hill near a farmhouse a short distance east of 
the station. We had to approach them, after 
leaving the timber, through a lane probably 
three-quarters of a mile in length. The farm 
was mostly uncultivated, and had been divided 
into three fields by two cross-fences, built of 
rails running at right angles with the lane, and 
these were thrown right and left to admit of the 
free passage of cavalry. In the eastern cross 
fence, however, a length some twenty or thirty 
yards, and but a few rails high, was left 
standing, when a ditch or ravine running along 
on the west side was too deep to be safely 
crossed by cavalry. In this lane the command 
dismounted, leaving the horses in the hands of 
holders, and deployed in line in the open field, 
to the left or south side of the lane, and a 
section of Croft's Georgia battery was placed 
on an elevation to the right of the lane. I had 
been sent back to Lee's Mill to hurry up a 
detail left to bury one of our dead, so was 
behind when the line was formed. 

Having, on the day we fought M cCook, picked 
up a mule for my boy Jake to ride, I now had 
him leading my horse to rest his back, while I 
rode the mule. I rode up and gave my rein to a 
horse-holder, and was hurrying on to join the 
line when they charged the railworks, and 
when I got up with them they had begun to fall 
back. The brigade, not having more than four 
hundred men for duty, was little more than a 
skirmish line. During the day General Hood 
had managed to place General Reynolds' 
Arkansas brigade at Lovejoy Station, which 
fact Kilpatrick had discovered, and while we 
were showing our weakness in an open field 
one side, General Reynolds managed to keep 
his men under cover of timber on the other. 
Thus Kilpatrick found himself between an 
unknown infantry force in front and a skirmish- 
line of dismounted cavalry and a section of 
artillery in his rear. He concluded to get out of 
this situation — and he succeeded. Being 
repulsed in the charge on the railworks, by a 
heavy fire of artillery and small arms, we fell 
back and reformed our line behind the first 
cross fence. Three regiments of the enemy then 
rapidly moved out from behind their works, the 
Fourth United States, Fourth M ichigan, and 
Seventh Pennsylvania, and charged with 
sabers, in columns of fours, the three columns 
abreast. As they came on us at a sweeping 
gallop, with their bright sabers glittering, it was 
a grand display. And Ross' brigade was there 
and then literally run over, trampled under foot, 
and, apparently annihilated. Just before the 
charge they had shelled our horses in the lane, 
which, consequently, had been moved back 



75 



into the timber .What could we do under the 
circumstances? If we had time to hold a council 
of war and had deliberated over the matter ever 
so long, we would probably have acted just as 
we did; that is, acted upon the instinct of 
self preservation, rather than upon judgment. 
No order was heard; not a word spoken; every 
officer and every man took in the whole 
situation at a glance: no one asked or gave 
advice: no one waited for orders. The line was 
maintained intact for a few seconds, the men 
emptying their pieces at the heads of the 
columns. This created a momentary flutter 
without checking their speed, and on they came 
in fine style. There was no time for reloading, 
and every one instinctively started for the 
horses a mile in the rear, a half mile of open 
field behind us, and all of us much fatigued 
with the active duties performed on the sultry 
summer day. Being very much fatigued myself 
and never being fleet of foot, I outran only two 
men in the brigade, Lieutenant W. H. Carr, of 
Company C, and W. S. Coleman, of Company 
A, of the Third Texas, who were both captured, 
and I kept up with only two others, Captain 
Noble and Lieutenant Soap, also of the Third 
Texas. We three came to the ravine already 
described, at the same instant. Soap dropped 
into it, Noble jumped over and squatted in the 
sage grass in the corner of the fence. I instantly 
leaped the ravine and the rail fence, and had 
gone perhaps ten or fifteen steps when the 
clatter of horses' hoofs became painfully 
distinct, and "Surrender, sir!" rang in my ear 
like thunder. 

Now, I had had no thought of the necessity of 
surrendering, as I had fondly hoped and 
believed I would escape. Halting, I looked up 
to ascertain whether these words were 
addressed to me, and instantly discovered that 
the column directly in my wake was dividing, 
two and two, to cross the ravine, coming 
together again just in front of me, so that I was 
completely surrounded. This was an 
emergency. As I looked up my eyes met those 
of a stalwart rider as he stood up in his stirrups, 
his drawn saber glittering just over my head; 
and, as I hesitated, he added in a kind tone: 
"That's all I ask of you, sir." I had a rifle in my 
hand which had belonged to one of our men 
who had been killed near me during the day. 
Without speaking a word, I dropped this on the 
ground in token of my assent. "All right," said 
he, as he spurred his horse to overtake some of 
the other men.Just at this time our artillery 
began throwing shells across the charging 
columns, and the first one exploded 
immediately above our heads, the pieces falling 
promiscuously around in my neighborhood, 
creating some consternation in their ranks. 
Taking advantage of this, I placed my left hand 
above my hip, as if struck, and fell as long a 
fall as I could towards the center of the little 
space between the columns, imitating as best I 
could the action of a mortally wounded man, — 
carefully falling on my right side to hide my 
pistol, which I still had on. Here I lay, as dead 
to all outward appearances as any soldier that 



fell during the war, and remained in this 
position without moving a muscle, until the 
field was clear of all of Kilpatrick's men who 
were able to leave it. To play the role of a dead 
man for a couple of hours and then make my 
escape may sound like a joke to the 
inexperienced, and it was really a practical joke 
on the raiders; but to me, to lie thus exposed on 
the bare ground, with a column of hostile 
cavalry passing on either side all the time, and 
so near me that I could distinctly hear any 
ordinary conversation, was far from enjoyable. 
I am no stranger to the hardships of a soldier's 
life; I have endured the coldest weather with 
scant clothing, marched day after day and night 
after night without food or sleep; have been 
exposed to cold, hunger, inclement weather and 
fatigue until the power of endurance was well- 
nigh exhausted, but never did I find anything 
quite so tedious and trying as playing dead. I 
had no idea of time, except that I knew that I 
had not lain there all night. The first shell our 
men threw after I fell came near killing me, as 
a large piece plowed up the ground near 
enough to my back to throw dirt all over me. 
Their ammunition, however, was soon 
exhausted, the guns abandoned, and that danger 
at an end. As things grew more quiet the awful 
fear seized me that my ruse would be 
discovered and I be abused for my deception, 
and driven up and carried to prison. This fear 
haunted me until the last. Now, to add to the 
discomfort of my situation, it began to rain, and 
never in my life had I felt such a rain. When in 
my fall I struck the ground my hat had dropped 
off, and this terrible rain beat down in my face 
until the flesh was sore. But to move an arm or 
leg, or to turn my face over for protection was 
to give my case completely away, and 
involved, as I felt, the humiliation of a prison 
life; than which nothing in the bounds of 
probability in my life as a Confederate soldier 
was so horrible, in which there was but one 
grain of consolation, and that was that I would 
see my brother and other friends who had been 
on Johnson's Island for some months. 

The last danger encountered was when some 
dismounted men came near driving some pack 
mules over me. Finally everything became so 
quiet that I ventured to raise my head, very 
slowly and cautiously at first, and as not a man 
could be seen I finally rose to my feet. Walking 
up to a wounded Pennsylvania cavalryman I 
held a short conversation with him. Surveying 
the now deserted field, so lately the scene of 
such activity, and supposing as I did that Ross' 
brigade as an organization was broken up and 
destroyed, I was much distressed. I was left 
alone and afoot, and never expected to see my 
horse or mule any more, which in fact I never 
did, as Kilpatrick's cavalry, after charging 
through the field, had turned into the road and 
stampeded our horses. 

I now started out over the field in the hope of 
picking up enough plunder to fit myself for 
service in some portion of the army. In this I 
succeeded beyond my expectation, as I found a 



76 



pretty good, completely rigged horse, only 
slightly wounded, and a pack-mule with pack 
intact, and I soon loaded the mule well with 
saddles, bridles, halters, blankets, and oil 
cloths. Among other things I picked up a 
Sharp's carbine, which I recognized as 
belonging to a messmate. While I was casting 
about in my mind as to what command I would 
join, I heard the brigade bugle sounding the 
assembly! Sweeter music never was heard by 
me. Mounting my newly-acquired horse and 
leading my pack-mule, I proceeded in the 
direction from which the bugle notes came, and 
on the highest elevation in the field, on the 
opposite side of the lane, I found General Ross 
and the bugler. I told my experience, and heard 
our gallant brigadier's laughable story of his 
escape. I sat on my new horse and looked over 
the field as the bugle continued to sound the 
assembly occasionally, and was rejoiced to see 
so many of our men straggling in from 
different directions, coming apparently out of 
the ground, some of them bringing up 
prisoners, one of whom was so drunk that he 
didn't know he was a prisoner until the next 
morning. 

Near night we went into camp with the remnant 
collected, and the men continued coming in 
during the night and during all the next day. To 
say that we were crestfallen and heartily 
ashamed of being run over is to put it mildly; 
but we were not so badly damaged, after all. 
The horse-holders, when the horses stampeded, 
had turned as many as they could out of the 
road and saved them. But as for me, I had 
suffered almost a total loss, including the fine 
sword that John B. Long had presented me at 
Thompson's Station, and which I had tied on 
my saddle. My faithful Jake came in next 
morning, and although he could not save my 
horse, he had saved himself, his little McCook 
mule and some of my soldier clothes. My pack- 
mule and surplus rigging I now distributed 
among those who seemed to need them 
most. Including officers, we had eighty-four or 
eighty-five men captured, and only sixteen or 
eighteen of these were carried to Northern 
prisons. 

Among them were seven officers, including my 
friend Captain Noble, who was carried to 
Johnson' s Island, and messed with my brother 
until the close of the war. Captain Noble had an 
eye for resemblances. When he first saw my 
brother he walked up to him and said, "I never 
saw you before, but I will bet your name is 
Barron, and I know your brother well." The 
other prisoners who escaped that night and 
returned to us next day included my friend 
Lieutenant Soap, who brought in a prisoner, 
and Luther Grimes, owner of the Sharp's 
carbine, already mentioned, who had an ugly 
saber wound in the head. I remember only two 
men of the Third Texas who were killed during 
the day — William Kellum of Company C, near 
Lee's Mill; and John Hendricks, of Company 
B, in the charge on the railworks. These two 
men had managed to keep on details from one 



to two years, being brought to the front under 
orders to cut down all details to increase the 
fighting strength, and they were both killed on 
the field the first day they were under the 
enemy's fire. Among the wounded was Captain 
S. S. Johnson, of Company K, Third Texas, 
gunshot wound, while a number of the men 
were pretty badly hacked with sabers. Next day 
General Ross went up to General Hood's 
headquarters and said to him: "General, I got 
my brigade run over yesterday." General Hood 
replied, "General Ross, you have lost nothing 
by that, sir. If others who should have been 
there had been near enough to the enemy to be 
run over, your men would not have been run 
over." This greatly relieved our feelings, and 
the matter became only an incident of the 
campaign, and on the 22d day of August Ross' 
brigade was back in its position ready for duty 
(Barron 1964:162-169). 

Barron also provided some information about 
the weary condition of the 3 r Regiment at the 
time of battle, "Our duties, until the 18th of 
August, were about the same as they had been 
formerly — heavy picketing and daily 
skirmishing. The casualties, however, were 
continually depleting our ranks: the dead were 
wrapped in their blankets and buried; the badly 
wounded sent to the hospitals in Atlanta, while 
the slightly wounded were sent off to take care 
of themselves; in other words, were given an 
indefinite furlough to go where they pleased, 
so that a slight wound became a boon greatly 
to be prized. Many returned to Mississippi to 
be cared for by some friend or acquaintance, 
while some remained in Georgia" (Barron 
1964). Barron's account suggests that the 
Texas Brigade consisted of only about 400 
able bodied men on the battle line and some of 
those may have been horse tenders (William 
K. Nolan personal communication June 27, 
2007). 



9 th Texas Cavalry, Commanded by 

Colonel Dudley W. Jones (1842- 

1869) 



Several soldiers in the 9' Texas Cavalry left 
written accounts of their involvement in Ross' 
Texas Cavalry Brigade in the Atlanta 
Campaign. 

Lieutenant George L. Griscom, Adjutant, 9' 
Texas Cavalry, kept a diary account of the 
events at Lovejoy, which has survived. His 
entry for August 15 noted that the 9 th Texas 
Cavalry was preparing to interdict the U.S. 



77 



raiders, and he noted skirmishes on August 16 
and 17. On August 18, the 9 r Texas remained 
in camp and on August 19, the Texas brigade 
saddled up. On that day Colonel Dudley W. 
Jones, commander of the 9 th Texas, was 
wounded when his horse fell on him and 
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas G. Berry assumed 
command. Griscom's entries for August 19- 
22, 1864 are presented below: 

19th - Brigade saddles up at 12-1/2 AM 
moves out to support 6th on Picket. 

Col. Jones leads Vi regiment charges, makes 
them recoil, Legion comes to 9th assistance 

Col. Jones wounded when horse falls on him 
(Aug. 19, 1864). 

Smith Co. H & Lee Perkins Co. D wounded. 

Lt. Col Berry assumes command (9th 
throughout raid) 

Regiment ordered to detour (conduct a 
movement to regain contact from the front or 
flank) across Jonesboro & Fayetteville Road. 
Engage them and are repulsed or rather flanked 
back. 3rd Fights them on the RR.. 9th makes 
another detour and join Brigade which goes to 
Bucks Crossroads, charge them with pistols in 
two battalions, repulsed by dismounted line & 
again move to front on the Jonesboro & 
Fayetteville road and wait their approach. 9th 
forming in a column of squadrons and feed our 
horses. When skirmishing begins the 9th 
dismounts and builds works, but they come 
with such force that we fell across the Flint 
River and skirmish again with the Legion on 
line. We fall back to Jonesboro, and are 
shelled out of town. We fall back with the 9th 
east of the RR and the Brigade west. 9th and 
27th Skirmish nearly all night. Federals occupy 
Jonesboro. Capt. A. R. Wells Killed B Co. 1 
wounded by shell in Jonesboro, Lt JE More, Co 
a wounded, W.P. Reece Co D & J. A. Vines, 
Co. I wounded. 

August 20, 1864 - Moved up at light through 
J[onesboro] - have Capt W[ells] buried - 
follow the enemy on the McDonough road - 
3rd Texas skirmished with them 2-1/2 hours 
driving them off - Brigade persuing until 10- 
1/2 AM coming up with them near Lovejoy 
where Reynold's Infantry was fighting them in 
front & engaged them briskly as cavalry & then 
dismount & deploy - bring up battery & play 
on their charge & drive in their skirmishers but 
their main line repulses us - & we are charged 
in turn by 3 heavy columns of Cavalry & a 
heavy line of Infantry stampeding our horses & 
running through our Brigade capturing the 
battery after a stubborn resistance some 
ambulances & a number of horses - the 



Brigade acted most gallantly horseholders & all 
fighting them hand to hand & giving away 
when overpowered - finally fall back to the 
timber & as soon as their column passed again 
took the field and commenced assembling - 
gathering up nearly all the men and horses - 
loosing but a few & not a man killed in the 
charge (55) - 

August 21, 1864 - Collect horses & move 
camp to Jonesboro & camp there - our loss 
sums up: Capt. A. R. Wells & 1 man killed by 
shells (W. L. Goodwin Co. "D") - wounded 
were Capt. W. E. Anderson, Corpl. C. Dees 
(mortally) & Priv. M. L. Cloninger Co. "F"; Lt. 
J. E. Moore, {Priv} [Jesse] Rogers, [Co. "A"] 
and Sergt. B O'Reily (head - saber), J. A. 
Hogue, g.W. Sloan, H.C. Sears Co. "C" 
slightly; W. P. Reece, A. Perkins, L. F.Perkins, 
Tom Perkins, J. T. Turner Co. "D" J. J. 
Weatherall, J. D. Pruitt Co. "F" J. H. Caudle, 
M. Miller, J. Vines Co. "I" E. J. Brown Co. 
"A" all slightly wounded Sergt. S. Dider, 
Corpl. S[mith] Compton Co. "H" slightly [R. 
C. Johns, M. Williams, G. Richardson Co. "K" 
28th Ar[tillery]Sloan & M. Miller] - Loss 
Killpatrick [Brig-Gen. Judson Kilpatrick](56) 
raid 2 killed, 20 wounded, 4 captured - The 
captured were D. S. Alvey (Bugler), T. Butler 
& Sgt L. A. Porter Co. "E" M. King Co. "A" 
Capt. - After running over us He [Kilpatrick] 
was persued by Armstrong (200), ran him via 
McDonough capturing much plunder, horses 
&c &c - we get many horses (all his pack 
train) many prisoners & plunder & kill about 
100 - 4 men 30 horses lost in 9th Texas Cav,- 

August 22, 1864 - Move via the RR to the 
vicinity of Eastpoint & camp - report of Killed 
and wounded on raid shows 1 off[icer] 1 man 
killed, 2 officers 18 men wounded & 10 
missing (7 of whom afterwards come in)" 
(Griscom 1976). 

Private A.W. Sparks (1901), who was a 
veteran of Company I, 9 E Texas Cavalry, 
wrote a history of the 9 th Texas Cavalry. 
Sparks provided another Confederate's 
description of the August 20, 1864 action from 
the perspective of an enlisted man: 

The Legion was on picket. This brave old 

regiment, handled by its gallant Colonel, John 
H. Broocks, contested the ground to the last, 
but was compelled to yield to overwhelming 
numbers, and Kilpatrick turned the flank of the 
Confederate position, and proceeded to the 
rear; but the vigilant Ross soon had his men in 
the saddle and in pursuit. A little after 
daylight, Ross struck the enemy in the flank, 
and inflicted considerable loss on him. But the 
unnumerable attacks made on this raiding 
column by Ross' Brigade, are now impossible 
of description. Suffice it to say, that no 
opportunity for attack was allowed to go 
unimproved. Finally, Kilpatrick attempted to 



78 



enter Lovejoy Station, and finding a division of 
infantry there, retired. General Ross had 
formed his brigade in the enemy's rear, 
expecting to be supported by the brigades of 
Cosby and Ferguson - neither of which put in 
an appearance. Finding the infantry too strong 
for him, and meeting with an unexpected attack 
from Ross in the rear, Kilpatrick attempted to 
intimidate the Texans by a furious shelling, and 
then charged through the line - a feat by no 
means remarkable, when we consider that Ross 
did not have exceeding five hundred men, and 
Kilpatrick as many thousands. Add to this the 
fact that the Texans were dismounted, and 
armed with short guns - not having a bayonet 
in the brigade - and it will not be wondered at 
that they did not repulse a cavalry charge ten 
times their number. Ross lost two or three men 
killed and wounded, and about thirty prisoners, 
many of whom escaped the first night. 

Scarcely had the charging column passed the 
line, when the indomitable Ross had his bugler 
to sound the rally and, in an incredibly short 
space, renewed his unceasing attacks upon the 
enemy's rear. From this time on, Kilpatrick 
found no rest, and, evidently, was bent upon 
the sole plan of making the best of his way out 
of a bad scrape. He was somewhat more 
fortunate than his predecessor, McCook , and 
made Sherman 1 lines in pretty good order. As 
the author was captured in the charge of 
Lovejoy Station, the remainder of the narrative 
is told as it was told to him. Nothing like a 
minute description has been attempted in the 
hasty tracing of the Georgia campaign. Each 
day was a battle, without characteristics to 
distinguish it from the battle of the day before, 
or that of the next day; and that campaign, 
being, as it was, one series of contests, will 
always defy the efforts of the conscientious 
historian. He may deal with it in the concrete - 
in the abstract, never (Sparks 1901). 

Sparks (1901) also provides us with unique 
information about the disposition of those 
members of the Texas Brigade, who were 
captured by Kilpatrick' s troops and eventually 
sent to prison at Camp Chase, Ohio. 

Kilpatrick succeeded in getting away from 
Lovejoy Station with about thirty or forty of 
the Texas Brigade, among whom are now 
remembered: Captain Noble; Lieutenants 
Teague, Moon and West; Privates Crab tree, 
Pirtle, N id ever, M apes, "M ajor" White, Reuben 
White, Fluellen, and Ware. The march of the 
prisoners to the lines of General Sherman was 
fatiguing in the extreme. The confederates had 
been in the saddle for three consecutive days, 
during which time they had partaken of not one 
regular meal; and the Union troopers were 
almost as destitute of rations, though what little 
they had was generously divided with their 
famished prisoners .The prisoners were well 
treated by their captors. It was only the "home 
guard" who delighted in misusing these 



unfortunates of war, just as the professional 
politician on either side refuses even now to be 
placated. The men who confronted each other 
in battle were too brave to feel pleasure in 
inflicting pain on a prisoner. The braves of 
Hancock, Custer, M cClellan, and Rosecranz 
are not the men who have kept the "bloody 
shirt" waving; nor are the men of Joe 
Johnston, Beauregard, Maxy, and Ross, found 
among the impracticables, who, like his 
excellency, the late President Jeff. Davis, 
imagine the Confederacy still exists. General 
Sherman's convention with General Johnston 
expressed the sentiments of the soldiers on 
either side. Arriving at Sherman's quarters the 
prisoners were placed in the "bull-pen," and 
given a "square" meal of "hard-tack" and "sow- 
belly," as crackers and bacon were called by 
the Federals. In the "bull-pen" were a number 
of whining, canting, oath-seeking hypocrites 
and sycophants, who, with the characteristic 
zeal of new converts, employed their time in 
maligning every thing connecting with their 
suffering section, and in extolling the superior 
civilization of the North. The fiery and 
impetuous Crabtree could not brook this 
despicable servility, and he undertook to do 
battle, singly and alone, in vindication of the 
South. A lively "scrimmage" was on the tapis, 
Crabtree knocking his opponents right and left, 
when the guard interposed on behalf of the new 
converts, whom every brave Unionist secretly 
despised. After a day or two spent here, the 
prisoners were placed on the cars and conveyed 
to Nashville (Sparks 1901). 

The diary and letters of Lieutenant Colonel 
James Campbell Bates, Company H, 9 1 Texas 
Cavalry pertaining to his service in the Texas 
Cavalry Brigade are published (Lowe 1999). 
Bates suffered a severe facial wound in the 
war but he continued to serve in the cavalry. 
He served with Ross' Brigade in the Atlanta 
Campaign. His account provides an excellent 
understanding of the men who served in the 
Texas Cavalry for the Confederacy. 

The Memphis-Atlanta Appeal published in 
Macon, Georgia, September, 1864 noted 
specific locations of the Confederate soldiers: 
"Ross' and Ferguson's commands, on foot, 
were in front and on each side of the battery, 
behind rail breast- works. A brigade of 
Cleburne's division was on the left of the road, 
in three lines, the last one in a piece of woods, 
about one hundred yards in rear of the position 
of the battery. On the right of the road [east 
side] the State troops were formed in line" 
(Vale 1886:357). 



79 



Based on this newspaper description the troop 
positions on the battlefield would have looked 
something like this: 

A brigade of Cleburne's ROAD On right of 

road, state troops 

Division (on left of road formed in a line 

In three lines) 

WOODS 



Approximately 100 yards 
Confederate Battery 



Additional sources provide clues and 
information of Confederate positions. Union 
Officer Lieutenant W.S. Scott of the 1 st U.S. 
Cavalry wrote, "The rebels had formed two or 
three lines with infantry behind barricades of 
fence rails and logs, as it seems they had 
anticipated a charge, and they were not 
disappointed in their expectations. When our 
troops [Union] were forming, two batteries 
opened up on our lines from the front and the 
[Confederate] infantry was closing up from 
our now rear from the railroad" (Curry 
1984:179-181). 

The following excerpt from All Afire to Fight 
The Untold Tale of the Civil War's Ninth 
Texas Cavalry brings individuals and events to 
life from the Confederates' perspective: 

At first light the next morning, August 20, the 
brigade cautiously moved back through 
Jonesboro, stopping only long enough to bury 
the captain who had been killed the day before. 
Six miles south at Lovejoy Station, they found 
Confederate infantry and artillery and 
Jackson' s other cavalry regiments attacking the 
front of Kilpatrick's column. Near noon, Ross 
spotted the rear of the Federal column in woods 
thick with undergrowth. He reported to Jackson 
from Mrs. Carnes' s Gin Hou se, "I have a plain 
view of at least 4,000 formed in line." Ross 
dismounted his 400, put his artillery to work 
and attacked. 

Kilpatrick was getting low on ammunition, and 
when Ross attacked his rear, the Yankee 
general realized he was surrounded. He 
gathered his forces behind the crest of a hill 
and prepared to cut his way out. In order to 



reach a road that led to safety, he decided to 
ride through Ross's Brigade with his advantage 
often to one. Kilpatrick formed three 
regiments abreast in column of fours and three 
in close columns with regimental front, each 
regiment in line, the men side by side, boot to 
boot. They drew their sabers to avoid firing 
into their own men. 

The Federal cavalrymen trotted to the crest of 
the hill, then charged at a gallop, leaping 
fences, ditches, and barricades, seeking safety 
beyond Ross's dismounted men. Ross's battery 
fired into them, but they rode straight into the 
Texans. For an instant Sam Barron watched in 
astonishment, then realized each man was on 
his own in the melee of plunging horses and 
slashing sabers. "No order was heard; not a 
word spoken; every officer and man took in the 
whole situation at a glance," he said. The men 
remained in line only long enough to empty 
their guns. There was no time to reload. They 
instinctively ran for the horses. Rebel 
artillerymen fired into the horde of Federals 
until their last shell was spent before sprinting 
toward cover. The deafening roar of canister 
and small arms exploding down a lane caused 
splinters on the fences to vibrate like the noise 
of a Jew's harp. John Dunn was sure "the 
whole of us would go up." On came the 
Yankees, swinging sabers at everyone within 
range. Ross's horse holders drove as many 
horses into the brush as possible. The rest 
stampeded. 

Jesse was running for cover when a Yankee 
galloped by and swung his saber at Jesse's 
head. Jesse ducked, but the saber caught him, 
laying open his scalp. He ran through the brush 
and across gullies, blood pouring down his 
collar. His company comrades E. J. Brown and 
J. E. Moore were wounded. E. M. King was 
captured. The three Perkins boys of Company 
D were all wounded. 

Sam Barron, Capt. S. E. Nobel, and Lt. Tom 
Soape of the Third ran for a ravine. Nobel 
jumped across and squatted in tall grass in a 
fence corner. Soape dropped into the ravine. 
Sam leaped the ravine, then the fence. Nobel 
and Soape were captured. Sam had gone fifteen 
steps when a mounted Yankee was on him. 
"Surrender, sit!" rang in Sam's ear. The 
Yankee was standing up in his stirrups with his 
saber glittering just over Sam's head. Sam 
hesitated. The man said in a quiet voice, "That 
is all I ask of you, sir." Sam dropped the 
carbine he was carrying. "All right," the 
Yankee said, and spurred his horse to join his 
friends. 



Sam stood still. Columns of Yankees galloped 
past on each side of him. Artillery burst 
overhead. When a shell exploded nearby, Sam 
grabbed his abdomen above his right hip and 
fell "as long a fall as I could toward the center 
of a little space between the columns." He was 
careful to fall on his right side to hide his 



80 



pistol. He lay still, playing the dead man as 
best he could while Yankee cavalrymen raced 
past. Sam could hear their voices, could feel 
the pounding of hooves near him. He did not 
move. 



came in on his mule, bringing a few of Sam's 
clothes. The train and "much plunder" were 
taken by Frank Anderson's Mississippi 
cavalrymen, who took up the chase after the 
Federals ran over Ross's men. 



The action eventually moved off. In the 
silence, an aw ful fear came over S am that he 
would be discovered and carried away to 
prison, "a most horrible consequence." Rain 
began to fall, rain so hard it made the flesh on 
his face hurt. Yankee soldiers drove a train of 
pack mules so near they almost stepped on 
Sam. He dared not move. Finally, it became so 
quiet Sam opened his eyes. He slowly raised 
his head and looked around. Not a man was in 
sight. He stood. K ilpatrick was gone. 

Sam was "no stranger to hardships of a 
soldier's life." He had "endured the coldest 
weather with scant clothing, marched day after 
day and night after night without food or sleep" 
until his power of endurance was "well-nigh 
exhausted," but never did he "find anything 
quite so tedious as playing dead." 

Sam started out over the field in search of 
enough plunder to fit himself out. He was sure 
Ross's Brigade as an organization was broken 
up, but he would find another place to serve. 
He found a completely rigged horse, only 
slightly wounded, and a pack mule, which he 
loaded with saddles, bridles, blankets, and 
oilcloths. Sam even picked up the Sharps 
carbine he had dropped when he surrendered. 

While thinking of which command he would 
join, a bugle call rent the air, a bugle call Sam 
instantly recognized. It was Ross's bugler 
sounding assembly, the sweetest music Sam 
had ever heard. He rode toward the bugle and 
found General Ross and his bugler on the 
highest elevation in the field, calling in the 
scattered men. 

From the dark clouds that had gathered, 
torrents of rain again began to pour on the 
exhausted men. Out of the wet timber and 
brush Texans straggled into camp from every 
direction, "seeming to come out of the 
ground." Tom Soape had captured his captors 
and marched them into the Texans' camp at 
gunpoint. Other men brought in a prisoner 
[Union] who was so drunk he did not know he 
had been captured until the next morning. 
Many of the horses had been saved by being 
turned into the brush by the holders. 
Bivouacking on the field that evening, the 
Texans were "crestfallen and heartily 
ashamed" of being run over, but they were not 
seriously damaged. 



Gris and the other regimental adjutants tallied 
their casualties. Gris discovered that sixty men 
in the Ninth had been captured, but only four 
failed to return to the regiment before the week 
was out. No one in the Ninth was killed when 
the brigade was run over, but the chase from 
Owl Creek to Jonesboro had been costly. In 
addition to the four men captured in the Ninth, 
two men were killed by shells, another man 
died of wounds, and twenty-three others were 
wounded. In the Third, eighty-five men were 
captured, twenty-three failing to escape. Sgt. 
Victor Rose, who was wounded during the 
action, was among those taken north to prison. 

From the battlefield the brigade followed the 
railroad north to West Point the next day. Ross 
rode to headquarters to report. "General," he 
told Hood, "I got my brigade run over 
yesterday." 



General Ross, you have lost nothing by that, 
sir." Hood assured Ross. "If others, who should 
have been there, had been near enough to . . . 
be run over, your men would nothave been run 
over." Ross's conversation with Hood buffed a 
bit of the tarnish off the Texans' pride. In 
addition, the men would have been surprised at 
their fame among the Federals. A courier had 
raced to Sherman's headquarters to report that 
Ross's Brigade was broken up. Sherman 
immediately notified his commanders in the 
field and w ired the food new s to Chattanooga 
and on to W ashington. 

In spite of the wire to Washington, Sherman 
was disappointed in the raid, yet Kilpatrick and 
his troopers had done all they could. Sherman 
reported that Kilpatrick "had a pretty hard 
fight" and that the Macon & Western would be 
disabled for ten days at the most. The raid 
convinced Sherman that cavalry could not do 
the job. "I expect I will have to swing around 
to that road in force to make the matter 
certain," he told Washington. He soon learned 
that Hood had sent Wheeler' s cavalry north to 
harass the Federals' only railroad. Sherman 
report, "I could not have asked for anything 
better," and started six corps south down the 
Sandtown road. Kilpatrick' s cavalry led the 
advance (Crabb 2000:246-250). 

3 rd Texas Cavalry, Commanded by 
Lieutenant Colonel Jiles S. Boggess 



The next morning men scoured the battlefield 
for Yankee plunder: horses, saddles, guns, 
clothing, cooking utensils, food, and most of 
Kilpatrick' s pack train. John's mess gathered 
enough rations to last a week. Sam' s slave 



The 3 r Texas Cavalry website provides additional 
insight: 



On the morning of the 20' , Union General 
Kilpatrick's cavalry was now facing an 
Arkansas infantry brigade that had dug itself in 
to defend the railroad at Love Joy station. 
Pursuing them and now behind them were the 
four hundred horsemen of Ross's Cavalry 
Brigade. Caught between the Arkansas and the 
Texans, three regiments of Kilpatricks [sic] 
Cavalry drew sabers and charged the cavalry 
hitting the 3 rd Texas Cavalry Regiment. The 3 rd 
Texas quickly dismounted and formed a firing 
line. They fired volley's hoping to halt them 
and then with drew [sic] to their horses. The 
[sic] failed to make [it] to their horses before 
the Union Cavalry rode over Ross's brigade 
and scattered men and horses . . .the 3 rd Texas 
was hit the hardest and lost three company 
commanders, four lieutenants, two sergeants, 
three corporals and eleven privates killed or 
captured. The captured officers were sent to 
Johnson' s Island on Lake Erie and the enlisted 
men were sent to Camp Chase near Columbus, 
Ohio. A number of the 3 rd Texas Cavalry failed 
to survive the Camp Chase interment. Several 
died from chronic diarrhea and bronchitis. The 
remainder of the captured officers and men of 
the 3 rd Texas were furrowed and allowed to go 
home in May and June of 1 865 (Mark Pollard 
Papers) . 

The Third Texas Cavalry in the Civil War by 
Douglas Hale noted: Kilpatrick lined the men, 
ordered Minty to lead and they charged the nearest 
Rebel line the 3 r Texas Cavalry who had left their 
horses in the woods in the rear. The Texans shot 
one volley and ran. "Every officer and every man 
took in the whole situation at a glance: no one 
asked or gave advice: no one waited for orders," 
recalled Sam Barron. "Every one instinctively 
started for the horses a mile to the rear" (Hale 
1993:240). 

Dr. George Fish (4 s Michigan Cavalry) [Union] 
said, "The enemy's [Confederate] cannon were so 
placed as to enable them to command the whole 
field" (Letters of Dr. George W. Fish p89-90). 

Colonel Minty wrote in his report dated August 24, 
1864: 



The rebels held their position, behind their 
works, until we [M inty's Brigade] were almost 
on them, when they turned and fled in 
confusion. We were soon among them, and 
hundreds fell beneath our keen blades. The race 
and slaughter continued, through woods and 
fields, for about three miles, when I [Minty] 
collected and reformed my command (OR, 
Vol. 38(2):825-26). 



Historian Douglas Hale noted: 

Miraculously, however, the Third Texas 
survived to fight another day, although many of 
its members were captured. For one thing, 
Kilpatrick was short of ammunition and in too 
much of a hurry to extricate himself from his 
still perilous situation to follow through after 
the blow his troopers had dealt the Rebels . . . 
Some of the East Texans merely played dead in 
the rain until Kilpatrick's horsemen had moved 
off down the road to the east. Others, like 
Captain Jesse Wynne, Lieutenant Tom Soape, 
and Sergeant Nathan Gregg, fought their way 
out of captivity and seized their own guards. 
Just before dark, when Ross and his bugler 
appeared on the opposite side of the field to 
reassemble his troops, muddy stragglers 
streamed in from all directions. Though 
humiliated by the rout and minus a precious 
battery of artillery. Ross had lost but two 
killed, twenty wounded, and thirty captured 
(Hale 1993:241). 

1 st Mississippi Cavalry, Commanded 
by Colonel R. A. Pinson 

Although they are listed in the Order of Battle for 
the August 20 l engagement at Nash Farm, the I s 
Mississippi Cavalry actually arrived on the scene 
after the main action had ended. Nevertheless, 
members of the Mississippi Cavalry left accounts 
of the battle. Weigley (2006:66-67) provides this 
post-war account from a J.G. Deupree of the 
Noxubee Squadron of the First Mississippi Cavalry 
(J. G. Deupree 1918:104-105): 

General Ross had thrown his brigade across 
Kilpatrick's path while our brigade under 
Armstrong was pressing him in the rear. As the 
Texans were between Kilpatrick and safety by 
flight, he withdrew the force fighting us, 
formed his troops into column by companies 
and charged through Ross' thin line that had 
been stretched out to cover Kilpatrick's front. 
The heroic Texans, firing first in the faces of 
the advancing Federals and then at their backs 
after they had passed on, inflicted heavy losses 
on them. Likewise, the men of King's battery, 
right in the road of Kilpatrick's charging 
column, fired into it one or two rounds as it 
came on, then, dodging under their guns till the 
last company of Kilpatrick's column had 
passed, they rose, wheeled their guns around 
and again fired into the retreating column. 
Afterwards, Armstrong followed rapidly on the 
heels of Kilpatrick and brought him to bay. 
Pinson was ordered to dismount his regiment 
and begin to attack. This he did promptly and 
furiously. We routed Kilpatrick's rear-guard 
and drove it pell-mell a mile or more, though 
for awhile they put up a stout resistance 
(Weigley 2006:66-67). 



82 



From this perspective of the 1 st Mississippi 
Cavalry, the troop locations on the battlefield 
would have looked something like this 
(viewed from East to West): 



ROAD 

Ross - Texans 

King's Battery 

Kilpatrick's men 

Armstrong 



2 nd Mississippi Cavalry, 

Commanded by Major John J. 

Perry 

The 2° Mississippi Cavalry is listed in the 
Order of Battle for the August 20 action at 
Nash Farm. This cavalry regiment arrived on 
the scene, however, after most of the hostilities 
had ended. On August 19 th , J. A. Biggers (2 nd 
Mississippi Cavalry) wrote in his diary, 

The Brigd. was mounted. Moved our after a 
Raid that was on the R.R. below Atlanta. My 
horse having lung fever I stayed with wagon 
train. The command caught up with Kilpatricks 
Brigd. of Cavalry at Lovejoy station and 
running over Ross' Brigd. escaped by leaving 
many of their men dead on the field. Our 
wagon train moved south of the West Point and 
Atlanta R.R. and stayed there ntil [sic] 22" d " 
(Biggers 1864). 

1 st Arkansas Mounted Rifles, 

Commanded by Brigadier General 

Evander McNair 

The 1 st Arkansas Mounted Rifles surprised General 
Kilpatrick's Cavalry Division at Lovejoy. As a 
result Kilpatrick envisioned his Cavalry Division 
as surrounded by infantry and it was this factor that 
led Kilpatrick to make the decision to charge over 
Ross' Texas Cavalry Brigade (McReynolds 2007; 
Allen 1988; NPS 2007). Private Robert H. Dacus, 
Company H, Surgeon with the 1 st Arkansas 
Mounted Rifles, provides this account: 

On August 20, just as he was ready to strike the 
road with his brigade of cavalry, our brigade 
charged him and ran him over to the Ninth 



Texas Cavalry, who were deployed behind him 
and watching his movements. The entire 
movement had been so quietly made that he 
was not aware of any infantry being nearer than 
Atlanta. When he found it was infantry in his 
front, he supposed he was surrounded by 
infantry, and forming his men in columns of 
four, he told them they were surrounded by 
infantry and unless they cut their way out they 
would be captured, as Stoneman was on a 
similar raid before this, in this same country. 
So saying, he ordered his men to draw sabers, 
and heading the column himself, made a dash 
for the rear. When he struck the Ninth Texas 
Cavalry, who were dismounted and deployed 
as skirmishers, dashed through their line 
without paying attention to them; but when 
they run onto their horse holders with the 
horses they saw their mistake. They knew there 
was no line behind the horses, so they let into 
cutting and slashing among them. I saw one of 
the men not long after, who had two sabre cuts 
on his head (Weigley 2006:70). 

Columbus Flying/Light Artillery, 

Commanded by Captain Edward 

Croft (1815-1896) 

Captain Edward Croft, a wealthy merchant and 
lawyer from Columbus, Georgia, founded the 
Columbus Flying/Light Artillery December 23, 
1861 . He recruited men from Georgia and Alabama 
counties. A war advertisement shows Croft 
recruiting for 150 men. It was a light artillery 
battery known as the "Flying Artillery" using 12 
pound Howitzers and rifled cannons enabling them 
to move around the battlefield quickly. 

Christopher Daniel (Croft's Artillery) was captured 
August 20, 1864, near Jonesboro, Georgia. He was 
a POW at Camp Chase, Ohio, September 1, 1864, 
and paroled for exchange at Camp Chase February 
25, 1865. Also, Private Nathan W. McLane, (of 
Croft's Artillery) was captured and listed as a 
POW. 

Haulin' Brass Capt. Croft's Flying Artillery 
Battery, Columbus, Georgia by William Forbes II, 
describes the Confederates' position as follows: 
"Ross dismounted his troopers in a lane and 
deployed them 'in line in the open field to the left 
or south side of the lane and a section [sic] of 
Croft's Georgia Battery was placed on an elevation 
to the right of the land' " (Forbes 1993:21 1). 

Alfred Young stated that his brother George was 
within thirty feet of the charging column. A 
correspondent with the Griffin Georgia Rebel, 



83 



described George B. Young's actions (son of 
William H. Young) as follows: 

It was in this charge that the old belching 12- 
pounder under Lieutenant George B. Young 
from Columbus, Ga., did noble and effective 
work. As a column would charge down on him, 
he would open so wide a break in it that it 
would pass him without running over his gun. 
He fired rapidly, turning his gun in three or 
four directions. The enemy made desperate 
attempts to take it, and twice General Ross sent 
word to Lieutenant Young that he had better 
leave his gun and try and save his men. His 
reply was, "Not while I have a shot left!" Then 
General Ross took thirty men and went up to 
the piece and said, "Well, Young, if you are 
determined to stay with your gun, we will stay 
with you." And, they did stay there 'til they 
had fired every round of ammunition he had. 
Next to the last round, a double charge of 
grape, cracked the gun but it did not frighten 
them from firing the last shot. General Ross 
says, "Lieutenant Young is one of the coolest 
and bravest man I ever saw under fire. Every 
one of his men stood by the piece. He lost one 
killed and five wounded (Forbes 1993:212- 
213). 



by the cavalry charge ten to one. "Ross lost two or 
three men were killed or wounded, and about thirty 
prisoners, many of whom escaped the first night" 
(Rose 1960:108). This information is conflicting 
with Fighting With Ross' Texas Cavalry Brigade 
C.S.A. Diary of Lieut. George L. Griscom, 
Adjutant, 9' Texas Cavalry Regiment where 
Griscom notes "finally fall back to the timber & as 
soon as their column passed again took the field & 
commenced assembling - gathering up nearly all 
the men & horses - loosing but few & not a man 
killed in the charge-" (Griscom 1976:166). 

The following description of the Confederates from 
a Union officer does not match what Rose wrote in 
Ross' Texas Brigade: 

. . . the rebel infantry had been formed in three 
lines, about fifty yards apart, in double rank; 
the first and second lines with fixed bayonets 
and the third line firing; in both the first and 
second lines the front rank knelt on one knee, 
resting the butt of the gun on the ground, the 
bayonet at a "charge (Vale 1886:347-349). 



A Howitzer is "a type of artillery piece that is 
characterized by a relatively short barrel and the 
use of comparatively small explosive charges to 
propel projectiles at trajectories with a steep angle 
of descent . . . the howitzer stood between the 
"gun" (which was characterized by a longer barrel, 
larger propelling charges, smaller shells, higher 
velocities and flatter trajectories) and a "mortar" 
(which has the ability to fire projectiles at even 
higher angles of ascent and descent) ... In the mid- 
nineteenth century, some armies attempted to 
simplify their artillery parks by introducing 
smoothbore artillery pieces that were designed to 
fire both explosive projectiles and cannonballs, 
thereby replacing both field howitzers and field 
guns. The most famous of these "gun-howitzers" 
was the Napoleon 12-pounder, a weapon of French 
design that saw extensive service in the American 
Civil War (wikipedia.org 2007). 



Confederate Ambulances 

The Confederate Army began by taking the several 
state militias into service, each regiment equipped 
with a surgeon and an assistant surgeon, appointed 
by the state governors. The Confederate Medical 
Department started with the appointment on May 4 
of Daniel De Leon, one of three resigned United 
States surgeons, as acting surgeon general. After a 
few weeks he was replaced by another acting 
surgeon general, who on July 1, 1861, was 
succeeded by Samuel Preston Moore. He took the 
rank of colonel and stayed on duty until the 
collapse of the Confederacy . . . There was some 
debate with the quartermaster general about 
ambulances, but this was generally over the lack of 
them. Farm wagons most often constituted the 
ambulances of the Confederacy" 

(civilwarhome.com 2007). 



Interestingly after the battle, Jackson thanked 
generals Armstrong and Reynolds in their 
performance, but left out General Ferguson for not 
capturing Kilpatrick on the previous night of 
August 19 th (Forbes 1993:214). 

In Ross' Texas Brigade by Victor M. Rose, 
(originally published in 1881), it was noted the 
Texans were dismounted and armed with short 
guns. Also of interest it was noted there was not a 
bayonet in the brigade and they were outnumbered 



T. F. Dornblaser (7 Pennsylvania Cavalry) noted 
the Confederate ambulances in his writings: 

In the road we met a number of wagons and 
ambulances belonging to the enemy 
[Confederate]. The boys took the hatchets from 
their saddle-pockets, and cut the spokes, letting 
the sick and wounded in the ambulances 
remain undisturbed. The mules were unhitched 
and taken with us (Dornblaser 1884). 



84 



Confederate Prisoners of War 
(POW) 

In an account from Four Years in the Saddle 
History of the First Regiment Ohio Volunteer 
Cavalry, it was noted "Many of the [Confederate] 
prisoners had saber cuts on their hands, arms and 
heads, and it is estimated that from six to eight 
hundred prisoners were sabered" (Curry 1984:182). 
The following were POWs from the 3 r Texas 
Cavalry: 

Kilpatrick's raiders bagged twenty-three 
members of the Third Cavalry as prisoners of 
war, the heaviest toll in captured levied on the 
regiment since Iuka. The list of captives 
included three company commanders, four 
lieutenants, two sergeants, three corporals, and 
eleven privates (Hale 1993:241). 

The captured Confederate officers were sent to 
Johnson's Island on Lake Erie and the enlisted men 
were sent to Camp Chase near Columbus, Ohio. A 
number of the 3 r Texas Cavalry failed to survive 
the Camp Chase interment. Several died from 
chronic diarrhea and bronchitis. The remainder of 
the captured officers and men of the 3 rd Texas were 
furloughed and allowed to go home in May and 
June of 1865 (Mark Pollard's Papers). 

When captured, Confederate soldiers had a choice 
to take the oath of allegiance to the United States 
or remain a captive. The following is a description 
of what happened to captives and especially 
"traitors" within the prison camps: 



pen singlehandedly and wrought general havoc 
until restrained by the guards (Hale 1993:241). 

The POWs from the Battle of Nash Farm were 
shipped to different camps based on officers and 
enlisted: 

From the Atlanta front, the East Texas 
prisoners of war were conveyed by rail first to 
Nashville, and then to the transfer point at 
Louisville, from which they traveled on to their 
assigned prison camps. To maintain control 
over the inmates, the Federal authorities 
separated officers from enlisted men. The 
Third Cavalry officers were sent to Johnson's 
Island, a wind-swept spit of sand in Lake Erie, 
three miles north of Sandusky, Ohio. There the 
government had built thirteen two-story 
barracks enclosed within a plank stockade. 
When the East Texas officers arrived at their 
new home on September 2, they found that it 
contained more than 2,500 inmates . . . The 
enlisted men captured at Lovejoy's Station 
were interned at Camp Chase, a former training 
facility for Union volunteers near Columbus, 
Ohio. Among the largest of the twenty-three 
principal United States military prisons, it held 
almost 9,500 inmates at the height of its 
expansion ... A number of the men from the 
Third Cavalry failed to survive the Camp 
Chase experience. Private Reuben Chamberlain 
died of chronic diarrhea in November. Having 
once been discharged as under age, Private 
James Young, a farm boy from Rusk County, 
had reenlisted only to succumb to bronchitis at 
Camp Chase in December . . . among 
February's toll were Corporal Allen Nidever 
and Private Burrell White of the Third Texas . . 
.(Hale 1993:242-244). 

CIVILIAN ACCOUNTS 



Kilpatrick's captives . . . having ridden around 
the entire Rebel army, the Yankee cavalry 
commander hurriedly withdrew his raiders 
along a route east of Atlanta and turned his 
prisoners over to Sherman's headquarters. The 
Federal locked their exhausted captives in a 
guarded enclosure for several days prior to 
trans-shipment, and fed the famished Rebels on 
hardtack and bacon. The crowded bull pen 
contained some disaffected Southerners who 
were understandably anxious to get out of the 
war as soon as possible. One of the easiest 
means to that end was to take the oath of 
allegiance to the United States provided under 
Lincoln's amnesty proclamation of the 
previous December. Though none of the Third 
Cavalry prisoners defected, some of the other 
soldiers were eager to impress their captors 
with their new-found loyalty to the Union and 
consequently gave vent to violent imprecations 
against the South and all it stood for. Resenting 
these insults to his embattled homeland, Jim 
Crabtree, a hot-tempered private from 
Greensville, tore into the turncoats of the bull 



The contemporary press, including newspapers and 
magazines, were captivated by Sherman's Atlanta 
Campaign and many articles about the various 
battles appeared in print. The present research 
effort made only a limited review of this line of 
evidence. The following article appeared in 
Harpers Weekly in March, 1864 and, while it is not 
specifically about the military action at Lovejoy, it 
does provide some insight into the public's 
perception of General Kilpatrick: 

GENERALS KILPATRICK AND CUSTER. 

WE give on page 180 a Portrait of 
BRIGADIER GENERAL JUD SON 
KILPATRICK, whose late raid in the rear of 
Lee's army is the most successful of the war. 
He was born near Deckertown, Sussex County, 
New Jersey, on January 14, 1836, and is 
therefore only 28 years of age. He was 
admitted to West Point, where he graduated in 



85 



1861, and entered the United States army as 
Second Lieutenant of Artillery on May 6, just 
after the war broke out. A week after he 
received a First Lieutenancy. He entered the 
war as Captain of a company in Duryea's 
regiment (Fifth New York), and was severely 
wounded in the battle at Big Bethel, June 10, 
1 86 1 . As soon as he recovered he was made 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and afterward Colonel, of 
the Harris Light Cavalry. In Pope's Virginia 
campaign his regiment formed part of the late 
General Buford's brigade. He took part in the 
Maryland campaign under General Pleasanton, 
and in Burnside's campaign he particularly 
distinguished himself at Falmouth. He 
participated in Stoneman's raid, commanding a 
brigade, and traversing 200 miles in less than 
five days, capturing over 300 prisoners. For 
this success he was made Brigadier-General of 
Volunteers, his commission dating from June 
13, 1863. At Aldie, Middleburg, and Hanover, 
Kilpatrick distinguished himself in the 
movements preceding the battle of Gettysburg: 
he also commanded a division in that battle, 
and was engaged in the pursuit of the rebels to 
the Potomac. Afterward he came to New York 
city, where he commanded the cavalry forces 
during the riots of last summer. General 
Kilpatrick has lately lost both his wife and 
child, and is also without father, mother, 
brother, or sister {Harpers Weekly, March 19, 
1864:168). 

The following article, which appeared in Harpers 
Weekly in early September, 1864, contains a letter 
from General Sherman announcing his capture of 
Atlanta: 

SHERMAN. 



above, between Rough and Ready and 
Jonesborough. 

" On the 1st of September we broke up about 
eight miles of the Macon Read, and turned on 
the enemy at Jonesborough, assaulted him and 
his lines, and carried them, capturing 
Brigadier-General Gorman and about 2000 
prisoners, with eight guns and much plunder. 
Night alone prevented our capturing all of 
Hardee's corps, which escaped south that night. 
That same night, Hood, in Atlanta, finding all 
his railroads broken and in our possession, 
blew up his ammunition, seven locomotives 
and eighty cars, and evacuated Atlanta, which, 
on the next day, September 2, was occupied by 
the corps left for that purpose, Major-General 
S locum commanding, we following the 
retreating rebel army to near Lovejoy's station, 
thirty miles south of Atlanta, where, finding 
him strongly intrenched, I concluded it would 
not 'pay' to assault as we already had the great 
object of the campaign, viz., Atlanta. 
Accordingly the army gradually and leisurely 
returned to Atlanta ; and it is now encamped 
eight miles south of the city, and tomorrow will 
move to the camps appointed. I am now 
writing in Atlanta, so I could not be uneasy in 
regard to our situation. 

"We have as the result of this quick, and, as I 
think, well executed movement, 27 guns, over 
3000 prisoners, and have buried over 400 rebel 
dead, and left as many wounded ; they could 
not be removed. 



"The rebels have lost, besides the important 
city of Atlanta and stores, at least 500 dead, 
2500 wounded, and 3000 prisoners, whereas 
our aggregate loss will not foot 1500, 



The following letter from General Sherman, 
published in Harpers Weekly, gives the details 
of the capture of Atlanta: 

"ATLANTA, September 7. 

"On the 25th of August, pursuant to a plan of 
which the War Department had been fully 
advised, I left the Twentieth Corps at the 
Chattahoochee Bridge, and with the balance of 
the army I drew off from the siege, and using 
seine considerable artifice to mislead the 
enemy. 

"I moved rapidly south, reached the West Point 
Railroad near Fairborn on the 27th, and broke 
up twelve miles of it. When moving east my 
right approached the Macon Railroad near 
Jonesborough, and my left near Rough and 
Ready. The enemy attacked the right wing of 
the Army of the Tennessee, and were 
completely beaten. 

" On the 31st, and during the combat, I pushed 
the left of the centre rapidly to the railroad 



"If that is not success, I don't know what is. 

(Signed) "SHERMAN, Major-General." It was 
Hardee's corps, together with General S. L. 
Lee's and Cleburne's commands, which fought 
the battle of Jonesborough on the rebel side. 
The rebel Generals Anderson, Patten, and 
Cummings were wounded. The capture of 
Atlanta renders useless any of the rebel 
attempts on Sherman's communications 
(Harpers Weekly, September 24, 1864: 651). 

CARTOGRAPHIC RECORD 

The cartographic record of the military events and 
battlefield landscape at the Nash Farm vicinity is 
scanty (The National Archives 1986). The most 
detailed map of the study area was prepared by 
U.S. Engineer, Edward Ruger. It shows 
topography, road systems, streams, houses, and 
Union and Confederate military entrenchments. 
Detailed views of Edward Ruger' s 1864 
manuscript map of the "Fifth Epoch" of the Atlanta 



86 



Campaign, which preceded his 1895 published 
version, are reproduced in Figure 44. 




^^^JMM 



Figure 42. Portion of Ruger's 1864 Manuscript Map Showing the Nash Farm Vicinity (Ruger 
1864). 



A few other military maps of the Lovejoy 
vicinity were identified and examined. One is a 
manuscript map of "Parts of Fayette, Crofton [sic 
Clayton] & Henry Cos.", which was, "copied 
from a defaced Map brought by Lieutenant H.H. 
Russell September 5 th 1864 by J. Rziha Capt. 
19"' U.S. Infty" (Rziha 1864). This map, which 
was presumably a captured Confederate map, 
depicts portions of three counties, including 
Fosterville and the study area. This map shows 



the Union and Confederate lines, as of 
September 2, 1864, south of Jonesboro, but 
several miles north of Lovejoy and well to the 
north of the study area. No troops are shown in 
the study vicinity on this map. The information 
shown suggests that the map was drafted early 
on September 2, 1864, since by later that day, 
the two armies were engaged in battle in the 
Lovejoy vicinity. 



87 




Figure 43. Portion of Defaced Map, September 5, 1864, Fosterville is Shown in the Lower Right 
(Rziha 1864). 



Another manuscript map, which shows the U.S. 
and C.S. troop positions in the Lovejoy vicinity 



was located at the NARA. This map, which is 
undated and unattributed, was probably drafted 
sometime after September 3, since it depicts 
extensive troops and entrenchments at Lovejoy. 



This map is interesting because it also indicates 
which sections of the railroad had been 
destroyed, which probably indicates that the map 



was drafted by a U.S. soldier. A portion of this 
map is shown in Figure 46. 




1.. P«mU . '*i-* 




Figure 44. Portion of Unattributed and Undated Map Entitled Lovejoy Station (NARA n.d.). 



The only field sketch discovered thus far, which 
pertains particularly to the August 20' 
engagement, is a post-war sketch by Captain 



Robert Burns (n.d.). This sketch, which is shown 
in Figure 47, is a schematic diagram showing the 
troop locations in Minty's charge. 



89 



19 ! 










*^' 



,:■«-. 



- 






s * 



ft r i '■_ 4 ■■"!■! jfiir'i iJii - 

m . j — 



"' ■> '■■ 'jj "" || *i t*±Z 



) 



'■:'-■ 



rVV 



fi wt J-, .«->n ■ f 1 i 



:0D 



l> • •"■' 



c 



D 



- — m. i f-iji — > J,.^ 






_ 



..-.•■,,■.. •■.. ?■_ Jh -—»■■. 
fe J At *%«. 



ma 



a /* 






9 



$ 



Figure 45. Captain Robert Burns' Sketch of the August 20th Engagement, Nash Farm (Courtesy 
of David Evans). 



Later maps of the study area provide important 
information about the road system and the 
communities in the study vicinity. The 1883 and 
1885 Cram maps of Georgia show the Central 
and Southern Railroad and Lovejoy's Station. It 
also depicts the Babb community and Walnut 
Creek (Cram 1883, 1885). A map of the area, 
published by the Hammond Map Company in 
1904, shows Lovejoy Station, the railroad, and 
an unidentified stream (likely Walnut Creek). It 



also shows the location of the Henry-Clayton 
County boundary, but no other details of the 
study area. A map of the area was published by 
the Hugdins Map Company of Atlanta in 1915. 
This map shows the railroad, Lovejoy's Station, 
Babb, and "Factory Walnut Cr." (Hudgins Map 
Company 1915). None of these maps show 
sufficient details of the study area for an precise 
and accurate reconstruction of the battlefield 
landscape. 



90 



The earliest aerial photographs of the study 
vicinity were taken in the late 1930s by the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture. Coverage from this 
period is incomplete for Clayton and Henry 
Counties, although the Nash Farm property in 
Henry County is covered by the 1938 series of 
aerial images. Later U.S.D.A. aerial imagery was 
flown in Henry County in 1940, 1950, 1955, 
1958, 1964, 1971, and 1978. Later U.S.D.A. 
aerial imagery was flown in Clayton County in 
1949, 1955, 1958, 1964, 1971, and 1978. 

Battle Flags 



public display of any of the Con federate 
flags w as forbidden and treated as 
contraband in the states occupied by Federal 
troops. It w as also illegal to w ear 
Confederate uniforms or m ilitary insignia. 
On January 25, 1867, federal troops in 
Rome, Georgia arrested four former 
Confederate soldiers for participating in a 
"tableau depicting an officer's funeral", and 
briefly wearing Confederate uniforms and 
draping a Confederate battle flag over a 
casket. The men were imprisoned for three 
w eeks (w ikipedia.org 2007). 

Historian Hale provides us with a good 
description of the battle flags captured: 



Other tangible reminders of the Civil War battles 
at Lovejoy are the battle flags flown by the two 
armies. Civil War soldiers and officers "made a 
big deal" about captured flags, since these flags 
were objects of honor and tradition. In addition 
to the Union and Confederate battle flags, each 
regiment flew its own battle flag. These were 
typically adorned with embroidered references to 
the regiments service in important battles or 
campaigns. Individual companies within each 
regiment usually brandished their own flag or 
standard. Because of their organic composition, 
flags do not normally survive in the 
archaeological record. Fortunately, many Civil 
War era flags are curated in museums, archives, 
and statehouses. 

Images of several battle flags that would have 
flown in the August 20 c battle were presented 
earlier in the report. The Confederate battle flag 
is an icon that continues to create controversy, 
inspire, or invoke hatred in the modern-era. The 
emotional power that was embedded in battle 
flags is an important point to consider when 
interpreting past military events to the public. 
The standard battle flag of the Confederacy was, 

. . . usually square, of various sizes for the 
different branches of the service: 48 inches 
square for the infantry, 36 inches for the 
artillery, and 30 inches for the cavalry. It 
was used in battle beginning in December 
1861 until the fall of the Confederacy. The 
blue color on the saltire in the battle flag 
was navy blue, as opposed to the much 
lighter blue of the Naval Jack. 

The flag's stars represented the number of 
states in the Confederacy. The distance 
between the stars decreased as the number 
of states increased, reaching thirteen when 
the secessionist factions of M issouri and 
Kentuckyjoined in late 1861 . . . For some 
time during the Reconstruction period, 



Of all Ross's regiments, the Third Texas 
Cavalry suffered the most. Minty's 
thundering horsemen bore off their 
regimental battle flag, proudly inscribed 
with "Oak Hill," "Elk Horn," and the names 
of other engagements they had so far 
survived. Privates Will Kellum and John 
Hendrick, both of Rusk County, were killed 
(Hale 1993:241). 

Important symbolic vestiges from the August 
20 Cavalry raid at Nash Farm may exist in a 
northern museum. From the book, Ten Years in 
Washington, Mary Clemmer Ames (1873:461- 
463) describes two Confederate battle flags, 
Benjamin Infantry and Zachary Rangers, which 
were captured in Kilpatrick's charge of August 
20, 1864 and displayed in Washington, D.C. The 
present whereabouts of these two flags was not 
determined, but should be the subject of future 
exploration. These flags would make a useful 
addition to the Nash Farm Battlefield Museum 
and would be an important tool for interpreting 
the site to the public. Mark Pollard's research 
indicates that neither the Benjamin Infantry nor 
the Zachary Rangers were in the Lovejoy 
vicinity in the summer of 1864, and he surmises 
that these flags were taken from the home of a 
Confederate officer, who lived in the vicinity, 
where they had been stored for safekeeping. Ms. 
Ames wrote this about the captured flags, 

The war of the Rebellion greatly increased 
these trophies. The Rebel flags taken in 
battle, and in surrender, and the Union flags, 
re-captured from the Confederates, now 
occupy large apartments in two buildings 
belonging to the War Department; and are 
all placed under the supervision of the 
Adjutant-General. In "Winder's Buildings" 
hundreds of these flags are deposited, and 
many hundreds more in the Adjutant- 
General's office on Seventeenth street. The 
front and back rooms on the lower floor of 
the latter house are exclusively devoted to 



91 



their preservation. A polite "orderly" is in 
waiting, with a record-book, which gives the 
name and history of every flag in the 
building. The front room is devoted to the 
Union colors which were re -taken from the 
rebels. The back room is filled with 
Confederate flags of every device and hue. 
Here is the first Confederate flag adopted— 
an ugly rag, thirteen stars on a blue field, 
with white and red bars. Its motto: "We will 
collect our own revenues. We choose our 
own institutions." 

The colors of the Benjamin Infantry, 
organized April 24, 1861, bear the 
inscriptions: "Crown for the brave." "Strike 
for your altars and your fires." 

An Alabama flag, of white bunting, with 
broad cross-bars of blue, sewed on by 
women's hands, is inscribed: "Our Homes, 
our Rights, we entrust to your keeping, 
brave Sons of Alabama." 

"Sic Semper Tyrannis," says a tattered 
banner of fine silk, presented in the first 
flush of rebellion-fever, with the confidence 
of assured victory, "by the ladies of Norfolk, 
to the N. L. A. Blues." Again, says Virginia: 
"Our Rights we will maintain." "Death to 
Invaders covered with blood." "Death or 
Victory," cries the Zachary Rangers— and 
again: "Tyranny is hateful to the gods." 
(Ames 1873: 461-463; American Memory 
2007). 

Union officers accounts of the prizes taken 
on August 20 by Kilpatrick's U.S. Cavalry 
included the battle flags for the Benjamin 
Infantry and the Zachary Rangers. Historian 
Mark Pollard's research indicates that 
neither of these two Confederate units were 
present in Henry or Clayton counties, 
Georgia during the summer of 1864. Thus, 
the capture of these two flags is enigmatic. 
Pollard offers an explanation in that these 
flags were taken from the nearby residence 
of a Confederate officer, where they had 
been stored for safekeeping. 

The Zachary Rangers State Cavalry 
Company was part of the 27' Georgia 
Volunteer Infantry. The commander of this 
regiment at the time of its organization in 
1861 was Colonel Levi B. Smith and his 
second in command was Lieutenant Colonel 
Charles T. Zachry. The Zachary Rangers 
were formed as Company H of the 27 th 
Georgia and all were from Henry County. 
Lieutenant Colonel Zachry' s home was in 
McDonough, Georgia. His home was 



recently located to the Nash Farm Battlefield 
Park. Griffin noted that the Zachary Rangers 
served in Petersburg, Virginia the latter part 
of 1864, so they could not have participated 
in the Lovejoy action. A quick review of the 
OR shows that Colonel Charles T. Zachry 
served as a brigade commander in Virginia 
in August, 1864, and the 27' Georgia was 
also active in that theatre (Griffin 2003; 
Mark Pollard personal communication June 
1, 2007; OR, Volume 17:1166). 

The Benjamin Infantry, or Randals' 
(Benjamin) Infantry, was probably the same 
as the Confederate, 16th Regiment, which 
was a Tennessee unit. 

What happened after the Battle of 
Nash Farm? 

Immediately after the charge at Nash Farm it 
stormed heavily, a torrential downpour. T. F. 
Dornblaser (7' Pennsylvania Cavalry) 
wrote, "While Kilpatrick's column was 
moving northward on the McDonough road, 
at this break-neck speed, the thunder and 
lightning was terrific, the rain was falling in 
torrents, the lurid clouds flashed and flamed 
with the wrath of ten thousand furies" 
(Dornblaser 1884). Colonel Minty (4 th 
Michigan Cavalry) also recorded, 
"Immediately after the charge the rain came 
down in torrents, and it continued to pour 
without cessation until about 4 o'clock in 
the morning" (Minty 1891). 

An account from the 3 r Texas Cavalry ". . . 
no sooner had the Yankee cavalry swept 
across the ground than a torrential deluge 
inundated the field, obscured visibility, and 
prevented the Federal force from pressing its 
advantage. Some of the East Texans merely 
played dead in the rain until Kilpatrick's 
horsemen had moved off down the road to 
the east" (Hale 1993:241). The diary of 
Private Samuel Metz (92° Illinois Cavalry), 
currently for sale at horsesoldier.com (Item 
217-32), notes general information 
concerning the Battle of Nash Farm, but 
something of interest is August 21 st and 22° 
the pages were wet and water stained 
providing physical evidence of eyewitness 
accounts of heavy rain. 



92 



A few weeks later, the Battle of Lovejoy 
Station occurred on September 2-5, 1864, 
between Union Major General Sherman 
against Confederate Major General William 



Bell Hood and all of their armies. In 
addition to the ragged terrain, the armies had 
the addition of rotting corpses and carcasses 
that still littered the ground. 



Diagram of Troop Positions at Nash Farm, August 20, 1864 



CONFEDERATE TROOPS 

A brigade of Cleburne's ROAD 

Division (on left of road) 

3 Texas Cavalry Regiment (dismounted) 

3 line (in a piece of woods) 

2 line (kneeling w/ butt of gun on ground) 

1 line (kneeling w/ butt of gun on ground) 
Approximately 100 yards 
Confederate Battery 



On right of road, state troops 
formed in a line 



(UNION) - 1 st Brigade 


(Minty 


's Brigade) 






4 th U.S. 




4 Michigan 

(Burns, Thompson, Minty) 


? th 


Pennsylvania 


xxxx 




XXXX 




XXXX 


xxxx 




xxxx 




xxxx 


xxxx 




xxxx 




xxxx 


xxxx 




xxxx 




xxxx 


xxxx 




xxxx 




xxxx 



Kilpatrick and Pvt. William Bailey 

Followed 4 th U.S. Regulars 

(UNION) 2 nd Brigade (Col. Long/Col. Eggleston) (Long's Brigade in rear of 4 th Regulars) 



3 rd Ohio 



4 th Ohio 



(UNION) Artillery 

10 Wisconsin Battery Light Artillery 

Chicago Board of Trade (in rear of Ohio regiments) 

(UNION) Ambulances (in front of Murray or behind?) 

rd 
(UNION) Colonel Murray - commanded 3 Division, followed Chicago Board of Trade 

rd 
3 Kentucky Cavalry 

5 Kentucky Cavalry 

92 Illinois Mounted Infantry 



CONFEDERATE CAVALRY 
Martin and Jackson 
(approaching from rear left) 



Ross and Ferguson 
+ 1,000 state troops 
In rear 



93 



94 



III. Battle of Lovejoy Station, 
September 2-5,1864 



Brigadier General Whipple, Chief of Staff, 
advising the general of the 4' Army Corps 
position. 



The Battle of Lovejoy Station was the final 
massive engagement of the Atlanta Campaign. 
Immediately after the Confederate defeat at 
Jonesboro on September 1, 1864, the 
Confederate troops retreated southward to 
Lovejoy Station. The Union army was fast on 
their heels but by they time the first U.S. troops 
arrived in the vicinity, the Confederates had 
already established entrenchments. Both armies 
dug in as they waited for additional troops to 
arrive. The Union troops were entrenched just 
north of Lovejoy Station and the Confederates 
were entrenched around Lovejoy Station and east 
along the McDonough Road. Intense skirmishes 
occurred along the battle front and particularly 
on the eastern and western flanks. Historian 
Mark Pollard has compiled an order of battle for 
this engagement, which is shown below. 
Although this battle received very little press at 
the time, and even less attention from military 
historians in the ensuing decades to the present, 
it was, nevertheless a major undertaking. The 
index to the Official Records of the Rebellion list 
reports of 45 officers (OR 38, Pt. 1:933). 

Nearly the entire force of both armies in the 
Atlanta theatre faced off at Lovejoy. The U.S. 
troops consisted of no less than two corps, three 
divisions, three brigades and two regiments and 
the Confederates faced them with two corps, one 
division and three brigades. The troops engaged 
were mostly infantry, although artillery and 
cavalry were represented on both sides. At about 
the same time that this battle began, Major 
General Sherman received word that Atlanta had 
been abandoned by the Confederate Army. This 
distraction, combined with the less advantageous 
field position of the Union troops, led Sherman 
to withdraw from Lovejoy to Atlanta. The Union 
retreat began on September 5 and by September 
6 the Lovejoy battle scene was relatively quiet. 

UNION ACCOUNTS 

Major General D.S. Stanley's 4 th U.S. Army 
Corps, were the first U.S. troops to arrive in the 
Lovejoy vicinity on September 2. Throughout 
most of the engagement at Lovejoy General 
Stanley's 4 Army Corps was positioned west of 
present-day U.S. Highway 19 and well beyond 
the Nash Farm. General Stanley wrote to 



On September 2, at 12:15 p.m., General Stanley 
wrote from his headquarters to Major General 
Thomas, who commanded the Department of the 
Cumberland, advising the general, 

We are about two miles from Lovejoy' s 
Station. The enemy is about one mile this 
side of the same and about half a mile this 
site of the McDonough and Fayette road. 
We can see them busily fortifying. They 
have a good line already. I think their object 
is to hold this road to make a junction with 
troops from McDonough. I also think Lee's 
corps is expected from that direction. I am 
now deploying skirmishers and will push 
forward with my whole force (OR Vol. 38, 
PartV:765). 

By September 3, 1864, the Military Division of 
the Mississippi, commanded by Major General 
William T. Sherman; the Department and Army 
of the Tennessee the 4 th Army Corps and the 15 th 
Army Corps, Department of the Cumberland, 
commanded by Major General J.C. Davis, all 
had established their headquarters near Lovejoy 
Station (OR Volume 38(5):772, 778, 779-780, 
785). Davis' 14' Army Corps was headquartered 
at Jonesboro on that date. Also on September 3, 
the Chief of Cavalry, Department of the 
Cumberland, commanded by Brigadier General 
K. Garrard, had established its headquarters at a, 
"camp two miles and a half from Lovejoy' s" 
(OR Volume 38(5):782-783). On September 6, 
Sherman's Left Wing, the 16' Army Corps was 
headquartered near Lovejoy' s Station (OR 
Volume 38(5). By that time, however the other 
Union army commands had removed to 
Jonesboro and other locations. 

Correspondence from Brigadier General Judson 
Kilpatrick to Brigadier General Whipple, Chief 
of Staff, Department of the Cumberland, on 
September 3, 1864 reveals that Kilpatrick 
continued to have an interest in the whereabouts 
of Armstrong's and Ross' Confederate Cavalry, 
who remained in the Lovejoy vicinity in the days 
after the August 20' engagement. Kilpatrick 
wrote: 



95 



Order of Battle, September 2-5, 1864 



Union 

23 rd Army Corps— Brigadier General John M. Schofield 

80 th Indiana Regiment [Infantry?]— Major John W. Tucker 
50 lh Ohio Infantry— Colonel Silas A. Strickland 

Hascall's Division— Milo Hascall 
Howard 

Wood's Division 

Kneffler's Brigade 
Kimball's Division 

3 rd Brigade—Grose's Brigade 
Taylor's Brigade 
4 th Army Corps— Major General Stanley [positioned well to the west of Nash Farm study area] 



Confederate 

Hardee's— General William J. Hardee 

Lowrey's Brigade— Colonel John Weir 
Stephen D. Lee's (formerly Hood's) Corps — Lieutenant General Stephen D. Lee 

French's Division— Major General S.G. French 
Missouri Brigade — Brigadier General Francis M. Cockrell 
Ector's Brigade— Brigadier General William H. Young 



96 



GENERAL: Captain Brink has returned, 
bringing me information desired in reference 
to our army. I had a scout last night inside 
the enemy's lines. Portions of Armstrong's 
and Ross 1 commands, mounted and 
dismounted, watch the enemy's left flank 
directly opposite me. The enemy, so far as I 
can learn, unless he has moved during the 
night, is intrenched about Lovejoy's Station 
his lines crossing the Jonesborough road and 
extending to this point. Several car-loads of 
wounded passed down the road yesterday. 
Did not stop at but passed through Griffin. 
Scouts report the enemy's wagon trains to be 
moving toward Griffin, many of them 
loaded with green corn. At 2 p.m. yesterday 
large trains were passing through Fayette 
Station. As soon as the enemy is forced back 
beyond Lovejoy's Station I will cross and 
press in toward Griffin, communicating with 
our army to the left (OR Volume 38(5);784- 
785). 

Kilpatrick's dateline for this letter to General 
Whipple was "Glass' bridge, Flint River" and 
Kilpatrick's Acting Assistant Adjutant General 
David F. How, identified Kilpatrick's Cavalry 
headquarters on September 3 r as "Camp near 
Lovejoy's, Ga." wrote: 

The general commanding directs me to 
inform you that the army will move back to- 
morrow in the direction of Atlanta. One 
day's rations have been issued from supply 
train at these headquarters to some sixty sick 
and wounded of your division in hospital 
near Jonesborough. Send ambulances to get 
them to-day, with a supply of rations (OR 
Volume 38(5);784-785). 

Brigadier General J. M. Schoefield and the 23 r 
U.S. Army Corps were concentrated on the 
eastern lank of the Union line. At 9 a.m. on 
September 3, Schoefield sent this message from 
the headquarters of the Army of the Ohio, which 
was "Near Lovejoy's Station, Ga." to Major 
General Sherman, 



GENERAL: Prisoners report that Lee's 
corps joined Hardee yesterday afternoon, 
and that Stewart was at McDonough at 4 
o'clock. 



If this is true both are probably here now. 
The enemy's line has been considerably 
extended eastward since last evening, and is 
probably beyond my reach. It appears to run 
along a high ridge immediately in front of 
the M cDonough road and behind Walnut 
Creek. I am feeling well to the left with 
skirmishers to see if I can reach the enemy's 
left on the M cDonough road (OR Volume 
38(5):785-786). 



Later that day at 6: 15 p.m., writing from the 
same location, Schofield informed Sherman, 



GENERAL: Colonel Garrard reports that he 
reached the M cDonough and Foster ville 
road three or four miles from Lovejoy's 
Station. Citizens on the road say that troops, 
said to be Lee's corps, were passing this 
morning toward Lovejoy's, and that 
stragglers were still passing when he 
reached the road. The people spoke of it as a 
very large force with a great amount of 
artillery. As near as Colonel Garrard could 
ascertain the column was three or four hours 
in passing. A negro also reports a large 
number of troops joining the force in our 
frontto-day (OR Volume 3 8(5 ) :7 85-7 86) . 

On September 3, Brigadier General K. Garrard, 
2 nd Cavalry Division (OR Volume 38(5):783) 
reported from the headquarters of the 2 n Cavalry 
Division to Brigadier General Elliott, Chief of 
Cavalry, Department of the Cumberland: 

GENERAL: I have the following 
information to report which I am confident 
is accurate. On the 1st of September Lee's 
corps left Jonesborough at daylight and 
moved toward Atlanta, and camped for the 
night near the Atlanta and M cDonough road 
where the road from Jonesborough, on 
which they marched, struck it. On the 
morning of the 2nd they turned, toward 
McDonough. On the 2nd [1st], in the 
morning, Stewart's corps moved out of 
Atlanta to within sight of the Chattahoochee 
River and halted. In the mean time the 
militia were hurried out of Atlanta toward 
M cDonough, but a few miles out took an 
easterly road. In the afternoon Stewart's 
corps returned to Atlanta and at night moved 
down the McDonough road, leaving 
Loring's division as rear guard and to 
destroy property. Quarles' brigade, Loring's 
division, the rear guard, did not leave until 
daylight. 

General Garrard added this post note, "My party 
from Atlanta has returned." (OR Volume 
38(5):783). 



At 5 p.m. on September 3, Colonel Israel 
Garrard, Commander of the Cavalry Division for 
the Army of the Ohio, wrote to Major J. A. 
Campbell, Assistant Adjutant-General, Army of 
the Ohio, MAJOR: I have the honor to report 
that I went across on to the McDonough, and 
Fayetteville road, striking it between three and 
four miles from Lovejoy's Station. Citizens 
report that infantry from Atlanta, said to be Lee's 
corps, was moving all the morning, and that the 
stragglers were still passing when we reached the 



97 



road. A large wagon train was moving on 
Thursday night and yesterday to Lovejoy's 
Station. Last night Ross' brigade of cavalry 
camped just this side of the road, and move don 
this morning to Bear Creek Station below 
Lovejoy's. The force that moved on the road this 
morning had artillery. The people speak of there 
being a great deal of artillery, and of the infantry 
being very a great in quantity, but as near as I 
could ascertain it took the regular column some 
three or four hours to pass. (OR Volume 
38(5):785-786). Major Campbell wrote from the 
headquarters of the Army of the Ohio, which was 
"In the Field" to Colonel Garrard that same day, 

COLONEL: The commanding general 
directs me to inform you that the enemy's 
cavalry is reported formed on his right, 
threatening our trains, and he desires you to 
extend your right so as to connect with our 
infantry's left and protect our trains. Watch 
the country well on what will be your front 
and report any movement you may observe 
(OR Volume 38(5):785-786). 



Lieutenant Colonel 
Commander of the 2 n 
Division, wrote from 



Fielder A. Jones, 

Brigade, 3 1 Cavalry 

his headquarters at a 



"Camp in the Field" on September 4 
Estes, Assistant Adjutant-General, 



to Captain 



I have the honor to report that scouting 
parties sent out from my command report 
my front strongly picketed by the enemy, 
apparently cavalry, on the right, and infantry 
or dismounted cavalry on the let. Several of 
their posts were driven in developing quite a 
strong force in position behind a swampy 
ravine running nearly parallel to the Glass 
road. The scouts also report a plantation 
road, extending from near James Bull's 
house, on the Glass road, through the 
plantations ofMr. Dorsey and Mr. 
Crawford. I also learn from citizens that the 
same road extends to Lovejoy's Station. The 
Glass road appears to be open from my 
position to Flint River, except small patrols 
of the enemy (OR Volume 38(5):797). 

On September 3, Assistant Adjutant-General 
R.R. Townes conveyed the orders of Major 
General John A. Logan, Commander of the 15 th 
Army Corps, from the 15 Corps headquarters, 
which were "In the Field, near Lovejoy's, Ga.", 
to Brigadier General William Harrow [Hazen?], 
who commanded the 4 Division, which read, 
"GENERAL: You will be prepared in the 
morning to construct a barricade on the most 
defensible ground in rear of the cotton gin, with 
the by Captain Reese, engineer officer of 



department staff (OR Volume 38(5):785-786). 
On September 4, 1864, Brigadier General W.B. 
Hazen, Commander of the 2° Division, issued 
Special Field Orders No. 93 from the 
headquarters of the 15' Army Corps near 
Lovejoy's, Georgia. His order read, 

I. Brigadier General W . B. Hazen, 
commanding Second Division, will 
commence the construction of a barricade on 
the most defensible position north of the 
cotton-gin, with the left resting on the 
railroad, and extending to a point on the 
right to be designated by Captain C. B. 
Reese, engineer officer of department staff 
(OR Volume 38(5):802). 

Confederate General John Bell Hood withdrew 
his troops from Atlanta on September 1, 1864 
and retreated to Lovejoy Station. When Major 
General Sherman received word that the 
Confederates had withdrawn from Atlanta, he 
was most elated. On September 3, Sherman sent 
a telegraph to President Lincoln from Major 
General Schofi eld's headquarters at the 
McVicker's house, northeast of Lovejoy, which 
read, "Atlanta is ours and fairly won" (American 
Memory 2007; Mark Pollard personal 
communication February 10, 2007). That same 
day Major General Sherman's Aide-de-Camp, 
L.M. Dayton issued Special Field Orders 
Number 62 from the headquarters of the Military 
Division of the Mississippi, which was "In the 
Field, near Lovejoy's". That order read, 

The general commanding announces with 
great pleasure that he has official 
information that our troops under Major- 
General Slocum occupied Atlanta yesterday 
at 1 1 a.m., the enemy having evacuated the 
night before, destroyed vast magazines of 
stores, and blowing up, among other things, 
eighty car-loads of ammunition, which 
accounts for the sounds heard by us on the 
night of the 1st instant. Our present task is, 
therefore, well done, and all work of 
destruction on the railroad will cease (OR 
Volume 38(5):789). 

At 9 a.m. on September 4, Sherman wrote from 
his headquarters, "In the Field, near Lovejoy's, 
twenty-six miles south of Atlanta" to Major 
General Halleck (OR Volume 38(5):79 1-794): 

MY DEAR FRIEND; I owe you a private 
letter, and believe one at this time will be 
acceptable to you. I appreciate your position 
and the delicate responsibilities that devolve 
on you, but believe you will master and 
surmount them all. I confess I owe you all I 
now enjoy of fame, for a I had allowed 



98 



myself in 1861 to sink into a perfect "slough 
of despond," and do believe if I could I 
would have run away and hid from the 
dangers and complications that surrounded 
us. You alone seemed to be confident, and 
opened to us the first avenue of success and 
hope, and you gradually put me in the way 
of recovering from what might have proved 
an ignoble end. When Grant spoke of my 
promotion as a major-general of the regular 
army, I asked him to decline in my name till 
this campaign tested us. Even when my 
commission came, which you were kind 
enough to send, I doubted its wisdom, but 
now that I have taken Atlanta as much by 
strategy as by force, I suppose the military 
world will approve it. 

Through the official bulletins you are better 
acquainted with all the steps of our progress 
than any other man in the country, but I will 
try and point out to you more clearly the 
recent achievement. By the rapid falling off 
of my command, by expiration of service, I 
found myself reduced in number, close up 
against Atlanta, which was so protected by 
earth-works that I dared not assault. 
Fortunately Hood detached 6,000 of his best 
cavalry to break the Macon road, over which 
his provisions and supplies me. I knew my 
cavalry was the superior to his, but he 
managed skillfully to send a brigade of 
infantry, which, in connection with his 
cavalry, about 4,000, managed so to occupy 
mine that though Kilpatrick reached the road 
he could work but little. The damage was 
soon repaired, and nothing was left me but 
to raise the siege, and move with army. I 
moved one corps by night back to the 
bridge, which had been intrenched, using 
mostly old rebel works, then withdrawing 
from the left I got my whole army over on 
the West Point road, from Red Oak to 
Fairburn, with the loss of but one man. 
There I spent one day and broke twelve 
miles of that road good. I then moved 
rapidly so that my right flank was within 
half a mile of the Macon road at 
Jonesborough, and the left two miles and a 
half from Rough and Ready. Hood had first 
sent Lee's corps to Jonesborough and 
Hardee's to Rough and Ready, but the Army 
of the Tennessee (my right) approached 
Jonesborough so rapidly that Hardee's corps 
was shifted at night also to that flank. Seeing 
his mistake I ordered Howard rapidly to 
intrench and hold his position, "threatening," 
and threw the balance of my army on the 
road from Rough and Ready to within four 
miles of Jonesborough. The moment that 
was done, I ordered Thomas and Schofield 
to rapidly break up that road, and without 
rest to turn on Jonesborough and crush that 
part. My plan was partially, but not 
thoroughly, executed. Hardee assaulted 
Howard, but made no progress; left his dead, 
about 400, and wounded in our hands, and 
feel behind his own works. I expected 
Thomas to be ready by 1 1 a.m., but it was 



near 4 when he got in; but one corps, Davis 1 , 
charged down and captured the flank with 
10 guns and many prisoners, but for some 
reason Stanley and Schofield were slow, and 
night came to Hardee's relief, and he 
escaped to the south. Hood finding me 
twenty miles below him on his only railroad, 
and Hardee defeated, was forced to abandon 
Atlanta, and retreated eastward, and by a 
circuit has got his men below me on the line 
to Macon. I ought to have reaped larger 
fruits of victory. A part of my army is too 
slow, but I feel my part was skillful and well 
executed. Though I ought to have been taken 
10,000 of Hardee's men and all his artillery, 
I must content myself with 500 dead, 2,000 
wounded, 2,000 prisoners, 10 guns on the 
field and 14 in Atlanta, 7 trains of cars 
captured and burned, many stragglers 
fleeing in disorder and the town of Atlanta, 
which after all, was the prize I fought for. 

The army is in magnificent heart, and I 
could go on, but it would not be prudent. 
Wheeler is still somewhere to my rear, and 
every mile costs me detachments which I 
can illy spare. This country is so easily 
fortified that an enemy can stop an army 
every few miles. All the roads run on 
ridges,so that a hundred yards of parapet, 
with abatis, closes it and gives the wings 
time to extend as fast as we can reconnoiter 
and cut roads. Our men will charge the 
parapet without fear, but they cannot the 
abatis and entanglements, which catch them 
at close range. I stay here a few days for 
effect, and then will fall back and occupy 
Atlanta, giving my command some rest. 
They need it. The untold labor they have 
done is herculean, and if ever your pass our 
route you will say honestly that we have 
achieved success by industry and courage. I 
hope the administration will be satisfied, for 
I have studied hard to serve it faithfully. 

I hope anything I may have said or done will 
not be construed unfriendly to Mr. Lincoln 
or Stanton. That negro letter of mine I never 
designed for publication, but I am, honest in 
my belief that it is not fair to our men to 
count negroes as equals. Can't we at this day 
drop theories, and be reasonable men? Let 
us capture of course, and use them to the 
best advantage. My quartermaster now could 
give employment to 3,200, and relieve that 
number of soldier who are now used to 
unload and dispatch trains, whereas those 
recruiting agents take them back to 
Nashville, where, so far as my experience 
goes, they disappear. When I call for 
expeditions at distant points, the answer 
invariably comes that they have not 
sufficient troops. All count the negroes out. 
On the Mississippi, where Thomas talked 
about 100,000 negro troops, I find I cannot 
draw away a white soldier, be- cause they 
are indispensable to the safety of the river. I 
am willing to use them as far as possible, but 
object to fighting with "paper" men. 



99 



Occasionally an exception occurs, which 
simply deceives. We want the best young 
white men o the land, and they should be 
inspired with the pride of freemen to fight 
for their country. If Mr. Lincoln or Stanton 
could walk through the camps of this army 
and hear the soldiers talk they would hear 
new ideas. I have had the question put to me 
often; "Is not a negro as good as a white 
man to stop a bullet?" Yes, and a san-bag is 
better; but can a negro do our skirmishing 
and picket duty? Can they improvise roads, 
bridges, sorties, flank movements, &c, like 
the white man? I say Numbers Soldiers must 
and do many things without orders from 
their own sense, as in sentinels. Negroes are 
not equal to this. I have gone steadily, firmly 
and confidently along, and I could not have 
done it with black troops, but with my old 
troops I have never felt a waver of doubt, 
and that very confidence begets success. I 
hope to God the draft will be made to- 
morrow; that you will keep up my army to 
its standard, 100,000 men; that you will give 
Canby an equal number; give Grant 200,000 
and the balance keep on our 
communications, and I pledge you to take 
Macon and Savannah before spring, or leave 
my bones. My army is now in the very 
condition to be supplied with recruits. We 
have good corporals and sergeants and some 
good lieutenants and captains and those are 
far more important than good generals. They 
all seem to have implicit confidence in me. 
They observe success at points remote, as in 
this case of Atlanta and they naturally say 
that the old man knows what he is about. 
They think I know where every road and by- 
path is in Georgia, and one soldier swore 
that I was born on Kenesaw Mountain. 
George Thomas, you know, is slow, but as 
true as steel; Schofield is also slow and 
leaves too much to others; Howard is a 
Christian elegant gentleman, and 
conscientious soldier. In him I made no 
mistake. Hooker was a fool. Had he staid a 
couple of weeks he could have marched into 
Atlanta and claimed all the honors. I 
therefore think I have the army on which 
you may safely build. Grant has the 
perseverance of a Scotch terrier. Let him 
alone, and he will overcome Lee by untiring 
and unceasing efforts. The Mobile column is 
the one that needs a head, and no time 
should be wasted on the city. The river 
Montgomery and Columbus, Ga., are the 
strategic points. The latter has a double line 
by Montgomery and the Appalachicola 
River. It will not be safe to push this line 
farther until that is done, but stores and 
supplies may be accumulated here, and the 
country behind Chattahoochee purged a 
little more. 

To-morrow is the day for the draft, and I feel 
far more interested in it than any event that 
ever transpired. I do think it has been wrong 
to keep our old troops so constantly under 
fire. Some of those old regiments that we 



had at Shiloh and Corinth have been with 
me ever since, and some of them have lost 
70 per cent, in battle. It looks hard to put 
those brigades, now numbering less than 
800 men, into battle. They feel discouraged, 
whereas if we could have a steady influx of 
recruits the living would soon forget the 
dead. The wounded and sick are lost to us, 
for once at a hospital they become 
worthless. It has been very bad economy to 
kill off our best men and pay full wages and 
bounties to the drift and substitutes. While 
all at the rear are paid regularly, I have here 
regimens that have not been paid for eight 
months, because the paymaster could not 
come to them. The draft judiciously used 
will be popular, and will take as many 
opponents of the war as advocates, whereas 
now our political equilibrium at the North 
seems disturbed by the absence of the 
fighting element, whereas the voting 
population is made up of sneaks, exempts, 
and cowards. Any nation would perish under 
such a system if protracted. 

I have not heard yet of the Chicago 
nominations, but appearances are that 
McClellan will be nominated. The phases of 
"Democracy" are strange indeed. Some fool 
seems to have used my name. If forced to 
choose between the penitentiary and White 
House for four years, like old Professor 
Molinard, I would say the penitentiary, 
thank you, sir. If any committed would 
approach me for political preferment, I 
doubt if I could have patience or prudence 
enough to preserve a decent restraint on 
myself, but would insult the nation in my 
reply. 

If we can only carry our people past this fall, 
we may escape the greatest danger that ever 
threatened a civilized people. We as soldiers 
best fulfill our parts by minding our own 
business, and I will try to do that. 

I wish you would thank the President and 
Secretary for the constant support they have 
given me, and accept from my personal 
assurance that I have always felt buoyed up 
by the knowledge that you were there 

On September 7, Sherman wrote from his 
headquarters, "In the Field, Atlanta, Ga.", to 
his friend, Tyler in Louisville, summarizing 
his conquests over the past several weeks 
and also explaining his most recent retreat 
from Lovejoy, 

On the 25th of August, pursuant to a plan of 
which the War Department had been fully 
advised, I left the Twentieth Corps at the 
Chattahoochee bridge, and, with the balance 
of the army, I drew off from the siege, and 
using some considerable artifice to mislead 
the enemy I moved rapidly south, and 
reached the West Point railroad, near 



100 



Fairburn, on the 27th, and broke up twelve 
miles of it; then moving east my right 
approached the Macon railroad near 
Jonesborough, and my left near Rough and 
Ready. The enemy attacked the right, Army 
of the Tennessee, and wac completely 
beaten on the 31st, and during the combat I 
pushed the left and center rapidly on the 
railroad above between Rough and Ready 
and Jonesborough. On the 1st of September 
we broke up about eight miles of the Macon 
road, and turned on the enemy at 
Jonesborough, assaulting him in his lines, 
and carried them, capturing Brigadier- 
General Govan and about 2,000 prisoners, 
with 8 guns and much plunder. Night alone 
prevented our capturing all of Hardee's 
corps, which escaped south that night. That 
same night Hood, in Atlanta, finding all his 
railroads broken or in our possession, blew 
up his ammunition, 7 locomotives, and 80 
cars, and evacuated Atlanta, which, on the 
next day, September 2, was occupied by the 
corps left for that purpose, Major-General 
Slocumn, commanding. We followed the 
retreating rebel army to near Lovejoy's 
Station, thirty miles south of Atlanta, when, 
finding him strongly intrenched, I concluded 
it would not pay to assault, as we had 
already gained the great object of the 
campaign, viz, Atlanta. Accordingly, the 
army gradually and leisurely returned to 
Atlanta, and it is now camped eight miles 
south of the city, and to-morrow will move 
to the camps appointed. I am now writing in 
Atlanta, so you need not be uneasy. We have 
as the result of this quick and, as I think, 
well-executed movement 27 guns, over 
3,000 prisoners; have buried over 400 rebels 
dead, and left as many wounded that could 
not be moved. The rebels have lost, besides 
the important city of Atlanta, immense 
stores, at least 500 dead, 2,500 wounded, 
and 3,000 prisoners, whereas our aggregate 
[loss] will not foot up 1,500. If that is not 
success, I don't know what is (OR Volume 
38(5):821-822). 



roster, which noted that Captain Percy H. White, 
Company A, 1 [ Pennsylvania Cavalry was 
wounded and captured on August 20, 1864 at 
Lovejoy Station, Georgia. He was discharged 
from the U.S. Army on a Surgeon's Certificate 
on February 10, 1865. 



Sherman would later write in depth about the 
Atlanta Campaign in his personal memoirs, 
although he spared very few words regarding the 
events at Lovejoy Station, despite the several 
battles and skirmishes that were fought there and 
the extent of Union losses (Sherman 1990:577, 
582). 

Many individual service records of the Union 
soldiers who served in the Atlanta Campaign 
will undoubtedly shed new light on the events 
that transpired in the Lovejoy vicinity. The 
present research effort did not pursue these 
avenues because of the limited fiscal resources. 
Some Civil War military records are available 
online at various state archives, however, such as 
this example from the 7 Pennsylvania Cavalry 



101 



102 



IV. November 16 th Action 

The final action at Lovejoy, which possibly 
included the Nash Farm locale, came on 
November 16, 1864 as Sherman's Army 
launched their March to the Sea. Brigadier 
General Kilpatrick once again led his Cavalry 
division and engaged the Confederates at 
Lovejoy, where the Confederates had reoccupied 
their trenches from the previous battle. 

Kilpatrick summarized the activities of the 3 r 
Cavalry Division in the March to the Sea in his 
December 27 c report. He described the 
composition of the 5,500 troops and six pieces of 
artillery under his command at the beginning of 
the campaign, 

Several regiments had been added to the old 
regiments and organized into two brigades, 
each numbering upward of 2,500 men. The 
First Brigade, Colonel E. H. Murray, Third 
Kentucky Cavalry, commanding, was 
composed of the following regiments, viz: 
Ninth Pennsylvania Cavalry, Colonel 
Jordan; Fifth Kentucky Cavalry, Colonel 
Baldwin; Third Kentucky Cavalry, 
Lieutenant-Colonel King; Second Kentucky 
Cavalry, Captain Forman, and Tenth 
Wisconsin Light Artillery, Captain Beebe, 
commanding, amounting to 2,800 men. The 
Second Brigade, Colonel Atkins, Ninety- 
second Illinois Mounted Infantry, 
commanding, was composed of the 
following regiments, viz: Ninety-second 
Illinois Mounted Infantry, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Van Buskrik; Tenth Ohio Cavalry, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sanderson; Ninth Ohio 
Cavalry, Colonel Hamilton; Fifth Ohio 
Cavalry, Colonel Heath; Squadron First 
Ohio Cavalry, Captain Dalzell, and Ninth 
Michigan Cavalry, Colonel Acker, 
amounting to 2,700 men (ehistory.com 
2007, OR Volume 44(1):362). 

Kilpatrick noted in his report on the property 
captured or destroyed in the November 16 c 
action, which included, "...2 cannon, Rodman, 
with carriages, and 100 rounds ammunition... 
175 stand small-arms, captured at Lovejoy's Ga. 
... - 4 boxes fixed ammunition for 3-inch 
regulation gun, destroyed...." (ehistoary.com 
2007, OR Volume 44(1):367. 

Colonel Eli H. Murray, who commanded the 1 st 
Brigade of the 3 r Cavalry Division later wrote in 
his report commending the valor of several 
cavalry officers under his command in the 
August 20 l action. Murray wrote, 



... Captain A. G. Sloo and Lieutenant Kelly, 
Third Kentucky Cavalry, for their gallant 
conduct in the charge at Lovejoy's, which 
resulted in the capture of two pieces of 
artillery. I also take pleasure in commending 
the gallantry of Captain E. V. Brookfield, 
commissary of subsistence, Third Cavalry 
Division, in this charge (Ehistory.com 2007, 
OR Volume 44(1):369). 

Colonel Murray recorded the action in his report 
written on December 25, 1864, 

... November 16, marched at 8. 30 a. m. ; 
struck the enemy two miles from Lovejoy's 
Station, in force, behind intrenchments with 
artillery. The Eighth Indiana and Third 
Kentucky, dismounted, moved upon the 
works, which were taken possession of by 
the Eighth Indiana. The Third Kentucky, 
mounting, made a most brilliant and 
successful saber charge, resulting in a total 
demoralization of the enemy, and the 
capture of two pieces of artillery. The 
engagement also furnished us with 42 
prisoners. The Second Kentucky, Captain 
Forman, coming up after the charge, pushed 
on, but only to find the enemy 
straggling... (Ehistory.com 2007, OR 
Volume 44(l):368-369). 

Lieutenant Colonel Fielder A. Jones, 8 th Indiana 
Cavalry, described it in his report of December 
21, 1864, 

... On the 16 th [November], being in the 
advance of the division, we struck the 
enemy a few miles north of Lovejoy's; 
drown them into the old rebel works at that 
place. One battalion of the Eighth, 
dismounted, under Major Gordon, charged 
and quickly carried the works. This was 
followed by a charge of the entire brigade. 
Our route was blockade by fallen trees and 
other obstructions, causing us to fail to be 
"in at the death", yet we captured some 
prisoners. Thence marched south by easy 
marches, capturing a few horses and mules, 
destroying cotton and other public 
property... (ehistory.com 2007, OR 
Volume 44(1):374). 

Captains Joseph T. Forman and Robert M. 
Gillmore, 2 nd Kentucky Cavalry offered this 
description of the engagement in their report 
(filed jointly) on December 21, 1864, 

... November 16, the First Brigade, having 
the advance, came in contact with a body of 
rebel at Lovejoy's Station on the West Point 
railroad. Here my regiment was ordered to 
support a section of artillery. Afterward I 
was ordered with my command to move 
forward at double-quick to support the Third 
Kentucky, which in the meantime had 



103 



charged the rebels, capturing their artillery 
and chasing them some four or five miles. 
My regiment then took the advance, 
skirmishing with the rebels as far as Bear 
Creek Station, where it was ordered to halt, 
rest our horses, and let the Second Brigade 

take the advance (ehistory.com 2007, OR 

Volume 44(1):376). 

Lieutenant Colonel Robert H. King, 3 rd 
Kentucky Cavalry gave this account of the 
November 16 th action in his report dated 
December 16, 1864, 

... On the 16th we passed through 
Jonesborough, following the railroad. About 
three miles from Lovejoy's Station the 
advance encountered the enemy. M y 
command was immediately deployed in line 
of the left of the road, and moved on the 
enemy for a short distance, when I received 
an order from General Kilpatrick to advance 
rapidly and drive the rebels from the station, 
the general supposing, from a dense smoke 
arising in front, that they were destroying 
their stores. I immediately ordered two 
battalions forward at a trot (M ajor W olfley, 
with his battalion, having been sent in 
another direction to destroy a bridge over 
Flint River), and a moment afterward 
ordered a charge. Never did men obey an 
order with more alacrity or enthusiasm. 
They rushed upon the rebels with drawn 
sabers and a shout that scattered them in the 
wildest disorder. They fled in every 
direction of escape, leaving in our hands two 
splendid Rodman guns and a number of 
prisoners. The rout of the enemy was 
complete, and they have since 
acknowledged it to be disgraceful. 
Lieutenant Griffin, of the Fifth Kentucky 
Cavalry, and his brave scouts, were with my 
command in the charge, and rendered 
gallant and valuable service in routing the 
enemy and securing the trophies of the 
chase. After s short halt we moved 
forward... .(ehistory.com 2007, OR Volume 
44(1):379). 

Colonel Oliver L. Baldwin, 5 l Kentucky 
Cavalry, provided a brief account of the 
November 16 th action in his report, dated 
December 17, 1864, 

... November 16, moved in the rear of the 
brigade to near Lovejoy's Station. The 
regiment was here placed in position to 
participate in an engagement then going on 
with Hanna's rebel brigade. Before we could 
join in the fight, however, the enemy was 
routed.... (ehistory.com 2007, OR Volume 
44(l):381-382). 

Colonel Thomas J. Jordan, 9 th Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, gave this extremely brief description in 



his report, dated December 17, 1864, "...on the 
16th participated in the action against Wheeler at 
Lovejoy's Station, on the Macon and Atlanta 
Railroad..." (ehistory.com 2007, OR Volume 
44(1):386). 

Captain Yates V. Beebe, 10 l Wisconsin Battery, 
described the actions of his artillerymen on 
November 16 c , in his report, dated December 
18, 1864, 

... On the 16 th day ofNovember the battery 
was in action at Lovejoy's Station and at 
Bear Creek Station. At Lovejoy's Station the 
battery silenced the enemy's guns and took 
possession of two of them after the cavalry 
had run them down... . (ehistory.com 2007, 
OR Volume 44(1):405). 

CONFEDERATE ACCOUNTS 

Lieutenant General Stephen D. Lee, commander 
of Lee's Corps (formerly John B. Hood's Corps) 
filed his report on January 30, 1865 detailing the 
operations in Georgia from July 27 through 
September 19, 1864. Lee's account was written 
to Lieutenant Colonel A. P. Mason, Assistant 
Adjutant-General, Army of Tennessee, while Lee 
was at Columbus, Mississippi on January 30, 
1865 (OR Volume 38(3): 762): 

COLONEL: Owing to my temporary 
absence from the army and to the movement 
of troops, it would be impracticable to 
procure detailed reports from my 
subordinate officers, and I cannot, therefore, 
make a full report of the operations of my 
command during the recent campaign, but 
deem it proper to offer this, until one more 
complete may be substituted: 

I assumed command of Hood's old corps, 
consisting of Stevenson's Clayton's, and 
Hindman's divisions (the latter commanded 
by Brigadier General John C. Brown), on 
July 27, 1864. The army was then in 
position and intrenched around Atlanta, 
daily shifting its position to meet the flank 
movements of the enemy. On the 27th 
Hindman's and Calyton's divisions were 
withdrawn from the trenches and massed on 
the Lick Skilled road. On the 28th, about 1 1 
a. m., I received orders to move out on the 
Lick Skilled road and check the enemy, who 
was then moving to our left, as it was 
desirable to hold that road, to be used for a 
contemplated movement. I soon found that 
the enemy had gained the road, and was 
gradually driving back our cavalry. Brown's 
division was at once formed on the left of 
and obliquely to the road, and Clayton's 
division on the right, connecting by a line of 



104 



skirmishers with the main works around the 
city. As soon as Brown was formed he 
moved forward, handsomely driving the 
enemy across the road and to a distance half 
a mile beyond, where he encountered 
temporary breast-works, from which he was 
driven back with considerable loss. 
Clayton's division moved forward as soon as 
formed, and about ten minutes after Brown's 
advance, and met with similar results. I 
found it difficult to rally Brown's division 
and move it against the enemy a second 
time. The consequence was that one or two 
brigades of this division, as also of Clayton's 
division, sustained heavy losses because of 
the failure in the attack of portions of their 
lines. Walthall's division, of Stewart's corps, 
had moved out on the Lick Skilled road, 
while Brown's and Clayton's divisions were 
engaging the enemy. At my suggestion this 
division was thrown against the enemy 
where Brown had attacked. The enemy was 
still within easy range of the Lick Skilled 
road, and I believed that he would yield 
before a vigorous attack. The effort, 
however, was a failure, and the troops were 
formed on the road, and during the night 
were withdrawn, by order of the 
commanding general, to a more suitable 
position, connecting with the works 
immediately around Atlanta. The enemy had 
two corps engaged in this affair; still I am 
convinced that if all the troops had displayed 
equal spirit we would have been successful, 
as the enemy's works were slight, and 
besides they had scarcely gotten into 
position when we made the attack. 

From the 28th of July to the 5th of August 
the enemy cautiously pushed forward his 
lines toward ours, erecting new lines of 
works as he advanced. Several severe 
attacks were made upon the works of my 
skirmish line, but no assault was made upon 
the main intrenched line. The enemy in 
almost every instance was severely repulsed. 
On the 6th Major-General Bate's division, of 
Hardee's corps (which had reported to me 
temporarily in place of Stevenson's division, 
which had been detached from my corps and 
put in position immediately in front of 
Atlanta), took position on my left almost 
perpendicularly to our main line and along 
the Sandtown road. This division in one 
night constructed a very strong skirmish 
line, and with such little display that the 
enemy on the 6th, findings as he supposed 
only a slight impediment to the extension of 
his lines, at once moved a corps to attack, 
which was signally and handsomely 
repulsed. Much credit is due General Bate 
and his division for their conduct. The 
enemy was exceedingly cautious in his 
movements after this affair. His extension to 
our left was gradual, and he seemed 
determined to push his lines more closely to 
our in my front, with the view of making an 
assault. The skirmishing along Patton 
Anderson's (formerly Hindman's) and 



Clayton's divisions amounted to almost an 
engagement for a week. Hardee's corps had 
been placed on my left to check the enemy, 
who continued extending to the left. About 
the 2nd the enemy retired from his position 
in front of Atlanta, making quite a detour to 
the left of my corps, which extended to the 
West Point and Atlanta Railroad, three- 
quarters of a mile beyond East Point. 
Stevenson's division reported to me by 1 1 a. 
m. on the 30th of August. Hardee's corps 
was on my left, and was gradually relieved 
by my corps in order it might extend farther 
to the left. About 4 p. m. on the 30th I was 
notified that General Hardee would probably 
move to Jonesborough, and that it was 
desired that my corps should followed and 
support him. At army headquarters, in 
Atlanta, about 9 p. m., it was decided that 
the column of the enemy which was 
marching on Jonesborough from the 
direction of the West Point and Atlanta 
Railroad should be attacked early on the 
morning of the 31st, and crushed, if 
practicable, and that Lieutenant- General 
Hardee, with his corps and my own, should 
be charged with the expedition. I 
accordingly reported to General Hardee at 
General Hood's headquarters. According to 
my recollection, the column marching on 
Jonesborough was the only column of the 
enemy well defined and in motion, and that 
it consisted of about thee army corps. I was 
advised that General Hardee's corps, the left 
of which rested at Rough and Ready, four 
miles below East Point, on the Macon 
railroad, commenced moving about 4 p. m. 
Orders were extended for my corps to move 
immediately after General Hardee's. The 
rear of Hardee's corps was in motion about 
1 1.30 p. m. My corps was well closed up to 
it and immediately following. Our progress 
was very slow, and the head of my column 
did not reach Rough and Ready till daylight. 
I ascertained that the delay was caused by a 
portion of Hardee's corps encountering the 
enemy about 12 p. m. August 30 on the road 
on which they were marching, which made 
it necessary for the line of march to be 
changed to a neighborhood road. In 
consequence of this delay my corps did not 
arrive at Jonesborough till near 10 a. m. on 
the 3 1st, but it reached there immediately in 
rear of General Hardee's last division. The 
last three brigades of my corps, in 
consequence of the distance they had 
marched, and having been on picket, arrived 
about 1.30 p.m. 

The enemy had during the previous evening 
and night effected a crossing of Flint River 
and made a lodgment on the east bank. The 
preliminaries for the attack were arranged. 
My corps was formed almost parallel to the 
railroad and immediately to the right of 
Jonesborough, connecting with the right of 
Hardee's corps, which extended toward Flint 
River, and making almost a right angle with 
the railroad. It was found that Hardee's corps 



105 



did not cover as much ground as was 
expected, and I was instructed to extend my 
troops so as to fill up the interval, and my 
command was moved almost two divisions 
from to the left. The instructions given me 
were to attack as soon as Cleburne, who 
commanded Hardee's corps, should become 
hotly engaged, he being ordered to swing to 
his right and my corps to advance directly 
against the enemy, and, if possible, swing to 
the left. The firing to my left (on Cleburne's 
line) did not indicate a serious engagement 
until the right division of Hardee's corps 
became engaged. Being satisfied that the 
battle had commenced in earnest, I at once 
gave orders for my corps to move against 
the enemy. The attack was not made by the 
troops with the spirit and inflexible 
determination that would insure success. 
Several brigades behaved with great 
gallantry, and in each brigade many 
instances of gallant conduct were exhibited 
by regiments and individuals; but generally 
the troops halted in the charge when they 
were much exposed, and within easy range 
of the enemy's musketry, and when they 
could do but little damage to the enemy 
behind his works, instead of moving directly 
and promptly forward against the temporary 
and informidable works in their front The 
attack was a feeble one and a failure, with a 
loss to my corps of about 1,300 men in 
killed and wounded. The enemy being 
behind works, and apparently no impression 
having been made him by the attack on my 
left, where his line was supposed to be 
weakest, and Brigadier-General Ross, 
commanding a cavalry brigade on my 
immediate right, having reported the enemy 
moving to my right, I was induced not to 
renew the attack. 

During the night of the 31st, about 1 p. m., I 
received an order from Lieutenant-General 
Hardee to march at once to Atlanta. My 
corps was at once put in motion, and was 
halted by Major General M. L. Smith, chief 
engineer of the army, about six miles from 
Atlanta, and there put in position to cover 
the evacuation of the city. 



Hindman's old division. They always 
displayed great gallantry and zeal in time of 
battle. I regret to state that Major-General 
Patton Anderson and Brigadier-General 
Cumming were severely wounded in the 
action of the 31st while nobly leading their 
troops upon the enemy's works, and their 
services were lost to us during the remainder 
of the campaign. 

I take pleasure in making especial mention 
of the gallantry of Brigadier General (now 
Major General) John C. Brown during the 
engagement of the 28th on the Lick Skilled 
road, and of Major-Generals Stevenson and 
Clayton during the battle of Jonesborough 
on August 31. 

The officers of my personal staff, as also of 
the corps staff, behaved at all times with 
gallantry, and were energetic in the 
discharge of their duties. 

Lee included this addenda in his report to 
Lieutenant Colonel Mason: 

GENERAL ORDERS 



HEADQUARTERS LEE'S CORPS, 
Numbers 62. 



In the Field, August 7, 1864. 

The lieutenant-general commanding takes 
pleasure in announcing to the officers and 
men of this corps the splendid conduct of a 
portion of Bate's division, particularly 
Tyler's brigade, in sustaining and repulsing 
on yesterday three assault of the enemy, in 
which his loss in killed, wounded, and 
prisoners was from 800 to 1,000 men, 2 
colors, and 300 or 400 stand small-arms, and 
all of his intrenching tools. Our loss was 
from 15 to 20 killed and wounded. Soldiers 
who fight with the coolness and 
determination that these men did will always 
be victorious over any reasonable number. 



On the morning of September 1 I was 
ordered to move my command toward 
Lovejoy's Station, which place I reached on 
the 3d. The army remained at Lovejoy's till 
September 18, when it commenced moving 
toward Palmetto Station, on the West Point 
and Atlanta Railroad, where it arrived on the 
19th. 

Not having received the reports of my 
division commanders, it is impossible to 
notice those officers and commands 
deserving especial mention. It is my purpose 
to refer to their gallant deeds in a subsequent 
of my division commanders-Major-Generals 
Stevenson, Clayton, and Brown, and 
afterward Patton Anderson, commanding 



By command of Lieutenant-General Lee: 
J.W.RATCHFORD, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Confederate Major General S.G. French 
provided this account to Captain W.D. Dale, 
Assistant Adjutant General, of events, in the 
Lovejoy vicinity, in early September, 1864. 
French's report was written at French's division 
headquarters near Nashville, Tennessee on 
December 6, 1864 (OR 38(3):903): 



106 



Sir; In compliance with orders I have the 
honor to report the operations of my division 
in and around Atlanta from time General 
Hood was placed in command of the Army 
of Tennessee until we left Lovejoy's 

Station September 1, to-day order for 

the evacuation of the city was received. I 
caused preparations to be made to spike the 
heavy guns on my line, and to have their 
carriages burned when the skirmishers 
should be withdrawn, at 1 1 p. m.; but to my 
astonishment they were sent on fire without 
my knowledge, by orders of the chief of 
ordnance of the army, during the afternoon, 
which I could not but consider rather a 
premature signal. After dark, and after 
Generals Loring and Walthall and the State 
troops-when all were gone but stragglers- 
this division moved out of the city, forming 
the rear guard. Taking the McDonough road, 
we marched all night, all day of the 2d, and 
came into camp late at night. 



Welch and Strong) and 8 private wounded. 
The enemy falling back toward Atlanta, 
afforded some rest to our forces 



Major General French's casualty report include 
those in his division who were killed or wounded 
at Lovejoy Station in the September 2-5 action. 
These included: 8 killed and 18 wounded from 
Cockrell's Brigade, 12 wounded from Ector's 
Brigade, and 4 killed, 9 wounded and 7 missing 
from Sear's Brigade (OR Volume 38(3);908- 
909). 

Brigadier General William H. Young, C. S. 
Army, commanding Ector's Brigade, filed his 
report on September 17, from his headquarters at 
Lovejoy's Station, in which he details his 
operations July 17-September 4: 



September 3, resumed the march this 
morning. From the sound of the guns in 
front, we knew that General Hardee alone 
was still holding the enemy in check, for we 
had passed the corps of General S. D. Lee 
on the road. On arriving at Lovejoy's 
Station, on the railroad, my division was 
detached and sent to relieve General Bate's 
division, in line of battle in the center of 
Hardee's corps, and after dark it was ordered 
to relieve his left division, which held a 
miserable line and salient that was enfilade 
on either face by the enemy's artillery. Did 
not, however, make the change. 

September 4, considerable artillery firing on 
the lines to-day. Labored all night on a new 
line to cut off part of the salient, which 
improved it very much. 

September 5, my division is now in the line 
of the division of Hardee's corps, which it 
has relieved, and so completely is the old 
part of it enfilade that about 40 men were 
killed and wounded from shells. 

September 6, at 4 o'clock this morning 
information was sent me by the officers of 
the day that the enemy had left my front. I 
directed the skirmishers to advance and 
occupy the works of the enemy, and 
reported the fact to Lieutenant-General 
Stewart. General Cockrell asked permission 
to follow the enemy, which was granted, and 
he purposed them beyond Lonesborough. 
Coming up with the enemy south of this 
village, he drove them to their works just 
this side of the town. From these works they 
were driven by a charge of four companies, 
under the command of Captain Canniff, to 
their main line on the north side of 
Jonesborough, where they were discovered 
in force. A number of prisoner were 
captured and many killed and wounded. Our 
casualties were 2 officers (Lieutenants 



MAJOR: In compliance with circular orders 
from corps headquarters of the 16th instant, 
I have the honor to submit the following 
report of the action this brigade since 
General Hood took command of the army, 
about July 17 [18]:... By September 1 the 
brigade had almost completed along its 
entire front a palisade work eight feet above 
the ground. At 9 p. m. on this day took in 
advance of the division the march from 
Atlanta. After a tedious march reached 
Lovejoy's Station about 3 p. m. on the 3rd of 
September and took position east of the 
railroad in reserve of the division. On the 
evening of the 4th took position in line on 
left of the division, connecting with Adams' 
brigade, Loring's division. Here built 
substantial intrenchments, and had in part 
covered them by stake abatis when, on the 
morning of the 6th, the enemy were found to 
have evacuated their works in front. 

For the more particular operations of each 
regiment I would respectfully refer to the 
reports of regimental commanders, herewith 
inclosed. 

The casualties of the brigade have been 
previously furnished in a separate report... . 

Brigadier General F.M. Cockrell, Missouri 
Brigade, filed his report with Major D.W. 
Sanders, Assistant Adjutant-General, on 
September 20, 1864, regarding the actions from 
July 17-September 7 below Atlanta (OR Volume 
38(3):915-920): 

MAJOR: I have the honor to submit the 
following report of the part borne by the 
M issouri brigade in the operations of the 
Army of Tennessee, under command of 
General J. B. Hood, from July 17 to 
September 7:... .On the night of September 1 



107 



Atlanta was evacuated, and this brigade, in 
rear of the corps and division, marched 
through Atlanta and thence on the 
McDonough road, marching all night, all the 
day of September 2, and till 10 o'clock of 
that night. 

On the evening of September 3 we arrived at 
the line of works north of Lovejoy's Station, 
and at once relieved a portion of the line 
occupied by Bate's division, Hardee's corps, 
with my left resting near to and of the 
railroad. 



On the night of September 4 we moved to 
the left and occupied the line, with my right 
resting on the railroad. These works were 
indifferent and exposed to an enfilading, and 
in some places almost reverse, artillery fire 
of the enemy's batteries on my left. And 
during this day Captain S. A. Kennerly, of 
Company A, First and Fourth Missouri 
Infantry, and 4 men were killed and 3 
wounded by two shells; 1 wounded from 
Second and Sixth, and 2 killed and 2 
wounded from Third and Fifth. Captain S. 
A. Kennerly was a most fearless, cheerful, 
and determined officer, and on May 16, 
1863, at battle of Baker's Creek, received a 
most severe wound, and was left on the field 
believed to be dead, from the effects of 
which he had never fully recovered; and 
notwithstanding this he had been on duty 
during the past arduous campaign 

Colonel John Weir, Lowrey's Brigade, 
Cleburne's Division, Hardee's Corps, filed his 
report regarding the action at Lovejoy Station in 
September with Lieutenant Milner from his 
headquarters on September 27, 1864 (OR 
Volume 38(3): 736-737): 

LIEUTENANT: I have the honor, very 
respectfully, to make the following report as 
to the action of this brigade with the enemy 
upon the 2nd instant, near Lovejoy's Station: 

I arrived one mile east of Lovejoy's Station, 
upon the M cDonough road, at 6 o'clock on 
the morning of the 2nd of September. I 
formed line, with Mercer's brigade upon my 
left and Granbury's upon my right. The 
general direction of my line was east and 
west. At 10 a. m. I had my line formed in 
single rank, and went to throwing up breast- 
works. At 3 p. m. the enemy made their 
appearance in front of my pickets. A sharp 
skirmish commenced, which was kept up 
until 4 p. m. The enemy advanced upon my 
picket-line with a strong line of skirmishers 
and two lines of battle; drove in my pickets, 
broke the picket-line to my right, and 
captured some of my pickets. The ground 
was so situated that the enemy, after 
breaking the picket-line to my right, was in 
rear of some of my pickets before they could 



be observed by them. After breaking my 
picket-line, they made a charge upon my 
works (they not being completed with their 
first line, coming within 250 yards of my 
works, but were handsomely repulsed. They 
attempted to bring up a second line, but with 
no better success than the first. From their 
graves, that were in my front, and from the 
report of two officers from the brigades that 
were captured upon the picket-line (who 
have since been exchanged, their loss was 
very heavy, considering the time that we 
were engaged. The officers captured report 
that their pickets wounded 1 brigadier- 
general and several line officer and privates. 

The enemy's report confirms the brigadier- 
general being wounded; also 4 colonels and 
1 lieutenant-colonel wounded, 1 assistant 
adjutant-general wounded and 1 killed, and 
1 adjutant killed; besides a long list of line 
officers and privates were wounded. My 
pickets fought the enemy, driving back the 
skirmish line, and until their line of battle 
was within forty steps of their barricades 
and in rear of a part of my picket-line. 

My loss was 1 killed, 9 wounded, and 39 
missing. 

I am pleased to state that the conduct of both 
officers and privates of this brigade was 
marked with great coolness and courage 
upon that occasion. 



108 



IV. Rest and Relaxation — The 
Confederate Encampments 



Atlanta was in ruins and what was left of it was 
in Union control. The entire countryside was 
busy with civilian refugees fleeing Atlanta and 
surrounding farms (Figure 48). 



By early September, 1864, both armies in the 
Atlanta Campaign were extremely fatigued. 




Figure 46. Scene of U.S. Troops and Civilians Evacuating Atlanta, 1864. 



Following the U.S. Army's retreat to Atlanta on 
September 6, the Confederate troops continued 
to mass in the Lovejoy vicinity, where they 
enjoyed a brief respite from the fighting. 
Historical accounts make passing reference to 
this large gathering, although its extent is best 
reflected by the myriad of Confederate 
encampments that have been identified by relic 
collectors and amateur historians. These camps 
were occupied from September 6 to 18, 1864. By 
September 1 1 , Ross' brigade was headquartered 
at Fayetteville, Georgia. Generals Sherman and 
Hood had agreed upon a 10 day truce from 
September 12-21, which was, as A. P. Mason, 
Confederate Assistant Adjutant-General noted 
was, "only applicable to the thoroughfares and 
the country leading to and in the vicinity of 
rough and Ready, the object being the removal of 
citizens of Atlanta who shall desire to come 
South under the recent order of General 
Sherman" (OR Volume 39 (Pt. 2):830). 



On September 18, Lee's Corps of Confederates 
left Lovejoy for Palmetto, Georgia (Mark Pollard 
personal communication, February 10, 2007). 

General John Bell Hood wrote several letters 
from his headquarters at Lovejoy' s Station on 
September 13, 1864. Hood wrote to Brigadier 
General A.R. Lawton, Quartermaster-General, in 
Richmond regarding the unrest among the troops 
because of their lack of pay, 

It is very important that funds for the 
payment of this army should be sent without 
delay to prevent dissatisfaction and 
desertion in consequence of the non- 
payment of the troops" (OR Volume 39 (Pt. 
2):833). In light of the recent loss of Atlanta 
and the series of Confederate failures of the 
Atlanta Campaign under Hood's direction, 
the low morale among the Confederate 
troops is understandable. Adding to this 
burden, Hood noted in a letter to Georgia 
Governor Joseph E. Brown, in 
Milledgeville, that the U.S. troops had, 



109 



". . .robbed the people in the vicinity of 
Jonesborough" and that Hood had, "about 
1 ,000 applications daily for rations for 
persons in that quarter. I cannot subsist 
them. Can you not make arrangements and 
send food for them? (OR Volume 39 (Pt. 
2):833). 

General Hood was not only dissatisfied with the 
demeanor of the troops under his command but 
was very dissatisfied with General Hardee. Hood 
wrote to Confederate President Jefferson Davis 
placing much of the blame for the failures in the 
Atlanta Campaign on Hardee, including the 
battles of July 20, 22, and August 31. Hood 
wrote, "It is the utmost importance that Hardee 
should be relieved at once. He commands the 
best troops of this army. I must have another 
commander" (OR Volume 39 (Pt. 2):832). 

General Hood estimated his troop strength on 
September 11 to include about 26,000 infantry. 
A majority of these troops were camped at or 
near Lovejoy (OR Vol. 39 (2): 829). 
Confederate troop returns listed as present in 
Stewart's Corps at 60,374 total, including 38,301 
Infantry, 10,412 Cavalry, and 3,722 Artillery. 



December, 1864, in which Kilpatrick briefly 
described the action of November 16' , 

A portion of General Wheeler's cavalry and 
the Georgia militia, under General Cobb, 
were reported to be at Lovejoy Station. I met 
and drove back Wheeler's advance next 
morning, and found him in position, 
occupying the old rebel earthworks 
constructed by Hood's army on its recent 
retreat from Jonesboro. Colonel Murray 
(First brigade) charged and carried their 
works, capturing two (2) three-inch rifled 
guns, (taken from General Stoneman) and 
killed and wounded a large number of the 
enemy. Wheeler now retreated in great 
confusion to Bear Creek Station, where he 
attempted to halt and make a stand 
(Kilpatrick, in Moore 1966:22). 

Captain J.W. Beebe, 10' Wisconsin Battery, 
filed a brief report on December 18, 1864, in 
which he stated, "On the sixteenth day of 
November, the battery was in action at Lovejoy' s 
Station, and at Bear Creek Station. At Lovejoy' s 
Station, the battery silenced the enemy's guns 
and took possession of two of them, after the 
cavalry had run them down" (Beebe, in Moore 
1866:168). 



After that military action in Lovejoy was 
minimal. Military action took place on the 
McDonough Road on October 2, 1864 (Jones 
1999:122). The exact location of this exchange is 
unclear from reading the official documents. 
Military engagement again occurred on the 
McDonough Road on November 6, 1864 (Jones 
1999:122). The exact location of this encounter 
is unclear from reading the official documents. 
On November 16, 1864 Judson Kilpatrick's 
Cavalry returned to the Lovejoy area on their 
journey south towards Savannah. At Lovejoy, 
the U.S. Cavalry met with Confederate resistance 
and a skirmish is recorded (Jones 1999:122). The 
Confederate troops consisted of, "two brigades 
of cavalry and two pieces of artillery, and 
holding the old rebel works", and historian 
Moore noted, "The General [Kilpatrick] charged 
the works with dismounted cavalry, and carried 
them, driving back the enemy. Subsequently, the 
enemy's artillery was overtaken by another 
changing column, and captured. He drove the 
enemy beyond Bear Station, capturing over fifty 
prisoners. He then moved to the left, and 
encamped on the Griffin and McDonough road" 
(Moore 1866:12). Kilpatrick's report to Captain 
L.M. Dayton, Aid-de-Camp to Major General 
Sherman was written near Savannah in 



The November 16th battle was likely centered 
located west and south of the Nash Farm 
property, nearer to the railroad tracks at Lovejoy 
Station, although some evidence of it may extend 
into the study area. It lasted less than one day 
and few other details were gathered about this 
brief engagement. 

Sherman's massive forces steadily moved to the 
southeast towards Savannah in late November 
and December 1864. Once the war was over, the 
residents of the study vicinity returned home and 
resumed their "normal" lives. Many of their 
dwellings and support facilities were probably in 
ruins, or badly damaged. Their croplands and 
livestock had been ravaged and plundered. In 
some instances their homesteads had been 
intentionally spoiled by the invaders, or by the 
accompanying "bummers". Nevertheless, many 
farms resumed operation, although without the 
enormous benefit of enslaved labor. A system of 
tenancy emerged on many of the larger farms. 
Many smaller farms in the area were operated by 
the immediate family members and, 
consequently, some of the farming enterprises 
were scaled back from their former levels. 
Through all of these hardships the Nash Farm 
survived. 



112 



V. Artifacts from Nash Farm 

The LAMAR Institute's survey of the Nash 
Farm Battlefield Park yielded an impressive 
assemblage of relics from the battle, as well as 
other artifacts relating to the occupation at the 
Nash Farm. A complete inventory of the 1,345 
artifacts that were recovered by the project is 
contained in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 includes 
more than 490 photographic images of many of 
these artifacts. Appendix 2 also includes artifacts 
contained in private collections, which were 
obtained from the Nash Farm property. 

ARMS GROUP 

Heavy Ordnance 

Archaeological evidence of both Union and 
Confederate artillery ordnance was found by the 
present study. Additional evidence for artillery 
fire is also well represented in private collections 
from the vicinity (see Appendix 2). Several types 
of cylindrical artillery rounds were used by the 
Union and Confederate batteries in the Lovejoy 
vicinity. These include Hotchkiss, Parrott, 
Schenkl, and (possibly) James artillery. Thirteen 
artillery shell fragments are represented in the 
survey collection. One specimen was collected 
by TRC in their 2006 study (D'Angelo et al. 
2006:79,89). The base of a Hotchkiss shell 
(Figure 48) was found by the LAMAR Institute 
team in the vicinity of the suspected first Cavalry 
clash. A local collector (name unknown) 
reported finding a complete Hotchkiss shell a 
short distance north of the Clayton County water 
tower, which is located several kilometers west 
of the Nash Farm property. Another collection, 
mostly from the Hastings farm area of Clayton 
County, includes one complete artillery shell and 
one complete explosive hollow shot, which are 
illustrated in Appendix 2. 

While no Parrott shells were located by the 
present study team, Mark Pollard noted that at 
least two had been reported by collectors in the 
mid to late 20 century. One of these was found 
in the drip line of the Nash farmhouse roof, 
where it was discovered by a former homeowner. 
Another Parrott shell was reportedly found near 
the intersection of Babbs Mill Road and 
Jonesboro Road, just east of the Nash Farm 



property (Mark Pollard personal communication 
February 10, 2007). 

The cannons used by the Union and Confederate 
artillery at Lovejoy included explosive, hollow, 
spherical shot. Explosive balls were filled with 
gunpowder and a variety of metal shrapnel. The 
balls often broke into polygonal bombshell 
fragments upon exploding. These distinctively 
shaped relics are recognizable in the 
archaeological record and several examples were 
identified on the Nash Farm property (Figure 
49). Several members of the project team noted 
that this type of shell fragment is associated 
more with Confederate artillery than Union. 




Figure 48. Hotchkiss Shell Base (PP768), 
Nash Farm. 




113 



Figure 49. Polygonal Bombshell 
Fragment (PP1031), Nash Farm. 



Figure 51. Faceted Cannister Shot, Nash 
Farm. 



Solid "golf ball size" iron balls, or grapeshot, 
were used in 12 pounder or 32 pounder 
howitzers in the Civil War (Figure 50). This type 
of ammunition was used by both armies. Six 
examples are contained in the Nash Farm 
collection. These range in diameter from 28-35 
mm and weigh from 67.5 to 147.5 grams. They 
may represent Union or Confederate artifacts. 
They were not found in any concentration, 
although several areas where they were located 
also yielded other evidence of battle action. 




Figure 50. Grapeshot, Nash Farm (PP 

587). 

Cannister Shot. Three types of small iron 
cannister shot were identified in the Nash Farm 
collection. These items were grouped into 
faceted, poorly faceted, and round categories. 
The weight, diameter, and grid location of each 
specimen was recorded, which allowed a careful 
study of their spatial distribution, as well as any 
relevant size or weight variations between the 
three groups. An example of a faceted cannister 
shot is shown in Figure 51. 




Sabot Fragments. Several large chunks of lead 
were discovered on the battlefield, which are 
likely lead sabots associated with artillery shells, 
such as the Hotchkiss projectile (McKee and 
Mason 1995:104-105). Both armies used the 
Hotchkiss artillery, so the presence of Hotchkiss 
shells on the battlefield denotes an unspecified 
origin. Examples of large lead objects from Nash 
Farm are illustrated in Appendix 2 (PP7, 
PP1091). 

Fuses. Explosive artillery shells in the Civil War 
era employed a wide array of fuse mechanisms. 
Fuses and fuse fragments are familiar relics from 
the battlefield. Nash Farm has yielded only a few 
specimens. One probable fuse adapter was 
found on the southwestern part of the Nash Farm 
property, which is illustrated in Appendix 2 
(McKee and Mason 1995:147, 152, Figures 51 
and 52). Two small brass pieces, which may 
represent fuse components, are contained in the 
Nash Farm collection and these await definitive 
identification (Appendix 2, PP436, PP633). 

Friction Primer. Friction primers were used to 
ignite the artillery pieces and these small objects 
are often recovered from Civil War battlefields. 
These primers consist of small brass tubes, 
formerly filled with explosive substances, and an 
attached, twisted brass wire. Friction primers 
were a disposable item, used once for a single 
cannon firing. At least three sizes of friction 
primers were produced (1.75 inches, 2 3/8 
inches, 2.5 inches, and 2 5/8 inches). A number 
of friction primers were recovered from Nash 
Farm, although only one of these dated the the 
Civil War era (Appendix 2, PP281). The others 
were modern, reenactor's debris from the past 
several years. These modern specimens were 
distinguished from the authentic ones by their 
shiny appearance and black coating on one end. 
One unfired, recent specimen was included in the 
collection. The one real example was found at 
5176.6 North, 1765.51 East, which tentatively 
indicates the approximate location of one 
artillery piece that was fired in 1864. 
Archaeologists were not able to determine if this 
specimen was Confederate or Union, although its 
general location would indicate it was most 
likely used by the Confederate artillery. 



114 



Pollard noted at least three other areas near Nash 
Farm that have yielded friction primers in the 
past. One of these is located on the Nash Farm 
battlefield property, north of Jonesboro Road. 
Pollard suspects that area to be the location of 
Croft's Columbus Artillery Battery that fired on 
August 20, and possibly re-used by a different 
Confederate battery on September 2-5, 1864. 
Pollard also noted one area, just northwest of the 
study tract on the Clayton County Water 
Authority property where several friction primers 
were discovered in the past. He suspects this 
may be the artillery battery position of the 10' 
Wisconsin battery on August 20' . A third 
location where Pollard reports friction primers 
have been found is on a hilltop, northeast of 
Nash Farm. He suspects this to be a Confederate 
battery, probably dating to the September 2-5 
action. This latter firing position is quite some 
distance from the Nash Farm, but it may 
represent an artillery battery from the August 
20 engagement. 

Personal Weapons 

The U.S. and Confederate Cavalries used more 
than 50 varieties of personal firearms used. 
Table 6 contains a chart of the more common 
weapons that were used, weapon attributes, and 
regiments known to possess these weapons. 
Repeating carbines were highly desired and more 
common in the U.S. Cavalry than in the 
Confederate Cavalry. Breech-loading weapons 
used by the troops included guns manufactured 
by Gallager, Maynard, Spencer, and Smith. 

The Spencer was a repeating carbine and rifle 
that required a brass rim fire cartridge that was 
breech-loaded. Christopher Spencer received a 
pattern for his design on March 6, 1860. Most 
Spencers required a .56 caliber cartridge, 
although some .36 caliber were produced. 
Spencers were produced. Spencer carbines were 
loaded with seven cartridges, which could be 
loaded in a single step and it could easily 
discharge 15 shots a minute. The drawback to the 
Spencer carbine was its expense— $35.00 each, 
which was more than twice as costly as the 
Springfield muskets. The U.S. Army balked at 
purchasing this weapon, despite its obvious 
advantages over single shot weapons. 
Commanders of several U.S. Army regiments 



purchased these weapons with their own funds 
for their troops use. President Lincoln, who was 
quite impressed after test firing the weapon, 
instructed the Army Chief of Ordnance, General 
Ripley to purchase 10,000 of them in late 1861. 

Approximately 144,500 Spencers were produced 
and 107,372 were purchased by the U.S. 
government. It was the most popular carbine of 
the U.S. Cavalry and was also quite popular with 
the Confederate Cavalry, when they were able to 
obtain them. Spencer carbines were issued to the 
4' U.S. Cavalry, 8' Indiana Cavalry, 4 
Michigan Cavalry, 3 rd Ohio Cavalry, and 7 th 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, all of whom participated 
in action in the Lovejoy area on August 20, 1864 
(Flayderman 1980; McAulay 1997; Coates and 
Thomas 1990:35, 48, 93). The 92 nd Illinois 
Infantry were part of Colonel John T. Wilder's 
Lightning Brigade by September, 1863, and 
Wilder's Brigade carried Spencer rifles in 
Virginia as early as June 24, 1863. Theirs is the 
first reported engagement where these weapons 
were used. The Spencer rifle, which was longer 
and heavier than the Spencer carbine, also fired a 
.56 caliber load and the rifles were popular 
among those troops who were lucky enough to 
possess them. By July 3, 1863, Confederate 
infantry in the 49' Virginia Regiment at 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania were using captured 
Spencer repeating weapons. The Confederates 
captured more Spencer firearms than 
ammunition, however, and many weapons were 
stored in warehouses for the lack of proper 
cartridges (Bresnan 2007; Bilby 1996:199-200; 
Williams 1936:542-544; Jordan 2007; Robertson 
et al. 1992:Table 5; Baumgartner 1997). 

The Sharps firearms, invented by Christian 
Sharps, were single-shot, breech-loading .54 
caliber carbines and rifles that required a .52 
caliber paper cartridge. Sharps could also be 
loaded with black powder and a loose bullet. 
Sharps were used by both armies, approximately 
115,000 were made for the Union and the 
Confederate foundries produced about 15,000 
copies of the Sharps carbine. Sharps weapons 
were the second most common breech-loader 
during the Civil War. Although the Sharps was 
only a single shot, compared to the multiple 
round Spencer carbine, its ease of use, 
simplicity, reliability, and durability insured its 



115 



Weapon 


Army 


Units Type 


Ammunition 


Caliber Known Units 




Ml 855, Colt 




Revolver 


Paper cartridge 


0.31 




Smith & Wesson No.2 


U.S.A. 


Revolver 


Brass rimfire 


0.32 




Colt 




Revolver 


Paper cartridge 


0.32 




Colt 




Revolver 


Paper cartridge 


0.36 




Remington Navy 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Revolver 


Paper cartridge 


0.36 




Whitney Navy 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Revolver 


Paper cartridge 


0.36 




Maynard 


U.S.A. 




Metallic w/cap 


0.37 




Maynard 


C.S.A. 




Metallic w/cap 


0.37 




Ballard 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Brass rimfire 


0.44 Possibly KY Cav. 




Ml 860, Colt 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Revolver 


Paper cartridge 


0.44 




Henry 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Rifle 


Brass rimfire 


0.44 




M1858, Remington 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Revolver 


Paper cartridge 


0.44 10th OH Cav. 




Ml 851 Colt Navy 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Revolver 


Paper cartridge 


0.44 




Stair 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Revolver 


Paper cartridge 


0.44 4th OH Cav. 




Maynard 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Metallic w/cap 


0.5 




Smith 


U.S.A. 


Carbine 




0.5 




Gallager 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Metallic w/cap 


0.51 10th OH Cav. 




Macon Arsenal 


C.S.A. 






0.52 




Gardner, Richmond Lab 


C.S.A. 


Rifle 




0.55 




Gardner, Richmond Lab 


C.S.A. 


Rifle 




0.58 




Bumside 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Metallic w/cap 


0.54 5th KY Cav.; 1st, 4th & 10th OH Cav.; 7th PA Cav. 




Bumside 


C.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Metallic w/cap 


0.54 




Enfield 


C.S.A. 


Infantry Musket 


Paper cartridge 


0.54 




Maynard 


C.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Metallic w/cap 


0.54 




M1841, Harpers Fy. 


U.S.A. 


Rifle 


Paper cartridge 


0.54 




M1841, Harpers Fy. 


C.S.A. 


Cavalry Rifle 


Paper cartridge 


0.54 TXCav[8th&llth] 




Sharps 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Paper cartridge 


0.54 1st OH Cav.; 3rd OH Cav. 




Sharps 


C.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Paper cartridge 


0.54 3rd TX Cav. 




Stair 


U.S.A. 






0.54 




Merrill 


C.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Paper cartridge 


0.54 3rd TX Cav. 




Merrill 


U.S.A. 


Carbine 


Paper cartridge 


0.54 




M 1 854, Lorenz 


C.S.A. 


Cavalry Rifle 




0.54 TX Cav [8th] 




Colt Revolving 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Rifle 




0.56 4th U.S. Cav; 3rd KY Cav.; 4th MI Cav. 




Spencer 


U.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Brass rimfire 


0.56 4th U.S. Cav.; 8th IN Cav.; 4th MI Cav.; 3rd OH Cav. 


7th PA Cav. 


Spencer 


C.S.A. 


Cavalry Carbine 


Brass rimfire 


0.56 




Spencer 


U.S.A. 


Mtd. Inf 


Brass rimfire 


0.56 92nd IL Mounted Inf. 




M1853, Enfield 


C.S.A. 


Infantry Rifle 


Paper cartridge 


0.577 




M1853, Enfield 


U.S.A. 


Infantry Rifle 


Paper cartridge 


0.577 92nd IL Mounted Inf. 




Model 1855&1861, Spring 


field U.S.A. 


Infantry Rifle 


Paper cartridge 


0.58 




Various 


C.S.A. 


Cavalry Shotgun 


Paper cartridge 


0.69 3rd TX Cav. [8th&l 1th TX Cav.] 




M 1 842, Palmetto 


C.S.A. 


Infantry Musket 


Paper cartridge 


0.69 C.S.A. 




Belgian&French 


C.S.A. 


Cavalry Rifle 




0.69 TX Cav. [8th TX Cav.] 




Country 


U.S.A. 


Rifle 




.36-.50 Sharpshooters&Picket duty 




Country 


C.S.A. 


Rifle 




.36-.50 Sharpshooters&Picket duty 





Table 6. Major Firearms Used in the Civil War. 

place as a common cavalrymen's firearm. 
Sharps carbines were issued to the I s and 3 r 
Ohio Cavalry, both of whom participated in 
action in the Lovejoy area on August 20, 1864 
(Flayderman 1980; McAulay 1997; Coates and 
Thomas 1990:34, 45-46, 94). 

The Henry repeating rifle, invented by B. Tyler 
Henry in 1860, required a brass caliber rim fire 
cartridge. Approximately 14,000 Henry rifles 
were made and most of these were used in the 



Civil War. The most common type of Henry rifle 
fired a .44 caliber cartridge, although a few .22 
caliber varieties were produced. Henry rifles 
were not all that popular among the troops. 
Although it could fire 15 shots in about 12 
seconds once loaded, it was difficult and slow to 
load (Flayderman 1980; McAulay 1997; Coates 
and Thomas 1990:32). 

The Maynard carbine was a breech-loading gun 
that was used by both Armies in the Civil War. 
The Union variety, manufactured in 



116 



Massachusetts, required a .35 or .50 caliber 
metallic cartridge, which was discharged with a 
percussion cap. The Confederate version, which 
was manufactured in Danville, Virginia, fired a 
.54 caliber cartridge (Flayderman 1980; 
McAulay 1997; Coates and Thomas 1990:43). 

The Smith carbine, which was produced by three 
companies in Massachusetts, was the fourth most 
popular Union carbine in the Civil War. More 
than 30,000 Smith carbines were manufactured 
from 1861 to 1865. The Smith carbine was a 
breech-loader and required a .50 caliber 
cartridge. Smith carbines were available early in 
the Civil War but their unique cartridge, which 
was an india rubber tube, restricted its popularity 
and it was soon surpassed by the Sharps and 
Spencers carbines. Smith carbines could also be 
loaded with loose black powder and bullet, 
although in the absence of the rubber seal it was 
dangerous to operate (Flayderman 1980; 
McAulay 1997; Coates and Thomas 1990:47). 

The Burnside carbine was a breech-loading 
design manufactured from 1857 to 1865. It was 
the third most common carbine in the Civil War, 
approximately 53,800 were made and nearly all 
of these were for the Union. The Confederate 
Cavalry used many captured Burnside weapons. 
Burnside carbines fired a .54 caliber tapered 
metallic cartridge, which required a percussion 
cap. Burnside carbines were issued to the 5' 
Kentucky Cavalry, 1 st , 4* and lO" 1 Ohio 
Cavalries, and the 7 th Pennsylvania Cavalry, all 
of whom participated in action in the Lovejoy 
area on August 20, 1864 (Flayderman 1980; 
McAulay 1997; Coates and Thomas 1990:38, 
93). 

The Gallager carbine was a breech-loading 
weapon manufactured in Philadelphia and used 
by the Union. A .50 caliber version relied on 
percussion cap technology and approximately 
18,000 of this type were produced. 
Approximately 5,000 of .56 and .52 caliber rim 
fire carbines were produced. This weapon was 
not popular because the difficulty in removing 
the brass cartridge casing after firing Gallager 
carbines were issued to the 10' Ohio Cavalry, 
who participated in action in the Lovejoy area on 
August 20, 1864 (Flayderman 1980; McAulay 
1997; Coates and Thomas 1990). 

The Ballard carbine was a breech-loading 
weapon fired a .44 caliber bullet, which was in a 



metallic cartridge. This weapon was uncommon 
in the Civil War, although the State of Kentucky 
purchased nearly 20,000 and some of these may 
have been carried by the Kentucky Cavalry at 
Nash Farm. Although at least three Kentucky 
Cavalry regiments and four Kentucky mounted 
infantry regiments brandished these weapons, 
none are specifically linked to the regiments that 
were present (Coates and Thomas 1990:37, 93). 

The Merrill carbine was a breech-loading .54 
caliber weapon that fired a paper cartridge that 
was ignited with a standard musket cap. Over 
15,000 of these firearms were issued to the 
Union cavalry in 1861 but by mid-1863, these 
unpopular weapons were mostly brandished by 
Union cavalry in the western theater. Many were 
captured by the Confederacy and they were used 
by Confederate cavalry. Coates and Thomas 
(1990:44) show a Confederate cavalry officer 
posing for a photograph with his Merrill carbine. 
This officer is identified elsewhere as Captain 
Samuel J. Richardson, 3 r Texas Cavalry (The 3 r 
Texas Cavalry-Company C 2007). 

The standard long arm of the U.S. Army was the 
muzzle-loading rifle, which fired a paper caliber 
cartridge. Most of these were produced at the 
Springfield Armory in in Massachusetts or 
Harpers Ferry, Virginia. They include the Model 
1855 musket and Model 1855 rifled musket, 
which required a .58 caliber paper cartridge 
discharged with a percussion cap. This was the 
first U.S. military weapon to fire a Minie ball. 
The Springfield Model 1861 rifle musket, which 
was also .58 caliber, replaced the Model 1855. 
Both the Model 1855 and 1861 weapons were 
reliable and sturdy and many thousands were 
produced during the Civil War (Flayderman 
1980; McAulay 1997; Coates and Thomas 
1990:14-18). 

The standard long arm of the Confederacy was 
the Enfield British Pattern 1853 rifle musket. It 
was the primary firearm used by the infantry. 
Most of these were manufactured in England, 
where they were the standard arm of the British 
Army from 1853-1867, although similar 
weapons were made in Elmore and Tallassee, 
Alabama; Adairsville, Columbus, and Macon, 
Georgia; and Richmond, Virginia. The Enfield 
required a paper cartridge that was muzzle- 
loaded and discharged with a percussion cap. 
Although the Enfield was .577 caliber, it fired 
the same cartridge as the U.S. .58 caliber 



117 



Springfield muskets. Union infantry also used 
Enfield rifles. The 92" Illinois Infantry, who 
were in the August 20' battle at Nash Farm, 
possessed 280 Enfield rifles in September, 1863 
(Robertson et al. 1992:Table 5). The design of 
the Enfield bullet, which flared upon firing to 
create a good seal in the rifle barrel made this 
weapon to some other types of muzzle-loaders. 
Because of this design, Enfields were less prone 
to fouled barrels compared with the Springfields 
(Flayderman 1980; McAulay 1997; Coates and 
Thomas 1990:19-20; Albaugh 1993b). 

Several parts of Enfield rifles were recovered 
from Nash Farm. These include a brass butt 
plate, iron butt plate, a brass trigger guard, and 
an iron stock brace. Each of these are illustrated 
in Appendix 2 and the trigger guard fragment is 
shown in Figure 52. 




Figure 52. Enfield Trigger Guard 
Fragment (PP1067), Nash Farm. 

The Model 1841 rifle, which was manufactured 
at Harpers Ferry, Virginia was another popular 
weapon that was used by both armies in the Civil 
War. Most were manufactured as .54 caliber 
guns, although many thousand were retooled for 
use with .58 caliber ammunition (Coates and 
Thomas 1990:25). 

The Colt revolving rifle was issued to many units 
of the U.S. military, including several that were 
participants in the action around Lovejoy, 
Georgia. These included the 4 U.S. Cavalry, 3 r 
Kentucky, 4" Michigan Cavalry. This rifle, 
which was a breech-loading .56 caliber weapon, 
received mixed reviews from the soldiers. 



Although the length of the barrel was not 
advantageous for cavalry use, many of these 
weapons remained in cavalry service throughout 
the war (Coates and Thomas 1990:92). 

Austrian imports followed the Enfield rifles in 
popularity in the Union and Confederate armies. 
The Lorenz Model 1854 rifle musket was 
popular in the Army of the Tennessee and 
significant numbers of these muskets were issued 
in 1864. The Lorenz was imported in several 
calibers (.54-. 59 caliber), but the .54 caliber was 
most common (Coates and Thomas 1990:21). 

The soldiers in the U.S. and Confederate 
Cavalries owned a variety of side arms. Models 
that were very popular in 1864 include the 
Remington Ml 858, the Colt Ml 860, and the 
Colt Ml 851 Navy models (3 rd Texas Cavalry 
2007). The Colt revolver was the most popular 
side arm in the Civil War. Colt revolvers were 
manufactured in .35, .36, .44, and .56 caliber 
versions. The Colt Model 1855, also known as 
the Root Model, was an early model produced in 
.28 and .31 calibers. It was loaded with paper 
cartridges, or loose black powder, and a bullet, 
and it required a percussion cap. The 1855 model 
was underpowered and was not commonly used 
in the Civil War (Flayderman 1980; Coates and 
Thomas 1990). The Colt Model 1860 Army and 
Model 185 1 Navy were very popular in the Civil 
War. Both were .44 caliber (and .36 caliber) 
revolvers. Although it was initially made for the 
Navy, most Model 1851 Navy revolvers were 
issued to Union Cavalrymen. Three Confederate 
foundries made copies of the Colt revolver and 
approximately 7,000 of these copies were 
produced. Colt Army revolvers (.44 caliber) 
were issued to the 4 th Ohio Cavalry, who 
participated in the August 20, 1864 action at 
Lovejoy, Georgia (Coates and Thomas 1990:54- 
57, 94). 

The Remington .44 caliber revolver was the 
second most popular revolver in the Civil War. 
They were primarily used by Union soldiers, 
although Confederates captured many of them 
and placed them in service. Two styles of 
Remington revolver were made, a .44 caliber 
Army model and a .36 caliber Navy model. Both 
models were loaded with paper cartridges and 
fired with a percussion cap. Remington Army 
revolvers (.44 caliber) were issued to the 10 th 
Ohio Cavalry, who participated in the August 20, 



118 



1864 action at Lovejoy, Georgia (Coates and 
Thomas 1990:61,95). 

The Smith and Wesson No. 2 model was a .32 
caliber revolver introduced in 1861. 
Approximately 35,700 of this weapon, which 
used a metallic, rim fire cartridge, were made 
during the Civil War. This weapon was quicker 
to load than the cap and ball revolvers, but more 
difficult to load than the Remington .44 caliber 
pistol (Flayderman 1980). 

The Whitney "Navy" revolver was a popular .36 
caliber sidearm in the Union. More than 30,000 
were produced and half of these were purchased 
by the U.S. government. Nearly all were issued 
to Union volunteer cavalry. This weapon was a 
six-shot, percussion revolver that used a paper 
cartridge (Coates and Thomas 1990:65). 

The Starr Army revolver was manufactured in 
New York and most were issued to the Union 
cavalry. It was a six-shot .44 caliber weapon that 
required a paper cartridge and percussion cap. 
Starr Army revolvers (.44 caliber) were issued to 
the 4' Ohio Cavalry, who participated in the 
August 20, 1864 action at Lovejoy, Georgia 
(Coates and Thomas 1990:96). 

Other older military issue muskets that saw 
service in the Civil War were the Model 1842 
smoothbore and rifled musket and the Model 
1842 "Palmetto" musket, which was a .69 caliber 
smoothbore weapon manufactured in Columbia, 
South Carolina (Flayderman 1980; Coates and 
Thomas 1990:8-9). 

Shotguns were also popular among cavalrymen, 
particularly among the Confederates. Double- 
barreled guns, generally in the .69 caliber range, 
were used throughout the war. These were 
personal weapons and not military issue. Twin 
charges of buckshot in each barrel proved to be 
an effective weapon for the Cavalrymen (Coates 
and Thomas 1990:51). A contemporary 
photograph of Private Ben T. Roberts, Company 
E, 3' Texas Cavalry, shows him in uniform, 
holding a double barreled shotgun and a Bowie 
knife (3 rd Texas Cavalry-Company C 2007). 

Many Confederate soldiers had antiquated 
muzzle-loading smooth bore muskets of many 
types. Most o these were .69 caliber. Some of 
these older weapons were flintlock weapons, 
such as the military issue Model 1816, which 



was manufactured at Harpers Ferry, Virginia and 
Springfield, Massachusetts. These older weapons 
were common in the arsenals of many state 
militias, which accounts for their use in the Civil 
War. By the time of the fighting at Lovejoy, 
however, most of these older Model 1816 
muskets had been replaced by newer models. 
Many of them were modified for use with 
percussion caps and by August, 1864, few 
flintlocks remain in circulation (Coates and 
Thomas 1990). 

The specific firearms used by the Texas Cavalry 
regiments of Ross' Brigade are not well 
documented. Coates and Thomas (1990:86-96) 
have linked many Union and Confederate 
regiments with specific weapons, but their data is 
lacking for the 1 st , 3 r , 6' , 9' and 10 Texas 
Cavalry Regiments. They do have some 
information on the firearms carried by the 8 th and 
1 1' Texas Cavalry Regiments. The 8 th Texas 
Cavalry was issued Austrian Rifle Muskets (.54 
caliber), Belgian or French Rifled Muskets (.69 
caliber), Model 1841 "Mississippi" Rifles (.54 
caliber), and double-barrel shotguns. The 11 th 
Texas Cavalry was issued the Model 1841 
"Mississippi" Rifles (.54 caliber) and double- 
barrel shotguns. One may surmise that the 
weapons of the other Texas Cavalry regiments 
were similar and that various types of .54 and .69 
caliber bullets were associated with Ross' 
Brigade. 

Percussion Caps. Many long arms and fire arms 
in the Civil War-era required percussion caps. 
Percussion caps are small brass or copper casings 
that contain a small explosive charge of 
fulminate of mercury. This ignition system was 
invented in 1805, although they were not 
commonly employed until the early 1840s. 
Percussion caps were the dominant technology at 
the onset of the Civil War. Cartridge primers 
were in two sizes (0.175 inches (4 mm) for side 
arms and 0.210 inches (6 mm) for long arms). 
Many firearms required special percussion caps 
for their model. 

Surprisingly few percussion caps were recovered 
from Nash Farm. Each of the 12 percussion caps 
recovered by the survey was measured by 
diameter and all fell near the size for long arms. 
One unusual example had longer sides than the 
others. Only one specimen appeared to be 
unfired. 



119 



It should be emphasized that several dozen 
modern percussion caps, used by re-enactors, are 
also found at Nash Farm battlefield. As of 2007 
these items were easily distinguished from the 
Civil War-era specimens by their shiny 
appearance and by their recovery from the top of 
the ground but given a few years in the elements, 
they may be hard for both professional or 
amateur to tell them apart. 

Bullets. Bullets can provide a wealth of 
information about the battles around Lovejoy, 
Georgia. The LAMAR Institute's survey at Nash 
Farm recovered 203 bullets, which are 
summarized in Table 7. Many examples are 
illustrated in Appendix 2. At the initial level, 
bullets can be linked to particular brand and 
weapon class. From this information it is often 
possible to link bullets to the military units that 
were firing them with some degree of certainty. 
Previous researchers have identified a myriad of 
Civil War bullet types and various classification 
systems were created (McKee and Mason 1980; 
Coates and Thomas 1990). 

Bullets for the Burnside carbine were .54 caliber 
projectiles with a flat or dish base. Burnside 
carbines were used predominately by the U.S. 
Cavalry. Two Burnside bullets were collected 
from the Nash Farm battlefield by Mark Pollard. 

Colt pistols and Confederate imitations of the 
Colt model were used by both armies in the Civil 
War, so their presence on the battlefield cannot 
be used to absolute distinguish who were using 
these weapons. Colt pistols were very popular 
with the cavalry. Three sizes of bullets in paper 
cartridges were used with the Colt revolver 
pistol. These include .32, .36, and .44 caliber 
bullets. The Colt revolving rifle (.56 caliber) 
was another popular weapon used by Cavalry in 
the Civil War. 

The Enfield rifle, which was manufactured in 
England, was the mainstay of the Confederate 
Infantry. Two sizes of bullets (.54 and .577 
caliber) were used with the Enfield rifle. The 
Enfield (.577 caliber) is most closely attributed 
to the Confederates, although the Enfield (.54 
caliber) was also brandished by Confederate 
troops. Many variations of Enfield bullets are 
recognized. One example, which was identified 
at Nash Farm, was a Enfield (.577 caliber) that 



was fitted with a boxwood plug on its base. This 
type of ammunition was produced in England is 
closely associated with Confederates. 

Many U.S. troops also had Enfield rifles. The 
92" Illinois Infantry, who were in the August 
20 battle at Nash Farm, had 280 Enfields, when 
an inventory of their arms was taken on 
September 30, 1863. 

Maynard and Smith both made a .37 and .50 
caliber version of their firearm and the 
ammunition for these two brands are difficult to 
distinguish. Smith weapons were carried by U.S. 
troops, whereas Maynards were used by the 
Confederates. Maynard also manufactured a .54 
caliber firearm that was carried by Confederates. 

Merrill required a .54 caliber cartridge. These 
weapons were used by Union and Confederate 
troops. 

Sharps produced a .52 caliber firearm that was 
used by Union or Confederate troops. Sharps 
also produced a .54 caliber firearm that was used 
more by the Confederates. A "ringtail" minie 
ball was used with the .54 caliber Sharps, which 
is a distinctive Confederate battlefield relic. 

The Spencer carbine (.52 caliber bullet with a .56 
caliber shell case) was used primarily by the U.S. 
Cavalry, although some Confederate cavalry 
regiments had acquired them by 1864. The 92° 
Illinois Infantry carried Spencer rifles and 
Enfields. On September 30, 1863, when their 
arms were inventory, the 92° Illinois possessed 
172 Spencer weapons (Bresnan 2007; Robertson 
et al. 1992; Table 5). Spencer bullets and their 
brass casings represent one of the most tell-tale 
indications of a cavalry engagement and their 
spatial distribution at Nash Farm offers tangible 
proof of Kilpatrick's August 20 raid. 

Archaeologists discovered one example of an 
unfired Spencer bullet still in its brass casing at 
Nash Farm, which is illustrated in Figure 53. 
This lead bullet in this specimen measured .56 
caliber and it nearly identical to one shown in 
McKee and Mason (1995:88, Figure 124). The 
Nash Farm example has a small puncture hole on 
one side of the brass casing, which may have 
been intentional, perhaps to remove gunpowder 
for some purpose. 



120 



Table 7. Bullet Summary. 



121 



Table 7 (Continued). Bullet Summary. 



122 




Figure 53. Spencer Cartridge (PP157), 
Nash Farm. 

Starr weapons required a .54 caliber load. These 
were mostly used by Union troops. 

Minie balls with three rings, often termed "three 
ringers", are actually several distinct bullet types. 
Three ring minie balls are extremely common on 
Civil War battlefields. Many three ring .54 
caliber loads were used by the Confederates. 
The more common .5477 to .58 caliber three ring 
minie ball was used primarily by the Union and 
is probably the most common Union bullet on 
Civil War battlefields. A number of sub-varieties 
of the .58 caliber three-ringer are known. These 
include ones with distinctive mold marks or 
other alterations at the base of the bullet, 
"swaged", "star based" Washington Arsenal, 
"US" stamped 

Cleaner Bullets. Three types of Williams Cleaner 
bullets have been identified. All three varieties 
were .58 caliber projectiles. Relic collectors in 
Georgia have observed that Williams Cleaner 
bullets were used heavily by the Union in the 
Atlanta Campaign and the March to the Sea. 
Under normal conditions, cleaner bullets were to 
be fired at specified intervals to clean the rifle 
barrel of debris. Their frequency on Georgia 
battlefields suggests that cleaner bullets were 
used more often than was prescribed. This may 
have been due to the low supply of regular 
ammunition or an over abundance of cleaner 



rounds. Bullet experts have identified several 
other brands of cleaner bullets on Civil War 
sites. 

The buck and ball load had a long history in 
American warfare. Spherical .32 caliber 
buckshot and .69 caliber round balls were often 
used in buck and ball paper cartridge). This type 
of ammunition was more common among 
Confederates than Union troops. In many 
respects, the use of round ball ammunition was 
an antique technology, yet in some close combat 
situations it may have been quite effective. 

Other conical bullets were used with "Country 
Rifles", primarily by the Confederates but also 
by the Union. These firearms were individually 
crafted. Many were precision weapons that were 
prized by sharpshooters or soldiers on picket 
duty. These bullets appear in odd sizes (generally 
.36-. 50 caliber) and were often crude, home- 
made projectiles (Coates and Thomas 1990:29). 

One fired bullet from the Nash Farm battlefield 
was tentatively identified as fired from a 
Whitworth Sharpshooter Rifle. Whitworth rifles 
were .45 caliber precision weapons that were 
imported from England and were prized by 
Confederate marksmen (Haggman 2001). This 
weapon fired a hexagonal-sided bullet. 

In addition to the most common types of Civil 
War bullets there are dozens of other types that 
are rarely found. These include bullets made in 
Europe by English, French, Italian, and other 
manufacturers and many of these were smuggled 
past the Union blockade for the Confederacy. 
Other rare bullets were used with weapons that 
were manufactured in North American, but were 
made in small quantities rendering the statistical 
probability of their discovery on any given 
battlefield as slight. 

Other bullets at Nash Farm battlefield were 
deformed or otherwise modified and could not be 
identified by weapon type. These included 
carved, chewed, flattened, impacted, melted, and 
wormed bullets. 

Carved bullets are occasionally encountered by 
relic collectors. Many soldiers were quite artistic 
in their tiny lead sculptures, while others were 
more simplistic. Some were casually whittled 
with no apparent sculptured shape in mind, while 
others were quite elaborate and undoubtedly 



123 



intended as a keepsake. Several bullets from 
Nash Farm had been carved but no elaborate 
artwork was evidenced. 

Chewed bullets are often encountered by relic 
collectors. Common lore tells of bullets chewed 
by wounded soldiers as an outlet for pain caused 
by their wounds, or by the often more painful 
operations that followed. Bullets were given to 
wounded men so that they could bite down hard, 
and possibly to keep them quiet. Bullets chewed 
for these medical purposes, one would expect a 
correlation with hospital sites. Some soldiers 
also chewed bullets as a normal activity, 
unaware of the health hazards posed by the lead 
intake. In these cases, the bullets are analogous 
to chewing gum. Other animals, such as pigs 
and rodents, also chew on lead bullets, often 
years after the battle. The rodent teeth 
impressions are distinctive and easily 
distinguished from humans but the pig teeth 
impressions are quite similar to humans. Several 
examples of chewed bullets were recovered from 
Nash Farm. 

Impacted bullets are common on battlefields. At 
a gross level, the laboratory analyst can 
determine what type of substance the bullet 
impacted. Bullets that hit soil have a sandy 
texture on the impact surface. Bullets that hit 
wood, or other organic material (including 
humans and horses) may have a similar 
appearance, particularly if the bullet struck the 
skeleton. In rare instances, relic collectors have 
found bullets that struck other bullets in mid-air. 
Many fired bullets, which did not immediately 
impact an object, may have traveled until their 
velocity landed them gently on the ground, 
which often left no visible impact evidence. In 
this latter instance, the rifling marks on the sides 
of the bullet and flaring of the base are the only 
clues to indicate that the bullet was fired. The 
analyst cannot tell with 100 percent certainty if a 
bullet was fired or a dropped, unfired cartridge. 

Melted bullets are occasionally found by relic 
collectors. They are often associated with 
soldier's campsites, where the soldiers tossed the 
bullets in the fire, perhaps out of boredom. Other 
melted bullets may be the result of some 
catastrophic explosion or fire. Bullets were often 
used as shrapnel in artillery shells, particularly 
by the Confederates. The exploding ordinance 
may have melted or otherwise distorted these 



bullets. Several examples of melted bullets were 
evidenced at Nash Farm. 

Wormed bullets are frequently found by relic 
collectors. After these bullets were lodged in the 
barrel, an iron worm was used to remove the 
bullets. This action by the worm often left tell- 
tale marks on the bullets. Worming was 
necessary when a cartridge misfired, or when the 
soldier mistakenly placed more than one 
cartridge in the barrel and realized his mistake. 
Mark Pollard observed that bullets were 
extracted from gun barrels for a variety of reason 
and worm marks did not necessarily indicate that 
the weapon had jammed. Soldiers on picket duty, 
who carried a loaded weapon, were required to 
unload their weapons upon returning to camp. In 
many cases the bullets were extracted from the 
weapon rather than discharged by firing the gun, 
either to conserve ammunition or to maintain a 
degree of silence in the camp. Numerous bullets 
from Nash Farm displayed evidence of worming. 
Two techniques were used to remove bullets 
from the barrel. One method used a screw tool 
that drilled a hole down the center of the bullet. 
Another method was twisted into the barrel until 
it grabbed the outside of the bullet. Both types of 
extraction are represented in the Nash Farm 
bullet assemblage. 

Other Accoutrements. Cartridges and bullets 
were kept in a leather cartridge box that was 
worn on a leather belt. The standard issue 
carbine cartridge for the U.S. Cavalry was the 
Ml 860 model. Cartridge boxes were secured 
shut with a small brass finial and one example 
was collected from the battlefield. 

Edged Weapons 

Sabers and swords were an important part of the 
military uniform in the Civil War era (Thillmann 
2001; Albaugh 1993a; Peterson 2003). The 
standard issue sabers for Kilpatrick's Cavalry 
were the M1840 style dragoon and the Ml 860 
Light Cavalry model (3 rd Texas Cavalry 2007). 
Several brass sword baskets, or counterguards, 
are known from the Nash Farm battlefield. One 
example was recovered by the present study and 
other examples are in private collections (see 
Appendix 2). As history records, the August 20' 
action was a saber charge by the U.S. Cavalry, so 
it is quite likely that most of the sword or saber 
fragments were Union weapons. Cavalry sabers 
were relatively blunt instruments, which 



124 



delivered a blunt-force trauma to its intended 
victim, rather than a slicing effect. Consequently, 
the results from the Cavalry's saber charge 
probably resulted in a great many injuries, but 
relatively few deaths. 




Figure 54. Saber Counterguard (PP1102), 
Nash Farm. 

Bayonets were affixed for use with rifles by both 
armies in the Civil War. Bayonets were used 
mostly by the infantry. Cavalry carbines were 
too short for bayonet use. 

Scabbards held the swords and bayonets when 
not in use (Reilly 1990). Scabbards were mostly 
fabricated from organic materials, which tend not 
to survive in the elements. The surviving parts 
include the brass scabbard tips and upper 
housing areas. Bayonet "frogs" are a 
distinctively-shaped brass artifact type, which 
were used to secure the bayonet sheath to the 
military uniform. Two scabbard tips were 
recovered by the survey of Nash Farm and one 
example is illustrated in Figure 55. 



Knives were another important arms component 
of the Civil War soldier. These ranged in size 
from large bowie knives, which were either worn 
in sheaths or tucked into a waist belt. Folding 
clasp knives, or pocket knives, also were popular 
among the troops. Clasp knives were used in the 
18 ,19 and 20 centuries and are little changed 
during these centuries. Clasp knives were also 
popular with civilians, so their presence on the 
Nash Farm battlefield does not necessarily 
indicate a military presence. 

Architecture Group 

A minor amount of artifacts from the architecture 
group were recovered by the Nash Farm survey. 
These included one small brass doorknob, brick, 
window glass, nails, and other assorted building 
hardware. The brass doorknob came from the 
front yard of the Nash Farm house. Its location 
may indicate the site of an earlier building. 
Machine cut square nails were recovered from 
several shovel tests and these also may provide 
clues for the location of former buildings. 

KITCHEN GROUP 

Artifacts from the kitchen group were recovered 
in low frequency from the Nash Farm battlefield. 
The low representation of this artifact category 
reflects the sampling methods, since the most 
common kitchen-related artifacts, glass and 
ceramics, are not located by metal detector 
survey. Nevertheless, a sample of sherds, bottle 
glass, and kitchen hardware were discovered by 
the survey. Ceramics from Nash Farm included 
refined earthenware, ironstone, and domestic 
stoneware. Bottle glass and tableware glass were 
also observed. 




Figure 55. Scabbard Tip (PP470), Nash 
Farm. 



Forks and spoons were among the kitchen metal 
artifacts discovered at Nash Farm. Examples are 
shown in Appendix 2. Metal cookware was a 
common utility item used by all branches of the 
Union and Confederate armies. Mess equipment 
was used communally when the soldiers were 
camped but was dispersed among the Cavalry, 
when the army was in motion. Probably much of 
this cookware was light-weight tin-ware, most of 
which has long since corroded on the battlefield. 
Cast iron pots, frying pans, and dutch ovens were 
more durable cookware used by the troops and 
broken fragments are likely represented in the 
Nash Farm collection. Several soldier's who 
penned accounts of Kilpatrick's Cavalry in 



125 



motion remarked about the distinctive, distant 
clanking sound made by the canteens and 
cooking pots as they jangled against horse and 
rider. 

CLOTHING GROUP 

The clothing worn by the Union and Confederate 
troops in the Lovejoy vicinity are known from 
surviving examples, archaeological specimens, 
written descriptions, photographs and 
contemporary illustrations. Both armies had 
established minimum uniform requirements. By 
August, 1864, the clothing equipage of both 
armies was stretched thin and many deviations in 
the established requirements were tolerated. 
Sherman's Army would not receive new supplies 
of uniforms until after they arrived in Savannah 
in January, 1865. 




Soldiers in both armies were allowed some 
latitude in their wearing apparel. Those who 
could afford them had more elegant coats and 
other regalia. A variety of hats were worn by 
both armies, including the standard kepi cap and 
an assortment of broad-brimmed hats. A variety 
of brass insignia was worn on the caps and hats. 
These included crossed sabers, buglers, and other 
regimental or company designations. 

Buttons 

Distinctions of rank were clearly defined in 
military uniforms. Buttons were one way these 
distinctions were made. Standard issue U.S. 
Army buttons were the norm for the U.S. 
Cavalry. The Confederates also had standard 
issue buttons, as well as a variety of state militia 
buttons, and brass civilian buttons. Soldiers in 
both armies used an assortment of bone, shell, 
and porcelain buttons on their undergarments. 

One U.S. General Staff Officer's button was 
recovered from the heart of the Nash Farm 
battlefield (Albert 1997; Tice 1997). This button 
is shown in Figure 56. Other military buttons 
from Nash Farm include two U.S. Cavalry 
buttons and U.S. Infantry buttons. Ranking 
officers in the U.S. Cavalry wore uniforms 
adorned with eagle buttons with a "C" in a 
central shield. Examples of this button type have 
been recovered at Nash Farm (Appendix 2). 



Figure 476. U.S. Staff Officer's Button 
(PP921), Nash Farm. 

Interestingly, Brigadier General Judson 
Kilpatrick's complete uniform is preserved in the 
Kilpatrick collection at the Smithsonian 
Institution (United States National Museum 
1906:88). 

Buckles 

Civil War belt buckles are highly prized by 
collectors. Historian Mark Pollard knew of one 
pre-war (1840s) U.S. buckle that was discovered 
by a collector, west of Nash Farm. Collectors 
have recovered three brass CSA belt buckles 
from Nash Farm, one of which is illustrated in 
Appendix 2. The exact geographic location of 
these specimens was not ascertained. No doubt 
other Civil War buckles have been removed from 
Nash Farm by collectors and the curious in past 
decades. Kilpatrick's cavalry brigade wore a 
Ml 851 style saber belt. The buckle for these 
belts displayed an eagle. None of these 
distinctive buckles have been identified at Nash 
Farm. 



126 




Figure 57. Confederate Belt Buckle, Dodd 
Collection, Nash Farm. 

One cast-brass Japanese-style buckle was 
recovered by the present study, as shown in 
Figure 59. It may represent a sash buckle. 
Research on this peculiar item is ongoing and 
many curious minds are eager to learn the 
pedigree of this clothing artifact (Suzukisan 
2007). 



Hv 










CM 



























Figure 59. Japanese-style Buckle (PP850), 
Nash Farm. 

Numerous smaller buckles were discovered on 
the battlefield by the present survey team, as well 
as previous collectors. These are shown in 
Appendix 2. The Nash Farm survey located one 
gold-plated brass suspender (or fob) buckle, 



identified in relief, "RH Guyot" (Figure 58). The 
Guyot Brothers Company began business in 
1904. An inquiry to their company 
representatives resulted in no information about 
RH Guyot (Andrea Guyot Twombly personal 
communication March 29, 2007). 




Figure 58. Guyot Buckle (PP364), Nash 
Farm. 

Military Insignia 

Civil War soldiers, both officers and enlisted 
men, wore a wide variety of insignia on their 
uniforms. This find led to the tentative 
speculation that this buckle was worn by a 
military officer, who perhaps had accompanied 
Commodore Perry on one of his initial trips to 
Japan in the late 1850s. Japan was reluctant to 
open up its shores to the United States and only 
did so after Perry's displays of U.S. Naval 
military might (Figure 60). 




Figure 60. U.S. Troops with Commodore 
Perry in Japan. 



127 



Epaulettes were worn by officers and enlisted 
men. This epaulette was worn on shell jackets by 
Artillery and Cavalry troops to ward off sword 
blows to the shoulder region (Civil War Antique 
Shop 2007). Several small fragments of stamped 
sheet brass bearing a fish-scale motif were 
discovered at the Nash Farm battlefield and two 
of these are shown in Figure 61 and other 
specimens are contained in Appendix 2 (PP831). 
At first these objects were suspected to be part of 
uniform epaulettes, but upon closer inspection 
they do not appear to be epaulette fragments. 
Still they may be military related decorations, 
possibly they pieces of horse jewelry worn by 
the charging U.S. Cavalry horses. The mangled 
state of these fragments and their dispersed 
spatial pattern suggests that the horse wearing 
them met a tragic end. 





Figure 62. Shoe Tap, Nash Farm (PP 
1027). 

Boot heel plates are commonly discovered by 
relic collectors on Civil War sites. Most of these 
items, which were a more substantial component 
of the boot than the heel taps, are made of cast 
brass. Some have excised designs in the center, 
including cross, heart or other simple geometric 
motifs. One crude, iron boot heel plate with 
hobnails intact was discovered on the Nash Farm 
battlefield. This specimen was recovered from 
very near where two brass spurs were found. The 
iron heel plate was simple in design, being 
nearly horseshoe shaped. 



Figure 61. Scale-style 
(PP591), Nash Farm. 



Brass Artifact 



Foot-ware 

The standard footgear worn by the U.S. Cavalry 
was the 1861 pattern mounted high-topped boot. 
Confederate cavalrymen wore a variety of foot- 
ware. Cavalry boots were made of leather, wood, 
and some metal. Sheet brass or copper shoe taps 
were fashioned by the soldiers to extend the life 
of their footwear. These were typically crudely 
made and were secured to the boot with small 
steel tacks. Numerous examples of this type of 
shoe type have been found at Nash Farm. One 
example of a shoe tap from the present survey 
still had the small tacks attached. 



Other Uniform Accoutrements 

Two U.S. cartridge box plates are contained in 
the Nash Farm collection. One example is shown 
in Figure 63. These items consisted of a stamped 
sheet brass front and lead back. 




Figure 63. U.S. Cartridge Plate (PP1066), 
Nash Farm. 



128 



FURNITURE GROUP 



Jewelry 



The furniture group at Nash Farm is represented 
by several metal items including several trunk 
parts, lamp parts, and drawer escutcheons. 
Several crushed pieces of brass corner brace 
hardware from a trunk bore a stamped 
identification. 



Numerous pieces of jewelry have been recovered 
from the Nash Farm property by collectors and 
from the present study. Most of these artifacts 
post-date the Civil War. Several are probably 
period pieces, and may be objects worn by 
soldiers on the battlefield. 



Metal lamp parts made from a cast white metal 
in a rococo design were found on the Nash Farm 
battlefield. Although these appeared to be from 
the same lamp, or multiple similar lamps, no 
cross-mends were made. These pieces almost 
certainly once graced the interior of the Nash 
Farm house. Their deposition on the battlefield 
may have occurred at the time of the battle, or 
these lamps may have been discarded once 
electricity was introduced to the farm and earlier 
forms of lighting were obsolete. 

PERSONAL GROUP 
Coins 

An assortment of U.S. coinage is represented in 
the Nash Farm collection. Most of the specimens 
that were found post-date the Civil War but a 
few examples were probably associated with the 
battles there. Two pre-war dimes, which were 
found in close proximity in the heart of the 
battlefield, are shown in Figure 64. 




Figure 64. Pre-War U.S. Dimes (PP1028 
& 1029), Nash Farm. 

One 1860 seated liberty dime, which was holed 
for suspension, was recovered from Nash Farm. 



Several men's finger rings have been recovered 
from Nash Farm. A simple brass band, possibly 
once gold plated, was located by the present 
study in the heart of the battlefield (Appendix 2, 
PP2). Local collectors also have found examples 
of brass and gold men's rings. It is tempting to 
conclude that these rings were lost in the heat of 
battle, possibly during the saber fight. 

Death was commonplace in 19' century America 
but even moreso in the Civil War era. Mourning 
jewelry was worn by women and men as an 
expression of their loss. This tradition was 
popularized by Queen Victoria, after the death of 
her husband Prince Albert. Mourning jewelry 
was fabricated from a variety of organic and 
inorganic materials, including gold, silver, 
pewter, brass, porcelain, glass, jet, and human 
hair (Luthi 1998). One object that was 
discovered at Nash Farm may represent a piece 
of mourning jewelry. It was a small cast pewter 
human skull, which was found in the heart of the 
battlefield. It was suspended at the top, but that 
portion was broken and the other parts of the 
object were not found. This piece may have 
been part of a watch fob. Similar human skull 
fobs were given as tokens of remembrance to 
grieving men. Another example was located 
from an internet search (Beltran 2007; Michele 
Beltran personal communication, June 8, 2007). 
The archaeological specimen and the internet 
specimen are shown in Figure 65. 




Figure 65. Human Skull Fob (PP 751), 
Nash Farm. 



129 



One oval jewelry piece was decorated with a 
large, monogrammed, "G". On the reverse was 
stamped, "GERMAN SILVER". These words 
may indicate that this piece may be unrelated to 
the Civil War action at Nash Farm. 

Pocket Knives 

Several pocket knives, or clasp knives, are 
contained in the Nash Farm collection. This type 
of knife was carried by boys and men throughout 
the 19' and 20 th centuries. They were used by 
both the military and civilians, so their 
association with the Civil War battles is 
ambiguous. 

Toys 

Several children's toys were noted in the Nash 
Farm collection. A broken small doll's teacup, 
made from white metal, was recovered from 
Nash Farm (Appendix 2, PP967). This specimen 
probably represents a girl's toy and it may date 
to the Civil War era, or for several decades 
following it. The Nash farm survey yielded one 
fragment of a cast iron toy pistol. This type of 
toy was popular among children in the late 19' 
and early 20 th centuries. This example probably 
post-dates the Civil War era. The Nash Farm 
collection includes a Junior Fire Marshal's 
badge. This toy badge probably belonged to a 
child living on the property in the 20' century. 

TOBACCO GROUP 

Clay tobacco pipes are commonly found on Civil 
War sites, particular at encampments. None were 
located by the present survey at Nash Farm, 
although at least one example was identified by 
collectors (Appendix 2, PP1072). 

ACTIVITIES GROUP 

Quite a few of the artifacts that have been 
recovered from the Nash Farm battlefield by the 
present research team, as well as past amateur 
enthusiasts, represent the equipage of the 
Cavalry. The Cavalry soldier in the Civil War 
possessed numerous items of equipment. Many 
of these items were made of organic material, 
such as leather, wood or canvas, and rarely 
remain in the archaeological record. Bedrolls, 
tents, ponchos, haversacks, saddle blankets, feed 



bags, and collapsing water buckets are included 
among these perishable items. Some of these 
items may have minor metal parts, such as 
poncho and tent grommets and knapsack hooks, 
that attest to the former presence of these less- 
durable objects. Seventeen large brass grommets 
were located by the present survey at Nash Farm. 
Knapsack hooks are a common artifact on Civil 
War sites. These were made of brass and 
examples were recovered by the survey at Nash 
Farm. Other examples exist in private collections 
from the Lovejoy vicinity (Appendix 2, PP580). 

Percussion cap boxes were used by cavalrymen 
where were not fortunate enough to possess 
modern breech-loading cartridges. The standard 
U.S. -issue percussion cap box was the 1850 
style. Small finials from cartridge boxes are 
contained in the Nash Farm collection. 

A small brass kit, which was severely crushed, 
was discovered in the heart of the battlefield 
(Appendix 2, PP9). This item may have held 
writing implements, sewing kit, or other 
keepsakes. An aqua-colored glass ink bottle, also 
found in the heart of the battlefield, may also be 
from a soldier's personal writing kit. 

Horse Equipment 

The horses and mules used by the armies at Nash 
Farm required a variety of equipage. Most of 
this equipment was made of organic materials 
such as leather and cloth that have not survived 
in the archaeological record. A variety of metal 
artifacts associated with the horses and mules 
have survived on the battlefield (Crouch 2003; 
Knopp 2002). 

Several brass spurs have been recovered from the 
Nash Farm battlefield, including one example 
from the present study. Collectors John Lynch 
and Mark Pollard have found similar examples. 
Lynch' s specimen was reportedly found very 
near the one discovered by the present research 
(John Lynch personal communication February 
10, 2007). These three spurs are shown in 
Figures 66-68. 



130 




Figure 66. Spur from Lynch Collection, 
Nash Farm. 



— -.£&£— " W 



Figure 67. Spur from Pollard Collection, 
Nash Farm. 



Stirrups were used with all military saddles. 
These were made from combinations of metal, 
leather, and wood. One iron stirrup fragment was 
present in the Nash Farm collection (Appendix 2, 
PP414). 

Several large iron or brass rings, horse bits, and 
other iron objects that are probable associated 
with the cavalry horses are present in the Nash 
Farm collection (Appendix 2, PP10, PP377, 
PP513, PP586, PP607, PP964). Many of these 
are probably from halters. Knopp (2007) 
illustrates three types of Confederate cavalry 
halters and all three types use metal rings. The 
"five ring" variety was produced early in the war 
and was a copy of the Federal halter, which used 
iron halter bolts. After February, 1863, single 
rings varieties were used by the Confederates. 
That ring was made of iron and included both 
3/16 inch and l A inch diameter rings. Iron rings 
were also used on Confederate cavalry saddles 
(Knopp 2002). 

Heart-shaped breast straps were used by the U.S. 
Cavalry (3 r Texas Cavalry 2007). Examples of 
these have been found at the Nash Farm 
Battlefield, as shown in Figure 69. A Brass 
shield piece is shown in Appendix 2 (PP1090). 




Figure 68. Spur from Nash Farm (PP 

521). 

The standard saddle, saddle bags, halter, bridle, 
carbine socket, and other horse tack in use by 
Kilpatrick's Cavalry was the Ml 859 style. This 
type was also known as the McClellan saddle 
(3 r Texas Cavalry 2007). The Pollard collection 
from Nash Farm includes several distinctive 
pieces of horse tack pieces and numerous pieces 
also were recovered by the present study 
(Appendix 2). 




Figure 69. Heart-motif Horse Tack 
(Pollard Collection, Appendix 2). 

Another curious piece of horse jewelry was 
recovered from the heart of the Nash Farm 
battlefield (Figure 70). It has a stamped circular 
brass front and soft, white metal back. The 
comical motif is a horseshoe surrounding a 
horse's rear, accompanied by the words, "GOOD 
LUCK". Its presence on the battlefield may 
indicate a horse whose luck was not so good. 



131 




Figure 70. Good Luck Horse Jewelry 
(PP3), Nash Farm. 

Horse shoes and mule shoes were discovered in 
surprising abundance on the Nash Farm 
battlefield. While a number of these may not be 
battle-related, a good number of them almost 
certainly are. Many examples of these iron 
animal shoes are shown in Appendix 2 (PP154,, 
PP221, PP361, PP369, PP385, PP400, PP441, 
PP443, PP457, PP477, PP481, PP489, PP516, 
PP665, PP668, PP707, PP763, PP800, PP841, 
PP852, PP927, PP970, PP971, PP1114 ). A 
number of the survey specimens exhibit 
horseshoe nails still embedded in the shoe. TRC 
also reported finding several horse shoes and 
their report illustrations show these specimens 
also retain the horseshoe nails. The retention of 
these horseshoe nails on so many examples may 
indicate that the horses were allowed to 
decompose with their shoes intact. Other 
specimens clearly represent worn-out shoes. An 
undetermined percentage of these horse and 
mule shoes are probably unrelated to the Civil 
War events and are merely the byproduct of 
decades of agriculture or other farm operations. 

Curry combs were an essential part of the 
Cavalrymen's gear and were used to groom their 
horses. These were usually made of rectangular 
sheet brass with formed with several corrugated 
edges. Two or three curry comb fragments were 
recognized in the Nash Farm collection 
(Appendix 2, PP1069). Hoof picks were another 
essential grooming tool for the Cavalry. These 
artifacts also were used in everyday farm life and 
may not necessarily be associated with the Civil 
War. 

Numerous rectangular, brass "roller" buckles 
have been discovered at Nash Farm by the 
present survey team and by collectors. Examples 



are shown in Appendix 2 (PP26, PP9, PP1070, 
PP1081). Pollard considers this buckle style to 
be Confederate-related items and they are clearly 
related to harnesses or similar horse tack. The 
examined specimens display no identification 
marks. 

Two brass artifacts were identified as reins 
guides. These items were probably affixed to a 
wagon to keep the leather reins in line. Examples 
are shown in Appendix 2 (PP24, PP510). 

Musical Instruments 

Music was an important part of military life in 
the Civil War. The most common musical 
instrument artifact at Nash Farm was the 
harmonica reed plate. The harmonica, or mouth 
harp, was introduced to the United States by the 
Mathias Hohner Company from Germany in 
1862. This was during the height of the Civil 
War and this small, inexpensive, portable 
musical instrument was an instant success. It was 
carried by soldiers in both armies and harmonica 
fragments are very common finds on Civil War 
camps. Harmonicas also were popular among 
civilians and this popularity carried through the 
20 century to the present. 

The harmonica parts at Nash Farm consist of 
several brass reed plates, one white reed plate, 
and one tinned brass reed plate cover. 
Harmonicas were manufactured by several 
companies in the second half of the 19 century 
and 20' centuries, although Hohner was by far 
the biggest importer in terms of volume. The 
recovered sample of harmonica parts are shown 
in Appendix 2 and one of the more complete 
examples is shown in Figure 71. 




Figure 71. Harmonica 
(PP342), Nash Farm. 



Reed Plate 



132 



Several brass pump organ reed plates were 
recovered from the northwest corner of the Nash 
Farm. One example is shown in Figure 72. 
While organ reeds sometimes bear maker's 
marks or other identification, the specimens from 
Nash Farm did not. This area where these organ 
reeds were discovered was the site of a dwelling 
and these artifacts probably represent fragments 
of pump organ that once graced that home. Pump 
organs were common in rural areas in the late 
19' and early 20 th centuries, although they were 
produced in fewer quantities even earlier. They 
were moderately expensive and were used in 
churches and homes. Pump organs were 
manufactured by several firms and were 
available by mail order by the late 19" century. 
Pump organs were made mostly of wood and the 
durable parts included the dozens of brass reed 
plates, two iron or brass foot pedal plates, and 
various brass wires. Figure 73 shows an example 
of a pump organ in disrepair, which was later 
restored (Kimbrell & Sons 2007). The pump 
organ at Nash Farm was not restored. More than 
likely it dates after the Civil War, as do many of 
the artifacts observed at this dwelling site. 

Other Activity Items 

Copper or brass fence wire was located in 
numerous places at Nash Farm. This heavy 
gauge fence wire may date to the 19 century 
and possibly indicates the approximate locations 
of fence lines at the time of the Civil War battles. 
Alternatively, this wire may post-date the Civil 
War and may reflect the fence configuration 
from a later era. 

An assortment of metal tools are scattered over 
the landscape at Nash Farm. These include 
plough parts, hoes, files, and other items, most of 
which likely represent farming debris from the 
late 19' and early to mid 20' centuries. 

Other objects recovered by the survey may be 
the byproduct of military events or they may 
represent household debris from the operation of 
the Nash Farm. A few of the more notable items 
are discussed. 




Figure 72. Organ Reed (PP861), Nash 
Farm. 



^B^ta^^^^^j^k*^ 




(fflHfc * "j- 




Klc^JSttq 


J 


fi" ■ lig* tflMM 




1 


li 



Figure 73. Example of a 1907 Pump 
Organ in Dilapidated Condition 
(Kimbrell & Sons 2007). 

Several brass umbrella parts were recovered 
from the Nash Farm (Appendix 2, PP735). While 
these objects may be domestic in nature, they are 
quite often associated with military sites in 
Georgia. 

Padlocks and padlock parts have been recovered 
from several areas of Nash Farm. Some of these 
clearly date to the 19 lh century (Appendix 2, 
PP728). One example in the Lynch Collection 
bears U.S. markings, which indicates it once 
secured official government materials. 

Several brass and iron clock parts are included in 
the Nash Farm collection (Appendix 2, PP862). 
These artifacts may represent normal discard, or 
may possibly be some soldier's abandoned 
booty, circa 1864. 



133 



133 



VI. Artifact Patterning 

While the individual battlefield relics have an 
interesting story to tell about the Civil War 
events in the Lovejoy vicinity, their value in 
increased multifold when the artifacts are viewed 
in their geographic context on the battlefield. 
The artifacts are patterned across the battlefield 
landscape and these patterns provide important 
clues about the battle. The importance of 
mapping artifacts on battlefields was driven 
home by Fox's and Scott's study of the Little 
Big Horn battlefield in Wyoming. The Nash 
Farm battlefield study adopted their basic 
methods to tell the real story of the Civil War 
engagements that took place there in August and 
September, 1864. In order to do this, however, 
the artifacts had to be carefully located, mapped 
and collected so that their geographic context 
could be properly established. Previous 
collections from the battlefield lacked this degree 
of precision and, consequently, their ability to 
tell the story of the battle was severely muted. As 
with most archaeology puzzles, many of the 
pieces are missing and the archaeologist must tell 
the story with the pieces that are available. This 
is particularly true at Nash Farm, where decades 
of agricultural land use, heavy machinery 
operation, and intense relic collecting have 
degraded the context of the battlefield. 
Nevertheless, enough information remains of the 
battle in relatively secure context for the 
archaeologists to attempt a reconstruction of it. 
Readers should understand that many factors 
may have affected the final disposition of the 
battlefield-era artifacts and that the contextual 
reliability of any given relic is less than 100 
percent. Some artifacts may have been picked up 
and moved by previous persons. The fact that the 
property functioned as a working farm until quite 
recently has served to confuse the artifact 
patterning that was observed. In some cases, 
wholesale removal of the topsoil from some 
areas has eradicated any battlefield evidence. 
Mark Pollard knows of other examples where 
relics from the battlefield were intentionally 
removed, as part of a scrap metal drive in the 
mid-20 century (Mark Pollard personal 
communication, February 10, 2007). All of these 
negative factors notwithstanding, the Nash Farm 
property retains a surprising degree of context of 
its Civil War era relics and the LAMAR Institute 



researchers deemed a detailed study of the 
artifact patterning warranted. 

SMALL ARMS, BULLET AND 
BLADES 

The LAMAR Institute's survey of Nash Farm 
resulted in the plotting of more than 160 Civil 
War-era bullets. While this is a relatively small 
sample, the collection was studied to extract a 
maximum degree of information about their 
provenance. 

Union bullets were widely distributed across the 
landscape at Nash Farm, although several 
clusters were noted. Confederate bullets were 
widely distributed across the landscape at Nash 
Farm and several clusters were noted. Figure 74 
shows the distribution of Union bullets, Figure 
75 shows the Confederate bullets. Many bullets 
at Nash Farm may represent either Union or 
Confederate ammunition. These objects were 
more numerous than those bullets that were 
definitively linked to either army. Their 
distribution is more widespread than either the 
Union or Confederate bullets, although the 
distributions are similar in many respects. 

Bullets used by the Cavalry may often be 
distinguished from those used by Infantry 
regiments. The Nash Farm bullet assemblage 
contains many Cavalry bullets, which cannot be 
assigned to either army. Although the September 
battle did involve some Cavalry troops, more 
cavalry were engaged in the August 20 action 
and there is a higher probability that these bullets 
are associated with the earlier action. 

Brass percussion caps, brass shell casings, and 
dropped (or unfired) cartridges were recovered 
Brass percussion caps, brass shell casings and 
dropped (or unfired) cartridges were recovered in 
limited frequency at Nash Farm. If one assumes 
that these artifacts were deposited in the 
archaeological record immediately, then their 
geographical locations provide important 
information about the positions from which 
weapons were fired. Twelve percussion caps 
were plotted on the battlefield (Table 7). Of 
these, only one specimen (PP974) was unfired. 
Their spatial distribution is shown in Figure 76. 



135 



5300- 




I c 


I ■ 






.*_ 




II 






•V 


• 




5200- 




•••** 


+ + 


- 


■ 
5100- 


b 


+ 


• • 


- 


5000- 




+• 


• 
■H- 




♦900- 








- 


♦800- 


+ 


+ 


• 


- 












1500 


1600 1700 1800 


1900 


2000 



Figure 74. Distribution of Union Bullets. 



• + 



1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 



Figure 75. Distribution of Confederate Bullets. 



136 



Pieceplot 


North 


East 


640 


5001.67 


1878.78 


687 


4797.53 


1646.59 


780 


4686 


2373 


781 


4713 


2392 


782 


4692 


2383 


785 


4691 


2387 


818 


4955.2818 


1877.549 


860 


4675 


2384 


937 


4512 


2309 


974 


4935.6193 


1866.0354 


1082 


5262 


2071 


1083 


5262 


2071 



Table 8. Percussion Caps, Nash Farm. 



Figure 76. Distribution of Percussion 
Caps. 

The distribution of brass shell casings was 
equally sparse on the battlefield. The identified 
specimens were from Spencer cartridges, which 
were used by both Union and Confederates, 
when the latter were able to obtain them. 

The overall bullet and small arms ammunition 
distribution suggests that most of the bullets are 
associated with either the August 20' action or 
the Confederate encampments of September, 
1864. 

While few saber parts were discovered by the 
survey, their geographic locations were 
consistent with other aspects of the battlefield. 
One brass saber counterguard (or basket) was 



discovered in the heart of the August 20' battle 
action, between the Nash house and the barn. 
Collector John Lynch reported finding similar 
saber artifacts in the pasture a short distance west 
of this location (John Lynch personal 
communication February 10, 2007). 























• 


• + 




• 






5150- 














" 


5100- 














- 


5050- 














- 


5000- 














• 
• 


4950- 














- 


4900- 














- 


4850- 














<> 


4800- 














- 




1650 


1700 


1750 


1800 




1850 


1900 



Figure 77. Distribution of Brass 
Cartridges. 

ARTILLERY ORDNANCE 

Perhaps the most poignant illustration of the 
August 20' cavalry charge is the distribution of 
canister shot. Although several artillery units 
operated in the area during the battles of August 
20 and September 2-5, Croft's Light Artillery 
battery is the best identified archaeologically. 
Written accounts of the battle place this artillery 
battery on the north side of Jonesboro Road. 
Mark Pollard reports finding several cannon 
friction primers on a knoll that corresponds to 
the location described. 

The distribution of canister shot (Figure 78) is 
the most impressive testament to the August 20 th 
battle. These artifacts are tightly clustered in one 
area of the battlefield, just outside of the yard of 
the Nash house. This zone is essentially ground 
zero for the August 20' cavalry clash. 



135 



The distribution of other ordnance artifacts is 
more diffuse. Artillery shell fragments were 
widely scattered and their distribution is shown 
in Figure 79. Large grapeshot was even more 
rare on the battlefield and it was widely 
dispersed, as shown in Figure 80. 

HORSE TACK 

Well over 5,000 horses and mules were part of 
the U.S. Cavalry charge on August 20, 1864. We 
know from one official U.S. Cavalry officer's 
report that many hundred horses perished at 
Nash Farm on August 20, 1864. The number of 
dead animals, including horses and mules, 
probably exceeded 500. The disposal of these 
dead animals would have proved to be a 
logistical challenge. The U.S. Army forces had 
left the battlefield by late afternoon of August 



20 . The responsibility for the disposal of these 
hundreds of dead animals fell to the Confederate 
Army or to the local civilian population. These 
dead animals would have been widely scattered 
across the battlefield landscape. No written 
accounts of horse carcass disposal were found by 
the historic research, although several 
hypotheses were postulated. 

Adding to the difficulty of interpreting the 
distribution of horse tack and other wagon- 
related gear is the fact that Nash Farm continued 
to operate as a farm for decades after the war. 
Consequently, many of these artifacts may be 
unrelated to the Civil War events. Horses and 
mules were used to plow the fields and to haul 
wagons and carriages well into the 20 th century. 
Horse and mule shoes and other hardware may 
represent artifacts from this later era. 



515(H 



5100- 



5050- 



5000 



4950- 



4900- 



4850- 



4800- 



4750- 



if W # 




1550 1600 1650 



1700 



1750 



1800 



Figure 78. Distribution of Canister Shot. 



136 





























5250- 














5200- 




+ 


+ + 








5150- 






T 








5100- 














5050- 






+ 








5000- 














4950- 














4900- 














4850- 














4800- 










J 






1700 


1750 


1800 1850 


1900 


1950 B 



Figure 79. Distribution of Artillery Shell 
Fragments. 



















'■ 








+ 




5150- 








- 


5100- 








- 


5050- 








- 


5000- 








- 


4950- 








- 


4900- 








- 


4850- 








- 




"1600 


1650 


1700 































v 






525C- 










« 




O 


520C- 








O 


•:.: , 




♦ < 


5150- 


O 








o 




~ 


5'OC-j^ 












~ 




* 














505C- 










o 




~ 


500C - 






♦/. 













4950- 














■■- 


490C- 














- 


4850- 








« 








- 


4800- 






« 








- 




















500 


1550 1600 1650 


1700 


1750 1800 


135C 


1900 



Figure 81. Distribution of Horse Tack. 
UNIFORM PARTS 

Military uniform parts were sparsely distributed 
over the battlefield. Buttons and other insignia 
were rare, which is partly a reflection of past 
intensive relic collecting. One of the more 
common uniform parts was copper and brass 
shoe taps. These were handmade items that were 
fashioned by the soldiers to extend the use-life of 
their precious footwear. 




Figure 80. Distribution of Grapeshot. 



Figure 82. Distribution of Uniform and 
Clothing Parts. 



137 



BATTLEFIELD FEATURES 

The suspected location of the Columbus Light 
Artillery battery was only minimally investigated 
by the present survey team. Historian Mark 
Pollard provided some information about cannon 
friction primers that were found by Pollard and 
his brother on the hilltop, north of Jonesboro 
Road and the Nash farmhouse. 

CAMPSITES 

Several long-time relic collectors who were 
interviewed by the LAMAR Institute research 
team offered information about Confederate 
campsites that existed on the Nash Farm 
property. Only a portion of these was sampled by 
the LAMAR Institute's survey, owing to the lack 
of time and resources. Archaeologist with TRC 
Garrow explored several of these areas, which 
were not part of the present study. Other 
potential campsites remain only as 
collector/informant sites and these await 
verification and more rigorous study. The 
general wisdom among collectors is that these 
campsites were created by the Confederate 
troops who occupied the area for a period of 
about 13 days following the September 2-5, 1864 
Battle of Lovejoy Station. Their argument for 
this identification is based on the distribution of 
diagnostic artifacts, such as uniform buttons and 
weaponry. Buttons from North Carolina soldier's 
uniforms are associated with one campsite, for 
example, and the North Carolina troops were 
only in this locality during that period of mid- 
September, 1864. Other indications that the 
artifact pattern represents an encampment are 
shown by the diversity and type of artifacts that 
were discarded. Many of the relics do not 
suggest discard during the heat of battle. Some 
artifacts, such as bullets apparently melted in a 
campfire, carved bullets, and harmonica 
fragments, denote a certain amount of boredom 
that was typical of camp life. 

The distribution of large brass grommets may 
serve as one indication of the location of military 
camps. The soldiers were often housed in canvas 
tents. These tents were secured with ropes 
through metal grommets. Grommets are also a 
common feature of farms from later periods, 
where they were used to cover farm equipment, 
hay bales and other items. Seventeen large 
grommets were plotted at Nash Farm. With one 
exception, their measured diameters were 2.7 



cm. The single exception was a larger specimen, 
whose diameter was 3.2 cm. These are listed in 
Table 9 and their spatial distribution is shown in 
Figure 83. The grommets display an interesting 
pattern on the Nash Farm property and do not 
appear randomly distributed. These clusters 
either represent military camps or special use 
areas from the later farm. The co-occurrence in 
several of these areas of obvious Civil War-era 
relics tends to indicate that at least some of the 
grommet clusters represent military camps. 



Piece Plot # 


North (3701_) 


East (75 ) 


Diameter (cm) 


238 


5193.49 


1736.00 


3.2 


425 


5189.51 


1757.83 


2.7 


469 


5007.66 


1879.90 


2.7 


787 


4982.11 


1752.74 


2.7 


790 


4977.54 


1754.00 


2.7 


869 


4965.55 


1788.74 


2.7 


870 


4964.15 


1797.51 


2.7 


871 


4965.06 


1792.80 


2.7 


909 


4965.83 


1788.86 


2.7 


933 


4963.55 


1794.04 


2.7 


940 


4705.00 


1618.00 


2.7 


959 


4979.22 


1750.47 


2.7 


965 


4961.22 


1782.45 


2.7 


966 


4956.02 


1770.39 


2.7 


1009 


4974.15 


1749.65 


2.7 


1013 


4966.69 


1787.10 


2.7 


1020 


4991.78 


1890.13 


2.7 



Table 9. Grommets, Nash Farm. 









r I 








o 




5150- 








- 


5100- 








- 


5050- 








- 


5000- 
4950- 











4900- 








- 


4850- 








- 


4800- 








- 


4750- 








- 












1650 


1700 


1750 1800 


1850 



Figure 83. Distribution of Grommets. 



138 




Figure 84. Distribution of Cast Iron 
Cookware. 

On a broader regional distribution, relic 
collectors have identified dozens of Union and 
Confederate camps in the greater Lovejoy locale. 
Those on the Nash Farm property represent only 
a small fraction of the whole. Like many of the 
Civil War resources in the Lovejoy area, most of 
these campsites remain unverified and 
unexplored by professional archaeologists. 



139 



VI. Ground Penetrating Radar 
Survey 

The LAMAR Institute conducted Ground 
Penetrating Radar survey (GPR) on two sample 
areas of the Nash Farm property. The GPR 
survey consisted of two rectangular blocks, 
which were designated Blocks A and B. The 
survey was accomplished by using a RAMAC 
X3M GPR unit, coupled with a computer 
monitor and a 500 mHZ shielded antenna, which 
were all mounted on a wheeled graphite cart. 
This suite of instruments was developed by 
MALA GeoScience — a Swedish firm. Software 
packages used for the data collection and post- 
processing included GroundVision and Easy 3D, 
and GPR-Slice, version 5. The LAMAR Institute 
has used this setup of equipment and software 
for numerous GPR surveys conducted previously 
with great success. Data was collected along 
linear transects spaced at 50 centimeter intervals. 

Block A was located immediately north of the 
barn and east of the white metal fence at Nash 
Farm. Figure 85 shows the survey underway in 
this area. 




Figure 85. GPR Survey at Block A, 
Facing Southwest. 

Figure 86 shows an aerial view of GPR Block A 
at approximately 55 centimeters below ground. 
A large area of strong radar reflections is evident 
in this image. North is toward the top of the 
page for this image and for the GPR maps that 
follow. 




Figure 86. GPR Block A, Aerial View at 
55 cm Depth. 

Figure 87 shows an aerial view of GPR Block A 
at 75 centimeters depth. A utility line (or pipe) is 
clearly visible in this image. That utility line is 
oriented north-northwest. The strong radar 
reflections that were observed in the previous 
image have now nearly disappeared, which 
suggests that the source of those reflects were 
quite shallow. One interpretation is that the 
upper level anomalies are related to the fill dirt 
that was introduced prior to construction of the 
barn. 



140 




Figure 87. GPR Block A, Aerial View at 
75 cm Depth. 

A smaller anomaly is also visible in the north- 
central part of the block. This may represent a 
shallow culture feature, such as a trash pit. An 
early 20' century trash dump or pit was 
identified in this general area during the metal 
detector survey. 

Figure 88 shows an aerial view of GPR Block A 
at approximately 1 meter depth. A different 
utility line (or pipe) is clearly visible in this 
image. That utility line is oriented along a north- 
northeast axis. 

Block B was located in the front yard of the 
Nash Farm house and just south of the Jonesboro 
Road Right-of-Way and east of the paved 
driveway entrance. 




Figure 88. GPR Block A, Aerial View at 
1 meter Depth. 

Figure 89 shows an aerial view of the GPR data 
in Block B at approximately 55 centimeters 
below ground. A wide, linear anomaly is is 
clearly evident in this image. This anomaly may 
represent the road trace of the former route from 
Jonesboro Road to Babbs Mill Road. Mark 
Pollard noted that oral informants stated that the 
road formerly ran closer to the Nash house, and 
after discussion of the GPR findings, he agreed 
that the GPR data may represent archaeological 
proof of this early road. 

Figure 90 shows an aerial view of GPR Block B 
at 90 centimeters depth. The linear feature is still 
apparent in this image, as are several other 
anomalies. The character and function of these 



141 



deeper signals remains to be determined. This 
area may represent the underlying natural 



geological strata, or possibly some man-made 
disturbance. 







O 



[uuj aciuersjQ 



Figure 89. GPR Block B, Aerial View at 55 cm Depth. 



142 




[W] 83UEJSIQ 



Figure 90. GPR Block B, Aerial View at 90 cm Depth. 



143 



VII. Site Interpretation 
WHAT WE KNOW NOW 

At this point let us reflect on what facts we know 
now about the Civil War action at Nash Farm 
that was not known before the 2007 
archaeological study. The present study was well 
grounded in the previous historical research by 
historians Jeffrey Holland (TRC), Mark Pollard 
(Henry County), and David Evans. Holland 
presented an excellent summary of the Nash 
family, which was not significantly expanded by 
the present research. Evan's reconstruction of the 
battle scene was based almost entirely on his 
historical research. Pollard's understanding of 
the Nash Farm took from Evan's painstaking 
research and added to it with decades of his own 
historical research and his intimate knowledge of 
the Civil War relics that have been recovered by 
collectors, prior to Henry County's acquisition of 
the property in 2006. 

The LAMAR Institute research team attempted 
to build on this impressive foundation. At the 
same time, however, we sought to deconstruct 
the battlefield into its minute components and 
gather specific information that would verify the 
historical accounts and historian's previous 
interpretations of the battles that were fought 
there. Historians Tracy Dean and Dan Elliott re- 
examined the primary documents already 
gathered by the previous researchers; reviewed 
published primary and secondary accounts of the 
battles at Lovejoy, and discovered new 
documents, maps, and other pertinent archival 
records unknown to the previous researchers. 
This was no easy task, since Evans' personal 
research represented three decades of study at 
dozens, if not hundreds, of archival repositories, 
libraries and museums. Our modest budget did 
not allow for extensive travel to any of these out- 
of-state sources, so we relied heavily on Evans' 
footwork and accurate data recordation. Since his 
work on Sherman's Horsemen was published 
many technological advances have improved the 
ease and rapidity of historical research. The 
Internet, in particular, provided many new 
sources of information and it allowed our 
research team to "virtually" travel to distant 
archives to peruse their card catalogs. The 
ability to search thousands of volumes of Civil 
War-related documents by keyword yielded 
enormous benefits. Indeed, it yielded too much 



information for our available budget to be able to 
process. 

The LAMAR Institute's approach to artifact 
discovery, mapping and laboratory analysis 
proved to be enormously successful. The 
previous archaeological fieldwork effort by TRC 
was quite disappoint and yielded little to indicate 
that a major Civil War battle had been fought in 
the vicinity. Their shortcomings were largely due 
to the fieldwork methods that were employed, as 
well as the less-than optimal field conditions of 
weather and ground cover at the time of their 
July, 2006 survey. Whereas D'Angelo and his 
TRC field crew identified only one Enfield bullet 
and one possible artillery shell basal fragment, 
the present study located several hundred 
battlefield artifacts (D'Angelo et al. 2006). The 
total count of artifacts recovered by the LAMAR 
Institute was 1,345. Many of these items clearly 
post-date the Civil War period and others are of 
debatable age. Most, however, are probably 
associated with the Civil War-era. Moreover, 
these 1,345 artifacts represent only a very small 
sample collection from the Nash Farm property. 
More than 90 percent of the land area at Nash 
Farm remains unexplored. The 2007 sample 
provides more than enough material for an 
introductory study of the battlefield setting to 
enable the research team to reconstruct numerous 
features and components of the battle on the 
modern landscape. 

As our research progressed, it became 
increasingly apparent that the August 20 
Cavalry action was not the only battle fought at 
Nash Farm. The scale and scope of the 
September 2-5 Battle of Lovejoy Station quickly 
became apparent. Our research was primarily 
focused on the August 20' event but the later 
battle became an increasing distraction. This 
distraction was even more apparent when an 
independent archaeological study was instigated 
by the Georgia Department of Transportation. 
That project concerned the proposed widening of 
Jonesboro Road from U.S. Highway 19 east to 
Interstate Highway 75. That route passes 
completely across the northern part of the Nash 
Farm property. This highway survey project is 
currently being conducted by the Wolverton 
Associates engineering firm and their 
subcontractors, Edwards Pittman and 
Southeastern Archeological Services. As a result 
of their preliminary reconnaissance, in which this 
researcher [Elliott] served as a consultant, many 



144 



segments of Confederate entrenchments were 
located and several were test excavated to 
confirm their military function. Theirs is a 
project in progress, so any conclusions from their 
study are tentative. One important result from 
their project was the implementation of a public 
meeting, in which archaeologists, historians, 
project managers, local historians, amateur relic 
collectors, and interested citizens got together to 
share their knowledge of cultural resources in the 
area. These talks and the subsequent 
archaeological reconnaissance data were used to 
produced oversized project maps showing the 
exact location of confirmed battlefield features, 
early home sites, roads, destroyed sites, major 
military debris scatters, and other unconfirmed 
military sites. All of this information served as a 
backdrop for the Nash Farm study. The dynamic 
situation created by the two project on the same 
battlefield simultaneously proved to be a 
challenge in summarizing the finds. 



were positioned on the north side of Jonesboro 
Road, possibly near the Clayton-Henry County 
line. 

The Confederates may have had as many as 10 
artillery pieces, or as few as one howitzer, 
trained on Kilpatrick's cavalry on August 20. 
One U.S. Cavalry officer later recalled that four 
of these were located on the left (or northeast 
side) of the advance and six were located on the 
right (or southeast side). The Confederate 
artillery fired two volleys of shells at the 
advancing Union cavalry before switching to 
canister shot. Captain Vale, 7 th Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, noted that four of these Confederate 
guns (presumably those on the left side, were 
captured in the initial charge (Vale 1886:347- 
348). The Confederate account of their artillery 
strength is considerably less, consisting of a 
single howitzer fired by the Columbus Light 
Artillery. 



The Nash Farm property contains definite 
archaeological remains of the August 20, 1864 
Cavalry engagement between Kilpatrick's U.S. 
cavalry and Ross' Texas cavalry brigade. At 
least three areas of the property were identified 
where intense battle clashes were represented by 
the archaeological finds. 

In his field report of his recent campaign, 
General Kilpatrick summarized the casualties 
that resulted in the Third Cavalry Division, as 
well as his estimate of Confederate losses for the 
same period. Kilpatrick placed the number of 
Union Cavalry killed at 31 (7 officers and 24 
men); wounded at 110 (5 officers and 106 men); 
and missing at 143 (6 officers and 137 men). He 
placed the number of Rebels killed at 246, 
wounded at 664, and 292 taken prisoner (OR 
Volume L:861). 

At the time of the August 20' charge, Minty had 
three artillery pieces under his command, which 
were manned by the Chicago Board of Trade 
artillerists. A fourth piece was disabled earlier in 
the day. Earlier in the day these field pieces were 
used to rain canister and explosive shells on the 
Confederates who were near Lovejoy Station, 
several miles west of the Nash Farm. Once the 
charge commenced these cannons were trained 
eastward on the Confederate positions at Nash 
Farm (Vale 1886:344-345). Additional artillery 
support for the Union cavalry was provided by 
the 10 th Wisconsin battery. Their field pieces 



WHERE ARE THE DEAD? 

The best estimates for the number of Union 
soldiers who were killed in battle along the 
Jonesboro road on August 20, 1864 come from 
the official published U.S. Army records. In 
several instances these statistical summaries 
combined the losses from different battlefields in 
the Atlanta Campaign and the specific losses at 
the Nash Farm are difficult to derive. The list of 
losses often include those killed or wounded in 
the battle of August 20, but who were cut down 
either east or west of the study area. Holland 
estimates the number of Union casualties from 
the August 20" 1 battle to be about 300 men 
(D'Angeloetal. 2006:57). 

One U.S. Army officer who died on August 20 
was Captain William S. Scott, Company G, 1 st 
Ohio Cavalry, who was killed while charging an 
artillery battery during Minty' s charge of August 
20, 1864. Although mortally wounded and 
dismounted, Captain Scott reportedly, 
"continued waving his saber and urging his men 
on before succumbing to his wounds". Figure 90 
shows a Civil War-era photograph of Captain 
Scott. 



145 







Figure 91. Captain William S. Scott, 
Company G, 1st Ohio Cavalry, Killed at 
Nash Farm. 

Another example of an important U.S. Army 
officer who was killed was 1 st Lieutenant 
Chauncey C. Hermans, Company C, 7 th 
Pennsylvania Cavalry. Hermans wounded at 
Lovejoy Station and died of his wounds on 
August 22, 1864. He was a native of Tioga 
County, Pennsylvania, enlisted at age 28 as a 
private at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania on 
November 1, 1861 (Pennsylvania State Archives 
2007). 

Private Thomas Wiggant, Chicago Board of 
Trade Battery, a native of Chicago, Illinois who 
was mustered into the unit on July 31, 1862, was 
killed at Lovejoy, Georgia on August 20th. 
Wiggant was the only person killed at Lovejoy 
from that unit (Savage 2007). 

Table 10 shows a partial list of the U.S. 
Cavalrymen who were casualties or taken 
prisoner in the battle at Nash Farm. This list was 
compiled from muster lists of the 7 ,h 
Pennsylvania and 3 r Ohio Cavalry Regiments, 
which were available on the internet. Several of 
the U.S. Cavalry regiments that participated in 
the battle neglected to submit casualty returns for 



the engagement, so an accurate death count for 
the entire battle will require additional research. 

The death count for U.S. Army soldiers as a 
result of the September 2-5 engagements at 
Lovejoy is also an elusive mortality statistic. 
Officer reports from that battle were not fully 
examined for the present study. The casualties 
from this battle were greatly overshadowed by 
the losses at Jonesboro only days earlier. 
Nevertheless, the Union losses at Lovejoy from 
the September battle were extensive. General 
Stanley's 4 1 U.S. Army Corps suffered the 
greatest losses. Stanley's troops fought several 
miles west of Nash Farm, so their corpses were 
probably disposed someplace other than Nash 
Farm. Those killed from General Schofield's 
U.S. troops and General Lee's Confederate 
troops were more likely in the Nash Farm 
vicinity. 

The estimates total number of Confederate 
soldiers who were killed in the engagement on 
August 20, 1864 east of Lovejoy, Georgia, and 
those who died soon after mortally wounded, 
vary considerably according to the source. Union 
mortality figures are drastically higher than the 
Confederate estimates. Holland estimates the 
number of Confederate casualties from the 
August 20 th battle to be about 80 men (D'Angelo 
etal. 2006:57). 

The number of C.S.A army dead as a result of 
the September 2-5 engagements at Lovejoy is 
also difficult to calculate. Records created and 
kept by the Confederates from that period in the 
Atlanta Campaign are scarce and terse. The 
casualties from this battle were greatly 
overshadowed by the losses at Jonesboro only 
days earlier. Like the Union losses, the 
Confederate losses at Lovejoy from the 
September battle were extensive. 

We know that between the battles fought at Nash 
Farm several hundred Civil War soldiers were 
killed, yet there is no Civil War cemetery at 
Lovejoy. Historian Holland was unable to locate 
any historical reference to the disposition of the 
dead at Lovejoy resulting from the battles in 
August and September, 1864 (D'Angelo et al. 
2006:57). The present research team was also 
unable to locate any written record pertaining to 
this subject. Mark Pollard, William Dodd and 
others told of several small cemeteries in the 
greater Lovejoy vicinity, some of which may 



146 



contain dead from these battles, but the final 
resting place for most of the military dead 
remains unknown. The possibility of one or 
more mass graves is quite likely. In addition to 
the loss of human life, many hundred horses 
were killed in the battles and their disposal is 
also an issue of interest. Descriptions of the 
battlefield include reference to a series of deep 
gullies, which are not evident today. Perhaps 
some of these gullies were adapted for use as 
mass graves and were filled-in by the soldiers in 
1864. Or perhaps sections of the September, 
1864 entrenchments were used to contain the 
dead after the battle had ended. The use of pre- 
existing excavated trenches would have been 
well suited for this purpose. The task of 
disposing of the dead in the aftermath of the 
August 20' engagement would have fallen to the 
Confederates, since the U.S. Army had 
completely exited from the Lovejoy area by 
August 21. This area was swarming with 
Confederate soldiers by early September, and 
possibly in the days prior to that. Ross' Texas 
Brigade did not linger in the area, although by 
September 2, U.S. General Stanley observed that 



the Confederates were already well entrenched at 
Lovejoy. Nevertheless, a gap of approximately 
10 days may have existed when hundreds of 
dead lay on the battlefield unattended. Most of 
these were likely U.S. Cavalrymen and their 
burial was not necessarily a priority for the 
resident Confederate troops. The existence of 
hundreds of dead men and horses was a sanitary 
hazard, however, so it was incumbent for those 
who stayed in the area to adequately dispose of 
these corpses. 

The hundreds of dead horses may have served as 
a source of food for the Confederate troops and 
the local population, although the sweltering heat 
in late August probably limited the timing of any 
scavenging of these carcasses. Within a few days 
after August 20, the stench of the place was 
likely unbearable. The Confederate troops were 
hungry, as indicated by General Ross' brigade 
order of September 11 th , which addressed the 
problem of his troops stealing and killing local 
hogs for food (OR Volume 39 (Pt. 2):830). 



Regiment 


Compa 


n Name 


Rank 


7thPACav 


A 


Robison, William 


Privale 


7thPACav 


A 


Weigley, Francis 


Private 


7thPACav 


A 


While, Percy H. 


Captain 


7thPACav 


A 


Reese, David F. 


Sergeanl 


7thPACa\ 


A 


Mulcachy, Patrick 


Privale 


7thPACav 


C 


Hermans, Chauncey C 


1st Lt. 


7thPACav 


C 


Clark, Frank D. 


Private 


7thPACav 


C 


Level, Martin V. 


Privale 


7thPACa\ 


E 


Hays, William E. 


1st Lt. 


7ihPACav 


E 


Foster, Samuel 


Sergeant 


7thPACav 


E 


Metzgar, Henry G. 


Sergeant 


7thPACav 


E 


Caldwell, George 


Saddler 


7thPACav 


E 


Else, William E. 


Privale 


7thPACav 


E 


M'Donald, David H. 


Private 


7thPACav 


G 


Robb, Charles 


Private 


7thPACa\ 


G 


Wilson, Orin F. 


Bugler 


7thPACav 


H 


Davis, Thomas 


Private 


7thPACav 


H 


Weigle, Charles 0. 


Private 


7thPACav 


I 


Thompson, Lieber S. 


Captain 


7ihPACav 


I 


Sibert, Levi 


Private 


7thPACav 


K 


May, David G. 


Captain 


7thPACav 


L 


Packer, Joel 


Private 


7ihPACav 


L 


Walker, James 


Private 


7lhPACav 


M 


Burns, George 


Private 


7thPACav 


C 


Taylor, James G. 


Captain 


3rdOHCa 


. F 


Lynn, Hiram 


< oipoial 


3rdOHCa 


. F 


Long, Alfred H. 


Private 


3rdOHCa 


. H 


Nutt, John 


Private 


3rdOHCa 


. C 


Buzzell, Orrin 


< 'i'['pi![';iJ 


3rdOHCa 


. D 


Russell, ObedC. 


1 i irporal 


3rdOHCa 


. D 


Slaan, Hilliard H. 


Private 


3rd OH Ca 


. F 


O'Brien, Thomas 


Private 



;r Sergeant to 2d Lt., May I, 1865; to 1st Lt, August 10, 1 



Casualty 

Killed at Lovejoy Station, Ga., August 20, 1864 

Died at Florence, S. C., of wounds received at Lovejoy Station, Ga, August 20, 1864 

Wounded and captured a I lju eji>\ Slal inn. 1 i;i.. Auiuisl 20. I XIS4, J i sc li a i'ij ed ml Sui'iJei m s i 'erhi'icale, February 10, 1 KhS 

Killed at Lovejoy Station, Ga., August 20, 1 864 

Died of wounds received al Lovejoy Slal ion, Georgia, August 20, 1 864 

killed at Lovejoy Station, Ga., August 21, 1864 

Captured at Lovejoy Station, Ga., August 22, 1864; died at Anderson ville, February 20, 1865 

Killed at Lovejoy Station, Ga, August 21, 1864 

Prisoner from August 20 to December 15, 1864; promoted from Qui; 

Promoted from Corporal, March I, I 864; captured August 20, 1864 

Prisoner from August 20, 1864 to March 12, 1865; discharged by General Older, June 

Captured August 20, 1864 

Captured August 20, 1864 

Captured August 20, 1 864; absent, sick, at muster out 

Killed at Lovejoy Station, Ga., August 21, 1864 

Killed at Red Oak Church, Ga., August 20, 1864 on Kilpatrick's Raid around Atlanta. 

Prisoner from August 20, 1864, to April 28, 1865; discharged June 17, i 

Prisoner from August 20, 1864, to April 28, 1865; discharged June 17, 

Promoted from 1st Lt. Company F, July 1 , 1863; capl'd. at Lovejoy Stat 

Captured August 20, 1864 

killed at Lovejoy Station, Ga, August 20, 1864 

Captured near Lovejoy Station, Ga., August 20, 1864 

Captured at Lovejoy Station, Ga., August 20, 1864 

Captured August 20, 1864 

Killed August 20, 1864 at Lovejoy Station 

Killed at Lovejoy Station 

Killed at Lovejoy Station 

Lovejoy Station, died of wounds 8-23-64 

Wounded at Lovejoy Station 

Wounded at Lovejoy Slat ion 

Wounded at Lovejoy Station 

Wounded at Lovejoy Station 



date May 18, 1865 






date May 18, 1865 






n, Ga., August 20, 1864; i 


signed January 1 


,1865 



Table 10. Partial Casualty List, 7th Pennsylvania and 3rd Ohio Cavalry, August, 1864. 



147 



RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES 

The present study focused mostly on the people 
and military events associated with the August 
20, 1864 action between Kilpatrick's U.S. 
Cavalry and Ross' C.S. Cavalry. The events of 
September 2-5, 1864 were covered to a lesser 
degree and future researchers should continue to 
reconstruct this important and neglected battle 
between the two armies engaged in the Atlanta 
Campaign. The present study also identified 
many important historical sources about the 
August 20 battle that were not examined at this 
time and these should be the subject of future 
study. The bibliography, which follows this 
report, contains an extensive collection of these 
resources and this bibliography can serve as a 
guide for researchers. 

The artifact collection strategy and geographic 
location recordation strategy that was established 
in the present study can also serve as a template 
for future research. Mr. Mark Pollard, site 
caretaker and Henry County Historian, was given 
a Garmin III GPS receiver and a quantity of 
small archival quality zip lock bags and 
permanent markers so that any accidental 
discoveries of artifacts or features associated 
with the Civil War-era (or other historic or 
prehistoric eras) may be properly located in 
space and catalogued with a Piece Plot Number 
(starting with PP 1200). If the horizontal 
coordinates are recorded for each distinct item, 
then these data can be readily incorporated into 
the existing electronic relational database. 

The history and biographies of the Nash family 
and the Nash Farm were explored as part of the 
TRC research effort (D'Angelo et al. 2006). The 
present study did not expound on their efforts to 
any significant degree. This subject bears 
additional study and this should be pursued by 
future researchers. The architectural history of 
the Nash farmhouse also merits more in-depth 
scrutiny by an architectural historian who is 
well-versed in 19' century building styles in 
Georgia. An intensive examination of the 
building would be helpful for several reasons. It 
would help to establish the absolute age of the 
dwelling and the age of its various additions and 
modifications. 



The bibliography that follows this report 
contains an extensive collection of pertinent 
literature, many of which were not directly 
consulted for this project. These references may 
also contain additional leads to information 
about the Civil War battles at Nash Farm and the 
people who fought them. As the present research 
unfolded, the number of regiments, officers and 
other significant research subjects expanded 
substantially. It was a virtual Pandora's box of 
important research opportunities, each one 
crying out for attention. 

A few examples of published soldier's accounts, 
which were not examined by the present research 
team include: 

T. Jeff Jobe Diary, 
Rifles (Allen 1988). 



I s Arkansas Mounted 



Dr. Robert H. Dacus' memoirs, 
Reminiscences of Company H, 1 st Arkansas 
Mounted Rifles (Allen 1988). 

A few examples of unpublished soldier's 
accounts that may greatly enhance the story of 
Nash Farm are mentioned below. Time and 
budgetary constraints did not allow for an 
examination of these archival documents in the 
present study. 

Special Collections, The University of Texas at 
Arlington, Libraries includes these items of 
interest: 

James Allen Duncan Family Papers: Diaries, 
letters, and military documents of 2nd Lt. 
James Allen Duncan, Eighth Kentucky 
Cavalry. 

L. H. Graves Diary: Diary of 2nd Lt. L. H. 
Graves in Capt. J. W. Throckmorton's 
Company K, Sixth Texas Cavalry, Ross's 
Brigade, and a muster roll of Company K. 

Ben King Green Papers: Autobiography of 
Corp. J. H. King who served with Capt. Sam 
Bell Maxey's Ninth Regiment, Texas 
Infantry, Company I. 

Mary Martha Hackney Transcriptions of 
Price Family Papers: Letters of 1st Lt. 
Benjamin Franklin Price who fought with 



148 



the Third Texas Cavalry Regiment, 
Company E. 

McKinney-Milam Family Papers: Civil War 
diary of Lt. George Scott Milam, Sixth 
Texas Cavalry, Company D, Ross's Brigade 
and letters from George Scott Milam and his 
four brothers to their parents, Jefferson and 
Eliza Milam. 

B. B. (Buckley B.) Paddock Family Papers: 
Letters from Capt. B. B. Paddock, Company 
K, Wirt Adams's Regiment, First 
Mississippi Cavalry, to his wife, Emmie 
Harper Paddock. 

Other important documents are contained in the 
personal papers of Robert H.G. Minty and 
Lawrence Sullivan Ross. Doubtless dozens of 
other collections of personal papers may be 
identified, which promise to elucidate the Nash 
Farm story. The present research has identified 
many of these and others await discovery by 
future research. 



Cavalry [not involved in action in Lovejoy, but 
likely similar to other Texas Cavalry units] were 
identified from a preliminary internet search. No 
doubt many other re-enactor groups exist that 
would be interested in participating in future 
events at Nash Farm. 

SITE STEWARDSHIP 

The heritage that is preserved at the Nash Farm 
Battlefield Park is extremely unique, historically 
important, and irreplaceable. Stewards of this 
site should alter or develop the property only 
after careful consideration of the consequences 
of these actions on the buried cultural resources 
and cultural landscape integrity. An extremely 
important aspect of the Nash Farm Battlefield is 
the view shed that is preserved. A visitor can 
stand at many places on the battlefield and view 
the surrounding countryside, which is very much 
as it may have appeared in 1864. This sort of 
opportunity is rare for a Civil War battlefield and 
particularly so for sites associated with the 
Atlanta Campaign. 



INTERPRETIVE HISTORY 

Henry County has already begun interpretive 
history programming at Nash Farm Battlefield 
Park, which has received overwhelming public 
support and attendance. These efforts have been 
coordinated by Henry County Historian Mark 
Pollard, the Henry County Commission, Henry 
County Parks Department and other county 
officials. 

Many Civil War re-enactor groups exist, whose 
missions include accurate historical reenactment 
of Civil War battles and skirmishes. A number of 
these organizations are based in Georgia or 
nearby southern states. Several re-enactor units 
were identified by a preliminary internet search 
of groups whose original unit was actually 
involved in the action at Nash Farm and 
Lovejoy. Oddly enough, a few of these are based 
some distance from Georgia, including re- 
enactor groups in Belgium, England and New 
Mexico. 

Active re-enactor groups for the 4' U.S. Cavalry, 
the Kentucky Cavalry Brigade, the Ohio Cavalry 
Brigade; Companies A and D, 1 st Ohio Volunteer 
Cavalry, Company D, 3 r Iowa Cavalry, the 3 r 
Texas Cavalry, and Company E, 1 1' Texas 



Henry County has already shown their support of 
the region's heritage by the initial purchase of 
the Nash Farm property and the creation of a 
historical park, and by hiring consultants (TRC, 
Inc. and The LAMAR Institute, Inc.) to provide 
guidance with the precious historical resources. 
At present, however, a formal site management 
plan, whose purpose would be to guide future 
management and historical development of the 
park, does not exist. Adequate funding is an 
obvious need for future development of these 
resources. Henry County may wish to pursue 
grant funding to enhance the site's historical 
interpretation and to acquire additional property 
that would expand and help to protect this vital 
view shed. The LAMAR Institute has explored 
many funding sources for this type of support 
and a few examples are discussed below. 

The National Park Service, American Battlefield 
Protection Program (ABPP) Battlefield Grants 
are an important source for a variety of research 
and site interpretation goals. A number of 
projects in Georgia were recently funded by the 
ABPP grant program, including Brown's Mill 
Cavalry battlefield near Newnan, Georgia, and a 
number of studies in Georgia's coastal plain, 
including three successfully completed by the 
LAMAR Institute. The funding amounts for their 
grants are generally less than $75,000 and most 



149 



fall within the $20,000-840,000 range. These 
funds can be used for a variety of purposes, 
including historical research, interpretative 
signage, battlefield delineation surveys, and 
development of management plans. 

Grant funds are available for outright purchase of 
property containing important Civil War 
battlefields. One source are the Land and Water 
Conservation Grants, offered by the NPS, ABPP. 

The Archaeological Conservancy, Inc. is another 
potential source for property acquisition funding. 
They also accept property donations and some 
property easements. Their Southeastern U.S. 
regional representative is based in Mississippi. 

The McWhiney Foundation and the McWhiney 
Foundation Press, headquartered in Abilene, 
Texas, supports Texas military historical 
research and public interpretation. Initial 
contacts were made with the officers of their 
foundation with promising results. Their 
organization may be willing to assist with 
publication and museum development at Nash 
Farm. Their press has a Civil War Campaigns 
and Commanders series, which may be well- 
suited for a book on the Nash Farm August 20' 



battle, or the larger Lovejoy action of September 

2-5. 

Any ground disturbance of the property at Nash 
Farm should only be undertaken after 
consultation with a professional archaeologist. 
The archaeological resources at this battlefield 
are irreplaceable. Once these artifacts have been 
removed from their battlefield context they 
become merely curious relics. Their 
contributions to the story of Nash Farm are 
erased. 

Any future archaeological study at Nash Farm 
should only be undertaken after a competent 
research design has been developed. 
Archaeology is a destructive science and 
excavation destroys parts of our history. It is 
only be detailed recording of the excavation and 
the findings that archaeology can justify its 
existence. All excavation projects should be 
thoroughly documented in a research report, 
following State of Georgia guidelines. If 
carefully managed, the archaeological resources 
at Nash Farm promise to provide great 
discoveries for generations of future 
archaeologists. 



150 



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161 



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Wood County Herald 



162 



1891 Roster and List of Engagements of the 10 T Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, Organized October 1, 1862 at Camp Cleveland, 

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2007 Commanders of the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, http://www.scriptoriumnoviim.eom/c/p/cols.html, August 12, 2007. 



163 



Appendix 1. 

Artifact Inventory, 

Nash Farm Battlefield Park, 

2007 Survey. 



164