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became careless and it did not even occur to them that
the Baron might be seriously contemplating another
attack. That was why, on the night of January 19,
1921, Ungern-Sternberg was able to cross the passes
of Bogdo-Ul from the south and launch a successful
surprise attack on the totally unprepared Chinese army.

Part of the Chinese troops fled towards the north,
while the other part, consisting of 3,000 men, made
for the south. These were pursued by Ungern-
Sternberg's troops and cut down to the last man.
Later, when I visited the district, in the region of
Chorin-Chure, the bones of these unfortunates still lay
scattered in the fields.

After his victory Ungern-Sternberg established
himself in Urga, inaugurating a reign of the blackest
terror. Mass murders were the order of the day and
many of them were committed, or at least witnessed
by Ungern-Sternberg himself. Ossendovski, who goes
out of his way to defend him, attributes all these
horrors not to Ungern-Sternberg but to Colonel
Sepailov, whom he appointed military governor of the
city. Ossendovski in his book also refers to a mys-
terious prophecy which prevented Ungern-Sternberg
from dismissing Sepailov. There is, however, un-
assailable proof that Ungern-Sternberg committed a
number of murders with his own hands and witnessed
the most abominable and beastly killings and pog-
roms. Those unfortunate Jews who had fled to
Mongolia from the Russian pogroms, or those
Russians who, owing to their social position, had
left Red Russia and settled in Urga, were certainly