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Full text of "The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions"

THE NEW WORLD 

TRANSLATION 

and Hebrew Versions 

Book I 

A study of the divine name in the Hebrew Versions 

J 17 and J 18 which are used as "J" references in the 

New World Translation Greek Scriptures. 



J 17 and J 18 are frequently cited as "J" references in the New 
World Translation. According to their title pages, both of 
these Hebrew versions were produced by THE SOCIETY FOR 
DISTRIBUTING THE HOLY SCRIPTURES TO THE JEWS. J 18 is 
further identified as being published by THE TRINITARIAN 
BIBLE SOCIETY. Both groups are based in London, England and 
apparently work cooperatively. 

This book asks two questions: The first is a rhetorical 
question, "Why did the New World Bible Translation 
Committee choose Hebrew versions produced by a Trinitarian 
Bible publisher as support for their New World Translation?" 
It is a question that increasingly comes to mind when we study 
these Hebrew versions. However, it cannot be answered 
because the Translation Committee did not tell us why they 
made that choice. On the other hand, this book can answer 
the second question, "What translation bias will we find in a 
'New Testament' published by a Trinitarian Bible publisher?" 
because we can readily examine the Hebrew vocabulary used 
in these two Hebrew versions. 



CONTENTS 

Chapter 1: The New World Translation 1 

Chapter 2: "J" References From Hebrew Versions 4 

Chapter 3: The NWT's Use of Trinitarian 

Hebrew Versions 11 

Chapter 4: The Hebrew Versions' Translation 

Preference 16 

Chapter 5: Saul on the Road to Damascus 24 

Chapter 6: A Brief Summary 28 

Appendix: HaAdohn in J-*-' — First Corinthians 34 

This and other books are available for free downloading from 

www.tetragrammaton.org 

First printing, 2001 — 25,000 copies 
Release for worldwide internet distribution, 2001 

This book is not copyrighted. 

Material that is quoted from other sources belongs solely to the 
copyright owner of that work. 

All general Scripture quotations are from the 

New World Translation 

published by the 

Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society 
of New York 



Chapter 1: THE NEW WORLD TRANSLATION 

In October, 1946, Watch Tower Society president Nathan H. Knorr 
proposed that the Watch Tower Society produce a translation of 
the Christian Greek Scriptures. The work began in December, 1947. 
The Christian Greek Scripture portion of the New World 
Translation was released for general use on August 2, 1950 before an 
assembly of 82,075 of Jehovah's Witnesses in New York's Yankee 
Stadium. 1 

The foremost feature of the New World Translation 

On page 6 of the New World Translation Reference Edition, 1984, 
the New World Bible Translation Committee states, 

The foremost feature of this translation is the restoration of the 
divine name to its rightful place in the English text. It has been 
done, using the commonly accepted English form "Jehovah" 
6,973 times in the Hebrew Scriptures and 237 times in the 
Christian Greek Scriptures. 

As we would therefore expect, a unique feature of the Christian 
Greek Scriptures within the New World Translation is the use of the 
divine name Jehovah 237 times. 

Hebrew versions 

As most readers know, an important basis for reinstating Jehovah 
into the Christian Greek Scriptures is the presence of the 
Tetragrammaton in 25^ Hebrew versions. 

In Appendix ID of the New World Translation, Reference Edition, 
pages 1564-1565, the Translation Committee states, 

To know where the divine name was replaced by the Greek 
words KupLos [Lord] and 0e6s [God], we have determined where 
the inspired Christian writers have quoted verses, passages and 
expressions from the Hebrew Scriptures and then we have 
referred back to the Hebrew text to ascertain whether the divine 



1 See "All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial," 1990, page 324. 

2 A total of 27 "J" references are listed. Two, however, are not Hebrew 
versions: J 20 is a concordance, and J 21 The Emphatic Diaglott is a Greek- 
English interlinear translation. 



2 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

name appears there. In this way we determined the identity to 
give Kiipios [Lord] and Oeos [God] and the personality with which 
to clothe them. 

To avoid overstepping the bounds of a translator into the field 
of exegesis, we have been most cautious about rendering the 
divine name in the Christian Greek Scriptures, always carefully 
considering the Hebrew Scriptures as a background. We have 
looked for agreement from the Hebrew versions to confirm our 
rendering. 

In the quotation above, the reader must note that the 
"agreement.. .which confirms our rendering," does not come from the 
Hebrew Scriptures, but rather from Hebrew versions (translations). 

Certainly this brief introduction suggests that these Hebrew 
versions should be of interest to us as readers of the New World 
Translation. The purpose of this short book is to evaluate selections 
from the Hebrew version identified as J-*-° with brief reference to 
selections from J . 

When we look at the title page of certain of these Hebrew versions 
we see they are either produced by — or are published in cooperation 
with — an organization in England identified as THE TRINITARIAN 
BIBLE SOCIETY. Why is a Trinitarian Society publishing Hebrew 
language "New Testaments"? Orthodox Jews who deny that Jesus is 
their Messiah certainly do not publish "New Testaments"! On the 
other hand, what common ground does a Messianic^ Jewish translator 
have with a Trinitarian Bible Society? One does not need to probe 
deeply to realize that the Jewish convert has adopted a view of Jesus 
that meets with extreme animosity among Orthodox Jews. Jewry does 
not deny the historic events of Jesus' life, nor the influence he had on 
his own society and subsequent history. Orthodox Jewry simply denies 
that Jesus was their promised Messiah. Messianic Jews generally 
accept that Messiah came being in nature, Jehovah God himself. 

So why is a Jewish translator producing a "New Testament" which 
is published by a Trinitarian Society? We may well surmise that this 



* This information is developed more clearly in the book The Tetragrammaton in 
Hebrew Versions where is it shown that only 112 of the 237 Jehovah 
references come from Hebrew Scripture passages. This downloadable book 
is available at www.tetragrammaton.org and other web sites. 

4 A Messianic Jew is one who has acknowledged that Jesus is Messiah. We 
use this term rather than "Christian" recognizing that the Jewish believer does 
not need to leave his cultural heritage and adopt institutional Christianity in 
order to acknowledge Jesus as Israel's Messiah. 



The New World Translation 3 

Jewish translator is attempting to provide a "New Testament" which 
will convince his fellow Jews that Jesus is Messiah. This he would 
undoubtedly attempt by closely identifying Jesus with titles and 
characteristics attributed to Jehovah because that to many Messianic 
Jews is who Messiah is foretold to be. 

Though we cannot automatically assume all of the above, we must 
cautiously evaluate any Hebrew version to see if there is a translation 
bias that closely identifies Jesus with Jehovah. 

That is what we will attempt to do in this book. We want to 
examine two Hebrew versions to see whether or not they use 
terminology that either unites Jesus with Jehovah or differentiates 
between Jesus and Jehovah. 



Chapter 2: "J" REFERENCES FROM HEBREW 

Version s 



B 



efore we look directly at these Hebrew versions, we need to 
understand how these reference sources were identified and 
applied in the Bible translation process used to produce the New 
World Translation. 

This chapter will give the reader a concise explanation of the 
footnote reference system employed in the Kingdom Interlinear 
Translation which is the Greek textual basis for the New World 
Translation. (Surprisingly, the footnote references are not well 
understood by most Witnesses who use this helpful interlinear edition 
for study.) It is through the footnotes — or the "J" references as they 
are called — that the Hebrew versions have their usefulness in the 
New World Translation Christian Greek Scriptures. 

The Kingdom Interlinear Translation and its footnotes 

The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures^ 
contains an immense amount of information regarding the 237 
occurrences of the name Jehovah in the New World Translation's 
Christian Greek Scriptures. The bulk of the following information 
comes from the 1969 edition because it is the more comprehensive of 
the two. (The important FOREWORD was condensed in the 1985 
edition.) However, the 1985 edition includes additional Hebrew 
version citations that are not found in the earlier edition. 

The footnote and reference system used in the Kingdom Interlinear 
Translation is comprehensive and easy to use. Nonetheless, a brief 
explanation is necessary in order to enhance its usefulness. The 
Kingdom Interlinear Translation contains three complete Christian 
Scripture texts. The main section contains both a faithful reproduction 
of the original Greek text based on Westcott and Hort's work and an 
interlinear word-for-word English translation. The right-hand 
column consists of a parallel New World Translation text. 

Each time the divine name appears in the New World Translation 
text, an attached asterisk (i.e., Jehovah*) identifies a footnote for 
that verse. Within each footnote, the reader is given a first group of 



1 Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 1969 and 1985. 



"J" References from Hebrew Versions 5 

citations consisting of Hebrew translations containing the 
Tetragrammaton, and a second group of citations identifying early 
Greek manuscripts that use the Greek word Kyrios^ (Lord). 

1. The first group of textual sources consists of Hebrew translations 

that use the Tetragrammaton in that verse. These occurrences of 
mrp3 substantiate the English translation Jehovah. The Hebrew 
translations are identified as J , J , ]*, and so on, continuing to y-' . 
Each of the letter and superscript symbols are known as "J" 
references because they support the name Jehovah in the New 
World Translation. 

2. The second group of textual sources consists of a select number of 

early Greek manuscripts and Armenian, Syriac, and Latin versions 
which substantiate the Greek word Kyrios [Lord] (or, on occasion, 
Theos [God]). Though not all manuscripts are represented in 
each citation, the Greek manuscripts are identified by a unique 
symbol assigned to each as N, A, B, C, D, L, P 45 , P 46 , P 47 , P 66 , P 74 , 
and P . The Latin and other language versions are identified as 

Arm, It, Sy, SyP, Sy c , Sy h , Sy hi , SyP, Sy s , Vg, Vg c , and Vg s . These 
manuscripts support the word Lord (from Kyrios) in both the 
Greek and English portions of the Kingdom Interlinear 
Translation. 

In a helpful introductory section of the Kingdom Interlinear 
Translation, each of these footnote reference texts is enumerated with 
a brief description and publication date. For example, J 7 of group 1 
above (which is the document cited most frequently) is listed as the 
"Greek Scriptures in Hebrew." This is a translation (version) of the 
original Greek Scriptures into Hebrew published by Elias Hutter of 
Nuremberg in 1599. Thus, the footnote reference "J in the New 
World Translation tells us that the choice of the name Jehovah in a 
particular verse is based on the use of the divine name in this 1599 
Hebrew translation from a Greek manuscript. 

This same Jehovah footnote also lists Greek manuscripts 
identified in group 2 that support the choice of Westcott and Hort in 
the Kingdom Interlinear Translation. In most cases, their choice from 



2 The Greek word KiJpos is the word generally translated as Lord in the 
Christian Greek Scriptures. We will refer to this word in the text as Kyrios 
using the English spelling favored by Watch Tower Society publications. 

3 We will generally follow the Watch Tower publishers' practice of representing 
the Tetragrammaton without vowel points. The Tetragrammaton is the four- 
letter representation of God's name in Hebrew as mn\ 



6 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

the best extant manuscripts was the Greek word Kyrios and is 
translated Lord. If, for example, the footnote lists "B" as the Greek 
manuscript evidence, it is referring to a Greek Scripture manuscript 
called the Vatican MS. No. 1209 which is a fourth century Greek 
manuscript. (That is, the evidence supporting the Greek word used in 
the Kingdom Interlinear Translation with this citation shows that 
Kyrios was used in the verse as early as the fourth century — between 
301 and 400 C.E.) 

In almost all cases, both the "J" references and the Kyrios 
references will cite multiple Hebrew versions or Greek manuscripts. 

The Kingdom Interlinear Translation format 

It is possible that some readers are unfamiliar with the format of 
an interlinear Bible. It may be helpful to the reader to see a 



22 touto 8e 6Xov yeyovev ivct 

This but whole has happened in order that 

TrXr|pt'j9fj to pr|8ev utto Kupiou 

might be fulfilled the (thing) spoken by Lord 

8id toO Trpo(|>r|ToiJ XeyovTOS 23 ISoii 
through the prophet saying Look! 

r| TTCtpBevos' ev yaoTpi. efei Kal 

The virgin in belly will have and 

Te^eTaL uLov, ml KaXeaovaiv to 

will give birth to son, and they will call the 

ovopa auToO ' Ep,p:avour|X 6 eanv 

name of him Immanuel; which is 

p;e9epp:r|veu6p;evov Me6 r\[i&v 6 8eos. 
being translated With us the God. 

24 'Eyep06LS 8e 6 I(jjot|4> otto 

Having been awakened but the loseph from 

toO \mvov eTTOLT|aev tog TrpoaeTa^ev aiiTto 6 
the sleep did as directed to him the 

dyyeXos KupLou ical TrapeXapiev Tr|v yuvaiKa 
angel of Lord and he took along the woman 

auToO 
of him; 



22 All this actually 
came about for that 
to be fulfilled which 
was spoken by 
Jehovah* 23 "Look! 
The virgin will 
become pregnant 
and will give birth to 
a son, and they will 
call his name 
Immanuel," which 
means, when 

translated, "With Us 
Is God." 

24 Then Joseph 
woke up from his 
sleep and did as the 
angel of Jehovah* 
had directed him, 
and he took his wife 
home. 



22* Jehovah, J 1 " 4 ' 7 " 14 - 16 " 18 - 22 " 24 ' 26 ; Lord, KB. 24* Jehovah, J 1 " 4 ' 7 ' 14 < 16-18,22- 
24 ; Lord, KB. 



Figure 1 : Format of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation. 



"]" References from Hebrew Versions 7 

reproduction of the actual format consisting of the Greek text, the 
word-for-word English translation beneath each corresponding Greek 
word, and the New World Translation column on the right. The 
footnotes for all verses are grouped together at the bottom of the page. 
Figure 1 shows Matthew 1:22-24 as these verses and their 
corresponding footnotes appear in the Kingdom Interlinear 
Translation. 

Footnote "J" references and Greek manuscripts 

Looking now at the references themselves will help you 
understand what the footnote means. Since the footnote for verses 22 
and 24 cite similar sources, the information in Table 1 applies to both 
verses. From the footnote information we know that the 
Tetragrammaton (niPP) is found in each of the Hebrew versions ] , J 

/ jl°~l°, j22-24^ ant j j26 xhese versions and their translation 4 - dates 
are as follows: 



"J" 
Number 



Name of Version and Translator 



tr 



Date of 
anslation 



J 1 


Matthew in Hebrew; Jean du Tillet. 


1555 


J 2 


Matthew in Hebrew; Shem-Tob-ben-Shaprut. 


1385 


J 3 


Matthew and Hebrews in Hebrew; Sebastian 
Munster. 


1537 


J 4 


Matthew in Hebrew; Johannes Quinquarboreus 


1551 


J 7 


Christian Greek Scriptures in Hebrew; Elias 
Hutter. 


1599 


J 8 


Christian Greek Scriptures in Hebrew; William 
Robertson. 


1661 


J 9 


Four Gospels, translated from the Latin Vulgate 
by John Baptist Jonah. 


1639 


jlO 


Revision of the Hutter-Robertson Gospels 
translation by Richard Caddick. 


1800 



4 The Kingdom Interlinear Translation cites J 1 " 4 as translations. However, 
these four Hebrew documents may actually be copies and editions that come 
from Matthew's Hebrew Gospel rather than translations from a Greek text as 
do the remainder of the "J" references. (See The Tetragrammaton and the 
Christian Greek Scriptures, Chapter 5, Matthew's Gospel in Hebrew on 
www.tetragrammaton.org.) 



The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 



Jll 


Greefc Scriptures in Hebrew, T. Fry, G.B. 
Collyer, and others. 


1817 


J 12 


Christian Greek Scriptures, W. Greenfield. 


1831 


J 13 


Christian Greek Scriptures in Hebrew; 
A. McCaul and others. 


1838 


jl4 


Christian Greek Scriptures in Hebrew; John 
Christian Reichardt. 


1846 


jl6 


Christian Greek Scriptures in Hebrew; John 
Christian Reichardt and Joachim H. R. 
Blesenthal. 


1866 


J 17 


Christian Greek Scriptures, Franz Delitzsch. 


1877 


J 18 


Christian Greek Scriptures in Hebrew; Isaac 
Salkinson. 


1885 


j22 


Christian Greek Scriptures in Hebrew, United 
Bible Societies 


1979 


j23 


Christian Greek Scriptures, J Bauchet 


1975 


j24 


A Literal Translation of the New Testament, 
Herman Heinfetter 


1863 


j26 


Psalms and Matthew 1:1-3:6, Anton Margaritha 


1533 



Table 1. The Hebrew versions substantiating Jehovah at Matthew 
1:22 and 24. 



From this same verse, a similar (though shorter) lisP is given for 
the word Kyrios which is generally translated as Lord. Again, notice 



' The number of references to Kyrios (or Lord) passages are fewer in the 
Kingdom Interlinear Translation only because the editors have chosen to cite 
so few of the over 5,000 existing Greek manuscripts which are available 
today. All Greek manuscripts are uniform in their use of Kyrios (or Theos 
[God]) rather than the Tetragrammaton. The United Bible Societies' Christian 
Greek Scripture textual apparatus (A Textual Commentary on the Greek New 
Testament), which shows all textual variants in cited Greek manuscripts, was 
consulted for each of the 237 Jehovah references. This volume lists all 
recognized Greek Scripture manuscript variations from which translators 
must choose. The following count was made for each of the Jehovah 
references: Seventy-one of the 237 references are specifically discussed in 
this textual apparatus because there is some textual issue among available 
Greek manuscripts. However, the presence of the Tetragrammaton is never 
mentioned for any of these 71 verses, and is therefore not considered as a 
textual variant in any known Greek manuscript. Further, because the 
remaining 166 references are not mentioned, we are assured that no basis for 



"]" References from Hebrew Versions 9 

the date when these early Greek manuscripts were copied. This 
footnote information is shown in Table 2. 



Manuscript Manuscript Name Date 

Symbol Copied 



X 


Codex Sinaiticus, an early uncial Greek 
manuscript. 


301-400 
CE 


B 


Codex Vaticanus (MS No, 1209), an early uncial 
Greek manuscript. 


301-400 
CE 



Table 2. The Greek word Kyrios substantiating Lord at Matthew 1:22 
and 24. 



Comparative dates of supporting evidence 

A simple review of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation's 
footnotes should immediately focus on the dates given for the 
supporting manuscript/ version evidence for either Kyrios (Lord) or the 
Tetragrammaton in the Christian Greek Scriptures. 

We must first ask ourselves this question, "Which evidence is most 
likely to tell us the exact words the original Scripture writers used?" 
Will the best evidence come from comparing numerous ancient 
manuscripts copied within one or two hundred years of the original 
writing, or will the best evidence come from versions which were 
translated some 1300 to 1900 years after the original manuscripts were 
written? Needless to say, the older the manuscript, the closer it is to 
the original writings. Certainly it can be shown that alterations 
occurred in very ancient manuscripts, though this limitation is often 
corrected in reviewing a larger number of manuscripts. Nonetheless, in 
general the closer the manuscript evidence is to the original 
documents, the less probability there is of repeated copying mistakes. 

It should immediately catch our attention that the footnotes in 
the Kingdom Interlinear Translation give evidence for the Greek word 
Kyrios — which is translated Lord — from manuscripts as early as 200 
C.E., and quite commonly from 300 to 400 CE. On the other hand, the 
evidence given for the Tetragrammaton comes from Hebrew versions 



textual variants exists in any of the 237 Jehovah references. However, a 
debate between Kyrios (Kvpios) [Lord] or Theos (9eos) [God] as a 
possible choice for a specific verse occurs 31 times meaning that both 
Kyrios and Theos are used in manuscripts available for these 31 verses. 



10 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

that are translations made for Hebrew readers from these same Greek 
manuscripts which we know do not contain the Tetragrammaton. 
What is more, these Hebrew translations were done relatively 
recently with dates no earlier than the late 1300s. 



6 Other downloadable books available from www.tetragrammaton.org 
comprehensively discuss the issues relating to Hebrew versions. See 
particularly, The Tetragrammaton in Hebrew Versions or The Tetragrammaton 
in the Christian Greek Scriptures. 



Chapter 3: THE NWT'S USE OF TRINITARIAN HEBREW 

Versions 



It is surprising to realize that the New World Bible Translation 
Committee used Hebrew versions published by the Trinitarian 
Bible Society and its apparent affiliates as "J" references. Mission 
agencies seeking to spread Christianity among Jews are the 
primary publishers of Hebrew-language versions. To this end, the 
LONDON JEWISH SOCIETY published J 11 , J 13 , and J 16 , THE SOCIETY 
FOR DISTRIBUTING THE HOLY SCRIPTURES TO THE JEWS published 
J 17 , and the TRINITARIAN BIBLE SOCIETY published J 18 . Inspection of 
the English title pages of these versions shows that the publishers of 
y-' and y-° apparently worked cooperatively. 

Reliance on Hebrew versions to supplant the Greek text of the 
Kingdom Interlinear Translation is an acknowledgment by the New 
World Bible Translation Committee that these Hebrew versions carry 
greater authority in the 237 Jehovah references than do the best 
extant Greek manuscripts which universally use Kyrios . 
Consequently, for at least the 237 Jehovah references found in the New 
World Translation Greek Scriptures, these versions are elevated to 
the level of inspired Scripture. As a result, we must examine these 
versions to determine their use of the Tetragrammaton and other titles 
of God, and not merely the presence of the Tetragrammaton. It is 
appropriate not only to look at the references that translate Kyrios as 
Jehovah, but also to evaluate related verses that refer to Hebrew 
titles for God such as Adonai. Ideally, we would examine all 25 
Hebrew versions used for textual support 3 of the Tetragrammaton 
within the New World Translation Christian Greek Scriptures. We 



1 The Greek word Kyrios appears 714 times in the Greek Scriptures of the 
Kingdom Interlinear Translation and is translated 651 times as Lord, the title 
of Jesus. It is used of men 62 times (and once as "Lords") where the New 
World Translation renders it as "sir," "master," "owner," etc. when applied to 
individuals other than Jesus. The New World Translation renders it Jehovah 
223 times. 

2 We would normally place the emphasis on the original Greek text as the one 
that was inspired. However, when a later translation from the Greek text is 
used to establish any word over the known Greek text, the translation itself 
then becomes a higher standard of authority than the original text. 

3 By textual support we mean "J" version references. 



12 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

are limited, however, to the two Hebrew versions at hand that, 
nonetheless, give us an insight into the meaning of the words chosen by 
the Hebrew version translators. 

Adonai and Adonenu in appendix descriptions 

The New World Translation, Reference Edition, 1984 has several 
appendices regarding the divine name in Hebrew and other Hebrew 
language topics. In the remainder of this book, we will identify any 
one of several Hebrew words as they are written in the Reference 
Edition's appendix material. In almost all cases, the Hebrew words 
are transliterated into English letters without accompanying Hebrew 
letters. In the one instance where Hebrew letters are used for Adonai 
(Appendix IB), modern vowel points are not added. In general, we 
will use the English letters adopted by the Watch Tower Society in 
our description of the Hebrew text. When transcribing the Hebrew 
text from either y-' or J , we will include the vowel pointing, as this 
adds precision to those who are able to read Hebrew. In some 
instances, we will transport either the English letters used by the 
Watch Tower Society into the Hebrew text, or we will bring the 
Hebrew word into the English text. This will allow more certain 
identification of the exact word being described. 

To the reader unfamiliar with the importance of the divine name, 
we must give this brief explanation. The divine name is written iTIiT 
(YHWH) in the Hebrew Scriptures. The New World Translation (and 
a limited number of other English Bibles) appropriately translated 
these four Hebrew letters (the Tetragrammaton) with the English 
name Jehovah. In contrast, the Hebrew word Adonai is not a name. 
Rather it is a title. However, as we will see in the quotation below, 
during certain periods of Jewish history, Adonai was used in place of 
the divine name to avoid pronouncing mil". 

Appendix IB (New World Translation, Reference Edition, page 
1562) describes Adonai as follows, 

'From time immemorial the Jewish canons decreed that the 
incommunicable name is to be pronounced Adonai as if it were 
written 'HK ['Adho-nai'] instead of mrp [YHWH]. Nothing was, 
therefore, more natural for the copyists than to substitute the 
expression which exhibited the pronunciation for the 
Tetragrammaton which they were forbidden to pronounce.' 

Throughout the remainder of this book, we will recognize , 31K (or 
'nS with modern vowel points) as the word Adonai. 



The NWT's Use of Trinitarian Hebrew Versions 13 

Adonai comes from the word Adon (|HS). We need to understand 
the meaning of a second word that also comes from the noun Adon. The 
word is Adonenu. Adonenu is derived from Adon with the suffix (as 
read from right-to-left) -enu (ir -) which adds the possessive our, 
becoming Adonenu (irnX) or "our Lord." (See Appendix 3B, page 1571 
of the New World Translation, Reference Edition for an explanation of 
the suffix enu meaning "our.") 

Adonai and Adonenu in the Trinitarian Bible Society text 

Before going further, we need to explain the difference between 
Adonai and Jesus' customary title Adonenu. Adonai is rendered as 
Sovereign Lord in the Hebrew Scriptures of the New World 
Translation. Appendix IE (page 1566) of the New World Translation, 
Reference Edition, 1985, says: 

The Hebrew word 'Adhonai' without an additional suffix always 
refers to Jehovah God, denoting his sovereign power. Therefore, it 
is appropriate to render it as "Sovereign Lord." 

Thus, in Exodus 4:10 and 13, Moses twice says, "Excuse me 
Jehovah," * when addressing God using the Hebrew word Adonai. An 
appropriate English translation is Master, or as generally translated 
in reference to Jehovah, Sovereign Lord. 

However, in the Hebrew version identified as J , Adonenu is 
generally applied to Jesus. An example of Adonenu used to identify 
Jesus is found at 1 Thessalonians 1:1. The English wording is from the 
New World Translation: 

n'prnn D'p^ftonn mr^ Di 9 nia , Qi onfio) ofris 
:nt>ti) n^ ion (^rm^rroan ujErni irnx dti^x? 

Paul and Silvanus and Timothy to the congrecTation o f th e 
Thessalonians in union with God the Father and [our]XCo~r7 
(Adonenu prnN]) Jesus Christ. 



^ See Appendix 1B, page 1562 of the New World Translation, Reference 
Edition, 1984, for a possible alternate reading. 

5 At 1 Thessalonians 1 :8, this Hebrew version uses the divine name (HilT) 
which is translated as Jehovah in the New World Translation. Interestingly, 
the English portion of this same Hebrew-English volume translates the 
Hebrew niir at verse 8 as Lord. It is obvious that this Hebrew version does 
not separate HIT from Jesus. 



14 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

In many instances, when Jesus is the clear subject of a verse, this 
Hebrew version uses the Hebrew word Adonenu to translate the Greek 
word Kyrios. Adonenu is the word used in our first example from 
1 Thessalonians 1:1. Some additional examples follow. Though we 
have not included the complete Hebrew text, we have given the 
Hebrew word that was used in the Hebrew text" in brackets. Note 
that all of these verses use Adonenu (1]"]TS) to identify Jesus as our 
Lord. 

May undeserved kindness and peace be increased to you by an 
accurate knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord (Adonenu 
prn^]) (2 Peter 1:2). 

To the congregation of God that is in Corinth, to you who have 
been sanctified in union with Christ Jesus, called to be holy ones, 
together with all who everywhere are calling upon the name of our 
Lord {Adonenu prn*?]) Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 1 :2). 

Now on the occasion of [Jesus] being in a certain place praying, 
when he stopped, a certain one of his disciples said to him: "Lord 
(Adonenu prn^]), teach us how to pray, just as John also taught 
his disciples" (Luke 1 1 :1). 

From these four examples, we can see that the Hebrew version fl° 
uses the Hebrew word Adonenu when referring to the Lord (Jesus). 

Adoni, a distinctly different word 

In closing this chapter, we must make a distinction between two 
words that differ only in their vowel points. Adoni, which is written 
in Hebrew as "3 IS can be used in a form of address to mean "sir." This 
jl° Hebrew version uses it accordingly, and with great frequency in 
recording people's address to Jesus. 

And, look! a Phoenician woman from those regions came out 
and cried aloud, saying: "[My] Lord (Adoni ['H^]), Son of David. 
My daughter is badly demonized."... When the woman came she 
began doing obeisance to him, saying: "[My] Lord (Adoni ['H*?]) 
help me!" In answer he said: "It is not right to take the bread of the 
children and throw it to little dogs." She said: "Yes, [My] Lord 
(Adoni ['ft*?]) but really the little dogs do eat of the crumbs falling 
from the table of their masters" (Matthew 15:22, 25-27). 



° These verses are quoted using the English wording of the New World 
Translation while showing the Hebrew characters used in the Hebrew version. 
In each case, the Hebrew word is a translation of the Greek word Kyrios. 



The NWT's Use of Trinitarian Hebrew Versions 15 

Adonai (^iK), is a distinctly different word from Adoni ("HX), and 
should not be confused with it. However, review the statement made 
in Appendix IE of the New World Translation Reference Edition. (See 
the quotation on our page number 12.) Because no vowel points are used 
(the Hebrew word appears in the Reference Edition's Appendix IB as 
'HN), we could allow the editor's statement to include either Adonai 
O^iK), or Adoni ('HX). Needless to say, Appendix IB could be used to 
"prove" that a large number of verses in this Hebrew version address 
Jesus with a title that "always refers to Jehovah God, denoting his 
sovereign power." However, we will not resort to that degree of 
imprecision in this book. 



Chapter 4: The Hebrew Versions' Translation 
Preference 



With the background of the previous chapter regarding the 
Adon family of Hebrew words, we can now look at their 
actual use in this Hebrew version identified as J . What 
might we expect the translation preference of Trinitarian 
Bible publishers to be regarding the person of Christ? Would 
Trinitarian Bible publishers separate the personalities represented by 
the divine name (iTliT) and Kyrios, or would they unite their identity? 
(Clearly, the New World Translation has separated their identity in 
order to avoid a united identity between the Father and Jesus.) 

On page 18 of the Foreword of the 1969 edition of the Kingdom 
Interlinear Translation, the translators say: 

When coming upon quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures 
where the [divine] Name appeared, the translators in Hebrew had 
no other recourse than to render ky'rios ortheos' back into its 
original Tetragrammaton form mn\ (Emphasis added.) 

This can be easily verified with any Hebrew version. If, for 
instance, all Kingdom Interlinear Translation footnote references to J 18 
are consulted, the Tetragrammaton will be found in the indicated 
verse citations. We would expect that all "J" references in the 
Kingdom Interlinear Translation are correct and that each of these 
Hebrew versions uses the Tetragrammaton as indicated. 

However, though the statement quoted above is generally true, i t 
is not always the case! There are two notable exceptions. Both 1 Peter 
2:3 and 1 Peter 3:15 were problematic verses for the translators of the 
New World Translation. However, for the moment we are considering 
only the translation preference of this Trinitarian Bible publisher. 

1 Peter 2:3 quotes Psalm 34:8 which says, "Taste and see that 
Jehovah (miT) is good, O YOU people." It is interesting to see how 
this Hebrew version translates the verse. 1 Peter 2:3 in this Hebrew 
version is written in both Hebrew and English as follows: 



1 The one exception to this statement will be the Shem-Tob version that uses 
the circumlocution "The Name" rather than the Tetragrammaton. Thus, all J 2 
references in Matthew stand for "The Name" rather than IT) PP. The Watch 
Tower Society recently confirmed Matthew's circumlocution in J 2 even though 
reference to it is not made in current editions of KIT. 



The Hebrew Versions' Translation Preference 17 



irnx)3io _, 3 nnoi;o n^onm nox3 ptdk 




If so be ye have tasted that [our] (LordJ is gracious. 

Thus, a Hebrew version used as a supporting Jehovah reference by 
the Neiv World Translation freely translates the Greek word Kyrios 
as Adonenu ( irnN) for a Hebrew Scripture quotation known to use the 
divine name (iTIiT). 2 In so doing, this Hebrew version clearly 
identifies Jesus with "Jehovah God" of Psalm 34:8. The Hebrew 
translators confirmed that Jesus is the subject of the verse by their 
accompanying English translation that uses the word Lord. (Without 
question, Jesus is the subject of 1 Peter 2:3 because he is the "living stone 
. . . rejected ... by men.") As we saw in the proceeding chapter, the word 
Adonenu (ir]TS) is the title our Lord that is used most frequently with 
reference to Jesus in this Hebrew translation. 

At 1 Peter 3:15 we again see the translation preference of this 
Hebrew version. The initial portion of the Hebrew and English 
entries for this verse says, 

DDrn'pa ietipii ink tfr. 

But sanctify the([Messia^(ri , E'Qn"nx) our] 

Unmistakably, this Hebrew version uses Jesus' title Lord within a 
verse that is again quoted from a Hebrew Scripture reference 
employing the divine name (mil 1 ). Certainly, two instances are a 
small number as compared with a total of approximately 90 verses in 
the Christian Greek Scriptures that quote Hebrew Scripture references 
using the Tetragrammaton. Nonetheless, the statement is false which 
says, 

When coming upon quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures 




2 Another "J" reference, A Concordance to the Greek Testament by Moulton 
and Geden which is identified in KIT as J 20 , cites Psalm 34:8 and niPP at 
1 Peter 2:3. In spite of the Translation Committee's statement that such a 
verse should be translated as Jehovah because it is a quotation of a Hebrew 
Scripture verse using mn\ they ignore their own rule and translate this verse 
with Lord because of its reference to Jesus. (For reference see the quotation 
at the beginning of this chapter from page 1 8 of the forward in KIT.) 



18 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

where the [divine] Name appeared, the translators in Hebrew had 
no other recourse than to render ky'ri-os or theos' back into its 
original Tetragrammaton form ftW. 

The wording "no other recourse" in the above quotation is incorrect. In 
at least two instances, the translators of this Hebrezv version used 
Hebrew Scripture quotations containing the Tetragrammaton (miT) 
and translated miT into the title for Jesus meaning "our Lord" 
(Adonenu [irn^f]). 

Confirmation of the Translation Committee's statement 

On the other hand, we find an interesting confirmation of the 
Translation Committee's statement in y'. In this instance, the 
translator of y' realized that 1 Peter 3:15 was a true quotation of 
Isaiah 8:13 which used the divine name. Therefore, he translated the 
Greek word Kyrios as mil". This passage is also verified in y" as being 
a quotation of Isaiah 8:13. 

The first portion of the verse appears in both y' and the New 
World Translation as follows: 

0333^3 lETipn ink wribx 
But sanctify the Christ as (Tord) in YOUR hearts. 

The New World Bible Translation Committee did not insert 
Jehovah into the English text of this verse even though a Hebrew 
version used the Tetragrammaton. Even more, they failed to add 
Jehovah in spite of the fact that the Kingdom Interlinear Translation 
"J" reference footnote lists J , J, J , J , J , y" and y' as containing 
the Tetragrammaton. 

haAdhon in the Trinitarian Bible Society text 

We find another unexpected use of translated words in the Hebrew 
version y°. 

However, before turning to the passages themselves, we must 
review another citation from Appendix 1H of the New World 
Translation Reference Edition that says: 

The title 'Adhohn', []i"iX] "Lord; Master," when preceded by the 
definite article ha, [n] "the," gives the expression ha 'Adhohn', 



The Hebrew Versions' Translation Preference 19 

[ji~ixn] "the [true] Lord." The use of the definite article ha before 
the title 'Adhohn' limits the application of this title exclusively to 
Jehovah God. [Hebrew text added.] 3 

The reader would be surprised to peruse both J 17 and J 18 and 
discover that the translators have frequently used this title of 
Jehovah himself to identify the Lord Jesus. In many instances, this 
identification is made only by the context within the Hebrew text. 
(That is, ]i~Tf<n is used in a Hebrew passage which is essentially 
talking about Jesus. In some cases, the passage may accommodate 
moving alternately between the subjects of Lord and Jehovah. In other 
cases, however, the subject is the Lord Jesus and cannot be understood to 
mean Jehovah.) In all cases from which these examples were taken, 
the accompanying English text published as an integral part of y-' or 
jl° includes the English word Lord. 

The following illustrations are quoted directly from the English 
portion of J . The Hebrew word that is used in this version is inserted 
into the text in parentheses. Also included in the parentheses is the 
definition of this Hebrew word as given in the appendix of the New 
World Translation with the customary translation enclosed in 
brackets. Many additional illustrations could be given. 

That the Lord (fnKH— Sovereign Lord [Jehovah]) Jesus {!fi&) 
the same night in which he was betrayed took bread. 
(1 Corinthians 11:23) 

And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord 
(jlixn — Sovereign Lord [Jehovah]), to the glory of God the Father. 
(Philippians 2:11) 

But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord (j'HXn — Sovereign 
Lord [Jehovah]) [the NWT inserts Jehovah] will. (I Corinthians 4:19) 

The Lord ()'HXn — Sovereign Lord [Jehovah]) is risen indeed, 
and hath appeared to Simon. (Luke 24:34) 

Notice carefully how the New World Bible Translation 
Committee handled this Hebrew word. According to their own 
grammatical rule, haAdohn "ifKn is translated as Jehovah at 
1 Corinthians 4:19 and 1 Corinthians 7:17. (See this book's appendix 



3 The reader should be aware that this statement is not fully acceptable to a 
majority of Hebrew scholars. However, inasmuch as this has been a principle 
followed in the Hebrew Scripture translation of the New World Translation, it 
should be expected that it would equally apply to the use of Hebrew versions 
in the New World Translation's rendition of the Christian Scriptures. 



20 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

for 1 Corinthians 7:17.) However, a simple verification within the 
New World Translation of the remaining three verses used in this 
example indicate that the New World Bible Translation Committee 
did not follow their own rule at 1 Corinthians 11:23, Philippians 2:11, 
or Luke 24:34. From the appendix information given at the end of this 
book, we see that from just 1 Corinthians alone, haAdohn appears 19 
times. Of these 19 occurrences, however, it is translated as Lord 16 
times in the New World Translation, and as Jehovah 3 times. (See the 
Appendix: HaAdohn in J 17 — First Corinthians for the discussion of 
these 1 Corinthians passages.) 

HaAdohn [jilXn] is used frequently of Jesus in these two Hebrew 
versions. The New World Bible Translation Committee says that 
haAdohn means "The [true] Lord" [and that] the use of the definite 
article ha before the title ' A-dhohn' limits the application of this title 
exclusively to Jehovah God." Yet, we find a very high frequency of 
this term in these Hebrew versions. The reader should be aware that 
these Hebrew versions use haAdohn frequently, and apply it to Jesus. 

It is disturbing to realize that the New World Bible Translation 
Committee translated haAdohn as Jehovah in two instances verified 
in this study, but as Lord in the majority of instances when the Hebrew 
version's use of haAdohn affirms a divine nature of Jesus. 

Other insights from the appendix information 

Many interesting insights come from reviewing the information 
coming from y- in this book's appendix. The information is 
summarized in the appendix table entitled All Kyrios reference totals 
for 1 Corinthians. Initially, we can verify that the "J" references 
accurately report the occurrences of mil" in this Hebrew version. The 
footnote "J" references of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation cite 8 
instances of iTliT in 1 Corinthians that we can verify in the text. 

Within 1 Corinthians, we also realize that the single word Kyrios 
in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation is translated as Jehovah 15 
times and as Lord 51 times in the New World Translation. When we 
examine each entry carefully, we realize that y' has similarly 
translated Kyrios as both m!T and haAdohn. (Three times as HUT and 
16 times as haAdohn.) However, when we read each entry with its 
accompanying English translation, we realize that the Hebrew 
version is not separating the identities of haAdohn and iTliT by 
making them distinctly different, y' freely uses Lord in the parallel 
English translation of both haAdohn and iTliT. 



The Hebrew Versions' Translation Preference 21 

We make another rather unexpected observation when evaluating 
the appendix information from y'. We discover that at 4:19, 10:9, 21 
(twice), 22, and 11:32, the Hebrew versions do not agree regarding the 
translation of the Greek word Kyrios to mil". Thus, according to the "J" 
references at 10:9, and 11:32, there are only three versions that 
actually use mil". In three other instances, there is agreement between 
only four Hebrew versions. Conversely, it means that the remaining 22 
versions (or 21 versions where there are four citations) do not contain 
the Tetragrammaton. Thus, we realize that the Translation 
Committee did not explain an important translation criteria. What 
strength of support was necessary in order to alter the known wording 
of the Greek text of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation from Lord to 
Jehovah! Did all Hebrew versions need to agree, or could only three 
Hebrew versions sway the Translation Committee even when all 
remaining versions used different vocabulary? The importance of this 
translation criteria is particularly obvious at 1 Corinthians 10:9. If 
the New World Translation had not used Jehovah at 1 Corinthians 
10:9, the verse would have attributed to Jesus close identity with 
Jehovah of the Hebrew Scriptures. 

None of these comments endorse the theological predisposition of 
J . It certainly raises a question, however, as to why the New World 
Bible Translation Committee chose to use these Hebrew versions when 
the clear intent of at least two of them is to identify Jesus as haAdohn 

with mn\ 

J 17 and J 18 's identification of HIPP with Lord 

Some of the Hebrew versions produced in English speaking 
countries were printed as two-language translations. That is, they 
had both Hebrew and English parallel texts. They were not produced 
as interlinear translations with one word-for-word text over the 
other. Rather, they gave an unbroken Hebrew text on one page and an 
English text on the facing page. Both y' and y° are produced in this 
format. 

This facing-page arrangement of the text allows us to compare the 
Hebrew and English texts. For obvious reasons, neither a translator 
nor a conscientious Bible publisher would produce a two-language 
Bible that — in their point of view — contained gross inconsistencies 
between the two texts. 

Therefore, we can use this Hebrew-English arrangement as a 
commentary for the intended meaning of mil" in the Hebrew 
translation. It would interest the reader to glance through either y' 



22 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

or jl° and notice the parallel passages where the Tetragrammaton is 
used in the Hebrew text. Almost without exception, the English text 
reads Lord. 

We cannot give this evidence more weight than it merits. It is not, 
in fact, a written statement by the translator that he considers the 
Tetragrammaton and the word Lord to have exact equivalence. 
Nonetheless, it is an interesting fact that this arrangement occurs. 

Throughout this book we have sought evidence that would 
indicate the bias of these Hebrew version translators. We can only 
present the following comment as being suggestive. Nonetheless, in 
light of our other observations of these translator's use of vocabulary 
choices to closely identify Jesus with Jehovah, it is undoubtedly 
significant that they use two-language texts which appear to have an 
exact equivalence between iTIiT and Lord. The indication is that these 
Hebrew version translators understood the divine name HIIT to 
properly describe Jesus as Lord. 

A summary 

We began this section with the question, "What might we expect 
the translation preference of Trinitarian Bible publishers to be 
regarding the person of Christ?" From this brief examination, it 
appears that at least these two Hebrew versions unite the identities 
represented by the divine name (miT) and Kyrios. That is, rather 
than delineating between them, these two versions will, on occasion, 
identify Jesus himself as the Sovereign Lord haAdohn (}HXn). (See 
particularly Luke 24:34 above and the information in this book's 
Appendix.) Notwithstanding the last statement, these same two 
Hebrew versions also freely use the divine name (mil") when the 
Hebrew translators deemed it appropriate to do so. 

At least these two^ Hebrew versions identify Jesus with Hebrew 
titles of deity in stark contrast to the identification that he is given in 



4 Both Hebrew versions used in this study were compared, showing similar 
(though not identical) word usage. The primary study was done from J 18 . The 
second Hebrew version J 17 was compared in the case of 1 Peter 2:3 and 
3:15. At 1 Peter 2:3, this second version uses haAdohn (]TlKn) with the 
meaning the [true] Lord, or Jehovah. As noted earlier, the second version 
clearly uses the Tetragrammaton with modern vowel points as HIIT at 1 Peter 
3:15. After seeing this difference in the Hebrew translators' choice of words, 
the reader understands that all Hebrew versions must be evaluated 
independently. We cannot make generalized statements from these two 
Hebrew versions that universally apply to all "J" references. 



The Hebrew Versions' Translation Preference 23 

the New World Translation. The Hebrew version translators use the 
Tetragrammaton (mil") when translating verses quoted from the 
Hebrew Scriptures. Concurrently, when an inspired Christian Greek 
Scripture writer identifies the Lord Jesus within a verse containing a 
Hebrew Scripture quotation such as 1 Peter 2:3 and 3:15, these Hebrew 
translators also freely identify our Lord Adonenu (l^nx) as the subject. 
(In the case of J-*-', the Hebrew translator actually identifies Jesus as 
mil".) The identification of our Lord [Jesus] with Jehovah (mil") is 
unmistakable in these two Hebrew versions. 

As previously mentioned, it is also noteworthy that the English 
texts of these two Hebrew versions do not use the English word 
Jehovah when the Tetragrammaton occurs in the Hebrew text. 
Rather, Lord is the English word used to translate mil 1 . 

After examining these Hebrew versions, we also realize that the 
translators of the New World Translation have been selective in the 
use of "J" references. In the Hebrew Scriptures, they have always 
translated haAdohn ()HXH — Sovereign Lord) as Jehovah. However, 
in our own independent study of one Hebrew version, we find that the 
Committee translated this same word three times as Jehovah and 16 
times as Lord in a single Christian Scripture book. Were we to search 
through the entire list of 714 Kyrios references in this Hebrew version, 
we most certainly would see the same translation pattern repeated 
many times. Every appearance is that the New World Bible 
Translation Committee's translation work favored a theological 
predisposition rather than the grammatical rules they established 
for the translation process. 

Why did the translators of the New World Translation 
selectively use certain verses from these Hebrew versions to "reinstate 
the divine name," while at the same time carefully avoiding any 
mention of these "Trinitarian" versions' identification of "our Lord" 
with the divine name (mil 1 ) of the Hebrew Scriptures? 



Chapter 5: SAUL ON THE Ro AD TO DAMASCUS 



We will now look at three accounts of the conversion of Saul on 
the road to Damascus. The first is Luke's account at Acts 9:1- 
11. The remaining two accounts are those given by Paul 
himself as he recounts the same event before the Jewish mob at Acts 
22:6-10, and before King Agrippa at Acts 26:13-16. We will insert the 
Hebrew words from the Hebrew versions that parallel the word Lord 
in these accounts. 

From the appendix statement of the New World Translation that 
we saw in the last chapter, we understand that haAdohn (|HXH) is a 
title limited exclusively to Jehovah God. As we have just seen, we 
also know that Adoni ("HX) refers to Jesus as My Lord. 

With the above definitions of these two Hebrew words, notice 
what the Hebrew translators of J-*-° intended to communicate to their 
readers. (Some citations are from the Hebrew version J .) The 
passages are quoted from the New World Translation. The Hebrew 
word used in this version with the meaning as defined within the 
New World Translation is inserted in brackets. 

But Saul, still breathing threat and murder against the disciples 
of the Lord (haAdohn — 'iixn — Jehovah God), went to the high 
priest and asked him for letters to the synagogues in Damascus, in 
order that he might bring bound to Jerusalem any whom he found 
who belonged to The Way. . . Now as he was traveling. . . suddenly a 
light from heaven flashed around him. . . (Acts 9:1 -4) 

And when we had all fallen to the ground I heard a voice say to 
me in the Hebrew language, 'Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting 
me? But I said, 'Who are you, Lord?' And the Lord 
(haAdohn— jinxn —Jehovah God) said, 'I am Jesus 
(intZT), 1 whom you are persecuting. (Acts 26:14-15) 

At that [Saul] said, "What shall I do, Lord (Adoni— 'H*? —My 
Lord)?" The Lord (haAdohn— liixn —Jehovah God) said to 



1 This is an extremely significant construction in the Hebrew version. Saul as 
the person speaking says, "Who are you Lord?" The answer is given in this 
Hebrew version reading from right to left: 

(Jesus) Yeshua [am] I God Jehovah said he 
Literally translated, the Hebrew says, "Jehovah God said 'I am Jesus.'" 



Saul on the Road to Damascus 25 

[him], "Rise, go your way into Damascus." (Acts 22:1 0) 

There was in Damascus a certain disciple named Ananias, and 
the Lord (haAdohn — 'it^n — Jehovah God) said to him in a 
vision: "Ananias!" He said: "Here I am, Lord (Adoni — 'HK — My 
Lord)." The Lord (haAdohn — jit^n — Jehovah God) said to 
him: "Rise, go to the street called Straight, and at the house of 
Judas look for a man named Saul. . . . But Ananias answered: "Lord 
(Adoni — "nx — My Lord), I have heard from many about this 
man.... But the Lord (haAdohn — 'it^n — Jehovah God) said to 
him: "Be on your way.... So Ananias went off and... laid his hands 
upon him and said: "Saul, brother, the Lord (haAdohn — "'n^O 
— Jehovah God), the Jesus that appeared to you on the road. . . has 
sent me forth, in order that you may recover sight and be filled with 
holy spirit." (Acts 9:10-17) 

Little needs to be said after reading the passages above. We must 
merely ask ourselves again why the translators of the New World 
Translation so purposely overlooked passages such as the ones above 
which address (or identify) Jesus with Hebrew words aligned with 
the divine name. Does it reflect translation integrity to use J , J-*-° 
and other Hebrew versions to reinstate the divine name in 
conveniently selected passages, and yet ignore evidence when it does 
not support a theological position?^ 

Hebrew versions and the inspired text 

Because of the status given to the Tetragrammaton in these 
Hebrew translations, we must close this chapter with a brief 
discussion of textual canonicity. Under normal circumstances, the 



^ In all fairness, there is another answer to this dilemma. Modern Hebrew 
scholars would depend on context to determine whether or not the translation 
for these verses was properly Jehovah God or Sovereign Lord which they 
would equate with an address to deity but which would not require the use of 
the divine name. However, were we to make this allowance for the translation 
of this particular passage, we would be forced to disallow the grammatical 
rules used by the New World Bible Translation Committee which permitted 
Jehovah to be reinstated into the Christian Greek Scriptures in the first place. 

3 The word canon comes from the Latin word kanon, which refers to a 
measuring rod. The idea in English is the rule or standardby which something 
is measured. Specifically, the Bible canon came to denote the catalog of 
inspired books worthy of being used as a straightedge in measuring faith, 
doctrine, and conduct. (Aid to Bible Understanding, page 290). The canon, 
as used here, is the list of the 66 books accepted as inspired Scripture. 



26 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

words used by the inspired Christian writer cannot be verified by 
consulting a relatively recent version. 

For example, Revelation 1:8 reads as follows in the 1910 text of the 
recognized French Protestant Bible by Louis Segond: 

Je suis I'Alpha et I'Omega, dit le Seigneur Dieu, celui qui est, qui 
etait, et qui vient, le Tout-Puissant. 

This is translated into English as: 

I am the Alpha and the Omega says the Lord God, he who is, 
who was, and who will be, the All-Powerful. 

The word Signeur is the French equivalent of our English word 
Lord and is used of Jesus throughout the Louis Segond Nouveau 
Testament [New Testament]. The French word Dieu is the English 
word God. Irrespective of the theological bias we might find in the 
juxtaposition of the words Lord and God in this French version, we 
could not use this translation to prove that the original Greek writers 
used a certain wording in their Greek text. We must seek the 
information we need from a reliable Greek text rather than from a 
French translation. 

This would normally be true of all textual searches for the original 
wording of the inspired Christian writers. We would consult the 
Greek text from which the translation was made rather than recent 
versions. Consequently, were it not for the New World Bible 
Translation Committee's reliance on Hebrew versions, the content of 
this entire book would be a moot point. 

We have a unique situation, however, in the case of the Hebrew 
versions cited in the New World Translation. In this case, the Hebrew 
versions have been elevated to a higher status than the inspired 
canonical writings when they are used to countermand the best extant 
Greek texts. Thus, in this book we have considered the use of two 
Hebrew versions and their employment of divine titles for Jesus. 
Under normal circumstances, the use of Hebrew words such as Adoni 
{My Lord), haAdohn {Jehovah God), or Adonai {Sovereign Lord) 
would simply suggest an inconsequential footnote within the 
translation process. 



4 The use of early versions, however, represents a different level of textual 
certainty. A version from the third or fourth century may give valuable 
insights into the original text's wording by suggesting the word the translator 
saw in the Greek text from which he was translating. Nevertheless, the 
evidence is merely corroborative. Evidence from even a very early version 
could never have precedence over the known Greek text from which that 
version was translated. 



Saul on the Road to Damascus 27 

If, however, the argument is made that the presence of the 
Tetragrammaton in these versions supersedes the Greek text of the 
Kingdom Interlinear Translation, then by that same reasoning, we are 
forced to use the Hebrew versions' entire vocabulary concerning the 
person of Christ to define our understanding of inspired Scripture. 

It is the author's personal opinion, however, that late versions do 
not dictate the contents of the original inspired Scriptures. According 
to the author's opinion, the correct wording of the Christian Scriptures 
is based on the best textual evidence available from ancient extant 
Greek manuscripts themselves. 



Chapter 6: A BRIEF SUMMARY 



Hebrew versions are the only manuscript evidence to which the 
New World Translation can appeal for the 237 Jehovah 
references in the Christian Scriptures. This book has not 
evaluated either the issue of the purported heresy of the 
second and third centuries credited with removing the 
Tetragrammaton from the original Christian Scripture manuscripts, 
nor the strength of Hebrew versions as critical texts allowing 
restoration of the divine name to the Christian Scriptures. (See the 
free downloadable books available through www.tetragrammaton.org 
for information on these and related topics.) However, irrespective of 
the claims for the Tetragrammaton's removal, the Watch Tower 
Society itself recognizes that there are no manuscripts remaining 
today giving evidence that the inspired Christian Scripture writers 
wrote the divine name in Hebrew letters. Consequently, the only 
manuscript evidence the New World Translation cites supporting 
Jehovah in the Christian Scriptures is the testimony of Hebrew 
versions. 

The New World Bible Translation Committee used 25 Hebrew 
versions as the basis for altering the Greek text of the Kingdom 
Interlinear Translation in 237 instances. In so doing, they have 
elevated these versions to the level of inspired Scripture. It is 
therefore entirely appropriate that these Hebrew versions be 
subjected to the same exacting scrutiny required of any other 
manuscript evidence used to correct the Greek manuscript transmission 
process. 

Because Hebrew versions are seldom available to readers of the 
New World Translation, this book evaluated two of these Hebrew 
versions. J-*-° was the primary reference with supplementary 
information taken from y-' . From both the statements of the New 
World Bible Translation Committee and from selected passages found 
in these two Hebrew versions, we have discovered the following: 



1 There is ample evidence that the Tetragrammaton was used in the Septuagint 
(the Greek language translation of the Hebrew Scriptures available in Jesus' 
day). However, of the more than 5,000 available copies of ancient Greek 
Christian Scripture manuscripts — some from as early as 200 C.E. — there are 
no manuscripts that show any evidence of the Tetragrammaton. 



A Brief Summary 29 

1. The statement from the Kingdom Interlinear Translation 
(Foreword, 1969 edition) that says, "When coming upon 
quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures where the [divine] Name 
appeared, the translators in Hebrew had no other recourse than to 
render ky'rios or theos' back into its original Tetragrammaton form 
miT," is not always true. In at least two instances (1 Peter 2:3 and 1 
Peter 3:15), a verse containing the Tetragrammaton (mil") in the 
Hebrew Scriptures is translated as Lord (Adonenu) in J . Adonenu 
is frequently used for Jesus throughout the Hebrew version Greek 
Scriptures. 

Nonetheless, in the case of J , the Hebrew translator does 
follow this pattern when recognizing mil 1 from Isaiah 8:13. In this 
case, he identifies Jesus (the Christ) as Jehovah of Armies 
(HilT-pX) at 1 Peter 3:15. 

2. Appendix 1H of the New World Translation Reference Edition 
says, "The title 'Adhohn', [)HK] 'Lord; Master,' when preceded by 
the definite article ha, [n] 'the,' gives the expression ha-' Adhohn', 
[]'nxn] 'the [true] Lord.' The use of the definite article ha before the 

title 'Adhohn' limits the application of this title exclusively to 
Jehovah God." [Hebrew text added.] However, the translators of 
the Hebrew versions J-*-' and y-° used this title of Jehovah himself 
to identify the Lord Jesus. In the verses we examined at Acts 9:1- 
11, Acts 22:6-10, Acts 26:13-16, and 16 times in 1 Corinthians, these 
two Hebrew versions used haAdohn (j'nxn) in reference to Jesus, 
which is a title limited exclusively to Jehovah God. 

The most disturbing evidence, however, comes from y-' . From 
1 Corinthians we discover that the New World Bible Translation 
Committee translates haAdohn as Jehovah three times and as 
Lord 16 times. HaAdohn was selectively translated as both 
Jehovah and Lord, suggesting that the selection was possibly 
based on a theological predisposition rather than the 
Committee's stated grammatical translation rules. 

3. The Hebrew version identified as J-*-" evidences a translation 
preference. As we might expect of a Trinitarian Bible publisher, 
this version clearly unites the identities of the personalities 
represented by the divine name (miT') and Kyrios. A Hebrew- 
language reader would clearly understand that the two Hebrew 
versions evaluated in this study purposefully represent Jesus as 
identifiable with the nature of Jehovah of the Hebrew Scriptures. 



30 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

5. The New World Bible Translation Committee was selective in its 
choice of evidence from the two Hebrew versions we evaluated. 
Though it freely used these versions to reinstate the divine name 
into the Christian Greek Scriptures where it could do so by 
attributing divine characteristics to Jehovah, it omitted any 
reference to numerous passages that clearly identify Jesus with the 
divine name of the Hebrew Scriptures. 

There is no lost Greek text containing iTliT 

With all of the discussion of the Tetragrammaton that was 
supposedly removed from the early copies of the Christian Greek 
Scriptures, the reader will often assume that the textual source for 
these Hebrew versions is a lost Greek text that contains manuscript 
verification of the Tetragrammaton (mil") in Hebrew letters. There 
are two observations we can make from the study we have just 
completed which completely dispel any notion that there are "lost" 
Greek manuscripts behind these Hebrew versions. 

1. The first is the statement of the New World Bible Translation 
Committee that there are no "lost" Greek manuscripts that contain 
the Tetragrammaton. We have already examined the quotation 
from page 18 of the Foreword of the 1969 edition of the Kingdom 
Interlinear Translation wherein the translators say: 

When coming upon quotations from the Hebrew 
Scriptures where the [divine] Name appeared, the translators in 
Hebrew had no other recourse than to render ky'rios or theos' 
back into its original Tetragrammaton form mn\ 

The Translation Committee is openly telling us that the work 
of producing a Hebrew version was done by translators in Hebrew. 
Obviously, these men were translating from another language into 
Hebrew. That is, the Hebrew translators were not working from 
Hebrew-language manuscripts. But further, the Translation 
Committee tells us that these translators were working with 
Greek manuscripts because they contained kyrios and theos, the 
words for Lord and God. We can properly assume from this that 
these translators were working from the currently available Greek 



2 For a complete discussion of the presumed presence of the Tetragrammaton 
in the Christian Greek Scriptures and its subsequent removal, see the book 
The Tetragrammaton and the Christian Greek Scriptures. This meticulously 
documented 360 page book is available for purchase or can be downloaded at 
no cost from www.tetragrammaton.org and other religious information 
web sites. 



A Brief Summary 31 

texts that do not contain the Tetragrammaton. At the very least, 
the manuscripts they were using did not contain mil" in a Greek 
text. 

2. The evidence from the Hebrew versions themselves state that 
these translations were made from Greek texts. An interesting 
comment appears on the title page of both y' and y°. Both 
identically read, 

TRANSLATED OUT OF THE ORIGINAL GREEK: AND WITH 
THE FORMER TRANSLATIONS DILIGENTLY COMPARED 
AND REVISED, BY HIS MAJESTY'S SPECIAL COMMAND. 

Therefore, these Hebrew versions do not move us closer to an 
early manuscript form of the Christian Greek Scriptures. They 
move us farther away by interposing a translation between our 
modern translation and the most accurately restored Greek texts. 

The single merit of these Hebrew versions as resource material 
is their reflection of the viewpoint of Hebrew translators who are 
both fluent in Hebrew and yet have come to acknowledge Jesus as 
Israel's true Messiah. That viewpoint, as we have already seen, 
leads the translators of both y' and y° to make a close 
identification between Jesus and Jehovah. 

A concluding thought 

The Hebrew versions have been used by the New World Bible 
Translation Committee to reinstate the name of Jehovah into the 
Christian Scriptures. Most readers will assume, therefore, that the 
translators of these versions are biased to make a clear distinction 
between Jesus and Jehovah. That is, by using the Tetragrammaton in 
237 instances, they are separating any identity of equality between 
Jehovah and the Lord Jesus. 

Certainly the above statement may be true in some cases. We know 
that Shem-Tob's Matthew is an appendix to his argument for a Jewish 
audience that Jesus was not the promised Messiah. George Howard^ 
says, 



3 Reproductions of this title page can be seen in both The Tetragrammaton and 
the Christian Greek Scriptures, and the book The Tetragrammaton and 
Hebrew Versions. Both are available as free downloadable books on 
www.tetragrammaton.org and other religious web sites. 

4 Hebrew Gospel of Matthew by George Howard, Mercer University Press, 
1995, page 216. This is a fascinating book and well worth reading. Howard 



32 The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 

With the possible exception of [Matthew] 16:1 6. ..the author of 
Shem-Tob's Matthew never identifies Jesus with the Christ 
[Messiah]. This is to be contrasted with the Greek text [the 
Christian Greek Matthew as we know it], where the Christ 
identification is clearly made. 

Yet, when we examine at least two of these Trinitarian Hebrew 
versions, we discover just the opposite. We discover that these 
Hebrew translators are using common constructions and vocabularies in 
modern Hebrew to achieve an entirely different objective. They are 
clearly attempting to identify Jesus with Jehovah. For example, 
consider one verse we have already seen. 

The translator of J-*-° uses the vocabulary that the New World 
Bible Translation Committee affirms, 

The title Adhohn', "Lord; Master," when preceded by the 
definite article ha, "the," gives the expression ha' Adhohn', "the 
[true] Lord." The use of the definite article ha before the title 
'Adhohn" limits the application of this title exclusively to Jehovah 
God. 

Philippians 2:11 is then translated in this Hebrew version as, 

And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord 
(haAdohn — Sovereign Lord [Jehovah]), to the glory of God the 
Father. 

Any Jewish reader of J-*-° would understand the quotation at 
Philippians 2:11 as coming from Isaiah 45:21-24 which says: 

"Is it not I, Jehovah, besides whom there is no other God... By 
my own self I have sworn. ..that to me every knee will bend down, 
every tongue will swear, saying, 'Surely in Jehovah there are full 
righteousness and strength.'" 

Very clearly, the translator of J-*-° is giving Jesus the identity of 
Jehovah "Besides whom there is no other God [to whom] every knee 
will bend down, [and] every tongue will swear." This translator has 
made this identification through a choice of translation vocabulary 
clearly understood by a Hebrew-language reader to identify Jesus with 
this one God "[to whom] every knee will bend down, [and] every tongue 
will swear." We saw the same choice of vocabulary when the translator 
of y-' quoted Jesus as answering Saul from heaven saying, 



has done an important study on this Hebrew text. Howard asserts that this is 
not a version (translation) but is rather a recension of the actual Matthew 
Gospel written by the Apostle. 



A Brief Summary 33 

(Jesus) Yeshua [am] I God Jehovah said he 

Literally translated, the Hebrew says, "And Jehovah God said 'I am 
Jesus.'" 

We must therefore conclude that at least some of these Hebrew 
version translators were clearly attempting to identify Jesus with 
Jehovah in order to prove his full identity as Almighty God. 

Therefore we must ask, "Can the New World Bible Translation 
Committee truthfully use these Hebrew versions to make a distinction 
between Jehovah (miT) and Jesus without telling us that the apparent 
purpose of these Hebrew versions — and the frequent vocabulary 
throughout — was selected by their translators to do just the opposite? 
Can they truthfully select a mere 237 references without 
context — while actually excluding references that identify Jesus as 
miT — and ignore a far greater body of evidence in these Hebrew 
versions of the identification of Jesus with the Glory of Jehovah God 
himself?" 



Appendix: HaAdohn in jl? — First Corinthians 



In Chapter 4, we quoted Appendix 1H of the New World 
Translation Reference Edition which says: 

The title Adhohn', [jinx] "Lord; Master," when preceded by the 
definite article ha, [n] "the," gives the expression ha' Adhohn', 
[•nsn] "the [true] Lord." The use of the definite article ha before 
the title Adhohn" limits the application of this title exclusively to 
Jehovah God. [Hebrew text added.] 1 

The haAdohn table for 1 Corinthians 

The following table lists all the Kyrios (Lord) verses found in 
1 Corinthians. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the number of 
occurrences of the Hebrew word haAdohn in a randomly selected 
Christian Scripture book. According to the statement above, all 
references to haAdohn — whether in the Hebrew Scriptures or in a 
Hebrew version — should be translated Jehovah in the New World 
Translation. 

The 1 Corinthians table 

Under the heading Hebrew version ]*■' , the word under study is 
written in Hebrew letters exactly as it appears in the Hebrew version, 
followed by an English transliteration column. (The English 
transliteration does not appear in J .) y-' is a two-language Bible. 
The English text and the Hebrew text appear on facing pages. The 
word(s) in the English translation column are quoted directly from the 
English text of this Hebrew version. 

Three columns appear under the heading Kingdom Interlinear 
Translation. The column "J" reference lists the citations for each 
occurrence of a Jehovah reference exactly as it appears in the Kingdom 
Interlinear Translation. (This same "J" reference list is reproduced in 
the footnotes of the New World Translation, Reference Edition). 



1 



As already noted in Chapter 4 this statement is not fully acceptable to a 
majority of Hebrew scholars. However, inasmuch as this has been a principle 
followed in the Hebrew Scripture translation of the New World Translation, it 
should be expected that it would equally apply to the use of Hebrew versions 
in the New World Translation's rendition of the Christian Scriptures. 



Appendix: HaAdohn in ]*■' — First Corinthians 35 

When the Tetragrammaton is shown in column 2, there is always a 
reference to y-' in the "]" reference column. The citation can also be 
compared with other Hebrew versions that use the Tetragrammaton in 
that verse. In the column Greek word, an English transliteration is 
given of the Greek word used in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation. 
(A table at the end of this appendix gives the Greek word used for the 
English transliteration.) The column English word lists the actual 
translation word used in the Kingdom Interlinear Translation for the 
corresponding Greek word. 

The last column headed NWT gives the word used in the New 
World Translation for this corresponding Hebrew and Greek word. 

1. A bullet (•) identifies each reference in 1 Corinthians where 
haAdohn is used without any prefix or suffix modification. 

2. A dagger (t) identifies each occurrence of the Tetragrammaton 
(mrr) in J 17 . 

3. A not-equal symbol (^) identifies a reference that does not use the 
Tetragrammaton in J-*- 7 even though it is found in other "J" 
references. 

Chapter 4 discusses this table in further detail. 

Table notes 

Note 1: Neither the Hebrew word Adoneneu nor haAdohn is used. 

Note 2: This version uses the word for Messiah in the Hebrew text and 
Christ in the English text. 

The vowel points in niiT are from Adonai making transliteration 
unintelligible. 



Hebrew version y-' 
Hebrew English English 

word used transliteration translation 
1 Corinthians 



Kingdom Interlinear Translation 

Greek English 
word word 



NWT 



"J" Reference 



1:2 


^nx 


Ado«enM 


our Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


1:3 


^HX*! 


waAdonenu 


and the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


1:7 


^nx 


Adonenu 


our Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


1:8 


iriis 


Adonenu 


our Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


1:9 


^nx 


Adonenu 


our Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


1:10 


inix 


Adonenu 


our Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


1-1:31 


T 


baYHWH* 


in the Lord 


j 7,8,10-14,16-18,22-24 


Kyrio 


Lord 


Jehovah 


2:8 


)HX 


Adohn 


the Lord 




kyrion 


Lord 


Lord 


1-2:16 


nirr 

T : 


YHWH* 


the Lord 


T 13,14,16-18,22-24 


Kyriou 


Lord 


Jehovah 


•3:5 


)nxn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyrios 


Lord 


Lord 


t3:20 


t : 


YHWH* 


the Lord 


T 7,8,10-14,16-18,20, 
22-24 


Kyrios 


Lord 


Jehovah 


+4:4 


nirr 

t : 


YHWH* 


the Lord 


T 7,8,10,17,18,23,24 


kyrios 


Lord 


Jehovah 


•4:5 


]inxn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyrios 


Lord 


Lord 


4:17 


jiixn 


baAdohn 


the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


^•4:19 


jinxn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 


T 7,8,10,22,23 


kyrios 


Lord 


Jehovah 


5:4 


innx 


Adonenu 


our Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


5:4 


i^nx 


Adonenu 


our Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 



•5:5 


)HKn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


•6:11 


jllKH 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


6:13 


•pIK 1 ? 


laAdohn 


for the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


6:13 


fHKm 


waAdohn 


and the Lord 




kyrios 


Lord 


Lord 


6:14 


wfix 


Adonenu 


the Lord 




kyrion 


Lord 


Lord 


6:17 


jiiKn 


haAdohn 


unto the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


•7:10 


|HKn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyrios 


Lord 


Lord 


•7:12 


jiTxn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyrios 


Lord 


Lord 


**7:V7 


fnxn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 


See footnote in 
NWT Ref. Editior 


kyrios 


Lord 


Jehovah 


7:22 


]i~iKn 


haAdohn 


in the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


7:22 


ji-iK 1 ? 


laAdohn 


the Lord's 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


•7:25 


]i"ixn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


•7:25 


]iixn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


7:32 


l 1 " 1 ? 1 ? 


laAdohn 


to the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


•7:32 


]i"ixn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


7:34 


l 1 " 1 ? 1 ? 


laAdohn 


of the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


•7:35 


]i"ixn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


7 


39 


]iiKn 


haAdohn 


in the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


8 


5 


Note 1 


Note 1 


and lords 




kurioy 


lords 


lords 


8 


6 


^HK*! 


waAdonenu 


and one Lord 




kyrios 


Lord 


Lord 


9 


la 


^ns 


Adonenu 


our Lord 




kyrion 


Lord 


Lord 



Hebrew version y-' 
Hebrew English English 

word used transliteration translation 
1 Corinthians 



Kingdom Interlinear Translation 

Greek English 
word word 



NWT 



"J" Reference 



9:1b 


^HN? 


baAdonenu 


in the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


9:2 


^'HK? 


baAdonenu 


in the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


•9:5 


jiiKn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


9:14 


^ns 


Adonenu 


the Lord 




kyrios 


Lord 


Lord 


*10:9 


rnzjarrnx 


Note 2 


Christ 


j 18,22,23 


kyrion 


Lord 


Jehovah 


*10:21 


^'HK 


Adonenw 


the Lord 


T 7,8,10,24 


Kyriou 


Lord 


Jehovah 


*10:21 


^nx 


Adonenw 


the Lord's 


T 7,8,10,24 


Kyriou 


Lord 


Jehovah 


^10:22 


^nK 


Adonenw 


the Lord 


T 7,8,10,14 


kyrion 


Lord 


Jehovah 


tl0:26 


nirr 1 ? 

T 


laYHWH* 


the Lord's 


T 7,8,10,11,13,14, 
16-18,20,22,23 


kyriou 


Lord 


Jehovah 


11:11 


]flX3 


baAdohn 


in the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


•11:23 


ji-ixn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


•11:23 


jiiKn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyrios 


Lord 


Lord 


11:26 


ir:iK 


Adonenu 


the Lord's 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


•11:27 


]i"ixn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


11:27 


iriix 


Adonenu 


the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


^•11:32 


ji-ixn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 


T 13,16,18 


kyriou 


Lord 


Jehovah 


12:3 


px 


Adohn 


the Lord 




Kyrios 


Lord 


Lord 



12:5 


IHlXl 


waAdonenu 


the same Lord 




kyrios 


Lord 


Lord 


1-14:21 


m'rr 

t : 


YHWH* 


the Lord 


j 7,8,10-14,16-18,22-24 


Kyrios 


Lord 


Jehovah 


•14:37 


]iiKn 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


15:31 


^'HK 


Adonenu 


our Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


15:57 


^^.iK 


Adonenu 


our Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


15:58 


^^.iK 


Adonenu 


the Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 


15:58 


^ns? 


baAdonenu 


in the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


1-16:7 


m'rr 

t : 


YHWH* 


the Lord 


T 7,8,10,13,14,16-18, 

22,23 


kyrios 


Lord 


Jehovah 


1-16:10 


mm 

t : 


YHWH* 


the Lord 


T 7,8,10,13,14, 
16-18,24 


Kyriou 


Lord 


Jehovah 


16:19 


^'HK? 


baAdonenu 


in the Lord 




kyrio 


Lord 


Lord 


•16:22 


jilKH 


haAdohn 


the Lord 




kyrion 


Lord 


Lord 


16:23 


^'HK 


Adonenu 


our Lord 




kyriou 


Lord 


Lord 



Table 3: All Kyrios references in 1 Corinthians and their respective translation in the Hebrew version 
J 17 , the Kingdom Interlinear Translation and the New World Translation. 



40 



The New World Translation and Hebrew Versions 



All Kyrios reference totals for 1 Corinthians 



Kyrios (Lord) verses in 1 Corinthians 




67 


Translated as Jehovah in NWT 


15 




Translated as Lord in NWT 


51 


Translated as lords in NWT 


1 




HaAdohn occurrences at Kyrios verses in jl 7 




19 


Translated as Jehovah in NWT 


3 




Translated as Lord in NWT 


16 


miT occurrences* at Kyrios verses in Jl7 




8 


Translated as Jehovah in NWT 


8 




Adonenu occurrences 6 at Kyrios verses in Jl7 




26 


Adohn occurrences^ at Kyrios verses in Jl7 




12 


Other Hebrew words at Kyrios verses in Jl7 




2 




NWT Jehovah references at Kyrios verses in 
jl7 




15 


With support from both Jl7 and 
other "J" references 


7 




Without jl 7 but supported from 
other "J" references 


7 




Without any "J" reference support 


1 





"Including the forms laYHWH and baYHWH. 
^Includes all forms with prefixes ba, wa and la. 



Greek transliteration table 

Greek word in the Kingdom 
Interlinear Translation 



English Transliteration 



KlJpLOS 


kyrios 


KUpLOU 


kyriou 


KUpiOV 


kyrion 


KVIpLOL 


Kurioi 


KUpiCO 


kyrio 



The noun must agree with (or be identified by) its function in a 
Greek sentence. This is achieved by spelling changes in the suffix 
(ending letters) of the word. Thus, each form of the word kyrios in 
this appendix is derived from the same root word, though the spelling 
is altered according to its grammatical function in the sentence. 

The Watch Tower transliteration spelling preference kyrios 
(rather than kurios) is used in this appendix.