First Principles 327 sure that the criminal on whom he was looking was not say- ing much the same thing as he looked upon John Bunyan ? Does any one who knows me doubt that if I were offered my choice between a bishopric and a halter, I should choose the halter ? I believe half the bishops would choose the halter themselves if they had to do it over again. Philosophy As a general rule philosophy is like stirring mud or not letting a sleeping dog lie. It is an attempt to deny, circum- vent or otherwise escape from the consequences of the inter- lacing of the roots of things with one another. It professes to appease our ultimate " Why ? " though in truth it is generally the solution of a simplex ignotum by a complex ignotim. This, at least, is my experience of everything that has been presented to me as philosophy. I have often had my " Why " answered with so much mystifying matter that I have left off pressing it through fatigue. But this is not having my ultimate " Why ? " appeased. It is being knocked out of time. Philosophy and Equal Temperament It is with philosophy as with just intonation on a piano, if you get everything quite straight and on all fours in one department, in perfect tune, it is delightful so long as you keep well in the middle of the key; but as soon as you modulate you find the new key is out of tune and the more remotely you modulate the more out of tune you get. The only way is to distribute your error by equal temperament and leave common sense to make the correction in philo- sophy which the ear does instantaneously and involuntarily in music. Hedging the Cuckoo People will still keep trying to find some formula that shall hedge-in the cuckoo of mental phenomena to their satisfaction. Half the books—nay, all of them that deal with thought and its ways in the academic spirit—are but so many of these hedges in various stages of decay.