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PA\(*4 THE 



PENNY CYCLOPAEDIA 



OF 



THE SOCIETY 



FOR THE 



DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOLUME IV. 
BASSANTIN BLOEMAART. 




LONDON: 

CHARLES KNIGHT, 22, LUDGATE STREET. 



MDCCCXXXV. 



Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence^ bound in cloth. 



COMMITTEE. 

CWr«m-TW Rigbt non, LORD BROUGHAM, F.R.S, Mewber of tho Nstlnnal Ir.Mtule of Franee. 

r<Cf-CA«imM-Tkt Rigbt Hn«. LORD JOHN RU3SKI.L, *-^ 

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Ree. Prof. Her flow, M.A.. P.L.H.& O.S. 

Ree. Leonard Jenyaa, II, A* F.LJi. 

Ree. Jab* Lodge, M.A. 

Ree. Or* Peacoi k, M.A.. F.R.S. A OJS. 

R.U\Rvtbmts K*q n M.A,P.R,A.S.Aa.S. 

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Profeieor Ssaith, M.A. 

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William Roberts, Kaq. 
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Tboasas Krici, F«q. 
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lUward alroil, K»q, M,P 



Tb»»aa Fateoner. Eaq. . 

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RU Hon. Sir J. C, ITobbonae, Bart. M.P. 

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J. W. Lubbock, Eaq., F.R-, R.A. and L.S.S. 

H. Maiden, Esq. A. M. 



LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

DrotmnoW awtStonehouse— Jnhn Cole, E*q, 

— Norman, Kaq. 

Lt.CoL C. Harolltoa Smith, F.R.S. 
S frwno— Jo«. Wedgwood, Esq. 
MMCttr— J. Tyrrell, Esq. 

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Professor Mylne. 

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teed*— J. Marshall, Eaq. 
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J oho Case, Eaq. 
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i BenUmln Heywood. Esq., Treawrr. 
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Sir O. Phlllna, Bart, M.P. 



Ben). Oott, Kaq. 
J/jiVj*— Ree. Orarre Waddiogton, M^. 



»f i ncAinAaasp /on— John G. Ball, Esq. 
i/waiaoafA— j. II. Moggrldge, Esq. 
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T. SopwUh, Esq. 
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T. Cooke, Jun., Esq. 

R. O. Klrkpstrick. Esq. 
Nntjmt PmgntU-i. Millar, Eaq. 



A.T. Mslkln. Esn-A.M. 

James Manning, Kaq. 

J. Herman Mcrlealc. Esq., A.M., F.A.S.' 

James Mill. Kaq. 

The Right Hon. Lord Nugea.. 

\V. II. Ord. Esq. M P. 

The Right lit 11. Sir II. Parnell. dart , M.P. 

Dr. Beget, Sec. It.S . F.ll.A.S. 

Sir M. A. Shee, P R.A.. F.H.S. 

John Abel Smith. Esq., M.P. 

Right Hon. Karl Spencer. 

John Taylor. Esq. F.R.S. 

Dr. A.T. Thomson, F.I..S. 

H. Waymouth, Esq. 

J. Whlahnr, Esq., A.M., F.R.S. 

John Wood, K.sq. 

John Wrottesley, Esq., A.M., F.rt.A.S.* 



JVeWotrn, J/on/f omery»Atr«— W, Pugli, Esq. 
Noruie A— Richard Bacon, Eaq. 
Or$ett, JSuer— Dr. Ci.rbelt, M.D. 
Oxford— Dr. Dauheny, F.lt.S. Frnl. nl Cbem, 

Ree. Prof. Powell. 

Ree. John Jordan, B.A. 

E. W. Head, Esq., M.A. 

W.R.IIroirnc, Esq., B.A. 
i>eaa*o— Sir B. H.Malkln. 
Plymouth— H. Woollcombe, Esq , F.A.S.,CA, 

Snnw Harris, Esq.. F.lt.S. 

E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S., SecreMrv. 

G. Wlghtwlck, Esq. 
/*r«(ei>i— Dr. A. W. Daeles, M.D. 
nipon— Ree. II. P. Hamilton, M.A., F.R.S. 
and G.S. I 

Ree. P. Ewarl. MM. 
Huthtn—Uft. the Warden of. 

Humphreys Jones, Esq. 
*>«>. /. of /right— S\t Rd. Slmenn.BL, M.P. 
Sheffield— J. H. Abraham, Eaq. 
SheptoH MnUet—G. F. Burrougha, Esq. 
SAreirrowry— R. A. Slaney, Esq. 
South Pet her t on— John Nleholella, Kaq. 
St. Aiaph—ntv. George Strung. 
Stnekport— H. Marti and. Esq., Trr/warer. 

Henry Cop pock, Esq., Secretary. 
Tavntoek— Ree. W.Erana. 

John Hundle, Esq. 
Traro— Rlehard Taunton, M.D. 

Henry Sewell Stokes, Esq. 
Tunbridoe IVetU-Vr. Veois, M.D. 
rVnrui'cA— Dr. Conollv. 
.' The Ree. Wllllnni Field, if. earning tn.) 
Wnttrford— Sir John Newjjort. Bt. 
Wolverhampton— J.Penrson, Esq. 
rForeeifer— 

Dr. Haatlnga.M.D 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
Wrexhnm— Thiimaa Edgworth, Esq. 

J.E.Bowman, Esq., F.L.3., Treuittrer. 

Major William Lloyd. 
FamoaM— C. E. Rumbold, Eaq. M.P, 

Dawaon Turner, Eaq. 
York— Ker. J. Kenrick. M.A. 

J. Phlltlpa, Esq., F.R.S., F.O.S. 



THOMAS COATE9, Esq.. Secretary, Nn. «, Lincoln'i Inn Field*. 






U*4mi W&uas Cl«vs« Asatoa«,rriV«r*, ttvafar* Itretk 



THE PENNY CYCLOPAEDIA 



OF 



THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF 
USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



B A S 

BASSANTIN, or BASSINTOUN, JAMES, son 
of the * Laird of Bassintin in the Mers,* (Merse?) (Biog. 
Brit.) He was educated at Glasgow, and afterwards tra- 
velled, but finally settled at Paris, where he taught mathe- 
matics and astronomy. Of his' personal h'fe we know no- 
thing, but that he was addicted to astrology, and gave Sir 
Robert Melville (see his memoirs or Biog. Brit.) some pre- 
dictions a little after the time of Queen Mary's escape into 
England. He returned to Scotland in 1562 and died 1568. 
(See Astronomy, and place the date there given, 1557, in 
brackets ; it is the date of publication of a work.) He was 
of Murray's party, and a zealous Protestant 

He wrote various works, as follows:— 1. Paraphrase sur 
{Astrolabe, Lyons, 1555, reprinted at Paris, 1617. 2. Ma- 
thematica Genethliaca. 3. De Mathesi in Genere. 4. Mu- 
sica secundum Ptatonem. 5. Arithmetica. To these works 
we eaiinot find dates. 6. A work on Astronomy, in French, 
(presently to be noticed,) translated into Latin by Dc 
Tourncs (Toruesins), under the title of Astronomia J. Bas- 
saniini Scott, &c, reprinted 1613. 

There is also a Discours Astronomique, published in 1557, 
at Lyons, and Lalande gives the title of a Latin version pub- 
lished at Geneva in 1599, and again in 1613. Delambre 
doubts whether this Discovers Astronomique be any other 
than the original of No. G in the list above ; and we inclino 
to think he is right, for, independently of the coincidence of 
editors and dates, this Discours Astronomique appears to 
be the work of Bassantin's whicb was best known. It was 
the only one in De Thou's library, and is the only one in that 
of the Faculty of Advocates, at Edinburgh. It is the only 
work mentioned by Weidler, while No. 6 is the" only one 
mentioned by Vossius. Vossius observes that the original 
was written in very bad French, and that the author knew 
• neither Greek nor Latin, but only Scotch/ 

The trigonometry of Bassantin uses only sines. His 
planetary system is that of Ptolemy, and he was mueh in- 
debted to Purbach. He adopted the trepidation of the 
equinoxes. (See Astronomy.) lie used the sphere in 
actual computations; and, in his treatise on the planisphere, 
appears to have followed the plan, if not the work, of Apian. 
(See Biog. Brit. ; Delambre, Hist, de VAstron. Mod., Sec.) 

BASSEIN, a town and port in tbe province of Aurunga- 
bad, situated on tho point of the continent of Hindustan 
opposite to the north end of the island of Salsette, in 19° 20' 
N. lat., and 72° 56' E. long. Basse in was once a city and 
fortress of importance, but, sharing the fate of many places in 
India, it lias suffered from the wars and revolutions to which 
that country has been exposed, and is now fallen into decay. 

In the year 1531 Bassein was ceded to tbe Portuguese, 
under the provisions ' of a treaty concluded by them with 
the sultan of Cambay, and for more than two eenturics it 
remained in the undisturbed possession of that nation. In 
1 750 the town was taken by the Maharattas, from whom it 
was captured by the British in December, 1774 ; and in the 
following March was formally yielded to its conquerors by a 
treaty made with the Maharatta ehief, Ragoba. By the 



BAS 

treaty of Poonah, Bassein was, however, again relinquished 
to the Maharattas. In November, 1 785, the fortress was 
regularly besieged by the British army under General 
Goddard, and, after sustaining the attack for four weeks, 
surrendered at discretion. By the treaty concluded in May, 
1782, with the Maharatta chiefs, Bassein was once more re- 
stored, together with Ahmedabad and our other conquests 
in Gujerat, and the town long remained in possession of the 
Maharattas. In 1802 the Peishwa Bajee Rao fled to Bas- 
sein from his rival, Holkar, and sought the protection of tho 
British government, with whom he concluded a treaty on the 
last day of that year. It was hoped tbat this treaty would 
have broken up the federal union of the Maharatta chiefs, 
by separating from it the Peishwa, who had been its nominal 
head ; but this ehief having subsequently been induced to 
join his former rivals and to organize with them a plan of 
hostility to the English, the whole of his territories were de- 
clared forfeited, and were taken into possession by tho Com- 
pany's government in June, 1818, he becoming a stipendiary 
of that government, and recognizing this appropriation of 
his territories. Bassein has since that time remained in 
the hands of tho English, under whom the fortifications 
have been allowed to go to decay, and the town and port 
have become of little importance. At a recent date, tho 
town contained a great number of houses in ruins. 

The state of cultivation exhibited in the surrounding 
eountry is, on the contrary, nourishing. To the north and 
north-east of Bassein are forests of teak-wood, from which 
the ship-building establishments at Bombay are supplied. 
A considerable part of the agricultural population are pro- 
fessors of tho Roman Catholic religion, which it is probable 
was introduced among them by the early European settlers 
from Portugal. 

(Rennells Memoir of a Map of Hindustan; Mills's His- 
tory of British India ; Treaties presented to Parliament by 
command of his Majesty, 1819; Report of Committee of the 
House of Commons on the Affairs of India, 1832, political 
division.) 

BASSETERRE is the capital of the island of St. Chris- 
topher's in the West Indies. The town is situated on the 
south side of the island, at the mouth of a small river. It 
contains about 800 houses, many of wbich are very good, a 
spacious square, and a small church, and is defended by 
three forts. It was founded in 1 623. The district of Basse- 
terre contains 17 square miles, with a population of 6620 
souls. It is divided into two parishes, St. George's and St. 
Peter's, and sends six members to the assembly — the for- 
mer four,- the latter two. This name was given by the 
French to the distriet from its being the lower portion of the 
island. The vale of Basseterre is exceedingly beautiful and 
well cultivated. The anchorage is in an open bay, and a con- 
tinual heavy surf beats on the shore, which is a sandy beach. 
As this prevents any wharf or quay being erected, the goods 
are shipped in a boat ealled a * moses,' manned by expert 
rowers, who, watebing the lull of the surf, pull on shore, 
laying the broadside of the boat to the beach so as to roll 



No. 205. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPAEDIA.] 



Vol. IV -B 



B A S 



B A S 



out or admit the cargo. Those articles which arc packed in 
water-ti^ht casks, as rum, &c., are generally floated off or 
on shore The town lies iu 17° 19^ N. lat., 62° 49f W. 

long. rSccCllRlSTOPHKR's, St.] 

BASSETERRE (Guadaloupc), tho most considerable 
town of tho western island, and the centre of iu commerce, 
lies on the western side, near tho south end of the island. 
It consists of ono principal long street, running along the 
sea-shore, and is defended by Forts Royal and Matilda. 
The anihora^o is in an open road, quite unsheltered, and 
very incommodious, and there is a constant swell. 

Tills western Island is divided longitudinally into two 
parts, of which the western division is called ijasseterrc, 
and the eastern Cabestcrre. » 

The town lies in 15° 59 J> N. lat. t 61° 47J' W. long. [Sec 

GUADALOKPB.] 

BASSETERRE, a small town on tho south-west point of 
the island of Mario Galantc. It Is defended by a small fort, 
which lies in 15" 52' N. lat, 61° 22' W. long. [See Marie 
Galantk.] 

(Jcfferics's West Indict; Bryan Edwards's West Indies; 
Colombian Navigator,) 

BASSET-HORN, a musical instrument, which, notwith- 
standing its name, is a clarinet [sec Clarinkt] of enlarged 
dimensions and extended scale, said to have been invented 
in Germany in 1 770, but known to havo been produced in 
an improved stato twelve years later by M. Lotz of Prcs- 
hurg ; and subsequently, in its present perfect condition, by 
the brothers, Anthony and John Stadler, of the imperial 
Austrian chapel. The basset-horn is longer than tho clari- 
net, and tho bell end is wider. On account of its length, the 
tube, which consists of five pieces, is bent inwards, forming 
a very obruso angle. The scale of this instrument embraces 
nearly four octaves, — from c the second space in (he base, to 
o in altissimo, including every semitone ; but its real potcs, in 
relation to its use in the orchestra, are from x belgw the baso 



staff, 



m 



to c, the second leger 
line abovo tho treble, 






gE 



Tho basset*horn takes an intermediate place between the 
clarinet and bassoon, and, on account of its vast compass, 
may perform the functions of both. Its capabilities and 
beauty are strikingly displayed in Mozart's Requiem; and 
iu the aria, Nan piu dijtore, in his Clemenza di Tito ; as 
well as in other works of the same great composer, who well 
understood its value. 

The Italian name for this instrument, and that by which 
it is generally designated in scores, is corno bassetto, or 
rather low horn, the termination etto being a dhninutivo. 
The unfitness of this term must at once be obvious : but, 
unhappily, tho musical nomenclature abounds in obscurity, 
absurdities, and contradictions. 

BASSEVELDE, a commune and market-town in the 
province of East Flanders, four leagues north of Ghent. 
Jlio market occurs weekly, and a fair is held every year in 
tho month of September. Tho tanning of hides and oil- 
crushing arc carried on here, and lacc-making gives em- 
ployment to the females of the place. Tho soil consists, for 
the most part, of clay and sand. Towards tho south-cast of 
tlte commune, the land is marshy, and a considerable num- 
ber of cattle are kept. Tho population in 1831 amounted to 
3750. (Meisscr's Dietionnaxre Qcographiquc de la Ilartdre 
Orientate, 1834.) 

BA'SSIA, a genus of tropical plants, belonging to the 
natural order Sajjotear, containing several interesting spe- 
cies. It has a calvx of four or fivo leaves, a monopctalous 
fleshy corolla, with its border generally eight-parted, and a 
great number of stamens. Tho ovary terminates in a long 
taper stylo, and contains from aix to eight one-seeded cells. 
The fruit has a pulpy rind, with not moro than three or four 
cells, tho remainder being abortive. 

The •peeics aro found in the East Indies and in Africa, 
where th»y aro of great economical importance on account 
of tho abundance of a sweet buttery substanco which is 
yielded by their *ccds when boiled. We shall mention briefly 
all of which anything useful is known. 

/Tattia butyracca % the Indian buttcr-trec, also tho Fuhca, 
or Phu(\cara : tree t is found wild on the Almora hills in 
India, whero it grows to a considerable size, its trunk some- 
times measuring fifty feet tn height, and five or six feet tn 



circumference. It has broad, oval, long-stalked leaves, 
from six to twelve inches lonp, smooth on their upper sur- 
face, hairy on their undor. The flowers, which aro largo 
and pale yellow, hang down, near the tips of the branches, 
from the axils of the leaves, and generally grow three to- 
gether. They are succeeded by smooth, pulpy fruits, about 
as large as a pigeon's egg, usually containing two or thrco 
roundish light-brown seeds. From these is produced a 
fatdikc substance, which is a kind of vegetable butter, 
concerning which we find tlie following information iu 
the Asiatic Researches, by Dr. Roxburgh :— * On opening 
the shell of the seed or nut, which \i of a fintf'chcstnut 
colour, smooth and brittlo, the kernel appears of tho size 
and shape of a blanched almond. The kernels are bruised 
6n a smooth stone, to the consistency of cream, or of a fine 
pulpy matter, which is then put into a cloth bag, with a 
moderate weight laid on, and left to stand till the oil ox fat 
is expressed, which becomes infraediately of the consistency 
of hogVlard, and is of a delicate white colour. Its uses are 
in medicine, Doing highly esteemed in rheumatism and con- 
tractions of the limbs. It is also much valued, and used 
by natives of rank, as an unetion, for which purpose it is 
generally mixed with an utr (aromatic oil) of soino kind. 
Except the fruit, w f hich is not much esteemed, no other part 
of the trco is used. After the oil has been expressed, tho 
dregs are employed by the poor as food. This phulwara 
butter will keep many months in India without acquiring 
any bad colour, taste, or Smell, and might no doubt be sub- 
stituted advantageously for animal butter. The timber is 
of no value, being nearly as light as that of the Scmul, or 
cotton-tree (Bombctx heptaphyllum)* 




[Baubt tralyraoetO 

Bassia longifolia, the Indian oil-tree, fs a large tree, a 
good deal liko tho last, but its leaves are narrower, and its 
(lowers much more flcshv. It is a native of tho peninsula of 
India, and Is found in plantations along the southern coast 
of Cororaandcl, where it Is called tho ltlu}rie*trce* Its fruit 
is yellowish, and yields by pressure a valuable oil, which is 
used by the poorer natives of India for their lamps, for soap, 
and, instead of better oil, for cookery. Tho flowers also are 
roasted and eaten by the Indian peasants, or bruised and 
boiled to a jelly, and made into small balls, which aro sold 
or exchanged for fish, rice, and various sorts of small grain. 
The wood is as hard and durable as teak, so that this is ono 
of tho most generally useful trees found on tho continent of 
India. 

Bassia lati folia, tho Mahwa, Madhaca, or Madhookb 



B A S 



B A S 



tree, has oblong leaves, and a corolla with a very protube- 
rant tube. It is a native of the mountainous parts, of the 
Circars and of Bengal, where it forms a middling-sized tree. 
Its wood is hard and strong, and proper for' the naves of 
wheels; its flowers are eaten raw by the natives and by 
jackals, and they yield by distillation a strong intoxicating 
spirit. From their seeds a considerable quantity of greenish 
yellow oil is obtained, which is found "useful for the supply 
of lamps; it is, however, inferior to that of the last species. 
It is curious that this oil stains linen or woollen cloth as 
animal oil does, while the fatty substance of the B. buty- 
racea possesses no such property, but when rubbed on cloth 
leaves no trace behind. 

A fourth species is believed to be the Shea-tree, or African 
butter-plant, which is so very important an article of African 
internal commerce ; and which it would apparently be ex- 
tremely desirable to introduce into the West Indies and 
Bengal, as a new source of internal wealth. This is the 
plant which is frequently spoken pf by Park, particularly at 
pages 202 and 203 of his Travels in Africa: — 

* The people were everywhere employed in collecting trie 
fruit of the shea-trees, from which they prepare a vegetablo 
butter, mentioned in the former part of this work. These 
trees grow in great abundance all over this part of Bambarra. 
They are not planted by the natives, but are found growing 
naturally in the woods ; and in clearing wood-land for culti- 
vation every tree is cut down but the shea. The tree itself 
very much resembles the American oak, and the fruit, from 
the kernel of which, first dried in the sun, the butter is pre- 
pared, by boiling the kernel in water, has somewhat the ap- 
pearance of a Spanish olive. The kernel is enveloped in a 
sweet pulp, under a thin green rind ; and the butter pro- 
duced from it, besides the advantage of it$ keeping the 
whole year without salt, is whiter, firmer, and, to my 
palate, of a richer flavour than the best butter I eve^r tasted 
made of cow's milk. The growth and preparation of this 
commodity seem to be amongst the first objects of African 
industry in this and the neighbouring states, and it consti- 
tutes a main article of their inland commerce. 

BASSIGNY, in France, a district partly included in the 
former province of Champagne, and partly in Le Barroia, 
now forming part of the department of Hiuto Marne. It 
was bounded on the north by the district pf Vallage in 
Champagne, on the east by Le Barrois and La Tranche 
Corate*, on the south by Bourgogne, or Burgundy, and on the 
west by Champagne. It was, according to Expflly (Dic- 
tionnaire des Gaules, 1762), 16 leagues, or 44 miles long, 
and 13 leagues, or 35 miles broad ; but he does not stato in 
what direction these dimensions were taken. The superficial 
contents he gives at 155 squaro leagues*, or U84 square 
miles. In the Dictionnaire Universe! de la France, the 
greatest length is given at 20 leagues, or 55 miles, from 
north to south, and the greatest breadth at 16 leagues, or 
44 miles; and these dimensions are independent of a small 
portion of the district separated from tho rest by a part of 
the province of Burgundy. Several important streams, as 
the Meuseand the Aube, take their rise in this district. The 
surface is varied with hills and plains. The air is temperate 
and healthy, and the soil produces corn, wine, and fruit. 
There is a considerable extent of wood, and good pasture 
land. Game, poultry, and fish are abundant. 

There are tho vestiges of several Roman roads in this 
country. In tho time of the Romans, Bassigny was inha- 
bited by the tribe of the Lingones, from whom the city of 
Langres derives its name. Lahgres (population in 183*2, 
5960 for the town, or 7460 for the commune) was considered 
as the capital, but Chaumont (population in 1832, 6104 for 
the town, or 6318 for the whole commune) disputed this 
title with it. Tho most important places after theso are 
Montigny le Roi and Nogent le Roi (population in 1832, 
2314 for the town, or 2401 for the whole commune), Le Val 
des Ecoliers, and Bourbon les Bains. The last-mentioned 
town contains about 3500 inhabitants, and is celebrated for 
its mineral waters, and its vast military hospital for more 
than 500 men. [Sco Langres, Chaumont, and Bourbon 
les Bains.] (Dictionnaire Universel de la France; Ex- 
pilly, Dictionnaire des Gaules, fyc.) 

BASSO-R1L1EVO. The Italian terra hasso-rilievo, or 
tho French bas-relief, is commonly applied to any work of 
sculpture connected more or less with a plane surface or back- 
ground, anrl in this general sense is opposed to insulated 

• The tf-ii« commune, or common league of tho French, b the twenty fifth 
fait of* degree. 



detached figures, or sculpture in the round. In its more par. 
ticular meaning basso-rilievo, low or flat relief, is Visually 
appropriated to figures which have a very slight projection 
from the ground. Alto-rilievo, on the other hand, is not 
only rounded to the full bulk, but has generally some portions 
of the figures quite detached; and mezzo-rilievo (a style 
between the two), although sometimes rounded to a con- 
siderable bulk, has no part entirely unconnected with the 
plane surface or ground. A more accurate definition of the 
styles to which these designations refer will result from the 
explanations that follow. The terms used by the Greeks 
and Romans to distinguish these kinds of relief cannot per- 
haps be determined with complete accuracy ; and it may be 
here remarked, that those writers are mistaken who sup- 
pose the word Toreutike (roptvriieri) to have been applied 
by the Greeks exclusively to alto-rilievo, since Heyne, and 
indeed other writers before him, have proved that the terra 
was appropriated to earving, ano\ chiefly chasing in metal, 
in any kind of relief. The Latin word corresponding with it 
is ccelatura. The Greeks seem to have employed the term 
anaglypta to denote works in relief in general ; and the 
ectupa scalptura of Pliny (xxxvii. 10) also means work in 
relief. The term glypta (from yXu^w, to cut into, to hollow 
out), wjth other words formed from the same verb, appears 
to denote sculpture in the concave sense, intaglio. He- 
rodotus, in a passage of his second book (cap. 138), where 
wo have little doubt that he is speaking of the sunk 
Egyptian reliefs (which will be mentioned in another part 
of this article), couples a word formed from the verb yXu^w 
with the word typus (ru7roc) : typus irUelf (perhaps) always 
means a work in relief properly so called. (See Herod, iii. 
88. Cicero ad Atticum, i. 10.) Italian writers of the time 
of Vasari, it appears, used the term mezzo-rilievo for the 
highest relief, basso-rilievo for the less prominent, and 
stiacciqto for the flattest or least raised. Whatever the 
origin of this kind of sculpture may have been, and there 
is no doubt of its being very antient, an idea will be best 
formed of its style, as practised by the Greeks, by supposing 
it to be derived from the partial insertion of a statue in a 
perpendicular plane. Alto-rilievo is often literally nothing 
more than this. Applied, however, to a flat surface, the 
disposition pf the limbs, and the actions of the figure become 
necessarily moro or less parallel with that surface, in order 
sufficiently to adhere to it. Tho attitude is thus, in a cer- 
tain degree, adapted or selected. In inserting or embedding 
a figure in a flat ground, it is obvious, that although it may 
be buried less than half its thickness, as in alto-rilievo, it 
cannot be buried more, nor indeed (the structuro of the 
figure strictly considered) quite so much, without ceasing to 
present the real boundary or profile of the form. In the less 
prominent kinds of rilievo it is therefore still required that the 
outline should present the real form, and this principle in its 
further application excludes, in a great measure, the unreal 
forms of perspective and foreshortening, which would sup- 
pose that the objects are no longer parallel with the surface 
on which they are displayed. Attempts at foreshortening 
must in most cases fail to satisfy the eye. The work can 
only be seen in front, and the appearance it presents is 
therefore required to be at ouce intelligible, for no uncer- 
tainty can be removed by an inspection from another point 
of view, as in walking round a statue. The bulk, or thick- 
ness, need not, however, be real, provided it appear so. The 
compression of the bulk, which constitutes the various de- 
grees of mezzo and basso rilievo, thus follows the compres- 
sion or flattening of the action, the characteristic of alto- 
rilievo. Lastly, the modifications of which this branch of 
sculpture was susceptible, were adopted, as we shall see, 
according to the varieties of light, situation, dimensions, 
and use. 

The Greeks, as a general principle, considered tho ground 
of figures in relief to be the real wall, or whatever the solid 
plane might be, and not to represent air as if it was a picture. 
The art with them was thus rather the union of sculpture 
with architecture than a union of sculpture with the con- 
ditions of painting. That this was founded on the most ra- 
tional principles will be evident from a few simplo considera- 
tions. The shadows thrown by figures on the surface from 
which they project at once betray the solidity o( that surface. 
In tho attempt to represent, together witb actual projection, 
the apparent depth of a picture, or to imitate soaee, figures 
which aro supposed to be remote are reduced in size ; but 
although thus diminished in form, they cannot have the 
strength of their light and shado diminished, and if deprived 

B 2 



B A S 



BAS 



of shadow by inconsiderable relief, they cease to be apparent 
at all when the work is seen trora it* proper point or new, 
thai is, at a sufficient distance ; having no distinctness 
whatever in the absence of colour, but by meaus of light and 
shade. In short, the art, thus practised, has no longer an 
independent style, and only betrays in inferiority by pre- 
senting defects which another mode of imitation can supply. 
A passage in Vitruvius proves that the antients were not 
unacquainted with perspective ; and tho same author states 
that perspective scenic decorations were first employed by 
Agatnarcns at Athens, in the timo of >lisch>lns. How- 
ever greatly tho science may have been advanced by the 
modems, this may be sufficient to prove that the absence of 
perspective in Greek bassi-rilicvi was not from an absolute 
ignorance of its principles, but from a conviction that they 
would be misapplied in sculpture. 

In carefully keeping within the limits, however narrow, 
which defined the style of rilievo, the great artists of anti- 
quity failed not to condense into that style the utmost per- 
hxtibn compatible with it, while the various applications of I 



the works suggested abundant variety in their treatment and 
execution. The British Museum contains unquestionably 
the finest existing specimens of this branch of sculpture in 
tho rilicvi which decorated the Parthenon, or Tcmpjo of 
Minerva, at Athens. Wc have here to consider tho judi- 
cious adaptation of their styles for the situations they occu- 
pied ; but in regard to their general excellence as works 
of imitation, it may also be well to remember that these 
sculptures were the admiration of the antients themselves. 
Seven hundred years after they were produced Plutarch 
spoke of them as * inimitable works.* 

The figures which adorned the pediment are separate 
statues, although in their original situation, casting their 
shadows on the tympanum, they must have had the effect 
of bold olti-rilievi ; the circumstance of their beinj* thus 
completely detached must have given tho greatest distinct- 
ness to lhcir forms, and as they occupied tho highest part 
of the building, their gigantic size and complete relief made 
them fully effective at a considerable distance. The sculp- 
tures which adorned the metopes, or spaces between the 




triglyphs, arc in alto-rilievo. Those in the British Museum, 
representing combats with Centaurs, were taken from the 
south side of the building: the subjects were varied on the 
other sides, but they mostly related to the warlike exploits 
of the Athenians. It has been well observed that tho subjects 
of combats, usually chosen for the metopes in Doric temples, 
afforded opportunities of composing the figures so as to pro- 
duce diagonal lines, which effectually distinguished the 
groups from the architecture, and at the same time had tho 
effect of reconciling the vertical forms of the triglyphs with 
tho horizontal line3 of tho epistylium and cornice. The 
compositions in question all fully occupy the space destined 
for them, and are calculated, from their treatment and relief, 
to produce tho utmost possible effect. Those works which 
recti ved the open light were thus boldly relieved from their 
ground to insure tho masses of shadow which make them 
conspicuous: tho principle, applicable to external architec- 
ture, that projection commands shade, was thus extended to 
external decorations; and caro seems to have been taken 
to keep the light on the figures as unbroken as possible, 
especially as the whole series of metopes occupying the 
external frieze was more or less crossed by the shadow 
of the cornice. This precaution necessarily limits the atti- 
tudes, for many actions equally natural with those adopted 



would havo projected shadows on the figure itself, thus 
tending to confuse the forms. A statue which can be seen 
from various points, nnd sometimes in various lights, might 
thus be unfit as to its composition for that intclligiblo 
display in one view and under a constant light which 
rilievo requires. On the principle that high relief is fittest 
for tho open light, the rilicvi of tho temple of Phigalcia, 
which are also preserved in the British Museum, are bold 
in their projections. These works ndorncd tho interior of 
the eel la, but as the temple was hypojthral, or lighted from 
tho open sky, the principles of external decoration were 
applicable. Had the temple been imperfectly lighted, a 
tlatter kind of relief would have been preferable, and this 
leads us to consider tho stylo of basso-rilicvo, properly so 
called, the most perfect existing specimen of which is also 
in tho British Museum. It adorned the external wall of tho 
cella of tho Parthenon, within the peristyle or colonnade, 
and was consequently always in shade : the strongest light 
it could ever receive would probably Imj the rejection from 
the pavement below when the snn was highest ; hut as re- 
flected lights are uncertain, and may proceed from various 
points, tne sculptures in question wcro calculated to bo 
equally distinct in whatever direction the light was thrown. 
Their great elevation, and the peculiar angle at which they 



B A S 



B A S 



were seen, owing to the narrowness of the space between 
the exterior columns and the cella, may also be mentioned 
in considering the reasons which rendered projection unad- 
visable. That this confined view was not, however, the sole 
reason, may appear from the bold relief of the Phigaleian 
marbles, which, in the interior of the narrow cella of the 
temple they adorned, must have been seen, on the side 
walls, at a very inconsiderable distance compared with their 
height. The Phigaleian temple was built, according to 
Pausanias, by Ictinus, the chief architect of the Parthenon; 
and although the sculptures are inferior, 'as works of art, 
to the generality of Greek specimens, their style of relief 
is precisely the point where the architect maybe supposed 
to have influenced their execution. 

As projection commands shade, so flatness commands 
light, and the flattest relief is hence fittest for an invari- 
ably dark situation. The same principle is observable in 
architecture in the treatment of mouldings in interiors, 
the form and projection of which differ materially from the 
corresponding members in the open light, and which are 
intended to be seen at a distance. The flatness which in- 
sures light would, however, be altogether indistinct and 
formless unless the outlines were clear and conspicuous 
at the first glance." The eontrivanee by which this is effected 
is by abruptly sinking the edges of the forms to the 
plane on which they are raised, instead of gradually round- 
ing and losing them. The mass of the relieved figure 
being sometimes very little raised in its general surface, 
its section would thus almost present a rectangular pro- 
jection. In many instances the side of this projection 
is even less than rectangular; it is undercut, like some 
mouldings in architecture which require to be particularly 
distinct, and thus presents a deeper line of shade. But 
if the figure ean thus command distinctness of outline, not- 
withstanding the inconsiderable light it may receive, it 
is obvious that its lowncss or flatness of relief will in sueh 
a light greatly aid its distinctness : above all, this contri- 
vance gives the work thus seen in an obscure situation the 
effect of rotundity. Indeed, it is a great mistake to suppose 
that the flat style of relief wa3 intended to appear flat, and 
it is a great mistake to apply it in situations, as in the open 
air, where it must appear so, and bo indistinct besides. The 
conventions of the arts are remedies, adopted in eertain 
situations and under particular eircumstanees, and aro sup- 
posed to be coneealed in their results : their ultimate resem- 
blance to nature, and their successful effect in those eireum- 
stanees, arc the test of their propriety and necessity. The 
absence of all convention in alto-rilievo (as opposed to the 
flat style), thus fits it for near situations, if not too near to 
expose it to aceidents. The excellent sculptures whieh de- 
corate the pronaos and posticum of the Temple of Theseus, 
although under the portico, are in hold relief. They were 
not only nearer the eve, and seen at a more convenient 
angle than the flat rilievi of the cella of the Parthenon, 
but the reflected light whieh displayed them would neces- 
sarily be much stronger. 



Lateral portico of the 
Parthenon. 



End portico of the Temple 
of Theseus. 




It is also to be remembered that only the end portieoes, 
where the seulpture could be more conveniently seen and was 
belter lighted, were decorated with rilievi ; the side walls of the 
cella were unomamentcd, and undoubtedly bold relief would 
have been less adapted for them. The Temple of Theseus 
was built about thirty years before the Parthenon ; and it 
is not impossible that the satisfactory effect of the (lat rilievi 
on the cella of the latter might have suggested a similar 
treatment, or some modification of it, in the Temple of 
Theseus, had it been ereeted later. It may be observed in 
general, that alto-rilievo ean seldom be fit for interiors, not 
only from its liability to accident, but from the difficulty of 
displaying it by the full light which it requires. A super- 



ficial light, especially if in a lateral direction, necessarily 
throws the shadows of one figure on another. Instances of 
this occur in some of the palaces in Rome where works of 
sculpture have been injudiciously placed. A room, for ex- 
ample, lighted in the ordinary way will have its walls (at 
right angles with that occupied by the windows) adorned 
with a frieze in considerable relief; the figures nearest the 
light consequently project their shadows so as to half conceal 
the next in order. 

The conditions of proximity and distance, as well as the 
quantity and direction of light, were carefully attended toby 
the Greek sculptors, and suggested new varieties of relief. 
The end of the art, as far as relates to execution, is accom- 
plished when the work is distinct and intelligible at the 
distance whence it is intended to be viewed. Hence the 
conventions which are intended to correct the defeets of 
distance, of material, want of light, &c, are evidently un- 
necessary where the work admits of close inspection. The 
style of raezzo-rilievo, which in its boldest examples pre- 
sents about half the thickness of the figure, is, on many 
accounts, least fit for a distant effect: the figure is nowhere 
detached from its ground ; at a very little distance its sha- 
dowed side is lost in its cast shade, and its light side in the 
light of its ground ; the outline, in short, soon becomes in- 
distinct; but the semi-roundness of the forms is directly 
imitative, and thus again the absence of all conventional 
treatment fits the work for near situations. The style was 
preferred to alto-rilievo in such eases, as the latter would 
have been more liable to accidents, find would besides in 
some measure deform the outline or profile of any object 
which is circular in its plan. The figures which adorn 
sculptured vases are thus in mezzo-rilievo : these works pro- 
bably ornamented interiors where any indistinctness in their 
distant effect or in an unfavourable light might be obviated 
by closer inspection. Two specimens may be seen in the 
second room of the Gallery of Antiquities in the British Mu- 
seum. The celebrated Medicean and Borghesan vases, the 
finest known examples, are in like manner ornamented with 
mozzo-rilicvo. The same consideration applies to all works, 
however unfit for a distant effect, which ean, or in their ori- 
ginal situation eould, only be seen near. Even the mixed 
style of relief in the sculptures which occupy the inrernal 
sides of the Areh of Titus at Rome, would hardly be objected 
to, sinee the objeets representee: are distinctly seen, and can 
only be seen, at the^distanco of a few feet. The style of 
semi-relief (mueh purer than that of the Arch of Titus) 
adopted by Flaxman in front of Covent Garden Theatre may 
be defended on the same principle, since the utmost width of 
the street is hardly a more distant point than a spectator 
would naturally retire to in order to see them conveniently. 
The still flatter style which has been introduced on the ex- 
terior of several buildings in London eannot, however, be de- 
fended on any grounds ; and there can be no doubt, from the 
reasons addueed, that bold relief is generally fittest for the 
open light. The mezzi rilievi on the miniature choragie 
monument of Lysierates (easts from them are in the British 
Museum) may be admitted to have been fitly ealeulated for 
their situation beeause they must have been seen near; but 
there was* in this' case an additional consideration to be 
attended to ; tho building is circular, and alto-rilievo was 
avoided in order to preserve the architectural profile: on the 
other hand, the frieze of the small temple of Victory, which 
was rectangular, was ' adorned with alti-rilievi; and in this 
case it appears that they did not even extend to the angles. 
The objections to sculpture on monumental eolumns will be 
obvious from these considerations; it has been observed, 
that in attempting to preserve the architectural profile, as in 
the Trajan column,* and its modern rival in the Place Ven- 
dome at Paris", tho sculpture thus slightly relieved soon 
becomes indistinet, nor indeed would this indistinctness bo 
obviated at a "considerable height even by alto-rilievo, the 
figures being necessarily small, while the evil is only in- 
creased by substituting the dark material of bronze for 
marble. , 

We proceed to consider the varieties of style in this art as 
affecting composition. In rilievo, and in sculpture generally 
(a eolourlcss material, or a material of only one colour being 
always supposed), it is evident that shadow is the essential 
and only souree of meaning and effect. In works placed in 
the open air, and visible in one point only, as in tho ease of 
alto-rilievo, a eertain open display of the figure is generally 
adopted ; the shadows, or rather the forms which project 
them, are so disposed as to present at the first glance an 



HAS 



G. 



B A S 



intelligible ami easily recognised appearance, and the im- 
possibility of changing the point of view, or changing tho 
light, as Wore observed, limits the attitudes more than in a 
statue, and, as will also appear, more than in a bas>o-riliovo. 
For in the latter, howover distinct the outline is in which 
the chief impression and meaning of the figure reside, 
the shadows within tho extreme outlines are in a great 
measure suppressed ; it is, in fact, by their being go sup- 
pressed that tho general form becomes so distinct. This is 
also the ca^e when ono form is relieved on another ; it will 
bo seen that tho nearest object is very much reduced and 
flattened m order that its shadow may not interfcro with the 
mora important shadows of tho outlines on the ground, and 
hence it may often happen that the nearest projection is 
least reliovpd. It will thus bo evident that, owing to this 




power of suppressing the accidental shades and preventing 
them from rivalling or being confounded with the essential 
ones, the choice of attitudes becomes less limited, and many 
a composition which in full relief would present a mass 
of confusion from its scattered and equally dark shades, 
may be quite admissible and agreeable in basso-rilievo. 
Accordingly the attitudes of statues, which arc generally 
unfit for alto-rilievo, frequently occur in the flat style. 
Visconti even supposes that certain figures in the basfei- 
rilicvi of the Parthenon suggested the attitudes of cele- 
brated statues afterwards executed; as, for instance, the 
Jason, or Cincinnatus, and tho Ludovisi Mars. As a re- 
markable proof how much the attitudes wero limited in allo- 
rilicvo compared with tho flat style, it may be observed, that 
the contrasted action of the upper and lower limbs, winch 
gives so much energy and motion to the figure, is perhaps 
never to be met with in the fine examples of alto-riliovo, 
whereas in the flat style it is adopted whenever tho subject 
demands it In the annexed sketch of an early Greek 
basso-rilievo, representing Castor managing a horse (from 
tho third room of tho gallery of the British Museum), tho 
action of the upper and lowor limbs is contrasted, as is tho 
ease in all statues which aro remarkable for energy and 
elasticity of movement : the statue called tho Fighting Gla- 
diator may be quoted as a prominent example. This dis- 
position ofthe lower limbs, or the alternate action in which 
ono of tho arms would cross the body, never occurs ia alto- 
rilicvo, because the shadow of the arm on tho body or of ono 
of tho lower limbs on the other could then no longer be 
suppressed, as it is in this case, but would rival the shadows 
of the whole figure on tho ground. Among tho metopes 
of the Parthenon, the Phigalcian marbles, and tho nlti- 
rilievi of tho Temple of Theseus, there is not a singlo in- 
stance of the contrasted action alluded to ; while in the two 
latter examples, the contrary position, or open display of the 
figure, reocotedly recurs, even to sameness, It must however 




be admitted, that this open display ofthe figure, although not 
presenting the most energetic action, is as beautiful us it is 
intelligible, and hence the finest cxiiibitions of form wcro 
quite compatible with the limited attitudes to which the 
sculptors thus wisely confined themselves. Tho objections 
which compelled this limitation being however entirely ob- 
viated in basso-rilievo, by the power of suppressing at plea- 
sure the shadows within the contour, wc find the fullest ad- 
vantago taken of tho latitude which was thus legitimately 
gained. 

A better example cannot be referred to than tho flat 
rilicvi already mentioned from the ccllaof the Parthenon. 
(Soo the next illustration.) The subject represents the 
Panathcnaic procession, and although no pcrspcetivo dimi- 
nution is admitted, several equestrian figures are some- 
times partly relieved ono upon the other. The confusion 
which results from the number of similar forms in the repe- 
tition of the horses 1 limbs, as well as in the actions ofthe 
horsemen, must be admitted ; but perhaps the subject is 
thus better expressed than by a simpler arrangement, and 
this treatment contrasts finely with tho single figures. In 
a procession of horsemen moving two or three abroast, we 
aro at once awaro that the figures arc similar, and tlic eye 
is satisfied, as it would be in nature, not in searching out 
each individual figure as if it had a separate principlo of 
action, but in comprehending the movement and the mass, 
for ono indicates tnc whole. Where the figures thus cross 
each other they aro treated as a mass ; the outline of tlio 
whole group is distinct and bold, being more or less abruptly 
sunk to the ground, but tho outlines which come within 
the extreme outline aro very slightly relieved. In short, 
tho principlo hero applied is precisely tho same as that 
observable in a single figure in the same sttlc of relief: the 
outline of the whole form is distinct, or rat her most distinct 
where it is most important, and the internal markings arc 
seldom suffered to rival it, but arc made subservient to this 
peneral effect. The relative importance of tho objects is, 
indeed, the only consideration winch is suffered to interfere 
with this principle: thus loose drapery is sometimes slightly 
relieved on the ground, while a significant form is now and 
then strongly relieved even on another figure. In com- 
paring the slight varieties of treatment in these rilicvi, it is 
to be remembered that the end porticoes wcro a little wider 
than tho lateral colonnades. It is undoubtedly to this cir- 
cumstance that the difference of treatment alluded to is to 
be referred; tho figures in tho end friezes arc more sepa- 
rated from ono another, and consequently somewhat more 
relieved than tho compact processions on tho sido walls. 

Tho fact that these bassi-rilicvi, as well as most of the 
sculpture of tho anticnts, wcro partially painted, has been pur- 
posely left out of the account, because the very contrivances 
rosortod to are calculated to supply tho absenco of colour. 
Tho custom in tho best ago of Grecian art of painting archi- 
tecture and sculpture may be defended or excused else- 
where; it may be, however, here remarked, that while tho 
antient sculptors added colour after having employed every 
expedient which could supply its want, tho moderns, in 
altogether rojecting it, often fail to make use of thoso >cry 
conventions which its absence demands. 

It appears that tho principle of suppressing tho relief 
within the extreme contour winch, with the strong marking 
of the out lino it*clf, maiuly const it utos the style of basso- 
rilievo, was employed by the anticnts in works of consi- 
derable relief, in interiors, in particular lights, and probably 



B A S 



B A S 







at some distance or elevation. The real projection which 
works thus strictly belonging to the class of bassi-rilievi 
may sometimes present, points out tho essential difference 
between basso and mezzo rilievo : a work, even if In very 
slight general relief, which has the parts that are nearest 
the most relieved, belongs to mezzo -rilievo ; while a work 
which has the nearest parts least relieved, constitutes basso- 
rilievo, whatever its general projection may be. In the 
former, the outline is thus less apparent than tho forms 
within it ; in the latter, the outline is more apparent than 
the forms within it. The early Greek and Etruscan rilievi, 
which, however tlat, havo the nearest parts the fullest, while 
tho outline is scarcely, if at all, rectangular in its section, 
have thus the principle of mezzo-rilievo. They are even 
fitted for near inspection, and cannot be said to present any 
unsatisfactory convention ; for the bulk, howover really thin, 
is proportionate in its relief, and is so far directly imitative; 
inasmuch as the eye consents 1o a diminished sealo of bulk 
as easily as to a diminished scale of height, while the indis- 
tinctness of tho outline has the effect of rounding the form. 
Such works are besides fitted for near examination, be- 
cause they can scarcely command any shadow. Various 
specimens may be seen in the British Museum. 

The antique vases of Arczzo were ornamented with 
figures in this kind of relief. Certain silver vases mentioned 
by Pliny wero of the same description. The Egyptian in- 
taglio, for so it may be called, rather than rilievo, belongs to 
the same style. The Egyptian artists, instead of eutting away 
the background from the figure, sunk the outline, and 
slightly rounded the figure, on the principle of mezzo-rilievo, 
within. Thus no part of tha work projected beyoud the ge- 
neral surface, and tho architectural profile was preserved. 
There are, however, many very antient examples at Thebes 
of figures slightly relieved from the ground, soraowhat on the 
principle of basso-rilievo as practised by the Greeks, — that 
is. with the nearest parts least relieved, and with outlines 
rectangular in tho section. Many of them, probably, in 
their original situations, and when the buildings were entire, 
ornamented interiors. Some Persian rilievi, in the British 
Museum, approach the same style. The Egyptian rilievi 
were painted In brilliant colours, and would have been in- 
effective in the open light without sueh an addition. 

The distinctions of tho three styles of relief, according to 
the Greek examples, may now be thus recapitulated. In the 
highest relief, however decided tho Bhadows muy and must 



of necessity be, oh the plane to which the figure is attached, 
the light on the figure itself Is kept as unbroken as possible, 
and this can only be effected by a selection of open atti- 
tudes; that is, such an arrangement of the limbs as shall 
not bast shadows on the figure itself. In basso-rilievo tho 
same general effect of the figure is given, but by very dif- 
ferent means : the attitiide Is not selected to avoid shadows 
on tho figure, because, while the extreme outline is strongly 
marked, the shadows within it may be in a great measure 
suppressed, so that the choice of attitudes is greater. Mezzo- 
rilievo differs from both : it has neither the limited attitudes 
of the first, nor the distinet outline arid suppressed internal 
markings of tlio secoftd: on the contrary, tho outline Is 
often less distinet than tho forms within it, and hence it re- 
quires, and is fitted for, near inspection. Its imitation may 
thus be more absolute, and its execution more finished, than 
those of either of the other styles. 

Most of the coins of antiquity are executed on the prin- 
ciple Of mezzo-rilievo; arid though often far bolder in this 
relief than modern works of the kind, are treated in a modo 
corresponding with their minute dimensions, which require 
close examination. The diitlirie thus gradually rounds into 
tho ground, and is never abruptly sunk, while the nearest 
parts are most relieved. Thus, conventional methods aro 
always wanting In works that admit of close inspection, 
whero the eye can be satisfied without such expedients. 
The comparatively strong relief of the heads on the antient 
medals is again a contrivance for their preservation, and 
presents a new variety in tho style of rilievo. Coins are 
exposed to friction, and the forms they bear are thus liable 
to be soon effaced. The earliest means adopted to prevent 
this was by sinking the representation in a concavity, in 
which it was thus protected. This plan was soon aban- 
doned, for obvious reasons; and the method ultimately 
adopted was that of raising tho least important parts most. 
Accordingly, the parts that are rubbed away in many fine 
antique coins are precisely those which can best be spared ; 
tho hair has generally a considerable projection, so that the 
faeo and profile are often perfectly preserved after 2000 
years : a better specimen cannot be adduced than the celo- 
brated Syracusan coin representing the head of Arethusa 
or Proserpine. In addition to the propriety of its style, 
this head is remarkable for its beauty ; and is elassed by 
Winkelmann among the examples of the highest character 
of form, 



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8 



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The ordinary stylo of mezzo-rilievo was alio used for gems, 
and indeed for nil work* in this branch of sculpture which 
required clo*o inspection, and needed no conventional con- 
trivance. A flat stylo of relief, which is sometimes observ- 
able in cameos, was adopted only for the sako of displaying a 
subject on a different coloured ground; the layers of colour 
in tho stono employed, generally tho sardonyx, being very 
thin. Tho difference of colour in the ground has, however, 
tbo effect of giving roundness to the figures rolicved on 'it, 
as if, their whole effect becoming apparent, tho internal 
markings disappeared. The figures on the Portland Vase 
are treated on this principle ; and as it was intended to 
imitate a precious stono (tor which indeed it was at first 
taken), tho thinness of tho outer layer of colour is also 
imitated. Such works, however, reduced to one colour in 
a cast or copy, are totally, wanting in effect and style. The 
impressions from intagli, or engraved gems, which were used 
for seals, are never in the flat style of relief ; but however 
slightly raised, are on tbeprincipioofraczzo-rilievo a* above 
defined. The j*ems of Dioscorides, tho finest of antiquity, 
are in mezzo-rilievo, and often of tho fullest kind ; as for 
instance, the heads of Demosthenes and Io, and tho figures 
of Mercury and Perseus. Tho same may be observed of 
other celebrated gems, such as the Medusa of Solon, tho 
Hercules of Cneius, &c. It is supposed that tho same 
artists who engraved on gems, and who frequently inscribed 
their names, also executed the dies for coins. The latter 
are among the finest antiqno works of art ; but of the many 
thousand existing specimens there is but ono which bears 
the name of tho artist, viz., tho eoin of Cydonia in Crete, the 
inscription on which proves it to be the work of Nevantus. 
It was observed, that in the antique coins tho least important 
parts aro the most raised, and the reasons which dictated 
this practice limited the view of the head to tho profile ; 
but as the same reasons were no longer applicable in en- 
graved gems, the impressions from which could be renewed 
at pleasure, the front, or nearly front view of the head was 
occasionally attempted, and seems to have been preferred by 
Dioscorides and his school. Tho head of Io before men- 
tioned, considered with reference to this specific propriety 
of its style, as well as with regard to its general merits, is 
placed byVisconti in the first class of antiquo engraved 
gems. Thus the most skilful artists of antiquity seemed 
.to consider the style of any one of the arts to consist chiefly 
in those points which were unattainable by its rivals. It 
may be here observed too, that they generally limited their 
representation to the most worthy object, viz., tho human 
figure, when the dimensions on which they were employed 
were necessarily confined. Iudeed tho principles of imita- 
tion itself were, as it were, condensed, and true character 
often exaggerated as the materials appeared less promising ; 
so that the genius of antient art is as conspicuous in minute 
engraved gems as in colossal sculpturo. 

Mezzo-rilievo of the fullest kind was also fitly employed 
(as well as alto-rilievo, when in situations not exposed to 
accidents) to ornament tombs and sarcophagi. These 
works, placed in the open air, decorated the approaches to 
cities, as the sepulchres were always without the walls. 
The Appian Way was the most magnificent of these streets 
of tombs in tho neighbourhood of Rome, and must have 
exhibited, literally, thousands of sepulchral monuments. 
Though generally the work of Greek artists, and often 
interesting from being copies of better works now lost, the 
haste and inattention with which sueh prodigious numbers 
were executed,' tended to degrade the style of their sculp- 
ture. In theso riliovi, even in tho better specimens, build- 
ings and other objects are occasionally introduced behind 
the figures, thus approaching the spurious style of relief 
in which the effects of perspective are attempted to be 
expiessed : a great variety, of various degrees of excellence, 
arc to be seen in the British Museum. The greater part 
of what aro called Roman bassi-rilicvi are of this kind, 
and may be considered a middle style between the pure 
Greek rilievo and tho modern Italian. It was from antique 
sarcophagi, fine in execution, but with these defects in style, 
that Niccola da Pisa, in the 13th eenturv, first caught 
the spirit of antient art. Many of the works from which 
he is believed to have studied aro still preserved in Pisa. 
D'Agiucourt gives a representation of ono of the best 
In imitating the simplicity of arrangement, and, in a remote 
degree, tho purity of forms which theso works exhibited, 
the artist was not likely to correct the defects alluded to 
which had been already practised in Italy and elsewhere. 



Various degrees of relief, background figures and objects, 
and occasional attempts at perspective, are to bo found 
in tho works of tho I'isani and their scholars; yet their 
works, which aro to be regarded as the infancy of Italian 
art, and which undoubtedly aro rudo enough in work- 
manship and imitation, are purer in stylo than those of 
tho succeeding Florentine masters, who attained so much 
general perfection in sculpture. The rilievi of Donatello 
are mostly in the style called by tho Italians stiaeciato, 
the flattest kind of mezzo-rilievo, according to the definition 
beforo given, which he probably adopted, as he worked in 
bronze, from the facility of casting; yet in such a style, 
commanding little distinctness from its inconsiderable pro- 
jection, he introduced buildings, laudscape, and the usual 
accessories of a pieturo. But this misapplication of inge- 
nuity was carried still farther by Lorenzo Ghiberli, in the 
celebrated bronzo doors of tho baptistery, or church of San 
Giovanni, at Florence, which exhibited such skilful com- 
positions, in which tho stories are so well told, and in which 
the single figures are so full of appropriate action. In these 
works the figures gradually emerge from the stiacciuto 
style to alto-rilievo. They arc among the best specimens of 
that mixed style, or union of basso- rilievo with the prin- 
ciples of painting, which the sculptors of the fifteenth cen- 
tury and their imitators imagined to be an improvement on 
the well-considered simplicity of the antients. In these and 
similar specimens the unreal forms of perspective buildings, 
and diminished or foreshortened figures, which in pictures 
creato illusion when aided by appropriate light and shade, 
and variety of hue, are unintelligible or distorted in a real 
material, where it is immediately evident that the objects 
are all on tho same solid plane. Even Vosari, who wroto 
when this mixed style of rilievo was generally practised, 
remarks the absurdity of representing the piano on which 
the figures stand asceuding towards the horizon, according 
to the laws of perspective ; in consequence of which * wo 
often see,' ho says. ' the point of the foot of a figure, 
standing with its back to the spectator, touching the middle 
of the leg,* owing to the rapid ascent or foreshortening of 
the ground. Such errors, he adds, are to be seen ' even 
in the doors of San Giovanni/ Lorenzo Ghiberli, like other 
Florentine sculptors, first learnt the practice of his art from 
a goldsmith, and the designs of the artists who competed 
with him for the honour of executing tbo doors of San Gio- 
vanni were submitted to the judgment of goldsmiths and 
painters as well as sculptors* 

The taste of the Florentines in basso-rilievowas thus greatly 
influenced by the prevalence of a style most applicable to 
the precious metals, in which a general sparkling effect is 
best insured by avoiding uniformly violent relief, which 
projects considerable shadows, and especially by avoiding 
unbroken flatness. Tho background is thus filled with 
slightly relieved distant objects, so as to produce everywhere 
a more or less roughened or undulating surface. The same 
end seems to have been attained in the antique silver vases, 
by the introduction of foliage. The style continued to bo 
practised with occasionally greater absurdities than those 
before alluded to, and perhaps less redeeming exrollencc, till 
tho close of the last century. Tho sculptor Falconet says 
of the antique bassi-rilievi, that * however noble their compo- 
sition may be, it does not in any way tend to the illusion of 
a picture, and a basso- rilievo ought always to aim at this illu- 
sion.' He leaves no doubt as to the literal meaning he intends 
by eiting the Italian writers who applied the term quadru 
indiscriminately to picturo and basso-rilievo. Sculpturo in 
this country was indebted principally to Flaxman for tho 
revival of a puicr taste in the application of basso-rilievo 
to architecture. In works of decoration, intended to bo 
executed in the precious metals, in which, as before ob- 
served, moderately embossed and general richness of surface 
is so desirable, in order to display the material as well as 
the work, he, however, united his own purity of taste and 
composition with an approach to the mixed style of relief 
practised by the Florentine masters, who, in this branch of 
sculpture, perhaps never equalled his shield of Achilles. 

BASSOMPIERRE. FRANCOIS DE, Marshal of 
France, and Captain-General of'the Swiss Guards, was 
born in Lorraine, on the 12th of February, 1579, Tho 
family name was originally Betstcin, or, as Mr. Croker con- 
jectures, Bassenstein— galliciscd into Bissompierre. His 
education was, all things considered, excellent for the times 
in which ho lived: it reminds us, in many particulars, of 
Montaigne's education, whieh that amusing writer has 



BAS. 



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described in his Essays, being, like it, domestic, conducted 
in a feudal castle in a remote district, and embracing a 
much greater range of subjects than is comprehended in 
our modern * courses of study/ Bassompierre tells us, for 
example, in his memoirs, among other particulars of his 
studies, that in his seventeenth year he devoted one hour a 
day singly to the study ' of law, of casuistry, of Hippocrates, 
the ethics and politics of Aristotle,' and that, like our own 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury, whom he resembled in his ad- 
miration of the usages of chivalry, he prided himself on his 
early proficiency in" martial exercises, particularly 'riding 
the great horse/ 

In 1598 Bassompierre arrived, in the course of his 
travels, at Paris, having first visited Italy and Germany. 
His reception at the court of France was flattering beyond 
example. Jits family was of the highest order of nobility : 
his father liad commanded a regiment of cavalry, called 
reiters (riders), under the French king, Henry IV., and, 
like his master, had been wounded at the battle of Ivry; 
and Bassompierre's person and address were those of a 
knight of romance. Bassompierre was first introduced to 
the French king's notice in a ballet, which some young 
courtiers had got up to amuse Henry on his recovering from 
an illness, in which the illness, and still more the mode of 
cure, were held up to laughter. Bassompierre took a part 
in the ballet, and quickly caught the attention of Henry. 
The result was a warm friendship on both sides ; and Bas- 
sompierre became for life a devoted Frenchman. 

The incidents of Bassompierre's career are only interest- 
ing to the general reader so far as they illustrate the man- 
ners of the times. Bassompierre was young, ardent, and 
accomplished, and distinguished for his personal beauty and 
courage ; and tho court of France was at that time one 
scene of gaiety, intrigue, and licentiousness. His career 
may accordingly be briefly described as that of a 'chartered 
libertine," who united the wily arts of the courtier with the 
intrepidity of a soldier. In many respects the court of Henry 
resembled that of Charles II. of England. It is but justice, 
however, to the French king to state, Uiat unbridled as he 
was himself in the indulgence of bis amorous propensities, 
and baneful as was the effect of such an example upon the 
morals of his court, the general features of its profligacy 
were less sordid and disgusting than those which disgrace 
the history of -the English court during the times which fol- 
lowed the Restoration. 

In 160 ( J Bassompierre was on the point of being married 
to the most beautiful woman in France, the daughter of the 
Constable do Montmorency. Ho was preferred among a 
host of suitors by Mademoiselle de Montmorency herself, 
and had obtained tho consent of her father and the king, 
who had not then seen the lady. In a few days afterwards 
Henry saw her, and, though then fifty-seven years of age, 
becamo * madly and desperately * in Ioyc with her him- 
self. After a sleepless night the king sent for Bassom- 
pierre to attend him in his cabinet. * I was thinking, 
Bassompierre/ said he, * that the best thing you can do is to 
marry the Duchess of Aumale and revive the dukedom in 
your awn person/ * What, sire, would your Majesty have 
me marry two wives?' was the answer. 'The truth is, my 
friend,' said Henry, 1 1 am myself desperately, madly in love 
with Mademoiselle do Montmorency, and should hate you 
if you obtained her heart, while you would be sure to hato 
me if she fixed her affections on me. Now, I have too great 
a regard for you to risk our friendship by your^ union with 
her/and therefore I think it better to give her in marriage 
to my nephew tho Prince of Conde, who is young and a 
hundred times fonder of the chace than of the ladies. This 
union will be the solace of the old age upon which I am 
just entering, and I shall seek no thanks from her but her 
affection. I assure you I seek no more/ {Memoires, torn. i. 
p. 224.) Bassompierre knew that it was useless to refuse 
his consent to this proposition, and he was too prudent a 
courtier to incur the loss of the king's friendship. 

Bassompierre served in all the civil wars, mostly of a ro- 
ligious character, in which France was engaged in his time, 
and ro3e through successive stcp3 to the highest military 
• honours, having been appointed by Henry captain-general of 
the Swiss Guards, a high court appointment, and promoted 
to tho rank of marshal in the next reign. lie does not seem 
to have possessed much military talent, and was distin- 
guished in the camp chiefly by his playful humour and 
courage. He assisted at tho siege of Rochelle, under the 
eye of Cardinal Richelieu, and is reported to have said on 



that occasion, * AVe shall be fools enough to take the plaea 
for the cardinal/ meaning that the capture of that Last 
fortress of the Huguenots would so strengthen the hands of 
Richelieu as to place the party of the queen-mother and the 
Guises at his mercy ; and the result proved that Bassom- 
pierre was right. 

Bassompierre stood so high in the favour of the indolent 
monarch, Louis XIII., as to convert the favourite Luynes 
into a fierce enemy. After some coqueting and countermin- 
ing on both sides, Luynes succeeded in inducing Louis to 
give Bassompierre a cold reception at court. Bassompierre 
sought an explanation with the favourite. Luynes told him 
frankly that he was jealous of his influence with the king ; 
that he (Bassompierre) must see, from the reception he had 
met with, that he had now a superior in influence, and there- 
fore he must make up his mind to take a military appoint- 
ment at a distance, an embassy, or be forbidden from the 
presence. Bassompierre accepted the offer of an embassy, 
and Luynes declared himself his devoted friend. lie was 
accordingly sent ambassador extraordinary to Spain, and 
afterwards to the Swiss, in the years 1624 and 1625. The 
particulars of these embassies are detailed in his Ambassades 
and his Memoires, but do not possess general interest. In 
1626 he was sent to England, at the instance of the Car- 
dinal Richelieu, in order to enforce the observance of the 
treaty of marriage between Henrietta Maria and Charles I., 
so far as it applied to the toleration of the Roman Catholic 
worship. The circumstances which gave rise to this embassy 
arc explained by the following letter: — 

'Stcenie [Buckingham], — I have refc'eaved your letter by 
Die Grcame, this is my answer. I command you to send all 
the French away tomorrow out of the toune if you can by 
faire mcancs (but stike not long in disputing), otherwise 
force them away, dryving them away lyke so manie wylde 
bcastes untill ye have shipped them, and so to the Dcvill go 
with them. Let me heare no answer bot of the performance 
of my command. So I rest, 

1 Your faithfull, constant, loving friend, 

'August 7th. 1626/ 'Charles Rex. 

(Ellis's Original Letters, first scries, vol. iii. p. 244.) 

This violent dismissal of the queen's household was re- 
sented as an affront by the king of France, her brother, and 
Bassompierre was despatched as ambassador extraordinary to 
seek an explanation. Charles refused to givo him an audience 
till he had dismissed Father Sancy (concerning whom see 
D'Isracli's Commentaries on the Reign of Charles /., vol. L), 
who had come over in his train. Bassompierre firmly re- 
fused, and stood upon his privileges as an ambassador. The 
king was placed in an awkward dilemma, dreading, in par- 
ticular, * a scene with his wife,* should he admit Bassom- 
pierre to a publie audience. Buckingham explained to 
Bassompierre the difficulties of his master's situation, and 
threw himself upon the Frenchman's good nature to extri- 
cate hiin from them. Bassompierre accordingly suggested 
that the king, * after allowing me to make my bow, and 
having received with the king's letter my first compliments, 
when I should^ commence to open to him the occasion of my 
coming, the king may interrupt me and say, " Sir you are 
come from London (to Hampton); you have to return thither; 
it is late, and this matter requires a longer time than I can 
now give you. I shall send for you at an earlier hour," &c, 
&c, and after some civil expressions about the king, my 
brother-in-law, and the queen, my mother-in-law, the king 
will add, " I can no longer delay the impatience of the queen, 
my wife, to hear of them from yourself," &c/ Charles had 
the meanness to go through this humiliating ceremonial to 
the letter. A few days afterwards he admitted Bassompierre 
to a private audience, in which he gave vent to his angry 
feelings. Bassompierre replied with equal warmth, and 
taunted Charles with a breach of the treaty of marriage, 
Charles, whose pride refused to plead tho real cause, the 
necessity of yielding to the religious prejudices of his par- 
liament, contended that tho treaty was 'one of state and not 
of religion/ Angry threats and recriminations followed, 
which induced Charles to exclaim, * Why then do you not 
declare war at once?' AVith great firmness and dignity 
Bassompierre replied, ' I am not a herald to declare war, 
but a marshal of Franco, to make it when declared/ 

The remainder of Bassompierre's career is soon told. He 
attached himself warmly to the interests of the house of 
Guise, and the queen-mother Mary de* Mcdicis, who was 
the great obstacle to Richelieu's attaining absolute power, 
and he paid the penalty of his adhesion. The imme- 



No. 20G. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOP/EDIA.] 



, Vol, IV.-C 



B A S 



10 



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diato cause of hi* Incurring tho cardinal's displeasure 
was, as lie folk us in Ills Mf moires, his neglecting to keen 
an appointment to dinner. On tha day preceding tho 
memorabla Day of the l)ui>e$ (la Journde des Dupes), the 
30th of November, 1G30, Bassompierre met the cardinal 
in ono of the passagoi oftheLouvro. Ho accosted him, 
and Richelieu feigned to receive the courtesy as a favour to 
a ' poor disgraced minister/ Basaomplerro, in tho fulness 
of his benevolence, condescended to invita himself to dine 
with the cardinal, and tho offer was accepted. It happened, 
however, unfortunatoly that two noblemen, enemies of the 
cardinal, met Bassompiorre in the course of the day, and 
• debauched ' him to dine with them, and tho * poor disgraced 
minister' was forgotten. 

On the 23rd of February, 1631, Bassompierro was ar- 
rested, by Richelieu's orders, and sent to tho Bastille, 
where ho was confined for twelve years; that is, till the 
death cf tho cardinal. He tells us, that tho day before he 
was arrested ho burned upwards of 6000 love -letters which 
he had received at diflfcront times from his femalo admirers 
—a preltv decisive proof of the reputation which induced 
Madamouo Montpcnsier, when recalling tho brilliant visions 
of her youth, to designate him as 'cet illustre Bassompierre.* 
(Sec the Preface to tha translation of Bassompierre s Eng- 
lish Embassy, ascribed on personal knowledge by Mr. Dis- 
raeli to the Right Hon. J. W. Crokcr.) 

He employed his timo during his imprisonment in writing 
his Memoir es and revising his Ambassades ; but both are so 
very dull and jejune, that we cannot help regarding him as 
one of those men whoso fame has been mainly owing to the 
advantages of a good person and address. There is not a 
single passaga in all his writings which would load us to 
concludo that he was ' the wittiest man of his timo ;' and 
even those anecdotes and bons mots which arc attributed to 
him in tho French Ana, are not calculated to impress us 
with a high notion of his mental accomplishments. 

Bassompierre died of apoplexy on the 1 2th of April, 1C46, 
three years after his liberation from prison. It is alleged 
that he was offered the guardianship of the young monarch 
"Louis XIV., hut age* or, as Mr. Crokcr conjectures, the 
wholesome discipline of the Bastille,' had cured him of all 
ambition as a courtier, and he declined the perilous honour. 

(Memoires de Mareschal de Bassompierre, 4 tomes, Am- 
sterdam, edition 1723; Bassompierre's Embassy to Eng- 
land, translated, with notes, London, 1819; Memoirs of 
Henry th& Great of France, 2 vols. London, 1829 ; and the 
works referred to in tho text.) 

BASSOON, a musical instrument of the pneumatic kind, 
blown through a reed. It consists of four pieces, or tubes 
of wood, bound together and pierced for ventages, of a brass 
cranpd neck, in which the reed is inserted, and of several 
lceys. The whole length of tho tubes is 6J feet, but by 
doubling up, this is reduced to four. It may be considered 
as a base oboe [see Ouoe] ; and its compass fs from b flat 



below the base staff, 



SE 



tow flat in the 
-j±— treble staff. 



\r* 




Tins instrument is used in every kind of music, for the 
richness of its tono and extent of its scalo render it invalu- 
able to the composer. Handel seems to have been the first 
who gave importance to it, and in the air Thou didst blow, 
In tho oratorio of Israel in Egypt, exhibited its qualities in 
so advantageous a manner, that it immediately afterwards 
began to assume a rank in tho orchestra which has ever 
since been increasing. 

The bassoon was invented as early as the year 1539, three 
years after Luscinius had published his Musttrgia. who con- 
sequently does not mention tho instrument. Mcrscnne 
describes it and all its varieties ; but a long time elapsed 
before it came into use. Tho word is derived from tho 
Italian bassone, which is now^ rarely used. Tho common 
Italian terra is fagotto, a fagot, or bundle of sticks, because 
the tubes of which the instrument is composed aro bound 
together. The Italian word/a#o//o is always employed in 
musical scores. 

BASSOON, DOUBLE, a bassoon of increased dimen- 
sions the scale of which is an octave below that of tho ordi- 
nary bassoon. Tho double-bassoon was introduced at the 
commemoration of Handel in 1 794, but not found to answer 
the intended purpose, and has now fallen into utter disuse, 



the Serpent [see Serpkxt] well supplying tire place which 
it was meant to fill. 
BASSOUAI1. [Sco Basra.] 

BASS US, in entomology, a genus of the order Hymen- 
opt era, and family Braconidtr. These are four- winged 
fifes, with long nnd narrow bodies. They frequent tha 
flowers of umbelliferous plants. 

BAST, 'FREDERICK JAMES, a scholar of consider- 
able eminenco, was born in the state of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
nbout tho year 1772. Ho received his earliest instruction 
from his father at Bouxviller, but afterwards studied in tho 
University of Jena, under Professors Griesbaoh and Schiitz. 
His first literary essay was a commentary upon Plato's 
Symposion, which was followed in 1 796 by a specimen of nn 
intended new edition of tho Letters of Aristametus. lie 
lived at this tiraa at Vienna, where he was in the suite of 
M.do Jan, the resident from Hesse-Darmstadt; and where, 
in tho Imperial Library, ho had found a manuscript of 
AristoDnctus, which afforded most important readings for 
improving the text of that author. 

The landgrave of Hesse- Darmstadt afterwards mado him 
secretary of legation at tho congress of Radstadt; and 
finally placed him in the same capacity with tho Baron dc 
Pappenheira, his minister at Paris. To mark his approba- 
tion of Bast's literary studies, the landgrave also bestowed 
upon him tho reversion of the kecpership of the Library of 
Darmstadt, a post which ho preferred to more brilliant 
honours that he might have claimed, but which wore less 
suited to his literary taste. 

Bast, uniting the labours of philology with those of diplo- 
macy, profited vory much during his stay in Paris by the 
collation and copying of a considerable number of Greek 
manuscripts. It was a most advantageous residence for 
him, as tha best classical treasures of the Vatican had at 
that time been recently transported to France. 

Of tho importance of his criticnl researches some estimate 
may be formed from his Lettre Critique d M. J. F, 7?oi>*o- 
nade sur Antoninus Liberalis, Partnenius, et Aristfaete, 
8vo. Paris, 1 805. This work, of rather more than 250 page?, 
was originally intended for insertion in Mfllin's Magasin 
Encyclopediqtte, and was on that account written In French, 
bnt growing upon the author's hands, it became a book, 
and stands in tho first rank of treatises on verbal criticism. 
It was in a volume of tho Vatican, No. 398 of the Greek 
manuscripts, which had once belonged to the electoral library 
at Heidelberg, that he found the manuscripts of Antoninus 
Liberalis and Parthcnius ; and the same volume contained 
seventeen other manuscripts, some of them incditcd, of 
each of which, in the Letter to M» Boissonade, Bast has 
given a notice, 

Schccfer's edition of Gregorius of Corinth, and some other 
grammarians, published at Leipzig, 2 vols. 8vo. 1611, con- 
tains Bast's Notes on that author, with a Palceographleal 
Dissertation (accompanied by seven Plates of fac-suuiles 
from Greek manuscripts), which is considered to be a mas- 
ter-picco of erudition. Tho remarks of Bast relative to the 
various kinds of connections and contractions which he met 
with in the numerous MSS. which ho consulted, have been 
extracted from the body of his works by John llodgkin, the 
editor of the Calligraphia et Paecilographia Grccca, and 
will shortly bo published for the use of those who arc en- 
gaged in the labour of reading or collating Greek MSS. 

Bast died of apoplexy at Pans, Nov. 15, 1811. His Notes 
upon Aristamctus were publislied in a variorum edition of 
that author by his friend M. Jo. Fr. Boissonade, 8vo. Lute- 
tian, 1822. (See the Biographic Univcr&elle, Supnlem, 
torn. lvii. 8vo. Paris, 183 4, ana the works above quotea.) 

BASTAN. [SceBAZTA*.] 

BASTARD. Tho conjectures of etymologists on the 
origin of this word are various and unsatisfactory. Its root 
has been sought in several languages: — the Greek, Saxon, 
German, Welsh, Icelandic, and Persian. For tha grounds 
on which the pretensions of all the*o languages are respec- 
tively supported, we refer the curious to the glossaries of 
Ducange and Spclman, the more recent ono of Boucher, 
and to the notes on tho titlo Bastard in Dodd and Gwillim's 
edition of Bacon's Abridgment, vol. i. p. 74C. 

Am one English writers it is applied to a child not born 
in lawful wedlock ; and as such ho is technically distin- 
guished from a mulier (filius mulieratus), who is the legi- 
timate ofisnring of a mulier or married woman. 

Our ancestors very early adopted strict notions on tho 
subject oflegitimacy; and when the prelates of the 13th 



6 A g 



ir 



BAS 



century were desirous of establishing in this country the 
rule of the canon law, by which spurious children are legi- 
timated upon the subsequent intermarriage of their parents, 
the barons assembled at Merton (a.d. 1235) replied by the 
celebrated declaration, ' that they would not consent to 
change the laws of England hitherto used and approved.' 

It has been observed that this sturdy repugnance to in- 
novation was the more disinterested, inasmuch as the lax 
morality of those days must probably have made the pro- 
position not altogether unpalatable to many to whom it was 
addressed. The opposition, therefore, seems to have been 
prompted by a jealousy of ecclesiastical influence whieh was 
at that time ever watchful to extend the authority of the 
church by engrafting on our jurisprudence the principles of 
the Canon Law. 

On another point eur ancestors were less reasonable ; for 
it was very early received for law not only that the fact of 
birth after marriage was essential to legitimacy, but that it 
was conclusive of it. Hence it was long a maxim that no- 
thing but physical or natural impossibility, sueh as the con- 
tinued absenee of the husband beyond seas, &c., eould pre- 
vent the ehild so born from being held legitimate, or justify 
an inquiry into the real paternity. 

Their liberality in the case of posthumous ehildren was 
also remarkable : for in the ease of the Countess of Glou- 
cester, in the reign of Edward II., a child born one year and 
seven months after the death of the duke, was pronounced 
legitimate; a degree of indulgence only exceeded by the 
complaisance of Mr. Serjeant Rolfe, in thjreign of Henry 
VI. t who was of opinion that a widow might give birth to 
a child at the distanee of seven years after her husband's 
decease, without wrong to her reputation. (See Coke upon 
Littleton, 123, b. note by Mr. Hargrave; Rolle's Abridg- 
ment, Bastard; and Le Marchant's Preface to the case of 
the Banbury Peerage.) 

The law now stands on a more reasonable footing, and 
the fact of birth during marriage, or within a competent 
time after the husband s death, is now held to be only a 
strong presumption of legitimacy, eapable of being repelled 
by satisfactory evidence to the contrary. 

Another curious position of doubtful authority is also 
found in our old text writers; namely, that where a 
widow marries again so soon after her husband's decease 
that a child born afterwards may reasonably be supposed to 
be the child of either husband, then the ehild, upon attaining 
to years of discretion, shall be at liberty to choose which of 
the two shall be accounted his father. It was to obviate 
this embarrassing state of things that the civil law prescribed 
an ' annum luctus,' or year of grief, during whieh the widow 
was prohibited from contracting a second marriage; and 
our own law provided the now obsolete proceeding on a writ 
de ventre insjneiendo. 

The legal incapacities under which an illegitimate ehild 
labours by the law of England are few, and are chiefly con- 
fined to tne eases of inheritance and succession. He is re- 
garded for most purposes as the son of nobody, and is therefore 
heir-at-law to none of his reputed ancestors. He is entitled 
to no distributive share of the personal property of bis parents, 
if they die intestate ; and even under a will he can only take 
where he is distinctly pointed out in it as an object of the 
testator's bounty, and not under the general description of 
" son/ * daughter/ or ' child/ by which legitimate children 
alone are presumed to be designated. He may, however, 
aequire property himself, and thus beeome the founder of a 
fresh inheritance, though none of his lineal descendants can 
elaim through him the property of his reputed relations. If he 
dies without wife, issuo, or will, his lands and goods eseheat 
to the crown, or lord of the fee. In the former event it is 
usual for the erown to resign its elaim to the greater part of 
the property on the petition of some of his nearest quasi 
kindred. 

Strictly speaking, a bastard has no surname until he 
has acquired one by reputation, and in the meantime he is 
properly called by that of his mother. 

The first English statute whieh provides for the mainten- 
ance of illegitimate ehildren, is the 18th of Elizabeth, cap. 3, 
which conferson justieesof the pcaee the power of punishing 
the parents, and of requiring from one or both of them a 
weekly or other payment for their support. Under this and 
later acts of parliament, the usual practice has been for the 
mother to ^ apply for relief to the parish officers, by whom 
she is carried before certain magistrates to be interrogated 
respecting the paternity of the child. An order of filiation 



"is then made, in which the male offender is adjudged to be 
the reputed father, and is ordered to contribute a weekly, 
payment, or is bound to indemnify tho parish against the 
ftiture expenses of maintenance. » 

In this state of things, the commissioners lately appointed 
by his Majesty to inquire into the administration of the 
poor-laws, recommended the total abolition of punishment, 
and the exemption of the reputed father from all liability 
to the support of the child. The proposal was supported 
by arguments not devoid of plausibility, and is said to be 
sanctioned by tho favourable experience of other countries ; 
it was however strenuously opposed in both Houses of Par- 
liament, and was eventually so modified as to leave the law 
nearly as it stood before the passing of the late aet. (See 
tho Report of the Commissioners, p. 165, 343, 8vo. ed., and 
stat. 4 and 5 Will. IV„ ehap. 76.) 

According to late official tables, the proportion of illegiti 
mate to legitimate births was in the year 1830 as one t 
twenty in England ; the proportion in France is as one to 
thirteen, and in Paris alone as one to three. The proportion 
in Wales was as one to thirteen in the year 1830 ; but in 
no eity or town in the British islands is the proportion com- 
parable with that of Paris. In Denmark the illegitimate 
are one in ninety-six ; in Norway one in fourteen ; and 
in Hamburgh one in five. {Reports of PoonLaw Com 
mmioners.) i 

The civilians and canonists distinguish illegitimate child- 
ren into four or five classes not recognised in the English law ; 
it may however be worth while to remark, that the familiar 
term natural, applied by us to all children born out of wed- 
lock, is in that classification confined to those only who are 
the offspring of unmarried parents, living in concubinage, 
and who labour under no legal impediment to intermarriage; 
Children of the last-mentioned class are oy tne eivil and 
canon law, capable of legitimation by the subsequent union 
of the parents, or by other acts which it is needless here to 
particularize. (See Heineccius, Syntag, vol. i., p. 159; Rid- 
ley's View, &c, p. 350, ed. 1675 ; Godolphin'c Repertorium 
Canonicum, chap. 35.) 

By the Athenian law (passed in the archonship of Eu- 
cleide3, B.C. 403), as quoted by Demosthenes (Against 
Macartatus, eap. 12), illegitimate ehildren were eut out from 
all inheritance and succession ; nor could a man, who had 
legitimate male offspring, leave his property to other per- 
sons, and consequently not to his illegitimate children. A 
previous law of Pericles (see his Life by Plutarch, cap. 37) 
declared that those only were legitimato and Athenian 
citizens who were born of two Athenian parents. This 
law, which was repealed or violated in favour of a son of 
Perieles, was re-enacted in the archonship of Eucleides. 
(Athentous, xiii. 377. Demosthenes Against Eubulides, 
cap. 10.) 

The repute in which spurious children havo been held 
has varied in different ages and countries. In some they 
have been subjected to a degree of opprobrium whieh was 
inconsistent with justice; in others the distinction between 
base and legitimate birth appears to have been but faintly 
recognised, and the ehild of unlicensed love has avowed his 
origin with an indifferenee whieh argued neither a sense of 
shame nor a feeling of inferiority. When the Conqueror 
commenced his missive to the Earl of Bretagne by the words, 
■ I, William, surnamed the Bastard," he can have felt no 
desire to eonceal the obliquity of his deseent, and little fear 
that his title would be defeated by it. Accordingly, history 
presents us with many instances in which the succession 
not only to property, but to kingdoms, has been successfully 
claimed by the spurious issue of the ancestor. It is, how- 
ever, very improbable that in any state of society where the 
institution of marriage has prevailed, children born in con- 
cubinage and in lawful wedlock should ever have been re- 
garded by the law with exaetly equal favour. (See Dueange, 
Glossary, tit. Bastardies.) 

Those who may be curious to learn what fanciful writers 
have urged in proof of the superior mental and physical 
endowments of illegitimate issue, may refer to Burton's 
Anatomy of Melancholy, vol. ii., p. 16 (ed. 1621) ; Pasquier 
Recherches, chap. * De quelnues memorables bfttards ;' and 
Pontus Heuterus de Libera llominis Nativitate. See also 
Shakspearo's Lear, act 1, scene 2 ; and the observations of 
Dr. Elliotson in his edition of Blumenbaeh's P/ty«o/o#y, in 
notes to ehap. 40. 

BASTARDY. The Scottish law of Bastardy differs con- 
siderably from the English, ehiefly in eonscquence of its 

C 2 



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12 



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having adopted much of tho Roman and pontifical doctrines 
of marriage and legitimacy. 

Thus, in England, in the oaso of a divorce in tho spiritual 
court, * d vinculo matrimonii? tho issue born during the 
coverture axe bastards. But agreeably to the judgment of 
the canons Decret, Grc%. t lib. iv., tit. t7, c. 14, the Scottish 
writers, proceeding on tbe bona fides of the parties, incline 
to a different opinion, in/avorem prolis; ana it will bo re- 
collected that when Secretary Lcthinglon proposed to Mary 
Queen of Scots a divorce from Darnlcy, James Earl of 
Both well, to quiet her fears for her son, ' allcgit tho 
cxampill of himself, that he ccissit not to succeid to bis 
father's heritage, without any difHcultic, albeit thair was 
divorce betwixt him and his mother/ The point has not, 
however, received a judicial determination, ana cannot there- 
fore bo regarded as settled, though of tho tendency of tho 
law there can be little doubt. Even in the ease of a mar- 
riage between a party divorced for adultery and the adul- 
terer, which by stat 1600, c. 20, following tbo civil law, is 
declared 4 null and unlawful in itself, and the succession to 
oe gotten of sik unlawful conjunctions unliable to sneecid 
as heircs to their said parents ;* the issue are not accounted 
Dastards, f though/ as Stair adds, b. hi., tit. 3, sect. 42, 
' they may bo debarred from succession.' Of course, the 
issue of every legal marriage are lawful, and thcrcforo the 
children not only of marriages regularly solemnized, but 
also of every union acknowledged by the'law as a marriage, 
are alike legitimate. The same may be said of children 
legitimated by the subsequent intermarriago of their pa- 
rents; but the situation of these is, as we shall immediately 
see, somewhat anomalous. 

. The Scottish law has adopted two species of legitimation, 
which, in tho language of tho civil law, they call legitima- 
tion per subsequent matrimonium, and legitimation per re' 
serif turn fjrincipis. 

The former of these was introduced into the Roman 
jurisprudence by a constitution of the Emperor Constan- 
tino the Great, but did not become a permanent method of 
legitimation till the time of Justinian. It was afterwards 
taken up by tho Roman pontiffs and disseminated by the 
ecclesiastics throughout Europe. At the parliament of 
Merton, however, the doctrine met with a repulse from the 
barons of England. 

Though the English law was preserved inviolate, yet the 
ecclesiastics did not cease to press the point among tbe people. 
and to this day we may remark traces of the custom in some 
of the remoter districts of the island. The doctrine was cer- 
tainly no part of the antient common law of Scotland any more 
than of England ; but it is now settled law there, and its 
rise and establishment are at onee accounted for, when we 
consider the former strong or rather paramount influence of 
the eanon and civil laws in that country. The principle on 
which the doetrine rests is the fiction of law that the parents 
were married at their child's birth. If therefore the parents 
could not have then legally married, or if a mid impediment 
has intervened between the birth and the intermarriage, 
the fiction is excluded, and previous issue will not be legi- 
timated by marriage. Further, it is held that if the child 
was born, or if the intermarriage took place, in a country 
which does not acknowledge the doctrine of legitimation by 
subsequent marriage, tho child will remain a bastard; the 
character of bastardy being in the one ease indelible, and 
tho marriage in the other ineffectual to create legitimacy. 
On the other hand, n child legitimated per subsequent ma- 
trimonium is entitled to all the rights and privileges of 
lawful issue, and will, as respects inheritance and the like, 
take precedence of subsequent issue born in actual wedlock : 
yet in England the judges have held, that a child born in 
Scotland before marriage and legitimated in Scotland by 
subsequent marriage, though in point of fact tho first-born 
son, and in status and condition, by comity, legitimate 
in England, will not succeed to land in England. (Sec 
Doe dcm. Birtwhistlo r. Vardill, 5 Barn, and Cress. 433 ; 
and opinions of tho judges in dom. proc. 10th June, 
1830.) 

Legitimation per rcscriptum principis proceeds on a less 
abstract and more generally-acknowledged principle than 
the preceding. Though therefore it is said to havo been 
invented by Justinian, and copied by one of the popes of 
Rome, yet concessions in the nature of'lettcrs of legitimation 
are not peculiar to the Roman law. Tho form of these letters 
seems to have been borrowed by tho Scots immediately out 
of the old French jurisprudent : their clauses arc usually | 



very ampl«, capacitating the grantee for all honours and 
offices whatsoever, and to do all acts in judgment or outwith. 
and, in short, imparting to him all the public rights of lawful 
children and natural born subjects, together with a cession of 
tho crown's rights by reason of bastardy ; but as the crown 
cannot affect the rights of third persons without their consent, 
letters of legitimation do not carry a right of inheritance to 
tho prejudice of lawful issno. 

As, in tho Mosaic law, a bastard was debarred from the 
congregation, so, according to the canons, he is, in strictness, 
incapable of holy orders ; and, indeed, it has been the policy 
of most nations to incapacitate bastards in divers ways, that 
if men will not be deterred from immorality by a sense of 
the injury accruing to themselves, they may by a consi- 
deration of the evils resulting to their offspring. But what- 
ever, may be the operation of those incapacities, they are 
folt by all to be wrongs inflicted on the innocent, and as 
Justinian properly observed when he made legitimation per 
subsequent ma trimonium a perpetual ordinance, * indigni 
non sunt qui alicno vitio laborant/ Accordingly the doc- 
trine is now obsolete in England and ncarlv so in Scot- 
land. Tho only remaining incapacity in Scotland seems to 
bfc want of power to make a testament in the particular ease 
of the bastard having no lawful issue. Letters of legitima- 
tion wcro formerly nceessary in all eases ; but it is now held 
that as the erown's right of succession is excluded hy tho 
existence of issue, a bastard who has lawful issue may dis- 
pose of his goods by testament in any way ho tl links fit. 
With the above exception only, then, there is no distinction 
between a bastard and another man ; and so ho may dispose 
of his heritage in liege poustte, and of his moveables inter 
vivos, and (if he has lawful issue) by testament, and he 
may succeed to any estate, real or personal, by special des- 
tination. To his lawful children also he may appoint tes- 
tamentary guardians; and his widow has her pro\isions 
like other rcliets. It is to be noted, however, that in the 
cyo of law a bastard is nitlims ftlius ; and being thus of kin 
to nobody, he cannot be heir-at-law to any one, neither can 
he have such heirs save bis own lawful issue. Where a 
bastard dies, leaving no heir, the crown, as ultimus hcrres, 
takes up his property, which, if it be land holden in capite. is 
at once consolidated with the superiority : but if it be holden 
of a subject, the crown appoints a donatary, who. to com- 
plete his title, must obtain dcerco of declarator nf bastardy, 
a process in the nature of the English writ of escheat* and 
thereupon he is presented by the king to tho superior as 
his vassal. 

But though bastards are legally nullius filii % yet the law 
takes notice of their natural relationship to several purposes, 
and particularly to enforce tho natural duties of their 
parents. These duties aro comprised under the term 
aliment, whieh here, as in the civil law, comprehends both 
maintenance and education ; including under this latter term, 
as Lord Stair savs (b. 1, tit. 5, sec. 6), * the breeding of them 
for some calling and employment according to their capacity 
and condition/ These were at least the principles on which 
the courts proceeded in awarding aliment to children. In 
determining who is the father of a bastard, the grots 
courts again proceed on the principles of the civil law. In 
Scotland there must first be semi-plenary evidence of the 
paternity, and then, when such circumstantial or other 
proof of that fact is adduced as will amount to semijtfena 
probatio, the mother is admitted to her oath in supplement. 
Tho whole aliment is not due from one parent but from 
both parents. This is the principle ; and thercforo in de- 
termining what shall be payable by the father, the ability 
of tho mother to contribute is also considered. The abso- 
lute amount of aliment, however, is in the discretion of the 
court, as is likewise its duration. AVhcre the parties arc 
paupers, tho bastard's settlement is not the father's but the 
mother's parish, and if that is unknown, the parish of 
its birth. 

The mother of a bastard is entitled to its custody during 
its infancy ; and it would seem that afterwards the father 
may take tho rearing of the child into his own hand, and 
also, perhaps, nominate to it tutors and curators. This last 
power has been denied* if it docs not exist it ought to be 
now bestowed by act of parliament, and by the same means 
the last remnant of a bastard's civil incapacity removed by 
his being permitted to make a testament, though he have 
no lawful issue. 

BASTENNES, a nil age in France, in tho department 
of Landcs and in the canton of Amou, whieh is a small 



B A S 



13 



B AS 



town near the southern boundary of the department, on the 
Luy de Beam. 

This village is remarkable for a kind of earth which has 
the property of bitumen when used with wood, and which 
forms an excellent cement for stone. It is easily worked, 
as warm bitumen is worked, without attaching itself to the 
finders ; and as it is impervious to water, it is used for 
sealing bottles of liquor : but it is chiefly as a cement for 
stone tbat it is valuable. It acquires, when exposed foi 
some time to the air, such hardness, that tbe stones joined 
by it cannot be parted, but must be broken when it is re- 
quired to demolish the structure in which they have been 
used. 

This bituminous earth is found on the slope of two hills, 
which extend in a direction N.E. and S.W. It is covered 
with common eartb, which is easily removed ; for the slope 
of the hills being pretty steep, the earth, when disturbed, 
rolls down by its own weight, leaving the surface of the 
bituminous substance bare. This bitumen has the appear- 
ance of a hard black stone, and considerable labour is re- 
quisite to detach pieces of it from the mass. {Encyclopedic 
Methodique, Geog. Physiquo ; Expilly, Dictionnaire des 
Gaules et de la France.) 

BASTI'A is the principal town in the island of Corsica, 
and was formerly the residence of the governor, but of late 
years the prefect of the department of Corsica has resided 
at Ajaceio. Bastia is situated on the eastern coast of the 
island, in 42° 43' N. lat., arid 9° 26' E. long. Its port is not 
very safe, nor adapted for vessels of large burden : a singular 
rock at its entrance has verv much the appearance of a lion 
in repose. The natives call it * II Leone ;* it is of very con- 




[Rock called the Lion of Butuu] 

siderable dimensions, and lies completely isolated in the sea. 
Its shoulders and neck aro covered with creeping plants, 
which invest them with the appearance of a bushy mane ; 
the fore-legs are thrown forward, the neck is raised, and 
the head has an air of fierceness about it. This singular 
object has every appearance of boing the M'ork of nature ; 
indeed there is no evidence at all to show that art was in 
any way concerned in giving the rock this singular form. 
The composition of the rock is a calcareous stone, of the 
same character as the rock on which the citadel of Bastia 
is huilt ; and there can be little doubt that they are parts 
of the same mass, though the sea appears to cut off the 
connexion. This lion is of much use as a breakwater when 
the north winds drive the waters before them. The town is 
fortified with walls and bastions, but it has large suburbs 
outside the fortifications. High hills rise behind the town, 
above which the higher range whieh runs through the 
island from north to south is seen. The view from Bastia 
over the Tuscan Sea is very fine. It embraces the islands 
of Elba, Capraja, and Monte Cristo, and the distant coast 
of Tuscany. The streets of Bastia are narrow, and the 
houses lofty, and built after the Italian fashion. The popu- 
lation of Bastia is about 10,000. The Cour Royale, or court 
of justice, eivil and criminal, for the whole department, sits 
at Bastia. There is also a society of instruction whieh has 
been for some years actively employed in spreading informa- 
tion, especially among the eountry-peoplc. Bastia has also 
a college, or superior school. The cathedral of Bastia con- 
tains nothing remarkable, but there is a new small church 
called CappclU di Santa Croce, the construction of which is 
remarkably elegant. The people of Bastia speak Italian, 
but most of ihem are also acquainted with French. Bastia 
carries on a little trade, chiefly with Leghorn. It exports 
wine, timber, and cattle. Tobacco and English manufac- 



tures are smuggled into Corsiea from Leghorn.- A road 
leads from Bastia to Ajaceio across the island, and another 
leads along the eastern coast to Bonifacio, at the southern 
extremity of Corsica. Bastia is 32 miles W. by S. from the 
nearest point of the island of Elba, and 56 from Piombino 
on the coast of Tuscany. (Benson's Sketches of Corsica.) 
* BASTIDE, LA, the name of a number of places in 
France, all of them in the southern departments. * The 
Dictionnaire Universel de la France enumerates sixty- 
one villages and three towns, of greater or less importance, 
bearing this designation ; and in the Dictionnaire des 
Gaules, &c. of Expilly fifty-six are enumerated. The word 
bastide is derived from the verb balir, to build (whieh was 
formerly written bastir), and is applied to a gentleman's 
country seat. The most considerable places bearing this 
name are as follows : — 

La Bastide de Clarence, or Clairknce, a town in 
the department of Basses Pyrenees (Lower Pyrenees), a little 
way S.E. of Bayonne: 43 6 25' N. lat, 1° 15' W. long. It 
is on the right bank of tho little river Joyeuse, that Hows 
into the Adour. It was built by Louis X. (Hutin) before 
he ascended the throne of France, while he was yet only 
King of Navarre. The district belonging to the town con- 
tains two mines, one of copper, the other of iron. This last 
yields spathose ironstone {fer spathique—sce Aikin s Diet, 
of Mineralogy and Chemistry.) The population, as given 
in the Dictionnaire Universel de la France, 1804, our latest 
authority, was 2071. 

La Bastide de Seron is in the department of Arriege, 
between St. Girons and Foix, a short distance W.N.W. of 
the latter town. It had, in 1832, a population of 1652. The 
whole commune contained 291 1 inhabitants. Several of 
the small streams in the neighbourhood bring down par- 
ticles of gold. A grey argillaceous earth is found near this 
place, which, from the goodness of the colour, is used in 
colouring tho houses. It is also used to make crucibles for 
glass-works : 43° l' N. lat, 1° 28' E. long. 

La Bastide, St. Amans, or St. Amand, in the depart- 
ment of Tarn, S.E. of Castres, near the bank of tbe Taur6, 
had a population in 1804 of 2140 : 43° 29' N. lat, 2° 27' 
E. long. 

BASTILE, or BASTILLE, the name used in France 
to denote a fortress or state- prison. Tbere have been three 
of that name at Paris, the Bastile du Temple, the Bastile 
of St, Denis, and that of the Rue'St. Antoine. We shall 
only treat of tho last, which has obtained historical cele- 
brity, and is usually denominated The Bastile. This for- 
tress stood at the east end of Paris, on the north side of the 
Seine. It was originally intended for the protection of tho 
city, but afterwards was used as a state-prison. Hugues 
d* Aubriot, Prevost des Marchands in the reign of Charles V., 
laid the first stone on tho 22nd of April, 1369, by tbe order 
of that king. There -had previously been a fortified en- 
trance to Paris on the same spot, on a small scale, which was 
built by Etienne Marcel, the predecessor in office of Hugues 
d'Aubriot. The Bastile consisted at first of two round 
towers, with an entrance between them : afterwards, to 
render it stronger, two additional towers, parallel to the two 
first, were built, and the whole connected by walls. The 
building, however, was not completed till 1383, in the reign 
of Charles VI., when four more towers were added, of the 
same dimensions, and at equal distances from the first four, 
and tho whole eight were united by masonry of great thick- 
ness, in which were constructed a great number of apart* 
ments and offices. The entrance to tho city by tho original 




[View of tho BaitUe, from a Print in the Britiia Muteum.J 



BAS 



It 



BAS 



gate was closed* And tno road carried without the building. 
In tC34 a fosse. 120 feet wide and 25 feet deep, was dug all 
round ; and beyond that a stone wall. 36 feet high, was 
built all round! Thus the Bastile became, from a fortified 
pate, ono of the strongest fortresses of tho kind in Europe. 
The towers contained several octagonal rooms one above the 
other, each having one window pierced in the walls, which 
wero rather moro than six feet thick. This window was 
without any glazing, was wido internally, but narrow liko a 
Joop-holo on the outside : in the centre was a pcqwrndicular 
bar of iron, and two cross-barred gratings between that and 
the internal part. The entranco to each of these rooms was 
secured by noublo doors eight inches thick, strapped with 
iron, and placed at thodistanoe of the thickness of the walls 
from eaeh other. There wero no fire-places or chimneys in 
these rooms. Tho only article of furniture, if it may be so 
called, was an iron prating, raised about six inches from 
the floor, to receive the prisoner's mattress, and prevent its 
decay from the damp of the stone lloor. To eaeh tower 
there was a way by a narrow winding staircase. The apart- 
ments constructed in the walls, connecting the towers, were 
larger and more commodious than tho others, and were pro- 
vided with fire-places and chimneys, but with similar pre- 
cautions for preventing the cscapo of prisoners. They were 
usually assigned to persons of some importance, or to those 
who were treated with indulgence. Tho rest of tho Bas- 
tile consisted of two open courts: the larger, 102 feet by 
72, called the Great Court ; the smaller, 72 by 42 feet, French 
measure, called the Court of the Well, was soparatod from 
the first by a rawre of buildings and offices, having a passage 
through them. The height of the building within was 73 feet, 
but greater on the outside next the fosse. (See tho plan 
in tjie British Museum.) 

In modern times the establishment of the Bastile consisted 
of a governor, a deputy-governor or lieutenant du roi, a major, 
an aide-major, a physician and surgeons, a certain number of 
invalid soldiers and Swiss in the pay of France to perform the 
military duty of the fortress, with* turnkeys to watch over 
the prisoners, and cooks and other domestics. The office of 
governor was very lucrative, and the pay and perquisites 
supposed to amount to G0.000 francs perannum. The other 
officers were but indifferently remunerated. No officer or 
soldier could dine out without permission of the governor, or 
sleep out without an order from tho priino minister. The 
invalids were usually about tOO men, with two captains and 
a lieutenant, who wero woll paid. Tho men had ton sols 
per diem, with wood, candles, washing, and other allowances. 
The average expense of the Bastilo is said to have boon 
60,000 francs nor month. Tho governor and deputy-governor 
superintended tho general management of tho fortress, the 
major and his deputy kept all the accounts, including a par- 
ticular list of all the prisoners, in seven columns, containing, 
1. Name and quality of tho prisoner; 2. When ho entered ; 
3. By whem the ordor for his detention signed ; 4. Whon 
discharged ; 5. By whom tho order of discharge signed ; 
G. Cause of detention; 7. Observations or remarks. The 
last is said to have been filled up only under tho direc- 
tion of the minister or of the lieutenant of police. Pri- 
soners were almost always taken to tho Bastilo by an exempt 
of police and two or three armed men in a hackney coach, 
to avoid observation, and were conducted direct to the go- 
vernor at his house, to whom the exempt delivered the 
let Ire dt cachet and took a receipt for it. The prisoner was 
'.hen led into tho body of the fortress, a sign being first 
made to all the soldiers on duty to cover their faces with 
their hats during his passage. This was invariably done 
whenever a prisoner entered or left the Bastile. On his 
arrival at his "room tho prisoner was requested to empty his 
pockets. A list was made of the contents by the major, and 
signed by tho prisoner. His watch, rings, and every other 
article wore taken from him. He was then left for some 
days without the means of writing; after which he under- 
went an examination before the lieutonant of police, or some 
othor olficer. The interrogators usually began hy Inform- 
ing the prisoner that his life was in great danger, and that 
to savo it depended on hlmsolf; that if he would freely con- 
fess, they wero authorised to promise his discharge, other- 
wise ho would be given over to an eMraordinary coin mis- 
sion; that thoy had written and oral testimony against 
him; that his accompliceship friends, his relatives, had 
owned overy thing ; that the king was indulgent ; and that 
they advised him, as his friends, not to conceal the least par- 
ticular. I f by thes* moans thoy succeeded in extracting tho 



evidence they wished, they then informed him that they had 
not yet a precise authority for his discharge, but that they 
hoped shortly to obtain it, would even solicit it, and that ho 
should shortly hear moro abont it. According to eircum- 
stanoes these examinations were repeated, and no means 
which cunning could suggest wore omitted to entrap and 
intimidate the prisoner, to draw from him his secret if ha 
had one, or to make him commit himself, or his family, or 
friends, by dangerous admissions or indiscreet replies. The 
treatment of the prisoners depended entirely on tho will of 
the governor, who was interested in their being detained, as 
ho contracted with the government for their maintenance, 
and derived a profit from it; and he being the only channel 
by which the prisoners could communicato with their friends 
or with the government, ho could suppress their applications 
if he thought fit. We have the concurrent testimony of 
almost all the prisoners who have written their memoirs, 
that the food was bad and scantily supplied, and that all 
other necessaries were of the worst description. The dura- 
tion of a prisoner's detention was arbitrary. No term was 
ever specified. Tho longest we havo been able to discover, 
from the registers published after the taking of the Bastile, 
is that of Isaac Arinct dc la Motte, who was removed to 
Charenton (a lunatic asylum and prison), after a confine- 
ment in the Bastile of fifty-four years and fivo months. In 
this registry there aro several others of thirty years and 
upwards. The first historical mention of any imprisonment 
in this fortress is that of Hugues d'Aubriot himself, who 
having given offence to the clergy, and being accused by 
them of blasphemy and impiety, was sentenced to be im- 
prisoned for life, but being transferred to another prison, he 
regained his liberty in the insurrection of a faction called 
the Mailliotins. The only prisoners who ever cfieeted their 
escape from the Bastile were two persons of the name of Do 
la Tude and D'Aligre. They were confined together in ono 
of the apartments constructed in the walls of the Bastile. 
By unravelling their linen, stockings, and other parts of 
their clothes, and by saving from tiroo to time tho billets of 
wood allowed fer their firing, they contrived to make two 
ladders, one a rope-ladder, near 160 feet long, with rounds 
of wood covered with flannel to provent any rattling noise 
against the walls ; the other a wooden ladder, about 30 feet 
long, consisting of a centre niece, in joints, to be fastened 
by tenons and mortices, ana through which passed wooden 
pegs to hold it together. The first was to enable them to 
descend from the platform, or tho top of the Bastile, into 
the fosse ; the second to ascend tho rainpurt into the garden 
of the governor. The ladders, as well as the tools they had 
formed for making them, were concealed, when the turnkeys 
visited them, under the floor of their apartment They 
cut through the iron gratings in tho chimnoy, which they 
ascended, and taking advantage of a dark night, got 
upon the platform. Having first lowered their wooden 
ladder, they fastened that of ropo to one of tho cannons of 
the fortress and descendod into the fosse. Finding a natrolo 
with a light in tho governor's gardon, they altered their 
plan, and with a handspike formed of ono of the iron bars of 
tho chimney grating, mado a holo in the wall next the Rue 
St Antoine, through which they effected their escapo on 
the 20th of February, 1756. Aftor tho revolution of 17S9 
La Tude claimed and received these ladders, and they were 
publicly exhibited at Paris in tho autumn of that yoar. Of 
all the prisoners in the Bastilo none have excited curiosity 
so strongly as tho person usually called the Man with the 
Iron Mask. Tho extraordinary secrecy observed with re- 
spect to this person, and tho attention said to have been 
shown hlra, have given rise to a variety of conjectures con- 
cerning him, more especially as no person of importance 
was at that timo missing in Europe He has been supposed 
to have been a twin-brother of Louis XIV., the celebrated 
Due dc Boaufort, the unfortunate Duko of Monmouth, the 
Intendant Fououct, and Krcolo Matthloli, primo minister to 
the Duke of Mantua. Our space does not permit us to 
investigate theso opinions, or to enter Into details respecting 
them, farther than to observe that the last mentioned seems 
to rest on the best fonndation. 

Tho Bastile was besieged and taken threo times: in 1418, 
by tho Bonrgignons ; in t594, by Henry IV. ; and on the 
14th July, 1789, by the Parisians, from which day the 
French Revolution may bo dated. Its demolition was de- 
creod bynhe Permanent Committee of Paris on the IGth, 
and corriod into immediate effect. Tho materials wero cm- 
ployed in tho construction of a new bridge, called the Bridge 



BAS 



15 



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of Louis XVI., and there is not now remaining the smallest 
vestige of this ediftee. 

(Dulaure, Histoire de Paris; Remarques Historiques 
sur la Bastille; La Bastille devoilee ; Memoires de Lin- 
guet ; Memoires d6 la Tude.) 

BASTIMENTOS, a port in Colombia, in the department 
of Istmo, to the north-east of Porto Bello, and near this 
harbour, 10° W N. lat., and 79° 40' W. long. It is formed 
by some islands whieh line the coast at a distanee of about 
500 paees : two of them arc tolerably large, but the rest so 
small that they rather deserve the name of roeks. They 
are all uninhabited, the soil being in general barren, but in 
some places it is overgrown with wood, in whieh fine timber 
oeeurs. The harbour formed by them is safe, and resorted 
to by vessels in distress, ahd in time of war by cruisers. 
The bottom of the narrow sea between the islands and the 
shore is quite level, and affords excellent anchoring ground. 
(Alcedo.) 

BASTINA'DO is derived from the Italian bdstOne, a 
stiek, bastonare, to beat with a stiek, &c. The word would 
have been more correet in the form bastona/a, but long use 
has confirmed our ctymologieal error. 

The bastinado is the enief governing instrument of a 
great part of the world, from Core a and China to Turkey, 
Persia, and Russia. It is administered in different ways, 
and ealled by different names, as the bamboo in China, the 
knout in Russia, &e. 

According to our modern 'acceptation, the term bastinado 
does not include all these methods of stick-beating, but is 
eonfined to the Turkish and Persian method, which is to 
beat the soles of the feet with sticks. This excessively painful 
punishment is thus inflicted. Two men support between 
them a strong pole which is kept in a horizontal position; 
about tho middle of the pole are some cords with two run- 
ning knots or nooses; through these the naked feet of the 
sufferer are forced, and then made tight in such a manner 
that the soles are fairly exposed ; the sufferer ts then thrown 
on his baek, or left to rest on his neek and shoulders with 
his feet inverted, which are forthwith beaten by a third man 
with a heavy tough stick. When the presiding offieer or 
magistrate gives the Word, the heavy blows eease, the maimed 
feet are Ca3t loose from the cords and pole, and the victim is 
left to crawl away and cure himself as best he cAn. 

According to tho letter of the penal codo of the Ottoman 
Empire, this punishment ean only be inilieted on the men of 
the fourth and last class of soeiety, whieh comprises the 
slaves, and the rayahs or tributary subjects of tho empire, 
as Jews, Armenians, Greeks, &e. The other three elasses, 
viz.: 1. The Emirs, or issue of tho raee of the prophet 
Mohammed, and the Oulemas, or men of the law ; 2. Publie 
functionaries, eivil and military ; 3. Free citizens and private 
individuals who live on their rents or the proeeeds of their 
industry, were all exempted by law from this cruel and de- 
grading bunishment. By the original code the number of 
blows to be given was from three to thirty-nine ; but a later 
elause permitted them, in certain cases, to be earried to 
seventy-five, and in praetice, when the passions arc inflamed, 
the Turks seem to dispense with tho eeremony of keeping 
any account of the blows, and the men lay on till they are 
tired, and the sufferer's feet rcdueed to an unsightly jelly. 
As late as 1828, it was a very eommon thing to see a poor 
Greek or Jew erawling about the streets of Constant inoplo 
on his hands and knees, in the greatest agony, and unable 
to use his wounded feet many days after the infliction; at 
times they were erippled for life. 

The punishment, ealled zarb in Turkish, was generally 
inilieted in a summary manner, without examination or any 
form of trial, at tho will or caprieo of the sultan, his repre- 
sentatives, and the officers of justiee and police. The most 
frequent dispensers of it were probably the Meuhtcssibs, or 
the commissaries of poliee at Constantinople, eaeh of whom, 
from time to time, and always unexpectedly, made the round 
of the quarter of the eity assigned him, to seo that tho pro- 
visions were sold at the exact prices despotically and most 
absurdly fixed by the government, and to ascertain whether 
the weights and measures in use by the dealers were all just. 
This officer generally went on horsebaek, followed by an 
armed mob of irregular soldiers, and preeeded by his basti- 
nado-men (falacadjis), whose ofliec was to exceutc the sen- 
tence the moment it was uttered. If the offending dealer 
were absent, then his shopman or journeyman was punished 
as his substitute, the commissary only requiring a victim ad 
terrorem, and not having patience to await the return or 



arrest of the master. The punishment was always inflieted on 
the spot, in front of the shop in the open street. Sometimes, 
instead of being bastinadoed, the offender or his journeyman 
(accomplice or not as it might be) was nailed by the ear to the 
door-post of his shop, and so exposed till sun-set ; at other 
times there was substituted the punishment of the portable 
pillory, ealled khang or cang by the Chinese (who make 
great use of it as well as of the bamboo), and styled tahta- 
kulah by the Turks, who probably derived the instrument 
from the Tartars, who may either have borrowed the inven- 
tion from or given it to the Chinese. [See Gang.] 

Under the old system the greatest violence, capriee, in* 
justiee, and corruption prevailed in the administration of 
justice. The man With money in his hands eould always 
save the soles of his feet by bribing the authorities, and the 
pain of the bastinado Was seldom inflieted exeept on the 
very poorest of the baccals, or shop-keepers, and destitute 
and unprotected rayah subjects of the Porte, Sultan Mali* 
moud is said to have reeently introduced somo improve- 
ments; but under adespotie government, like that of Turkey, 
a summary and rapid mode of proceeding will always obtain 
more or less. 

> Although the privileges of the free Turks, or Osmanlis, 
eivil and military, were not always respeeted, yet their pashas 
and men of authority or dignity were never subjected to the 
bastinado like the khans, begs, and others in Persia, where 
the shah would frequently have his vizier, or prime minister, 
cudgelled on the feet in his presenee, and the vizier would 
do the like with the highest of the ministers and officers 
under him. The Osmanlis were always a more sturdy and 
proud-spirited People than the Persians, and thought that 
only Jews, Christians, and other tributary subjeets eould be 
beaten with propriety. It appears, however, that in the 
time of Busbequius the Janissaries were 'basted with elubs.' 
That excellent old traveller says— 'Their lighter offences 

are ehastised by the elub And here let me aequaint 

you with the patienee of the Turks in receiving that punish- 
ment: they will reeeive sometimes a hundred blows on their 
legs, their feet, and buttocks, so that divers clubs are broken, 
and the executioner eries out, " Give me another ! ** Yea, 
sometimes the ehastisement is so severe, that several pieces 
of torn flesh must be cut off from the wounded parts before 
anything can be applied to cure them. Yet, for all this, 
they must go to the officer who commanded them to be 
punished; they must kiss his hand, and give him thanks; 
nay, they must also give the executioner a reward for beating 

them As some relief to their misery, they count 

those parts wounded with the rod or club to bo free from 
any purgations and expiations after this life.' 

(See D'Ohsson, Tableau General de I Empire Othoman; 
Busbequius, Embassy to Solyman the Great ; and Modern 
Travellers in Turkey, &c.) 

BA'STION. This term is applied to a species of tower 
whieh constitutes tho principal member of the fortifications 
immediately surrounding a town, or position to bo defended. 
The rampart by which it is formed is disposed on four sides 
of a pentagon, two of whieh, technically ealled the faces ', 
meet in an angle whose vertex projects towards the coun- - 
try ; the other two, denominated the flanks, eonncet the 
opposite extremities of the faces with the curtain, or that 
part of the rampart which coincides in direction with the 
sides of a polygon supposed to inelose the town: the fifth 
sido of the pentagon is generally unoecupicd by a rampart, 
and is called the gorge of the bastion. 

From tho infancy of the art of war the defenders of a 
fortress must have felt the necessity of having the walls 
disposed so as to afford means of observing the enemy 
when very near their foot; for, when these means were 
wanting, the enemy was enabled to plant his sealing- 
1 adders against, or even to make a breach in the wall itself, 
with almost perfect security. This was inevitably the case 
when the ground- plan of the enceinte, or inelosing rampart, 
was a simple polygon, since the men stationed on the ram- 
part for its defence, behind the parapet by which they were 
protected, were ineapable of seeing tho exterior ground 
whieh lay near the base of the walls. Thus, according to 
the old story in Pausanias (iv. 20), when the Messenians 
wero besieged in their hastily ereeted fort on Mount Ira, the 
guards being driven from their posts by violent rains, and 
there being no towers or projections from the walls to shelter 
them, the Spartans gained possession of the parapets by 
escalade, lo avoid sueh a surprise, it was tho praetice Oi 
the antient engineers to construct either machicoulis on 



13 A S 



1G 



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the top of, or projecting towers at certain intervals along, 
the walls of fortresses, that from thence the besieged might 
pet a \iew of and bo ablo to annoy tho enemy, when at 
the latest and most critical period of the sicgo the latter 
should have gained the otherwise undefended ground. The 
walls of Messonc, built by Epaminondas (Paus. iv. 31), 
which were all of stono, and furnished with battlements 
and towers, were reckoned by Pausanias among tho best 
specimens of Grecian fortification. 

From tho accounts given by anticnt writers of their forti- 
fied places, and particularly from tho precepts of Vitruvius 
(Architectural lib. i. cap. 5), we learn that tho projecting 
towers were sometimes square or polygonal, but generally 
circular, and that their distance from each other along the 
walls was regulated by the rango of the weapons employed 
in the defence. In the fortifications of cities this distance 
seems to have varied from 80 to 100 paces, according to local 
circumstances, and the power of annoying tho enemy by 
tho arrows and javelins discharged from the towcra; but, 
from the greater distance at wlneh modern arms will take 
effect, tho bastions, measuring from tho vertices of their pro- 
jecting angles, aro now generally, and agreeably to the rules 
of Vauban, placed at 360 yards from each other. It was a 
maxim with the anticnt engineers that the projecting 
quoins of walls were detrimental to tho defence, from the 
facility with which they might be destroyed by the battering- 
ram ; and it is on this account that Vitruvius recommends 
the towers to be circular, or to have faces formiugwith each 
other obtuse angles. These towers were plaeed indifferently 
at the angles, or at any part on the line of the inclosing ram- 
part: in the latter ease, when they were of a square form, 
one side was parallel to the length of the rampart, nnd in 
the former, ono face was almost always perpendicular to a 
line bisecting the angle between two adjacent bides of the 
polygon surrounding the town ; that is, to what would be 
now called the capital of the bastion. It must have fre- 
quently happened, therefore, that this face was nearly un- 
seen from any other part of the rampart, and that the enemy 
made his assault against it in order to avoid, as much as 
possible, being exposed to annoyance from the defenders of 
the neighbouring works. It is true that the smallness of 
the towers rendered it impossible for the enemy to bo wholly 
concealed at their front; but the desire of entirely depriving 
the enemy of tho benefit arising from the undefended nature 
of that ground probably induced engineers to dispose the 
faces of their towers like those of a modern bastion, so that 
two of them might form a projecting angle, whose vertex 
was on the capital. 

There is no reason to believe that any material change 
took place in tho manner of constructing the towers of for- 
tresses during all the long period in which the antient arms 
were employed ; but it is easy to conceive that the invention 
of fire-arms would render it "necessary to enlarge the tower 
for the purpose of receiving tho guns, and to increase the 
thickness of the rampart, that it might bo able as well to 
resist the concussion produced by the discharge of the ord- 
nance placed upon it, as the shock of the enemy's artillery 
when fired against it. On this account, also, the ramparts 
wcro constructed of earth, and their exterior surface was 
formed at such an inclination to the ground as would enable 
it to stand unsupported, except where it becarao necessary to 
prevent an escalade ; in which caso a facing of stone, brick, 
or timber was mado sufliciently high and steep to crcato 
a serious impodiment to any attempt of that nature. An 
opinion that the bastions arc tho weakest parts of a fortress 
remained in force, however, long after tho modern artillery 
was introduced in sieges. On this account they wcro at first 
made very small, when compared with tho extent of the 
wall between them ; and the line of each faco, when pro- 
duced towards tho town, was mado to intersect that wall, in 
order that tho fire from the part intercepted between this 
produced line and the flank of tho next bastion might co- 
operate with that made from tho latter in defending the 
ditch in front of the former bastion. But when the ramparts 
of a town were found to disappear almost instantly under 
the weight of shot discharged from large ordnance, it be- 
came necessary to employ ordnaneo of corresponding sizo on 
the walls; and the dimensions of the bastions were finally 
augmented to those at present assigned. Tho lengths of 
the faces vary from 100 to 120 yards, and the Hanks arc 
usually about 50 yards long; but the magnitude of the pro- 
jecting angle in front, called the salient oxJUinhcd angle, to 
distinguish it from tho angles formed by the faces atid 



Hanks which are denominated shoulder angles/ ovitHouiiy 
depends upon the kind of polygon on which the enceinte U 
constructed. Knch faco of a bastion, if produced towards 
the town, now falls at the interior extremity of tho Hank of 
the collateral bastion, so that the defence of a bastion de- 
pends wholly upon tho fires from those on its right and 
left. 

It is to Italy that we must look for the invention of tho 
modern bastion : the wars which raged in that country from 
the commencement of tho twelfth century, and which wero 
more systematically conducted there than in any other part 
of Europe, gave rise to this, as well as to many other inden- 
tions for military purposes. Tho precise date of its firht 
formation is quito unknown; but if we omit the improlmblc 
story related by Folard, that the Turkish commander, Ach- 
met Pacha, caused bastions to be constructed about Oirauto, 
when he took that place in 1480. we may observe thut it is 
spoken of under the name of Balvardo t as an im prove raoi it 
of great importance in the military art, by Tartagliu, in his 
Quesiti ed in vent i diversi, which was published in 1 54G; 
and in the same work is given a plan of the fortifications of 
Turin, which exhibits a bastion at each of the four angles of 
the rampart. Both Vasari, in his Lives of the Architects* 
and MnlTci, in his Verona lllustrata, ascribe the invention 
to San Michccli of Vorona: one of the bastions of this city 
has on it the date 1527, and its construction is still ascribed 
to that engineer, who, in fact, was about that time employed 
in the erection or repair of several of the fortresses in Italy. 
From the word Balvardo, denoting a stronghold, the earliest 
French engineers gave to this work the appellation of Boule- 
vard ; and such is its designation in tho treatise of Krrard, 
which was published in 1594. The term Bastion appears 
to have been taken from the Italian writers, for Maggi, in 
his treatise Delia Fortificatioyte delle Citta, applies the term 
Bastioni to redoubts constructed of earth; and, according 
to Pere Daniel, the French subsequently gave to such 
works the name of Bastilles, or Bastides. Froissart also 
uses these terms in speaking of the forts executed during 
the siege of Vcntadour by the Due dc Bcrri, under Charles 
VI. It should be remarked, however, that Errard applies 
the name ofBastiott indifferently to works in the situalion 
of those now so called, and to those to which the name of 
Ravelin is generally given ; and doubtless it denoted origi- 
nally any work of earth constructed on the exterior of ouo 
more anticnt. 

It appears that it had been the practice from the earliest 
times to form a rampart, or bank of earth, in front of the 
walls of fortresses, in order to secure the latter from the 
destructive effects of the ram ; and it is easy to conceive 
that, by forming such a bank in front of tho old towers of a 
place, so as to connect those previously existing in front of 
the adjacent curtains, the work would assume a figure like 
that of a modern bastion ; and indeed would very much 
resemble one of tho detached bastions in what is called tho 
second system of Vauban ; the original tower of the fortress 
occupying the place of the interior bastion of that system, 
and constituting a sort of retrenchment to the new work. 
The construction was proposed in 1584 by Castriotto, seem- 
ingly as if it had been his own idea ; but probably he meant 
only to recommend the adoption of a kind of work which 
must have been then a novelty. 

Tho Italian engineers, immediately after the invention of 
the bastion system of fortification, became celebrated for 
their skill in military architcctnro, and they seem to have 
been extensively employed in tho construction or repair of 
fortresses beyond the Alps: one of the first of their labours 
in the north of Europe was the fortification of Landrcci, 
with bastions, for Francis I. ; and the like works were exe- 
cuted about New Hcsdin, on the frontiers of Artois, for 
Charles V. In 1*68, the Duke of Alva employed Pacciotto 
in the construction of the citadel of Antwerp, a regular for- 
tress, whoso bastions still exist within those subsequently 
erected at that place; and, during the reign of Elizabeth, 
Gcncbella was brought from Flanders to this country in 
order to superintend the formation of a bastioncd enceinte 
about the anticnt castle of Carisbrook, in tho Isle of Wight. 

Albert Durcr, tho celebrated engraver, proposed, in 1527, 
to fortify places with circular towers only, like those of tho 
anticnts, but of larger dimensions ; and in most of the plans 
published during the sixteenth century by Italian engineers, 
thcro appears to be a union of tho old and new methods: 
for the angles of tho polygons arc furnished with round 
towers, and these arc protected exteriorly by bastions. 



B A S 



17 



B A S 



The guns mounted on the flanks of a bastion, by firing 
along the ditch in front of the curtain and of the neigh- 
bouring bastions, ereated a serious impediment to the pas- 
sage of the enemy across the ditch in attempting an assault, 
antl it became necessary for him to silence that lire by a bat- 
tery placed for the purpose in the direction of the ditch; but 
the" establishment of tbis battery necessarily compelled the 
defenders to augment the number of guns in their bastions. 
To get room for these guns, engineers were induced to form 
their bastions with a double And even a triple flank on each 
side, the flanks receding from each other, from below up- 
wards, in the manner of terraces, towards the interior of the 
bastion ; and, to prevent the enemy from dismounting the 
guns in the lower flanks by other batteries raised in the 
prolongations of those flanks, it became necessary to mask 
them by extending the rampart of the face beyond them, 
and giving it a return towards the eurtain ; this return was 
frequently rectilinear, but generally in the form of an arc of 
a eircle, like a portion of a round tower, and the projection 
with its return received the name of orecchione or orillon. 
Besides masking tbe lower flanks from the effect of any en- 
filading, or lateral fire, it concealed one or more guns on the 
upper flank from the fire of an enemy's battery directly op- 
posed to that flank, while it permitted those guns to defend 
the main ditch and the breach made by the enemy in face 
of the collateral bastion. 

The desire of avoiding the exposure of the flanks of the 
bastions gave rise to the practice of making them form aright, 
and even an acute, angle with the curtain; but a better judg- 
ment subsequently rejeeted this disposition, as the musketry 
fire from the defenders of the flank was thereby liable to in- 
jure the men stationed on the curtain. Tbe lower flanks, 
also, were eventually suppressed, because they contracted too 
much the interior of the bastion to which they belonged; and 
because the enemy's fire, soon destroying the parapets of 
those above, masses of brickwork fell among the defenders 
below, and obliged them to quit their guns at the very time 
that their service was most required. The orillom, moreover, 
are now considered useless, as they contract the length of the 
flank ; and the guns which they protect from a fire in their 
front are liable to be dismounted by a fire from their rear. 

In what are called the second and third systems of Vau- 
han, the principal bastions arc detached from the enceinte 
by a ditch in their rear, and consequently the capture of 
those works would not immediately compel the surrender of 
the fortress. Tn these systems, a small bastion of brickwork, 
closed by a parapet wall at its gorge, is constructed at each 
of the angles formed by the polygonal wall surrounding the 
place. The fire from the parapets of these tower bastions, as 
they are called, would have a powerful effect in preventing 
the enemy, after he has breached and stormed the great 
bastions, from erecting batteries in them to destroy the in- 
terior walls ; and, in order to preserve the artillery of their 
flauks uninjured till tho end of the siege, engineers placed 



it in casemates [see Casemate], from w hence the guns 
might pour a destructive fire upon the assailants when 
crossing the ditch of the enceinte. In one of the systems 
of Coehorn, each principal bastion is attached to the cn- 
ceinie t and contains an interior one for the purpose of pro- 
longing its defence. At the shoulders of the former are 
constructed towers of masonry, serving as orillons and con- 
taining galleries whose front walls are pierced with loop- 
holes, to allow a fire to ^be directed along the interval 
between the parallel faces of the two bastions. 

Bastions are now made either solid or hollow: that is, 
either the interior is filled with earth up to the level of the 
platforms of the guns, or it is left coincident with that of the 
natural ground. Of the two methods, the former is generally 
preferred, because it affords some facilities for the formation 
and defence of interior parapets or retrenchments. In almost 
every system of fortification the ramparts of the faces and 
flanks of bastions have been made rectilinear on the plan ; 
a few cases, however, occur in which the flanks have been 
curved, with their convexity towards the interior of the work. 
This seems to have been devised to allow room for a few 
more men to fire over their parapets than a straight wall 
could afford, and to prevent the distant batteries of the 
enemy from easily dismounting their artillery by firing along 
the interior side of tbe parapet. On some occasions tbese 
advantages may be worth obtaining, but as the soldier plaeed 
behind a parapet always fires nearly in a direction perpen- 
dicular to its length, it is evident that the curved flank may 
cause the lines of fire to tend towards the right or left of 
the main ditch, and thus endanger "the safety of the de- 
fenders stationed in the neighbouring works. 

The desire of lessening the effect of what is called the 
enfilading fire, or that which an enemy may direct along 
the interior side of any parapet, has led Bousmanl to give a 
small curvature to the faces of his bastions, the concave part 
being towards the interior ; but it is evident that, by this 
construction, the lines of fire directed from the collateral 
flank for the defence of the face, instead of grazing the latter 
in its whole length, can only be tangents to the curve, each 
line of fire meeting it in but one point. It is therefore pro- 
bablo that tho injury inflicted on the enemy would be found 
so much less than that arising from tho usual construction, 
as to neutralize entirely the advantage of the diminished 
enfilade fire of the enemy. 

This last mode of firing would be most effectually pre- 
vented by the formation of semi-circular bastions, detached 
from the enceinte, in the manner lately proposed by Mr. 
Bordwine ; but the ingenious author of that system is, in 
consequence, compelled to abandon, in a great measure, the 
advantage of having the exterior of his walls well defended 
from those which are in collateral situations. The batteries 
however which he proposes to raise in the interior of his 
bastions cannot fail to produce a powerful defence towards 
the rear, for the rampart of his enceinte. 



Fis. 1. 




No. 207. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.) 



Vol. IV.-D 



B A T 



IS 



BAT 



Fig. 1. The lino A B represents ono side of the polygon 
supposed to Ineloso tho town fortified. The semicircular 
work at A is half a round tower; and A C is part of tho 
curtain, or connecting wall between two such tower*, ac- 
cording to the antient manner of fortifying places ; d c re i 
presents a sort of fausse braye, or elevation of earth pro- 
tecting the antient walls of a place. D represents half a 
bastion constructed at the anglo, A, of the polygon, aceord- 
ins to tho method ottho first llalian and French engineers, 
with an orillon and triplo (lank. The pentagonal figure 
about B is the plan of a modern bastion, of wlueh the part 



on the left of the capital, B R, represents what is called a 
hollow, and that on tho right a solid bastion. An imaginary 
line from/ log is tho gorge, and tho rampart, ef is the 
curtain joining the right (lank of one bastion to thy left of 
tlio next, Tho space, F G E, is the main ditch; and II 
and K are respectively tho positions of a counter and enfi- 
lading battery which might bo constructed by the enemy to 
silcnec the fires from tho triplo Hank of D. Tho outworks, 
P> G, Q» U, S, [Trnailme, CAPOrtMtRK, Ravelin, Oo- 
YKRKti^vAY, and Glacis] will be described under thoso 
words. 




Fig. 



Fig. 2 represents a section supposed lo be 'made from 
B to L, perpendicularly across the rampart on the left faee 
of B, and tho main diteh in its front. M and N are scetioii3 
through the revetments, or walls which support lho earth 
on the sides of the diteh. 




In M. 3, V rejprescnU tho plan of a detached bastioh ; T 
13 a tower bastion at an angle of tho polygon which sur- 
rounds the place. 

(Vitruvius, De Architectural; Maggi, Delia Fortifica- 
tione deUe CitUi, Vehetia, 1584; Errard, La Fortification 
rcdm'te en art. Par. 1G00; Do Ville, Vlngtnieur Par/ait, 
Par. 1G72; Vauban, XEuvrcs Militaires, par Foissac, Par. 
1795; Belidor, La Science de VIngenieur, Par. 1729; Fri- 
taeh, V Architecture Militaire, Par, 16G8; Cormontaigne, 
QZuvres Posthumes, Par. 1809; Montalembert, La Forti- 
fication Perpendiculairc, Par. 1776-98; Bousmard-, Essai 
General de Fortification, Par. 1814 ; St. Paul, Traitf Com- 
plct de Fortification, Par. 1806 ; Savarl, Cours Elementaire 
de Fortification, Par. 1 830 ; Mandar, De I Architecture des 
Fort cresses, Par. lfcOl ; Dufour, De la Fortification Per- 
manetite, Geneve, 1822; Carnot, De la Defense des Places 
Fortes, Par. 1812; Col. Pasley, Course of Elementary For- 
tification, Lond. 1822; Malortie, Permanent Fortification , 
Lond. 1821; Capt. Straith, A Treatise on Fortification^ 
Croydon, 1S33.) 

BAT. [See Cheiroptera.] 

BATA'KA (Zoology). D'Azara's namo for tho Bush- 
shrikes, forming tho genus namnophilus of Vieillot. A 
very good aceount of these birds, which appear to have been 
found between the northern and southern points of Canada 
and Paraguay, will be found in tho Memoirs of Dr. Such 
and Mr. Swainson, published in the Zoological Journal, 
The latter zoologist considers the typical group to consist of 
the species with long tails ; and of this division, 7'hamno- 
philus Vigortii, Sueh (Van^a striata, Quoyand Gaimard), 
may be taken as an illustration. 

Dr. Such states this to be the largest species yet known, 
and gives thirteen inches as tho length of the body. The 
bill is black and very rnueh compressed. In tho malo 
(which is the sex here figured) tho back, wings, and tail are 
black, broadly banded with fulvous, and tho under part of 



tuc body is a dirty whitish -brown. On the head is a rufous 
crest which is blackish at the apex. In the female the 




[ThmmnophUui VlgorslL] 




tThimoophilui nxriu*.. 



BAT 



19 



BAT 



bands are whitish and tho crest blackish, and the under 
part of the body ash-colour. 

Thamnophilus ncevius, tbe spotted shrike of Latham, is 
an example of the round and comparatively short-tailed 
division. 

Leach thus describes it from a specimen in the British 
Museum; Black ; back and belly ash- coloured; the former 
anteriorly spotted with white ; quills of the wings externally, 
and the tips of those of the tail, white ; under part of the 
body ash-colour, of which colour the back partakes in a 
considerable degree. 

BATATAS, the Malayan name of a convolvulaceous 
plant, the root much eaten in the south of Europe before 
the cultivation of the potato, which both became a substitute 
for it and appropriated its name. It has generally been 
considerod a species of convolvulus ; but Professor Choisy, in 
his recent classification, has erected it and a few others into 
a peculiar genus, distinguished by having an ovary with 
four cells, in each of which there is only one seed. 




[Batata*.! 

The only species of any general interest is the Batatas 
edufiif the Convolvulus Batatas of authors. This plant, 
originally found wild in the woods of the Malayan archipe- 
lago, has been gradually dispersed over all the warmer parts 
of the world, where it is still an object of culturo for the sake 
of its roots, which, when roasted or boiled, are mealy, sweet, 
and wholesome, but slightly laxative. It is a perennial 
plant, with long creeping stems, leaves variously lobed and 
angled, and pale purple flowers about an inch long. It is 
impatient of cold, and consequently unfit for cultivation in 
the northern parts of the world; but it is a productive agri- 
cultural plant in many warm countries. It is partially cul- 
tivated In the south of Spain and of Franco, whenco its roots 
nro sent to the markets of Madrid and Paris, where they aro 
held as a delicacy. They, however, have the great fault of 
keeping badly, being very apt to becomo mouldy and to de- 
ray, unless extraordinary pains are taken to preserve them 
dry. Sometimes they are raised in the hothouses of eurious 
persons in this country, by planting them in rich soil in a 
bark-bed, wben plenty of roots weighing from one to two 
pounds are easily obtained. 
BATAVI, or BATA'VI (the forms Badai and Betavi 



also occur in inscriptions), the name of the antient in- 
habitants of South Holland, and some adjacent parts. 
The Batavi were a Germanie tribe of the race of the 
Catti, who, some time before the age of Cajsar, left their 
native district, and settled on the banks of the Vahalis, the 
present Waal, a branch of the Lower Rhine. They occupied 
the district between the Vahalis and the Mosa above their 
junction, and also the island formed by the northern arm of 
the Rhine (or Rhine of Leyden), the Vahalis and Mosa 
after their junction, and the ocean; which island now con- 
stitutes part of the province of South Holland. Caesar {De 
Bell. Gall. iv. 10), who mentions their country by the name 
of Insula Batavorum, appears to consider it as belonging 
to Germany, and not to Gaul ; the limits of Belgic Gaul on 
that side being placed at the southern branch of the Rhine, 
or Waal, after its junction with the Mosa, or Maas. They 
seem to have occupied also a small portion on the banks of 
the Rhine, and not within the island. Csesar did not carry 
the war into the country of the Batavi. Under Augustus 
the Batavi became allies of the Romans. Drusus, the 
brother of Tiberius, resided for a time among them, and 
dug a canal, Fossa Drusiana, which connected the Rhine 
with the modern Yssel. Besides the Batavi thore was ano- 
ther people on the same island, prohably in its north-western 
extremity, called by the Roman historians Canninefates. 
Tboy were of the same origin as the Batavi (Tacitus, Hist 
iv. 15.), but not so numerous, and their name became gra- 
dually lost in that of the larger tribe. 

Tho chief place of the Canninefates was Lugdunum Bata- 
vorum, now Leyden ; and that of thelBatavi was Batavodu- 
rum, afterwards called Noviomagus, and now Nymegen. 
This is Mannert' s opinion, though others have placod Bata- 
vodurum at Duurstedo, and made it a different placo from 
Noviomagus. The other towns of the Batavi were Arenacum, 
generally supposed to bo Arnheim, but placed by others near 
Werthuysen : Carvo, on the northern branch of tho Rhine, 
probably near Arnheim; Grinnes, near the junction of 
the Waal with the Maas ; Trajectum, the modern Utrecht ; 
and Forum Hadriani, in the western part of the island near 
the sea. The name of the Batavi can be traced even now 
in that of Betuwe, which is a district of the antient Batavo- 
rum Insula, between the Rhine, the Waal, and the Lek. 
[SeeBKTUWK.] Beyond the n* .hern branch of the Rhine, 
and between that and the Flewum, or Yssol, in the pro- 
vince now called North Holland, were tho Frisii and the 
Frisiaboni, tribes belonging to tho great Frisian stock which 
inhabited tho land north-east of the Yssel. Pliny places 
two other tribes, the Sturii and the Marsucii, on tbe inlands 
off the western coast at the mouth of the Mosa, which islands 
now form part of Zealand. 

After tho death of Galba, the army of the Rhine leaving 
proclaimed Vitellius, and followed him on his way to Italy, 
the Batavi took the opportunity of rising against the Romans, 
whose alliance had become very burthensome to them. 
Claudius Civilis, a man belonging to one of their principal 
families, though bearing a Latin name, acted as their leader. 
At one time the insurrection seems to have spread among 
the neighbouring tribes of Germans as well as of Belgian 
Gauls, but the speedy return of the legions suppressed the 
movement. Civilis resisted for a time, but |he Batavi were 
at last subdued. Still it would appear that they pbtainod 
conditions, for we find them afterwards restored to their for- 
mer state of free allies of Rome. (Mannert, Qeschichte der 
alien Deutschen.) It appears, however, that subsequently, 
under the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian, the Romans had 
completely established their dominion over the Batavi ; for we 
find in the Antonine Itinerary and the Peutinger Table, two 
Roman roads across the country, one from Lugdunum east- 
ward to Trajectum, and following tbeeoursc of the northern 
Rhine to its separation from tbe Vahalis, and another from 
Lugdunum southward across tho island to tbe Mosa, and 
then eastward along the bank of that river and tho Vahalis 
to Noviomagus. We also find places named after the 
emperors, such as Forum Hadriani, and fortified camps, 
sucn as Castra Batava, which some, however, suppose to 
havo been the same as Batavodurum. (See Mannert, Geo- 
graphic der Griechen und Romer.) There was another 
place in Upper Germany, or, more properly, in Noricum, 
called also Castra Batava, near the confluence of the Inn 
and the Danube, which was eolonized by Batavi, apparently 
in conformity with the policy which led the Romans to 
transplant their subjects and allies from their homes to 
foreign countries, [See Army.] The Batavi were em- 

D2 



BAT 



20 



BAT 



ployed by Agricola in his wars in Britain. (Tacit, Agric. 
xxx vi.) In somo inscriptions they are called * friends and 
brothers of tho Roman people,' or of tho * Roman emperors/ 
The dato of one of these inscriptions is determined by tho 
name of tho Emperor Aurelius. (Grutcr. Ixxi.) 

In tho latter part of the third century, during tho civil 
war which desolated tho empire, the Salian Franks invaded 
the country of the Batavi, and established themselves in it. 
They armed pirate vessels, which were encountered and 
defeated at sea byCarausius. Constantius and Constantino 
waged war against tho Franks of the Batavian island, but 
could not drivo them out of it. Tho Franks lost it, however, 
undor Julian, by an irruption of Frisians, who came from 
the northorn country near the Zuidcrzco, and drove tho 
Salian Franks beyond tho Maas. After this the Insula 
Batavorum formed part of tho country called Frcsia, which, 
in thjB time of the Merovingians, extended southward as 
far as the Scheldt. Under Charlemagne it formed a duchy 
bearing allegiance to the empire, * Ducatus Fresias usuuo ad 
Mosam.' It afterwards became divided into Western Frisia, 
called Frcsia Hereditaria, which was subject to hereditary 
counts; and IJastern Frisia, or Frcsia Libera, which remained 
independent. The Yssel formed the division between the 
two. About the eleventh century we first find Western 
Frisia called by the name of Holland, some say from hohl 
land, * a low hollow land/ and its counts took the name of 
Counts of Holland. The country of tho antient Batavi 
formed the southern part of their dominions; but the islands 
at the mouth of the Maas, and between it and the Schcldc, 
were the subject of frequent contentions and wars between 
them and tho Counts of Flanders. (D'Anville, Etats formes 
en Europe apres la Chute de t Empire Romain; Meyer, 
Res Flandricce.) Although the namo Batavi has fallen into 
disuse, it has always been employed by modern authors 
writing in Latin to signify the Dutch or Hollanders generally. 

BATA'VI A, one of the districts, or residcnces.of the island 
of Java. It is bounded on the north by the Java Sea, on the 
west by the regency of Bantam, from which it is divided by 
the river Tjikandtf, on the south by the residence of Buiten- 
zorg, and on the cast by the river Tjitarum, which forms 
the western boundary of the district of Crawang. The di- 
mensions of the district of Batavia are about twenty-four 
leagues from cast to west, and about six and a half leagues 
from north to south, the capital being situated nearly in the 
middle of the northern boundary*. 

The district of Batavia is divided politically into four de- 
partments, one of which consists of the city and its suburbs. 
Near to the sea-shore the country is Hat, but rises with a 
gentle acclivity towards the south to the mountain* range, 
which intersects the island from the western to the oastcrn ex- 
tremity. This district is well watered. Tho river Jaccatra, 
which joins the sea at the town of Batavia, dividing it into 
nearly equal parts, has a bank or bar at its mouth which 
prevents the entrance of any but the smallest boats. This 
disadvantage generally attends all the rivers on the north 
coast of Java, which, as they have their sources on the 
north side of the mountain-range, and flow in a pretty 
direct line to the sea, aro not of great length. They serve, 
however, together with numerous rivulets, to irrigate tho 
lands, and this is of the greater benefit, as one of tho chief 
productions of tho district is rice. There are many sugar 
plantations in the district of Batavia, and their number has 
f>ecn very greatly increased of late years since the island was 
restored to the Dutch. This species of cultivation has been 
encouraged by the local government, as affording the means 
of remitting to the parent state the surplus revenue of the 
colony. Cotton, pepper, and coflec (the last to a considerable 
extent), are likewise produced in this district. Tho popula- 
tion, according to the census taken in 1821, was 182,654. 

Stavorinus's Voyages; Count Hogcndorp's Coup d(Eil 
sur tile de Java* #c., 1830.) 

BAT A' VI A is a city on the north coast of Java, situated 
at the bottom of an extensivo bay, about CO miles E.S.E. of 
the Straits of Sunda. It was formerly a native village called 
Jacatra, and though probably visit ed by the Portuguese, 
they did not form any commercial settlement here. The 
English and Dutch had factories, the former of which was 
established in 1618, and the latter in 1612; but the Dutch, 
having conquered the country, founded tho present town 
under tho namo of Batavia, and removed the government 
from Bantam in 1G 10. It finally became the capital of their 
East Indian empire, and the residence of the governor gene- 
ral ; and tho English, having taken part with the natives in | 



opposing the Dutch, retired from the place. Being called in 
to aid various parties in their civil wars, the Dutch obtained 
still more power on tho island, but they did not enjoy undis- 
turbed possession for several years, and were frequently at- 
tacked by the natives. The town rose rapidly to importance, 
and becamothe emporium of all the produce of India, China, 
and Japan, as no ship was allowed to proceed direct to Hol- 
land without first touching at this port, except tho coffee 
ships from Mocha. It remained unintcnuptedly in the 
hands of the Dutch till 1811, when Holland having become 
a province of the French empire, Batavia fell into the hands 
of the French, from whom it was taken by the English, and 
by the tr6aty of 1 8 15 was restored to the Dutch, who returned 
to the government in the following year. 

1 lata via is an important place, from its excellent bay and its 
advantageous position for European commerce. It stands at 
the mouth of the river Jacatra, in the midst of swamps and 
marshes, surrounded by trees and jungle, which prevent tho 
exhalations from being carried ofTby a free circulation of the 
air, and render the town peculiarly obnoxious to marsh mias- 
mata. Besides this, all the principal streets are traversed 
by canals, planted on each sido with rows of trees, over 
which there arc bridges at the end of almost every street. 
They have also booms, which are drawn across at sunset to 
prevent the passage of boats in and out. Thcso canals are 
the common receptacles for all the filth of the town. In the 
dry season their stagnant and diminished waters emit a 
most intolerable stench, while in the wet season they over- 
sow their banks, and leave a quantity of offensive slime. 
From these united causes it is not surprising that Ba- 
ta\ ia has been considered the most unhealthy spot in tho 
world, and has been designated the storehouse of disease. 
According to Itayual, the number of sailors and soldiers 
alone who died in the hospitals averaged 1400 annually for 
sixty years, and the total amount of deaths in twenty-two 
years exceeded a million of souls; but this looks very like 
an exaggeration. During the French occupation, the walls 
of the town were removed by General Daendcls with the 
view of admitting a freer circulation of air, and with the 
materials the cantonment of Wcltevrecdcn was built, a short 
distance from the town inland. , 

The city is about three quarters of a mile in length, north 
and south, and about half a mile wide. It was enclosed by 
a wall of coral rock, with a stream of water on each side, 
within and without. There arc now only three churches in 
the town, and one theatre: at the southern part is a large 
square where the stadthaus stands, in which the courts of 
law arc held, and all public business transacted. The 
streets arc generally at right angles to one another, and 
the houses mostly of brick stuccoed. They arc well built, 
clean, and spacious, and their construction is suited to the 
country. The doors and windows arc lofty, and tho ground 
floors aro covered with flags of marble, which are kept con- 
stantly wet, and impart a coolness to the dwelling. Few 
Europeans, however, sleep within tho town, as the night 
air is considered very baneful. The inhabitants (possibly 
as an antidote against the noxious effluvia arising from 
the swamps and canals) continually burn aromatic woods 
and resins, and scatter about a profusion of odoriferous 
flowers, of which there aro great abundance and variety. 
During the prosperity of the Dutch East India Company. 
Batavia obtained the title of Queen of the East, as the re- 
sources of alj other districts were sacrificed to its cxclusivo 
commerce ; but its splendour has greatly decreased, owing 
chiefly to the increase of tho British empire in India. 
Whole streets also have been pulled down in consequence 
of tho European settlers removing their residences from tho 
town to the high grounds in the neighbourhood. 

In tho north-cast quarter of the town is the citadel, a 
largo square inclosure with a bastion at each angle, but 
without any outworks; within the citadel aro residences 
for tho Governor- General and chief officers, with warehouses 
for the most valuable of the Company's goods in case of 
danger. In addition to these defences there are several 
small batteries and redoubts in and around the town, besides 
fortified houses, so placed as to command the navigation of 
the principal canals. Most of these works are merely for 
the purpose of keeping the natives in awe, and arc ih-calcu* 
lateu to withstand an invading army, as was proved in 1811. 
But if the fortifications of Batavia are not formidable in 
themselves, they become so from their situation among 
swamps and morasses, where, by the destruction of a few 
roads that cross them to the town, the approach of heavy 



BAT 



21 



BAT 



artillery would be impracticable ; and towards tbe bay the 
water is too shallow to admit even of a boat coming within 
gunshot-range of the castle, except by the narrow entrance 
to the river, which may be closed by booms. 

The diversified population of Batavia and its suburbs 
within two miles, according to the census of 1815, amounted 
to 47,417, and consisted of Dutch, English, Portuguese, 
Chinese, Moors, Arabs, Malays, Javanese, and negro slaves : 
of these classes the Chinese are by far the most numerous 
and important. In 1824 another census was taken, when 
the number was 53,861, of whom 14,708 were Chinese. This 
does not include the military establishment at Weltevreeden. 
The Chinese farm the revenues, are the principal artisans, 
and exclusively manufacture the sugar and arrack. They 
have a separate quarter outside the town, the suburbs of 
which occupy a larger space than the city itself: they suffer 
greatly from disease, and the mortality among them is very 
great, owing to the closeness of their apartments and their 
gross manner of living. Many junks arrive annually from 
China, bringing about 1000 settlers. In 1742, in conse- 
quence of a supposed organised plan of insurrection on the 
part of the Chinese, the Dutch government perpetrated a 
most cold-blooded massacre, in which more than one half of 
the Chinese were murdered. 

The country around Batavia is very beautiful and fer- 
tile, though flat in the vicinity of the town. Markets are 
regularly held, one within and the other outside the eity, 
which are remarkably well supplied with fruit, which is the 
most abundant article of vegetable luxury ; the principal 
sorts are, pine-apples, oranges, shaddocks, lemons, limes, 
mangoes, bananas, grapes, melons, pomegranates, custard- 
apples, papaws, mangosteens, and rombusteens, with many 
others mostly unknown in Europe. Fowls, ducks, and 
geese, are plentiful and cheap ; turkeys, pigeons, and wild- 
fowl are, in general, very scarce, and butcher's meat inferior 
and dear : of fish there is an abundant supply, and turtle 
are sometimes found. The chief imports are opium and 
piece goods; the exports sugar, coffee, and spices: salt 
also forms an important article of colonial commerce ; near 
Batavia there are some very extensive works for making 
salt from sea-water. 

Tho anchorage of Batavia is a bay, about eleven miles 
long and six deep, eapablo of containing any number of 
vessels of the largest sue ; it is studded with coral knolls 
and protected by several small islands, averaging half 
n mile in diameter, all of which are occupied, and have 
their different appropriations ; one is a convict establish- 
ment ; another an hospital ; a third is covered with ware- 
houses for articles of small value ; a fourth (Onrust) is the 
naval arsenal, which is well fortified. 

These islands protect the bay from any heavy swell ; and, 
as the bottom is very tenacious, it becomes a perfectly safe 
anchorage. But when the sea-breeze blows strong it causes 
a cockling sea, which renders the communication with the 
town unpleasant, and sometimes dangerous, as the only 
landing-place is up the river; the channel of which is 
formed by wooden piers, projecting half a mile into the sea, 
and across it is a shallow bar. The river Jacatra abounds 
in large alligators. During the easterly monsoon, which 
blows from April to October, the weather is uniformly fine 
and warm ; but the north-west monsoon is always accom- 
panied by heavy rains and strong winds. The summer range 
of tho thermometer is from 70 to 74 in the mornings and 
evenings, and 80 at noon. The rise of tide is about six feet. 

Batavia lies in 6° 9' S. lat., and 106° 52' E. long. 

( Raffles' s History of Java; Staunton's Embassy (o 
China ; Cook's Voyages ; Crawfurd's History of (he Indian 
Archipelago; Horsburgh's East India Directory ; Hogen- 
dorp's Coup dCEilj &e. There is a plan of Batavia, for the 
year 1G69, in Mandelslo's Travels,) 

BAT AVIAN REPUBLIC. [See Holland.] 

BATH, the chief city of Somersetshire, celebrated for its 
natural hot springs, is about 108 miles from London, in 
51° 22' 32" N. lat, and 2° 31' 30" W. long. The town lies 
in a valley, divided by the river Avon. Geologically it is 
placed upon the great western oolitic range, which attains 
its greatest elevation on Lansdown, above Bath, where its 
summit is 813 feet above tbe level of the sea. This range 
is intersected in tho neighbourhood of the city by deep 
transverse valleys, but re-appears on tho south of the Avon, 
where its elevation is so broken that its continuity is de- 
stroyed. Its fection near Lansdown is a bed of upper, or 
great oolite, varying from 40 to 150 feet in thickness, form- 



ing the brow of the hill; then a gradual slope of fullers - 
earth-clay; next a terrace of inferior oolite with its under- 
lying sand and sandstone, which falls with a precipitous slope 
and rests on lias clay, or blue marl, and then on lias rock. 
The freestone or oolite, worked from quarries situated to 
the east and south of Bath, has furnisned almost entirely 
the chief building materials for the city. The soil upon the 
declivities of the hills is generally rich, and the lower grounds 
afford very fine pasturage. The country about is wooded ; 
and from the inequality of the ground presents a great va- 
riety of agreeable landscape. From the sheltered position 
of the city, its temperature is mild. The following table 
is made up from observations continued through fifteen 
years, the temperature being noted from a thermometer 
placed in a north aspect, and fifteen feet from the ground, 
compared with tables given by Dr. Clark in his work on 
climate 

Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. 

Near London . 40*93 37"GG 34*16 39*78 41*51 
Oxford . . 43*G0 37*00 3G*90 37*10 4-2*10 
Bath . . 45*35 42*25 37*75 41*25 44 40 

In the summer months, the same observations give the 
mean temperature of Bath at Gl*20 in June, 64*20 in July, 
and 62*70 in August. The mean annual depth of rain 
which falls there is 35*30 inches, and the number of days 
on which rain or snow falls is 1G2, every day being noted 
wet on which sufficient rain fell to mark the pavement. 

This city was a Roman station, mentioned by Ptolemy, 
under the name of Aqua; Calidce t and by him placed with 
Venia and Ischalis in the country of the^Belga;. It is also 
placed in the Nth Iter of Antoninus, in connexion with 
other stations, thus, Ab Isca Vcnta Silurum, M.P. ix. 
Abone, M.P. ix. Trajectus, M.P. ix. Aquis Solis. M.P. 
vi. Verlucione, M.P. xv. Cunetione, M.P. xx. Spinis, 
M.P. xv. Calleva, M.P. xv. Hie stations preceding anil 
following that of Bath are much disputed, and their actual 
position is very doubtful. In the Notitia, Bath is not 
mentioned. It was intersected by the antient Roman road 
leading from London into Wales, and by the road called the 
Fosse, which ran from Lincolnshire to the south coast of 
England. These two roads joined near the bridge crossing 
a small stream in the parish of Bath Kaston, about two 
miles from Bath. They then continued in one course 
through a great portion of the parish of Walcot, separating 
again near Walcot church. The Fosse entered the norfh 
gate of the city from Walcot- street, passed through the 
town, up Hollowayand on to llchester. The other road ran 
up Guinea Lane, and on to the station of Abone. Close 
to the spot where these roads separated, and towards the 
river, numerous coins, vases, and sepulchral remains have 
from time to time been found. The Roman remains dis- 
covered in Bath and in its neighbourhood have been con- 
siderable. At Box a tessellated pavement of large dimen- 
sions is at this time lying open, proof of the existence of a 
villa on the spot. Several sueh remains have been found 
in the country around Bath, especially at Bath-Ford, Dithe- 
ridge, Horsland near Warley, and at Wellow. In the city of 
Bath itself, the foundations of extensive buildings have often 
been traced. On the eastern side of tho Fosse, near the - 
north end of Stall-street, portions of a large temple were 
discovered, and are still preserved in the Bath Institution. 
Its front was towards the west, and consisted of a portico 
with fluted columns, crowned with Corinthian capitals. 
Towards the east of this building stood the principal 
baths, the remains of which were discovered in 1755. In 
other parts of the city, altars with inscriptions, tessellated 
pavements, ornamented bricks, urns, vases, lachrymatories, 
fibula), coins, 8cc, have been turned up, but none of the 
inscriptions throw any light upon the history of the place. 
No city in England can produce such a collection of local 
Roman remains as is now deposited in the Bath Literary 
and Scientific Institution : there is nothing like it in the 
kingdom, except at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where the col- 
lection is from tho whole of the northern field. The new 
town is many feet above its antient level ; in somo places 
more than twenty. The walls, as they existed until a late 
period, are presumed to have been built, to a great extent, 
upon the base of the Roman walls. There are accounts 
and engravings of Roman inscriptions and sculptures incor- 
porated in the walls, none of which are now existing. 

The modern eity of Bath is of great beauty. Its streets 
are very regular, clean, and, at night, well-lighted. Its 
best buildmgs, sueh as the Upper Rooms, the north Bid* 



BAT 



22 



B A T 



of Quecn-square, the Crescent, and Circni, were built al*out 
tho middle of the last century, from designs of the two 
"Wood*. Tho last forty \oars havo hardly produced a build- 
ing of any architectural value, though tho materials for 
building arc cheap, and the stone is worked with great ease. 
Tho architecture of the later buildings is generally of a 
bald character. 

The eity is governed by a corporation, under charters 
granted by Queen Elizabeth, Sept. 4, 1590, and by George 
III., 1794. The first of theso charters direets that the 
corporation shall consist of a mayor, aldermen, not exceed- 
ing in number ten, nor fewer than four, and a eoinmon 
council of twenty members. Thcro are. also a recorder, 
town-clerk, and two scrgeants-at-macc. The local court of 
record has cognizance of all personal aetions whatsoever 
arising within tho city and its suburbs or preeincts, without 
restriction as to the amount of the sum in dispute. The 
non-residence, however, of the recorder, the legal adviser of 
the magistrates and one of the presiding judges; tho attor- 
neys of the court being tho two sergcants-at-maco and un- 
professional persons; and tho case with which a eausc may 
l>e removed to any of the superior eourts, by writ of cer- 
tiorari or habeas corpus, destroy all its advantages. A 
court-leet, and eourt of quarter-sessions aro also held by 
the magistrates, who, though without power to try persons 
charged with felonies under tho charter of the eity, arc 
perhaps enabled to try them under tho 4 and 5 Will. IV. 
c.27, sec. 3. By the charter of 1794, eleven instead of two 
members of the corporation are empowered to act as jus- 
tices of tho peace within the eity. Tho members of the 
corporation, though self-elected, must be ehoscn from the 
freemen ; and as tho freemen by purchase were consi- 
dered to have a claim to be elected before the freemen 
by servitude, the priee of the freedom, shortly before the 
Reform Act passed, was 250/. The property of the body 
is very extensive, including lands and houses in the best 
part of the eity ; all the hot- springs but one ; nearly all 
the eold -springs which supply the town with water ; and 
the tolls of the market ; altogether producing, in 1832, a 
rental of moro than 12,000/. per annum. In 1832 the publie 
debt of the corporation amounted to 55,863/. 

The charter boundaries of the eity include part of tho 

Parishes of 'Walcot and Bath wick, and the parishes of St. 
*eter and St. Paul, St. James, and St. Michael. The 
parliamentary boundaries of the eity, under the Boundary 
Act. include, in addition, the remaining parts of the parishes 
of Walcot and Bathwiek, and the parish of Lyncombe and 
Widcombe. The new limits comprised, in 1831, a popu- 
lation of 50,800 persons (21,035 males and 29,765 females), 
charged with assessed taxes to the amount of G2.000/. 
a-year ; 3310 acres of ground, and above 7000 houses, more 
than 5000 of which were taxed at the annual value of 10/. 
Tho power of electing the parliamentary representatives of 
the city was formerly in the corporation only. Under the 
Reform Act, the number of registered electors, in each of 
the last three years, has been about 2800. The inhabitants 
of Bath are exempt from serving on the juries of the county. 
A community of Ucligious existed here from the earliest 
ages of Christianity in Britain, who had their house near to 
the springs and baths, The constitution of the society 
underwent several ehanges, and at last the house and all its 
possessions, which were extensive and valuable, were sur- 
rendered to the crown by William Ilolloway, the last prior, 
June 29, 1539. What is now eallcd the Abbey Church was 
the church of this community, and was connected, on tho 
south side, with the eonv.entual dwellings. An older church 
having fallen into decay, the building of the present edifice 
was begun by Bishop Oliver King, in the reign of Henry 
VII., at the time of whose death it was unfinished, and 
continued to be so when the priory was dissolved. After 
haying been in a dilapidated state for many years, its re- 
pairwas undertaken by Chapman, in 1572, continued by the 
munificence of Thomas Bellot, steward of the household of 
Queen Elizabeth, and was nearly completed by Bishop 
Montague, about the year 1C09. This edifice is of the 
fthape of a cross, with a very handsome tower rising from 
the centre. Its length from east to west Is 210 foet, and 
from north to south 126. Tho west front lsdocorated with 
numerous figures, now much impaired by time, intended to 
represent Jacob's dream. Tho east window is renin rkable 
for being square, and was until very lately appropriately 
supported In two square towers which have been converted 
kto Ill-designed oetagonal pinnacles, Tho building itself 



U an oxnmplo of tho pointed style at the latest pcri«nl in 
which It prevailed, and was completed with great simplicity 
and taste. In 1&34 its whole doign and character were 
materially changed, and its most peculiar features de- 
stroyed. " The interior is entirely disfigured by tho multiiude 
of monuments with which it is covered. It is the parish 
church of the parish of St. Peter and St. Paul. 

The ecclesiastical division of Bath is into tho parishes 
already named, each of which has its parochial church. 
Thcro aro also the following chapels connected with the 
Established Church:— Queen Square, Margaret's, All 
Saint*, Kensington, Octagon, Laura, St. Mark, Trinity, 
St, Saviour, Christ Church, Magdalen's, St. John's Hos- 
pital. Records also exist of eleven chapels which have 
i>cen destroyed. The Independents, Quakers, Moravians, 
Methodists, Unitarians, Koman Catholics, Jews, and Bap- 
tists, have all places of worship in tho city, the majority 
of which aro large and handsomo buildings. 

There aro charitable institutions in this city of anticnl 
and modern date of every kind. Tho oldest is the hospital 
of St. John, founded in 1180 by Reginald Fitzjocclync. as 
it Is said, for the benefit of the sick poor resorting to Bath. 
The beneficiaries now are a master, six brethren, and six 
sisters. The patronage of the mastership was granted by 
Queen Elizabeth to lhe corporation of Bath. Its endow- 
ments arc large, and the annual valuo of its property in 
1818, ehiefiy leased on lives, in consideration of fines, was 
11,395/. The master receives two-thirds of the fines and 
income, and the brethren and sisters the remainder. The 
chief establishment, however, for tho sick poor is called the- 
General Hospital. It was opened in 1748, and is regulated 
by act of parliament. No patient ean be admitted unless 
his ease has been certified as proper for the trial of the hot 
waters, previous to his coming to Bath, and no inhabitant 
of Bath is admitted into It, This last regulation, though 
wisely framed, is to some extent evaded by the admission 
of persons dwelling in the suburbs, but beyond the charier 
limits of the city. The eharity is well endowed, and its re- 
cords havo had "the character of having been kept with great 
eare, fidelity, and exactness. There is also another large 
hospital called the United General Hospital, or Casualty 
and Dispensary, which affords to the sick poor of the city 
the advantages of the use of the hot waters, and gives 
assistance in eases of ordinary illness and casualty. It is 
well governed, and the whole of its arrangements are good. 

There is a small collection of books in the vestry of the 
abbey church and some antient MSS. In the year 1826 a 
literary and scientific institution was founded, comprising, 
partly by purchase and partly by benefactions, an extensive 
and well-selected library of Veferenco both in science and 
litcratnro. The institution also contains a small museum 
and laboratory, with rooms for the delivery of lectures. 
There is also a Mechanics' Institute, which has a tolerable 
collection of books, and which has been almost entirely sup- 
ported for some years by the class for whose use it was 
designed. 

The ehief institution for instruction is the free grammar- 
school, founded by Edward VI., and endowed with part of 
the lands of the dissolved priory of Bath. It was designed 
for tho gratuitous instruction of tho children of the inha- 
bitants of the town without distinction. The school-house 
Is a largo and handsome building with spacious premises. 
The schoolmaster may be a layman ; but if in holy orders, 
must be presented to the rectory of Charleombe, the value 
of which was, in 1S34, about 300/. a-ycar. His salary, as 
master, is 84/. a-year ; but as the school is well attended, 
and only ten free scholars are admitted, the value of tho 
oflicc is much increased by the payments of day-scholars 
and boarders. Tho lands of the school aro very badly let, 
producing, in 1834, a rent of only 376/. a-year, though their 
annual value, in 1822, was about 1238/. There arc several 
other schools which afford the elements of education, such 
as reading, writing, and arithmetic, supported chiefly by 
voluntary subscriptions. 

The * ever memorable* John Hales, of Eton, was born 
In St. James's parish, and Benjamin Robins, said to have 
been tho actual writer of Anson s Voyage round the World, 
was a native of this city, which also claims Adelardus de 
Bathonia, who passed some timo in the cast during the 
reign of Henry I„ and brought to England, among some 
Arabic MSS., a translation of Euclid, being the first copy 
of tho work known in this country. 

The gaieties of Bath are celebrated, but have much do- 



B A T 



23 



BAT 



dined during the last twenty years. The Assembly Rooms 
are a handsome snite, the ball-room being nearly 106 by 
nearly 43 feet, and 42 feet C inches high, and the tea-room 
70 by 27 feet : they were erected by Wood. The theatre is 
probably one of the best of its size in England ; for it Mr. 
Palmer obtained tbe first act of parliament passed in this 
country for the security of theatrical property. It Is justly 
remarked by Seneca, * Ubicunque scatebunt aquarum ca- 
lentium venoo, ibi nova divcrsoria luxuriro excitabuntur : ' 
* wherever warm springs abound, new places of amusement 
arc sure to arise up.* 

There is no manufacture of importance in this city. It 
was formerly celebrated for its cloth, and at tbe Restoration 
no less 'than sixty broad looms were employed in the parish 
of St. Michael's. The paper-mills in the neighbourhood 
are of some note, and paid, in 1832, to the excise 10,575/. 
The city is well-supplied with coal from extensive beds 
lying a few miles distant. The river Avon was made navi- 
gable to Bristol under an act of the 10th Anne, and there 
is a water-communication with London by tbe Kennet and 
Avon Canal, which joins the Thames at Reading. 

The remarkable peculiarity of Bath is its natural hot 
springs. They are four in number, and rise near tho eentre 
of the city ; and, with the exception of a spring belonging to 
Lord Manvers, are vested in the corporation. The tempera- 
ture of three of the springs is as follows :— Hot Bath 1 1 7°, 
King's Bath 114°, and Cross Bath 109° of Fahrenheit, 
yielding respectively 128, 20, and 12 gallons a minute. 
The specific gravity of the water is 1*002. As it flows 
from the earth it is transparent, but in a short time yields 
a slight precipitate and loses its transparency. "When fresh 
drawn it has a slight chalybeate taste. The King's Bath 
is 60 feet 11 inches in length, and 40 feet in breadth, and 
tho Queen's Bath, a square of 25 feet, is supplied from it. 
The daily quantity of water discharged into these basins is 
184,320 gallons. There are private baths attached to the 
Hot and the King's Bath, admirably arranged and con- 
structed, and capable of having their temperature regu- 
lated. Bathing is far from heing a practice among the 
inhabitants. The public baths are not much frequented, 
and tbe private baths, though they occasion few charges for 
their support, but that of linen and attendance, are expen- 
sive. Tho encouragement of their general use, and the 
effect of low prices, as connected with the advancement of 
local interests, are not yet understood. Tbe baths yielded 
to the corporation, in 1831, a rent of 1442/., and the pump- 
room a rent of 416/. a- year. The waters have been very 
accurately analyzed by Drs. Falconer and Gibbes, and by 
Mr. R. Phillips. According to the last of these writers, 
whose experiments wero very carefully made, a quart of 
water taken from the hot springs contains — 
Carbonic acid . •. -. 2*4 in. 

Sulphate of lime . . 18* grains. 

Muriate of soda . . -.6*6 „ 
Sulphate of soda . . 3*0 „ 

Carbonate of lime . . 1 • C „ 

Siliea . . •♦ , *4 „ 

Oxido of iron . . . '00394 



Loss 



29*60394 
39606 



30 



Estimating the muriate and sulphate of soda in a crys- 
tallized state, a pint of water contains — 

Carbonic acid . . •. . l£ in. 
Sulphate of lime ... '9 grains. 

Muriate of soda . » 3£ „ 

Sulphate of soda . . . 3i „ 

'Carbonate of lime . . . ft » 

Silica .....£„ 
Oxide of iron . . . • ?W »> 

A considerable quantity of carbonic acid gas escapes through 
the water. 

Taken internally the water acts as a stimulant. Its use 
is most successful in cases of palsy, rheumatism, gout, le- 
prosy, cutaneous disease, ami especially in cases of scrofula 
affecting the joints, such as the knee, elbow, hip. It cannot 
bo used without danger in cases accompanied with fever, 
cough, or pain in the chest, open sores or ulcers, or in cases 
where there is reason to suspect internal suppuration, he- 
morrhage, rupture, mania, or plethora. From its improper 
internal use mischievous results are frequently produced. 



The earliest w6rk on the hot springs is by W. Turner, 
dated 1562. The writer, a divine and doctor of medicine, 
and the first English writer on natural history, was born at 
Morpeth, and was imprisoned for preaching "the doctrines 
of the Reformation. Obtaining his liberty, he went abroad, 
where he continued during the greater part of the reigu 
of Henry VIII. On his return he was preferred, and re- 
ceived from Edward VI. the deanery of Wells. Other 
treatises have been written by Venner, 1617; Guidott, 
1691, 1708: Pierce, 1697; Oliver, 1716; Cheyne, 1725; 
Wynter, 1728; Quinton, 1734; Kinnier, 1737; Randolph, 
1752; Charleton, 1754; Lucas, 1756; Steven, 1758 ; Suther- 
land, 1763; Falconer, 1770, 1789; Gibbes, 1800; Wilkin- 
son; Phillips, Iff06 ; Daubeny, 1834. 

(See Collinson's History of Somersetshire* vol. i. ; War- 
net's History of Bath; Lysons's Reliquiae Romano*; 
Wood's Essay towards a Description of Bath, 1742, 1749, 
1760; Charity Commissioners' Reports ; * On the Climate 
of Bath,' Bath Magazine, vol. iii. p. 289; On the Oolitic 
District of Bath y by Lonsdale; Transactions of the Geolo- 
gical Society, vol. iii. p. 241 ; Municipal Corporation In- 
quiry, 1833; Turner's History of England, 8vd. vol. iv. 
p. 438 ; MS. Communication from Bath,) 

BATH, a town in Lincoln county, state of Maine, in the 
United States of North America, situated in 43° 54' N. lat, 
and 69° 47' W. long. This town is built on the west side 
of the river Kennebec, at the head of the ship-navigation on 
that river, and sixteen miles from the sea. It is distant thirty- 
five miles north-east from Portland, which town was, until 
1832, the seat of government in the stafte. With the ex- 
ception of Portland, Bath has more shipping belonging to 
its port than any other town in Maine ; the amount of re- 
gistered and licensed tonnage in 1831 was 26,237 tons: 
the population, according to tbe census of 1830, was 3773. 

BATH, KNIGHTS OF THE, so called from the an- 
tient custom of bathing previous to their installation. The 
origin of this order of knighthood has been described as of 
very remote antiquity ; but as Camden and Seldcn agree 
that the first mention of an order of knights, distinctly called 
Knights of the Bath, is at the coronation of Henry IV. in 
1399, there can be little doubt that this order was then 
instituted. That bathing had been a part of the discipline 
submitted to by esquires in order to obtain the honour 
of knighthood from very early times, is admitted ; but it 
does not appear that any knights were called Knights of the 
Bath till tnese were Created by King Henry IV. 

Froissart (see Lord Bemers's Translate edit. 1812, vol. ii. 
p. 752), speaking of that king, says, ' The Saturday before 
his coronation he departed from Westminster, and rode to 
the Tower of London with a great number; and that night 
all such esquires as should be made knights the next day, 
watched, who were to the number of forty -six. Every esquire 
had his own bayne {bath) by himself; and the next day the 
Duke of Lancaster made them all knights at the mass-time. 
Then had they long eoats with strait sleeves, furred with 
mynever like prelates, with white laces hanging on their 
shoulders/ 

It became subsequently the practice of the English kings 
to create Knights of the Bath previous to their coronation, at 
the inauguration of a Prince of Wales, at the Celebration of 
their own nuptials or those of any of th3 royal family, 
and occasionally upon other great occasions or solemnities. 
Fabyan {Chron. edit. 1811, p. 582) says that Henry V., in 
1416, upon the taking of tbe town of Caen, dubbed sixteen 
Knights of the Bath. 

Sixty- eight Knights of the Bath were made at the coro- 
nation of King Charles II. (see the list in Guillim's He- 
raldry,^ Lond. 1679, p. 107); but from that time the 
order was dis6ontinued, till it was revived by King George I. 
under Writ of Privy Seal, dated May 18, 1725, during the 
administration of Sir Robert Walpole. The statutes and 
ordinances of tho order bear date May 23, 1 725. By these 
it was directed that the order should consist of a grand- 
master and thirty-six companions, a succession of whom 
was to be regularly continued. The ofiicers appropriated to 
the order, besides the grand-master, were a dean, register, 
king of arms, genealogist, secretary, usher, and messenger. 
Tbe dean of the collegiate church of St. Peter, Westminster, 
for the time being, was appointed ex officio dean of the 
Order of the Bath, and it was directed that the other officers 
should be from time to time appointed by the grand-master. 

The badge of the order was directed to be a rose, thistle, 
and shamrock* issuing from a seeptr© between three im- 
perial eiwns, surrounded by the motto Triajuncta in two 



BAT 



24 



BAT 



to bo of pur© fold, chased and pierced, and to bo worn 
bv the knight-clcct, pendant from a red riband placed 
ooliaucly over tbo -right shoulder. Tho collar to bo of gold, 
wcigning thirty ounces troy weight, and composed of nino 
imperial crowns, and eight ro*cs, thistles, and shamrocks 
issuing from a sceptre, enamelled in their proper colours, 
tied or linked together by seventeen gold knots, enamelled 
white, and having the badge of the order pendant from it. 
The star to consist of three imperial crowns of gold, sur- 
rounded with tho motto of the order upon a circle gules, 
with a glory or ray issuing from tho ccntro, to be embroi- 
dered on the left sido of the upper garment. 

The installation dress was ordered to be a surcoat of whito 
satin, a mantle of crimson satin lined with^fchito, tied at the 
neck with a cordon of crimson silk and gold, with gold 
tassels, and tho star of the order embroidered on the left 
shoulder; a white silk hat, adorned with a standing plume 
of white ostrich feathers ; white leather boots, edged and 
heeled ; spurs of crimson and gold ; and a sword in a white 
leather scabbard, with cross hilts of gold. 

Each knight was to be allowed three esquires, who are to 
be gentlemen of blood, bearing coat-armour ; and who, 
during the term of their several lives, are entitled to all the 
privileges and exemptions enjoyed by the esquires of the 
sovereign's body, or tnc gentlemen of the privy chamber. 

In 1815, the Prince Regent, being desirous to comme- 
morate the auspicious termination of the long and arduous 
contests in which tho empire had been engaged, and of 
marking, in an especial manner, his sense of the valour, 
perseveranco, and devotion manifested by the officers of the 
king's forces by sea and land, thought (It to advance the 
splendour and extend the limits of the Order of the Bath: 
upon which occasion his Royal Highness, by virtue of the 
royal prerogative, was pleased to ordain that thenceforward 
the order should be composed of three classes, differing in 
their ranks and degrees of dignity. 

The first class to consist of knights grand crosses, winch 
designation was to be substituted for that of knights com- 
panions previously used. The knights grand crosses, with 
the exception of princes of the blood-royal holding high 
commissions in the array and navv, not to exceed seventy- 
two in number; whereof a numocr not exceeding twelve 
might bo nominated in consideration of services rendered in 
civil or diplomatic employments. To distinguish the mili- 
tary and naval officers upon whom the first class of the said 
order was then newly conferred, it was directed that they 
should bear upon the onsign or star, and likewise upon tho 
badge of the order, the addition of a wreath of laurel en- 
circling the motto, and issuing from an escrol inscribed 
Jch dien ; and the dignity of the first class to be at no timo 
conferred upon persons who had not attained the rank of 
major-general in tho army, or rear-admiral in the navy. 

The second class was to be composed of knights com- 
manders, who wcro to have precedence of all knights 
bachelors of the United Kingdom : the number, in tho 
first instance, not to exceed ono hundred and eighty, ex- 
clusive of foreign officers holding British commissions, of 
whom a number not exceeding ten may be admitted into 
the second class as honorary knights commanders ; but in 
the event of actions of signal distinction, or of future wars, 
the number of knights commanders may be increased. No 
person to be eligible as a knight commander who docs not, 
at the timo of his nomination, hold a commission in his 
Majesty's army or navy; such commission not being below 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel in tho army, or of post-captain 
in the navy. By a subsequent regulation in 1815 no per- 
son is now eligible to tho class of K.C.B. unless ho havo 
attained tho rank of major-general in the army or rear- 
admiral in the navy. Each knight commander to wear his 
appropriate badgo or cognizance, pendent by a red riband 
round the neck, and his appropriate star, embroidered on 
the left sido of his upper vestment. For the greater honour 
of this class, it was further ordained that no officer of his 
Majesty's array or navy was thenceforward to be nominated 
to the dignity of a knight grand cross who had not been 
appointed previously a knight commander of the order. 

flie third class to be composed of officers holding com- 
missions in bis Majesty's servico by sea or land, who shall 
be styled companions of tho said ortlcr; not to bo entitled 
to the appellation, stylo, or precedence of knights bachelors, 
but to take precedence and place of all esquires of the United 
Kingdom. No officer to be nominated a companion of tho 
order unless he shall previously have received a medal or 
other badge of honour, or shall have been specially men- 



tioned by name in despatches published in tho London 
Gazette as having distinguished himself. 

Tho bulletin announcing the re*inodelling of the Order 
of the Bath was dated Whitehall, January 2, 1S15. 

By another bulletin, dated Whitehall, January 6, 1815, 
the Prince Regent, acting in tho name and on behalf of 
his Majesty, having taken into consideration the eminent 
services which had been rendered to the empiro by tho 
officers in the service of the Honourable East India Com- 
pany, ordained that fifteen of tho most distinguished offi- 
cers of that sen* ice, holding commissions from his Ma- 
jesty not below that of lieutenant-colonel, might be raised 
to the dignity of knights commanders of the Bath, exclu- 
sive of tho number of knights commanders belonging to 
his Majesty's forces by sea and land who had been nomi- 
nated by the ordinaneo of January 2. In the event of future 
wars, and of actions of signal distinction, tho said number 
of fifteen to be increased. His Royal Highness further or- 
dained that certain other officers of the same service, holding 
his Majesty's commission, might bo appointed companions 
of the Order of the Bath, in consideration of eminent services 
rendered in action with the enemy ; and that the said officers 
should enjoy all the rights, privileges, and immunities se- 
cured to the third class of the said order. 

(See Observations introductory to an Historical Essay 
upon the Knighthood of the Bath, by John Anstis, Esq. 
4to. Lond. 1725 ; Selden's Titles of Honour, fol. Loud. 1672, 
pp. 678, 679; Camden's HHttmnia, fol. Lond. 1637, p. 172; 
Sandford's Genealog. Hist. fol. 1707, pp. 267, 431, 501, 562, 
578; J. C. Dithmari, Commentatio de llonoratissimo Or- 
dine de Balneo, fol. Franc, ad Viad. 1729; Mrs. S. S. 
Banks's Collections on the Order of the Bath* MSS. Brit. 
Mus. ; Statutes of the Order of the Bath, 4to. Lond. 1725, 
repr. with additions in 1812; Bulletins of the Campaign 
1815, pp. 1-18.) 

BATH, a place for the purpose of washing the body, 
either with hot, warm, or cold water: the word is derived 
from the Saxon bab. The Greek name is balancion (fiaka- 
vaor), of which the Roman balineum, or balneum, is only a 
slight variation : the elements bat and bad in the Greek 
and English words arc evidently related. The public baths 
of the Romans were generally called Therm<v f which lito- 
rally means 'warm waters.' 

The bath was also in common use among the Greeks, 
though we are not well acquainted with the construction 
and economy of their bathing-places. At Athens there 
were both private and public baths : the public baths appear 
to have been the property of individuals, who kept them for 
their own profit or let them to others. (Sec Isreus, On the 
Inheritance of Dic&ogenes* cap. vi. ; ditto of Philoctemon 7 
cap. vi.) Lucian, in his Hippias (vol. iii. ed. Hcmstcrh.), 
has given a description of a magnificent bath. Though ho 
docs not tell us whether it was built in the Roman or the 
Greek style, wc may safely conclude that he is speaking of 
a bath in a Greek city. His description is not precise enough 
to render it certain that this bath in its details agrees with 
those of Romo and Pompeii ; but the general design and 
arrangement appear to be nearly tho same. 

We learn from Seneca that tho Roman baths were 
very simple, even mean and dark, in the time of Scipio 
Africanus ; and it was not until the age of Agrippa, and 
tho emperors after Augustus, that they were built and 
finished in a stylo of luxury almost incredible. Seneca 
(Epist. lxxxvi.), who inveighs against this luxury, observes 
that ' a person was held to be poor and sordid whose baths 
did not shine with a profusion of tho most precious mate- 
rials,— the marbles of Egypt inlaid with those of Numidia ; 
unless tho walls were laboriously stuccoed in imitation of 
painting; unless the chambers wcro covered with glass, tho 
basins with the rareThasinn stone, and the water conveyed 
through silver pipes.' These it appears were the luxuries 
of plebeian baths. Those of freedmen had ' a profusion of 
statues, a number of columns supporting nothing, nlaccd as 
an ornament merely on account of the expense : tnc water 
murmuring down steps, and the tloor of precious stones.' 
(Sen. Epist. lxxxvi.) Thcso baths of which Seneca speaks 
were private baths. 

Araminnus Marccllinus reckons sixteen public baths in 
Rome. Tho chief were thoso of Agrippa, Nero, Titus, 
Domitian, Antoninus Caracnlla, and Diocletian. Thcso 
edifices, differing, of course, in magnitude and splendour, 
and in the details of the arrangement, were all constructed 
on a common plan. They *tood among extensive gardens 
and walks, and wcro often surrounded by a portico, The 



BAT 



25 



BAT 



main building contained large halls for swimming and 
bathing, some for conversation, others for various athletic 
and manly exercises, and some for the declamation of poets 
and the lectures of philosophers ; in a word, for every species 
of polite and manly amusement. These noble rooms were 
lined and paved with marble, adorned with the most valu- 
able eolumns, paintings, and statues, and furnished with 
collections of books for the studious who resorted to them. 
(See Pompeii, published by the Society for the Diffusion of 
Useful Knowledge, vol. i.) Tbese baths, which were ealled 
Therms , are now all in ruins. Tbe host preserved are 
those of Titus, Diocletian, and 'Antoninus Caracalla. (See 



Life of Anton. CaracalL by 2E\. Spaitiamis.) Wc bete 
subjoin a plan of the baths of Caracalla. which were finished^ ' 
according to Euscbius, in the fourth year of that em- 
peror's reign. The most complete and elegant baths had 
generally the following apartments:— An apodytcrium, or 
room for undressing; an unctuarium, for the ointments; 
a sphsoristeriuin, or large room for exercises; a calida 
lavatio, or warm bath ; a laconicum, or hot room for sweat- 
ing; a tepidarium, or warm room with a tepid bath; and 
a frigidarium, which contained the cold bath : to these may 
be added rooms for feasting and conversation. (Cameron On 
Roman Baths.) 





j@n&, 





mmsmmmmfwmwmmwm 

oooo oooooooocoooooo OOOOO 000 OQOOOOOOOOOOCOOOOOOOO 

[Plan of the Balhi of Came alia from the measurements of Palladio.] 




Scab tf EnflUh fYrf. 
too too 



A, a 'circular room, over which was a roof of copper; B, the Apodytcrium; C. the Xystus; D, the Piscina 
which served for the spectators and to contain tfie clothes of those who bathed ' 



, E, Vestibules on the side of the Piscina, 
F, Vestibules at entering the Thermae; on each side were libraries; 



G, O. Rooms where the wrestlers prepared for the exercises of the Palaestra, with a staircase to ascend to tlie upper story; II, H, the Peristyles, which 
we And In all tbe Roman Therms', having in the middle a Piscina for bathing; 1, 1, the Ephebium or place of exercise; K. K, the Elieotheslum, or 
Ehrothekiom (EXaj#*$i#7*ySnx'e*); L, L, Vestibules, over which there Is snothcr room with a Mosaic pavement j M, M, Laconicum; N, N, Warm 
Rath; O, O, Tepidarium ; P, P, FrlgMarium ; Q, Q. Rooms for the spectators and for the use of the wrvstlers; R, R. Exhcdrre for the philosophers; S, 
Stadium; T. T. Places tor heating the w«ter; U, U, Cells for bathing; W, W, Rooms for conversation ; X. X. Cisterns of three stories to receive 
rain-water: Y, Y, the Conisterium ; Z. Z, Recesses for ornament, and which served for the spectators to ait in; 1, Thcutre for the spectators to see the 
exercises In the open air; 3. Apartments of two stories for the use of those who had the care of the baths; 3,3, Exltednc, where the gymnastic exercises 
were tanght; 4,4. Rooms for those who exercised in the Stadium; 5,5, Atria to the academies; 6, fl. Temples; 7. 7* Academies; 8, 8, Arcades for the mas- 
ters to walk in, detached from the noise of tbe Pahcstra; 9,9, Coveted Baths; 10, 10, Stairs, &&, which led to the top; II, II, Stairs by which you ascended to 
the Pstastr*. 



Flaminius Vacea informs us that in 1471 there was to be 
seen in these baths an artificial island formed of marble, full 
of the remains of figures which had been caned on it. Near 
the island was a ship, with many figures in it, much broken. 
There was also a bathing vessel of granite. Two labra of 
granite, found in the same place, are now employed as 
fountains in the great square before the Farnese Palace at 
Rome. In these baths were also found the Farnese Her- 
cules and the great group of statues known by the name of 
the Farnese Bull. Besides the great granite eolumn now 
in the palace of S. Lorenzo at Florence, Pirancsi tells us 
that he saw, in the peristyle, two fountains enriched with 
the remains of bos reliefs. 



The provincial towns had also their baths, both publie 
and private. The public baths of Pompeii, which were dis- 
covered in 1 824, in a very perfeet state, throw much light 
on what the Roman writers, and especially Vitruvius, have 
written on the subject. The following description of them 
is taken from the second volume of the Pompeii, (published 
by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge), with 
a few verbal alterations, and sotno omissions. These baths 
occupy a spaco of about 100 feet square, and are divided 
into three separate and distinct parts. One of them was 
appropriated to the fire-places and to the servants of tbe 
establishment ; the other two were occupied eaeh by a set 
of baths contiguous to each other, similar, and adapted to 



No. 208. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



Vol,IV\— E 



HAT 



26 



RAT 



tlto samo purposes, and supplied with lteat and water from 
the samo furnace, and from tlto same reservoir. The apart- 
ments ami passages are paved with whtto marblo in mosaic. 
It ts conjectured that the moro spacious of tho two sets of 
baths was for the use of tho men, the smaller for the women. 



Vitruvius (lib. v. cap. 10) says that the caldanum for tho 
women should be contiguous to that for tho men, and he 
exposed to tlto saroo aspect ; for thus tho same hynocauslutn, 
or stovo, may sufllcc fjr both. Auncxed is the plan of 
these Fompctan baths, situated near the Forum. 

1 VUcina, 




[Plan of tho Baths discovered in Pompeii* from the Museo Iiorbonico,] 



r 1. Piscina; 9. Street, over which vu an aqueduct to convey the water from 
the Piscina to tho bwilu ; 3, Entrauco to the baths of the men ; 4, Waterciosct { 
5, Cor tile, court, or vestibule to the baths; 6, Channel to collect tho rain- 
water from tho portico; 7, Colonnade round three sides of tho vestibule; 8, 
Seati under tho colonnade (£cAo/ir) ; 9, Occus or cxhedra ; 10, Pa wage toad* 
lng out of the baths; 11, watercioset ; 13, Entrance from the street of For- 
tune; IS, Passage leading into Uie Apodyterium ; 14, Apodyterium ; 15, Seats; 
16, Postage leading to the street; l7. tutronco from the street of th* arch ; 
18, Wardrobe; 19, Friuidarluna ; 90. Niches In the Frijiidarium ; 81, Alveus 
or v>ise of the Frigidarium ; 5?2, a bronze spout, through which tbe water rau 
Into tho AWeus ; 23, Pipe out of which the water escaped ; 84, Passages which 
tead from the Apodyterium to tho furnaces; i!5. Apartment for the utokert \ 
£6, Doorwav leading from this apartment to tho street of tho arch; 97. Fur- 
mice; 99, Calldarium, or boiler for liot water; 99, Tcpidariuro, or rcceptacic 



for tepvd water ; 30, Frtgidarium, or renerroir for cold water ; 31, Stairs leading 
to the boilers ; 33, Passage which leads from tho boilers to the court, where 
the fuel for Uie stoves was kept; 33, the court for fuel ; 34, Columns which 
supported the roofof tho conrt ; 35, Stairs which lead to the arched roofs of tho 
baths ; 36, Door opening into the street of tho Forum ; 37. Tepidarium ; 3", 
Place where the bronze brazier was found ; 39, Caldnrium, haTiim* a suspended 
or hollow floor ; 40, Laconlcum ; 41, I*abrom; 49, Hot Hath; 43, Eutrance 
to the baths for the women ; 44, Vestibulo with seats ; 45, Taj sage leading to 
tho Apodyterium; 46, Apodyterium; 47, Seat* In the same; 48, Frigldarium; 
49, Tepianrinm ; 50, Caldarfum with a hollow pa rem cut ; 61, Laconicum ; 
52, Labrnm ; 53, Hot Bath; 54, a small room, use unknown; 55, Street, called 
tho street of tho arch; 56, Stairs; 57* 53, Two small void* without any com- 
munication. 




[Section of lha Apodyterium and Frtgidarium of tho Men's Bath*. J 



1, Wmdow eloted wilh ©o« greal pana of glass; 2, Decorated ArchiTolt | Z. a place for a lamp | 4. SeaU of the Apodyterium with a raised step, serving 
as a footstool; 6, Hoiet in which wcra pegs lor tho dresses; 6, a Window; 7. Conical Celling of tha Frigidarium; 8, Niches; 9, Alveus or marble vase. 



Tlto piscina or reservoir wns separated at Pompeii from 
the baths themselves by the street which opens tuto tho 
forum. Tho pipe* which communicated between lite reser- 
voir and the bath passed over an arch thrown across lite 



street. There were three entrances to the furnaces which 
heated the warm and vapour-baths. Tho chief entranco 
opened upon a court of an Irregular figure, fit for containing 
wood and other necessaries for tho use of the establishment, 



BAT 



27 



B A T 



covered in part by a roof; the rafters of the roof rested at 
one end on the lateral walls, and at the other on two co- 
lumns, constructed with small pieces of stone. From henee 
a very small staircase led to the furnaces, and to the upper 
part of the baths. Another led to the small room, called 



the prcefurnium, into which projects the mouth of a furnace. 
In this room were the attendants on the furnace, or stokers 
(fornaearii), whose duty it was to keep up the fires. Here 
was found a quantity of pitch, used by the furnace-men to 
enliven the fires • the stairs in the room (25) led up to the 




[Section of the Caldarium of lhe Men'i Bath*.] 

ure by which the temperature wu regulated; 3, another window; 4, Laconicum; 5, 
hi 
pi 
13, Steps to ascend the batb. (i/««o BoHxmko, voL li.) 

coppers. The third entrance led from the apodyterium of 



1 , Window ; 9, a circular a] 
7, Leaden pipe 
covered with Mosaic ;" 10, Small 



lar aperti 
through which the water of the Labrum was either introduced or made its escape ; 8, HoUow walls of the Caldarium; 9, 



a place for a lamp ; 
u Caldarium; 9, Hollow pi 
iters which tnpport lhe pavement; 11, The communication between the hollow pavement and the furnace; 12, Hot Bath 



6, Labrum ; 
ollow pavement 



the men's haths bf means of a corridor (23). There is no 
communication between these furnaces and tho bath of the 
women, which was heated from them. The furnace was 
round, and had in the lower part of it two pipes, which trans- 
mitted hot air under the pavements, and between the walls 
of the vapour-baths, which were built hollow for that purpose. 
Close to the furnace, at the distance of four inches, a round 
vacant space still remains, in which was placed the copper 
{caldarium) for boiling water ; near which, with the same 
interval between them, was situated the copper for warm 
water {tepidarium) ; and at the distance of two feet from 
this was the receptacle (30) for cold water (frigidarium), 
wbieh was square, and plastered round tho interior, like the 
piscina or reservoir. A constant communication was main- 
tained between theso vessels, so that as fast as hot water 
was drawn olf from the caldarium, the void was supplied 
from the tepidarium, which being already considerably 
heated, did hut slightly reduce the temperature of tho hotter 
boiler. The tepidarium in its turn was supplied from the 
piscina, and that from the aqueduct. The term* frigida- 
rium, tepidarium, and caldarium were applied to the apart- 
ments in which the cold, tepid, and hot-baths were placed, 
as well as to tbe vessels already described under these re- 
spective names. The furnace and the coppers were placed 
between the men's baths and the women's baths, as near 
as possible to both, to avoid the waste of heat consequent 
on transmitting the fluids through a length of pipe. The 
coppers and reservoir were elevated considerably above the 
haths, to cause tho water to flow more rapidly into them. 

The men's hath had three public entrances (3,12,17). 
Entering at tbe principal one (12), which opens to the street 
leading to the forum, wc descend three steps into the (5) 
vestibule, cortile, or portico of the baths, along three sides of 
which runs a portico (ambulacrum). The seats (8), which 
are arranged round the walls, were for the slaves who ac- 
companied their masters to the baths, and for the servants 
of the baths themselves, to whom also the apartment (9) 
appears to have been appropriated. In this court was found 
the box for the quadrans, or piece of money, which was paid 
by each bather. Another door (17) leads to the same ves- 
tibule hy means of a corridor. From the Street of the Arch 
(55) we proceed through the passago (17) into tho apodyte- 
rium, or undressing-room £14.), which is also aeecssiblo by 
another corridor (13) from a street called the street of the 
arch : a vast number of lamps were found here. The eeiling 
of this passage is decorated with stars. The apodyterium has 
three seat3, made of lava, with a step to placo the feet on ; 
holes still remain in the wall, in which (it is conjectured) pegs 
were fixed for the bribers to hang their clothes upon. This 
room is highly decorated with stuccoed ornaments, relieved 
by colour. In tho centre of the end of the room is a small 
opening or recess, once covered with a piece of glass ; in this 
reeess, as is plain from the appearance of smoke, a lamp has 
been placed. In the arehholt, or vaulted roof, immediately 
* above, is a window two feet eight inches high, and tlirco 



feet eight inches broad, closed by a single pane of east glass 
two-fifths of an inch thick, fixed into die wall, and ground 
on one side : the floor is paved with wbitc marble worked 
in mosaic, and the eeiling divided into panncls. In this 
room there are six doors, one leading to the praefurnium, 
another into a small room, perhaps designed for a wardrobe, 
the third by a narrow passage into tbe street; tbe fourth 
to the tepidarium ; the fifth to the frigid ari urn ; and the 
sixth, along the corridor »o the v-'atib-ile or portico of the 
hath. 

The frigidariura (19), or cold-bath, is a round chamber, 
with a eeiling in the form of a truncated cone; near the 
top is a window from wbich it was lighted. The plinth, 
or base of the wall, is entirely of marble, and four niches are 
disposed round the room at equal distances; in these niches 
were seats (seholaj) for the convenience of the bathers. 
The basin (alvcus) is twelve feet ten inches in diameter, 
two feet nine inches deep, and entirely lined with white 
marble; two marble steps facilitate the descent into the 
basin, and at the bottom is a sort of cushion (pulvinus), also 
of marble, to enable those who bathed to sit down. The 
water ran into this bath in a copious stream, through a 
spout or lip of bronze four inches wide, placed in the wall 
three feet seven inches from the edge of the basin. At 
the bottom of the alvcus is a small outlet, for the purpose of 
emptying and cleansing it ; and in the rim thero is a waste 
pipe to carry off the superfluous water : like the apodyte- 
rium, the frigidarinm has been highly decorated, and is 
remarkable for its preservation and beauty. Tbe tepidarium 
(37), or warm-ehamber, adjoining the apodyterium, was so 
called, from a warm but soft and inild temperature, which 
prepared the bodies of the bathers for the more intense heat 
of the vapour and hot-baths, and vice versa, softened the 
transition from the hot-bath to the external air. This apart- 
ment is decorated with niches, divided hy tclara6nes [see 
Atlantks]. The room was highly enriched, both with stucco 
ornaments and colour, and was lighted by a window two 
feet six inehes high and three feet wide, in the bronze 
frame of which were found set four very beautiful panes of 
glass, fastened by small nuts and screws, very ingeniously 
contrived with a view to their being removed at pleasure. 
In this room a large bronze brazier and three bronze 
benches were found. A doorway led from the tepidarium 
into the caldarium, or vapour-bath (39) ; at one end was the 
laconicum, where a vase (41) for washing the hands and 
face was placed, called labrum ; on the opposite side of the 
room was the hot- bath, called lavacrum. Vitruvius, in ex- 
plaining the structure of the apartments, says, (cap. xi. 
lib. v.) *IIcre should be placed the vaulted sweating-room, 
twice the length of its width, which should have at one end 
the laconicum, made as described above, at the other end 
tho hot-hath.' This apartment is exactly as described, 
twice the length of its width, exclusively of the laconicum 
at one end, and the hot-bath at the other. The pavement 
and walls of the whole were made hollow, to admit the heat. 
Vitruvius never mentions the laconicum as being separated 

E 2 



B A T 



23 



BAT 



from tho vapour-bath ; it may thcreforo be presumed to 
have been always connected with it in his time, although in 
tho thermro constructed by the later emperors it appears 
always to havo formed a separate apartment. In tho baths 
of Pompeii they are united, and adjoin the tepidarium, in this 
respect exactly agreeing with the description of Vitruvius. 

The laconicum is a largo semicircular niche, seven feet 
wide, and three feet six inches deep, in tho middle of which 
was placed a vase, or lab rum. The ceiling was formed hy a 
quarter of a sphere; and it had on ono sido a circular open- 
ing one foot six inches in diamotcr, over which, according to 
Vitruvius, a shield of bronzo was suspended, which, hy means 
of a chain attached to it, could be drawn over, or drawn 
aside from tho aperture, and thus regulato the temperature 
of the bath. 

The laconicum at Pompeii docs not oxactly correspond 
with tho laconicum painted on tho walls of tho baths of 
Titus, and tho laconicum described by Vitruvius. In the 
laconicum of Pompeii there is no cupola, such as we see 
represented in the painting of the baths of Titus, nor aper- 
ture in the (loor, although the due in the hypocaustum runs 
beneath it. The brazen shield also is applied to regulate 
the escape of heat through the roof, not to admit or exclude 
tho smoke and llamo coming direct from "the furnace, as 
appears to have hecn the case in tho baths of Titus. The 



latter was a clumsy and dirty way of heating a room, and 
strangely at variance, if it wero really practised, with tho 
finished cleganco and luxury prevailing in every part of the 
Roman baths. Tho cupola in tho baths of Titus might, 
however, havo been a contrivance similar to our modern 
stoves for heating with hot air. Whero this cupola did not 
exist, tho room probahly was heated, as at Pompeii, by a 
larj»o brasier. Tho proper meaning of the word laconicum, 
whether it should bo applied to the cupola and clypeus, or 
to the room in which they wero placed, has been much 
disputed. It seems pretty certain that tho name laconicum, 
which meant,' in tho first instance, the small cupola with 
the clypeus, became afterwards the name for that part of 
the room for which it was originally placed, even aficr the 
cupola had fallen into disuse, possibly from the discovery of 
a better method of heating the room. 

"Where the ceiling of the laconicum joined tho ceiling of 
tho vapour-bath, there was immediately over tho centre of 
the vase, or labrum, a window three feet four inches wido ; 
and there were two square lateral windows in the ceiling of 
the vapour-bath, one foot four inches wide, and one foot 
high, from which the light fell perpendicularly on the labrum 
as recommended by Vitruvius, 'that the shadows of those 
who surrounded it might not be thrown upon the vessel/ 
(Vitruv.) 




^Representation of ) lathi, from the painting! discovered In the Balh» of Titus.} 



The labrum was a great basin, or round vase of white 
marble, rather more than five feet iu diameter, iuto which 
the hot water hubhlcd up through a pipe in its centre ; it 
served for the partial ablutions of those who took the vapour- 
hath. It was raised about three feet six inches above the 
level of the pavement, on a round base, built of small pieces 
of stone or lava, stuccoed and coloured. In the Vatican 
them is a magnificent porphyry labrum, found in one of the 
imperial baths; and Baeeius, a great modern authority on 
baths (oce his work De T/iennis* Venice, 1583, and Rome, 
1-02*2), speaks of labra made of glass. This apartment, 
liko the others, is highly enriched. The hot bath (42) on 
lho plan, occupied tho whole end of tho room opposito the 
laconicum and next to the furnaco. It was four feet four 
inches long, and one foot eight inches deep, constructed 
entirely of marhlc, with only one pipe to introduce the water, 
and was elevated two steps above tho (loor, while a single 
step led down into tho hath itself, forming a continuous 
bench round it for tho convenieneo of tho hathers. 

The Rinnans, who, according to Vitruvius, called their 
vapour-baths caldaria, or sudationcs concamcratro, con- 
structed them with suspended or hollow doors, and with 
hollow walls communicating with tho furnace, that the smoke 
and hot air might be spread over a large surface, and rea- 
dily raise them to the required warmth. The temperature 
was regulated by the clypeus or bronzo shield already de- 
scribed, which acted as a Ventilator. 

In tho baths of Pompeii, the hollow floors are thus con- 
structed : upon a (loor of cement, made of limo and pounded 
bricks, wero built small hrick pillars, nine inches square, 
and one foot seven inches high, supporting strong tiles, 
fifteen inches squaro; tho pavement was laid on these tiles, 
and incrusted with mosaic. The hollow walls, the void 
spaces of which communicated with tho hollow of the sus- 
pended pavement, wero constructed in the following man- 
ner. Upon tho walls large square tiles were fastened, by ■ 
inoans of iron clamps. Theso tiles were inado in a curious j 
manner; while tho clay was moist, some circular instrument [ 



was pushed through tho tiles, so as to make a hole, at the 
same time forcing out the clay, and forming a hollow pro- 
jection or pipe, about three inches long, on the inside of tho 
tile: theso being made at tho four corners, iron clamps 
passed through them, and fastened them to the wall. 
The sides of the apartments heing thus formed, were after- 
wards carefully stuccoed and painted. The hollow space in 
the walls of the bath at Pompeii reaches to the top of the 
cornice; but the ceilings are not hollow, as in the baths 
which Vitruvius described, and which he distinguishes, for 
that reason, by the name of concameratcc. The ceilings of 
the ttpodytcrium, tepidarium, and the ealdarium aro arched. 




fTtanivrrwj Section of the ApodyUrhim.} 

The women's bath resembles very much that of the men, 
and differs only in heing smaller and less ornamented : for 
au account of it, we refer to Gell's Pomjyeii, the Museo Bor- 
bom'co, and Pompeii published by tho Society for the Dif- 
fusion of Useful Knowledge. 

YitruviuB recommends a situation for baths, which is de- 
fended from tho north and north-west winds, and he says 
that the windows should bo opposite the south, or, if the 
nature of the ground will not permit this, at least towards 
the south, becauso the hours of bathing among the Romans 
being from after mid-day till evening, those who bathed 



BAT 



29 



BAT 



could by these windows have the advantage of the rays and 
the heat of the declining sun. Accordingly the batbs just 
described have the greater part of their windows turned 
to the south, and are constructed in a low part of the city, 
where the adjoining buildings served as a protection from 
the north-west winds'. 

The baths at Rome were on a much larger scale. Tbe 
public baths of Caracalla were 1500 feet in length, and 
1250 in breadth- 'at each end were two temples, one to 
Apollo, and another to Esculapius, as the tutelary deities 
of the place {genii tulelares), sacred to the improvement of 
the mind, and the care of the body; the two other temples 
were dedicated to the two protecting divinities of the Anto- 
nine family, Hercules and Bacchus. In the principal build- 
ing were, in tbe first place, a grand circular vestibule, with 
four halls on each side, for cold, tepid, warm, and steam 
baths ; in the centre was an immense square for exercise, 
when the weather was unfavourable to it in the open air; 
beyond it a great hall, where 1600 marble seats were placed 
for the convenience of tbe bathers ; at each end of this hall 
were libraries. This building terminated on both sides in a 
court surrounded with porticos, with an odeum for music, 
and in the middle a spacious basin for swimming. Round 
this edifice were walks shaded by rows of trees, particularly 
the plane ; and in its front extended a gymnasium for run- 
ning, wrestling, &c. in fine weather. The whole was 
bounded by a vast portico, opening into exhedrae or spacious 
halls, where the poets declaimed, and philosophers gave 
lectures to their auditors. This immense fabric was adorned, 
within and without, with pillars, stucco-work, paintings, and 
statues. The stucco and paintings arc yet in many places 
perceptible. Pillars have been dug np, and some still re- 
main amidst the ruin ; while the Farnesian bull and tbe fa- 
mous Hercules, found in one of these halls, announce the 
multiplicity and beauty of the statues which once adorned 
the Thermso of Caracalla/ (Eustace's Classical Tour, vol. 
i. p. 22G.) For an account of the baths of Titus and Dio- 
cletian, see the same author. 

On entering these baths the bathers first proceeded to 
undress. Tlieynext went to the elacothesium (the oil-cham- 
ber), as it was called in Greek, or unctuarium, where tbey 
anointed themselves all over with a coarse cheap oil before 
they began their exercise. (Plin. xv. c. 4 & 7.) Here the 
finer odoriferous ointments which were used on coming out 
of the bath were also kept (Plin. 1. ii. Epist. 41.) and the 
room was so situated as to receive a considerable degree of 
heat. This chamber of perfumes was full of pots, like an apo- 
thecary's shop ; and those who wished to anoint and perfume 
the body received perfumes and unguents. In the repre- 
sentation of a Roman bath, copied from a painting on a 
wall fprming part of the baths of Titus, the unctuarium, 
called al>o eloeothesium, appears filled with a vast number of 
vases. Tbe vases contained a great variety of perfumes and 
balsams. When anointed, the bathers passed into the 
sphacristerium, a very light and extensive apartment, in 
which were performed the various kinds of exercises to 
which this part of the baths was appropriated. (Plin. lib. 
i. Epist. 101.) When its situation permitted, this apartment 
was exposed to the afternoon sun, otherwise it was supplied 
with heat from tho furnace. (Plin. 1. 11. Epist. 41.) After 
the exercise, they went to the adjoining warm-bath, wherein 
they sat and washed themselves. The seat was below the 
surface of tho water, and upon it they scraped themselves 
with instruments [called strigiles, which were usually made 
of bronze, but sometimes of iron or brass. (Martial, lib. xiv. 
Epig. 51.) This operation was performed by an attendant 
slave. The use of the strijjil is represented on a vase, 
found lately on the estate of Lucicn Buonaparte at Canino. 
The vase is large and shallow, and painted within and 
without. (Vol. i. p. 183. Pompeii.) From the drawings on 
it we learn that the bathers sometimes used the strigils 
themselves, after which they rubbed themselves witb their 
Hands, and then were washed from head to foot, by pails 
or vases of water being poured over them. They were 
then carefully dried with cotton and linen cloths, and 
covered with a light shaggy mantle, called gausape. Effe- 
minate persons had the hairs of their bodies pulled out with 
tweezers. When they were thoroughly dried, and their 
nails cut, slaves came out of the elceothcsium, carrying 
with them little vases of alabaster, bronze, and terracotta, 
full of perfumed oils, with which they had their bodies 
anointed, by causing tho oil to be slightly rubbed over 



every part, even to the soles of their feet. After this they 
resumed their clothes. On quitting the warm-bath tbey 
went into the tepidarium, and either passed very slowly 
through or stayed some time in it, that they might not too 
suddenly expose their bodies to the atmosphere in thefrigi- 
darium; for these last rooms appear to have been used 
chiefly to soften the transition from the intense heat of the 
caldarium to the open air. 

'It is probable that the Romans resorted to the baths, 
at the same time of the day tbat others were accustomed to 
make use of their private baths. This was generally from 
two o'clock in the afternoon till the dusk of the evening, at 
which time the baths were shut till two tbe next day. Tins 
practice however varied at different times. Notice was given 
wben the' batbs were ready, by the ringing of a bell; the 
people then left the sphseristerium, and hastened to the 
caldarium, lest the water should cool. (Martial, lib. xiv. Epig. 
163.) But when bathing became more universal among 
the Romans, this part of the day was insufficient, and they 
gradually exceeded the hours that had been allotted for tbat 
purpose. Between two and three in the afternoon was, how- 
ever, tbe most eligible time for the exercises of tbe pa- 
laestra. Hadrian forbade any but those who were sick to 
enter the public baths beforo two o'clock. Tbe therm as 
were by few emperors allowed to be continued open so late 
as five in the evening. Martial says, that after four o'clock 
they demanded a hundred quadrantes of those wbo bathed. 
This, though a hundred times the usual price, only amounted 
to nineteen-pence. We learn from the same author, that 
the baths were opened sometimes earlier than two o'clock. 
He says that Nero's baths were exceeding hot at twelve 
o'clock, and the steam of the water immoderate. (Mart, 
lib. x. Epig. 48.) Alexander Severus, to gratify the people 
in tbeir passion for bathing, not only suffered the thermae 
to be opened before break of day, which had never been 
permitted before, but also furnished the lamps with oil, for 
tbe convenience of the people/ (See Cameron On Roman 
Baths, p. 40.) 




[Coin representing the Baths of Alexander Severus.] 

The thermsowere constructed at avast expense, and prin- 
cipally for the use of the poorer classes, though all ranks 
frequented them for the sake of the various conveniences* 
which they contained. 

1 Nothing relating to the thermic has more exercised the 
attention of the learned than the manner of supplying the 
great number of bathing vessels made use of in them with 
warm water. For, supposing each cell of Diocletian's baths 
large enough to contain six people, yet, even at that mode- 
rate computation, 18,000 persons might be bathing at the 
same time; and as no vestiges remain of any vessels in the 
therma;, to give the least foundation for conjecturing iu 
what manner this was performed, it has been generally re- 
ferred to the same, process described b? Vitruvius on a 
similar subject. 

* Baccius has more professedly treated this subject than 
any modern author. He imagined that tbe water might be 
derived from the castella, which he observed to be situated 
without the tbermac ; but as these castella were upon a level 
with tho therma) themselves, he thinks for that reason they 
were obliged to make use of machines to raise the water to 
such a height, as he observed it to have been by tbe ruins 
of Diocletian's baths. What led Baccius into this way of 
thinking was tbe number of pipes which he saw dug up 
under the open area, where there had never been any build- 
ings, all of them surrounded with flues from the hypo- 
caustum. He therefore imagined that the water was heated 
on the outside of the therma) ; but this supposition appeared 
so full of diflicultics, as, upon reflection, to discourage him 
from inquiring any farther into the subject.' (Cameron.) By 
the assistance of two sections of the castella of Antoninu-s 



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30 



B A T 



drawn l>y Pirane&i, Cameron endeavours toshon tho method I ' To have a dear conception of the manner in which this 
adopted by the Romans to heat tho larce bxlics of water was executed, it will be necessary to refer to a plate of these 
which their extensive thonruo must have required. | two sections. 




iar ir 45T If-lii 





tKlfcs to the Floor* »n4 Wait*. — [Specimen of Hollow Pave- 
From CnmiTou] tnent.— From Camcroo.] 

' Tlic castellum of the therm© of Antoninus Caracalla 
was supplied with water by tho aqueduct of Antoninus. 
Two of the arches of this aqueduct are represented at A J 
B is a cistern which received the water from tho aqueduct; 
C is an aperture for permitting the descent of tho water from 
the receptacle to tho chamber below ; D is a receptacle with 
a mosaic pavement, wherein the water was exposed to the 
heat of the sun ; E is another aperture through which tho 
water passed into the lowest chambers placed immediately 
over the hypocaustum ; F, the hypocaustum ; O ( doors 
for introducing the fuel. A transverse section through the 
middle of the samo eastcllum is given at H. 

4 By the plan of this eastcllum, it appears that there were 
twenty-eight of these vaulted rooms placed over the hypo- 
caustum : they were placed in two rows, fourteen on a side, 
and had all a communication with each other. The sections 
show, (hat over these were twenty-eight other rooms, having 
likewise a communication with each other, although only 
ono of them had any communication with the chambers 
below, through the aperture at E. Upon the top of all was 
a spacious receptacle, not very deep, but extending the 
whole length of the eastcllum, in which tho water was con- 
siderably heated by the influence of the sun, before it passed 
.into the several chambers. This receptacle received its 
water from the cistern B, and not immediately from the 
aqueduct. The use of this cistern appears to havo consisted 
in promoting a more gentlo tlow of the water into the re- 
ceptacle, that its surface might not be milled by the least 
agitation, as that would very much have counteracted the 
purposes to which the receptacle was applied, nothing con- 
tributing so much as tranquillity in the water to acquire all 
the advantages from the influence of the sun its situation 
would permit "When there was no efflux from the inferior 
chambers, there could be no demands for water from tho re- 
ceptacle, which would have been liable to overllow wero 
there not an aperture in the sirto of the cistern, through 
which the water ran off in different directions from that 
which was used for bathing. During all this time the 
water in tho receptacle would be in the most perfect state of 
rest Tho cistern, therefore, answered two material pur- 
poses, as it prevented any agitation in the water of the re- 
ceptacle, and likewise carried off what was superfluous. 
Tho twenty-eight vaulted chambers, placed immediately 
over tho hypocaustum, would now begin to be heated, which 
heat they would acquire so much tho quicker, as only ono 
of them had any communication with the cxtcriral air by 
the apertures C and E 
strueted upon tho same 
strength of the walls an' 
the force of tho rarefaction of the air in tho water, and con- 
sequently to prevent any loss from evaporation. Flues were 
still necessary to give the water a heat sufficient for bathing. 
The arched chambers wero also supplied with Hues, N N, from 



Trntmrrio 
A ditto. 



* o- 

*,ScetIoni of Ihe CantcUum of An Ionium C«r«calb-— From Cameron. 1 

the hypocaustum, and served as a reservoir of tepid water for 
those below. The water they received was likewiso heated 
by the sun. When tho time for bathing was come, the eoelcs 
were turned to admit the hot water from the lower chambers 
into the labra of the baths, to which it would run with great 
velocity, and ascend a perpendicular height in tho thcrmce, 
equal to the surface of the receptaclo in the castellum. The 
current would be accelerated by the great tendency the 
water would have to expand itself after having been eon- 
fined in tho ehamhers. The pressure of tho column of tepid 
water was equal to, if not greater than the diameter of the 
column of hot water which ran out from the chambers below. 
To prevent the water cooling as it passed through tho tubes 
underground, they were all carefully gurrounded with flues 
from the prcefumium, so that these tubes were in the centre 
of a funnel, and always considerably heated before the water 
entered them. Each of these chambers was, within the walls, 
forty-nine feet six inches long, by twenty-seven feet six inches 
wide, and about thirty high ; the numher of superficial feet 
in the bottom of the rooms being 38,1)5. If we allow thirty 
feet for the mean height, the whole quantity of water in 
these lower rooms will amount to t, 143,450 cubic feet, and 
the like quantity must be allowed for the upper rooms ; 
allowing, therefore, eight cubic feet of warm water as suffi- 
cient for one man to bathe in, and that water preserved in a 
bathing heat in the lahrum half an hour, the whole con- 
sumption of hot water, in this given time, for IS.000 people, 
would be 144.000 enhic feet By this calculation there 
would be a sufficient quantity of water for three hours, or 
until five in the evening, for 1 08,000 people. The water, 
however, would gradually cool as it flowed in from the higher 
chambers. 

•We have no intimation from tho anticnts when they firs* 
fell upon this expedient for heating such large 1 todies of 
water, whether it was the invention of the Romans or brought 
from tho East We may reasonably suppose, that ns it was 
not necessary before the public warm-baths wero built in 
Home, it was not more antient than the time of Augustus, 
in whose reign we are told by Dion Cassius (lib. lv.) thnt 
Mecicnas first instituted a swimming-bath of warm water, 
or a calida piscina.* (Cameron.) 

But few Roman citizens in easy circumstances were with- 
out the luxury of a private bath, which varied in their con- 
struction according to tho taste or prodigality of their owner. 
•Amongst many articles of luxury for which l'liny censures 
the ladies of his time, he takes notice of their bathing- rooms 
being paved with silver. Even tho metal tines of the hypo- 
caustum wero gilt* (Sec Cameron On Roman Baths* For 
an account of the privato baths, seo Pompeii, vol. i. p. 1 99.) 

The Persian manner of bathing, in some respects, is not 
unlike that adopted by tho antient Romans. Sir It. Kcr 
Porter describes it in the following terms:— 'Tho bather 
having undressed in the outer room, and retaining nothing 



BAT 



31 



BAT 



about him but a piece of loose cloth round bis waist, is con- 
ducted by the proper attendant into the hall of the bath ; a 
large white sheet is then spread on the floor, on which the 
bather extends himself; the attendant brings from the cis- 
tern, which is warmed from the boiler below, a succession of 
pails of water, which he continues to pour over the bather 
until he is well drenched and heated; the attendant then 
takes bis employer's head upon his knees, and rubs in with 
all his might a sort of wet paste of henna plant into the 
mustachios and beard ; in a few minutes this pomado dyes 
them a bright red. Again he has recourse to the little pail, 
and showers upon his quiescent patient another torrent of 
warm water ; then, putting on a glove of soft hair, yet pos- 
sessing some of the scrubbing-brush qualities, he first takes 
the limbs and then the body, rubbing them hard for three- 
quarters of an hour: a third splashing from the pail prepares 
the operation of the pumice stone ; this he applies to the 
soles of the feet. The next process seizes the hair of the 
face, whence the henna is cleansed away, and replaced by 
another paste called rang, composed of the leaves of the in- 
digo plant. To this succeeds the shampooing, which is done 
by pinching, pulling, and rubbing with so much forco and 
pressuro as to produce a violent glow over the whole frame. 
This over, the shampooed body, reduced again to its pro* 
strate state, is rubbed all over with a preparation of soap con- 
fined in a bag till it is one mass of lather. The soap is then 
washed off with warm water, when a complete ablution suc- 
ceeds by his being led to the cistern and plunged in. He 
passes five or six minutes enjoying the perfectly pure ele- 
ment; and then, emerging, has a large dry sheet thrown 
over him, in which he makes his escape back to the dressing 
room/ (Sir R. Ker Porter's Travels, vol. i. p. 231.) For a 
representation of shampooing in a Turkish bath, see the 
first volume of plates belonging to the great Frenoh work 
on Egypt. {Etta Moderne.) 

The Russian baths, as used by the common people, bear 
a close resemblance to the laconicum of the Romans. * They 
usually consist of wooden houses, situated, if possible, by the 
sido of a running stream. In the bath-room is a large 
vaulted oven, which when heated makes the paving-stones 
lying upon it red hot, and adjoining to the oven is a kettle 
fixed in masonry, for the purpose of holding boiling water. 
Round about tho walls are three or four rows of benches, one 
above another, like the scats of a scarrold. The room has 
little light, but here and there are apertures for letting the 
vapour escape ; the cold water that is wanted is let in by 
small channels. Some baths have an ante -chamber for 
dressing and undressing, but in most of them this is done 
in the open court -yard, which has a boarded fence, and is 
provided with benches of planks. In those parts of the 
country where wood is scarco they sometimes consist of 
wretched caverns, commonly dug in the earth close to 
the bank of some river. In the houses of wealthy indi- 
viduals, and in the pa/aces of the great, they are constructed 
in the same manner, but with superior elegance and con- 
venience. The heat in the bath-room is usually from 32° to 
40° of Reaumur, and this may be much increased by throw- 
ing water on the glowing hot stones in the ehamber of the 
oven. Thus the heat often rises to 44° of Reaumur. The 
bathers lie quite naked on one of the benches, where they 
perspire more or less, in proportion to the heat of the humid 
atmosphere in which they are enveloped ; while, to promote 
perspiration, and more completely open the pores, they are 
first rubbed, then gently flagellated with leafy bunches of 
bircb. After remaining" for some time in this state, they 
come down from the sweating-bench and wash their bodies 
with warm or cold water, and at last plunge overhead in a 
tuh of water. Many persons throw themselves immediately 
from tbc bath-room into the adjoining river, or roll themselves 
in the snow in a frost of 10° or more. The Russian baths 
am therefore {coneamerata* sudaiio?ies) sweating-baths; not 
of a moderate warmth, like the Roman tcpidaria or caldaria, 
but very violent sweating-baths, which, to a person not 
habituated to tho practiec, brins on a real, though a gentle 
and almost voluptuous swoou? (Tooke's Russia.) [See 
Bathing.] 

The savage tribes of America are not wholly unacquainted 
with the use of the vapour-bath. Lewis and Clarke, in their 
voyage up the Missouri, have described ono of them in the 
following terms :— * We observed a vapour-bath or sweating- 
house in a different form from that used on the frontiers of 
the United States or in tho Roeky Mountains. It was a 
hollow square of six or eight feet deep, formed in the river 



bank by damming up with mud the other three sidos, ant) 
covering the whole completely, except an aperture about 
two feet wide at the top. The bathers descend by this hole, 
taking with them a number of heated stones and jugs of 
water ; and, after being seated round the room, throw the 
water on the stones till the steam becomes of a temperature 
sufficiently high for their purposes. The baths of the 
Indians in the Rocky Mountains arc of different sizes, the 
most common being made of mud and sticks like an oven ; 
but the mode of raising the steam is exactly the same. 
Among both theso nations it is very uncommon for a man 
to bathe alone ; he is generally accompanied by one, or some- 
times several, of his acquaintance ; indeed it is so essentially 
a social amusement, that to decline going in to bathe when 
invited by a friend is one of the highest indignities that can 
be offered to him. The Indians on the frontiers generally 
use a bath which will accommodate only ono person, and is 
formed of wicker-work, about four feet high, arched at the 
top and covered with skins, Almost universally, these baths 
are in the neighbourhood of running water, into which the 
Indians plunge immediately on coming out of the vapour- 
bath, and sometimes return again and subject themselves to 
a second perspiration ; and the bath is employed by them 
either for pleasure or health, being in esteem for all kinds of 
disease.' 

In France there are baths in .all the towns ; and bathing 
is practised more than in Germany or England, where baths 
are rare. There are but few baths in London, and those 
established there- would not suffice for a small fraction of 
tho population, if bathing were a common* practice. Still of 
late years baths have increased both in London and Eng- 
land generally. 

Antient Roman baths have been found in several of the 
Roman villas in England; that at Northleigh in Oxford- 
shire, near Blenheim, is the most perfect. (See the account 
of the villa at Northleigh, Oxfordshire, by Mr. Hakewiil.) 
Baths have been discovered also at Wroxeter in Shropshire, 
and near Arundel in Sussex. In the former, the suspended 
pavement was very perfect : in the centre of a chamber in 
that near Arundel is an octagon bath sunk in the floor, the 
pulvinus of which is quite perfect. There are also some 
curious Roman baths at Vallogne in Normandy. 

(Seo Montfaucon, Antiq. t. lii. pi, 2 ; Cameron's Roman 
Baths ; Gell's Ponmeii; Museo Borbonico; Pompeii, by the 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge; Eustaco's, 
Classical Tour.) 

BATHGATE, a burgh and parish in the county and 
presbytery of Linlithgow, 18 miles west of Edinburgh, 24 
east of Glasgow, and 6 south of Linlithgow. The great road 
between Edinburgh and Glasgow passes by the southern 
extremity of the town. This road is distinguished for its 
singular levclncss and firmness, and it may also claim a not 
inconsiderable antiquity, it being no doubt the same passage 
which was travelled by the monks of the abbey of Newbotie 
under the grant mado to them in 1333, by Walter the 
Steward of Scotland, that they might freely pass with their 
carriages through his barony of Bathgate from their mo- 
nastery to the monkland. (Chalm. Caled. vol. ii. p. 863.) 
Bathgate has been on the inerease for many years past, 
wbieh may be ascribed to a branch of the Glasgow eotton 
manufactures being established in it; to. extensive eoal 
and lime works in the immediate vieinity; to its admi- 
rable situation for grain and cattle markets (both well 
attended) ; to the great intercourse through it between the 
two cities above mentioned ; and to other causes. It is a 
very healthy place, hns a fine southern exposure, and is 
seen at a considerable distance to the west and south. The 
streets of the town arc well-paved, the houses generally 
well-built and covered with slates or tiles, and the inhabit- 
ants are copiously supplied with excellent water, brought 
from the neighbourhood in leaden conduits. Gas-works 
were lately erected for lighting the town. The publie build- 
ings are, the parish church, a very plain edifice; three eha- 
pclsfor Dissenters (Rcliofand Burghers) ; a fine academy; 
parish school ; jail ; two masonic lodges, &c. The Earl of 
Hopetoun is patron of the parish. The academy, which 
stands on an elevation, a little to the south-east of the town, 
overlooking the great road, was erected about two years ago 
from funds hcqueathed by the late John Newlands, Esq., of 
Kingston, Jamaica, a native of the town. These are vested 
in the parish minister, and three neighbouring proprietors 
(Sir William Baillie, Bart., Mr. Majoribanks, and Mr. 
Gillon, M.P.), whose attention to the trust reposed in them 



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32 



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is deserving of much praise. The system of education 
adopted in this institution is of the most apposed kind, and 
the manner in which it is conducted reflects great credit on 
the rector and other teacher*. Instruction, in all the useful 
and learned branches, is obtained gratis ; ample funds, for 
paying tho teachers' salaries, being placed by Mr. Newlands 
in his trustees* hands for that benevolent purpose. All the 
youths of the parish, with the exception of such as have 
hot been three years resident, enjoy the benefit of it. The 
railway, between Edinburgh and Glasgow, is to pass close to 
the town, and will, when completed, bo of incalculable ad- 
vantage to the district. The population of tho town in 1831 
was 2492, and it has increased since; the population of the 
parish was 3593. Under the Reform Act, tho voters in the 
burgh join those in the county in electing a representative in 
parliament. Tin's circumstance has tended much to raise 
the place into importance. 

Bathgate has been a ' free burgh of barony ' since 1663, 
in which year King Charles II, granted its charter ; and in 
1S24 an act of Parliament was obtained, erecting it into a 
* free and independent burgh/ and vesting tho magistracy 
in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, twelve councillors, 
town cleric, and procurator fiscal. These are chosen by the 
free votes of the burgesses : the qualification is less than 
that fixed by tho Reform Act. Nowhere, in so short a 
spaco (ten years), have the benefits of popular and annual 
election of magistrates been so well exemplified. At a small 
expense to the inhabitants, the streets and wells aro now 
kept in the best order, and the police of the town properly 
preserved. Bathgate has been a sheriffdom from a remote 
period. In 1530-1 Sir James Hamilton, of Finnart, ob- 
tained a charter of the office of sheriff of Renfrew, within 
the parish and barony of Bathgate, on the resignation of 
William Lord Scmpil, hereditary sheriff of Renfrewshire ; 
and in June, 1663, King Charles II. granted the barony to 
Thomas Hamilton of Bathgate, with the office of sheriff of 
Bathgate. In 1747, when the heritable jurisdictions were 
bought up, the sheriffship of Bathgate was hereditary in 
the noble family of Hope of Hopetoun, heritable sheriff of 
the shire of Linlithgow; and since the Jurisdiction Act 
tlio two shires have been under the same sheriffs, whoso 
commission from the Crown styles him ' Sheriff of the 
Sheriffdom of Linlithgow and Bathgate/ In tho immediate 
vicinity, and near to the new academy, is tho site of an 
anticnt castle, traditionally said to have been given by King 
Robert the Bruce to his daughter Marjory, along with ex- 
tensive possessions in the neighbourhood, as part of her 
dowry, upon her marriage with Walter, the Great Steward 
of Scotland. From these illustrious persons the Stuart race 
sprung ; and from them the present royal family of Great 
Britain. {Communication from Bathgate,) 

(Further particulars will be found in Sir John Sinclair's 
Statistical Account of Scotland; Penney' s Linlithgow- 
shire; Chambers's Gazetteer, <£-c, <J*c.) 

BATHING, means the temporary surrounding of the 
body,or a part of it, with a medium different from that in which 
it is usually placed. The means employed for this purpose 
arc generally water, watery vapour, or air of a temperature 
different from that of the common atmosphere. The objects 
for which these are employed aro usually the prevention of 
disease, the cure of disease, or the pleasure derived from 
the operation. To understand in what way these ends aro 
accomplished, we must observe that the human frame is 
endowed with a power of maintaining, within certain limits, 
a nearly uniform temperature in whatever circumstances it 
is placed. The general temperature of an adult in a state 
of perfect health is from 97° to 98° of Fahrenheit's thermo- 
meter ; that of a new-born infant about94°. In some cases 
of disease the temperature rises far above this standard, 
even to 106°, whilo in others it sinks far below it. Tho 
power by which the body maintains a uniformity of tempo- 
rature is the property of "developing animal heat, the perfec- 
tion of which function is intimately connected with the state 
of the nervous system, and through that, with the circulation. 
When the body is well nourished and the circulation vigorous, 
the temperature is high, and nearly equal over all parts of the 
body, provided the supply of nervous energy bo adequate. 
If anything impairs the vigour of the circulation generally, 
or of an artery going to a particular limb (as when it is tied 
in tho operation of aneurism), the temperature of the whole 
or of the part will be low. On the other hand, if the whole 
nervous system be impaired, a lower temperature will prevail 
generally, and especially at the extremities ; or if a particular 



limb, such as a paralysed limb, havo an imperfect share of 
nervous energy, a lower temperutnre of the part will exist. 
The respiratory function is also intimately connected with 
the development Of animal heal, and the skin assists in re- 
gulating it, especially in reducing it when too high. When 
the body is placed in a medium of a tempcraturo much 
lower than itself, the heat is abstracted from the surface with 
more or less rapidity, according to the difference of tempera- 
ture, and, if the medium be air, according to its state of 
humidity or dryness; the effect of which would be a reduction 
of the temperature of the whole body, were it not counteracted 
by an increased development of animal heat. Again, when 
the body is surrounded by a medium much higher than 
itself, the exhalation from the surface, both of the skin and 
lungs, is greatly augmented: that from the former being 
thrown off in the form of perspiration, that of tho latter in 
tho form of vapour. ' The evaporation attending these pro- 
cesses causes a reduction of temperature. As illustrations 
of tho truth of these two positions, we need not do more 
than alludo to the nearly equal temperature of the body 
maintained by Sir Joseph Banks, Sir Charles Blagdcn, Dm. 
Fordyce and Solandcr, in their experiments, when the heat 
of the room was 2C0° of Fahrenheit (see Animal Physiology, 
Library of Useful Knowledge, part i. p. 3), and that main- 
tained during the winter by the members of the expeditions 
under Captains Ross, Parry, and Franklin, when the ther- 
mometer frequently fell to 51° below zero of Fahrenheit. 

In a moderate temperature the animal heat is generally 
prevented from rising too high by means of the insensible 
perspiration, the quantity of which varies with circumstances. 
According to the experiments of Seguin, the largest quan- • 
tity from the skin and lungs together amounted to thirty-two 
grains per minute, or three ounces and a quarter per hour, 
or five pounds per day. The medium quantity was fifteen 
grains per minute, or Uiirty-tbree ounces in twentv-four 
hours. The quantity exhaled increases after meals, during 
sleep, in dry warm weather, and by friction, or whatcvci 
stimulates the skin ; and it diminishes when digestion is 
impaired, and the body is in a moist atmosphere. These 
last-mentioned circumstances prove the sympathy which 
subsists between tho skin and the internal organs. l*be skhi 
must not, therefore, be regarded as a mere covering of the 
body, but as an organ, the healthy condition of which is of 
vast importance to the well-being of the whole frame, but 
especially of the stomach and lining membrane of the lungs, 
with which, as mucous membranes, it has the closest sym- 
pathy. It also sympathizes with the kidncjs, the quantity 
of discharge from which is regulated by the action of the 
skin. Hence in summer, when the perspiration from the 
skin is abundant, the secretion from the kidneys is less ; and 
when, in winter, the secretion from the skin is diminished, 
that from the kidneys is increased. 

The perspiration is the' channel by which salts and other 
principles, no longer useful in the system, are removed from 
it. According to Thenard, it consists of a large quantity of 
water, a small quantity of an acid, which according to cir- 
cumstances may be cither the acetic, lactic, or phosphoric; 
and some salts, chictly hydro-chlorates of soda and potass. 
Taking the lowest estimate of Lavoisier, the skin appears to 
be endowed with the power of removing from the system, in 
the space of twenty-four hours, twenty ounces of waste : the 
retention of this in the system is productive of great injury, 
and the inconvenience is only lessened by the increased 
action of some internal organ, which becomes oppressed by 
the double load thus cast upon it Even the retention of 
tho perspired matter close to the skin, from neglect of 
changing the clothes, is the source of many cutaneous dis- 
eases, particularly in spring and summer. 

The great vascularity of tho skin, and the manner in 
which the vessels of this part are influenced by affections of 
tho mind, as in blushing, when it becomes red from more 
blood being sent to it, and during fear when less blood goes to 
it, and more to the vicarious organs, as the kidneys, point out 
how an exposure to a cold and damp atmosphere and how 
mental emotions arc concerned in producing morbid action of 
this organ. The skin must also be regarded as a net-work of 
nervous filaments, and the most extensive organ of sensa- 
tion : in this way it enables us to judge of heat and cold, 
though not with absolute certainty, as the sensation con- 
veyed will depend upon tho temperature of the medium in 
winch the l>ody or any of the limbs may have been placed 
immediately before. To understand this doctrine, it is ne- 
cessary to be acquainted with the action of heat and cold on 



BAT 



33 



BAT 



the human system ; in our explanation of which, we will 
endeavour to be as concise as possible. We treat first of 
cold ; in doing which it is necessary to distinguish between 
the immediate primary action of cold on the organ or part 
with which it is brought into eontact, and the secondary 
action, depending upon the organic activity residing in the 
part, or that train of effects usually denominated re-action. 
The primary effect is always the same, consisting in the 
abstraction of heat from the part, and the consequent re- 
duction of its temperature, while the internal development 
of heat becomes greater, so that the organic life strives ever 
to maintain an equilibrium between the conflicting powers, 
in order that it may not be limited or disturbed in its 
healthy action. Yet it must be remembered, that both the 
external and internal degree of the primary action of cold, 
as also the period in which it slowly or suddenly shows 
itself, and the time, whether longer or shorter, that it lasts, 
occasion a variety of effects, both in the part to which 
it is applied, and those more immediately sympathizing with 
it, as well as in the whole system. The degree of primary 
action of cold can vary in endless degrees, from the lowest, 
where it scarcely affects the sensibility, to the highest, when 
it utterly destroys life. This difference of degree depends 
upon the concurrence of several circumstances, partly re- 
lating to the action of the cold itself, and partly to the nature 
of the organic life upon which the cold operates. The essen- 
tial conditions which must be here borne in mind are, that 
the eontinual evolution of animal heat is closely connected 
with the development or exercise of animal life ; and that 
the power or extent of action of external media, having a 
lower temperature than that of the animal they surround, 
depends less on the absolute degree of their temperature 
than upon the quantity of caloric which they ean abstract 
in a given time. 

The relative power and quickness of abstracting heat, 
with which different external media are endowed, depend 
upon different properties, such as their density, conducting 
power, eapacity for heat, &e., and display themselves through 
the diversity of sensations which, at the same absolute tem- 
perature, they oecasion. Thus, air at the temperature of 65° 
Fahr. feels pleasant, while water at the same degree feels 
somewhat eold. The organs of the body also differ in their 
power of sustaining the same temperature ; hence, in the 
employment of vapour-baths, it is of importance to know 
whether the watery vapour is to be breathed or not, sinee, 
where it is to be breathed, the temperature must be much 
lower. The following table is given by Dr. Forbes as an 
approximation to what maybe deemed eorrect as a measure 
ot sensation in the eases where water and vapour are used. 





Water. 


Vapour. 




Not braithed. 


Breathed. 


Tepid Bath . 
Warm Bath . 
Hot Bath . 


85° to 92° 
92 „ 98 
98 „ 106 


90° to 106° 
106 „ 120 
120 „ 160 


90° to 100° 
100 „ 110 
110 „ 130 



As a full exposition of the subject of the temperature 
of animals will be given under the article Heat, Ani- 
mal, we must refer to it for further details, confining our- 
selves here to remark that the ultimate action of cold, when 
extreme, is a sedative to the nervous system, and alters the 
circulation from external to internal ; and that moderate 
eold continued causes the same consequences as severe cold 
of short duration (See Beauprd On Cold, Edinb. 1826.) 
Heat, on the other hand, is a stimulant to the nervous system, 
and alters the distribution of the blood from internal to ex- 
ternal. Taking these principles as our guide, we proceed 
now to consider the different kinds of baths, and their action 
on the system in different states both of health and disease. 

First, of water-baths. The common division is into cold 
and warm ; but various subdivisions are formed, marked by 
a certain range of temperature, which are designated 

1. The cold-bath, from 40° to 65° 

2. The cool „ 65 „ 75 

3. The temperate „ 75 „ 85 

4. The tepid „ 85 „ 92 

5. The warm-bath „ 92 „ 93 
G. The hot-bath „ 98 „ 112 

We shall treat first of the cold-hath, as applied to the 
whole surface of the body. 

A healthy person upon entering a cold-bath experiences 
a sensation of cold, followed by slight shuddering, and if 



the immersion has been sudden, a peculiar impression on 
the nervous system, called a shock. The skin becomes 
cooler and paler, the respiration hurried and irregular, the 
action of the kidneys increases and the bladder contracts. 
In a few moments the eolour and warmth return to the 
skin, and a glow is felt, especially if assisted by rubbing the 
surface. If the person remains more than five or ten mi- 
nutes in the bath, the glow disappears, and paleness returns, 
which again gives place, though less quiekly and perfectly, 
to a renewed glow. During the existence of the primary 
action of the cold, the bulk of the whole body, but especially 
of the more eontraetile parts, diminishes. Should the stay 
in the water be greatly prolonged, no reaction ensues, but a 
general feeling of ehilliness prevails, with quick feeble pulse, 
convulsive breathing, eramps of the limbs, or fainting. If 
the person quit the hath after the few first minutes, as in 
prudence he should, the blood returns to the surface, accom- 
panied with a sensation of pricking, itching, and sometimes 
throbbing of the arteries : the elasticity of the muscles being 
increased, more animal power is felt, accompanied with a 
general feeling of enjoyment. * 

Very young or feeble individuals are either incapable of 
bearing the shock, or the reaction is so slight that they can- 
not endure to stay in the hath beyond a very short time. If 
they unwisely stay or are held in the bath longer than one 
or two minutes, the heat never regains its proper height, 
the extremities remain contracted, and they, as well as the 
lips, nose, &e., are of a livid hue. In such cases either 
artificial means must be used to bring about reaction, or the 
bath must be relinquished, as improper for such persons, 
as we shall show at a future part of our observations. 

The phenomena just described generally accompany eold 
bathing; and it is elear that we ean recognize in them 
a series of three or even four distinct actions ; viz., 1st, 
The shock ; 2nd, The eooling effect ; 3rd, The contrac- 
tion or astringent effect ; and, 4th, The re-action. Cold 
bathing may be employed, therefore, in such a way as to 
ensure the predominance of one action over any of the rest, 
according to eirenmstanecs, whero all are not desired. They 
vary with the degree of cold and the suddenness of the ap- 
plication, as well as from the body being plunged into the 
water, or the water dashed against the body. Where the 
shock, as a stimulus to the nervous system, is desired, the 
water should be very cold, and where practicable should he 
dashed against the body, or, if the contrary, the stay in the 
bath should be momentary. . This mode of using it may be 
either general or local. It has hcen employed generally, i.e. 
the whole body exposed to the action of the water, in mania, 
with occasional success, and in the early stage of the com- 
mon continued fever (under certain regulations, for which 
see Currie's Medical Reports), sometimes with great success, 
eutting short the train of morbid actions which constitute 
the fever. It has been employed also iu nervous affections, 
accompanied with a convulsive action, or deficient action of 
the muscular system, as in hysteria, in lockjaw (see Paper 
by Dr. Wright, London Medical Observations and Inquiries, 
vol. vi. p. 143) : in some eases of obstinate constipation, 
dashing cold water on the person, or the eold bath fre- 
quently repeated, has been of great service. 

Its stimulating effect is sometimes best procured by a 
local application, in the form of a stream of water falling on 
the head, from a considerable height. The simplest ex- 
ample of this is the common practice of sprinkling the face 
with cold water in case of a tendency to faint ; and in many 
diseases of the most dangerous character, it is a remedy 
superior to any other. It is called the cold dash, or douche, 
or douse, and is beneficially employed in fever, particularly 
when the brain continues the seat of inordinate action of 
the blood-vessels, after depletion has been carried as far as 
prudence will allow. (See the instructive case of Dr. Dill 
in Dr. Southwood Smith's Treatise on Fever,*o. 398.) It re- 
quires to be used with the greatest caution. Also in the 
state of stupor or coma which occurs in the. last stage of 
hydrocephalus acutus, or water in the brain, it often succeeds 
in rescuing the patient from imminent danger. (See Abcr- 
crombie On Diseases of the Brain, first edit. 1828, p. 157.) 
Its utility is well known in the East in rousing drunken 
soldiers from their stupor so effectually as to enable them to 
rise up and appear immediately on parade. In the melan- 
choly and mania which overtake habitual drunkards it is of 
great efficacy, and also in cases of loss of nervous power from 
excessive mental exertion. In apoplectic stupor it has also 
been very advantageously employed. In the sinking stago 



No. 209. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



Vol. IV.- F 



n a r 



li A T 



of crcnp, when all other remedies have failed , eold affusion 
bas sometimes restored the functions of life to new action. 

The cooling or refrigerating effect of eold bathing is most 
desired in diseases where tbe animal heat rises above the 
proper standard, as In fever*, both continued and cruptivo, 
especially scarlet fever ; also tn somo local Inflammations, 
particularly of the brain* For the principles which should 
regulate our practice in this application we must refer to l>r. 
Currio and other writers, only remarking that in the hot and 
restless stage of scarlet fever, when the heat is steadily above 
the natural standard, the skirt hot and dry, and neither sleep 
nor perspiration can bo procured, a plunge into cold water 
will be followed by both, to the relief and often recovery of 
the patient. (See B atom an On Cutaneous Disease *, edit. 
1S*.!9, p. 120.) In applying cold locally, as in inflammation 
of the brain, one rule is of the utmost importance to bo ob- 
served, viz., that the application of the cold shall bo continu- 
ous ; therefore a second set of eold cloths or bags of ice should 
be applied before the former bas become warm. This plan, 
especially pursued during the nlgbt, along with judicious 
internal treatment, will save many children from perishing 
under the most insidious and fatal disease of childhood — 
water in the brain. 

The cases already mentioned are mostly aeuto diseases, 
where tho cold nffusion is employed to avert an imminent 
but temporary danger. It is generally in chronic diseases 
that tho cold bath is employed for a length of time, and 
in theso it Is chielly tbe secondary effect, the glow or reac- 
tion, which is desired. The rules to bo observed in order to 
obtain this effect are founded upon the strength, which is 
generally inferred from the age, of the individual. The de- 
gree of reaction is, for the most part, dependent upon the cold- 
ness of the water and the length of time the person remains 
in tho bath. Very cold water, in which the person remains 
but a short time, will, in general, produce a greater degree 
of re-action than a more moderate temperature in which he 
remains longer. But here everything depends upon the 
general power of the individual, the state of tho system, 
especially of the skin at the moment of immersion, and the 
natnrc of the bath, according as it is fresh or salt water, and 
also the season of the year. As the immersion of infants and 
young children in tubs of water must bo considered *s bath- 
ing, wc deem it necessary here to explain the principles 
upon which the temperature of tbe bath for them should be 
regulated, especially during winter. The experiments of 
Dr. Edwards (see Edwards On the Influence of Physical 
Agents on Life, London, 1832) have proved that ' the power 
of producing heat in warm-blooded animals is at itsminimum 
at birth , and increase* successively to adult age: It is clear, 
therefore, that water of a higher temperature than what feels 
cool to the hand of the nurse should bo used, particularly in 
winter, when the power of regaining a proper degree of heat 
*s neeessarily less. Tbe attempt to harden children by ex- 
posure to too great a degree of cold is of tbe most injurious 
nature ; it cither produces acute disease of the lungs, which 
are then very sensible to external impressions, or disease 
of tho digestive organs, leading to disease of the mesenteric 
glands, scrofula, water in tbo brain, or, if they survive a 
few years, to early consumption. Delicate and fecblo per- 
sons of all ages require a higher temperature of the batb, 
and a shorter stay in it than others. If tho re-action 
does not speedily take place, means must be employed to 
ensure its so doing, or the \ise of the cold bath must be 
abandoned. A tepid or temperate bath may be used in the 
early treatment of feeble persons, and the eold bath gradu- 
ally substituted for it, or a glass of wine, or, what is far 
preferable, strong coffee or chocolate may be taken before 
entering the bath. Where the arrangements are such as to 
admit of it, a brief stay in a warm bath before going into the 
co!d has a good effect. Nor, in general, is danger to be ap- 
prehended from such a proceeding. Though in most cases 
moderato exercise is advantageous before bathing, unless 
the person has an opportunity of springing out of bed into 
the bath, still he should never think of undressing and 
going into the wntcr when fatigued, or when the skin is 
eovercd with perspiration. It is a good rule to wet the head 
before taking the plunge. For a person in good health, 
early in the morning is the best time to bathe ; for one more 
delicate, from two to three hours after breakfast is prcfcrablo; 
but no ouo should bathe immediately after a full meal, par- 
ticularly if there be a tendency of blood to the head, and a 
disposition to apoplexy. 

Exercise while in the bath, such as friction of the limbs 



and chest, or swimming, is advisable, but not even this can 
prOvent evil eonscqnonces if the bather remain too long In the 
water. To say nothing of the risk of cramps and convul- 
sive action of the respiratory muscles, from trie blood being 
pent up in the large Internal vessels, which may occur while 
the person is In the water, the foundation may bo laid for 
future internal discaso If the blood do not soon revisit the 
surface, either from the natural powers of re- action, or from 
friction with coarse dry cloths. Friction should follow the 
use of the bath In most instances, except where the bath has 
been in the sea, In which case the salt particles, if allowed 
to remain in contact with tho skin, stimulato it more. 

The cases of disease for wblch eold bathing is a valuable 
remedy are, morbidly increased irritability and sensibility, 
accompanied with general debility. If the sensibility be 
extremely high, It is best to begin with the tepid or cool 
bath, and pasa gradually to tho eold. Where there is a 
tendency to colds and rheumatism, tho cold bath is an ex- 
cellent preventive ; for this purpose It should be used con- 
tinually throughout tho year, and tho chest should be sponged 
with cold water, or vinegar and water may be substituted in 
winter, when there are not facilities for using the completo 
bath. Before beginning this practice, careful investigation 
of tbe state of the mucous membranes of tho ehest and In- 
testinal canal should be made, as it will certainly prove 
hurtful where chronic inflammation of these organs exists. 
If tubercles arc suspected to exist in the lungs, eold bathing 
should be dispensed with. Though cold bathing is very 
useful in a tendency to scrofulous diseases, it is very hurt- 
ful when these are really developed, though tepid and warm 
bathing are allowable. 

Where tbe increased irritability shows itself in the mental 
functions or in the muscular system, as in hypochondriasis 
or hysteria, eold bathing is very useful ; and especially in 
the hypochondriasis of literary persons, accompanied with a 
disposition to indigestion, and a dry harsh skin. In actual 
indigestion, especially if complicated with snb-aeute inflam- 
mation of the mucous membrane of the stomach or intes- 
tines, cold batbing is very injurious. 

In eases of torpor and loss of power, cold bathing is Of 
much service; in a relaxed state of the skin, subject to de- 
bilitating perspirations, it is often the most effectual 
remedy ; in weakness of the limbs, or of any member, and 
after sprains or paralysis, the local eold bath is very useful. 
The astringent as well as tonie effect of tho cold hath is 
employed to prevent the prolapsus or descent of different 
parts : hence, in a tendency to hernia (or even when it has 
occurred, iee laid upon the tumor, and frequently renewed, 
has restored tbe bowel to its place, or at least warded off tho 
inflammation till other means eould be tried) ; in loss of 
power of tho sphincter muscles, or of the contractile power 
of the bladder, pumping eold water on the back is very 
useful ; but it should be used only for a minute ot a time. 
In chronic hemorrhages, cold applied locally or generally 
has a good effect 

The cold batb, like every other powerful agent, when im- 
properly used, is capable of producing much mischief; in 
some states of the system it must be carefully avoided. In 
infancy and very advanced age it is less admissible than at 
other times, and even quite improper if the debility be great. 
It is inadmissible during, or immediately before, certain 
conditions of the female system ; also when there is conges- 
tion of blood in the veins or internal organs: henec it is 
not suited to chlorosis. In any organic affection of tbe 
heart, or aneurism, it is altogether improper. 

Of the cold sbower-bath and douche we shall only observe 
here, that their effects aro more speedy, and extend moro to 
the internal organs: consequently tbey are only to be used 
for a very short time, whenever recourse is had to them. 
A glow of the surface is sooner felt after the shower 
than the common bath ; and as soon as this Is perceived 
the person should withdraw himself from the stream. If 
the doucho falls upon tho head, it produces almost in- 
stantaneous and most powerful effects. If its use be pro- 
longed, it quickly lowers, then destroys, the sensibility, 
induces faintings,and places the patient in the most immi- 
nent danger. Medical superintendence is therefore required 
through every stage of its employment. 

When the body is surrounded by media of a temperature 
in some eases lower, and in some higher than its own, it re- 
ceives calorie, instead of parting with it. Tho differeneo of 
density and humidity is tho cause of its receiving it from 
some media which are of a lower temperature than its own, 



BAT 



35 



BAT 



as well as from most which are higher. This depends upon 
the eapacity for caloric, and the conducting power of the 
surrounding medium. Thus, dry air at 70° Fabr. will impart 
heat to the body, while water at 92° will abstract it, though 
water at 96° may impart heat. The tepid bath, therefore, 
being so close upon the limit of abstracting or imparting 
heat, cannot exercise a very powerful effeet upon the func-* 
tion of the development of animal heat; neither does it 
much affect the circulation, which it rather retards than 
quickens ; but its influence is mostly confined to the skip, 
which it cleanses, softens, and renders -more fit to execute 
its duties. The cases in which the tepid bath is to be pre- 
ferred to that of a different temperature, are those of a febrile 
character joined to an irritability of the skin, whicb is gene- 
rally dry and harsh ; some cutaneous diseases, where, by 
friction, the scales are removed and a new surface presented ; 
and, lastly, as preparatory to the cold bath in delicate per- 
sons, or for those whose peculiarities of system render them i 
unable to bear a warm bath of a high temperature. It is of 
much uso in the form of tepid sponging of the surface in the 
advanced stage of fevers, and in convalescence from acute 
diseases. In this case vinegar is often added to the water 
with increased good effect. 

The primary effect of the application to the surface of the 
body of water of a tempera ture varying from 93° to 98°, is, 
in consequence of the communication of warmth, the same 
as that of dry heat, viz., a stimulating, enlivening, and 
expanding effect. Hence there is a quickening of the cir- 
culation and respiration, as well as the direction of a greater 
quantity of fluid to the surface, manifested by the swelling 
and redness of the part. There results also a freer and 
more lively action of the muscular system, and increased 
sensibility and activity of the nervous system. Diminished 
exhalation from the skin takes place, while a greatly in- 
creased absorption occurs ; the exhalation from the lungs, 
however, is increased. An increased quantity of heat is 
thus introduced into the system, felt first in the superficial, 
but afterwards in the most internal parts of the body. 

The secondary or ultimate effect is somewhat different. 
The increased action of the arteries gradually subsides, the 
pulse becomes fuller and slower, and the greatest quantity 
of the blood lodges in the veins, particularly in the great 
venous centres, such as the vena porta and the liver, which 
it stimulates to increased secretion of bile. Corresponding 
changes occur in all the other organs ; and if the application 
of the warmth be continued for a longer time, the increased 
energy and elasticity of the muscles disappear, and ft sense 
of fatigue, with atony, and a tendency to sleep, succeeds. 

The final result of the action and re-action is an aug- 
mented secretion from the skin, and a corresponding diminu- 
tion of urine, and of the secretion from the mucous surfaces. 

The warm bath may be employed to effect two opposite 
ends, to stimulate, or calm and soothe. It accomplishes the 
first when its temperature is high (98°), and its use is con- 
fined to five or ten minutes ; the second when it is about 
93°, and continued for three-quarters of an hour, or an hour. 
Employed in this last way, Marcard found that it always 
diminished the velocity of the circulation, and that the 
longer the bath was continued the slower the pulse be- 
came ; also, that the more the pulse deviated from a state 
of health, the more it is diminished by the warm bath. The 
bath may even be prolonged till it induce fainting and other 
consequences of a depressed circulation. Short of actual 
fainting it may be beneficially employed to produce great 
relaxation of the muscular system, so as to enable disloca- 
tions or hernias to be more easily reduced. The state of re- 
laxation bordering upon fainting is very favourable to the 
process of absorption ; it may, therefore, be advantageously 
employed in dropsy arising from weakness of the absorbents. 
As the warm bath has generally the effect of equalizing the 
circulation, and relieving internal congestion, it is much re- 
sorted to as a remedy in spasmodic and convulsive diseases ; 
but here the ntmost caution and discrimination are necessary. 
If the spasmodic actions result from an inflammatory state 
of any of the nervous centres, more harm than good will be 
done by a bath. The inflammatory condition must first be 
removed or greatly lessened by bleeding, purgatives, and 
other appropriate means, before the bath can be safely used. 
These cautions do not so strictly apply to the convulsive ex- 
citement which often precedes the eruption of small-pox, or 
even measles, which is often greatly relieved by the warm 
bath, which may also be repeated during the early stages of 
the eruption, (See Marcard, Uber die Ba<kr, Hanover, 



1 793, or Duncan's Med. Comm. 2nd Decade, part x. p. ] 53.) 
The convulsions of infants during teething are almost in- 
variably attempted tQ be removed by the warm bath, but in 
many instances more harm than good is done. The con- 
dition of the brain must be carefully inquired into by the 
medical attendant, and the state of the gums investigated 
before this measure should ho had recourse to. If there be 
congestion of blood in the brain this must be removed before 
any good can result from a bath, and after its removal the 
convulsive actions will generally subside. The same good 
effect will follow free scarification of the gums, if a tooth be 
preparing to protrude. [See Antispasmodics.] Even 
when the bath is properly applied, the good which might be 
derived from it is often frustrated by inattention or igno- 
rance. Tbe bath is prepared at random, and the tempera- 
ture is never sufficiently regarded. If above 96° it cannot 
fail to bo injurious. 

During the existence of all active inflammation, at what- 
ever age, the warm bath may be pronounced an unfit mea~ 
sure ; and even after the acuteness may have been reduced 
by active antiphlogistic means, the warm bath is a doubtful 
remedy, if we except a very few cases. Of these, inflam- 
mation of the' peritonaeum is the best marked exception ; 
but even here the bath is a very secondary means towards 
lowering the action of the system, though \t may assist the 
flow of blood from leech bites, and may be continued till a 
tendency to faint show itself. 

In acute rheumatism, after venesection, the warm bath 
may perhaps be employed, if we can ensure its being fol- 
lowed by copious perspiration. For this purpose the patient 
should have the bath close to his bed, remain in it for half 
or three-quarters of an hour, be well rubbed with warm 
flannel cloths, replaced in bed between warm blankets, take 
diaphoretic medicines, and drink bland, warm fluids, such as 
gruel or weak tea, and maintain the perspiration for twenty- 
four or forty-eight hours. 

In a disposition to gout or rheumatism the warm bath is 
more proper than when a paroxysm of these diseases occurs. 
In such cases the natural warm baths are preferable : those 
of the Queen's Bath, or Cross Bath at Bath, the temperature 
of which is from 94° to %°, are well calculated for such cases. 

In few chronic inflammatory diseases are warm baths al- 
lowable, if we except some of those of the digestive organs, 
especially sub-acute inflammation of tho mucous membrane 
of the stomach and intestines. Indigestion is often the most 
common symptom accompanying this state, and it is almost 
always benefited by a course of warm or tepid bathing. 

The other states to which warm bathing is unsuited are 
great general torpor, but especially of the skin; also when 
there is a tendency to profuse secretion from the skin ; when 
there is great plethora or fulness of the vascular system, 
especially of the veins; in tendency to active haemorrhage; 
in aneurism, or any disease of the heart; also in cases of a 
tendency to apoplexy : lastly, in extreme atony, or exces- 
sive irritability of tbe nervous system. In the very extreme 
eases of derangement of the nervous system the warm bath 
is unfit;' in more moderate derangements of it, a more ap- 
plicable or useful remedy cannot be found. In cases of ner- 
vous exhaustion from intense literary employment, or 
official or parliamentary duties, the warm bath is of great 
service, more particularly when, in addition to the warm 
bath, the cold douche is employed, directed upon the head 
for a few seconds, while the patient is in the bath. In tbe 
milder eases of mania it has been found of great use. 

In cases of contractions of the joints from rheumatic or 
gouty inflammation, the warm bath, or, what is better, the 
local vapour bath, is of service in restoring the flexibility of 
the limb. 

It may be briefly stated that the warm bath is much 
more serviceable when there is a tendency to disease, con- 
stitutional or accidental, or in convalescence, than in any 
other circumstances. It is therefore rather to be considered 
as a preventive than remedial measure. But its value in 
this point of view is very great ; and it is to be regretted 
that it is not sufficiently appreciated and used. *It is ex- 
ceedingly beneficial as a means of allaying the irritation of 
the vascular system, which occurs in young persons dis- 
posed to consumption, when the disease is beginning slowly 
to impair the integrity and health fulness of the lungs or 
other important organs. To prevent the development of 
the morbid deposit in the lungs is of infinite importance j 
and this will be best accomplished by keeping tip a more 
Vigorous action of the skin. Tho hath must bo perse\ ercd 

F2 



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in for a length of time. Proper bathing-rooms should exist 
in every well-constructed house; but as this is rarely tho 
case in "this country, a good substitute may bo obtained by 
using some of tne recently-invented batbing-machiues, 
which combine facilities for using the different kinds of bath 
in the same apparatus. The best which we have seen is 
that made by Read, Regent Circus, which possesses an 
apparatus for applying the douche while in tho warm bath; 
and may bo used as a cold, a shower, a warm, a douche, or 
a \apour-bath: it is therefore called The Universal Rath. 
Eaths should be attached to all largo manufactories, as a 
refreshment for the workmen, to ensure cleanliness, and as 
a means of warding off many diseases: in lead-works, 
painters' and plumbers' establishments, they would pro-" 
tect tho men from painters cholic ; and in otl>er establish- 
ments, tbey would preserve the workmen from many cu- 
taneous diseases. ' A multitude of chronic inflammations 
of the skin are produced by unclcanliness, or other agents, 
which directly irritate the skin; and it is to tho want 
of cleanliness in the inferior classes that Willan attri- 
butes the frequency of cutaneous diseases in London. In 
France, advantages are placed within the reach of the poor 
to which the rich alone aspire in other countries. The num- 
ber of gratuitous baths which arc given at the hospitals of 
St. Louis and La Charite" is truly prodigious: in 1822 it 
amounted to 127,752 for the out-patients only of the hosni- 
tal of St. Louis.* (Raycr On Diseases of the' Skin.) Why 
some portion of the funds of hospitals and dispensaries in 
London, and other large towns, should not be applied a in a 
similar way, we can see no good objection. There is as 
much philanthropy and benevolence in preventing disease 
as in curing it 

A partial warm bath, such as the foot-bath, is of much 
service in warding off many complaints. After getting the 
feet wet, plunging them into warm water will often prevent 
any ill consequences; and even when the first chill and 
slight sbivcrings, which usher in colds, fevers, and other 
inflammatory complaints, have been felt, the disease may 
be cut short by the use of a foot-bath, continued till free 
perspiration occurs. In inflammatory diseases where the 
head and throat are much affected, the employment of a 
foot-bath, at a later period, often gives great relief, by 
causing a revulsion of the blood from the upper to the lower 
part of tbe body. 

"Water of a temperature from 90° to the highest which 
can be endured, is termed the hot-bath. When a person in 
health enters such a bath, it greatly excites the nervous sys- 
tem, and, through that, the heart and arteries ; causes heat 
and constriction of the skin, with disturbance of the internal 
organs generally, but especially those of secretion. This 
state of uneasiness is lessened by the breaking out of 
perspiration, which is succeeded by great languor, torpor, 
and disposition to sleep. In sucb a bath littlo absorption 
takes place through the skin, and the body is found to 
have lost weight. The hot-bath is a powerful stimulant, 
and can never be used by persons in a state of health. 
The same cautions which were stated under the head 
of tho warm-bath apply to it in a greater degree. The 
few cases to which it is suited arc chronic affections of 
the nervous system, such as paralysis, when all vascular 
fulness of tho brain or spinal chord has been removed. 
The waters of the King's bath at Bath, and some of the 
hot-baths on the continent, arc very beneficially employed 
in such cases; but careful discrimination must be made 
to suit the temperature to the degree of sensibility remain- 
ing in the paralysed part. Whero the power of motion 
is lost, the sensation is sometimes increased. Here the 
hot-bath would be very hurtful. On the other hand the 
sensation may be lost, while the power of motion icmains. 
Hero equal care must be observed not to use too high a 
temperature. Erythema, erysipelas, mortification, or death 
may follow the use of too high a temperature or a stay too 
prolonged even in a proper temperature. 

Sudden retrocession or repulsion of some cutaneous or 
eruptive diseases is relieved by the use of a hot-bath for a 
few minutes, the eruption often coming out favourably after 
it. Somo chronic cutaneous diseases, in which great thick- 
ening or torpor of the skin exists, aro benefited by tho hot- 
bath. 

Vapour-baths are cither natural or artificial. Several 
natural vapour- bat lis exist in tho Neapolitan States, in 
Switzerland (Pfeffcrs in tho country of the Orisons), and in 
Ischia, The artificial vapour-baths arc much in use in the 



East and in Russia, whero they are public, or intended for 
several persons to use at the same time ; and occasionally in 
Britain, where they arc always solitary or for a singlo indi- 
vidual. The Russian baths are described in Lyall's Cha- 
racter of tfte Russians, p. 112— U5. The buthing-room 
contains tiers of benches, like an amphitheatre, the scats 
nearest tho bottom being the coolest, those higher up hotter. 
The tempcraturo varies from 112° to 224°. Persons com- 
mencing the use of such baths occupy the lower seats, and 
ascend as they become accustomcu to them. While ex- 
posed to the vapour, the body is washed or rubbed with soap 
or bran, and beaten with fresh birch-twigs. The head is 
surrounded with a cold cloth, or ©old water .is dashed over 
the head. When the person does not wish to breathe the 
heated vapour, a sponge which has been dipped in cold 
water is held to the mouth and nose. On first employing 
tho vapour-bath, the .person usually remains about fifteen 
minutes, but afterwards three-quarters of an hour, and at 
Pfcffers the temperature of which is only 1 00, sometimes four, 
eight, ten or sixteen hours. After coining out of the bath, 
tho bather goes into a room heated with dry air, where he is 
rubbed, puts on a flannel dress, and then reposes upon a couch 
for some time, where he may drink warm drinks to proraoto 
the perspiration. 

'As soon,* says Dr. E. D. Clarke, 'as the inhabitants of 
these northern nations have endured the high temperature 
of their vapour-baths, which is so great that Englishmen 
would not conceive it possible to exist an instant in them, 
they stand naked, covered with profuse perspiration, cooling 
themselves in the open air. In summer they plunge into 
cold water, and in winter they roll about in the snow, with- 
out sustaining injury, or even catching cold. When the 
Russians leave a bath of this kind, they moreover drink co- 
pious draughts of mead, as cold as it can be procured.* 
{Travels in Russia, part i. p. 143.) The absence of all 
risk in exposing the person to such extremes of temperature 
is explained by the experiments of Dr. Edwards, who found 
that ' after an exposure to cold, sufficient to diminish the 
power of producing heat, continuance in a high temperature 
tends to the recovery of this power ; for, in exposing ani- 
mals to successive applications of cold, their temperature' 
will fall the more slowly the longer they shall have been 
subjected to the influence of warmth. It follows, therefore, 
that the effect of the application of a certain degree of heat is 
continued after the cessation of the cause. Hence, we sec 
that those who are liable to frequent exposure of severe cold 
are rendered more capable of supporting it, by subjecting 
themselves, in the intervals to a high temperature,— a 
practice adopted by northern nations, and justified by facts.* 
(Edwardson the Influence of Physical Agents on Life, p. 125.) 
The vapour-bath is distinguished from all other means of 
introducing more heat into the body, chiefly by the circum- 
stance, that as a portion of tho vapour is converted into 
water, by coming in contact with the surface of the body, it 
communicates a quantity of sensible caloric to it. It is 
without doubt the most powerful means of supplying a great 
heat to tho greatest portion of tho surface of the body, in- 
ternal as well as external ; for when breathed, tho extensive 
surface forming the interior of the lungs is influenced by it 
in the same way as the skin. On the skin it exerts a pecu- 
liar influence. It does not cause that constriction of the 
skin, which follows the application of dry air, nor does it 
exert that pressure upon the surface, which, in the case of 
warm water, retards the breaking out of the perspiration. 
On the contrary, moisture of the skin, followed by profuse 
perspiration, occurs immediately upon entering the vapour- 
bath. 

In Russia, where such baths are usod on a large scale, 
their employment is not found to be productive of weakness. 
The subsequent exposure to cold restores the tone of tho 
skin which had been lost, and the process leaves the person 
with a general sense of good health, strength, and power, 
both of the internal organs and of tho skin. 'These prac- 
tices,* says Dr. Clarke, ' seem to delight them, and to add 
strength to their constitution.' 

Tho vapour-bath, by attracting the blood more speedily 
to tho surface, and by being followed by more profuse per- 
spiration, is more powerful than the warm water-bath. It 
"is employed as a remedy in gout and rheumatism, and in 
tho numerous consequences of these when they have as- 
sumed the chronic form. Many cases of rheumatic and 
gouty contraction of the joints have been removed by 
persevering in tbe use of vapour -baths, as employed by 



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37 



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the continental nations. In scrofulous diseases, especially 
when they affect the skin and the glands, benefit is derived 
from the vapour-bath, unless there be a manifest J tendency 
to active inflammation, and great irritability of the nervous 
system. In some chronic affections of the nervous system, 
especially when connected with the repulsion or imperfect 
development of cutaneous diseases, the vapour-hath, is of 
great use : and also in some affections of the respiratory 
organs, such as dry catarrh, asthma, spasms of the muscles' 
Of respiration, if these are not complicated with inflamma- 
tion or organic disease of the lungs or heart. . 
c * The use of the vapour-hath would he found ^o ward off 
many acute diseases' resulting from exposure to cold, if had 
recourse to immediately after exposure to the exciting cause ; 
as after travelling, or falling into the water in winter. 

The local application of warm vapour is very serviceable 
in many recent diseases. Catarrhs, sore throats of an in- 
flammatory kind, inflammations of the eyes and ears,' are 
greatly alleviated by such means. ' But when the lungs are 
inflamed, though Mudge's or other inhaler is much recom- 
mended, yet the effort required to draw in the vapour is in- 
jurious. .The head, from which a flannel cloth may fall 
down, in such a way as to hinder the vapour from escaping, 
should be held over a bason full of warm water,' and the 
vapour inhaled in the ordinary mode of respiration. The 
vapour-bath is Very improper for plethoric persons, those 
predisposed to congestion, or to apoplexy, and also for indi- 
viduals in a state of great debility. 

The employment of heated air, as an application to the 
hody, causes the primary action of heat to manifest itself 
more than' the secondary. The hot air-hath is therefore 
powerfully stimulant to the skin and nervous system, and 
is of great service in all cases where the production of animal 
heat is less than natural, as in the cold stage of fevers, and 
exhaustion of the ' nervous power. It has heen employed 
beneficially" in congestive fever, and after great and conti- 
nual mental exertion. It proved less useful in the Asiatic 
eliolera than was anticipated. A convenient apparatus 
for applying it was invented by the late Dr. Gower, called a 
Sudatorium, ami also others by Jones of the Strand/London. 
* Medicated haths rarely possess greater power than that 
possessed hy the water alone ; but there are a few exceptions. 
The admixture of common salt makes the water more sti- 
mulating and tonic. 

) Sulphurous vapour-haths fall under the head of medicated 
baths, and a few remarks may bo here made respecting 
them. Nightmen, and other individuals who live much in 
an atmosphere charged with sulphurous exhalations, are 
rarely affected with ehronie diseases of the skin, while other 
trades seem to predispose to their development, such as the 
haker's itch and groeer's itch. It is ehiefly for the cure of 
cutaneous diseases that the sulphurous vapour-baths' are 
employed., In many of these they are very useful,' espe- 
cially' those belonging to the genus scabies and' genus 
impetigo of Bateman. A caution is requisite for their safe, 
employment, that tho vapour should not be applied to, more 
than a fourth part of the body at one time,' lest the disease 
should be suddenly cured, and the internal organs suffer by 
the repulsion. The person who uses the sulphurous vapour- 
hath must be eareful not to breathe any of the vapour. 
This kind of hath has heen used in rheumatic affections, 
some' diseases of the stomaeh, and in chronic paralysis. ' It 
may sometimes he a useful addition to internal treatment, 
but alone can be of little avail; till the state of the internal 
organs be improved, especially the liver, the action of which 
is almost always faulty in gout and rheumatism." 

The nitro-muriatic bath of Scott is of use in ehronie in- 
flammation- of the liver, such as oeeurs in warm eliraates. 
The iron-baths in Nassau and the Hartz 'are more tonie 
than the simple eold-bath : hut none of the iron can be ab- 
sorbed at the low temperature of these baths; it is only there- 
fore by their, direct action upon tho skin, and the sympa- 
thies of this with tbe internal organs, that they are more 
beneficial. We have no knowledge of the effects of the mi- 
neralized mud haths, , ealled by the Italians' Lulatura. 
(See Gairdner On Mineral Springs, p. 404.) 

Though unacquainted with tho results of employing hot 
sand or aahesi as done hy the Turks, we can conceive them 
useful in allaying eramps and neuralgie pains, as heat ge- 
nerally does in whatever way applied. A collection of the 
opinions of antfent writers on tho subject was published in 
the sixteenth century. (De balneis omnia quce extant apud 
Grccco*, Latinos, et Arabes, fol, Vcnet apud Junt. 1553.) 



The best modern treatiseis that of Marcard, in German, an 
abstract of which may be found in Dr. Beddoes's Treaties 
on Consumption. A French translation of it was published 
in'1802. The natural baths will he treated of under the 
article Waters, Mineral. (See Osann, Encyclopmdis- 
ches Worterbuch derMed. Wissenschaft, art. 'Bad,' vol. iv. 
Berlin, 1830, and Osann ,* Darstellung der Heilquellen Eu- 
ropas; 1829.) 

BATHURST, ALLEN, EARL BATHURST, eldest 
son of Sir Benjamin Bathurst, governor of the East India 
Company in the years 1688-9, and treasurer of the house- 
hold to the .Princess Anne of Denmark, was horn at West- 
minster in November, 1684.,, His descent was from an 
antient family of Luneburg, who resided at a place called 
* Batters,* and settled in England in very early times at 
1 Batters Hurst' in Sussex. Of their property at this place 
the family of Bathurst were deprived, and the castle de- 
molished during the civil wars of York and Lancaster. 
In 1699 Allen Bathurst was entered at Trinity College, 
Camhridge, of which his uncle, Dean Bathurst, was then 
master ;. and, six years after, commenced his political life 
as representative for the borough of Cirencester. As a mem- 
ber of the legislature he actively promoted the union of tho 
two kingdoms, and concurred in the opposition to the Duke 
of Marlborough and his adherents, of which Harley and St. 
John were the leaders. In pursuing this course he pro- 
hably acted from conviction and not as a political partizan, 
since, upon the dismissal of the Whig ministry, he accepted 
no place under, government, though his abilities and con- 
nexion with some of the principal Tories entitled him to notice. 
He was, however, in 1711, made a peer of Great Britain by 
the title of Lord Bathurst, Baron Bathurst of Battlcsden, 
in the county of Bedford. "In the upper house he exerted 
himself in the debates on many of the important quesiions 
that were there agitated. In 1716 he opposed, as a violation 
of the constitution, the Septennial Bill. He distinguished 
Limself in 1 723 as a zealous defender of Bishop Atterbury, 
when the bill for ' inflicting pains and penalties' on that 
prelate was diseussed in the House of Lords. In 1727 he 
opposed a war with Spain which then threatened the coun- 
try; and in 1731 supported the bill to prevent pensioners 
from sitting in the House of Commons. On other occasions 
also of publie interest, — in moving the address to the king 
for discharging the Hessian troops in the pay of Great 
Britain ; in resisting the undue taxation of the poor, on the 
bill for the revival of the salt duty; in advocating the mo- 
tion of tho Earl of Oxford for the reduction of the forces, 
and in the dehate on the mutiny hill, Lord Bathurst took 
an aetive and decided part ; and, during the whole period of 
which this narration is a brief review, he showed himself a 
steady opponent of Sir Robert Walpole's administration. 

Lord Bathurst was married, in 1704, to Catherine, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Peter Apsley, by whom he had 
four sons and five daughters. In 1742 he was made cap- 
tain of his majesty's Band of Gentlemen Pensioners, which 
post he resigned in 1744. He was appointed treasurer to 
George III., then Prince George of Wales, in 1757, and this 
office he held till the death of George II., in 1760, when he 
declined the acceptance of any further employment, on 
aceount of his age. In consideration, however, of his pre- 
vious services, he reeeived a pension of 2000/. per annum 
on the Irish establishment, and was advanced to an earldom 
in 1772. He died at his seat near Cirencester on the 16th 
Septeraher, 1775, aged ninety-one. > 

In his private eharaeter Lord Bathurst was generous and 
afTable ; that he possessed knowledge and acquirements as 
a man of letters may be inferred from his long and intimate 
acquaintance with Pope, Swift, Prior; Rowe, Congreve, 
Aruuthnot, Gay, and Addison ; and the sincerity of his 
political friendships was, manifested in his firm and stre- 
nuous opposition to the attainder of Bolingbroke and Or- 
mond. Mr. Pope acknowledged his obligations by dedicating 
to Lord Bathurst the 3rd Epistle of his Moral Essays, and 
in the following lines pays a happy eompliment to the judg- 
ment and integriiy of his patron :— 

The tense to value riches, with the art 
* . : V enjoy them, and the virtuo to impart, 

Not meanly nor aiabitiouily pursued, 
Not sunk by sloth, nor raised by servitude ; 
% * ** To balance fortune by a just expense, 
Join with economy magnificence ; 
Wilh spleadour. charity ; with plenty, health; 
O teach us, Bathurst I > et unspoit'd by wealth, 
That secret rare, between ihe extremes to move 
Of mad good-nature, and of mean self- love.' 



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The only surviving ion of Lord BathursU Henry, the 
second earl, boro in 1714, was made Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas in 1754. and in 177] was appointed Lord 
Chancellor with the title of Baron Apslcy. He resigned 
the scab in 1778, and died in 1794. He was the author of 
a pamphlet in 4 to. entitled The Case of Miss Swordfeger, 
and of & work on the Theory of Evidence, 8vo. 

BATHURST, a sottlement of the English on the west 
coast of Africa, is situated on the south-eastern extremity 
of the island of St. Mary, at the mouth of the river Gam- 
bia, in 16° 6' W. long., and 13° 23' N. lat. The greatest 
length of the island is about four miles, but its goneral 
breadth does not exceed one mile and a half, and in some 
places it is much less. The surface of the Island is a jow 
plain, with a slight descent from the north and east sides 
towards the centre, which during the season of rain is much 
inundated. The town itself docs not stand mere than twelvo 
or fourteen feet above the level of high -water mark. The 
settlement, although in its Infancy, has made rapid advances 
in improvement. Many fine and substantial government 
buildings have been erected ; and the merchants residing 
there have vied with each other in the elegant and conve- 
nient arrangement of their dwellings and warehouses, all of 
which are built with stone or brick, and roofed with slates 
or shingles. The population of this settlement has been 
greatly increased, not only by British merchants, but by a 
large influx of the inhabitants of Goree, who have emigrated 
to Bathurst. This emigration was caused by the people not 
finding employment under the French government, and also 
by their being excluded from the trade of the Gambia, 
except through tho medium of St Mary's, or of the small 
factory belonging to the French at Albreda, beyond which 
they were not allowed to ascend the river. The inha- 
bitants are abundantly supplied with beef, mutton, poultry, 
fish, fruit, milk, butter, palm-wine, and all the African 
vegetables, by the natives of the surrounding towns, who, 
sensible of the advantages they derive from the settle- 
ment, flock to it in great numbers, and con sumo a large 
proportion of the European articles imported into the colony. 
Gofd, ivory, bees'-wax, and hides are brought to Bathurst in 
considerable quantities by the native traders, and by the in- 
habitants of Goree who have settled there. These products 
are annually shipped for England by the British mer- 
chants. (Gray's Travels in Western Africa in 1818, 1819, 
1620, and 182].) 

BATHURST, in New South Wales, one of the counties 
into which that part of tho territory of the colony which lies 
we*t of the Blue Mountains has recently been divided. At 
first the whole of this part of the country was distinguished 
by the name of Bathurst, but it is now divided into several 
counties, of which one only retains the original denomina- 
tion. The country west of the mountains was not dis- 
covered until 1813, but has sineo rapidly risen into notice 
on aecount of its excellent cool climate, and its fine rich 
pastures, flats, and downs. The climate and soil are in 
many parts well adapted to agriculture, which has partially 
been attended to, with the very best results in some places ; 
but the distance from a market, and the want of easy access 
to the coast, prevents any settler from raising produce be- 
yond the wants of his own establishment. As all the rivers 
beyond the Blue Mountains run westerly, and terminate in 
the immense interior swamps, the outlet of which is yet un- 
ascertained, the absence of a water communication with 
Sydney and the eastern coast has obliged the settlers to 
confine their attention chiefly to the rearing of sheep and 
cattle. By far the greater proportion of the wool exported 
from the colony comes from this territory, and, with encese, 
forms the only artiele which interior settlers have to give in 
exchange for tea, sugar, clothing, and other things which 
they require. This must be understood as applying gene- 
rally to the appropriated territory beyond the Biue ^loun- 
tuins, including, besides Bathurst properly so called, the 
counties of Westmoreland and Roxburgh at least. The 
census of 1833 seems to include the entire transmontane po- 
pulation under the head of Bathurst, as no mention is made 
of other counties. The result gives a population of 3454, of 
whom 2000 are convicts. The total number of females, free 
ami convicts, docs not exceed 523. In the restricted sense, 
Bathurst is the westernmost county of the colony, extending 
55 miles in length from N.NAV, to S.S.E., with 42 miles of 
extreme breadth from E. to W, 

The small town of Bathurst is 744 yards above the level 
of tho sea, ou the west bank of the Macquaric river, at 



the distance of 122 miles from Sydney, to which there is a 
carriage road. It is yet In its infaney ; but as no situation 
west of the Blue Mountains can bo preferable, it will, no 
doubt, ultimately become a place of considerable import- 
ance— a sort of capital to the iaterior. Its healthiness may 
be estimated from the fact, that only one death took place 
in the first twelve years of tho settlement. It now possesses 
a very fair proportion of respectable settlers in comfortable 
circumstances, who have established a society, called * The 
Bathurst Literary Society,* with the view of forming a 
library for the use of the members, and of promoting the 
improvement of tho community bv the discussion of inte- 
resting topics, A hunt, called * The Bathurst Hunt/ was 
established several years since by the gentlemen of tho 
place, for the purpose of coursing tho native wild dog. 
Tho recent accounts of the ravages of these animals in tho 
pastoral districts of New South Wales show tho great im- 
portance of this objeet beyond the mere purposes of sport. 
Mr. P.Cunningham mentions among the signs of the rapid 
progress which Bathurst has made, that it possessed several 
years ago a boarding-school, in which Greek, Latin, and 
other branches of education, were professed to be taught. 

(Cunningham's 7>co Yean in New South f Fates; Breton's 
Excursions in New South Wales ; Strutt's Expeditions in 
Australia; Dawson's Present State of Australia; New 
South Wales Calendar, 1834.) 

BATHURST INLET is a deep bight on the eastern 
shores of George the Fourth's Coronation Gulf. It runs to 
the S.E. about 76 miles, and was explored by Captain 
Franklin in his overland journey to the Polar Sea in 1819. ■ 
(Franklin's First Journey to the Polar Sea.) 

BATHURST ISLAND, one of the North Georgian 
group, in the Arctic Seas, was so called by Captain Parry, 
who first discovered it in his passage to Melville Island in 
1819. Its appearance was high, barren, and rugged, the 
highest part exceeding 600 feet, and the shores generally 
steep. There was no opportunity of landing on it. The 
soutnern coast only was traced for a distance of 75 miles 
from 97° 50' to J 03° W. long., lying in an E.S.E. and 
W.N.W. direction, on the parallel of about 75° N. lat. 
(Parry's First Voyage in 1819-20.) 

BATMAN (pronounced BAWMAN), a person allowed by 
the government to every company of a regiment on foreign 
service. His duty is to take charge of the cooking utensUs, 
&c., of the company. There is in the charge of tho batman 
a bathorse (pronounced bawhorsc) for each company, to con- 
vey tho cooking utensils from place to place. For the pur- 
chase of this horse the officer commanding the company is 
allowed a sum of money, and forago is also provided at the 
government expense for the horse. For regiments on duty 
in the kingdom the batmen and bathorses become unneces- 
sary, as the soldiers arc billettcd on the inns, public-houses, 
and beer-houses. 

BATMAN, a weight used in Persia, and at Aleppo, 
Constantinople, Smyrna, and other places in the Levant. 
In the Turkish dominions a batman contains six okes, each 
weighing 400 drachms. At Constantinople, silks from 
Persia are weighed by the batman of six okes. In Persia, 
there are two sorts of batman : the batman of Cherrav, and 
the batman of Tauris. The former is exactly double the 
latter. The batman of Cherrav weighs 88,771 English 
grains. (Sec Kelly's Universal 'Cambist, 4to. Lond. 183], 
vol. i. pp. 4, 72, vol. ii. pp. 226, 278.) 

BATN-EL-HAJAR (i.e. 'the Womb of Rocks'), or 
Dfir-el'Hajar ( 4 the Mansion of Rocks'), is the name of a 
stony wilderness, stretching along the Nile from the district 
of Suceot in the south, to AVddi Haifa in the north. In the 
map of the course of the Nile, drawn by Col. W. M. Leake, 
which accompanies Burckhardt's Travels in Nubia, it is 
laid down between 21-22° N. lat. and 30°35'-31° 10' E. Ion. 
of Greenwich ; in Ruppcil'smap, between 2]° ] 0'-50'N. lat., 
and 30°40'-3]° 10' E. long. The Nile, during its prosress 
through the upper part of this dUtriet, as far as Wfldi 
Mershed, is often forced into a narrow channel by the close 
approach of the mountains on both sides ; and towards 
the north of AVAdi Mershed navigation is interrupted by fre- 
quent cataracts, rocks, and nuall islands. A few spots only 
admit of cultivation, which consist of narrow strips of land 
situated along the Niio : but even here tho banks arc gene- 
rally so high, that tho annual inundations of the river do not 
reach tho plains, and the soil must he irrigated by means of 
water-wheels. The mountains of Batn-el-Hajar consist of 
primitive roeks, principally of greenstone and grauwacke, 



BAT 



39 



B A T 



and towards the south of Seras, of granite; they differ 
in this respect from the hills accompanying the Nile below 
Wadi Haifa, where the prevailing rock is sandstone. The 
mountains on the eastern side of the Nile reach their 
greatest elevation towards the south : the Jahal Lamoule, 
above AV3di Ambigo, is noticed hy Burckhardt as one of 
the highest.. Another group of high hills ealled Jahal 
Bilingo, is found farther towards the north, between Wadi 
Attar and Seras. In his route from W6di Attar to W&di 
Ambigo, Burckhardt had to cross over a high mountain pass 
1n the hills, named Jahel Doushe. 

The small strips of level land on the hanks of the river 
were formerly populous and well cultivated, hut are now 
thinly inhabited. The number of the present male in- 
habitants of the whole district of Batn-el-Hajar is esti- 
mated by Burckhardt not to exceed 200. They consist 
partly of Beduins of the tribe Kerrarish ; partly of Arabs, 
who pretend to be Shertfs, or descendants of the family 
of Mohammed, from Mecca. The chief of the latter, who 
is distinguished by the title of melek, or king, is tributary 
to the governors of Nubia, and resides at \Vfidi Altar, or 
Attyu, the principal villago of Batn-el-Hajar. In conse- 
quence, however, of the frequent incursions of the Sheygya 
Arabs (who live on the southern banks of the bend of the Nile 
in Dongola, at a distance of eight days* journey from Succot 
across the desert), the greater part of the Sherifs have now 

3uitted this neighbourhood, and have settled partly in the 
istrict of Succot, and partly in Dongola. Most of the Sho- 
rtfs speak a little Arabic. Tbey are described as being re- 
markably well made, with fine features, and of a dark brown 
colour. They go naked, and the women are in the hahit of 
wearing leather amulets round tho neck, and copper orna- 
ments on their arms and wrists. They dwell chielly upon the 
little islands of the river, where they are less exposed to 
the attacks of the predatory Arabs than on the banks of the 
river. 

Ruppell, who in 1823 passed through the part of Batn-el* 
II ajar situated on the western side of the Nile, describes 
that district as consisting of a chain of syenite hills along 
the hanks of the river, and beyond them, as far as the eye 
could reach, a tract of moveablo sands, the dreary uniformity 
of which was but seldom interrupted by projecting dark 
cliffs of primitive rock. On the western bank of the river, 
towards the south of W&di Haifa, Ruppell found many de- 
serted villages and monasteries: the local appellation of the 
latter is Sullf. Nearly the whole of the western part of 
Dar-el-IIajar is now uninhabited. At Semne (in 21° 30' 
N. lat.) Ruppell saw the ruins of a large and apparently 
antient village or town, with several temples in a mixed 
Roman and Egyptian style of architecture. (See Edward 
Riippeirs JReisen in Nubien, &c, Frankfurt, 1829. 8vo. 
pp. 12, 13.) 

The vegetable productions of Batn-el-Hajar are few. 
Date- trees are occasionally found in the wddis or valleys 
that intersect the hills and slope towards the Nile. At 
Wddi Seras Burckhardt saw a few cotton-fields and bean- 
plantations. Dhourra is scarce. The principal food of tbo 
inhabitants consists of beans, and the grains of a shrub 
ealled kerkedan, which grows wild here. Another legumi- 
nous plant, tbo symka, is used as food for camels, and 
from its grains an oil is prepared which the natives use 
instead of butter. 

At the southern extremity of Batn-el-Hajar, the village 
of Wadi Okame, or Ukme, is situated: this place is often 
visited by pilgrims who perform their devotions at the tomb 
of a Mohammedan saint, Sheikh Okashe, who is buried here. 
At a distance of two hours* ride S.S.W. of Okame is the 
island of Kolbe, the residence of the chief of Succot. 
(J. L. Burckhardt's Travels in Nubia, Lond. 1819. 4to. p. 
42-50.) 

BATOLITES, in zoology, a genus of fossil shells esta- 
blished by Montfort, and placed by him among his coquUles 
univalves cloisonnees. Cuvier, however, who quotes the 
observations of M. Deshayes and of M. Audouin, considers 
tbem as cylindrical and straight hippurites, and places 
them under his family of ostrac^s or ostraceans, among 
thoso fossil bivalves which are supposed to have had tbeir 
valves connected by no ligament but by mere muscular 
adhesion, and immediately before tho oysters. Montfort 
states that these shells acquire a very great length, and that 
they constitute masses of rock in tho High Alps. [See 
Birostiutes and Hippurites.] 



BATRA'CHIANS. [See Frogs.] 

BATRACHOMYOMA'CniA (Bar^o/tuo^a^a), (he 
battle of the frogs and mice, Is the title of a Greek poem, 
consisting of 294 hexameter verses. This poem, though 
generally ascribed to Homer, and printed with the editions 
of the Iliad and Odyssey, undoubtedly helongs to a late 
age, and is attributed by Plutarch and Suidas to Pigres, of 
Halicarnassus, in Asia Minor. Pigres is called by Suidas 
the brofher of that Artemisia who was the wife of Mausolus. 
[See Artemisia.] This poem, however, is probably the 
composition of some still later writer of the Alexandrine 
school. Some critics consider it a satirical poem : as it is 
not very long, the reader may form his own opinion without 
much trouble. (See Parnell's Translation into English 
verse.) 

BATTA, an allowance made to military officers in the 
service of the East India Company, in addition to their pay. 
As the officers of King's regiments serving in India re- 
ceive their pay according to the scale fixed by his Majesty's 
regulations, and which pay is below.. the emoluments derived 
by officers of similar rank in the regiments of the East India 
Company, the allowance of batta is made also to them by 
the Company, and is so adjusted as to preserve an equality 
of income between the two services. 

The scale of allowance under the name of batta varies not 
only with the circumstance of the regiments being in the 
field or in cantonments, but also according to the part of the 
country in which they are stationed. 

Batta was originally given with the intention of enabling 
officers to provide for field-equipment, and for those extra 
expenses which they must incur when marching, but it 
early lost this character when it was continued to officers in 
cantonments. In November* 1828, the distinction was made 
between the amount allowed when in actual service, and 
when in cantonments: before that time no difference was 
made. The efTect of tho alteration is this : that at particular 
stations of the army, where an officer formerly got full batta, 
he now gets half that batta, with an allowance for house-rent, 
which is inferior to what the other half of the batta would be. 
The half-batta of a lieutenant-colonel is 304 rupees (about 
30/.)per month; his allowance for house-rent is 100 rupees. 
A major's half-batta is 228, and for house-rent 80 rupees per 
month; captain's half-batta, 91, and house-rent, 50 rupees; 
lieutenant's, 61, and 30 rupees; ensign's, 46, and 25 rupees. 
Colonels of regiments, not being general officers on the staff, 
nor holding offices specially provided for, are allowed the 
full batta of 750 rupees per month at any station, but they 
have not any allowance for house-rent. It was estimated, 
that by carrying into effect the regulation of November, 
1828, the government of the East India Company would 
savo 12,000/. per annum. (Report o/ Committee of the 
House of Commons on the Affairs of India, 1832, part 5, 
Military.) 

BATTALION. This name is applied to a certain division 
of the infantry ia an army, corresponding, nearly, to the chi- 
liarchia in a Greek phalanx, and to the cohort in a Roman 
legion. The number of men composing a battalion is vari- 
able, but in the British service, according to the present 
establishment, it is, in general, ahout 750. One battalion 
in most cases constitutes a regiment, but some regiments, 
as those of the guards, consist of two battalions, and the 
regiment of artillery consists at present of eight, besides the 
brigade of horso artillery. It seems, therefore, that, origi- 
nally, the name of regiment was applied to the body of 
men organized for a particular district, or a particular 
branch of service ; and that, when the numerical strength 
of the regiment exceeded what was considered convenient, 
it was divided into two or more battalions. 

Tho phalanges of the Greeks, and the legions of the 
Romans, with their respective constitutions and divisions, 
will be described under the words Phalanx and Legiox. 

The destructive effects of fire-arms among dense bodies 
of men necessarily caused the closo order of battle used in 
antient warfare to be abandoned; though, down to the 
middle of the eighteenth century, an opinion that the'troops 
could not otherwise resist effectually a charge of the enemy, 
and the desire to form them with facility into a column for 
attack, induced commanders of armies to draw up the bat- 
talions in a line from four to six files deep. But the nume- 
rous casualties which still occurred, led subsequently to the 
practice of forming the line in three ranks ; and in the latest 
regulations for the disposition of tho British army, it is pre- 



BAT 



40 



BAT 



scribed that the battalions are to be drawn up in two ranks 
only. The argument in favour of this method, which, it 
may be observed, was recommended, in 1 783, by Turpi n, the 
commentator of Vegctius, is, that in action two ranks of men 
only can fire at once, and as the third ranit ean be no othcr- 
wiso employed than in loading, and handing the muskets 
to the men in their front, this service scarcely compensates 
for the loss occasioned by the exposure of so many men to 
the enemy's fire. A foreign writer, however, contends that 
with soldiers as well disciplined as tbose of Russia, three 
ranks would he more advantageous than two ; sinco tho 
men in the middle rank are enabled to fire a second time 
with tho muskets obtained from those in the third rank, 
immediately after they and the front-rank men have made 
their first firo, so that a much less interval takes place be- 
tween the vollies than that which occurs when the line con- 
sists of only two ranks. 

During "the wars which aroso out of tho Revolution in 
France, the armies of that nation becamo habituated to a 
formation in close columns instead of a lino of small depth. 
This practice, which seemed to be a return to the tactics of 
the anticnts, possesses somo advantages when an attack is 
to be directed against an enemy's line which is too far ex- 
tended to allow the divisions to succour each other in time ; 
and the great merit of Napoleon consisted in manoeuvring 
bo as to lead his opponent to fall into this error, and then 
overwhelming him by numerous consecutivo and powerful 
attacks directed against tho weaker part of his line. The 
system, however, seems to have been persevered in too tena- 
ciously by the French generals; for, against steady troops, 
their columns not only suffered serious losses in making tho 
assaults, but wcro incapable of keeping up a fire equal to 
that which might have been produced by a more extended 
order. Such was the error committed by Marshal Soult at 
the battle of Allucra. According to Napier {History of 
the Peninsular TVar)% ' that general persisted beyond reason 
in fighting with dense columns, and thus lost the fairest 
field ever offered to the arms of France. Had the fifth corps 
of the French opencdin time,* thchistorian observes, 'nothing 
could have saved tho British army from a total defeat/ 

A battalion is now generally divided into ten companies; 
and, for convenience in performing the movements which 
may be required, each company is subdivided into two equal 
parts, and each of these into sections. Tho battalion is 
commanded by its own colonel ; and several battalions or 
regiments arc, on service, united under one general ofliccr: 
these constitute a brigade, and may be considered as a small 
legion. According to the present regulations each man oc- 
cupies in line twenty- one inches, and, as no intervals exist 
between the companies, the extent of a battalion formed two 
deep is about 219 yards. Six paces are left between every 
two battalions, and the -same interval only separates one 
brigade from another. 

The company of grenadiers occupies the cxtrcmo right, 
and the light infantry company the extreme left of the bat- 
talion : these are called the (lank companies, and the others 
take their places from right to left, according to tho num- 
bers by which they are designated. Tho captain, or officer 
commanding each company, is stationed in the front line on 
the right of his company ; and immediately behind him, in the 
rear rank is his covering serjeant The lieutenants, ensigns, 
and the Serjeants of the companies form a third, or what is 
called a supernumerary, rank in rear of tho others, at the 
distance of three paces. The two regimental colours are 
placed in the front rank between the two centro companies, 
and two non-commissioned officers are in tho rear rank 
behind them ; a serjeant is stationed in the front, between 
the colours* another stands opposite to him in tho rear rank, 
and a third in a lino with both, in the supernumerary rank. 
Thcso last-mentioned Serjeants servo to direct tho march of 
tho battalion when it moves parallel to its front ; for which 
purpose, on that occasion, they form themselves in a line in 
that direction, and march before tho battalion at the dis- 
tance of six paces. 

The commander of the battalion places himself in front 
when he has to superintend the ordinary exercises, other- 
wise his station is in the rear. The lieutenant-colonel is 
behind the colours in rear of the supernumerary rank; the 
majors are in rear of the second battalion companies on tho 
right and left flanks respectively, and the adjutant in a line 
with them, opposite to the centre. Tho situations of the 
Staff'ofthc battalion, the musician*, Sec., together with the 



particulars abovo briefly stated, are fully described in the 
treatises on the field exercises and evolutions of tho British 
army. 

Originally the grenadiers performed the duty of throwing 
hand-grenades, or small iron shells charged with powder, 
among the enemy ; and tbc firelocks of the fusileers and 
light infantry were different from those of the other troops ; 
hut, except the riflemen, who use pieces with barrels rihed, 
or grooved, all the infantry of the line carry the same kind 
of musket. 

Tho principal evolutions of a battalion consist in revers- 
ing the front of the line, taking a position at right-angles to 
its actual front ; forming a column by bringing the different 
companies or their subdivisions parallel to, and directly in 
rear of each other, cither at open or close intervals ; forming 
a column en echelon, or with the divisions parallel to, but in 
positions receding from, each other towards the rmht or 
left, in tho manner of steps; or, lastly, forming a nollow 
squaro. By changing the front, a retrograde movement in 
line may be made ; by forming the line perpendicularly on 
cither (lank, an attempt of the enemy to turn it may be op- 
posed. Columns arc formed for tho purpose of marching 
along roads or through defiles, or advancing in a body to- 
wards an enemy's position ; a movement en echelon allows 
troops to gain ground obliquely towards tho front or rear; 
and a hollow square is formed in order to resist an enemy in 
every direction, when the battalion is in danger of being 
surrounded. 

A regiment of cavalry now consists of three squadrons; 
each squadron of two troops, and the numerical strength of 
each of these is about 80 men : but from that number one- 
sixth is to bo deducted for the men not under arms. Tho 
cavalry are formed two deep, and each file occupies three feet 
in front; no interval is left between the troops, but that 
between every two squadrons is one-fourth of the actual 
strength of cacb. A regiment of cavalry, when complete, 
will thus occupy about 233 yards in front. 

(Turpin de Criss6, Commentaires sur les Institutions 
Mil it aires de Vegcce ; Daniel, Histoire de la Milice Fran- 
poise ; Okounef, Examen RaisonnS des Propriitte des 
Trois Armes ; Bismark on the Tactics of Cavalry, trans- 
lated by Major Beamish ; Regulations for the Formations, 
Field Exercises , and Movements of his Majesty's Forces, 
corrected to 1833. For many' particulars relative to the 
present state of the British army, the Monthly Ltsts may 
be consulted.) 

BATTARDEAU. [See Cofferdam.] 

BATTAS. Tho large portion of the island of Sumatra 
which is known as the Battas country, is situated between 
the equator and about 2* 30' N. lat. With the exception of 
the principality of Siak on tho nortb-east coast, and of somo 
settlements at tbo moutbs of rivers, which are in possession 
of Malays, this country includes tbo whole of the space be- 
tween those parallels. On the south-east it is bounded by 
the principalities of Rawa and Menancabow, and on tho 
north-west by the kingdom of Atchccn. 

Tho Battas country, which by the inhabitants is called 
BatakAs divided into several provinces, which are subdivided 
into districts. The names of the principal provinces aro 
Toba, Mandeling, Angkola.IIumbang, Si Nambila, Looboo, 
Manambin, Palampungan, Barumim, Sama Jambu, Pan- 
garan, Lain bung, Silendung, Butur, Holbang, Linton, Dairi, 
Alas, Karaw, and Ria. 

Tho most populous of these districts arc those, situated 
about the centre of tho country, and particularly Toba, Si- 
lendung, Holbang, and Linton. The great Tfoba Lake, 
which lies in a direction nearly north-east from the Dutch 
settlement of Tapanooly (which is in 1° 40' N. lat., and 9S° 
50' E. long.), has never yet been visited by any European. 
Messrs. Burton and Ward, Baptist missionaries on the island, 
to whom this lake was pointed out from somo high land at a 
considerable distance, describe it as being from 60 to 70 
miles long, with a breadth of from 1 5 to 20 miles. The sur- 
face of the lake was described to those gentlemen as being 
sometimes so rough as to prevent the passago of boats to 
and from an island in the middle, on which a periodical 
market is held. Several streams, one of them of consider- 
able size, flow into the Toba Lake, and if it bo true, as their 
guide stated to Messrs. Burton and Ward, that its waters 
rise and fall twice in the course of the twenty- four hours, it 
is probablo that further examination would show it to be an 
arm of the sea. 



BAT 



41 



B A T 



Our information with regard to the people forming the 
Battas tribes is so' scanty, that any statemeut we can give 
respecting their system of government must be liable to un- 
certainty. It is said that the supreme government over the 
whole of the districts is exercised by one chief, who lives 
at the north-western extremity of the Toba Lake. By 
this chief a deputy is appointed for each district, who; as- 
sisted by a council composed of the leading inhahitants, con- 
*ducts the political affairs of the district ; he frames laws, 
declares war, makes peace, and administers justice. The 
authority of these deputies is very much controlled by the 
councils with whom they act, so that the different districts 
may be considered as so many oligarchies. The more mi- 
nute functions of government are otherwise performed, each 
village forming, in this respect, a distinct community, and 
possessing within itself the power of framing regulations for 
its own municipal government The inhabitants of the dif- 
ferent districts are so little held together by the authority of 
the chief governor, that it is not unusual for two or more vil- 
lages to be engaged in war again3t each other, while the 
rest of the nation is at peace. It is probably owing to their 
system of government, as well as to their inland situation, 
and to the ease with which their few natural wants can be 
supplied, that these people have retained unaltered their 
primitive habits and character. Compared with the Malays 
of the coast, although they are less enterprising, the Battas 
are more industrious. A great part of the necessaries of 
life required at such of the Malayan settlements as are 
within their reach is supplied from the Battas country. 

These people consider themselves to have been the earliest 
settlers on Sumatra, and they have a tradition that their 
forefathers came from a country lying to the cast of that 
island, but their belief upon this subject is very vague, and 
they exhibit so many points of resemblance to Hindus, 
that it appears more probable they must originally have 
eome from India. The resemblance "hero spoken of is shown 
iu their persons: they are of middle stature, well made, and 
have prominent noses. Their religious notions, likewise, 
savour strongly of Hindu origin. They believe in the ex- 
istence of a Supreme Creator of the world, who has com- 
mitted the eharge of its gov em men t to three sons, who, 
in their turn, have delegated to inferior gods the duties of 
their oflico. The names of these jrods are said to have a 
strong resemblance to those of the Hindu mythology. This 
system of faith is burthened with numerous superstitions. 
The people believe in the constant interposition of good and 
evil genii in their worldly affairs, and every village has its 
peculiar demons or spirits, chiefly composed of the souls of 
the deceased inhabitants. As might be supposed, under 
the influence of sueh a belief, the person who exercises the 
office of priest, and who is frequently the head man or rajah 
of the village, is a person of great consequence, to whose 
ad \ ice and assistance recourse is had upon all occasions. 
The Battas do not appear to have any idea of an existence 
beyond the present, and their religious prejudices and fears 
being thus limited to merely the objects of sense havo littlo 
or no influence over their moral conduct. y 

The well-ascertained fact of their cannibalism has occa- 
sioned them to be considered brutal and ferocious in their 
nature, an opinion which appears to be by no means well 
founded ; they arc, on the contrary, quiet and timid to a greater 
degree than even Hindus. Their principal food is rice 
and batatas. Meat tbey seldom or never taste, but when 
they do indulgo iu it they are not particular as to the de- 
scription or condition of the animals they eat. According 
to Marsden, their indulgence in anthropophagy is limited 
to the devouring of persons slain or taken prisoners in war, 
and of certain classes of crimiuals. Robbers, if taken in the 
fact, are publicly executed and eaten forthwith, but if they 
elude immediate detection, a slighter punishment than loss 
of life is awarded. Men taken in adultery are subjected to the 
same revolting punishment, with this additional circumstance, 
that they may l>e eaten piecemeal without being previously 
put to death. It is not considered lawful to eat the bodies 
of persons taken or slain in the wars or feuds which occur 
between different villages or districts, but only such as fall 
into their power in what may be considered as national con- 
tests. An account has very recently (1835) been received 
in Europe of the killing, and probably also the eating by 
the Battas, of two English missionaries, who were proceed- 
ing through the country in the direction of the great Toba 
Lake. It appears that the tribe among whom the mission- 
aries fell were at the time engaged in war with another 



tribe, and they might easily, under those circumstances, put 
a wrong construction upon the unusual appearance of 
strangers among them. It is said to be the opinion of per- 
sons near to the spot, and therefore better able than we can 
be to form a correct judgment on the case, that if the two 
missionaries had taken the precaution to send a messenger 
before them, to explain the pacific object of their journey, 
they would have met with hospitable welcome, instead of 
the melancholy. fate that has befallen them. Dr. Leyden, 
in his work on the languages and literature of the Hindo- 
Chinese nations, states that the Battas frequently also eat 
their* aged or infirm 'relations, as an act of pious duty. 
When, among them, a man becomes infirm and tired of 
life, he is said to invite his children to eat him : ho ascends 
a tree, round which his friends and descendants assemble, 
and the whole of them join in singing a dirge, the burthen 
of which is 'The season is come, the fruit is ripe, and 
it must descend.' The victim then descends, is deprived 
of life, and his remains are devoured in a solemn banquet. 
This practice of the Battas eating their aged parents has 
been compared with the usage of the Padsei of India men- 
tioned by Herodotus (lib. iii. 99) ; and Dr. Leyden has con- 
jectured, perhaps rather hastily, that the Pada;i and the 
Battas are the same people. A similar practice prevailed 
amongst the Massageta) (Herod, i. 216), and among tho 
antient Tupts of Brazil. 

Slavery exists among, the Battas. The classes who are 
reduced to this state of degradation are their own country- 
men, and generally orphans, prisoners ^aken during their 
intestine wars, or debtors. To satisfy a debt, no matter how 
contracted, and probably tho result of a game of chance (for 
these people arc great gamesters), not only the man himself, 
but his whole family also, may be sold into slavery. 

The custom of the country authorises every man to havo 
as many wives as ho can purchase ; and, as usually is the 
case where sueh a custom prevails, the wives perform all the 
drudgery, and are in fact considered to be littlo better than 
slaves. It is not often that a man has more than two wives 
at the same time. 

, The Battas havo a written language, which bears a con- 
siderable resemblance, both in sound and construction, to 
that of the Malays : it has by some persons been considered 
a dialect of the Malayan tongue. The spoken language is 
somewhat different — a circumstance which may very na- 
turally arise, in progress of time, among a people of whom 
only a very small proportion are able to use or understand 
the written characters. It is said that not more than two 
persons in one hundred among the Battas are able to read. 
Such books as they have are chiefly upon astrology, omens, 
and other subjects of a superstitious nature. Many persons 
among them show skill in poetry ; and it forms part of their so- 
cial amusements to undertake contests in improvising, which 
they keep up for hours together with considerable spirit. 

It is principally in the Battas country that the camphor- 
trees of Sumatra are found : none, it is said, grow south of 
tho equator. The camphor which these trees yield is con- 
sidered to be so good in quality, that it sells in tho markets 
of China for more than ten times the price paid for that pro- 
duced in Japan, and which is yielded by a different plant. 
The camphor-tree of Sumatra grows without cultivation, 
and attains to a size equal to that of the largest timber trees, 
being frequently above fifteen feet in circumference. Cam- 
phor in tho Battas language is called Kapur, of which the 
European name is a corruption. In Eastern markets it is 
known as Kapur Baroos, the latter word being the name of 
the town on the coast of Sumatra whence it is shipped. 

Benjamin, or benzoin, is almost exclusively a product of 
the Battas country. Marsden says that large plantations of 
the trees by which it is yielded (the Styrax benzoin) are 
cultivated by the natives. The other vegetable productions 
of this part of Sumatra are common to the whole island. 
[See Sumatra.] 

The entire population of the Battas country has been esti- 
mated at 1,500,000 souls, but this computation must bo 
altogether conjectural. 

(Marsden's History of Sumatra ; Asiatic Researches; 
Porter's Tropical Agriculturist ; Library of Entertaining 
Knowledge* Vegetable Substances used in the Arts.) 

BATTENS, pieces of wood of various lengths, 7 inches 
wido and generally not exceeding 2| inches in thickness 
when imported. They are used, for floors, and are also 
placed upright against walls to fix the laths on which the 
plastering is set. East-country battens, as imported, are 



No. 210. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



Vol, IV.-G 



BAT 



4? 



BAT 



7 inches wide and 2J inches thick, whieh, when planed up 
and shot, are cut into two hoards each lj inch thick. 
Suoh battens are used for the best floors ; but in attics, and 
rooms of less importance, for economy, the batten is cut into 
tlnee boards. When used for walls, the 7 and 2J inch bat- 
ten* are cut into six picecs lengthways, being then some- 
thing less than 2J inches wido and 1J inch thick, allow- 
ance being made for tho sawing. Battens are usually placed 
at the distance of seven inches asunder, but sometimes 
eleven or twelve, which is, however, considered slight work ; 
if double laths are used, it will then bo sufficiently strong 
to earry the plaster. The battons are nailed to the bond- 
timbers of the wall ; or, if there are no bond -timbers, to 
wooden plugs plaeed at ccjual distances. Walls of brick 
and stone, when not sufficiently dry to be finished in the 
usual way, require battens for tho lath and plaster; and it 
is of tbc utmost importance to employ battens in exposed 
situations, especially on the sea coast, where the driving 
rains will often penetrate the walls. 

Battens from the British possessions in North America, 
when 6 and not exceeding 16 feet long, nor above 7 inches 
vide and not above 2fc inches thick, pay a duty of l/. per 
120. Battens of the same dimensions from foreign coun- 
tries pay 10/* per 120. The duty increases with the length, 
and also with the thickness, of the battens. The net re- 
venue from battens in 1833 was 115,215/, The difference 
between battens and deals is this : battens arc never, and 
deals are always, above seven inches wide. Battens are 
always at least six feet long, and batten -ends always under 
that length. The duty on battens and batten-ends is dif- 
ferent: battens, 1/. British North American, 10/. foreign; 
batten-ends, 7*. 6d. American, 3/. foreign. (Government 
Statistical Tables, 1834.) The lwjst battens are from Chris- 
tiania ; the worst, from America. 

BATTERING-RAM. [See Artillkry.] 

B ATTERSE A, a parish in the county of Surrey, situated 
four miles south-west of St. Paul's Cathedral, and forming 
one of the suburbs of the metropolis. In Domesday Book 
it is called Patricesy, and as the same survey mentions 
that it belonged to the abbey of St. Peter, Westminster, 
this probably indicates the true etymology of the name. 
Tho parish comprehends an area of 3020 acres, pretty 
equally divided between arable land and pasture. Much 
of the former is occupied by market-gardeners, Battersoa 
being specially noted for the quantity of vegetablo pro- 
duce which it raises for the London market. Tho manor 
of Battcrsca was given by the Conqueror to Westminster 
Abbey in exchange for Windsor ; after the dissolution of 
monasteries the manor passed through various hands, and 
in the year 1627 it was granted by the king to Oliver St. 
John, Viscount Grantlison, from whom it descended to the 
celebrated St. John, Viscount Bolingbrokc, and in 1763 was 
purchased of the St. John family in trust for John Viscount 
Spencer, and is now the property of the present Earl 
Spencer. A church is mentioned in Domesday Book, but 
the existing parish church is a modern structure, opened in 
1777. It is situated on the banks of the Thames, and is of 
brick, with a tower and small conical spire. It has neither 
aisles nor chancel. A new church has recently been erected 
by the commissioners for building churches. The living of 
Battcrsca is a vicarage hi the diocese of Winchester, rated 
in the kind's books at 13/. 15jt. 2$d, The tithes which accrue 
from the gardens render the living one of the most valuable 
in the neighbourhood of J^ondon. Battcrsca lies too low on 
the Thames to bo one of tho most agreeable suburbs of 
London for residence ; it nevertheless contains a large num- 
ber of respectable houses and neat villas. Lord Bolingbrokc 
was born and died In the family mansion at Battcrsca, of 
which Pope was a frequent inmate. Tho houso was very 
large, having forty rooms on a floor; but it has long since 
been taken down and tho site otherwise appropriated. The 
villago possesses a frco school, which was endowed by Sir 
Walter St- John, in 1700, for twenty boys; and both he and 
his lady afterwards left further sums for apprenticing some 
of the number. Battersea is connected with Chelsea by a 
wooden bridge across the Thames, erected in 1771. The 
population or this extensive parish was 5540 in 1831, of 
whom 3021 were females. (Lyson's Environs of Ijyndon.) 

BATTERY, in Law. [Sco Assault.] 

BATTERY. This name is given to any number of 
pieces of ordnance placed behind an Epaulemcnt, or eleva- 
tion of earth, cither to destroy the works or dismount tho 
artillery of an enemy. 



It may bo said that the antic ntt tnado use of ft species of 
ordnance in tho operations of attack and defence; and the 
battering-rams, thebalista?, and the eatapulurs which, when 
placed on the natural ground, or in buildings of tiinlicr, or 
elevated on mounds of earth, served the besiegers to demolish 
the walls of fortresses, or to drive the defenders from them, 
may he considered as corresponding to the guns, mortars, 
&c.-, which constitute the armament of a modern batter)*. 

Vitruvius states (De Architect urd, lib. x.) that Cctras of 
Chalcedon was the first who covered tho ram with a shed, 
in order to secure the men who worked it from the arrows, 
darts, and stones thrown by the enemy; and he adds, that 
the construction of the shed was subsequently impro\cd by 
the engineers of Philip and Alexander. The testudines 
and helepolet were buildings of this nature, for the protec- 
tion of tho men and military engines, and in this respect 
they correspond to tbc fyaulemens which cover the ordnance 
at present employed in the attack of a fortress. (See the de- 
scription of the helepolis(&ijro\ic) of Demetrius. Plutarch, 
Life of Demetrius* cap. 2 1 .) 

While the same species of artillery continued to be used 
in warfare, it is ovident that no material change could take 
place in tho nature of tho edifices constructed to cover it; 
but from the epoch of the invention of gunpowder, the 
wooden sheds or towers wcresuperseded by masses of earth, 
whose thickness was necessarily made greater than the 
depth to which a cannon-shot can penetrate into them. In 
modern times the designation of a battery varies with the 
purposes to be accomplished, the nature of the ordnance 
employed, and the manner in which the firing maybe made. . 

A breaching battery is one which may be placed at be- 
tween 50 and 1000 yards from any wall or rampart, in order 
to demolish it ; and the effect is produced by firing directly, 
or, as it is called, point blanc at the object : such a battery 
generally has its front parallel to the face of the wall to he 
breached. 

An enfilading battery is one whose epaulcment is per- 
pendicular to the produced lino of the enemy's rampart ; 
so that the shot from the guns may graze the interior side of 
that rampart or its parapet, in the direction of its length. 
When shot discharged from pieces of ordnance make suc- 
cessive rebounds along the ground, the firing is said to be 
d ricochet and the battery a ricochctting batter)* ; and this 
mode of firing is employed when it is intended to dismount 
artillery by enfilading a rampart. The effect is produced by 
giving to the axis of the gun an elevation of between six and 
nine degrees above a line passing from its chamber through 
the crest of the enemy's parapet in front ; and, according to 
the latest experiments, the distance at which a battery 
should be placed from the nearest extremity of the rampart 
to be enfiladed by ricochet firing is between 400 and 600 
7ards : at a greater distance than the latter much of the 
ammunition would be expended without effect. 

A gun battery is one in which guns only are employed, 
for either of the purposes above mentioned, or to defend 
any ground, by a iirc of round, or solid shot. 

A howitzer battery, is one in whieh howitzers arc em- 
ployed. This species of ordnance throws shells, or hollow 
shot, generally at a small elevation of the axis to the horizon ; 
and it serves to produce, by the bursting of the shells, a 
breach in a rampart of earth ; or, when fired a ricochet, to 
destroy the pallisadcs or other obstacles which might impede 
the troops in assaulting an enemy's work. Howitzers arc 
also used in conjunction with guns, to form breaches in 
ramparts of brick or stone. 

A mortar battery is ono in which shells arc thrown from 
mortars at a great elevation of the axis of the piece ; so that, 
by the momentum acquired in falling, they may crush the 
roofs, and by their explosion complete the destruction of 
magazines or other buildings. This is called a vertical fire. 
By employing large charges of powder, a very extensive 
range has been produced by mortars ; for, at tho siege of 
Cadiz, during tho late war, the French are said to have sent 
shells to the distance of more than thrco miles from the 
battery. 

When the battery is mounted on a natural or artificial 
emincnec, in order to allow the guns to fire from above 
downward, or to mako what is called a plunging fire 
against or into the works of the enemy, it constitutes a 
cavalier battery ; and when the guns are elevated on a 
platform, or on tall carriages, so as to ho enabled to fire over 
the superior surface of the parapet or epanlemcnt, the bat- 
tery is said to be en barbette. This kind of battery is 



BAT 



43 



BAT 



usually executed at the most advanced points of a fortress, 
for the purpose of allowing considerable variation in the di- 
rection of tbe artillery towards the right or left; by which 
means the reconnoitring parties of the besiegers may be 
annoyed while at a distance and in motion. 

In tbe formation of any of the field batteries above men- 
tioned, while tbey are beyond the range of the enemy's 
musketry, they may be executed without cover for the 
working parties, like any simple breast- work, after the outline 
has been traced on the ground by the engineers ; but, when 
the men employed in tbe work would be much exposed 
to annoyance from tbe enemy's fire, it becomes necessary 
that they should be protected by a mask of gabions. [See 
Gabion*.] These being planted on their tjases along the 
exterior sido of the intended trench in front of the battery, 
form a cover, even wbile empty, which a musket-ball cannot 
pierce. Within this line of gabions the excavation is com- 
menced, and part of the earth obtained from the trench is 
thrown into and beyond the gabions, till the covering mass 
is thick enough, if necessary, to be proof against a cannon 
ball: the men thus work in comparative security to raise 
the epaulement with earth, which they do generally to the 
height of about seven feet from the ground, and to the thick- 
ness of eighteen or twenty feet, not including the brev'ths 
of the slopes given to the exterior and interior sides. Tbe 
exterior slope is generally left with that inclination which 
earth, when thrown up, naturally assumes, that is at about 
45° to the horizon ; but the interior slope being necessarily 
more steep, in order to allow the guns to be brought closo 
up to it, is retained by a revctement or covering, either of 
fasci7ies [see Fascines] or bags of eartb. 

The embrazures, or openings in the epaulement, through 
which the guns are to fire, are, at the neck or interior ex- 
tremity, about two feet wide, and at the exterior about half 
the thickness of the epaulement : each of tbeir sides or 
cheeks has a small declination from a vertical plane, so that 
the breadth of the opening at top is rather greater tban at 
the bottom, or on what is called the sole of the embrazure, in 
order that the flame from the muzzle of the gun may be 
less liable to damage those sides : for the same reason the 
latter are lined with fascines, or, which is preferred, with 
gabions, at the neck of the embrazure. The interval be- 
tween two embrazures is called a merlon ; and the part 
between the sole and the ground within the battery is called 
the geyiouillere. 

The guns rest on platforms, generally of timber, either of 
a rectangular or dovetailed figure, about fourteen feet long 
and seven feet wide ; each of theso is constructed by em- 
bedding five sleepers in the ground, in the direction of its 
length, and covering them with planks, which are closely 
fitted to each other, and fastened down by screws. 

Besides the epaulement in front of the battery, a wing is 
constructed of the same materials on each side, in order to 
protect the interior from any enfilading fire of tho enemy. 
A magazino is always formed either within or near the rear 
of the .battery, to contain tho ammunitiou for its sorviee; 
tbis is generally a rectangular pit sunk to about three feet 
below, with sides and a roof of timber rising about as inueh 
ah:>ve, the natural ground : tho roof is covered with earth 
of a thickness which may be capable of resisting the momen- 
tum of a shell, and the descent to the floor of the magazine 
is by an inclined plane towards the rear. Traverses, or ele- 
vations of earth, secured at tbe sides generally by gabions, 
are formed at intervals in the interior of the battery, to 
afford protection for the men against such shot or shells of 
the enemy as may fall there. 

Howitzer and mortar batteries are executed nearly in the 
samo manner as the others, but the former of these seldom, 
and the latter never, have embrazures; the level of their 
interior is also generally sunk threo feet below that of tbe 
natural ground, consequently no trench is required on their 
exterior to furnish earth, which can be obtained in suiliciont 
quantity from within. 

B ATTIC ALO'A, an island situated near the entrance 
of an inlet of the sea, on tho east coast of Ceylon, 7 9 44' 
N. lat., 81° 52' E. long. It contains a small fort and gar- 
rison, and is the head station of the assistant government 
agent of the district of Battiealoa. The island cannot be 
approached by ships of any size, as the entrance to tbe inlet, 
which extends north and south nearly thirty miles, is closed 
by a bar, over which the depth of water is only six feet. 
The country in the immediate neighbourhood of Battiealoa 
is flat and fertile ; somo scattered hills appear in the dis- 



tance, among which two called Friar's Hood and Funnel Hill, 
serve as excellent landmarks to those who are sailing round 
the island of Ceylon. It was here that the Dutch admiral 
Spilbergen landed, in 1602, when a communication was 
first opened between the King of Candy and Holland. At 
that time this district was under the immediate rule of a 
petty prince, who seems to have owed a divided allegiance 
to the Portuguese and the Candian emperor. 

Battiealoa is also the name of a district of Ceylon, now 
under tbe charge of an assistant government agent, com- 
prising an area of 13,060 square miles, the population of 
which, according to the census of 1832, amounted to 29,424. 

B ATTICE, a commune and market-town in the province 
of Liege, situated three leagues N.N.W. of Verviers, and 
bounded on the north hy the communes of Mortier, St. 
Andre\ and Charneux; on the east by that of Thimister; 
on the south hy those of Dison, Petit llechain, Grand Re- 
chain, and Xbendelesse ; and on the west by Soumagne, 
Melin, and Bolland. The town has a weekly grain- market 
whicb is much frequented, and two fairs are held there on 
the 15th May and 1 5th November every year. The coun- 
try is well watered by numerous small streams. The soil is 
generally a sandy clay, and in some parts is stony; it pro- 
duces rye, barley, spelt-wheat, oats, beans, and trefoil. A 
considerable quantity of butter and cheese are made and 
sent away, partly to other districts and partly to foreign 
countries. Some coal-mines, which are opened in this dis- 
trict, and clotb -weaving, furnish employment for a consider- 
able part of the inhabitants. A description of sand is found 
in ono part of the commune, very useful in making cement 
for plasterer's work. Tbere arc three very old castles, those 
of Crevecceur, Bosmel, and Xhfinenmont ; the two latter 
are now occupied as farm-houses: population 4280. (Meis- 
ser's Dictionnaire Geographique de la Provwzce de Liege.) 

BATTLE, or BATTEL, a parish and market-town in 
the hundred of the same name in the rapo of Hastings, 
county of Sussex. It is fifty-two miles S.E. from London, 
in a pleasant country, where the land rises in woodod swells 
The name of the place was antiently Epiton, and acquired 
the present denomination in consequence of the great 
battle between tbe English and Normans, in which the 
former wero defeated, and their king (Harold) killed, on 
the 14th October, 1066, The Conqueror commenced, in 
tbe following year, an abbey upon the site where the battle 
had raged most fiercely, the high altar of its church being 
upon the precise spot where, according to some authorities, 
Harold was killed, or where, as others say, his standard 
was taken. But as the whole neighbourhood does not afford 
any other spot equally eligiblo for such a structure, Mr. 
Gilpin is of opinion that accident did not determine tbe pre- 
cise spot, though it might the general situation of the erection. 
When the abbey church was finished, the Conqueror made 
an oflfering of his sword and coronation robe at the high 
altar, in which was also deposited the famous roll or table 
of all the Normans of consequence who attended William 
to England. Copies of this catalogue have been preserved ; 
but modern antiquarians in general concur in the opinion 
of Dugdale, that the list was often falsified and altered by 
tho monks to gratify persons who wished to be considered 
of Norman extraction. The abbey was dedicated by the 
founder to St. Martin, and filled, in the first instance, with 
Benedictine monks from that of Marmontier in Normandy. 
All the land for a league around the house was given to it, 
besides various churches and manors in different counties, 
which were enlarged by royal and private donations in sub- 
sequent reigns. Its prerogatives and immunities were 
placed on the same footing with those of Christ Church, 
Canterbury : the monks and their tenants wero exempt from 
episcopal and other ecclesiastical jurisdiction ; they had the 
exclusive right of inquest in all murders committed within 
tbeir lands, the property of all treasure discovered on their 
estates, the right of free warren, and the cburch was mado 
a sanctuary in cases of homicide, besides other privileges. 
The abbot, who was mitred, and a peer in parliament, had 
also the royal power of pardoning any condemned thief whom 
he should pass or meet on going to execution. In the reign 
of Edward III. the abbot obtained the king's leave to fortify 
the abbey. The Conqueror's intention seems to have been 
that the foundation should maintain 140 monks.butprovision 
does not appear to havo been actually made for more than 
sixty. At tho dissolution of tho monastery, in the 26th 
of Henry VIII., its income was valued at 880/. 14s. 7J$. t 
according to Dugdale, or 987/. 0$. lOH, according to Speed. 



B A T 



44 



B A T 



A pension of 6G/. 13*. Ad. was settled upon the abbot, with 
smaller sums on sixteen other oftieers and monks. The 
bite and demesne* of tho abbey were given to a person 
named Gilmer, who pulled down a considerable portion of 
tho buildings in order to disposo of the materials. He 
afterwards sold the estato to Sir Anthony Browne, who 
began to convert part of tho abbey into a mansion, whieh 
wal finished by his son, tho first Lord Montague. Thw 
afterwards fell to decay ; and when the property was sold 
to Sir Thomas Webster, tho ancestor of Sir Godfrey Wcb- 
bter, the existing proprietor, the present dwelling was erected 
on ono side of tho quadrangle of which tho old abbey 
appears to have consisted. 

Hat tic Abbey stands on a gentle rise, with a fine sweep 
before it of meadows and woods, confined by wooded hills, 
whieh form a valley winding towards Hastings, and there 
meeting the tea. ^Tho ruins show the tintient magnificence 
of the structure; their circuit is computed at about a mile, 
and Gilpin considers that the stylo proves that the greater 
part must have been rebuilt in the time of the later 
Henries, when our architecture began to assume a lighter 
and more embellished form. The remains occupy throe 
sides of a large quadrangle, the fourth having probably 
been taken down to admit a view of the country when 
what is now the middle sido was converted into a dwelling. 
The two wings ore in ruins. The side of the quadrangle 
that faces the town contains the grand entrance, which is 
a large square building, embattled at the top with a hand- 
some octagon tower at eaeh eorner. Tho front is adorned 
with a series of arches and neat pilasters; and this entrance 
is altogether a very rieh and elegant specimen of Gothic 
architecture. This pile is loeally called * tho Castle,* and 
until 1794, when the roof fell in and rendered it unfit for 
the purpose, it was used as a town-hall by the people of 
Battle. The side of the quadrangle opposite this entrance 
consists only of two long, low, parallel walls, whieh formerly 
supported a row of chambers, and terminated in two elegant 
turrets. The remaining side, whieh forms the existing 
mansion, has undergone the greatest dilapidations. Here 
stood the abbey ehurch, though the ground -plan eannot 
now be traeed; the only vestiges of it aro nine elegant 
arches, which seem to have belonged to the inside of a 
cloister ; they are now filled up, and appear on the outside 
of the house. Contiguous to the great church are the ruins 
of a hall, which appears to have been the rcfeetory in ordi- 
nary use by tbc monks. There is another building of the 
same kind a little detached from the abbey, and whieh is 
of great beauty, although its dimensions, 1G6 feet by 35, aro 
not in good proportion. It has twelve windows on one sido 
and six on the other, and is strongly buttressed on the out- 
side. This appears of older date than tho remaining por- 
tions of the abboy : it is now used as a barn ; its original 
purpose was probably to accommodate the numerous tenants 
to whom the monks gave entertainments at stated times. 
The floor of the hall is raised, and there is an ascent to it 
by a llight of steps. Underneath are erynts of freestone 
divided by elegant pillars and springing arches, whieh form 
a curious vaulted building, now converted into a stable. 

The town of Battle owes its origin to the abbey. Under 
the encouragement of the monks, houses to tho number of 
150 were gradually erected in tho vieinity ; and to the town 
thus formed, a market, to be held on Sundays, was granted 
by Henry I. At the commencement of the seventeenth 
century Anthony Viscount Montague obtained an act of 
parliament for changing the market-day to Thursday, on 
whieh it is still held. Tho present town consists of one 
street, running along a valley from north-west to south-cast. 
The ehurch is dedicated to St. Mary, and is a very hand- 
some edifice, consisting of a nave, chancel, two aisles, and 
a substantial tower. The windows of the north aisle are 
decorated with numerous figures, portraits, and deviecs in 
painted glass. The ineumbent is styled ' Dean of Battle,' 
though the living is, in fact, a viearagc in the archdeacon ry 
of Lewes and diocese of Chichester, charged in the king's 
book at 24/. 13#. Ad. Tho lord of the manor is patron. The 
number of houses in tho parish was 515 in 1831, when the 
population amounted to 2999 persons, of whom 1538 were 
females. The only manufaeturo for whieh the place is 
rcmarkablo is the excellent gunpowder, well known to 
sportsmen by the name of Battle powder. It is considered 
to be mrpa«*ed only by that of Dartford : there are several 
extensive mills in the neighbourhood for the manufac- 
ture of it. Besides the weekly market, thero is one on 



the second Tuesday of every month for ealtle, at which, as 
well as at the fairs, on Whit-Monday and 22nd November, 
considerable business is transacted. The town possesses 
a charity-school for forty boys. The Bun-ell MSS. in the 
British "Museum state that tho hundred of Battle * is u 
franchise, the inhabitants whereof are exempt from attend- 
ing assizes and sessions, or serving on juries, and the lord 
appoints a coroner thereof. 1 The petty sessions aro holden 
at Battle. 

(Camden's Britannia ; Dngdalc's Monasticon ; Gilpin's 
Observations on the Coasts of Hampshire, Sutler, and 
Kent; Pennant's Journey from bmdon to the I tie of 
n'izht.) 

BATTLE-AXE, a military weapon of offence used in 
different countries from the remotest times. Sir Samuel 
Mcyriek says, as it was suggested by, so it immediately fol- 
lowed, the invention of the hatchet. The two Greek names 
for the battle-axe AVvtj (axinc), and ttIXikv? (pttekus), occur 
in Homer in the same verse, //. O. 1. 711. What was tho 
precise di fibre nee between the two weapons we are not told 
by ontient writers, but it seems probable that the arine was 
similar to our hatchet, while i\\c petehus, which is usually 
translated in Latin by bipennis, had evidently two heads or 
edges ; for Homer mentions another instrument of the samo 
kind in the 23rd book of the Iliad, called 'H/nrfXfrov (hemi- 
pelekon), or the half-axe. Suidas interprets *H/itiri\fjra 
{hc7nipelelta) t by at fiovScrofiot d&Vm, one-edged axes. (Sco 
Kuster's note on 'H/iir&ira.) The pclekus, or bipennis, was 
also called securis Amazonica, the Amazonian axe, from its 
having been supposed to have been used by those female 
warriors. The best representation of the antient form of 
this bipenuis is probably to be found in Pctit's Dissertatio 
de Amazonibus, 8vo. Amst 1687, where it appears on the 
reverse of a coin of Thyatira, as well as upon the reverses 
of two eoins of Marcus Aurelins. Numerous other coins of 
great antiquity bearing the bipennis are referred to in 
Rasehc's Lextcon Rei NummaH<e f torn. i. eol. 502, et seq. ; 
Supplem. torn. i. p. 596. 

Among the nations and tribes who joined the great expe- 
dition of Xerxes, we find battle-axes among the Saero (He- 
rodot. vii. c. lxiv.), and tho Egyptians (ibid. c. Ixxxix.). 
Brennus, at the siege of the Roman capitol by the Gauls, 
was armed with a battle-axe. The Yindeliei fought against 
Drusus with the battle-axe. (Horat. Carm. iv. 4.) Tacitus, 
speaking of a later period (Hist. ii. 42), describes Otho's 
forces as eutting through helmets and breastplates with their 
swords and axes (gladiis et seenribus). In the Roman 
armies, however, we do not find the battle-axe in ordinary 
use. It seems to have been considered as the weapon more 

fiecnliarly used by uncivilized nations. Ammianus Marcel- 
inus (fol. Par. 1681, lib. xix. e. vi.), under tho year 359, 
describes a body of Gauls as furnished with battle-axes and 
swords. 

The introduction of the battle-axe into this country has 
been frequently attributed to the Danes ; but proofs of an 
earlier use of it in our islands are dedueible. Mr. Hayman 
Uookc, in a memoir printed in the Arrha*ologia of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries, has engraved a fragment of a battle- 
axe found among some Druidical remains at Aspatria in 
Cumberland, in June, 1789 (Archtrot. vol. x. p. 113); and 
in tho same volume, pi. xl., arc two representations of the 
old Galwegian bill or battle-axe, each two feet six inches 
long, found in a moss near Terrcaglcs. Remains of others 
are stated to have been found among the barrows on the 
downs of Wiltshire, and in the north of Scotland. The Danes 
and Norwegians, however, probably made more use of this 
instrument than any other nations of their time. 

At the battle of Stamford Bridge, between Harold of 
England and Harold Harfagcr of Norway, when the Nor- 
wegians gave way and the English pursued them, a total 
stop is stated to have been put to the pursuit for some hours 
by the desperate boldness of a single Norwegian, who de- 
fended the pass of the bridjjc with his battle-axe. He killed 
more than forty of the English, and was himself at last slain 
only by stratagem. (Hen. Huntingt. 1. vii. 211.) 

That the battle-axe was used in England in the Saxon 
times wc have the authority of different MSS. of the ninth 
century, and the English aro represented as using it, in the 
Bayeux tapestry. The polc-axc, with on edge on one sido 
and a sharp point on tho other, is believed to have eomc in 
with the Normans. 

When King Stephen was taken prisoner by the Earl of 
Gloucester, wo arc told by Gcrva^ of Canterbury that ho 



BAT 



45 



BAT 



had broken his battle- axe in pieces beforo he took to his 
sword, and was even then brought down bv a stone. (Script. 
x. Twysd. eoh 1354.) 

During the middle period of English history weread but 
little of this weapon, though it appears to have been con- 
stantly used. The Welsh infantry at the battle of Agincourt, 
in 1415, found it particularly serviceable in despatching 
those whom the archers had wounded with their arrows. In 
Strutf s Manners and Customs of the English, vol. ii. pi. 
xliv., Henry V. is represented as setting Richard, Earl of 
Warwick, to keep Port Qnartervyle, at the siege of Rouen, 
by the delivery of a battle-axe. 

Toward the close of the sixteenth century, the battle-axe, 
as a weapon of war, seems to have fallen into gradual dis- 
use : although the occasional placing of a pistol in its handle, 
in some specimens which remain, seems to hespeak a wish 
on the part of the warriors of that period that it should 
be retained with an improved use. 

Grose, in his Military Antiquities, vol. ii. pi. xxviii. fig. 
4, and pi. xxxiv. fig. 3, has engraved a Lochaber axe, and 
an antient battle-axe. Sir Samuel Meyrick, in his en- 
graved illustrations of antient armour now at Goodrich Court 
in Herefordshire, pi. lxxxiii., bas engraved numerous spe- 
cimens of battle-axes and pole-axes from the time of Henry 
VI. Fig. 1 represents a German pole-axe of the time of 
Heury VI., furnished with a ring to which a thong might 
be fastened, in order to twist round the arm of the person 
wielding it. Fig. 2, a battle-axe of the time of Henry VIII,, 
to which was once attached a matcb-lock pistol. The whole 
is of iron, and came from Ireland. Fig. 3, a Venetian pole- 
axe of the same period, the blade beautifully engraved, and 
having on it the lion of St. Mark. Fig.4, another specimen. 
Fig. 5, a battle-axe of the close of the reign of Henry VIII. 
Fig. 6, a Jedburg axe, or Jeddart staff of the same period, 
found in a river in Scotland. Such weapons were implied 
by the single word * staves,* which included all kinds of arms 
whose handles were long poles. Fig. 7, a Lochaher axe as 
old as the last described, if not of greater age. Fig. 8, a 
battle-axe of the commencement of the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth. Fig. 9, another of the middle of that period. 
Figs. 10, 11, two of the close of her reign. Fig. 12, one of 
the commencement of the reign of James I. Fig. 13, ano- 
ther of this period, furnished with a wheel-lock pistol. Fig. 

14, a Polish pole-axe, having on the blade a crown, and the 
letter S. twisted round the number III., for Sigismund III. ; 
its staff ornamented with a brass bead, and its form exactly 
like those of the Anglo-Saxons in theBayeux tapestry. Fig. 

15, a Dutch battle-axe, having on it the date 1685, the 
handle being ornamented with ivory. 

In Sir Samuel Mey rick's engraved Illustrations, vol. ii. 
pi. 93, fig. 7, he has given the blade of a battle-axe of 
its full. size of the time of Queen Elizabeth, made in Ger- 
many. 

The battle-axe was used at a very early period in naval 
fights, ehiellv to cut the ropes and rigging of vessels. (See 
Scheffer, Mil. Nav. ii. 7.) 

BATTLE, WAGER OF. [See Appeal.] 

BATTLEMENT, a parapet wall, commonly employed 
in castellated and in ecclesiastical edifices of that kind which 
are distinguished by the general name of Gothic. [See 
Gothic Architecture.] The battlement isofvery remote 
antiquity, as remains of them still exist in Greece and Italy. 
(See Mazois' Pompeii and Stuart's Athens.) The modern 
battlement, however, is better known as belonging to build- 
ings from the eleventh to the end of the sixteenth century ; 
but it was not in general use in ecclesiastical edifices until 
the middle of tbe twelfth century. 

The battlement is generally indented, with a coping 
sloping hoth ways from about the centre; the lower part 
between the coping and tbe cornice of the building is often 
pierced and decorated. Although by tho word battlement 
is generally understood the wbole indented parapet wall, the 
term may perhaps with more propriety be applied to express 
rather the higher part of the wall, in contradistinction to the 
indent, interval, or embrasure. It is possiblo that the term 
battlement may have derived its name from the facility 
afforded to soldiers of doing battle under the protection 
aflorded by the higher part of the indented wall. Battle- 
ments offer in their proportions, and in the details of their 
mouldings and ornaments, a great variety of examples. 
Mr. Rickman has endeavoured to distinguish the different 
periods in which the pointed-arch style of Gothic architec- 
ture ehanged the form of its detail ; and in this endeavour 



he has taken great pains to describe the characteristic fea- 
tures of the Norman, early English, decorated English, and 
perpendicular English styles of battlements. 

As to Norman battlements, he says it is very difficult to 
ascertain what was their precise form. He considers fhem 
to have been only plain parapets ; but remarks that there 
are instances in some castellated Norman buildings of a 
parapet with here and there a narrow interval cut in it, 
which appears original. 

It is more probable, then, that the Norman battlement w&s 
a plain parapet, but without intervals; and, if decorated, 
the decoration probably consisted of the semicircular arch, the 
peculiar feature of the Norman style. In support of this 
opinion we may mention the upper part or rim of a Norman 
font, decorated with semicircular -headed pannels, in South 
Hayling Church, Hampshire. The Norman church of 
l'Abbaye aux Dames, at Caen in Normandy, has a parapet 
decorated witlr pointed-arched-headed pannels, which at the 
introduction of the pointed-arch style most probably sup- 
planted the old semicircular-arched pannel, similar to that 
at Hayling Church, 

Early English Battlements, — During nearly the whole 
period in which this style was in use, the parapet was seldom 
indented ; and in many buildings it was plain, in others 
decorated. At Salisbury it is executed with a series of 
arches and pannels, and in Lincoln Cathedral with quatre- 
foils in sunk pannels. A battlement of equal intervals 





Battlement. 



Trefolled arches 

and corbels under 

battlcmcnl. 



[Salisbury Cathedral.l 

occurs in small ornamented works erected ahout the close 
of this period, when tbe early English style gave way to 
another more decorated, denominated by Mr. Rickman the 
decorated English style. 

Decorated English Battlement. — During this period the 
parapet wall without indentations continued frequently to 
be used ; but it is often pierced through in various forms, 
generally consisting of quatrefoils, and quatrefoils in cir- 
cles. Another form, however, which is not so common, 
may be considered more beautiful. This is a waved line, 
the spaces of which are trefoiled. In St. Mary Magdalen 
Church, at Oxford, there is a good example of this kind of 




[Mary Magdalen Church, Oxford.] 

battlement. Of the plain battlements, that which was most 
in use in this period has the embrasures or intervals narr w, 
and is surmounted with a capping moulding placed in a 
horizontal position as at Waltham Cross; but there are 



.&&&&E 




[Walthara Cross, at reitored from the antient fragments, by W. H. Clarke.* 

some battlements of the same date with the capping run 
ning both vertically and horizontally, of which there is a 
fine specimen in the tower of Morton Chapel, Oxford. In 
some small works of this style a 1 lower is occasionally used 
as a finish above the capping, moulding, or cornice, but it is 
by no means common. The nave of York Cathedral pre- 
sents a fine example of the pierced battlement so prevalent 
during this period : it consists of arches or arched pannels 



BAT 



4G 



H A T 



trefoiled or cinquofoiled, and tho interval is a qnatrcfoil in 
a circle; the whole is covered with a moulding running 
both horizontally and vertically. 

Perpettdicttlar English Battlements.— -In the battlements 
belonging to this period, parapets without indentures still 
continued to be used occasionally; the serpentine line with 
the trefoil was also still in use, but the line dividing the tre- 
foil was more frequently made straight, and tho divisions 
were consequently formed into triangular pannels. But in 
the early and best works tlio trefoils are not divided by 
straight lines. One of tho finest examples of pa nn el led 
parapets is at the Beauchamp Chapel, at Warwick, consist- 
in g of quatrefoils in squares, with shields and (lowers. 
There are many varieties of pierced batt lemon ts belonging 
to this period. Those erected in the early part of it have 
commonly quatrefoils, either in the lower compartments or 
above the pannels of the lower compartments, forming part 
of tho higher pannels. Two heights of pannels aro also 
frequently employed in battlements of this period. At 
Loughborough there is an example of a fine battlement, 
consisting of rich pierced quatrefoils in two heights. Such 
battlements havo generally a moulded cormce running 
round the battlement and the embrasure. A few edifices of 
a later period have pierced battlements ornamented with 
p rimed compartments, as in the tower of Lincoln Cathedral, 




[From the tower or Lincoln dihedral, from a skelch by G. Moore* Arch.} 

the Tomb-house at Windsor, the Lady Chapel at Peter- 
borough, and the great battlement at King's College Chapel, 
Cambridge. Sometimes on the exterior of a building, and 
often within, tho Tudor or three-leaved flower, forming a 
point at the top, is used on the battlement, as at the screens 
in the choir of Exeter Cathedral ; and there are a few in- 
stances of the upper part of a battlement analogous in form 
to it in small works erected long beforo this date, — as at 
Northampton Cross. But Waltham Cross, erected at the 




[Northampton Cross, from an orlginat sketch by G. Moore, Arch.] 

same time, is without this finish. Some battlements of this 
period, especially in very rich designs, have, in lieu of the 
'\\u\or flower, a finial on tho top of piercod quatrefoils, as at 
Woolnit and Blithborough Churches in Suffolk. 
Of plain battlements in tho perpendicular style there are 
many varieties. Somo aro formed with nearly equal in- 
tervals, and with a plain coping placed both horizontally 
and vertically. Castcllatod battlements have tho embrasures 
between the battlements nearly equal to the width of the 
battlements themselves : sometimes they havo wido battle- 



LF1 



=«f= 




ments and narrow embrasures, with the coping moulding 
placed horizontally and the sides cut plain. Another bat- 
tlement consists of a moulding running round the battlement 
and the embrasure, while a capping is set upon the hori- 
zontal part of the embrasure and battlement, as at York 
Minster. Tho most common battlement towards the eloso 




[York Wintter.] 

of this period has a broad cornico consisting of several 
mouldings running both vertically and horizontally, the 
embrasures being very often much narrowed and the battlo- 
ment enlarged. 

As the battlements or the perpendicular style were liable 
to frequent alterations, they cannot alone be depended on to 
determine the age of a building. (Rickraan's Attempt to 
Discriminate the Styles qf English Architecture.) Be- 
tween the periods which are distinguished by the appella- 
tions of early, decorated, and perpendicular linglish, thero * 
are some minute shades of diflercneo in the detail and pro- 
portion of battlements. This will be apparent on an ex- 
amination of the antiont edifices of Great Britain. 

The battlement, which was originally designed for the 
protection of the besieged, became afterwards merely an 
ornament to an edifice. A most remarkable example of 




[Turret of King'* College Chojr', OrobrWge.] 



[Bultreti, wilh batttcmenta, at Loddon Church, Norfolk.] 

the excessive use of it as a decoration is shown in the an- 
nexed cut, representing the top of a buttress at Loddon 
Church, Norfolk. 

(For representations of battlements, seo Brittou's Ca- 
thedrals; and Views of Collegiate and Parochial Churches 
in Great Britain, by J. J\ Keale.) 

BATURIN, a town founded by Stephen Bathory when 
king of Poland, at present situated in tho Russian province 
of Tschernigoff, or Czemiechoff, and in the circle of Konotoss. 
It occupies a picturesque position on a hill, and is skirted on 
ono side by the Seyma, in tho midst of a beautiful cxpanso 
of country which is remarkable for its fertility. The town 
is surrounded by a wall of earth, and contains a handsomo 
convent, eight churches, and about 5000 inhabitants. Tho 
environs are well cultivated. The soil and climate arc fa- 
vourable to the partial growth of the filbert, vino, and mul- 
berry ; and the trade of the district, which is promoted by 
fairs held in the place, depends chiefly on agricultural pro- 
duce. Baturin was for somo timo a favourite residence of 
the Atamans of the Cossacks, amonp whom none has ac- 
quired greater notoriety than the traitor Mazoppa, who sold 
himself to the Swedes in 1708. The Russians, to whom 
tho town has belonged since tho year 1604, afterwards burnt 
it in revenge for the treachery of Mazeppa. It has sinco 
been rebuilt, and was with its dependencies, in eluding at 
that time nearly 9300 male inhabitants, granted by tho 
Empress Elizabeth to Prince RazuinoUVky, whose de- 
scendants are its present proprietors. The palace of tho 
Atamans and its once handsome grounds are now going to 
decay, Baturin lies, according to Ilasscl, in 01° 45' N. Tut., 
and 50° 40' E. long. 



B A U 



47 



B A U 



BAUD, a town in the department of Morbihan on the 
road from Pontivy to Hcnnebon and Lorient, 15 miles from 
Pontivy, and 269 miles W. by S. of Paris; 47° 53' N. lat., 
3° t' W. long. It is near the river Evel, which flows into 
the BLivct a few miles below the town. The population of 
the commune amounted in 1832 to 5120, but what propor- 
tion belongs to the town itself we are not aware. 

In the environs of this town is found the staurolite, a 
mineral composed chiefly of silex and alumine, and whose 
crystals frequently penetrate each other at right angles or 
obliquely, so as to form a cross. It is found also in the ad- 
jacent department of Finisterre, and in one or two places in 
the south of France. 

BAUDOUR, a town and commune in the province of 
Hainault, situated two leagues west of Mons. It is bounded 
on the north by tbe commune of Villerot, on the south- 
west by Hautrage, on the south by Boussu and St. Ghislain, 
on the south-east by Quaregnon and Jemappes, on the east 
by Gblin, and on tho north-west by Erbisoeul. The surface 
of this commune is much varied. Near the town, on the 
west, is a hill covered with wood ; to the south are large 
meadows, and on the north considerable sand-hills. The 
central part contains a coal-mine, but it is not worked. 
Potter's clay is found in considerable quantities, and gives 
employment to many of the population in making earthen- 
ware. In the wood of Baudour, already mentioned, is a con- 
siderable deposit of pulverulent phosphate of iron. The soil 
generally is of very moderate fertility. Wheat can he grown 
only in a few spots. Tbe rotation of crops on such lands 
is wheat, barley, rye, trefoil, oats, and then fallow. Some 
hops are likewise grown, and different kinds of common 
fruits. There are two salt-refineries in the commune. 
Population of the commune, 2577. (Meisser's Dictionnaire 
Geographique de Hainaut, 1833.) 

BAUGE', a town in France in the department of Maine 
et Loire, on a cross-road hctwecn La Flcche and Saumur, 
10 miles S. of La Fleche and 158 miles S. W. of Paris; 47° 
33' N. lat., 0° V W. long. Bauge is on the right bank of 
the little river Couanon or Couesnon. Strictly speaking, it 
consists of two towns, about half a mile or a mile from each 
other. One of these is named Bauge lc Vieil (Old Bauge 1 ), 
or Bauge le Chateau, while the other, which is the principal, 
has for its distinctive name Bauge la Ville. There are some 
manufactures of cloth, serge, drugget, sail-cloth, cotton yarn, 
&c. The chief trade of the place is in its manufactures, and 
in timber and cattle. There is a fine hridge of freestone over 
the Couesnon. 

The English, under the Duke of Clarence, hrother of 
Henry V., were defeated before Bauge le Vieil in tho year 
1421. The French were commanded in this encounter by 
the Mareehal de la Fayette. There is an hospital in this 
place ; and also a castle, built by Foulques, or l ? ulk Nera, 
in the eleventh century. 

Bauge* is the capital of an arrondissement containing 668 
square miles, or 427,520 acres, with a population in 1832 of 
81,690. The population of Bauge, without any distinction 
of the two towns, is given in the samo return at 3553 for the 
commune, or 3433 for the town itself. *VVc suppose this re- 
fers only to Baugd la Ville; for in the Dictionnaire Univer- 
selde la France, 1804, the imputation of this place is given 
at 2904, and that of Bauge* le Vieil at 1874 : together, 4778. 

In the arrondissement a considerable quantity of paper is 
marie. 

B AUIIIN, JOHN, a distinguished botanist, was born at 
Basle according to Sprcngcl, or at Lyons according to others, 
in 1541. His father, who was a physician of great reputa- 
tion, having destined him also for the medical profession, 
placed him, towards the completion of his studies, with 
Fuchsius, a botanist of considerable eminence in his day, 
and afterwards with tbe celebrated Conrad Gesner, whom 
he accompanied in his various excursions through Switzer- 
land. He afterwards visited several other parts of Europe 
for the purpose of hecoming acquainted with their vegetable 
productions, and with a view to collecting materials for his 
Historia Plantarum, afterwards puhlished. In 1566 he 
fixed himself at Basle, where be was elected professor of 
rhetoric A few years subsequently lie was appointed prin- 
cipal physician of tho Duko of Wirtemherg, in which situa- 
tion he died at Montbelliard in 1613. 

During bis life he published little of importance, but he 
occupied himself with great industry in reducing the scat- 
tered knowledge of iho botanists of his day into a single and 
connected hutory of tho whole vegetable kingdom, which 



he arranged upon the plan sketched out by Lovel. This work 
was not printed till nearly forty years after his death, in 3 
vols, folio, published at Yverdun in 1650-1, under the care 
of Dr. Chatre, his brother-in-law. This work, although by 
no means free from errors, was a most important performance 
for the time when it appeared, and may be considered the 
first step towards reducing systematical hotany into order. 
It is now consulted only by those who are curious in the 
history of botanical discovery, hut it will always remain 
the key to the botanical works which preceded it. In the 
words of Sprengel, the author deserves great praise for his 
diligence in collecting and describing plants, disentangling 
their synonyms, and ascertaining with precision their native 
places. 

BAUHIN, GASPARD, the brother of John, was born at 
Basle in 1560. After receiving the usual college education, 
he visited several parts of Europe, with a view to examine 
their vegetable productions, and to render himself conversant 
with the state of medical science. Upon his return to Basle, 
he appears to have gained great reputation as a learned 
man and a skilful naturalist, and he had honours showered 
upon him with a profusion which marks strongly the force 
of public opinion in his favour. We find him descrihed 
as holding the offices of professor of Greek, of anatomy and 
botany, and of the practice of medicine, dean of the faculty 
of medicine, chief physician to the town, and rector of the 
university. He died in 1 624. 

His works consist of several medical treatises, especially 
of a set of anatomical plates, partly original and partly 
copied from Vesalius and Eustachius; but his reputation 
chiefly depends upon his botanical publications. He ap- 
pears to have been better furnished with materials than his 
brother John, and to have had more command of good artists 
for emhcllishing his works, which consist partly of descrip- 
tion and figures of new plants, — in his Phytopinax, pub- 
lished at Basle in 4to., 1596, and in the Prodromus Theatn 
Botanici, which appeared at Frankfort in 1620 ; and partly 
of collections of the synonyms of the botanical writers who 
had preceded him. The latter appeared in his Pinax Theatri 
Botanici in 1623, of which a second edition was published 
in 1671, and which is a complete key to the knowledge of 
the day. He also commenced a very important work, in 
which all tho plants at that time known were to be reduced 
to the natural orders ; but of this, called Theatrum Botani- 
cum t one volume only was published, containing tbe grasses, 
sedges, and liliaceous plants. He also puhlished a catalogue 
of tbe plants growing wild about Basle, a work which hotii 
Haller and Sprengel descrihe as being remarkably complete. 
Although the writings of the two Bauhins are now little 
consulted, except by those who occupy themselves with the 
not very important subject of the history of European species, 
they must be considered as men who, by their zeal, learn- 
ing, and good sense, aided by unwearied industry, have 
largely contributed to the .advance of botany, and have been 
surpassed by no one, unless by Linnaeus, in their own de- 
partment of the scienco. They do not appear, however, to 
have been men of much originality of mmd, or to have in 
any way extended the sphere of botanical science : they can 
only be considered useful pioneers, hut as such they are 
entitled to the gratitude of posterity ; for, as De Candolle 
has well remarked, if they did not succeed in discovering 
any sufficiently methodical manner of classifying their 
knowledge, they at least rendered the want of somo good 
classification more apparent than it had ever heen before. 

BAUHI'NIA,a genus of plants belonging to the natural 
order Leguminosm. Linnccus applied the name very happily 
to commemorate the merits of the two Bauhins, for the genus 
is remarkahle for its leaves being generally divided into two 
twin lobes. 

The species arc usually twining plants, found in the woods 
of hot countries, and often stretching from tree to tree like 
living cahles, forming with other plants an almost insur- 
mountable obstacle to the traveller who would penetrate the 
recesses of a tropical forest. Some of them, however, are 
small trees, as for example B. porrula, whieh is called in 
Jamaica mountain chony, because Its wood is sheathed with 
black. Their flowers are often very beautiful ; for which 
reason they have long been cultivated in the hot-houses of 
Europe, but they are too impatient of the wretched treat- 
ment they receive in the toys which we call stoves to flourish 
and produce their noble blossoms. So long as plants are 
cramped in earthen pots, and are treated like the feet of 
Chinese ladies, wc must not hope to see in Europo those 



BAD 



48 



B A U 




noble (lowers which arc described by the travellers who have 
visited the forests of America and India. 

BAUMANSHOHLE is a remarkable cavern in northern 
Germany, situated in the south-eastern range of the Ilarz, 
not far from the village of Kii belaud, less than two miles 
from Elbmgcrodc, a town of the kingdom of Hanover, and 
nearly six from Blankenburg, a town of the dukedom of 
Brunswick. This, cavern, which is considered one of the 
most remarkable 'natural phenomena of the Ilarz, is in a 
calcareous rock, and consists of six distinct larj^e chambers, 
besides a smaller one. These six caverns taken together 
measure in length nearly 800 feet, and their entrance is 136 
feet above the bed of the Bode, a small river which runs 
through a narrow valley at the foot of the calcareous rocks. 
The first cavern rises to upwards of 33 feet, and is the 
largest and most striking. The water penetrating through 
the rocks which form the roofs of the caverns, brings down 
with it calcareous matter, which hardens and forms stalac- 
tites. These stalactites are of great beauty in the third 
cavern, and among them is the sounding column, which 
emits a loud sound when beaten. This cavern was disco* 
vered in 167-2, by a miner, called Baumann, who entered 
it in hope of finding metallic ores. 

BAUME, orBEAUME, the name of two towns inFrancc, 
and of several smaller places. The towns were distinguished 
as Baumc les Dames, and Banmc les Messieurs, or Baume 
Ics Moines, from celebrated religious establishments which 
existed there : that in the former place was for females, and 
that in the latter for men. 

Bkaumk-lks-Damks is situated on the right or N.W. 
hank of the river Doubs, mid in the department to which 
that river gives name. It is 255 miles E.S.E. of Paris, 
through Besancon, from which it is distant 18 mile3 E.N.E. 
47° 22' N. lat., 6° 21 ; E. long. 

The religious establishment to which this town owes its 
designation was of the order of St. Benedict, and of great 
antiquity. According to some it was formed by two brothers, 
St Komain, abbot of Condat, and St. Lupicin, abbot of 
Leuconc, (both in Tranche Comic, with part of which the 



f Descript 

17252) says its origin is uncertain, and that all that is known 
is that it was considerable in the time of Charlemagne, and 
of his sou Louis le Debonnairc. Tho nuns wero all of noble 
birth, and strict examination into this point was instituted 
when any desired to enter. The abbey however was far 
from rich. There appears to have been also in this town a 
convent of Capuchins 

This littlo placo ha3 been much injured by tho passage 
of troops in time of war; and, though it i3tho capital of an 
arrondissement, had not in 1832 a greater population than 
2209 for the town, or 24G7 for the whole eommuno. It is 
however an agreeable place, surrounded by meadows and by 
vineyards, the produce of which is well esteemed. The pil- 
lars of the high altar of the church attached to the Bene- 
dictine abbey mentioned abovo now adorn the Pantheon, or 
church of St. Genevieve, at Paris, 

Baumc-les-Dames contains ono or two factories of cotton 
good*, considerable iron works, with a manufactory of wire 
and pins, larce potter)* and glass works, and a paper-mill. 
There are a library, a college or high school, and an agricul- 
tural society. In the environs of tho town are quarries of 
marble, gypsum, and slate; and mines of iron and coal. 
Baume-les-bamcs is also called Ban in c-lcs* Nones, and 



Baume-sur-lc-Doubs. Tho arrondissement of Baume com- 
prehends G33 squaro miles, or -105,120 acres, and it had in 
1832 a population of G4,SS4. 

Baume-lks-Moinks is a small place, about four or fire 
miles north-cast of Lons-lo-Sauuicr, capital of the depart- 
ment of Jura. The Benedictine roment from which it 
derived its name was originally a mere cell, when it was 
raised to the rank of an abbey by Count Bern on, abbot of 
Giny, early in the tenth century. Others carry tho foun- 
dation of the abbey higher, and ascribe to Bcrnon a great 
reformation in the establishment. Pope Eugeniu3 III. re- 
duced the establishment to a simple priory, dependent on 
the abbey of Clugni, in 1147, but the title of abbey was re- 
stored some time after. Proof of nobility was necessary, in 
order to be received into this establishment as a monk. 

The population of Baumclcs-Moincs, as given in the 
Dictionnaire Universelde la Franc?, Paris, 1SU-1, our latent 
authority, was 855. 

BAUMGARTEN, ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB, was 
born in 171-1 at Berlin, where his father was preacher to 
the court of Prussia. He studied at Halle, and became a 
warm admirer of WolTs philosophy i though it was at that 
time considered heretical, and Wolf himself had in conse- 
quence been obliged to leave Halle. Bauragartcn npplicd 
himself to the study of logic and of belles lettres, on which 
he afterwards gave lectures at the Orphan institution of 
Halle, Having examined what had been taught till then 
under the name of belles lettres, he endeavoured to reduce 
that branch of study to fixed principles. He invented the 
word (esthetic, which he applied to the theory of taste, or the 
science of the beautiful. Previous writers who had written 
on this subject hnd mostly limited their investigations to 
the beautiful in works of art ; Banmgartcn extended his 
researches to the qualities that constitute the beautiful in 
general, whether in natural or artificial objects, and to our 
faculty of perceiving the same. He divided the science of 
aesthetic into theoretical and practical ? he developed his 
idea3 first in his treatise, Dispittatio de nonmtllis ad Poema 
pertinentibus, Halle, 1735, and afterwards in \m /Esthetica, 
Frankfurt on the Oder, 1750. -/Esthetic has since become 
a distinct so.ience, and is taught as such in the German uni- 
versities, Tho other works of Baumgartcn are Metaphy- 
sial; /Ethica Philosophical Initia Philosophiee PiXtfitictr. 
* He examined chiclly the general rights of man, without 
reference to civil and political law, or to the law of nations, 
and, like Wolf, he confounded the object of natural law 
with that of morality/ Such is Buhle's judgment in his 
History of Modern Philosophy, iv. cli. S. 

In his metaphysics, Baumgartcn maintained Wolf* prin- 
ciple of the * sufficient reason/ and also that of the • harmonia 
prrestabilita* of Leibnitz, though somewhat modified in his 
definition of it In 17*10 Baumgartcn was appointed pro- 
fessor of philosophy at Frankfurt on the Oder. His con- 
stant application undermined his health, and after lingering 
in a weak stato for several years he died in 1762. lie was 
a profound thinker, remarkably methodical in the arrange- 
ment of his thoughts, and precise in his exposition of them. 
His elder brother, James Sigismund, studied also at Halle 
and became professor of theology in that university. He 
wrote Instructions on Moral TJtcology, 8vo, 1733 ; Abridg- 
ment of Ecclesiastical History, 3 vols. 8vo. 17-15 ; Prima 
Linea Breviarii Antiquitatam Chris tianarum, 1747, and 
other works on ecclesiastical studies, lie introduced im- 
portant am cl ia rations into the study cf theology at Halle. 
lie died in 1757, 

Another Baumgartcn, Martin of Breitcnhach, patrician 
of Nuremberg, no relation to the preceding, travelled in the 
cast in the beginning of the sixteenth century and left an 
account of his journev, which was published after bis death 
under the titlo of fieregrimxtio in /Egypt am, Arabiam, 
Palccstinam, et Syriam,fucta annis 1507 et 1508, in lucem 
tdita a Cristophoro Donaver, 4to. Nuremberg, 159-1. 

BAUTZEN, or BUDISSIN (in the Wend language 
BUOISIIYN), a well-built town near tho eastern borders 
of the kingdom of Saxony, situated on the Spree : it is the 
capital of the circle of Upper Lusatia. Bautzen is known to 
have existed before the times of the celebrated Wittikind, 
and to have been defended by a strong castle, now in ruins. 
It is the seat of a provincial government, a consistory, and 
other public establishments; and tho residence of n titular 
Roman Catholic bishop. Among other edifices of note, it con- 
tains a royal palace called the Orlouburg, now used as public 
oifices (which was burned down in 1410, and rebuilt by 



B A V 



49 



B A V 



Math las, King of Hungary) ; a Horn an Catholic chapter- 
house: a spacious town-hall and publie library ; a house of 
assembly for the states ; a flourishing and richly-endowed 
gymnasium ; a seminary for educating teachers, with a 
primary school attached to it ; a lar-^e cathedral church, 
founded in 1213, and used both by the Catholics and Lu- 
therans in common, for which purpose it is divided by a 
screen of trellis-work ; a Protestant church for fhe Wend 
congregation ; three other churches ; an orphan asylum ; 
five hospitals ; a mechanics' school, &c. There are manu- 
factures of woollens, cotton, linen, stockings, yarn, gun- 
powder, paper, copper and iron-ware, beer and spirits, &c, 
in and about Bautzen ; and it carries on considerable in- 
ternal trade. It was the birth-place of Meissner the poet, 
who died in 1805. In the neighbourhood of Bautzen is 
Klein AVelke, a Moravian colony with seminaries for boys and 
girls ; and also the battle-fields of Hochkirch, and Kittlitz 
or Wurschen, the one fought in 1746, and the other, which' 
was attended by the conflagration of thirty villages, on the 
20th and 21st "of May, 1313, between Napoleon and the 
allied Russians and Prussians. The town contains about 
1400 houses and 7*200 inhabitants, but with its suburbs 
nearly 13,000. It is in 51° 10' N. lat., 14° 30' E. long. : 
about 30 miles E.N.E. of Dresden. 

BAVARIA (THE KINGDOM OF) derives its origin 
from one of the most ancient duchies in modern Europe ; 
the name appears to eome from the Boii or Boioarii, its 
early inhabitants, and the appellation is retained in the 
modern German name of Baiern. It is composed of the 
greater part of the former circles of Bavaria and Franconia, 
of certain districts of Swabia, the principalities of Ansbach 
and Baireutb, the bishoprics of Bamberg, Wiirzburg, Augs- 
burg, Eichstiidt, and Freisiogen, and some parts of those of 
Mainz » Fulda, and Speyer (Spires). Its extent is at present 
more than one-half greater than in the year 1 777, when the 
elector Charles Theodore inherited it, and added to it his pa- 
iriinony in the Palatinate, comprising 4240 square miles. The 
electorate itself did not previously exceed 1 6,6 74 square miles, 
but this accession, and the subsequent acquisition of the 
Deux Ponts territory in 1799, increased it to 21,550 square 
miles. Above seven-eighths of the territories which now 
compose it lie in the south of Germany, east of the Khine, 
and form a compact state, eoramonly designated the Terri- 



tory °f the Danube and Main, which extends from 47° 19 r 
to 50 : 41' N. lat., and from 8 3 51' to 13° 44' E. long.; its 
circuit, taken in straight lines, is estimated at nearly 1130 
miles, but followed out in all its curvatures, at upwards of 
1530. This portion of the Bavarian dominions, in which 
seven out of the eight provinces are comprised, is bounded 
on the south by the Tyrol and Vorarlbcrg, and at its south 
eastern extremity by the Austrian circle of the Salzach, 
in the province of the Upper Ens; in the eirst, part of 
the same province and of Bohemia border on it; its north- 
eastern frontier is skirted by the kingdom of Saxony, and 
its northern and north-western, by the principalities of 
Reuss and the states of ducal Saxony; and in the west, 
it skirts the* dominions of Electoral Hesse, Hesse-Darni- 
stadt, and Baden, until its borders reach the Tauber, at 
Mergentheim, whence the whole boundary to its south- 
western point on Lake Constanz is formed by the king- 
dom of Wiirtemberg. The other portion of the Bavarian 
dominions, the Territory of the Rhine, which is si- 
tuated on the west bank of that river, and is completely 
disjoined from the preceding, by the interposition of the 
Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt possessions, extends from 
48° 57' to 49° 50' N. lat. and from 7° 6' to 8°3l'E. long. 
The French departments of the Lower Rhine and Moselle 
bound it on the south, and the Rhine separates it from 
the grand duchy of Baden on the east ; the Rhenish do- 
minions of Hesse-Darmstadt are its north-eastern neigh- 
bour ; the Prussian province of the Lower Rhine borders it 
on the north and south-west; and in the north-west and 
west it adjoins the domain of Meissenheira, belonging to 
Hcsse-Homburg, and the principality of Licbtenberg. 

Area and Subdivisions, — In consequence of the want of 
official details, considerable difiiculty has hitherto attended 
every attempt to estimate the superficial extent of the 
Bavarian territory ; some have reduced it to 28,000 square 
miles, while others have exaggerated it to 37,000; and one 
writer (Jacobi) to nearly 33,000. The documents, how- 
ever, which have been lately brought before the Bavarian 
legislature enable us to submit the following as a correct 
statement of the total area of the kingdom of Bavaria. We 
have availed ourselves of this opportunity to add some other 
details for the purpose of rendering the statement still more 
comprehensive. 





* 


Arrii.Sq. 

Miles. 


it 

a 

K 




Villages 

ana 




Population. 














Provinces or Circles. 

'The Isar, rontaining 31 districts (Land-gerichte) capital! 
Miinchen (Munich) . . / 




H 


^r- 1 


Hamlets. 


1817. 


1823. 


1333. 


& 


5908 


1G 


41 


6350 


489,452 


581,923 


595,363 


3 

e 


Lower Danube, 23 districts, capital Passau 


2964 


12 


42 


4511 


488,442 


539,039 


552,028 


C . 


Regen, 27 districts, capital RegensVurg (Ratisbon) 


3495 


27 


GO 


2G88 


362,021 


407,541 


432,063 




Upper Danube, 4G districts, capital Augsburg 


3914 


23 


72 


2730 


487,840 


505,220 


516,435 


n* 


Retzat, 42 districts, capital Niirnherg or Nuremberg 


3112 


41 


G5 


2764 


361,575 


419,949 


432,172 


>. z 

o 3 


Upper Mnin, 44 districts, capital Baireuth 


3198 


34 


70 


2370 


460,328 


523,789 


547,003 




Lower Muin, 51 districts, capital Wiirzburg 

Province of the Rhine, 12 circles (Land-commis- , j 


3489 


43 


31 


1136 


485,312 


542,4 75 


568,337 


H 


2GOS0 






sariat) each having from 2 to 4 cantons, capital \ 


2355 


12 


29 


713 


429,687 


517,031 


543,984 




Speyer (Spires) . . * .J 
Totat ... . 


















23,435 


203 


410 


23,462 


3,564,757 


4,037,017 


4,187,390 



This area of 28,435 square miles is thus distributed ; 
Arable land . . 8,171,520 acres 

Meadow do. . . 2,325,120 

Vinevante, gardens, dwellings, out- 
buildings, &e. . . 309,120 
AVoods and forests . 5,376,000 
Waters, rivers, and lakes . 420,080 
Grazing and other land . . 1 ,596,560 



18,198,400 
Bavaria is the thirteenth in the list of European states 
with regard to extent and amount of population, and ranks 
next to France, but immediately above Austria, with regard 
to density of population: as appears by Von Zedlitz's com- 
parative tables. 

Mountain*. — The highlands of Bavaria are offsets from 
t:vo great masses, the Alps and Sudete-Hereynian chain. 
To the former belongs that portion of the Norie Alps which 
stretches along the south-east of the circle of the Isar, and 



throws out its arms into that province; the Arlberg moun- 
tains, which enter the circle of the Upper Danube from the 
Tyrol and subside in this province ; the Allgau-Alps, which 
commence near Kempten in the south of the same province, 
and extending north-eastward, terminate near Mindclheim. 
The highlands on the north side of the Danube, beginning 
at the northern part of the kingdom, contain the Spessart 
mountains, a finely wooded chain, separated from the Oden- 
wald by the Main/ They cover an area of 147 square miles, 
and traverse the circle of the Lower Main from north to 
south; their highest summits, such as the Engelsberg and 
Geicrsberg, do not exceed 2000 feet in elevation. The 
Steigerwald, a forest range of inferior altitude, extends south 
of the Main, along the borders of the circles of the Lower 
and Upper Main and the Retzat, and affords a picturesquo 
alternation of woods and fruitful valleys. The Rhongebirge, 
a bleak and desolate ehain of mountains, with llattened 
summits covered half the year with snow, lie in the circle 
of the Lower Main, to the north of the river Main. They 



No. 211. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



Vot.lW- II 



B A V 



50 



B A V 



we attached on the east to the Fichtelgobirgt* and on the 
west Iwrder on the Spessart ; they attain their highest ele- 
vation in the Kreuzberg, which is 41G2 feet above tho level 
of the sea* Tho Fiehtelgebir^e, which U connected with 
the Bohemian forest chain, lie* in the north-eastern circle of 
the Upper Main : the chief component parts of this mass are 
granite, gneiss, quartz, and clavslato ; tho highest summits 
are the Ocbsonkopf, or Ox's If cad (5230 feet) and some 
points of tho Sehneekopf, or Snow-peak, (3502 rect). Of 
the Thuringcrwald, or forest of Thuringen, an inconsider- 
able portion lies within the circle of the Upper Main, where 
it coos by the name of the forest of Franeonia (Franken- 
wald). On the west side of the Rhine, a branch of the Jura, 
tho ' Vosgesus Mons/ which loses tho name of tho * Vosges' 
on entering Rhenish Bavaria, where it is Germanized into 
tho Wasjpu, stretches in a north-easterly lino deep into the 
centre oi that provin.ee, and terminates in the canton of 
Kirchheim, in which is situated its loftiest summit, the Ko- 
nigsstuhl, one of the group of the Donnersberg (Mountain of 
Thunder), 2142 feet nigh. The composition of this chain is 
chiefly old red sandstone, though in some parts, particularly 
on tho Donnersberg, which is erowncd with a plateau abovo 
100 acres in area, it contains hornblende and porphyry. 

In these masses of Bavarian highlands the most elevated 
points, not before indicated, are, the Zugspitz of the Norie 
Alps, in the circle of the Isar, 9G89 feet, and tho AVettcr- 
schrotTcn, 9387; the Hochvogel of the Allgau range, in the 
circle of the Upper Danube, 847C ; and the Tcufelg'siiss, 
in the same circle, 9283 feet. Tho only Bavarian heights 
which rise into the region of perpetual snow belong to the 
Norie Alps. The Bavarian mountains are generally raw 
and inhospitable, but well wooded. The Sudutsh branch of 
the great Hercynian range comprehends the Bohemian 
forest mountains (Bohmer-Wald-Gcbirge) which run along 
the eastern confines of Bavaria to the extreme eastern 
point where Hobenstcin, about twenty-three miles north of 
the Danube, is situated, and, separating the kingdom from 
the Austrian dominions cast of them, throw out several 
arms into the circles of the Lower Danube and Regen. 
Their highest summits on the Bavarian side are the Arbcr, 
4824 feet, tho Raehcl, 4720, and the Dreisesselberg, 4054 

Bavaria is, on the whole, a mountainous country; not 
only is it walled in by lofty mountains on the north and 
south, but its interior is intersected in various directions by 
elevated ranges. It contains, however, many wide and 
fertile valleys, and numerous extensive plains, tho face of 
which is not nnfrequently disfigured by swamps and mo- 
rasses, here called 4 Moose and ' Filze/ from their surface 
being covered with a thick jungle of lichens (lichen-mmcus) 
and reeds. Of these moors the largest arc the Donaumoos, 
eighty miles in urea, between Sehrobenhausen and Iugol- 
stadt ; tho Erdingermoos, in the circle of the Isar, up- 
wards of 100 miles in area ; the Isarraoos, between Isarock 
and the banks of the Danube, thirty-five miles in length 
and about three in breadth ; the Esehenlohermoos, which 
stretches from the banks of the Laisach to Mornau ; and 
the Rosenheimcrmoos on the Inn. These moors, part of 
which have latterly been drained, have hitherto been entirely 
unprofitable. The greatest extent of plain stretches full 
fifty miles in a south-eastern direction along the Danube 
from Ratisbon to Osterhofcn ; next to this in extent are the 
Konigswieso (Royal Meadow), or Boekinger Heath, spread- 
ing from Becking to Seharding ; the Riefs, in the heart of 
which lies Nordlingcn ; the Hats of tho Regnitz which en- 
circle Nuremberg; and that portion of the valley of the 
Rhine, on its west bank, which spreads into a dead plain 
round Landau, in Rhenish Bavaria. Tho most romantic 
parts of Bavaria are the regions on the south-eastern bor- 
ders, wberc Alpine heights, mountain-torrents, lakes, and 
glaciers, combino to give them the characteristics of the 
Swiss or Tyrolese landscape. 

Rtvcrs, Laftes, cj-c. — The Rhine forms the eastern bound- 
ary of the Rhenish subdivision of Bavaria, from a point 
north-east of Lauterburg to a point a little south of Worms ; 
the principal streams which Tall into it on tho Bavarian side 
aro tbe Lautcr, below Lauterburg; the Klingbaeh, south of 
Sondcrnhcira; the Qucich, close to Germershcim; the 
Sneier, near tho town of Speier or Spires ; the Rchbaeh, See. 
Tho breadth of tho Rhine above Lauterburg is 1400 feet; 
its fall in this part of its course is estimated at four and a 
"half feet in every three miles and a quarter, and it Hows at 
the rate of about 395 feet per minute. 

Tho Danube enters the south west of Bavaria from the 



Wiirtemberg dominions about two miles south of Ulm, and 
in its north-easterly and navigable courso through tho heart 
of tho kingdom as far as Regenshurg (Ratisbon) Hows past 
Giinxburg, Ilochstlidt, Donauworth, Nenburg, and Ingol- 
stadt t between which last town and Ratisbon it has a lull 
of 110 feet. In its courso (which is about E.S.E.) from 
Ratisbon to Passau it has on its right bank Straubing 
and Vilshofen, and between Ratisbon and Nieder-Altaieh, 
a spot five miles below Dcekcndorf, not far from Passau, 
in tho circle of the Lower Danube, a fall of 150 fccL 
Tho courso of this tortuous and impetuous river from 
Ulm to Passau is stated by St. Behlcn to be fifty-seven 
and a half German miles, or about 270 English: the prin- 
cipal streams which aro tributary to it alcng this line aro, 
on its right bank, the Illcr (after the latter has rereived 
the Bleibach), the Lciba, Miindel, Zusain, and Lech, the 
Isar below Deggcndorf (after it has been joined by the 
Loisaeh, Am per, and Wiirm), and the Inn, near Passau 
(after it has been increased by the influx of the Alz, Salz- 
aeh, &e.). On its left bank the chief rivers which fall into 
the Danube are the AVornitz near Donauworth, the Altraiihl 
near Kehlhcim, which rises not far from Ilornan in tho 
Retzat circle, the Rohrbaeh near Bubcnheira, the Sulz 
near Beilingrics, the Naab, which (lows down from the 
Bohmcrwald, is increased bv the waters of the Ueiduab 
from the region of the Fichtclgcbirgc, and joins the Danubo 
abovo Ratisbon ; and lastly the Regen, which also comes 
from the Bohmcrwald, and uniting with tho black, white, 
and lesser Regen, traverses the circle to which it gives its 
name, and discharges itself into the Danube near Stadh-am- 
Ilof, opposite Ratisbon. Daring its course through the Ba- 
varian territory the Danube receives no less than thirty- 
eight rivers. 

The Main originates in two streams, the red and white 
Main, the white springing from the vicinity of Kcubau, and 
the red from tho Ochsenkopf, part of the Fichtelgebirge in 
the circle of the Upper Danube ; these unite at Steinhausen 
below Kuhubach, and tlow in a general western course to a 
point a few miles west of Bamberg. Bamberg is on the Reg- 
nitz, a lanrc stream which joins the Main on the left hank, 
a little below Bamberg. The Main continues a general 
western course to Sebwcinfurth, Kitzingen, Wiirzburg, and 
Aschaffcnburg, whence it passes into the territory of Hesse. 
It is navigable above Bamberg, and in its eeursc through 
the northern circles of the Upper and Lower Main receives 
the Rodaeh near Staflclstein, tho Franconian-Saale at 
Gmiinden, tho Regnitz (as already mentioned), below Bam- 
berg, and many other smaller streams.* There are three 
other rivers of note which rise in the Bavarian territory 
the Eger and Saalc, both come from the Fiehtelgcbirgo, 
the former runs eastward in tho circle of tho Upper Main 
into Bohemia, and the latter northward from the Zettcr- 
wald in the same eirele into Saxony ; and the Fulda, which 
Hows immediately into Electoral Hesse, and after its junc- 
tion with the Werra forms the AVescr. 

Bavaria does not yet possess canals of any magnitude. 
There is a canal in the neighbourhood of the Ainmerscc, 
in the western part of the circle of the Isar, 13,000 feet in 
length, which enables timber-rafts to* avoid the hazardous 
navigation of that lake as well as to save a distance of more 
than five miles. A cut was made in 1818 betweeen Worth 
and Knitlingen (both' on the Rhine), 10,0*24 feet long and 
sixty-two feet broad, with sluice-gates upon the Rhine at 
each extremity. Another canal was finished in 1S07, be- 
tween Rosenheim and Kufstein, which is 7400 feet long and 
thirty-six broad, and by which nearly two square miles of 
highly fertile land have been brought under cultivation, 
There is also a navigablq eanal from Frankenthal to tho 
Rhine. In the year 793 the Fmperor Charlemagne resolved 
upon uniting the German Ocean with the Black Sea by a 
canal which would have run from the Altniiihl to the Reg- 
nitz, and thus have established a navigable line between the 
Danube and the Rhine through the Main ; and there is every 
prospect, from the active exertions of tho Bavarian govern- 
ment to forward this great object, that this undertaking will 
now bo accomplished.* 

* The official proipeclus upon which, at well as upon a law paused in July 
Utl (1834), a company b forming for the purpoie, states, lhal ♦the Junction 
Canal between the Danube and Uhlne,hy means of tho Main, including thu 

Krtton of Ihe r'tver Allmuhl which Is to be made navigable, will l>e 592,543 
tvarian feet, or lwcntjMhroo and a half German mile* In length (abnul 
6C3,y00 KngUth feel, or 1U7 mflet). 11 it to pan tn the direction of ihe two 
jpreal commercial town* Nurcnibvrg Mid Kurlh. ll» proposed dimension* aro 
a breadth of (lay-four feel at lop and thirty-four feet al bottom, and a depth 
of (he feci. Tbe width of lhe chambvrt fur lhe tluicct U lo be fixtccnfcelj 



BAY 



51 



B<AV 



On the Boden See (Lake Constanz) arc situated the 
harbour and fortress of Lindau, the most south-western 
point in Bavaria, but only a small portion of the surface 
of this lake belongs to Bavaria. There are numerous 
lakes within the Bavarian territory. The largest is the 
Chicm-scc (lake Chiem), which lies between the Inn and 
the Alz, about thirteen miles south of Wasserburg and 
twenty miles east of Rosenheim, in the eircle of the Isar; 
its surface is about 22,400 acres; it is about thirty-five 
miles in circuit, and its greatest depth is above 500 feet. 
Three islands, or rather hills, rise above its surface, on two 
of which are the remains of suppressed ecclesiastical com- 
munities ; its fisheries, which belong to the crown, arc ex- 
tremely productive. In the western part of the same circle 
is the Wiirm, or Stahrenbergcr-See, a beautiful lake, about 
sixteen miles south-west of Munich, fourteen miles in length 
and about four in breadth. The Ammer-See, west of the 
AVurm-See, is a beautiful piece of water, about twelve miles 
long and twenty-seven in circuit ; its area contains about 
11,000 acres, and its greatest depth is 269 feet. There are 
seven villages on its western banks ; it abounds in fish, and 
derives its name from the Ammcr, Amper, or Amfrer, which 
falls into it at its southern extremity and quits it in the 
north-cast near Eching. This lake is united by the river 
with the Staffcn or Staflel-See, a lake on the west side of 
the town of Murnau, about five or six miles in eircuit. The 
AValler or AValchen-Sec (Lacus AVallensis), is another large 
lake to the south-east of Murnau, containing about 13,500 
acres. This lake appears to be an old crater, an opinion 
which has gained more general credit from the violent agi- 
tation o? its waters during the great earthquake of Lisbon 
in November, 1755. Its greatest depth is 612 feet, and it 
lies 564 feet higher than the adjoining Koehcl or Keehel- 
See, which is also situated in the south-western part of the 
circle of the Isar, on the roarl from Munich to Innsbruck. 
The surface of the Kochcl-Sec is estimated at about 1200 
acres and its depth at 240 feet; both these lakes are full of 
fish. The most south-eastern of all the lakes in Bavaria 
is the King's (Konig)or Bartholomccus-Sec, in the same 
circle: its banks are precipitous, and it is surrounded by 
mountains. The Konigsbach throws itself into the lake 
from a lofty precipice. South-cast of Munich, between the 
Isar and Inn, about thirteen miles cast of Holzkirchcn, is 
the beautiful lake called the Tcgern-Sec, with a royal resi- 
dence, once a Benedictine monastery, on high ground at 
its south-cast extremity ; it is encircled on all sides by green 
valleys, woods, and mountains, and has an elevation of 
2 187 feet above the level of the Mediterranean: its length 
is about a mile and a half, and its breadth about two 
miles ; its greatest depth is 337 feet. On its east side is 
thcQuirinc spring, a spring of naphtha, discovered in 1430, 
which Hows from a layer of peat ; the liquid is of a greenish- 
brown tint, inllammable, and affords, in some years, a supply 
of about fifteen or sixteen gallons. 

Climate. — Tho climato of Bavaria is, on the whole, tem- 
perate and healthy. It is eold and bleak in the mountainous 
district*, but milder in the plains and valleys through which 
the Main, Altmiihl, and Rcgnitz How, particularly in the 
parts adjacent to the first of those streams, where the Thurin- 
gian and other mountains shelter them from north winds. In 
those parts the chestnut and almond thrive ; and the vine is 
cultivated for wine; but the latter docs not succeed so well 
in the low country about the Danube, which suffers from 
extreme cold in winter and oppressive heat in summer. 
In the elevated regions of southern Bavaria, fruit cannot be 
raised. The Rhenish possessions have a climate as mild and 
salubrious as the eountry traversed by the Main, except 
in some districts of the west, which arc intcrscetcd by the 
\ r o*gcs and their branehes : here the winter still prevails, 
while flowers and fruit-trees arc blossoming in tho rich 
and sunny plains. * In the plains/ says Cromc, c the 
thermometer seldom rises above 86° Fahrenheit, or falls 
below 50°.' AVc give this fact as we find it stated in 
Cromc's work. 

Vegetable Productions. — Few countries possess a more 
productive soil than Bavaria ; yet, until very recently, few 
people have turned their natural advantages to so little 

and their length 150 ; they aro to be dlrtded inlc i\ro part* by an iutrrmediate 
Rale, wo thai the chamber* may be filled for a length of 90 or or 120 feel ; 
the last of these lrn^th* bcir.g deigned fur the use of boa Is, loaded wilh lim- 
ber for bonding, which are extiemely long.* The estimated cost of this under* 
laklng is about 817500/. (ti&*}$Tt floriua), and the Bavarian government, 
without mailing for thf complete formation of the company, have directed the 
woikf upor. the Allmuhl to be commenced. 



account : ignorance and idleness have been the obstacles 
by which the improvement of husbandry has been ehecked. 
It is not many years since nearly one-third of the available 
surface of the circles of the Isar, Lower Danube, and Regen 
was lying waste and uncultivated; but a new spirit has 
sprung up under the present enlightened government, agri * 
cultural enterprise has been roused, and antiquated habits 
and prejudices are rapidly giving way to improved methods 
of cultivation. Large tracts of the Moose or moors have 
already been brought under cultivation ; and the quantity 
of land under the plough has increased to nearly nine-twen- 
tieths of the whole surface of the Bavarian dominions. Of 
this quantity, six-sevenths belong to the provinces of Ba- 
varia Proper, the area of which is more than nine-tenths of 
that of the whole kingdom ; the remaining seventh belongs 
to Rhenish-Bavaria, whose surface is considerably below 
one-tenth of the whole. 

Agricultural industry is principally directed to the culti- 
vation of wheat, rye, barley, and oats . the produce of the 
crops, however, varies considerably both in quality and 
quantity, so much so indeed with respect to the latter, as to 
range from three-fold to twelve- fold: on the average it may 
be estimated at about 5} bushels per English acre. The 
annual quantity of grain, therefore, which Bavaria raises is 
between 5,800,000 and 5,900,000 quarters, which agrees 
closely with the calculation made by Malehus, and is corro- 
borated by the well-known fact, that the eountry produces 
a much larger supply than its own consumption requires. 
The circle of the Lower Danube, which comprises the larger 
portion of Southern Bavaria, is comparatively the most pro- 
ductive in grain ; the circle of the Rctzat, and particularly 
the Ansbach and Baircuth districts, are superior to the re- 
maining provinces, which, with the exception of the Rhenish 
possessions, whence eorn is exported, scarcely raise more 
grain in common years than what is adequate to their own 
demand. In some districts rice, spelt, maize, and buck- 
wheat are also cultivated ; b'ut there arc parts in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Spessart where the climate and soil are 
unfavourable to the growth of almost every kind of corn- 
seed. 

Next to grain, the vine and hop-plant arc important ob- 
jects of cultivation. The former is grown in few districts, 
except the circles of the Rhine and Lower Main. The 
Lower Main produees the Franconian wines, mostly white, 
known by the names of the Main, AVere, Saalc, and Tau- 
bcr wines, which indicate the districts where they arc 
made : the western declivity of the Steigerwald, and the 
Plain of Gcroldshofen, have their vineyards also. The 
celebrated Stcinwein is a produce of the Steinberg, in 
the Mark of AVurzbnrg ; and the no less eelebrated Leis- 
tenwein is from the same quarter, namely, the southern 
slope of the Maricnberg, near the town of AViirzburg. 
Those parts of the eircle of the Rhine which produce 
the ehoiccst wine, arc the vineyards near Forst, Dei- 
deshcim, and AVachenheim, on the declivities oftheHardt 
mountains. In favourable seasons, the quantity of wine 
produced in the Lower Main is estimated at 63,000 fuder 
(about 11,340,000 imperial gallons), and in the Rhenish 
province, at 92,000 (about 16,560,000 gallons): the whole 
amounts to about 27,900,000 gallons. Allowance being 
made for failures in unfavourable seasons, the average yearly 
produce may be estimated at 104,000 to 117,000 fader 
(18,700,000to 21,000,000 gallons), and their value at between 
750,000^. and 850.000A The cultivation of hops has made 
much progress in Bavaria ; and the produce of the plantations 
around Spalt and Heersbriick (in the Retzat), and Hoch- 
stadt, and other parts of the Upper Danube circles, is ac- 
counted scarcely inferior to the finest Bohemian • tho quan- 
tity raised every year is about 80,000 cwt., of which from 
16,000 to 18,000 are exported, and the whole, at the average 
market-price, may be estimated at an annual value of 
about 7,500,000 or 8,000,000 florins (720,000^ to 766,000/.). 
Considerable quantities of tobacco arc grown in the circles 
of the Rhine and Retzat, the former of which produces be- 
tween 7000 and 8000 cwt, and the latter from 20,000 to 
30,000; altogether more than adequate to tho home de- 
mand. The cultivation of jlax and hemp has greatly in- 
creased, particularly in the justiceship of AVasserburg, in 
the south-east of Bavaria: but the country is still dependent 
on foreign supplies of both articles. Oil, extracted from 
linseed, rape, and other seeds, is a manufacture so much 
on the increase, more especially in tho two circles of the 
Main and In the Rhenish territory, that the exportation 

112 



B A V 



52 



frequently exceeds the importation: much oil likewise U 
obtained from puppies in the Lower Main ; but the finer 
descriptions of oils consumed are of foreign growth. The 
raising of *i!M has occupied the attention of the government 
for some year* past, and it Imk to a certain extent suc- 
ceeded. *£\\q cultivation of this articlo ha* been grcatiy 
promoted by the Silk Comraittco of the Society of Agricul- 
ture, who imported some hundreds of mulberry trees from 
Italy, Hungary, and the Rhenish districts, in 1824, and 
distributed them in various quarter*. A hundred thousand 
of these trees havo also been raised from the seed brought 
from Italy, and sown in the royal plantations alxmt 
the English Garden at Munich. Fruit is most exten- 
sively raised in the southern districts of the kingdom ; 
though the finest sorts are probably those which are culti- 
vated in the environs of the Main and the Rhenish terri- 
tory, whence considerable quantities are exported. Liquorico 
(of which the Bamberg sort is considered the fiaest raised in 
German y), aniseed, coriander, eumininsecd, and saffron are 
cultivated in many parts. Madder forms an article of large 
export from the circle of the Rhine; and generally the cul- 
tivation of such roots and plants as afford a dye appears to 
have been successful. The potato is far more generally 
cultivated in the northern and Rhenish districts than in the 
southern: hay and other fodder for cattle arc produced in 
abundance. Iceland moss is also collected in Bavaria. 

Division nf Pioperly.— 'The soil/ says St. Behlen, Ms 
divided in very equal proportions. In the six old circles 
(those of the Retzat, Rcgcn, Upper Main, and Isar, and of 
the Upper and Lower Danube) there arc 2,234,003 estates 
held by 000,989 proprietors. The- same may be remarked 
of the circle of the Rhine ; but of the Lower'Main we have 
no authentic returns. The rare occurrence of large pro- 
perties is shown by the inconsiderable number of individuals, 
who, as possessing freeholds rated to the laud-tax at the 
value of 8000 tlorins (about 7G5/.),arc eligible to scats in the 
legislature; for it appeared at the ftrst election, that exclu- 
sively of noblemen and persons holding property in towns, 
the number of such individuals did not exceed 7181. The 
laws of the land arc favourable to the subdivision of estates. 
In the circles of the Isar, Rcgen, and Lower Danube we find 
many comparatively large properties, between 200 to 400 
tagwerken (1/0 and 340 aeros) in extent; in these quarters 
such subdivisions arc seldomest known, on account of the 
thinness of the population. The state possesses, in landed 
property and ground- rents, to the value of 209,548,415 ilorir.s 
(about 20,087,000/.). which constitutes between a fifth 
mid a sixth part of the entire value of landed property in 
Bavaria.* 

Forest*, Timber^ #c— The proportion of soil occupied 
by woods and forests, as compared with the surface occu- 
pied by arable land, is nearly 60 of the former to 1 00 of the 
latter. Most of the mountains in Bavaria arc finely wooded: 
many of the more extensive plains also contain forests. 
Those of the Spessart and Rhon mountains, in the circle of 
the Lower Main, may he considered as the most valuable : 
the oak obtained from the Spessart is highly esteemed, 
and is exported to a large amount ; but tho beech of the 
Rhiin is very little inferior to it in strength. It may be 
observed, in general, that the woods in tbe lowlands consist 
of oaks and beeches, but, in the elevated regions, of juni- 
pers, with firs, pines, and others of the same species. Ex- 
tensive tracts of wretched woodland occur in some parts, 
as, for instance, in the circle of the Isar, where there are 
upward* of 103,000 acres of such land, intersected by ranges 
of high barren rocks. The yearly produce of the Bavarian 
forests, independently of fire-wood and brush-wood, is esti- 
mated at 2,370,000 klaftcrs, and the quantity of timber thus 
produced is so much beyond the domestic consumption, that, 
in 1821, the value of the exports was 221,350/. (2,309,070 
tlorins) greater than that of the imports. The quantity of 
woodland belonging to the state forms one-third of the whole 
Bavarian woods and forests; and their gross annual value 
for 1821, as reported to the legislature in 1828, was about 
344 ,030/. (3,595,060 florins). In consequence, however, of 
the heavy expenses attending their management, the lights 
jxwsessed by individual* to certain proportions of the fell- 
ings and other burthensome contingencies, the net produce 
accruing to the state docs not appear to have been moro 
than about 100,180/.* or 1,G71,4GG tlorins. In this amount, 
wo should add, no credit is taken for the quantity of timlicr, 
&e. in stock, nor for the produee of the 1C7.000 acres which 
arc appropriated to the consumption of the salt-works, and 



B A V 

to other public purposes. The remaining two-thirds of the 
Bavarian woodlands belong to parishes, endowments, and 
■private individuals. The largest forests are those near 
Kemptcn, which cover a surface of 235,143 acres, and in tho 
region of the Spessart. which arc 91,740 acres in extent 
but in Rhenish Bavaria both timber and fuel arc compara- 
tively scarce. Potashes* tar, turpentine, and juuiper berries 
arc among the other products of the Bavarian forests. 

Animals.— Bavaria is full of rivers and streams, the banks 
of which aro bordered with excellent pastures; and lhcy 
have been rendered still more productive in the two circles of 
the Main and that of the Retzat by artificial irrigation. Tho 
mountains also abound i\\ pastures, which have been im- 
proved in many parts by careful cultivation. No branch of 
grazing, however* is so extensively pursued as the rearing of 
horned cattle ; and in this respect the circles of the Uppor 
Danube and Isar take the lead ; yet the whole stock is in- 
adequate to the wants of the inhabitants, and by no means 
commensurate with the capabilities of the country. In 1&21 
the stock amounted to 1,895,087 beads; aud supposing tho 
annual increase to have been at the rate of one in eiery 
three hundred for the thirteen years since elapsed, the pre- 
sent stock may be estimated at nearly 1,980,000. Il may 
be observed also that the imports of oxen, hides, and cheese 
exceed the exports by about 10,000 oxen, 2000 cwt. of hides, 
and 2500 tons of ehecso. Sufficient exertions havo not yet 
been made to improve the breeds, though much good ha3 
been done by the establishment of agricultural aud veteri- 
nary schools, and the distribution of prizes at tho rural festi- 
vals. Of sheep, the numbers in 1821 wcro 1,238,103, and 
it is calculated that they have increased to about 1,400,000' 
since that timo. Tho neglect of this branch of agriculturo 
during the last forty years, which, wo believe, is without a 
parallel in any other German state, may be inferred from tho 
fact, that in the year 1794, when the Bavarian dominions 
were hut 20,030 square miles, their Hocks contained 1 ,04 G.&81 
sheep: whereas now, when the territory spreads over an area 
of 28,435 square miles, they arc not more than we have stated. 
The majority of the Bavarian tloeks arc of the native breed ; 
but great pains arc at present bestowed upon their improve- 
ment, and lhc result has already been advantageously fell on 
the royal sheep-grounds at Sehleissheim near Munich, and 
Waldbrunn, as well as in other parts of the country. Much 
also remains to bo done, we are told, towards improving 
the domestic breed of horses: their number, which was 
324,991 in tho year 1821, is now said to have risen to 
340,000, cxclusi\o of such as arc employed for military ser- 
vice and in public establishments. The horses imported 
into the country, however, still continue to exceed those 
exported, by .several hundreds annually. Swine are roared 
in all quarters, but more particularly in the neighbourhood 
of the Spessart and Khun mountains, where acorns are 
abundant: though no accurate account of their numbers is 
extant, Malchus is of opinion that they range between 
1,400,000 and 1,500,000. Of goats the stock is not largo: 
and few mules or asses aro bred. Fowl, bolh wild aud do- 
mestic, arc plentiful : the rearing of bees has boon neglected 
until of late years. The lakes and rivers of Bavaria abound 
with fish : in the circle of tho Isar especially, where tho 
largest inland waters exist, and along the banks of tho 
Main and Rhine, thousands derive a comfortable livelihood 
from the fisheries. The most noted species arc the salmon 
of tho Rhine, the trout of the Franconian streams, ami the 
era) fish of. the Altmuhl. Pearls arc found in the 11/ and 
other minor streams. The evolves and bears, which used to 
infest the forests and highlands of Bavaria, are rapidly 
diminishing. 

Metals and Minerals. — Every inducement has been held 
out by the Bavarian government, both to natives and 
strangers, with a view to encourage tho working of the 
mines. The principal products ore iron, coals, and salt; 
gold and silver are found in small quantities, only in tho 
waters of the Inn. Rhine. Danube* and Isar; quicksilver, 
to the amount of 280 or 290 ewt., in tho circle of the Rhine ; 
aud copper, which was formerly raised in several quarters, 
is now confined to the works at Kahl and JKaulsdorf, in 
the circle of tho Upper Main, which produce about 770 
cwt, per niiniun. There arc two mines of cobalt also on 
the latter spot, from which small quantities of tin, lead, aud 
antimony have occasionally been obtained. The Upper 
Main, Rhenish Bavaria, Rcgen, Lower Danube, aud Isar 
territories are the chief mining districts in Bavaria. There 
aro, in tho whole kingdom, 41 iron high-blast furnaces, of 



BAY 



53 



BAY 



which S belong to tho crown; 30 low-heat furnaces, 17 
smelting-works, 332 forges and hammers for beating out 
the metal, &c., 4 steel-works, and 19 wire-mills, the annual 
produce of which is about 11,150 tons of raw and cast-iron, 
6990 tons of wrought-iron, 4300 ewt. of steel, 7200 of plate- 
iron, and 4000 ewt. of wire; but as the whole quantity of 
metal raised is not sufficient for the consumption of the 
country, the deficiency is made good by importations, Of 
this native iron, the Isar mines at Neukirchen average 
yearly about 5500 tons, and the Upper Main about 4000. 
Bavaria possesses likewise 136 pits of iron-stone, which is 
raised in all of its eight circles, to the average' extent of 
41,500 tons a year. The coal-mines are in the districts of 
Stadstcinach and Wundsiedel in the Upper Main, and of 
Kaiscrslautern in Rhenish Bavaria; the number of shafts 
at work in these parts is fifty-one, of which eight are the 
property of the crown, and the remainder of private indi- 
viduals. The whole quantity raised is about 35,000 tons 
a year, which might be greatly increased by working 
the rich beds in which other districts of Bavaria are 
known to abound. Black-lead (or graphite) is worked in 
several places, particularly at Obernzcll, whence much is 
sent to America for the purpose of making crucibles : the 
whole number of mines in activity is thirty-three, and the 
quantity produced, about 200 tons per annum. The sulphur 
raised in various parts is not sufficient for the home con- 
sumption. ' Porcelain-earth is another Bavarian product; 
the best is obtained in the justiceship of Wunsiedel in the 
Upper Main, and of a quality said to be the finest in Ger- 
many, if not in Europe. Salt has been a monopoly of the 
frown for several ages ; and in the last century the pans 
and works of Schcllenberg alone, from which the govern- 
ment supplied the country, produced 2-11,000 tons. The 
public salt-works are at present seven in number, and are 
established ut Berehtcsgaden, Rosenheim, Reichenhall, and 
Trauenstein, in the circle of the Isar (average produce about 
28,600 tons a year), Orb and Kissingen in the Lower Main 
(average about 3000 tons a year), and Tiirkheim in the 
Upper Danube (average about 420 tons a year). The whole 
supply amounts to between 32,000 and 33,000 tons per an- 
num : the expense is estimated at about two shillings and 
sixpence per ton, and the portion retained for domestic con- 
sumption at 30,000 tons. On an average of four years, the 
clear annual profit accruing to tho state appears to have 
been 2,217,375 llorins (about 213,000/.). There are, accord- 
ing to Stein, three hundred different sorts of marble in the 
circle of the Upper Main alone. Alabaster and rock crys- 
tal, the agate, jasper, and garnet, cornelians, and asbestos, 
should be added to the list of Bavarian minerals. , 

Bavaria is abundantly supplied with mineral waters, but 
few of them are of any note. Among the saponaceous 
springs we may instance the well of the Virgin (Man'e?i- 
brunnen) at Mochlingen ; there are alkaline waters at the 
monastery of Ucilsbrunn in the Retzat, as well as at Baklcr 
in the Wirzburg territory ; muriatic springs at Bencdict- 
bcuem and Kissingen, and at the Wildbad at Rothenburg ; 
sulphuretted-alkaline waters at Abach; and chalybeate 
springs in various quarters, particularly the Fokbcrger Baths 
and Alexander Baths in the circle of the Main. 

Inhabitants. — It appears from the tabular statement given 
above that Rhenish Bavaria surpasses every other part of 
the kingdom in density of population, the number of inha- 
bitants to the square mile being 230 ; in the Ix>wer Danube 
it is 180; in the Upper Main, 171; in the Lower Main, 
nearly 163; in the Uetzat, 138; in the Upper Danube, 
nearly 132; in the Regen, 123; and in the Isar, although 
the capital with a population of 80,000 souls and upwards 
lies within it, not quite 100. The comparative numbers of 
the two sexes are as follow : — 

In the year 1819, 1,788,495 malc3; 1,908,900 females. 
1825, 1,929,025 „ 2,052,912 „ 
1828, 1,980,278 „ 2,056,739 

From the average of these three years the proportion of 
males to females is 125 of the former to 132 of the latter, or 
1000 to 1055 ; which is a little less than tho proportion 
given by Malchus, who states the excess of females over 
males as being • not quite 5 J per cent.' According to Rud- 
hart's statement in 1826, the number of dwelling-houses 
was then 019,482, and the number of families inhabiting 
them 787,318; each family averaging between four and 
five individuals. The proportion of the population in towns 
having 500 families or upwards is also estimated by him at 

i 



one-seventh of the entire number of inhabitants ; and so 
low a proportion cannot be matter of surprise in a state which 
is so pre-eminently agricultural. The average proportion 
of births and deaths for the three years 1819, 1825, and 
1828, is 143,576 of the former to 108,345 of the latter; 
whence we have an average increase, on these three vcars, 
of 35,231 souls.. • 

The number of parishes is 8155, and that of public and 
private buildings of all descriptions was, in 1833, 1,271,5G7, 
the value of which was estimated at 778,908,699 florins 
(about 74,G45,417/.). The number of such buildings insured 
against fire was 1,13G,977, and their estimated value was 
551,02G,798 llorins, or 52,80G,730/. 

According to Von Zedlitz, the inhabitants of Bavaria con 
sist of 4, 113,500 Germans, 60,000 Jews, and G500 French, 
or persons of French extraction, who are mostly scattered 
about Landau and in the circle of the Rhine ; the German 
part of the population is divided into native Bavarians, 
Franeonians, Swabians, and Rhinelanders. 
, Religion.— VJq know of no classification of the inhabitants 
according to their religious tenets of a more recent date than 
that given by Von St. Bchlcn for the year 1828, at which 
period they were composed of 

2,880,383 Roman Catholics, 
1,094,G33 Protestants, 
57,574 Jews, and 
4,427 of other persuasions. 

The 'Edict of Religion* of the lGth May, 1818, docs not 
recognize any predominant national church, but establishes 
full liberty of conscience, and gives both/to Roman Catholic 
and Protestant an equality of civil rights; the privilege of 
private worship is secured to individuals of every persuasion, 
and that of public worship may be granted by the king 
upon the application of a sufficient number of families. AH 
matters connected with the temporal concerns of religious 
communities are conducted by the section for ecclesiastical 
affairs in the home department ; but the exercise of judicial 
power in the Catholic Church, with reference to members of 
their own body, is entrusted to the archbishops, bishops, ab- 
bots, and deacons. The king is the temporal head of that 
church, and no laws, ordinances, or other public acts relating 
to it can be promulgated without the royal sanction. 

By the concordat concluded with the Pope, on the 5th 
June, 1817, two archbUhoprics, Munich and Bamberg, and 
six bishoprics, AYiirzburg, Eichstiidt, and Spires, under the 
former, and Augsburg, Uatisbon, and Passau, under the 
latter, were instituted. The Roman Catholic Church in Ba- 
varia possesses 191 deaneries, and 2512 cures of souls. The 
Lutheran Church, which is most prevalent in the circles of, 
the Retzat, Upper Danube, the two Mains, and Rhine, con- 
tains 37 inspections, consisting of 1 036 parishes or ministries, 
under the conduct of the three consistories of Baireuth, 
Ansbach, and Spires, which are subordinate to the 'Inde- 
pendent Superior Consistory' of Munich, the latter being 
itself subject, to a certain extent, to the control of the homo 
department. Wo observe that the king of Bavaria does not 
allow his prelates to use the prrcfix 'Dei gratia* 4 in their 
titles, considering it a peculiar attribute of royalty; but he 
permits them to substitute, as an appendix to their official 
designation, the words * Divina gratia.' The revenues of the 
Roman Catholic Church arise from estates and endowments, 
over which its hierarchs exercise unlimited control : out of 
these revenues the archbishop of Munich receives an annual 
stipend of about 1920/. (20,000 florins), and the archbishop 
of Bamberg, about 1440/. (15,000 florins); the bishops of 
Augsburg, Ratisbon, and Wiirzburg, 9G0/. (10,000 florins) 
each, and those of Passau, Eichstiidt, and Spires, about 
7G5/. (8000 llorins) each. Several monasteries and convents 
have been allowed to spring up again of late years, for the 
professed purpose of instructing young persons in religious 
and worldly knowledge, of assisting in the ministerial office, 
and taking charge of the sick. The present number of reli- 
gious establishments is thirty-four, of which fourteen are very 
recent revivals of suppressed communities. .In the year 
1832 there was not one such establishment in the circle of 
the Retzat ; but tbere were twelve in the Upper and Lower 
Danube, seven in the Isar, four in the Regen, ten in the 
Upper and Lower Main, and two in the Rhenish' territory. 
The higher orders of the clergy, including deans of chapters, 
are nominated by the sovereign; and, on the representation 
o f the bishops, the circulation of such books as they may deem 
adverse to ' the true faith, good manners, or church discipline 
is prohibited. Tho president of the Lutheran Consistory 



B A V 



61 



BAV 



has a seat and vote in the Scnalo or Couneil of the King- 
dom (Reich* rath); and the Protestant clergy are main- 
tained hv the state at an expense of about 28.000/. (290,000 
llorins) a year. An annual grant of about 95,000/. (1,000,000 
llorins), is likewise made for the support of the inferior Roman 
Catholic ministers. Besides the pure Lutherans, there arc 
about 7000 reformed Lutherans in Bavaria; but the mem- 
bers of the two persuasions in Rhenish Bavaria came to an 
understanding in I81S, when tho vote of every individual 
was taken, and it appeared by the result, that 40,167 were 
in fa\our of the union, and only 539 against it. Since that 
period they have formed one single religious community, 
wider the designation of tho * Protestant Evangelical Chris- 
tian Church.' There are a few Mcnnonitcs and Ilcrrn- 
huthcrs in the Bavarian States, and since the elevation of 
the present King's second son to the new throne of Greece, 
a number of Greeks have taken up their abode in Munich, 
where they have a separate school for their children, and 
are allowed the use of one of the churches. The Jewish 
portion of ihc population arc mostly settled in the Rctzat 
and Lower Main ; they enjoy full liberty of conscience, but, 
under the edict of the toth June, 1813, arc not admitted to 
participate in civil rights and immunities, unless they becomo 
naturalized and adopt distinct family names. 

Education. — This important department is under the im- 
mediate superintendence of the 'Superior Board of Educa- 
tion and Ecclesiastical Affairs' (Obcr-Schul-und-Kirchen- 
rath), attached to the ministry of home affairs, and under 
tho subordinate direction of the several provincial govern- 
ments, one member of which has particular charge of all 
matters connected with scholastic institutions. Subordi- 
nate again to the latter are the inspectors of district and 
local schools ; those for the local schools being in general 
the ministers and elders of parishes. No child is excused 
attendance at the schools, except such as have received per- 
mission to pursue their studies under private tutors. There 
are three universities, two Catholic, at Munich and Wiirz- 
burg, and one Protestant at Erlangen ; the two former are 
attended by about 2200, and the latter by about 400 
students. 1'hcse three universities have eighty-six pro- 
fessors, and between twenty and thirty tutors (docenten), 
private lecturers, and others, besides excellent scientific col- 
lections and auxiliary institutions. Next in rank arc the 
seven lycasa, thirty -lour schools of studies, and twenty- 
one gymnasia, of which Munich and Augsburg have two 
each : the gymnasia are conducted by seventy-nine pro- 
fcs>ors and J 47 other teachers. The lyccea arc attended by 
about 700, and the gymnasia by about 3100 pupils. There 
are also twenty-one pro- gymnasia, and sixteen ' preparatory 
Latin sehools' in Munich, Augsburg, Ratisbon, Wiirzburg, 
Landau, Kaiscrslautcrn, &c. ; in tho last (the Latin schools) 
there arc about 2300 pupils. The number of elementary, me- 
chanics', and Sunday schools exceeds 5000 ; hut wo have no 
return of them of a later date than the year 1821, at whieh 
time there were 5008 school-houses, with 7114 masters and 
assistants, and 489,196 pupils attending them. Bavaria 
has eight seminaries for the education of teachers, and its 
legislature annually voles about 3000/. (32,000 tlorins) for 
the ciicoungement of elementary schools, besides about 
2350/. for the inspectors' expenses, and allowances to re- 
tired masters. Tho whole public grant for forwarding 'edu- 
cation and intellectual culture' is 767,811 llorins (about 
73,600/.) The seminaries for educating candidates for ecclo- 
siastical preferment are seven in number. There arc veteri- 
nary schools at Munich and AVurzburg; a royal academy of 
the arts and sciences of nearly 400 members, and another 
of the fine arts with eight professors, and an agricultural 
society, which distributes annual prizes, all in Munich ; an 
academyof physics and medicine at Wiirzburg, and another 
of naturalist*, as well as a medico- physical economical society 
at Erlangen ; a horticultural society (tho Pcgnesian order 
of tlowcrs) in Nuremberg, where there arc also societies for 
the promotion of national industry and the propagation of 
Christianity ; a botanical society at Ratisbon ; a school of 
the fino arts at Augiburg, in connexion with tho academy 
in Munich ; and numerous other associations of a useful cha- 
racter. The largest nublic library in Bavaria is the 'Cen- 
tral Library' in Munich, which contains upwards of 
500,000 volumes, including 16,000 manuscripts, 400,000 
pamphlets and dissertations, and 250,000 distinct works: 
the University Library, in tho same city, has upwards of 
160,000 volumes; that of Wiirzburg, above .10,000; and 
that of Erlangen, between 40,000 and 50,000t No printing- 



press can be established without the previous sanetiou of 
tho king. Piracy of books, as well as the sale of niratcd 
works, is held to be a misdemeanor; and every bookseller, 
dealer in antiquities, owner of a circulating library, printer, 
and head of a lithographic establishment, is placed under 
the control of the local police in every town, aud liable to 
be brought under judicial cognizance for any oflcucc against 
the laws, morals, or the public safety, 

Constitution, — Most of the states, of which the kingdom 
of Bavaria is composed, namely, the former duchy of Bava- 
ria, the upper Palatinate, the duchy of Ncuburg, and the 
principalities of Ansbach, Baircuth, Bamberg, and Wiirz- 
burg, possessed representative constitutions before their 
consolidation under one head. But tho aristocracy in those 
Icrritories had succeeded in rendering these representative 
constitutions a dead letter; and in faet, they had long been 
in a state of abeyance previously to being abrogated by the 
terms of tho constitution promulgated by the late King, 
Maximilian Joseph, on the 1st of May, 1808. The convul- 
sions which subsequently afTeetcd the whole of Europe 
rendered the constitution of Maximilian Joseph incompatible 
with the new order of things ; and the same kin?, therefore, 
on the 26th of Mar, 181 S, granted the Bavarians a new 
constitution, which defines and establishes their rights and 
privileges. Its fundamental principles arc— liberty of con- 
science and freedom of opinion, with the reservation of legal 
provisions against the abuse of either: the right of every 
native-born subjeet to be employed in the public service, 
without exception on account of birth or rank jn society ; 
general liability to personal service in tho national defence; 
equality of all before the law; the impartial and uninter- 
rupted administration of justice; general liability to taxes, 
and an equitable distribution of thctn ; and a legislature, 
eleeted by all classes of resident citizens, and enjoying llio 
right of discussing and approving laws, voting the public 
taxes, and requiring the redress of all infringements upon 
the rights recognised by the constitution. The kingdom of 
Bavaria, by this charter, is declared a ' sovereign monar- 
chical state,* and the legislative power is vested in two cham- 
bers, conjointly with the king, as head of the state. The 
succession is limited to the male line, according to the right 
of primogeniture, with a proviso, that on the extinction of 
direct heirs male, the next male descendants of the female 
line shall succeed. No offices of high rank in the civil or 
military service, nor any office under the crown or in the 
church, nor any ecclesiastical benefice, can be conferred 
upon any individual who is not a native-born citizen or 
legally naturalized. Feudal bondage is abolished, as indeed 
it was previously by the edict of the 3rd of August, 180S. 
No Bavarian, to use the words of the charter, can be de- 
prived of his natural and recognised judges. All endow- 
ments for public worship (Ktiitus) and education, and for 
charitable purposes arc placed under the immediate protec- 
tion of the state. 

The legislature consists of two chambers, namely the Se- 
nators (Reichsriithc) and the Deputies. The former is com- 
posed of the prinees of royal blood, who have attained lhcir 
majority, — tho great officers of the crown,— the heads of 
houses in the eases of such principalities and earldoms as 
were parts of the Holy Uoman Empire, — a bishop named 
by tho king, — the president of the Protestant General Con- 
sistory,— and lastly, of those individuals, whom the king 
may create members of the chamber for life or hereditarily. 
The Chamber of Deputies consists, 1, of such landed pro- 
prietors as exercise judicial powers in right of their proper- 
tics {gutsherrliche Gericfitsbarkcit), provided they have no 
scat or vote in tho upper chamber;— 2, of deputies from the 
universities; — 3, of ecclesiastics representing the Boinan 
Catholic and Protestant churches;— 4, of deputies from 
cities and market-towns;— and 5, of such landed proprietors 
as do not come within the classes already described. Tho 
number of members is in the proportion of one to every 7000 
families: of these members oue-cighth of the whole num- 
ber must bo taken from class t ; one member from each of 
the three universities ; one-eighth from class 3; one-fourth 
from class 4; and two-fourths of the whole number from 
class 5. Tho ehambcr is re-clcetcd every six years, except 
when the king dissolves it, and then the members going 
out arc re-eligible. The chambers cannot proceed to dedi- 
bcrate unless two-thirds of Ihe deputies are present; and 
both eliainbcrs commence and c!o>e their sessions at the 
same time. All motions respecting the public burthens 
arc, in the first place, brought under the consideration of 



B A V 



55 



B A V 



the Chamber of Deputies ; in respect of any other 'Subjects 
the king determines beforo which chamber they shall be 
first brought. No direct or new indirect taxes can be levied, 

J nor any augmentation or alteration of existing taxes be 
made by the king, without the previous sanction of the legis- 
lature ; and the same sanction is required before any new 
law or any alteration, authentic exposition (authentische 
Erlaiiterung), or repeal of an existing law, affecting the 
freedom of persons or properties, can take effect. The 
free right of complaint against violations of the constitution 
is secured to every citizen, or district. The king is bound 
to call the legislature together once at least in every three 
years. Its ordinary session lasts two months; but it may 
be extended or adjourned, or it may be dissolved, as he may 
deem expedient: in the last case, anew election of deputies 
must take place within three months. The ministers, 
though they are not members of the chambers, have the right 
of being present at all deliberations. The king, upon his 
accession to the throne, swears to * govern according to the 
constitution and laws of the kingdom ;' and every prince of 
royal blood, upon attaining his majority, solemnly makes 
oath that he will rigidly observe the terms of this censtitution. 

The Public Administration. — At the head of public affairs 
is a council of state, established by a royal decree of the 
18th of November, 1825; it is composed of the king, the 
crown-prince, if of age, of such princes of royal blood in a 
direct line as are also of age, resident in the capital, and 
appointed ot the council by the sovereign, of the ministers of 
state, the field-marshal, and six councillors nominated by the 
sovereign. The executive authority is vested in the heads 
of the following five departments, — the royal household and 
foreign affairs, — justice, — home affairs,— finance, — and the 
army — whose heads form the cabinet, and are assisted at 
their meetings by a secretary-general. Each of tho eight 
circles or provinces has a provincial government consisting 
of two boards: the one called the Chamber of the Interior, 
takes charge of civil concerns, the police, the schools, &c. ; 
the other termed the Chamber of Finance, manages the 
affairs of tho domains of the state, and every matter con- 
nected with the financial department. The commissary- 
general (Generalcommissair) is president of both boards, 
and in some circles he is assisted by a vice-president ; each 
board consists of a director, and several members, called 
councillors and assessors. The medical-police department 
is attached to the Chamber of the Interior; and a councillor 
of medicine (Kreis-medieinal-rath) superintends it. Each 
circle has also its official architect and surveyor. 

The Legislature. — The members composing the Cham- 
ber of Senators aro at present fifty-one: thirty attend in 
right of hereditary rank or dignities, or from the nature of 
their family possessions; and twenty-one have been no- 
minated by the king cither for life (ten) or as hereditary 
senators (eleven), the latter of whom are always land- 
holders of noble blood, and must pay at least 144/. (1500 
florins) elcar in land or domanial taxes. St. Behlen observes, 
that 'there are few noble families by whom this condition 
is fulfilled.' The numher named for life cannot exceed 
one-third of the whole body of hereditary senators. This 
chamber, which has a President and Vice-President, cannot 
open any sitting unless one-half or upwards of the members 
arc present. The qualifications required for a member of 
the Chamber of Deputies are— that the candidate has com- 
pleted his thirtieth year; that ho is a free and independent 
citizen ; that he is a member of either tho Roman Catholic, 
Lutheran, or Reformed* Lutheran church ; that no charge 
of crime or misdemeanor has been proved against him; 
and that he pays the house or land-tax on property of the 
value of 765/. (8000 florins), at the least. This chamber 
is at present composed of 123 members; namely, fourteen 
landholders, exercising judicial powers on their estates ; three 
deputies from universities ; eleven from the Roman Catholic 
ecclesiastical bodies, and five from tbe Protestant ; thirty from 
cities and towns; and 60 from the body of landholders not 
exercising judicial powers. Its deliberations are conducted 
under a President and Vice-President. At the commence- 
ment of each session, an accurate account of the state and 
appropriation of the public income is submitted by tho 
executive: the national debt cannot bo increased without 
the consent of the legislature, and each chamber appoints 
a commissioner to assist the Board for its liquidation. Con- 
ditions are not allowed by the constitution to bo coupled 
with the voting of any fresh taxes; nor can any subject, 
as to which the chambers aro at variance, bo discussed a 



second time at the samo sitting. District Assemblies wero 
likewise established in the year 1825: these consist of the 
burgomaster, a deputy from each town, or place, where a 
market is held ; of the headsman of each parish (Gemeiride- 
Vorsteher) ; a deputy, being the person who pays moet 
taxes, or a small land proprietor, from each parish ; and a 
certain proportion of landholders, tithing-men, and farmers; 
besides a representative for the financial department of the 
district. A royal commissioner acts as president of these 
assemblies ; the functions of which are to assess the public 
burthens and district rates equitably in each parish, and 
to decide all local questions relating to any matter having 
reference to these burthens and rates ; such as their appli- 
cation in support of establishments for the poor, the sick, 
&c, in making roads, Sec. 

. Finance. — The continued state of warfare, in whieh the 
consequencesofthe French Revolution involved theBavarian 
dominions, and the sacrifices whieh were made first, in 
support of Napoleon, and subsequently in shaking off his 
yoke, involved the state in great financial embarrassments. 
At the time of the peace of 1815, the state paper had fallen 
from forty to fifty per cent, below its nominal value ; many 
financial accounts were twenty years in arrear ; and the 
public income was not only of a precarious nature, and the 
receipts subject to all sorts of irregularities, but seriously 
prejudiced by neglect or obstacles to their collection. This 
unfortunate state of things was aggravated by the failure of 
the crops in 1816 and 1817. The change of ministry, which 
occurred in the last of those years, has proved eminently 
beneficial to the kingdom in a financial j*bint of view, for it 
was the signal for the adoption of a series of judicious mea- 
sures which introduced order and economy and have already 
produced their natural results. It appears that in 1819 tho 
excess of the expenditure over the income was 2,007,800 
florins (about 1 92,4 15/.) ; that the national debt amounted to 
105,740,173 florins (10,133,430/.), and that the surplus fund 
towards tho redemption of this debt was 1,550,000 florins, 
(148,542/.). In thesameyear the financial laws enacted by 
the legislature, fixed the income for the year at 31,126,811 
florins (2,982,086/.), and the expenditure at 31,017,596 
(2,972,519/.). The improved administration of the Bavarian 
finances, however, during the succeeding thirteen years, 
enabled the government to report to the Chamber of 
Deputies, in March last (1834), that the surplus revenue for 
the financial year, 1829 — 1830, which had been 5,032,353 
florins (482,267/.) at the beginning of that year, had 
increased at the close of it to 6,697,731 (641,865/.), which 
surplus had been appropriated subsequently to the current 
servieo of the state. They also reported, that in the year 
1831-1832, the revenues had produced 29,217,009 florins 
(2,799,963/.), and that tbe expenditure had been 27,095,883 
florins (2,596,688/.), leaving a surplus, inclusive of 3534 
florins from former years, of 2,124,660 florins (203,6 f 3/.). 
With respect to the national debt we find, that, between 
the years 1 81 9 and 1829, it had, from various circumstances 
affecting the earlier part of this interval, increased from 
10,133,430/. to 11,392,019/. or 1 18,873,250 florins ; and the 
additions, which raised it to 12,595,276/. (131,428,972 
florins) in the year 1833, havo been chiefly occasioned by 
the extraordinary expenses attendant upon the convulsed 
state of Germany since the change of dynasty in France, 
in August, 1830. The net public income of Bavaria for the 
third financial period, 1832 — 1837*, has been fixed by the 
legislature at 2,738,656/. (28,577,285 florins) ; the charges 
of management, both in collecting the taxes and carrying 
on the crown monopolies (regie-aufwand), being estimated 
at 971,656/. (10,139,025 florins), and having been previously 
deducted. The expenses of management amount, therefore, 
to nearly 26$ per cent, on the gross revenue of 3,710,312/. 
If we assume the population to be 4,200,000, the average 
amount of revenue contributed by each .individual will bo 
found to be 13*. O^d. per annum. The expenditure for the 
same period, with a reserved fund of 52,405/. (546,840 
florins), is fixed at a sum exactly corresponding with the 
income, of whieh 2,329,518/. (24,308,014 florins) are to be 
appropriated to the general expenditure of the state, and 
409,138/. (4,269,271 florins) to the budgets of the several 
circles (kreis-fonds). The subsequent items of receipt are, 
among others, applied to tho purposes of the general ex- 
penditure : namely, from the immediate property of tho 

• For tho *econd financial period, 1823— 1331, the income had been fixed hj 
lho *lateiat 2,971.840/.,oi29,l32,2G0 florins, and tbe expenditure at 2,791,400/. 
or S9,12C t G00 florins, 



BAY 



5G 



U A V 



state (national domains and forests, public farms, crown 
manufactures of glass, mola>scs t and porcelain, as well as 
the pearl- Gshcrics in the Upper Main, Rcgcn, and Upper 
Danube), 719.007/. (7,502,687 florins) ; from national royal- 
ties and establishments (mines and salt-works, tho post- 
otlico, lotteries, mint, and the profit on the publication of 
tho *Law and Government Journal') 373,370/. (3,901,252 
tlorins) ; from indirect taxes, such ns stamps, tolls, &c, 
« 9 2,0 04/. (9,307,874 llorins); and from direct taxes, G 9 9,4 3 9/, 
(7,298,498 tlorins). Among the items of expenditure arc, 
for the royal household and foreign affairs, 48,560/. (506,705 
florins); education and civilization (bildutig) 73,581/. 
(767,811 florins); public worship (viz. Roman Catholic, 
100,269/.,andProtcstanf,27,775/.),inalll2S,044/.(l,336 t 116 
florins); public safety, 39,675/. (414,000 florins) ; the con- 
struction of highways, bridges, &c, 118,087/. (1,232,216 
llorins) ; interest and redemption of the national debt, 
783,255/. (8,193,964 florins) ; civil list, 287,500/. (3,000,000 
florins); and army expenses, 546,250/. (5,700,000 florins), 
independently of the gendarmerie. . 

Military Rcsource*.~T\\c Conscription Law of the 29th 
of March, 1812, rendered every male in Bavaria, up to a 
certain age, with the exception of ecclesiastics and the sons 
of noblemen, liable to the ballot ; but a new law of the 1st 
of May, 1829, allows every Bavarian to enlist between the 
ages of eighteen and thirty; and such as have already 
served six years may contract a fresh engagement in the 
service until they reach their fortieth year. Every Bavarian 
js liable to the Conscription Law after he has completed 
his twenty-first year; and from the first of January suc- 
ceeding the ballot by which he has been drawn, his liability 
to serve in the army, if called upon, continues during the 
two following years : the exemptions arc confined to the only 
son of a parent, who has already lost two sons in the service, 
nnd the surviving sons of every parent who has lost three 
sons in a similar manner. The period of service is six 
years ; no Bavarian can settle or marry, or receive any 
definitive appointment before he has done all that the law 
requires with regard to his liability to bear arms. Certain 
exemptions are granted in the case of ecclesiastics and 
students, as well ns in the cascofsons t without whose aid 
the subsistence of families would become precarious. 

Bavaria, as a member of the German Confederation, 
furnishes the largest contingent of any exclusively German 
state. It forms the seventh corps of the confederate forces, 
and consists of 35,600 men ; namely, 5068 cavalry, 2fi,215 
infantry, 1380 sharpshooters, and 2919 artillery, pioneers, 
Sec. ; to which eighteen howitzers, and fifty-four field-pieces 
and cannon arc to be added. The real strength of the army, 
however, supposing. the present scale of its organization to 
remain, is now, and would, in the event of a war, be as 
follows : 

IVnce. 

1G regU.ofUie Hne -icach 2bnltal. — eachi jq/qq 

Ibiiul. orcharpthnottn/ bmul. 6 romp. / ,y " w;> 

SUSSES*, } «*«• o-"«' 

, 2 r»*jjt*.— each 2 bultnl.ofG eom|H.— -each com}*.! 

being competent to serve a battery of 8> 

cannon . ." J 

2 camp, of nt^pcr*, 1 of mtiier*, t of pontoon- 1 

mcn t and 1 of artificers . , / 



Infintry 
Cavalry , 
ArlUtery 



War. 
41,683 

02 1G I»360 
31 CO 345G 
C50 72< 



The effective strength of the army, however, as laid down 
in the details which form the groundwork of tho military 
budget for the third financial period (t832 — 1837), is of 
a somewhat different character, for they give as 
Constantly present, Officers and others on ser- 
vice, — including. 1 Field-Marshal, 2 Generals, 
15 Licut.-Gcncrals, and 26 Mnjor-Generals, the 
civil and medical employes, &c. . . 2119 

Subaltern officers, engineers, &c, . .4109 

Infantry . . . 6912 

Cavalry . 5032 

Artillery, sappers and miners, &c. . . 1470 



Present for 1 month only. In all 
Constantly on Furlough. In all 



19,642 
21.2M 
17,195 



58,062 

The difference of 2838 men between these numbers and 

those which have been given as the full war complement, 

arises from the omission in the last statement of the civil 

and medical employes, and other.*, not immediately bearing 



arms. The infantry and cavalry form four divisions ( head- 
quarters, Munich, Augsburg, Nuremberg, and AY (im burg, 
respectively), each of which consists of two brigades, or four 
regiments of infantry of the line, one battalion of sharp- 
shooters, a brigade of two regiment'? of cavalry, and two 
batteries of heavy cannon, and one of field-pieces. Tho 
artillery, pontoonmen, nnd artificers, as well as ihc corps of 
engineers, sappers, and miners, constitute distinct divisions. 

The Landwchr, or militia, is, under the ordinance of ilio 
year 1826, composed of all Bavarians, who have not been 
already drafted into the ranks of the active army or battalions 
of reserve, arc not under nineteen or above sixty years of 
age, and arc not noblemen or ecclesiastics. The number is 
determined by the king according to the emergency : but 
this force has not hitherto been completely organized, 
though there are staffs and head-quarters appointed in every 
circle. "On the scale projected it would amount to 250,00*0 
men and upwards, independently of any levies in the 
Rhenish territory. There is a corps of gens-d'armos, also 
consisting of nine companies, one for Munich and one for 
each of the eight circles, and mustering in all about 1700 
men. Bavaria has a right to pass by a military road through 
the territory of Baden, which gives Bavaria direct access to 
its dominions on the Rhine. 

The expense of the military establishment for the six 
years, 1 B25-6— 1 830- 1 , was 4 1 ,7 1 9,9G2 tlorins.w hieh averages 
6,953,327 llorins, or 666.36G/. per annum. In 1824 the 
moveable property belonging to the Bavarian array was 
estimated at 979,415/. (10,219,987 tlorins), and the immove- 
able at 350,905/. (3,661,627 tlorins). The property and 
funds for the relief of widows and orphans, invalids, &c, also 
amounted at that lime to 385,233/. (4,019,821 florins). 

The fortified places in Bavaria arc— Landau, the strongest 
of its fortresses, in the circle of the Rhine : it is also one 
of the fortresses immediately attached to the German Con- 
federation; Passau, on the Danube, in the circle of the 
Lower Danube; Wiirzbnrg, in conjunction with the citadel 
of Marienbcrg; Ingohtadt, at the eontlucnccof the Sen-fitter 
and Danube, in the Regen, at this moment in course of 
construction ; and Vorchheim, in the circle of the Lower 
Main, a place of inconsiderable strength. Bavaria also 
possesses several mountain strongholds, such a» Rosenberg, 
near Kronach, in the Upper Main ; Rothenberg and AYtilz- 
burg, in the Retzat; and YVillibaldsburg, near Kichstadt, 
in the Regen. 

Nobility.— The nobility of Bavaria form 2407 families, of 
whom there arc not 1000 possessed of landed property ; and 
the relative proportion of their property as compared with 
that of the remaining subjects of the crown is as one to nine. 
The registered nobles in 1823 consisted of 1 grand duUc, 13 
princes, 154 counts, 422 barons, and l<i38 of inferior rank, 
using the pnefix of * Von.' In all cases where a nobleman 
enters a menial service, or opens and conduct* a shop or 
warehouse, his title of nobility becomes suspended. In civil 
and criminal matters he is exempt from the jurisdiction of 
local courts of judicature, and none but a noble is entitled to 
establish a scignorial tribunal of justice ; but he does not 
enjoy any advantages, with respect to taxation, legislative 
pre-eminence, or government appointments, which are not 
common to his fellow subjects. The royal title is simply 

* , by I he Grace of God, King of Bavaria. 1 * The order 

of St. Hubert (1444), with 142 members, holds the first 
rank : that of St. George, instituted during the Crusades, 
follows next in precedence; the other orders arc, that of 
Maximilian Jo.-cph (1806), a military, and of the Bavarian 
crown, a civil order; of St. Michaci (lG9i). and the order 
founded bv the present king in 1827 for the faithful dis- 
charge of civil or military duties after a service cf fifty years. 

Matjvfactutrs.-^ln Bavaria, as in many other German 
states, the profits arising from vast establishments, and the 
concentration of productive powers, are comparatively un- 
known; manufacturing industry is mostly diffused over a 
multitude of adrcnturcs on a small scale. Bavaria is also 
essentially an agricultural country, and hence the deficient 
supply in many branches of its manufactures. That of 
linens, for in^ancc, which is the chief, is not confined to a 
few large establishments, but is scattered over the whole 
state, and in many districts the agricultural population 
partly maintain themselves by weaving linen. The ma- 
jority of the articles made arc of the coarser descriptions ; 
and a large proportion of them avc the produce of the Upper 
Main (where upwards of 7000 weavers and 1000 apprentice* 
arc employed upon them 1 ), and of the Upper and Lower 



BAY 



57 



BAY 



Danube, The finer sorts, particularly damask, are inferior 
both in texture and finish to the Saxon or Silesian ; still the 
quantity exported exceeds the quantity imported by about 
12,000/. a year. Linen-yarn is also spun in some districts, 
but not to any great extent, and chicllyfor exportation. 
The manufacture of woollens and worsted hose is carried 
on principally in the circles of the Regen, Damibes and 
Mains, the finest being produced in Ansbach, Baireuth, 
Lindau, Munich, and the Upper Palatinate ; but this 
branch of industry is in the hands of individuals, and not 
carried on in large factories. The supply is very inade- 
quate to the consumption of the country, and sometimes the 
excess of imports over exports has amounted to 40,000/, per 
annum.' There is a similar deficiency in the domestic sup- 
ply of manufactured cottons ; the use of improved machinery, 
however, is gradually increasing in many quarters, and ad- 
ditions are constantly making to the number of spinning- 
mills. The districts about Augsburg, Kaufbeueren, and Hof 
are the most important seats of this branch of Bavarian in- 
dustry, and numbers are also employed in hand -spinning. 
The yearly importation of cotton goods is still said to be 
100,000/., and that of cotton yarns to be 51,000/. more in 
value than the exportation. The leather manufactories are 
of considerable importance, but mostly carried on by num- 
bers of small manufacturers, particularly in the minor towns 
in the circles of the Retzat, Isar, Upper and Lower Danubes, 
and of the Rhine. Bavarian calf-skins are in great repute 
and largely exported, but sole leathers are not produced in 
sufficient quantity for the home demand. Between the years 
1819 and 1824, the yearly value'of the leather exported 
(20,396 cwt.) rose to 53,G40/., and that of the same article 
imported (17,133 ewt.) to 49,260/. The supply of paper, of 
which AsehafTenburg, Nuremberg, Fiirth, Augsburg, and 
Schwabaeh furnish many fancy sorts, is beyond the domestic 
consumption ; though the usual descriptions are indifferent, 
there are still about 2800 ewts. exported to the value of about 
rOoo/. The number of paper mills is 150, of which 29 are 
in the circle of the Upper Danube, 25 in the Lower Main, 27 
in the Rhine, and 23 in the Regen. Schweinfurt and 
Mainberg possess large manufactories of paper-hangings, 
which arc of excellent quality and in much demand in other 
German states. Straw-platting has increased considerably 
of late years ; even in 1 824 the exportation amounted to 
3312c\vt. and 16, 740/. in value ; and there are some districts, 
such as that of Weiler in the Isar, which gain between 
3S00/. and 4800/. a year by this branch of industry. The 45 
glass-houses in Bavaria, of which there are 13 in each of 
the circles of the Regen and Lower Danube, and 8 in the 
Upper Main, produce window- glass, bottles, and other ordi- 
nary glass-ware to such an amount, that the exports ex- 
ceed the imports above 19,000 ewt. and 55,000/. in value. 
In the finer sorts the quality is much inferior to the Eng- 
lish, and even the French or Bohemian. The number of 
works for grinding and polishing looking-glasses is up- 
wards of 100 ; they export on an average 1 1,70U ewt, of the 
article in a finished, and 5100 cwt. in an unfinished state. 
Nuremberg, Fiirth, Bamberg, and Augsburg are the prin- 
cipal seats of this manufacture. The whole value of the 
glass exported is upwards of 100,000/. per annum. 'No op- 
tical instruments made on the Continent are more highly 
valued than those made by Utzschn eider and Frauen- 
hofer's establishment at Munich, The manufacture of 
articles in wood, and the felling, hewing, and general ma- 
nipulation of timber occupy thousands of hands. There 
are nearly 2000 saw ing-m ills in Bavaria for the preparation 
of boards, deals, and laths; and almost as many families 
are wholly supported in Amraergau and Berehtesgaden by 
the manufacture of articles in carved wood, some of which 
are very beautiful. There aronine porcelain manufactories at 
work ; that at Nymphenburg, not far from Munich, produces 
china which may bear comparison with the finest in Europe. 
The number of earthenware manufactories is 14, but the 
articles which they make are inferior to the English in 
strength and finish. The Bavarian crucibles are in much 
request; and the potteries employ nearly 2000 master-work- 
men, besides labourors, &c. Of slate-works there arc above 
350. The working of the metals chiefly consists ii\ exten- 
sive manufactories of iron-ware, especially nails and needles, 
the export of which is considerable, Schwabaeh alone pro- 
duce* annually 14 0,0 00,0 00 sewing, and above 300,000 
knitting needles. There is a manufactory of arms at Am- 
ber % which supplies the army. The gold and silver-smiths 
of Munich, Wiirzburg, Nuremberg, and Augsburg, ore ih 



great repute. Fire-arms, fowling-pieces, &c M employ 1C7 
workmen at Burglingenfeld and Neustadt Nuremberg is 
celebrated for its brass-wares. Munich and Augsburg pos- 
sess cannon and other foundries. Fiirth contains manv 
beaters of gold and silver, &:c.J and exports leaf-gold and 
silver for gilding and plating to most European markets. 
The brewing of beer, in many respects the most important 
branch of manufacture in Bavaria, employs upwards of 
5000 establishments, or taxed brewers, by whom more 
than 9,300,000 aulms (95,790,000 gallons) of beev are 
made, and more than 980,000 Bavarian bushels (759,500 
quarters) of malt are consumed. A very favourable im- 
pulse has been given to national industry by the institution 
of the Polytechnic Society at Munich in 1S1G : its mem- 
bers consist of operatives, men of science, and official per- 
sons in all parts of the country; and its principal object 
is to afford instruction, in their respective branches, to 
mechanics and other work-people. An annual exhibition of 
domestic products and manufactures, and an award of prizes, 
form part of its plan. Similar societies exist in Augs- 
burg, Nuremberg, and other towns. The Bavarian govern- 
ment has likewise established mechanics' schools (Gewerbs- 
Schulen) in most of the larger places ; and there are va- 
rious other institutions in Munich, Bamberg, Augsburg, 
Ratisbon, Fiirth, Passau, Nuremberg, as well as elsewhere, 
for the promotion of trade and manufactures. The royal 
decree of the 25th September, 1825, which granted full 
liberty to individual skill and industry, has done much to 
remove the tyranny of corporate monopolies ; but, owing to 
peculiar circumstances, this decree has jjot hitherto come 
into full operation. 

Trade. — Though Bavaria is an inland country, its trade 
is greatly favoured by its geographical position, which has 
rendered it in some degree a central point between the 
Mediterranean, the Baltie, and the German Ocean, and a 
medium of intercourse between the west and east of Europe. 
This advantage is increased hy its natural productiveness, 
and by the navigable lines of the Danube, Rhine, Main, and 
other streams, over which above 1600 larger and smaller 
bridges have been thrown ; as well as by the constant atten- 
tion which the government has paid of late years to the 
lhaintenance and multiplication of public roads, the length 
of which is estimated at upwards of 5500 miles. The 
treaties of reciprocity, which have thrown the markets of 
many neighbouring states open to the industry and enter- 
prise of the Bavarians, have also given an additional sti- 
mulus to their commercial activity. Though an agricul- 
tural state, the export of its wrought produce and manu- 
factures exceeds in value that of its raw produce by more 
than one-half; a strong proof, observes Von St. Behlen, that 
the mechanical industry of the country is more advanced 
than its agricultural. The system of duties has been placed 
on a liberal footing; great facilities are given to importation, 
and scarcely any obstacles are thrown in the way of expor 
tations. Salt is the only article the introduction of which 
is wholly prohibited ; and most articles imported from 
countries with which commercial treaties have been formed 
are treated on the same terms as native products, with re- 
ference to internal duties or excise imposts. In the list of 
duties, which for the period 1832 — 1837, are taken at a 
yearly averago of 178,790/., we may instance foreign wines 
and liqueurs, which pay 10 ilorins per 100 tons; silks CO 
llorins per ewt,; china 40 florins; vegetable oils 10 liorins ; 
coffee J 5 ilorins ; sugar 12 florins, &e. The transit trade has 
latterly declined, though it is still estimated to leave several 
hundred thousand pounds of profit in the country: the lines 
which it takes are, from Saxony into Switzerland; from the 
northern states of Germany, through Ratisbon, and theneeby 
the Danube into Austria; from Strasburg into Saxony; from 
the countries on the Rhine into Italy ; and from Frankfort 
into Austria ; and the places through which it passes' aro 
Bamberg. AViirzburg, Ratisbon, Augsburg, Hof, Nurem- 
berg, Marksteft, and some minor towns. The principal 
articles of export are grain, about 380,000 quarters, in value 
about 750,000/. ; salt; timber, of which about 48,000/. from 
the Upper Main alone ; potashes, whereof 1 70 tons to France; 
fruit ; liquorice-root, of which the Upper Muin exports 
17,000 lbs. to Austria; seed; hops; cattle, the whole export 
of which amounts to 10,000 heads of oxen, and 200,000 
sheep and swine; fish; ilax, 500 tons; yarn and coarse 
linens, of which the circle of the Regen supplies to the 
extent of 50,000/. in value; glass; leather; Nuremberg, 
Fiirth, and Berehtesgaden light fabrics, beer, See, The 



No, 212. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA,] 



Vol. IV— I 



n a v 



58 



1) A V 



imports are principally wines; cotton, 450,000 lbs.; coffee, 
1700 tons; sugar, 80,000 cut. ; rice, 8000 cwt. ; tobacco, 
10,000 cwt,; drug*, 5000 ewt; sea- fish, 5200 ewt.; copper, 
410 tans; oil, 1*2,000 cwt,; hides and skins, 560,000 lbs. ; 
hemp and flax, 750 tons; silk and silk poods, 230,000/. ; 
woollens, 93,000/, ; lead, 175 tons; furs, honey, and cheese. 
On tho whole, the value of the exports is estimated at about 
3.350,000/., and that of the imports at 3,250,000/. With 
respect to the former, the relative -proportion of raw native 
produce exported is said to be about 700,000/., and of manu- 
factures, inclusive of salt, 1,150,000/. 

History. — Our accounts of the antient Celtic Boii are few 
and of little importance. If tradition, however, is to be cre- 
dited, they migrated from Gaul and took possession of the 
country between the Upper Danube and the Alps, after 
subduing the native inhabitants, about COO years before the 
Christian ccra. Shortly before this last epoch the land of the 
Boii fell under the Roman yoke, and a considerable portion of 
the present territory of Bavaria became a constituent part of 
tho Roman empire/under the name of Vindclioia, during the 
following 1 50 years. In the second century, when the North 
poured down its barbarians upon the South, there was no 
country in Germany which felt the pressure more severely 
than the land of the Boii ; and its inhabitants were long 
kept in a state of wretchedness and slavery by a con -it ant 
succession of barbarous invaders, till at last, between the 
middle of the fifth and sixth centuries, the Ilcruli, Marco- 
man ni, Thurinjii, and other tribes, established themselves 
permanently in Noricum, which constitutes part of tho 
Bavaria of the present day, adopted the name of Boioarii, 
and forced the owners of tho soil to abandon their native 
language and customs for those of the German race. The 
country received the appellation of Boioaria, which has 
since been corrupted into Baiern and Bavaria. On the dis- 
solution of the Roman empire, Bavaria became a vassal of 
the Ostrogothic empire, and, at a later date, of that of the 
Franks, whose yoke however was so easy that the people 
were permitted to elect their own dukes out of the patri- 
cian line of the Agilol fingers. These princes, whose sway 
lasted for more than 250 years, were so little dependent 
upon their foreign masters, that they exercised every prero- 
gative of sovereignty except tho right of making laws and 
alienating lands, which were acts that required the sanction 
of a body of legislators, consisting of priests, counts, judges, 
and elders of the people. Thassilo, the last duke of the 
Agilolfingian line, was, in the year 783, compelled to submit 
to Charlemagne after an obstinate resistance, and was con- 
demned to death at the assembly of May in that year, but was 
subsequently pardoned and shut up in a monastery. From 
this time, which was at the close of the eighth century, 
the kings of the Franks and Germans governed the country 
by their lieutenants, who wero dukes or counts taken from 
various families. In 1070 it passed, by imperial grant, into 
the possession of the Guelphs ; and in 1 1 SO, upon the ex- 
pulsion of Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, 
it was transferred by the Emperor Frederic to Otho, Count 
of Wittelsbach, a native prince, from whom the present 
king is descended. One of the most important acqui- 
sitions subsequently made was that of the earldom of tho 
Rhenish Palatinate, with which the Emperor Fredcrie III. 
invested this family in 121C. Their dominions were after- 
wards divided between contending relatives at various times, 
until the dukedom of Bavaria was fullv severed from the 
Upper and Rhenish Palatinates in 1329. Several other par- 
titions ensued. In 1607 the right of primogeniture in the 
royal family was introduced, and finally received as the law 
of the land in 1573. The treaty of Westphalia not only re- 
cognised the title of tho Bavarian princes to the Upper 
Palatinate, of which they had ro-posscssed themselves in 
1621, but confirmed them in the electoral dignity, to which 
they had been raised by the emperor of Germany in 1623. 
Upon tbe extinction of the direct Wittclbach line in the 
person of Maximilian Joseph III. in 1 777, the Elector Pala- 
tine, Charles Theodore, succeeded to tbe sovereignty, and 
ceded the districts of the Inn, containing an area of 840 
square miles, ta Austria; but by adding his patrimonial 
possessions (the Palatinate, and the duchies of Juliers and 
Berg) to the Bavarian territory, ho increased its superficial 
extent to upwards of 21,000 square miles, and its popula- 
tion to 2,38t,000. To these acquisitions the treaty of 
Luncvillc in 1801 added tho lands on tho left bank of the 
Rhine; but tho re-settlement of Germany, two years after- 
ward*, deprived Bivarts of the palatinate on the right bank, 



to the extent of about 4G00 square miles, while it transferred 
to it in exchange 6720 square miles, including the dissolved 
bishoprics of Augsburg, Bamberg. Wiinburg, and Froi- 
singen, parts of the domains of Eich&tadt and Passou, Sec, 
The treaty of Pressburg, which raised the electorate to tho 
rank of a kingdom in )803, transferred certain possessions 
of Austria to the Bavarian crown, among which were several 
districts in Swabia, tho Tyrol, Vorarllwrg, Brixen, and 
Trent, as well as the cities of Augsburg, Lindan, 6cc. Tho 
additions thus made were about 12, ISO square miles, from 
which, however, a deduction of about 2040 is to be made for 
the abandonment of the Wiir7burg territory. 

All these changes and accessions increased the area of 
Bavaria, in 1800, to nearly 31,500 square miles. In the 
same year, Bavaria relinquished the duchy of Berg in ex- 
change for the margraviatc of Ansbach, became a member 
of the Rhenish Confederation, and received tho city of 
Nuremberg, and the sovereignty over tho mediatised terri- 
tories of several former princes of the empire, as a compen- 
sation for the cession of some inconsiderable districts to 
Wiirtcmbcrg. By the treaty of Vienna in 1800, the Bava- 
rian dominions attained the greatest extent of territory 
which they ever possessed. One of the consequences of 
this treaty was, that, upon giving up the sovth of the Tyrol 
to the Italian crown, and certain domains to Wiirtcm- 
bcrg and Wiirzburg, Bavaria acquired nearly the whole 
of Salzburg, Bcrchtesgaden, the Austrian circle of the Inn, 
and part of that of the Hausruck, Baireuth, and Ratisbon, 
by which "exchange her possessions were increased to about 
35,700 square miles. In conformity with the treaty ofNicd 
in 1812, the settlement with Austria on the 19th June, 181*1, 
and the negotiations concluded with the same power on the 
14th of April, 1S1G, Bavaria restored to Austria the Tyrol, 
Vorarlberg, the districts of the Inn and Hausruck, and 
those portions of Salzburg which lie to the cast of the 
Salzach and Saale. Bavaria received in return Wiirzburg, 
and certain parts of Eulda, of the grand duchy of llcsse, of 
Baden, and of the territories of the old palatinate, Spires, &c. 
(formerly constituting portions of the Wench departments of 
Donncrsbcrg, Saar, and the Lower Rhine.) 

The following nobles have seignorial domains within 
the Bavarian dominions, extending over an area of about 
1500 square miles: — The Princes of Eichstlidt, Schwarzen- 
bcrg, tuggcr-Babcnhauscn, Leinin<jon-Amorbach, Lowen- 
stein-Roscnbcrg, Lowcnstein-Frcuacnberg, Ottingen-Ot- 
tingen, Ottingcn-Wallerstcin, Hohcnlohc, Schillingsfiirst, 
Thurn-and-Tuxis, and Estcrhazy, besides thirteen counts. 

The first King of Bavaria was Maximilian Joseph, who 
assumed the royal dignity on the 1st of January, 1806, and 
was succeeded by his son Lewis Charles Augustus 1., the 
present king, on the 13th of October, 1825. 

(Rndhardt's State of the Kingdom of Bavaria, from 
official sources ; Liechtenstein's History and Statistics of 
Bavaria ; Von St, Behlen's History, Statistics, ik.,o/M« 
Kingdom of Bavaria; Von Schlicbcn's Bavaria; Cam- 
merer; llassel ; Stein; llorschelmann ; Malchus ; West- 
enricder ; Eiscnmann, Sec.) 

BAVAY, a small town in the department of Nord, in 
France, between Valenciennes and Maubcugc, 13-1 miles 
N.E. of Paris, through St.Quentin and Landrecics, 50° 18' 
N. lat., 3° 4 7' E. long. 

This place, though now decayed, was once of considerable 
importance; and, under the name Bagacum, was the chief 
town of the Nervii, one of tho nations of Gaul, who made an 
obstinate resistance to the Romans under Julius Ca?sar. Its 
importance is testified by the fact, that the Romans brought 
water to it across the valley of the Sambrc by means of an 
aqueduct, from springs in tho village of Flor6sics, distant 10 
or 11 miles. Bavay is at the junction of several Roman ways 
which traversed the surrounding country; these roads led 
respectively from Bagacum to Turnacum (Tournav), toCa- 
maracum (Cambray), to Durocortuin or Remi (Reims), and 
to Atuatnea or Tungri (Tongrcs): another road, known under 
the title of tho Chaussle de Brttnehaut (because repaired 
by Brunchaut, queen of Austrasia), afforded a communica- 
tion from Bagacum to the road frcm Samarobriva (Amiens), 
to Augusta Veromanduorum (St. Qucntin) ; and a sixth led 
from Bagacum, in the direction of Mons and Antwerp. In 
tho Encyclop. Methodiqtte, a seventh road is mentioned, 
leading to Augusta Trevirorum, or Trbves, but D'Anvillc 
does not notice this, nor is it marked in his map; though 
the existence of a seventh road seems to be implied by the 
seven faces of the stone mentioned below, Bagacum lost 



B AX 



59 



B A X 



its rank of capital early in the fifth century, and was suc- 
ceeded by Turnaeum and Camaraeum. Some have sup- 
posed that it was destroyed about this time by the barbarians, 
The name was variously written, Bagaeum in the Itinerary 
of Antoninus, Baganum by Ptolemy, and Basiaeum, Bava- 
eum, and Bacaeum in later authorities. In the middle ages 
it was a mere castle. (D'Anville ; Le Grand Dictionnaire de 
Martiniere.) 

Bavay retains seareely any monuments of its former great- 
ness. A stone of seven faces, in the middle of the place (or 
square) of the town, marks the eonvergenee of the roads above 
mentioned. It was substituted in the third eentury for a 
more antient one of great height. Many exeavations in the 
neighbourhood, called trous jSarrasins, two subterraneous 
passages for conveying provisions to the neighbouring for- 
tresses, and a great number of wells from 8 to 12 feet dia- 
meter, serve to show the former extent of the plaee. These 
remains extend half a mile or moro each way. The Dic- 
tionnaire Universel de la France speaks vaguely of inscrip- 
tions, tombs of Roman generals, and the ruins of an amphi- 
theatre; but other authorities do not mention the last two. 

The town in 1832 contained 1635 inhabitants. 

BAWTRY, a market town and township whieh is gene- 
rally considered to be in the West Riding of Yorkshire ; part 
of the town is, however, in Nottinghamshire. Bawtry is 
partly in the parish of Blyth, and partly in that of Scrooby. 
That portion whieh is in Yorkshire belongs to the lower 
division of the wapentake of StrafForth and Tickhill ; the 
portion whieh is in Nottinghamshire belongs to the wapen- 
take of Bassetlaw. It is 153 miles N. by W. of London, 8 
miles S.E. of Doneaster, and 44 miles S. by E. of York. 

Bawtry is situated on a slight eminenee whieh gradually 
slopes towards the river Idle, eastward of the town. Tins 
river was considered an important ono previous to the im- 
provements in inland navigation. Falling into the Trent, 
the Idle formerly eonveyed in boats the lead of Derbyshire, 
the hardwares of Sheffield, and the agricultural produce of 
the vale of the Don, to Gainsborough, Hull, &e. A better 
' conveyance for these goods is now found by the navigation 
of the Don and the Ouse. The road from London to York 
passes through the main street of Bawtry, in whieh there 
are some very respectable houses. The whole town is cleanly 
and cheerful in its appearance. The population is 1149. 
The ehief employments of the people are those connected 
with agriculture ; and the retail shops are ehielly supported 
by the neighbouring rural district. The market day is 
Thursday. The church, which is small, is subordinate to 
that of Blyth. There is a national sehool at Bawtry, whieh 
is supported by subscription, and which furnishes instruction 
to about 100 ehildren; and there are two dissenting meet- 
ing-houses. The mansion of the Dowager Viscountess 
Galway is situated at the southern extremity of the town. 
It is adorned with pleasure-grounds, whieh are interspersed 
with flower-gardens, groves and plantations. An elegant 
aviary on tbe lawn contains a ehoice selection of birds. (Com- 
munication from a correspondent in Yorkshii'e.) 

Dr. Hunter says {History of the Deanery of Doneaster) 
that * The position of Bawtry, on the great north road, occa- 
sions it to have the appearanee of activity and business. 
Formerly, when the sovereign, or any member of his family, 
travelled with more state than at present, they were usually 
met at Bawtry by the sheriff of the county with a train of 
attendants/ 

BAXTER, WILLIAM, an eminent grammarian and 
eritic, nephew of the eeleb rated Riehard Baxter, was born, 
inlGSO, at Lanlugan in Shropshire. His education is stated 
to have been so entirely negleeted in his early years, that 
at the age of eighteen, when he went to the school at Har- 
row-on-the-Hill in Middlesex, he knew not one letter in 
a book, nor understood one word of any languago but 
Welsh : but he soon retrieved his lost time, and became a 
man of great learning. He applied ehielly to the study of 
antiquities and philology. 

His first publication was upon Latin grammar : De Ana- 
logue site Arte Latina Linguce Commentariolus : in usum 
Provectioris Adolescentics, 12mo. Lond. 1G79. In 1695 he 
edited Anacreon : Anacreontis Tcii Carmina, Gr. Lat. Sub- 
jiciuntur etiarn duo vctustissima Poctrits Sapphus elegan- 
tissima OJaria t una cum corrcctione Isaaci Fossil : et Ilieo- 
criti Anacreonticum in mortuum Adonin, 12mo. Lond. 
1695; reprinted with improvements in 1710. In 1701, his 
edition of Horace made its appearanee, typis /. L. ; of 
whieh 9 seeoud edition was finished by him but a few days 



before his death, and was published by his son John, under 
the title of Q. Horatii Flacci Eclogce, una cum scholiis per* 
petuis r 8vo. Lond. 1725. This for a long time was consi- 
dered the best edition of Horaee which had been published 
in England. It bore so high a character upon the Continent 
as to be reprinted by Gesner at Leipzig, with additional notes, 
in 175*2; and again at the same plaee in 1772 and 1778. 
It was again republished with additions by Zeunius in 1788 ; 
and lastly printed at Glasgow for a London bookseller in 8vo. 
1797. In 1719 Baxter's Glossarium Antiquitatum Bri- 
tannicarum appeared, dedicated to Dr. Richard Mead, ac- 
companied with a portrait of the author, engraved by Vertue 
from a pieture by Highmore, painted when Baxter was in 
his sixty-ninth year. . This work is stated to' have been pub- 
lished under the eare of the Rev. Moses Williams, who also 
afterwards published Baxter's glossary of Roman antiqui- 
ties, containing the letter A only, under the title of Reliquice 
Baxteriance y sive JVillielmi Baxteri Opera posthuma. 
Prcemittitur eruditi Auctoris Vita* a seipso conscripta* 
Fragmentum, 8vo. Lond. 1726. A few eopics of this work 
eame out with the title of Glossarium Antiquitatum Roma- 
narum, in 1731. 

These form the whole of Baxter's printed works. He is 
said to have had a share in the English translation of Plu- 
tareh by several hands, published at the beginning of the 
last century ; and proposals for printing an edition of Juvenal 
with his notes were circulated in 1 732, but-without success. 
Bishop Squire used some of his notes in his edition of 
Plutareh's treatise de Jside et Osiride, published at Cam- 
bridge in 1744. 

Of smaller scattered pieees by Baxter, there are three 
letters on subjects of antiquity printed iu the Philosophical 
Traiisactions, Nos. 306, 311, and 401 ; and four of his 
Latin letters to Dr. Geekie of Cambridge, who had been his 
pupil, iu the first volume of the Archceologia of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries, 

Besides Latin and Greek, Baxter is allowed to have been 
skilled iu the British and Irish tongues, as well as in the 
Northern and Hebrew languages. lie was in corre- 
spond e nee, also, with the most learned men of his time. 
The greater part of his life was passed in the education of 
youth. Kiehols, in his Literary Anecdotes, states Baxter to 
nave kept a boarding-school at Tottenham High Cross in 
Middlesex ; but Dr. Robinson, in the History of Tottenham 
(8vo. Lond. 1818, p. 133), says he was the master of tbe 
free grammar-school there. He certainly was resident at 
Tottenham before 1697, and remained there till he was 
chosen master of the Mercers' School in London, which 
situation he held above twenty years, but resigned it before 
his death. He died May 31st, 1723, and was buried at 
Islington. 

(See Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, vol. i. pp. 163-165, 
329, 348, 349, 351, 3G3, vol. ii. pp. 24, 350 ; Chalmers's Biogr. 
Diet. vol. iv. p. 200-202; Robinson's Hist. Tottenham, p. 
133-135.) 

BAXTER, RICHARD. This eminent Nonconformist 
divine was born at Rowdon, a small village in Shropshire, 
on the 12th of November, 1615 ; but he resided till 1G25 at 
Jgaton Constantino, about five miles from Shrewsbury. 
"The contiguity of his birth-plaee to the seat of Lord Newport 
was probably the means of introducing him to the notiee of 
that nobleman. His father's little property was so much 
eneumbered, as to prevent him from giving his son any edu- 
cation beyond what eould be obtained from the village school- 
masters, who were neither eompet ent teachers nor moral men. 
To Mr. John Owen, who kept the free grammar-sehool at 
Wroxeter, Baxter acknowledges some obligations. Though 
he was eaptain of the school, his acquirements were very in- 
considerable when he left it His ambition was to enter one 
of the universities to qualify himself for the ministry; but his 
master, Mr. Owen, probably perceiving that he required 
more regular instruction than he could expect to receive 
from a eollege tutor, reeom mended him to Mr. Richard 
Wickstead, ehaplain to the council at Ludlow, who had an. 
allowance from government for a divinity student. Though 
the defeets in his previous education were but ill supplied 
by this arrangement (Wickstead being a negligent tutor), 
he had acees3 to a good library, where he acquired a taste 
for those studies which he pursued with sueh indefatigable 
diligenee in after life. " Here he continued for eighteen 
months, when he returned to his father's house, and, at Lord 
Newport's request, supplied for a few months the place of 
his old master at Wroxeter grammar-school. Finding all 

J i 



B A X 



GO 



13 A X 



his hopes of goin£ to the university disappointed, he re- 
Mimed hi* professional studies under the direction of Mr. 
Francis Garbctt. u clergyman of some celebrity, who con- 
ducted him through a course of theology, and gave him 
much valuable assistance in his general reading, While 
ho was thus engaged, he was suddenly diverted from his 
pur suits by a proposition from his friend, Mr. Wickstcad, 
to try his fortune at court. The project, singular as it was, 
teems not to have been unpalatable either to the future 
puritan olivine or to his father: theology was thrown aside, 
and Baxter went up to Whitehall, specially introduced 
to Sir Henry Herbert, master of tho revels, as an aspirant 
to royal favour. His reception was conrteou5 > and even 
kind. For one month he mingled in tho festivities of tho 
palace, — a period which was sufficient to convinco him of 
i ho unsuitabloness of such a mode of life to his tastes, his 
habits, and his conscience ;— he then returned, home, and 
resumed his studies with a determination never to be again 
diverted from them. Before he went to London, his re- 
ligions impressions wero decpenod by the perusal of Bunny's 
Resolution, Sibbs's Bruised Reed t and other works of this 
kind. Some books which he read after his return increased 
that habitual seriousness which he derived from his natural 
disposition, as well as from the example of his father; and 
a protracted illness completed the preparation of his mind 
for the reception of those impressions of religious duty under 
which he acted through the remainder of his life. 

While he was in this declining state of health, his anxiety 
to commence his ministerial labours overcame every other 
consideration. He applied for ordination to the bishop of 
Worcester, and obtained it, together with a schoolmaster's 
license, as he had accepted the mastership of the free 
grammar-school at Dudley, just then founded by his friend 
Sir. Foley of Stourbridge. He was then twenty-three years 
of age, and at this time entertained no scruples on the 
subject of conformity, having never examined with any 
nicety the grounds of subscription. His attention, however, 
was speedily drawn to the debatable points of the contro- 
versy; but, at first, the bitter tone of the Nonconformists 
gave him an unfavourable impression of their charade r, 
though he admired their fervent piety, and their energetic 
efforts to stem the moral corruption of the times. There 
was much in his own views and temperament which cor- 
responded with theirs; hut it required time and circum- 
stances to develop the tendencies of his mind. 

At the end of nine months Baxter removed from Dudley 
to Bridgcuorth, where he acted as assistant to the clergy- 
man. A release from his school engagements must, to 
such a mind as Baxter's, intent upon pastoral duties, have 
appeared a snflicicnt inducement for the change, but, in the 
then state of his feelings, it was of still greater moment to 
hi in to he relieved from the prospect of having to renew 
his subscription. Bridgcnorth is the centre of a little dis- 
trict comprising six parishes, exempt from all episcopal 
jurisdiction, except a triennial visitation from the arch- 
bishop. Here he expected to jxjrform the humble duties of 
n curate without obstruction, happy in the society of a col- 
league whose views harmonized with his own, and still 
happier in having a wide field for his exertions. But his 
hopes were soon frustrated by the * ct cetera oath,* as it was 
called, which enjoined all who had taken orders to swear 
that they would never consent to any alteration in the cere- 
monial or government of the church by archbishops, bishops, 
deans, archdeacons, &c. It does not appear that Mr. Baxter, 
nny more than his brother clergyman at Bridgcnorth, 
thought it necessary to observe the terms of this oath, for 
n complaint was laid against them for non-compliance with 
the ritual in various particulars. 

Baxter left Bridgcnorth after a residence of one year and 
nine months, on an invitation from a coramittco of the pa- 
rishioners (IG40) to become the otliciating clergyman at the 
parish church in Kidderminster, the vicar having agreed, \\\ 
order to settle disputes, to allow GO/, per annum to a curate 
of their own choosing. The living was afterwards seques- 
tered, the townsmen collected the tithes, paid Baxter and 
Baxter's curate, and gave the vicar 40/. per annum. The 
circumstances under which Baxter settled at Kiddermin- 
ster wcro favourable to his views ; but it was not without 
considerable opposition from one portion of the commu- 
nity, whose vices he publicly reproved, that he carried 
some of his reforms into effect. Not satisfied with cor- 
recting the more flagrant offences of the inhabitants, 
ne visited them at their houses, became acquainted with 



their families, gave them religious instruction in private, 
and became their friend as well as their pastor. By these 
means he soon wrought a complete change in tho habits of 
the people. Though so strict a disciplinarian, his concilia- 
tory manners won the hearts of all but a few who were irre- 
claimable. His preaching was acceptable to all ranks. 
Wherever he went, large audiences attended him ; and his 
energy was so unremitting, notwithstanding his feeble health 
and constant indisposition, that he preached three or four 
times a week. 

During tho civil wars of that period Baxter held a posi- 
tion by which he was connected with both the opposite 
parties in the state, and yet was the partisan of neither. 
Ilis attachment to monarchy was well known, though his 
adherence to the royalist party was not so certain ; while tho 
deep stream of religious feeling which ran through the con- 
versation of the parliamentarians drew his sympathies to that 
side. The undisguised respect paid by him to the character 
of some of the puritans, made him and many others, who 
were sincerely attached to the crown, the objects of jealousy 
and persecution. A clamour was raised against them, and 
the rabble, whose excesses had been checked by him, wcro 
eager enough to become the trumpeters of the charge. 
During one of these ebullitions of party excitement, Baxter 
spent a few days in the parliamentary army, and was preach - 
ing within sound of tho cannon when the memorable battlo 
was fought at Edge Hill. His friends, not considering it 
safe for him to return to Kidderminster, he retired to Co- 
ventry, where he lived two >cars, preaching regularly to 
the parliamentary garrison and to the inhabitants. After 
the battle of Nascby,in lG45» he passed a night on a visit to 
some friends in Cromwell's army, u eircu instance which led 
to tiie chaplaincy of Colonel Whalley's regiment being 
offered to hiin, which, after consulting his friends at Coven- 
try, he accepted. In this capacity he was present at tho 
taking of Bridgcwatcr, the sieves' of Exeter, Bristol, and 
Worcester, by Colonels Whalley and Kniusuoro*. He lost 
no opportunity of moderating the temper of the cham- 
pions of the commonwealth, and of restraining them within 
the bounds of reason ; but as it was known that the check 
proceeded from one who was unfriendly to the ulterior 
objects of the party, his interference was coolly received. 
Among the soldiery he laboured with unceasing ardour to 
diffuse a better spirit, and to correct those sectarian errors, 
as he considered them,— anabaptism, antinomianism, and 
separatism inclusive— which in his view were so productive 
of disputes and animosity. 

After his recovery from an illness, which compelled him 
to leave the army, we find him again at Kidderminster, 
exerting himself with renewed vigour to moderate conflict- 
ing opinions. The conduct of Cromwell at this crisis ex- 
ceedingly perplexed that class of men of whom Baxter might 
be regarded as the type. For the sake of peace they yielded 
to an authority which they condemned as a usurpation, 
but nothing could purchase their approbation of the mea- 
sures by which it had been attained and was supported 
In open conference, Baxter did not scruple to denounce 
Cromwell and his adherents as guilty of treason and rebel- 
lion ; though he afterwards doubted if he was right in op- 
posing him so strongly. (Sec Baxter's Penitent Confessions 
quoted in Ormc.) The reputation of Baxter rendered his 
countenance to the new order of things highly desirable, and 
accordingly no pains were spared to procure it. At tho 
suggestion of some of his noble friends, he once preached 
before the Protector, who afterwards invited him to an inter* 
view, and endeavoured to reconcile him to tho political 
changes that had taken place ; but the preacher was uncon- 
vinced by his arguments, and boldly told him that • tho 
honest people of the land took their antient monarchy to be 
a blessing, and not an evil.* The necessity of any alteration 
in the government did not come within the scope of his 
comprehension, lie looked with a single eye to the diffusion 
of a deeper spirit of religion by means of a purified establish- 
ment, beyond which he was incapable of carrying his views 
or lending his Function. 

In the disputes which prevailed about this time on the 
subject of episcopal ordination, Baxter took the side of the 
Presbyterians in denjing its necessity. With them, too, lie 
agreed in matters of discipline and church government. 
He dissented from them in their condemnation of episcopacy 
as unlawful. On their great principle, viz. the sufficiency 
of tho Scriptures to determine all points of faith and con- 
duct, he wavered for some time, but ultimately adopted it in 



B A X 



61 



B A X 



its full extent. Occupying, as he did, this middle ground 
between the Episcopalians and the Presbyterians, it was not 
very obvious with which of the two parlies he wa3 to be 
classed. Had all impositions and restraints been removed, 
there is every reason to suppose that he would have pre- 
ferrod a moderate episcopacy to any other form of church 
government; but the measures of the prelatical party were 
so grievous to the conscience, that he had no choice be- 
tween sacrificing his opinions or quitting their communion. 
The views maintained by Baxter, blended as they were 
with the principles of monarchy, made them extremely po- 
pular towards the close of Cromwell's career, when men 
were beginning to find that they had only exchanged one 
species of tyranny for another, and, as some thought, for a 
worse. In the sermon which Baxter prcachefl before the 
parliament on the day preceding that on which they voted 
the return of the king, he spoke his sentiments on this sub- 
ject with manly resolution, and in allusion to the political 
state of the country, he maintained that loyalty to their king 
was a thing essential to all true Protestants of ever)* per- 
suasion. 

It was expected that on the restoration of the king mode- 
ration would have prevailed in the councils of the nation, 
and a conciliatory policy have been adopted with regard to 
religious opinions. Some indication of such a spirit ap- 
peared in the appointment of Presbyterian divines among 
the king's chaplains, and Baxter along with the rest. 
Many who had access to the king strenuously recommended 
conciliation, and for a time their advice prevailed against 
the intrigues of court iniluence. Among other measures 
a conference was appointed at the Savoy, consisting of a 
certain number of Episcopalian and Presbyterian divines, to 
devise a form of ecclesiastical government which might re- 
concile the difforcnecs and satisfy the scruples of the con- 
tending parties. Baxter and the Presbyterians were ex- 
tremely desirous of bringing this commission to a successful 
issue; and Baxter himself drew up a reformed liturgy, 
which, with some alterations, he presented at this conference. 
The Presbyterians would have accepted Bishop Usher's 
scheme as a model, with any alterations which might be mu- 
tually agreed upon ; but the bishops were secretly opposed to 
the arrangement, and finally frustrated it by carrying a de- 
claration to this effect, that although all were agreed upon the 
ends contemplated in this commission, they disagreed about 
tho means. Having thus defeated the object of the confer- 
ence, the next step was to sequestrate the livings of those 
divines who had been inducted during the Protectorate. 
Oaths and subscriptions, which had been suspended while 
there was any prospect of a union of parties, were again 
called for by the bishops and their adherents. In accord- 
ance with this demand a law was passed in 1662, called 
the Act of Uniformity, so strict in its requisitions upon the 
debatable points of ceremonial worship, that it had the 
effect of banishing at once two thousand divines from the 
pale of the English church. Of this number was Baxter. 
Previous to the passing of this' measure he had refused the 
bisljoprick of Hereford and other preferments offered him 
by Clarendon, the Chancellor, asking one favour only in 
lieu of them — to be allowed to return to his beloved flock 
at Kidderminster. The viear, who was ejected in 16 40, had 
been restored ; and was bound by the old agreement to prfy 
Baxter 60/. a year as a lecturer. But Baxter was willing to 
perform the pastoral duties without remuneration : all he 
wanted was to watch over those whom lie had brought into 
the fold of Christ; but this request was refused. 

On the 25th of May, 1662, three months before the day 
on which the Bartholomew Act, as the Act of Uniformity 
\va3 called, from its coming into operation on St. Bartholo- 
mew's day, Baxter had preached in London his last sermon, 
under a regular engagement in the church; and, finding 
his public duties at an end, he retired in July 1663 to Acton, 
in Middlesex, where he employed most of his leisuro in 
writing for the press. Some of his largest works were 
tho fruits of this seclusion. His two most popular trea- 
tises, The Saints' Everlasting ResU and A Call to the 
Unconverted, were published before he left Kidderminster, 
and raised his fame as a writer to a higher pitch than 
what he had enjoyed even as a preacher. Several attempts 
were made by the ejected ministers and their friends in 
parliament to get the rigorous restrictions against them re- 
moved, but without success. The persecutions continued 
with unabated violence. Even those who, like Baxter, dis- 
liked separation, and attended the worship of the church, 



suffered penalties for having morning and evening prayers 
at their own houses. In the midst of those awful calami- 
ties, the plague and the fire, which raged with such fright- 
ful devastation in two successive years, the services of the 
Puritan divines to the inhabitants of the metropolis were 
so conspicuous, that the current of opinion turned in their 
favour, and led to new efforts in their behalf, which ended 
for the time in the Indulgence granted in 1672. This drew 
Baxter from his retirement at Totteridge, to which place he 
had removed on the suppression of his ministry at Acton. 
He settled again in London, and preached as a lecturer in 
different parts of the city, but more constantly at Pinner's 
Hall and Fetter Lane. His preaching, though highly ac- 
ceptable to his more immediate friends, was never so popular 
as it had been at Kidderminster. While he advocated tole- 
rance from an intolerant communion he shone like a light 
in a dark place ; but now that he was the apologist of con- 
formity, while he was a sufferer for non-conformity, his 
conduct ^ involved a kind of consistency too refined for pub- 
lic admiration. An ineffectual attempt which he made at 
this time to combine the Protestant interests against Papal 
ascendancy exposed him to various misrepresentations, to 
remove which he published a vindication of himself in a 
tract entitled An Appeal to the Light, but without eradi- 
cating the unfavourable impressions. 

His time was now divided between writing and preaching 
For a while he had a regular audience in a room over St. 
James's market-house, and at other places in London. But 
his public duties were frequently suspended by those 
rigorous enactments to which the Noli con for mists were 
subjected during the last two reigns of the Stuarts. 

In 1682 the officers of the law hurst into his house, at a 
time when he laboured under severe indisposition, with a 
warrant to seize his person for coming within five miles of a 
corporation, and would have hurried him before a justice of 
the peace in this condition, bad they not been met by his 
physician, whose interference probably saved his life as well 
as obtained his pardon. Two years later, while his health 
was still in a precarious state from a chronic disease, he was 
again harassed by distraints and penal proceedings. Still 
later it was his misfortune to be one of the unhappy victims 
of Jefferics. He was apprehended on a lord chief justice's 
warrant, on a charge of sedition and being hostile to epis- 
copacy. The charge was founded on some passages in his 
Paraphrase of the New Testament. On the trial, Jefferics, 
not content with using language the most opprobrious to 
the prisoner and his counsel, acted the part of proseeutor 
as well as judge, and scrupled not to gain his ends by 
silencing the accused, by insulting his counsel, by refusing 
to hear his witnesses, and by triumphing over his sentence. 
He said upon the bench, * he was sorry that the Act of In- 
demnity disabled him from hanging hiin.' His punishment 
was a fine of 500 marks, to lie in prison till it was paid, and 
to be bound to his good behaviour for seven years. For the 
non-payment of this heavy penalty he was committed to the 
King's Bench prison, where he lay until the 26th of No- 
vember in the following year (1686), having been confined 
for nearly eighteen months. His pardon was obtained by 
the mediation of Lord Powis, and the fine was remitted. 
The solitude of his prison was enlivened on this, as on for- 
mer occasions, by the affectionate attentions of his wife. 
Baxter himself lived to see that favourable change in re- 
ference to religious toleration which commenced at the Re- 
volution of 1688. He died on the 8th of December, 1691, 
and was buried in Christ Church. 

The literary career of Baxter is not the least extraordinary 
part of his history. He published a body of practical and 
polemical divinity with a rapidity almost unequalled; the 
excellence of some of his practical writings secured them an 
unexampled popularity, and thus laid the foundation of a 
new theological system which still retains "his name. The 
catalogue of his works is not easily described. It contains 
nearly 168 distinct publications: (see list in Orme's Life, 
prefixed to the edition of his works, London, 1830.) Many 
of these are only known to his admirers, but others aro 
more t read than any other productions of a religious cha 
racter. His fame chiefly rests on his two most popular 
works, and on his Methodus Theologicc and Catholic Theo • 
logy* in which his peculiar views are embodied. Several 
of his learned contemporaries have recorded their testimony 
to the character of his writings. Sir Matthew Hale was a 
constant reader of them, and honoured Baxter with his 
friendship. Bishop Wilkins praised him in the phrase that 



RAX 



C2 



BAY 



Johnson afterwards applied to Goldsmith ; ' lie has cultivated 
every mibiart which he ha* handled;' and Dr. Isaac Harrow 
said, that 'lit* practical writing* were never mended, and 
lii> controversial one* seldom confuted/ Baxter left behind 
him a Narrative of the vtost Memorable Paxiages of his 
JJfs an I Timet, which was published in a folio volume 
after his death (1696) by his intimate friend Mr. Matthew 
Sjlvester, under tljo title ReU^uta? Baxterians. hi* here 
that wo find that review of his religion* opinions written in 
the latter part of hi* life, which Coleridge speak* of as ono of 
the most remarkable pieces of writing that have como down 
to ns. (See Coleridge's BiograjJiia Li t era r fa.) Cal amy's 
Lif* qf Baxter is a kind of abridgment of thi* work, which 
abounds in notices of tho men, tho transaction*, the habits, 
and the opinions of the stirring period in which lie lived. 

There are a few poems by Baxter, not long ago published 
in a small volume. His World of Spirits has been lately 
reprinted. 

BAXTERIANS, ft name which i* applied to those who 
adopt the theological system of Richard Baxter. The name 
is now almost extinct; but Baxterianisra is still the resting 
place of many who do not approve of the extremes of Cal- 
vinism. The Baxterians hardly ever attained the rank of 
a separate denomination, even when they were most nume- 
rous ; and they are now completely scattered among different 
communions. Their writings arc most popular among the 
orthodox dissenters. 

Baxtcrianism occupies a sort of middle place between 
Arminianism and Calvinism. It is not correct to say, that 
it reconciles the two schemes. It only connects them by 
showing that portions from each maybe made to harmonize 
with eaeh other. Ilenee it would be more properly described 
as a system of theology framed out of the systems of Calvin 
and Arminius, and becoming itself the point of union be- 
tween them. Its chief merit is supposed to consist in the 
amalgamation of the Arminian doctrine of free grace with 
the Calvinistic doctrine of election. The Baxterians profess 
to believe that a certain number, determined upon in the 
divine counsels, are elected to salvation without respect to 
their good works. To this extent they receive the doctrine 
of effectual calling. But to make their view of the opera- 
tion and comprehensiveness of divine favour complete, they 
contend that all to whom the gospel is preached are placed 
in a condition for securing their own salvation. Hence they 
think with Calvin that Christ died in a special manner for 
the elect ; and, in a more general sense, tor all others who 
come within the light of the gospel. The Calvinistie tenet 
of reprobation forms no part of their system. 

The grounds on which Baxter contended that the death 
of Christ put all men in a state of salvation arc briefly these : 
— 1st, Because Christ assumed the human nature and bore 
tho sins of the human race ; 2dly, Because pardon and life 
were offered to all mankind on condition of acceptance, — 
* Whosoever belie veth shall he saved ;* and, 3dly, Because 
it is not to the elect alone, but to all men, that the benefit* 
of the gospel aro proclaimed. 

The arguments by which the learned divines of this school 
prove the elect to have a superior interest in the death of 
Christ over the non-elect, are deeply tinctured with that 
metaphysical subtlety of which Bishop Burnet complains 
as the great blemish of Baxter's writings. The hypothesis, 
in a few words, may be thus stated : that Christ das made 
a conditional gift of tho benefits accruing from his death 
to all mankind ; but to the elect the gift is absolute and 
irreversible; from which he draws the inference that, not- 
withstanding the positive possession of these advantages 
was decreed to the few, yet conditionally the benefit was 
extended to all. 

The Baxterians are greatly opposed to Antinomianisni. 
Faith without works they hold to be an unscriptoral and 
dangerous tenet. Several of tho minor doctrines of Cal- 
vinism are adopted in a modified sense, among which may 
be mentioned justification and the perseverance of the saints. 
They advocate the certainty of perseverance, but incline to 
the opinion that it may be lost by too weak a degrco of 
saving grace. 

In all the Baxterian deviations from the system of Calvin 
there is a decided leaning to more comprehensive views. 
Baxter was himself opposed to tho narrowing of the term* 
of salvation, and designed to removo every appearance of 
exelusiveuess in tho operation of divine favour from the 
system which he took such nains to adjust and promulgate. 
Tho most eminent divines wlio have embraced these opinions 



since the death of their author aro Watts and Doddridge— 
men who have both illustrated in their works and lives the 
candid and amiable spirit of the school to which they be- 
longed. 

(Calamy's Abridgment of Mr. Baxter t History of his 
Ufe ami fifties, 2nd edit. 1713. A second volnmo contains 
an account of other ministers deprived or silenced by the 
Act of 1662. In 1727 two volumes of Continuation wero 
published. Baxter's Catholic Theology ; Buck's Theolo- 
gical Dictionary,) 

BAY {bahia, Portuguese, Spanish; baia f Italian; baie % 
French ; mecrbitsen, German), is a portion of the sea, of 
such a form that it is wider at the part nearest the open 
sea, and narrower the farther it advances into the main 
land. According to this definition the term is rightly ap- 
plied to the Bay of Biscay, the Bay of Bengal, Chcsajwak 
Bay, and Botany Bay; but sometimes it is used whero 
tho term gulf would seem to bo more appropriate. This 
latter term properly implies an arm of the sea, which, with- 
out any or with only little diminution in breadth, enters 
very deeply into the main land, as the Gulf of Bothnia or 
the Gulf of Finland. Smaller portions of the sea of this 
description are called, in Scotland, firth$ t and in Norway, 
where they are very numerous, fiords, in Iceland fiordurs. 
According to this definition we should not say Baffin's Bay, 
but Baffin's Gulf. To introduee'grcater precision into geo- 
graphy, it would still be necessary to distinguish both bays 
and gulfs from close seas, by which we understand extensive 
parts of the sea, enclosed on every side with land, and 
united with the ocean only by straits or narrow arms, like 
the Mediterranean or the Baltic Sea and the Red Sea. But 
here, too, the common practice is not exact. We say Hud- 
son's Bay where we should use tho term Hudson's Sea, and 
the same observation holds good for the Gulf of Mexico, 
which as well deserves the name of sea as ihe Caribbean 
Sea. Sometimes also close seas have received the name of 
gulfs, as the Persian Gulf. 

BAY SALT. [See Salt.] 

BAY TREK. [See Laurus.] 

BAYADEKR (said to be a corruption of Bailadeira, a 
Portuguese word, which signifies a dancing woman), a 
name given to the regularly bred dancing girls in India, who 
are also the regular prostitutes. Certain women make it 
their business to select the handsomest girls they can find 
among the children of the lowest class of people ; and, 
after having secured their beauty from the ravages of the 
small-pox by inoculation, carefully instruct them in dancing, 
singing, and the acting of small comedies, with the little arts 
and manners which form the accomplished bayadeer. The 
system of training commences at the age of seven or ci^ht 
years, and continues two or three years. From the end of 
this training to the age of seventeen is the professional life 
of n bayadeer. Towards its termination, their personal 
attractions being considered on the wane, they find it expe- 
dient to transfer them to the more contracted sphere of 
the temples. Some are devoted, under a vow of the pa- 
rents, to the service of the temples from their birth. They 
are brought up in tho usual accomplishments, and the 
wages of their exertions and their infamy enter the trea- 
sury of the temple with which they are connected. 

These girls are generally introduced to any party that 
requires their attendance, escorted by a band of musicians. 
A native band consists of instruments resembling guitars, 
and others like clarionets, with cymbals and kettle-drums, 
which altogether produce a very wild, but not nu unplcasing, 
and a somewhat melancholy harmony. The women dance 
and sing ; and when one is desired to dance, she calls for the 
ornaments of her feet, which consist of silver chains, which 
she fastens on her ankles. Then, rising from the ground, 
she arranges her dress, which generally eomi&t.s of about a 
hundred yards of light muslin, which terminates in innu- 
merable folds at about the swell of the leg; and of a shawl 
which covers part of the head, comes over the shoulders, and 
falls in folds over the petticoat. Tho hair is seldom orna- 
mented, but is parted in the middle, and kept close down by 
the aid of the eoeoa-niit, which improves its jet and gloss, 
but communicates an unpleasant odour. Bchin 1 the ears a 
hunch of pearls is worn like a cluster of grapes, and a ring 
is suspended from one of the nostrils, through which it is 
inserted. The ornaments, however, are sometimes more and 
sometimes less numerous and costly than this. 

The dancing consists in a certain methodical kicking of 
the right foot, which causes the chains on the ankles to jingle 



BAY 



63 



BAY 



in unison with the music ; the dancer now advancing, then 
retreating : sometimes with the hands up, and twisting them 
about ; at others, enveloping her head completely in the 
shawl. The movements of the bayadeer are sometimes so 
slow in this performance, that an inexperienced spectator 
might suppose her about to fall asleep, when, in eorre-. 
spondence with a change in the music, she becomes full of* 
life, and exhibits a rapid and exhausting succession of vio- 
lent action. She takes up her robe and folds it into various 
shapes, then she lets it go, so that while she spins round 
like atop, it forms a circle, bearing some resemblance to the 
tail of a peacock. It is perfectly amazing for what a length of 
time practice enables them to maintain this circular motion. 
This part of the performance is sometimes dispensed with. 
In different parts of the country these dances vary in the 
proprieties of dress and attitude. In some parts they are 
highly indecent, but this is not always, ov perhaps gene- 
rally, the ease. The songs of the bayadecrs, however, 
commonly express, in very warm language, the sentiments 
of amorous passion, as addressed by the female to her lover. 
Such songs afford a striking contrast to those of the Per- 
sians, who, according to Sir William Ouseley, ' never suffer 
their females to make, either in prose or verse, any advances 
or declarations of love/ 

(Description, <£c, of the People 0/ India by the Abbe" 
Dubois; Morier's Second Journey ; Heber's Narrative of 
a Journey, $e. ; Ouseley's Travels in various Countries of 
the East.) 
BAYAMO, in Cuba. [See Salvador, S.] 
BAYAN KHARA MOUNTAINS is the Mongol name 
of a very extensive range in Eastern Asia, in a corner of 
the globe which has never been visited by Europeans, and 
which, therefore, is only known to us by the accounts of the 
Chinese geographers. According to them a vast mountain- 
knot is situated nearly in the centre of the high table-land 
of Eastern Asia to the. west of the lake Khoo-khoo-nor, 
between 35° and 38° N. lat., and about 96° and 100° E. 
long. This mountain-knot, ealled Kulkun. is considered as 
the eastern portion of the Kuen-luen Mountains, which 
traverse the high table-land from west to east about the 
thirty-fourth parallel. From this mountain-knot high 
ranges seem to proeeed towards all the points of the com- 
pass, three of which extend to the east in the direction of 
the principal ehain. The most northern, ealled Khi-lian 
Shan, separates the basin of the lake of Khoo-khoo-nor 
from the great desert of the Gobi. The middle chain, and 
as it seems the highest of the three, ealled Siue Shan 
(Snow Mountains), fills up with its numerous high and 
steep summits the whole region between the lake of Khoo- 
khoo-nor and the great river Hoango. The most southern 
of the three, the Bayan Khara Mountains, first runs towards 
the south, and the waters descending from its eastern de- 
clivities give rise to the river Hoango. Soon afterwards the 
range declines towards east-south-east and separates in 
this direction tho upper courses of the two great rivers 
Hoango and Yan-tse-kiang, until branching off in nume- 
rous ramifications, it obliges the Yan-tse-kiang to take a 
southern and the Hoango a northern course. Thu3 these 
rivers, whieh to the west of the 100th meridian run hardly 
more than fifty miles from one another, attain under the 
103rd a distance of more than ten degrees of latitude, whieh 
they keep to about the 112th meridian, where they again 
approach one another within about four degrees, or about 270 
miles. All the numerous mountain chains whieh occupy the 
eastern parts of Tibet, and that portion of China whieh ex- 
tends between the Hoango and Yan-tse-kiang are connected 
with the Bayan Khara Mountains, and ought to be considered 
as ramifications of this mass. The most remarkable is that 
whieh, including the basin of the Hoango on tho south, 
divides Sifan from the Chinese province Kan-su: there it 
is ealled by the Chinese Min-shan. Its eastern prolonga- 
tion, whieh divides the province Sut-shuan from those of 
ICan-su and Shen-si, hears the name of Peling (Northern 
range), and, forming the watershed between the two great 
rivers, it advances intp the great plain of Northern China, 
where the last offsets terminate at a distance of about 100 
miles from the Whang Hay or Yellow Sea. 

We know nothing respecting the mineral riches of the 
Bayan Khara Mountains from the Chinese geographers; 
but wc are informed that those ranges whieh lie to the west 
of the 103rd meridian in many places rise above tho line of 
eternal snow, and that even glaeiers are frequent among 
them. They are, however, rarely visited, on account of their 



severe climate. (Klaproth's Asiatic Magazine, and Rit- 
ters's Asia.) 

BAYARD, PIERRE DE TERRAIL, known by the 
honourable appellation of the ' Good Knight, without fear 
and without reproach' (le bon Chevalier, sans peur et sans 
reproche), was born, in the year 1475, at the Chateau de 
Bayard in Dauphine. His family were for generations the 
feudal lords of the territory whence they took their name , 
and were distinguished for their military prowess during the 
wars of the English in France. Almost all his immediate 
ancestors died on the field of battle: his great-great-grand- 
father fell at Poietiers; his great-grandfather at Cressy; his 
grandfather at Montehery; and his father also received 
many wounds in the wars of Louis XL With a view to 
being educated for the profession of arms, he was placed, 
when thirteen years old, in the household of the Duke of 
Savoy as page, in whieh capacity he continued for five years, 
perfecting himself in the various accomplishments then con- 
sidered essential to the character of a true knight. Bayard, 
when only eighteen years of age, carried away the prize in 
a tournament against one of the most experienced knights 
in France. When he had completed his eighteenth year he 
entered into actual service. 

In the latter end of the year 1494, Bayard accompanied 
Charles VIII. in his expedition against Naples, and greatly 
distinguished himself at the battle of Fornovo, fought on the 
6th of July in the next year. He Had two horses killed 
under him in this engagement, and he performed numerous 
feats of that romantic valour whieh have perpetuated his 
name as one of the last and best representatives of the days 
of ehivalry. Bayard served also in the Italian wars of 
Louis XII., whieh began in 1499. On one occasion he kept 
a bridge over the Garigliano single-handed against 200 
Spaniards, long enough to enable the main-body of the 
French to make good their retreat. 

Bayard was also present at the famous ' battle of the 
Spurs/ fought at Guingette near Terouenne in Pieardy, on 
the 16th of August, 1513. Either from panie or mistaken 
orders, the French gendarmerie, when retreating from the 
English force, commanded in person by the then youthful 
Henry VIII., tied before the English cavalry in disgraceful 
confusion. The contest, in fact, was 1 one of mere speed be- 
tween the pursuers and the pursued, and henec the humorous 
epithet, applied by tho vanquished themselves, of the * battle 
of the Spurs. 1 But for the presence of mind and daring 
valour of Bayard, the whole French array would have 
shared in the disgrace of the gendarmerie. He retired 
with fourteen men-at-arms, often turning on his pursuers, 
till he reached a place where only two could pass in front. 
1 We halt here/ said he, * the enemy will be an hour gaining 
this post. Go and tell them so at the earn p.' He was 
obeyed, and succeeded in gaining time for the French army 
to re-assemble itself, but was himself taken prisoner. Henry's 
reception of the knight was much more courteous than that 
of the Kmperor Maximilian, who was present, being, with 
his troops, in the pay of the English king. The emperor 
taunted him with the remark that he thought Bayard was 
one who never lied. ' Sire, if I had lied I should not havo 
been here/ was the prompt answer. 

Bayard attended Francis L, then in the pride of youth, 
and ambitious of the honours of ehivalry, in the war under- 
taken to recover Milan and the other Italian conquests of 
his predecessor. The bloody battle of Marignano, Sept. 13, 
1515, wbich lasted two days, was fought with a fierce- 
ness that made Trivulzio, the French commander, who had 
been in eighteen pitched battles, exclaim that 4 all other 
fights compared with this were but children's sport ; this is 
the war of giants/ Bayard displayed his usual romantie 
daring and prowess. When the battle was won, Francis, 
who had fought by his side, and who had witnessed his 
extraordinary valour, begged and received the honour of 
knighthood at his hands upon the field. 

The next great service which Bayard rendered his country 
was the obstinate and successful defence of Mezieres, on 
the Netherlands frontier of France, in 1522, against the 
Count of Nassau, with a force of 35,000 men, aided by a 
strong artillery. The garrison consisted of only 1000 men, 
but such was the fame of Bayard, that many of the young 
nobility of France considered it the highest honour to he 
engaged under him in the defence of this frontier town. 

In 1524 Bayard had a command in the force which 
Francis I. sent to Italy to act against the army of tho Em- 
peror Charles, directed by the celebrated Duke of Bourbon, 



D A Y 



CI 



BAY 



The eommaud-iu-cbief was intrusted to Bonnivet, whose 
only qualification was pergonal courage. After various 
movements an<l partial successes, Bonnivet was compelled 
to abandon his strong entrenchments at Biagrasso, and 
move nearer to the Alps, in expectation of reinforcements 
from Switzerland. Ho wis pursued by the imperial forces, 
who attacked his rear with great fury just as ho had reached 
the banks of the Scsia. Bonnivet, while displaying much 
valour in rallying his troops, was wounded in tho arm by a 
ball from anarquchuss. He sent to Bayard immediately, 
telling him that the fate of tho army was in his hands. 
Bayard, who had in vain throughout the campaign remon- 
strated with Bonnivet on the course he was pursuing, 
replied, * It is now too late, hut 1 commend my soul to my 
G-jd; my li?b belongs to my country.' He then put him- 
self at tho head of the men-at-arms, and kept the main- 
body of the enemy occupied long enough to enable the 
rest of the French forces to make good their retreat. "While 
thus engaged ho received a mortal wound from a ball, and 
fell from h's horse. Ho was pressed to withdraw from the 
field, but his answer was that he had never turned his 
back upon an enemy. He ordered himself to bo placed 
with bis back againsta tree, and his face to the enemy. In 
this situation he was found by Bourbon, who expressed his 
regret at seeing him in this condition. ' Pity not me,* said 
the dying man r ' I die as a man of honour ought, in the 
discharge of my duty; they, indeed, are objects of pity 
who fight against their king, their country, and their 
oath.' The Marquis of Pescara, commander of the Spanish 
troops, passing soon after, manifested (we quote from 
Robertson's Charles K.book iii.) his admiration of Bayard's 
virtues, as well as his sorrow for his fate, with the gene- 
rosity of a pliant enemy ; and, finding that he could not be 
removed with safety from that spot, ordered a tent to he 
pitched there, and appointed proper persons to attend him. 
He died, notwithstanding their care, as his ancestors for 
several generations had done, on the field of battle. Pes- 
cara ordered his body to be embalmed and sent to his rela- 
tions ; and such was the respect paid to his memory that 
the Duke of Savoy commanded it to be received with royal 
honours in all the cities of his dominions. In Dauphinc, 
Bayard's native country, the people of all ranks came out 
in a solemn procession to meet it. 

(See Memoir e$ du Chevalier de Bayard, $*c. f with notes 
by Theodore Godcfroy. and the contemporary histories; also 
Br an tome's works, and the M/moires de Bella y.) 

BAYAZID I., surnamed IED1RIM, or ' the Lightning/ 
in allusion to the rapidity of his military achievements, was 
the son of the sultan of the Osmans, Murad I. He was 
horn A. Heg. 748 (a. n. 1347), and came to the throne in 
A. Heg. 792 (a. r>. 1389), after his father had been killed 
in an engagement with the Servians near Cossowa. The 
O^man dominions at this epoch extended from the Danube 
to the Euphrates; and Bayazid at the head of his army was 
almost incessantly moving from one extremity of his em- 
pire to the other, to reduce his Mohammedan neighbours to 
obedience, or to add to his possessions by conquests from 
the Christian powers of Europe. Biiissa and Adrianonle 
were respectively the Asiatic and European capitals of his 
dominions, and the erection of a magnificent mosque in each 
of them is one of the earliest acts of his reign that we find 
recorded. This seemingly pious act forms a strong contrast 
with his behaviour to Vacnb bis only brother, whom he put 
to death almost immediately on ascending the throne, from 
no other motive than an apprehension that the example of 
other Eastern princes niignt encourago him to rebel, and 
dispute Bayazid'* right to the throne. 

The conquests of the Osmans had, in the beginning of 
the eighth century of the* Mohammedan cora (the fourteenth 
after Christ), put an end to the Seljukide dominion in 
western Asia, and on its ruins several small dynasties had 
sprung U[), the principal of which were that of Sinope and 
Castcmuni on the northern coast of Asia Minor, and those 
of Aidin, Zarukhan, and Kermiyan. These dynasties 
Bayazid determined to destroy, and to embody their terri- 
tories in his empire. Within the first year after his ascend- 
avi the throne he had conquered Zarukhan, Aidin, and part 
of the northern coast of Anatolia: nor did his previous 
marriage (in a. i>. 1381) with a daughter of the prince of 
Kcrmivan prevent him from leading an expedition against 
his father-in-law, whom he took prisoner and deprived of 
his territory. Bayazid hail to encounter greater diUicoltics 
in subduing tho principality of Caramauia. Timurtash, his 



general, had conquered part of the country, when Alft-cddfn 
tho reigning sovereign, defeated him in a battle and took 
him prisoner. AVhcn this happened, Bayazid was on the 
banks of tho Danube engaged in a war with Stephan, tho 
prince of Moldavia, who had been instigated by Kcetnruin 
Bayazid (i. e. 'Bayazid the Lame'), a Musnlman chief on 
the borders of the Black Sea, to invade AVallachia and Bes- 
sarabia. On receiving the news of Timurtash's defeat, 
Bayazid hastened from Europe into Asia, and within a very 
short time sulnlued tho whole of Caramania, besides which 
he now added to his empire the towns of Konia, Akshchr, 
AkscraY, Larenda, Siwas (Sebaste), Tokat. and Kaisa- 
riyah. Soon after he took away the dominions of Kattu- 
ruin Bayazid on the Black Sea; and whon Kccturum died, 
Bayazid allowed his son, Isfendiar, to retain possesion only 
of Sinope. 

Tho year 1391 is remarkablo also for the capturo of Phi- 
ladelphia, or Alaihehr (i. e. ' The Variegated City*), the 
last Greek town in Asia Minor that continued f.iithful to the 
Byzantine empire. Its Greek commander made a vigorous 
resistance to the besieging forces of Bayazid, and rejected 
his invitation to surrender the fortress: while the Emperor 
Joannes and his son Manuel, then the confederates of the 
sultan, were actually assisting in the siege. 

In 1393 Bayazid undertook another expedition into 
Europe, in which he took possession of the towns of £alouiki 
and Yenishehr (Larissa), and for the first time besieged 
Constaniinople. He compelled the emperor to give up his 
plan of adding to the strength of tho capital bv new fortifi- 
cations, and to assign a separate suburb to the 'Turks with a 
mosque and a kadhi, or judge, of their own. Bayazid at' 
the same time built the fort of Guzeljc, or Anatoli hiss-.ir, on 
the eastern side of the Bosporus, which secured to him the 
command of that channel. 

In '139G Bayazid gained an important victory near 
Nicopolis on the Danube over an army of a hundred thou- 
sand Christians, including many of the bravest knights of 
France and Germany, who hud assembled under the stan- 
dard of Sigismond, the kingof Hungary, to check the farther 
progress of the Mohammedan power in Europe. The greater 
part of the Christian forces were slain or driven into lhe 
Danube. Sigismond escaped to Constantinople. Sixty- 
thousand Turks are stated to have fallen in the same battle ; 
and when Bayazid became aware of the extent of his loss, 
he gave orders to put to death all the prisoners with the 
exception of twenty-four nobles, who were subsequently ran- 
somed. This great victory was soon followed by further con- 
quests in Greece. TheMorca was taken, and in 1397 
(according to the oriental authorities quoted by M. von 
Hammer, Gesch. des Osman-Rcidis, i. 252) Athens fell 
into the power of the Osmans. 

The dominions of Bayazid and those of the Tartar con- 
queror Timur now touched each other in the neighbourhood 
of Erzerum and on the banks of the Euphrates. With 
doubtful limits between the two empires, which had never 
been defined by treaty, a cause for war between two jealous 
sovereigns could not long he wanting. Timur had taken 
possession of Siwas (the antient Sebaste), on the Halys r 
then one of the strongest and most nourishing cities 
of Western Asia, and had treated its inhabitants with great 
cruelty. Bayazid was then engaged in his European do- 
minions, which prevented him from resenting this violation 
of his territory. About the same time two Musuhnan 
princes, Ahmed Jclair and Kara Vussuf, whom Timur had 
deprived of their possessions, lied for protection first to 
Seifeddin Barkuk, the Sultan of Egypt ( and subsequently 
to Bayazid, who received them with kindness, and married 
his son, Mustafa Chclebi,to a sister of Ahmed Jelair. Timur 
sent two embassies for the purpose of demanding the sur- 
render of the princes ; but Bayazid refused to comply, and, 
instigated by the advice of the princes, took possession 
of Erzinjan, a town situated on the Euphrates within the 
dominions of Timur. Timur, who now determined to com- 
mence an open war against Bayazid, begun the campaign 
by taking Haleb, Antakia, and other Syrian towns that 
wcro subject to the Osmans. He was at Siwas when ho 
received information of the approach of Bayazid from the 
west. The two sovereigns at the head of their armies 
met in the plains of Angora, the capital of the antient 
Galatia. A decisive battle took place (according to M. von 
Hammer's calculations on the 19th of Zulhaj, A. Heg. 
804, i. e. the 20th of July, A.n. 1401), in which the Ommiuiiv 
wcro totally defeated, and Bayazid became a prisoner in 



BAY 



65 



BAY 



the hands of Tiraur. The conqueror, according to his 
Persian biographer, Sherif-eddin, received Bayazid with 
great kindness, assigned him suitable accommodations, 
and continued to treat him with distinction till he died, 
A. Heg. 806 (a.d. 1403). D'Herbelot (Bibliotheque Orient, 
art. Timour, .p. 876, edit. 1776) and M. Von Hammer ex- 
press themselves satisfied with this account, and reject the 
common report which would charge Timur with^reat cruelty 
towards his prisoner. But Sir William Jones fyf^orks, vol. v. 
p. 547) draws our attention to a passage in another contem- 
porary historian, Ebn Arabshah's life of Timur, which had 
been overlooked by D'Herbelot, and in which the Arabian 
author expressly affirms * that Timur did inclose his captive, 
Ilderim Bayazid, in a cage of iron, in order to retaliate the 
insult offered to the Persians by a sovereign of Lower Asia, 
who had treated Shapor, king of Persia, in the same man- 
ner; that he intended to carry him in this confinement into 
Tartary, but that the miserable prince died in Syria, at a 
place called Akshehr.' (See Ahmedis Arabsiadce, Vita 
Timuri, ed. Manger, torn. ii. pp. 225, 27C, &e.) 

We will not venture to decide a question on which there 
is such conflicting evidence ; but we must notice a curious 
passage of Busbequius, who visited Constantinople as am- 
bassador from the German emperor about the middle of the 
sixteenth century, as it seems to have escaped the notice of 
M. von Hammer. The passage is to the following effect : 
that Bayazid, after his defeat, became a prisoner in the 
hands of Timur, who treated him with great cruelty; that 
his wife, who was also made a prisoner, was grossly insulted 
before his face; and tbat from this time till the age of Su- 
leiman I., who reigned from a.d. 1620 to 15C6, the Osman 
sultans have never married, for fear that the reverses of 
fortune might expose them to similar insults. (Aug. Gislenii 
Busbequii Legationis Turcica Epistola Prima, pp. 20, 27, 
ed. Lond. 16G0, l6mo.) 

Bayazid was succeeded upon the throne of the Osman 
empire by his son Mohammed I. (Joseph von Hammer, 
Geschichte des OsmanisrJien Reichs, vol. i. p. 216, &c. ; 
Sherif-eddin's Life of Timur, translated by P. Dc La 
Croix.) 

BAYAZID II., the eldest son of the Osman sultan, 
Mohammed II., was born a.d. 1447, and in 1481 succeeded 
his father on the throne of the Osman empire, which he 
occupied till 1512. Bayazid was governor of Amasia when 
his father died (3rd of May, 1481). Upon receiving the 
news of his demise he hastened to Constantinople, but bad 
to establish bis claims to tbc throne by a contest with his 
brother Jem — called Zizim or Zizymus, by Caoursin and 
other contemporary European writers. Jem was defeated in 
a battle at Yenishehr near Brussa, 20th of June, 1481, and 
iled to Egypt, where he was kindly received by the Sultan 
Kaitbai. In the following year Jem was induced, by the re- 
presentations of his friends in Syria, to venture upon another 
campaign against his brother; but he was again unsuccessful, 
and took refuge at Rhodes. Here D'Aubusson, the grand- 
master of the Knights of St. John, received him with marked 
attention, but afterwards sent him to France, where he was 
kept in close confinement till 1488. Towards the end of 
that year the king of France, Charles VIII., surrendered 
him into tbe hands of Pope Alexander VL, by whom he was 
poisoned (Feb. 24, 1495). 

A considerable part of Bayazid' s reign was spent in war. 
When Mohammedll. died, the Osman empire was engaged 
in a conflict with Venice. Bavazid found it necessary in 
1482 to conclude a peace which secured considerable ad- 
vantages to the republic. In the same year, Keduk Ahmed 
Pasha, a military commander to whom the empire owed 
many important victories, was murdered by Bayazid's com- 
mand. 

In 1485 Bayazid declared war against Kaitbai, the Mamluk 
sultan of Egypt. Karagos-Pasha, the commander of the 
Osman army, suffered two signal defeats, and in 1491 a 
peace was negotiated upon terms by no means advantageous 
or creditable to the Osman arms. In the same year the 
fortresses of Depedelen and Bayendera in Albania were 
taken by the Osmans. Bayazid was himself engaged in this 
expedition, and near Depedelen had a narrow escape from 
an assassin who had approached bim in the disguise of a 
monk. This incident, M. von Hammer observes, gave rise 
to the rule ever since most strictly observed at the Osman 
court, that no one bearing any weapon is admitted into the 
presence of the sultan. 

The year 1490 is remarkable in Turkish history for the 



first treaty concluded between the Osman government 
and that of Poland ; and in 1495 we find recorded the first 
diplomatic relations between the sultan and tbe ezar of 
Moscow. 

In 1499 another war broke out between the Osman em- 
pire and Venice. A Venetian fleet was defeated in a battle 
near the island of Sapienza, July 28, 1499; and Lepanto 
(Naupactos), Modon, Coron, and Navarino, were besieged 
and taken by the Osmans, while Iskandar Pasha, with a 
land army, invaded and laid waste the country along tbe 
river Tagliamento in tbe north of Italy. A combined 
Venetian and Spanish fleet took possession of iEgina and 
Cephalonia, and captured twenty Turkish galleys. By the 
treaty of peace, which was concluded in December, 1502, 
the Venetians were obliged to leave the island of Santa 
Maura in tbe hands of the Turks, but they kept possession 
of Cephalonia, and obtained the privilege of appointing a 
consul at Constantinople, and of trading in the Black Sea. 

Bayazid was induced to yield a peace upon such conditions 
by the rapid rise of the Persian power on the eastern frontier 
of his dominions, under Shah Ismail, the founder of the 
Safawi (commonly called the Sofi) dynasty. Shah Ismail 
had encroached upon the Osman territory near Tokat, and 
when forced to retreat by the governor of the province, had 
taken possession of Merash. About the same time, Korkud, 
Bayazid's eldest son, disgusted at the contemptuous treat- 
ment which he experienced from Ali Pasha, the grand vizir, 
quitted the empire and went to Egypt. Ahmed, though 
younger than Korkud, had been appointed by Bayazid his 
successor on the throne. Selim, a younger brother of 
Ahmed, dissatisfied with tbe preferpnee thus given to the 
latter, revolted against' his father (1511), at the same time 
that an alarming rebellion, headed by Kuli Shah, also 
named Shcitan Kuli, broke out in Asia Minor. Kuli Shah 
was soon obliged to retire, and his adherents became dis- 
persed ; but the conflict between the princes, Korkud, Selim, 
and Ahmed, continued, till at last Selim prevailed. Bay- 
azid was obliged to resign the government in his favour, and 
Selim, supported by the Janissaries, and the great mass of 
the people of Constantinople, ascended the throne April 25, 
1512. Bayazid quitted the capital, in order to spend the re- 
mainder of his life in peaceful retirement at Demitoka, his 
birth-place; but he died on his journey thither at Aya, near 
Hassa, May 26, 1512. 

(Joseph von Hammer's Geschichte des Osmanischen 
Reic/ts, vol. ii. p. 250, &c.) 

BAYAZID, a town of Turkish Armenia, situated at the 
base of Mount Ararat, in 39° 24' N. lat., 44° 20' E. long. ; 
50 miles S.S.W. from Erivan, and about 180 miles E. of 
Erzerum. It is governed by a pasha of two tails, whose autho- 
rity extends over a surrounding district of considerable extent, 
but its limits are not distinctly defined. Kinneir assigns to 
tbe place a population of 30,000, of whom the great ma- 
jority are Turks ; but Stocqueler says that the population is 
estimated at 3000, tbe greatest proportion of whom are 
Armenians ; and French writers estimate the population at 
10,000. Whatever be the number, the majority are, un- 
doubtedly, Armenians ; and our own information inclines us 
to consider the French estimate of tbe population to be 
nearest the mark. 

The town is built on a declivity, the summit of which is 
said by the inhabitants to be strongly fortified; but tbey do 
not like to allow the fortifications to be inspected. Theeity 
itself is also surrounded by walls and a rampart. Bayazid 
has a very uninteresting appearance. The houses are small, 
and, for the most part, inconveniently built. Were it not 
for the pasha's palace, which is covered with white plaster 
and rises high above the rest of the town, it would be diffi- 
cult to distinguish it from the craggy elevation on the sido 
of which it is built, for the houses are composed of the -same 
material as the rocks, and the soil affords not an inch of 
verdure. Tbere are three mosques, two Christian churches, 
and a monastery of considerable celebrity in Armenia. Little 
business is carried on at Bayazid. The inhabitants have no 
encouragement to attempt manufactures, because Russian 
articles of a much better quality than they can make, and 
at a mneh cheaper rate, are obtained from Erivan. (Seo 
Kinneir's Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire; 
Morier's Journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia 
Minor; Stoequeler's Pilgrimage through Khuzistan and 
Persia.) 

BAYER, JOHN, was boin at the town of Rhain 
(Rhaina Biorum; it U called Rhain by Kastner, and appears 



No. 213. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



Vor.. IV.— K 



BAY 



06 



BAY 



to be Rain, which is not far from the confluence of the Loch 
and tha Danube), in Bavaria, in 1572. Ho followed the 
profession of on advocate at Augsburg, whore he died in 
1G25, having lived a bachelor fifty-three years. lie wnsan 
astronomer, and a diligent inquirer into antiquity. The 
preceding particulars are (or were) stated in his epitaph, in 
the church of St. Dominie at Augsburg. (See Schiller, 
Cu-lum tttllatum Chriitiarwm, Aug. Vind. 1627 ; or Kast- 
ncr, Gcsch. der Math. vol. iv. p. 94.) Of his life wo can 
find no account, except in the Mopraphie Universale t 
viiieh states that ho was a minister of tho gospel, whose zeal 
got him into troublo, but who was withal so good an astro- 
nomer, that ho was ennobled by tho Emperor l^eopold in 
1069. With whom he has been confounded in this stranue 
mistake we cannot tell, but be himself, in the preface to his 
charts, justifies him self for employing his time in mathe- 
matics, he b^ing a lawyer. There was a John Duyer who 
publUhed various works between 1GG2 and 16G7. ono of 
which, Ostium vet Atrium Natunc, *$c, might havo con- 
tained astronomy. Perhaps ibis one may havo been eon- 
founded with John Haver of Augsburg. 

Bayer has immortalized his name, as Delambre remarks, 
at a very cheap rate. lie published charts of the stars in 
1G"3, in which, for tho first time, he distinguished one from 
another by affixing letters. When Mamstecd and others 
adopted this practice, which has since become universal, tho 
letters of Bayer were followed, which has made his maps valu- 
able ; otherwise they aro not so good as thoso of Hevelius. 

The first edition of Bayer's maps was published at Augs- 
burg in September, 1603, with the following title •. Johannis 
Baieri Rhainani, J. C. Uranometria.omniufn asterismorum 
continent schemata novd methodo delineata* crreis laminis 
expresxa. The title given by Lalandc (Hibliogr. Astr.) is 
incorrect. He had obtained the constellations visible in the 
northern hemisphere from tho catalogue of Tycho Brahe\ 
and those about the south polo from Amcricus Vesputius 
and others. (Kepler, Tab. Rudolph, eited by Kiistner.) It 
is not known whether ho observed himself, but Riceioli, in 
tho words ' suis vigiliis astronomicis aueta et emendata/ 
implies that he did ; and Bartschius (Plant sph. in Pre/, ad 
Led.) affirms that Bayer was not in possession of the more 
reeent observations of Tyeho BrahG, and that bis places were 
erroneous in eon sequence. There are fifty-one maps by 
Bayer, namely, two of the hemispheres, one of nino constel- 
lations about the south pole, and forty-eight of single con- 
stellations. Tho Greek letters are omployed to denote the 
stars, and where tho Greek alphabet ends, the Roman small 
letters are used. 

The following is the list of Bayer's constellations, after 
each of which is placed the letter with which the reckoning 
ends; so that by looking at the numbering of the two 
alphabets annexed, the number of stars reckoned by him 
may be seen. In applying the letters ho seems to have ar- 
ranged the stars in order of brilliancy : thus a is the largest 
star in a constellation, that is, the largest in tho opinion of 
Bayer, observing with the naked eye, in and about I GOO. 
Bayer's names and spellings are retained. The constella- 
tions are all in Ptolemy. 

1. a 8. 15. o 22. x 29. C 36. m 43. t 

2. 9. i 1G. ff 23. yp 30. f 37. n 44. 11 

3. y 10. c 17. p 24. w 31. g 38. O 45. W 

4. t 11. X 18. <r 25. a 32. h 39. p 4G. x 

5. t 12. ji 19. r 26. b 33. i 40. q 47. y 
C. I 13. v 20. v 27. c 34. k 41. r 43. z 
7'. n H. I 21. f 28. d 35. 1 42. s 

1. Ursa Minor, _ 17. Delphinus, k 

2. Ursa Major, h 18. Equus Minor, <5 

3. Draco, i 19. Pegasus, tj/ 

4. Cephous, p 20. Andromeda ,e 

5. Bootes, k 21. Triangulum, i 

6. Corona, v 22. Aries, r 

7. He cules, z 23. Taurus, u 

8. Lyra, v 24. Gemini, g 

9. Cygnus, g 25. Cancer, d 

10. CassiepeO) a 26. Leo, p 

11. Perseus, o 27. Virgo, q 

12. Auriga, yp 28. Libra, o 

13. Serpentariua, f 29. Scorpio, o 

14. Serpens, o 30. Sagittarius, h 

15. Sagitta, 31. Capricoruus, c 
10. Aquila, 1. 32. Aquarius, 1 

AntinousJ 33. Pisces, 1 



34. Cetus, ^ 

35. Orion, p 
3G. Kridauus, d 

37. Lepus, v 

38. Canis Major, o 

39. Canis Minor, ij 

40. Navis, s 

41. Centaunis, q 

42. Crater, X 

43. Corvus, fJ 

44. Hydra, b 

45. Lnpns, v 
4G. Ara, 

47. Corona mevidionalis, v 
43. Piscis Notius, /* 



l9./Pavo 
Toucan 
Grus 

Phumix 
Djrado 
Piscis volans 
. \ Ilydrus 
Chameleon 
Apis 

Apis Indica 
Triangulum Australo 
Jndus 

50. Synopsis Cccli Superioris 
Borea 

51. Synopsis Cceli Infcrioris 
Austro 

In Delambre's list (Hist, de TAst. Mod,), in Canis Major, 
for x— o read «— o. The title of the last map is presumed 
by us, as the only copy of the first edition wo know of docs 
not contain it, and tho succeeding editions have no letter- 
press, The constellations in Italics are those of which a 
front view is presented, of which wo shall presently speak. 

In this first edition, the letter-press is on the hack of the 
plates. It contains, in addition to what has been noticed, 
the various names of the constellations and single stars, 
together with the planets with which they were supposed to 
have astrological allinitics. 

In order to restore, as ho supposed, the sphere of Ptolemy, 
Bayer has inverted many of the constellations, and made 
them turn their backs ; and this he has done upon an ecliptic 
and equator so disposed as to place the spectator inside. 
The state of the question is tint/ it is pretty clear either 
that Ptolemy imagined himself on tho outsido of tho globe, 
looking on the backs of the constellations, or in the inside, 
looking on the fronts ; for neither of the two remaining sup- 
positions will place those stars on the right or left arms,&c, 
which Ptolemy places there. The alternative might bo 
easily settled by remarking whether the stars in tho body 
are placed in the front or back ; but, unfortunately, Ptolemy 
generally refers them to some part of tho dress or arms 
which has both back and front, such as the belt of Orion ; 
but in the few instances which arc tests, Ptolemy always 
names the back, tho only exception we know of being a star 
in Virgo, which is said to be in the front face (:rp<Wiro>>), 
which may be reconciled with tho rest by supposing the 
back of a figure with the face turned sideways. Therefore, 
to represent Ptolemy completely, an outside of a sphere, or 
part of a sphere, must be drawn ; and on an inside sphero 
there is only the choice of ehanging left into right, and vice 
versa, by drawing backs, or backs into fronts, and vice vend, 
by drawing fronts. Bayer has chosen the first, with the 
exceptions noted in italics in the preceding list, for which ho 
has been blamed by Schick a rd, Bartsch, Hevelius, Flam- 
stecd, and others* but, singularly enough, he has not car- 
ried his own system through ; for Andromeda, of which ho 
has represented tho face, is precisely one of those signs in 
which a crucial word is found in Ptolemy, who places one 
star between the shoulders (h> rf /urn^ptvy). Flainstecd 
cuts the knot by assuring us that v&rov and puT&$pivov. 
which vulgar scholars iinagino to mean 4 thc back/ and 
* the part of the back between tho shoulders/ sometimes 
mean * the front' and 4 the chest/ in proof of which he 
brings his own conviction, that Homer and others must in 
some places havo adopted these senses. Montucla, with 
great probability, conjectures that Bay or intended to draw a 
convex sphere, but overlooked, or was ignorant of, the 
proper method of inverting tbc figures on the copper. 

Circumstances which wo shall have to mention in Flam 
stekd mako it worth while to give tho preceding detail* 
The rest of tho history of Bayer's work is as follows :— Ir 
1627, Julius Schiller published at Augsburg his C&ltim 
Sf citatum Christian urn, Sec. sociali operd J. Baycri, Sec. 
Ura n omet riatn novam priore accu rat iorcm locuptetio- 
remque suppeditantis. This was an attempt to ehaugc the 
names of tho constellations into others derived from tho 
Scriptures; as, for instance, calling tho twelve signs of the 
zodiac after the apostles, &c The northern constellations 
wero taken from tho New Testament and tho southern from 
the Old. Schiller's account is as follows : that Bayer, having 
laid down the positions of the stars, left all the rest to Schiller, 
but died before the whole (and Ursa Minor in particular) 
was completed, and without having time to finish some as-. 
tronomical Prolegomena; that the new Uranometry of Bayer 



BAY 



67 



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differed from the old in the number and positions of the 
stars, which he had altered, as well from many nights* ob- 
servations of his own (whether of positions or of magnitudes 
is not stated), as from various books which he had found; 
and that, for this reason, he (Bayer) was anxious that tbe 
old Uranometry should never be republished. These maps 
also represented tbe eonvex side of the sphere, that men 
might see the fronts of these Christian constellations, it being 
judged indecorous tbat the apostles should turn their backs. 
Thus we see that Bayer committed a mistake again, as far 
as Ptolemy's sphere is concerned. He should have drawn 
the inside or concave of the sphere, in turning the fronts 
towards the spectator. This work of Schiller's is also men- 
tioned by Ga>sendi as follows: ' Ccelum Christianum a 
J. Bayero affectum, et a Julio Schillero eonfectum.' (Gass. 
Vit, Peir, in a?in. 1628.) It is remarkable that, in this edi- 
tion, Bayer has abandoned his letters and taken numbers, 
either of his own or from Ptolemy. The plates are remark- 
ably well exeeuted for the period, and the grouping of the 
constellations is strikingly beautiful, but the stars are almost 
lost in the shading. 

Schiller states, that a surreptitious edition of Bayer was 
offered for sale at Frankfort lair in autumn, 1G24; which, 
by moans of the words nova methodo detineata, was made 
to pass for the expected edition of 1G27, that is Schillcrs 
own ; but it was struck from the same plates as that of 
1G03, and therefore probably eould not be distinguished 
from the subsequent editions. 

The second edition of the Uranomeiria (plates only, and 
without letter-press) was printed at Ulm in 1G48, and the 
third (plates ouly) at Ulm in 16GG. In the meanwhile, the 
letter-press of the first edition, with additions, had been 
printed under the following elumsy title : Explicutio Cha- 
racterum ameis Uranometrias Imaginum Tahulis inscufp- 
torum addiia. First edition, Strasburg, 1G24 ; second, Ulm, 
1640; third, Augsburg, 1G54; fourth, Ulm, 1697. 

BAYE R, GOTTLIEB (THEOPHILUS) SIEGFRIED, 
grandson of John Bayer the astronomer, was born at 
Kamigsberg in 1604. lie applied zealously to the sfudy 
of the Oriental languages under the tuition of Abraham 
Wolf, and of some learned Rabbis : he also took a peculiar 
interest in the study of the Chinese language. After tra- 
velling in various parts of Germany for his improvement, 
he returned to Kcenigsherg in 1717, when he was appointed 
librarian to the University. In 172G lib was called to 
Petersburg to fill the chair of Greek and Roman Antiqui- 
ties, and was there much noticed by the minister, Count 
Ostennann, and by the Bishop of Novogorod. His health 
bceame much impaired by intense study, and he died in 
February, 1738. lie wrote numerous works, some of 
which are printed separately; others are inserted in the 
Memoirs of the Academy o/ Petersburg and in the Acta 
lirxtdi torum ; and some were left at his death in MS. Of 
those that have been published separately the principal are : 
1. Museum SMicum, 2 vols. 8vo. Petersburg, 1730. The 
greater part of the first volume is occupied by an interesting 
preface, in which the author recapitulates the labours of 
those who preceded him in the field of Chinese literature ; 
this is followed by a general Chinese grammar j and by a 
grammar of the popular Chinese dialect of the province of 
Chin Cheu, which, he says, differs but little from the lan- 
guage of the learned or maudarins. This is followed by a 
letter from some missionaries at Tranquebar, concerning 
the Tamul language. The second volume eontains a Chi- 
nese Lexicon, extracts from several Chinese works, a com- 
mentary on the Siao ul lun, or Origincs Sinicao, a treatise 
on Chineso chronology ; and another on the weights and 
measures of the Chinese. The plates of the Chinese cha- 
racters in this work are said (Kiographie Universelle) to 
be badly executed. 2. De II oris Sinicis et Cyclo Horario 
Cowmen tat tones, 4to. Petersburg, 1735. 3. Historia Os- 
rfricna et Edessena e.v numis ill ustrata, 4 to. 1734, Bio g, 
Univ. This work, which he dedicated to Joseph Simonius 
Assemani, is much esteemed. 4. Historia Rfigni Greecorum 
Itactriani, 1738. [See Bactria.] 5. De Nummis Romanis 
in a%ro Prussico repertis. G. De Eclipsi Sinica liber sin- 
trufari*, in which he examines and eonfutes the Chinese 
account of a total eclipse, which a Jesuit asserted to have 
occurred at the time of our Saviour s death. (See Weidler, 
p. 171.) Of his scattered dissertations, some are on the 
Monzd, Tangutinn, and Brahmanic languages: one is 
d? Bl^i/t»h.'if Othnurjris; another on sonic books in an 
unknown lan£u?»ge, found near *Le banks of tho Caspian 



Sea; one is a translation from Confucius; and another, 
De Inscriplionibus ludmorum Gr&cis et Latinis, &c. He 
wrote also Historia Congregalionis Cardinalium de Pro* 
paganda fide, 4 to., 1721, giving an aceount of that cele- 
brated institution, in which, however, he displayed some- 
what of a prejudiced spirit and sectarian intolerance. He 
himself afterwards, writing to Lacroze, said that he was not 
altogether satisfied with his work, and that he intended to 
make more accurate researches on the subject. His Opus- 
cula, which treat of several topics of erudition, were pub- 
lished by KJotz, 8vo., Halle, 1770, with a biography of 
Bayer. There is also a life of Bayer in the Bibliotheque 
Germanique, vol. 1., from which Chanfepie" has taken his 
account of that writer in the Nouveau Dictionnaire His- 
torique. 

BAYEUX, a town in the department of Calvados, in 
France, 17 miles W. by N. of Caen, the capital of the de- 
partment, and 151 miles in the same direction from Paris, 
49° 1 7' N. lat., 0° 44' W. long. It is on the little river Aure, 
and only about 5 or 6 miles from the coast. 

In the earliest times this place was a chief seat of the 
Druids. After the Roman eonquest, if not before, it appears 
to have borne the name of Artegenus, and subsequently that 
of Baiocasses (from the people whose capital it was), and 
by contraction, Baioeas, and Baiocas. From these latter 
forms, Bayeux, its modern name, has sprung. Roman relics, 
vases, statues, and medals, have been dug up inconsiderable 
numbers. Under the kings of France, of the Merovingian 
and Carlovingian races, the town wasof considerable import- 
ance, and it had a mint. Bayeux was destroyed by the 
Normans, and rebuilt and peopled by them. The dukes of 
Normandy regarded it as the second plaee in their dueby, 
and had a palace here. It was however pillaged and burned 
by Henry I. of England, in the beginning of his reign. It 
suffered severely in the invasions of France by Edward III. 
and Henry V., as well as in the religious wars of the sixteenth 
century. The bishopric was erected in the fourth century, as 
it is believed ; and the bishops claimed, on aceount of the an- 
tiquity of the see, superiority over the other bishops of the 
ecclesiastical province of Neustria, or Normandy: but the 
popes, to whom, in 1581, the question was referred, did not 
allow their superiority ; without however, so far as appears, 
disputing the faet (the early origin of the see) on which 
the elaim was grounded. 

The town is old, and ill built, with the exception of one 
food street. The houses are ebietly of wood and plaster, but 
some are of stone. The antient cathedral is the oldest place 
of worship in Normandy. It is in the form of a cross, with 
pointed arches and two spire-erowned towers of unequal 
height at the western end, and a eentral tower, which is infe- 
rior to the two western towers in height. These towers are of 
inferior architecture. ' The end spires,' says Dr. Dibdin, ' are 
rather lofty than elegant ; in truth they are, in respect to 
form and ornament, about as sorry performances as ean be 
seen/ There are five porches at the western end, the central 
one rather large, the two on each side comparatively small. 
They were formerly covered with sculptured figures, but the 
Calvinists in the sixteenth century, and the Revolutionists 
in the eighteenth, have much mutilated and defaced them.* 
The interior of the cathedral is plain, solid, and rather bare 
of ornament. Dr. Ducarel, who visited it in 1 752, says that it 
was not adorned with any statues or other ornaments, and 
that the pictures and painted glass were very indifferent. 
The walls and ehapels of the ehoir were once covered with 
large fresco paintings, now nearly obliterated. In each side 
of the nave are ricbly-ornamented arches, springing from 
massive single pillars. The ehoir is rather fine, and the 
Hying buttresses of the exterior of the nave are admirable. 
The lead was stripped from part of the roof during the 
revolution for the purpose of making bullets, and the build- 
ing in consequence exhibits indications of decay. There 
is a erypt or subterraneous ehapel, the walls of which are 
covered with paintings, some probably of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, and some still older. The extreme length of the 
interior is about 315 English feet hy 81 feet high, and about 
103 feet wide. The transepts are about 120 feet long, by 35 
feet wide. The cathedral, after being twice or thrice rebuilt 
by the Normans, was erected in its present form (except 
one of the western towers, and some other parts evidently of 
later origin) by Philip de Harcourt.who held the see in the 
middle of the twelfth century: but it seems doubtful whether 
some part does not belong to the earlier edifice erected by 
bishop Odo, brother of William the Conqueror. The chapter- 

K. 2 



BAY 



G3 



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library consists of 5000 volumes, the remains of a much 
larger collection, winch, having been kept shut up in the 
chapter- house for ten years during tho revolution, was in a 
great degree spoiled by the wet, which penetrated to thein 
after the roof of the chapter-house had been stripped of in* 
lead. There are now four ehurches ; before the revolution, 
there were in Bayeux and its suburbs fourteen, or, accord- 
ing to others, eighteen parish churches, two priories, three 
convents for men, and four for womeu : the bishopric was 
very rich. 

1'he chief articles of trado at Bayeux are eloth, linen, 
serge, hosiery, and other woven fabrics, grain, hemp, cider, 
and especially butter and lace; tho best butter is made 
during winter and spring, put up into small pots, and car- 
ried in largo panniers to tho adjacent parts of tho country, 
and even to Paris. It is shipped also in large quantities to 
tho French colonies. About three thousand females are 
constantly employed in tho manufacture of lace. Hats, 
stout muslins, and especially porcelain, are also manufac- 
tured here. The population, in 1832, was 9954 for the 
town, or 10,303 for the whole commune. 
. Bayoux possesses a college or high sehool, of considerable 
reputation; there is a tribunal de commerce: a building 
formerly occupied by the Lazarists as a seminary for the 
clergy, is now used asabarraek. Bayeux is thocapital of an 
arrondissement containing 390 square miles, or 249,600 
acres ; the population, in 1832, was 80,414. Thero aro se- 
veral paper-mills in the arrondissement. 

Bayeux was, according to some, the native plaee of Alain 
Chartier, one of the old French poets, who lived early in the 
fifteenth century. 

The country of Bessin, ofwbieh Bayeux was the capital, 
was a subdivision of Normandy. It is productive in apples, 
from whieh the inhabitants make a great quantity of cider, 
partly for home consumption, partly to be sent to Rouen 
and Paris. Towards the sea there is some rich pasture 
land ; but the district generally is not fertile. Slate is quar- 
ried in several plaees; poultry and game, especially quails 
and red-legged partridges, are plentiful ; and butter forms 
a considerable article of trade, as already noticed. Fish is 
also abundant, and tbo shad, tho sole, and the oysters of 
the river Vire, are in good repute. The forest of Orisy, the 
largest in the territory, shelters the wild boar, and nume- 
rous foxes. The churches of the district are remarkable for 
their handsome steeples. 

BAYEUX TAPESTRY, a web or roll of linen cloth or 
canvass, preserved at Bayeux in Normandy, upon which a 
continuous representation of the events connected with tho 
invasion and eonquest of England by tho Normans is 
worked in woollen thread of di fie rent colours, in the form of 
a sampler. It is twenty inches wide, and two hundred and 
fourteen feet long; and is divided into seventy-two com- 
partments, each bearing a superscription in Latin which indi- 
cates its subject, or the person or persons represented. It is 
edged on its upper, as well as its lower part, by a border re- 
presenting ehielly quadrupeds, birds, sphinxes, minotaurs, 
and other similar subjects. 

Attention was first directed to this singular monument by 
M. l^ncelot, in a memoir presented to the Aeademy of In- 
scriptions and Belles Lcttres, in 1724, in eonsequence of his 
discovering an illuminated drawing from a portion of it, 
among the manuscripts in the library of M. Foucault, who 
had been Intcndant of Normandy. At the time of finding 
it he did not know what it actually represented ; whether 
the original was a seulpturc round the choir of a church, 
upon a tomb, or on a frieze ; whether it was a painting in 
fresco, or on glass ; or, lastly, whether it might not be a 
tapestry. He saw that it was historical, and that it related to 
A\ illiam Duke of Normandy and the conquest of England ; 
and he wrote to Caen respecting it, but got no information. 

Pore Montfaucon, upon reading I^ancclot's memoir, .saw 
tho value of this curious representation, and left no stone 
unturned till he had discovered the original. He wrote 
to Caen and Bayeux, and sent a copy of tho drawing for 
inspection, when, at last, the canons of Bayeux reeognized 
it as a portion of the tapestry in their possession, which 
tradition said had been worked by, or under the super- 
intendence of, Matilda, the Conqueror's queen, which bho 
had herself given to tho eathcdral, of whieh Odo, the Con- 
queror s half-brother, was bishop, and which they, thceanons 
of Bayeux, were aeeustomed to exhibit to tho Inhabitants of 
the city, in the nave of their church, at a particular season 
of the year. M. Lancelot, in a second memoir, says it was 



at that time traditionally railed la Toilette de Due Gvil- 
laume. Montfaucon sent an able artist, of the name of An- 
ionic Bcntiit, to copy it ; and at the opening of the second 
volume of his Monument de fa Monarchic Francoise, pub- 
lished in 1730, engraved the whole in a reduced form, ac- 
companied with a commentary upon the l^tin inscriptions, 
which, throughout, explain the intention of the figures re- 
presented in tho different compartments. 

M. 1-ancclot, upon the publication of the tapestry by Mont- 
faucon, sent a second memoir to the Academy of Inscrip- 
tion and Belles Lcttres (as has been just mentioned), which 
was read in 1730, and published in tho same year, in the 
eighth volume of their transactions, in which he states that 
the earliest mention of this tapestry among the archives of 
the cathedral is in an inventory of jewels and ornaments 
belonging to the church, taken in 14 76, where it is eallcd 
1 uno tente tres longue et 6troite de tello a broderie de 
y mages et eserpteaulx faisans representation du conquest 
d*Angleterre, laquellc est tend ue environ la nef do l'Eglibe 
le jour ct par les octaves des reliques.* 

Dr. Ducarcl is the next who gives us an aeeount of this 
tapestry, in the appendix to his Anglo-Norman Antiquities 
(folio, London, 1767), where he has printed an elaborate 
description of it, whieh had been drawn up some years 
before, during a residence in Normandy, by Smart Lc- 
thieullier, Esq., an able English antiquary. Duearel tells us 
that when he was in Normandy it was annually hung up ov 
St. John's day, and wpnt exaetly round the nave of tho 
church, where it continued eight days. At all other times 
it was carefully kept loeked up in a strong wainscot press in 
a chapel ou the south side of the cathedral. 

From this time till the autumn of 1803, it received but 
little further notice, when Bonaparte, then First Consul of 
France, contemplating the immediate invasion of England, 
ordered it to be brought from Bayeux to the National Mu- 
seum at Paris, where it was deposited during some months 
for public inspection. The First Consul himself went to see 
il, and affected to be struck with that particular part which 
represents Harold on his throne at the moment when he was 
alarmed at the appcaranee of a meteor which presaged his 
defeat: affording an opportunity for the inference that tho 
meteor which had then been lately seen in the south oi 
France was the presage of a similar event. {Gentleman s 
Magazine* 1830, vol. lxiii., pt. ii. p. U36.) The exhibition 
was popular; so much so, that a small dramatic piece was 
got up at the Theatre du Vaudoville, entitled La Tapt'sseric 
de la "fine Mathilde, in which Matilda, who bad retired to 
herunele Roger during the eontest, was represented passing 
her time with her women in embroidering the exploits of 
her husband,^ never leaving their work, exeept to put up 
prayers for his success. (Millin, Mrgazin lincyclopcdiquc, 
1803, torn. iv. p. 541.) After having been exhibited in 
Paris, and in one or two large towne, the tapestry was re- 
turned to Bayeux, and lodged with the municipality. Mr. 
Dawson Turner, in his Tour in Normandy, written in IS 18, 
says, the bishop and chapter of Bayeux nad then recently 
applied to the government for the tapestry to be restored lo 
their eathedraU but without effect. {Tour in Normandy, 
8vo. Lond. 1820, vol. ii. p. 242.) 

It was most fortunate that this curious monument escaped 
destruction during the Revolution. Its surrender at that 
time was demanded for the purpose of covering the guns: 
a priest, however, succeeded in concealing and preserving it 
from destruction. 

The new degree of publicity given to the tapestry by its 
exposure in the Freneh capital, again made it a subject of 
diseussion ; and the Abbe* de la Rue, professor of history in 
the Academy of Caen, endeavoured, in a memoir, afterwards 
translated by Franeis Donee, Eso,. and printed in tho seven- 
teenth volume of the Archceologxa of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, to show that a mistake had been committed by 
tradition in tho selection of tho Matilda, and that its origin 
ought not to have been aseribed to Matilda the Conqueror's 
queen, but to Matilda tho empress, tho daughter of King 
Henry I. 

The next memoir on this curious-subject is comprised in a 
short loiter from Mr. Hudson Gnrney, printed in the 
eighteenth volume of the Archrrologiatwho saw the tapestry 
at Bayeux in' 1814, whero it then went by tho appellation of 
the Toile de St, Jean, which is explained by what Duearel has 
said, that it was formerly exhibited upon St, John's day. 
Lancelot, Montfaucon, Ducarcl, and Do la Rue, appear ail 
to have considered tho tapestry as a monument of the Con- 



BAY 



69 



BAY 



quest of England, intended to have been 'continued to 
Duke William's coronation, but from some cause or other 
left unfinished. Mr. Gurney considered it to be an apolo- 
getieal history of the claims of William to the crown of 
England, and of the breach of faith and fall of Harold ; and 
that, as it stands, it contains a perfect and finished action. 

In the mean time, the Society of Antiquaries in 1816 
despatched an excellent and accurate artist, Mr. Charles 
Stothard, to Bayeux, who in that and the succeeding year 
brought home a perfect fac-siraile of the tapestry ; the draw- 
ings of which have been si nee engraved, coloured like the 
original, and published in the sixth volume of the Vetusta 
Monumenta, plate i. to xvii. 

The appearance of the first portion of Mr. StothanTs draw- 
ings gave rise to some Observations from Mr. Amyot, in re- 
futation of an historical fact which the tapestry had been 
supposed to establish : namely, that of Harold's mission to 
Normandy by the Confessor to offer the succession to Wil- 
liam. (Ardiaol. vol. xix. p. 88.) These were followed by 
C. Stothard's own observations while at Bayeux, pointing out 
such circumstances as presented themselves to his notice 
during the minute investigation to which the tapestry was 
necessarily subjected (Ibid. vol. xix. p. 184), and again fol- 
lowed hyA Defence of the early antiquity of the Tapestiij, 
by Mr. Amyot (Ibid, p. 192), in which the objections raised 
by the Abbe de la Rue against the tradition which made 
the tapestry co-eval with the events it celebrates, are com- 
pletely invalidated. The last account of this tapestry is in 
Mrs. Stothard's Letters from Normandy, 4to. Lond. 1820, 
let. xi. pp. 121-134 ; except a brief notice of ft in Dibdin*s 
Bibliographical Tour, Svo. Lond. 1821, vol. i. pp. 375-391. 

The work begins with the figure of a king seated upon 
his throne, who is addressing one of two persons standing by 
his side : the inscription is simply ' kdwaru rex.* It ap- 
pears to be Harold taking leave. We next see Harold pro- 
ceeding to Boseham attended by several followers ; he carries 
a hawk upon his fiat, at that time the distinguishing mark of 
nobility; his dogs are running before him: ' mi iiarold 

DVX ANGLORVM ET SVI MIL1TES EQVITANT AD BOSHAM." 

A church is then represented, in front of which are two men 
who appear about to enter: above is the word * ecclesia.* 
This church is Boseham in Sussex. The party next appear 
feasting at a tablo in a house, previous to their embarkation. 
Some persona are descending the steps from the apartment 
where they have been dining; others are embarking in four 
vessels. Harold enters first, still bearing the hawk and 
carrying a dog under his arm. These last-mentioned 
figures are wading through the water, naked from the waist 
downwards : * hic harold make navigavit et velis 

VKNTO PLENIS VENIT IN TERRAM WIDON1S COMITIS.' The 

last of tlie four vessels next appears anchoring in France, 
Harold standing at the prow: his name 'iiarold* above. 
Three figures are then represented upon land; one of them 
is Harold in the act of being seized by order of Guy Earl of 
Ponthieu, who is on horseback, followed by his people : * Hie 

APPKKHENDIT WIDO IIAROLDVM ET DVX1T EVM AD nELREM 

et iui evm tenvit.* Harold and Guy are next seen 
mounted upon their horses, and attended both by Saxon and 
Norman soldiers. The Saxons are distinguished by wear- 
ing mustaehios; the Normans have none. Harold and Guy 
appear in conversation, * vm harold et wido paraho- 
lant :* when messengers arrive from William Duke of Nor- 
mandy to the Karl of Ponthieu * vbi nvntii wij.iklmi dv- 
cis venervnt ad wiDONKM.' Between the Earl of Ponthieu 
who is seated, and his guards who receive the messengers, 
a tree divides tho subject, as other trees, in like manner, 
divide all the principal events throughout tho work. A 
dwarf, with the name of 'tvrold* above, holds the horses 
of Duke William's messengers. William's messengers are 
again represented on horseback, bearing shields ; 'nvntii 
wiliklmi.' Next is a Saxon messenger mustached, kneel- 
ing to William on his dueal seat: ' hic venit nvncivs ad 
• wilgklmvm dvcem.* Guy is seen immediately after, con- 
ducting Harold to the duke: * hic wido addvxit harol- 
dvm ad wilgelmvm normannorvm dvcem.* "William 
meets them, and returns with Harold to his palace : * hic 

DUXVflLGKLM CVM HAROLDO VENIT AD PALATIUM SVVM.' 

We have then a female figuro within tho door of a church, 
and a priest, and beneath them tho words ' vnvs clericvs 
et ^lfqwa.* Mr. Douce says. evidently Adeliza, AVil- 
liam's daughter, who was affianced to Harold. The next 
event is William's warfare with Conan Earl of Bretagne, 
in which it is apparent Iiarold assisted and rendered essen- 



tial service to the Norman" party : ' mc willem dvx et 

EXERCITVS EIVS VENERVNT AD MONTEM M1CUAKL1S.' Sol 

diers, mounted on horseback, arrive at Mount St. Miehael 
and pass the river Cosno: 'et hictransikrvntflvmencos- 
nonis* et venervnt ad dol.* Harold is depleted among 
them, assisting some persons who had fallen into the quick- 
sands while passing the river:* hic harold dvx trahe- 
bat eos de arena.* We have then the words * et conan 
fvga vkrtit.* Conan is seen escaping from Dol and descend- 
ing tho walls by a rope. Troops are fiying and approach 
Rennes : *rednes/ The Norman soldiers are next em- 
ployed in attacking Dinant : * hic militks wii.lelmi 
dvcis pvgnant contra din antes/ Conan delivers up 
to them the keys of the town, which they sueeced in taking : 
*et cvnan claves porrexit. After this event William 
rewards the services of Harold by giving him a suit of ar- 
mour: *HIC WILLELM DEDIT HAROLDO ARMA.* William 

and his party then arrive at Bayeux: * hic willelm yen it 
baoias.* It is said that William, in order to secure to him- 
self the succession of the Saxon throne, without having 
Harold for a competitor, caused him to take a solemn vow 
that he would never attempt the possession of the English 
crown : this vow he obliged Harold (then within his power) 
to make upon a covered altar, beneath which William had 
placed tho most saered and precious relies. No sooner had 
Harold sworn the oath, than the Norman duke uncovered 
the altar, and showing him by what sacred things he had 
vowed, enforced upon his mind the blasphemy he would 
be guilty of, if he ever attempted the violation of his oath. 
Harold is represented taking the oatn, while standing 
between two covered altars* * vbi harold sacramentvm 
fecit willelmo dvci.* Harold next embarks for England : 

*H1C HAltOLD DVX REVER3VS EST AD ANGLICAN TERRAM 

et venit ad edwardvm keoem;* and is immediately after 
represented as relating the events of his journey to the 
Saxon king. t 

The next subject is the death and funeral of Edward the 
Confessor. The funeral procession comes first: ' Hic 

PORTATVR CORPVS EADWARD1 REGIS AD ECCLESIAM PETRI 

apostoli.' The king is then represented in his bed, giving 
his last directions to the officers of his eourt: his wile 
Editha weeping by his side: * uic eadwardvs rex 
alloqvit fidelks.' Beneath he is represented dead and 
laid out: 'et iiic defvnctvs est.* Tho next subject is 
the crown offered to Harold by the people: ' mc dede- 
rvnt haroldo couona ii regis.* Harold then appears 
upon his throne, Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury, at 
his side: * hic residet harold rex anglorvm. sti- 
gant archiepiscopvs.' The subject that follows is the 
appearanee of a comet, at which the people are gazing : 
* iSTi mir ant stellam.* Harold is seen below it, listening 
to a person who has approached him : his name above, 
'harold.* Boats are represented in the border beneath. 
The next subject which the tapestry represents is a ship, 
bringing to William the news of Harold's having assumed 
the English crown : 'hic navis anglica venit in teu- 
ram willelmi dvcis.* William and his half-brother, Odo 
bishop of Bayeux (distinguishable by the tonsure), appear 
consulting together and giving orders that ships should be 
built for the purposed invasion of England : * hic willelm 
dvx ivssit naves EDiFiCARE.* Accordingly several per- 
sons are next represented as employed in cutting down 
trees ; carpenters are constructing vessels, and others draw 
them into the sea: 'hic trahvnt naves ad mare/ The 
embarkation of the Normans forms the*sueeeeding subject; 
they carry with them on board the ships wine, arms, and 
provisions: *isti poutant armas ad navks et trahvnt 
carrvm cvm vino et armis.* William going to his own 
vessel is next represented : * hic willelm dvx in magno 
navigio.* Numerous ships are then seen passing the sea, 
loaded with troops and horses, and William arrives in 
Pevensey bay (his own vessel known by tho figure of a boy 
holding a pennon at the stern; it bears a lantern at the 
mast): *mare transivit et venit ad vevhsksm." The 
troops and horses next appear disembarking : they pro- 
ceed to Hastings, where they seize provisions : * mc 

EXEVNT CABALLI DE NAVinVS ET HIC MIL1TES FESTI- 
NAVERVNT HASTINGA VT CIBVM RAPEREISTVR. , A figure 

on horseback, bearing a pennon at the end of his lance, 
is here distinguished by the words * hic est wadard. 
The Normans are now busied in cooking meats and regal- 
ing themselves: * hic coqvitvr caro et iuc minis- 

TRAYERYNT MINISTRK HIC FECERVNT PRAND1VM.' TllO 



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70 



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seldicin dine upon their shields. Odo seated at a table, 
with William on his right hand, bestows his benediction 
on tho vuuuU : 'kt imc episcopv.i cirvm kt potvm 
nKMDiciT.* William, with Odo and Robert Earl of 
Mortaigne, are seated under a canopy: 'odo episcopvs. 
vjllhlm. ROTnKBTVS.* A figure earrj ing a pennon then ap- 
pear* giving orders that the army should encamp at Hastings: 

' tSTl IVSMT VT FODERKTVR CASTBLLVM AT IIESTKNGA.' 

The camp forming: 'crastra,* William appears directing 
tho building of a cnstlo. The nows is then brought to 
William that Harold is advancing to oppose the Normans ; 
William on a raised scat : ' mc nvntiatvm est willeL- 
Mo db uarold.* Two Normans setting fire to a house; 
a woman and child escaping from it: Mnc domvs inckn- 
ditvr.' The soldiers or William lcavo Hastings to meet 
Harold in the field; and the duke now, for the first time 
since his arrival, appears in armour: the march of the horse- 
men : ' uic milites exiertnt db hestenoa et ybnkrvnt 
ad prkuvm contra iiAROLDvw RKGRM.* Odo is repre- 
sented bearing a mace, but preceded by William on horse- 
baek with a club, who interrogates Vitalis, an individual of 
his army, also on horseback, whether ho has seen Harold's 
forces: willelm dvx intkrrooat vital, si vidisskt 
exercitvm uaroldi/ Harold also receives information 
relative to William's force: *istr nvntiat iiaroldvm db 
exkrcitv willklmi dvcis.' William then addresses his 
soldiers, who arc proceeding onward to tho battlo: hic wil- 

LELM DVX ALLOQV1TVR SVIS M1LIT1RVS VT PRKPAHARENT 
SK V1R1LITKII ET SAP1BNTBR AD PRBLIVM CONTRA ANGLO- 

rvii exercitvm/ Tho Normans approach, mostly on 
horsebaek, but intermixed with archers on foot. The 
battle now ensues, in which the Saxons are chiefly on foot, 
their shields distinguished from those of the Normans by 
being usually round with a boss in the eentre. Lewine 
and Gyrth, the brothers of Harold, aro slain : * hic cecidk- 

RVNT LBWINE ET GYRTH FRATRES I1AROLDI REGIS.' The 

obstinacy of the contest is next represented : 'hic ckcide- 

KVNT SIMVL ANOLI ET FRANCI IN PRELIO.* Odo is ttOW 

represented eharging full speed and striking at a horseman 
with a elub or raaee : 'hic odo episcopvs bacvlvm te- 
nens confortat PVBRos/ This probably means that 
Odo had to encourage the troops, upon a report that Wil- 
Jiam was slain. The battlo continues : • uic est willklm 
dvx.* The duke appears showing himself and giving 
orders: *hic franci pvonant etckcidervnt qvi erant 
cvm haroldo/ The death of Harold, the standard carried 
before whom appears to be a dragon. Wo have then the dis- 
comfiture and flight of the Saxons. Here the tapestry ends 
with figures of persons retreating in great haste ; not com- 
plete in its ornamental work, but, in all probability, complete 
in its history. 

This extraordinary piece of needle-work, for such it is, 
though called tapestry, is now preserved in the hotel of the 
prefecture at Bayeux, coiled round a machine, like that 
which lets down tho buckets of a well, and is exhibited by 
being drawn out at leisure over a table. The plates of 
it, published by the Society of Antiquaries, in the fourth 
volume of tho Fetusta Mmumenta, will enable any one to 
form a very aceurato notion of its actual appearance. 
Plato* i. to xvi. represent the whole, one-fourth size of the 
original. The xviith plate gives a portion of the true size. 
Dibriin, in his Bibliographical Tour* vol. i. p. 377, has 
engraved a view of it upon its machine. 

It was long sin co decided by the French antiquaries, that 
this work is of the age of the Conquest The Abbe do la 
Rue, alone, still maintains that it was executed in tho'tlme 
of our Henry the First. Those persons, however, among the 
English antiquaries, whose particular learning and know- 
ledge render them eomnctent judges of tho authenticity of 
this tapestry, unite in the eonviction that its own internal 
evidence corroborates the anticnt tradition which the 
French antiquaries adopted. It represents the minutest 
manners andeustomsof the earliest Norman times in Eng- 
land ; and was evidently designed while tho particulars of tho 
contest were known and fresh in recollection. It embraces 
several events ofwhich no other record now exists: amongst 
which may bo noticed the taking of Dinant, and tho war be- 
tween the Duke of Normandy and Conan Karl of Bretagnc. 
Nor docs any other notice exist of the service rendered by 
Harold to duko William, during his war in Britany. It is 
not a little reraarkablo too, that in the compartment which 
represents tho funeral procession of Edward the Confessor, 
a figure is portrayed placing a weathercock upon tho spire I 



of Westminster abbey, indicating that the building wa* 
scarcclv finished at the time of his decease. Ducarcl, as wo 
have afieady mentioned, says, that tins tapestry, when exhi- 
bited at Bayeux, went exactly round thu nave of the church. 

Odo, it is to bo remarked, makes the most conspicuous ap- 
pearance, next to Duke William, of any Norman personage 
represented in the tapestry ; and three figures, IVudanl^ 
lirold, and Fital, apparently unimportant personages, 
wero really among the chief of thoso whom Oao brought 
into the field. Wodard and Vitalis, with the son of a person 
named Turold, aro recorded, twenty years after the conquest, 
among the under-tenants of Odo, as persons rewarded with 
lands, in the Domesday Survey. Wadard held property 
under the bishop in no fewer than six counties; Vitalis 
held lands under Odo in Kent; and the son of Turold in 
Essex. (Ellis's Introduction and Indices to Domesday, 
vol. ii. p. 403.) These circumstances cannot but appear 
convincing, not only that the tapestry is of the age assigned 
to it by tradition, ami was worked expressly for the bishop's 
cathedral ; but that, in all probability, it was a present from 
Matilda the conqueror's queen, as a grateful memorial of 
the effective scrviee which Odo had rendered in the conquest. 

BAYLE, PETER, an eminent critic and controversial 
writer of the seventeenth ecntury, was born at Carlat, No- 
vember 18, 1647, in the Cora to* dc Foix, in France. Of his 
early lifewe shall only state, that he displayed great aptitude 
for learning, and an uncommon passion for reading, and 
that his education was commenced under the care of his 
father, the Protestant minister of Carlat, continued at the 
Protestant University of Puylaurcns, where he studied from 
February. 1GCG, to February, 1GG9, and concluded at the 
Catholie University of Toulouse. He had not been there 
more than a month when he made publie profession of tho 
Roman Catholie religion, to which, it is said, he was con- 
verted by the free perusal of controversial divinity at Puy- 
laurens. It would seem that his creed was lightly taken up, 
for, during his short residence at Toulouse, ho was recon- 
verted to Protestantism by the conversation of his Protestant 
connexions. Perhaps this faeility of belief in early life may 
have had some eflcct in producing the scepticism of his 
latter years. 

In August, 1G70, he made a secret abjuration of Catholi- 
cism, and immediately went to Geneva, where he formed an 
acquaintance with many eminent men, and especially con- 
tracted a close friendship with James Basnage and Minutoli. 
At Geneva and in the Pays do Vaud ho lived four years, sup- 
porting himself by private tuition. In 1674 he removed 
first to Rouen, and soon after to Paris. Tho treasures of 
the publie libraries, and the easy access to literary society, 
rendered that city agrecablo to him above all other plaees. 
He corresponded freely on literary subjects with his friend 
Basnage, then studying theology in the Protestant Univer- 
sity of Sedan, who showed tho letters to the theological 
professor, M. Jurieu. By these, and by the recommenda- 
tions of Basnage, Jurieu was induced to proposo their author 
as a proper person to fill the then vacant chair of philosophy, 
to which, after a public disputation, B;nlc was elected, No- 
vember C, 1675. For five years he seems to have been 
almost entirely occupied by the duties of his office. In the 
spring of 1G81, however, he found time to write his cele- 
brated letter on comets, in consequcneo of the appearance 
of the reinarkablo eomct of J6S0, which had excited great 
alarm among the superstitious and vulgar. But tho license 
for its publication being refused, it was not published till tho 
following year, after the authors removal to Rotterdam. 

In July, JG31, the University of Sedan, contrary to tho 
faith of treaties, was arbitrarily disfranchised by a decree of 
Louis XIV. Thus deprived of employment, Bayle fortu- 
nately obtained, through the agency of one of his pupils, a 
pension from the magistracy of Rotterdam, who were furiher 
induced to form a new establishment for education, in which 
Bayle was appointed profossor of history and philosophy, 
and Jurieu of theology. Bayle delivered his ftrst lecture in 
Deecml>er, 1G81. In the following spring tho letter on 
comets was anonymously printed ; but its author was soon 
discovered, and obtained a considerable incrcaso of reputa- 
tion. The reader will readily gather from the title (Lcttre 
. ♦ ♦ . on il est r>rottv& par plusiSurs raisons tircesde la 
Philosophic et T/tcologie* que les Cometes ne sont point Ic 
pre* sage d aucun malheur. Avec plusieurs rtft-exians mo- 
rales et politique*, et plusieurs observations his tort ques* ct 
la refutation de qttelquts erreurs papulaires) that it was 
composed quito as much for tho sake of the digressions and 



BAY 



71 



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incidental discussion of various points, as for that refutation 
of a popular superstition, which is its ostensible purpose. 
In the same spring (1682) he wrote an answer to Maim- 
bourg's Histoire du Caluinisme, a libellous misrepresenta- 
tion of the conduct of the French Protestant Church. (Cri- 
tique Generate de I Hist, du Calv. de M. Maimb,) This was 
composed iti a fortnight, during the Easter vacation. It 
met with great success, and having been condemned to be 
publicly burnt in Paris, was bought and read in that city 
with great avidity. 

We pass over some minor works to mention that in 1684 
Bayle commenced his Nouvettes de la Republique des 
Lettres. The notion of a literary journal was not new ; the 
Journal des Savans had been set on foot in Paris in 1665, 
and received with applause in Germany and Italy, as well as 
France. The Nouvelles were published monthly', beginning 
with March, 1684, and consisted of a series of reviews of 
sneh works as the editor thought worthy of special notice, 
and a list of new publications, with short remarks on them. 
In May the states of Fricsland offered to make Bayle pro- 
fessor of philosophy in the University of Franeker, but he 
declined the appointment, which was more lucrative than 
the one that he held. On completing the first year of the 
NouvellcSy Bayle affixed his name to the work, contrary to 
his usual practice, which was carefully to conceal the pa- 
rentage of all that he wrote. AVe may here state, that, 
whether from timidity, habitual love of secrecy, or the wish 
to leave himself at liberty to take either side of a question, 
Bayle generally employed the most elaborate devices of false 
dates and fictitious prefaces, to divert public suspicion from 
himself. These practices he carried to an extent, incon- 
sistent, as we think, with a candid and manly spirit. 

At this time men's minds were deeply steeped in the 
bitterness of political and religious dissension. The revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes, and persecution of the French 
Protestants, had raised a violent indignation ori the part of 
those who were banished for conscience-sake, and a strong 
sympathy in all Protestant countries for the sufferings of 
their brethren. Bayle expressed his feelings on this sub- 
ject with moderation in the Nouvelles ; but he made a bitter 
attack on the dominant church iu an anonymous publica- 
tion (Qe que c*est que la France toute Cdtholique sous le 
Regne de Louis le Grand), which he followed in the samo 
year, 1686, by a * Philosophical Commentary* on the words 
of St. Luke xiv. 23, ' Constrain them to come in.' In 
these two works he laboured to expose the atrocious conduct 
of the French government towards the Protestants, and the 
odious nature of persecution in general. The pains which 
Baylo bestowed upon this work, in addition to the fatiguing 
task of writing his Nouvelles t brought on an illness in tho 
spring of 1687, which incapacitated him for literary exertion 
during more than a vear, He was obliged to give up his 
periodical, which at his own request was continued, but 
under a different name (Histoire des Ouvrages des Spa- 
vans), by Henry Basnage, brother to his friend. Tho Nou~ 
velles, however, continued to be published by another hand. 

In 1690 there appeared a book, once celebrated, now for- 
gotten, entitled Avis Important aux Refugiez, $c. t contain- 
ing a violent attack on the doctrines and conduct of the 
French Protestants. This work Juricu, whose former 
friendship had long given way to jealousy of the reputation, 
or dislike of the opinions, real or suspected, of his colleague, 
chose to attribute, without any proof, to Bayle, upon whom 
he published a violent attack. (Examen dun hbelle inti- 
tule Avis Important \ $c.) Bayle retorted in La Cabale 
Chimerique, Rotterdam, 1691, followed by La Chi mere de 
la Cubale de Rotterdam dimontrie, tyc. It is not necessary 
to trace tho progress of the quarrel, which was marked by 
great asperity. The question whether Bayle was tho author 
of the Avis, <J*c, or not, a question deeply affecting his lite- 
rary integrity, can hardly be rejjardod as determined. 
Bayle always denied it. His friend and biographor, Des 
Maizeaux, seems nevertheless to disbelieve his assertions, 
and lias, hypotbetically, made a very lame defence on the 
supposition that he was the author. The piece is inserted 
in the collection of his miscellaneous works : there is, how- 
ever, no direct evidence whatever to prove that he wrote it 
but the assertions of the printer, and of a person who cor- 
rected the press, and said that the manuscript was in Bayle's 
writing. 

Whether Jurieu was right or wrong in his accusation, 
bis precipitate and violent conduct drew on him great dis- 
credit, especially at Geneva. But he possessed much in- 



fluence in Holland, which he employed in inducing the 
Consistory of Rotterdam to review his adversary's letter on 
comets, which they condemned as containing dangerous and 
antichristian doctrines. This was employed by the magis- 
tracy of Rotterdam as an excuse for depriving him of his 
pension and license to teach ; but the real cause, according 
to Des Maizeaux, was the express command of William III., 
who exercised an overpowering influence in that body, and 
who was led to believe that Bayle was deeply, engaged 
in advocating the views and wishes of the court of France. 
The injury thus done to our author was slight, for his habits 
were simple and unexpensive, and he rejoiced in being finally 
delivered from the labour of teaching, and left at liberty to 
attend to his chief work, the Dictionnaire Historique et Cri- 
tique, His first scheme in respect of this undertaking was 
to compose a dictionary, expressly to correct the errors of other 
dictionaries ; and he proceeded so for as to publish a specimen 
of the intended work (Prnjet et Fragmens dim Dictionnaire 
Critique). But this specimen not suiting the public taste, 
he altered his plan, and produced his dictionary in the form 
in which it now is. The composition of it, together with 
his paper warfare with Jurieu, engrossed his time until Au- 
gust, 1695, when the first volume appeared; the second 
volume, which completed the first edition, was printed in 
1696, but bears the date of 1697. It obtained great popu- 
larity, so that a second edition was soon called for; but it 
gave great offence to the religious, and incurred a public 
censure from ihe Consistory of Rotterdam. Five principal 
errors were alleged against it : — 1. The indecency visible in 
many passages ; 2. The tendency of the whole article on 
David ; 3 and 4. The support covertly given to the Mani- 
chcan doctrine of evil, and the sceptical tenets of the philo- 
sopher Pyrrhon ; 5. Too studious commendation of Epi- 
cureans and atheists, by which a tacit support was supposed 
to be given to their tenets. The author submitted to the 
authority of the church, and promised to amend the faults 
in a second edition. According to promise, the article David 
was replaced by another ; but the purchasers exclaimed 
loudly against this interference with the work, and tho 
publisher finally reprinted the obnoxious article in a sepa- 
rate form. It is to be found at the end of the second volume 
of the editions of 1720 and 1730, &c. Little notice was 
taken of the other objections. Instead of altering, Bayle 
defended himself and his work in a series of Eclaircisse- 
ments, subjoined to the second edition of 1702, and pub- 
lished in subsequent editions of the book. 

It Is a singular property of this singular work, that, unlike 
all other dictionaries, it has never been superseded, though 
near a century and a half has elapsed since it was written. 
The author did not intend it to be, like Mor6ri's antece- 
dent dictionary, a book of general historical reference; 
we might rather suppose that, being disappointed in his 
first scheme of publishing a work supplementary to, anil 
corrective of, other works, he had resolved to make available, 
in the shape in which they could most readily be produced 
tho multifarious stores of his vast reading and extensive 
memory. Consequently the dictionary contains much curious 
and minute, and much trifling and almost useless informa 
tion. The chance is against our finding exactly what we 
want in it ; but if the subject is treated at all, we are pretty 
sure to find something which wc should hardly find else- 
whero. As a book for casual reading it is highly amusing, both 
in respect of the matter and the style, in which his wit and 
power of sarcasm are largely displayed : the form, however, 
is highly objectionable, the text being usually meagre, and 
serving as a vehicle to introduce numberless digressions, 
criticisms, and quotations in the shape of notes. This is' 
the more to be regretted, because the influence of Bayle's 
example has caused two valuable English works, the Ge- 
neral Dictionary y in 10 vols, folio, and Kippis's Biogrophia 
Britannica y to be composed on the same plan. 

After the publication of the second edition, which was 
considerably enlarged, Bayle amused himself by preparing 
the first volume of Reponses aux Questions dun Provincial 
intended, as he says, ' to occupy a middle place between 
books for study and books for recreation/ It is charac- 
terized by a late writer (Biog. Univ.) as • a work which the 
author could not define, and which is undefinable, because 
all possiblo matters are treated in it without order, and in 
separate chapters.* In 1704 he published a defence of his 
Letter on Comets, which engaged him in a controversy, 
winch lasted for the rest of his life, with I.c Clcrc, tho 
well-known author of the Bibliotheque Choisie, and a thco- * 



U A Y 



BAY 



logical writer named Jacquelot. To tins discussion the ' 
second and third volumes of tho Hepatites aux Questions, 
St.. 1705, were devoted. Conlrovcrsy seems to have been 
Bayle* pleasure; and it is probable that the attacks made 
on his works mado no impression on his tranquillity ; but 
his cncinici had nearly dono him a serious injury by en- 
deavouring to procure his banishment from Holland in 
I7UG, by reviving tho accusation that he was a secret agent 
of France. It appears probable that the English ministry, 
possessed with this belief, would have demanded his banish- 
ment, had it not been for the liar! of Shaftesbury, who had 
known Bayle in 1 Iolland, and who interfered in his behalf. At 
that time he was suffering from an affection of the chest, for 
which, believing it to be hereditary and mortul, he refused to 
call in medical assistance. His last works were a fourth 
volume of the Reponses, and Entreticns de Maxims el The* 
mistc, in answer to Le CI ere, and a second book under the 
same title, in answer to Jaequclot. The last was not quite 
finished : he was working on it the evening before his death, 
which took place December 2S, 170G, in the COth year of his 
age. 

Baylc's life and habits, in the relations of man to man, 
were simple, temperate, and moral. Without a cynical 
or affected contempt, lie displayed a truly philosophical in- 
diflbrence to wcaltn ; and he lived independently, in virtue 
of the moderation of his wants, yet not improvidently, for 
he left a legacy of 10,000 tlorins to his niece. The worst 
moral charge brought against him is that of literary dupli- 
city ; and of this he had no right to complain : for a man 
who is known to conceal his authorship under the thickest 
disguises of falso names, false dates, and false prefaces, 
neod not wonder if much which cannot be proved is believed 
to be his. Tho same spirit of concealment attended him in 
religion ; for whether he was Atheist, Epicurean, or Chris- 
tian, it is at least pretty clear from his writings that he 
could not have been at heart a member of the strict church 
to which he outwardly conformed. 

AVarburton says of Bayle, 4 A writer whose strength and 
clearness of reasoning can be equalled only by the gaiety, 
easiness, and delicacy of his wit ; who, pervading human 
nature with a glance, struck into the province of paradox 
as an exercise for the restless vigour of his mind ; who, with 
a soul superior to the sharpest attacks of fortune, and a heart 
practised to the best philosophy, had not yet enough of real 
greatness to overcome that last foible of superior geniuses, — 
the temptation of honour, which the academic exercise of 
wit is supposed to bring to its possessors/ (Divine Le* 
gallon* book i. sect. 4, vol. i. p. 33, 8vo. edition, 1733.) 

The later folio editions of Bayle's Dictionary arc comprised 
m four volumes. The supplement by the Abbe Chaufepie* 
occupies four more. Bayle's miscellaneous works, of which 
we have not given any thing like a complete list, fill four 
volumes also. (Life of Bayle, by Des Maizeaux, prefixed 
to his edition of the Dictionary.) * 

BAYLE'N, the Roman BE'TULA~or B/ETULON, a 
town of Andalusia, in the province of Jacn, 3S 9 2' N. lat., 
3° 45' W. long. It is situated on a gentle elevation, com- 
manding an extensive plain, which is hounded on the north, 
cast, and west, by lofty hills, and on the south, south-cast, 
and south-west, by the rivers Guadalon and Cam pan a. The 
soil is very fertile, and produces corn, fruit, oil and wine, 
the two last in abundance. The town is mentioned in 
public records of the eighth century. It contains one parish 
church, an ancient castle, a palace belonging to the Count 
of Baylen. an hospital, and some good houses. The inha- 
bitants, who amount to 5995, are employed in agriculture, 
the manufacturing of glass, bricks, and common cloth. 
There arc also twelve oil-presses or mills, and some soap 
manufactories. 

On the 19th of July, 1808, an engagement took place 
here, between the Spanish and French armies, the former 
commanded by General CasUifios, the latter by General Du- 
l>oiit, who had occupied Baylcn. At three o'clock in the 
morning the battle l>ogan, "and was sustained with equal 
courage on both sides until noon, when the French general 
sued for terms. A convention was agreed upon, by which 
the French wcro to lay down their arms in the field, and to 
Ik) conveyed into Franco by the Spanish government. On 
the 23rd "l 8.000 French soldiers defiled before tho Spanish 
army, laid down their arms, cables, and other military 
accoutrements, and were conducted to Cadiz. But unfortu- 
nately the circumstances of the war prevented the exact 
fulfilment of the latter part of the convention* The ofliccrs 



were conveyed to France, but the men were ulaced in hulks, 
whero they remained some )cars, until, driven todespai**, 
the few who had survived the miseries of their confinement 
cut the cables of their prison ships, and, abandoning theni 
selves to tho mercy of the winds, were saved by their coun- 
trymen then besieging Cadiz. This victory, the fu>t ob- 
tained in the peninsula over the French, co»'t the Spaniards 
978 men in killed and wounded. The losa on the side of 
the French was 2G00 men in killed and wounded, among 
which latter was General Dnpont himself. {Bulletin of 
General CattaXos.) 

BAYNE, ALEXANDER, of Rires, first professor of 
the municipal law of Scotland. The only bioirniphical 
notice of this learned person wc have yet met with is that 
by Bower (Hist, o/ the University of 'Edinburgh, vol. ii. 
p. 1 97), and in the * very little information concerning him * 
which it contains, there are doubts to be removed and errors 
to be corrected. 

He was son of John Bayne of Lojjie in the county of Fife, 
who was descended from" the old r ifcahiro family Bayne 
of Tulloch, to whom he was served heir in general on the 
6th of October, 1700. (Inquis. Retorn. Aibrev.) On the 
10th of July, 1714, he passed advocate at the Scottish bar 
(Fac t Rec.)< but docs not appear ever to have had much 
practice. In January, I7'J2, the faculty appointed hiin 
senior curator of their'library (fac. Rec.) t and on the 2&th of 
November, same year, he was constituted by the town- 
council of Edinburgh professor of Scots law in the university 
of that city. Tho late settlement of this the earliest chair 
of Scots law is not a little remarkablo, and can be accounted 
for only by a reference to the actual law and practice of the 
Scots courts, to which, therefore, we shall here for a mo- 
ment advert. 

The common law of Scotland was substantially the same 
with that of England till the erection of the Court of Ses- 
sion in the beginning of the sixteenth century, when, in 
consequence of the peculiar constitution of that court, the 
old common law was superseded by the principles of the 
civil and eanon laws, which thereupon became, in fact, as in 
legal acceptation, tho common law. The members of the 
Court of Session were, from its first institution, associated 
together under the name of the college of justice; but it 
docs not appear that they ever adopted a collegiate mode of 
life, or that any domestic school of law was ever erected 
among them. The consequence was, that till tho beginning 
of the last century, when, as we shall immediately see, 
the sources of the Scottish law ceased to be sought in the Ro- 
man code, preparation was generally made for the Scottish bar 
at some one of the foreign colleges, of which those of Franco 
and Italy were the most frequented, till the lustre of the Cu- 
jacian School in the Low Countries, aiding the connexion 
which aroso between Scotland and them nt the Reforma- 
tion, drew the student thither. On the erection of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, however, attempts were made by the 
bench and bar to remedy the inconvenience of foreign study, 
but as the object of thoso attempts was to establish a chair 
of civil law, they were long bafllcd by the want of means of 
preparatory instruction in the language of that law. The 
only method of attaining a practical knowledge of the pro- 
fession in those times was attendanco on some lawyer of 
reputation ; and, accordingly, wc not only find such indi- 
viduals as Sir Thomas Hope and others who rose to celebrity 
at the bar passing their early years in the capacity of clerk, 
or, as it was then, in French phrase, called * servitor* to an 
advocate, but these servitors were privileged by the court to 
act lichiud the bar, a statiou and privilege which their de- 
scendants, the * advocates first clerks/ enjoy to this day. Jn 
the end of the seventeenth century private lectures on tho 
law began to be given in Edinburgh by members of the 
faculty, and at length, in 1707, a chair of public law was 
founded ; and, in 1709, the ehair of civil law. By this time, 
however, the natural working of an independent judicature, 
and, still more, the operation of the union with England, by 
which tho Scots courts were subjected to an appellate juris- 
diction common to bath parts of the island, carved out a s\s- 
tcm of law in many respects different from that of Home, 
and requiring a separate chair for its elucidation. But with 
the predilections which habit and associations had given to 
the Scottish lawver, the civil law was clung to as the guide 
of the courts, and several circumstances impress us with the 
idea, that the chair of Scots law to which B.iync was inducted 
wiw regarded with contempt by the loarncd faculty whereof 
ho was a member. Tho Faculty Records contain no allu 



BAY 



73 



BAY 



iion to his appointment. The only record of it which we have 
is in the Council Register, where, under date 28tb Novem- 
her 1722, there is this entry: — 

* Mr. Alexander Bayrte having represented how much it 
would be for the interest of the nation and of this city, to 
have a professor of the law of Scotland placed in the uni- 
versity of this city, not only for teaching the Scots law but 
also for qualifying of writers to his Majesty's signet; and 
heing fully apprised of the fitness and qualifications of Mr. 
Alexander Bayne of. Rires, advocate, to discharge such a 
province — therefore the council elect him to be professor 
of the law of Scotland in the university of tbis city, for 
teaching the Scots law and qualifying writers to his Majesty's 
signet/ (Bower's Hist, ut supra.) We have not heen ahle 
distinctly to ascertain the estimation in which Bayne was 
held hy bis learned compeers, any more tban tbe true source 
of the neglect with which his little works on tbe law have 
been hitherto regarded : but only a year elapsed when his 
despised cbair began to work a change on the course of ex- 
amination for tbe bar, and on the system of legal study. In 
January, 172-1, Mr. Dundas of Arniston, D.F., proposed to 
the faculty, that all Intrants should, previous to their ad- 
mission, undergo a trial, not only in the civil law, as hereto- 
fore, but also in the municipal law of Scotland (Fac. Rec.) ; 
and though tins was long resisted, it was at length deter- 
mined hy Act of Sederunt, 28th February, 1 750. We ap- 
prehend it is to Bayne, also, we ought to concede the im- 
pulse given at this time to investigate the sources of the 
Scottish antient common law. 

In. tbe beginning of 1726, the usual period of remaining 
senior curator of the advocates* library having expired, 
Bayne retired from the office, and the same year he pub- 
lished the first edition of Sir Thomas Hope's Minor \Prac- 
ticks—a. work which, though delivered by the author to his 
son orally, it is said, at his morning's toilet, is remarkable 
for its legal learning, the breadth and holdness of its views, 
the acutcness of its observations, and the suhtlety of its 
distinctions, but which had lain near a century in MS. 
To this work Bayne now added a Discourse on the Rise 
and Progress of the Law of Scotland, and the Method of 
studying it. In 1 731 he published a small volume of Notes, 
for the use of the students of the municipal law in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. These Notes were framed out of the 
lectures delivered from tho chair, and impress us with a 
very favourable opinion of the author's acquaintance not 
only with the Roman jurisprudence, but also with the antient 
common law. About the same time he published another 
small volume, which he entitled Institutions of the Criminal 
Law of Scotland^ for the use of his students. The author 
of such works, distinguished for their modesty not less than 
for their learning, could not hut exercise a salutary influence 
on the youth hy whom he was surrounded ; and his career, 
though short, was sufficient to prove his talent and dili- 
gence, and to make his chair an object of no inconsidcrahle 
ambition. 

In June, 1737, Bayne's death was intimated to the faculty 
hy the magistrates of Edinhurgh (Fac. Rec.) ; and in the 
following month a leet of two advocates (Mr. Erskine and 
Mr. Balfour) was delivered hy the faculty to the magistrates 
or tbeir election of a successor. 

Bayne married Mary, a younger daughter of Anne, only 
surviving child of Sir William Bruce of Kinross, hy her 
second husband, Sir John Carstairs of Kilconquhar, and hy 
her he had three sons and two daughters. 
BAYONET. [See Arms.] 

BAYO'NNE, a considerable town in the south of France, 
in the departments of Basses Pyrdndcs (Lower Pyrenees) 
and Landes, 43° 30' N. lat., 1° 30' W. long. It is 531 miles 
S.S.W. of Paris, through Orleans, CbSteauroux, Limoges, 
Bordeaux, and Mont-de- Marsan. There is an old road 
from Bordeaux to Bayonne more direct than that through 
Mont dc Marsan, hy which a considerable distance may be 
saved. Tbis road leads through the pine forests of the 
Landes ; but the deep sandy soil renders travelling very 
incommodious, which is probably the cause why tbis route 
has been laid aside for one more circuitous but more con- 
venient. 

Bayonne is a town of considerable trade, for which it is 
favourably situated, being at the junction of two navigahle 
rivers, the Adour and the Nivc, whose united streams fall 
into tbe Bay of Biscay two or three miles helow Bayonne. 
By these two rivers Bayonne is divided into three parts. 
That part situated on the left, or south-west hank of the 



Nive, is called Great Bayonne, that hetween the two nvers 
is called Little Bayonne, and that on the north or rigbt 
bank of the Adour is called the suburb of St. Esprit (i.e. of 
the Holy Ghost.) Tbe latter is in the department of Landes, 
the two former in that of Basses Pyrenees. Tbe entrance 
of the port is narrow, and a very dangerous bar crosses it, 
on which, in westerly winds, there is a violent surf. The 
harbour is however safe, the bar affording it" shelter sea- 
ward, and it is well frequented. The name Bayonne is a 
compound of two Basque words, ' Baia' and ' Ona/ signi- 
fying good bay or good port, and indicates the estimation in 
which the harbour was formerly held. 

Bayonne is fortified, and is in the first class of strong 
places. Each part of it is surrounded on the land side by 
an ancient wall, outside of which are the modern works. 
Great Bayonne has a castle flanked by four round towers, 
called the Old Castle ; Little Bayonne has the New Castle , 
flanked by four bastions ; and adjoining to the suburb St. 
Esprit is a citadel, the work of Vauhan, which has been 
strengthened by works recently added. 

Bayonne is a handsome place. The houses are well built 
of stone, the streets are wide, and the places (open spaces) 
adorrwd with good buildings. The different parts of the 
town communicate by several bridges, two over the Nive, 
and one handsome wooden bridge over the Adour. The 
numerous vessels, large and small, by which the rivers are 
covered, give animation to the scene. The public prome- 
nade is also very heautiful. Of tbe public buildings tbe 
Cathedral of Notre Dame may be mentioned, although there 
is nothing in its architecture which catfs for particular 
notice. The Mint is also one of the principal edifices in 
Bayonne. The town has a school of navigation and also a 
theatre. 

The manufactures of Bayonue are not important; that of 
glass hottlcs is tbe chief. Tbe town is famous for hams, 
for the liqueur which bears the name of the village of 
Andaye, and for chocolate. In the preparation of the liqueur 
Bayonne is considered to rival Andayc itself. Shipbuilding 
is carried on with advantage, as the neighbourhood supplies 
the materials. The trade of the town is very considerable ; 
drugs, wines (those of the neighbourhood are accounted 
excellent), brandies, and fir timher, are among its exports; 
also masts, which are floated down from the forests of the 
Pyrenees hy the Nive and Adour, or their branches, and 
sent to Brest and other ports. Of the imports Spanish 
wool is the principal ; tbe quantity brought in yearly is 
said to be ahout 20,000 bales. Bullion is also brought in 
from Spain. Tho coasting trade employs the greater part 
of the vessels which enter or leave the port of Bayonne; 
a few ships are engaged in tbe cod fishery, but there is no 
trade with the French colonies. The population of the 
town, in 1832, was as follows : — 

Bayonne town 13,008 whole commune 14,773 
St. Esprit . 4,103 „ 5,895 

Together .. 17,116 t „ 20,668 

When Expilly published his Dictionnaire des Gaules 
(in 1762), above half tbe population of St. Esprit were 
Jews, viz. 3500 out of 5800. 

Before the Revolution Bayonne had only one parish 
church, tho cathedral ; for though there was in the suburb 
of St. Esprit a collegiate church, it was not parochial, as 
the suhurb was in tho parish of St. Etienne, the church of 
which is at some distance to the northward. There were in 
Great and Little Bayonne eight religious houses (of which 
three were for females), and in St. Esprit a Commandery 
of the Order of Malta, and a convent of Ursuline nuus. 
An abhey of Cistertian nuns was situated without the walls 
of that suburb. 

Bayonne is the capital of an arrondissement, compre- 
hending 491 square miles, or 314,240 acres, and containing, 
in 1832, a population of 78,411. It is also the see of a bishop, 
whose diocese includes the department of Basses Pyrenees, 
and who is a suffragan of the Archbishop of Auch. 

D'Anville considers Bayonne to he tbe Lapurdum men- 
tioned in the Notitia Imperii ; hut the correctness of his 
opinion is disputed or doubted by some. The origin of the 
see cannot be traced higher than the tenth century. The 
bishops of Bayonne bore the title Episcopi Lapurdenscs, 
but this title, it is contended, only implies that they were 
hishops of the territory of Labour. Their diocese included 
some parts of Spain, but they were severed from it by tho 
Popo at the instigation of Philip II,, King of Spain, in tho 



no. 214. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPAEDIA.] 



Vol.IV.-I, 



BAZ 



74 



B A Z 



fcixtoenth century, and placed under the control of the 
Bishop of Pampeluna as the pope's viear. 

In the invasion of Franco uy the allies under the Duke 
of Wellington, in 1814, tho citadel of Bayonne was invested 
by a force under Lieutenant-General Sir John Hopo. On 
the rooming of the 14th April, several days after hosti- 
lities in tho north of France — the then great scene of war- 
fare—had been terminated by the abdication of Napoleon, 
a sortie took place from the entrenched camp formed by the 
French in front of tho citadel. The attack, though repulsed, 
caused a severe loss (800 officers and men killed, wounded, 
or taken) to tho besiegers. Sir John Hope was taken 
prisoner, and Major-General Hay, tbe general commanding 
iho line of outposts, was killed. 

Bayonne was the sccno of an interview, in 1564, between 
Catherine do' Medici and the Duke of Alba, one of the 
chief officers of Philip II, of Spain, at which it has been 
supposed the massacre of the Huguenots or Protestants was 
devised, though not executed till seven years after, on tho 
day of 8t- Bartholomew. "When the massacre took place, 
however, D'Orthez, commandant of Bayonne, refused to 
execute the orders of the court. He replied to the king's 
order in these words:— ' I have found, Sire, in Bayonne, 
only good citizens and brave soldiers, but not one execu- 
tioner.* Bayonne was tho scene of the arrest of Charles IV. 
and Ferdinand VII. of Spain in 1803. 

BAYSWATER, one of the suburbs of London, deno- 
minated a hamlet, and situated three miles and a half west 
of St. Paul's. Like most of the other suburbs of the me- 
tropolis which retain their old denominations of villages 
and hamlets, Bayswater has of late years been much en- 
larged by tho addition of new streets and houses; At the 
eastern extremity of Bayswater is the Queen's Lying-in- 
Hospital, a retired building surrounded by an extensive gar- 
den. Tho charity was originally established at Uxbridge in 
1752, but was removed hither in 1791 ; it is supported by 
annual subscriptions, and affords assistance to poor pregnant 
women at their own houses, if witbin a limited distance, or 
receives them into the hospital. The tea-gardens in Bays- 
water occupy the sito of the house and botanical garden of 
Sir Joseph hill, whose various writings and high-sounding 
nostrums were popular in their day. In the neighbourhood 
is one of the conduits formerly used for supplying the city 
with water. It belongs to the City of London, and still 
serves to convey water by briek draius to some western 
parts of the metropolis. There is also a reservoir of some 
magnitude belonging to tho Grand Junction Water Com- 
pany at Bayswater. Tho population is not stated separately 
from that of the parish of Paddington, to which it belongs. 
(Lvsons's Environs of London; Brewer's Middlesex, &e.) 

SA'ZA, tho Roman Basti, a city of Andalusia, in the 
kingdom of Granada, 37° 30' N. lat., 2°50'\V. long. It is 
situated near tho river Guadalquiton in a valley, in the 
Sierra de Baza, which, according to some geographers, is 
a branch of the Sierra Nevada. The hoya or valley of 
Baza is very produetivo in grain, fruit, hemp, and flax. 
The city, which is of very old construction, was taken from 
tho Moors by Fernando the Catholic, in 1489, after a seven 
months* siege. Baza is a bishop's sec, has a cathedral, 
three parishes, six convents, an ecclesiastical seminary, an 
hospital, and six inns. Tho population amounts to 11,486 
inhabitants. At tho distance of two miles from the city 
several intoresting antiquities of tlio Augustan age, belong- 
ing to tho city of Basti, have been dug up by the farmers. 
These monumonts, on which a curious antiquarian would 
set a high value, aro only dug from the earth to be buried 
in tho house of some obscure farmer. 

Baza is tbe capital of tho district which bears its name, 
and comprises fifty-four towns and villages and three cities, 
besides the capital, viz., Purchena, Vera, and Mujaear. 
The Sierra do Baza abounds in trees, which supply the in- 
habitants with timber and fire-wood : it produces also lead 
in great abundance, as well as marble, the most celebrated 
of which is that of Macacl. Six miles from Baza is a hot 
spring, called Los BafiosdoBenzalema(Bcnzalcma's baths), 
tho tcraperaturo of which is 30° Reaumur. The inhabitants 
of the district arc exclusively employed in agriculture. 

B AZA A R. The word bazaar is Persian, and its primary 
meaning is a market, a forum, In Turkey, Egypt, Persia, 
and India this term distinguishes those parts of towns which 
are exclusively appropriated to trade. In this exclusive ap- 
propriation they resemble our markets ; hut in other respect* 
they approximato more nearly to our retail shops, We havo 



Interpreted the word in its large sense ; for although the terra 
bazaar is in this country commonly understood to mean an 
assemblage of shops or stalls undercover, yet in fact it equally 
applies to open places in which bulky commodities are offered 
for sale. Such places sometimos occur in eastern towns, and 
are used chiefly in the early- morning, at least in summer, 
for the salo of vegetables and cattle. If a placo in the open 
ground outside a town bo commonly applied to this use, it 
will be called a bazaar, and will be distinguished, as in all 
other cases, by joining to the word 'bazaar tho namo Oi 
the commodity sold. In large towns, however, such markets 
are generally near or in the midst of the regular covered 
bazaars; except the market for cattle, wbieh is always out- 
side or at the extremity of tho town. In some places bazaars 
aro rather extensivo squares, tho sides of which are lined 
with shops under arcades. In a few cases the covered 
ways branch off with sorao regularity from these squares 
as from a centre : and in one of tbe best specimens of tho 
open market, at Kermanshah in Persia, the palace of tho 
prince-governor occupies ono of its sides. Wnen, however, 
as in this and some other instances, tho principal open area 
in the city is thus appropriated, its distinctive appellation of 
the Maiaan % or square, is retained. 

The regular bazaars consist of a connected series of streets 
and lanes, and, when of a superior description, they are 
vaulted with high briek roofs. The domes or cupolas 
which surmount the vaulting admit a subdued daylight; 
and as all direct rays of tbe sun are excluded, a com- 
paratively low temperature is obtained. Tbe descriptiou oi 
a good bazaar in Persia is a description of a good bazaar ill 
Turkey or India. Nevertheless, the Persian bazaars aro 
rather more light and lively than those of Turkey. They 
arc painted in many places, and sometimes decorated, parti- 
cularly under the domes, with portraits of tho heroes of the 
country, with representations of battles or hunts, with figures 
of real or fabulous animals, and with other subjects. The 
approaches to the bazaars arc commonly lined with low 
shops, in which commodities of little value aro exposed for 
sale. These approaches aro sometimes open to the sky ; 
but they are more generally covered in a rude manner with 
branches of trees, and leaves laid upon beams. In many 
of the provincial towns of Turkey and Persia, the bazaar, as 
a whole, would answer to this last description ; and in others 
it is nothing more than a mud platform continued along tho 
way side, about two feet above tbe footpath, on which little 
covered shops arc raised, that are mcro boxes, scarcely 
affording room for the vendor to sit down on a bit of carpet 
or felt in the midst of bis scanty stock. 

In the best specimens of tbe vaulted bazaar the passages 
are lined on each side with a uniform scries of shops, lhe 
floor of which is a platform raised from two to three feet 
above the level of the ground, and faced with briek. As 
the vault springs from the front of tho line of shops, they 
seem like a series of recesses, and the partition-walls be- 
tween them appear bke piers supporting the arch. Thcso 
recesses are entirely open in front, in all their height and 
breadth ; tbey are scarcely more than very small closets, 
seldom exceeding six feet in breadth, rarely so deep as 
wide, but generally from eight to ten feet in height, and 
occasionally more. But in the more respectable parts of 
largo bazaars thero is generally a little iioor in the back 
wall which conducts to another small and dark closet, which 
serves the purpose of a store-room. The front cell is the 
shop, on the floor of which tho master sits with bis goods all 
around him, the articles most in demand being placed so 
within his reach that ho has seldom occasion to rise, which, 
if ho is a Turk, ho rarely docs without manifest reluctance. 
Such a dealer offers a very siugular contrast to our ideas 
of a shopkeeper, being the very personification of luxurious 
reposo as he sits smoking lx's pipe; or, if in winter, when 
these berths are civilly and uncomfortable, bending over a 
brazier of burning charcoal. The neighbouring shopkeepers 
have inurh communication with ono another, and generally 
exhibit as much alacrity in promoting the interest of a 
neighbour as can be compatible with attention to their own. 
Indeed, a stranger might be disposed to imagine that all the 
tradesmen in tho same line of business are in a general 
partnership, so littlo anxiety docs any one exhibit to obtain 
a preference, and so willingly docs no inform a customer 
where he may obtain an article moro exactly suited to bis 
wants than he can himself supply. This is moro apparent 
in Turkey than in Persia. Persian, Armenian, and Jewish 
shopkeepers arc in general more civil and obliging than 



B A Z 



75 



B A Z 



Turks, and exhibit more anxiety to obtain eustom. The 
writer has often been constrained hy the former to turn 
aside and smoke of their pipes, and eat of their onions and 
bread, without being directly urged to make any purchase ; 
but it is more pleasant to deal with a Turk, though he 
would not do this, because he deserves more confidence, yet 
not implicit confidence, in matters of purchase and sale. A 



■ French writer (M. Aubert de Vitry) says, 'It is not neces- 
sary to offer a Turk less than two-thirds of the price he de- 
mands ; to a shopkeeper of any other nation one-half may 
be safely offered ; and in the case of the Jews there is no 
limit to the abatement/ This is perfectly true ; and no 
stranger in the East could have a better rule for his guidance 
in such matters. 




rTarkiih Bazaar, from the French work on Egypt.] 



Business commences and terminates with daylight in 
oriental hazaars. No trade or handicraft employment is in 
general carried on in the East by candle-light. None of 
the shopkeepers or artizans reside in the bazaars. When it 
pets dark, every one shuts up his shop and goes home. 
The fastenings of the shops are very slight; but the hazaars 
are in general well watched, and frequently secured with 
strong gates. In very warm countries it is usual for the 
majority of the shopkeepers to close their shops at mid-day, 
aud go home to have their lunch and enjoy a siesta. The 
bazaars have then a very deserted appearance. Larcenies 
in the bazaars are scarcely known in Turkey ; hence tho 
shopkeepers do not hesitate to leave their shops quite open, 
without anyone in charge, during their occasional absences; 
but when a rather long absence is intended, and the goods 
are of great value, a net, like a eabbage-nct, is sometimes 
hung up in front, or laid over the goods. 

The peculiar principle of oriental bazaars is that all the 
shops of a city are there collected, instead of being dis- 
persed in different streets as in Europe, and that in tins 
collected form the different trades and occupations are 
severally associated in different parts of the bazaar, instead 
of being indiscriminately mingled as in our streets. Thus 
one passage of tho bazaar will bo exclusively occupied 



by drapers, another by tailors, another by eap -makers, 
another by saddlers, and so on. In the *oazaars of 'Persia) 
and, although less usually, in those of Turkey, the shops' 
of provisions for immediate usts form an exception to the 
rule. The shops of eooks and bakers are dispersed in dif- 
ferent parts of the bazaar; the preparations in the former 
seldom extend beyond soups, and a sort of sausage without 
skin, called kabodb, a highly-seasoned and savoury article, 
which is much relished both in Turkey and Persia. Not 
only are trades carried on, but handicraft employments 
are exercised in the bazaars of the East ; and thus while 
one part is very quiet, another resounds with the hammers 
of carpenters, smiths, and shoe-makers. The stocks of the 
individual dealers are seldom of much value. It would 
be difficult to find a shop which contains a greater stock 
than that of a small retail tradesman in London ; but an 
imposing effeet is produced by the exhibition of the several 
shocks in a connected form, so that the whole of a par- 
ticular street in a bazaar will appear as one great shop 
for the article in which it deals. This is the cause of the 
reported splendour and richos of an oriental bazaar. Of 
this kind of effect the bazaar for ladies' slippers in Con- 
stantinople is a very remarkable instance : such an exten- 
sive display on each side, through a long covered street, 

L2 



B A Z 



7G 



BAZ 



of small slippers, "resplendent with gold and silver em- 
broider)*, and silk, and coloured stones, conveys an im- 
pression of wealth, luxury, and populousness which ten 
times the number of shops in a dispersed form would not 
give. Wholesale dealers liavo no open shops in tho bazaars, 
but they have warehouses in it or in its vicinity, to which 
the retailers resort as they havo occasion. These ware- 
houses are frequently in a large house or khan, occupied in 
common by several wholesale dealers. Tho khans also, to 
which the itinerant merchants resort until they have dis- 
posed of their goods, are generally in or near the bazaars ; 
and they frequently make use of the same building with tho 
stationary merchants. Tho principle of association for faci- 
lity of reference is the truo principle of a bazaar ; the vaulted 
covering is merely a circumstance of elimate. Therefore 
Paternoster-row with its books, Monmouth-street with its 
shoes, and Holywell-strcct with its old clothes, are more 
properly bazaars than the miscellaneous shops assembled 
under cover, whieh are in London designated by the name. 

Besides the regular business conducted in tho bazaars hy 
tho professional shopkeepers, there is an under-current of 
irregular trade, highly characteristic of oriental manners. 
If a person not in business, or a stranger, has an article of 
which he wishes to dispose, ho employs a erier, who takes it 
through tho bazaar, proclaiming, at the top of his voice, its 
praises and its price. Many poor people also endeavour in 
the same manner, without the services of the crier, to dis- 
pose of such articles of their property t or produce of their 
industry, as they desire to sell. These are mostly persons 
who imagine they shall be able to obtain a better priee from 
the purchasers or idlers in the bazaar than they have found 
the shopkeepers willing to give. There is also a elass of 
sellers who exhibit a little stock of wares upon stools, in 
baskets, or on cloths spread on the ground. They generally 
deal in hut one commodity, which they profess to sell on 
lower terms than the shopkeepers will take. It would seem 
that in respeetahle towns a preference is given to this mode 
of selling somo one particular commodity. Mueh tohaceo, 
and most of tho little snuff that is used, are sold in this way 
at Bagdad; much opium is thus disposed of every morning 
at Tabreez in Persia; and at Constantinople many women 
post themselves in the hazaars, displaying embroidered 
handkerchiefs and other needlework, often wrought by the 
hands of ladies of quality, who are enabled by the produce 
to mako a privato purse for themselves, and purchase some 
little indulgences which they might not otherwise obtain. 
If the truth he told, at Constantinople no small portion of 
this supply to the bazaars of that metropolis is contributed 
by the ladies of the imperial seraglio. 

In hot weather, oriental bazaars are traversed by men 
laden with a skin or piteher, from which they deal out to 
the thirsty a draught of excellently filtered water. Some- 
times payment, seldom exceeding the fourth of a farthing, 
is expected; but frequently the men are employed to dis- 
tribute water gratuitously, by pious individuals, who con- 
sider it an aet of eharity acceptable to Allah. 
. The eontrast between the deserted appearanco of the 
streets in an oriental town and the thronged state of the 
bazaars surprises a stranger. Tho women, exeept those of 
the lowest elass, go little ahroad ; and of the men, the idle 
resort to the hazaar for amusement or conversation; and 
thoso who are not idle generally have some business there in 
tho course of the day, which collects the visible population 
much into that part of tho town, until the approacn of even- 
ing effects a moro equal distribution. The hazaar is not 
only the seat of immediate traffic, but of all commercial 
business ; thero all publie, mercantile, and private news cir- 
culates, and there only free discussion ean he carried on, 
unrestrained by the presence of the emissaries of power who 
haunt the coffee-houses. . 'Hence in the bazaar tho timid 
becomes bold, and the bold insolent Puhlie measures a*3 
keenly investigated, and tho popular voice is often loudly 
expressed even to the ears of princes or ministers if tbey 
nppear in the bazaars, as they sometimes do. Through the 
medium of slaves, eunuchs, and other agents, a constant 
intercourse is maintained between tho innermost recesses of 
the ?cra<rlio and the bazaar. This is particularly the ease 
at Constantinople, and in the capitals of the Turkish pa- 
shahes, and it is douhtful whether any thing is transacted 
in the palaces at night, which is not known in the bazaars 
tho next morning. This intercourse has often exercised an 
intluence upon publie affairs whieh none hut tho most 
minute iuouirers into oriental history would suspeet 



The various characteristic displays of oriental manners 
which the bazaars furnish, tho nature of the goods exposed 
for sale, and the splendid appearaneo they sometimes make, 
the manner in which the artizaus conduct their various 
labours, the endless variety of picturesque costumes which 
meet the eye, and the babel -like confusion of tongues, 
all coinhine to form a scene of unequalled singularity and 
interest. No traveller who does not, in some oriental cos- 
tume, sedulously frequent the bazaars and make many 
little purchases for himself, ought to feel assured that ho 
understands the people, or has materials for fairly esti- 
mating their condition. Tho remarks here made are the 
result of the writer's intimate personal acquaintance with 
the bazaars of the East. 

BAZAS, a town in France, in the department of Gironde, 
41 miles S.E. of Bordeaux, and 419 miles S.S.W. of Paris. 
It is on a rivulet which flows into the Garonne, a few miles 
to the N. of the town, 44° 27' N. Int., 0° 13 \V. long. 

Under the name of Cossio it existed in the Roman times 
and is mentioned by Ptolemy; but in the latter period of 
the Horn an empire, the name of tho people whose metro- 
polis it was, the Vasates (called also Vasarii), prevailed over 
the older designation: we read in Ammianus Marcellinus, 
of Vasatco, as a place of somo consequence in Novempo- 
pulana ; and in other authorities of Civitas Vasatas and 
Civitas Vasatica. 

Bazas early attained the rank of a bishopric, winch how- 
ever it has now lost A bishop of Bazas sat in the council 
of Agde in 506, and at the council of Orleans in 51 1. The 
bishop of Bazas was, during part of the tenth and eleventh 
centuries, the only bishop in Gascony.the towns having hcen 
destroyed hy the Normans, and the cathedral being without 
elergy. During this interval he took the title of bishop of 
Gaseony, Vasconensis Episcopus; but when the churches 
were again supplied with elergy, he shrunk into bishop of 
Bazas. 

The town is situated on a rock, and has little in it that is re- 
markahle except the cathedral, a fine edifice of the fourteenth 
century. In front of the cathedral is a place (or an open 
space), surrounded by a piazza. The walls of the town aro 
in ruins. Among the manufactures are druggets, leather, 
glass, potter}*, white wax, and wax -candles. The trade car- 
ried on is in the ahove mentioned goods, wood of all kinds, 
including timber for ship-building, and saltpetre. The 
population in 1832 was 2165 for the town, and 4255 for the 
whole eommune. 

The arrondissement of Bazas comprehends 697 square 
miles, or 446,080 acres. Ithad.in 1832, a population of 53,802. 

The district of Bazadois was a subdivision of Guicnne. 
(Dictionnaire Universel de la France; Piganiol de la Force, 
Nouvelle Description de la Fra?ice t $c.) 

BAZOIS, the name of a small district in France, forming, 
under the old division of that country, the eastern part of 
Nivernois, now included in tho department of NiSvre. It 
comprehended several valleys, and was bounded on the 
N.E. by the mountains of Morvan. It is watered by several 
small streams, the Airon, Aron, or Avron, a tributary of 
the Loire, being the principal. It produces littlo com, hut 
there is abundance of good pasturage and wood. Coal is dug. 
The ehief town of the district is Moulins in Gilhert. The 
dimensions are usually given as nine or ten leagues, or ahout 
twenty-seven to twenty-eight miles long, and as many broad. 

BAZTA'N, orBASTA'N, a valley in the Pyrenees to the 
north of Pamplona, extending twenty-three miles from north 
to south, and two from east to west : but authorities differ 
considerably as to tho width of the valley; Miiiano states it to 
bo fifteen miles wide, and the dictionary of the Academy only 
two. The truth probably lies between thein. It is bounded 
on the north and east hy Franee, and on the south and west 
hy the valleys of Ulzama and Basaburua Menor. It is sur- 
rounded on "the north and east by the heights of Otambnrdi, 
Otsondo, Auza, Ariete, Izpegui, and Urrichiquia, and on 
tho south by those of Ernazabal, Arcesia, Velate, and Oc- 
lumendi. Several streams descend from these mountains, 
and form in the valley a river, which is called by the in- 
habitants Baztan-zubi. This river, after it leaves the valley, 
receives the namo of Bidassoa. The valley produces Indian 
eom, wheat, pulse, nnd flax. The meadows and forests aro 
held in eommon. Every man is bound hy law to plant a 
eertain numher of trees every year. 

Baztan is tho sixth partidoor district of the merindad or 
provinco of Pamplona. It is governed by its particular 
fueros or privileges, which wer« collected in a body of rural 



B D E 



'77 



BEA 



,aws called Ordenanzas del valle Oaws or statutes of the 
valley), approved by the supreme council of Navarra in 
1696. The inhabitants, in a junta-general held every three 
years, appoint three;' individuals, out of whom the viceroy 
of Navarra chooses one to hold the office of Alcalde. This 
officer is the civil and military chief of the valley, and also 
the judge in minor offences. He is also the president of the 
"conecjo, or common council of the capital. Every man in the 
valley is a soldier, and is bound to provide himself with arms 
and ammunition. It is the alcalde's duty to instruct the 
men in the management of arms, and every three years he 
holds a general review, "on which occasion every man is 
obliged to appear with a musket in good condition, half a 
pound of gunpowder, and twelve bullets. In a privilege 
granted by Alonso I. of Aragon, to the town of San- 
giiesa, in 1132, he is entitled lung of Aragon and Baztan. 
The Baztanese, afterwards,' on the separation of Aragon 
from Navarra, became subjects of the kings of Navarra. 
At the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa they fought so gal- 
lantly that their king, Sancho VI., grantedthem a privilege 
in 1212, by which every native of Baztan was declared an 
hidalgo or gentleman. Any Spaniard from another pro- 
vince, who can prove a noble origin, is admitted to the 
rights of citizenship in the valley. The letters of citizen- 
ship are granted by the junta-general of the valley. The 
population of the valley amounts to 7065 inhabitants, dis- 
tributed into fourteen towns and villages. The capital, 
Elizondo, is situated on the banks of the Baztanzubi, which 
divides it into two parts. According to Minano it con- 
tains llll inhabitants. The principal buildings arc the 
town-house, where the junta-general is held, and the Casa 
dc Miscrieordia, or charity house, in which the poor and 
destitute of the village receive supj>ort and employment. 
This benevolent institution has ceased to exist for want of 
funds. The house was inhabited by some poor families of the 
town, and has been of late changed into a fortified place by 
theCarlists: but it is at present occupied by the troopsofthe 
queen (1835). The front of the town-house is ornamented 
with the names of the illustrious persons who at different 
epochs have made themselves conspicuous for their valour, 
or for other eminent services. These names are written 
on wooden scutcheons carved into the shape of a erowned 
eagle with two heads. The Baztanese speak the Basque 
language. 

(See Academia de la Historia, Diccionario Geogrdfico 
Historian de Espana ; Minano.) 

BDE'LLIUM, commonly called a gum, but in reality a 
gum-resin, the origin of which is a subject of doubt. It 
would appear that there are two, if not more kinds, of bdel- 
lium, the source of one of which seems to be ascertained ; the 
others are matters of controversy. The bdellium of the an- 
ticnts, said by Pliny (book xii. ehap, 9) to be brought from 
Baetria and other parts of Asia, still comes from Asia. Adan- 
son states that he saw in Africa the substance exude from a 
thorny species of amyris, called by the natives niouttoutt. 
From its resemblance to myrrh, the analogy is in favour of its 
being obtained from an amyris or balsamodendron. Indeed, 
according to the recent statement of Mr. Royle, bdellium 
would appear to be the produce of a species of amyris, or rather 
balsamodendron, a native of India, called by Dr. Roxburgh 
Amyris Commiphora (Ft. Ind. ii. p. 244), Amyris Agallocha 
{Calcutta Catalogue, p. 28), the native name of which is^oo- 
gul. (Royle, Illustrations of the Mora of the HimalayaK part 
vi. p. 1 76.) The opinion of its being obtained from a palm, 
either the Lontarus domestica (Gaertn.), or the Borassus 
flabellifortnis, is very improbable. This substance occurs in 
masses of variable size and shape, sometimes as large as a 
walnut, in oblong .or angular pieces of a yellow, red, or 
brownish colour. The clearest pieecs are transparent ; the 
odour is weak and peculiar; the taste bitter, balsamic, and 
resembling myrrh or Venice turpentine. It is tolerably 
brittle at the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere, but 
with a slight increase of heat the finer kinds may be 
kneaded between the fingers. Its specifie gravity is 1*371. 
In potass it is completely soluble. Analysed by Pelleticr, 
100 parti yielded 

Resin • , , • m . 59 

Gum 9*2 

Bassorin 30'G 

Volatile oil and loss • . • 1"2 

100 
John found also caoutchouc, Bulphatoi, muriates, and phos- 



phates of potass, and lime with salts* of magnesia, but pro- 
bably he examined a different sort from that of Pelletier. 

".Resembling myrrh in appearance, it also resembles it in 
its effects upon the human system, and is often fraudulently 
substituted for it ; it is, however, weaker, while it is more 
disagreeable and acrid. [See Balsamodendron.] It was 
formerly used in many compounds and plasters, such as 
diachylon, ; It. is now disused in Britain ; but is to be found 
intermixed with gum Arabic. 

The Sicilian bdellium is produced by the Daucus Hispa- 
nicus (Dceanrl.), the D. gummifer of Lamarck, or perhaps 
the D. gingidium (Linn.), according to Boceone (Museo di 
Piante rare della Si cilia, $c. torn, xx.), which grows on the 
islands and shores of the Mediterranean. 

The Egyptian bdellium is conjectured to be produced by 
the Borassus fiabelliformis (Linn.), the Chamcerops humtlis, 
or the Hyph&ne cuciphera (Pers.) 

The bdellium mentioned in the second chapter of Genesis 
is obviously a mineral, and has no reference to the substances 
above-mentioned. It is supposed to mean pearls. 

BEACHY HEAD, in Sussex, is a high bluff chalk 
cliff, forming a remarkable headland in the British Channel, 
which may always be known by seven conspicuous whito 
cliffs to the westward of it. There is a telegraph and sta- 
tion-houso on the top ; and a little farther to the westward, 
on that portion of the Head called Belltout Cliff, a tempo- 
rary lighthouse was erected in 1828, which has been found 
so serviceable, that it has been replaced by a more durable 
one of stone, j The lights, like the old one, revolve alter- 
nately bright and dark at intervals of two minutes : their 
elevation above the sea is 285 feet. 

Caverns near Beachy Head. — There are six caverns, 
with entrances three feet wide, and flights of steps twenty 
feet in height, terminating in an apartment eight feet 
square, now cut in the cliffs, between Beachy Head and 
Cuekmere. A place called Derby Cave has also been re- 
paired, by which means mariners, who may be unfortunately 
wrecked on that part of the coast, can find a place of refuge' 
from the sea. There is no danger a quarter of a mile imme- 
diately off the Cape, but six miles to the eastward of it thero 
are some dangerous rocks, on which the Royal Sovereign, 
a first-rate, once struck.. (British Channel Pilot, p. 51.) 

BEACON, a sign or token ordinarily raised upon somo 
foreland or high ground as a sea mark. It is also used for 
the fire-signal which was formerly set up to alarm the in- 
terior of the eountry upon the approach of a foreign enemy. 
The word, as used in England, is derived from the Anglo- 
Saxon beacen or beacn, a sign or signal, whence byenian, to 
show or point out. Beac or bee is the real root, which we 
still have, in beck, beckon. 

Fires by night, as signals, to convey the notice of im- 
pending danger to distant places with the greatest expe- 
dition, have been used in almost all countries. They are' 
mentioned in the prophecies of Jeremiah, who (ehap. vi. 
v. 1) says, * Set up a sign of fire in Beth-haeeerem, for evil 
appeareth out of the north, and great destruction.* In the 
treatise De Mtt7ido % attributed to Aristotle, we are told ■ 
(edit. 12mo. Glasg. 1745, p. 35), that fire-signals were so 
disposed on watch-towers through the King of Persia's do- 
minions that, within the spaee of a day, he could receive 
intelligence of any disturbances plotted or undertaken in 
the most distant part of his dominions ; but this is evidently 
an exaggerated statement. iEschylus, in bis play of the 
Agamemnon* represents the intelligence of the capture of 
Troy as conveyed to the Peloponnesus by fire-beacons. 
During the Peloponnesian war we find fire-beacons (<f>pvKroi) 
employed. (Thucyd. iii. 22.) Pliny distinguishes this sort 
of signal from the Phari, or light-houses placed upon the 
coasts for the direction of ships, by the name of * Igncs 
pramuntiativi,' not ice- giving fires (Plin. Hist. Nat, edit. 
Harduin, lib. ii. sect. 73), these being occasional only, the 
phari constant. 

Lord Coke, in his Fourth Institute, ehap. xxv., speaking 
of our own beacons, says, • Before the reign of Edward III. 
they were but stacks of wood set up on high places, which 
were fired when the coming of enemies was descried ; but 
in his reign pitch-boxes, as now they be, were, instead of 
those stacks, set up ; and this properly is a beacon/ These 
beaeons had watches regularly kept at them, and horsemen 
called hobbelars were stationed by most of them to give 
notice in day-time of an enemy's approach, when the fire 
would not be seen. (Camd. Brit, in Hampshire, edit. 1789 < 
vol. i. p. 173.)" 



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BEA 



* Stowe, in hi* Annals, under the year 1326, mentions, 
among tho precautions which Edward II. took when pre- 
paring against tlio return of the queen and Mortimer to 
England, that * ho ordained bikemngs or I>eacons to be set 
up, that tho same being fired might be seen far ufF, and 
thereby tho people to be raised/ 

The Cottonian MS. in tho British Museum, Augustus I. 
vol. i. art 31, preserves a plan of tho harbours of Poole, 
Purbcck, &c, followed, art 33, by a chart of the coast ol 
Dorsetshire from Lyme to Weymouth, both exhibiting the 
beacons which were erected on the Dorsetshire coast against 
the Spanish invasion in 1583. Art. 58 preserves a similar 
chart of tho coast of Suffolk from Orwell Haven to Gorl- 
ston, near Yarmouth, with the several forts and beacons 
erected on that coast. 

The power of erecting beacons was originally in the king, 
and was usually delegated to the Lord High Admiral. In 
the eighth of Elizabeth an act passed touching sea marks 
and mariners (ehap 13), by which the corporation of the 
Trinity House of Deptford St rend were empowered to erect 
beacons and sea marks on tho shores, forelands, &c, of the 
country according to their discretion, and to continue and 
renew tho same at the cost of the corporation. 

Professor Ward, in his * Observations on the Antiquity 
and Use of Beacons in England' (Arch&ologia, vol. i. p. 4), 
says, the money due or payable for the maintenance of 
beacons was called Beconagium, and was levied by the 
sheriff of the county upon each hundred, as appears by an 
ordinance in manuscript for tho countv of Norfolk, issued 
to Robert dc Monte and Thomas de feardolfe, who sat in 
parliament as barons, 14th Edward II. 

The manner of watching the beacons, particularly upon 
the coast, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, may be gathered 
from the instructions of two contemporary manuscripts 
printed in the Arch&ofogia, vol/viii. pp. 100, 183, The 
surprise of those by the sea-side was usually a matter of 
policy with an invading enemy, to prevent the alarm of an 
arrival from being spread. 

An iron beacon or fire-pot may still be seen standing 
upon the tower of Hadley Church in Middlesex. Gough, 
in his edition of Camden, fol. 1789, vol. ni. p. 281, says, at 
Ingleborough, in Yorkshire, on the west edge, arc remains 
of a beacon, ascended to by a flight of steps, and ruins of 
a watch-house. Collinson, in his History of Somersetshire, 
4to. 1791, vol. ii. p. 5, describes the fire-hearths of four 
large beacons as remaining in his time upon a hill called 
Dunkcry Beacon in that county. He also mentions the 
remains of a watch-house for a beacon at Dundry (vol. ii. 
p. 105). Beacon-hills occur in some part or other of most 
counties of England which have elevated ground. The 
Herefordshire beacon is well known. Gough, in his addi- 
tions to Camden, ut supr. vol. i. p. 394, mentions a beacon hill 
at Harescorabc in Gloucestershire, inclosed by a transverse 
vallation fifty feet deep. Salmon, in his History of Hert- 
fordshire, p. 349, says, at Therfield, on a hill west of the 
church, stood one of the four beacons of this countv. 

BEACONSFIELD, a small market-town of feucking- 
hamshire, in the hundred and deanery of Burnham, twenty- 
four miles \V. by N. of London, and thirty-one S.S.E. of 
Buckingham. It is situated upon high ground, whenco it 
has been supposed that its name is derived from a beacon 
that formerly occupied the spot. Tho town consists of four 
streets, tho principal of which, forming part of the road from 
Uxbridge to High Wycombe, is nearly three quarters of a 
mile in length. The substratum on which the town stands 
is chiefly gravel, and the houses arc built with Hints or brick. 
The church, dedicated to All Saints, is built of flint and 
squared stones, and consists of a nave, chancel, and sido 
aides, with a tower at the west end. The remains of Ed- 
mund Burke, who resided and died at Gregories in this 
parish, are deposited in tho church ; and tho churchyard 
contains a whito marble table monument in honour of 
"Waller, to whom tho manor belonged, as it still does to his 
descendant Hull Court, the poets family mansion, is still 
in existence. The church, as well as the manor, was for- 
merly attached to Buruhom Prwry. Tho living is a rectory 
in the archdeaconry of Bucks and diocese of Lincoln, valued 
in tho king's book at 2G/. 2*. SJrf. ; the advowson belongs 
to Magdalen College, Oxford, which purchased it about the 
year 1 705. Beaconsfleld derives great advantage from its 
situation on tho high road between London and Oxford ; 
and considerable business in the sale of eattlo is done at its 
market and fairs. The proximity of High Wycombo and 



Uxbridge is, however, said to havo rendered the market of 
less relative importance now than in former times. Tho 
market-day is Wednesday, and tho fairs are held on Fe- 
bruary 13th and Holy Thursday, the latter being for cattle. 
Tho number of houses in the parish was 341, according to 
tho returns of 1831, when the population consisted of 1763 
persons, of whom 891 were females. 

(Lysons** Magna Britannia; Beauties of England and 
JVates.) 

BEAD MOULDING. [See Moulding.] 

BEAD TREE. [Seo Mklia and Eusocahpus.] 

BEADLE, tho messenger or apparitor of a court, who 
cites persons to appear to what is alleged against them. It 
is probably in this sense that we are to understand the 
bedclli, or undcr-bailifla of manors mentioned in several 
parts of the Domesday Survey, Spelman, Somncr, and 
Watts, all agree in the derivation of beadle from the Saxon 
bybel, a crycr, and that from bib, to publish, as in bidding 
the banns of matrimony. The bcdelli of manors probably 
acted as criers in the lord's court. The beadle of a forest, 
as Lord Coke informs us in his Fourth Institute, was an 
officer who not only warned the forest courts and executed 
process, but made all proclamations. 

Bishop Kcnnett, in the Glossary to his Parochial Antiqui- 
ties of Oxfordshire, says that rural deans had formerly 
their beadles to cite the clergy and church otlicers to visita- 
tions and execute the orders of the court Christian. Pa- 
rochial and church beadles were probably in their origin 
persons of this description, though now employed in more 
menial services. 

Bedel, or beadle, is also the name of an officer in tho 
English universities, who in processions, &c., precedes the 
chancellor or vice-chancellor, hearing a mace. In Oxford 
there are three esquire and three yeoincu bedels, each at- 
tached to the respective faculties of divinity, medicine and 
arts, and law. In Cambridge there are three esquire bedels 
and one yeoman bedel. The esquire bedels in the latter 
university, beside attending the vice-chancellor on public 
solemnities, attend also the professors and respondents, 
collect fines and penalties, and summon to tho chancellor's 
court aU members of the senate. (Sec Ducange's Gloss, in 
voce BcTlcllus; Kennett, Paroch. Antiq. vol. it. Gloss. ; Gen. 
Introd. to Domesday Book, 8vo. edit. vol. i. p. 247 ; Camb. 
and Oxf Univ. Calendars.) 

BEADS (Rosary Beads) are made of horn, ebony, ivory, 
glass, box- wood, and other materials, and are strung in chap- 
lets used by tho Roman Catholics for the purpose of counting 
their prayers. The Rosary is a scries of prayers said to 
havo been first instituted by St. Dominic about the year 
1200, in honour of tho Virgin Mary, and as an invocation to 
her for spiritual assistance. It consists of a repetition of the 
Ave Maria and the Paternoster or Lord's Prayer, both in 
Latin. It is divided into decads of ten Avo Marias, each 
decad being preceded by the Lord's Prayer, and terminating 
with the Gloria Patri. The full or great rosary consists of 
fifteen decads, but the common rosary, which is recited ge- 
nerally in the evening by pious Catholics, consists of only 
five decads. At the end of the five decads they recito 
the Creed, or Symbol of the Apostles, and afterwards 
(in Italy at least) the Litany or the Virgin, which is 
different from the Litany of tho Liturgy. The rosary is a 
daily family evening prayer ; the head of tho family says 
tho first part of each Ave Maria, and the other members 
repeat in chorus tho remaining part. [See Ave Maria.] 
• The original rosary of St. Dominie is a recitation of fifteen 
decads of Ave Marias, preceded each by a Pater, each decad 
bcinjj devoted to the meditation of ono of the mysteries of 
the life of our Saviour. The first five mysteries are thoso 
of tho incarnation, nativity, &e., and are styled joyful mys- 
teries. Tho next five aro those of the passion and death, 
and are styled sorrowful. The remaining five are those of 
the resurrection, ascension, assumption of the Virgin, &e., 
and are termed glorious/ (Touron, Vic de St. Dominic; 
Quindecim Mysteria Bosarii Beatcc Maria* Virginis, a R. 
Schiaminosso deliu. atque incisa, Rome, 1609.) The common 
ehaplet is called Corona, * a crown/ in honour of the Virgin. 

The beads arc distinguished by their size and shape, 
those marking the Lord's Prayer being larger than those 
for the Ave Marias. Rosaries of very small glass beads aro 
worn by pious Catholics round their necks. The object of 
St. Dominie was probably, while doing honour to the Virgin, 
to fix at the same time the attention of the pious on tho 
contemplation of tho principal events of tho Saviour's life» 



B E A 



B E A 



by allowing a eertain time, marked hy the reeitation of ten 
Ave Marias, to the meditation upon eaeh event or mystery. 
The name of rosary is figurative : it means a ehaplet of 
spiritual roses, divided into three sets, while, red, and da- 
mask roses, corresponding to the joyful, sorrowful, and 
glorious mysteries. Such are the allegory and its explana- 
tion. ( The Rosarie of our Ladie otherwise called our Ladie's 
Psaltery Antwerp, 1600.) 

The Turks and other eastern nations have also ehaplets 
of beads made of amber or other materials, which they turn 
through their fingers while sitting in a listless mood, but 
not, as it seems, for any purpose of prajer. The Turkish 
ehaplet is ealled * Combolo'io.' 

BEAGLE, a small well-proportioned hound, slow but 
sure, having an excellent nose and most enduring diligenee, 
formerly much in fashion for hunting the hare, but now 
comparatively neglected, its place being oecupied, where 
hare-hunting is patronized, by the harrier. [See Harrier.] 




[The Beagle.] 

These were the little hounds so mueh prized by 'the 
good old English gentleman ;* for, at a trilling expense, 
and greatly to the delight of the neighbouring rustics who 
followed on foot, he eould keep his ten or eleven eouple, 
not more than so many inehes high individually, and, 
mounted on his easy pad, would generally make certain of 
killing his hare, though it frequently cost him two or three 
hours to perform the feat. During this protraeted ehase 
he had ample leisure for enjoying the sight of his admi- 
rably matehed pack, running so well together that * they 
might have heon eovered with a sheet/ and for gratifying 
his ears with their tunable cry. 

The hare distanced them immeasurably at first, and, in 
the eourse of the run, she might be observed to sit and 
listen 'sad on some little eminence,' but 

— — * In louder peals, the loaded winds 
Brought on the gathering »lorm* — 

and, after exhausting all her speed, shifts, and doublings, 
she almost always fell a victim to their persevering and de- 
structive instiuet. 

A well-bred beagle of the proper size, which should not 
exeeed that above -mentioned, is a very pretty and sym- 
metrical variety. This symmetry (the term is used in 
relation to the purposes for" which the dog is employed) was 
the result of much care among amateurs, who spared no 
efforts to bring it to what they considered the standard of 
perfection. 

Some prided themselves on the diminutive hut still 
effective size of their paeks. Daniel and others have not 
forgotten to eommemorate Colonel Hardy's 'cry of beagles.' 
They amounted to ten or eleven couple, and were always 
carried to and from the field in a pair of panniers upon a 
horse's back. Small as theyavere, they rarely failed, though 
they eould never get near enough to press the hare in the 
early part of the run, to stick to her and worry her to death 
at last. 

Such diminutive hounds are sometimes called 'lap-dog 
beagles* aud ' rabbit beagles/ 

The fairy 'pack above alluded to had a little barn for their 
kennel, where also their panniers were kept. The door was 
one night broken open, and every hound, panniers and all, 
stolen j nor could the disconsolate owner ever diseover either 
the thieves or their booty. 

BEAMINSTER, or BEMINSTER FORUM, a mar- 
ket-town in Dorsetshire, in the Bridport division of the 



hundred of Beaminster, 123 miles W.S.W. of London, and 
14 J W.N -W. of Dorehester. It is situated on the river Birt, 
whieh issues from several springs running from the hills 
with which the town is surrounded. Beaminster is of consi- 
derable antiquity. In Domesday Book, Beminstre is classed 
among the lands belonging to the bishoprie of Sarum, 
Begeminster was given by Bishop Orrriund, in 1091, to 
augment two of the prebends of his cathedral. The parish 
consists of three manors, Beaminster Prima, Beaminster 
Seeunda, and Beaminster Parsonatus, all of which are held 
by lease by the present lords under the church of Salisbury. 
Leland thus describes Beaminster in his time : — 'It is a 
praty market town, and usith mueh housbandry, and lyith 
in one street from N. td*S., and in another from W. to E. 
There is a faire ehapelle of case in this town. Netherby 
[Netherbury] is the paroch ehireh to it, and Beminstre is a 
prebond to the chirch of Saresbyri.' The town was almost 
entirely destroyed by fire in 1644, while Prince Maurice 
was in quarters there. It was re-built by the assistance of 
parliament, but in 1684 was again consumed; and, finally, 
in 1781, upwards of fifty houses, besides barns, stables, and 
other buildings, were reduced to ruins. To these fires, 
however, the town is indebted for its present very respectable 
appearance, most of the houses being good modern build- 
ings. The streets have lately been paved by a subscription 
of the inhabitants, and the shops and some of the houses are 
now lighted with gas. The ehureh and free-school are the 
principal buildings of the town. The ehureh is dedicated 
to the nativity of the Blessed Virgin, and although only a 
chapel of ease to the vicarage of Nertierbury, is a large 
handsome structure, standing on an eminenee on the south 
side of the town. It is supported in the inside by Gothic 
arehes and pillars of Ham-hill stone. The tower is nearly 
100 feet high, and is decorated with sculptures, illustrative 
of the woollen trade, for which the town was famous at the 
time they were executed : there are also figures of one or 
two of the kings, and a*number of roses, of which tradition 
states that the figures are those of kings who reigned at the 
times that repairs were dono to the ehureh, and that the 
roses commemorate the union between the houses of York 
and Lancaster. The town has a eommodious workhouse, 
which is maintained partly by the rents of a small estate, 
and partly by the poor-rates. There is also an almshouse, 
built about 1C27 by Sir John Strode, and afterwards en- 
dowed by him and his daughter, Lady Joan Tuberville, for 
the maintenance of six poor women. The free-school was 
founded in or about the year 1684 by Mrs. Frances Tucker, 
for the education of twenty of the poorest boys in Beamin- 
ster, three or four of whom are to be apprenticed to the sea 
serviee. The estate with which this school is endowed was 
let in the year 1707, at 65/. a year, which is now increased 
to 1C0/. ; the surplus has been employed in increasing the 
number of boys at the school from 20 to 100, and in 
providing fuel, whieh is sold to the poor at a reduced rato 
during the winter. The Rev. Samuel Hood, the father 
of Lords Hood and Bridport, was master of this school in 
1715. The number of houses in Beaminster was 5C7 in 
1831, when the population amounted to 2968 persons, of 
whom 1573 were females. During the year 1834, the town 
was visited with an extraordinary mortality, owing princi- 
pally to the small-pox and measles, whieh raised the pro- 
portion of deaths to one in twenty-six on the whole number 
of inhabitants. The inhabitants are chielly engaged in 
the manufacture of sail-cloth, of iron, tin, and copper wares. 
The market is held ( on Thursday, and there are fairs on 
April 14, September 10, and October 9. The quarter- 
sessions were held here in the reign of Elizabeth and the 
seven first years of Charles I„ but .they were afterwards 
removed to Bridport. (Hutehins's History and Antiquities 
of the Counties of Dorset; Beauties of England and 
Wales; Communication of a Correspondent ', <£-c.) 
BEAMS. [See Materials, Strength of.] 
BEAN. [See Faba, Phaskolus, and Dolichos.] 
BEAN, a leguminous plant, extensively cultivated in the 
garden and in the field, classed by Linnaeus in the DiadeU 
phia Decandria, and hy Jussieu among the Leguminosce. 
There are two distinet kinds of beans cultivated ; the one 
is ealled the Faba vulgaris or Vicia Faba, whieh is our 
common garden and field bean ; the other is the Phaseolus 
vulgaris, the French bean, haricot, or kidney-bean. We 
here consider them only in an agricultural point of view. 

The common bean, of whieh there are several varieties, 
bears a pod containing several oblong rounded seeds, which 



BEA 



80 



BEA 



are used in the soft young -state lor the table, and in the 
hard dry state for domestic animals chiclly, cither whole or 
ground into lueal. In some places bean -meal is mixed with 
other meal in making coarse bread; or tho beans are boiled 
into a mess with fat meat, in which state they arc very 
palatable and nutritious. The l>can came originally from 
the cast, and was cultivated in Egypt and Harbary in the 
earliest ages of which we have any records. It spread 
thence into Spain and Portugal, from whence some of the 
best varieties have been introduced into this country. Tho 
most common varictios of garden beans are the Windsor, 
the Tokcr, the long-pod, and the Magazan, all product ivo 
and well tasted. In the field the tick bean, the common 
horse bean, and the small Dutch, or Heligoland bean, are 
preferred, being hardy as well as productive. The long-pod 
is occasionally sown in the field, the Magazan and broad 
"Windsor bean seldom. 

There is no plant in which the transformation of the 
cotyledons into seed leaves is more readily traced than in 
the bean. The Windsor bean, in particular, from the size 
of its lobes and distinctness of its vessels, is admirably 
adapted for observation, the parts being readily distin- 
guished by the naked eye. If a bean is planted in moist 
earth or soaked in water, in a moderate temperature, the 
cotyledons will swell and soon burst the skin which enve- 
lopes them, separating into two lobes, which open like the 
shells of an oyster. In tho part which forms the joint an 
oblong body will appear, which is the embryo stem of the 
plant. This increases rapidly in the earth, and pushes a 
root downwards, and a stem upwards, which latter carries 
the lobes with it till they rise above the ground, when 
they expand, and are transformed into seed leaves. It is 
curious to observe the force of vegetation in the young bean 
when it is, as it were, imprisoned in a strong soil hardened 
at the surface, as may be seen when a path crosses a field 
of beans newly planted ; the cotyledons, under these cir- 
cumstances, are drawn into the crevices made by the young 
stem, where they often remain held fast till the first shower 
releases them. The change in the cotyledons deserves 
particular attention. As soon as the seed swells by imbibing 
moisture, the oxygen, which is always present in the at- 
mosphere and in water, acts upon the farinaceous substance 
in the seed, and takes a portion of carbon from it producing 
carbonic acid, which is absorbed by the surrounding plants, 
or Hies ofF in the state of gas : by this loss the remaining 
substance becomes a mild iluid emulsion, analogous to the 
milk of animals, which, being taken up by the minute 
vessels of the radicle, nourishes and increases them. It 
is this alone which produces the first growth ; the earth is 
the mere cradle to protect tho young plant and to keep it 
moist, by preventing the too rapid evaporation wbicb the beat 
and light of the sun would otherwise produce : when the 
ground iscntirely deprived of moisture, vegetation necessarily 
ceases. The cotyledons arc the reservoirs of nature to sup- 
ply proper food for the plant in its infant state, as the 
mother's milk does in animals of the class of mammalia, 
and the yolk of the egg in birds and oviparous animals. 
In proportion as the farina in the lobes is gradually ex- 
hausted new vessels appear through the substanco of the 
lobes, conveying the newly formed juice from every part of 
them into the root and stem, and, at last, the cotyledons are 
transformed into seed leaves. The fibres of the roots are by 
tins time completely formed, and their extremities, called 
tpongioles* from their appearance when minutely examined, 
have acquired the power of absorbing nourishment from 
the soil. The plant may now be said to be weaned. The 
stem is then considerably advanced in growth, having put 
forth new leaves of a different form from the seed leaves : 
these last, having now performed their part, wither and 
soon fall ofF; if they are removed before this period, the 
plant, having lost its nurse, languishes and dies. 

The bean at this stage of its growth requires particular 
attention. If the soil is rich and well prepared, it will grow 
rapidly and luxuriantly, and bo soon out of reach of insects 
or weeds, and capable of resisting the varying influences of 
the atmosphere ; but if tho soil is poor and parched, and 
tho supply of nutritive juices is scanty, the plant will soon 

• StxmyioUt. Al tbe extremities of lh« smalletl ramification* of lhe root* 
may be seen, by mean* of Wjfh tnarainVra, tmall bodies which v»rin lobe 
rnUnc«*iM>DU or th< minute fibre* of the root j they are c«U ott tpongi<Uc$ % from 
their resemblance to* tp*mae. Their nse U to draw in the juice*, by which 
Um planl is a a •Lain*! *nQ laetetuett They poisets a vital j»ower, by which 
they more readily abwb torn* fluids than other*, and are by tome thought 
to have a power of selection, as lht lacteal* tiavt la the Inteslmcs of animals. 
[See Root.] 



show weakness and disease, and the only way to prevent a 
total failure of the crop, is to supply by art the deficiency of 
nature. In very poor soils manure may be applied in a 
liquid state, or as a top-dressing: in those which are not 
exhausted, tillage alone will enable the roots to spread, and 
give them a wider range to seek their food in. The weeds 
being destroyed, the whole powers of the soil are reserved 
for the crop ; and the air charged with fertilizing vapours 
being allowed to penetrate the surface, and being retained 
in the interstices of the soil, greatly assists in invigo- 
rating the vegetation. These are tho principles on which 
is founded the wliolo culturo of leguminous plants, 
whether in the garden or the field. Where labour is not 
spared and the produce is valuable, as where vegetables 
are raised as a kind of luxury for the tables of the rich, 
the greatest attention is paid to the cultivation of beans, 
so as to have them early and in regular succession during 
the whole summer. They arc even occasionally raised 
by artificial heat. In general they are sown or planted, 
at various times, from the beginning of winter to the 
middle of summer, but they must be protected from 
frost in the first case, and from too great heat and drought 
in tho latter. They are set in rows with wide intervuls, 
which are kept dug and clean, and in which lesser vegeta- 
bles are advancing in growth, to be sheltered by the beans, 
and to succeed them when removed. In order to strengthen 
the pods already formed, as soon as those which arc near 
the bottom of the stem are filled, the tops of the plants 
are cut off, and the beans are gathered when the seed has 
acquired sufficient consistency to be taken from the shells, 
before they have acquired 'any farinaceous qualities. One 
crop is made to succeed another by regulating the times of 
sowing; and thus beans are gathered for the table from May 
to November, or till the frosty nights check the growth of the 
plant. The cultivation of the Geld bean is only as perfect 
an imitation of the garden culturo as circumstances will 
permit. As only one crop is required, and that in a per- 
fectly ripe state, when the seeds are fully formed and hard, 
they are sown at one particular season, so as to avoid tho 
danger from frosts and ungenial weather in spring, and at 
the same time to have the crop ripe in good time to be har- 
vested before the cold and wet season sets in. The usual 
mode is to drill them by a machine, at the distance of from 
twenty to thirty inches, according to the richness of the 
soil, or to dibble them by hand, cither singly or by putting 
four or five beans in each bole, increasing the distance of 
the holes from six to twelve inches. Beans arc tolerably 
hardy, and will hear moderate dry frosts ; but they suffer 
much from alternate frosts and thaws, which in this cli- 
mate are so common in February. The end of February, 
or the beginning of March, is therefore generally preferred 
for bean-sowing. When the season is remarkably mild, as 
was the case in 1834, early sowing is a great advantage. 
Tho writer of this articlo planted a field of beans on the 1st 
January 1834, in a soil duly prepared ; they were reaped 
in August, and produced a very good crop: his neighbours, 
who planted their beans in March, had not half tho quan- 
tity on equally good land, owing to the dryness of the sum- 
mer. But this was an cNpcriincnt which succeeded : had 
severe weather come on in February, the whole crop might 
have been lost. As a general rule, beans may be sown 
from the middle of February to the middle of March. The 
sorts usually cultivated in the fields are the tick l>ean, 
the horse bean, and the small Dutch or Ucliogoland bean. 
In some situations the Magazan and the long-pod have 
produced good crops in the field : the first three aro how- 
ever best suited for general cultivation. There are scvoral 
varieties of these, which differ but little in their appear- 
ance; experience is the best guide in choosing the heed 
which suits particular soils and situations. The small 
round regular-shaped beans are generally preferred, as ob- 
taining tho best prices in the markets, especially in large 
towns, where there is a great consumption of beans by 
hard-working horses. 

The soil best adapted for beans is a rich strong loam, 
such as produces good wheat. In such a soil tho produce is 
sometimes fifty or sixty bushels nor acre, but an average 
crop, on moderate land, is about half that quantity. On 
very rich land beans have produced extraordinary crops, by 
being sown broad-cast and very thick, the stems being drawn 
up to a fjreat height in favourable seasons. A small field 
of very rich land, in the county of Sussex, was sown in 
tho year 1832 with four bushels of the small tick bean. 



B E A 



81 



B E A 



which came up so thick, that the proprietor thought of 
thinning out the plants by hoeing ; but he was advised to see 
what the produce would be, and when they were threshed 
out, there were ten quarters and one bushel of beans. 
He had the ground accurately measured, and it was found 
to be one acre and twenty-nine perches, which makes the 
crop above sixty-eight busbels per acre. They completely 
smothered all weeds, and the subsequent crop of^ wheat 
produced five quarters to tho acre ; but this particular 
example of sowing beans broad-cast we do not hold up for 
general imitation. By cultivating the beans in rows, and 
by careful hoeing and manuring, alternate crops of wheat 
and beans may be raised for many years, without inter- 
mission, or any necessity for change or fallow : this has 
been long the practice in the richest part of Kent. In 
this ease the beans must be drilled or set in rows, with 
intervals of from twenty-four to thirty inches between 
the rows ; and the intervals must be repeatedly stirred 
and hoed with proper instruments, so as to prevent the 
growth of weeds and keep the soil in a perfectly clean 
and mellow state; the weeds which rise in the rows are 
removed by hand. Immediately after bean harvest the land 
is scarified, or skimmed over with a plough having a very 
broad share, whence the operation is sometimes called broad- 
sharing. All roots of weeds and the remains of bean-halm 
are collected and burned, or put in a heap with quicklime, to be 
converted into manure. The ground is then ploughed onee 
or several times, according to circumstances, and wheat is 
sown about the month of October, either broadcast or by 
means of a drilling machine, in rows ten or twelve inches 
asunder, which gives greater facility for hoeing and weeding 
the crop when neeessary. The wheat which follows beans is 
generally good and heavy, and seldom runs to straw. After 
wheat-harvest the stubble is ploughed up and turned in 
with a very deep furrow; the land is harrowed flat, and a 
good coating of manure is put on in a moderately rotten 
state, and this iseovered with a shallow ploughing: the land 
is well water-furrowed and left so till spring, when the beans 
are drilled in the mellow surface produeed by the winter's 
frost. This is the most approved practice ; but many expe- 
rienced farmers vary it according to the varieties of soil, or 
according to difference of opinion. Some put on manure for 
the beans in spring, and some drill the beans in every seeond 
or third furrow after the plough ; but all good farmers agree 
in manuring the land for the beans and earefully hoeing 
them. It is evident that a different method is required in 
different soils, varied according to their texture and situ- 
ation. Alternate crops of wheat and beans ean only succeed, 
for any length of time, on soils peculiarly favoured. In 
general, a change of erops and occasional fallows, will be 
indispensable to keep the land perfectly elean and in good 
heart. 

In eold wet soils beans require great care to ensure good 
erops. Although they will grow well and seem to flourish in 
the stiffest and most unsubdued elays, they will seldom pro- 
duce much at harvest, unless the land has been well pre- 
pared and the cultivation managed with skill. There is 
no better criterion of the experience and industry of the far- 
mer of eold, wet clays than the appearanee of his beans at 
harvest ; and ho may be judged by this erop, as the farmer 
of light, sandy soils may be judged by his turnips. The 
cultivation of these two opposite kinds of inferior soils will, 
in general, be profitable or otherwise in proportion to the 
produce of the beans in the one and the turnips in the 
other; the first being a substitute for elean fallow, and the 
latter the foundation of all the succeeding erops. The bean, 
by its strong and penetrating root, opens the stiff soil to 
the- influence of the atmosphere, by which the surfaee is 
dried and at the same time mellowed. Although the nu- 
tritious matter in a good erop of beans is great, and almost 
equal to that obtained from a erop of wheat, it exhausts the 
soil much less : its succulent stems and leaves absorb mueh 
nourishment from tho atmosphere, and the latter falling off 
and deeaying, restore carbon and mueilage to the soil, and 
make up for the inferior quantity of manure produced by the 
bean-halm in comparison with wheat straw. There is per- 
haps no crop, bearing seed, which gives so great a return 
with so small an expenditure of the nutritive juices of the 
soil ; and certainly none that repays manure better, or 
leaves the land in a better condition for wheat or oats. Itisa 
very common practieo to plough a stiff soil in spring only onee, 
after it has borne clover, grasses, or wheat, and to drill 
beans in the furrows immediately after the plough, by hand 



or by an instrument ; in this ease it is best to deposit the 
beans as near the angle of the furrow as possible, and in 
every second furrow only, that they may rise regularly at a 
proper distance. In spite of the tough slues which the plough 
turns over in a mass, the force of vegetation in the bean 
makes it pierce through them, and, under favourable cir- 
cumstances, a tolerable crop is sometimes obtained ; while 
the more industrious neighbour, who has tilled his land 
in autumn and again in spring, by repeated ploughings, 
and made it fine and mellow, may be disappointed in 
his erop by untoward variations of weather. The slovenly 
farmer then laughs at the more perfect system of the other, 
pretending that it is wrong to work strong soils so much and 
make them toofine f as the term is. Thus the progress of a 
whole district in rational and improved culture is arrested 
or checked by the apparent evil of frequent ploughing. But 
the conclusion is founded in error. There ean be no rule 
better confirmed by experience than that adhesive soils should 
be stirred and divided as mueh as possible ; but this must be 
done with due regard to circumstances and seasons, and 
the differences in soils: chalking, marling, or manuring, 
are necessary, in order to prevent the divided soil i'rom 
setting into a hard compact mass. Light coloured clays 
which consist of siliceous sand and argillaceous earth 
only, without any intermixture of other substances, set the 
harder in drying the more they are stirred ; after being 
ploughed they soon have the appearance of stripes of un- 
burned brick ; and if a heavy shower has fallen after the 
land has been harrowed, they become hard like a barn 
floor. It is of no use to pulverise suchlaiul, until its texture 
is altered by chalk, marl, dung, or asbes; and the safest 
way is not to stir it too much, as no good crop can be ex- 
pected, at all events, till it be ameliorated. To prepare a 
middling stiff soil for beans, it should be ploughed into 
high and narrow lands in autumn, with numerous and deep 
water- furrows, so that no water may lie on any part of ir, 
and, if possible, it should be manured with long dung before it 
is ploughed. In spring, if there has been some frost, the 
surfaee will be loose and mellow ; in this the beans should 
be drilled or dibbled by hand, and a time should be chosen 
for hoeing them, wben the ground is neither wet nor dry, 
so that the hoe, whether hand- hoe or horse-hoe, may pene- 
trate two or three inehes below the surface to open the soil 
and destroy the weeds. The hoeing of the beans is a most 
essential part of the eulture, and according as it is well or ill 
executed the land will produce more or fewer crops after it 
without its being neeessary to have recourse to a fallow. 
Objections have been made to the use of the horse-hoe and 
scarifier between the rows in stifT soils, because, when the 
ground is dry and eaked, the hoe raises large clods and 
lays the roots bare, sometimes even destroying the plants. 
But there are means of preventing this : if tbe ground is 
repeatedly hoed when not quite dry, it will not bind into 
a hard crust or rise in clods; and should a sudden dry 
wind, after much rain, bake the, surfaee in spite of every 
attention to it, a spiky roller,. of such dimensions as to work 
between the. rows,* will* effectually lo.osen.the soil, so that 
hoes and grubbers may follow, without inconvenience. We 
give a drawing of such an instrument, which has been found 
very effective. 

The eylinder may be used .with or without tho spikes, or 
may be removed entirely; the instrument then becomes a 
searifier or grubber, according to the shape^of the coulters 
which are fixed to it. The front wheel .is, of use, to. move 
the whole instrument upon, by lifting the stilts or handles 
in the manner of a wheelbarrow, at the end of the rows, 
when the horse turns out of one row into another. Tho 
cross .bar on the frame before the roller is to fix hoes ^ or 
couriers' oh, when the. roller is taken away. 

.-When tlielbeans have pushed their sterns, and the proper 
leaves appear above the seed leaves, the intervals should 
be carefully hoed, and, where it is practicable, three or four 
bushels of gypsum per acre may be sown, if the soil does 
not already contain thissubstanee, and it will greatly stimu- 
late the growth. The mode of its operation is not exactly 
known, but experience has proved its utility. [SeeMANURK 
and Gypsum.] A very small quantity of gypsum seems to 
stimulate the growth of all leguminous plants and clovers, 
but if this quantity be already present in the soil no additional 
quantity seems to have any effect. It has been recommended 
to cut off the tops of the plants when the lower pods are set, as 
is frequently done in garden culture, to accelerate the tilling 
of them, and to prevent useless blossoms from drawing the 



No. 215. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



Vol. IV.-M 



B E A 



82 



n i: a 




[Roller with Spikes.] 



nourishment to the top. The reason for doing this in gar- 
dens is, that when a plant has home pods a certain time it 
is most advantageous to remove it, and the top blossoms, of 
course, never come to perfection. In the field this is not the 
case, there being no succession of plants ; and, unless tho 
top blossoms are very late, or tho black dolphin (aphis) be- 
gins to appear, which is shown by the honey-dew on the 
top shoots, no advantage is gained by topping the plants, 
and tho labour is thrown away. Wben the leaves of tho 
beans begin to lose their green colour, and tho pods to turn 
black, the crop should be reaped with tho sickle, and made 
into small sheaves, tied with straw hands or tar twine, and 
set up in tho field to dry. In seme places pease are sown 
mixed with tho beans, or the headlands are sown with pease, 
tho halm of which is used to tic the beans with ; but pease 
cling round the bean stalks and impede the setting of the 
pods ; they also interfere with the hoeing and weeding, so 
that the practice is not to be recommended. Pease require a 
lighter soil and are best sown separately, except when they 
are sown broad-east mixed with beans, in order to be mown 
in a green state as fodder for cattle or for pigs. Sowing 
beans for this last-mentioned purpose is not much practised 
in England, but is found very useful on the Continent, espe- 
cially in Flanders ; in this case they are mown like tares soon 
after the pods are formed. In order to have a succession 
of this green food, they should bo sown at different times, 
with a week or fortnight's interval. By this means a great 
doal of grass is saved, which may be reserved for hay ; tho 
cattlo fed in the stables or yards thrive well on this food, and 
produce a quantity of rich manure, chiefly in a liquid state, 
which fills the tanks and reservoirs which we have repeat- 
edly mentioned as indispensablo appendages to every good 
furm-yard. By having winter tares when the turnips aro 
consumed, pease and beans after the first crop of clover, and 
summer tares to succeed them, cattle may be fed in the stables 
all tb© year round with great advantage, the land may be 
tilled at the best season of tho year, and prepared for wheat, 
as well as by a clean fallow, while the green crop will fully 
repay all the expenses. Three bushels of beans and two of 
pease mixed together aro required per aero when sown broad- 
east, or drilled in each furrow after the plough. It is often 
advantageous to cut in a green state those beans which were 
sown for a general crop, when food for pigs is scarce. They 
will go nearly as far in this way in feeding store pigs as tho 
beans would have dono when ripe, and the ground is left in 
a much better stato for tho following crop. 

Although beans grow best in a rather heavy soil, they 
aro often profitablo on much lighter land, especially aftor 
clover ley or grass, which is broken up after being depas- 
tured two or three years. This is an excellent preparatory 
crop for wheat, and better than oats, which leave such land full 
of weeds. In tbis easo the land should he carefully ploughed 
up. For this purpose a skim-coulter, which has a small 
wing attached to it, to slice off tho grassy surface of the land 
and turn it under the furrow, is a most useful appendage to 
tho plough. Tbis makes very clean work, and a heavy roller 
drawn across tho stitches or lands loaves tho whole surface 
compact and solid, keeping the moisture from evaporating 
and facilitating tbe slow decomposition of tho roots of the 
grass. Thus a very good and clean crop of beans may be 
obtained. If tho soil should be exhausted or very poor, a good 



a great advantage to tho beans, and to the wheat which is to 
follow. On moderately light loams the most profitable rota- 
tion of crops is that of turnips, barley, clover, beans, wheat; 
or, if it is in a rich state, turnips, barley, clover, oats, beans, 
wheat, beans. When land is in good heart beans are 
often added to any rotation after wheat or before it, and 
the fallow is thus removed a vear farther on. This is hke- 
wiso dono when it is intended to change tho course of 
crops ; because beans are considered the least exhausting 
of the crops wbich arc allowed to ripen their seeds, and this 
practice is far less hurtful than the too common one of 
taking another crop of oats after the wheat, by which more 
harm is done than the value of tho crop can compensate for. 

The diseases to which beans arc subject are, the mildew, 
which is a minute fungus that grows on the stems of 
leaves, and is caused by cold fogs and frequent sudden va- 
riations of weather, and the black dolphin, an insect of tho 
aphis tribe, which appears first in the form of a honey-dew 
on the tops of the plants. For the mildew no remedy or 
preventive has yet been found. Whenever it has at- 
tacked the plants generally, before the pods aro filled, tho 
best method is to cut down the crop in its green state ; and 
if it cannot be consumed in the farm-yard, to plough it into 
tho ground, where it will decay rapidly, and be an excellent 
manuring for the succeeding crop of wheat. If allowed to 
stand, the crop will not only be unproductive, but tho weeds 
will infest the ground, and spoil the wheat crop by their 
seeds and roots, which will remain in the soil. When- 
ever the tops of the beans begin to be moist and clammy U 
tho feel, it is the forerunner of the aphis. They should then 
be immediately cut off, and this, if dono in time, may save 
tho crop from the ravages of the insects ; but tho most effec- 
tual way to prevent any disease from attacking the plants in 
their growth is to have the ground in cood heart, and well 
tilled ; to drill the beans at a sutlicient distance between the 
rows to allow of the use of tho horse-hoc, and thus to accele- 
rate tho growth of the plants, and enable them to outgrow 
tho effect of incipient disease, which seldom attacks any 
hut weak plants. 

Tho principal use of beans is to feed horses, for which 
purpose they aro admirably adapted, and far more nourishing 
than oats. They should be bruised or split in a mill, and 
given to horses mixed with hay and straw cut into chaff ; this 
will ensure proper mastication and prevent that thickening 
of tho wind, as it is called, can sod by indigestion, which 
makes beans alono not so well adapted for the food ef 
hunters and race-horses. Great quantities of beans are 
consumed in fatting hogs, to whom they are given whole at 
first, and afterwards ground into meal. Bacon hogs may 
he fatted entirely on beans and bean-meal ; but as this food 
makes tho flesh very firm, it is not so well adapted for de- 
licate porkers. In tho last i>eriod of their fatting, therefore 
harley-meal is usually substituted for bean-meal. Bean- 
meal given to oxen soon makes them fat, and the meat is 
far better than when oil-cake is used for tbat purpose 
mixed with water and given as a drink to cows it greatly 
increases their milk. A small quantity of beans is gene- 
rally mixed with new wheat whon ground to Hour: the mil- 
lers pretend that soft wheat will not grind well without 
beans, and they generally oontrivo that there shall be no 
deficiency in the necessary proportion. Thus a quantity of 



coat of manuro spread over the grass and ploughed in will b* | beans U converted into what is considered as wheatcn Hour- 



B E A 



83 



B E A 



Wheat . . 


74 


Rye . . . 


70 


Barley . . 


65 


Oats . • . 


58 


Bean3 


63 


Peas . . • 


75 


French hean3 


84 



This practice is well Known to all bakers and dealers in 
flour; and as there are mean3 of discovering the quantity 
of bean-meal in the flour, the ignorant and unsuspecting 
only are deceived, and the price of the flour to the skilful 
purchaser varies according to the quality. 

The proportion of nutritive matter in beans, compared 
with other grain, is, aecordiug to Einhof, a3 follows: — 

By weight. Or in a bushel. 

74 per cent, about 47 lb. 

„ 39 

„ 33 

» 23 

„ 45 

„ 49 

„ 54 

The French bean, kidney bean, or haricot bean (Phaseo- 
Ins vulgaris), i3 chiefly cultivated for its tender and succu- 
lent pod, being one of the most esteemed vegetables for the 
table. The varieties are innumerable, differing slightly in 
their qualities : they may be divided into two distinct kind3, 
the dwarf and climbing ; the former are the earlier, the latter 
the more productive. French beans are much less hardy 
than the common beans ; a very slight degree of frost will 
destroy them entirely. The early 3orts are therefore sown 
in sheltered situations, and occasionally protected by glass 
frames or mat3. The climbing beau3 require the support 
of sticks or wires, round which they twine as they grow, 
with this peculiarity, that the coils turn round the support 
from the right to the left, contrary to the growth of some 
indigenous twisting plants, which turn from the left to the 
right, following the apparent diurnal motion of the sun. 

The French bean, as an esculent vegetable, is wholesome 
and nutritious in a fresh state, and may be readily pre- 
served for winter store or sea voyages by waiting in casks. 
For this purpose the large, flat-podded, Dutch white runner 
is preferred. In Holland and Germany, where large quan- 
tities are salted in almost every family, a machine is used 




[Bean Cultcr.] 

for cutting them expeditiously, which greatly resembles a 
turnip sheer, and may, with a slight alteration, be used also 
for slicing cabbages when making the national German 
preparation of sour krout (sauer-hraut). It consi3t3 of a 
wheel or disk, A, in which two or four knive3 are set at 
a small angle with the plane of it, so as to shave off a thin 
slice obliquely from the beans, which are held in a box, C, 
with several partitions in which they are kept upright, bo as 



to slide down in proportion as they are cut : thus six or eight 
beans are sliced at once, and very rapidly, merely by turning 
the handle B, and supplying the box with beans in succes- 
sion. The sliced beans fall on the table below, and arc im 
mediately put in a cask with alternate layers of salt. When 
the cask is full and well pressed down, a round board is put 
over the beans and a heavy weight upon it. As the beans 
are compressed, and begin slightly to ferment, the liquor is 
poured off, some fresh salt is strewed over the surface, and a 
linen cloth is pressed close upon it to keep out the air ; the 
round board and weight are put over the cloth, and so the 
beans remain till wanted for use. "When any are taken out 
they are washed in soft water to take out the salt, and gently 
stewed with a little gravy, or with milk and a piece of butter. 
They form a very wholesome vegetable dish at a time when 
fresh vegetables are scarce. The dried seeds are also boiled 
after being soaked in water for some time, and are usually 
mixed with the preserved green beans in the same dish. This 
use of the French bean is not common in England, but when 
we take into consideration that they are extremely wholesome 
and nutritive, much more so than pease, and that they are 
an admirable corrective of the oily qualities of animal fat by 
their farinaceous qualities, we shall regret that both the 
culture and the use of them in the dry state are not extended 
for the benefit of the labouring part of the community. The 
cultivation of the French bean for the seed is confined fn 
this country to the gardens and nurseries, and to a few 
spots in the Isle of Thanet in Kent, where they ate raised 
for the London seedsmen. This is the only place, as far a3 
our observation goes, where they are so\v,n in the field. The 
produce in seed i3 said not to exceed twenty bushels per 
acre, but it must be observed that it i3 chiefly the dwarf 
sorts which are sown. There is no doubt that the produce 
of the runners would greatly exceed this quantity, and al- 
though it might be expensive to support them with sticks, 
the example of the hop grounds proves that, where the re- 
turn is large, no expense or trouble is spared. 

The be3t soil for French beans is a rich mellow loam, 
rather light than otherwise ; but, provided the ground be 
well stirred, they will grow in any soil. They may be 
planted in rows, the dwarf sorts at two and a half or three 
feet distance ; the runners at four feet. As 3oon as the 
stems begin to rise above the 3eed leaves, the intervals should 
be well hoed with tho horse-hoe, and the row3 by hand. The 
scarifier or grubber may be used to loosen the soil, and 
when they are somewhat advanced in growth the runners 
may have sticks to climb upon. A row of turnips may be 
sown between every two rows of beans ; or cabbages may be 
planted for cattle. The crop may be harvested as soon as 
the lower pods are quite dry and the seeds hard, and threshed 
like other beans. The seeds when raw have a bitter taste, 
and are rather tough under the teeth, which makes animals 
refuse to eat them in that state, but when boiled they become 
soft and pleasant. Oxen and pigs eat them readily. They 
contain, according to Einhof, 84 per cent, of nutritive matter, 
of which 50 is pure farina, the rest gluten and mucilage: 
they are, consequently, superior to every other grain or 
pulse cultivated, in point of nourishment ; and when it is 
taken into the account that they remain in the grouud only 
from May to September, and that a crop of cabbages or 
turnips is growing in the intervals at the same time, it will 
appear that the cultivation of thi3 pulse on a large scale 
might add greatly to the resources of agriculture. 

BEAN GOOSE (Zoology), Anser ferus of Ray and 
Fleming, Anas segetum of Gmelin, one of the wild geese, 
which we must be careful not to confound with the Grey 
Lagg, or true wild-goose, the Anser palustris noster of 
Lister and Ray, and the species from which, a3 is generally 
admitted, our domestic geese are derived. From that spe- 
cies the beangoose is to be distinguished by its comparatively 
small and short bill, which is more compressed towards the 
end, and also differs in colour : for, in the beau goose the 
base of tho under mandible, and also of the upper one, a3 
far a3 the nostrils, together with the nails of both, are black, 
the re3t of the organ being of a reddish flesh-colour, in- 
clining to orange; whereas the bill of the grey lagg is of 
an orange-red, with the nail generally of a greyish white. 
The wings, moreover, in the bean goose reach, when closed, 
beyond the end of the tail. 

Selby give3 the following interesting account of its habits, 
from personal observation :— 

' In Britain it 13 well known as a regular winter visitant, 
arriving in largo bodies from its northern summer haunts, 



r> e a 



84 



13 K A 



during Sci>tcml>er or the beginning of October, and seldom 
taking its final departure before tho end of April or be- 
ginning of May. The various Mocks, during their residence 
in this country, have each their particular haunts or feeding 
districts, to which, on each ensuing season, ihey invariably 
return, as I have found to be the caso in Northumberland 
and the southern parts of Scotland, where wild gecso have 
been known to frequent certain localities for a continued 
series of years. The habits of this and the preceding 
species* are very similar, and they show the same vigilance, 
and use the same means of guarding against surprise: their 
capture is therefore proportiouably diflieult, and it is only 
by stratagem that, when at rest on* the ground or feeding, 
they can be approached within gun-shot. In stormy wea- 
ther, when they are compelled to tly lower than they usually 
do, they may be sometimes intercepted from a hedge or 
bank, situated in tho route they arc observed to take early 
in the morning, in passing to their feeding ground. At 
night they retire to the water, or else (as 1 have often re- 
marked in Northumberland) to some ridge or bar of sand 
on the sea-coast, sufficiently distant from the main land to 
nflbrd a secure retreat ; and where tho approach of an enemy 
must become visible, or at least audible to their acute or- 
gans before it could endanger their safety. The haunts or 
feeding-grounds of these birds are more frequently in the 
nigher districts than in tho lower and marshy tracts of the 
country, and they give the preference to open land, or where 




[Bean Oook?.] 

the incisures arc very large. They feed much upon the 
tender wheat,- sometimes injuring these fields to a great 
extent ; and thev frequent also the stubbles, particularly 
such as are laid down with clover and other grasses. In the 
early part of spring thev often alight upon the newly-sown 
bean and pea fields, picking up greedily such of tho pulse 
as is left on tho surface ; and I am inclined to think that 
their trivial name has been acquired from their apparent 
predilection for this kind of food, rather than from the shape 
nnd aspect of the nail of tho upper mandible, to which it 
lias been generally attributed. They usually fly at n con- 
siderable elevation, either in a diagonal line, or fn two such 
lines, opposed to each other, and forming a leading aeuto 
angle, like the other species ; and when on wing they main- 
tain a loud cackling, in which the voices of the two sexes 
may bo easily distinguished. The rate at which thev move, 
when favoured by a gentle brce/c, is seldom less than from 
forty to fifty miles an hour, a velocity which enables them 
to have their roost ing-plaee far removed from the district 
they frequent by duy. The principal breeding stations, or 
summer retreats, of the bean goose arc in countries within 
tho arctic circle: it is said, however, that great numbers 
breed annually in Harris, and somo of tho other outermost 
Western Islands. Tho nest is made in the marshy grounds, 
onl formed of grasses and other dry vegetablo materials ; 
the eggs are white, and from eight to twelve in number. 
The trachea of this species increases in diameter towards 
the middle, and the bronchia) nro short and tumid. The 

• Tn* Grey La^g, or Iruo Wild Uootc. 



denticulated lanunro of the sides of the bill are 'similar in 
formation to those of the Amer /Wwi/m, and form thin sharp 
cutting edges, and the manner in which thoy lock within 
each other renders the bill an instrument beautifully adapted 
for vegetable food.* 

In bulk, the bean goose is generally rather less than tho 
grey lagg, and it is, accordingly, sometimes called provin- 
cial!}' the smaH grey goo#c, but it not unfrequently equals 
the other in size and weight 

The head and upper part of tho neck inclino to brown, 
with a grevish tinge, and the feathers of the latter hue are 
so disposed as almost to produce a furrowed appearance. 
The lower parts of tho body are ash-grey, with transverse 
darker shades ; and the back and scapulars are brown, with 
a grey tinge, the feathers being edged with white* Wing- 
coverts grey; secondaries brown, edged and tipped wiili 
white ; primaries grey-black ; rump grey ; upper tail -coverts 
white ; tail brown, with the feathers deeply bordered and 
tipped with white; legs and toes reddish, inclining to 
orange, the intensity of the colour varying according to the 
bird's age. [See Goose.] 

BE AH, GREAT, and LITTLE. [Seo Ursa Major, 
and Minor.] „ '/ 

BEAR (Zoology), the English name {or a family of 
Plantigrades (mammiferous quadrupeds of the carnivorous 
order, which are supported in walking on the entire sole of 
the foot), forming a natural group with six incisor teeih 
and two canine teeth in each jaw, twelve molars in the 
upper and fourteen in the lower jaw; pentadaetyle or five- 
toed feet, armed with strong claws ; and a short tail. The 
bears exhibit but a comparatively small carnivorous de- , 
velopment: for, notwithstanding their strength, their denti- 
tion, particularly in the form of the crowns of their molar 
teeih, indicates a propensity bordering on tho frugivorons 
exclusively; and indeed it appears that, although they are 
omnivorous*, they, for the most part, rarely devour llesh, 
unless pressed by necessity. Their claws, too, tluu^h 
formidable weapons, are not retractile, and are more calcu- 
lated for digging nnd climbing than for tearing prey. It is 
their general characteristic to lay themselves up in caves or 
hollows for the winter, which they pass in a dornrant st.ite, 
and without taking food. The female produces her young 
at this season. 

European Bears, 

^ The Brown Bear, "Aprroc of Aristotle, the Ottrs of the 
French, Orso of the Italians, Bur of the Germans, BJvrn of 
the Swedes, Ursus Arctos (Linn.) This appears to have 
heen the only species certainly known to Linmcus [see 
Polar Bkar]; and though zoologists aro not without 
their suspicions as to some of the species since recorded, the 
number of those which ean no longer be considered doubt- 
ful will prove how much this department of natural history 
has been enriched since his time. The brown bear is 
widely diffused. The mountainous districts of Europe, from 
very high latitudes (Arctic Circle) in the north, to tho Alps 
and Pyrenees in the south ; Siberia, Kamtehatka, and even 
Japan to the eastward, and a portion of the northern regions 
of America, form the range of its geographical distribution. 
Africa and the Moluccas have been added ; but it is far 
from improbable that these localities have been assigned to 
it by travellers who have taken some other species for it. 

To the Kaintehatkans this bear seems to havo given the 
necessaries, and even the comforts of life. The skin, wo 
are told, formed their beds and their coverlets, bonnets for 
jbeir heads, gloves for their hands, and collars for their 
dogs ; while an overall mado of it, and drawn over the soles 
of their shoes, prevented them from slipping on the iee. 
The Jlcsh and fat were their dainties. Of the intestines 
they made' masks, or covers for their faees, to protect them 
from the glaroof the sun in tho spring, and used them as a 

* ArfstuOe well knew thin, and (bus described the habita oftbe bear:— 
'II 0i *Qxrof tretftfrnyt* Irn* xeti yis ««{*-«» trA'u, xai mta^aUn Iwt rd 
ottitet ha, Tit* iygirnrm TtZ *vfi&r*t* xet) r*h( xec^xtvt t*lf yilptwnf. 

V.rJiti o\ xet) jtdA*, ra wp.r t *n x*r*yrj§urm' xeu xa^xlttvs, xa.) f4.v»finxett* 
xmi r*(x*?ayu. x.r.X. lib. \iu.c5. Mint Ibe bear h an omnhoroua nnU 
roal, and by (ho *iipplcmni of it* body climb* tree* nnd rait the (rail* ant 
Mm» leiftwu**. ll nUo devour* honey, having first broken up the hivijt - 
crab*, too, and nnd ll ra(«, and aUo prey* upon fleih.* Ari*lo(le Uicn de' 
icribr* Imju (he animal attacks the •ug, the Soar, ami even the bull. 

. The ran^r in (lie Tomr on tk* Pminrt tiutlce* (he bonevacekln;,' propetutly 
In innguagi'whUh, though not quite clnmdcal. 1* truly nomadic. 4 The bctrt 
U the knuwhifcri varmlnl for finding onl a bcr tn>« in Uh> world, They'll 
pnaw fi»r a day togr(ber a( the lrunk, till lh*y make a hole bl« enoticb In 
gel In (heir pn*a, and then they'll haul oul honey, beet and all* ( r £ su*** 
wfi^www), Sco lha admirable dcacriplioa of a bet hum, p. Cd. 



B E A 



85 



B E A 



substitute for glass, by extending them over their windows. 
Even the shoulder-blades are said to ha^c been put in 
requisition for eutting grass. 

The Laplanders held it in great veneration, and, accord- 
ing to Leems, called it the Dog of God, for it appears, that, 
among the Norwegians, there had long been a proverb, that 
it had tho strength of ten men, and the sense of twelve. 
They never, says the same author, presume to eall it by its 
proper name of Guouzhja, lest it should revenge the insult 
on their flocks, but make mention of it as Moedda-aigja, 
or the old man with a fur-eloak (senem cum mastruea). 

The brown bear is a solitary animal. Its retreat, during 
the period of hybernation, is the natural hollow of a tree, 
or some eavern ; and if these are not to be found, the 
animal constructs a habitation for itself, sometimes by 
digging, sometimes by forming a rude kind of hut or den 
with branches of trees, lined with moss. Here it retires 
when fat with the summer's food, and remains dormant, 
without taking any sustenanee, till the ensuing spring*. 
Cuvicr makes the period of gestation about seven months, 
stating that they eouple in June, and that the birth takes 
plaee in January; and the same number of months is as- 
signed in the artiele in the old French Encyclopedie, taken 
from observations of the bears kept at Berne. The eubs, 
when first born, are not mueh larger than puppies. They 
are long lived, for it appears that one of the Berne bears 
oadbeen confined there one-and-thirty years; and another, 
born there, is spoken of at the age of forty-seven in the 
menagerie at Paris. They are excellent swimmers, not- 
withstanding their uncouth appearance. Mr. Lloyd, in hU 
Field Sports of (he North of Europe, gives a very inte- 
resting account of the habits of this species, and of his ad- 
\eiitures in hunting it. 

That the brown bear was at one time common in the 
British islands there can be no doubt. The Caledonian 
bears (another name for British with the Romans) were 
imported to make sport for the Roman people, to whom 
the excitement of witnessing the suffering of man and 
beast, in its most distressing shape, seems to have been but 
too welcome. From the well-known lines of Martial, de- 
scriptive of the dreadful punishment of the malefactor 
Laureolus, it appears that they were sometimes used as 
instruments of torture. 

Nuda Caledonio sic pectora pnebuit nrso 
Noa falsa pendens in crucu Laureolust* 

Ray quotes authority for the brown bear having been one 
of the Welsh beasts of chase, and Pennant adduces the 
places whieh retained the name of Pennarth, or the Bear's 
Head, as cvideneo that it existed in that principality. In 
the History of the Gordons it is stated that one of that 
family, so late as the year 105 7, was directed by the king to 
carry three bears* heads on his banner, as a reward for his 
valour in slaying a fierce bear in Scotland. 

For many years it has been swept away from our islands 
so completely that we find it imported for ba ting, a sport 
in which our nobility, as well astheeommonalty,of the olden 
time— nay, even royalty itself, delighted. A bear-bait was 
one of the recreations offered to Elizabeth at Kenilworth, 
and in the Karl of Northumberland's Household Book we 
read of 20s. for his bear- ward :— ' Item. My Jxrde usith and 
aecustomvth to gyfo yerly when his Lorushipe is at home 
to his bar-ward, when he comyth to my Lorde in Cristmas 
with his Lordshippc's beests, for makynge of his Lordschip 
pastime, the said xij days, xxs.' In Southwark there was 
a regular bear-garden, that disputed popularity with tho 
Globe and the Swan Theatres on the same side of tho 
water. Now however, so much do tastes alter (in this in- 
stance certainly for the better), such barbarous sports are 
banished from the metropolis J. 

Tho firm support afforded by the well-developed sole of 
the foot enables the bears to rear themselves with eompara- 

* * While upon the "snhject of hybernation, we mnst not omit to notice the 
plug (la Norway termed lhe Tappen), found In the rectnm of fat hybernat- 
ing bean. It appears that if the bear loses this prematurely, it becomes 
intra f^e, and that la the ordinary course of things, the lappen Is not voided 
till the hybernation \* over. 

Dr. Uuekhind possesses ono of these enveloped in the rectum, which was 
presented to him by Mr. Lloyd, whose work Is hereafti-r alluded to, from a 
bear of Mr. Lloyd's own shooting. 

t We are quite aware that some commentators are of opinion that Martial 
1« here speaking of a mimic scene, and th.it the verses which follow those 
nboru quoted are not pen nine; but the expression ' tion fdjii cruce* U pr«tty 
sTrmis; ; and If the rest of the verses are allowed to bo Martial's, there is no 
doubt lhat he here describes a real spectacle. Whichever be the truth, the 
horrible use to which these bears were occasionally put la the arena is but too 
e\ itl^nt, 

% See Stat. 3 W, IV, cap. 19, sec. 23. 



tive faeility on their hind feet ; and this has been taken 
advantage of to teach the* animal to danee in an erect pos- 
ture. The discipline put in force to produee this accom- 
plishment is said to be so severe that it is never forgotten. 
There is a well-known story, introduced with the happiest 
eflfeet in The Bride of Lammermoor> of a terrified gentleman 
who was pursued by a bear. The bear gained on him — 
was close upon him — with the resolution of despair he turned 
upon his pursuer with his uplifted cane, when the enraged 
animal reared itself up, the posture of attaek, and instantly 
began — to shuffle a saraband. 

Baron Cuvier, in his * Ossemens Fossilcs,' distinguished 
the black bear of Europe under the title of Ursus niger 
Europteus, observing that the frontal bone was flattened, 
and that the well-marked depressions and ridges of the 
skull, for the reception of the strong muscles of the lower 
jaw, were evidence of its being more deeidedly earnivorous 
than the brown bear: but, in the last edition of his Regne 
'Animal, he confesses his doubts about the data on whieh he 
had come to this conclusion ; and it is probably a variety 
only. The usual size of the brown bear is about four feet 
in length, by about two feet and a half in height. The 
claws are two inches long, very much eurved and nearly 
equal. The gambols of the individuals kept in the Garden 
of the Zoological Society in the Regent's Park are too well 
known to need description. 




[Ursus Arctos.] 

Pyrenean Bear, Ursus Pyre?ia'icus. — F. Cuvier has 
figured the bear of the Pyrenees and of the Asturias, whose 
fur, in its youth, is of a yellowish white eolour. The hair of 
the feet is an intense black. This, it is considered, is only 
a variety, though perhaps a distinct one, of Ursus Arctos. 

American Bears. 

American Black Bear, Ursus Americanus. — Pallas first 
described this species (tho S ass of the Chippewayan Indians, 




[Crsu* Araciicanus.1 



D E A 



80 



BEA 



and tho Musnuaw of the Creci), whose general proportions 
arc imallcr than those of Ursus Arctos. Tbe head of tho 
American black bear is narrower, tho ears more distant, and 
tho innzzlo moro prominent, and it wants the depression 
above the eyes. Tno fur is composed of soft smooth hairs, 
which arc of a glossy black for tho greater part of ihcir 
length, instead of possessing the shaggy and woolly charac- 
ter of tbe comparatively priizlcd fur of the brown bear, ex- 
cept on the muzzlo, which Is clothed with short thickset 
hairs, brown on the upper part and paler on the side. The 
tail is apparently moro prominent, and the sharper and moro 
curved claws are nearly hidden In the hair. 

•The Mack bear/ says Dr. Richardson, ' inhabits every 
wooded district of the American continent from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, and from Carolina to the shores of the Arctic 
Sea.' A friend informs us that it still jeecurs, though not 
very often, in the Blue Uidgc, in Virginia. Other authori- 
ties place its southern boundary at tho Isthmus of Panama. 
Man has, however, gradually driven it from its haunts to 
raako way for his works, and has compelled it to take refuge 
in the mountains and tbe iminenso inland forests. In Ca- 
nada it is still abundant, and it is tolerably numerous on 
the western coast as far as California, Dr. Richardson 
gives the following interesting account of this species : — 

* Tho black bear is smaller than the other American bears 
which we have to describe, tho total length of an adult 
seldom exceeding five feet. Its favourite food appears to be 
berries of vaiious kinds, but when these are not to bo pro- 
cured it preys upon roots, insects, fish, eggs, and such birds 
or quadrupeds as it can surprise. It docs not eat animal 
food from choice; for when it has abundance of its favourite 
vegetable diet, it will pass the carcass of a deer without 
touching it. It is rather a timid animal, and will seldom 
face a man unless it is wounded, or has its retreat cut off, 
or is urged by affection to defend its young. In such cases 
its strength renders it a dangerous assailant. I have known 
tbe female confront her enemy boldly until she had seen 
her cubs attain the upper branches of a tree, when she made 
off, evidently considering them to be in safety, hut in fact 
leaving them an easy prey to tho hunter. The speed of tho 
black bear when in pursuit Is said not to be very great, and 
I bavo beon told that a man may escape from it, particu- 
larly if he runs into a willow grove or amongst loose grass ; 
for tbe caution of the bear obliges it to stop frequently, and 
rise on its hind legs for the purpose of reconnoitring. I 
have, however, seen a black bear make off with a speed that 
would have bafllcd the fleetest runner, and ascend a nearly 
perpendicular cliff with a facility that a cat might envy. 
This bear, when resident in the fur countries, almost inva- 
riably hibernates, and about 1000 skins are annually pro- 
cured by the Hudson's Bay Company, frcm black bears 
destroyed in their winter retreats. It generally selects a 
spot for its den under a fallen tree, and, having scratched 
away a portion of the soil, retires to it at the commencement 
of a snow-storm, when the snow soon furnishes it with a 
close, warm covering. Its breath makes a small opening 
in the den, and the quantity of hoar frost which occasionally 
gathers round the aperture serves to betray its retreat to the 
hunter. In more southern districts, where the timber is of 
a larger size, bears often shelter themselves In hollow trees. 
Tho Indians remark that a bear never retires to its den for 
the winter until it has acquired a thick coat of fat ; and it 
is remarkable that when it comes abroad in the spring it is 
equally fat, though in a few days^ thereafter It becomes very 
lean. The period of the retreat of tho bears is gcncrallv 
about the tima when the snow begins to lie on the ground, 
pnd they do noc come abroad again until the greater part of 
the snow is gone. At both these- periods they can procure 
many kinds of borrics in considerable abundance. In lati- 
tude 65° their winter repose lasts from the beginning of 
October to tho first or second week of May ; but on tbe 
northern shores of l^ako Huron the period is from two to 
three months shorter. In very severe winters great numbers 
of bears have been observed to enter tho United States from 
tho northward. On these occasions they were very lean, 
and almost all males: the few females which accompanied 
them wcro not with young. Tho remark of tho natives 
above-mentioned, that the fat hears alone hibernate, ex- 
plains tho cau*c of these migrations. The black bears in 
tho northern districts couple in September, when they are 
in good condition from feeding on the berries then in ma- 
turity. The females retire at once to their dens, and conceal 
themselves so carefully, that even tho lynccan eye of an 



Indian hunter very rarely detects them ; but the males, ex- 
hausted by tho pursuit of Hie females, require ten or twelve 
days to recover their lost fat Au unusually early winter 
will, it is evident, operate most severely on the males, by 
preventing them from fattening a second time: henco their 
migration at such times to moro southern districts. It is 
not, however, true that the black bears generally abandon 
tho northern districts on the approach of winter, as has been 
asserted, the quantity of bear skins procured during that 
season in all parts of the fur countries being a sutlident 
proof to tho contrary. The females bring forth about the 
middle of January; and it is probablo that the period oi 
their gestation is about fifteen or sixteen weeks, but 1 belicvo 
it has not been precisely ascertained. The number of cubs 
varies from ono to five, probably with the age of the mother, 
and they begin to bear long before they attain their full 
size.* 

It will be observed that me period of gestation attributed 
to the brown bear is seven months. Cuvicr says that they 
couplo in June, and produce their young in January. Six- 
teen weeks is the probable time allotted to the American 
black bear for the same purpose by Dr. Richardson, who had 
the best opportunities of collecting evidence on the subject 
Tho bears kept in the fosse at Berne furnished the proof of 
gestation for seven months ; but it is so characteristic of 
the family for the females to conceal themselves, that, in a 
state of nature, little evidence to bo depended upon for its 
accuracy can be obtained. * No man/ according to Brickell, 
1 cither Christian or Indian, ever killed a she-bear with 
young;* and Dr. Richardson's numerous inquiries among 
the Indians of Hudson's Bay ended in the discovery of only 
one hunter who had killed a pregnant bear. The same ob- 
servation was long ago made by Aristotle, for he says, in 
chap. XXX. book vi., Kvovcav ?l apxrov tpyov fori Xa/3t7r, 
1 it is difficult to capturo a pregnant bear;* and again, in 
chap. xvii. book viii., Kvovtra o^picroe, »} iV*oi>£u-oc, »/ xarv 
in' 6\iyuv tTXr/xrai, * but a pregnant bear has never been 
taken by anybody, or at least by very few;* and this ac- 
counts for his own error, for he makes the period of gesta- 
tion only thirty days. Mr. Lloyd, in his Field-SjHtrts of 
the North of iturope, states that he was present at tho 
dcatb and dissection of one {Ursus Arctos) which had a cub 
in her womb, she having previously produced three, and he 
relates other instances, but they arc very rare. 

Upon the whole, though the American black bear maybe 
considered a well-defined species, distinct from the brown 
bear (Ursus Arctos), it is not very probablo that, in two 
species so nearly allied, the period of gestation should be 
only sixteen weeks in the one instance, wliilc it is seven 
months in the other. Cuvier says that the American 
black bears produced young in the Paris menagcrio: the 
young were of a uniform bright ash colour, and without a 
collar. 

The value attached to the skin of the black hear, a value 
very much decreased, for the skin that once fetched from 
twenty to forty guineas is now hardly worth more than from 
twenty to sixty shillings*, and the high esteem in which 
the Indians held their llcsh, caused great havock among 
them. The importation into England in 1783 amounted to 
10,500 skins, and ascended gradually to *25,000 in 1803, 
since which time there has been a considerable decline. 
That an animal from which the wild Indian derived so much 
benefit, an animal, moreover, particularly to be dreaded in 
the perilous hour of the chase, and when encountered un- 
expectedly, should be the subject of much attention, or the 
parent of particular customs, and the object of great super- 
stitious regard, was to bo expected. Accordingly we find 
that, as the New Hollanders have their kangaroo dance and 
dog dance, the Indians had their bear dance. 

The limits of a work of this naturo will not permit us to 
go at large into the subject of bear hunting, and the cere- 
monies which accompanied it among the different tribes, 
but, as it may be expected that something should be said 
on the subject, we select the account of an eye-witness, who 
visited the fur countries soon after Canada had yielded to 
Great Britain. Alexander Henry thus writes in* his Tra- 
vels, whilst at AVa\vatam*s wintering ground near Lake 
Michigan: — 

' In the course of the month of January I happened to 
observe that the trunk of a very large pine-tree was much 
torn by the claws of a bear, mado both in going up and 

• Tlw riflail price of an American Mack bcar'i ikin la London, nt prcicot 
(iprlng of 1833), U from uno lo lbree gxitiicu, 



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down. On farther examination I saw that there was a large 
opening in the upper part, near which the smaller branches 
were broken. FVom these marks, and from the additional 
circumstance that there were no tracks in the snow, there 
was reason to believe that a bear lay concealed in the tree. 
On returning to the lodge I communicated my discovery ; 
and it was agreed that all the family should go together in 
the morning to assist in cutting down the tree, the girth of 
which was not less than three fathoms. The women at 
first opposed tho undertaking, because our axes, being only 
of a pound and a half weight, were not well adapted to so 
heavy a labour; but the hope of finding a large bear, and 
obtaining from its fat a great quantity of oil, an article at 
the time much wanted, at length prevailed. Accordingly, 
in the morning we surrounded the tree, both men and 
women, as many at a time as could conveniently work at it; 
and there we toiled like beavers till the sun went down. 
This day's work carried us about half-way through the 
trunk ; and the next morning we renewed the attack, con- 
tinuing it till about two o'clock in the afternoon, when the 
tree fell to the ground. For a few minutes everything re- 
mained quiet, and I feared that all our expectations would 
be disappointed ; but as I advanced to the opening there 
eame out, to the great satisfaction of all our party, a bear of 
extraordinary size, whieh I shot. The bear being dead all 
my assistants approached, and all, but particularly my old 
mother (as I was wont to call her), took the head in their 
hands, stroking and kissing it several times ; begging a 
thousand pardons for taking away her life; calling her 
their relation and grandmother ; and requesting her not to 
lay the fault upon them, sinee it was truly an Englishman 
that had put her to death. This ceremony was not of long 
duration, and if it was I that killed their grandmother, they 
were not themselves behindhand in what remained to be 
performed. Tho skin being taken off we found the fat in 
several places six inches deep. This, being divided into 
two parts, loaded two persons ; and tho ilesh parts were as 
much as four persons could carry. In all, the carcass must 
have exceeded five cwt. As soon as we reaehcd the lodge, 
tho bear's head was adorned with all tho trinkets in the 
possession of the family, sueh as silver arm-bands, and 
wrist-bands, and belts of wampum ; and then laid upon a 
scaffold set up for its reception within the lodge. Near the 
nose was plaeed a large quantity of tobacco. The next 
morning no sooner appeared than preparations were mado 
for a feast to the manes. The lodge was cleaned and swept ; 
and the head of the bear lifted up, and a new Stroud blanket 
whieh had never boon used beforo spread under it. The 
pipes were now lit ; and Wasvatam blew tobacco-smoke into 
the nostrils of the bear, telling me to do tho same, and thus 
appcaso tho anger of tho bear on account of my having 
killed her. I endeavoured to persuade my benefactor and 
friendly adviser that she no longer had any life, and assured 
him that I was under no apprehension from her displeasure ; 
but tho first proposition obtained no credit, and the second 
gave but little satisfaction. At length tho feast being 
ready, Wawatam mado a speech resembling, in many 
things, his address to the manes of his relations and de- 
parted companions ; but having this peculiarity, that he hero 
deplored the necessity under which men laboured thus to 
destroy tbeir friends. He represented, however, that the 
misfortune was unavoidable, sinee without doing so thoy 
could by no means subsist. The speech ended, we all ata 
heartily of tho bear's ilesh ; and even the head itself, after 
remaining three days on the scaffold, was put into tho 
kettle. It is only the female bear that makes her winter 
lodging in the upper parts of trees, a practice by which her 
young are secured from the attacks of wolves and other 
animals. She brings forth in the winter season, and re- 
mains in her lodge till tho cubs have gained some strength. 
The male always lodges in the ground, under the roots of 
trees. He takes to his habitation as soon as the snow 
falls, and remains there till it ha3 disappeared. The In- 
dians remark that tho bear cornea out in tho spring with 
tho same fat which he carries in in the autumn ; but after 
tho exerciso of only a few days becomes lean. Except- 
ing for a short part of the season tho male lives constantly 
alone/ 

The following aro considered to bo varieties of this spe- 
cies, whieh is almost equal to the polar bear in Its powers of 
swimming, and is said to be very fond of fish : — 

The Cinnamon Bear, which, with the blaek variety, may 
bo seen in the Zoological Garden at the Regent's Park. 



The Yellow Bear of Carolina, a speeimen of which was 
in the Tower of London in 1 788, and is figured by Catton. 

The Ours Gulaire of Geoffroy, with a white throat. Tho 
white markings on the throat of Geoffroy's bear are, perhaps, 
as Dr. Richardson observes, analogous to the white collar 
which many of the European brown bears exhibit when 
young; and the Doctor cites Cartwright to show that the 
cubs of the black bear on the Labrador coast are often 
marked with white rings round the neck ; and Pennant, to 
prove the same as to the bears of Hudson's Bay. An Ame- 
rican blaek bear was kept for some time in the Tower of 
London in the same den with a hyama. They agreed very 
well together except at meals, when the hyama, though 
raueh the smallest, was generally master; 'and the bear,* 
says Mr. Bennett, * would moan most piteously, and in a 
tone somewhat resembling the bleating of a sheep, while 
his companion quietly consumed the remainder of his 
dinner.' 1 

The Spectacled Bear, Ursus Ornatus of F. Cuvier, inha- 
bits the Cordilleras of tho Andes in Chili. Its fur is smooth, 
shining, and blaek, with the following exceptions : — Its short 
muzzle is of a dirty yellow, or buff colour, and there are two 
semicireular marks of the same hue, reminding the ob- 
server of a pair of spectacles above the eyes ; the under 
parts of the throat and neck and the upper part of the breast 
are whitish. This species, whieh may be now seen at the 
Garden of the Zoological Society in the Regent's Park, is 
about three feet and a half in length. 

Sir R. Ker Porter describes a bear brought from the 
Andes and living at Caracas in 1 833 somewhat differing in 
its markings from the ordinary individuals of Ursus orwa- 
tus; but it is probably only a variety. (Seo Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society, part i. p. 114.) 




[Ursus oroalm.) 

Beforo wo proceed to tho consideration of the true grizzly 
bear, we must notice the 

Barren-ground Bear, — ThU, which appears to be the 
grizzly bear of Hearne, aftd the brown bear, variety B 9 
grizzly of Pennant, was stated by Dr. Riehardson to bo the 
prown variety of Ursus Americanus; but, in the Fauna 
Boreali'Americafia f he correets himself, and seems in- 
clined to consider it a variety of the brown bear (Ursus 
Arctos). 

* From the inquiries I made/ writes tho Doctor in tho 
last-mentioned work, * throughout the woody country from 
Lake Superior to Great Slave Lake, being 10° of latitude, 
I learnt that the natives of those districts are acquainted 
with only two speeies of land bear, viz., the common black 
bear, including the cinnamon-coloured and other varieties, 
and the grisly bear, which is confined to the lofty chain of 
the Rocky Mountains, and tho extensive plains that skirt 
thoir bases. The barren lands, however, lying to the north- 
ward and eastward of Great Slave Lake, and extending to 
tho Arctic Sea, are frequented by a species of bear which 
differs from the Ameriean black bear in its greater size, 
profile, physiognomy, larger soles, and tail ; and from the 
grisly bear, also, in colour, and the comparative smallness 



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of its claws. Its greatest affinity is with the brown bear of 
Norway ; but its identity with that species has not been 
established by actual comparison. It frequents the sea- 
coast in autumn in considerable numbers, lor the purpose 
of feeding on fish. The general colour of this bear is a 
dusky, or sometimes yellowish-brown, but the shoulders and 
Hank's arc, in the summer season at least, covered with long 
hair, which is frequently very palo towards the tips. The 
Indians and their interpreters, who are not very precise in 
their application of the few terms they have to express va- 
rieties of colour, often denominate them "white bears." ' 

Those arc, not improbably, the 'silver bears* {silber-biir 
of the Germans), which Pennant considers to be the samo 
as those which inhabit the north of Europe, though he de- 
scribes them as a variety of the American black bear. 

Dr. Richardson says that the barren-ground bear docs 
not possess the boldness of the true gritdv bear ( Ursus/rrox), 
as ull the individuals seen by his party lice) at once. He says 
that it resorts to the coast of the Arctic Sea in the month of 
August, and that it preys indiscriminately upon animal and 
vegetable food. 

To an eminence which had been much ploughed up by 
the bears in quest of Arctomys Parryi (Parry's marmot), 
termed by Hearno ' ground hog/ according to the same 
author, liearne gave the name of Grizzle-Hear Hill; and 
in the stomach of one of these bears which he opened the 
Doctor found tho remains of a seal, a marmot, a large quan- 
tity of the long, sweet roots of some astra gali nnd hedysara, 
together with somo berries, and a little grass. Many long, 
white worms adhered to the interior of the stomach. Ilo 
also observes that the tail of the barren- ground bear is 
longer than that of the black bear, which is conspicuous 
nough. 

Subgenus Dams. 

The Grisly or Grizzly Bear. Ursus (Danis) ferox. — 
Cuvier, in the last edition of his ' Regno Animal,' expresses 
a doubt as to the specific distinction of this formidable bear. 
• II n'est pas encore bien prouve* pour nous que Tours ccndrG, 
Tours terrible de TAraerique Scptentrionale, soit different, 
par Tespece, de Tours brun d'Europe,' says the note ap- 
pended to Ursus ArctJs; and the species is not mentioned 
among the others recorded in the work. This is certainly 
great authority, but it is more than balanced ; and with all 
due submission to so great a name, an examination of the 
animal will prove it to be as strongly defined a species as 
any which Cuvier has himself admitted. These differences 
indeed are so well marked, as to have induced Mr. Gray to 
separate it from its congeners as a subgenus. 




[Urtai ferox.] 

The Grizzle Bear of Umfrevillc, Grmy Bear of Mac- 
kenzio, Grizzly Bear of Warden, Ursut cinereus of l>es- 
inarcst, Ursus horribilit of Say, Meesheh Musquaw or Mce* 
chce Musquaw of the Cree Indians, llohhost of the Chopun- 
nish Indians, and Ursus ferox (Lewis and Clarke who first 
accurately described the animal, calling it often ' White 
Bear), is nearly double the hizo of the black bear. Lewis and 



Clarke givo the measurement of one as nine feet from nose 
to tail, and state that they had seen one of larger dimensions. 
Eight hundred pounds is reported to be the weight to which 
it attains. The length of tho fore-foot in ono of those mea- 
sured by tho travellers above Quoted is given as exceeding 
nine inches, that of the hind-foot at eleven and three-quar- 
ters without the talons, and the breadth seven inches. Tho 
claws of the fore-feet, which aro a good deal longer and less 
curved than those of the hind-feet, measured in another in- 
dividual more than six inches* This part of its organization 
is well adapted for digging, but not for climbing, and tho 
adult grisly bear is said not to ascend trees. The muzzle is 
lengthened, narrowed, and flattened, and the canine teeth 
are highly developed, exhibiting a great increase of size and 
power. The tail is very small, and so entirely lost in tho 
hair which covers tho buttocks, that it is a standing joke 
among the Indian hunters, as Dr. Richardson observes, 
when they have killed a grisly bear, to desire any one un- 
acquainted with the animal to take hold of its tail. The 
fur, or rather hair is abundant, long, and varying through 
most of the intermediate gradations between grey and 
blackish brown, which last is prevalent and more or less 
grizzled. On the muzzle it is pale and short, on the legs 
it is darker and coarser. The eyes are small and rather 
sunk in the head. 

Unwieldy as this animal appears, it is capable of great 
rapidity of motion, and its strength is overpowering. The 
bison contends in vain with the grisly bear. The conqueror 
drags the enormous carcase (weighing about one thousand 
pounds) to a chosen plaee, digs a pit for its reception, and 
repairs to it till the exhausted store compels hiin to renew 
the chase. And yet he will be satisfied with fruits and 
roots; and on his diet depends the aggravated or mitigated 
ferocity of his disposition. The bears on the western side 
of the Rocky Mountains, which feed for the most part on a 
vcgetablo diet, arc mild, when compared with those of the 
eastern side, whose appetite for blood is whetted by tho 
abundant supply of animal food which is there offered to 
them. Tho accounts given of the tenacity with which the 
grisly bear clings to life would be almost beyond belief, 
were they not related by witnesses worthy of all credit. It is 
recorded, that one whose lungs had been pierced with five 
balls, and whose body was suffering under five other 
wounds, swain a considerable distance to a sand-bar in the 
river, and survived twenty minutes;— that another, shot 
through the centre of the lungs, pursued for half a mile tho 
hunter by whom the wound was given, then returned more 
than twice that distanco, dug a bed for itself in the earth, 
two feet in depth and tivc feet in length, and was appa- 
rently in full life at least two hours after the shot was 
fired ; — and that a third, though shot through the heart with- 
in twenty paces, as he was rushing on the hunter, fell indeed, 
but got up again. 4 We then,' say the travellers, * followed 
him one hundred yards and found that the wound had been 
mortal/ These, and many other instances arc recorded hy 
Lewis and Clarke. 

Numerous, indeed, and interesting arc the relations of 
contests with this ferocious animal. The following narra- 
tive by Dr. Richardson is selected, as being comparatively 
modem, and throwing some light on its habits. 'A party 
of voyagers, who had been employed all day in tracking a 
canoe up the Saskatchewan, had seated themselves in tho 
twilight by a fire, and were busy in preparing their supper 
when a large grisly bear sprang over tho canoe that was 
tilted behind them, and seizing one of the party bv the 
shoulder, carried him off. Tho rest fled in terror, with tho 
exception of a mctif, named Bourasso, who, grasping his 
gun, followed the bear as it was retreating leisurely with its 
prey, He called to his unfortunate comrade, that he was 
afraid of hitting him if he fired at the bear, but tho latter 
entreated hiin to fire immediately, without hesitation, as 
tho bear was squeezing him to death. On this he took a 
deliberate aim, and discharged his piece into tho body of 
the bear, who instantly dropped its prey to pursue Bourasso. 
lie escaped with difficulty, and the bear ultimately retreated 
to a thicket, where it was supposed to have died; but tho 
curiosity of the party not being a match for their fears, the 
fact of its decease was not ascertained. The man who was 
rescued had his arm fractured, and was otherwise severely 
bitten, but finally recovered. I have seen Bourasso, and 
can add, that the account which he gives is fully credited 
by tho traders resident in that part of the country, who arc 
best qualified to judge of its truth from their knowledge of 



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the parties. I have been told that there is a man now 
living in the neighbourhood of Edmonton-house, who was 
attacked by a grisly bear, which sprang out of a thicket, 
and with one stroke of its paw completely scalped hira, lay- 
ing bare the skull, and bringing the skin of the forehead 
down over the eyes. Assistance coming up, the bear made 
off without doing him further injury, but the scalp not being 
replaced, the poor man has lost his sight, although he 
thinks his eyes are uninjured. Mr. Drummond, in his ex- 
cursions over the Rocky Mountains, had frequent opportu- 
nities of observing the manners of the grisly bears, and it 
often happened that in turning the point of a rock or sharp 
angle of a valley, he came suddenly upon one or more of them. 
On such occasions they reared on their hind legs, and made 
a loud noise like a person breathing quick, but much 
harsher. He kept his ground, without attempting to molest 
them ; and they on their part, after attentively regarding 
him for some time, generally wheeled round and galloped 
off; though, from their known disposition, there is little 
doubt but he would have been torn in pieces, had he lost 
his presence of mind and attempted to fly. When he dis- 
covered them from a distance, he generally frightened them 
away by beating on a large tin-box, in which he carried his 
specimens of plants. He never saw more than four toge- 
ther, and two of these he supposes to have been eubs ; he 
more often met them singly, or in pairs. He was only 
once attacked, and then by a female, for the purpose of 
allowing her eubs to escape. His gun on this occasion 
missed fire, but he kept her at bay with the stock of it, 
until some gentlemen of the Hudson's Bay Company, with 
whom he was travelling at the time, eame up and drove her 
off. In the latter end of June, 1826, he observed a male 
caressing a female, and soon afterwards they both eame 
towards nim, but whether accidentally, or for the purpose of 
attacking hiin, he was uncertain. He aseended a tree, and 
as the female drew near, fired at and mortally wounded her. 
She uttered a few loud screams, which threw the male into 
a furious rage, and he reared up against the trunk of the 
tree in which Mr. Drummond was seated, but never at- 
tempted to ascend it. ,The female, iu the meanwhile re- 
tiring to a short distance, lay dowu, and as the male was 
proceeding to join her, Mr. Drummond shot him also. 
From the size of their teeth aud elaws, he judged them to 
be about four years old. The eubs of a grisly bear can 
eliinb trees, but when the animal is fully grown it is un- 
able to do so, as the Indians report, from the form of its 
claws.* 

The Rocky Mountains, and the plains to the eastward of 
them, particularly, according to Mr. Drummond, the dis- 
tricts which' are interspersed with open prairies and grassy 
hills, are the chief haunts of the grisly bears. To the 
north they have been observed as far as 61° of latitude, and 
it is supposed that they are to be found still farther. To the 
south it is said that they extend as far as Mexico. The 
eubs and the pregnant females hybernate, but the older 
males often eome abroad for food during winter. The fol- 
lowing dimensions have been given of a den or winter re- 
treat, — ten feet in width, five feet in height, and six feet in 
length. 

The fine grisly bear now in the Garden of the Zoological 
Society in the Regent's Park was presented to George III. 
by the Hudson's Bay Company, and was long a resident in 
the Tower under the name of Martin, and latterly of Old 
Martin. His present Majesty William IV. graciously pre- 
sented it to the Zoological Society with the rest of the royal 
collection. 

The brown hear mentioned by Pennant, on the anthority 
of Condamine and Ulloa, as an inhabitant of the Peruvian 
Andes, must not be forgotten ; but it is not known whether 
it belongs to this species. Cuvier thinks that the Peruvian 
bears of Acosta and Gareilasso may have been the great 
ant hears (Myrmecophaga). It is not impossible that 
these Peruvian bears may haye been Spectacled Bears (Ur- 
sus trnatus). 

Asiatic Bears. 

The Siberian Bear, Ursus collaris of F. Cuvier, ap- 
proaches closely to the brown bear {Ursus Arctos). The 
hair in quality and colour is much the same with that of the 
brown hear, with the distinction of a large white collar 
which passes over the upper part of the back and the 
shoulders, and is completed upon the breast. It is not im- 
probable that this may he a variety of the brown bear. 




{X'rsns cmlari J] 

Thibet Bear. — M. Duvaucel discovered this species, C/r- 
sus Thibet anus of F. Cuvier, in the mountains of Svlhet, 
and Dr. Wallich found it in those of Nepaul. The Thibet 
bear has the neck remarkably thick, and the head flat- 
tened, the forehead and muzzle forming almost a straight 
line. The ears are of a large size. Its clumsy limbs sup- 
port a compact body, and the claws are comparatively weak. 
Its general colour is black ; but the lower lip is white, and 
there is a large mark of the same colour, somewhat in the 
form of the letter Y, supposing the stem of the letter to bo 
placed in the middle of the breast, and the forks to pass up 
in front of the shoulders. In bulk it is about intermediate 
l>etween the sloth hear (Prochilus labiatus) and the Ma- 
layan bear (Ursus Malayanus). Mr. Bennett, in his Tower 
Menagerie, gives a figure and description of one which was 
brought from Sumatra, and eould not be prevailed on to 
touch flesh either raw or cooked, bread and fruits forming 
his only food. In his disposition he was moderately tame, 
and particularly fond of play. 




[L'rsus Thibctauus,] 

Isabella-coloured Bear, Ursus Isabellinus. — Dr, Hors- 
field has described- this species in the Transactions of the 
Linncean S defy, from a skin forwarded from the mountains 
of Nepanl. Tlie skull had been removed, but the front 
teeth in both jaws and the elaws remained. 

1 Our animal/ says Dr. Horsfield, ' is of a habit decidedly 
different from that of several species of Ursus from the 
same part of the world, which have been recently added to 
the systematic catalogues, namely, the Ursus Thibetanus, 
the Ursus labiatus, and the Ursus Malayanus, All these 
have a jet-black fur, a semilunar mark of a white colour on 
the breast, and other peculiarities affording types of sub- 
genera, among which Prochilus and Helarctos have bcert 
defined. Our animal, on the contrary, appears to resemble 



No. 21G. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



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the European bears in its structure, as far at least as can 
be determined from the parts which have been preserved in 
the specimen. Among these, the claws afford the best 
means of comparison : they are small, ehtuse, and straight, 
whilo those of tho Asiatic bears above mentioned are large, 
strongly curved, acute, and fitted for climbing.* 

The Syria* Dear, Ursus Syriaeus. — The she-bears which 
came out of the wood, ' and tare forty and two* of the mockers 
of Elisha (2 Kmg* ii. 23. et s*q.), are probably the first 
bears on record. These bears of Syria may be occasionally 
traced in subsequent history. Thus Matthew Paris, in 
)iis England, relates how Godfrey (Dux Gods/rid us)* as he 
was riding for recreation in a neighbouring wood daring the 
siege of Antioch {Antiochiam minorcm), saw a poor stranger, 
vrho was loaded with a bundle of dry wood, fleeing from an 
enraged bear, whereupon Godfrey gallantly went to the 
rescue, and the bear turning nport him he was unhorsed, 
the horse being wounded by the bear, and foujjht on foot, 
when, after a severe struggle, in wbira be received a nsost 
dangerous wound (vulnus fore fctiferum), he buried his 
sword up to the hilt in his savage adversary, and killed him. 
The historian, in continuation, relates the great joy of the 
army at Godfrey's recovery. (Hist, of Engtana\\oxa. ii, 
p. 34, foliOj-Loncfon, 1640.) 




[Ursus Syriacus.J 

Ilasselquist makes no mention of a bear in his catalogue 
of the animals given in his travels in the Levant, in the 
years 1749, J 750, 1751, and 1752; but Sectzen, some twenty 
years ago. was informed in the country that bears existed in 
the mountains of Palestine. 

Hemprich and Ehrenberg, in the Symbola Physica*, have 
given a figure (here copied) and a doscription of a femalo 
Killed near Bischerre in Syria. The following is the sub- 
stance of the description. 

Bear, of a uniform fulvous white (sometimes variegated 
vrith fulvous) ; cars elongated; forehead but slightly arched ; 
fur woolly beneath, with long straight, or but slightly curled, 
hair externally ; a stiff mane of erected hairs (about four 
inches long) between tho shoulders. 

The individual killed was neither young nor old, and 
measured, from the nose to the tip of the tail, about four feet 
two, the tail being six inches. Nothing was found in the 
stomach, nor were any entosoa (internal worms) discovered. 
Tbey saw her den (where there was much bear's dung), 
formed by great fragments of calcareous rock, that appeared 
to have been casually thrown together. They ate of tho 
flesh, which they found sapid, but the liver was sweet and 
nauseous. Tho gall appears to bo in great esteem ; the 
skims aro sold; and so is the dung, under the name of Bar 
cd dub, tho latter being used as a medicine for diseases of 
the eye in Syria and Egypt. 

Mount Lebanon is crowned with two snowy summits, one 
railed Gcbel Sarvm, the other Makmcl, both of which the 
traveller* visited ; but there arc no bears, except upon Mount 
Makmel, near the village of Bischerre, to the gardens of 
which they are said to wander hi winter; but in tho sum- 
pier they remain in tho neighbourhood of tho snow. 
, Tho Syrian bear frequently {non raro) preys on animals, 



but for the most part feeds on vegetables. The fields of 
deer arietinus (a kind ef chick-pea), and other crops near 
the snowy region, are often hid waste by it. 

The skin is sometimes fulvous brown, and, as has been 
stated, sometimes fulvous white, varied with fulvous spots. 
These changes aro supposed to have been occasioned by the 
abrasion of tho long Lair, whereby tho woolly fur beneath 
and that of the head become exposed. 

In the British Museum is a yellowish l>ear presented by 
the Royal College of Surgeons, which has some points ol 
resemblanco with Ehrenberg' s description ; but it is an 
albino variety of the brown bear (Ursus Arcfot), and came 
from Russia. 

Those who are familiar with Athenscus will remember 
the description of the procession of Ptolemy Philadclphus 
(lib, v. p. 201, Casaub.) at Alexandria, in which one great 
white bear (aprroc /dv \ivk% fuyakij /a'a) makes a con- 
spicuous figure. Some, and among them Baron Cuvier, 
have thought that this was the Ursus maritimus. Ehren- 
berg thus writes upon this point, after referring to the 
opinion of Cuvier: — * But smco it is evident from Prosper 
Alpinus, that white bears, of the size of a sheep (tame if 
yon will) were known in the land of the Arabians and in 
Egypt, I would rather believe that Ptolemy's bear was dis- 
tinguished far its size (as it is written) than distinct in 
species. There is scarce room for hesitating to refer aH 
those evidences of bears seen in Egypt to our Syrian bear.' 
To this we can add that, in Roscllinfs work (plate M. C. 
No. 22) there is a representation of two men together,— one, 
a red man with a red beard and long black hair with a fillcf, 
clad in a white tunic or frock bordered with blue awl red 
stripes and with blue tassels at the neck, supports on the 
left shoulder a package nearly square, pinkish, and spotted 
with blue, and holds in the right hand a red vase. His 
companion, of the same colour, dressed in the same way, 
but with the fore-part of his head apparently shaven or 
covered with a cap of the same colour as the skin (the hinder 
part with the black hair cut close), carries on his left shoul- 
der two elephants' tusks, and with his right hand leads a 
large yellowish bear, high in tho withers and with a red 
collar. 

In the same plate, and immediately before the bear- 
leaders, is a dark-brown man, naked all but the cincture 
(which is white patched with red loopard-like spots), a white 
collar round his neck with a red centre-piece, and white 
wristbands, lie has no beard : his head is covered by a 
close skull-cap spotted with black: on his left shoulder he 
bears a log (ebony ?), and with his right hand leads a leo- 
pard or panther. 

There are also two men conducting a giraffe with a monkey 
climbing up its neck ; and there is an elephant with its 
keeper, and a lion without any guardian. 

The bear figured in llosellini is led apparently in a pro- 
cession, and Ptolemy's pompa occurs immediately to the 
observer; but the modern opinion would refer theso figures 
to a date long prior to the Greek occupation of Egypt. If 
this opinion be correct (and it is considered the better one), 
Roscllini's plato eannot relate to Ptolemy's poinpa. 

Subgenus Prochilus. 

Labiated Bear, or Sloth Bear, Ursus (Prochilus) Labia- 
tus.— llliger, it is true, founded this genus on imperfect 
materials, for the individual which led him to separate it 
had lost its incisor teetb, a loss to which it is said the 
species is very subject*. M. de Blainville proved that it was 
a species of bear; and we think that, though llliger s de- 
scription, from the cause above alluded to, was incorrect, his 
name is expressively characteristic nf one of the subdivisions 
of this family, and should be retained. 

The uncouth animal, on its arrival in Europe some forty- 
five years ago, was taken for a sloth, and obtained the name 
of Bradypus pentadaeiylus and Ursimts, * Fivo-fingcred 
Sloth, Sloth Bear, or Ursine Sloth.' By the two last names 
it is, or very lately was, shown in menageries ;• and Bewick 
gave an excellent portrait of it in his Quadrupeds, as ' an 
animal which has hitherto escaped the attention of natu- 

• In the procerdmp* of lhe Zoological Society for 1839-183), (l In stated,, 
lhat, in Um skulls of many Individuals of lhit *pccfr* which he examined, 
Major Sykcs bad never teen more than four Ineisor lrelh In lhe opner and six 
fu flic timer Jaw ; llio two centre IrcOi standing a little fn front otitic line of 
the rett One Individual, then fn hU potwuiion, was to young, thai he did 
ool conceive thai lhe deficient ltwdaort could have f.dlen out ; nor was there 
any appearance of dentition having existed In the plares which lltey should 
have * wen pied. He considered, llirrtftire, lhat it mlghl \te deemed ndvisabls 
to remove lb.ii animal from the fenus (/mm; Uui w* cannot ■free with him * 



Sea 



sr 



BEif 



ralists.* Meyer called it a Metursus; and Fischer a Ckon- 
drorhynchus* It is the Bradypus ursinus of Shaw, though 
it bears no relation to the true sloths either in structure or 
habits ; the Ursus labiatus of M. Blainville ; and the Ursus 
longirostris of Tiedemann ; the Ours paresseux, and Ours 
jongleur of the French, and Aswail of the Mahrattas. The 
short limbs, the depressed air of the head, surmounted by 
the hillock of a back, and the whole contour of the ap- 
parently unwieldy mass, give the idea of deformity, and 
make it a favourite with tbe Indian mountebanks or jug- 
glers, who rely on the attraction of its ugliness. 




[Ursus (Prochilus) labinlus.? 

The cartilage ©f the nose is capable of extension, and the 
lips of considerable protrusion, as may be seen if the spec- 
tator bold a morsel of fruit or biscuit at a proper distance 
ibr exciting the animal to exert this faculty. The muzzle is 
elongated, and, with the ends of the feet, is whitish or yel- 
iowuh. The forehead rises almost abruptly from the muzzle. 
The fur, with the exceptions above noticed and that next 
mentioned, is deep Uack, wfrh bore a-ml there some hrown 
spots, and is rather long, particularly roand tlie head iu old 
individuals. Upon the under side «rf the neck and breast is 
a white mark, resembling the letters V or V. In bulk it is 
about the size of the brown bear. 

The food of this species in a state of nature is said to con- 
sist of fruits, honey, and the white ants, which arese de- 
structive. It inhabits the mountainous parts of India, where 
its retreat is stated to be in -game tavern. Major {now 
Colonel) Sykes notieod it in Dukluan (Decoan). 

In captivity it appears to be caild, but melancholy. A 
pair were kept for -some time in the garden of the Zoological 
Society, and one still survives. They lived very -sociably, 
and often Jay huddled together, uttering * kind of rattling 
but Jow whine, or purring, which was continuous and mono- 
tonous, but not entirely unmusical : indeed it was termed, 
by m»re tban one who heard k, their song. The paw was 
generally at the "moubb when they made this noise. 

Subgenus lletarctos. 

Lady Banks received, as a present, tin 1819, a Malayan 
Bear, which was irou^ht from Bencoolen. This individual 
was examined by Dr. Leach, but it does not appear that his 
description, iflio wrote a*y, was «ver published. In 1821 
Sir Stamford Rallies gave, in the *3th volume of the Trans- 
actions of the Ltnnean Society, hk interesting account of 
the epecies, under the tiame of Ursus Malayanus. Soon 
afterwards Dr. Horsfield described it as it is found in Su- 
matra, by the same name. 

The arrival of another species from Borneo, in or about 
tbe year 1825, agreeing with the former in the arrangement 
of tho teeth, tbe extensibility of the lips, the great length of 
the tongue, the shortness and smoothness of the fui\ and 
other characters, induced Dr. Horsfield to institute the sub- 
menu s above mentioned. * The range of both species/ says 
Dr. Horsfield, 'appears to be limited to within a few degrees 
of the equator." 

Malayan /tear.— This species, the Bruang of the Malaya, 
Ursus Malay anus of Ra files, Prochilus %l(day*?ius of Gray, 
Uelarctos Malayanus oX How field, is jet-black, with the 



muzzle of a yellowish tint, and has a semilunar white mark 
upon the breast. Dr. Horsfield observes, that the largest 
prepared specimen which he had examined measured four 
feet six inches along the back. 




[Ursus (Helarclos) Malayanus.] 

The sagacity of the Malayan bear is saM to be great, and 
its liking for delicacies extreme. The honey of the indige- 
nous bees of its native forests is supposed to be a favourite 
food ; and 'certainly the extreme length of the tongue is 
well adapted for feeding on it. Vegetables form the chief 
diet of this bear, and it is said to be attracted to the vicinity 
of man by its fondness for the young shoots of the cocoa-nut 
trees, to which it is very injurious; indeed Sir Stamford 
Rattles found those of the deserted villages in the Passumah 
district of Sumatra destroyed by it. It has not unfrequently 
been taken and domesticated. 

In confinement it is mild and sagacious. Sir Stamford 
Raflles thus describes the manners of one which appears to 
have been deservedly a great favourite. 

4 When taken young,' writes Sir Stamford in the Linnean 
Transactions* * they become very tame. One lived for two 
years in my possession. He was brought up in the nursery 
with the children ; and, when admitted to my table, as was 
frequently the case, gave a proof of his taste by refusing to 
eat any fruit but mangosteens, or to drink any wine but 
champagne. The ouly tisoc I ever knew him to be out of 
humour was on an occasion when no champagne was forth- 
coming. It was naturally of an affectionate disposition, 
and it was never fouad necessary to chain or chastise him. 
It was usual for ibis bear, the eat, the dog, and a small 
blue mountain hird .or 3oiy «ff New Holland, to mess to- 
gether, and eat out <rf the *ame disk: His favourite play- 
fellow was the dog, whose teasing tmd worrying was always 
borno and returned with the *utmost fgood humour and play- 
fulness. As he grew iip he hecame u very vowerful animal, 
and in his rambles in the garden he wofidi lay hold of the 
largest plantains, tbe stems of which he -cwald scarcely em- 
brace, and tear them up fcy the (roots.* 

There is an individual in the garden of the Zoological 
Society in the Regent's Park. The specimen presented to 
Lady Banks is preserved in the British Museum. 

M. Lesson considers this species to be identical with tho 
sloth-bear, Prochilus labiatus. We cannot agree with him, 
and we have had the best opportunities of examining both, 
\vhilo alive and after death. Few speeies.of bear are, m our 
opinion, more distinct. 

Bornean Bear. — This, the Helarclos EnryspUus of Hors- 
field, differs from the Malayan bear principally in having a 
large orange-coloured patch, deeply notched at its upper 
part, upon the chest. In -size it is supposed to be rather 
less than tbe last. The individual which waa exhibited in 
the Tower of London, tmd Irosn which Dr. Herefield wrote 
his description, measured, -along the 'back from muzzle to 
tail, three feet nine inches. It was 'Obtained in Borneo 
when very young, and during the voyage was the con- 
stant associate of a monkey -and other aramals. In confine- 
ment its manners greatly resembled those of the Malayan 
bear. Its habits in a state -of nature do not appear to bo 
known, but are most probably similar to those of the Ma- 

N2 



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02 



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layan species. Dr. Hors field gives tlio following account of 
the Bornean bear in captivity* to tbe correctness of which 
we ean bear testimony, for we watched the animal nar- 
rowly:— * Our animal has been shown to bo completely 
plantigrade : it rests with facility on the posterior feet, and 
its robust thigbs not only support it while sitting, but even 
enable it to raise itself without difficulty to a nearly erect 
p06ture. But it is more generally seen in a sitting altitude, 
at the door of its apartment, cajjerly surveying the visitors, 
and attracting their notice by Uie uncoutnness of its form 
or the singularity of its motions. Although it appears heavy 
and stupid, most of it* senses, particularly those of sight 
and smelling, arc very acute. The keeper has frequently 
observed that it attentively regards whatever passes before it 
in the court But the olfactory organs arc peculiarly strong, 
and appear to be in a state of constant excitement The 
Ilelarctos has considerable command over the (leshy extre- 
mity of its nose, and the parts adjacent, which it often dis- 
plays in a very ludicrous manner, particularly when a morsel 
of bread or cake is held at a small distance beyond its reach. 
It expands the lateral aperture of the nostrils, protrudes its 
upper lip by a strong effort, thrusting it forward as a pro- 
boscis, while it employs its paws to seize the object. After 
obtaining it and filling tbe mouth, it places the remainder 
with great ealmncss on the posterior feet, bringing it in 
successive portions to its mouth. It often voluntarily places 
itself in an imploring attitude, turning the head in different 
directions, earnestly regarding the spectators and extending 
the paws. The Ilelarctos readily distinguishes the keeper, 
and evinces an attachment to him. On his approach it em- 
ploys all its efforts to obtain food, seconding them by emit* 
ting a coarse, but not unpleasant, wbining sound. This il 
continues while it consumes its food, alternately with a low 
grunting noise ; but if teased at this time, it suddenly raises 
its voice und emits at intervals harsh and grating sounds. 
Our animal is excessively voracious, and Appears to be dis- 
posed to eat almost without cessation, when in a good 
humour, it often amuses the spectators in a different man- 
ner. Calmly seated in its apartment, it expands the jaws, 
and protrudes its long and slender tongue as above de- 
scribed. It displays on many occasions not only much gen- 
tleness of disposition, but likewise a considerable degree of 
sagacity. It appears conscious of tbe kind treatment it 
receives from its keeper. On seeing him, it often places 
itself in a variety of attitudes to eourt his attention and ca- 
resses, extending its nose and anterior feet, or suddenly 
turning round exposing the back, and waiting for several 
minutes in this attitude with the head placed on the ground. 
It delights in being patted and nibbed, and even allows 
strangers to do so; but it violently resents abuse and ill 
treatment, and having been irritated, refuses to be courted 
while the offending person remains in sight* 




[I'mu (llelmrclofl) earyipiln*.] 



The individual whoso manners are here so well described 
fell a victim to its voracity. During the hot weather of tho 
summer of 1828 it ovcrgorged itself one morning, and died 
within ten minutes after the meal. Its skin is preserved in 
the Museum of tho Zoological Society, 

African Bears. 
The existence of bears in Africa has been more than 
doubted. Even Cuvicr, who saw the weak points of tno 
negative evidence on this subject, says, * tho existence of 
bears in Africa is not so indisputable.' 

Pliny (niu 3G) observes, that it was recorded in tho 
Annals that Domitius /Hnobarbus, the curulc/lidilc, in tho 
consulship of M, Piso and M. Mcssala, B.C. 62,. exhibited a 
hundred Numidian bears, and as many /Ethiopian hunters 
in the circus, and adds his wonder that tbe bears should 
have been called Numidian, as it was evident that no bears 
were produced in Africa. In the 57th chapter of the same 
book he makes tho broad assertion, that in Africa tbcro 
are neither boars, nor stags, nor goats, nor bears. 

Ursinus Lipsins and Vossius have tried to make out 
that these Numidian hears were lions, and adduce, in proa 
medals of /Hnobarbus with a man fighting a lion. But, as 
Cuvier well observes, how could tho Romans, who, accord- 
ing to this same Pliny, had seen such multitudes of lions, 
have confounded the two animals ? He further observes, 
that Aldrovandus and Zimmerman support the annalist, 
maintaining that a bear exists in Africa, but that it is rare, 
and that Solinus even asserts that the bear is finer there, 
being covered with longer hair, and of a very furious dispo- 
sition. 

Shaw speaks of bears of Barbary, but without particu- 
larizing them. 

Dcsfontaincs who remained so long at Algiers, and vi- 
sited Atlas, never saw a bear, and only heard a vague 
report tbat there might be some in the forests, *dcs environs 
de la Callc.* 

•Prosper Alpinus/ says Cnvier, "attributes bears to 
Egypt, but which were assuredly no bears at all, for he 
states that they arc of the size of a sheep, and of a white 
colour. Never did one of the naturalists of our expedition 
see there any true bears.* [But see Syrian Bear.] 

Ponce t, indeed, says that one of his mules was wounded 
in Nubia by a bear. But Bruce thinks that he confounded 
the Arabian word dubbah, which signifies a hyoena, with 
dubb (whence probably the name of the star in the con- 
stellation), which signifies a bear. He goes farther, and 
says positively that there is no bear in any part of Africa. 

All these authorities arc enumerated by Cuvier, who 
alludes also to Dapper as placing bears in Congo, but with 
no reliance on him. 

Tho inclination of Cuvier's mind, then, seems to liave 
been against the existence of bears in Africa; and yet the 
record of the annalist quoted by Pliny, and the numerous 
passages concerning Libyan bears in Herodotus, Virgil, 
Juvenal, Martial and others, make a strong case for that 
existence. 

It was reserved for Ehrcnbcrg to solve theso doubts in 
great measure. In the work above quoted he thus writes 
'Moreover, we ourselves have seen in the mountains of 
Abyssinia, and therefore in Africa itself, an animal most 
like to a bear (nay, wby had I not said— a bear?) and 
hunted it repeatedly, but in vain. It is called by tho na- 
tives Karrai; He then goes on to state, that he ean givo 
m those who arc interested in the geographical distribution 
of the hear, true tidings of a blackish plantigrade wild beast 
most like unto a bear, in the mountains of Abyssinia, 
though neither Bruce nor Salt makes mention of it; and 
that, according to the description of the inhabitants, the 
mountains of Arabia Felix are inhabited by a similar or 
the same blackish bear, said to bo remarkable for its length- 
ened muzzle. He adds, 'Forskal, moreover, has brought 
tidings of an indigenous Arabian bear." 

Marine Bkar. 

Subgenus Thnlarctos, 
Polar Bear. — Martens was one of the first who distin- 
guished this species from actual observation. The brown 
bear, as luis been stated, appears to have been the only 
species known to Linnocus. It is not, indeed, till his tenth 
edition that he shows any suspicion that the Polar bear 
was distinct; and, in his last, he only ventures to say, in a 
notice appended to the description of Ursus Arctos, * Ursus 



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93 



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maritimus albus major arcticus. Martens/ Spitzb, 73. t. o. 
f. c. forte clistincta species est, nobis non visa, capite longiore, 
collo angustiore.* 

The habits, and many parts of its organization adapted 
to those hahits, of the Polar or Sea Hear, VOurs Polaire 
of the French, JVawpusk of the Cree Indians, Namiook of 
the Esquimaux, Nennook of the Grcenlanders, Ursus ma- 
ritimus of Erxlehen, Ursus marinus of Pallas,- Ursus albus 
of Brisson, Thalarctos maritimus of Gray, ' according to 
the testimony of all zoologists, have confirmed the accuracy 
of Martens. 

An inhabitant of the dreary regions which surround the 
North Pole with eternal frost, and of those coasts which are 
rarely free from ice ; the Polar bear is almost entirely car- 
nivorous, in a state of nature. Animals of the land and of 
the sea, hirds and their eggs, the dead and the living, are 
alike devoured. An admirahle swimmer and diver, and of 
great strength, he chases the seal with success, and is said 
to attack the Walrus itself. Cartwright relates an anec- 
dote in proof of his agility in the water. He saw a Polar 
bear dive after a salmon, and the hear dived with success, 
for he killed his fish. Captain Lyon gives the following 
account of its hunting the seal: *The hear on seeing his 
intended prey, gets quietly into the water, and swims until 
to leewara of him, from whenec, by frequent short dives he 
silently makes Ins approaches, and so arranges his distance, 
that, at the last dive, he eomes to the spot where the seal 
is lying. If the poor animal attempts to escape by rolling 
into the water, he falls into tho bear's clutches ; if, on the 
contrary, he lies still, his destroyer makes a powerful spring, 
kills him on the ice, and devours him at leisure* The 
same author informs us that this hear not only swims with 
rapidity, but is capable of making long springs in the water. 
Captain Sahine states that he saw one about midway he- 
tween the north and south shores of Barrow's Straits, which 
are forty miles apart, though there was no ice in sight to 
which he eould resort for rest. 

The floating carcasses of whales and other marine animals 
form a considerable part of its food, and the smell of the 
burning kreng often brings it to the whale ships. Dr. Ri- 
chardson says, that it does not disdain, in the absence of other 
food, to seek the shore in quest of berries and roots. The 
Polar bear moves faster on firm ground than might he sup- 
posed from his appearance. 'Captain Lyon describes its 
pace when at full speed, as *a kind of shuttle, as quick as 
the sharp gallop of a horse.* 

This speeies is of a more lengthened form than that of 
tho others, the head is very much elongated and flattened, 
the ears and mouth comparatively small, the neck very long 
and thick, and the sole of the foot very large. The fur is 
silvery white tinged with yellow, close, short and even on 
the head, neck, and upper part of the hack ; long, fine, and 
inelined to he woolly on the hinder parts, legs, and belly. 
The sole of the foot exhihits a hcautiful instance of adapta- 
tion of means to an end, for it is almost entirely covered 
with long hair, affording the animal a firm footing on the 
ice. The elaws are black, not mneh curved, thick and 
short. Captain Lyon's erew found none of the terrible 
effects (skin peeling off, &e., &e.) from eating the tlesh, 
ascribed to it by some of the earlier voyagers. 




tUrsut (Thalnrclos) montimut. j 



The aecounts given of the size, strength, and ferocity of 
this animal by the early navigators are appalling; but the 
accuracy of modern investigation has dissipated a good deal 
of the awe with which it was regarded, and has gone far to 
prove, that the excited imagination of some of the narrators 
has led them beyond the truth. That the polar hear when 
pressed will attack man there is no doub't, and that such an 
attack must be most formidable, every one who has seen 
the fine specimen, killed in 70° 40' N. lat. and 68° 00' W. 
long., brought home hy Captain (now Sir John) Ross, from 
his first voyage (1813), and exhibited on the staircase of 
the British Museum, will allow. But when one informs us 
that the skin of a Polar hear slain hy him and his comrades 
was twenty-three feet long; and another, that he and his 
party were frequently attacked hy them, that they seized 
on the seamen, carried them off with the greatest ease, and 
devoured them at their leisure within sight of the survivors ; 
we must he permitted to pause hefore we give entire credence 
to the stories. 

The gallant adventurers who conducted the modem 
northern expeditions penetrated far heyond the points 
formerly reached, and had opportunities of observing num- 
bers of Polar bears. The greatest length from nose to tail, 
recorded by Captain Phipps, is seven feet one inch, the 
weight of the heast being six hundred and ten pounds. 
Captain Ross records the measurement of seven feet ten 
inches, and the weight of eleven hundred and sixty pounds ; 
and Captain Lyon states, that one which was unusually 
large, measured eight feet seven inches and a half, and 
weighed sixteen hundred pounds. The 'greater numher of 
full grown individuals are spoken of as far inferior to theso 
in dimensions and weight. 

The testimony of zoologists is to the same effect. The 
adult female mentioned hy Pallas was only six feet nine 
inches from nose to tail; and that in the French menagerie, 
alluded to by Cuvier, measured ahout six feet English on 
its arrival, and gained nothing in size at the end of seven 
years. The individual which lias hecn kept for a consi- 
derable time in the garden of the Zoological Society is fa- 
miliar to many of our readers, and furnishes another in- 
stance of the average proportions of these animals. 

Pennant states that Polar hears are frequent on all the 
Asiatic coasts of the Frozen Ocean, from the mouth of the 
Obi eastward, and that they abound in Nova Zembla, 
Cherry Island, Spitzbergen, Greenland, Lahrador, and the 
coasts of Baffin's and Hudson's Bays, hut that they are un- 
known on the shores of the White Sea. Captain (now Sir 
Edward) Parry, saw them within Barrow's Straits as far as 
Melville Island ; and, during his daring boat-voyage, be- 
yond the 82° north latitude. Dr. Richardson says, that 
the limit of their incursions southward on the shores of 
Hudson's Bay and of Lahrador, may he stated to be about 
the 55th parallel. Captain (now Sir John) Franklin learnt 
from the Esquimaux to the westward of Mackenzie River, 
that they occasionally, though rarely, visited that eoast. 
Captain Bcechey did not meet with any in his voyage to 
Icy Cape. 

As the Polar hear resides principally on the fields of ice, 
he is frequently drifted far from the land. ' In this way/ 
says Dr. Riehardson, ' they are often earried from the coast 
of Greenland to Iceland, where they commit such ravages 
on the Hocks, that the inhabitants rise in a body to destroy 
them.' The same author gives the following observations, 
confirmatory of Ilearne, from Mr. Andrew Graham's MSS. 
* In winter/ says Graham, 'the white bear sleeps liko 
other species of the genus, but takes up its residence in a 
different situation, generally under the declivities of rocks, 
or at the foot of a hank where the snow drifts over it to a 
great depth; a small hole for the admission of fresh air is 
constantly observed in the dome of its den. This, however, 
has regard solely to the she-hear, which retires to her 
winter quarters in November, where she lives without food, 
hrings forth two young about Christmas, and leaves the 
den in the month of March, when the cuhs are as large as 
a shepherd's dog. If perchanee her offspring 'are tired, 
they aseend the hack of the dam, whero they ride secure 
either in water or ashore. Though they sometimes go 
nearly thirty miles from the sea in winter, they always 
eome down to the shores in the spring with their enhs, 
where they subsist on seals and sea-weed. The he-bear 
wanders about the marshes and adjacent parts until No- 
vember, and then goes out to the sea upon the ice, and 
preys upon seals. They are very fat, and though very in- 



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ill 



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offensive if not meddled with, they are very fierce when 
provoked/ 

The Esquimaux account of the hybernation of this species 
is thus related by Captain Lyon : * From Ooyarrakhioo, a 
most intelligent man, I obtained an account of the bear, 
which is too interesting to be passed over. 

' At the commencement of winter, the pregnant she-bears 
are very fat, and always solitary. When a heavy fall of 
snow sets in. the animal seeks some hollow place in which 
she can lie down, and then remains (juiet while tho snow 
covers her. Sometimes she will watt until n quantity of 
snow has fallen, and then digs herself a cave : at all events, 
it seems necessary that she should be covered by and lie 
amongst snow. Sho now goes to sleep, and docs not wake 
until the spring sun Is pretty high, when she brings forth 
her two cubs. The cave, by this time, has become much 
larger, by the effect of the animal's warmth and breath, so 
that the cubs have room enough to move, and they acquire 
considerable strength by continually sucking. The dam at 
length becomes so thin and weak, that it is with great diffi- 
culty she extricates herself, when the sun is powerful enough 
to throw a strong glare through the «now which roofs tho 
dcu. Tho Esquimaux affirm, that during this long confine- 
ment the bear has no evacuations, and is herself the means 
of preventing them bv stopping all the natural passages 
with moss, grass, or earth, (Sec note on the bear's tappen.) 
The natives lind and kill the bears during their confine- 
ment by means of dogs, which scent them through tho 
snow, and begiu scratching and "howling very eagerly. As 
it would be unsafe to make a large opening, a long trench 
is cut, of sufficient width to enable a man to looh down, and 
see where tho bear's head lies, and lie then selects a mortal 
part iuto which he thrusts his sj>car. The old one being 
killed, the liole is broken open, and the young cubs may be 
taken out by hand, as, having tasted no blood, and never 
having been at liberty, they are then very harmless and 
quiet Females which arc not pregnant roam throughout 
the whole winter in tbe same manner as the males. Tlie 
coupling time is in May.' 

That part of these accounts which relates to the non- 
hybernation of some of these bears is corroborated by Cap- 
tain Parry, who saw them roaming in the course of the two 
winters which he passed on the coast of Melville Peninsula. 

That the Polar bear will subsist on vegetable diet was 
proved in the case of two which lived and throve for years 
in the French menagerie without being allowed to touch 
animal food. The individual kept in the Tower in the 
reign of Henry III. seems to have been indulged indict 
and recreation more congenial to its habits, for there arc 
two of the king's writs extant in choice Latin, directing tho 
sheriffs of London to furnish four- pence a day for ' our 
white bear in our Tower of London, and his keeper,* and to 
provide a muzzle and iron-chain to hold him when out *f 
the water, and a Jong und strong rope to hold him when ho 
is fishing in tho Thames.* 

FosstL Bears. 

The fossil remains of these animals, when first found, 
ministered, ns might have been expected from the spirit of 
the age, to the speculations of the lovers of tho marvellous, 
and figured in the medical prescriptions of the time. The 
caverns of the neighbourhood of the ITartz were ransacked 
for them; and their supposed virtue as medicines, under 
the title of fossil Unicornis* Bones, procured a ready sale. 
In tho Protogaa of Leibnitz, there is a figure of one of 
these fossil unicorns, the product of an imagination suffi- 
ciently lively. 

But it was not till the year 1C72, as Cuvier observes, that 
any notice, truly osteological, appeared on the subject, when 
Ilayn gave some representations of their hones brought 
from n cavo of tho Carpathians, as those of dragons ; and, 
by way of helping tho cvidoncc, informed his readers that 
there were still to be found in Transylvania dragons alive 
and Hying. 

• The** writs ar« roefc ttufeiiti**, that «we lutyoin them m* riven by .Mwkw 
In liWrxciicquiT. 

< Rex WceonmU'ihim I«odont» salulem. TYa-cipJrout vulrf*, quod cuMam 
It*> na»tro Atbu qmrm mUiimn tmqtiB Tnrrim ttoitrim London lir Ibidem 
cu»u»dJpDdom.eIc«*todl ip»Uu tingulit dlrbu* qnamdlu focriut ibidem, ita- 
lic rr £»ci»tU qttaluur d<*ttaitui ad m»trnlMlonrnt guam.' 

• Rr* VkecofDltibn* l/mdouW Mlntem. l'tvci^ratm vrfbU nnod <trttodi 
Alhl Ur*\ o<Mtrl <pii iwwr mkitu fail nebk de NorwajfU el ctt in Tun* 
no»tra !xn>dpoia%h*tx»re facialis uuum rauiwUum rl ttnam catlienam feneam. 
al tnrendutn I'mim ilium exlra aquam. rt nnim longam rt fnrtem cotxtim 
ad lenindum «u»d«m L'aua jilaonrtem tt aqua Thm*'m% m otutiim, &«. 
cpmpuUbitur, &<•/ 



These wero tho remains of the extinct bear of the caves 
(Ursus sprlteus), nn animal which mm>t have approached 
a largo horse in size, some, of whoso hones are given by 
Esper, in his Description de$ Zoolithes ei des Cuvernes 
(tms le Margraviat de Bareuth (1774). Koscnmiillcr, in 
179 J and 1793, gave the figure of a cranium from Gat- 
lenreuth ; and John Hunter, in tho Philosophical Transac- 
tions (1794), described tho bones found there; and the 
Margrave of Anspach the caves. In 160-i Uosenmiiller 
again returned to the subject 

The amount of information had now arrived to such a 
point, that Blumcnbach distinguished the skulls found in 
tho caverns as thoso of two distinct species, and gave them 
severally tho names of Urstts spcl&us and Ursus arctoideus, 
which Cuvier adopted, expressing, however, his opinion 
that they were only varieties of the same species. 

Without entering largely into a detail of all the caverns 
where these remains were found, it may bo as well shortly 
to notice some of the different districts where they occur. 
Those in tho neighbourhood of the Hartz furnished the fossil 
unicorns' bones above alluded to. The principal of these are 
those of Scharzfcld and Baumann, the latter of which owes 
its name (Baumanns Hohle) to a wretched miner, who, in 
1670, lured by tho hope of finding ore, sought its recesses. 
There lie wandered, alone and in darkness, three days and 
three nights. At length he found his way out, but in so 
exhausted a condition, that he only returned to the light 
of day to die. 

The caverns of the Carpathians supplied the dragons' 
bones above mentioned. 

In Franconia, near Muggcndorf, the caves arc numerous, 
and abound in bones. II ore are the caverns of Gailcn- 
rcuth, Rabcnstein, Kuhloch, Sec. 

Tho south-west border of the Thuringcrwald has those of 
Gliieksbrunn and Leibenstcin, near Meinungen, and West- 
phalia those of Kliitcrhohlo and Sundwick. 

In these caves, it appears, successivo generations of 
hears, now swept from the face of tho earth— absolutely 
extinct as species — were born, lived, and died, for a very 
long series of years. Roscnmiiller, Huutcr, Blumcnbach, 
Cuvier, and Buckland, all agree in this point. Tho first of 
these found bones of a bear so young, that its death must 
havo almost immediately followed its birth, and other re- 
mains of individuals which must have died in their youth. 
It would be out of place here to give an account of tho 
remains of tho other nnimals, many of them also extinct, 
found in the same places; but it is agreed on all sides, that 
the proportion of bears, in relation to the others, must havo 
been great. Buckland {Rcliquicc Diluvianm) thus ex- 
pressively describes the scene in tho cavern of Kuhloch. 
* It is literally true, that in this singlo cavern (the size and 
proportions of which arc nearly equal to thoso of the into 
rior of a large church) there are hundreds of cart-loads of 
blapk animal dust, entirely covering the whole floor, to a 
depth which, if we multiply this depth by the length and 
breadth of the cavern, will be found to exceed 5000 cubic 
feet. The whole of this mass has been again and again 
dug over in search of teeth and bones, which it still contains 
abundantly, though in broken fragments. The state of 
these is very different from that of the bones we find in any 
of the other caverns, hcing of a black, or, more properly 
speaking, dark umber colour throughout, and many of 
them readily crumbling under tbe finger into a soft dark 
powder, resembling rauramy fwwdcr, and being of the samo 
nature with the black cartii in which they trre imbedded. 
Tho quantity of animal matter accumulated on this lloor 
is the most surprising and the only thing of tho kind 1 ever 
witnessed; and many hundred, 1 may say thousand, 
individuals must have contributed their remains to make up 
this «j>paHing mass of the dust of death. It see ins, in great 
part, to bc-dcriTwJ from comminuted and pulverised bone ; 
for <the fleshy parts of animal bodies produce, by their de- 
composition, so small a quantity of permanent earthy resi- 
duum, that we muU seek for the origin of this mass princi- 
pally in decayed hone*. The cave is so dry, that the black 
earth lies an Che state of loose powder, and rises in du*t 
under the feetr at»lso relains so large * proportion of its 
original animal srmltnr. that it is occasionally used by the 
peaeaxas as wi -enriching manure for the Adjacent meadows.' 
The folkminrg u nflded 4>y the Professor in a note : — * I havo 
stated, that the total quantity *f animal matter that lies 
within this cavern cannot bo computed at less than 5000 
cubic feet; now allowing two cubic feet of dust and bones 



BEA l 

for each individual animal", we shall Lave ia this single 
vault the remains of at least 2500 bears, 3 number which 
may have been supplied in the space of 1000 years, by a 
mortality at the rate of two and a half per annum.' 

The remains of Ursus speleeus are not confined, in Ger- 
many, to tbe eaverns, for, in 1820, the author last quoted 
iound m the collection of the monastery of Kremsmin- 
*ter, near Steyer, in Upper Austria, skulls and bones of 
the species in consolidated beds of gravel, forming a pudding 
stone, and dug for building near the monastery. Necker 
ue baussure found them also in the clefts of the rocks con- 
taining iron ore at Kropp, in Carniola. 

The remains of bears have been detected in the cave at 
Kirkuale, in that at Paviland, in Kent's hole, Banwell cave, 
&:e. in England ; and generally in the- ossiferous caverns of 
the south of France. The bones found m the largest pro- 
?? r { ^M the Grotte d'Echenoz, on the south of Vesoul, by 
M. Inirna, and examined by Cuvier, were those of Ursus 
spef&us. Bones of bears have been also found in the 
osseous breccia at Pisa, Nice, &c. 

Great Cavern Bear.— Ursus spelaus (Bluraenbach). 
i he skull of th is extinct speeies is considerably raised above 
the root of the nose, so that the forehead, which presents 
two eonvex elevations, is a good deal eurved. Its size is 
about one-fifth larger than the largest of those of the Brovm 
Hear (Ursus arctos), or of the Polar bear. 

Ursus arctoideus (Blumenbach). The skull of this ap- 
proaches nearest to the black bear of America, but it has 
less vertical elevation, and the muzzle is more elongated 
it is equal in size to that of Ursus spel&us. The remains 
of these two fossil bears arc found in the same localities • 
and Cuvier is of opinion, as has been observed, that thev 
are only varieties of the same species. 

A third species of eavern bear has been figured by Gold- 
fuss, under the name of Ursus priscus, in his work upon 
the environs of Muggendorf, where it was found. Its skull 
is smaller, and differs less from the crania of living bears 
than those of the preceding species. 

Those dentelated canine teeth which were attributed to 
bears, under the name of Ursus Ktruscus and Ursus cultri- 

i* 'rr Vi il!^' ° roiZet and Jobert ' and othcrs > and to cats 
ijelts) by Bravard, belong, according to Kaup, neither to a 
bear nor to a cat, and he adds his doubt whether thev 
belonged to an animal which had the least affinity either to 
the one or the other. 

He has formed a new genus for their reception, under the 
name of Machairodus, and adds that tlicso canine teeth, and 
even the dentclations on their eoncave edge, have a perfect 
resemblance to the teeth of the Megalosaurus. TSee Ma 
chairodus.] 



BEA 




had a most gracious audience, speaks with gratitude of the 
favours which he received from Mosieur l'Admirald' Angle- 
terre, Mosieur Sicile (Cecil), premier secretaire de la Royne • 
and de Mosieur le Cote d'Arfort (Hertford) : records the 
liberality of * Monseigneur le Cote de Candalle, de Mon- 
sieur le Marquisde Trans, & de Monseigneur le Marquis 
de JVeslc, qui estoient pour lors en ostage en Angleterre f 
and thus returns to his hybrid :— < Mais afin que nos 
reprenons les erres de nostre maticre, cest animal mon- 
streueux, que tu vois figure au eomencement de ce ehapitre, 
est engendre dune Dogue d 1 Angleterre & dun Ours • de 
sorte qu'il participe dc lune & de l'autre nature : ce qui ne 
semblera estrange a ccux qui ont observe* a Londres, corao 
les dogues & les ours sont logez en de peiits cachots,les uns 
aupres des autres: & quand ilz sont en leur chalcurs, ceux 
qui sont deputez pour les gouverner, enferment une ourse 
& une Dogue ensemble, de s< 



We ought not, perhaps, to conclude this article without 
referring to those hybrids which were supposed to be the 
offspring engendered between a dog and a bear. Even, at 
the present day there is an inclination to believe in the ex- 
istence of such animals; nay, it is said that there is a crea- 
ture now m England to which such a parentage has been 
attributed. We need hardly observe that it is extremely 
improbable, to use no stronger term, that two animals dif- 
fering so widely in their dentition and general structure, 
in the periods of gestation and in their habits, should pro- 
duce a mule; and yet whoever reads the following circum- 
stantial account will, we think, come to the conclusion that 
the animal described and figured )*y the author was actually 
seen by him. In the ' Histoires Prodigieuses extraictes de 
plusieurs fameux autheurs, Grccs et Latins, saerez et pro- 
phancs, divisces en einq Tomes, Le Premier par P. Boais- 
tuau, Tome Premier, Paris, 1582/ is the description and 
figure which, by the kindness of a friend, who possesses 
this eunous book, we are enabled to lay before our readers. 
4 Histoire Prodigieuse d'un chien Monstrueux, engendre" 
d'un Ours, et d'une dogue d'Angleterre, observe par l'au- 
theur a Londres, avec plusieurs autres discours memorables, 
*ur le naturel de eest animal. 

Chapitrs XXX. 

t * Par-ce Ueetcur) que ce fnt en Angleterre, en la fameuso 
t\t6 de Lodres, que i'observay premier le naturel et la figure 
dc cest animal, lequel tu vois icy depeinct, i'ay bicn voulu 
avant qu'en fa ire plus amplo description (pour n*estre ac- 
cuse* d'ingratitudc) eelebrer la memoire de ceux desquelz 
i'ay receu quelque faveur.' The author then mentions Ma 
maieste de la Roync Elizabeth,' of whom he states that he 



~ sorte que pressez de lieurs 
tureurs naturelles, ilz convertissent leur cruautd en amour, - 
fcc de telles coniunctions, naissent quelquefois des animaux 
seblables a cestuy, encore que soit bien raremet : entrc 
lesquelz i'en ay observe deux, quon avoit donne* a Morb- 
seigneur le Marquis de Trans : l'un duquel il fist present a 
Monsieur le conte d'Alphestan, ambassadeur de l'Empereur: 
1 autre qu'il a faict amener en Frace, sur lequel i'ay fait 
retirer cestuy au naturel, sas que le peintre y ait rien 
obroisv 

The author then goes on to eite instances of hybrids 
among quadrupeds, and thus continues: 'Mais afiu de re- 
tourner i la descriptio de nostre animal, duquel tu vois la 
figure si mostrucuse, qui ressemble a un ours racoursy aussi 
avoit les gestcs, le muglemet, & tdutcs ses autres facons de 
faire plus aprochantes de fours que du clue, mais ie te puis 
assenrer que c est l'une des pl9 furienses bestes que Ton 
puisse rcgarder: ear il n'y a espece d'animal auquel Une 
s]attache, soit Ours, Lyon, Taureau & autres semblables : & 
si est si ardent en ses combatz, que depuis qu'il a mis la 
dent sur quelque beste, il se feroit plustost demcrabrer que 
laisser prise, come i'ay veu par experienco a Londres quand 
on le fist corabatre contre Tours.' M. Boaistuau then 
alludes to the story of the hybrid engendered between a 
tiger and a bitch presented to Alexander the Great in India, 
and refers to ^Elian, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Plutarch, 
and others. 

The author of this description, is the Pierre Boaistuau, ou 
Boistuau, dit Launay, the subject of the following eulogy by 
Lacroix du Maine :— * Boaistuau a <5tc horame tres docte, et 
des plus eloquens orateurs dc son siecle, et lequel avoit 
une facon de parler autant douce, coulante, ct agitable 
qu'autre duquel j'aye lu les ecrits.' He is also said to bave 
been one of the first writers who recommended mothers to 
suckle their children. 

The probability is, that he was deceived by the English 
bear-wards and dog-fighters of Elizahoth's time, and that 
some dog, selected for its bear-liko appearance in certain 
points, an appearance aided by cropping the ears and tail, 
and other skilful artifices, was palmed upon him and upon 
others as a hybrid' engendered between a dog and a bear. 
BEARBERRY. [See Arctosta'phylos.] 
BEAR LAKE. Tfie great sheet of water to whieh the 
name of the Great Bear Lake has been given is situated in 
the north-west part of North Ameriea, near the aretic circle. 
Its shape is very irregular, the entiro lake being formed by 
five arms or bays whicl^have a common centre. The great- 
est diameter of the lake is in a direction north-east from 

• La mSro qui le pc-rtat estoit chien ne, & le Masle qui la couvrit estoit 
Ours. 



BEA 



9R 



B E A 



Fort Franklin, which is plaeed on the south-western ex- 
tremity of tho lake, in G5° 12' N. lat., and 123° 12' W. long. 
The measurement from this point across tho lako in tho 
direction just mentioned to the north-eastern part of Dcase's 
Bay, is about )50 geographical miles*. Tho diameter taken 
in the direction south-east by east, from the western shore 
of Smith's Bay to the eastern shore of M'Tavish Bay, is 
rather more than 120 geographical miles. The depth of 
this great collection of fresh water has not been ascertained, 
but it is known to be very great ; no hottom was found with 
270 feet of lino near to tho shore in M'Tavish Bay. Tho 
water, which appears of a light-blue colour, is so transpa- 
rent, that a piece of white rag let down into it was visiblo at 
tho depth of ninety feet. ° 

The exact height of the surface of Bear Lake al>ove the 
arctic sea has not been ascertained with exactness, but a 
eareful computation made by Dr. Richardson leads him to 
belie vo that it is not quite 200 feet above the ocean ; and in 
this case the bottom of the lake must he below the surface ' 
of the sea, as is known to bo the caso with other of the great 
lakes in this quarter of America, and with lakes in other 
parts of the globe also. The bottom of the three great 
American lakes, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, is said to 
be 300 feet below the level of the Atlantie; and the lowest 
part of Loch Ness in Scotland is more than 700 feet below 
the level of the Murray Firth. 

At the bottom of Dease's Bay, which forms the north- 
eastern arm of the lake, it receives tho water of Dease River, 
which is the priucipal feeding stream. At the bottom of 
Keith Bay is the Bear Lake River, the outlet stream, 
which Hows in a south-west direction for seventy miles 
to its junction with the Maekenzio River, in C4 J 09' N. 
lat., which point is about 500 miles from the mouth of 
that river in the arctic ocean. The breadth of Bear Lake 
River, throughout its whole course, is never less than 4 50 
feet, except at one remarkable place, called the Rapid, about 
midway between the lake an'l Mackenzie River. The 
depth of the stream varies from one to three fathoms, and 
Hows six miles per hour. It is joined in its eourse by 
several considerable branches of muddy water. The rapid 
just mentioned is caused by the river * struggling through 
a chasm bounded by two perpendicular walls of limestone 
over an uneven bed of the same material.' The walls of 
the rapid aro about three miles long and 120 feet high. 
The Bear I*ake River Hows into the Mackenzie at a right 
angle, and its entrance is distinguished by a very remark- 
able mountain, whose summit displays a variety of insulated 
peaks, crowded in an irregular manner. From the base of 
this mountain two streams of sulphureous water How into 
the Mackenzie, and from the lower cliffs which front that 
river a dark bituminous liquor issues and discolours the rock. 
Great Bear Lake eontains an abundanee of fish. Captain 
Franklin relates, that towards the end of summer and in 
autumn the produce of from fifteen to twenty nets kept in 
use at Fort Franklin was from three to eight hundred fish 
daily, of the kind called * the herring-salmon of Bear Lake,' 
and occasionally some trout, tittameg, and earp. ' 

(Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the 
Polar Sea, 1825-1827, by Captain Franklin; Topologi- 
cal and Geographical Notices of the North-tees t Territory, 
read beforo the Geological Society of London, by Dr. Rich- 
ardson.) 
BEAR'S-FOOT. [See IIkllkborus.] 
BEAR'S AVHORTLE-BERRY,the generic and specific 
characters of which have been given under the article 
Auctostaphylos Uva Ursi, was used in medicine by the 
antients, fell into neglect, and was restored about the middle 
of the last eentury. It possesses manifest astringent and, 
".nider ecrtain eireumstances, diuretic properties. The leaves 
aro the part of the plant which is used. These arc destitute 
of smell, but have an astringent, bitter taste. Analysed by 
Mcissner, 100 parts contained 

Gallic aeid t*20 

Tannin, combined with gallie aeid . . 3G'40 

Resin . . . . . . , 4M0 

Chlorophyll© G'35 

Extractive, with malatcs and other salts . .7*31 

Ditto, with citrate of lime , 0*S(5 

Gum and extractive 33*30 

Litrnin y-f,0 

Water C00 

* 101M2 



The leaves arc frequently intermixed with those of tho 
1'accinium vitis Idcra, or cow-berry, from which they may 
be distinguished by not being spotted nor having the margin 
re volute. The watery infusion of the cow-berry leaves 
treated with muriate of iron merely becomes green. Tho 
waterv infusion of the bear-berry so treated throws down a 
blackish-grey precipitate; also with tho leaves of tho Vac- 
cinium vligimwtm, or bog whortle-berry. To distinguish 
them from these last is inoro important than from the fore- 
going, as tho leaves of the bog whortle-berry are prisonous. 
They do not possess the leathery texture, or the reticulated 
character of the leaves of the Uca ursi. The leaves of the 
Bu.ru $ semjxrvirens, or common box, are often fraudulently 
intermixed with it. They may he distinguished by tho 
veins of the leaves running from the mid-rib to the margin, 
not being reticulated like the Uva ursi, having an un- 
pleasant smell, and yielding on analysis the principle ealled 
viut'in. 

The power of tho leaves is greatest over the mucous 
membranes and the kidneys. Tho leaves rubbed with cold 
water yield up all their tannin and gallie acid, and thus 
afford an infusion of great efficacy in haemorrhages front 
tho prostato gland. In eases of tendency to calculous dis- 
eases, especially of the phosphatie diathesis, it is of great 
use when persevered in ; also in eatarrh of the bladder. It 
has been thought useful in consumption, and indeed its 
tonie power may render it occasionally serviceable, It is 
administered in powder, in the form of an infusion or de- 
eoetion ; but the best form in which it can be longest used is 
that of extract, as recommended by Dr. Prout. 

(See Prout On Diseases of the Urinary Organs, second 
edit., p. 185.) 

BEARD, the hair wMich grows upon the chin and con- 
tiguous parts of the faca in men, and sometimes, though 
rarely, in women. AVithlincn its growth is the distinctive 
sign of manhood. / 

The fashion of the beard has varied greatiy in different 
times and different countries; and some of the learned in 
curious trillcs have spareor no pains to record the changes. 
Hot oman wrote a treatise expressly on the beard, entitled 
Pogdnias (IIOrQNUSJ, first printed at Leydcn in 15&G, 
and which, on account of its rarity, was reprinted at length 
by Pitiscus in his Lexicon, 

The earliest notice of attention to its growth is probably 
in Leviticus, where the lawgiver of the Jews (chap. xix. 
27) says, ' thou shalt not mar the corners of thy heard.' 

Generally speaking, the growth of the beard was culti- 
vated among the nations of the East, although it must be 
observed that most of the Egyptian figures in the antient 
paintings are without beards. In Roscllini's work we have 
a series of portraits of Egyptian kings, nearly all without 
beards. (See Plate No. x. See.) The antient Indian philo- 
sophers called Gymnosophists were solicitous to have long 
beards, which were considered symbolical of wisdom. The 
Assyrians and Persians also prided themselves on the 
length of their beards; and St. Chrysostom informs us 
(Opera, edit. Monfaue. torn. xi. p. 378) that the kings of 
Persia had their beards interwoven or matted with gold 
thread. The figures on the Babvlonian cylinders arc usu- 
ally represented with beards; ami those on the reliefsfrom 
Persepolis in the British Museum. 

Aaron 1 1 ill, in his Account of the Ottoman Empire, 
folio, London, 1709, p. 45, draws this distinction between 
the Persians and the Turks: * the Persians never shave 
the hair upon the upper lip, but cut and trim the beard 
upon their chin, according to the various forms their several 
fancies lead them to make choice of; whereas the Turks 
preserve with care a very long and spreading beard, esteem- 
ing the deficiency of that respected ornament a shameful 
mark of senile slavery.' Tho slaves in the seraglio are, 
shaved as a mark of servitude. 

The Chinese are said to affect long beards, hut naturo 
having denied their natural growth, they are sometimes 
supplied to the chin artificially. (See Nouveaux Memoires 
sur I'Etat de la Chine, par le R. P. Louis le Comte, torn. i. 
p. 209.) 

Athenccus (xiii. p. 5C5, edit. Casaub. Lugd. 1C57) ob- 
serves from Chrysippus's treatise De hones to et voluptate T 
that the Greeks wore theirbeards till the time of Alexander. 
The first person who cut his beard at Athens, he adds, was 
ever after called Kopvjjv, the shaven. Plutarch, in his Life 
of Thesewt, mentions incidentally that Alexander cut otf 
the beards of the Macedonian soldiers, that they might not 



H E A 



97 



B E A 



be used as handles by their enemies in battle. The Greeks 
continued to shave the beard till the time of Justinian, 
under whom long- beards came again into fashion, and so 
continued till the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, 
in 1453. The Greek philosophers usually made the beard 
a distinguishing feature in their appearance, whence the pro- 
verb Ik nqyuvog <ro<poi. Persius (Sat. iv. 1) terms Socrates 
viaguter barbatus, the * bearded master;* and Prudentius 
(Ajioth. ii. 200) bestows the same title of barbatus upon 
Plato. ' 

Varro (De Re Rastica, lib. ii. e. 1 1, edit. Commelin. 8vo. 
1595,'p. 12G) and Pliny, following his authority (Hist. Nat. 
edit. Harduin, lib. vii. e. 59), say that the Romans did not 
begin to shave till the year of the city 454, when Publius 
Tieinius Mena brought over barbers from Sicily. Scipio 
Afrieanus, Pliny adds, was the first Roman who shaved 
every day, The first day of shaving among the Romans 
was subsequently considered as the entrance upon the state 
of manhood, and was kept with festivities like a birth-day. 
This practice is alluded to by Juvenal (Sal. iii. 186). 
Alexander ab Alexandra (Genial. Dier. lib. v. $ 18) says 
the Roman youth consecrated the first fruits of their beards 
to some god, a custom which is illustrated by passages in 
Martial, Statius, and other authors. 

Augustus, and the Roman emperors his successors, till 
Hadrian, shaved, as appears by their coins. Hadrian was 
the first emperor who wore a beard. (See Dion, Casrius, 
edit. 1T50, lib. lxviii. p. 1 132.) Plutarch says he wore it to 
hide the sears in his face. The emperors who followed 
Hadrian continued to wear beards. (Pancirollus de Rebus 
Mcmorabilibus, edit. Francof. 1660, p. 163.) Rasche, how- 
ever, in his Lexicon Rei Num., notices the circumstance of 
Augustus suffering his beard to grow as a mark of grief 
for the death of Julius Caesar ; and says that certain coins 
struck about this timo at Aria, a.u.c. 710, present the 
portrait of Augustus bearded. Dion. Cassius, lib. xlviii. 
(edit. Hamb. 1750, torn. i. p. 551) says that Augustus put 
off his beard about a.u.c. 717, with great ceremony and 
feasting. Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius wore 
lengthened beards as philosophers ; though Aurelius, when 
young, is represented without a beard. [See Antoxinus.] 
Some of the Africans wore long beards, as may be seen 
upon the coins of Juba. (See Rasehe, Lexicon Rei Num. 
torn. ii. p. 2, col. 1018.) 

It would require no small space to enter minutely into the 
history and vicissitudes of the beard among the nations of 
modern Europe. Tho Lombards, or Longobardi, derived 
their name entirely from its length : and Eginhard, the 
secretary of Charlemagne, informs us that the Merovingian 
or first race of French kings were equally solicitous to 
nourish its growth ; though at- a later period among the 
French it should seem that the common people shaved the 
whole beard. 

The antient Britons, according to Caesar (De Bello Gall. 
lib. v, e, 14), wore no beards except upon the upper lip. 
He probably spoke of tho Kentish Britons only, or of the 
tribes who immediately adjoined them. Strabo speaks of 
the beards of the inhabitants of the Cassiterides, the Seilly 
islands, as in his time like those of goats. (Geogr. edit. 
Falconer, Oxf. 1807, fol. lib. i. p. 239.) 
L Tacitus, speaking of the Catti, one of the antient German 
nations, says, from the age of manhood they encouraged 
the growth of tho hair and beard, nor would lay them aside 
till they had slain an enemy. (De Mor. Germanorurn, 
e. xxxi.) 

The Anglo-Saxons, at their arrival in Britain, and for a 
considerable time after, wore beards. Dr. Henry (Hist. Gr. 
Brit'.Ato. Edinb. 1774, vol. ii. p. 585), however,'says that 
after the introduction of Christianity their clergy were 
obliged to shave their beards in obedience to the laws, and 
in imitation of the practice of all the Western churches. 
This distinction, he adds, between the clergy and the laity 
subsisted for some timo ; and a writer of tho seventh cen- 
tury complains that tho manners of the clergy were then so 
corrupted, that they eould not bo distinguished from the 
laity by their actions, but only by their want of beards. By 
degrees the English laity began to imitate the clergy so far 
as to shave all their beards except the upper lip. 

The English spies who were sent by Harold to discover 
the strength and situation of tho Dnko of Normandy's 
forces returned with the account that almost all his army 
had the appearance of priests, as they had the whole face 
with both lips shaven, (Seo Malmesbury, lib. iii.) .Tho 



Normans, indeed; not only shaved their beards themselves, 
but when they became possessed of authority, they obliged 
others to imitate their example. It is mentioned by some 
of our historians as one of the most wanton acts of tyranny 
in William the Conqueror, that he compelled the English 
(who had been accustomed to let the hair of their upper 
lips grow) to shave their whole beards; and this was so 
disagreeable to many of them, that they chose rather to 
abandon their country than to lose their whiskers. (See 
Mat. Paris, edit. 1640 ; Vit. Abbat. S.Albani, torn. i. p. 4G.) 
Orderieus Vitalis, p. 815, relates a curious anecdote of 
Henry I. submitting to lose his beard at the remonstrance 
and by the hands of Serlo, archbishop of Sees. 

In the higher classes of society the beard, in a greater or 
a less degree, was encouraged by the English for a scries of 
centuries, as is evident from the sepulchral monuments of 
our kings and chief nobility, and from portraits where they 
remain. Edward III. is represented upon his tomb at 
Westminster with a beard which would have graced a phi- 
losopher. Stowe, in his Annals, edit. 1631, p. 571, in his 
account of the reign of Henry VIII. under 1535, says, * The 
8th of May the king commanded all about his court to poll 
their heads, and, to give them example, he caused his own 
head to Jbo polled, and from thenceforth his beard to be 
knotted, and no more shaven.' The practice of wearing the 
beard continued to a late period ; and the reader will readily 
call to recollection the portraits of Paulet Marquess of 
Winchester, Cardinal Pole, and Bishop Gardiner, all orna- 
mented with flowing beards, in the reign of Mary I. The 
commentators on Shakspeare show that in the reign of 
Elizabeth beards of different ent were appropriated to dif- 
ferent characters and professions. The soldier had one 
fashion, the judge another, the bishop different from both. 
Malone has quoted an old ballad, inserted in a miscellany 
entitled Le Prince d Amour, 8vo. 1660, in which some of 
these forms are described and appropriated. (See Reed's 
Shaksp. 8vo. Lond. 1803, vol. xii. p.*399.) Taylor, the 
Water-Poet, in his Whip of Pride (Works, fol. 1630, p. 43), 
likewise describes tho fashions of the beard as they still 
continued to subsist in his time : 

' Now a few lines to paper I will put, 
Of men'i beards* strange and variable cut; 
In whieh there's tome do take as vain a pride 
As almost in all other things beside. 
Some are reap'd most substantial like a brush,* 
W/hieh makes a uat'ral wit known by the bush ; 
(And in my timo Of some men I have hettrd, 
Whose wisdom have been only wealth and beard.) 
Many of these the proverb well doth fit, 
Which says, '* Bush natural, more hair than wit." 
Some seem as they were starched stiff and fine) 
Like to the bristles of some ungry swine; 
And soma (to set their loVe's desire on edge) 
Are eut und pruned like to a quickset hedge. 
Some like a spade, some like a fork, some square, 
Some round, some mow'd like stubble, some stark bare; 
Some sharp, stiletto- fash ton, dagger-like, 
That may with whisp'ring, a mau's eyes outpike ; 
Some with the hammer-cut, or Roman T. 
Their beards extravagant reform'd must be ; 
Some with the quadrate, some triangle fashion. 
Some circular, some oval in translation ; 
Some perpendicular In longitude, 
Some like a thicket for their crassitude. 
That heights, depths, breadths, triform?, square, oval, round, 
And rules geometrical In beards are found. 

• ••••* 

The barbers thus (like tailors) still must be 
Acquainted with each cut's variety.' 

The beard now gradually declined, and the court of 
Charles I, was the last in whieh even a small one was 
cherished. After the restoration of King Cluirles II., mus- 
taehios or whiskers continued, but the rest of the face was 
shaven ; and in a short time the process of shaving the 
entire face became universal. 

The beard went out of fashion in France in the reign of 
Louis XIII., and in Spain when Philip V. ascended the 
throne. • In Russia it continued somewhat longer. Butler, 
in his Hudibras (part ii. canto \. Grey's edit. 8vo. Cambr. 
1744, vol. ii. p. 299), alludes to the beard *ent square by the 
Russian standard ;* whieh Grey illustrates by the following 
extract from The Noi'them Worthies, or the Lives of Peter 
the Great and his illustrious Consort Catherine, 8vo. Lond. 
1 728, pp. 84, 85 :— * Dr. Giles Fletcher, in his Treatise of 
Russia, observes, that the Russian nobility and quality ac- 
counting it a grace to be somewhat gross and burly, tbey 
therefore nourished and spread their beards to have thera 
long and broad. This fashion continued among them till the 
time of the Czar Peter the Great, who compelled them to 
part with these ornameuts, sometimes by laying a swingeing 



No. 217. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



Vol. IV.-O 



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tax wym them, ami tit other* hy ordering tho*e he found 
with hoards to have them pulled up by the roots, or shaved 
¥titli a bhmt razor, whieh drew the skin after it, and by 
these means scarce a board was left In the kingdom at his 
death : but such a veneration had this people for those en- 
sipns of gravity, that many of them carefully preserved their 
beard* in their cabinets, to be buried with them, imagining 
perhaps that they should raako but an odd figuro in tho 
grave with their naked ehins.' 

The leader who desires further information on the history 
of beard* may consult the lexicons of Hoffmann and Piliscus 
for the classic times; and in Ilulwcr's Anthropomctamor- 
phosis, or Artificial Changeling, 4to. l^ond. 1C53, p. 193- 
216, Seeno xii. is a whole ehaptcr * On tho opinion and 
practice of diverse nations concerning the natural 1 ensigne 
of manhood appearing about the mouth ;* quoted from in- 
numerable authors, anticnt and modern. 

Shaving the beard in derision was, throughout the East, 
considered to be tho greatest mark of ignominy which could 
l>o inflicted upon an enemy; aud to pluck a man's beard 
was the highest mark of insult. The Eastern origin of some 
of our old romances is, perhaps, in no circumstance more 
visible than in the descriptions which are bo frequently 
given of giants cutting off tho beards of princes who fell 
into their hands. Drayton alludes to this practice in his 
Polyolbion, Song iv. : 

* Am) for k trophy bronvhl lho gbnl'ft coal awmy. 
Made of Ike IranU ol Kings.' 

See also Warton's Observations on Spenser's Fairy Queen, 
edit. 1762, vol. i. p. 24. 

The suffering of the beard to grow in the time of mourn- 
ing i* a custom which has been already incidentally alluded 
to. Levi, in his Succinct Account of the Bites and Cere- 
monies of the Jeics at this present time, 8vo. Lond. says, 
that for the seven following relations, viz. a father or mother, 
brother or sister, son or daughter, husband or wife, they 
must not shave their beards, nor cut their nails neither of 
their hands or feet, nor bathe for the term of thirty days; 
which term is called in Hebrew Shyloshim, which means 
thirty days. 

To beard, in modern English, means to set at defiance, to 
oppose faee to face in a hostile manner. Shakspeare, in 
Henry IV. aet iv. scene 4, makes Douglai say, 

• No man so potent breathes upon lhe ground 
llnl / irt'W beard him: 

BEARING, the direction of the line drawn from one point 
to another. It is a term usually applied to the points of the 
compass, as follows:— If the line B A bo in a N.W. direc- 
tion from B, A is said to bear N.W. of B, or the bearing of 
A is N.W. To take bearings is to ascertain tho points of 
tho compass on which objects lie. The following example 
will serve to familiarize tho word, by connecting it with a 
simple problem of trigonometry :— 




Cape B is 20 miles from Cane A, and hears S.E. of it. 
On board a ship S.Capc A is observed to boar N.N. E., and 
B bears E. by N,: required tho po3ifion of the ship. Draw 
S 1), A C, both cast; ihen the anglo D S B is one point of 
the compass, and the angle D S A six points : consequently 
A S H is five points of the compass, or 5C° 15*; but 
CAS and A S D are together equal to two right angles, 
or sixteen points, of which A S D is six points, there- 
fore C A S is ten points; but C A B is four points, there- 
fore SAB is six points, or 07° 30': therefore, in the tri- 
angle A B S, the sido A B and two angles are known, 
whenee the other sides, or the ship's distance from the two 
cape**, can l>c found. The easiest method of solving this 
problem is by actual construction, the results of which are 
generally as accurato as the data. 



In n manner somewhat similar,*the distance* of a ship 
from a headland might be found by observing its bearings 
at two different hours of the day, and knowing tho eoui-so 
and the distance sailed in the intermediate time. If all tho 
bearings aro by compass, as in the second problem, tho 
magnetic variation need not be allowed for, because all tho 
l>carin^s aro equally wrong : but if one or more bo true 
bearings, taken from a map, as in the first problem, then 
the bearings observed by tho compass must be corrected. 
[See Azimuth; Compass, Azimuth.] 

BK'AHN, ono of the thirtv-two provinces into which, 
previously to tho Revolution, France was divided. It con- 
stitutes now, with LcsPays tie* Basques [see Basques], tho 
department of Bastes Pyr£nc"es or the Lowor Pyrenees. The 
name Bearn is derived from Bencharnum, an antient town 
in this country, first mentioned in the Itinerary of Antoni- 
nus : its exact position is undetermined. 

Tho greatest part of Beam lies amidst the Pyrcncos, tho 
summits of wlneh form its southern boundary, and separate 
it from Spain. On other sides, with reference to the old ter- 
ritorial divisions of France, it is bounded by different parts of 
Gaseogne, or Gascony, viz., by Bigorre on tho cast, by tho 
Pays des Basques on the west, and by Annagnacand Cha- 
losse on tho north*. It is a very mountainous country, as 
may be supposed from its being occupied by the branches of 
tho Pyrenees. The Pic du Midi t9732 feet) and Mount 
Billari (8475 feet) are upon or within its frontier. Worn tho 
mountains numerous streams descend, whit h drain different 
valleys, and fall into the Adour. of whose basin Beam forms 
a part. Tho name Gave, which is synonymous with river, is 
common to the streams of this country: they arc distin- 
guished from one another by some additional designation, 
such as the name of a town on the bank. Tho rapidity of 
these Gavcs prevents their being used for navigation, but 
they abound with fish> especially trouts, salmons, pikes, and 
a kind of small salmon of exquisite flavour called toquaas. 
The two principal streams arc the Gave d*Ol6ron and tho 
Gave do Pau. ^ The Gave d'Oldron is formed by tho Gave 
d'Aspo and the Gave d'Ossau, or d'Osscau, which latter 
rises in the Pic du Midi : these unito closo to tho town of 
Oleron, and How in a north-west direction. The Gave dc 
Pau rises in Mont Peril u in Spain, crosses the count rv of 
Bigorre, and flows northwest through B^aru, passing 1'au 
and Orthes, till it unites with Gave d'Oldron. Their joint 
stream falls into tho Adour soon after their union. The 
length of the Gave d*01c*ron (measuring from the source of 
the Gavo d'Ossau) may bo estimated at 75 to 80 miles, and 
that of tho Gave de Pau at 1 00 to 110 : these measurements 
are, however, only approximations. Some of the smaller 
streams which flow into the Gavcs tTOloron and dc Pau 
contain particles of gold. 

The soil is dry and in many parts unsuitcd to tillage, 
though the banks of the Gave de Pau eontain some plains 
fertile in grain. Little wheat or rye is grown; but millet 
and maizo are the principal kinds of grain cultivated, and 
afford subsistence to the bulk of the people. The hills 
yield a good deal of wine, of which those of Jurancon and 
Gan near Pau hold tho first rank. Flax is also an artielo 
of considerable importance in the agriculture of Bc*arn, and 
serves to supply the linen manufacture. Many of the 
mountain-tops are mere heaths covered with fern, which 
the inhabitants uso for manuro; hut soino afford good pas- 
turage, and others arc covered with woods whieh yield timber 
for the carpenter or the shipwright, and furnish the masts 
which are floated down by the tributaries of the Adour, and 
by tho Adour itself, to Bayonnc, from whence they aro sent 
to different parts of France. The horses of B£arn are much 
esteemed ; they are small, but strong and lively. 

The mineral treasures of this district aro considerable. 
Lead, iron, and especially copper are found in several places ; 
and very fine marble is worked. Three brino springs, one 
near tho town of Saillies. not far from tho left bank of tho 
Gave de Pau; a second towards St. Jean Pied de Port + ; 
and a third near RcVcnae, a few miles south of Pau, supply 
tho neighbourhood with salt. Tale, bitumen, and asphaltum 
arc also found. There aro mineral waters at Aigucs-Caudcs 
or les Eaux Chaudcs in tho Valley of Ossau. The tcinpc- 

* lu the Map of Frnnce In Provlncci, published by the Society for lite Pif- 
fu»l(Hi of Useful Knowledge, the dUirlct of Chalusvc U nol marked. 1 1 U In 
clisdrd In thu larger dtvUlon of 1*p§ l^ittdet. 

t AVe Insert thin lecotid spring, o» bHsnring lo Ileum, with considerable 
diffidence. Our authority li lite Knryclopedi* Melfxxiique ; hul unless the 
phrase, 'du e6l* de St. Jenn I»l»il de Tort,* U uicd with considerable taliludc, 
Uie spring muil be beyond the (rentiers of Bcanu 



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raturo of these waters is 35° of Reaumur or 111 nearly 
of Fahrenheit ; they are recommended for disorders of the 
head and stomach. The spring called the * fountain of 
Arquebusade* is recommended for the euro of ulcers and 
wounds. There are other mineral waters at les Eaux Bonnes 
in the immediate neighbourhood of those just mentioned ; 
and in ono or two other places, as Escot in the Valley of 
Aspe, and Ogou or Ogeu, near Oleron. 

The principal man u fact uro carried on in the district 
seems to be that of linen. In the Voyage dans les Departe- 
mens du Midi de la France , by Aubin Louis Millin (Paris, 
1811), the number of weavers in and around Pau was esti- 
mated at nearly a thousand, who were chiefly if not wholly 
occupied in manufacturing the largo square handkorchiefs 
called, from the district, mouchoirs de Beam. The uni- 
formity of price, pattern, and workmanship in these articles 
made them appear like the production of the same manu- 
factory. The hams which go by the name of Bayonne 
haras, because exported from that town, are cured in Beam, 
and are considered to owe their exquisite llavour to the salt 
of Saillies already noticed. 

The capital of Beam was Pau, on the Gave de Pau, the 
birth-place of Henry IV. of Franco and of many other emi- 
nent persons. Pau had in 1832 a population of 10,597 for 
the town, or 11,285 for the wholo commune. Orthdz or 
Orthds, on the Gave de Pau, had at the same time 5195 
inhabitants for the town, or 7121 for the whole commune. 
Saillies or Salies had 4 730 for the town, or 8420 for the 
whole commune ; and OlSron, at the junction of the Gaves 
d'Aspe and Ossau, had 5850 for the town, or 6458 for the 
whole commune, or, including the suburb of St. Marie and 
its commune, 9829. [Seo Pau, Ole'ron, Orthe^s, and 
S\liks.] Besides these more important places there are 
within the boundaries of the district Nay or Nai, on the 
Gave de Pau above Pau, which carries on a considerable 
trade in linen cloths and handkerchiefs, and gave birth 
to Abbadje, a celebrated Protestant theological writer. We 
have no authority for the population of Nay later than the 
Dictionnaire Universel de la France (Paris, 1804), which 
gives it as 2262. Navarreins, on the Gavo d*Olcron, is a 
fortified place, and contained in 1826 a population of 1385. 
It owes its origin to Henry d'Albret, maternal grandfather 
of Henry IV., and is of a square form, regularly built, in 
tho midst of a fertile plain. 

The Bcarnois are a lively race, of industrious habits, sober 
and frugal, but they are charged with selfishness and dis- 
simulation. According to Piganiol, who wrote above a cen- 
tury ago, a number of the peasantry used to go to Spain, to 
till the ground or gather in the hay harvest, and to bring 
back their earnings to their own land. Their patois or 
dialect is agreeable, copious, and expressive, well suited to 
poetry or music. 

"Beam was included in the country of the Aquitani, ac- 
cording to the threefold division of Gaul laid down by Julius 
Ca?aar in the beginning of his Commentaries. It was sub- 
jugated by tho ltoinans, and upon the downfall of their 
empire came into the bands of tho Goths, from whom it was 
wrested by the Franks under Clovis. It was, however, sub- 
sequently lost by the Franks, but came again into their 
possession in the time of Charlemagne. In 820, Louis lc 
Debonnaire, son of Charlemagne, conferred the viee-county 
of Bfiamon the son of the Duke of Gascony,and it continued 
in the possession of liis family till 1134. By failure of the 
male line of his posterity it passed into other families, as 
those of the Viscounts of Gavaret, the Moncades, who were 
among the chief nobles of Catalonia, and the Counts of Foix. 
These last acquired possession of the district of Bigorre, and 
intermarried with the royal family of Navarre. By this in- 
termarriage the kingdom of Navarre, the principality of 
Bdarn, and the counties of Foix and Bigorro came into the 
hands of one possessor. On tho failure of heirs male they 
were conveyed by marriage into the family of D'Albret, and 
augmented by the inheritance of that family. Of this fa- 
mily sprang Henry IV., who inherited tho country of Beam 
and Lower Navarre, and, as it seems, of Foix, with the title 
of king of Navarre ; but the country of Upper Navarre, south 
of the Pyrenees, had been wrested from his great-grand- 
father by tho ambition of Ferdinand V., King of Arragon. 
On the accession of Henry to the throne of France, Beam 
was united with France, and has continued to be so united 
ever since. It was one of the provinces which enjoyed the 
privilege of a local house of assembly of the nobility, clergy, 
and commons. 



According to Expilly, the population of BSarn was ascer- 
tained in 169S to be 198,000. Expilly estimated it at 210,000 
in 1 762. From the entire change of the territorial divisions 
of France, it is difficult to give the present population ; but 
the three arrondissements of Pau, Oldron, and Orthds, which 
nearly coincide with Beam, had in 1832 a population of 
277,106. 

{Encyclopidie Method., Geog. Physique; Piganiol de ' 
la Force Nouvelle Description de la France; Voyage dans 
les DSpariemens du Midi de la France^ par A. L. Millin, &c.) 

BEATIFICATION, an act by which tho pope permits a 
* servus Dei,' t. e. an individual who died in good repute as a 
virtuous and holy man, to be worshipped, and his image to 
be placed on the altar withm the limits of some diocese, pro- 
vince, or town, or within tho houses of the religious order to 
which tho deceased belonged, defining at the same time the 
peculiar mode of worship allowed, by prayers, masses, &c, 
until the time he may be duly canonized as a saint. The 
distinction between beatification and canonization is this* 
the first is a mere permission to honour and worship in some 
particular district, and the object of this veneration is styled 
Beatus; canonization is an injunction to venerate the object 
of it as a saint, ■ Sanctus,' acknowledged by tho whole church. 
Originally it was tho bishop of the diocese who allowed the 
veneration or worship of doceased individuals whom he 
deemed worthy of it, and when the worship extended to 
other dioceses, and by degrees to the church in general, 
'with tho consent, tacit or expressed, of the supreme pon- 
tiff,' then the worship, which was before that of simple bea- 
tification, acquired tho character of canonization. But 
when, in after times, tho question both of beatification and 
canonization was referred to the Roman See, the pontiffs, 
in granting tho first, always made the distinction: 'dum- 
modo propter prsemissa canonizatus, aut canonizata, non 
censeatur.' (Benedicti XIV., Opera, vol. i. de Servorum 
Dei Beatifical ione.) In the same chapter Benedict XIV. 
determines tho regulations as to the proceedings, ovidence, 
&c, to bo gone through previous to granting the writ of bea- 
tification. It may be granted to two classes of -individuals, 
martyrs and confessors. After beatification has been ob- 
tained, a new suit and fresh evidence of sanctity are required 
in order to obtain the canonization of the same individual. In 
May, 1807, five Bcati were canonized, or declared Saints, in 
St. Peter's church, by Pius VII. The ceremony is very 
expensive, and therefore is not performed very frequently. 
It is only since the pontificato of Alexander VII. that the 
ceremony of beatification has been performed in St. Peter's 
church, with great solcmnitv. Applications for the honour 
of beatification arc generally made by the friends or rela- 
tions of tho deceased, or by the brethren of the religions 
order of which he was a member; evidence of his conduct 
and merits is collected, and laid before a congregation of 
cardinals and prelates ; counsel is employed by the appli- 
cants, while another counsel opposes tho petition and endea- 
vours to find flaws in the evidence. This latter office is per- 
formed by a legal officer of the Roman See, who has been nick- 
named VAwocato del Diavolo f * the devil's advocate,' as ho 
performs what is considered an ungracious part, by opposing 
the admission of a candidate into the category of the saints. 

BEATON, CARDINAL DAVID, Archbishop of St. 
Andrew's, and Lord High Chancellor to Mary Queen of 
Scotland, was a younger son of John Beaton or Bethune of 
Balfour, in the shire of Fife, by a daughter of David Mony- 
penny of Pitmilly in the same shire ; and nephew to Bishop 
James Beaton, Lord Chancellor to King James V. He was 
born in 1494 (Keith's Bishojts, p. 36), and after passing 
through his grammar education, was, on the 26th October, 
1511, matriculated of tho university of Glasgow (M'Cric's 
Melville, vol. i. A pp. Note M.), whence he was sent to 
France* to study the civil and eanon laws. On the death 
of Secretary Panter in 1519, he was appointed resident for 
Scotland at the French court ; and about the same time his 
uncle the chancellor bestowed on him (then designated only 
clericus S. Andrea; diocesis) the rectory of Cambuslang, in 
the dioceso of Glasgow. In 1523 his uncle, now translated 
from that see to the primacy of St, Andrew's, resigned in his 
favour the rich monastery of Arbroath in coramendam, and 
also prevailed on the pope to dispense with his taking the 
habit for two years: this time he spent in France, and 
then returned to Scotland, where we immediately find him 

• Rolh Crawford ntnl Keith sny th ; * was in lits sixteenth year; but from 
Hie preceding dale, furaUhcd by Dr. M'Uic'i wurk, Uiii appears lo be a 
mistake. _ 

02 



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100 



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in parliament as abbot of Arbroath; and in October, 1527, 
John l>eaton of Balfour and others having been indicted 
for an assault upon the sheriff of Fife, and found bail for 
their appearance, the abbot became bound to relieve John 
Wardlaw of Torry of the eautionry. (Pile. Crim. Trials.) On 
tho fall of the Earl of Angus, and tho surrender of George 
bishop of Dun Weld, ho was appointed Lord Privy Seal, in 
152S— the same year in which the great convent of Black- 
friars at Edinburgh, in tho immediate neighbourhood of 
which Beaton and his uncle had their magnificent abode, 
was burnt down to tho ground by a sudden fire. In Febru- 
ary, 1533, Beaton, now prothonotary apostolic, was sent am- 
bassador to France, with Secretary Erskine, to treat of a 
league with that erown, and also of a matrimonial allianee 
with tho Princess Magdaleno; and when the King of Scots 

})t*ocecded thither on the same object, Beaton was one of the 
ords of the regency appointed by commission, of date 29th 
August, 153C, to conduet the government in his absenee. 
On Queen Magdalene's decease, he was joined in an em- 
bassy to the house of Guise, to treat of a match with Mary, 
widow of the Duke of Longueville ; andwc find that, agree- 
ably to the common practice of that time, he, before going 
abroad, obtained the king's special protection for his friends 
and dependants in his absenee. {Reg. Privy Seal, x. 163-4.) 
It is probable that, when in France on this occasion, he pro- 
cured the papal bull of date 12th February, 1537. for the 
erection of St. Mary's College at St. Andrew's. In Novem- 
ber, 153T, he was made a denizen of Franee, and on the 5th 
of next month consecrated Bishop of Mirepoix in Languedoc. 
On his retirn home he was made coadjutor in the see of St. 
Andrew's, and successor to his uncle, who being now much 
advanced in years, devolved on him the charge of church 
affairs. He seems afterwards to have gone abroad again, for 
on the 20th December, 1533, Pope Paul III. advanced him 
to the eardinalate, by tho title of Sancti Stephani in Monte 
Coelio, the same style which was borne by Cardinal John de 
Salerno, who presided at a eouncil of the Scottish clergy in 
1201; and on the 20th June, 1539, the King of France 
directed new letters of naturalization in his favour, with a 
further clause allowing his heirs to succeed to his eslate in 
France, though born and living in Scotland. About this 
time also we find him ' legatus natus' of the Uoinan See. 
On the death of his uncle in the autumn of 1539, he was 
fully invested in the primacy of St. Andrew's, the privy seal 
being again returned to the Bishop of Duukeld. These ac- 
cumulated honours he no doubt mainly owed to the inlluence 
of his deeeased uncle ; but Beaton was already both an able 
and zealous son of the church. His authority, zeal, and 
ability now made him truly formidable; and that he might 
devote them all to the politics of the church, with eonsent 
of the king and pope, lie devolved his diocesan duties on 
the dean of Restalrig, as his suffragan. On the 28th May, 
1540, he convened a large assembly of ecclesiastics and 
others in the eloistcrs of St. Andrew's, and on their con- 
viction of Sir John Borthwick for heresy in holding Pro- 
testant opinions, pronounced sentence of outlawry nnd for- 
feiture against him, with solemn burning of hk efiisry at the 
market-cross oftheeity. But not liking the odium which 
must ensue to the clergy if they continued to put their sen- 
tences in execution, a promise was made to the king of 
30,000 ducats of gold yearly, and 100,000 dueats more out 
of the estates of condemned heretics, if he would appoint a 
judjjo in heresy. The avaricious James consented, and 
named Sir James Hamilton, natural brother of ihe Earl of 
Arran, to the ottiee, in which, however well fitted for it by 
Irs intolerance and ferocity, he fortunately did not long 
remain, being attainted of treason and beheaded. 

On the 20th December, 1542, the king died, leaving 
an infant daughter, eight days old, hoir to Ihe throne, 
but for whoso safety or that of ihe kiugdom during her mi- 
nority he had made no provision. Beaton had in the inter- 
val gone abroad ; for in tho Lord Treasurer's accounts we 
find a lar^e snm entered * for expenses made upon the 
Great Unicorn, 'Jul. n, 1541, at her passing to France with 
the cardinal:* but ho returned before the death of James, 
and on the kings demise he produced a testament, which 
he affirmed was subscribed by his majestv, appointing him 
regent of the kingdom and guardian to 'the infant queen. 
The document was a base forgery; and as tho nobilitv 
had experienced enough of Beaton's rulo, thev roused from 
his inactivity James, Earl of Arran, next heir to the queen, 
pud appointed him to the regency. Tho power, however, 
which Beaton failed to obtain directly, he obtained by his 



address ; and not only got the nobles to accede to his views 
of government, but also induced the timid regent publicly 
to abjure the doctrines of ihe Reformation. 

In December, 1543, tho preat seal was taken from the 
Archbishop of Glasgow and bestowed on Beaton, whom also, 
on very strong letters from the regent, l'one Paul 111., by 
bull of 30th January following, constituted his legate d latere 
in Scotland. Tims he was placed at the head both of ehurcli 
and state, including also the whole civil judicature of tho 
kingdom, being ex officio principal of the Court of Session, 
the supremo judicatory in civil eauses; and as he did not 
scruple to employ these extensive powers for furthering his 
own views, he appears to have been looked upon as a sort 
of wild beast whom it was not murder to destroy. The 
king of England, in particular, whose friendship was re- 
nounced at the instigation of the cardinal and the popi>h 
faction, for an allianee with France, anxiously desired his 
death ; and in the instructions of tho English privy council 
of date 10th April, 1544, the Earl of Hertford was com- 
manded, in his inroad into Scotland, to sack and destroy 
Edinburgh and 1-cith, * and this done, pass over to the Fife- 
land, and extend like extremities and destruction to tlio 
towns and villages there, not forgetting amongst oil tho 
rest so to spoil and turn upside down the cardinal's town of 
St. Andrew's, as the upper part may be the nether, and not 
one stono stand upon another, sparing no creature alive 
within the same, specially such as either in friendship or 
blood be allied unto the cardinal.' Henry soon found in 
Scotland spirits congenial with his own ; for on (he 1 7th of 
the same month we find the Earl of Hertford communicating 
to him a design by Wishart and others to seize or slay the car- 
dinal, eould they secure his majesty's protection and support. 

Beaton was haughty to all ; but to the reformers he 
was particularly oppressive. In the beginning of 1545-6 
he held a visitation of his diocese, and had great numbers 
brought before him, under the act which had passed the 
parliament in 1542-3, forbidding the lieges to argue or 
dispute concerning the sense of the holy scriptures. Con- 
victions were quickly obtained ; and of those convicted, 
five men were hanged and one woman drowned , some wero 
imprisoned, and others were banished. He next proceeded 
to Edinburgh, and there eallcd a eouncil for the affiirs of 
the church; but they had scarce assembled when tidings 
were brought that George Wishart, an eminent reformer 
and worthy man, was at the house of Cockbum of Ormiston. 
The eardinal instantly left the meeting, and went personally 
to the sheriff of the eounty to have Wishart apprehended, 
which being done, Wishart was carried over by tne cardinal 
to St. Andrew's, and shut up in the tower there. The fol- 
lowing month the Lord Justice General of Scotland held a 
eourt at Perth at the instigation of the cardinal, and * con- 
demned to death and gart hang four honest men for eating 
of an goose in lent. Likcways they caused drown ane young 
woman because she wald not pray to our ladie and other 
sancts in the t\me of her birth.' (Pitscoitie, 453.) Beaton 
afterwards returned to St. Andrew's, and called a conven- 
tion of his clergy, at which Wishart was condemned for 
heresy, and adjudged to be burnt; a sentence which (so 
violently were the clergy bent on the accomplishment of 
their ends) was passed in the faee of a command by the 
regent that the trial should proceed at Edinburgh, and 
was put in force by the eardinal and his clergy in defianco 
of the regent, and* without the aid of the civil power. For 
this conduct the cardinal was loudly applauded by his 
creatures. The eardinal afterwards proceeded to the abbey 
of Arbroath, to the marriage of his eldest daughter by Mrs. 
Marion Ogilvy of the hou^e of Airly, with whom he had 
long lived in scandalous eoncubinage, and there, with in- 
famous effrontery, he pave her in marriagoto the eldest son 
of the Earl of Crawford, and with her 4000 merks of dowry. 
The marriage articles subscribed by him an; yet extant 
(Keith's Hint. p. 42.) lie then returned to St. Andrew's, 
where, on Saturday, 29th May, 154G, he was put to death 
in his own chamber by a party of reformers, headed by 
Norman Leslie, heir of the noble house of Rothes, who, wo 
find, had on the LMth April, 1545, given the cardinal a bond 
of manment*, and who, on private grounds, had n personal 
quarrel with (he eardinal. His death was fatal to the eccle- 
siastical oligarchy, which, under him, trampled alike on law, 
liberty, and reason. 
Three works of (he cardinal's are named : De Legaliombwt 

• Uomlt of minimi «rre long common In Scotland. They wcro In the 
ti 3 lure of the obH^tioui ofhoninge aud really b> a tenant lo hit feudal lwrU, 



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suis ; De Pnmatu Petri ; and Episfolee ad diversos. We 
have said that he was at the head of the eivil judicature of 
the kingdom, being, in his capacity of Lord Chancellor, 
principal of the College of Justice or Court of Session. We 
now add, that in his time two remarkable alterations appear 
to have been made in the customs of that court, and both 
manifestly derived from the papal tribunals, with which the 
cardinal appears to have been very familiar. The first of 
these was the custom (continued to this day) of the judges 
of the Court of Session changing their name on their eleva- 
tion to the bench, in imitation, no doubt, of the like custom 
on elevation in the papal hierarchy. .The first judges of the 
court were indeed called lords of session, as the judges of 
the previous court were called lords of council ; but the in- 
dividual judges of the court of daily council were never de- 
signated as the present judges of the Court of Session are, 
nor were the early judges of the latter court so designated. 
The first we have yet noticed bearing the present style 
is James Balfour, parson of Flisk, whom we find called 
'My lord of Flisk.' (Piteairn's Criminal Trials, January, 
1566.) The other change we have to notice was the ap- 
pointment of lords ordinary to sit in the outer house to hear 
and determine causes; in conformity, perhaps, to a like 
practice in the tribunals of Rome. It is almost certain that 
there was no such distinction as an Outer and Inner House 
at the first institution of the Court of Session: no trace of 
any such is perceived in the documents of that time, but, on 
the contrary, every thing tends to demonstrate that all the 
judges sat only in the council house; but soon after the 
cardinal's time an outer house appears. 

BEATS, in music (a term always used in the plural), 
are the pulsations, throbbings, or beatings, resulting from 
the joint vibrations of two sounds of the same strength and 
nearly the same pitch ; that is, of two sounds differing but 
little, if at all, in intensity, and which are almost, but not 
exactly, in unison. When two organ-pipes, or two strings 
so 11 tided. together, are nearly, but not accurately of the 
same pitch, i. e. are not in perfeet tunc, they produce throb- 
bings that may be compared to the rapid beating of the 
pulse ; and to these, Sauveur, the discoverer of the pheno- 
menon, applied the term battemenSy or beats, which has 
since been adopted by all writers on the subject. 

Dr. Smith has, in his Harmonics, entered fully into the 
subject of beats, and founded hereon his well-known system 
of temperament. [See Tempkrament.] In his ninth pro- 
position he says, that * if a consonance of two sounds he 
uniform without any beats or undulations, the times of the 
single vibrations of its sounds have a perfeet ratio ; but if it 
beats or undulates, the ratio of the vibration differs a little 
from a perfect ratio, more or less, according as the beats are 
quicker or slower.' His experiment in demonstration of 
this is practical, easy, and satisfactory. * Change,' says Dr. 
Smith, * the first string of a violoncello for another about as 
thick as the second. Then screw up the first string, and 
while it approaches gradually to a unison with the second, 
the two sounds will be heard to beat very quick at first, 
then slower and slower, till at last they make a uniform 
consonance without any beats or undulations. At this junc- 
ture, either of the strings struck alone, by the bow or 
finger, will cxeitc large and regular vibrations in the other, 
plainly Visible ; which show that the times of their single 
vibrations arc equal.' For the vibrating motion of a musical 
string puts other strings in motion, whose tension and quan- 
tity of matter dispose their vibrations to keep time with the 
pulses of air propagated from the string that is struck ; a 
phenomenon explained by Galileo, who observes, that a 
heavy pendulum may be put in motion by the least breath 
of the mouth, provided the puffs be often repeated, and keep 
time exactly with the vibrations of the pendulum. ' Alter 
the tension,' continues Dr. Smith, in pursuing his experi- 
ment, ' of either string a very little, and the sounds of the 
two will beat again. But now the motion of one string 
struck alone makes the other only start, exciting no regular 
vibrations in it ; a plain proof that the vibrations of the 
strings arc not isochronous/ And while the sounds of both 
are drawn out with an even bow, not only an audible but 
a visible beating and irregularity is observable in the vibra- 
tions, though in the former ease the vibrations were free 
and uniform. Now measure the length of either string 
between the nut and bridge, and when the strings are per- 
fect unisons, mark, at the distance of one-third of that length 
from the nut. one string with a speck of ink. Then place 
the edge of the nail on the speck, or very near it, and press 



the string, when, on sounding the remaining two-thirds 
with the other string open, a uniform consonance of fifths 
will be heard, the single vibrations of which have the per- 
feet ratio of 3 to 2. But on moving the nail a little down- 
wards or upwards, that ratio will be increased or diminished* 
and in both eases the imperfect fifths will beat quicker or 
slower, accordingly as that perfect ratio is more or less 
altered. 

Dr. Young remarks of Beats, that they furnish a very 
accurate mode of determining the proportional frequency of 
vibrations, when the absolute frequency of one of them is 
known ; or the absolute frequency of both, when their pro- 
portion is known ; for the beats are usually slow enough to 
be reckoned, although the vibrations themselves can never 
be distinguished. Thus, if one sound consists of 100 vibra- 
tions in a second, and produces with another aeuter sound a 
single beat in every second, it is obvious that the second 
sound must consist of 101 vibrations in a second. (Young's 
Philosophy, i. 390.) 

In tuning unisons, as in the ease of two or more pipes, or 
strings, the operator is guided by beats. Till the unison is 
perfect, more or less of beating will be heard, as the sounds 
more or less approach each other. * When the unison is 
complete/ observes Sir John Herschel, ' no beats are heard : 
when very defective, the beats have the effect of a rattle of 
a very unpleasant kind. The complete absenee of beats 
affords the best means of attaining by trial a perfeet har- 
mony. Beats will also be heard when other concords, as 
fifths, are imperfectly adjusted. (Hersehel on Soiwd.) 

Dr. Smith, in the learned work of wlrfch we have here 
availed ourselves, gives some useful practical rules for 
tuning by means of beats, the substance of which will be 
found under the head of Tuning. 

BEATTIE, JAMES, a poet and metaphysician of the 
18th century, was born in Scotland, at Lawreneekirk, a 
village in the county of Kincardine, Oct. 25, 1735. His 
parents kept a small farm, and were esteemed, not only for 
their honesty, but for a degree of cultivation and intellect 
not common in their station. James Beattie received his first 
education at the village school. He entered the Marisehal 
College, Aberdeen, in 1749 ; obtained a bursary, or scholar- 
ship, and other honours ; and after completing his course 
of study was appointed, August 1, 1753, schoolmaster to the 
parish of Fordoun, at the foot of the Grampians, six miles 
from Lawreneekirk. In this solitary abode his poetic tem- 
perament was fostered by the grand secnery which sur- 
rounded him ; and his works evince the zeal and taste with 
which he studied the ever-ehanging beauties of nature. 
He attracted the favourable notice of a neighbouring pro- 
prietor, the celebrated Lord Monboddo, with whom he ever 
after maintained a friendly intercourse. In June, 1758, he 
was elected usher to the grammar-school of Aberdeen ; and 
in 1 760, it seems rather by private interest than in conse- 
quence of any distinction which he had then attained, he 
was appointed professor of moral philosophy and logic in 
the Marisehal College. 

His first and chief business was to prepare a course of 
lectures, the substanee of which, as they were remodelled 
by long study and frequent revision, was given to the world 
in his Elements of Moral Science. His first poetical at- 
tempts were published in London in 1 760, and received with 
favour; but most of the pieces contained in this collection 
(which is now very rare) were omitted by the author's ma- 
turer judgment in later editions of his works. Some will 
be found in the Appendix to Sir William Forbes's Life of 
Beattie. The same tacit censure was passed by the author 
upon his Judgment of Paris, published in 1765. In 1762 
he wrote his Essay on Poetry, which, however, he retained a 
long time in manuscript, until it was published, with others 
of his prose works, in 1776. The Minstrel was commenced 
in 1766 ; but during that year all his pursuits, except those 
which wero compulsory, were interrupted by a bad state of 
health.- June 28, 1767, he married Miss Dun, daughter of 
the rector of the grammar-school at Aberdeen. 

During this year he conceived the notion of composing 
his Essay on Truth, written avowedly to confute the moral 
and metaphysical doctrines advanced by Hume, which at 
that time were supposed to be making numerous converts ; 
and which, perhaps, derived as much of their popularity 
from the fashionable acceptation and high repute of their au- 
thor, as from the arguments on which they rested. Beattie's 
motives for engaging in this task will be found fully de- 
tailed in a long letter to Dr. Blacklock (Forbes's Life, vol. u 



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102 



n r a 



1. 129), and thev do credit to bis sincerity and courage; 
tar it was no slight thing for & voting end almost unknown 
man to attack an author formidablo at onco from ability, 
►arty connexion, and high standing in society ; and this ho 
lid not in the language of deference, but with tho uncompro- 
mising hostility of one who believes his antagonist to bo not 
only a mistaken but a mischievous person. 1 f Beattie could 
not quite attain his own wish of being * animated without 
losing his temper,* something must be conceded to his deep 
feeling of the importance of the subjects in dispute. The 
Essay, however, was received with much anger by Mr. Hume 
and his friends, as a violent and personal attack ; and that 
Beattic's zeal might require some tempering we may conclude 
from knowing that an intended preface to the second edition 
(published early in 1771) was cancelled by the advice of 
somo of his best friends, His work appeared in May, 1770, 
under the title Essau on the Nature and Immutability 
of Truth, in ojyposttion to Sophistry and Scepticism. 
The plan of it is thus given by his biographer, 'Dr. 
Heat tie first endeavours to trace the several kinds of evi- 
dence un to their first principles, with a view to ascertain 
the standard of truth, and explain its immutability. lie 
shows, in the second place, that his sentiments on this 
head, how inconsistent soever with the genius of scepti- 
cism, and with the principles and practice of sceptical 
writers, are yet perfectly consistent with the genius of true 
philosophy, and with the practice and principles of those 
whom all acknowledge to have been most successful in the 
investigation of truth ; concluding with some inferences or 
rules, by which the most important fallacies of the sceptical 
philosophers may be detected by every person of common 
sense, even though he should not possess acutencss of meta- 
physical knowledge sufficient to qualify him for a logical 
confutation of them. In tho third place, he answers somo 
objections, and makes some remarks, by way of estimate of 
scepticism, and sceptical writers/ — Forbes, p. 1G7. 

The Essay on 7>uth was only the first part of an intended 
lecture on the evidences of morality and religion. Habitual 
ill health, and an avowed dislike to severe study, prevented 
Dr. Beattie from completing his design. 

The first canto of tho Minstrel was published anony- 
mously in 1771* It was most favourably received by the 
public, :ind honoured by the warm praise of Gray, the more 
valuable because the praise was accompanied by a letter 
of minnto criticism. This is preserved in Forties's Life 
(vol. i. p. 197). In the same year he visited London, for the 
first time since he had been known as an author ; and re- 
ceived distinguished and flattering notice from Dr. Johnson, 
Lord Lytllctcn, and the best literary society of the metro- 
polis. 

It was the wish of his friends to obtain some permanent 
provision for one who had no patrimony, whose literary pro- 
fits were small, and whose only other resource was the scanty 
income of his professorship; and it was thought that his 
exertions in the cause of revealed religion entitled him to 
this mark of public favour. In 1 773 he again visited London 
to urge his claim, and owing to the powerful interest which 
he was then able to command, he obtained a pension of 200/. 
The King (George III.) received him with distinguished 
favour; and tho University of Oxford conferred on him the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. During this visit, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds painted and prosented to him tho well-known 
portrait, which contains the allegorical triumph of Truth 
over Sophistry, Scepticism, and Infidelity. In tho same 
autumn there occurred a vacancy in the University of Edin- 
burgh, which it was thought would open tho chair of moral 
philosophy to Dr. Beattie; hut this preferment, though 
strongly urged upon hiin, ho declined for the sake of peace 
and quiet. At this time ho was engaged in finishing the 
second book of the Minstrel, which was published in the 
following spring. 

Several of Beattic's friends, and some eminent persons 
who do not appear to have been influenced by personal re- 
gard, were desirous to induce him to take "orders in the 
English church, and more than one living was pressed upon 
his acceptance. In 1774 he received the offer of a living 
worth near 500/. per annum, from Dr. Thomas, Bishop of 
Winchester. It appears that Beattie took these pro- 
posals into serious consideration, and that he entertained 
no objections on the scoro of discipline or doctrine; but 
he refused them principally on tho ground that his ac- 
ceptance might give a handle to tho opponents of revealed 
religion for asserting that tho Essay on Truth was written 



for the sake of preferment. * Partly,' be says, • because it 
might he construed into a want of principle, if, at the ago of 
thirty-eight, I were to quit, with no other apparent motive 
than that of bettering my circumstances, ttiat church of 
which 1 have hitherto been a member.' It is not superfluous 
to praise this delicacy and independence of feeling, because 
many persons whom it would bo harsh to rondeinn as having 
sold their opinions for preferment, have at least shown a 
culpable neglect of their own characters and the interest of 
truth, by accepting preferment under circumstances which 
were almost sure to fix the imputation of venality upon 
them. (See Bcattio's Letter to Dr. Porteus, Forbes, vol. i. 
p. 359.) 

The Essay on Truth was re-publishcd in 1 77G, with three 
other essays : — On Poetry and Music, as they affect the 
Mind; On laughter and Ludicrous Composition; On the 
Utility of Classical Learning. Theso were followed at 
intervals by other essays and dissertations, chiclly taken 
from his academical lectures: — Dissertations Moral and 
Critical, on Memory and Imagination* on Dreaming, on 
the Theory of Language, on luble and Ronton ce, on the 
Attachments nf Kindred, and Illustrations of Sublimity, 
1783; Evidences of the Christian Religion, 178G; Elements 
of Moral Science, vol. i. containing Psychology and Natural 
Theology, 1790; vol. it. containing Ethics, Economics, Po-> 
litics, Logic, and a Dissertation on the Slave Trade, 1793. 
But he appears to ha\e engaged in no new investigations or 
studies; and his letters explain the cause of this to have 
been ill health, and consequent disinclination to labour, 
aggravated by mental depression, and a considerable tdinrc 
of domestic disquiet, produced by an hereditary disposi- 
tion to insanity in his wife. His life passed until 1790 
without marked events, in the discharge of his acade- 
mical duties; varied in his long summer vacations by not 
un frequent visits to London, and to many persons emi- 
nent by their talents or rank, who sought his society for the 
sake of his powers as a companion, as much as for his repu- 
tation. In 1790 he suffered an irreparable loss in the death 
of his eldest son at the age of twenty-two, a young man of 
great promise; and his declining health received another 
shock in 179G in the unexpected death of his only surviving 
son after a week's illness, in the eighteenth year of his age. 
He said, in looking on the corpse, * I have now done with 
the world,' and he never again applied to study of any sort 
The closing years of his life exhibit a melancholy scene of 
gloom and distress, bodily and mental. He was struck by 
palsy in April, 1799, and after one or two subsequent at- 
tacks, expired August 18th, 1803. 

In the relations of private life, and in his public duties 
as a teacher, Dr. Beattie was most amiable; and he com- 
manded, in an unusual degree, the esteem and affection of 
his pupils, as well as of a largo circle of friends. It is to be 
recorded to his honour, that long before the abolition of 
tho slavo trade was brought before parliament, Beattie was 
active in protesting against that iniquitous trailie; and he 
introduced the subject into his academical course, with the 
express hope that such of his pupils as might be led by for- 
tune to tho \Vcst Indies would recollect the lessons of hu- 
manity which he inculcated. 

Of his writings, the Minstrel is that which now 'probably 
is most read. It exhibits a strong feeling for the beauties 
of nature, which will probably prevent its being entirely for- 
gotten. Beattic's metaphysical writings have the reputation 
of being clear, lively, and attractive, but not profound. The 
Essay an Truth was much read and admired at the time of 
its publication, but has fallen into comparativo neglect, with 
the doctrines against which it was especially directed. 
(Life of Dr. Beattie, by Sir W. Forbes, two vols. J to.) 

BEAUCA1RE, a town hi France on the right bank of 
tho RhGnc in the department of Gard, 432 miles S.S.K. of 
Paris bv Moulins, Clermont, Mende and Nunes. It is in 
43° 48' K. lat., 4° 30' K. long. 

Beaueairo seems to have existed in antient times under 
the name of Ugernum. It probably was at first a depen- 
dency of Nimes. In 1734 a Roman road leading from 
Ntmes towards Beaueairo was discovered by M. Vergilc do 
la Bastide. On this road were several Roman mile-stones, 
numbered, as it seems, in tho direction from Nemausus (or 
Ntmes) as the capital of the district to Ugcrnuin. Some of 
theso mile-stones not having been displaced afforded the 
means of ascertaining by actual measurement the length of 
the Roman mile, which was found to be 752 toises 4 feet 
French measure, equal to 1G04 yards 12 inches English, 



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Some of the mile-stones had been removed, as it is supposed, 
by Constantius, general and father-in-law of the Emperor 
Honorius, and formed into a monument in memory of some 
person or persons of distinction, who fell in a victory which 
he gained (a.d. 411) over the Franks and Allemanni, who 
attempted to force him to raise the siege of Aries. In the 
seventh century Ugernum was regarded as a place of great 
strength, and was perhaps rather a castle or military post 
than a town of any extent. (Millin, Expilly, D'Anville, 
&c.) 

In the eleventh century tho name Ugernum gave place 
to that of Belli-Cadrum or Belcadro (whence the modern 
Beaucaire^, derived either from tho square form of the castle 
or of the towers of the eastle, or from the beauty of the dis- 
trict in which it was placed ; for Cadre, or Ciiire, in the 
dialect of Languedoc and Provence signifies a square, or 
generally a space ; and Beaucaire may be translated * hand- 
some district* {beau qnartier). (Millin, Malte-Brun.) The 
name Ugernum, though lost by the town, was traceable in 
that of an island in the Rhone opposite to it, which was 
called Gernica, a corruption seemingly of Ugemica. This 
island, by the drying up of the branch of the Rhone which 
surrounded it on the east side, is now united to the town 
of Tarascon, the lower part of which is still called Ger- 
negue. 

In the middle ages Beaucaire was under the Counts of 
Provence, until it was ceded in 1125 to the Count of Tou- 
louse; and in the troubles which that illustrious family suf- 
fered fur their protection of the Albigenscs it was twice the 
scene of contest. In or about the year 1217 it opened its 
gates to Raymond, son of Raymond VI., Count of Tou- 
louse; and the garrison placed in it by Simon Montfurt 
(leader of the Crusade against Raymond), which retired 
into the castle, was forced to surrender. Louis VIII., King 
of France, besieged it within ten years after, but in vain. 
To the Counts of Toulouse Beaucaire is said to owe its cele- 
brated fair, which constitutes at present its chief claim to 
notice; but this is doubtful, though the fair, at any rate, 
existed long before the year 14G3, when Louis XL of Franec 
granted certain privileges to those who frequented it. 

Beaucaire is situated in a pleasant country ; and the view 
across the RhOne, which is here a magnificent stream, to 
the picturesque castle and town of Tarascon, is very fine. 
Tarascon and Beaucaire are just opposite one another, so as 
to appear like parts of the same town. The communication 
between them was long maintained by a bridge of boats, or 
rather by two bridges leading from each bank to a stono 
causeway, the remains, as it seemed, of a former bridge ; 
but the passage by these bridges of boats was dangerous 
when the violent mistral or south wind blew. Of late years 
a suspension bridge of three arehes, 441 metres, or 1447 
feet, long has been erected : five of these suspension bridges 
have been erected of late across the Rhone between Lyons 
and Beaucaire. The situation of Beaucaire on the banks of 
the Rhdne is highly favourable to its commerce. The quay 
is well built, and convenient for the landing of goods. A 
canal runs from Beaucaire to Aignes Mortcs, and there 
divides into two branches: one communicating directly with 
the Mediterranean at the village of Repauset, the other 
passing through several of the etangs or lakes to the port 
ofCette. This canal enables boats to avoid the mouths of 
the Rhone, the navigation of which is uncertain and dan- 
gerous, and sometimes impossible. 

The town of Beaucaire was, in the middle of the last een* 
tury, surrounded by walls, which were, however, useless for 
defence. These walls probably still remain, for later au- 
thorities speak of the beauty of the gate which leads towards 
the -Rhone. The streets are crooked and narrow ; but for 
this it would be considered a handsome town. The number 
of houses is great in proportion to the population, which in 
1832 was only 9967. These are fully inhabited only during 
the fair, and during the greater part of the year the closed 
apartments and almost deserted streets form a marked con- 
trast to tho activity which prevails at the fair time. The 
high prices then obtained for lodgings and accommodation 
of every kind, by enabling the inhabitants to subsist during 
the rest of the year with" little exertion, have been fatal to 
the industry of the town. There are no manufactures, nor 
are any great commercial undertakings entered into. They 
cultivate a few vineyards and olive plantations. M. Millin 
says that they have scarcely a tailor or a shoemaker in 
the town, and that for clothing they must either wait 
the return of the fair, or resort to Tarascon for a supply. 



{Voyage dans les Departemens da Midi de la France, Paris, 
1808.) 

There is an antient church, founded in the ninth century 
by tho Count of Narbonne the portal of which is adorned 
with sculptures relating to the birth of Christ. Before the 
Revolution there were two other churches, both antient ; 
two convents for men, one of Cordeliers and one of Capuchins, 
and an establishment of priests, ' de la doctrine Chreticnne,' 
who had a college under their direction. There were also 
an abbey for Benedictine nuns, two other nunneries (one of 
Ursulines and one of Hospitalieres), and two hospitals. (Ex- 
pilly, Diet, des Gaules et de la France, 1762.) 

There are some remains of the antient castle of which 
mention has been already made. It stood on an eminence 
Commanding tho town, and was demolished in 1632, because 
it had fallen into tho hands of some rebels against Louis 
XIII. It appears to have been an objeet of contention in 
the religious wars of the sixteenth century, between the 
Catholies and the Huguenots, or Protestants : the latter are 
charged with having committed great disorders here in 1562. 
(Piganiol de la Force; Expilly.) 

The great fair of Beaucaire, in the number of persons 
who resort to it, is equal to almost any in Europe. It is 
said that the fair of 1833, confessedly the greatest for some 
years, was attended by from 70,000 to 80,000 persons, and 
that business was done to the amount of 160,000,000 francs, 
or 6,400,000/. sterling. Mr. M'Culloch (from whose Diet, 
of Commerce we take this statement) suspects exaggeration, 
but Malte Byuti (Geographic Universelle) speaks of 100,000 
as the usual number of persons who resor^ to it. They come 
from the middle and southern parts of Europe, and from the 
Levant. 

This fair had its origin in the middle ages, and according 
to some, was established by Raymond VI. Count of Tou- 
louse ; and there is no account that it has been suspended 
since its establishment, except in 1721 and 1722, when the 
plague devastated Provence and part of Languedoc. At 
first the fair was held in the town, but the increasing busi- 
ness rendered it necessary to hold it out of the town in a 
neighbouring meadow, where tents were erected. This 
alteration had taken place long before Martin iere published 
his Grand Dictionnaire (vol. ii. 1730.) Its present extent 
may be judged of by the statement given above. We take 
the following particulars from M. Millin. ( Voyage dans les 
Departemens da Midi de la France, Paris, 1808.) 

Long before the fair the principal merchants hire a house, 
or an apartment; every room is filled with beds, and the 
owner eontents himself for the time with the garret. The 
wool merchants and the drapers occupy, in alternate years, 
the houses in eertain streets, so that the householders in 
each street have alternately a profit by the high prices that 
the drapers are made to pay. The linen-drapers have their 
quarter, the leather-sellers theirs ; the Jews occupy always 
the same spot. Not only are the shops filled, but stalls are 
erected and covered with cloth ; and benches of stone serve 
for the display and salo of small wares. The names of 
the dealers, their residence, and their trade, are written on 
squares of linen, &c, which are suspended by ropes across 
the streets, and form, by the medley of the colours and the 
variety of their inscriptions, a singular spectacle. The town 
being* insufficient for the thousands who resort to it, a new 
town of wooden huts and of tents is run up in a meadow on 
the borders of the river, having also its public places, its 
streets, &e. The merchants of the same country, or the same 
town, usually oecupy the same street, which has the effect of 
bringing to the same spot wares of a similar kind. One 
street contains the drugs, spices, and soap of Marseilles ; 
another the pomatum and wash-balls of the perfumers of 
Grasse ; and a third tho perfumes and liqueurs of Mont- 
pellier. Goods of all sorts are exposed for sale, including 
even cameos, medals, and other antiques. One whole street 
contains nothing but onions and garlic. Not only are the 
town and the meadow filled with a dense and busy popu- 
lation, but the river is crowded with boats (arranged in regu 
lar order according to their form, their cargo, and the place 
from which they come), in which many persons take up 
their habitation. Vessels of various forms from Genoa, 
Catalonia, or Marseilles; the boats which come from the 
interior do\ni the Rhone ; and those which come from the 
coast of the ocean by the Canal du Midi (which unites the 
ocean with the Mediterranean), may be seen there. The 
vessel which first arrives salutes the town with a musket or 
pistol shot, and receives in return a sheep, the skin of which, 



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stuffed with straw, and accompanied with flags, indicates 
the superior diligence or good fortune of the ship-raastcr. 
Besides the merchants who frequent the fair, the business 
done, and the vast concourse of people draw a number of 
other persons: there are notaries and legal gentlemen, 
members of the mediral profession to attend to eases of 
sickness or accident, and undertakers to bur)* the dead. A 
small chapel occupies the extremity of the plain where the 
huts and tents arc erected : in this mass is said ; and as the 
worshippers eannot he all contained in the chapel, they kneel 
in the meadow with their faces turned towards the altar. A 
great number of rosaries are sold here. 

Restaurateurs, cafes, billiard-tables, and places for danc- 
ing offer their attractions; jugglers, showmen with wild 
beasts, and rope-dancers, seek to profit by the opportunity ; 
and gaming and debauchery are prevalent. Pickpockets 
have taken place of the highwaymen who onee infested the 
roads, and plundered those who eame to or left the fair. 
The government of the fair is in the hands of the PreTet 
of the department, by whom it is solemnly opened. 

Tho fair was originally established for three days, but the 
intervention of three saints* days (Magdalen, St. Ann, and 
St. James), on whieh, though not reckoned as business days, 
business goes on, extends the period to six days, viz., from 
tho 22d to the 2Sth July. At its close the merchants 
depart, the Jews and Catalonians being usually the last to 
go; and the town is left to its ordinary dullness till the 
return of this extraordinary scene. 

BEAUFORT, the name of several places in France, of 
which one only is of sufficient importance to require notice. 
Beaufort en ValUe (or Beaufort la Ville), with its suburb 
Beaufort en Franchise (othcrwiso Beaufort hors la Ville), 
is in the department of Mainc-et-Loirc, about seventeen 
miles, measured in a straight line, E. by S. of Angers, the 
capital of the department The town and suburb are sepa- 
rated from eaeh other by a braneh of the little river Cocsnon 
or Couanon, whieh soon afterwards falls into the Authion, 
one of the minor feeders of the Loire. The chief trade of 
the town in former times consisted in corn ; but the more 
modern authorities speak of manufactures of coarse li- 
nens for the use of the army, hempen cloths, serges, drug- 
gets, and hats. Hemp is grown in the surrounding dis- 
trict, whieh produecs also corn and vegetables. Before the 
Revolution there were in Beaufort la Ville two parish 
churches and a convent of Reeollets, a class of Franeiscans. 
The population, in 1832, comprehending, probably, both 
Beaufort la Ville and its suburb, was 328S for the town, 
and 5914 for the whole commune. 47° 2j' N. hit., and 
0* 13' W. long, from Greenwich. (Piganiol de la Forec, 
Dictionnai*-e Unxversel de la France.) 

BEAUFOUT, CARDINAL. Henry Beaufort, Bishop 
* of Winchester and Cardinal of St. Eusebius, was a son of 
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (father of Henry IV.), 
by his mistress Catherine 3wynford,whom he subsequently 
married. His children by this woman, all born before wed- 
lock, were legitimated by the name of Beaufort in the 
twentieth year of the reign of Richard II. We arc unable 
to state the exact year of Cardinal Beaufort's birth; hut 
from the cireumstanee of his having been consceratcd a 
bishop when 'very young,' in 1397, and that he is spoken of 
on his death-bed as ' an old man of eighty/ we infer that it 
was alKHit the year 1370. He studied at Ox forth Cambridge, 
and Aix-la-Chapcllc. In 1397 he was ercatcd bishop of Lin- 
coln (he is erroneously called bishop of London in the Par- 
liamentary History) ; became chancellor of the Univer&ity 
of Oxford in 1399; and in 1404 succeeded the celebrated 
AVilliam of W>ckham as bishop of Winchester. In the 
parliaments of 1404 and 1405 he officiated as lord chan- 
cellor, an office which he filled four times during his life. 
The bishoprick of Winchester was then, as at present, one 
of the richest endowments in the English ehurch ; and 
Beaufort, from habits of frugality according to some writers, 
from sordid covetousness according to others, multiplied his 
riches so as to become the wealthiest subject in England. 
lie advanced his nephew, Henry V., by way of loan, out of 
his own private nurse not less than 28,000/. during his wars 
in France ; and also lent the infant king, Henry VI., 
lt.000/., sums which, the circumstances of the times being 
considered, were of enormous magnitude. 

On the death of Itcnry V. in 1422, Beaufort (with his 
brother, afterwards Duke of Exeter) was appointed guardian 
of his infant successor: Beaufort was also a member of the 
couneil of regeney, of which the king's uncle, Humphrey, 



Duke of Gloucester, was the nominal head. Tho strugglo for 
supremacy between tbeso ambitious men, which ?oon as- 
sumed tho eharacter of a fierce personal contest, is the most 
prominent feature of the internal history of England from 
tho year 1424 to tho year of their death, in 1 147. The pre- 
late being a man * well skilled in all the means prudence 
suggests to tho ambitious to accomplish their ends* (wo 
quote the words of Rapin), ultimately triumphed in the 
struggle, which on more than one occasion threatened to 
intlict upon the country all tho ills of civil war. The quarrel 
first assumed a warlike aspect in 14'26. Tho citizens of 
London were of the party of the duke. To overawe them 
the bishop strengthened the garrison of the Tower, whieh 
the council, under his intlucnce, had intrusted to the care of 
Sir Richard Wydevilo, a creature of his own. This oc- 
curred during a temporary absence of Gloucester on the Con- 
tinent. On his return he demanded lodgings in the Tower, 
hut was refused, Wvdcvile having orders to admit ' no ono 
more powerful than himself.* In his resentment the duke 
ordered the gates of the eity to be closed against the prelate. 
The next morning tho retainers of Beaufort attempted to 
force the gates at l^ndon Bridge. The citizens Hew to arms, 
and bloodshed was with diflieulty averted by the Archbishop 
of Canterbury and the Prinec of Portugal, who happened 
to be then in England, prevailing upon the two parties to 
suspend their feuds till the Duke of Bedford, tho regent, 
who had been written to, should arrive from Paris. The 
bishop's letter to the Duke of Bedford on this occasion is 
worth quoting : — 

1 1 reeommend me unto yon with all my heart ; and as 
you desire the welfare of the king our sovereign lord, and of . 
his realms of England and Franec.and your own health and 
ours also, so haste you hither ; for, by my troth, if you tarry 
we shall put this land in a jeopardy with a field : sneh a 
brother you have here. God make iiim a good man. For 
your wisdom knowcth that the profit of Franco standcth in 
the welfare of Englaud. 'Written in great haste on Alhallow 
Even, by y r true servant to my lives end, 

'Hen. Wintox.* 

(Hall's Chronicles; the letter is also printed in the second 
series of Ellis's Hist. Letters.) 

The Duke of Bedford hastened from Paris to rceoneile 
the rivals, but found it expedient to refer the matter to a 
parliament summoned for the purpose at Leicester. This 
parliament is known by the niekname of the 'parliament of 
huts/ a niekname whieh, in its origin, aptly illustrates the 
temper of the partizans of the bishop and of Gloucester, 
and throws some light on the state of manners. In order 
to prevent the consequcnees of strife among armed men, 
the members of the parliament summoned at Leicester 
were ordered to leave their swords and other weapons 
usually worn by the gentry at their inns : their followers, 
however, with a view to defeating this prohibition, attended 
them with bais % ov elubs, on their shoulders; and when 
these also were forbidden they coneealcd stones and plum- 
mets of lead in their sleeves and bosoms. (Parliamentary 
History, vol. i. p. 354.) 

Among other charges put forward by the Duke of Glou- 
cester, in a bill of impcaehment against his unelo Beau- 
fort, was an accusation that he had hired an assassin to 
take away the life of the late King Henry V., at the time 
Prinec of Wales ; and that he had encouraged the prince to 
usurp the throne before the death of his father. Gloucester 
professed to make this charge on the authority of Henry 
himself; but the bishop triumphantly opposed to that testi- 
mony the faet that Henry had, to the last moment of his 
life, honoured hiiu with his friendship and confidence. After 
much wrangling and recrimination, tho matter was referred 
to the arbitration of four spiritual and four temporal peers, 
who awarded that Gloucester should be 'good lord to the 
bishop, and have him in aficetion and love," and that tho 
prelate should preserve to the duke * trcw and sad love and 
aficetion, and be ready to do him such service as pertaineth 
of honesty to my Lord of Winchester and to his cstato to 
do.* A formal public reconciliation then took plaec between 
the two disputants : but the bishon felt tho award to be so 
much of a reproof, that he resigned the chancellorship, and 
obtained leave to go abroad. (The letter of leave is given 
in the seeond scries of ElhVs IIi$t, Letters.) Beaufort ac- 
companied Bedford in his return to France ; and at Calais 
received the weleomc intelligence that the pope had raised 
him to the dignity ofeardinal, and had appointed hiin legate 
t\ latere, for the purpose of directing an English force in a 



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105 



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crusade against the Hussites in Bohemia. [See Bedford^ 
Dukk OF.] 

In 1429 Cardinal Beaufort succeeded in destroying the 
power of his rival Gloucester, by having the young king 
erowned, and by inducing the parliament to declare on the 
occasion that the office of protector, filled by the duke, 
was, ipso facto, at an end. From being at the head of the 
eouncil of regency, Gloucester was thus reduced to his rank 
as a peer. From this time till his death the councils of the 
eardinal predominated in the administration. 
* A powerful party, however, headed by the Duke of Glou- 
cester, opposed itself to the administration of the ear- 
dinal. The spirit of the age was averse to the rule of 
ecclesiastical statesmen ; and the House of Commons in 
particular had directed its attention to the question of church 
reform, as essential to good government. In a meeting of 
peers, in 1431, it was proposed that, as the dignity of car- 
dinal was, by the law of the land, incompatible with the 
possession of a bishopric in England, Beaufort should be 
removed from the see of Winchester, and compelled to re- 
fund its revenues from the day that he had accepted the 
cardinal's hat. Gloucester followed up this motion with a 
series of charges, to the effect that Beaufort had incurred 
the penalties of praemunire in having accepted the papal 
hull, contrary to the express prohibition of the late king, and 
\iad exempted himself as legate from the jurisdiction of the 
see of Canterbury. The same charges were renewed in a 
more formal manner by Gloucester in 1434. (The articles 
are given at length in Rapin and the Parliamentary History 
from Hall.) He accused the cardinal, also, of having 
amassed wealth by dishonest means, of having usurped 
the functions of sovereignty, appointing embassies, and re- 
leasing prisoners on his own authority, and estranging from 
the person of the young king his relatives and the council 
of the regency. That these charges were founded on truth 
is evident from the fact that two acts of parliament were 
passed, one in 1432, the other in 1437, indemnifying Beau- 
fort against the penalties of praemunire, and pardoning him 
for all crimes committed up to the 20th of July in the last- 
namefl year. The arrest and probable murder of Gloucester 
are usually ascribed to his fierce and courageous denunciation ' 
of the ecclesiastical counsellors of the king. - Gloucester's 
death took place on the 28th of February, 1447. 

The cardinal survived his great rival but six weeks. 
His death-bed has been painted in immortal colours by 
Shakspeare {Henry VI. Part 2), but the imagination of 
the poet has supplied the darkest features of the picture. 
Shakspeare represents him as expiring in an agony of 
despair : — 

Lord Cardinal, if thou think'st on heaven's bhis, 
Hold up thy hand, make lignal of thy hope. — 
He dies, and makes no sign.' 

But we know from the authority, Hall, which Shakspeare 
has followed in the less harrowing details of the seene, that 
the cardinal's worldliness was confined to expressing his 
regret that money could not purchase life, and that death 
should have cut him off at the moment when his rival to 
the great object of his ambition (the popedom) had been 
removed. Hall's version is given on the authority of one 
Baker, the cardinal's ehaplain ; and the last words are, * I 
pray you all to pray for me.' His will, moreover, to which 
two codicils are attached, on the 7th and 9th of April (he 
died on the 1 Ith). is still extant (Nichols's Royal and Noble 
Willi, p. 311), indicating a state of feeling more worthy of 
a Christian prelate. II is great wealth was distributed, ac- 
cording to the provisions of his will, in charitable donations. 
Not less than 4000/. was allotted for the relief of the indi- 
gent prisoners in Newgate, Ludgate, the Fleet, Marshalsea, 
King's Bench, and the prison attached to the Southwark 
manor of the diocese of Winchester ; and the hospital of 
St. Cross at Winchester still exists as a monument of his 
munificence. Cardinal Beaufort was buried in the beautiful 
chantry which bears his name in Winchester Cathedral. 

(Hall's Chronicles; Turner s Modern History of E?ig- 
land; Rapin's History ; Lingard's History : and Milner's 
History of Winchester, In the two last-named works the 
reader will find a mueh more favourable account of the 
last moments of the cardinal, given on the authority of an 
eye- witness, in the Conti?iuation if the History ofCroyland, 
than we have adopted in the text.) 

BEAUFORT. MARGARET, COUNTESS OF RICH- 
MOND AND DERBY, is entitled tohonourablo mention 
as an eminent patroness of literature, after the manner of 



the age in which she lived. She was of royal descent, being 
the daughter and heiress of John Beaufort, Duke of Sotne£ 
set, grandson of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, third 
sou of Edward III. This descent was not strictly legitimate, 
the name of Beaufort having been first given by John of 
Gaunt to his natural children by Catherine Swynford, who 
were legitimated by act of parliament under Richard II. 
Margaret Beaufort was born in 144 1 ; and was thrice married ." 
first to Edmund Tudor, half brother to Henry VI,, created 
Earl of Richmond, by whom she had one son, afterwards 
Henry VII.; secondly to Sir Henry Stafford, a younger 
branch of the ducal house of Buckingham ; thirdly to Lord 
Stanley, afterwards Earl of Derby. By the two last mar- 
riages she had no issue. She died in 1509, and is buried at 
Westminster, where her tomb may be seen in the south 
aisle of Henry Vllth's Chapel. 

The Countess of Richmond was rich, pious, charitable, 
and generous. Her attention to the formal observances of, 
religion prescribed by the Papal church was strict even to* 
rigour. To her hounty Christ's College, Cambridge, founded 
in 1505, and St. John's College, Cambridge, projected and 
endowed by her, but not chartered till 151 1, owe their exist- 
ence. The latter, however, was deprived of the greater por- 
tion of its revenues, that which consisted of the foundress's 
estates, by Henry VIII., who sued for and recovered them 
as heir-at-law ; and the wealth which this distinguished col- 
lege now enjoys is chiefly due to the liberality of later bene- 
factors. The Countess of Richmond also established a pro- 
fessorship of divinity, with a salary of 20 marks, in each 
university; the holders of which are called Lady Margaret's 
professors. Their incomes have been increased, at Cambridge 
by the annexation of the rectorial tithes of Terrington in 
Norfolk, by James I. ; and at Oxford, by the revenues of a 
prebendal stall in Worcester Cathedral. The Countess of 
Richmond also appointed a public preacher at Cambridge, 
salary 10/., whose duties are now confined to the delivery of 
one Latin sermon yearly. 

Walpole has given this noble lady a place in his Cata- 
logue of Royal and Noble Authors, as the translator of two 
books : — 1 . TheMirroure of Golde to the Sinfull Soul, trans- 
lated from a French translation of the Speculum Aureum 
Peccatorum, printed by W. de Worde in 1522; 2. Trans- 
lation of the fourth book of Dr. J. Gerson's Treatise on the 
Imitation and Following the Blessed Life of our Most 
Merciful Saviour Christ, printed at the end of Dr. William 
Atkinson's translation of the three first books — Pynson, 
1504. The following treatises are said to have been pub- 
lished by her desire or encouragement: — 

Scala Perfeccianis, Englysshed, the ladder of Perfec- 
tion, by Walter Hilton— W. de Worde, 1494. fol. 

Treatise concernynge the Seven Penetencyall Psalmes, 
by Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, printed by W. de Worde in 
1509, and Pynson, 1510. 4 to. 

The Ship of Fooles of this World, translated by Henry 
Watson into prose, and printed by W. de Worde, 1517. 4to. 
Bishop Fisher preached her funeral sermon, entitled 
AMornynge Reinembruunce, printed by W. de Worde, and 
reprinted in 1708, with a biographical preface by the Rev. 
Mr. Baker. (Walpole's Catalogue, continued by Park, 
180C ; and Kippis's Biog. Britunnica.) 

BEAUFORT, LOUIS DE, was born of a French fa- 
mily, settled in Germany or Holland, as far as we may pre- 
sume from the scanty information we can find of his early 
life. He was for a time tutor to the young prince of Hesse 
Homburg ; but he became known to the learned world by his 
Dissertation sur I' Incertitude des Cinq Premiers Siecles de 
VHistoire Romaine, 8vo. 1 738. He was one of the first modern 
writers who carried the spirit of critical investigation into the 
narrative of the first five centuries of the Roman common- 
wealth ; he showed that both Livy and Dionysius could not 
be implicitly trusted, and that it required a process of very 
acute and careful discrimination to separate the truth from 
the legendary fables of early Roman history. Among other 
things he maintained that Porsenna did really conquer 
Rome after the expulsion of Tarquinius. Niebuhr remarks, 
when speaking of Beaufort's dissertation (vol. i. p. 539, 
note), * that the critical examination of this war is the most 
successful part of that remarkable little work/ His next 
work was La Republique Romaine, ou Plan General de 
VAncien Gouvernement de Rome, 2 vols. 4to. La Ilaye, 
1 7C6. The author treats at length and systematically of the 
institutions of that celebrated republic, of its senate, its 
populus and plebs, its comitia, its eonsuls and tribunes, of 



No. 218. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



Vol. IV,— P 



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tho laws and tribunals, of the religion of the country and 
its ministers, of the various classes of society and their re- 
spective riphu, and the condition of tho allies and subjects 
ot Rome. Tim work met with great approbation, and main- 
tained its ground as one of the best works upon the Roman 
republic* previous to Niebuhr's History of Rome, which, 
however, was left unfinished hy tho author. Auger's work, 
Sur (a Constitution de Rome, and Adrien do Texier's 
Du Goitvernement de hi Iityublique Romaine, 3 vols. 8vo, 
Hamburg, 1796, are perhaps the only works written in the 
last century that deservo to be meritioned together with 
Beaufort's. lie aroto also Histoire de Germanicus, 12mo. 
17*11, which he dedicated to the Landgrave of Hesse Ilom- 
bwrg. Beaufort was a member of the Royal Society of 
London. He died at Macstricht in 1795. 

BEAUGENCY, a town in France, in the department of 
Loiret, on the road from Paris through Orleans to Blois 
and Tours, eighty-six miles S.S.W. of Paris and fourteen 
or fifteen miles S.W. of Orleans, in 47° 47' N. lat., and 
1° 36' E. long, from Greenwich. It is situated at tho foot 
of a hill on the right or NAV. bank of the Loire, over 
which is an antient bridge of twenty-two arches, according 
to. the older authorities (Piganiol de la Force, Expilly, 
Jincyclopedie Mithodique), or of thirty- nine, according to 
the last edition of Mai to B run's GZographie Universelle, 
Paris, 1832. This bridge is divided into two parts by an 
island in the centre of the river. The town eontains the 
remains of an old castle, the antiquity of which some would 
carry up to the time of the Gauls; it has been ruined by 
time and by the various sieges which the town has sus- 
tained. Before the Revolution there was a chapter of the 
regular canons of St. August in, the successors of a much 
larger number of religious of that order, who were esta- 
blished he re in former days. The monastery in which they 
lived was destroyed by the Calvinists in the civil war of the 
sixteenth century ; and though a part of the building was 
repaired, the establishment seems never 'to have recovered 
its greatness. There are two hospitals for the children and 
the aged among the poor. 

The manufactures of the town consist of leather, woollen 
stuffs, and hats ; there are some distilleries, and several mills 
for the supply of the town and neighbourhood with Hour. 
A considerable trade is carried on in wine (which is of 
superior quality), brandy, corn, and the goods manufactured 
in the place. The population, in 1832, was *t 182 for the 
town, and 4S83 for the whole commune. At Beaugency 
are quarries of a calcareous freestone, whieh has been used 
for the foundation of the cathedral of Orleans, and that of 
the bridges of Orleans and Tours. 

Two councils were held in this town : at the latter of 
these the marriage between Louis VII. (lejeune) and his 
queen, Eleanor of Guienne, was annulled on the plea of 
relationship: her subsequent marriage with the Count of 
Anjou, afterwards Henry II. of England, added largely to 
the possessions of the English kings in France. (Dirtion- 
nnire Universal de la France; Expilly's Dictionnaire des 
Gaules et de la France.) 

BEAUIIARNOIS, EUGE'NE. son of Viscount Alex- 
andre Beauharnois, was born in September, 1780, and re- 
ceived his early education at the College of St. Germain-en- 
Laye. His father was a member of the National Assembly, 
Jn which he embraced tho popular side, and afterwards served 
with distinction in the array of the Rhine, in 1792. He was, 
however, accused by the Jacobins, taken before the revolu- 
tionary tribunal, condemned, and beheaded, in July, 1 71) I, 
wlian he was only thirty-four years jof age. His widow 
Josephine married, in 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte, who treated 
her children, Eugene and Hortense, as if they had been his 
own. Eugeno accompanied Bonaparte to Italy, and after- 
wards* in 1 798, to Egypt, where he acted as his aide-de-camp. 
After Bonaparte became first consul, Euirene was madechef- 
d'eseadronin the Consular Guards, in which capacity he was 
present at the battle of Marengo, In 180 1 he was made 
colonel-general of the Chasseurs of the Guanls. When Bo- 
naparte became emperor, Eugene was created a princo of 
the new empire ; and in 1803, on being appointed viceroy of 
tho (so called) kingdom of Italy, which comprised Lom- 
bard)' and the northern Panal provinces, ho fixed his re- 
sidence at Milan. He was adopted by Napoleon in January, 
180G, and soon after married Augusta Amelia, daughter of 
the king of Bavaria. In 1809, when war broke out again be- 
tween Austria and Franee, Eugeuo took the command of tho 
French and Italian army on the frontiers towards Carinthia, 



hut he was obliged to retire beforo tho superior forces of the 
archduke John, and, after sustaining considerable loss from 
the Austrians at the battloof Saeileon the river Livciua, he 
withdrew to the banks of the Adige, where he received rein- 
forcements. Upon the defeat of the great Austrian army 
in Germany, the archduke marched bark for the protection 
of Vienna, and was elosely followed by Eugene. A battle 
took place between the two armies near the river Piave, 
where the Austrians were worsted, and obliged to hasten 
their retreat. Eugene followed them through Carinthia 
andStyria, and on the 27th of May made his junction with 
Napoleon's grand army at Ebersdorf. near Vienna. lie 
was thence sent into Hungary to cheek the rising en masse 
of the poople of that country. On the Nth of June he 
defeated the archduke John at llaab in Hungary. 

The battle of Wagrara in July following put an end to tho 
war. After the peaco of Vienna, Eugene returned to Milan, 
from whence ho repaired to Paris in December, 1809, to bo 
present at the declaration of divorce between his mother 
and Napoleon, He made a spocch to the senate, in which 
he dwelt on the duty of obedienco to the will of the em- 
peror, to whom ho and his family wero under great obliga- 
tions. In 1812, he joined Napoleon in the campaign of 
Russia with part of the Italian army, during which ser- 
vice he took the command of the fourth corps of the grand 
army, and was engaged at the battles of Mohilow and 
of the Moskwa. In the disastrous retreat from Mos- 
cow, Eugene succeeded in keeping together the remnants 
of his own corps, and maintaining some order and disci- 
pline among them; and aftor Napoleon and Murat had 
left the army, he took the command of the whole. At 
Magdeburg ho collected the relics of the various corps ; and 
on the 2nd of May, at the battle of Lutzen, he commanded 
the left of the new army which Napoleon had raised. Soon 
after ho returned to Mdan to raise new conscriptions to re- 
place the soldiers who had perished in Russia, and to make 
every effort to defend Italy against the threatened attack of 
Austria. Three levies of 15,000 eonseripts eaeh wero or- 
dered in the eourse of one year, in the kingdom of Italy 
alone ; but the people were tired of war, anil it was found 
difficult to collect tho men. Tho news of the battle of 
Leipzig added to the general discontent ; and at the end of 
October, 1813, tho Austrian army entered tho Venetian 
territory, when Eugene was obliged to retreat to the Piave, 
and, after some sharp fighting, to fall back on the Adige. 
In Mareh, 1814, being attacked by the Austrians on ono 
side, and by Murat at the head of the Neapolitan army 
on the other, ho withdrew to the Mincio, and removed his 
family and property from Milan to the fortress of Mantua. 
On the 16th of April, Eugene and Marshal Bellegarde, 
the Austrian commander, signed the convention of Sehia- 
riuo-Rizzino, by whieh hostilities were suspended, tho 
French troops remaining in Italy were sent away, and 
Venice, Legnago, and other fortresses, wero dolivered up 
to Austria. Napoleon's kingdom of Italy was now at nil 
end, and Napoleon himself had abdicated the crown of 
Franee. Some endeavours were made hy Eugene's friends 
to obtain his nomination as king of Lombard y, but a 
strong party at Milan violently opposed it, and an insur- 
rection took place in that city, in wnich Prina, one of Prince 
Eugene's ministers, was murdered by tho people. Upon 
this, Eugeno gavo up Mantua to tho Austrians, and returned 
with his family to Bavaria. 

As viceroy of the kingdom of Italy, Eugene was person- 
ally liked hy the peoplo and hy the army, for his frank 
bearing and affable temper, and his luiraano disposition. 
Entirely devoted to Napoleon, he implicitly obeyed and en- 
forced his often harsh decrees, although he occasionally en- 
deavoured to obtain some mitigation of them. Me displayed 
activity and regularity in the details of administration ; 
his Wee regal court was splendid, but ho w*as frugal in his 
own expenditure. Some of the persons by whom he was 
surrounded were objects of popular aversion, and thus oc- 
casioned an unfavourable feeling towards Eugene's go- 
vernment. He was ulso accused of having, in some fit 
of ill-humour during tho great reverses of Napoleon's for- 
tunes, used harsh and offensive expressions to the Italian 
officers around him, men who had devoted their lives to Ins 
and his stepfathers service, who had fought the battles of 
the French empire, and who were now deeply stung hy 
his unmerited reproach. These things may have contri- 
buted to the revulsion of feeling that manifested itself at 
Milan in 1814. 



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BEA 



After leaving Italy Eugene lived chiefly at Munich, at 
the court of his father-in-law, with the title of Prince of 
Leuchtenberg. He visited Paris after the death of his 
mother, and was very graciously received by Louis XVIII. 
He also visited Vienna when the Congress was sitting and 
was treated with marked attention by the Allied Sovereigns 
and their ministers, but especially by the Emperor Alexan- 
der. Eugene retained, with the consent of the Pope, the pos- 
session of some estates in the northern provinces of the 
Roman states, which had formed part of the kingdom of 
Italy. The restored king of Naples also agreed to pay him 
five millions of francs. These grants were intended as a 
compensation for the loss of the yearly income of a million 
of francs assigned to him by Napoleon on the national do- 
main of Italy. (Colletta, Storia del Reame di Napoli, vol. 
iv.) Eugene died at Munich on the 21st of February, 1824, 
at the age of 4 5 years. The Duchess of Braganza, Don 
Pedro's widow, and Prince Augustus of Portugal, late hus- 
band of the Queen Donna Maria, are his children. (Storia 
d' Italia di Carlo Botta; Storia dell* Amministrazione del 
Regno d'ttalia sotto il Dominio dei Francesi; Biographie 
des Contemporains.) 

BEAUJOLAIS, LE, a district in France under the old 
regime, and one of the subdivisions of the former province 
of Lyonnais : it is now included in the departments of 
Rhime and Loire. It was the most northerly of the sub- 
divisions of the Lyonnais, and was hounded on the north 
by the duchy of Bourgogne or Burgundy ; on the south by 
the districts of Lyonnais (understanding that name in its 
most restricted application) and Forcz ; on the cast by the 
river SaOne, which separated it from the principality of 
Dombes, one of the subordinate territories of Bourgogne ; 
and on the west by the river Loire, which separated it from 
Forez. Beaujolais is about thirty-five miles from east to 
west, and about twenty-five from north to south, as mea- 
sured on the map of France in Provinces, published by the 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge ; but a re- 
ference to the great survey of France by Maraldi and 
Cassini, in 183 sheets, shows the boundary on the south to 
be so very irregular that no measurement would give much 
clue to the size of the district. The dimensions' generally 
assigned hy the Freneh geographers are ten leagues (or 
twenty-eight miles) in length, and eight leagues (or twenty- 
two miles) in breadth. This country is traversed from south 
to north by the range of hills which extend from the C£- 
vennes northward to the Cote d*Or, and separate tho basins 
of the Loire and the RhGne. From this range a more level 
country extends on one side to the Loire and on the other 
to the SaOne, watered by small streams which deseend from 
the mountains and fall into the rivers above-mentioned. 
Of these streams the ehief are the Azergue (whieh, when 
its torrent is swollen, is very rapid), and the ArdiSre, tribu- 
taries of the Saftnc ; the Rhin or Reins, and the Tram- 
bouzan, which flow into the Loire, and the Trambouze, an 
aflluent of the Rhin. 

The district is very fertile, and some of the heights are 
covered with fine wood, yielding deals and timber for the 
carpenter and the shipwright. The agricultural produce 
eonsists of eorn, wine, and hemp : there is abundance of 
pasturage for eattle. Considerable mining operations were 
onco carried on in Beaujolais; but these seem to have been 
negleeted for a long time, at least sueh as yielded silver. 
The stone quarries of Pommicrs, near Villefranche, which 
for twelve eenturics supplied Lyon with immenso blocks of 
stone of excellent quality, are now almost, if not quite 
abandoned. 

' The chief towns in Beaujolais are Villefranche near the 
Saone (population, in 1832, 6460), which was the capital of 
tlie district while it existed as a subdivision of Lyonnais ; 
Beaujcu (in tho interior, upon the river Ardifere), from 
which the territory obtained its name (population, in 1S32, 
of commune, 1596; of town, 1520); Belleville, at the junc- 
tion of the Ardierc with the Sadne; St. Symphorien de 
Lay, on the road from Lyon to Roanne (population of com- 
mune, in 1832,4500) ; Thizy, near the Trambouze; Perreux, 
near the Loire; and Ainplepuis, on the Rhin (population 
of eommune, in 1832,4873. [See Loire, Department 
ov; Lyonnais; RuOne, Department of; and Ville- 
franche.] 

' Beaujen is seated at the foot of a mountain, and, as al- 
ready noticed, on tho bank of the river ArdiSre. The lords 
of Beaujeu had a castle here ; but when the lordship came 
by inheritance to the house of Forcz, the nobles of that 



race patronized Villefranche, and Beaujeu gradually falling 
into decay gave place to its younger rival. Expilly, in his 
Dictionnaire des Gaitles, <£■<;., Paris, 1762, assigns to it 3000 
inhabitants. Its diminished population in 1832, given 
above, shows its further decay. It had, up to the first 
French Revolution, a collegiate church, a convent, and an 
hospital. The church was worthy of note for the sculptures 
and paintings which it contained. Beaujeu is in 46° 10' N. 
lat., and in 4° 34' E. long. 

The first lord of Beaujeu wasWischard or Guichard, who 
lived in the reign of Robert* son of Hugues Capet (a.d. 
996-1031), and the lordship continued to be held by his 
descendants in the male line till I26j, when, in failure of 
a male heir, it passed by marriage into the family of the 
Counts of Forez, a younger branch of which family became 
lords of Beaujeu. Several of these nobles distinguished 
themselves in the wars of tho middle ages. Humbert IV., 
of the first race, took an active part in the war against the 
Counts of Toulouse, the protectors of the persecuted Albi- 
geois; was made constable of France by Louis IX. (St. 
Louis), whom he accompanied to the Holy Land ; and is 
said to have died in that expedition. Guichard VI., of the 
second or Forez race, served in the wars of Philip VI. (of 
Valois), King of France, against tho Flemings, and his son 
Edward in those of the same Philip, and of John II., son 
and successor of Philip, against Edward III. of England. 
Edward of Beaujeu, who was in the battle of Crccy, fell in 
an encounter, in which he defeated the English at Ardres 
in 1351. Another Edward, one of the successors of this 
lord, having thrown out of a window art* officer who served 
him with a citation to answer a charge of rape, was arrested 
and led prisoner to Paris ; and only obtained his liberty by 
purchasing, at the price of his lordships of Beaujolais and 
Dombes, the protection of Louis Duke of Bourbon, into 
whose family the territory of Beaujolais consequently came. 
The failure of the direct line of the Dukes of Bourbon 
caused a disputed succession. The claimants were Charles 
de Bourbon, constable of France, and Louisa of Savoy, 
mother of Francis 1., King of France, whose claims were 
derived by purchase from a daughter of that Lord Edward 
who fell in the war with the English. Louisa, unhappily 
for France, gained the suit ; the constable revolted, and in 
the service of the Emperor Charles V., and in conjunction 
with his generals, defeated Francis at Pavia and took him 
prisoner. The house of Bourbon Montpensier gained pos- 
session of the lordship of Beaujolais in the reign of Charles 
IX. of France, and from this house it passed to the family 
of Orleans, which appears to have held it up to the period 
of the French Revolution. 

BEAULIEU, the name of many places in France. In 
the Dictionnaire Universel de la France ( Paris, 1 804), thirty- 
nine towns and villages so called are given. Two of the 
villages are, however, beyond the boundaries to which 
France was reduced at the downfall of Napoleon ; but as 
three small villages, also called Beaulieu, appear in the 
Dictionnaire des Gaules of Expilly, which are not inserted 
in our first-quoted authority, we may eonsider the name as 
applying to forty places, large and small. It was also given 
to several religious houses, whether in towns or in more 
secluded situations. 

Beaulieu, in- the department of Correze, is a small town, 
which owes its origin to an antient Benedietine monastery 
of the congregation of St. Maur, founded by Rodolph, or 
Raoul de Turenne, Archbishop of Bourges, about the 
middle of the ninth century, and enriched by Frotaire, sue 
eessor of Raoul, and others. It is on the right bank of the 
Dordogne, in the southern part of the department, in 44° 
59' N. lat., and 1°48' E. long: population, in 1832, 2154 
for the town, and 2415 for the whole, eommune. Some 
have ascribed the foundation of the monastery to Charle- 
magne, but erroneously. (MartiniSre; Expilly, Diction-' 
naire Universel de la France, fyc.) 

Beaulieu, in the department of Indre et Loire, may be 
considered almost as a suburb of the town of Loches (see 
Lochks), from which it is separated by the two channels of 
the river Indre, which divides a little above this part, and re- 
uniting its waters just below, encloses a small island whieh 
lies between the two towns. Beaulieu, previous to the 
Revolution, consisted of three parishes, which seems to 
indicate that it was once of greater importance. There 
were also two religious foundations— a Benedictine abbey 
of the congregation of St. Maur, and a house of regular 
eanonesses of the order of St Augustiu. The former oE 

P2 



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103 



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these was found <xl in the beginning of tho eleventh cen- 
tury by Fulk Nerra, Count of Anjou and Lord of Loches ; 
the latter was of much later origin, having been founded in 
1643. The ehief manufactures of the town aro woollen 
eloth and leather: the tanneries are on the river lndre. 
The population, in 163:, was 1800 for the town, or 2222 for 
the whole commune. The celebrated Agnes Sorel, mis- 
tress of Charles VII., king of Franee, was lady of this town 
of Beaulieu. It is in 47° V N. lat., and l°0 r E. long. 

At the village of Beaulieu, near the town of St. Germain 
Lembron, in the southern part of the department of I'uvde- 
Ddme, are somo alkaline waters, the source of which is in- 
termittent, though the times of flowing and of cessation 
have not been accurately marked. 

I1EAUMARCHAIS, PIERRE AUGUSTS CAUON 
DK, was born at Paris in January, 1 732. His father was a 
watchmaker, and brought up his son to the same profession, 
in which young Beaumarehais showed considerable skdl. 
He was also remarkably fond of music, and attained great 
proficiency in playing on the harp and the guitar. Beau- 
marehais plaved before the daughters of Louis XV., who 
being pleased with his musical skill admitted him to their 
concerts, and afterwards to their parties. He now appeared 
at Versailles in a rich eourt-dress, whieh offended a haughty 
nobleman, who meeting him one day in one of the galleries, 
asked him abruptly to look at a valuable watch that he 
wore, which was out of order. Beaumarehais excused him- 
self, by saying that his hand was very unsteady ; the other 
insisting, " Beau march ais toofc the wateh and dropped it on 
the Moor, simply observing: *I told you so/ Notwithstand- 
ing this event fie continued to enjoy the patronage of the 
Court, whieh gave him the opportunity of becoming con- 
nected with some of the Fermiers Generaux and great con- 
tractors. It was his bad fortune to be involved in several 
Jaw-suits, some of whieh made great noise in the world, and 
gained considerable notoriety in consequence of the memoirs 
or pleadings of his ease, which Beaumarehais wrote and 
published. These pleadings, which show considerable skill 
and oratorical power, are inserted in the collection of his 
works. But his fame as a writer rests on his plays, and 
ehieilyon the two, 'Le Barbierde Seville,* and ' Ixs Moriuge 
de Figaro,' which are toa well known nil over Europe, both 
as plays and as operas, to require any particular notice 
here. The character of Figaro was a happy invention, 
and the other principal characters, in both plays, are 
drawn with great skill. The • Mariagc de Figaro ' alone 
produced to Boaumarchais 80,000 franes. He wrote a third 
play, 'La Me*re Coupable,' whieh maybe considered as a 
sequel to the other two, but is inferior to them in many 
respects, and objectionable in a moral point of view. He 
also wrote * Eugenie 1 and ■ Les Deux Amis:* the subject of 
the first is taken from an adventure whieh occurred to his 
own sister, and whieh he relates in his memoirs. Goethe has 
treated the same snbjeet in his drama of * Clavigo.' At the 
beginning of the revolt of the English-American provinces, 
Beaumarehais entered into a speculation for supplying the 
colonies with arms, ammunition, &c. ; he lost several ves- 
sels, three of whieh were taken in one day by the English 
cruisers in coming out of the river of Bordeaux, but the 
greater number arrived in America, and Beaumarehais en- 
riched himself by his undertaking. Among other specula- 
tions he engaged to supply Paris with water and with fire- 
engines. When the Freneh revolution broke out, Beau- 
marehais showed himself favonrablo to the popular cause?, 
and entered into speculations to supply corn, muskets, 
&c. But his aetivity ui that critical period exposed hiin 
to suspicion ; he was ace used and aequittcd, then accused 
again, and being obliged to run away, he escaped to 
England and afterwards to Germany. He returned to 
France after the fall of Robespierre, and then entered into 
a new speculation in salt, by which he lost a large sum. 
Ho died in May, 1 799. 

Beaumarehais had considerable talent and other good 
qualities, hut he was very vain and fond of distinction. He 
undertook an edition of all tho works of Voltairc.of whom he 
was a great admirer; but the edition, notwithstanding all 
his pains and great expense, proved very indifferent, hotlias 
to correctness and execution. His correspondence, which is 
at the end of his works, eontains some well-written letters, 
among others one to Citizen Baudin, of the French Legis- 
lative Counril, in whieh he inveighs against the iniquitous 
system adopted by the Directory of transporting to Guiana 
those who were obnoxious to them, after the affair of the 



18 Fruetidor, 1797, ((Eurres compUtes de Beaumarehais, 
1 vol. 8vo. Paris. 1 609 ; Dictionnaire Universel Historique.) 

BEAUMARIS, a parish and borough, and the eounty- 
town of the county of Anglesey, North Wales, in tho hun- 
dred of Dindacthwy. It is situated on the picturesque bay 
of Beaumaris, at tho northern entrance of the Menai strait, 
at the distaneo of 4 J miles from lhe Menai bridge, 3^ miles 
from Bangor, and 21G miles N.W. from London. The ori- 
ginal name of the si to was Bon over, whieh was changed by 
Edward I., who may be regarded as the founder of the town, 
to Beaumaris, whieh, according to some authorities, is a 
French eom pound (beau and vtarais, a fine or beautiful 
marsh), descriptive of the situation of the place ; but others 
very improbably derive it from Bi*maris % in allusion to its 
situation at a place where two tides cr seas meet. The former 
explanation seems to agree best with the existing name. The 
castle of Beaumaris is considered to have been the parent of 
tho town. After Edward I. had secured his conquests in 
Caernarvonshire, by the ereetion of the castles of Caernarvon 
and Conway, he built Beaumaris castle in ] 29 j ; a low marshy 
spot was scleeted for tho site, for the purpose of having a 
large fosse around the eastle filled with water from the sea. 
A canal also was cut to enable sin ail vessels to dischargo 
their lading under the walls, for the use of tho garrison. 
Each of Edward's three castles differs in form. The pre- 
sent, from the lowness of its site and dilapidated state of tho 
walls, presents a far less imposing appearance than the 
others. It consists of an outer ballium or envelope. Hanked 
with ten circular bastion towers, of which those at tho 
angles arc the largest, and having on the south side an 
advanced work, called the Gunner's Walk. About the 
centre of this fortified enclosure stands the principal body of 
the castle. Its height far exceeds that of the envelope, and 
at a distance appears to rise majestically from it, as from 
a base. It is nearly quadrangular, with a grand round 
tower at eaeh angle, and another in the centre of each face. 
The interior consists of an area 190 feet square, with obtuse 
eorncrs. The eentre of the north-west side eontains a great 
hall, 70 feet long and 234 broad, with a proportionate 
height: it has five large pointed windows, whieh form a 
handsome front to the inner quadrangle. On the eastern 
side of the area there are remains of n chapel, the sides of 
whieh arc ornamented with receding pointed arches. The 
elegantly- groined roof is supported by ribs springing from 
pilasters, between eaeh of whieh is along narrow window. 
There was a communication between the several parts of 
the inner court by means of a narrow surrounding gallery, 
a considerable portion of which is still entire. Within re- 
cesses formed in the thickness of the wall, in the sides of 
this gallery, are several s-quare apertures, apparently once 
furnished with trap doors, whieh opened into rooms beneath ; 
but as there arc no vestiges of descending steps, it is dif- 
ficult to ascertain their use. It is conjectured that these 
rooms, as well as tho two circular casern towers, wero 
employed for the confinement of prisoners. The principal 
entrance to the eastle faees the sea, and is formed by two 
circular bastion towers, between which a pointed archway 
was fortified with four porteullises. The ruins of this eastlo , 
arc plentifully bespread with gillillowers, which grow no- 
where else in the island of Anglesey. 

The governor of the castle was generally also eaptain of 
the town, and usually had twenty-four men under him. 
There is nothing remarkablo in the early, history of the 
eastle, except the frequent quarrels between the garrison 
and the inhabitants of the vieinity, whose complaints ulti- 
mately occasioned its removal in the reign of Henry VII. 
In the year 1G42 the eastle was garrisoned for Charles I., 
for whom it was held by Colonel Bulkelcy, tho son of Lord 
Bulkeley the constable, until 1G43, when" it capitulated on 
honourable terms to General Mytton. The estimated an- 
nual expense of the garrison in 1653 amounted to 1 703/. 

The eastle is still the property of the erown. A hand- 
some tennis-eourt, fives-court, and bowling-green have been 
formed within its walls for the amusement of residents at 
Beaumaris. 

When Edward I. built the town, he surrounded it with 
walls, made it n corporation, and gave it great privileges, 
and some valuable lands. Among the privileges tho follow- 
ing are mentioned: — That the inhabitants thonld have a 
* freo .prison' in the castle; that no Jews should dwell in 
the town ; that if any of the burgesses died, testate or in- 
testate, their goods should not be forfeited to the king, but 
should be enjoyed by their heirs. The town did not, how- 



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109 



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ever, send any member to parliament until the reign of 
Edward VI. By the Reform Bill, the towns of Llangefni, 
Amlwch, and Holyhead, with Beaumaris, now send a mem- 
ber. The bill made no alteration in the boundary of the 
borough, which embraced a district of about ten miles in 
circuit, and was therefore considered sufficiently extensive. 
Beaumaris seems to have flourished under the royal fa- 
vour, and to have attained some commercial importance ; for 
Sir John Wynne, in characterising the inhabitants of the 
three castellated towns of the Menai, upwards of two centu- 
ries ago, speaks of ' the lawyers of Caernarvon, the mer- 
chants of Beaumaris, and the gentlemen of Conway.' An 
inference to the same effect has been made from the local 
tokens which were, at a somewhat later time, in use among 
the opulent tradesmen as a substitute for copper coin ; a 
practice at that time common in places of considerable 
traffic. 'At present,' says the Boundary Report, 'it has 
not any trade or manufactures, but it derives a considerable 
profit from being the resort of visiters for sea-bathing, 
many of whom come from Liverpool.' The bay before the 
town affords good anchorage for ships, having seven fathoms 
water at the lowest ebb. Vessels often find security there 
in hard gales, and occasionally undergo repairs upon the 
beach. A few sloops belong to Beaumaris, but they are 
chieily employed in carrying for other ports. 

The town of Beaumaris consists of several streets, of 
whieh one, terminated by the eastle, is well built, and the 
houses are in general neat. The chapel, dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin, had formerly one aisle distinguished as the 
chapel of St. Mary, and the other as that of St. Nicholas : 
it is now known exclusively by the former name. It is a 
spacious and rather elegant structure, consisting of a chancel, 
nave, and two aisles, with a square embattled tower. It 
was formerly a ehapelry in the parish of Llandegfan, but is 
now a distinct parish church. The town-hall is a commo- 
dious modern structure; the basement story contains a 
prison. Above, besides the apartments for the transaction 
of municipal business, is a handsome apartment, which 
forms the finest ball-room in the principality. There is 
also a county-hall, a county prison, and a custom-house, 
which is the comptrolling-office not only to the different 
parts of the island, but to thoso on the Caernarvon side of 
the Menai. Near the town is a ferry, which belonged to 
the crown until the reign of Elizabeth, who granted it to 
the corporation. The other five ferries of the Menai had 
previously been transferred to private hands by Henry VIII. 
The last Lord Bulkeley, who did much for the improvement 
of Beaumaris, made a fine road at his sole expense, from 
the town, along the banks of the Menai, to the Menai 
bridge, a distance of 4| miles. 

In the year 1G03 a free school wa3 founded and liberally 
endowed at Beaumaris by David Hughes, Esq., a native of 
the town. Among the other establishments for education 
is an extensive school, the pupils of which pay one penny 
a-week. There are almshouses for ten poor persons, six of 
whom are indebted for their provision to the founder of the 
free school ; the other four were added by the last Lord 
Bulkeley. 

The town, a3 re- incorporated in the fourth year of Queen 
Elizabeth, is governed by a mayor, two bailiffs, chosen an- 
nually, and chief burgesses, forming altogether a governing 
body limited to twenty-four persons. These twenty-four 
capital burgesses were the only electors of the parliamentary 
representative previously to the Reform Bill. The market- 
days are Wednesday and Saturday. Tho fairs are on Fe- 
bruary 13, Holy Thursday, September 19, and December 19, 
for cattle. The population of the borough, in 1 831, amounted 
to 2675, of whom 1444 were females, according to the Popu- 
lation Abstract ; but the recent report on Municipal Corpo- 
rations estimates the population at only 2497. 

(Pennant's Tour in IVales ; Grose's Antiquities of Eng- 
land and IVales, vol. iv. ; Beauties of England and IVales, 
vol. xvii. ; Boundary Reports, part vii. ; Report on Muni- 
cipal Corporations, &e.) 

BEAUMONT, the name of above sixty towns and villages 
in F ranee, as we find by a comparison of the Dictionnaire 
des Gaules, $c, of Expilly (Paris, 1762), with the Diction- 
naire Universe! de la France (Paris, 1804), of whieh only 
the following are of sufficient importance to require notice. 
Beaumont- de-Lomagne (so ealled, as being in Lomagne, 
a district of the antient Armajjune), a town in the depart- 
ment of Tarn et Garonne, on the road between Montauban 
and Aurh. It i3 on the left bank of tho little river Gimone, 



an affluent of the Garonne. Coarse woollen cloths, hats; and 
leather, are the chief manufactures of this little town, which 
in 1832, had a population of 312G for the town, and 4130 
for the whole commune. It is in 43° 53' N. lat., and 1° 0' 
E. long. 

Beaumont sur Oise, in the department of Seine et Oise, 
is about 19 miles north of Paris, on the road to Beauvais^ 
Abbeville, Boulogne, and Calais. It is on the left or south 
bank of the river Oise, over which there is a very handsome 
bridge ; and on the summit of the hill, on the slope of which 
the town is built, there are the remains of an antient castle. 
Some braid (passementerie) is made here, and some trade 
is carried on in corn, flour, and glass. The population in 
1832 was 1892. 

Beaumont had a collegiate church up to the period of the 
Revolution. This town was pillaged by the Burgundians in 
the year 1416, while Charles Duke of Orleans, to whom it 
then belonged, was a captive in England, It is in 49° 8'N 
lat.. and 2° 16' E. long. 

Beaumont -le- Roger, in the department of the Eure, is 
situated on the right bank of the river Rille, which falls 
into the Seine near its mouth. The town was built, at least 
augmented, by Roger, one of the lords of the territory in 
which it is situated. Louis IX. (otherwise St. Louis) King 
of France, obtained it of its former lords, and united it to the 
domains of the crown ; but a century afterwards it was 
alienated by John II. to Louis, brother of Charles of Evreux, 
King of Navarre. It returned, however, into the possession 
of the French kings, having been ceded by Charles III., 
King of Navarre, who had inherited it/ to Charles VL of 
France. 

There is a large village called Vieille, on the opposite 
bank of the river, which may be considered as a suburb of 
the town, with which it is connected by a stone bridge. 
Beaumont had, before the revolution, a Benedictine priory, 
dependent upon the abbey of Bee, as well as a parish church 
dedicated to St. Nicholas. Formerly the townsmen manu- 
factured woollen and linen cloths, and nails, and a consi- 
derable quantity of linen was bleached in the village of 
Vieille. (Le Grand Dictionnaire de Martiniere, 1730.) At 
present there is a large woollen-cloth manufactory employ- 
ing 400 workmen ; also a glass-work, which employs 100. 
This last manufactures annually 400,000 bottles, which are 
ehiefly destined to Bretagne. Population, as given in the 
Dictionnaire Universel de la France (Paris, 1804), 1325. 
We have no later authority. 

There was formerly a strong eastle here, built upon a 
precipitous rock. West of the town is a considerable wood, 
above seven miles long, from N.N.W. to S.S.E. and two 
and a half miles wide, which takes from it the name of 
the Forest of Beaumont. (Dictionnaire Universel de la 
France, Paris, 1804.) Beaumont-le-Roger is in 49° 4' N. 
lat., and 0° 46' E. long. 

Beaumont-sur-Sarthe, otherwise Reaumont-le-Vicomte, 
is a town in the former province of Maine, and the present 
department of Sarthe. It lies on the right (which, from the 
sinuous course of the river, is here the north) bank of the 
Sarthe ; and on the road from Alencon to Tours ; 1 2 mile3 
S. of Alencon, and 127 miles W.S.W. of Paris ; 48° 13' N. 
lat., and 0° G' E. long. 

This town takes its distinctive adjunct of Le-Vicomte, 
because built by the former viscounts of Mans. It was 
considered a place of considerable strength ; and was se- 
veral times taken and retaken in the wars which William 
the Conqueror, as Duke of Normandy, carried on with the 
counts of Maine. Henry IV. of France, during the life- 
time of his father, and after the death of his elder brother, 
took from this town the title of Due de Beaumont. 

There are not any remains of the fortifications now. Tho 
manufactures of .the town eonsist of linen cloth and serge. 
The population, in 1832, was 1 9 18 for the town, and 2381 
for the whole commune. 

BEAUMONT, a eommune of Hainault, bounded on 
the north by that of Thirimont ; on the north-east by Stre6 ; 
on the east by Brabancon and Clermont (the latter in the 
province of Namur) ; on the south-east by Solre Saint 
Gery ; and on the west by the eommune of Leval-Chaude- 
ville. 

The distriet is watered by the little river Beaumont, known 

also under the name of Hantes, which falls into the Sambre. 

In its eourse through Beaumont it gives motion to several 

mills, iron works, and establishments for sawing marble. 

The town of Beaumont, which is situated on tho high 



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.road from Mons to Chlraay, is built on the summit of a 

{>retty high hill, at the foot of which masses of rock are 
leaped together. This town is remarkable for the beauty 
of its site, which commands extonsivo views over a diversi- 
fied country. A catilc market is held here on the 17th of 
every month, and four fairs during the year, at Easter, 
June, September, and November ; there are, besides, two 
markets weekly. 

Beaumont, formerly ealled Belhmontium, was, in the 
11th century, the capnal of a considerable lordship. The 
town was strongly fortified in the middle of tho ICth century. 
It suffered much in the wars with France, and its castle 
was burnt by the Fronch general, Count de Grand l*rc\ in 
1CC0. The Spaniards ceded the place to the French In 
1684 ; but by tho treaty of Utreeht, it carao into possession 
of the House of Austria. Tho English having* taken the 
town in 1691, blew up tho fortifications, of which nothing 
now remains but somo towers and subterraneous passages, 
which show tho former strength of the place. 

To the north, west, and south of the town, is a group of 
steep hills, tho sides of which would be inaccessible but by 
means of zigzag roads. Nearly the whole surface of the 
commune is broken by limestone and schistose rocks. The 
land fit for cultivation is of various qualities ; tho most pro- 
ductive consists of a mellow clay on a substratum of calca- 
reous rock; in other places the soil is composed of decom- 
posed schistus on a substratum of the same in an undecom- 
posed state. The productions aro wheat, rye, meslin, barley, 
oats, vetches, beans, potatoes, and various garden vegetables. 
Soils of the best quality arc cropped without intermission 
during three, four, or five years, but other lands lie fallow 
every tbird year. 

•Alimcstono quarry, in which building stone is worked, 
gives employment to many of the inhabitants; others arc 
employed in sawing blocks of inarblo brought from Bar- 
baneon and Ccrfontaine, in Namur. Serges, and other 
woollens of coarse texture, are woven ; and blond lace also 
is manufactured in Beaumont, The population in 1831 was 
18C3. (Meisser's Dictionnaire Gcographiqne de la Pro* 
vince de Hainault, 1833.) 

BEAUMONT, FRANCIS, the dramatist, third son 6f 
Franeis, one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas, 
and of Anne, daughter of George Pierrepoint, of Holme- 
Pierrepoint, in tho county of Nottingham, was born at the 
family scat at Graeo Dieu, in Leicestershire, 15SC. The 
Beaumonts were not only an antient stock, probably of 
Norman origin, to judge from their name, but claimed to bo 
descended of the kings of France, a claim which antiquaries 
have disputed. By an easy process, a liko claim was mado 
to connexion with the blood royal of England. Neither of 
the pretences, perhaps, had better foundation than in the 
lilies and lion rampart which they bore in their coat of arras : 
but whether just or not, the glory of the family consists in 
its literature ; and the point, except as a matter of antique 
colouring, would not be worth montion, but that everything 
becomes interesting in connexion with a great name*. Wo 
should look with curiosity upon tho family seal of Beaumont, 
if wo had It In our hands, just as wo do upon tho spearc in 
tho arms of Shakspeatc. Our author'a shield is the samo 
as that which is borne by the family at present, and may bo 
seen In any Baronetage* 

At ten years of ago (for people went earlier to the univer- 
sity in thoso days) Beaumont was admitted a gentleman- 
commoner at Broadgate'sHall, now Pembroke College, Ox- 
ford. He afterwards becamo a student in the Temple; mar- 
ried Ursula, daughter and co-heir of Henry Islcy, of Sun- 
dridgc, in Kent, by whom he had two daughters; died 
before he was thirty, in the spring of tho year 1G 15 ; and 
was buried at the entranco of St. Bcncdict'a Chapel, in 
Westminster Abbey, without any mscription. One of tho 
daughters of Beaumont, Frances, was living at a great age 
in tho year 1700, at which time she enjoyed an annuity 
of j£l00 from the Duko of Orraond, In whose family she 
had resided (say the biographers) as a " domestic;" by 
which is meant, perhaps, a companion; though, from tho 
greater dispersion of tho yonnger branches of families In 
those days, and their inability to pin themselves on public 
offt>es and pensions, wo hear of them oflcncr in trades, and 
other humble situations, than we do now. This lady is said 
to have had in her possession several poems of her 'father's 
writing, whieh were lost during a voyago she mado from 
Ireland. 
' The race of the Beaumonts, like that of- the Fletchers, 



which is an interesting coincidence, appears to have abound- 
ed in the lovo of poetry. The biographers have noticed 
that there wero four Francis Beaumonts all living in 1C15, 
and that at least three of them were poets— Francis the 
dramatist ; Franeis, his cousin, master of tho Charter 
House; and Francis a 'Jesuit;' tho same, wo presume, 
as Francis, ono of the sons of his elder brother Sir John, 
probably too young to bo a Jesuit at that time, but who 
became one after his father s death. This Sir John Beau- 
mont, author of Bosieorth J»/q\ was a poet of real merit, 
as the reader may see by the collection of his verses in 
Chalmers's English Poets. His son and successor, another 
John, inherited his poetical tendency. Dr. Joseph Beau- 
mont, master of Peter House, Cambridge, who lived in the 
time of the Charleses, and was Of a branch of the family, 
though son of a woolstapler in Suffolk, is also known to 
poetical antiquaries as one of the writers from whom Pope 
thought a man might 'steal wisely/ Ho is furthermore 
commended for his Latin style, and for his taste in paint- 
ing. Some pictures of his, wo believe, aro still extant in 
Peterhouse Chapel. Tho grandmother of tho witty Villiers, 
Duke of Buckingham, was a Beaumont, of tho saino antient 
stock; the lato Sir John Beaumont, tho representative of 
the race, and the friend of poets and artists, was himself an 
artist; and as if all the blood connected with our dramatist 
was destined to be sprightly, tho famous Lady 'Wortlcy 
Montaguo was a Pierrepoint, of the samo race as Anne 
Pierrepoint, Beaumont's mother. 

As Beaumont's hfe was so short, and his writings appa- 
rently so numerous, it is naturally supposed that he paid 
little attention to the law ; a conclusion which might l»e 
diawn from his poetical genius. He probably gave himself 
up to the literature and amusements of the town. He 
records, in a celebrated epistle, his intimacy with Ben 
Jonson, and the other men of genius who assembled at the 
Mermaid Tavern ; where, he says, they used to leave an air 
behind them, sufficient to make the two next companies witty. 

* Mclhltiks Uie Mile wit I had is lost. 
Since 1 iaw you: for wit t* like a n*st 
livid up a1 teunU, which men do the bcsl 
With Hie beal pim eaters. Whal things have we seen 
Poue al the Mermaid I heard words that hart been 
*h» nimble, aud so full of lubtUa flame, 
Ai if that every one from whence lhey came 
Had meant to put his whole wit in a jesl, 
' And had resolved to li\c a fool the rest 

Of Ins dull life; ilien where lhere had been thrown 

Wll able enough to justify the lovrn 

Kor three days past,— wit thai might warrant be 

For lhe whole eily lo lalk foolishly, 

Tilt lhal were cancell'd ; and m heu thai was gone, 

W'c If ft an air behind us which alone 

AVai able to make the lwo ncxl companies 

Right witly;— though but downrighl fools, more wtsc' 

At this greatest of all literary elubs, he would meet with 
Shakspcarc ; and perhaps it was here he became ac- 

3uaintcd with the illustrious friend with whom ho was 
estincd to become all but identified. The date of their 
first play is lfi07, when our author was oneand-twenty. 
Fletcher was ten years older. According to Aubrey, the 
Boswell of those days, their connexion was, in every respect, 
singularly close. He says they not only lived in the same 
house, which was near the theatre, on tho Surrey side or 
the river, hut had their clothes, cloak, &c, between them, 
with other things in common, for which the curious reader 
must consult tho original, which gave riso to a ludicrous in- 
stance of pious fraud on the part of Mr. Chalmers, when, 
with the alteration of u single, but important letter, he trans- 
ferred the account to his General Dictionary, and his edition 
of the English Poets. Aubrey was credulous, and perhaps 
only repeated scandal which others laughed at ; and as to 
the clothes and cloak, tho two friends might have been 
seen to use them accidentally, upon some one or two occa- 
sions, which would have been quito enough for rumour to 
convert into n practice. Not but that a community of pro- 
perty in such a respect, between two such men, would bo 
very possible* and an evidence of afToction. Tho friendships 
of that age were of a more romantic cast than at present. 
Its poetry fell with more vigour into tho prose of common 
life, and tinctured tho whole stream. 

A natural curiosity has oxistcd, to know what were the dis- 
tinguishing characteristics of tho portions furnished to their 
common writings by theso illustrious friends. It has gene- 
rally been bcliovcd that Fletcher contributed tho vivacity, 
and Beaumont tho judgment. We can discover no founda- 
tion for this opinion, except the report ; and suspect that 
there never was any. * I llavo heard/ says Aubrey, * Dr. 



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111 



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John Earle (since Bishop of Sarum) say, who knew them, 
that his (Beaumont's) maine business was to correct the 
overflowings of Mr. Fletcher's witt/ Yet Earle, in his 
verses upon Beaumont, expressly attributes to him whole 
plays, in which his genius is quite as exuberant as Fletcher's. 
Their editors in general are divided as to the property ; tradi- 
tion seems to have distributed it between them at random ; 
and Mr. Seward, in an elaborate attempt to discriminate it, 
bewilders himself in refinements which end in giving them 
each other's qualities interchangeably, and protesting against 
his own distinction. If the miscellaneous poems attri- 
buted to Beaumont be his, especially the Hermaphrodite, 
(which Cleaveland claimed as a joint composition of himself 
and Randolph), there would be reason to suspect that his 
genius was naturally more exuberant than Fletcher's: and 
fudging from the works which they are known to have pro- 
duced separately, such as the Faithful Shepherdess, the 
Masque, and the Epistle just quoted, it appears to us that 
there is nothing to show for concluding that each might not 
have written either ; except, indeed, that in the only undra- 
matic copy of verses extant in Fletcher's name (Upon an 
Honest Man's Fortune), his muse is the graver of the two. 
The Masque is shorter than the Pastoral; but contains 
evidences of precisely the same moral and poetical ten- 
dencies, such as we shall speak of presently, when we cha- 
racterize their common genius. Perhaps Beaumont, upon 
the whole, was the less lively of the two in company; and 
hence a fallacious conclusion might have been drawn, that 
he was the more critically judicious. The verses we have 
quoted do not look liko it; and Shirley has left a testimony 
which argues for an equal division of property, even in talk. 
■ Gentlemen, that remembered them,* he says, * declare, 
that on every occasion they talked a comedy/ We are 
therefore inclined to think, that the reason which Aubrey 
gave for their strong personal attachment, applies with 
equal force to this question, and settles it in favour of our 
conclusion. ' There was a wonderful eonsimility of phansy/ 
he says, ' between him (Beaumont) and Mr. John Fletcher, 
which caused the dearenesse of friendship between them.' 
The * wonderful eonsimility of phansy* was seen in their 
friendship, and in their plays. They loved one another fully 
and entirely, and exhibited the only great spectacle existing 
of two men writing in common, and puzzling posterity to 
know which was which, precisely because their faculties 
were identical. The ease may be thought unlikely ; in other 
words, the coincidence is unique; but who will deny that 
such chances of coincidence must exist? In this instance 
the two men actually happened to meet ; and here, we think, 
ends the whole mystery. 

Mr. Lamb, in his Dramatic Specimens, has assumed that 
Fletcher is the author of many plays which have been attri- 
buted to both writers ; and he has criticised him by himself 
accordingly ; we know not on what ground ; probably from 
taking the authority of some edition for granted, fur he is 
not likely to have read all the plays through, as Seward did, 
for the purpose of assigning the respective property ; though 
nobody could have brought the question to a likelier con- 
clusion, had he done so. 

Another, and apparently more perplexing mystery re- 
mains, in the wonderful praises lavished by the writers of 
those times upon the decency and chastity ol' a muse, which 
to our eyes appears the strangest mixture of delicate sen- 
timent and absolute prostitution. Beaumont and Fletcher 
are the dramatists of all others whom a liberal modern 
reader eould the best endure to see in a castigated edition. 
Their ideas are sometimes even as loathsome as they aro 
licentious. Schlegel has expressed his astonishment, how 
two poets and gentlemen could utter the things they do, 
nay, whole scenes ; in somo measure, whole plays ; and 
Dryden, who availed himself in his dramas of all the license 
of the time of Charles II., said, in defending himself on 
that point, that ono play of Beaumont and Fletcher's (the 
Custom of the Country) contained moro indecency than all 
Vis put together. Yet these are the writers whom their 
contemporaries, including divines as well as fine gentlemen, 
compliment in the most emphatie manner upon their de- 
corum and purity. Harris, then or subsequently Greek 
professor at Oxford, and called a ' second Chrysostom,* 
panegyrizes their muse for being ' chaste.' Dr. Maine, cele- 
brated for his piety aa well as wit, speaks of their ' chaste 
scene/ whieh 

•Taught loves to noble, to reform *d, 10 clean. 
Thai they who brought foul Are*, and thither cam* 
To bargain, vent Ihcucu with a holy Dame,' 



Sir John Birkenhead says that Fletcher (who was son of 
a bishop) wrote 

* As if his father's crosier awed the stage j 1 

and Dr. Earle (afterwards a bishop himself), not content 
with declaring that Beaumont's wit is ' untainted with ob- 
scenity,* protests that his writings aro too 'pure/ and 
'chaste,' and 'sainted,* to be called plays. 

The solution of this mystery gives us an extraordinary 
idea of such plays of the timo as have not come down to 
posterity, and of the distinction drawn by our ancestors be- 
tween license of speech and conduct ; for the panegyric ap- 
pears to be almost wholly founded upon the comparative 
innocence of double meanings. 

' Here, ye foul speakers, that pronounce the air 
Of stews and sewers/ 

cries the gallant Lovelace, the Sir Philip Sydney of his 
day, speaking of the very comedy above-mentioned, — 

* View here a loose thought said with such a gracoj 
Minerva might hare spoke In Vrmis* fate ; 
So well disguis'd, lhat 'twas conceived by none, 
But Cupid had Diana's linen on ;' 

and so he goes on, objecting nothing to the thought, but 
holding the examplo to be spotless, and desiring it to spread, 
as if for its own sake. It thus appears, that other writers 
used language,— homely words, or grosser images,— such' 
as Beaumont and Fletcher never uttered; and if it were ob- 
jected tbat Shakspeare, as well as several other dramatists, 
did not allow themselves a twentieth part of the licenso 
even of Beaumont and Fletcher, the reply would be, that 
the accomplished duumviri more expressly set themselves 
to represent the manners and conversation of high life and 
the town elegance, and that their ingenuity in avoiding 
cause of offence was thereforo the more singular and me- 
ritorious. In truth, the language permitted in the circles of 
those days was very gross, and the license of behaviour cor- 
responding. It is a great fallacy to suppose that loose 
manners among the English gentry originated with the 
court of Charles II. That of James I. was extromely 
licentious ; and the consequences of it weroonly suppressed, 
and that chietly in appearance, by the greater personal de- 
corum of his son, and the powerful discountenance of the 
Puritans. It was nothing but the old stream that burst 
forth in tho reign of Charles II., taking advantage of tho 
weak points and fallen influence of the Puritans, to contrast 
its candour with their alleged hypocrisy, and pretend that 
impudence itself was a virtue. 

Beaumont and Fletcher were two open-hearted men and 
genuine poets, spoilt by town breeding and the love of ap- 
plause. It is a pity that two such poets could have been so 
spoilt; but still, in the best part of their genius, they sur- 
vived the contamination, strong in their sympathy with 
the great nature that bestowed it, and 'pure in the last 
recesses of the mind.' Their muse is like some fair creature 
of exuberant temperament but invincibly good heart, who 
has retained the fineness of her disposition in spite of her 
bad habits and of the very superiority of her animal spirits 
to remorse, and who, in the midst of a vicious life, has stdl a 
belief in innocence and virtue. Even the purest characters 
in their plays are not free from an intermixture of things 
which they ought not to know or talk about; while the 
practical ehastity is overwrought, and put to absurd and 
gratuitous trials, as if there could be no faith in it but from 
the most extravagant proof. In short, a something not en- 
tirely true to nature pervades almost all their writings, 
running side by side with the freshest and loveliest passages ; 
and while one half of a scene, or sometimes of a speech, or 
even a couple of sentences, gushes out from the authors* 
heart, the other is brought from some fantastie fountain of 
court manners and talk, and produced for the sake of town 
effect. In this, we eonceive, lies the whole secret of tho 
inferiority of Beaumont and Fletcher to Shakspeare, and 
in some respects to Webster and others. To be sure, they 
may havo wanted, by nature, a certain robustness of moral 
constitution like his, not unconnected perhaps with physical ; 
but unlike any other great dramatists of their time, they 
were born and bred ' fine gentlemen, 1 educated in all tho 
conventionalities and artificial manners of their time; and 
the applause that they gained from the world of fashion 
had too great an effect upon them, and divided their inspira- 
tion with nature. 

A selection from the works of Beaumont and Fletcher 
would make as exquisite a volume, or two volumes, of refined 
sentiment, lofty and sweet poetry, excellent sense, humour 
and pathos, as any in the language, excepting Shakspeare 



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112 



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and Chanter. Nothing can surpass the tender delicacy of 
tho page's scenes in 4 Philastcr,' the dignified sentiment in 
the * Elder Brother/ the wit and happy extravagance in the 
* Woman Hater* and the 4 Little French lawyer/ tho pas- 
toral luxuriance in the 4 Faithful Shepherdess,* or the ex- 
qui>ite and virgin poetry scattered throughout the whole 
collection, sometimes in the midst of the most artificial and 
even disgusting passages. 

In lyrics they havo no equal, not Shatspcare himself, 
nor Milton. A mioiature volume of the truest lyrical poetry 
might l>c collected out of their dramas,— of compositions 
which sing their own music. {Dramatic Works of Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, 1778 ; Biograjihia Britannica ; Chal- 
mers's British Poets; Aubrey's Letters and Lives of 
Eminent Men, &c &c. ; and Lamb's Sj>ecimciis of English 
Dramatic Poets, which contains some masterly criticism on 
those writers). 

BEAUNE, a town of considerable size, and the capital 
of a sub- prefecture, or nrrondissemeut, in the department 
of Cote d'Or, in France. It lies nearly under the S.E. slope 
of the ridge of C6te d'Or, and upon the littlo stream tbe 
Bouzoiso*, which rises just above the town, and \initing 
with the Meuzin, Hows into the Saonc. It is 23 miles 
S.S.W. of Dijon, and 20G miles S.E, of Paris; in 47° 2' N, 
lat. and 4° 50' E. long. 

Beaune is situated in a fertile and agreeable country, 
celebrated for tho wines which it produces. Both tho red 
and white Beaunois wines are considered among the best in 
this part of France. They include tho growth of Meur- 
sault, Mont Rachet, Pomard, and Volnay. The town itself, 
considered apart from its suburbs, is of an oval form, sur- 
rounded with an old wall ruined in many places, but the 
ramparts afford to tho townsmen a good promenade. Our 
old authorities speak of four gates, those of St. Nicholas, St. 
Martin, La Bretonniere, and La Madeleine. Millin ( Voyage 
dans les Dep. da Midi de la France, Paris, 1807) speaks 
of the * new gate,' which, he says, is of tolerably good archi- 
tecture. This is either a new entrance, or a re-erection of 
the gate of St. Nicholas. 

The town is well built, with streets which are described 
by M. Millin as spacious. Before the revolution (we know 
not what change has taken place since), the town and 
suburbs consisted of fivo parishes, two in the town, and three 
in the suburbs. The parish church of Notre Dame, in the 
town, was collegiate before the revolution ; it was the most 
anticnt in the diocese of Autun (in which Beaune was in- 
eluded), and one of the handsomest in thekingdom; but 
whether from any injuries sustained by it during the revo- 
lution, or from some other cause, it is now considered to be 
surpassed in beauty by the church of St. Pierre (or St. 
Peter), also in the town. Before the revolution, Beaune 
possessed several religious establishments. Thero were mo- 
nasteries of Carthusians, Jacobins or Dominicans, Corde- 
liers, Capuchins, and Minims; nunneries for Carmelites, 
Dominicans, Ursulines, and nuns of the Visitation ; and an 
abbey for Cistcrtian nuns. There was also a college, large 
and well built, conducted by the priests of the oratory ; a3 
well as n coinmandery of the order of Malta. Several of 
these establishments were in tho suburbs. 

Besides these institutions, now wholly or in great part 
suppressed, Beauno possessed two hospitals, which, so far as 
wo can gather, still remain. Ono of these, for the sick, 
founded in 1443 by Nicholas Rollin, chancellor of the Duke 
of Burgundy, and farther enriched and embellished by his 
son Cardinal John Rollin, bishop of Autun, is of vast extent. 
Its architecture contains some remains in the Gothic style ; 
and it constitutes the most remarkable edifice of Beaune. 
In the Dictionnaire des Gaules, See., of Expilly (Paris, 
1 762), it is described as consisting of nine wards (salles), 
five of which were for the sick of tne humbler classes, and 
four for invalids of a wealthier class, who paid for the 
attendance given them. How far this arrangement is still 
continued wo are not aware; but a later authority, M. 
Millin, who travelled in 1804, attests that tho hospital was 
then very well kept up. Louis XL, king of France, when he 
was looking over this hospital, is said to havo replied to 

• ThU n»m* of tlie riwr wa jfWa fW*m th* irTeat Map of France, by MM. 
Maraldi and Cawtni. It l« called In fcreral of our authoriti«*». Uougcoiw, 
lloujoiw.or Bour^'oifc Hi* dUtiwlly «uted by Martinet* and lUpHIv, that 
ll*a tine U on thU river, and hrrrinthey ate supported by Maraldi and Cai«ini j 
but in tha inapt of A. II. llrwr, (l'aria, lBH.)-»»d of the Sochrly for the Dif. 
futioo of L*M»ful Knowledge, the rtvrr ii called Buuurire. and it mil made lo 
ttttwHliIn l«o or three mllet of Bernini, Thit l»«t ditcrrpaucy probably 
aritet from the name being (riven to different brnnchet of the aaroe tlrearn, 
awl that Uid down at tbe Bouzoire In tha maps of Brne ami lbe Society It 
Undoubtedly the principal. ' 



some one who was praising the charity of its founder, tho 
Chancellor Uollin, • It is just that he, who has loadc so 
many poor, should provide an hospital for their reception.' 
The duties of attendance at this hospital were performed by 
females bound by a religions vow, wuicli they took only for 
a year, and when any one of them took her vows for the first 
time, she presented the establishment with twelve dozen 
turkeys, and the samo number of chickens, of pigeons, of 
partridges, and of hares. 

The other hospital is for orphans of both sexes, and for 
such poor persons as cannot maintain themselves. The 
inmates are employed in carding and spinning wool. Thero 
was formerly an estayishment called ' La Chambre des 
Pauvrcs,' for affording relief to those destitute persons who 
were ashamed to beg, and to teach children of both sexes 
some trade. We know not whether it still exists. 

Besides the hospitals, Beauno has a library, but it docs 
not contain any valuablo treasures (M. Millin) ; a college, 
or high school ; an agricultural society : a theatre ; and a 
Vauxhall. It has a Tribunal de premiere instance, a court 
of justice which may perhaps be compared with our quarter 
sessions, and a tribunal de commerce, a committee of lead- 
ing merchants or dealers, which takes cognizance of disputes 
in commercial affairs. Woollen cloths, serges anddruggcis, 
leather, cutlery, casks, and vinegar are among tho articles 
manufactured here. There aro in the neighbourhood quar- 
ries of granite, and of what our authority (the Dictionnaire 
Universe! de !a France) terms, 'pierre polie,' polished stone, 
perhaps marble. 

Beaune has been asserted by some, but without reason, to 
be the Bibracte of Coesar. (Comment de B. G., lib. i. and 
vii.) It is not known to havo existed in tho time of the 
Romans, and is first mentioned in the Chronicles of the 
Monasteries of Burgundy, There are traces of a Roman 
road in the neighbourhood running cast and * est (on tho 
east as far as the river Doubs), hut this passed to the north 
of Beaune. The district was known under the designation 
of Pagus Belnisus, in the time of the kings of France of 
the Carlovinjrian race. Beaune was raised from being a 
mere petty place, or a castle, to the rank of a town, hy 
Eudes HI., duke of Burgundy, in the year 1203. Several 
of the dukes of Burgundy held their court here ; and here 
also the parliament of Burgundy at one time sat. When 
the Burgundian States came into the hands of tho French 
kings, J^ouis XII., king of France, built a castle here, which 
was considered tho strongest place in Burgundy ; but it was 
dismantled in 1602, by order of Henry IV., who feared that 
the party of the Marcchal de Biron would avail themselves 
of it in their projected revolt. Only the ruins of it now 
remain. 

The inhabitants of Beaune amounted, in 1832, to 9272 
for tho town, or 9 9 08 for the whole commune. They are 
reproached by the inhabitants of Dijon for their stupidity, 
and the most ridiculous stories are current respecting them. 
Piron, the dramatist, a native of Dyon, nearly lost his lifo 
when on a visit to Beaune ; so much had he irritated tho 
Beaunois by his sarcastic witticisms. 

The arrondissement of Beaune comprehends 199 squaro 
miles, or 127,360 acres, and had, in 1832, a population of 
1 17.99G. Thero are in it 10 cantons, and 203 communes or 
parishes. (Martiuicre ; Expilly ; Millin ; Dictionnaire Uni- 
verse! de !a France.) 

There is a small town (bourg) called Beaune (with tho 
distinctive appendage la-BoUtndc, to distinguish it from the 
foregoing), in the arrondissement of Pithivicrs, in the depart- 
ment of Loiret. It is on the road from Pithivicrs to Mon- 
targis, and upon a small stream which falls into the Loing, 
an affluent of the Seiue: in 48° 5' N. lat., and2*2G'E. 
long. 

It is said to have been onee a place of greater importance, 
and to have belonged to tho nephew of Charlemagne, the 
ehivalrie Roland (the Orlando of Ariosto), who gave it to 
tho monks of the abbey of St. Denis. Tho growths of wine 
in the neighbourhood, though tolerably good, are yet far in- 
ferior to those of Beaune in the department of Coto d'Or. 
The population given in the Dictionnaire Universel de la 
France (Paris, 180-1), was 2028. We havo no lateraceonnt. 

The name of Beaune applies to several other places, all of 
inferior importance. 

BEAUNE, commentator on Dos Cartes. [See Des 
Cartes.] 

BKAUPRE'AU, a town in France, the capital ofa sub- 
prefecture or arrondissement in the department of Maine 
fct Loire; perhaps about 213 road miles from Paris. It is 



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113 



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in 47° 12' N. lat., and 1° 0' W. long. Beaupreau is on the 
right bank of the little river Evrc, a tributary of the Loire, 
which falls into that river on its left or south bank, and is 
situated in a rich soil. It is a place of considerable trade : 
there arc several manufactories of linens and handkerchiefs, 
of Uanncls, and other woollen fabrics. Tbcre are also dye- 
houses and tan-yards. The population in 1832 was 3207 
for the whole commune. 

Prior to the Revolution there were two parish churches, 
and a third, a eollegiate ehurch ; but the revenues of the 
latter were small, and its clergy far from numerous. The 
territory of Beaupreau gave successively the title of baron, 
marquis, and duke, to its possessors. 

The arrondisscment of Beaupreau comprehends 560 square 
miles, or 358,400 acres; and had in 1832 a population of 
104.947. 

BEAUSOBRE, ISAAC, was born in 1659 at Niort, in 
the province of Poitou. His ancestors had emigrated from 
France on account of their being Protestants, at the time 
of the St. Bartholomew, but returned afterwards in eonsc- 
qucnee of the edict of Nantes. Young Beausobre studied 
at Saumur, was afterwards ordained, and took charge of the 
Protestant church of ChStillon sur Indre, in Tourainc. 
When Louis XIV. renewed the persecution against the 
Protestants, by the revocation of the edict of Nantes, in 
1G83, the church of Chatillon was elosed, and the gates 
scaled by the King's officers. Beausobre broke the seals, 
and preached as usual on the Sunday, in consequence of 
which he was obliged to take refuge in Holland. From 
Holland he went to Dessau, in 1686, as chaplain to the 
Princess of Anhalt Dessau. His first work was Defense de 
la Doctrine des Reformh, Magdeburg, 1693. In 1694 
he removed to Berlin, and took charge of one of the 
French Protestant ehurches in that capital. He was after- 
wards made chaplain to the eourt, inspector of the French 
eollegc, &c. He enjoyed the favour of the King, Frederic 
William I., whose son, the Crown Prinec, afterwards the 
Great Frederic, also coneeived great regard for hira. 
Beausobre passed the remaining forty-six years of his life at 
Berlin, where he died in June, 1733, much regretted, both 
on accouutof his personal character and his extensive learn- 
ing. He wrote numerous works, tho principal of which is 
his Histoire critique de Manichee et du Mantcheisme, 2 vols. 
4 to. 173 4—9. The first part of this work is historical. 
The author derives his account of Manes, or Mani, from 
Syrian, Persian, and Arabic authorities, and exhibits the 
great discrepancy existing between their narratives and those 
of the Greek and Latin writers. He characterizes the 
history of Manes, which is attributed to Archelaus Bishop 
of Cascar or Carear, in Mesopotamia, as a romance pub- 
lished 60 years after Manes* death. {Acta Disputationis 
Archelai Episcopi Mesopotamia et Manetis Heresiarcha?, 
in Zuceagni's Monumenta Ecclesia, Rome, 1698.) The 
second part treats of the doctrines, rites, church discipline, 
and morals of tho Mamcheans. Beausobre discards many 
absurdities attributed to that scet, and refutes many odious 
charges brought against it. He exposes and examines im- 
partially their real tenets, their practiecs, and their supersti- 
tions. The work is full of varied and interesting erudition. 
The second volume was edited by Formey after Beausobre's 
death, with a short biography of the author by the editor. 
Beausobre intended to add a third volume, relative to the 
modern sects which have been accused of Manichcism. 
He undertook, with L'Enfant, a French version of the 
New Testament from the Greek text, which eontains a 
long and valuable introduction, and numerous explanatory 
notes: 2 vols. 8vo. Amsterdam, 1718, reprinted in 1741. 
The introduction was translated into English, London, 1726, 
and is used in some colleges in the English Uuivcrsities. 
He also began a history of the Reformation on a very large 
scale, which he left in an imperfect state. It was published 
at Berlin in 1785, in 4 vols. 8vo. In conjunction with other 
.literary men, he began the journal and review ealled Bib- 
liotheque Germunique, the first volume of which appeared 
in 1720, and which was carried to the fiftieth volume. 
Beausobre continued to the last to be one of the principal 
contributors, and wrote nearly half of each volume. This 
work was chiefty engrossed by notices of works of German 
writers, and also of writers of the northern kingdoms, Den- 
mark, Sweden, Poland, &e. The chief object was to make 
these writers known to the rest of Europe through the me- 
dium of the French language, in which the journal was 
written. A sequel to this work was begun after Beausebre's 



death by Mr. Formey, under the title ofNouvelle Biblio- 
theque Germanique. Beausobre wrote also Remarque* 
critiques et philologiques sur le nouveau Testament 
published after his death at la Hayc (the Hague), 2 voU 
4 to. His Sermo?is, in 4 vols. 8vo., are considered worth 
to be placed by the side of the Sermons of Saurin. Bea^ 
sob re left several other works in MS., complete and in- 
complete, especially on the various sects of the dark ages, 
the Paulicians, the Albigenses, &e. 

BEAUSSE, or BEAUCE, or, as it is written in some 
very old maps, BEAULSE, a district in the former province 
of Orleannois in France. As this district never formed a 
distinct jurisdiction, either civil or ceelesiastical, its limits 
arc very vague and undetermined. It included, at any rate, 
the territories of Chartrain,Dunois, and Vendomois (Expilly, 
Dictionnaire des Gaules) ; and according to other authori- 
ties it included also portions of Orleannois Proper, and 
Gatinois, and even of Hurepoix and Mantois, which were in 
the He de France. It extended from about 25 miles south 
of Paris, on one side to the Loire, and on the other to the 
Canal dc Briare. {Dictionnaire Universel de la France, 
an&tEnq/clcpedie Methodique.) The country consists of an 
elevated plain, or table-land, marked in some maps as the 
Plateau d'Orleans, in which not a mountain is seen ; and 
though it lies between two of the principal rivers of Franee 
(the Seine and the Loire), yet the running waters arc very- 
few. From the scarcity of springs and streams, the inha- 
bitants are obliged to have tanks and pools to preserve 
the rain water. They have also some wells, which the ele- 
vation of the surface obliges them to make very deep, hut 
the water is not good. Notwithstanding the want of water, 
the eountry is however so productive in wheat, that it has 
acquired the title of tbe granary of Paris, (Piganiol de la 
Force.) A great quantity of siiecp are also fed here ; and the 
shepherds were formerly in high repute among the simplo 
peasantry for knowledge which was really neither within 
their possession nor their reach. Muttou and wheat appear 
to be the only products of the district of any consequence. 
There are no vines or woods to any extent. 

Chartres, the principal city in this district, contaiucd 
in 1832 13,576 inhabitants in the town, or 14,439 in the 
whole commune. The other chief places arc Ch&teaudun, 
formerly capital of Dunois (population 6461), and Vendome 
(population C590 for the town, or 7771 for the whole com- 
mune), capital of the Vendomois. [Sec Chartiu;s, Ciia- 
teaudun, and Vendomk.] 

The name Beauce, in a more restricted application, is 
given to the distriet of Chartrain. The Latin form of it is 
Bclsia, or Belsa, and it occurs in the writings of Fortunatus, 
an author of the latter part of the sixth century. 

BEAUTY is that quality in visible objects in consequence 
of which their colours and forms are agreeable to the human 
mind. The word beauty (as Mr. D. Stewart observes, 
Essay on Beauty, e. ii.) was first applied to objects percep- 
tible by the sight; and, by an easy transition, it has been 
extended to objects perceptible by the hearing; as when 
we speak of beautiful musie, a beautiful tune, voice, &c. 
The instances of words which properly signify an impression 
on one sense being used to signify an impression on another 
sense are very numerous : thus we sometimes pass from the 
sight to the touch, as when we speak of lightness or heavi- 
ness of form and of colour ; from the touch to the hearing, 
as a sharp, piercing, thrilling, penetrating, or heavy sound ; 
from the touch to the smell, as a pungent smell ; from tho 
touch to the sight, as harsh and soft colouring ; from the 
hearing to the sight, as monotony of colour, tone of a picture, 
harmony of colours ; from the taste to the sight, as mellow 
eolburing ; from the taste to the hearing, as sweet music. 
- This proneness to transfer words from one object of sense 
to another docs not, however (as Mr. Stewart remarks), ex- 
plain why the word beauty should be extended only to 
agreeable sounds, and not to agreeable tastes or odours. 
That, however, there is a eloscr affinity between the percep- 
tions of sight and hearing than between those of sight and 
any other sense, it is not difficult to perceive ; and the fact 
is satisfactorily traced by the same writer to the following 
causes : — 1. The picturesque effect which custom, in many 
instances, gives to sounds ; as when a tune calls up the 
image of a person's home or the haunts of his childhood. 
2. The expressive power of sounds, as in the case of the 
human voice, when the expression of the countenance cor- 
responds with the tones of the voice and the meaning of 
the words which it utters. 3. The significant power of 



No. 219. 



[THE PENNY CYCLOPEDIA.] 



Vol. IV.-Q 



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114 



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sounds, in consequence of conventional speech. In this 
way they every moment present pictures to the imagination ; 
ana" wo apply to the description us to the thing described 
(villi hardly any consciousness of speaking figuratively) 
such words as Itrety, glowing, luminous* splendid, pictu- 
resque. • To these considerations should be added (as the 
same writer justly observes), as a cause conspiring power- 
fully to the same end, the intimate association which, in 
pur apprehensions, is formed between the eyo and tho ear, 
as the great inlets of our acquired knowledge, as the only 
media by which different minds can communicate together, 
and as the organs by which we receive from the material 
world the two classes of pleasures which, while they surpass 
all the rest in variety and in duration, are the most com- 
pletely removed from the grossness of animal indulgence, 
and the most nearly allied to the enjoyments of the intel- 
lect. The unconsciousness wo have in both these senses of 
any local impression on our bodily frame in ay perhaps help 
to explain the peculiar facility with which their perceptions 
blend themselves with other pleasures of a rank still nobler 
aud more refined.* (Ibid, c vi.) 

But although tho epithet beautiful is never applied to 
the perceptions of any sense except those of seeing and 
hearing, yet it is extended to the results of some intellectual 
processes, as when wc speak of a beautiful ehain of reason- 
ing, a beautiful poem, a beautiful metaphor, a beautiful 
language, a beautiful machine, a beautiful contrivance of 
nature, &e. AVhen tho word beauty is thus employed, it is 
merely a vague term of praise, and is nearly synonymous 
with admirable, ■ Tho word beauty (as Mr. knight re- 
marks) is often applied to a syllogism or a problem ; but 
then it means clearness, point, or precision, or whatever eke 
be the characteristic excellence of that to which it is ap- 
plied. 1 (Inquiry-into the Principles of Taste, p. 259.) As 
the effect of beauty in visible objects is to produce admira- 
tion, all beautiful objects arc also admirable ; and thence it 
was an easy step to apply the epithet beautiful to things 
which produced admiration, although this feeling did nut 
arise from the cause which produces it in the contemplation 
of visible" objects. Similar transfers may be observed in 
other words : thus the word law properly signifies a general 
command ghen by one intelligent being to another; but 
becauso the effect of such a command is to produce an uni- 
formity of conduct in the persons to whom it is addressed, 
the term law has been exlended to those operations of na- 
ture in which an uniformity of phenomena prevails, although 
the cause of the uniformity is altogether different. [See 
Analogy.] 

In the following remarks on the nature and eausc3 of 
beauty, we shall limit ourselves to the original and appro- 
priate meaning of the word in question, viz., the beauty of 
visible objects. 

The beauty of visible objects eonsisls of two parts, viz., 
the beauty of colour and the beauty of form, which, al- 
though closely connected with each other, arise from dif- 
ferent sources, and from sources of a different character, 
inasmuch as the one appears to be, in most cases, a simple 
emotion, and therefore an ultiniato fact, of which no expla- 
nation can be given, while the other is a pleasure derived 
from association, which is susceptible of analysis. 

There cannot, in our opinion, be any doubt that certain 
colours, and certain arrangements of colours, are naturally, 
and in themselves, pleasing to the eye. Children arc ob- 
served to take delight in brilliant colours before they have 
learnt to connect any agreeablo ideas with them. The 
analogy of the other senses would, d priori, lead to this 
conclusion : for as there are certain odours, tasles, and 
sounds, which are naturally pleasing or displeasing to the 
nose, the tongue, and tho ear, so it may be presumed that 
there are certain colours, and combinations of colours, which 
are naturally pleasing or displeasing to the eye. Although, 
as will be presently shown, one branch of beauty is entirely 
founded on association, tho feeling of beauty cannot be de- 
rived from association alone. ' It is the province of asso- 
ciation (as Mr. Stewart has justly observed) to impart to 
one tbin^ the agreeable or disagreeable effect of another; 
but association can never account for tho origin of a elans 
of pleasures different in kind from all the others we know. 
If there was nothing originally and intrinsically pleasing or 
beautiful, the associating principle would ha\e no materials 
on which it could operate.' {Essay i. e. C.) 
t This origin of the feeling of beauty appears to us to con- 
sist in the pleasure derived from the contemplation of colours, 



a pleasure, in most cases, purely sensual and organic, and 
as incapable of explanation as the pleasure derived to tho 
inlud through the medium of the ear from the harmony of 
sweet sounds. An instance of purely sensual beauty b 
afforded by precious stones, which all ages and nations, an- 
tic nt and modern, barbarous and uncivilized, ha\ o agreed 
in admiring. That their beauty does not arise from any 
collateral associations of their durability and hardness Is 
evident from this, that in the Unpolished state, when they 
arc equally hard and durable, thev excite tie admiration. 
The precious metals also are beautiful for the same reason ; 
though they have other qualities besides their beauty which 
give thcin exchangeable value: whereas the value of pre- 
cious stones Is almost exclusively owing to their beauty. 
Flowers, the plumage of birds, the rainbow, the setting sun, 
the clear blue expanse of the sky or the sea, also derive- 
their beauty in great measure from the mere sensual im- 
pression on the organ of sijjliL Indeed, there are only a few 
eases (such as that of tho Lcauty of complexion, which will 
bo mentioned below), in which the beauty of colour is de- 
rived from association* and therefore admits of a resolution 
into simpler elements. 

The beauty of form belongs altogether to a different ca- 
tegory, and is derived (as we shall attempt to show) from 
an association inseparably connected with tho form of any 
object, and necessarily and instantaneously suggested by 
it, viz., its adaptation to the purpose which it is intended to 
fulfil. The beauty of form, as arising from this source, is 
however subject to certain conditions, the chief of which is, 
that the object should cither possess the beauty of colour, 
or at least should he of such a colour as is completely 
inoffensive to the eye. The manner in which the organic 
emotion works back upon tho pleasure of association is well 
illustrated by the following remarks of Mr. Payne Knight 
— ' The habit,* he says, ■ which we acquire of spontaneously 
mixing associated ideas with organic perceptions, in con- 
templating objects of vision, is the principal reason why the 
merely sensual pleasures of this organ are in adult persons 
very limited and feeble. Children are delighted with every 
gay assemblage of colours, but as the intellect and imagina- 
tion acquire strength by culture and cxereise, they obtain 
so much influence over the sense as to make it reject almost 
every gratification in which one of them docs not partici- 
pate. But nevertheless tho sense acquires a similar nega- 
tive power, in its turn, by the same habit of association ; 
and if there be anything in the object of contemplation to 
offend or disgust, it effect u ally mars the gratification of 
every other faculty. Thus, in tho higher class of landscapes, 
whether In nature or in art, the mere sensual gratification 
of the eye is comparatively so small as scarcely to be at- 
tended to; biit )et if there occur a single spot, either in 
the scene or the picture, offensively harsh and glaring, all 
the magic instantly vanishes, and the imagination avenges 
tho injury offered to the sense. The glaring and inhar- 
monious spot, being the most prominent and obtrusive, 
irresistibly attracts the attention, so as to interrupt the re- 
pose of tho whole, and leave the mind no place to rest upon. 
It is in some respects the same with the sense of hearing. 
Tho mere sensual gratification arising from the melody of 
an actor's voico Is a very small part, indeed, of the pleasure 
which we receive from the representation of a fine drama; 
hut, nevertheless, if a single note of the voice be absolutely 
cracked and out of lime, so as to offend and disgust the ear, 
it will completely destroy the effect of the most skilful 
acting, and render all tho sublimity and pathos of the finest 
tragedy ludicrous.' — p. 95. 

The beauty of form, although in strictness not connected 
with the colour of any object, is nevertheless so far dependent 
on it, that if the colour should bo offensive to tho eye, tho 
pleasure derived from the beauty df form is much impaired, 
or is even destroyed. Beauty of form, as arising from the 
fitness of the form for its end, requires that the eolour of 
the object should be such as shall not interfcro with the 
effect produced by the mutual relatious of its parts. 

There is. ho\ve\er, another condition for the existence of 
beauty of form, beyond the perception of its fitness to its 
purpose, the statement of which will complete our definition 
of this kind of beauty. If* then, tho*c colours are cither 
absent or present, whose absence or presence Is essential to 
the t*ereeption of beauty in any object, simply as an organic 
impression, the beauty of form in any object mainly depends 
on our *enso of Its adaptation to tho end for which it is 
destined, provided that this eud is agreeable to contemplate, 



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and is such that the mind dwells on it with pleasure. 
Hence the form of the antelope, tlie swan, or the tiger, is 
considered beautiful, because we take a satisfaction in con- 
templating the movements which those forms are admirably 
fitted to produce ; but the form of the pig's snout is not 
considered beautiful, becauso the mind Hies with disgust 
from the filthy purposes for which that animal employs it. 
So likewise we call the outward form of the arms, legs, neck, 
&c, of the human figure beautiful, when their form is suited 
to their respective uses ; but no one finds ary beauty in the 
form of the human stomaeh, or intestines, or liver, though 
equally well fitted for their several ends, because they sug- 
gest the notion of processes which men do not willingly 
contemplate. (Burke's Sublime and Beautiful, part iii. 
s. 6—8.) 

< Perhaps, in strictness, it might be thought that the 
simple emotion derived from the colour of objects is alone 
properly entitled to be considered as the feeling of beauty ; 
and that the beauty of form in any object, derived from a 
sense of its fitness to its end, is only a pleasing association, 
allied indeed to the feeling of beauty by a close analogy, 
hut still distinct from it. This question (which in fact is 
merely verbal) we have not sufficient space to discuss at 
length; nevertheless it appears to us that all ages and na- 
tions have agreed in speaking of the beauty of form as well 
as of colour, and that we are justified in considering as 
included in the feeling of beauty those emotions which are 
susceptible o analysis, as well as those which are not. 

Having made these general remarks, we will proceed to 
explain, with somewhat more detail, the application of the 
principles last stated. 
. The beauty of form, arising from a perception of utility, 
or of fitness of eertain means to produce a certain end, may 
be observed both in animate and inanimate objects — in the 
works both of nature and of art. In animate beings we are 
gratified by the recognition that a eertain form is suited to 
the wants of the animal, and that certain desired effects or 
motions are produced with ease and little efibrt. It is on 
this principle that we admire the beauty of tho human form, 
every part of which is perfectly fitted for its intended pur- 
poses, and that we admire the motions of a horse, a stag, a 
greyhound, or a eat, as being made without any apparent 
trouble or difficulty, and as the result of a power which 
accomplishes its end with the least possible expense of ex- 
ertion. The same feeling which makes us take pleasure 
in movements and forms which indicate case, leads us like- 
wise to dislike those which express constraint and toil: 
hence, both in nature and art, all forced and laboured atti- 
tudes, all tension of muscle, all visible and overstrained 
efforts to produce a certain effect, or to express a certain 
feeling (which is the source of affectation in art), are offen- 
sive to the taste. And thus all angular and jerking action, 
iind all heavy dragging of the limbs, are devoid of beauty, 
as being sij;ns of violent and toilsome effort, and as equally ( 
removed, though in eontrary ways, from that equable, flow- 
ing, and easy motion in which grace consists. Nor is it 
only in animals that the marks of case are agreeable to us; 
the varied, flowing, and irregular outline which characterizes 
the free growth of plants, is beautiful on the same prin- 
ciple : ' wherever (as Mr. Alison remarks) we find vege- 
tables, or any other delicate body, assume a winding form, 
we are impressed with the conviction of its being easy, 
agreeable to their nature, and free from foree or constraint. 
On the contrary, when sueh bodies in the line of their pro- 
gress assume angular forms, we have a strong impression 
of the operation of force, of something that either prevents 
-them from their natural direction, or that constrains them 
to assume an unnatural one/ {Essay on Taste, vol. i. 
p. 334.) It was the perception of this fact which induced 
llogarth to imagine that beauty of outline consists in its 
serpentine direction, which is true of those animate and 
organized beings whose wants require them to assume this 
shape ; but does not apply to other objects, such as buildings 
or walks, in which convenienco requires a straight or an- 
gular form, and in which a straight or angular form is there- 
fore beautiful. The beauty of proportion or symmetry in 
the forms of animals is likewise derived from a sense of 
utility ; for it is manifest that small limbs would not suit 
the wants of a large body ; that a large foot would be an in- 
cumbrance to a small leg; that a large hand would be an 
incunihranco to a small arm, &c. For the same reason 
different animals have different proportions, as their bodies 
are formed on different scales and adapted to different pur- 



poses ; and thus the form or size which is beautiful in one 
animal would be monstrous in another, as if the long neck 
of the camel opard, an animal living on the leaves of trees, 
were^ given to the lion, whose teeth and claws are adapted 
to seizing and tearing the flesh of animals; or if the antlers 
of a stag were fixed on the forehead of a dog. (Horace, Dp. 
Arte Poet., at the beginning; on some exceptions to this 
principle, See Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty, c. 6 ; Miiller's 
Archczologie der Kunsi, p. 11.) And thus the limbs of the 
human body, or the features of the human face, are beau- 
tiful only in their proper places, when they are taken in 
combination with the other parts of the body, and so 
manifestly suggest the notion that they are fitted to perform 
their respective offices. 

* Tis not a lip or clieek wc beauty call» 
But Ihe joint force and full result of alL' 

All incongruous combinations in animate beings are con- 
trary to beauty: for example, the pink and white com- 
plexion, which suits the delieacy and weakness of the 
female form and eharaeter, is less becoming to man than 
the dark-red and brown, which characterize the sun-burnt 
cheek of a person accustomed to rural labours, to athletic 
exercises, to field-sports, and to a military or naval life. 
Feminine forms and eolours are sometimes admired in young 
men; and in women, as in gipsies, a dark complexion is 
often extremely beautiful : but an effeminate appearance is 
not in general more approved in men than an effeminate 
mind : and muscular or athletic forms in women are com- 
monly considered coarse and elumsy, a judgment confirmed 
by the taste of the Greek artists, wno, in representing 
Diana as a huntress, with her dogs, her arrows, and her 
garments girded up for running, never give her a masculine 
form. 

Hence the middle form in the different species of animals 
is the most beautiful ; that is to say, it is that abstract form 
at whieh the painter or sculptor arrives by rejecting all the 
faulty extremes, and which he takes as the type from which 
the varieties of individuals diverge in different directions. 
Thus tho most beautiful size in man is between a giant and 
a dwarf; or, to take an instance in a single feature, the 
most beautiful form of the nose is when the outline is 
straight : any deviation from this form on either side, so as 
to make it like that of the fauns in Greek sculpture, or to 
give it a protuberance, is injurious to the beauty of the hu- 
man countenance. (See Miiller, Archceol. derKunst, s. 329, 
n. 5.) And as it is with the general form of the human 
race, or of the several limbs and features, so is it with parti- 
cular classes. Thus, * though the forms of childhood and 
age differ exceedingly, there is a common form in childhood 
and a common form in age, which is the more perfect, as it 
is the more remote from all peculiarities.' (Reynolds* Dis- 
course 3.) Reynolds, however, is mistaken when he goes 
on to say that the middle form is beautiful because it is the 
most common (see Idler, No. 82) ; for, as has been truly 
remarked, there are many forms of frequent and ordinary 
occurrence which are by no means beautiful. The beauty 
of the middle form arises from its being that which is the 
most suited to the purposes and wants of the animal : thus 
if a nose, a mouth, or an eye was very much above, or very 
much below the average size, it would either be inconve- 
nient from its magnitude, or incapable of performing its 
functions on account of its smallness. Having once esta- 
blished this maxim in our minds, we forget, as in many 
other instances, the principle on which it is founded ; and 
although a nose, for example, would be equally fitted for its 
purposes if it deviated slightly from the straight line, yet we 
eonsider that line alone as the standard of ideal beauty. 

The reason why we are gratified by the perception of con- 
gruity or fitness in the general structure of an animate body 
and of its several component parts, by the appearance of 
ease and grace in the movements of animals, and univer- 
sally by all the marks of activity, vigour, energy, and health, 
is tbat we are gratified by the absence of suffering, as we 
are pained by its presence, as when a person not hardened 
by custom to such sights witnesses an execution, a sur- 
gical operation, the slaughter of animals, a field of battle 
covered with tho dead and dying, a hospital, &e. Hence 
all those objects which suggest the notion of pain, dis- 
comfort, or decay, are devoid of beauty. Such is the case 
with animals, as the elephant or the hippopotamus, which 
are heavy and cumbrous in their shape and appear to 
drag their limbs with difficulty and effort; suggesting 
none of those impressions of joy and satisfaction in tho 

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animal, exnlling in its strength and agility, which arc 
occasioned by the unshackled movements of tho horse, the 
antelope, or tho stag. (See the comparison of the horse 
at the end of the 6th Iliad.) Hence likewise all deformity 
in animals is inconsistent with beauty, and is ugly in pro- 
portion as the shape of tho limb or body deviates from the 
btandard form, and is unfitted for the purposes for which it 
is intemled. * The disgust,* says Mr. Stewart, ' which mon- 
strous animal productions produce seems to arise principally 
from some idea of nain or suffering connected with their 
existence ; or from tho obvious unfitness of tho structure of 
tho individual for the destined purposes of his species. No 
similar emotion/ lie continues, ' is excited by an analogous 
appearance in the vegetable or in the mineral kingdoms; or 
even by thoso phenomena which contradict the uniform 
tenor of our past experience with respect to nature's most 
obvious and familiar laws.' (c. 7.) Tho reason of this dif- 
ference is, that in inanimate objects which deviate from their 
ordinary and natural form there is no cause for painful 
sympathy, as the object is unconscious of its defective struc- 
ture. In the cultivation of flowers and ornamental trees, 
the object indeed is for the most part to produce an -arti- 
ficial, and to a certain degree a monstrous size ; which all 
must admit to be more beautiful than the natural and unim* 
proved state of the plant. But even in this respect there is 
a limit; and although the size consistent with beauty in 
the vegetable kingdom is indefinite, it is not quite unlimited. 
An oak as high as a mountain would probably cease to be 
beautiful ; and even the diseased growths and protuberances 
in trees would become displeasing to' the sight, if they wero 
enlarged to un excessive size. 

For the same reason tbat deformity in animals is incon- 
sistent with beauty, all appearance of disease, decay, and 
death is loathsome and hideous : as the ghastly look of a 
bleeding wound, the convulsive movements of agony, the 
pale, livid, or emaciated countenanco of a person expiring 
under the rapid progressof a pestilential disease, or wasting 
away with famine, atrophy, or consumption, the mouldering 
remains of a dead body, or the empty frame of a skeleton. 
Ilcnco, when llomeo is described by Shakspcare as de- 
scending into the vault, in order to sec Juliet's corpse, he 
says, on discovering that tho bloom had not faded from her 
face, 

• O tny lore t my w tfe t 
Death, thai bath «uek*d lhe honey of lhy breath, 
Ilalhhad no power yef upon thy beauty. 

Thou art nol conquered : benuly*s em tgn yet 
1 1 crimson In thy li pi. ami in thy cheeks, 
And death** pale flag i* Dot advanced there* 

The samo feelings are transferred by us to the vegetable 
kingdom, though with a great diminution of their intensity: 
thus the yellow or brown colour of the faded leaf is for the 
most part less beautiful than the brilliant and vivid green 
of spring and sumuier vegetation ; nevertheless, there is 
probably no person at all alive to the beauties of external 
nature who has not admired the rich and varied tints of an 
autumn landscape, produced by tho irregular discolouration 
of iho leaf. When, however, decay has completed its work, 
ali beauty vanishos ; and a tree quite bared of its leaves has 
nothing more to recommend it to the eye than if it were 
actually dead. And wliun a tree has through age or by 
accident undergone a partial decay, its beauty is impaired, 
though its wreck may still suggest agreeable notions of 
power and grandeur, the memory of former vigour, of resist- 
ance to time and tho elements, or to the destructive agents 
of nature. Such are in part the feelings excited by tho 
sublime picture of Milton : — 

* Ai when heaven's fire ( 
Hath icathed the forc*t oak* or mountain pines, 
With Ringed lop their * lately growth, though hare, 
Stands on the blotted heath.* 

J n general, however, all appearance of poverty, meagre- 
ness, or declino of vegetation is, unless compensated by 
countervailing circumstances, unfavourable to beauty. (See 
Price's E&xay on Beauty, p. 29.) 

The beauty derived from a perception of utility is not 
confined to the works of nature, but is common to the works 
of constructive art, in which the adaptation of means to ends 
is equally observable, and in which there is a similar cor- 
respondence of the constituent parts. Thus in buildings 
each different part, has a manifest and visible purpose— as 
the column to support a weight on the ground, the areli to 
support a weight over an opening, tho windows to admit 
light and air, the projection of the roof to throw the rain- 
water from the walls, 8cc. Kvery part of a building has 



therefore its peculiar form and beauty, dependent on its 
destination. And the same is the ease with different hinds 
of building: the disposition of parts which would bo beau- 
tiful in a church or u palace, would bo displeasing and ab- 
surd in n cottage or a fortified castle. 'Grecian temples, 
Gotbie abbeys, and feudal castles,* says Mr. Payne Knight, 
1 were all well adapted to their respective uses, circum- 
stances, and situations: the distribution of the parts sub- 
servient to the purposes of the whole ; and tho ornaments 
and decorations suited to the character of the parts, and to 
the manners, habits, and employments of the persons who 
were to occupy'tbem : but tho house of an Knglish noble- 
man of the eighteenth or nineteenth century is neither a 
Grecian temple, a Gothic abbev, nor a feudal castle; and if 
the stylo or distribution, or decoration of cither he em- 
ployed in it, such changes and modifications should be 
admitted as may adapt it to existing circumstances ; other- 
wise the seale of its exactitude becomes that of ils incon- 
gruity, and tho deviation from principle proportioned to the 
fidelity of imitation.* (On Taste, part ii. ch. 2. $. 5-1 ; seo 
also Lord Abcnleen on Grecian Architecture, p. 2G-35.) 

For a similar reason all ornament in architecture should 
be subordinate to use, and should grow out of and be sug- 
gested by it : whence professed architects, with whom the 
idea of decoration is predominant, oflcn fail in their attempts 
to produce beauty, and in many cases seem rather to adapt 
the building to the ornaments than the ornaments to tho 
building. Accordingly it may be observed, that engineers 
whose attention is solely directed to ihe use of that which 
they plan, often construct more beautiful buildings than 
persons with whom beauty is the chief consideration. And 
generally it may be observed, that all ornament, if accumu- 
lated to an excessive degree, cither from a love of gaudy 
magnificence, or for the sake of ostentation, is devoid of 
beauty. 

* *Tia use alone thnt sanctifies expense, 
And splendour borrow* Ml her rayi from sense.' 

For the same reason that neatness, freshness, and regu- 
larity arc pleasing to us in buildings, as being associated 
with the ideas of comfort and enjoyment, ' we require,* as 
Mr. Knight has observed, 'that immediately adjoining tho 
dwellings of opulence and luxury, everything should assume 
its character, and not only be, but appear to be dressed and 
cultivated. In such situations neat gravel walks, mown 
turf, and flowering plants and shrubs, trained and distri- 
buted by art, are perfectly in character/ (ii. 2. 29.) In 
laying out the direction of roads or walks, the beauty of the 
line is likewise determined by its fitness. Thus in an open 
and level plain a straight line is most agreeable to the eye ; 
in broken and irregular ground, the line which adapts itself 
to the shape of the country, by constantly keeping the same 
level, is to he preferred. The pleasure which is felt in fol- 
lowing the windings of a road carried through a mouniain- 
pass, and creeping round the declivities of the rocks, is 
enhanced by a sense of skill in the contriver and executor, 
and of diflteulty successfully overcome. 

The beauty of furniture and dress is likewise in a great 
measure derived from their fitness ; though, with regard to 
dress in particular, our taste is liable to be determined by 
many independent, and often conflicting, considerations, as 
novelty, fashion, &e., some of which will be mentioned be- 
low. Symmetry of parts, which the eye often so rigidly 
exacts in architecture, in gardening, in tho internal decora- 
tion of a house, in dress, fee., arises in great measure from 
a sense of utility : thus, for example, in the construction of 
a house, the entrance is obviously best placed in the centre 
of the wall, as it affords the easiest communication to the 
various parts of the building : the windows are most con- 
venient if they are at nearly equal distances from each other, 
and are not crowded together in some places and separated 
by wide intervals in others: the columns best perform their 
work if they are separated by equal spaces, and therefore 
support equal weights*. The pleasure derived from sym- 

• The principle of the tnjpdcnt reason by which Mr. Stewart, e. S and 4, 
explain t tlie Urnuly of symmetry in works of art, appears lo it* in lie included 
In that of fitness; for If there ti nn renron why a door should be placed nearer 
one lhan the other end of a hnnscwhyn picture should be hung nearer one 
I linn the utb<*r end of a room, lhe middle U evidently the Attest place. Heneo 
in cas*»s where lhere It an evident fit new in Irregularity, eyramctrv 1* not 
beautiful. * An irregular envlcllated edifice (says Mr. Stewart) lei down on 
ft dead flat, convey ■ an W en of w him or fully in lite designer, . * * The sarm*, 
or yrl greater Irregularity, would not only satisfy bnl dellghl the eye in an 
antient eflndel. whoa* groundwork nntl elevations followed the rugged surface 
ami fan'.tulic pro)eettoni of lhe rock on which 11 Is built. The obli<|no position 
of it window in n house would be intolerable ; bnl utility, or rather ncecsstty; 
reconcile i lhe eye to It a I once In the cabin of n shin.*— c. 2. 



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metry in works of art is, however, not confined to Its beauty, 
but in part arises from the evidence which it affords- of an 
uniform and extensive plan having been conceived and 
executed, and in part from that satisfaction which we take 
in the perception of resemblances, as well in outward objects 
as in the efforts of wit and imagination. It was probably 
the latter feeling (combined, however, with an excessive 
attempt to imitate in the garden the forms of architecture) 
which gavo rise to the style of gardening described by Pope, 
in which 

* Grave nods at grove, eacli allev has its brother, 
And half the platform just reflects the other.'— (Epist. 4.) 

This formal style of gardening was founded on a just sen- 
timent of what is suited to the immediate neighbourhood 
of a house, both in respect of the comfort of the inhabitants 
and the agreement with architectural forms ; but in clipping 
shrubs into unnatural and fantastie shapes, and in laying 
out the ground in over-minute and complicated patterns, it 
sometimes earried a just principle to a vicious excess. (See 
AValp