Skip to main content

Full text of "The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non- commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at http : //books . qooqle . com/| 

Digitized by 


'-'«"'&- — ^-v^r 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




p 2«rttJ 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



? 4*/ 









Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence, bound in cloth. 


Digitized by 


Chain**— Tha Rigat Hon. LORD BROUGHAM. F.R.S., Member or the Natloaal 
P^Cfcttrmaa— JOHN WOOD Esq. 
rreowor— WILLIAM TOOKE, Esq., F.R.3. 

Institute of France. 

William Allen. Esq., F.R. »od R.A.8 

Chas. Antell, Esq. 

Captain Beaufort, R.N., F.R. and R.A.8., 

Hydrographer to the Admiralty. 
George Birkbeck, M.D. 
George Burrows, M.D. 
Peter Stafford Carey, Esq , A.M. 
John Cooolly, M.D. 
William Cpukj-n, Esq. 
R. I). Craig,*. 
J. P. Davis, Bed., P.R.3. 
H. T. Dels Reclie. Esq., F.R.S. 
The Bight Hon. I*ord Denman. 
Stmuel Duckworth, Esq. 
The Bight Rev. the Bishop of Durham, D.D. 
Sir Henry Ellis, Prin. Lib. Brit. Bins. 
T. P. Ellis. Esq.. A.M., F. R.A.8. 
John Elllotson, M.D.. P.R.S. 
George Evans, Esq., M.P. 
Thomas Falconer, Esq. 

I. L. Goldsmld, E*q.. F.R. and R.A.8. 

Francis Henry Gotasmld, Esq. 

B. Gompertx, Esq., F.R. and R.A.8. 

J. T. Graves. Esq. A.M., F.R A 

G. B. Greenough, Esq., F.R. and L.S. 

M. D. Hill, Esq., Q.C. 

Rowland Hill, Esq., P.R.A.S. 

Right Hon. Sir J. C. Hobhouse, Bart., M.P. 

Thos. Hodgkin. M.D. 

David Jardine, Esq., A.M. 

Henry B. Ker, Esq. 

Thomas Hewett Key, Esq.. A.M. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart, M.P. 

George C. Lewis, Esq., A.M. 

Thomas Henry Lister, Esq. 

James Loch, Esq., M.P., F.G.8. 

George Long. Esq., A.M. 

H. Maiden, Ksq. A.M. 

A. T. Malkln, B-»q.. A.M. 

Mr. Sergeant Manning. 

R. I. Murehison, Em.. F.R.&, F.G.S. 
The Right Hon. Lord Nugent. 
W. S. O'Brien. Esq.. M.P. 
The Right Hun. Sir Henry Parnell, Hi . M.P. 
Richard Qusin. Esq. 
P. M. Roget, M.D. Sec. R.8., F.R. A. 3. 
Edward Romilly, Esq., A.M. 
K. W. Bothman. Esq.. A.M. 
Sir Martin Archer Shee, P.R.A., F.H.S. 
•The Rleht Hon. Karl Spencer. 
Sir George T. Staunton, Bart., M.P. 
John Taylor. Esq. F.K.S. 
A. T. Thomson, M.D. F.L.S. 
Thomas Vardon, Esq. 

Jas. Walker, Esq., F.R.S., Pr. Inst.,Ci\. Kug. 
H. Waymouth, Esq. 
Thos. Webster, Esq., A.M. 
J. Whlshaw, Esq., A.M., K B.S. 
The Hon. John Wrottesiey, A.M., P.M. A. 8. 
J. A. Yates, Esq., M.P. 

Alton, Stafordshtre— Rov. J. P. Jones. 
Amgiesea— lie*. E. Williams. 

Rev. W. Johnson. 

Mr. Miller. 
Bartutapte. Bencraft, Esq. 

William Grlhble, Esq. 
Belfast-H. D. Drummond. 
Birmingham— Paul Moon Jsmes, Esq., Trea- 
Drtdport—Jumn Williams, Esq. 
HriMt of— J.N.Sanders, Esq., P.O.S. Chairman. 

J. Reynolds, Esq., Treasurer. 

J. B. Estlln, Esq., F.L.8., Secretary. 
Calcutta — James Young, Esq. 

C. H. Cameron. Esq. 
Cambridge— Rev. Professor Henslow, M.A., 
F.L.S. & U.S. 

Rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A., F.L.8* 

Rev. John Lodge, M.A. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, Bf.A., F.R.8.* G.8. 
Canterbury — John Brent, Esq.. Alderman. 

William Masters. Esq. 
Canton— Wm. Jardine. Esq., President. 

Robert Inglis, Esq., Treasurer. 

Rev. G. Hridgman. I 

Rev. C. Gutzlaff, > Secretaries. 

J. R. Morrison, Esq., ' 
Cardigan— Rev. J. Blackwell, M.A. 
Carlisle— Thomas Barnes, M.D., F.R.8.B. 
Carnarnon—ll. A. Poole, Esq, 

William Roberts, Esq. 
Chester— Henry Potts, Esq. 
Chichester— John Forbes, M.D., F.R.S. 

C. C. Dendy, Esq. 
Ceckermomth—Ker. J. Whltrldge. 
Corfu— John Crawford, Esq. 

' Plato Petrldet 
Coventry— Arthur Gregory, Esq. 
Penbig h— Thomas Evan*. Esq. 
Derby— Joseph Strutt, Esq. 

fdward Strutt, Esq„.M.P. 


Devonport and Stoneaemse—John Cole, Esq. 

John Norman, Ksq. 

Lt.Col. C. Hamilton Smith, P.R.S. 
Dublin— T. Drummond, Esq. R.E., F.R.A.8. 
Edinburgh— S\r C. Hell. F.R^I.L. and E. 

J. 8. Traill, MO. 
£<r«rm— Jos iah Wedgwood, Esq. 
Exeter— J.Tyrrell, Esq. 

John Milford, Esq. (Cearrer.) 
Qlamorgansttire— Dr. Malkin, Cowbrldge. 

W. Williams, Esq., Aberpergwm. 
Olasgow—K. Fintay, Esq. 

Alexander McGrigor, Esq, 

James Cooper, Esq. 

A. J. D. D'Orsey, Esq. 
Guernsey— F. C. Lukit, Eiq. 
Hull— J. C. Parker, Esq. 
Leamington Spa — Loudon, M.D. 
Leeds— J. Marshall, Esq. 
Lewes— J. W. Wool I gar, Esq. 

Henry Browne. Esq. 
Lioerpooi Joe. As.—\V. W. Carrie, Esq. Ch, 

J. Muileneux, Esq., Treasurer. 

Rev. Wm. Shepherd, L.I..D. 
Maidenhead— R. Goolden, Esq., F.L.S. 
Maids lone— Clement T. Smyth, Esq. 

John Case, Esq. 
Manchester I.oc. As.—G. W. Wood, Esq., 

M.P.. Ch. 

Sir Benjamin Hey wood, Bt, Treasurer. 

Sir George Philips, Bart., M.P. 

Benj. Gott, Esq. 
Masham—Ktr. Grorce Waddington, M.A. 
Merthyr Tydvil— Sir J. J. Guest. Bart, M.P. 
Minchinhampton— John G. Ball, Esq. 
Monmouth— J. H. Moggridge, Esq. 
Neath — John Rowland, Esq. 
Newcastle— Rev. W. Turner. 

T. Sopwith, Esq., F.G.S. 
Newport, I tie 9 f Wight— Ah. Clarke, Esq. 

T. Cooke. Jun., Esq. 

R. G. Kirkpatrlck, Esq. 
Newport PagneO—J. Millar, Esq. 

Newtown. Montgomeryshire— VI . Pu*;h Esq. 
NortCTcA— Richard Bacon, Esq. 

Wm. Foister, Esq. 
Orsett. Essex— C->rbett, M D. 
Oxford— Ch. Dauheny,M D.F.R.S.Prof.Chero. 

Rev. Bad«*n Powel., Sav. Pof. 

Rev. John Jordan, It. A. 
Pesth, Hungary — Count Sxechenyl. 
Plymouth— H. Woollcombe.Esq.. F A.3.,04. 

Wm. Snow Harris. Esq.. F.R.S. 

E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S., Secretary. 

Q. Wightwick, Esq. 

Dr. Traill. 
Prestcgn— Rt. Hon. Sir H. Brydges, Barl. 

A. W. Davis, M.D. 
Ripon— Rev. H. P. Hamilton, M.A„Fl».^ ,0.3. 

Rev. P Kwart, M.A. 
Ruthin— Rev. the Warden of 

Humphreys .Ion en, Esq. 
Ryde, I. of /fight— Sir ltd. Simeon, lit. 
Salisbury — Rev. J. Barntt. 
She field — J. H. Abrahams. B*q. 
Shepton Mallet— G. F. Burroughs. Esq. 
Shrewsbury— R. A.SIaney, Esq., M.P. 
South Pether ton— John Niiholelts, Esq. 
St. Asaph — Rev. George Strung. 
Stockport — H. Marsland, Esq., Treasuter 

Henry Conpock, Esq., Stfirtttnrv. 
Sydney. New S. Wales — W.M. Manning, Esq 
Tamstock—Rer. W. Evan* 

John Rundle. Esq., M.P. 
Truro — Henry Sewell Stokes, Esq. 
Tunbridge Weilu—Yent*, M.D 
Vttoxder — Robert Blurton, Esq. 
Virginia — Professor Tucker. 
Worcester— C\\a*. Hasitugs, M.D. 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
Wrexham— Thomas Edg worth, Esq. 

Major William Lloyd. 
Yarmouth— C. E. Rumbold, Esq. 

Dawson Turner. Esq. 
For*— Rev. J. Kenrick, M.A. 

John Phillips, Esq., F.R. 8, F.G.S* 

THOMAS COATES. Esq., Secretary, No. 88, Lincoln's htt FitW** 

London ; Printed hv. Wittua Clowis and Bows, Stanford Strep*, 

Digitized by 






PERU is a country in South America, situated between 
.3° 30' and 21° 28' S. lat. t and between 6.V and 81° 20' W. 
long. On the west it is washed by the Pacific ; and on the 
south and soulh-east it borders on Bolivia. The boundary- 
line between these states, at the most southern point of 
Peru, is formed by the small river Loa (21° 28' S. lat.) : it 
follows the course of this river for several miles, when it 
turns eastward till it reaches the western edge of the Andes. 
It follows this edge northward to the mountain-pass of 
Gualillas (17° 50' S. lat.), whence it runs northward across 
the plain of the lake of Titicaca to the southern extremity 
of that lake. It traverses the lake in a northern direction, 
which it preserves till it reaches the eastern chain of the 
Bolivian Andes, near 1 5° S. lat. It follows this chain for 
some distance, and then runs along the lateral range which 
branches off in an east-north-east direction between the 
river Tuche, an affluent of the Beni, and some rivers which 
are supposed to fall into the.Purus. From the mouth of 
the river Tuche, the boundacy-line between Peru and Bo- 
livia runs along the Rio Beni to its junction with the Gua- 
por6, by which the river Madera is formed. At this point 
commences the boundarv-line between Peru and Brazil. 
This line follows the Madera river to 9° 30' S. lat. : it 
stretches westward along this parallel to the river Yavari, 
the course of which river, up to its junction with the Ama- 
zonas, forms the remainder of the boundary between Peru 
and Brazil. The Amazonas is the boundary between Peru 
and Ecuador, from its junction with the Yavari to the town 
of S. Juan de Brancamoros, south of which place the river 
Chinchupe falls into the Amazonas. The Chinchupe sepa- 
rates both countries as far as its source, from which the 
dividing line passes over the Andes to the Rio Tumbez, 
which falls into the Gulf of Guayaquil, in 3° 30' S. lat. 

The length of this country from south to north, along 
the meridian of 70°, is above 1 150 miles, but its width varies 
greatly. South of 1 7° S. lat. it hardly exceeds 30 miles, 
whilst near 10° S. lat. it is more than 650 miles wide. Its 
area, according to a rough estimate, considerably exceeds 
500,000 square miles, being about two and a half times the 
extent of France. 

Coast and Harbours. — The coast-line is about 1500 miles 
in length. In an extent of 1200 miles this coast forms only 
three straight lines, which meet at obtuse angles, and are not 
interrupted by any large bays. The most southern line 
runs south and north, the central line runs nearly south- 
east and north-west, and the northern line runs north- 
north-west. The most northern and most projecting por- 
tion of the coast is broken by bays and by headlands. 

The southern coast-line, which runs south and north, 
extends from the mouth of the river Loa (21° 28' S. lat.) to 
the harbour of Arica (18° 28' S. lat), a distance of 210 
miles. The whole of this line consists of rocky cliffs, 
rarely low, and occasionally several hundred feet high. In 
a few spots a sandy beach lies between the cliffs and the 
sea. The projecting points seldom extend a mile from the 
mainland, and in no case more than two. They also form 
light angles with the coast, and as they occur only at 
distances of 10, 15, or 20 miles, they afford no shelter to 
vessels. A few small rocks lie off the coast, but they are 
low and too small to protect vessels which anchor between 

i them and the shores. The soundings are irregular. Boats 

1 P.O., No. 1103. 


cannot land on these shores, as they are exposed to a very 
heavy swell from the Pacific, forming a dangerous surf, 
which can only be passed in favourable weather by boats. 
Landing in most places can only be effected by balsas. In all 
this extent of coast, fresh water can only be got at three places, 
the rivers Loa and Pisagua, and at Arica. The water of the 
river Loa is extremely bad. The water of the Rio Pisagua 
is good, but the river is dry nine months in the year, and 
the water obtained from the wells is bad. At Arica the 
water is excellent. The only harbour is that of Iquique, 
which is formed by a low island, the largest that occurs 
along this coast. Between it and the town is good anchorage 
in eleven fathoms. The harbour of Arica, which lies at the 
northern extremity of this coast-line, is also formed by a low 
island, called Huans, on the northern side of which there 
is good anchorage. A mole runs out into the sea, which 
enables boats to lie quietly while loading or discharging. 

From Arica (18° 28' S. lat.) to Point Carrcta (14° 10'), a 
distance of more than 460 miles, the coast lies east-south- 
east and west-north-west. Where the cliffs come close to 
the sea, they rise from 50 to 300 feet above it, and the waves 
in some places break with great violence along the shore. 
Even the sandy beach is frequently interrupted by low pro- 
jecting cliffs, but tire soundings are in general regular. The 
projecting points are usually too short and too far from one 
another to form safe anchorages and to break the swell of 
the sea. Towards Point Carreta a few inlets occur, which 
form good harbours, though even here the landing in boats 
is generally difficult and sometimes impracticable. Fresh 
water is much more abundant, and may be got in several 
places. The first harbour which occurs, after leaving Arica, 
is that of Islay, the port of Arequipa. Cove Mollendo for- 
merly served for that purpose, but it has so changed, that 
at present it only admits boats, or very small coasting ves- 
sels. Port Islay is formed by a few straggling islands 
which lie off Point Islay, and is capable of containing twenty 
or twenty-five vessels. The anchorage is good, but the 
landing extremely difficult, and at the full of the moon it is 
sometimes impracticable for several days. Point Lomas, 
the port of Acari, lies farther west, and is an open roadstead, 
but it has good anchorage in from five to fifteen fathoms, 
and tolerable landing. Some distance farther west there 
are two good harbours, S. Juan and S. Nicolas, with excel- 
lent anchorage and tolerable landing ; but the country about 
them is sterile and uninhabited. Farther west is the Bay 
of Independencia, which lies between Cape Quemada and 
Cape Carreta, and is protected towards the sea by two islands, 
Santa Rosa and Santa Vieja, of which the latter rises to a 
considerable elevation. It extends 1 5 miles from south-east 
to north-west, and is about 3 J miles broad. There is an- 
chorage in all parts of this spacious bay, the bottom being 
quite regular in about 20 fathoms. It may be entered from 
the south by the Strait of Serrate, between the island of 
Santa Rosa and Cape Que ma/la, which is three-quarters of a 
mile wide, or by the wide opening at the north-western ex- 
tremity, which is called Dardo, and is five miles across be- 
tween the island of Vieja and Cape Carreta. As the country 
surrounding this bay is very thinly inhabited, it is rarely 
visited by vessels. 

The coast from Cape Carreta (14° 10' S. lat.) to the road- 
stead of Lambayeque (6° 46' S. lat.), a distance of about 

Vol. XVIII.— B 

Digitized by 




£20 miles, runs north-north-west, and exhibits a much 
greater portion of low sandy beach than is found farther 
south. A high ground invariably appears at the back of the 
low shore, in some places rising with a steep and in others 
with a gentle declivity. In a few places the high ground 
is six miles from the sea. Where the coast is high the rocks 
are frequently low, but in several places they rise to 100 or 
300 feet. The projecting headlanus are not numerous, and 
being short, and at right angles to the coast, they do not 
afford safe anchorage. Towards the south-eastern extremity 
are some islands, and between 7° and 10°S. lat. some inlets 
which are larger than commonly occur on this part of 
Peru, and good anchorage is found in them. The most 
southern of these harbours is the Bay of Pisco, which 
is between the mainland and a row of islands extend- 
ing along the coast. The most southern of these islands, 
that of Gallan, is 2J miles long, I mile wide, and of con- 
siderable elevation. North of it are the Ballista Islands, 
and north of them the Cliinca Islands, both clusters of low 
rocks. The sea about these islands is deep, and the Bay of 
Pisco may be entered safely by ail the passages thus 
formed. The most southern passage, which is between the 
island of Gallan and Point Paracca, is generally used ; it is 
called the Boqueron of Pisco. Within the bay there is good 
anchorage in 12 fathoms. This bay is much visited by ves- 
sels, as the surrounding country is rather fertile, and the 
commerce of the town of Pisco is considerable. 

Opposite the town of Cerro Azul there is only an open 
roadstead, with bad anchorage, and a heavy surf constantly 
breaking on the shore. The bay of Callao is between the 
coast and the island of S. Lorenzo, which is four miles and 
a half long from south-east to north-west, and a mile wide : 
its highest part is 1050 feet above the sea-level. The bay, 
which is extensive and commodious, has good anchorage ; 
it is usually entered from the north round Cape Lorenzo, 
the northern extremity of the island, but it may also be en- 
tered by the Boqueron, a strait between Cape Callao and 
the southern extremity of the island. Salinas Bay, on the 
north of Salinas Head, which extends five miles into the 
sea from south to north, is of large dimensions, and affords 
good anchorage, but it is seldom visited. The bay of Sap6, 
to the north of Cape Thomas, is small, but as it is contigu- 
ous to a fertile district, it is much visited by coasters. The 
port of Guarmey, north of Point Legarto, is also small, but 
it contains good anchorage in three and a half to ten 
fathoms, on a fine sandy bottom. Firewood is abundant in 
the neighbourhood, and is exported. Between 9° and 10° 
S. lat. there are four comparatively good harbours, Casma, 
Samanco, or Huambacho, Ferrol, and Santa. That of 
Samanco is the largest port north of Callao, being six miles 
long from south-east to north-west, and four miles wide. 
The entrance is two miles wide. Port Ferrol is nearly equal 
in size, and entirely free from the swell of the oeeau. Both 
harbours are much visited by coasters, as the adjacent 
country is fertile and well cultivated. There is no harbour 
farther north. Opposite the towns of Truxillo and Lam- 
bayeque there are only open roadsteads with bad anchorage. 
North of the roadstead of Lambayeque, and between it 
and the Bay of Guayaquil, a huge promontory runs out into 
the sea. At its base, between Lambayeque and Point 
Malpelo 13° 30' S. lat.) it is 220 miles wide, and its coast- 
line exceeds 300 miles. Between Point Aguja and Cape 
Blanco, the most projecting part of this promontory, the 
shores are rocky and steep, and rise to a considerable ele- 
vation ; but near the roadstead of Lambayeque and on the 
Gulf of Guayaquil the shores are sandy and partially covered 
with brushwood. In this part there are two indentations, 
which form two tolerably deep but open bays. The southern 
is the Bay of Sechura, which is six miles deep, and at its 
entrance, between Cape Pisura and the Little Lobos Island 
of Payta, 12 miles wide. It is open to the swell of the sea, 
and is only navigated by the Indians in balsas. The Bay of 
Payta, which is farther north, it of smaller dimensions, but 
it is the best harbour on the coast of Peru, and is more 
visited by foreign vessels than any other harbour except 

As the heavy surf occasioned by the swell of the Pacific 
renders landing with boats always dangerous, and often 
impracticable, balsas are used along this coast. These balsas 
differ in materials and form on the different parts of the 
coast In Chile and the southern coast of Peru the balsa is 
a kind of sea-balloon, consisting of seal-skins made air- 
tight, and inflated like a bladder : they are so light that they 

float over the heaviest surf without danger. Two of these 
bladders arc fastened together, and a sort of platform made 
of cane is fixed on theni'. These balsas hold from two to 
three persons. The balsa of the northern coast of Peru is a 
raft consisting of nine logs of the cabbage-palm secured 
together by lashings, with a platform raised about two feet, 
on which the goods are placed. They are employed for 
coasting along the shore, and have a lug sail, which is most 
used in landing. The wind being along the shore enables 
them to run through the surf and on the beach with ease 
and safety. At Lambayeque, where the surf is very heavy, 
a kind of balsa is used called cabalHto: it consists of 
bundles of reeds fastened together and turned up at the 
bow. Being very light, it is thrown on the top of the 
surf upon the beach, and the fishermen who use them jump 
off and carry them on their shoulders to their huts. It 
seems that each bay or road has its peculiar balsa. 

Surface, Soil, Climate, and Agricultural Productions.— 
As Peru comprehends the whole of the mountain-masses of 
the Andes which lie between 15° and 5° S. lat., together 
with the countries on both declivities of the chain, it is 
naturally divided into three different regions. The country 
between the chain and the Pacific is called Los Valles t and 
that included between the higher ranges of the Andes, Mon- 
tana. The region on the eastern declivity of the Andes and 
the plains contiguous to it are not designated by a pecu- 
liar denomination; they may be conveniently called the 
Eastern Region. 

I. The country between the steep ascent of the Andes 
and the Pacific varies in width from 15 to 50 miles, and may 
be considered as the western base of the mountains. It has 
a great elevation above the level of the sea, where it lies 
contiguous to the range, on an average between 8000 and 
10,000 feet, and from this elevation it slopes towards the sea 
with a very irregular surface. Where it approaches the 
shores it is still in many parts from 1600 to 2000 feet above 
the sea-level, but in other places it is less than 500 feet. 
This irregularly inclined plain is furrowed by a number or 
depressions running from the Andes to the sea with a rapid 
slope. As the adjacent high lands frequently rise 1000 feet 
above them, these depressions are appropriately called Los 
Valles % or the Vales. They are traversed by rivers, many 
of which are dry during nine months in the year, and only a 
few preserve a running stream all the year round. As it 
never rains in the lower portion of this region, vegetation 
and agriculture do not extend beyond the reach of irrigation. 
The narrow strips along the rivers are cultivated in propor- 
tion to the supply of water. Though the upper course of 
the rivers is extremely rapid, few of them enter the sea, but 
are either lost in shallow lagoons or filter through the sand 
which is invariably found near their mouth. The uplands 
which separate the valleys from one another are covered 
with a fine loose sand, through which in many parts the 
rocks protrude, either in the form of isolated mountains, or 
more frequently in ridges several miles long. These uplands 
are complete deserts ; neither beasts, birds, nor reptiles are 
ever seen on tl u, and they do not produce a single blade 
of vegetation. iNo stranger can travel from one vale to an- 
other without a guide, the sand being so loose that it is 
raised into clouds by the wind, and thus all traces of a path 
are obliterated. On account of the great heat which is ex- 
perienced in these uplands in the day-time, and the clouds 
of sand which the wind then raises, they are usually tra- 
versed by night, and the guides regulate their course by the 
stars, or the light breeze which always blows from the 
south. The vales are most numerous in that part where 
the coast runs from south-south-east to north-north-west, 
between Lambayeque on the north and Cape Carreta on 
the south. In this part they are on an average 10 or 12 
miles distant from one another, and have abetter supply of 
water than in the other parts of Peru. Where the coast 
runs from north-west to south-east, between Cape Carreta 
and Arica, they are less extensive, and from 15 to 20 miles 
distant from each other. Farther south they are very narrow, 
and occur at greater intervals. In the most northern dis- 
trict the vales are more extensive, and contain considerable 
portions of cultivated ground, but they are at great dis- 
tances from one another. Between Lambayeque and Se- 
chura the desert is 90 miles across. 

It is well known that the vicinity of the sea very mate- 
rially influences the climate of countries, but the Pacific 
affects the climate of this region in a very extraordinary 
way, of which no satisfactory explanation has been offered. 

Digitized by 




Along the whole coast of Pent, south of Cap* Blanco, a 
shower is never experienced, a drop of rain never falls. But 
for nearly five months, from June to November, the sky is 
covered with a kind of fog, which is called the garua. In 
the morning it is so thick and close to the ground that ob- 
jects at a moderate distance cannot be seen. About ten or 
eleven o'clock the fog rises into the atmosphere, but does 
not break into clouds. This fog covers the sun so effectually 
as to rntercept the rays, and the disk is hardly visible. 
During this period the earth is constantly covered with dew 
caused by the condensation of the fog. This dew is not 
heavy enough to penetrate the thinnest clothing, though it 
changes dust into mud, and fertilises the ground. While 
the garua covers the lower parts of the country, and con- 
stitutes their winter, the higher declivities of the Andes 
enjoy fine weather and have their summer. But in the 
month of January the rains on the mountains commence, 
and they last about three months. The rains occur how- 
ever earlier in the year in the northern than in the southern 
districts: and hence it happens that the rivers in the 
northern part of Peru are full at the end of January or the 
beginning of February, while in the southern parts this 
does not take place before the end of March. 

The climate of Peru is not so hot as might be supposed. 
In summer the weather is delightfully fine, and the heat is 
moderated by the sea and land breezes. The sea-breeze 
generally commences about ten o'clock; it is then light 
and variable, but gradually increases till one or two o'clock 
in the afternoon. A steady breeze prevails until sun-set, 
when it begins to die away ; and soon after the sun is down 
there is a calm. About eight or nine o'clock in the evening 
light winds come off the land, and continue until sun* rise, 
when it again becomes calm, until the sea-breeze sets in. 
It is also supposed that the cold current which runs along 
this coast from south to north, and the temperature of 
which is on an average 8° lower than the mean annual 
temperature of the adjacent coast, may contribute to mode- 
rate the summer-heat. During the winter however, that 
is, during the fogs, the air is raw and damp, and woollen 
clothing is then necessary for the preservation of health. 
The mean annual temperature, according to Humboldt, is 
72°, the maximum 82°, and the minimum 55°. In the 
day-time it varies between 72° and 77°, and in the night 
between 60° and 63°. 

The prevailing winds along the coast blow from the south, 
varying between south-southeast and south-west They are 
seldom stronger than a fresh breeze, especially along the 
coast south of Cape Carreta, where calms sometimes set in and 
last three or four days. Farther north they are stronger and 
blow with greater regularity ; and near Cape Blanco they 
sometimes blow with great force. In winter light northerly 
winds are occasionally experienced. At some distance from 
the shores the prevailing winds blow from south and south- 
east, and with greater strength in winter than in summer : no 
thunder-storms occur ; lightning indeed is seen from a dis- 
tance, but thunder is never heard. Earthquakes are fre- 
quent, and sometimes destroy the towns and villages. 

We do not know at what elevation above the sea-level the 
rains begin on the western declivity of the Peruvian Andes, 
but as travellers observe that cultivation and vegetation be- 
gin to increase at the height of from 8000 to 9000 feet, it is 
evident that such tracts must have the advantage of an- 
nual rains. 

As the mean annual temperature of Peru does not much 
exceed that of the countries along the southern coast of the 
Mediterranean, all the grains and fruits of Spain succeed, 
and many of the intertropical products do not, which how- 
ever seems attributable rather to the want of a sufficient 
quantity of moisture than of heat. Indian corn is generally 
cultivated, and constitutes the principal food of the Indians 
and lower classes. Rice is extensively grown in some of 
the wider northern vales, and is exported. Wheat succeeds 
only in themore elevated part of the valleys, where barley 
also is grown. Potatoes and sweet potatoes are generally 
cultivated, also raandioc, yams, and bananas to a smaller 
extent. The sugar-cane plantations are numerous and ex- 
tensive, and sugar is exported to all the American coun- 
tries bordering on the Pacific. Most of the fruit-trees pe- 
culiar to the southern countries of Europe succeed well, but 
those of England are not common ; and walnuts, pears, 
apples, filberts, and almonds are imported from Chile. 
Vines grow in every valley, and good wine is made in several 
places, as at Pisco, Nasca, and lea. There are olive-trees, 

but they do not supply an article of exportation, the con- 
sumption of olives in the country being considerable. There 
are few natural meadows; the want of them is supplied by 
the cultivation of lucern, which has spread over all the 

The soil of the vales consists of sand mixed with vege- 
table mould, and does not possess a great degree of fertility. 
As it is cultivated every year, it requires a great deal of 
manure. This manure is obtained from the small rocky 
islands, and also from the rocky cliffs along the coast, which 
are covered with a layer of the excrements of sea- fowls, se- 
veral feet thick, which appear at a distance as white as snow. 
A great number of small coasters are continually employed 
in conveying this manure, which is called guano, to the neigh- 
bouring anchorages, where it is bought by the cultivators of 
the soil. 

II. The Mountain Region, or Montafia, runs parallel to 
the Pacific, and from 20 to 50 miles from the shores. It 
comprehends the central portion of the Andes, namely, the 
northern part of the Bolivian Andes and the whole of the 
Peruvian Andes. The Bolivian Andes consist of vtwo ele- 
vated ranges running nearly parallel to one another from 
south-south-east to north-north-west, between 20° and 15° 
S. lat. The eastern chain contains the highest summits of 
the Andes, the Nevadosof Illimani and Sorata, and though 
the western does not attain an equal elevation, it contains 
several summits which rise above the snow-line* The valley 
enclosed between the two ranges, called the Valley of the 
Desaguadero, is about 13,000 feet above the sea-level. The 
greatest part of it belongs to Bolivia ; only about one 
fourth of it is within the territories of Peru.- This valley is 
about 60 miles wide where it belongs to Peru ; the climate 
and productions are noticed under Bolivia, vol. v., p. 86. 

Between 14° and 15° S. lat., the two chains of the Bo- 
livian Andes are connected by a transverse ridge, the moun- 
tains of Vilcanota, which do not attain the elevation of the 
eastern Bolivian Andes, but appear not to be inferior in 
height to the western chain, as several of their summits are 
always covered with snow. The limit of perpetual congela- 
tion on this chain, according to Pentland, occurs at 15,800 
feet above the sea-level. The mountains of Vilcanota may 
be considered as forming the boundary-line between the 
Bolivian and Peruvian Andes. 

The Peruvian Andes consist of two chains, which run in 
the same direction as the Bolivian Andes, from south-south- 
east to north -north- west, and may be considered as their 
continuation. The western range runs parallel to the Pa- 
cific, nearly north-west between 15° and 13° S. lat., and 
north-north-west between 13° and 5° S. lat. It is a conti- 
nuous chain, without any break, and generally rises to 14,000 
or 1 5,000 feet above the sea-level ; only a few of its summits 
rise above the snow-line, and these elevated points are most 
numerous at the southern extremity, where the chain is 
connected with the mountains of Vilcanota. The Nevado 
de Chuquibamba attains nearly 22,000 feet of elevation, and 
exceeds in height the famous Chimborazo. South of it, 
and completely isolated, is the volcano of Arequipa, the 
summit of which is 17,200 feet above the sea, but it is not 
always covered with snow. Farther north-east are the ele- 
vated summits called Cerro de Huando and Cerro de Parin- 
acocha. South-east of Lima is the Toldo de Nieve ; between 
1 1 ° and 1 1° 30' S. lat. is the elevated summit called La Viuda, 
which rises to 15,968 feet ; and north of it occur four other 
snow-capped summits, the Altun Chagua, which rises seve- 
ral thousand feet above the snow-line, and the Nevados of 
Pelagotas, of Moyapota, and of Huaylillas. The last-men- 
tioned summit is situated in 7° 50' S. lat., and north of it 
there are no snow-capped mountains until we come to Chim- 
borazo (2° S. lat.). The mountain-mass north of the Nevado 
of Huaylillas seems to descend to an average height o«. 
9000 or 10,000 feet. 

The eastern chain of the Peruvian Andes, which is the 
continuation of the eastern Bolivian Andes, runs in its 
southern part, and as far north as 12° 30' S. lat., parallel to 
the western Andes, at the distance of about 100 miles. It 
is composed of an almost uninterrupted series of snowy 
peaks, which terminate with the Nevado of Salcantahi (13° 
10' S. lat.). Farther north it sinks much lower, and north of 
12° 30' S. lat. the chain is interrupted by two large rivers, 
the Rio Yucay and the Rio Apurimac. On the northern 
banks of the Rio Apurimac the Andes again rise to a great 
elevation, though, so far as is known, in no place do they 
ascend above the snow-line. They trra'dually approach near 


Digitized by 




the western Andes, and may be considered as united to 
them by the elevated table-land of Pasco, which is situated 
between 1 1° 10' and 10° 30' S. lat At the northern side of 
this table-land both chains again divide, and run parallel 
to each other to 7° S. lat., where the eastern chain inclines 
to the east of north, and continues in that direction to the 
banks of the Amazonas, at the famous Pongo de Manseriche. 
Where both ranges run parallel, they are hardly more than 
50 miles distant from each other, but near 5° S. lat. they 
are 120 miles apart. In the northern portion of the eastern 
chain there are a few snowy peaks, as tho Paramo de Cara- 
calla (near 7° S. lat.) and the Paramo de Piscoyana (south 
of 5° S. lat). 

The country included by these two ranges contains four 
regions, which differ materially in climate and productions. 
Tliey may be called the table-land of Cuzco, the valley of the 
Rio Jauja, the tableland of Pasco, and the valley of the 

The table-land of Cuzco extends from the mountains of 
Vilcanota, its southern boundary, to about 12° 30' S. lat., or 
more than 150 miles from south to north, and about 100 
miles from east to west. Its surface is very uneven, being 
traversed by several ridges of broad-backed hills rising with 
a tolerably steep ascent, and running from the south, where 
they are connected with the mountains of Vilcanota, towards 
the north-north-west, parallel to the great chains of the Andes, 
which enclose this region. The valleys between these ridges 
arc usually several miles wide, but their surface is diversified 
by low eminences. The whole region declines towards the 
north. The town of Cuzco (13° 31' S. lat.) is 11,380 feet 
above the sea-level. We may reasonably infer that the 
districts south and west of that place are more elevated. 
But the rapid course of the numerous rivers which descend 
northward, shows that this plain lowers rapidly towards the 
north ; and on the banks of the Rio Mantaro it probably does 
not exceed 8000 feet above the sea. This is also confirmed 
by the agricultural products. In the most elevated districts 
south and west of Cuzco the only cultivated grain is the 
quinoa (chenopodium quinoa), which is also the case in the 
valley of the Desaguadero. [Bolivia, vol. v., p. 87.] In the 
parallel of Cuzco the climate is favourable to the growth of 
wheat, Indian corn, and the fruits of Europe, but the last 
require a good deal of care, and the fruits usually met with 
between the tropics do not succeed. In the lower parts of 
the valleys north of 13° S. lat. the agricultural products 
consist of Indian corn, sweet potatoes, yucas, and plantains. 
The sugar-cane succeeds very well, and is cultivated in some 
parts, but not extensively. The mountains which enclose 
these ralleys are covered with thick forests, but trees are 
scarce in the more elevated districts, and in some of them 
are entirely wanting. We are not acquainted with the 
climate of this region, except that there is a good deal of 
rain all the year round. In the valley of Paucartambo rain 
falls 300 days in the year. 

The Vale of the Rio Jauja extends from the table-land 
of Pasco on the north, about 100 miles southwards, between 
both ranges of the Andes, and in the widest part may be 
about thirty miles across. Its descent from the table-land 
is very rapid. At its southern extremity, near 12° 30', it is 
probably less than 8000 feet above the sea-level. Though 
this valley is the most populous district of Peru, and con- 
tains several comparatively large towns, our information 
tespecting its climate and productions is very scanty, none 
of the modern travellers who have visited Peru having di- 
rected their steps to this region. We only know that the 
northern districts produce abundance of wheat, Indian corn, 
and the fruits of Europe, and that in the southern, yucas, 
plantains, and mandiocca are cultivated, and that the sugar- 
cane and tobacco are grown to a considerable extent. 

The table-land of Pasco has lately been more visited by tra- 
vellers than any other part of the interior of Peru, the Andes 
here being crossed by one ascent and one descent. The 
ascent from the Pacific is near the high summit called La 
Viuda, about 11° 10' S. lat. and 76° 30' W. long., and the 
descent is north of the Cerro Pasco, near 10° 30' S. lat and 
75° 40' W. long. The width of the table-land from south-west 
to north-east is about 60 miles, and in these parts it is enclosed 
by ranges which rise from 500 to 1000 feet above it. Its length 
cannot be determined, as the mountain-masses are broken, 
towards the north-west and south-east, by numerous river- 
courses, and do not constitute a determinate boundary, but 
sink imperceptibly lower. It is the highest of the table- 
lands enclosed within the Andes, the level parts being 

14,000 feat aoove the sea-level. As the snow-line in this 
part of the Andes seems to occur about 15,500 feet above 
the sea, the surface of the table-land is only 1500 feet below 
it, which renders the climate so cold that it would have re- 
mained uninhabited but for the rich mines of Pasco, which 
have attracted a numerous population. The mean annual 
temperature probably does not exceed 40°, which is equal 
to that of Trondhiem in Norway, but the climate is much 
more disagreeable, as nearly all the year round it resembles 
that of the month of April at Trondhiem. Even in the 
midst of summer, from May to November, the nights are 
cold, and at sun-rise all the country is covered with hoar- 
frost, at which time the thermometer indicates 32°. At 
nine o'clock it rises 4° or 5°, and in a short time a con- 
siderable degree of heat is experienced. But the sky, 
which is serene in the night-time, is soon covered with 
fogs accompanied with a strong wind. This is followed 
by a fall of snow mixed with hail. This state of the 
weather sometimes continues for several hours ; but at other 
times some fine intervals occur. In the afternoon, storms 
are frequently experienced, accompanied by frightful thun- 
der and hail, which sometimes cause great loss of properly 
and life. In April, two or three weeks generally pass with- 
out storms and night-frosts. In the winter, from November 
to March, the weather is much worse, as the snow-storms 
then last for weeks together. Even when the sky is 
serene and of a dark-blue colour, the sun looks as if it 
were eclipsed. The table-land is a plain divided into 
a considerable number of smaller plains by ridges of 
low hills rising a few hundred feet above their base. 
The surface of the level parts consists partly of bare 
rocks or sand. The sand is partly covered with peat or by 
swamps, intersected with grassy tracts, which serve as 
pasture-ground for the llamas, which are kept in consider- 
able numbers for the purpose of carrying the ore from the 
mines to the smelting-places. A great number of lakes are 
dispersed over the plain. They are very deep, and are the 
sources of some of the largest tributaries of the Aroazonas. 
In the northern part of the plain is the lake of Llauricocha, 
the source of the Maranon, which is considered as the 
principal branch of the Amazonas. In the southern district 
is the lake of Chinchaycocha, of large dimensions, from 
which a river issues which is the principal branch of the 
Jauja, and consequently one of the greatest affluents of the 
Rio Ucayale. Near the eastern edge of the table-land is 
the lake of Quiluacocha, whence the Rio Huallaga, an affluent 
of the Amazonas, issues. Nothing is cultivated on this 
table-land, not even the quinoa. 

The Vale of the Rio Maranon extends from 10° to 5° S. 
lat. The southern part is very narrow, the river running 
in a valley so contracted, that it is merely a Wide ravine. 
This ravine continues to about 8° S. lat, where it gradu- 
ally enlarges to a valley several miles wide, and more 
than 200 miles long. The southern part of this valley is 
probably not much more than 3000 feet above the sea-level, 
and it lowers very gradually ; at its northern extremity, at 
the Ponga of Rentema, it is only 1250 feet above the sea. 
The lower part of the valley, north of 7° S. lat, is many 
miles wide, but not a level, as several offsets from both 
chains of the Andes advance some miles into it, and in 
several places within a short distance of the river. This 
valley is by far the hottest portion of the mountain re- 
gion, and the vegetation in the lower parts does not 
differ from that of other tropical countries. Wheat is only 
grown on the declivities of some adjacent mountains. In- 
dian corn, mandioca, plantains, and yucas are most exten- 
sively grown for the consumption of the inhabitants, and the 
sugar-cane and tobacco for exportation. We know nothing 
of the climate of this valley except that the heat is very 
great and that it has the advantage of rains. Though 
hardly less populous than the vale of the Jauja, it has been 
little visited by modern travellers. 

On the west side of the Peruvian Andes, the region of 
the tropical productions does not ascend more than 2000 
feet above the sea, but in the valleys of the mountain region 
it rises to between 4000 and 5000 feet, probably owing to 
the abundant rains which fall on the latter. The cultivated 
grains of this region are rice and Indian corn, and the other 
products are plantains, bananas, mandioca, yams, camotes, 
and the sugar-cane. The principal fruits are grapes, anonas, 
pine- apples, papaws (carica), and cherimoyers. Above this 
region is that of the European cerealia, which towards the 
Pacific reaches to 10,000 feet, and in the valleys to 12,000 

Digitized by 




feet and upwards. The grains cultivated in this re- 
gion are wheat, barley, and Indian corn; potatoes and 
different kinds of pulse are also cultivated. The fruit-trees 
are those of Europe, among which the peach succeeds best. 
Above this region only quinoa and barley are cultivated ; 
the latter for fodder. Potatoes succeed at a height exceed- 
ing 13,000 feet. There are no forest-trees on the western 
declivity of the Andes below 8000 or 9000 feet, but in the 
interior of the mountain region thev increase in size and 
number in proportion as the country declines in height, and 
the lowest districts are covered with nearly impenetrable 
forests of lofty trees. 

Several roads lead from the coast of the Pacific to the 
interior of the mountain region. Six of these roads occur 
south of 15° 20' S. lat. These roads lead from Arica, Are- 
quipa, &c, to the valley of the Desaguadero, and are named 
from the mountain-passes through which they lead. The 
most southern is the Pass of Las Gualillas (17° 50' S. lat.) f 
which is 14,830 feet high, and a little farther north (17° 43') 
is another pass of the same name, the highest part of which 
is 14,200 feet. The Pass of Chullunquani (17° 18' S. lat.) 
is 15,600 feet high. The lowest and most frequented pass 
in these parts is that of the Altos de los Huessos; it runs 
at the foot of the volcano of Arequipa, and where it passes 
the Andes (16° 21' S. lat.) it is only 13,573 feet high. The 
Pass of the Altos de Toledo (1 G° 2') rises to 15,528 feet, and 
the Pass of Lagunillas (15° 22' S. lat.) to 15,613 feet. The 
last-mentioned pass, which is the most elevated, is situated 
where the mountains of Vilcanotajoin the Western Andes. 
A mountain-pass leads over the mountains of Vilcanota 
from Santa Rosa, in the valley of the Desaguadero, to Cuzco. 
Vye are imperfectly acquainted with the roads which traverse 
the Andes north of 15* 30'. A pass leads from Lima to the 
town of Huancabelica, the highest point of which is 15,080 
feet above the sea-level. Farther north is the pass called 
Portachuela de Tacto, through which the road from Lima 
to Tarraa passes ; it is 15,760 feet high. The road which 
leads from the coast to the table-land of Pasco traverses the 
Pass of the Alto de Jacaibamba. which is 15,135 feet high, 
and also that of the Alto de Lachagual, which rises to 15,480 
feet. The pass by which travellers descend from the table- 
land of Pasco to the valley of the Rio Huallaga does not 
exceed 14,000 feet, and runs in a ravine of the table-land. 
A road leads from the town of Truxillo to Caxamarca, in 
the vale of the Maranon, which in the Pass of Micuipampa 
is 11,604 feet above the sea-level. From Caxamarca a 
road leads northward to Chachapoyas, and from the last- 
mentioned place, over the Eastern Andes, to Moyabamba 
and Tarapoto. The most northern mountain-pass in Peru 
occurs near 5° S. lat., and leads over the Paramo of Guamani, 
where it attains the elevation of' 10,950 feet above the sea- 

III. The Eastern Region comprehends the eastern de- 
clivity of the Andes and the adjacent plains, as far as they 
belong to Peru. It is the least known portion of that 
country, and our information about it is extremely scanty, 
except as to the vale of the Rio Huallaga. This exten- 
sive valley lies east of the vale of the Maranon, being 
separated from it bv the Eastern Andes. It extends from 
10° 30' to 7° 30' S". lat., about 350 miles in length. The 
most southern part, as far north as 9° 30' S. lat., is narrow. 
In this part the descent is rapid. Huanuco is about 9000 
feet above the sea -level, but at 9° 30' S. lat. the valley is 
probably not more than 4000 feet high. At this place it 
begins to widen, the Eastern Andes receding to the distance 
of 1 5 or 20 miles from the river. This may be the width of the 
valley to 7° S. lat., where a branch of the mountains comes close 
up to the river, and as high hills approach also on the east close 
to its banks, they form, near 6° 30', the Pongo of Huallaga, 
at which the valley terminates on the north. The country 
north of the Pongo is quite level, and belongs to the alluvial 
plain of the Amazonas. The eastern boundary of the vale 
is formed by a range of hills, which south of 9° 30' S. lat. 
probably do not fall short of 1 0,000 feet above the sea-level, 
and between 7° and 6° 30' S. lat. rise to a considerable eleva- 
tion, but-between these two points they are of moderate height. 
The soil of the wider portion of the vale is chiefly alluvial, 
and as it combines great fertility with abundance of moisture 
and a great degree of heat, it is capable of maintaining a 
numerous population. At present however it is thinly in- 
habited, though the population of late is said to have in- 
creased considerably.. There are at least one hundred 
very rainy days in the year, and these occur particularly 

in October and November. It does not appear that the dry 
and rainy seasons are distinguished as in other countries, 
showers being frequent all the year round. The heat is 
great, and during the rain it is frequently oppressive. The 
declivities of the mountains wjiich enclose the vale are 
covered with thick forests of tall trees, which is also the 
case with the greatest part of the vale itself. Wheat and 
barley are grown in the southern and more elevated dis- 
tricts, whence they are sent to the table-land of Pasco, In * 
the lower part, Indian corn, two sorts of plantains, and three 
sorts of bananas are cultivated. There are also plantations 
of sugar cane, coffee, cacao, and coca. The coca is an herb 
much used by the Indian population, who chew it with a 
small quantity of lime. Fruit is here produced in greater 
perfection than in any other part of Peru. There are' 
thirty-two kinds of fruit-trees. Many of these trees hardly 
require any care at all. There are eighteen different sorts 
of vegetables. 

The country to the east of the range of hills which form 
the eastern boundary of the vale of the Huallaga, and 
extending from their base to the banks of the Rio Ucayali, is 
known under the name of Pampa del Sacramento. The 
term ' pampa' is applied in South America to level plains 
destitute of trees, and hence it was supposed that this part 
of Peru was of this description. But according to the latest 
information, this country is covered with woods, though they 
are not so dense as the forests in the vale of the Rio Hual- 
laga. The surface also is not a level, except along the banks 
of the Rio Utfayali. At some distance from this river the 
country is diversified by numerous eminences. This country 
extends from the banks of the Amazonas to the Rio Pachi- 
tea, more than 300 miles from north to south, with a breadth 
varying between 40 and 100 miles. North of 7° S. lat. it is 
a dead level, and forms part of the alluvial plain of the 
Amazonas. As no European settlements have been esta- 
blished in this part of Peru, we are very imperfectly ac- 
quainted with its climate and productions. It does not 
suffer from oppressive heat, as the thermometer ranges only 
between 75° and 85° when the sun passes over the zenith 
In fertility and products it does not seem to be inferior to 
the vale of Huallaga. It is still in possession of the native 
tribes, of which a small number have embraced Chris- 

The country extending from the eastern banks of the Rio 
Ucayali to the river Yavari, which separates Peru from 
Brazil, is entirely unknown, except so far as it has been 
seen by travellers who have sailed on the Ucayali and 
Amazonas, where it appears to be flat and covered with 
woods, exactly resembling the Pampa del Sacramento in its 
principal features. Some hills of considerable elevation 
rise on the plain between 74° and 75° W. long. ; and north of 
7° S. lat. they are called the Sends Hills. It is not 
known whether these hills extend in an uninterrupted chain 
southeast and then southward, until they join the eastern 
chain of the Andes, near 12° S. lat. ; but this is the direction 
given to them in our maps. 

The Pampa del Sacramento extends southward to the 
banks of the river Pachitea. The country which extends 
south of the last-mentioned river, from the eastern chain of 
the Andes to the Rio Ucayali, is likewise entirely unknown. 
According to information collected from the native tribes 
that live in this part, it is chiefly covered with mountains, 
which attain a great elevation near the Andes, but towards 
the Ucayali sink into hills. The country along its banks 
seems to be rather flat ; it is also said to be entirely covered 
with forests, except in the highest summits of the mountains. 

Rivers. — The rivers which descend from the western de- 
clivity of the Western Andes and fall into the Pacific have 
a short course, and flow with great rapidity. They are also 
shallow, and have very little water during the greater part 
of the year ; many of them are quite dry for several months.. 
Accordingly they cannot be navigated even by the smallest 
canoes, but the water is used to irrigate the adjacent flat tracts. 

All the large rivers of Peru originate within the mountain- 
region, and all the waters which collect in it are united 
in three large rivers, the Maranon, the Huallaga, and the 
Ucayali. These three rivers may be considered as the 
principal branches of the Rio Amazonas. The Maranon, 
which is commonly considered as the principal branch of 
the Amazonas, issues from the lake of Llauricocha on the 
table-land of Pasco, and runs north-north-west about 150 
miles in a narrow valley, and with great rapidity. In this 
distance it descends not less than 10,000 feet. It then flows 

Digitized by 




in a wide valley for more than 250 miles to the Pongo of 
Rentema, and in this valley its course is rather gentle, as 
it descends only from about 3000 to 1232 feet. It is navi- 
gated by balsas and canoes. NearTomependa is the Pongo 
of Rentema, a rapid. From this place the river turns to 
the north-east, and after flowing about 70 miles in that di- 
rection, it turns to the east ; after a course of 70 miles 
more it descends into the plains by the Pongo de Manse- 
riche, a rapid about seven miles in length. Between the 
Pongos of Rentema and Manseriche the river runs between 
lofty rocks, which sometimes rise to the height of 1000 feet, 
and never sink below 40 feet. It is full of eddies and rapids, 
and can only be navigated by balsas. At the foot of the 

. Pongo de Manseriche is the town of Borja (in Ecuador), 
from which place the river is navigable for vessels drawing 
not more than seven feet. After its union with the Hual- 
laga and Ucayali its depth is so much increased that it is 
navigable for the largest vessels. 

The Huallaga, which joins the Marafion near 5° S. lat. 
and 76° W. long., rises in the lake of Quiluacocha, which 
is also on the table-land of Pasco, south-east of the lake of 
Llauricocha. It runs more than 500 miles. The southern 
half of its course is north-north-west, and the northern 
half north- north-east. The upper part of its course is full 
of rapids, which however may be descended, though not 
ascended. These rapids cease at Juan del Rio, south of 9° 
S- lat. ; and the river, though rapid, affords an easy navi- 
gation as far north as 8° S. lat., where sevecal rapids* again 
occur. There are no rapids between 7° 30' and 6° 40' S. lat. 
Farther north occur the last rapids, which render the river 
nearly unnavigable for about 30 miles. North of 6° 20' 
S. lat. the Huallaga flows through a level marshy plain to 
its junction with the Maranon, and is navigable for vessels 
of considerable size. 

The Ucayali brings to the Amazonas the drainage of the 
mountain-region situated between 1 1° and 15° S. lat. This 
large river is formed by the j unction of the rivers Urubamba 
and Tambo, which takes place hear 9° S. lat. The Uru- 
bamba is formed by the union of the rivers Paucartamba 
and Quilabamba, which drain the eastern portion of the 
table- land of Cuzco, and running north, meet near 11° 30' 
S. lat. These rivers are too rapia to be navigable, but the 
Urubamba is stated to be navigated by the natives. The 
Rio Tambo is formed by the confluence of the rivers A.pu- 
rimac and Mantaro. The Apurimac, which drains the 
western portion of the table-land of Cuzco, unites with the 
Mantaro, which drains the valley of the Jauja, and in its 
upper part is called Rio J auja. [Apurimac] These rivers 
do not appear to be navigable. The Tambo, which is formed 
by their union, is probably navigable, but it flows through 
a country in which no European settlements have been 
formed. Not far below the place where the Urubamba 
and Tambo by their union have formed the Ucayali, is a 
great rapid or cataract called Vuelta del Diablo. From 
this place downward the river runs above 500 miles, first 
north-north-west, and afterwards north-north-east, and no 
impediment to navigation occurs in this part of its course. 
It is navigable for large vessels. Among its chief tribu- 
taries is the Rio Pachitea. This river originates on the 
eastern declivity of the mountains which enclose the upper 
vale of the Huallaga on the east near 10° S. lat., and runs 
first east and then north, falling into the Ucayali near 8° 30'. 
As nearly the whole course is free from impediments to na- 
vigation, it has been supposed that it might be used as a 
channel for the exportation of the produce of the eastern 
districts of Peru, in preference to the Huallaga, the course 
of which is interrupted by many rapids and cataracts; but 
as the banks of the Pachitea are inhabited by native tribes 
who are in a state of continual enmity with the whites, it 
has been found impossible to establish a regular navigation 

• on it. 

Productions. — The trees and plants which are objects of 
cultivation have been already enumerated. The forests, 
with which the mountain- region and the eastern country 
are covered, supply several articles for commerce and for 
domestic use, such as vanilla, sarsaparilla, copaiva, caout- 
chouc, and several kinds of resins and gum ; also various 
barks and woods, used as dyes, such as Brazil-wood, log- 
wood, mahogany- bark, and annotto. The indigo-plant grows 
spontaneously. Jesuits'-bark is met with in several places 
on the Eastern Andes. There are various kinds of lofty 
trees, useful as timber or for cabinet-work, as mahogany 
and cedar. 

Domestic animals are far from being abundant in Los 
Valles, on account of the want of pasture. There is a good 
supply of horses, and still better of mules, which are used for 
the transport of merchandise. On the elevated table-land of 
Pasco, and in other mining districts, llamas are kept for 
that purpose. A llama carries about 130 pounds, or half 
the load of a mule. Cattle are abundant in the mountain- 
region, where the declivities supply extensive pasture- 
grounds ; and in some places sheep abound, especially where 
the situation is too cold for cattle. 

Nearly all the wild animals peculiar to South America 
are (bund in Peru, as the jaguar, the puma, the spectacled 
bear, sloths, armadillos, ant-eaters, guanacoes, and vicunas. 
Several species of monkeys occur in the eastern region, 
where they are used for food and dried for preservation. 
The condor inhabits the most elevated parts of the Andes. 
Parrots, parroquets, and macaws are numerous in the woods 
on the mountains. Whales and seals abound along the 
coast, and this branch of fishery is chiefly carried on by 
vessels from the United States of North America. Fish 
are plentiful in the large rivers of the eastern region, where 
they constitute the principal food of the inhabitants, toge- 
ther with the manatee and turtles. The manatee occurs 
only in the Ucayali and the lower part of the Huallaga. 
The oil extracted from the eggs of the turtle is an article of 
export under the name of manteca. Alligators are numerous 
in these rivers, and they are often thirty feet long. 

Peru is noted for its wealth in silver and gold. The num- 
ber of mines which have been worked is above a thousand ; 
but most of them are exhausted, or at least abandoned. 
Among those which are still worked, the mines of Pasco 
are the richest. Formerly the annual produce of these 
mines amounted to eight millions of dollars, or 1,800,000/. ; 
but at present it probably falls short of half that sum. 
There are quicksilver- mines near Huancabelica, which were 
formerly very rich : we do not know in what state they are 
now. Copper, iron, lead, and brimstone arc found in several 
places. Saltpetre is found in the country adjacent to the 
Pacific, south of Arequipa, and great quantities of it are ex- 

Eorted by English vessels. It is not a nitrate of potash, 
ut of soda. Salt is collected on the coast north of Callao, 
at Point Salinas, and in Sechura Bay, where there are Sa- 
linas, or salt-ponds. Nearly all the mines of the precious 
metals are on the most elevated parts of the Andes above 
the line to which cultivation extends, a circumstance which 
renders the working of these mines very difficult and ex- 

Inhabitants.— No census having been taken, the popula- 
tion is vaguely estimated at 1,800,000, composed of Creoles, 
or descendants of Europeans, Peruvian Indians, and a mixed 
race. The greater part of the eastern region is in posses- 
sion of independent tribes, and only those natives who 
inhabit the vale of the Huallaga have been converted and 
subjected to the government of the whites. The number of 
Creoles is stated to amount to about 250,000, and that of 
the Peruvian Indians to near 1,000,000; the remainder 
are a mixed race, the offspring of Europeans and Indian 

The Peruvian Indians inhabit the Valles and the Montana, 
to the exclusion of all other native tribes. They speak the 
Quichua language, which is generally called the language of 
the Incas, and which is used by all the natives of South 
America, from Quito near the equator, to Tucuman in La 
Plata, 27° S. lat. The Peruvian Indians had attained a 
considerable degree of civilization at the time of the arrival 
of the Spaniards, a fact which is proved by the numerous 
ruins of extensive buildings, the remains of the great artifi- 
cial road which leads through the Montana from Quito to 
Cuzco, and thence southward over the valley of the Desa- 
guadero ; and more particularly by the fact that they irrigated 
the low tracts in the vales by making cuts to convey the 
water from the small rivers over the fields, and by the judi- 
cious manner in which the water was distributed. It may 
be said that their condition has been improved by the con- 

auest, inasmuch as they acquired iron- implements and 
omestic animals to assist them in their agricultural labour; 
but they have not been benefited in any other respect. 
These Indians apply themselves particularly to agriculture, 
and there are numerous villages, and even small towns, the 
whole population of which now consists of Peruvians. 
They also work in the mines, and manufacture different 
kinds of woollen and cotton cloth. These kinds of manu- 
factures existed before the arrival of the Spaniards, and 

Digitized by 




must have existed in a country where the climate obliges 
the people to put on warm clothing for several months in 
the year. They are also fishermen, and sail with their balsas 
along the coast from one small port to another to exchange 
their different productions. 

The native tribes which inhabit the vale of the Huallaga 
river have been converted, and are nearly equal in civiliza- 
tion to the Peruvians. The Shanamachoa live on the eastern 
banks of the Huallaga, and on the western are the Cholones, 
Sharras, and Ibitas. They all seem to belong to one nation, 
as they speak one language, called the Ibita, though most 
of them understand the Quichua. They cultivate the 
grains and roots which have been mentioned as the princi- 
pal productions of this valley. Their dwellings are much 
inferior to those of the Peruvians, which however may be 
attributed to the circumstance of their country not being 
exposed to cold weather. They, have adopted a decent 
dress, except that they wear no covering for the head or 
feet, which they stain blue. 

The independent native tribes inhabit the low and level 
country east of the mountain region. It is more than pro- 
bablo that all these tribes are not known, even by name. 
South of 12° S. lat., on the east of the Andes, are the 
Chunchos and Tuyoneris. The Antes inhabit the country 
where the Paucartamba and Quilabamba unite, between 
12° and 11° S. lat. North of 11°, and as far north as 9° S. 
lat, are four tribes, the Tampas, Palutuniques, Chuntagui- 
rus, and Piros. The country on both sides of the Pachitea 
river is in possession of the numerous and warlike tribe of 
the Cashibos, who are said to be cannibals, and do not 
permit strangers to enter their country. They have ad- 
vanced as far north as 8° S. lat North of them, between 
the Huallaga and Ucayati, are the Conibos, Setebos, and 
Shipebos ; and still farther north two small tribes, the Ma- 
paris and Puinaus. Between the Ucayali and Yavari are 
the Amajuacas (between 9° and 8°), the Remos (between 8° 
and 7°), the Sencis and Capanaguas (7° and 6°), and the 
numerous tribe of the Mayorunas, who occupy the country 
to the very banks of the Amazonas. The tribes inhabiting 
both banks of the Ucayali speak one language, or dialects 
which differ very little from one another. This language 
is railed Pano. Some of these tribes have been partially 
converted to Christianity, as the Conibos, Setebos, and Shi- 
pebos, but the missionaries have made no impression on the 
other tribes, and no attempt at conversion has been made 
among some of them. Since Peru has obtained its inde- 
pendence, the missions have been much neglected, and many 
of the converted Indians have returned to the woods, and 
are again lost to civilization. The converted tribes are agri- 
culturists, which is also the case with several of the uncon- 
verted tribes, as the Chunchos, Antes, Remos, and Sencis ; 
but they cultivate only small patches of ground, and prefer 
wandering about in the forests in pursuit of game. The 
converted tribes wear clothing, but the others go quite 
naked. None of these tribes have any chief, but they all 
live in a state of perfect equality. Even in their excursions 
against their enemies they have no leader* but each warrior 
acts individually, and appropriates to his own use all the 
plunder or prisoners that he takes. They use a few articles 
of European manufacture, as hatchets, knives, scissors, 
needles, buttons, and some glittering baubles. They pro- 
cure these articles either at Nauta on the Amazonas or at 
Sarayaou on the Ucayali. The Chuntaguirus, who are the 
most remote from all the settlements of the whites, ascend 
the Ucayali and Urubamba to the confluence of the Pau- 
cartamba and Quilabamba, where they procure by barter 
such articles as they want, giving in exchange parrots and 
other birds, monkeys, cotton robes white and painted, wax, 
balsams, the feet of the tapir, feather ornaments for the 
head, and jaguar and other skins. 

Political Divisions and Toums.—Perix is divided into eight 
departments, Truxillo, Junin, Lima, Huancabelica, Ayacu- 
cho, Cuzco, Arequipa, and Puno. The countries inhabited 
by the independent tribes are not comprised in these de- 

1. The department of Truxillo extends over the northern 
districts of the republic, from the shores of the Pacific to the 
ba%in of the Rio Huallaga, and comprehends the Valles 
north of Santa (near 9° S. lat), the lower and wider 
portion of the vale of the Maranon, and likewise the greater 
part of that of the Rio Huallaga. The mountains contain 
many mines, several of which are still profitably worked. It 
also produces great quantities of sugar, which is exported. 

On the eastern chain of the Andes, in a district called Hua- 
malies, a great quantity of Jesuits' -bark is collected. The 
number of creolis is comparatively small, and that of the 
Indians very great. There are numerous ruins of antient 
buildings in the Valles and vale of the river Maranon. 
Payta is a commercial town with an excellent harbour, 
which in 1835 was visited by upwards of 4000 tons of 
shipping. The town, which is built on the slope and at the 
foot of a hill, contains 5000 inhabitants. It is the port of 
the fine vale of the Rio Piura, which contains 75,000 inhabit- 
ants, and is a place of much business, as communication with 
Europe by the way of Panama is more expeditious than at 
any other port of Peru. The town of S. Miguel de Piura, 
built on the banks of the river, about 20 miles from Payta, 
contains a population of from 8000 to 9000, and some ma- 
nufactures of soap and leather. Lambayeque is situated in 
a district which produces abundance of rice and has a con- 
siderable commerce, though the roadstead is bad. It con- 
tains about 4000 inhabitants, and exports bullion and rice. 
Truxillo, founded by Francisco Pizarro and named after his 
birthplace, is situated in the middle of the* extensive valley 
of Chimu, about two miles from the sea. The harbour Huana- 
cho is an open roadstead. The streets of Truxillo are wide 
and regular, and it has a fine cathedral and a handsome town- 
hall. The principal articles of export are bullion, sugar, and 
rice. Population 9000. The valley of Chimu contains the 
ruins of a large Indian town. In the vale of the Maranon 
are the towns of Caxamarca and Chachapoyas. Caxamarca 
stands on the eastern declivity of the Western Andes, in a 
rich mining district: it is nearly 9000 feet above the sea- 
level, and contains 7000 inhabitants and the ruins of a 
palace of the Incas. • Cotton and woollen cloth are manu- 
factured to a considerable extent, and also many utensils of 
iron. In the neighbourhood there are hot springs, called 
the baths of the Incas. The richest mine in the vi- 
cinity is that of Qualgayac, not far from Chota. The 
town of Chachapoyas is near the western declivity of 
the Eastern Andes, on the road which leads to the 
vale of the Rio Huallaga, and contains 3000 inhabitants. 
Much tobacco is raised in the neighbourhood. In the vale 
of the Rio Huallaga are the towns of Moyobamba and 
Tarapoto. Moyobamba, near the eastern declivity of the 
Eastern Andes, has 5000 inhabitants, and Tarapoto, a few 
miles from the Huallaga river, about 4000. In both towns 
a coarse cotton stuff called tucupa is made ; and cotton, 

fums, resin, and white wax are sent to the coast of the 
'acifio by the road which leads from Tarapoto to Trux- 

2. The department of Junin was formerly called Tarma, 
from the. principal town, but the name was changed to com- 
memorate the battle gained by Bolivar on the plain of Junin 
in 1824. It occupies the valleys along the Pacific which 
lie between Santa and Barranca (near 1 1° 8. lat), and com- 
prehends the upper vales of the rivers Maranon, Huallaga, 
and Jauja, and also the table-land of Pasco. Besides the 
produce of the rich mines, this department exports sugar, 
rice, and Indian corn. The greater part of the district of 
Huamalies, in which bark is collected, belongs to this de- 
partment. The Indian population is still grdfter in pro- 
portion to the Creoles than in Truxillo. There are several 
ruins of antient buildings, but they are not considerable. 
None of the towns situated in the Valles are important in a 
commercial view. The fertile valley of the Rio Nepena 
contains the towns of Huambacho and Nepena; the last- 
mentioned town seems to be a place of some size. They ex- 
port their produce, sugar and grain, from the excellent 
harbour of Samanco or Huambacho. Farther south is the 
town of Guarmey, in a country which is covered with 
lofty trees, whence great quantities of fire-wood are sent to 
Lima. It has only from 500 to 600 inhabitants. The small 
towns of Barranca and Supe" export their agricultural pro- 
duce to Lima from the bay of Supe. In the upper vale of 
the Maranon is the town of Huari, with 7000 inhabitants, 
and Caxatambo, which has some mines in the neighbour- 
hood. Pasco or Cerro Pasco is built on the table-land of 
Pasco, 1 4,278 feet above the sea-level. It is probably the most 
elevated place in America, if not in the world, which is per* 
manently inhabited. This town,* whose population fluc- 
tuates, according to the produce of the mines, between 
12,000 and 16,000, is irregularly built on very uneven 
ground. The site on which it stands abounds in silver 
ore, and the mouths of the mines are frequently in the mid- 
dle of the streets. Only those mines are worked which 

Digitized by 





contain rich ores. The houses are low, and some have 
small glazed windows ; but the suburbs are merely a collec- 
tion of mud cottages. As the surrounding country is des- 
titute of trees, it is fortunate that coal abounds in the 
neighbourhood. In the upper vale of the Rio Huallaga, 
north-east of Pasco, is the town of Huanaco, with 9000 in- 
habitants, which owes its prosperity to the circumstance of 
its agricultural produce finding a ready sale at Pasco. In 
the neighbourhood there are ruins of considerable extent. 
In the vale of the Rio Jauja is the town of Tarma. with 
6000 inhabitants, in which cotton and woollen stuffs are 

3. The department of Lima extends along the coast from 
Barranca (11° S. lat.) to Point Penates (15° 30'), and com- 
prehends that part of the maritime region in which the 
valleys aro most numerous and occur at short distances 
from one another. It extends inland to the lower decli- 
vity of the Western Andes. All the productions of the 
vales grow here, and are tolerably abundant. The popula- 
tion contains a greater proportion of Creoles than that of 
the other departments. There are some extensive ruins of 
antient buildings and towns. North of Lima is the town of 
Huacho, built in an extensive and fertile valley about one 
mile from the port, which is small, but has good anchorage. 
Lima, the capital of the republic, is about 6 miles from 
Callao. [Lima ; Callao.] South of Callao is the small 
town of Chorillos, built on a cliff at the foot of the Morro 
Solar, a remarkable cluster of hills ; it is chiefly used as a 
bathing* place for the inhabitants of Lima. In the fertile 
and well- cultivated valley of Lurim, which is a few miles 
farther south, are the ruins of the antient city of Pachaca- 
niac. Cerro Azul, farther south, in the middle of a fer- 
tile valley, is a considerable place, and exports large 
quantities of rum, sugar, and chancana, a sort of treacle. 
Pisco, built on a plain, about a mile from the shores of the 
Bay of Pisco, has above 3000 inhabitants. It has a con- 
siderable commerce, and exports wine, a kind of spirit called 
Pisco or Italia, and sugar. South of Pisco are two small 
tow us, Yea and Nasca, in which much wine is made, and 
exported to other parts of Peru ; but it is inferior to that 
of Pisco. 

4. The department of Huancabelica lies east of Lima, and 
extends over the Western Andes and the lower vale of the 
Jauja. The mountains contain a great number of mines, 
and several of them are still worked with profit. The fertile 
vale is well cultivated and inhabited, as it supplies the min- 
ing district with provisions. The number of Creoles is con- 
siderable. The capital, Huancabelica, is built in a ravine 
between mountains whose summits rise to the height of 
13,000 feet, and which contain several mines of gold, silver, 
and quicksilver ; the quicksilver-mines are rich. The town 
has 5000 inhabitants. Nothing is cultivated in the neigh- 
bourhood. Castro Vireyna, farther south, is in the centre 
of another mining district. In the vale of the Rio Jauja is 
Jauja or Atanjauja, a town with 3000 inhabitants, and some 
silver-mines in the neighbourhood. 

5. The department of Ayacucho received its name from 
the plains of Ayacucho, on which General Sucre, on the 
9th of Dedtmber, 1824, defeated Canterac, the viceroy of 
Peru, and put an end to the dominion of Spain in South 
America. It extends over a part of the Western Andes, 
the western lower portion of the table-land of Cuzco, and the 
valley of the Rio Mantaro. The principal productions are 
the cerealia and fruits of Europe. The population consists 
of Indians : whites are only found in the town. The capital 
is Huamango, a large place with 26,000 inhabitants, founded 
by Francisco Pizarro, in an elevated situation, on the decli- 
vities of some mountains of moderate elevation above 
their base. It contains several large private buildings of 
stone, covered with tiles. The suburbs, which are in- 
habited by Indians, are large, and the houses better than in 
other Indian towns. It has a fine cathedral, a university, 
and a seminary for clergymen. The rich Creole families 
that live in this town have large sugar-plantations in the 
valley of the river Mantaro. As the town is situated on the 
road leading from Lima to Cuzco, it has a considerable 
trade. Some miles east-north-east of the town are the 
plains of Ayacucho. North of it is Huanta, a small town, 
in a district rich in agricultural produce, especially wheat 
and Indian corn. 

6. The department of Cuzco extends over the whole of 
the southern and over the greater portion of the northern 
part of the table-land of Cuzco. The Peruvians are very 

numerous in this country, and in many places ruins of an- 
tient buildings occur. The southern districts contain ex- 
tensive pasture-grounds: those situated in the middle 
produce wheat and the other cerealia of Europe, with Indian 
corn in abundance, and the southern have extensive plan- 
tations of sugar and other intertropical plants. In the 
southern districts are several mines, but few of them are 
worked. Besides the capital, Cusco, or Cuzco [Cuzco], there 
is no town of importance in this department Abancay, in 
the narrow valley of the upper Apurimac, is a small place. 
The plain which lies east of the eastern Andes contains a 
small number of plantations near the base of the moun- 
tains; they belong to this department, and border on the 
country or* the Chunchos Indians. 

7. The department of Arequipa extends along the 
coast of the Pacific from Point Penates (15° 30' S. lat.) to 
Point Sama (18° S. lat.), and inland to the declivity of the 
western Andes. It contains a smaller number of vales than 
the department of Lima, but several of them are extensive, 
especially that of the Rio Chila or Arequipa, in which 
the town of Arequipa stands. The commercial products 
consist chiefly of wool and cotton. There are more Creoles 
than in any other department except Lima. Acari, not far 
from the boundary of the department of Lima, is built in a 
fertile plain several miles from the sea. It is a considerable 
place, but little visited by travellers. The port, called Point 
Lomas, has good anchorage and tolerable landing. Islay, 
the harbour of Arequipa, contains about 1500 inhabitants. 
It is built on the west side of a hill which slopes gently 
towards the harbour. The trade is flourishing, and it ex- 
ports bark, wool, and specie. On the north-east of the 
capital, Arequipa [Arequipa], stands the volcano of Are- 
quipa, 17,200 feet high. There is always snow on the 
north-west side of its summit. Ylo is a small place on the 

8. The department of Puno extends along the Pacific 
from Point Sama ( 1 8° S. lat.) to the Rio Loa, which con- 
stitutes the southern boundary of Peru. It comprehends 
also that part of the valley of the Desaguaderd which be- 
longs to Peru. The vales along the coast are small, and in 
general 20 miles from one another. The rivers which drain 
these valleys have in general water only during three months 
of the year. In the barren tracts which divide the valleys 
much saltpetre is collected, and in some silver and copper 
ore are found. The population is more scanty than in any 
other part of Peru, and chiefly consists of Indians. The 
principal town on the coast is Arica, which contains a 
population of about 3000 souls, who live in low houses built 
of sun-dried bricks. [Arica.] It is the port of Tacna, a 
town built in the same valley about 30 miles from it, and 
the dep6tof European merchandise for the consumption of 
the department of Puno and the greater part of the republic 
of Bolivia. Tacna contains 7000 souls and several well- 
built houses. Yquique (20° 12' S. lat.), with a bad road- 
stead, has only 1000 inhabitants; a considerable quantity of 
saltpetre is shipped here. Near the lake of Titicaca, in the 
valley of the Desaguadero, are the towns of Puno, the 
capital of the department, which has a population of 9000 
inhabitants, and Chuquito, with 5000. In the vicinity of 
Puno are numerous silver-mines, which in 1805 yielded 
96,528 marcs of silver, but since that time the produce has 
fallen off. 

In the countries of the independent tribes there were 
formerly several missiones, or stations of missionaries, who 
collected a number of aborigines and tried to convert them 
to Christianity. Nearly all these missions have been de- 
stroyed by the political changes to which Peru has been 
subject during the last twenty years. Only one of them is 
in a flourishing state, that of Sarayacu, on the Rio Ucayali, 
near 7° S. lat., where about 2000 individuals of the tribes of 
Puinaus, Setebos, Conibos, Shipebos, and Sencis live in 
scattered houses, and seem to advance, though slowly, in 

Manufactures. — The Peruvian Indians consume a very 
small quantity of European manufactured articles. Their 
dress is composed of cotton or woollen stuffs made at home, 
or in several of the small towns in the vale of the Maraiion 
and Jauja. These home-made stuffs also serve as tne 
dress of the mixed race. Only the Creoles dress in Eu- 
ropean stuffs. There are some manufactures of cordovan 
leather, and some tanneries and soap-houses. The iron 
utensils, such as hatchets, scissors, &c, made in Caxa- 
marca, aro highly valued. In the largo towns many per- 

Digitized by 




sons are occupied with making vessels, utensils, and orna- 
ments of gold and silver. 

Commerce. — The country is too the 
making of carriage-roads in the interior. Mules are gene- 
rally used by travellers and for the transport of merchan- 
dise. In the more elevated parts of the country llamas are 
employed for the latter purpose. Six great roads traverse 
the country from west to east; the most northern runs 
from Truxillo to Caxamarca, Chacapoyas, Moyabaraba, and 
Tarapoto. One road leads from Lima to Pasco, another 
to Tarma, and a third to Huancabelica, Hacaraango, and 
Cuzco. A road leads from Islay to Arequipa and Puno, 
and another from Arica to Tacna, and tnence to La Paz 
and Oruro in Bolivia. The goods imported from foreign 
countries are sent by these roads into the interior of 

The foreign commerce is considerable, especially that 
with the other countries of America bordering on the Pacific, 
and also with Europe. The most important article of ex- 
port is the produce of the mines, especially silver. The 
second in importance is sugar, which is sent to Mexico, 
New Granada, Ecuador, and Chile. The third article in 
importance is perhaps saltpetre, the quantity sent to dif- 
ferent countries of Europe being very great. Cotton, 
tobacco, Indian corn, rice, salt, and spirits are minor arti- 
cles. Wheat, flour, wine, and fruits are imported from 
Chile, with which country there is an active commerce. 
Manufactured goods are received from Europe and from 
the United States of North America, and from Canton silk 
goods and nankeens. 

The principal harbours from which the exports are made, 
are Payta, Larabayeque, Callao, •Pisco, Islay, Arica, and 
Iquique. We have no recent account of the commerce of 
the first four harbours, in which probably three-fourths of 
the exports are shipped. The three last-mentioned har- 
bours are called puertos intermedios, and are usually visited 
by European vessels which sail along the coast from Val- 
paraiso in Chile to Callao. * Nothing is imported into 
Iquique, the most southern of these harbours, but in 1834 
not less than 148,150. cwt. of saltpetre were shipped, of 
which more than 100,000 was on account of British mer- 
chants. The value amounted to 125,000/. The number of 
European vessels which entered the port of Arica in 1834 
was 63, and their tonnage amounted to 15,094; there were 
17 English vessels, of 3651 tons, 8 French vessels,* of 2003 
tons, and 10 vessels from the United States of North 
America, with 2971 tons. The other European vessels were 
from Antwerp, Hamburg, Cadiz, and Genoa. The vessels 
from Chile and other parts of Peru were 26 in number. 
They exported bullion and specie to the amount of 320,301 
Spanish dollars, equal to 72,052/. ; bark to the value of 
175,552 dollars, or 39,504/. ; pewter to the amount of 18,285 
dollars, or 4114/. ; and wool to the amount of 13,252 dollars, 
or 2982/. ; chinchilla and vicuna skins, hides, and cotton 
were among the minor articles of export. In the 
same year 132 cwt of copper were brought from the 
Bolivian part of the valley of the Desaguadero and 
shipped at Arica. The value of all the exports of Arica 
does not exceed 150,000/. The exports of Islay in the same 
year amounted to 1,135,590 dollars, equal to 255,507/., 
viz: — 


Saltpetre . . . 776,000 

Silver . . . 124,503 

Bark^ . . . 110,872 

Vicuna wool . . 45,000 

Sheep-wool . . 73,070 

Copper . . • 2,500 

Rat ana . . . 3,645 

The exports of the puertos intermedios, shipped for 
Europe and the United States, amounted therefore to 
530,507/. ; and as it is assumed that only one-fourth of the 
commerce of Peru is concentrated in these harbours, the 
whole exports of the country would exceed 2,000,000/., ex- 
clusive of the commerce with Mexico, Central America, and 
Chile. But it must be remembered that a great part of 
the exports of the puertos intermedios is, brought from 
Bolivia, as the silver, bark, vicuiia and sheep wool, and 

History. — When the Spaniards first visited Peru, they 
found the country under a well-regulated government, and 
P. C, No. 1104. 

inhabited by a nation which bad made great progress in the 
arts of civilization. The people were decently dressed, and 
lodged in comfortable bouses. Their fields were well culti- 
vated, and artificial cuts had been made to conduct the 
water of the small rivers to a considerable distance for the 
purposes of irrigation. They had extensive manufactures 
of earthenware and woollen and cotton cloth, and also tools 
made of copper. E\en now the elegant forms of their 
utensils, made out of the hardest rock without the use of iron 
tools, excite admiration. The extensive ruins of palaces 
and buildings scattered over the country, and the remains 
of the great road which led from Quito to Cuzco, and 
thence southward over the table-land of the valley of the 
Desaguadero. show that the nation was far advanced in 
civilization. This civilization appears to have grown up in 
the nation itself, and not to have been derived from com- 
munication with other civilised people. The navigation of 
the Peruvians was limited to coasting from one small har- 
bour to another in balsas. The difference in political insti- 
tutions and in the usages of society between the Peruvians 
and Mexicans precludes the supposition of either of these 
two nations having received their civilization from the other. 
Besides this, they were divided by savage tribes, which 
were sunk in the deepest barbarism. The Spaniards were 
surprised to find this state of things in Peru. When they 
had got possession of the country, they inquired into its 
history, and learned the following traditions : — 

About three centuries before the arrival of the Spaniards, 
Manco Capac and Mama Ocollo appeared on the table-land 
of the Desaguadero. These two personages, male and 
female, of majestic stature, appeared clothed in gar- 
ments, and declared that they were children of the sun, and 
sent by their parent to reclaim the human race from its 
misery. The savage tribes submitted to the insiruction of 
these beings of a divine origin, who taught them the first 
arts of civilization, agriculture, and the manufacture of 
clothing. Manco Capac organised a regular government, and 
formed nis subjects into four different ranks or classes, which 
had some slight resemblance to the castes of the Hindus. 
He also established many useful customs and laws, and 
founded the town of Cuzco, which soon became the capital 
of an extensive empire, called the empire of the Incas (or 
lords) of Peru. He and his successors, being considered as 
the offspring of the divinity, exercised absolute and uncon- 
trolled authority: disobedience to their orders was consi- 
dered a sin and violation of the commands of the Suprefte 
Being. His successors gradually extended their authority 
over the whole of the mountain-region between the equator 
and 25° S. lat. As the aborigines who inhabit this exten- 
sive country speak one language, the Quichua, it must be 
supposed that they belong to one race, and thus were easily 
united into one nation, and peaceably submitted to one 
government. When the Spaniards first entered Peru, the 
twelfth monarch from the founder of the state, named 
Huayna Capac, was said to be seated on the throne. He 
had violated the antient usage of the Incas, which forbade 
a monarch to marry a woman not a descendant of Manco 
Capac and Mama Ocollo. His wife was a daughter of the 
vanquished king of Quito, and the son whom she had borne 
him, named Atahualpa, was appointed his successor in that 
kingdom. The rest of his dominions he left to Huascar, 
his eldest son by a princess of the Inca race. This led to a 
civil war between the two princes, and when the contest 
was at its height, a Spanish force entered the country 
under Francisco Pizarro in 1531. 

Pizarro had sailed in 1526 from Panama to a country 
lying farther south, which, according to the information 
collected from the natives, abounded in precious metals. 
He sailed along the coast as far south as Cape Parma or 
Cape Aguja. Landing at Turabez in the Bay of Guayaquil, 
the most northern point of the present republic of Peru, 
he was struck with the advanced state of civilization of the 
inhabitants, and still more with the abundance of gold and 
silver vessels and utensils. From this time he resolved on 
the conquest of the country. In 1531 he returned with a 
small force which he had procured from Spain, marched 
along the coast, and in 1 532 built the town of St. Michael 
de Piura, the oldest Spanish settlement in Peru. The dis- 
tracted state of the country caused by the civil war en- 
abled the Spaniards to take possession of it without a 
battle ; and though the Peruvians afterwards tried to renew 
the contest, they were easily defeated and compelled to 
submit to a foreign yoke. In many instances during the 

voj. xvm.-c 

Digitized by 





progress of the conquest (from 1532 to 1534), Pizarro acted 
with cruelty and perfidy, but he undoubtedly possessed 
great political sagacity. All the larjje towns now existing in 
Peru were built by Pizarro, with the exception of Cuzco. 
which was founded by Manco Capac. Pizarro built Piura, 
Truxillo, Lima, Arequipa, and Huaraanga. 

The disorders which immediately followed the conquest 
nearly caused the loss of the country, a circumstance which 
determined the court of Spain to make Peru the chief seat 
of the Spanish dominions in South America. Lima was 
chosen for the capital, and it soon rose to such opulence 
that it was called the City of the Kings. The authority of 
Spain took deeper root in Peru than in any other of her 
South American colonies. In 1 780 the Peruvians took up 
arras against the Spaniards, under Tupac Amaro, an Inca, 
but failing to capture the town of La Paz after aiongsiege, 
they again submitted. When all the Spanish colonies began 
to rise against the mother country, after the year 1810, 
Peru remained quiet, and though some of the neighbouring 
provinces had already expelled the Spanish armies, and 
others were attempting to do the same, the Spaniards re- 
mained in undisturbed possession of Peru until 1820, and 
even then the first impulse to rebellion came from without 
General San Martin had collected a force in the pro- 
vinces of La Plata, with which he entered Chile, and, after 
a successful war, expelled the Spaniards from that country. 
In 1920 he came with an army from Valparaiso to Peru, 
and as soon as he had obtained possession of Lima, the in- 
dependence of Peru was proclaimed on the 28th of July, 
1821, and San Martin was also proclaimed protector of 
Peru. The Spanish viceroy Canterac, who had remained 
in possession of the Montana, gradually recovered the 
Valles. San Martin, who had lost his popularity, resigned 
his authority into the hands of the legislature on th# 1 9th 
of August, 1822. On the 1st of September, Bolivar, the 
Gdumbian general, entered Lima, and continued the war 
with Canterac, but at first with doubtful success. In No- 
vember, 1823, a constitution proposed by Bolivar was 
adopted, but the Congress, being unable to maintain its 
authority, dissolved in February, 1824, and Bolivar was 
made* dictator. After some advantages gained by Bolivar 
over Canterac, the latter was entirel^fefeated by Sucre in 
December, 1824* in the plains of AyacMcho, by which battle 
the authority of Spain in Peru and South America was 
annihilated. General Rodil threw himself with 9000 men 
iffro the fortress of Callao, which he surrendered, after a 
siege -of more than thirteen months, on the 29th of January, 
1826. In February, 1825, Bolivar had resigned the dicta- 
torsnip. but he had previously contrived to separate the 
southern provinces from the northern, and to convert the 
former into a new republic, which adopted the name of 
Bolivia. The different forms of government which had 
been tried within the six years following the declara- 
tion of independence, were not adapted to the state 
of society and the circumstances of the nation. Towards 
the' end of 1826, the Bolivian constitution was adopted, ac- 
cording to which a president was to be placed at the head 
of the government, with the power of naming his successor, 
and without being subject to any responsibility for his acts. 
This new constitution excited great discontent, and as Bo- 
livar was soon afterwards obliged to go to Columbia, where 
an insurrection had broken out and a civil war was on the 
point of commencing', a complete revolution took place in 
Peru, in January, 1827. The Bolivian constitution or go- 
vernment was abolished, and a new constitution framed and 
adopted, which may be considered as still in force. This 
constitution may be viewed as an attempt to unite a fe- 
deral republic with a central government. The provincial 
governments of the departments have the power of framing 
laws for the provinces, but these laws do not obtain authority 
till they have been approved by the Congress. The provincial 
governments however are entitled to the uncontrolled admi- 
nistration of their own affairs, both civil and ecclesiastical. 
The national congress, or supreme legislature, consists of 
two bodies, a senate and a house of representatives. The 
president, in whose hands the executive power is placed, is 
chosen for four years, and he cannot be re-elected. He is 
assisted in the administration of the public affairs by a mi- 
nistry of his choice, and by a state council, which is elected 
by the legislature. The judicial power is independent of the 
executive, and all decrees andjudgments are to be made pub- 
lic. The highest officers of the central government in the 
departments are the prefects and subprefects. These persons, 

as well as the judges, are elected by the Congress from three 
candidates, who are proposed by the provincial governments. 
The Roman Catholic religion alone can be publicly exercised. 
Peru has experienced, even more than the other parts of 
America which once were subject to Spain, the bad effects 
of having adopted a constitution unsuited to the state of 
society. The country is almost continually distracted by 
parties which are struggling for power, and by civil wars and 
revolutions produced by these continual struggles. In 1835 
four chiefs in arms were contending for supremacy. If one 
of them succeeded in making himself powerful, the others 
united against him; but no sooner were they victorious, 
than they were again disunited and in hostility to each 
other. In 1836 the four southern departments, Cuzco, 
Ayacucho, Puno, and Arequipa, separated from the four 
northern, and constituted an independent state, under the 
name of Estado Sud Peruano. We do not know whether 
the two parts of Peru have again united under one govern- 
ment, or continue to form two republics. 

(Uiloa's Voyage to South America ; Humboldt's Per- 
sonal Narrative, &c. ; Memoirs of General Mtller ; 
Meyen's Reise urn die Welt; Poeppig's Reise in Chile, 
Peru, <fyc. ; Smyth's and Lowe's Narrative of a Journey 
from Lima to Para ; Narrative of the Surveying Voyages 
of the Adventure and Beagle ; Pentland, in the London 
Geographical Journal, vols. v. and viii. ; Miller, in the 
London Geographical Journal, vol. vi.) 

PERUVIAN ARCHITECTURE. Remains of antient 
Peruvian buildings are dispersed over the western parts of 
South America, from the equator to 15° S. lat., especially 
over the Montana. They are characterised by simplicity, 
symmetry, and solidity. There are no columns, pilasters, or 
arches, and the buildings exhibit a singular uniformity and 
a complete want of all exterior ornaments. 

The great road of the Incas, which runs from Quito to 
Cuzco and the table-land of the Desaguadero, is made of 
enormous masses of porphyry, and it is still nearly perfect 
in several parts of the Montana. Humboldt obtained an 
antient Peruvian cutting instrument, which had been 
found in a mine not far from Cuzco: the material 
consisted of 94 parts of copper and 6 of tin, a composition 
which rendered it hard enough to be used nearly like steel. 
With instruments made of this material the Peruvians cut 
the enormous masses of which their buildings are composed. 
Some of the buildings near Cuzco contain stones 40 feet 
long, 20 feet wide, and nearly 7 feet thick. These stpnes are 
fitted together with great skill, and, as it was supposed, with- 
out cement. But Humboldt discovered in some ruins a thin 
layer of cement, consisting of gravel and an argillaceous 
earth ; in other edifices, he says, it is composed of bitumen. 

The stones are all parallelopipedons, and worked with such 
exactness that it would be impossible to perceive the join- 
ings if their exterior surface were quite level ; but being 
a little convex, the junctures form slight depressions, which 
constitute the only exterior ornament of the buildings. The 
doors of the buildings are from 7 to 84 feet high. The sides 
of the doors are not parallel, but approach each other towards 
the top, a circumstance which gives to the Peruvian door- 
ways a resemblance to those in some of the Egyptian temples. 
The niches, of which several occur in the inner side of the 
walls, have the form of the doors. 

The most extensive Peruvian buildings occur in the table- 
land of Cuzco, which was the most antient seat of the mo- 
narchy of the Incas. There are also antient remains 
within the boundaries of the present republic of Ecua- 
dor. Near the ridge called Chisinche, not far from 
the volcano Cotopaxi, are the ruins of a large building called 
the Palace of the Incas. It was a square, of which each 
side is about 30 yards long, and it had four doors. The in- 
terior was divided into eight apartments, three of which are 
still in tolerable preservation. Not far from the mountain- 
pass of Assuay is a building called Ingappilca, or the Fortress 
of Canar, consisting of a wall of very large stones, about 
5 or 6 yards high ; it has a regular oval form, of which the 
greatest axis is nearly 40 feet long. In the ruins of the 
town of Chulucanas, in the department of Truxillo, near 
the boundary-line between Peru and Ecuador, Humboldt 
had an opportunity of observing the construction of the 
private buildings of the Peruvians, and he observes that 
they consist of one room only, and that probably the door 
. opened into a court-yard.- (Humboldt's Vues des Cordil- 
lerex et Monuments des Peuples Indigenes, &c.) 

PERU'GIA, DELEGAZIO'NE DI, a province of the 

Digitized by 





Papal State, is bounded on the north by the central ridge 
of the Apennines, which separates it from the province of 
Pesaro e Urbino, on the wl\st "by Tuscany, on the south by 
the provinces of Spoleto and Viterbo, and on the east by the 
provinces of Macerata and Spoleto. Its length from the 
Apennines, which border the valley of the Tiber above 
Citta di Castello, down to the confluence of the Paglia with 
the Tiber, is about 60 miles, and its breadth varies from 20 
to 35 miles. The area is reckoned at about 1790 square 
miles. The province of Perugia is entirely in the basin of 
the Tiber. The lake of Perugia (Lacus Trasimenus) lies 
in the territory of Perugia, near the borders of Tuscany ; its 
circumference is about 30 miles, the greatest width is about 
eight miles, but the depth is not more than 30 feet. It con- 
tains three small islands; two (of which one is called Isola 
Maggiore) are towards the north, and the third (called Pol- 
rese) towards the southern extremity. This lake is enclosed by 
hills on the north, east, and south, but the western coast is 
more open, merging into the wide plain of Cortona. This 
lake is fed by no permanent river, tout by numerous springs 
which rise from the bottom of the bed ; it has no natural 
outlet, and in seasons of rain, when numerous streams run 
into it from the neighbouring hills, it suddenly overflows the 
banks, and sometime the waters have entered the plain of 
Cortona, and mixing wilh those of the Chiana, have flowed 
into the Arno. In order to prevent the mischief occasioned 
by these floods, a tunnel or emissary has been made through 
a hill on the south-east bank near the parish church of San 
Savino, opposite the island of Polrese. The mouth of the 
emissary is about six feet high and five wide, and the length 
is 2845 feet; It is entirely cased with masonry. Seven 
shafts open into it from the sides of the hill at various dis- 
tances along the length of the tunnel, and give access to 
the workmen for clearing and repairing it. The water on 
issuing out of the tunnel flows into a canal, sets in motion 
several mills, and after a course of about two miles enters 
the river Caina, an affluent of the Nestore, which is an 
affluent of the Tiber. The mouth of the emissary is above 
the ordinary or summer level, and the water flows into it 
only in the winter or after heavy rains. (Vestrini, * Disser- 
tazione sulT Emissario del Lago di Perugia,' in vol. vii. of 
the Memoirs of the Accidentia Etrusca di Cortona.) The 
construction of this important work is due to Braccio da Mon- 
tone, a distinguished chieftain, and lord of Perugia in the 
beginning of the fifteenth century. Some pretend that the 
emissary existed long before, and was only repaired by Brac- 
cio, but there is no evidence in support of this assertion. The 
emissary became encumbered in course of time, and a great 
flood occurring in 1602, the waters of the lake inundated the 
plain of Cortona, and did great mischief in other places along 
the banks. After this misfortune, Pope Clement VIII. 
ordered the emissary to be repaired. Campanus, * De Rebus 
Gestis Andreoo Brachii,' 6th book, gives a pleasing descrip- 
tion of the lake of Perugia, its wide expanse, its limpid 
waters, its verdant and picturesque green banks, and the 
towns and villages scattered along the shore. Seen from 
the hills of Spelonca, between Ossaia and Passignano, on 
the high road from Florence to Perugia, the- lake has a 
very fine appearance. This lake is subject to sudden 

The site of the battle between Hannibal and the Romans 
has been a subject of much contention among the learned. 
It is generally supposed to be near Passignano on the north- 
east side of the lake, where the hills recede from the shore, 
forming a kind of valley or dale between them and the lake. 
The province of Perugia is chiefly hilly, being crossed by offsets 
from the Apennine chain, which stretch southwards in a direc- 
tion parallel to the course of the Tiber. South of the town- of 
Perugia are some extensive plains, one of which lies east- 
wards towards Foligno, and another on the western or right 
bank of the Tiber, towards Citta della Pieve. The principal 
affluents of the Tiber in the province of Perugia jare— 1, the 
Chiascio, which rises in the central Apennine ridge, and flow- 
ing southwards receives the Topino, which comes from the 
valley of Foligno, after which the united stream enters the 
Tiber a few miles below Perugia; 2, the Nestore, which 
rises near Citta della Pieve, flows south of the hills which 
border the southern bank of the lake of Perugia, receives 
the Caina from the north, and "after a course of about 35 
miles enters the Tiber ; 3, the Naja, a torrent which rises 
in an offset of the Apennines that separates the valley of the 
lower Nera, or of Terni, from that of the Tiber, and runs 
into the Tiber below the town of Todi, after a course of about 

20 miles ; 4, the Chiana, which is the outlet of the lake of 
Chiusi in Tuscany, drains the southern part of tho Val di 
Chiana, receives the river Astrone on its right bank and the 
Tresa oh its left, and entering the Papal territory near Citta 
della Pieve, joins the Paglia at Orvieto, a few miles below 
which the united stream enters the Tiber. 

The province of Perugia is the fourth in extent in the 
Papal State, being inferior only to those of Rome, Viterbo, 
and Spoleto e Rieti. It is the most fertile of the provinces 
south of the Apennines. The principal productions are 
corn, wine, oil, silk, and grass, on which large herds of fine 
horned cattle are fed: nearly one half of the consumption 
of butcher's meat by the city of Rome is supplied by cattle 
from Perugia. The lake of Perugia abounds with fiah, 
which forms a considerable article of export; and the 
shores are frequented by numerous aquatic birds. The 
climate is healthy, except in a few low spots on the banks 
of the lake and in the vallev of the Chiana near Citta della 
Pieve. " • 

The principal towns of the province are — I, Perugia ; 2, 
Assist; 3, Nocera; 4, Foligno, a pleasant well-built town 
in a delightful valley on the river Topino, a short distance 
above its confluence with the Maroggia or Timia, which 
comes from Spoleto. Foligno m said to have been built 
about the eleventh century, b f iing first inhabited by co- 
lonists from the antient town of Forum Flaminii, which 
was in the neighbourhood. It has a handsome cathedral, 
several other fine churches, and manufactures of wool- 
lens, silks, extensive paper-mills, and 7300 inhabitants. 
Foligno is one of the most trading inland towns in the Papal 
State. It suffered considerably from the earthquake of 
1832. 5, Todi, the antient Tudertum, a city first of the 
Umbri, next of the Etruscans, and afterwards a Roman 
colony, stands on a hill above the Tiber. It has a cathedral 
and another handsome church built after the design of 
Bramante, with several remains of Etruscan and Roman 
antiquities, among which are the town walls and the ruins 
of a temple of Mars. The population of Todi is 2500. 6, 
Citta di Castello, a well-built town, with 5000 inhabitants, 
in the valley of the Upper Tiber, near the* borders of Tus- 
cany, contains several fine churches, some good paintings, 
and the palace of the former baronial family of Vitelli, known 
in the history of the middle ages. It has a wooden bridge 
over the Tiber. 7, Citta della Pieve, a small town situated 
on an eminence above the Chiana, has about 2000 inha 

jup ii 
della Ciltd 

bitants. Remains of antiquity have been dug up in the 
neighbourhood. ( Brasavol a, Breve Ragguaglio <" 
di Pieve, folio, Perugia, 1686.) 8, Marsciano, a walled 
town in the valley of the Nestore, has about 2000 inha- 
bitants, and a fertile territory. 9, Fratta, on the left or 
eastern bank of the Tiber, 14 miles north of Perugia, has 
some good buildings, a theatre, and a bridge on the river; 
the population, including its territory, is 4700. The inha- 
bitants manufacture pottery, which they paint with consi- 
derable taste. 10, Castiglione del Lago, on the western 
bank of the lake of Perugia, has some good buildings, and 
about 5300 inhabitants, including the territory of the com- 
mune. 11, Gualdo, at the foot of the Apennines, 8 miles 
north of Nocera, is near the site of the antient town of 
Tadlnum, long since ruined, near which Totila was defeated 
and wounded by-Narses: it has about 4000 inhabitants. 
12, Spello.a few miles north of Foligno, is on the site of tho 
antient Hispellum.jof which there are still considerable re- 
mains; among others, a triumphal arch in honour of the 
emperor Macnnus. Spello has several churches, with good 
paintings, a college, and about 2400 inhabitants. (Calindri, 
Saggio geografico-statistico dello Stato Pontificio.) 

The province of Perugia is divided for administrative 
purposes into four districts, Perugia, Citta di Castello, 
Foligno, and Todi, containing altogether 202,600 inhabitants 
(Serristori, Statistica d' Italia), and is one of the most inte- 
resting provinces of the Papal State, though little noticed 
by strangers. 

PERUGIA, THE TOWN OF, built on a high hill 
which forms two summits, and rises on the left or western 
bank of the Tiber, is surrounded by walls in the form of a 
polygon. -The streets are wide, and the squares are lined 
by massive old buildings. It has'also numerous churches 
with lofty domes, fine gates, and retains all the appearance 
of an important though now somewhat decayed city. Pe- 
rugia is a bishop's see, and it has a long-established uni- 
versity, which reckons amonjj its early professors Bartolo 
and Baldo. The university is now attended by between 



Digitized by 





300 and 400 students: it has a library of 30,000 volumes, 
with some valuable MSS. f among others a Slephanus By- 
zantinus, a botanical garden, a collection of minerals, and a 
cabinet of antiquities rich in Etruscan inscriptions, bronzes, 
vases, and medals. The academv of the fine arts has a col- 
lection of paintings by natives of Perugia and of the territory. 
Several noblemen have also galleries of paintings in their 
palaces, such as the Marquis Monaldi, Baron della Penna, 
Count Staffa, Oddi, &c. Perugia has a school of music, 
two theatres, a dramatic academy, a casino, or assembly- 
rooms of the nobility, and a literary cabinet or club. Pe- 
rugia has long been distinguished among the provincial 
towns of the Papal State for its love of learning. A bio- 
graphical list of authors natives of Perugia has been com- 
menced by Professor Verraiglioli, * Biographia degli Scrittori 
Perugiui, but not completed. Vermiglioli has also pub- 
lished a catalogue of writers who have illustrated the history 
of his native city: 'Biblioteca Storica Perugina,' 4to., Pe- 
rugia, 1823. Oldoni has written • Athenaeum Augustum 
in quo Perusinorum Scripta publico exponuntur,' 1678. 
Passeri has written the lives of the native artists: *Vite dei 
Pittori, Scultori, ed Architetti Perugini,' 4lo., 1732. Bran- 
dolesi has given an account of the works published at 
Perugia in the first century of the invention of printing: 
'La Tipographia Perugina del Secolo XV. illustrata,' 8vo., 
1807. Vermiglioli has written on the mint of Perugia: 
4 Memorie della Zecca e delle Moneti Perugine,' 8vo., 1816. 
The antiquities of Perugia, both Etruscan and Roman, have 
been illustrated byOrsini, Vermiglioli, and Bianchini; and 
the modern works of art by Mariotti and Morelli, • Pitture 
e Sculture della Citta di Perugia/ 1683, besides the com- 
mon guide-books. Among the contemporary learned men 
of Perugia, the antiquarian Vermiglioli, Mezzauotte (the 
translator of Pindar and professor of Greek literature), 
Canali ( professor "of physics and rector of the university), 
Colizzi (professor of law), and Antinori (a poet and professor 
of Italian literature), deserve notice. Perugia has produced 
two burlesque poets, Coppetta and Caporali, the latter of 
whom is Considered by many as equal to Berni. 

The population of Perugia, including the suburbs, is 
15,000 (Calindri); in the time of its independence, in the 
sixteenth century, the population was reckoned at 40,000. 
The circumference of the walls is above six miles, but much 
of the area within is open and unbuilt upon. The citadel, from 
which there is a splendid view, extending on one side along 
the valley of the Tiber, and on the other over the basin of 
the lake, the plains beyond it, and the long chain of the 
Apennines, was built by Pope Paul III., to keep the city in 
awe, and it occupies a considerable space. Perugia has 
some manufactories of silks, woollens, and soap, but the 
principal trade consists in the products of its fertile terri- 
tory, corn, oil, wool, and cattle. 

Among the many churches of Perugia, said to be above 
one hundred, the most remarkable are — 1, the Duomo, or 
cathedral, in the Gothic style, with some good paintings by 
Signorelli, Baroccio, and others. A painting by Perugino, 
representing the marriage of the Virgin, which adorned 
this church, was taken away at the first invasion of Bona- 
parte, and it is not known what has become of it. The number 
of masterpieces of paintings taken from Perugia by the 
French amounts to about thirty. Some were restored at 
the peace, but it seems that, instead of returning to Perugia, 
they have been placed in the Vatican gallery at Rome. 2, 
The church of S. Francesco was plundered of the • De- 
scent from the Cross,' by Raphael, at an earlier date, by 
Paul V., and this picture is now in the Borghese Gallery. 
3, The vast Benedictine convent of S. Pietro, one of the 
wealthiest in the Papal State, has several paintings by Va- 
sari. 4, The church of S. Domenico has a fine coloured- 
glass window in the choir, and the tomb of Pope Benedict 
XL, who died at Perugia in 1304, is remarkable for its 
sculptures. Descriptions of each of these churches are 

The town-house, ' Palazzo dei Priori,' a vast Gothic build- 
ing, and the residence of the delegate and of the municipal 
authorities, contains the archives o{ Perugia, among which 
are some curious documents of the middle ages. The old 
exchange, 'Sala del Cambio/ is adorned with beautiful 
frescoes by Perugino. The square before the cathedral 
contains a beautiful fountain, with sculptures by Giovanni 
da Pisa. In the square ' Del Papa ' is the bronze statue of 
Julius III. seated in a chair," cast by Vincenzo Danti of 
Perugia. The Place Grimana has a handsome gate, said to 

be of Etruscan construction, but called the arch of Augus- 
tus. The church S. Angelo is built on the site and with 
the materials of an antient temple. For the Etruscan re- 
mains at Perugia, see Etruria (Antiquities). 

Some interesting excavations ate now going on at Perugia, 
and many objects of autiquity have just been discovered in. 
the immediate vicinity of the city while making a new road. 
{Communication from Perugia, Jan., 1840.) 

Perusia was one of the principal cities of antient Etruria, 
but it seems to have been built before the Etruscan domi- 
nion by a colony of Umbri from Sarsina. (Servius, x. 201.) 
In an Etruscan inscription in the Museum Oddi it is called 
Perusei. Perusia acted a principal part in the wars of the 
Etruscans against Rome ; its troops were defeated by the 
consul L. Fab i us Maximus, and then Perusia, together with 
Arretium, sued for peace, and paid tribute to Rome, 294 
B.C. (Livy, x. 31, 37.) In the second Punic war, Perusia 
was one of the allied towns that sent timber and provisions 
to Scipio to fit out his armament against Africa. During 
the second triumvirate, the consul Lucius Antonius, brother 
of Marcus the Triumvir, stimulated by Fulvia, his sister- 
in-law, having quarrelled withOctavian, and being defeated, 
shut himself up id the* town of Perusia, where he sustained 
a long siege, and at last, through famine, was obliged to 
surrender to Octavian, who put to death 300 of the principal 
citizens of Perusia, and gave up the town to plunder. Pe- 
rusia was on that occasion nearly destroyed by fire. 
It was afterwards rebuilt, under the name of Perusia 
Augusta. At the fall of the Western Empire, it was devas- 
tated by the Goths under Totila. It passed afterwards 
through the same vicissitudes as most othet towns of Italy : 
it ruled itself for a time as a free municipality, had its fac- 
tions of Guelphs and Guibelines, its own tyrants, and at 
last submitted voluntarily to the rule of Braccio da Mon- 
tone, one of the best and wisest chieftains of the middle 
ages. After his death, the government passed through the 
hands of several of his relatives, and from them to that of 
the familv of Baglioni. Giovani Paolo Baglioni, being 
seized at Rome by Pope Leo X., was beheaded on some po- 
litical charge. His descendants however governed Perugia 
►for some years after, until Pope Paul III. united it to the 
Papal State aud built the citadel. (Ciatti, Memorie di Pe- 
rugia ; Mariotti, Saggio di Memorie htoriche delta Cittd 
di Perugia.) 

Twelve miles north of Perugia, in a romantic situation 
among the Apennines, is the monastery of Monte Corona, 
belonging to the order of Camaldoli, the monks of which 
have cultivated and planted with trees the surrounding ter- 
ritory. This monastery was one of the few that was spared 
by the French during their occupation of the Papal State. 
The monks have an hospice at the foot of the mountain for the 
reception of travellers. (Piemuda, La Istoria Romoaldina t 
owero Eremitica di Monte Corona, Venice. 1590.) 

of a certain Crisjofano, a poor man of Castello della Pieve, 
where Pietro was born, in the year 1446. His father is 
said to have placed him as a shop-boy (fattorino) with a 
painter of Perugia. When about twenty-five years of age 
he visited Florence, and, according to Vasari, became a pupil 
of Andrea Verocchio, the master of Lorenzo di Credi and 
Leonardo da Vinci ; but this fact seems very doubtful. In 
the course of a few years he attained considerable reputa- 
tion, and his works were so much esteemed as to be exported. 
In 1475 we find him employed by the magistrate? of Perugia, 
and the order for a payment to him in that year appears 
on the public records of the town. In 1480 he executed 
some frescoes for SixtusIV. in the Sistine chapel at Rome : 
only one or two of these now remain, the greater part having 
been destroyed to make room for the Last Judgment of 
M. Angelo in the time of Paul HI. The Dead Christ, and 
other figures so much praised by Vasari, were painted for the 
nuns of Santa Chiara at Florence in 1485. Francesco del 
Pugliese is said to have bid for this picture three times the 
original price, and a duplicate by Perugino, but the offer 
was refused. In the year 1500 Pietro executed the frescoes 
in the Cambio at Perugia. He afterwards visited Florence 
again, but, in consequence of a quarrel with the artists there, 
returned to the city whence he derives his name. He died 
at Castello della Pieve, in 1 524. 

The fame of Perugino has certainly been widely spread, 
from the circumstance of his having been the teacher of 
Raphael ; but, at the same time, the superior genius of the 

Digitized by 





pupil has thrown into comparative obscurity the real merit 
of the master. Perugino was a most unequal painter: his 
early works are far better than those executed after 1 500. 
The popularity of bis pictures, and the facility which he 
had acquired, produced repetition and mechanical execution. 
Vasari says ' he gave all his figures one and the same air ;' 
it must however be admitted that that ' air ' is far superior 
to the contortions of Vasari himself and his fellow-pupils in 
the school of M. Angelo. Perugino lived to see the conflict 
between the old and simple style and the verv different prin- 
ciples of the great master just named. With M. Angelo 
himself he is reported to have had a public quarrel : Va- 
sari's account therefore of his moral character must be 
received with some little suspicion. He says that Perugino 
was an infidel, who could never be brought to believe in the 
immortality of the soul, and who would do anything for 
money. At the same time he gives him great credit for 
his technical skill, especially in colouring. 

Among the best pictures of Perugino now extant are : — 
An Infant Christ, Virgin, and Angels, painted in 1480, and 
preserved in the AlUani Palace at Rome ; a Fresco in Santa 
M. Maddalena dei Pazzi at Florence, executed at a later 
period ; the Dead Christ, before alluded to (now in the Pitti 
Palace, No. 164) ; one or two pictures in the Accademia at 
Florence; and+iis frescoes in the Cambio at Perugia. Mr. 
Beckford, in this country, possesses a work of Perugino's 
best time. 

Raphael was a pupil of Perugino, and his early works, 
such as the Marriage of the Virgin, greatly resemble thoso 
of his master. [Raphael.] 

The following painters were among the most eminent 
scholars of Perugino : — Pinturicchio of Perugia ; Andrea 
Luigi d'Ascesi, called I'lngegno; Giovanni Spagnuolo, sur- 
named Lo Spagna ; and Rocco Zoppo of Florence. 

(Vasari, Vite dei Pittori; Ruraohr, ltalienische For- 
schungen ; Lanzi, Storia Ptttorica.) 

PERU'SIA. [Perugia.] 


PERUVIAN BARK. [Cinchona.] 

PERUZZI, BALDASSA'RE, an architect of less cele- 
brity than many greatly inferior ^o him in design, was born 
in 1481, at Vol terra, to which city his father Antonio had 
removed, in order to avoid the civil dissensions which agi- 
tated Florence. A few years afterwards Volterra itself was 
besieged and sacked, and Antonio fled to Siena, where 
the family lived in reduced circumstances, having lost 
nearly all their property. On his father's death, Baldassare, 
who had enjoyed opportunities of access to many artists and 
their works, determined to apply himself to painting, which 
he did with so much assiduity, both from his natural incli- 
nation and from his wish to aid his mother and sister, that 
he made extraordinary progress. After executing some sub- 
jects in a chapel at Volterra; he accompanied a painter of 
that city, named Piero. to Rome, where the latter was em- 
ployed by Alexander VI. The death of that pope frus- 
trated their scheme of working in concert at the Vatican ; 
however Baldassare remained for awhile at Rome, where 
he painted some frescoes in the church of S. Onofrio, and 
in that of San Rocco a Ripa, and distinguished himself by. 
some others at Ostia, particularly by one in chiaro-scuro, 
representing a siege by Roman warriors, and remarkable 
for the strict fidelity of the antient military costume, which 
he derived from bas-reliefs and other existing monuments. 

On returning to Rome he found a liberal patron in the 
celebrated Agostino Chigi (a native of Siena), by whom 
he was enabled to continue at Rome for the purpose of de- 
voting himself chiefly to the study of architecture. The 
acquirements he thus made soon displayed themselves in 
what was then quite a new career of art, namely architec- 
tural perspectives and scene-painting ; and the science of 
perspective and its application to pictorial illusion and 
effect. To what perfection he brougnt this branch of art 
may be judged from what Vasari relates, who says that on 
his taking Titian to see some of Peruzzi's works, that great 
painter could hardly believe at first that the objects were 
not real. Of his astonishing performances in scene paint- 
ing there is now no evidence, but some idea of his extraor- 
dinary ability in it may still be formed from the painted 
architecture, &c. with which he decorated a gallery in the 
Farnesina. It was not however in scenic and fictitious 
architecture alone that he displayed his talent for that art ; 
he designed many elegant facades at Rome, and gave proof ' 
of his superior ability in the Palazzo Masaimi, one of the 

most original and tasteful edifices of its class in that city. 
Instead of being perplexed by the awkwardness of the 
site, he availed himself of it to curve the front of the build- 
ing, and thereby produce so happy an effect that such form 
seems to have been entirely the result of choice, and inde- 
pendent of other circumstances. The loggia and small 
in her court are singularly beautiful, and the whole edifice 
deserves the attention it has received in a folio work, by 
Suys and Haudebourt, expressly devoted to it, and contain- 
ing outline engravings of all its parts and details (Paris, 

Peruzzi made a design for St. Peter's on the plan of a 
Greek cross, which, had it been executed, would have sur- 
passed the present structure; also two different designs for 
the facade of S. Petronio at Bologna. On Rome being 
taken and sacked by the Constable Bourbon, it was with 
extreme difficulty that Baldassare escaped from the hands 
of the soldiery, and after being pillaged of everything, 
reached Siena, where he was most kindly received, and 
employed on various buildings. He returned however to 
Rome, and it was then that he built the Palazzo Massimi, 
but did not live to see it quite completed. He died in 1 536, 
not without suspicion of having been poisoned by a rival 
who sought to obtain the appointment which he held as 
architect of St. Peter's. He was buried in the Pantheon, 
near Raphael. 

vince of the Papal State, is bounded on the east by the pro- 
vince of Ancona,on the north and north-east by the Adriatic 
Sea, on the west by the province of Forli and the grand- 
duchy of Tuscany, and on the south by the province of Pe- 
rugia. The area is estimated at 1 749 square miles. (Neige- 
baur.) The central ridge of the Apennines, which divides 
the province of Pesaro e Urbino from Tuscany, projects 
eastward towards the A'driatic in the neighbourhood of 
Urbino, and sends off several offsets, which run to the sea- 
coast, forming the natural boundary between Northern and 
Southern Italy. The mountain on which San Marino stands 
forms part of one of these offsets. [San Marino.] Several 
streams run in a north-east direction from the Apennines to 
the sea. The first of these streams, reckoning from the north, 
is the Couca, which runs along the boundary between the 
province of Forli and that of Pesaro, and after a course of 
about twenty-five miles enters the sea near LaCattolica. 
The next is the Foglia, the antient Pisaurus, which rises in 
the Apennines of Carpegna on the Tuscan border, and after 
a course of forty-six miles enters the sea at the town of 
Pesaro. Farther south is the Metauro, the largest river in 
the province, which rises near Borgo Pace on the east side 
of the Apennines that bound the valley of the upper Tiber : 
it runs first due east, passing by the towns of St. Angelo and 
Urbania, receives the united stream of the Cantiano and 
Candigliano, which comes from the south from the moun- 
tains of Gubbio, then turning to the north-east passes by 
Fossombrone, and enters the sea by the town of Fano, after 
a course of nearly sixty miles. According to a tradition 
among the country- people, the spot in which Hasdrubal was 
defeated and killed is a pjain called Piano di San Silvestro, 
above the confluence of the Cantiano, and about six miles 
south of the town of Urbino. A tower on a hill called 
Monte d'Elce, on the right bank of the Metaurus, is called 
the sepulchre of Hasdrubal. TheFlaminian road from Fano 
crosses the Metaurus above Fossombrone, and follows the 
course of the Cantiano, ascending the Apennines above the 
source of the latter river, and afterwards descending by 
Gualdo to Nocera, The next river in the province of Pesaro 
is the Cesano, which rises in the mountains of Avellana, 
passes the town of Pergola and the site of the antient town 
of Suasa, of which some remains are still visible, and enters 
the sea north-west of Sinigaglia, after a course of about thirty 
miles. South-east of the Cesano is the Misa, which enters 
the sea at Sinigaglia, after a course of about twenty-five miles. 
The surface of the province of Pesaro e Urbino is .hilly ; 
some parts of it are very fertile, but the mountains are 
generally barren. The lower hills are* planted with vines,' 
olive, and mulberry-trees. Good pasture is also abundant. 
The province is divided into five districts — Urbino, Pesaro, 
Fano, Sinigaglia, and. Gubbio, containing altogether 226,000 
inhabitants. (Serristori.) The principal towns are — Urbino, 
which is the old capital of the province and the residence 
of the former dukes. 2. Pesaro, the antient Pisaurum, a 
well-built town and a bishop's see, has several fine churches 
with some good paintings, a fine market-place, seveiui 

Digitized by 





palaces of the nobility, arid the palace of the former dukes 
della Rovere.who were once sovereigns of this little state, a 
public library of 1 5,000 volumes, with a museum and a cabinet 
of models bequeathed by Olivieri, a learned man of Pesaro, to 
his townsmen. Pesaro has a small harbour, several manufac- 
tories of silks, pottery and glass, and leather, and about 1 1,Q0O 
inhabitants. (Calindri.) The surrounding territory, which 
is very fruitful, produces, among other things, excellent figs, 
and is covered with pleasant country-houses. Pesaro car- 
ries on a considerable trade in the agricultural products of 
the province. A bed of coal has been discovered in the 
neighbourhood. Pesaro has a civil and criminal court, and 
a commercial tribunal, a college, and a clerical seminary. 
It is the birth-place of Pandolfo Collenuccio, a chronicler 
and poet of the fifteenth century ; of Count Perticari, a phi- 
lologist and son-in-law of Monti ; and of the musical com- 
poser Rossini. 3. Fano, the antient Fanum Fortun®, is a 
town with about 7000 inhabitants. It has a triumphal 
arch dedicated to Augustus, which has been badly restored, 
and therefore spoiled (Poletti, Ragionamento tntorno alV 
Arco d'Angutto in Fano), several churches with paintings 
by Guido and Guercino, a handsome theatre, some silk 
manufactories, and a public library. On the coast near 
Fano are taken great quantities of a small fish called ' cavallo 
marino,' the head of which resembles that of a horse, and 
has a sort of mane attached to it. 4. Sinigaglia, the an- 
tient Sena Gallica, is a bustling town with a small harbour, 
several churches and convents, and about 8000 inhabitants. 
It is chiefly remarkable on account of its great fair, one of 
the largest in Italy, which is held in the month of July, and 
is frequented by tradespeople from all parts of Italy, and 
also from other countries. About 200 vessels, mostly of 
small burthen, of the various nations which trade in the 
Mediterranean, arrive at Sinigaglia at that time, and bring 
colonial and other produce, and also French, English, and 
German manufactures. The celebrated singer Madame 
Catalani, was a native of Sinigaglia. 5. Fossombrone, situ- 
ated on a hill about a mile and a half from the ruins of 
Forum Sempronii, which are lower down the banks of the 
Metaurus, is a bishop's see, has several churches and con- 
vents, a bridge on the Metaurus, and about 4 000 inhabitants. 
The silk spun at Fossombrone is considered the best in Italy. 
6. Gubbio, the antient Iguvium, a city of the Umbri, is situ- 
ated out of the high road on the southern slope of the Apen- 
nines near the sources of the Chiascio, an affluent of the 
Tiber: it has several churches and other buildings worthy of 
notice, and about 4500 inhabitants. Old Iguvium was in a 
lower situation than the present town ; the amphitheatre is 
still in tolerable preservation ; eighteen of the lower arches 
are remaining, as well as three of the upper row. There is 
also an antient tomb, with other remains of -antiquity. No 
traces of the temple of Jupiter Apenninus, an old deity of 
the Umbri, are visible at Gubbio, but according to Micali, 
they are to be seen three miles from Chiascerna, the antient 
Clavernium, not far from the post station of La Scheggia 
in the Apennines, on the high road called the Furlo. In 
this neighbourhood also were found, about the middle of 
the fifteenth century, the seven bronze tablets written partly 
in Etruscan and partly in Latin characters, and known 
by the name of the Eugubine tables, which are, now in 
the museum of Gubbio. According to the interpretation of 
Lanzi, they relate entirely to the xeligious rites of the an- 
tient Umbri. 7. Cagli, the antient Callis,a Roman colony, 
on the Flaminian road, has about 3000 inhabitants, and 
some remains of antiquity. 8. Urbania, a modern town, 
which derives its name from pope Urban VIII., is situated 
on the banks of the Metaurus, has a collegiate church, a 
manufactory of majolica, or Delft ware, and about 4400 in- 
habitants. 9. Pergola, on the Cesano, has 2500 inhabitants. 
* The province of Pesaro e Urbino is very interesting for its 
romantic scenery, its classical recollections, and the nu- 
merous remains of antiquity which are scattered about it. 
. PESCE, NICOLA, or COLA, a famous Sicilian swim- 
mer and diver, who lived towards the end of the fourteenth 
century. His name was Nicholas, and he was surnamed 
' Pesce' (the fish) on account of his eXpertness in diving. 
Frederic II., king of the Two Sicilies, employed him, and 
encouraged his feats. The most incredible stories are told 
of him ; it is said that he passed whole hours under water, 
and whole days in the water; that he used to swim from 
Sicily to the Li pari Islands, carryiug letters and despatches 
in a leathern bag, &c. The truth seems to be that he was j 

a most expert swimmer and diver, and that he could remain 
longer under water than any other person • on record. Ho 
had been accustomed from his boyhood to dive for oysters 
and coral along the coast of his native country. It is re- 
ported that king Frederic once asked him to diVe into the 
sea off the Point of Faro, where the current forms a whirl- 
pool known by the name of Charybdis ; and as Pesce hesi- 
tated, the king threw a golden cup into the sea, when Pesce 
plunged in, and after remaining a considerable lime under 
water, brought up the cup, to which the king added a purse 
of gold as a gift. Pesce was induced to repeat the experi- 
ment, but he never rose again from the sea. (Kircher, 
Mundus Subterraneus, b. i.) We know now that the whirl- 
pool of Charybdis is not so fearful as it was once represented 
to be, and that at times there is very little agitation in the 

Mariotti, in his ' Riflessioni ' on the lake of Perugia, 
speaks of a fisherman called Nonno di San Feliciano, who 
was • a great swimmer and diver, like Pesce Cola of Sicily 
and lived almost entirely in the water. He lived till past 
ninety years of age/ It must be observed however that the 
lake of Perugia is not very deep. • 

PESHAWER. [Afghanistan.] 

PESTH, the greatest commercial town and the most 
populous city in Hungary, is situated in 47* 30' N. lat. and 
19° 4' E. long., on the left or east bank of the Danube, 
about 20 miles from the spot where the course of the river, 
till then nearly from west to east, makes a sudden bend to 
the south. On the other side of the Danube, which is here 
about 1500 feet broad, is the city of Ofen. [Buda] The 
two cities are connected by a bridge of boats, which, in- 
cluding the fixed portion on the two banks, is 1500 paces 
in length. The city of Pesth is about seven miles in circum- 
ference. It consists of five principal parts— 1, the old town, 
which, though antiquated and irregularly built, contains 
some fine buildings; 2, the Leopoldstadt,* or new town; 
3, the Theresienstadt ; 4, the Josephstadt; and 5, the 
Franzstadt — so named after the' sovereigns in whose 
reigns they were built. Leopoldstadt is now joined to the 
old town, the walls which formerly surrounded the latter 
having been levelled to • make room for new buildings. 
Leopoldstadt is built on a very regular plan. The other three 
parts or suburbs are separated from these two by a very broad 
street Among the fifteen churches, that of the university 
is distinguished by its fine steeple and excellent fresco 
paintings. The other Roman CatMolic churches, 11 in num- 
ber, are not remarkable; but the Greek church on the Da- 
nube is one of the finest buildings in the city. The two 
Protestant churches are very plain edifices. Of the other 
public buildings, the following deserve notice: the great 
barracks built by Charles VI.; the hospital of invalids, an 
immense edifice begun in 1786 under Joseph II.,. the 
building of which was interrupted by the Turkish war 
(it is not known to what use it was destined by that 
emperor; at present it serves as barracks for a regiment 
of artillery) ; the theatre, a very handsome edifice, capable 
of containihg 3000 spectators; the national museum, and 
the university. The university was founded in 1635 at 
-Tyrnau. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it 
exercised, through the powerful agency of the Jesuits, great 
influence over the people. In the year 1777 it was 
transferred by Maria Theresa to Ofen, and in 1784 by 
Joseph II. to Pesth. The branches of learning taught are 
theology, law, medicine, philosophy, philology, and ma- 
thematics. There are 49 professors and above 1000 students. 
The university has a library of 60,000 volumes, a cabinet of 
natural history, a collection of medals, a chemical laboratory, 
and an anatomical and pathological collection. Depend- 
ent on it are the botanic garden, the veterinary school, the 
university hospital, and the observatory at Ofen, which 
stands on the Blocksberg, 278 feet above the Danube, and 
is well furnished with good instruments. The National Mu- 
seum, which is independent of the university, was founded 
by Count Szecsenyi, who gave his fine library and a valua- 
ble collection of Hungarian coins and medals, and induced 
the Diet in 1808 to endow it. It would take a volume to de- 
scribe this museum. The collection of coins and medals 
contains above 60,000 specimens, of which the Greek, 
Roman, and other antique silver medals amount to above 
12,000. The gymnasium of the Piarists has 800 scholars; 
and the city normal school (likewise in the convent of the 
Piarists), above 400. There are eight other Catholic schools, 
two Greek, and two Protestant schools. The Roman Catholic 

Digitized by 





girls' school of the English ladies, as it is called, has 400 
day -scholars and 40 hoarders. 

Though Buda is the residence of the^iceroy and the 
capital of the kingdom, Pesth is the seat of the feigh court 
of justice, and of the supreme court of appeal and other 
tribunals*, and also of the government of the three united 
counties of Pesth, Pils, and Solther, which contains a popu- 
lation oT 400,000 inhabitants. The manufactures are of silk, 
cotton, leather, jewellery, and musical instruments, but on 
a small scale ; that of tobacco is a government monopoly. 
Pesth however has, next to Vienna, the greatest trade of any 
city on the Danube. It has four fairs, each of which lasts a 
fortnight. The principal articles sold are manufactures and 
colonial produce, and the natural productions of the country, 
such as cattle, wine, wool, tobacco, and raw hides, honey, wax, 
&c. Above 14,000 waggons and 8000 ships are employed in 
conveying goods to and from the fairs, the value of which at 
each of them is from 16 to 1 7 millions of florins. The environs 
of Pesth are not picturesque, the city being situated on a sandy 
plain, but there arc some fine promenades, such as the Grove, 
a mile and a half from the city ; the gardens of Baron 
Orczy ; and the Palatine, or Margaret Island, in the Danube, 
which is laid out in walks and gardens with great taste. 
Among the inhabitants are many noblemen, country gentle- 
men, professors, judges, and lawyers. The population of 
Pesth consisted (1833) of 62,850 inhabitants, of whom 
about 54,000 were Roman Catholics, 3000 Protestants, 817 
Greeks, and 5000 Jews. With the arid it ion of the garrison 
(9133 men) and the numerous strangers, the population 
amounts to 75,000. Pesth, though an antient town, is in 
its present form comparatively recent. It has been fre- 
quently laid waste by war, and was in the possession of the 
Turks for nearly 160 years, who were not finally expelled 
till 168G. Civil war followed, and at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century Pesth was one of the most inconsider- 
able towns in the kingdom. Its improvement may be dated 
from the reign of Maria Theresa, and it has since been 
progressiva and rapid. In 1 793 there were only 2580 houses : 
there were in 1837, 4500. Tbe winter of 1838 was disastrous 
to Pesth, above 1200 houses being destroyed by the overflow- 
ing of the Danube, They were however, for the most part, 
the worst buildings in*the city, and there is little doubt that 
the spirit of tbe inhabitants, aided by the munificent con- 
tributions sent to them from all parts of the empire, will in 
a few years efface all traces of the devastation. 

(J. v. Thiele, Das Kbnigreich Ungarn, vol. vi.; Oester- 
reichische National Encyclopadie ; R. E. v. Jenny, Hand- 
buchfur Rei8ende in Oesterreich ; Blumenbacb, Gemalde 
der OesterreichUchen Monarchic) 

PESTILENCE, or PLAGUE, is a disease of so fatal 
and malignant a nature, that to this verycircumstance it 
probably owes its nomenclature ; hut some misapprehen- 
sion exists as to its definite character, and this has originated 
from writers having applied the terms pestilential and pesti- 
lent in a generic sense to diseases specifically different; 
hence we read of pestilential small-pox, pestilential cholera, 
&c. In fact every virulent and contagious disease may be 
called pestilent, but every pestilential disease is not plague. 
In casting a glance over the histories of these epidemics, it 
is obvious that many things are involved in obscurity. 
Numerous facts have however been collected, and are agreed 
upon by all parties, and we shall endeavour, by a comparison 
of these, to arrive at some definite conclusion as to the na- 
ture of plague. The nosological definition of this disease 
by Dr. Cullen is perhaps as correct as can be given in few 
words: — * A typhus fever, in the highest degree contagious, 
and accompanied with extreme debility. On an uncertain 
day of the disease, there is an eruption of buboes or car- 
buncles.' Dr. Patrick Russell, who practised at Aleppo 
during the plague of 1760-1-2, informs us that its progress 
at its commencement is much the same in the several parts 
of the Levant as in the cities of Europe. It advances 
slowly, fluctuating perhaps for two or three weeks ; and 
although at that period it generally proves ratal, yet it is 
often unattended by its characteristic eruptions. Indeed 
the cases in which the eruption is wanting constitute the 
most rapidly fatal type of the disease. The general de- 
rangement of the system which ushers in an attack of the 
plague, is much like that which commences the course of 
ordinary fever. A sense of cold, with some shivering, which 
is soon followed by heat and acceleration of the pulse, with 
giddiness, headache, depression of strength and spirits, white 
tongue, vomiting or dian htea, and great oppression about 

the prsDcordia, are among the first symptoms of the disease. 
These are succeeded by a burning pain about the pit of the 
stomach ; by a peculiar muddiness of the eyes ; by coma, 
delirium, and other affections of the sensorium, which ter- 
minate by death in some cases on the second or third day, 
before the pathognomic symptoms, buboes and carbuncles, 
have appeared. In other cases these last-mentioned symptoms 
are present, together with purple spots and ecchymoscs, which 
belong to the plague in common with other malignant 
fevers. Though these are the ordinary symptoms of plague, 
they are not all invariably observed in the same individual ; 
but many varieties occur, which chiefly have reference to 
the greater or less virulence of the disease, and the absence 
or presence of some particular symptoms. Thus, we are 
informed by Sydenham that in the infancy of the great 
plague of London scarce a day passed but some of those 
who were seized with it died suddenly in the streets, without 
having had any previous sickness ; the purple spots, which 
denote immediate death, coming out all over the body, even 
when persons were abroad about their business; whereas 
after it had continued for some time, it destroyed none, 
unless a fever and other symptoms had preceded. Dr. 
Russell describes six classes er varieties of plague, in some 
of which the fever appears to have been very violent, while 
in others it was proportionally mild. The most destructive 
forms of the disease, according to this author, were marked 
by severe febrile symptoms; and the infected of this class 
seldom or never had buboes or carbuncles. The bubo how- 
ever was the most frequent concomitant afterwards ; car- 
buncles, on the contrary, were remarked in one-third of the 
infected only, and wore seldom observed at Aleppo earlier 
than the month of May, near three months after the disease 
began to spread. The carbuncle increased in the summer, 
was less common in the autumn, and very rarely was observed 
in the winter. The absence of bubo and carbuncle at the 
commencement of the plague has been one of the grounds 
of contention among writers as to the real nature of the 
disease. Diemerbroech and some others assure us that no 
one symptom is pathognomonic of plague, and Dr. Russell 
concludes that ' the plague, under a form of all others the 
most destructive, exists without its characteristic symptoms, 
can admit of no doubt.' From all the evidence upon this 
subject that we have been able to collect, it plainly appears 
that authors are by no means agreed on the existence of the 
plague as a distinct disease. The symptoms, morbid changes, 
history, and mode of propagation of plague, bear so close 
a resemblance to those of the malignant typhus of this coun- 
try, that it is difficult to regard them otherwise than as types 
of the same disease. -This opinion is strengthened by the 
authority of Dr. Mackenzie, who resided thirty years at 
Constantinople. ' The annual pestilential fever of that 
place,' he observes, ' very much resembles that of our gaols 
and crowded hospitals, and is only called plague when at- 
tended with buboes and carbuncles.' Sir John Pringle 
too observes, • that though the hospital or gaol fever may 
differ in species from the true plague, yet it may be accounted 
of the same genus, as it seems to proceed from a like cause, 
and is attended with similar symptoms.' The buboes which 
characterise plague consist of inflammatory swellings of 
the glands in the groin and armpits ; the parotid, maxillary, 
and cervical glands sometimes, hut less frequently, become 
affected. These buboes may either suppurate or gradually 
disperse : when suppuration occurs, it is seldom till the fever 
has begun to abate, and is manifestly on the decline, as 
about the eighth or ninth day. Carbuncles consist of in- 
flamed pustules or angry pimples, which, instead of sup- 
purating, frequently terminate in mortification. They may 
be seated on any part of tbe body. The morbid changes 
that are met with in the bodies of those who die from plague 
are very similar to what we find in typhus, yellow fever, and 
in the carcasses of animals that have died in consequence 
of a putrid matter injected into their veins. The vessels of 
the brain and its membranes are gorged with a dark coloured 
blood; the lungs and liver present traces of inflammation 
or of gangrene; patches of inflammation and ulceration are 
met with in the stomach and intestines; the heart is of a 
pale red colour, easily torn, and full of black blood, which, 
according to M. Magendie, never coagulates. These changes 
however are not always found, and the same absence of ap- 
preciable organic lesion is sometimes observed in typhus and 
other diseases which prove rapidly fatal. No a«e, sex, or 
profession appears to enjoy an immunity from plague, nor 
does one attack secure the individual from future infection ; 

Digitized by 





but it has been observed that old persons, women, and 
children suffer less frequently and severely from its attacks 
than robust adults. Some persons also, who exercise 
particular trades, as knackers, tanners, water-carriers, 
bakers, and oilmen, seem to share this advantage; while- 
smiths and cooks were noticed, during the campaign 
in Egypt, to be more particularly liable to it. One law 
appears to be universal in all plagues, namely, that the 
poor are the first and chief sufferers. In Grand Cairo, Con- 
stantinople, and Aleppo, it is in the low, crowded, and filthy 
parts of those cities, occupied by the poorest people, that 
the plague commits its greatest ravages. The celebrated 
plague of Marseille, in the year 1720, first appeared in a part 
of the city noted for the sordid filth, crowded state, and 
wretchedness of the poor inhabitants. This was likewise 
true of London, where, from the same circumstance, it ob- 
tained the appellation of the. Poors' Plague. Like many 
other diseases, plague is observed in two forms : first, as an 
indigenous and local disease, peculiar to the inhabitants of 
certain countries, and from which they are never entirely 
free ; and secondly, as a raging and fatal epidemic, not 
confined to its original seat, although exhibiting itself there 
in its most intense forms. It is the epidemic variety of 
this fatal malady that has engrossed so much attention from 
the earliest times down to the present ; and we shall therefore 
briefly pass in review some of the principal circumstances 
which attend its origin, progress, and termination. 

It has been observed that nearly all plagues have been pie- 
ceded by certain natural signs, and by a greater mortality from 
malignant diseases generally than at other times. Among 
these precursory signals great and sudden atmospheric 
vicissitudes have been noted. Livy (v. 13) attributes the 
origin of a pestilence to this cause. 'The. year was remark- 
able,' he observes, • for a cold and snowy winter, so that the 
roads were impassable and the Tiber completely frozen. Th is 
deplorable winter, whether it was from the unseasonable state 
of the air, which suddenly changed to an opposite state, or from 
some other cause, was succeeded by intense heat, pestilential 
and destructive to all kinds of animals.' But in the great plague 
of Athens, of which Thucydides has given so minute a descrip- 
tion (ii. 48, &c), he observes that the year of the plague 
was particularly free from all other diseases ; and he men- 
tions nothing unusual as having occurred in preceding 
years. The city however was then greatly over-crowded 
with inhabitants, a great part of the population having 
taken refuge within the walls of Athens (ii. 16), in conse- 
quence of the war. [Pericles.] Russell informs us that the 
winter of 1756-7, which preceded the petechial fever of 1758 
at Aleppo, and the plague of 1759-60-1-2 in different parts 
of Syria, was excessively severe. Olive-trees which had 
withstood the weather for fifty years were killed. In the 
following summer a dearth ensued from the failure of the 
crops, and so severe a famine, that parents devoured their 
own children, and the poor from the mountains offered their 
wives for sale in the markets to buy food. The connection 
between famine and pestilence has been noticed in all ages 
of the world. An enormous increase of insects has fre- 
quently been observed to precede a pestilence. We are 
informed by Short, that in 1610 Constantinople was infested 
with crowds of grasshoppers of great size that devoured 
every green thing, and the next year (1613) the plague 
carried off 200,000 inhabitants of that city. In I612,swarms 
of locusts laid waste the vegetable kingdom in Provence; 
and 1613 the plague appeared in different parts of France. 
Locusts and pestilence^ are frequently mentioned together 
in the sacred writings ; and we find that the plagues of 
Egypt exhibited a series of phenomena, rising in progression 
from corruption of the rivers and fountains, swarms of in- 
sects, murrain among cattle, thunder and thick darkness, 
and a tribe of inferior diseases, to that fatal pestilence which 
swept away the first-born of the Egyptians. In fine, 
dearth or unwholesome provisions, pestilence among cattle, 
great abundance of insects, absence or death of birds, blight 
and mildew, appear, with few exceptions, to have separately 
or conjointly preceded or attended all such calamities. 
Plague is usually preceded by other diseases which occa- 
sion great mortality. Lord Bacon has observed that ' the 
lesser infections of small-pox, purple fever, agues, &c, in 
the preceding summer and hovering all winter, do portend 
a great pestilence the summer following ; for putrefaction 
rises not to its height at once ;' and Dr. Mead states, as a 
general fact, that levers of extraordinary malignity are the 
usual forerunners of plague. Indeed nearly all the most 

remarkable plagues of the last two centuries have been pre- 
ceded by malignant fevers. The iucreased number of 
deaths from this-iource will be seen by an examination of 
the London Bills of Mortality at the three last plague 
epochs in this country, an abstract from which we here 
present, showing the number of deaths from other diseases 
besides the plague, in 1625, 1636. and 1665, with that of the 
year before and after respectively : 



















The season of the year in which pestilence commits i(s 
greatest ravages differs in different countries. In Europe it 
has invariably raged most violently and fatally in the 
summer and autumnal months, especially in September. 
Thus, in the plague of London in 1665, the deaths from the 
plague were: in June, 590; in July, 4129; in August, 
20,046; in September, 26,230; in October, 14,373; in 
November, 3449; and in December they were binder 1000. 
In Egypt it commences in the autumn, and prevails till the 
beginning of June, and the vernal equinox is the period of 
the greatest fatality. Extremes of heat and cold generally 
check and not unfrequently entirely arrest its progress. In 
tropical climates the disease is unknown, and in Egypt, 
according to Alpinus, to whatever degree pestilence may be 
raging, as soon as the sun enters Cancer it entirely ceases. 
The cold weather of northern climates has been observed to 
check the ravages of plague ; and in these countries when it 
has broken out in the autumn, its course has been arrested 
during the winter months. With respect to the progress 
and termination of plague, the disease appears to be 
subject to the same, laws as regulate the course and ter- 
mination of other epidemics: it is most fatal at its first 
outbreak, and becomes less virulent as it increases in extent. 
The increased mortality which occurs during the advance of 
plague, and which we have before shown to be at its height in 
the month of September, arises from the increased extension 
and not from the greater malignancy of the disease. With 
its progress and decline there has usually been observed a 
progressive increase and decrease in the whole train of 'dis- 
eases, and those which had immediately preceded plague, 
on its decline reappeared. The former fact will be seen by 
a reference to the table we have given above. 

The causes of pestilence have been referred by some to a 
vitiated atmosphere, engendered by epidemic and endemic 
causes, and wholly independent of contagion ; while others 
have attributed it solely to the latter influence. The truth 
probably lies between these extremes, and we have little 
doubt, from an examination of the evidence on both sides of 
the question, that both these causes do occasionally operate 
in the propagation of plague. As the foundation of qua- 
rantine establishments rests entirely on the supposition of 
the contagious nature of plague, we shall examine how far 
this ean be supported by a reference to facts. It is asserted 
by the contagionists that plague is transferred from indi- 
vidual to individual in all the ascertained modes in which 
diseases are thus communicated — by contact, by inoculation 
with the matter of buboes, through the atmosphere, and by 
fomites. According to them, its appearance in Western 
Europe has been always'owing to imported contagion ; and 
where strict isolation from all infected individuals and 
articles has been observed, there it has never appeared. It 
is admitted however by several, among whom may be men- 
tioned the respected names of Sydenham, Russell, and Mead, 
that a peculiar atmospheric condition is essential to the 
spread of pestilence ; yet they maintain that this is inade- 
quate to its production without importation by fomites, or 
the arrival of a diseased person from an infected district. 
In support of this opinion, they refer to the histories of the. 
different plagues that have visited Europe, and above all to 
that which ravaged Marseille in the year 1720. Its intro- 
duction into this city was traced to the arrival of three ships 

Digitized by 





or lazarettos, which, by some means or other, for we learn 
not how, communicated the disease to a woman living in 
the Rue de I'Escale. This person being received into the 
Hotel Dieu, two of the nurses who assisted at her reception, 
and the matron who changed the linen, were taken ill the 
next day, and died after a few hours. In a short time it 
destroyed physicians, surgeons, apothecaries, confessors, and 
nil the other oflicers and servants, with the whole of the 
poor in the hospital, including above 300 foundlings. The 
priests and monks who attended the infected, suffered in 
the same manner as the medical assistants : and lastly, of 
230 galley-slaves, employed in going into the infected houses 
and burying the dead. 220 perished in the space of ten or 
twelve days. Many of these facts however may be not in- 
aptly termed false facts; and some, of undoubted existence, 
that are brought forward as examples of contagion, may be 
explained on another hypothesis. It is admitted by all that 
animal effluvia, from a number of persons crowded into a 
small space, and surrounded by their own filth, acquire a 
Jugh degree of virulence, even without the morbid action of 
a febrile affection. If then, to the circumstances above 
noticed, are superadded corrupt food and the influence of a 
.sickly season, is it surprising that miasmata endowed with 
a most pestilential contagious power should be generated? 
But this rapid transit of plague from one individual to an- 
other is only what we know to take place in other epidemic 
diseases. To illustrate this position by a familiar and well- 
l;nown disease— epidemic catarrh, or influenza: what is 
more common than for all the members of a family living 
together, the clerks in the same office, and the artisans of 
the same workshop, to be successively or almost simultane- 
ously attacked ? Yet nobody attributes the circumstance 
to contagion : certainly, if one had a motive for so doing, 
nothing would be easier than to accumulate examples with- 
out number in support of this position. Whatever share 
then contagion may have in the propagation of the plague, 
it is quite certain that its power has been greatly overrated. 
According to the most staunch supporters of this doctrine, 
a particular state of the air is essential to its action ; and 
they all admit that whenever the plague has been excited 
out of its proper season, it has not spread. Without being 
understood to advocate the contagious origin of plague, we 
fully agree with Dr. Bancroft that ' it is fortunate for man- 
kind that the communication of the contagion of the plague 
depends upon the co-operation of so many favourable cir- 
cumstances, and particularly upon that of a suitable tempe- 
rature, and of certain aptitudes and susceptibilities in the 
human subject; for without such requisites, or such ob- 
stacles to its propagation, the earth might have long since 
become desolate.' Those who contend for the non-conla- 
giousness of plague, and therefore for the abolition of the 
quarantine laws, maintain that these laws, however strictly 
enforced, have not succeeded in shutting out the plague 
from pestilential districts; and that countries not possess- 
ing indigenous sources of pestilence are not visited with 
this disease, although unprotected by quarantine establish- 
ments. They likewise adduce numerous instances of persons 
in constant communication with plague patients, and even 
wearing their clothes, escaping the disease. Odessa has 
one of the best organised quarantine establishments in 
the world; yet not long ago the plague broke out in it, 
entered the town, destroyed a number of inhabitants, and 
ceased at a particular season. In 1835 the harem of 
the pasha of Egypt consisted of about 300 persons ; but not- 
withstanding the severest cordon, the plague entered, and 
seven died within. The cordon was composed of 500 men, who 
were in constant contact with the town, where the disease 
was raging violently; of these only three died, so that the 
proportion of those who perished within to those without was 
nearly as 4 to 1. The plague of 1665, which ravaged most 
parts of this kingdom, never visited Oxford, although the 
terms were kept there, and the court and both houses of 
parliament were held there ; a close correspondence too was 
maintained between this city and the metropolis, where it 
was raging. The Persians, although their country is every 
year surrounded by the plague, seldom suffer anything by 
it themselves. * The Turks and Moors,' says Bruce, ' im- 
mediately after St. John's day, expose in the market-places 
the clothes of the many thousands that have died of the 
plague during its late continuance; and though these con- 
sist of furs, cotton, silk, and woollen cloths, which are stuffs 
the most retentive of the infection, no accident happens to 
those who wear them.' Clot Bey, who is at the head of the 
P.O., No. 1105. 

medical department in Egypt, and has treated thousands o: 
cases, says, that removed from malaria or miasm, he has 
never known the plague to be communicated by contact 
He has twice inoculated himself with the pus and blood of 
those affected with plague, but without producing the 

This fully agrees with the evidence tnat was given before 
a select committee of the House of Commons, on the con- 
tagion of plague in 1819. It appears from the Custom-house 
Returns, that none of the expurgators of goods in Great 
Britain, at the quarantine establishments, have ever taken 
the plague. What then are we to regard as the cause of 
pestilence, and whence is it to be sought? Undoubtedly in 
the miasm of pestiferous soils; or of crowded, ill- ventilated, 
and filthy localities. When plague has at any time become 
epidemic, these are the spots in which it has first planted 
itself, and in which it has committed the greatest devasta- 
tion.. Notwithstanding the obviousness of this fact, it is a 
remarkable circumstance in connection with the history of 
plague, that no people in the world have been williug to 
acknowledge their own country to be the first or indigenous 
seat of pestilence. The doctrine that it is imported and not 
indigenous, is as prevalent in Turkey as it is in Egypt. 
The Egyptian Levantines insist that it has never been an 
Egyptian endemic, but has been imported by travellers or 
goods; while the Turks contend that it is from Egypt. 
In the eloquent language of Dr. Hancock, • Egypt disowns 
it ; Ethiopia has no such progeny ; Syria is too genial for its 
production ; and Constantinople harbours it through neglect 
or sufferance. As to the north, how could the temperate 
climate of Britain generate a principle so terribly destruc- 
tive?' Facts however are too numerous and weighty to 
allow us a moment's hesitation on this point. Wherever 
civilization has advanced, there plague has receded, till it 
is now only to be found lurking among the swamps of 
Egypt or revelling in the filth of Constantinople. It is the 
spring, we have seen, that is so fatal to the Egyptians, about 
which time south winds prevail, loaded with putrid emana- 
tions from animal and vegetable substances in the lakes 
formed by the retiring waters of the Nile. In June, the 
wind is in the north, passing over the Mediterranean, and 
this is the most healthy and salubrious season. In Con- 
stantinople, the month of August is most fatal, and this is 
the season of the year when decomposition goes on with 
greatest rapidity. The exemption of the city of Oxford, in 
the plague of 1665, is a strong proof of the correctness of 
these opinions. The following words from Quincy are much 
to the purpose : • Dr. Plott observes, the reasons why Ox- 
ford is now much more healthful than formerly, to be, the 
enlargement of the city, whereby the inhabitants, who are 
not proportionately increased, are not so close crowded to- 
gether ; and the care of the magistrates in keeping the streets 
clear from filth. For ■• formerly," he says, " they used 
to kill all manner of cattle within the walls, and suffer their 
dung and offals to lie in the streets. Moreover about those 
times, the Isis and Cherwell, through the carelessness of 
the townsmen, be*mg filled with mud, and the common- 
shores by such means stopped, did cause the ascent of malig- 
nant vapours whenever there happened to be a flood. But 
since that, by the care and at the charge of Richard Fox, 
bishop of Winchester, in the year 1517, those rivers were 
cleansed, and more trenches cut for the water's free passage, 
the town has continued in a very healthful condition, and 
in a particular manner so free from pestilential diseases, 
that the sickness in 1665, which raged in most parts of the 
kingdom, never visited any person there, although the terms 
were there kept, and the court and both houses of parlia- 
ment did there reside.'" Now what was done in Oxford, as 
early as 1517, to remedy its unhealthiness, has since been 
done in all the principal cities of thi3 country and on the 
Continent. Accordingly we find that the plague has not 
visited us since 1665. Holland, which has no system of 
quarantine, has experienced an exemption corresponding to 
tnat of our own country. Paris has not been attacked since 
1668, and a century has elapsed since the plague of Mar- 

Treatment of Ptague.~The preventive treatment of 
plague will be gathered from what we have said respecting 
the causes of this disease, and the most effectual barriers 
that can be opposed to its future introduction into Europe, 
are, to adopt again the language of Dr. Hancock, * the bar- 
rier of cleanliness in our towns and villages against filth 
and crowded habitations; the barrier of Christian charity" 

Vol. XVIII.— D 

Digitized by 





towards our poor against famine and distress ; tbe barrier 
of peace against the desolating evils of war ; and the barrier 
of industry against the vice of sloth.' With regard to reme- 
dial measures, it appears little can be done towards arrest- 
ing the progress of plague after it has once declared itself 
in an individual. Our efforts therefore are limited to remov- 
ing tbe patient from those sources of miasm which gave 
origin to his disease, and in placing him in those conditions 
which are most favourable for his. recovery. Free exposure 
to fresh air, supporting the strength, and regulating the 
secretions, are the only means which promise much chance 
of success. When this plan is adopted, we have the authority 
of our latest writers on this subject for declaring that the 
mortality of the disease may be considerably diminished. 
Thirty per cent, only, of those attacked, die under this 
mode of treatment ; while in the lazaretto at Alexandria, 90 
per cent, died in 1833, and 77 in 1836. With respect to 
the management of buboes and carbuncles, they must be 
treated in the way which is found efficacious in their removal 
when uncomplicated with plague, and if by these means we 
are unable to effect their dispersion, suppuration may be 
promoted by the employment of emollient cataplasms or 
any other mild stimulant. 

In the following chronological table of some of tbe princi- 
pal plagues upon record, we have purposely omitted the 
mention of many which, although described under that 
name, are obviously a different disease ; even among those 
we have selected, the vagueness with which the symptoms 
of some are described, leave us in doubt whether the disease 
was the same as that which at present goes under the name 
of plague : — 


1491. The plague of Egypt Exodus* xii. 
1490. „ in the Wilderness. Numbers* xi. 

i250. „ ofiS^ina. Ovid's Metam., lib. vii. 523. 

1190. „ in the Grecian camp at the siege of 

Troy. Homer's Iliad, book i. 
1141. „ among the Philistines. 1 Sam., v. and vi. 

1017. „ in Canaan. 2 Sam., xxiv. 

738. „ of Rome. Plutarch's Life of Romulus. 

464. „ „ Livy,iii.6;Dion.Halicar.,lib.x. 

454. „ „ Livy, iii. 32. 

437. „ „ Livy, iv. 21, 25. 

430. „ of Athens. Thucydides, ii. 48, &c. 

404. „ of Carthage. Justin, xix. 2; Diod. 

Sic, xiii., xiv. 
366. „ of Rome. Livy, vii. \ ; Short On Air. 

296. „ „ Livy, x. 31, &c ; Orosius, 

iii. 21. 
213. In the Cathaginian and Roman armies before 

Syracuse. Livy, xxv. 26. 
182-177. Rome and all Italy. Livy, xli. 21. 
126. Numidia and Carthage. Livy, Epit., 60 ; Orosius, 
lib. v. 


68. Rome. Tacitus, Annals, xv. 47; xvi. 13; Orosius, 

lib. vii.; Univers. Hist., vol. xiv., 139. 
167 and few following years. Rome and a large part of 
the known world. Am. Marcellinus, lib. xxiii.; 
Echard's Rom. Hist., vol ii., 315, &c. 
187. Rome and Italy. Herodian, lib. i. 
252-270. Rome and a large portion of the globe. Zon- 

aras, lib. xii. ; Gibbon, vol. i., 10. 
407. Most of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Nicephorus, 

xiii. 6 and 36; Magdeburg, cent v. 13. 
542-590. A plague raging, with intermissions, in most 
parts of the world. Niceph., xvii. Id; Eccles. Hist., 
lib. iv., 29. 
1345-1350. Europe, and most parts of the world. Boccac- 
cio, Decameron, * Prima Giornata ;' Muratori, iii. 588, 
&o. ; Villari; Short On Air, vol. i., 165 ; Univ. Hist, 
vol. xxxil 
1562 ar.d 1663. London and most of the principal cities 

of Europe. Short, vol. i. ; Thuanus. 
1575 and 1576. Italy and most parts of Europe. Thuanus, 
lib. Ixii. ; Short, vol. i. ; Mercurialis On the Plague 
of Venice. 
1580 and 1 58 1. Grand Cairo and different parts of France. 

1600 and 1603. London and various parts of Europe. 
Maitland's Hist, of London; Mignot, Hist, of the 
Turkish Empire, p. 256. 
1611 and 1613. Constantinople, France. Riverius, lib. 
xvii. ; Short, vol. i. ; Mignot. 

1625. London and various parts of Europe. Short 

1635 and 1636. London, Nimeguen, and several other 
places in Europe. Diemerbroeck, Tractatus de Pest± 

1655 and 1656. Most of Europe. Naples suffered very 
severely, three-fourths of its inhabitants having 
perished. Univ. Hist-, vol. xxviii., 3 1 8. 

1563-65. London and most parts of England and Hol- 
land. Sydenham; City Remembrancer; Hodge's 

1702-11. North of Europe. Described, especially as it 
appeared in Danzig, by Dr. Gottwald; and Univ. 
Htst., vol. xxxv. 

1720. Of Marseille. Chicoyneau's TraitS de la P>ste; 
Bertrand's Relation Hist de la Jkste de Marseille. 

1743. Aleppo, lis Natural History, by Dr. Alex. Russell. 

1751. Constantinople. Chenier's Marocco, vol. ii., 275. 

1760-62. Aleppo, Jerusalem, and Damascus. A Treatise 
of the Plague, $c, by Dr. Patrick Russell. 

1770 and 1771. Constantinople, Poland, and Russia. 
Described, especially as it appeared in Moscow, by 
Mertens; and Ann. Regist., 1772, p. 155. 

1783-85. Egypt, Dal mat ia, Constantinople, &c Volney's 
Travels, vol. i., 192; Courant, October 28, 1783, and 
October 27. 1785. 

1799. In the French army in Egypt. Sotira, Mimoire 
sur la Peste observte en Egypte pendant le Sejour de 
VArmbe oV Orient dans cette ContrSe; Baron Larrey, 
Description d*Egypte, 8?c. 

For further accounts of the plague, as it has appeared 
more recently, see Tullv's Hist, of the Plague in the Islands 
of Malta, Gozo, Corfu, Cephalonia, <$*:., 1821; also Dr. 
Bo wring's Observations on the Oriental Plague and on 
Quarantine, $c., 1838. 

Pestilential, Epidemic, or Asiatic Cholera is a 
disease not less fatal than that described in the preceding 
article; and in its endemic origin, its occasional epi- 
demic eruptions, its selection of victims, and the localities 
which it ravages, it bears a striking resemblance to plague. 
Its essential character is however perfectly distinct, as will 
be seen by the following account of the symptoms of cholera. 
The disease has two well-marked stages : the cold or choleric, 
called also the stage of collapse; and the hot or febrile 
stage, or that in which reaction takes place. The first is 
generally preceded by certain premonitory symptoms, among 
the most prominent of which is diarrhoea, accompanied 
usually with languor and some degree of nausea ; the de- 
jections are feecal and bilious, and often very copious. The 
commencement of the purging may precede the accession 
of the febrile stage for several days, or only a few hours 
may elapse. It is important not to think lightly of this 
disorder during the prevalence of epidemic cholera, for many 
a life might have been preserved if timely warning had been 
taken, and appropriate treatment adopted for removing it, 
before the accession of the symptoms about to be described. 

Symptoms of the Cold Stage.— The time of its invasion 
is, in the majority of instances, from two to four o'clock in 
the morning. The patient is attacked with uneasiness of 
the stomach, to which speedily succeed vomiting and purg- 
ing of a watery, colourless, and inodorous fluid, similar to 
barley-water, or more frequently to rice-water : sometimes 
it is like milk, and occasionally yellowish ; but the ' conjee- 
stools,' as they are termed, which consist of albuminous 
flakes floating in serum, or discharges of pure serum, are 
of the most frequent occurrence. Tnese discharges are at- 
tended with severe cramps in the extremities, especially in 
the calves of the legs, and are succeeded by exhaustion, gid- 
diness, and sinking of the pulse ; the pulse is small, weak, 
and accelerated ; and after a certain interval, becomes im- 
perceptible. The skin is cold from the commencement; 
and as the disease advances, it becomes gradually colder, 
and is covered either with a profuse sweat or a clammy 
moisture. The features are shrunk and anxious : there is 
restlessness and agitation, with great thirst, heartburn, and 
hurried respiration. Notwithstanding the coldness of the 
body externally, the patient complains of heat, and throws 
off his bed-clothes. As the cold increases, the skin fre- 
quentlv becomes blue ; the eyes, which are dull and suffused, 
Beem drawn into and fixed at the bottom of their sockets; 
the tongue is cold, but moist; the voice is feeble, hollow, 
hoarse, and interrupted ; but tho mental functions remain 
undisturbed to the last At this advanced period the col- 
lapse is complete, the respiration very slow, and the patient, 
who suffers little or no pain, presents the appearance of a 

Digitized by 





person who has been dead for some time. The urine is 
usually suppressed throughout the whole of this stage; but 
the dejections, becoming thinner and thinner, continue to 
the last Some patients, although blue, cold, and pulseless, 
have sufficient strength to go about* many however die of 
exhaustion before all these symptoms have declared them- 
selves. In the majority of cases the spasmodic symptoms 
are first observed, and afterwards the collapse : the former 
are characterised by pain, evacuations, and moans; the 
second, by the suppression of voice, urine, and heat If 
however the patient get over the cold stage, that of reac- 
tion commences. The coldness and blueness gradually dis- 
appear ; the pulse returns, increasing in force and frequency ; 
to the pale or blue cheek succeeds the flush; the eye 
brightens ; the tongue, which was of a dirty white, becomes 
cleaner and dry ; vomitings are less frequent, but diarrhoaa 
continues ; and there is some tenderness of the abdomen, 
with thirst, great disgust of food, and intense headache. 
The urine however is secreted ; and if all goes on well, at 
the end of two or three days the features assume their usual 
expression ; the stools are less frequent and more natural ; 
the strength and appetite begin to return ; the pulse re- 
sumes its ordinary character; and the patient is convales- 
cent. Several varieties occur in the duration and intensity of 
cholera, and complications are sometimes produced of a cha- 
racter not less fatal than the disease itself. We are informed 
by M. Dalmas, that soldiers attacked in full march will 
retire from the ranks, lay down their arms by the road-side, 
and expire in two hours. During the prevalence of the last 
epidemic in India, several instances were heard of at Houbley 
and other places in that country, of natives being struck 
with the disease while walking in the open air ; they fell 
down, retched a little, complained of vertigo, deafness, and 
blindness, and expired in a few minutes. This rapidly fatal 
form of cholera has not been observed in this country. The 
most severe cases that we have met with generally lasted 
live or six hours ; but the average duration of the fatal 
cases, when they did not terminate in consecutive fever, was 
from twelve to fourteen hours. When reaction was esta- 
blished, and fever supervened, the duration of fatal cases 
was from four to ten days. Asa general rule to guide us 
in forming a prognosis, it may be stated that the more com- 
plete is the collapse, the greater is the danger; and if the 
patient survive it, the more violent and malignant is the 
subsequent fever. The cases in which spasms and vomiting 
are most violent are by no means the most dangerous. 

Morbid Anatomy of Cholera. — Dissection presents us with 
nothing satisfactory by which we can judge of the nature of 
the disease. There is general venous congestion of all the 
important organs in the body ; but it is rare that any traces 
of inflammation are discovered. The gall-bladder is mostly 
distended with bile, and its ducts are constricted. In the 
stomach and intestines is found either a transparent or a 
turbid serous fluid, mixed with a white opake substance in the 
form of flakes, and similar in all respects to the matters 
ejected during life. The mucous membrane lining the in- 
testinal canal is most frequently of a pale white colour, and 
somewhat more soft and pulpy than in its natural condition ; 
but occasionally some degree of vascularity is observed. 
The urinary bladder is empty and contracted. With respect 
to the blood, it is found to be more viscid, and darker 
coloured than natural, which arises from a deficiency of its 
saline and watery components, and a relative increase 
of its solid constituents. In 1000 parts of serum, Dr. 
O'Shaugnessy found 133 of albumen, whereas healthy 
serum contains only 78 parts. On comparing the blood 
with the matter found in the intestines, it is manifest that 
the latter contains all the ingredients of the blood, except 
the red globules; and that the aqueous and saline parts 
pass out of the circulation more rapidly than the albumi- 

History and Statistic* of Cholera.— The last outbreak of 
pestilential cholera, which commenced in India and tra- 
versed successively nearly every country in the world, was 
perhaps the most diffused and best observed of any similar 
visitation: the observations we shall have to make will 
therefore chiefly relate to this epidemic. It originated in 
the district of Nuddeah and in some other parts of the delta 
of the Ganges, about the end of May or the beginning of 
June, 1817. During that year it did not extend beyond the 
territory of Lower Bengal ; but in 1818 and the early part of 
1819 it diffused itself throughout the extreme length and 
breadth of the Indian peninsula, yet leaving untouched many 

districts placed between its lines of movement. Its progress 
along the lines selected was wonderfully uniform, being, for 
some successive months, at the rate of about one degree in 
a month. As early as 1818, it extended itself beyond the 
boundaries of Hindustan into the Burmese empire and other 
parts of Eastern 'Asia, and making gradual progress through 
these countries, reached China in 1820, and in the follow- 
ing year visited the numerous and populous islands of 
the Indian Archipelago. The Isle of France suffered its 
invasion in 1819, and some cases occurred in the same year 
at one point in Bourbon. In 1821 it extended along the 
shores of the Persian Gulf, and, during this and the fol- 
lowing year, spread through parts of Arabia, Persia, and 
Syria, and closely threatened Europe. It appeared in 
the Russian territories in 1823, at Tefflis, Orenburg, 
and Astrakan ; but its farther northern and western pro- 
gress was stopped for a time. It however re-appeared in 
Orenburg in 1828, and again in 1829, and in 1830 advanced 
through the southern provinces of the Russian empire, till 
it reached Moscow on the 28th of September of that year, 
and Petersburg the year following. Warsaw was attacked 
in March, 1831 ; Danzig in May ; Berlin, in August; Ham- 
burg and Sunderland in October ; and London and Paris in 
1832. At the end of 1833 it had reached Mexico and 
several other parts of America. We see that the course of 
the epidemic was principally from east to west, and it was 
observed that prior to its appearance in many countries, 
and during its continuance, easterly winds were uncom- 
monly prevalent ; but most accurate and extensive meteoro- 
logical observations, made daily during the continuance of 
the disease, prove that neither variations of temperature, 
fluctuations of the barometer, change of wind, nor the pre- 
valence nor absence of moisture, affect in the slightest 
degree its duration or intensity. Bowel complaints appear 
to have preceded the cholera in most places, and to have 
continued for some months after its cessation. In many 
localities the disease existed only for a few weeks, while in 
others it lingered for several months. In the first case, the 
mortality was invariably high ; in the last, the malignancy 
of the disease generally diminished as its stay was pro- 
longed. Into whatever country or town the disease advanced, 
its first and most deadly fury was expended upon the poorest 
and most miserable of the population, and upon those who 
inhabited crowded districts, or low humid localities border- 
ing on a port or river. Among this class of individuals 
whole families were sometimes cut off by it; indeed it 
is a peculiar feature of epidemic cholera that its ravages 
are confined almost exclusively to the poor. When the 
disease has appeared in a family occupying a station in life 
above the labouring class, we have the authority of Dr. 
Brown for declaring that in every case it has been confined 
to the individual first attacked, and has not in any instance 
spread to the other members of the family. The mortality 
from this disease is very great ; but it varies somewhat in 
different countries end at different stages of its epidemic 
career. During its early prevalence in India, in 1817 and 
1818, we learn, from the ' Report to the Medical Board at 
Bombay,' that there is reason to believe that of 1 894 cases 
which received no medical assistance, every individual 
perished ; and it is added, that it is not ascertained that any 
person has recovered to whom medicine had not been ad- 
ministered. This appalling statement however is without 
parallel, and it is gratifying to know that where the premoni- 
tory symptoms have been combated by early and judicious 
treatment, the mortality has always been diminished. This 
is strikingly exemplified by the statistical records kept at 
our different military stations in various parts of the world. 
In all situations and under all modes of treatment, about 
one in two died of the cases in civil, and one in three of 
those in the military hospitals ; a result doubtless to be at- 
tributed to the strict surveillance exercised over the troops, 
by which nearly one-half of the cases among them were 
noticed in the premonitory stage, and consequently could 
be treated with a greater prospect of success than those in 
the civil hospitals, where the great majority of the patients 
were far advanced in the disease before they applied for 
medical aid. Of the severe cases however the mortality is 
probably nearly the same in all, being about 60 per cent. 
One of the mo^t extraordinary features of this epidemic, 
observes Major Tulloch, is that the proportion of deaths to 
the number attacked has been very nearly alike in all the 
military commands of which the medical records have been 
investigated: for instance—In the United Kingdom, th« 

Digitized by 





deaths were 1 in3j; in Gibraltar, 1 in 3i; in Kova Scotia, 
1 in 3§ : in Canada, 1 in 3 ; in Honduras, 1 in 3 ; in the 
Mauritius, 1 in 8J. The Mauritius appears to be the only 
exception to this ; so that either the epidemic was less severe 
in its character, or the remedias employed were more suc- 

The influence of age on the mortality by this disease 
among the troops of the lino serving in Canada is exemplified 
in the following table: — 

Ratio of Dfatht at each Age. per 1000 
Age of Btreogih, by Epidemic Cholera. 

Under 18 . . — 

18 to 25 . . 15'5 

23 to 33 . . 23* 

33 to 40 . 36*6 

40 to 50 . 70 6 

It appears from the authority to which we are indebted 
for the foregoing table, that females were attacked in very 
nearly the same proportion as males, but that the cases 
proved more generally fatal. Children were in a great 
measure exempt, though, when attacked, they rapidly sunk 
under it. The greater mortality of the disease in females 
has also been observed in this country. Dr. Ogden informs 
us that of 145 fatal cases of cholera at Sunderland, 63 were 
males and 82 females. The information which we possess 
on the relative mortality of the disease in the different races 
of mankind is rather meagre. The native Indians of North 
America suffered from it in an equal degree with the white 
population ; and the same was observed with regard to the 
Sepoys in our Indian array. In the Mauritius, whose popu- 
lation in 1831 was 90,000, of which 25,000 were whites and 
the rest coloured, the total number of deaths recorded in the 
civil and military hospitals was 1327. Of these 168 were 
whites, 162 coloured, and 997 blacks, principally negroes, who 
seemed peculiarly subject to the disease. This great suscep- 
tibility of negroes to the invasion of disease, when absent 
from their native land, we have had occasion to notice in the 
article Phthisis ; and that time seems to have had little 
effect in weakening this susceptibility, appears from a com- 
parison of the mortality among them in the present epide- 
mic with that which look place during a similar epidemic 
in this island in the year 1775. At this date, more than 2000 
out of 4300 slaves belonging to government were cut off by 
it, and of those belonging to the planters nearly as many. 

Causes of Cholera. — That the whole series of phenomena 
results from the action of a morbific poison on the body, 
there can be no doubt ; that this morbific matter is indi- 
genous to some countries, and apparently has its origin in 
certain peculiar conditions of the soil, is supposed to be true 
from the effects which we find to be produced upon animal 
bodies living in these districts. But why the miasm arising 
from the overflow of the Nile should produce plague; that 
of the Ganges, cholera; that of the parts situated in the 
tropics, yellow fever; or our own marshes, simple inter- 
mittent — we are entirely ignorant; nor can we, in the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge, at all account for the epidemic 
spread of some of these endemic diseases. The doctrine of 
contagion has been had recourse to in cholera, as in many 
other diseases, in order to explain its diffusion, and it has 
been asserted by the advocates of the exclusive operation of 
this principle, that the disease has always been found to 
move in the line of human intercourse; and it must be ac- 
knowledged, observes Dr. Brown, that while so migratory an 
animal as man inhabits the earth, it cannot well do other- 
wise. But if it is meant to be asserted that its diffusion has 
been in proportion to the intercourse between infected and 
healthy districts, the assertion is by no means supported by 
facts. Its appearance at Madras, for instance, whither, ac- 
cording to this doctrine, it ought to have been conveyed almost 
three months earlier by trading vessels from the infected 
districts, was simultaneous with its appearance in parallel 
latitudes in the interior. It did not reach Ceylon, to which, 
on the contagious principle, it ought to have been conveyed 
much earlier by shipping from the infected points bf the 
coast, until it had previously gained the nearest point to it 
on the continent, and had been long prevalent on both coasts 
of the peninsula. In its importation into this country like- 
wise, supposing it to be imported, so far from following the 
great routes of human intercourse, it chose one of the least 
frequented paths. The principal evidence on this point, 
which was collected during the last epidemic cholera, goes 
to negative its contagious character ; and the advocates of 
the contrary opinion are at present by far the more numerous 

parly. Of fifteen medical reporters in India who had ob- 
served the disease, two only thought it contagious, eight were 
of a contrary opinion, and five were doubtful. The medical 
officers at Gibraltar seem to have been almost unanimous 
in their opinion that the disease was not contagious. In the 
same ward with the cholera patients in the civil hospital 
were several persons labouring under other diseases, who, 
although in oonstant communication with and frequently in 
attendance on those suffering under the epidemic, were in 
no instance affected by it In the military hospital too it 
was observed that the orderlies employed in attendance on 
the sick were not attacked in a greater proportion thaa 
others who were not so employed ; and of thirty medical offi- 
cers in constant attendance on the sick during the prevalence 
of the epidemic, all of whom, from the nature of their duties, 
were subject to great fatigue and anxiety, only one or two- 
exhibited any symptoms of the disease, and their cases were 
comparatively slight. Nevertheless it is probable that under 
some circumstances cholera may be contagious, and this 
opinion derives support from the great mortality which was 
always observed under the operation of the quarantine laws,, 
on the inutility of which, in this disease at least, all medical 
men are agreed. The predisposing causes of cholera may be 
gathered from its history. The poor, the old, the infirm, and. 
the dissipated were the principal sufferers. In the north of 
Germany, Tuesday was always the day of the greatest mor- 
tality, owing, it was supposed, to the excesses committed on 
the two or three preceding days. Hence every circum- 
stance which tends to debilitate the system generally, whe- 
ther occasioned by atmospheric vicissitudes, by residence ia 
an unhealthy locality, by unwholesome or insufficient 
food, by the abuse of spirituous liquors, or by debauchery, 
acts as a predisposing cause in the production of cholera. 

Treatment of Cholera. — Premising, in a prophylactic 
point of view, the superiority of avoiding all the predisposing 
causes of cholera to the absurd practice of swallowing spe- 
cifics against the disease, our treatment must be regulated 
according to the state in which we find the patieut. If the 
premonitory symptoms only are present, the stomach should 
be unloaded by an emetic, and a table-spoonful of good mus- 
tard constitutes a very efficient one. The diarrhoea may be 
treated by a full dose of calomel and opium, combined with, 
some aromatic, and a blister should be applied to the abdo- 
men. Bleeding also has been recommended at this period 
of the disorder. If the patient is already in a state of col- 
lapse, the various modes of treatment which have been* 
adopted prove how little is to be effected when the disease 
has advanced to this stage. Major Tulloch informs us that 
the principal remedy of the American aborigines consisted 
in merely swallowing large quantities of charcoal mixed with, 
lard ; yet very nearly the same proportion recovered as among 
the white inhabitants of the towns who had the advantage 
of the best medical science. In this country, blood-letting,, 
cold affusion, hot-baths, emetics, purges, astringents, seda- 
tives, and stimulants of the most powerful kind, have been, 
successively tried with very doubtful advantage. The plan, 
however which has excited most attention is that by salines. 
Medical men, guided by chemical analysis, conceived the 
project of supplying by artificial means the serum which; 
was found wanting in the blood. With this view lavements 
and potions of an alkaline solution, resembling serum in 
composition, were administered ; but not being able by this, 
means to arrest the vomiting, it was recommended and 
put into practice by Dr. Latta of Leith to inject the same 
fluid into the veins. This was first done by means of one? 
of Reid's syringes, the temperature of the solution being 
kept at from 1 08° to 110° Fahr. Of 74 bad cases treated ia 
this method, 22 recovered, and in one case only did any 
unfavourable symptoms occur, and this was from phlebitis,, 
or inflammation of the veins. As much as 33 lbs. of thi* 
alkaline solution have been injected in the space of 52. 
hours, and with a successful result. Somo practitioners 
have even exceeded in amount this quantity. The compo- 
sition of the saline injection employed by Dr. Latta con- 
sisted of two drachms of common salt and two scruples of 
carbonate of soda dissolved in sixty ounces of water; but 
this formula has been slightly varied in different cases. 
The immediate effects observed on injecting this fluid into* 
the veins are, an increase of the temperature and perspira- 
tion, a reappearance of the pulse, if before imperceptible,, 
or it becomes fuller, stronger, and slower, when it was Wore* 
small, frequent, and feeble. The collapsed appearance of 
the countenance gradually vanishes ; it becomes fuller and 

Digitized by 





more natural ; (he eyes brighten, the thirst diminishes, and 
the patient expresses himself in terms of gratitude or satis- 
faction at the wonderful change wrought in his feelings. 
But this change is evanescent ; the purging continues, and 
the patient is shortly reduced to the same hopeless state in 
which he was previous to the adoption of this treatment 
By recommencing the injections, the same beneficial results 
are obtained, and, provided this treatment prove successful, 
the patient does not again relapse into his former condition, 
but the diarrhoea and vomiting diminish, and reaction 
commences. With respect to the treatment of the febrile 
stage of cholera little need be said. The same recognised 
principles that are applicable to the treatment of pyrexia in 
general must be our guides in treating this fever; and the 
physician should never neglect to impress upon his patient 
the probability of a relapse, if he should indulge too soon in 
anv dietetic or other irregularities. 

t*ETAL is one of the inner divisions of the organs cloth- 
ing a flower, and called floral envelopes. These are usually 
double, the outer being a calyx composed of sepals, and the 
inner a corolla composed of petals. Both these parts are 
leaves incompletely organised. The petal, being fugitive, 
and of very temporary utility, is generally the more delicate, 
containing no woody tissue to protect the spiral vessels. 
It is sometimes of extraordinary size, but is as frequently a 
very minute body. [Corolla; Morphology; Flower.] 

PETALISM. [Ostracism] 

PEPALIT^, a mineral which occurs massive. Structure 
perfectly lamellar in one direction. Cleavage parallel to the 
lateral planes, and both diagonals of a rhombic prism. 
Fracture uneven. Hardness 6 5. Brittle. Colour greyish, 
greenish, or reddish-white. Streak white. Lustre vitreous, 
inclining to resinous. Translucent. Specific gravity 2*42 to 
2*45. When heated in acids, it undergoes partial decompo- 
sition; emits a blue phosphorescent light when gently 
heated. When by itself, it melts with difficulty, and only 
on the edges ; but with borax, it fuses into a colourless 

It occurs at Uton in Sweden, and in North America. It 
consists, according to Gmelin, of— Silica, 74*17 ; Alumina, 
17*41 ; Lithia, 516; Lime, 032; Water, 217. 

PETARD. [Artillery.] 

PETAURUS. [Marsupialia, vol. xiv., pp. 460, 461.] 

in 1 583, studied at Paris, and afterwards entered the order 
of the Jesuits. He lectured on rhetoric in the colleges of 
Rheims, La Flcche, and lastly at Paris, in which he was 
made professor of theology in 1621. He applied himself 
assiduously to classical and historical studies, and became 
a distinguished scholar and critic. In 1627 he published 
his great work on chronology, ' De Doctrina* Temporum,' 

2 vols, folio, which was republished with considerable addi- 
tions by himself, as well as by Hardouin and others, in 

3 vols, folio, Antwerp, 1703. The •Doctrina* Temporum' 
consists of 13 books. In the first 8 books, Petau discusses 
the principles of the science of chronology, anient and 
modern; in books 9 to 12, he examines the application of 
chronology to history, the various aaras, &c. ; and in the 
last or 13th book he gives chronological tables of the 
principal events from the creation to the reign of Justinian. 
After the publication of the work, Philip IV. invited Petau 
to Madrid to fill the chair of history, but Petau declined 
the offer, as well as an invitation to go to Rome by Pope 
Urban VIII., preferring the tranquillity of his cell in the 
Jesuits' college of Clermont at Paris, where he died in 
1652. Just before his death he published ' Rationarium 
Temporum/ 2 vols. 8vo., 1652, which is a kind of abridge- 
ment of his great work, and forms a useful manual of uni- 
versal chronology. It has gone through many editions, and 
has been translated into French: 'Abregd Chronologique 
de l'Histoire universelle, sacree ct profane,' 5 vol*. 12mo., 
Paris, 1715. Perizonius published an edition of the 'Ra- 
tionarium Temporum,' with a continuation down to 1715. 
At the end of the work are lists of the Roman consuls, the 
popes, the emperors of the Eastern and Western empires, 
of the various dynasties of modern Europe, as well as of the 
councils,and of the various heresies and schisms. Petau wrote 
also 'DeTheologicis Dograatibus,' 3 vols, fol., Antwerp, 1700. 
He edited the Breviarium of Nicephorus, in Greek ana Latin, 
with notes, Paris, 1648 ; the works of Synesius, bishop of 
Ptolemais in Cyrenaica ; and those of St. Epiphanius, 
with a Latin translation, 2 vols, folio, Paris, 1622. He also 
wrote a dissertation upon Phot in us, ' De Photino Heretico.' 

PETE'CHLE are small spots of a dark red colour pro* 
duced by the effusion of drops of blood in the skin just 
beneath the cuticle. At first sight they look very like ilea- 
biles, but they do not disappear when they are pressed with 
the finger. They usually indicate an altered state of the 
blood, and are often symptoms of very serious diseases, as 
in typhus fever (some varieties of which have hence been 
called petechial fever), scurvy, purpura, &c. They com- 
monly appear also in very severe cases of small-pox, measles, 
and scarlet fever, and are amongst the worst symptoms by 
which those diseases are marked. 

PETER, ST., one of the twelve Apostles, was born at 
Bethsaida, on the western side of the lake of Gennesareth. 
His name at first was Simon, which was changed by our 
Lord into Cephas, a Syriac word signifying a stone or rock ; 
in Greek, petra, whence Peter. In conjunction with An- 
drew his brother, he followed the occupation of a fisherman. 
Both were hearers of John the Baptist, by whom they were 
taught that Jesus Christ was the Messiah. While plying 
their business on the sea of Galilee, the Saviour called them 
to be his disciples:—-' Follow me, and I will make you 
fishers of men: immediately they quitted their boats and 
nets, and became his intimate friends and constant asso- 
ciates. Peter was one of the three, James and John being 
the others, who were favoured by our Lord with peculiar 
marks of bis confidence. 

Peter was a man of an open and generous nature, strong 
in his attachments, ardent, and precipitate. He was prompt 
on every occasion to exhibit his zeal in behalf of his master, 
of which we have a memorable instance in his conduct to- 
wards the high-priest's servant, whose ear he cut off when 
the Jewish officers were about to apprehend our Lord. Yet, 
notwithstanding the ardour of his character aud his solemn 
declaration to the contrary, he denied Christ when he was 
in circumstances of danger. After the denial, ' Jesus turned 
and looked upon Peter.' That look entered his heart ; and 
stung with deep compunction, he went out and wept bitterly. 

On the day of Pentecost which succeeded the ascension 
of our Lord, the Holy Ghost descended upon the Apostles, 
and produced the most astonishing and extraordinary results. 
The gift of tongues came upon them ; and they were en- 
abled to address the inhabitants of different nations, each 
in his own language. On this occasion the character of St. 
Peter sustained a singular change ; and he preached with 
so much effect, that three thousand were converted to the 
Christian faith. He now took a prominent* position among 
the Apostles. When a miracle is performed, it is Peter 
who avails himself of the opportunity, and preaches to the 
people. When brought before the council for declaring 
the resurrection of their Master, it is Peter who Bpeaks in 
reply to the charges against them. In the case of Ananias 
and Sapphira, it is Peter who detects and punishes the fraud. 

Being at Joppa in the course of his apostolic labours, 
he converted Cornelius, a Roman centurion, the first Gentile 
who was admitted into the Church without circumcision. 
This event was considered satisfactory evidence that the 
benefits of the Gospel were intended, not for the Jews only, 
but for mankind universally. Shortly after, the zeal and 
success with which he propagated the new religion induced 
Herod Agrippa to cast him into prison, from which he was 
miraculously delivered by an angel. The last important 
transaction in which we find him engaged was in the apos- 
tolic council held at Jerusalem, a.d. 49, when it was decided 
that Christianity required of its converts neither circum- 
cision nor the observance of any other rite of the Jewish 
institute. It is supposed that he afterwards preached to 
the Hebrew Christians dispersed through Ponlus, Galatia, 
Cappadocia, Asia Minor, and Bithynia; and that he visited 
Rome, a.d. 63, where he soon after suffered martyrdom. 

St. Peter was the author of two Epistles, both of which 
make part of our canonical Scriptures. The first, whoso 
genuineness and authenticity have never been questioned, 
is addressed ' to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, 
Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia.' There is much 
difference of opinion among the learned with respect to the 
persons here denominated strangers. Some suppose they 
were Jewish Christians ; others, that they were in the first 
instance proselytes to Judaism, and then converts to Christ- 
ianity ; others again, that they were Christians in general. 
There are two considerations which induce us to hold that 
the first is the more probable opinion. The word strangers 
(Ilaptiritirjpot) properly signifies persons from another coun- 
try ; and therefore it is very suitably applied to those Jewish 

Digitized by 





believers who, m consequence of persecution in Judtea, 
were obliged to take refuge in distant provinces: and 
again, since the ministry of the circumcision was committed 
to St. Peter, it is more likely that he should address him- 
self to his own converts than to Gentiles. 

Another controversy has been agitated with respect to 
the place where the Epistle was written. In the concluding 
verses, it is implied that the Apostle was then at Babylon ; 
but whether the word is used in a real sense to designate 
the city of that name, or mystically to signify Jerusalem or 
Rome, is the matter in debate. In all probability the term 
is employed for Rome ; for the Jews were fond of using figu- 
rative appellations, especially in their national distresses. 
Edom was frequently a name for their heathen oppressors ; 
and as Babylon was the cause of their first dispersion and 
captivity, it is not unlikely that Rome, the instrument of 
their second, and which so closely resembled Babylon in 
her • abominations, idolatries, and persecutions of the saints,' 
should be denominated by the same title. 

As St. Peter arrived in Rome, a.d. 63, and suffered mar- 
tyrdom about 65, the Epistle may be dated in 64. It was 
written in a period of general calamity to the Church ; and 
the design of the Apostle is to console and strengthen his 
converts in their trials, and teach them how to bear per- 
secution. He exhorts them to honour and obey the civil 
authorities; and, above all things, to lead a holy and blame- 
less life, that they might stop the mouths of their enemies 
and calumniators, and by their example gain over others 
to the side of Christianity. 

The best critics speak highly of the excellence of this 
Epistlo. One says it is sparing of words, but full of sense ; 
another calls it majestic ; and a third declares it one of the 
finest books in the New Testament, composed in a strain 
which demonstrates its divine authority. The writer dis- 
plays a profound knowledge of the Gospel, and a deep con- 
viction of the truth and certainty of its doctrines. Careless 
about the disposition of his words and the rounding of his 
periods, his heart is absorbed and his thoughts swell with 
the importance and grandeur of his subject. His style is 
vehement and fervid, and he speaks with the authority of 
the first man in the Apostolic college. 

His second Epistle was written soon after the first Its 
object is to confirm the instructions which he had formerly 
delivered, to establish his converts in the religion that they 
had embraced, to caution them against false teachers, to 
warn them against profane scoffers, and to prepare them for 
the future judgment of the world. 

(Home's Introduction ; Macknight ; Benson ; Michaelis.) 

PETER, ST.. MARTYR. [Office, Holy.] 

PETER OF BLOIS. better known by his Latinised 
name Pelrus Slesensis (Blois being his birth-place), a writer 
of the twelfth century, who spent much of his life in Eng- 
land, being invited thither by King Henry II., who gave 
him the archdeaconry of Bath. There is a large volume of 
the writings of this Peter, consisting very much of letters, 
from which a far better account of bis life might be collected 
than any which has yet been prepared. He was in great 
favour with Richard, who succeeded Becket in the arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury, and was his chancellor. He had 
also in England the archdeaconry of London, having re- 
signed his archdeaconry of Bath. Peter was a scholar of 
John of Salisbury ; and before he came to England be had 
studied at Paris and Bologna, and had been secretary to 
"William II., king of Sicily. He died in England in 1200. 
The edition of his works by Pierre de Goussainville, folio, 
1667, is accounted the best. His works belong to the 
series known as the Fathers of the Church. 

Peter visited Bologna for the purpose of .acquiring a 
knowledge of Roman law, and his letters contain numerous 
indications of his acquaintance with this subject. A work 
of his on canon law and process has lately been discovered, 
of which an account is given in the Zeitschrift fur Ges- 
chichtliche Rechtswissenschqft, vol. vii., p. 207. (Savigny, 
Geschichte des Komischen Recht* im Mittelalter.) 

PETER OF SICILY. [Sicilies, the Two, Kingdom 

Alonso XI., after his father's death succeeded to the united 
crown of Castile and Leon, a.d. 1350, being then only six- 
teen years of age. H is first step was to put to death Leonora 
de Guzman, the mistress of his father, who had several 
children by her. His next proceeding was to command the 
city of Burgos to pay a certain tax without the sanction 

of the Coites, but the people resisted and killed the col- 
lector. Upon this Pedro went to Burgos, accompanied by 
Don Juan de Albuquerque, his unprincipled councillor, and 
having summoned Garcilasso de la Vega, the adelantado ot 
Castile, into his presence, ordered him to be instantly put to 
death by his ballasteros, or men-at-arms. In 1352, he as- 
sembled the Cortes at Valladolid, and endeavoured, but 
without success, to obtain the abolition of the Behetrias, 
which was the name given to the political condition of cer- 
tain towns that had placed themselves under the protection 
of some powerful noble, and were in great measure inde- 
pendent of the crown. He next proceeded to Ciudad Ro'lrigo, 
where he had a conference with his maternal uncle, Alonso 
or Alfonso IV., king of Portugal, who gave him the best 
advice as to the necessity of moderation, and above all as to 
adopting conciliatory measures towards his half-brothers, the 
sons of Donna Leonora, who possessed great influence in the 
country. Pedro listened to the advice, and be even invited 
the eldest of his natural brothers, Don Enrique, called En- 
rique of Transtamare, to his court, where another brother, 
Don Tello, already was. But his brothers did not trust him, 
and they soon left Pedro, rebelled, were defeated, and emi- 

f rated into Aragon. In 1253, by the advice of bis ministers, 
>edro solicited and obtained the hand of Blanche of Bour- 
bon, a princess of the royal house of France. Pedro, who 
had a mistress, Maria de Padilla, behaved with coldness to 
his bride, and soon confined her in the fortress of Arevalo. 
He next conceived a passion for Donna Juana de Castro, a 
young lady of a noble family, and in order to marry her, he 
pretended, upon some grounds unknown to us, that his mar- 
riage with Blanche was null, and he found some prelates, the 
bishops of Salamanca and Avila, who took his part. In 1354, 
he publicly married Juana at Salamanca, but he soon aban- 
doned her also, on the ground that he had deceived her as 
well as the prelates. Not long after Juana was brought to 
bed of a son. Her brother, Fernando Perei de Castro, a 
powerful lord of Galicia, incensed at his sister's treatment, 
raised the standard of revolt, and joined the king's brothers 
and other discontented nobles. Queen Blanche being rescued 
from her guards, the citizens of Toledo declared themselves 
her champions and defenders. The league thus formed be- 
came too powerful for Pedro, and on the interference of the 
pope's legate, the king promised to discard Maria de Padilla 
and to live with Blanche. On this condition the papal legate 
abstained from excommunicating him, but Pedro shortly 
after, having obtained supplies from the Cortes at Burgos, 
resumed the war, confined Blanche to the fortress of 
Siguenza, surprised the towns of Toledo and Toro, and put 
to death many of the leaders of the league ; the rest escaped 
into Aragon. In 1358, Pedro having got into his possession 
his natural brother Fadrique, grand-master of the order of 
St. Iago, ordered him to be put to death by his guards' 
in his own presence. Fadrique's brothers Enrique and 
Tello kept up a desultory warfare against Pedro on the 
borders of Aragon and Castile. 

Pedro now entered into an agreement with his cousin 
and namesake, King Pedro of Portugal, for the mutual sur- 
render of their respective subjects. Pedro of Portugal was 
nearly as cruel, though not quite so unprincipled as his 
cousin of Castile, and he was tnen busy in discovering and 
putting to death all those who had been any way concerned 
in the murder of his mistress Inez de Castro. [Alonso IV. 
op Portugal.] In 1360 the exchange of blood was made. 
The Castilian gave up the Portuguese emigrants, who were 
put to death, and he obtained the persons of several of his 
revolted subjects who had tied to Portugal, and whom he 
speedily despatched, except the archbishop of Toledo, the 
protector of Blanche, who was only banished. In 1361 
that unhappy lady was put to death, it is said by poison, at 
Xeres, by order of her husband. Soon after, Maria de 
Padilla died a natural death, and Pedro, having assembled 
the Cortes at Seville, declared that she had been his lawful 
wife, and produced witnesses who swore to the nuptials 
as having taken place before his marriage with Blanche. 
The Cortes acknowledged the issue of Maria de Padilla to 
be legitimate. 

It was about this time that Pedro committed another 
atrocious murder, on the person of Abu Said, the Moorish 
king of Granada, who had come to him at Seville with a 
safe conduct, ^ the purpose of doing homage for his king- 
dom as a fief of Castiie. The Moor came with numerous 
attendants and servants in splendid attire, and brought 
much valuable property with him* He was invited by 

Digitized by 





Pedro to an entertainment, in the midst of which a number 
of armed men entered the hall, seized the Moors, rifled 
their persons, and dragged them to prison. The following 
day Abu Said, mounted on an ass, and thirty-seven of 
his companions, were paraded through the streets of Se- 
ville, preceded by a herald, who cried, that they were con- 
demned to death by King Don Pedro for dethroning their 
lawful sovereign Mohammed Ben Yusef. Being con- 
ducted to a field behind the Alcazar, Abu Said was stabbed 
to the heart by Pedro himself, whilst his companions were 
despatched by the Castilian guards, a.d. 1362. Abu Said 
was a usurper, but Pedro was not his judge. He had come 
to Seville on the faith of a king's promise, and on a friendly 
errand, and his murder was as unprovoked as it was cow- 
ardly. [Moors, p. 389.] 

The king of Aragon, joined by the king of Navarre, as 
well as by Bertrand Duguesclin and other French leaders 
and soldiers who resented the cruel treatment of Blanche, 
invaded Castile in 1366, entered Calahorra, and proclaimed 
Enrique, Pedro's natural brother, as king. Pedro, who was 
at Burgos, fled to Seville without fighting. Enrique was 
acknowledged throughout all Castile, and the people of Se- 
ville soon after revolted against Pedro, who fled into Por- 
tugal. From Portugal he went into Galicia, where he had 
some partisans, who urged him to try the fortune of arms ; 
but Pedro, having already, in 1363, formed an alliance with 
Edward III. of England, depended chiefly upon the assist- 
ance of the Black Prince, who was then in Gascony. While 
passing through St, Iago he committed another deed of 
atrocity, the motive of which is not clearly ascertained. 
The archbishop of St. Iago, called Don Suero, was lord 
of several towns and fortresses, and he was one of those who 
had urged Pedro to make a stand against his enemies. All 
at once Pedro sent for him, and on the archbishop reaching 
the gate of his own cathedral, where the king stood as if to 
receive him, he and the dean were suddenly pierced by the 
spears of the guards, and the church was plundered. The 
strongholds of the archbishop were then occupied by the 
king's trooos, after which Pedro embarked at Coruna, and 
sailed for Bayonne, a.d. 1366. 

Edward the Black Prince engaged to restore Pedro to 
his throne. Pedro on his part promised him the lordship 
of Biscay, with a supply of money for himself and his army. 
Besides the alliance existing between his father and Pedro, 
the French king, Charles v., being the ally of Enrique, 
the English prince found it his interest to put his weight 
in the other side of the scale. In the spring of 1367 the 
Black Prince, together with Pedro, put themselves in mo- 
tion with an army of English, Normans, and Gascons, and 
passing through the defile of Roncesvalles, they crossed 
Navarre, with the consent of that king, and entered Castile. 
The Black Prince was joined on his march by Sir Hugh de 
Calverley and Sir Robert Knowles, at the head of several 
thousand men, who had served as volunteers in the army of 
Enrique, but would not bear arms against their own coun- 
trymen. The array thus reinforced amounted to about 
30,000 men. The army of Enrique was much superior in 
numbers, but the men were not all true to his cause. The 
two armies met at Najera, a few miles from the right bank 
of the Ebro, on the 3rd of April. The battle began with 
the war cry of * Guienne and St. George' on one side, and 
Castile and St. Iago' on the other. Enrique fought bravely, 
but his brother Don Tello fled from the field at the head 
of the cavalry, and the Castilian infantry, being charged 
by the Black Prince in person, gave way. Enrique escaped 
with very few followers, and retired into Aragon. Pedro, whose 
ferocity had not been tamed by adversitv, wished to kill the 
prisoners, but was prevented by the Black Prince as long 
as he remained in Castile. Pedro proceeded to Burgos, and 
all Castile acknowledged him again. But he behaved 
faithlessly to his ally ; he only paid part of the money 
which he had promised for the troops, and as for the lord- 
ship of Biscay, Pedro excused himself by saying that he 
could not give it without the consent of the states of that 
province. The Black Prince, disgusted, and out of health, 
with his troops half starved, returned to Guienne, where he 
arrived in July. After his departure Pedro gave vent to 
his cruelty, and put to death many persons at Toledo, Cor- 
dova, and Seville. This gave rise to a second insurrection, 
and Enrique having again made his appearance, many of 
the towns of Castile declared for him. Some towns how- 
ever, and Toledo among the rest, held out for Don Pedro, 
and a desultory but destructive warfare, as all Spanish wars 

have been* was carried on for two years. The circumstance 
of Pedro having still a strong party in many towns, not- 
withstanding all his cruelty, gives weight to the supposition 
that while Pedro ruled the nobles with an iron sceptre, he was 
not so obnoxious to the mass of the people, who were out of the 
reach of his capricious ferocity. Indeed it is said by Roderie 
Santius, that he was the scourge of the proud and turbu- 
lent, that he cleared the roads of robbess, and that he could 
be pleasing and affable when he liked. 

In March, 1369, Enrique, being joined by Duguesclin 
with 600 lances from France, lard siege to the town of Mon- 
tiel, where his brother then was. Pedro, through one of 
his knights, made great offers to Duguesclin if he would 
assist him to escape. Duguesclin informed Enrique of these 
offers, and it was agreed that he should entice Pedro to his 
tent. On the evening of the 23rd of March, Pedro came 
to Duguesclin's tent, when Enrique, who lay in wait, fell 
upon him with his dagger. They grappled together and 
fell to the ground, but Enrique soon despatched his brother. 
A Catalonian, quoted by Zurita, says that Enrique's attend- 
ants assisted him in overpowering Pedro. Bad as the latter 
was, there is no excuse for the treachery and foul manner 
in which he was killed. Enrique II. was then proclaimed 
throughout Castile. 

(Dunham, History of Spain and Portugal, and authori- 
ties therein quoted ; Froissart, Chronique.) 

PETER THE FIRST, called the * GREAT,' Czar of 
Russia, was born at Moscow, on the 11th of June, 1672. 
His father, Alexis Michaelovitz, was twice married: by his 
first wife he had two sons and four daughters ; and one sob 
(the subject of this notice) and one daughter (Natalia 
Alexowna) by his second wife. The Czar Alexis was a 
man of a liberal mind ; he commenced the work of improve- 
ment among his barbarous subjects, established manufac- 
tures, reduced the laws into a code, resisted the usurpations 
of the clergy, and invited foreign officers to discipline his 
armies, tie died in 1677, and was succeeded by. his eldest 
son Theodore, a youth of delicate constitution, who' died in 
1682, leaving no issue. The next brother, Ivan, was tubiect 
to epileptic fits, and of so weak intellect that Theodore 
named Peter as his successor. The princess Sophia, an am- 
bitious woman, who had intended to reign herself, through the 
medium of her incompetent brother, being enraged at this 
appointment, engaged the strelitzeson her side, and fomented 
an insurrection, which was only appeased by Ivan being 
proclaimed joint sovereign with Peter, and Sophia as re- 
gent. Peter narrowly escaped with his life on this occasion, 
for, having fled with his mother to the Troitski convent near 
Moscow, at the commencement of the insurrection, he was 
pursued by some of the strelitzes, who found him before the 
altar, and were only deterred from striking a fatal blow by 
feelings of reverence or superstition. When Peter was 
seventeen, his party brought about a marriage between him 
and the daughter of the boyar Feodor Abrahamavitz, during 
the absence of Prince Galitzin, who had been associated by 
the Princess Sophia with her in the government On the 
pregnancy of the Czarina being declared, Galitzin, whose 
plans were entirely deranged by this event, raised an insur- 
rection, which however was soon suppressed, and Galitzin 
was banished to Archangel, and forfeited his estates. The 
Princess Sophia was confined to a convent for the rest of 
her life, which terminated in 1704. 

From this time (1689) Peter reigned supreme ; his brother 
Ivan never interfered, and died in 1696. Peter was now in 
the eighteenth year of his age. He was tall, stout, and well 
made ; his features were regular, but indicated, when grave, 
a great degree of severity ; at other times he was lively and 
sociable, and always full of energy and activity. His edu- 
cation had been much neglected, and it is said that the 
Princess Sophia had encouraged every species of excess by 
placing about him corrupt companions. Although there is no 
doubt that much of his time was pasted in debauchery, yet it 
is a strong proof that a portion of it must have been devoted 
to better objects, that he immediately commenced the vutt 
undertaking of reforming the whole system of government 
and the manners of the people, in which he had to encounter 
the jealousies of every class of his subjects, who looked upon 
these changes as subversive of their antient constitution. 
Peter's indomitable energy however overcame all obstacles. 
He first directed his attention to the army, in which de- 
partment his plans were ably seconded by Generals I>e Fort 
and Patrick Gordon, who, with other foreigners, had en- 
tered into his service. He himself entered the army as 

Digitized by 





a private soldier, and rose through all the intermediate 
ranks before he obtained a commission. He caused all 
the young boyarj to follow this example. He made the 
soldiers lay aside their long coats, shave their beards, and 
dress their hair, and in a very short time he had a corps 
of 5000 men disciplined and trained on the German plan. 
The sight of a small vessel built by some Dutchmen in 
his father's time, on the river which runs through Mos- 
cow, made a great impression on him, and he determined 
to have a navy. He hired Dutch and Venetian ship- 
wrights, who built some small vessels at Pskov, in which 
he used to cruise on the Lake Peipus, until that becoming 
too confined a space for him, he went to Archangel, where 
he passed two summers cruising on board English and 
Dutch ships, and learning the duties of a practical sea- 
roan. His taste for everything connected with ships and 
navigation soon amounted to a passion. He resolved to 
be no longer dependent on foreigners for his ships, and 
accordingly sent a number of young Russians to Venice, 
Leghorn, and Holland, to learn the art of ship-building. 
By these measures his expenditure had been so much in- 
creased that it was necessary to take some steps towards 
augmenting the revenue, which he did, through the advice 
of his foreign councillors, by raising the custom-house du- 
ties from 5 to 1 per cent, which caused an increase of nearly 
2,000,000 rubles in the first year. In 1696, he besieged 
and took Azoff. During the rejoicings which followed this 
first victory by the army and navy of his own creation, some 
of the discontented boy a re and strelitzes conspired to put 
him to death, but, being betrayed by certain of the confede- 
rates, the plot was defeated by their arrest and execution. 

Russia was not at this period represented at any of the 
courts of Europe, but Peter, being more than ever convinced 
of the pre-eminence of the inhabitants of Western Europe over 
his own barbarous subjects, resolved to visit these countries 
himself, and for this purpose he despatched an extraordinary 
embassy to Holland, accompanying it himself incognito. 
Before he set out on his travels in 1697, he took the precau- 
tion of leaving General Gordon, with 4000 of his guards, in 
Moscow, with orders to remain in that capital. He only 
took with him twelve attendants, among whom were his 
favourites, Menzikoff and Galitzin, and his dwarf, a neces- 
sary appendage to all great men in Russia. He went 
straight to Saardam in Holland, took a small lodging with 
two rooms and a garret, and ashed adjoining. He purchased 
carpenters' tools and the dress of the dockyard artificers, 
and there he and his companions spent almost all their time 
in working as common shipwrights. Peter went by the 
name of Pieter Timmerman ; he rose early, boiled his own 
pot, and received wages for his labour. He was described 
by a native of Holland as being * very tall and robust, quick, 
and nimble of foot, rapid in all his actions, his face plump and 
round, fierce in his look, having brown eyebrows and curling 
brown hair, and swinging his arms in walking.' He spent much 
time in sailing on the Zuyder Zee, and with his own hands 
made a bowsprit for his yacht ; he also assisted at rope-making, 
sail-making, and smiths' work. A bar of iron which he forged 
at Olonetz some years later, with his own mark stamped 
upon it, is preserved in the Academy of Sciences at St. 
Petersburg. In the same spirit of inquiry and eagerness to 
learn, he visited every manufactory, examining into all the 
details of each. He attended the hospitals, where he learned 
to bleed and draw teeth ; he was very fond of practising in 
a surgical way. From Holland he proceeded to England, 
when he arrived in January, 1698. As his chief object in 
coming to this country was to learn the theory of ship- 
building, and the method of mining drafts, and laying 
them off in the mould-lofts, he did not disguise his annoy- 
ance at the crowds which assembled to see him, and at the 
festivities given in his honour. 

The Marquis of Carmarthen was appointed by King Wil- 
liam to attend upon the Czar, and they are reported to have 
passed their nights together in drinking pepper and brandy. 
Peter visited tne dockyards of Deptford, Woolwich, and 
Chatham. He spent much of his time at Rotherhithe, where 
a ship was building for him. After his day's work, he and 
his companions were in the habit of retiring to a public- 
house near Tower-hill, to smoke and drink beer and brandy. 
The house still bears the sign of the Czar of Russia. He 
went to Portsmouth, to witness a grand naval review and 
sham fight. In April he quitted England, taking with him 
several men of science, engineers, and officers for his army 
and navy. He spent a short time in Holland, and then 

proceeded to Vienna to make himself acquainted with the 
dress, discipline, and tactics of the emperor s army, then con- 
sidered the best in Europe. From thence he was preparing 
to visit Italy, when he received news of a rebellion having 
broken out among the strelitzes, fomented, it was said, by the 
priests and the Princess Sophia. His prudence in leaving 
General Gordon in Moscow was now made manifest. That 
officer entirely defeated the rebels, many of whom lost their 
lives and others were thrown into prison to await the return 
of the Czar. Peter quitted Vienna immediately on the 
receipt of this intelligence, and arrived at Moscow, after 
an absence of seventeen months. 

The dark side of Peter's character now showed itself in 
the savage nature of the punishments inflicted on the 
rebels ; in palliation of which it can only be said that this 
being the third insurrection during his reign, a severe ex- 
ample was required to deter other malcontents. He next 
ordained that all persons, civil as well as military, should 
cut off the skirts of their Tartar coats, and shave their 
beards : a tax was levied on all who disobeyed, which, from 
the love of the Russians for these appendages, became a 
fruitful source of revenue. He regulated the printing-press, 
and caused translations to be published of works on various 
arts and other subjects, established schools for the mariuo 
and the teaching of languages, obliged his subjects to trade 
with other countries, which formerly subjected them to the 
penalty of death, and he altered the calendar, much to the 
horror of the priests, ordering that the year 1700 should 
commence on tne 1st of January, instead of the 1st of Sep- 
tember, which day used to commence the Russian year. He 
also instituted the order of St. Andrew, the patron saint of 

In the year 1700 Peter entered into an offensive league 
with Poland and Denmark against Sweden. His army was 
defeated before Narva by Charles XII., on the 19 th of No- 
vember in that year ; but far from being dispirited at this 
event, he was only excited to renewed exertiou, and he ob- 
served that the Swedes would at length teach his soldiers 
to beat them. In 1703 he laid the foundation of St. Peters- 
burg ; and in the previous year the Russian army, under 
Scherematoff, had gained a complete victory over an inferior 
force of Swedes, and immediately after took the town of 
Marienburg. The war continued with more or less success 
until the year 1709, when Charles XII., having rashly 
marched into the Ukraine, was completely defeated by the 
Russian army under Peter at Pultowa,on the 15th of June. 
Charles himself escaped to Bender, but his army was totally 

We have seen that Peter, in his seventeenth year, had a 
wife forced upon him, who bore him one son, Alexis. The 
czarina having encouraged the factious party, who opposed 
all innovation, Peter found it necessary to divorce and con- 
fine her to a convent before he had been married three years 
(1696). His son Alexis was unfortunately left in her guar- 
dianship. When the prisoners taken at Marienburg fiied 
off before General Bauer, he was much struck with the 
appearance of a very young girl, who appeared to be in the 
greatest distress. She had been married only the day be- 
fore to a Livonian sergeant in the Swedish service, whose 
loss she was then mourning. The general took compassion 
on her, and received her into his house. Some time after, 
Menzikoff being struck by her beauty, she was transferred 
to him, and remained his mistress till the year 1704, when, 
in the seventeenth year of her age, she became the mistress 
of Peter, and gained his affections so entirely that he mar- 
ried her, first privately and afterwards publicly. On the 
17th of March, 1711, he declared the czarina Catherine 
Alexiua his lawful wife. She accompanied her husband 
immediately afterwards to the war in Turkey, which had 
just broken out. Peter, following the rash example of 
Charles XII., entered the enemy's country before his whole 
army was concentrated. Without sufficient force to keep up 
his line of communication with Russia, he crossed the river 
Pruth near J assy, marched some way down the right bank, 
and was hemmed in by the army of the grand- vizier on one 
side, and the Tartars of the Crimea on the opposite shore of 
the river. After three days' action, the situation of the 
army became desperate, when Catherine, unknown to her 
husband, sent a letter to the grand-vizier, with a present of 
all the plate and jewels she could collect in the camp. After 
some delay a treaty of peace was signed, by which Peter 
gave up the towns of Azof and Taganrog, and the vizier sup- 
plied the Russian army with provisions. Peter's health was 

Digitized by 





to much impaired after this campaign, that he went to Carls- 
bad to drink the waters. From Carlsbad he proceeded to 
Dresden, where his son the czarovitz Alexis Petrovitz was 
married to the princess of Wolfenbuttel. From Dresden he 
went to St. Petersburg, where he solemnised anew his mar- 
riage with Catherine with great pomp. Peter now deter- 
mined to strip Sweden of every place which could be an 
annoyance to his new capital. Before the close of 1713 
Stralsund was the only spot in Pomerania remaining to the 
Swedes: Peter himself gave the plan for its siege, and then 
leaving Menzikoff to carry it out, went to St. Petersburg, 
x and frum thence with a squadron of galleys and flat boats 
made himself master of Abo and the whole coast of Finn- 
land. The library of Abo was transferred to St. Peters- 
burg, and was the foundation of the present library of that 

He next defeated the Swedish fleet in a naval engage- 
ment, and instituted the female order of St. Catherine on 
the occasion, in honour of the czarina, who alone could 
bestow it. The senate was removed from Moscow to St. 
Petersburg in 1713, and the emperor's summer and winter 
palaces were completed in 1715. He employed about 
40,000 men in finishing his dockyard, huilding ships, 
wharfs, and fortifications. 'Goods imported into Archangel 
wer* prohibited from being sent to Moscow ; and under these 
favourable circumstances, St. Petersburg soon became a 
place of great commerce and wealth. 

Peter had now taken the whole of Finnland, and the 
provinces of Esthonia and Livonia, and having nothing 
to fear from Charles XII., he made a second tour through 
Europe in 1716, accompanied by the empress. They 
visited Mecklenburg, Hamburg, Pyrmont, Schwerin, Ro- 
stock, and Copenhagen, where he remained some months. 
While he was at Copenhagen*, an English and a Dutch 
squadron arrived : Peter proposed that the four fleets should 
unite, and proceed to sea in search of the Swedish fleet: 
the chief command was given to the Czar, who declared the 
moment in which he hoisted his standard to be the proudest 
of his life. From Copenhagen he went to Liibeck, where 
he had an interview with the king of Prussia, and then to 
Amsterdam, where he remained some time. Catherine, 
who had been left behind, was brought to bed at Wesei of 
a third child, which died the next day. She remained at 
Amsterdam while her husband went to Paris, where he was 
received with great splendour. On his return to Amster- 
dam he visited Berlin on his way to Russia. During this 
tour he purchased great quantities of pictures, cabinets of 
birds and insects, books, and whatever appeared likely to 
enrich or ornament the city of his creation. The king of 
Denmark presented him with a great hollow globe eleven 
feet in diameter, whose inside represented the celestial and 
the outside the terrestrial sphere. Peter showed every- 
where the same dislike to parade and formal etiquette which 
he had always evinced, and avoided them when possible. 

His eldest son, Alexis, who had unhappily been left to 
the guardianship of his mother, had always been a source of 
disquietude and trouble to Peter; and when he grew up, 
far from showing any desire to tread in the footsteps of his 
father, he chose *his friends and advisers from among the 
disaffected and turbulent boyars and priests, who were op- 
posed to all change. The unfortunate princess, wife of 
Alexis, had fallen a victim to the brutal conduct of her hus- 
band, after eiving birth to a son, Peter Alexiovitz, afterwards 
Peter II. While yet grieving for the loss of his daughter- 
in-law. Peter remonstrated with his son on his conduct, and 
told him that he should not be his successor unless he 
altered his mode of living. These remonstrances being 
treated with complete neglect by Alexis, who still pursued 
his vicious courses, Peter forced him, on the 1 4th Feb, 
1718, to sign and swear to a deed wholly renouncing the 
succession to the crown: he also required from him the 
names of his advisers in his misconduct. The answers 
given by Alexis to the queries put to him were such, that 
Peter thought it necessary to try him by the great officers 
of state, the judges, and the bishops, who unanimously 
condemned him to death. On the day of his condemnation, 
he was seized with a violent illness, which terminated in 
two days, on the 7th July, 1718. His mother was strictly 
confined, and his advisers punished. In 1719 the Czar's son 
by Catherine, in whose favour Alexis had abdicated, died at 
five years of age. On the 10th September, 1721, the peace 
of Neustadt was concluded, by which Sweden ceded to 
Russia, Livonia, Esthonia, Ingria, Corelia, Wyburg, and the 
P. C, No. 1106. 

adjacent islands, but secured the possession of the Gulf of 

Peter had now attained the summit of his glory : he was 
requested, and after some hesitation consented, to adopt the 
titles of ' Peter the Great, Emperor of all the Russias, 
and Father of his Country.' This was done amidst great 
rejoicings, which continued for fifteen days. He now turned 
his undivided attention to the arts of peace* He commenced 
canals to unite navigable rivers; encouraged by bounties the 
manufactures of woollen and linen cloths ; the erection of 
corn, powder, and sawing mills; established a manufactory 
of small-arms; instituted hospitals, and established a uni- 
formity of weights and measures; paved the streets of 
Moscow and St. Petersburg ; and ordered the ydung nobility 
to carry their wives to visit foreign courts and countries, in 
order to acquire more civilised manners. Some of his mea- 
sures were not so politic, although equally well intended, 
such as the attempt to fix the prices of provisions and the 
limit of expense in dress. 

In 1722, Peter led an expedition to the Caspian, which 
however failed in producing any results. In 1723 he went 
to St. Petersburg to found the Academy of Sciences, and to 
erect a memorial of the establishment of a navy in Russia. 
Peter took his idea of the academy from that of Paris, of 
which he had been elected a member during his visit to 
that capital. In the same year he caused Catherine to be 
crowned, and his eldest daughter was married to the duke 
of Holstein Gottorp. He suffered greatly at this time from 
a strangury in the neck of his bladder, which painful dis- 
order he endeavoured to stifle by an unlimited indulgence 
in strong liquors, which so much increased the violence of 
his temper, that even the empress is said to have feared his 
presence. Being partially relieved, he went, in October, 
1724, contrary to the.advice of his physicians, to inspect the 
works on Lake Ladoga. On his return he proceeded to 
Lachta, on the Gulf of Finnland, and had scarcely anchored 
there, when a boat full of soldiers being cast on the shore, 
Peter, in his ardour to assist them, waded through tho 
water, which broughton violent inflammation in the bladder 
and intestines. He was conveyed to St. Petersburg, where 
his complaint made rapid progress, giving him intense and 
constant pain. He at length sunk under the disease, and 
expired on the 28th of January, 1725. His body lay in 
state till the 21st March, when his obsequies and those df 
his third daughter, Natalia Petrowna, who died after her 
father, were performed at the same time*. 

Peter I., deservedly named the Great, was compounded of 
contradictions; the greatest undertakings and the most 
ludicrous were mingled together; benevolence and huma- 
nity were as conspicuous in him as a total disregard of human 
life; he was at once kind-hearted and severe even to fero- 
city; without education himself, he promoted arts, science, 
and literature. 'He gave a polish,' says Voltaire, • to his 
people, and was himself a savage ; he taught them the art 
of war, of which he was himself ignorant; from the sight 
of a small boat on the river Moskwa he created a powerful 
fleet, made himself an expert and active shipwright, sailor, 
pilot, and commander; he changed the manners, customs, 
and laws of the Russians, and lives in their memory as the 
Father of his Country* 

Menzikoff, whose birth was so obscure as to be totally 
unknown, and who had risen through the favour of 
the Czar to be a prince and governor of Sr. Peters- 
burg, caused Catherine to be proclaimed empress im- 
mediately after the death of Peter, and during her reign 
possessed unlimited power. Catherine died of a cancer in 
the breast, aggravated by excessive indulgence in wine of 
Tokay, in 1727, at the age of 38, having survived her bus- . 
band only two years and a few months. She was succeeded 
by Peter* II., son of the unfortunate Alexis. He was left 
in the guardianship of Menzikoff, who affianced his daughter 
to the young Czar. Peter felt the greatest repugnance to her, 
and in consequence, with the help of Dolgorouki, his tutor, 
caused Menzikoff to be arrested and banished to Siberia. 
His great wealth was forfeited, and he was only allowed out 
of it 10 rubles a-day for his support. He died at Berezof, 
in 1729. Tho haughty favourite of Peter the Great, whose 
magnificence exceeded that of crowned heads, died in 
poverty and exile. 

Among other works connected with the mechanical arts, 
Peter the Great translated ' L' Architecture de Sebastien 
Leclerc;' 'L'Art de Tourner, par Plumier;' * L'Art des 
Ecluses st des Moulins, par Sturm.' " The manuscripts of 

Vol. XVIII.— E 

Digitized by 





these, with his journal of theSwedish campaigns from 1698 
to 1714, axe preserved at St. Petersburg. 

(Voltaire ; General Gordon, Hut. of Peter the Great ; 
Mem. of Peter Bruce ; Coxe's Travels; Biograph. Univer- 
telle.) , 

PETER II. [Russia.] 

PETER III. [Russia; Catharina ii.] 


PETER-HOUSE, the" earliest endowed college in the 
university of Cambridge, was founded in 1257, by Hugh de 
Balsham, then sub-prior, afterwards bishop of Ely, who, 
having purchased two hostels, one of them belonging to the 
Friars of Penance, united them, and appropriated the build- 
ing for the residence of students; but it was not till 1280, 
after his promotion to the see of Ely, that he endowed the 
college with revenues for the support of a master, fourteen 
fellows, two bible-clerks, and eight poor scholars. After his 
death a new college was built on the site of the two hostels, 
for which purpose the bishop gave by will the sum of three 
hundred marks; he gave them also the church of St. Peter. 
Among the principal benefactors in subsequent times were 
Simon Langhara, bishop of Ely, who gave the rectory of 
Cherry-Hinton ; bishop Montacute, who appropriated the 
church of Triplow, and gave the manor of Chewell in Had- 
denham ; Margaret lady Ramsay, who founded two fellow- 
ships and two scholarships, and gave two advowsons ; and 
Dr. Hale, one of the masters, who gave the sum of 7000/. 
and two rectories. 

The fellowships are open without restriction to natives of 
any part of the British dominions, but no one is eligible who 
is M.A., or of sufficient standing to take that degree. The 
bishop of Ely appoints to the mastership one of two candi- 
dates presented to him by the society. The candidates must 
be doctors or bachelors of divinity, and must be selected if 
possible from the fellows on the foundation. Formerly 
there could not be more than two fellows of a county (except 
of Cambridge or Middlesex), and seven fellowships were 
confined to the northern and seven to the southern division 
of England and Wales; but these restrictions were removed 
by letters-patent, which came into operation in June, 1839. 

One-fourth part only of the foundation fellows are re- 
quired to be in priest's orders. By queen Elizabeth's 
licence the five senior clerical fellows may hold any livings 
wUh their fellowships, provided they are not more than 20/. 
in the Liber Regis, and within twenty miles of the univer- 
sity of Cambridge. The bye fellowships, which are perfectly 
open and unrestricted, are distinct from the former ; the 
possessors of them are not entitled to any office or voice in 
the affairs of the college. Two were founded 1589, by An- 
drew Perne, D.D. ; two, in 1601, by Lady Ramsay; and 
four, in 1637, by Thomas Parke, Esq. 

Two fellowships of 70/. per annum each, and four new 
scholarships of 30/. per annum each, have recently been 
added to the college from the donation of the Rev. Francis 
Gisborne, M. A., late fellow of Peter-House. This foundation 
bears the name of the donor. The two Gisborne fellowships 
are tenable for seven years, and any person may be elected 
from either of them into a foundation fellowship before he 
is of standing to take his M.A. degree. These fellowships 
are vacated by marriage, or by the possession of any per- 
manent income amounting to 250/. per annum. 

The rest of the scholarships, fifty-eight in number, of 
different value, are paid in proportion to residence. A few 
of them are in the patronage of Lord Melbourne, and pre- 
ference is given to scholars of Hertford school, m 

The livings in the gift of this college are, the rectories of 
. Glayston in Rutlandshire, Statherne in Leicestershire, Ex- 
ford in Somersetshire ; Norton, Witnesham, Newton, and 
Freckenham, in Suffolk; and Knapton in Norfolk; with 
the vicarage of Hinton, and the curacy of Little St. Mary, 
Cambridge, in Cambridgeshire ; and the vicarage of Elling- 
ton in Huntingdonshire. Glayston rectory is annexed to 
the mastership, and the vicarage of Hinton and the curacy 
of Little St. Mary are tenable with fellowships. 

This college stands on the west side of Trumpington- 
street, and consists of two courts, the larger of which is 144 
feet by 84. The chapel, which stands in the lesser court, 
was built in 1632. The master's lodge is a detached build- 
ing on the opposite side of Trumpington-street. 

The bishop of Ely is the visitor of this college. The num- 
ber of members upon the boards, March 18th, 1840, was 
210. Copies of the statutes of this college are preserved 
among the Harleian MSS. in the British Museum, 

(Lysons's Magna 2?rtfam^./Carabr., , pp. 103, 104 ; Camb. 
Univ. Calendar, 1840.) 

PETER PENCE, a tax antiently levied throughout 
England, according to some authorities, of a penny upon 
each house ; according to others, of a penny upon every 
house which contained twenty pennyworth of any kind of 
goods, and paid to the pope. This payment, in antient limes, 
passed under various denominations: Rome-fee, Rome- 
penning, and Rome-scot Were the Saxon names ; Denarii 
S. Petri and Census S. Petri, in Latin. The earliest pay- 
ment of it is attributed by some to Ina, king of the West 
Saxons, a.d. 720 ; by others to Offa, king of Mercia, a.d. 
790. At one period of his reign, Edward III. discontinued 
this payment, but it was revived by Richard II. It finally 
ceased at the Reformation. (Du Cange's Glossary; Hist. 
Will. Malmsb. Leg. Edw. Con/. # Will. Conq.) 

PETER'S RIVER, ST. [Mississippi, River.] 

PETER'S, ST. [Rome] 

city, in the liberty of Peterborough (otherwise called Nass- 
burgh or Nassaburgh soke or hundred), in the county of 
Northampton, on the river Nene, and on the Hull and 
Lincoln a mail road, 83 miles from the General Post-office, 
VLondon,* by Waltham Cross and Baldock. 

This city owes its origin to a celebrated Benedictine 
abbey founded by Peada, son of Penda, king of the Mercians, 
soon after the revival of Christianity among the Saxons. 
Peterborough was antiently called Medeshamsted and 
Medeswellehamsted. About the year 870 the abbey was 
destroyed by the Danes ; and after remaining desolate for a 
century, was restored in the reign of Edgar (a.d. 970), about 
which time the name Medeshamsted was superseded by that 
of Burgh, otherwise Gilden-burgh, from the wealth and 
splendour of the abbey, or Peter-burgh, from the saint to 
whom it was dedicated. In the reign of William the Con- 
queror the abbey was attacked and plundered bv the insur- 
gents of the fens under Hereward-le-Wake.; and the village 
which was rising around it was destroyed by fire. In 1116 
the village and the greater part of the abbey were again de- 
stroyed by fire. The monastic buildings were gradually 
restored and augmented ; and at the dissolution of the reli- 
gious houses under Henry VIII., Peterborough was one of 
the most magnificent abbeys then existing. Having been 
selected as the seat of one of the new bishoprics erected by 
Henry, the buildings were preserved entire. In the civil 
war of Charles I. great devastations were committed. The 
cathedral itself was much injured, and many of the other 
conventual buildings were utterly demolished and the ma- 
terials sold. The Lady-chapel was subsequently taken 
down by the townsmen, to whom the church had been 
granted for a parish church. No historical interest is at- 
tached to the town independent of the abbey or cathedral. 

Peterborough is comprehended in the parish of St. John 
Baptist, which has a total area of 4880 acres, and a popu- 
lation, in 1831, of 6313 : of this the limits of the city com- 
prehend an area of 1430 acres, and a population of 5553; 
the remaining area and population are included in the 
hamlets of Dogsthorpe and Eastfield with* Newark, and the 
chapelry of Longthorpe. The city consists of several streets 
regularly laid out and well paved and lighted, close upon 
the bank of the river, over which there is a wooden bridge. 
The houses are in general well built, and several of them 
are of recent erection. Besides the cathedral, there is a large 
parish church ; and also some dissenting places of worship. 
There is a market-house, the upper part of which is used as 
the town-hall ; and a small gaol and house of correction for 
the liberty. 

The cathedral of Peterborough is a regular cruciform 
structure of Norman or early English character, remarkable 
for the solidity and massiveness of its construction. The 
erection of it was commenced a.d. 1117 (after the great fire 
of 1116), by John de Sais or Seez, a Norman, then abbot. 
It is probable that the choir was the part first erected. It has 
a semicircular eastern end, and at the extremities of the semi- 
circle there are two slender turrets crowned with pinnacles: 
the aisles have subsequently been carried out square by an 
addition of perpendicular character. The chancel was 
finished (a.d. 1140) by Abbot Martin de Vecti: the great 
transept and a portion of the central tower were built by 
Abbot William de Waterville or Vaudeville (a.d. 1 1 60-1 175), 
and the nave by Abbot Benedict (a.d. 1177-1193). The 
central tower is low, and forms a lantern. The nave has its 
piers composed of shafts of good proportions and fine 

Digitized by 


P E'T 



appearance, without that overwhelming heaviness which 
appears in buildings where the great circular piers are used. 
At the western end of the nave are smaller transepts : over 
the north-western transept is a tower of early English cha- 
racter, with angular buttresses surmounted with pinnacles, 
and formerly with a spire. It was obviously part of the 
architect's plan to erect a similar tower over the south- 
western transept, but it was never completed. The fine 
western front of the cathedral is an addition to the nave ; it 
consists of a lofty portico of three compartments, that in the 
centre being the narrowest ; each compartment has an arch 
equal in height to the nave, supported by triangular piers 
faced with clustered shafts, and is surmounted by a lofty 
and richly ornamented pediment and a cross. At each ex- 
tremity of the western front is a lofty turret flanked at the 
angles by clustered shafts and pinnacles, and crowned with 
spires. The /ine effect of this western front is much injured 
by a small porch or chapel inserted in the central arch be- 
tween the piers, which, though in itself very beautiful, is 
here quite misplaced. 

Though the general character of the architecture is Nor- 
man or early English, great alterations have been made in 
later styles. Nearly all the windows have had tracery in- 
serted, and some of them have been enlarged. The per- 
pendicular addition at the eastern end, by which the aisles 
of the choir have been carried out square, is plain in its 
outward appearance, with large windows and bold buttresses, 
the latter surmounted by sitting statues in place of pin- 
nacles. The ceiling or inner roof of the nave and of the 
great transepts is painted wood ; and the choir.has a wooden 
groined roof of very inferior workmanship and appearance. 
The dean and chapter have recently erected a new organ- 
screen of stone, and entirely new fitted up the choir with 
stalls, throne, pulpit, and altar-screen. The organ-screen 
consists of an entrance into thechoir under a richly moulded 
pointed arch surmounted by a crocketed canopy. The 
whole of the fitting up of the choir is in the style of the 
time of Edward 111., and the wood-work is of oak richly 
ornamented. There are few monuments, shrines, or chantry 
chapels, the devastations of the parliamentary troops having 
deprived the church of many of its ornaments of this class. 
The burial-places of the two queens. Catherine of Aragon 
and Mary of Scotland, both of whom were interred here, 
are unmarked by any sepulchral monument. 

The dimensions of the church are given by Bridges (Hist, 
of Northamptonshire) as follows: — total length 476 ft. 5 in.,- 
breadth of the nave and aisles 78 fu, height of the ceiling of 
the church 78 ft., breadth of the church at the great transepts 
203 ft., breadth of the transepts 69 ft., height of lantern 135 
ft. ; all these are (we believe) inside measurements. Length of 
the western front 156 ft., height of the turrets at the extre- 
mities of the west front 156 ft., tower and spire (the latter 
since taken down) over the north-west transept from the 
ground, 184 ft- height of.the central tower from the ground 
150 ft. ; these are all outside measurements. 

The view of the cathedral is confined on every side ex- 
cept the west, at which end is a large court, the entry to 
which from the town is by a gateway of Norman architec- 
ture, with some later additions. On the south side of the 
court is a range of the antient monastic buildings, retaining 
much of their antient appearance, and having in the midst 
of them the tower-gateway to the bishop's palace, over which 
is the knight's chamber. On the greater part of the other 
sides the cathedral is surrounded by the antient cemetery 
of the citizens, which is filled with tombstones. The gate 
of entrance to this cemetery from the western court is by 
a late perpendicular gate, remarkably rich in ornament. 
This cemetery is now not used ; and a new burial-ground 
has been formed on the western side of the city. 

The trade carried on at Peterborough is chiefly in corn, 
coal, timber, lime, bricks, and stone. The Nene is navi- 
gable for boats. There is a weekly market, and there are 
two yearly fairs; one of these, called 4 Brigge fair,' is kept 
over the bridge on the Huntingdonshire side of the river. 

There is no corporation at Peterborough. The dean and 
chapter exercise a certain jurisdiction; their steward holds 
a court for trying all actions, personal or mixed, arising 
within the city, but suits above 5/. are seldom tried here. 
The writs issuing from this court are directed to the bailiff 
of the city, who is appointed by the dean and chapter. 
Quarter-sessions for the liberty of Peterborough (which in- 
cludes the whole soke or hundred of Nassaburgh) are held 
for trying criminal actions of aU kinds ; the Custos Rotu- 

lorum, who is appointed by the crown, presides. The gaol 
and house of correction for the city and liberty are both 
miserably deficient. (First Report of Inspectors of Prisons 
in Great Britain.) Prisoners committed for trial for capital 
offences are sent to Northampton. 

Peterborough has sent members to parliament from 1 
Edw. VI. (a.d. 1647). The boundary of the city for parlia- 
mentary purposes was enlarged by the Boundary Act, so as 
to comprehend the whole parish of St. John the Baptist and 
the Minster precincts, which are extra- parochial. The bailiff 
of the city is the returning-officer. The number of voters 
registered in 1835-36 was 578. 

The living of St. John is a vicarage including the 
cbapelry of Longthorpe, of the clear yearly value of 575/., 
with a glebe-house. It is in the gift of the bishop of Peter- 

There were in the parish, in 1833, one infant-school, with 
68 children ; the endowed cathedral grammar-school, with 
31 boys; two endowed schools, with 20 and 16 boys respec- 
tively; a national school, with 322 boys and 118 girls, 
thirteen other boarding or day schools, with 182 boys and 
190 girls; and two Sunday-schools, with 93 boys and 91 

The bishopric of Peterborough was erected by Henry 
VIII. ; the diocese, which was taken out of that of Lincoln, 
comprehends the counties of Northampton and Rutland, 
exeept three parishes in each county, which remain in the 
peculiar jurisdiction of Lincoln. There are two archdeacon- 
ries, Northampton and Leicester : that of Northampton com- 
prehends the ten rural deaneries ofBrackley, Da vent'ry, Had - 
don, Higham Ferrers, Northampton, Oundle, Peterborough, 
Preston, Rothwell, and Weldon, all in Northamptonshire ; 
the five rural deaneries of Alstow, East Hundred, Oakham 
soke, Rutland or Martinsley, and Wrandike, all in Rut- 
landshire; the archdeaconry of Leicester (lately in the 
diocese of Lincoln) contains the seven rural deaneries of 
Akeley. Framland, Gartree, Goodlaxton, Goscot, Leicester, 
and Spar ken hoe. 

The average yearly revenue of the bishopric is returned 
at 3518/. gross, and 3103/.- net, including the preferments 
annexed to the 'see. The average yearly revenue of the 
cathedral is returned at 6357/. gross, and 5118/. net The 
corporation consists of the dean and six prebendaries; there 
are four minor canons, and a precentor, who is also sacrist 
and librarian. The dignitaries have no separate revenues. 
PETERS, BON A VENTURA, one of the most eminent 
marine painters of the Low Countries, was born at Antwerp 
i-n 1614. The subjects which he in general preferred were 
storms at sea, * in which,' says Pilkington,' he represented with 
extraordinary truth and pathos the various circumstances that 
can fill the mjnd with pity and terror. The raging of the 
waves, the impending tempest, vessels foundering or dashed 
in pieces against rocks, the mariners perishing in the deep, or 
seeming to dread a lingering death on a desert shore, are 
expressed by his pencil with the utmost truth, nature, and 
probability.' Sometimes however he painted calms and 
views of castles, or towns on the sea-shor,e, with equal merit. 
There is the same light and spirited touch, the same trans- 
parency in his colouring, and his water, whether agitated or 
still, has equal truth and delicacy. The figures are ex- 
tremely well designed and exquisitely finished. In a few 
of his works (which perhaps are erroneously ascribed to 
him) the colouring is too coarse, and the draperies of the 
figures mingled with tints that do not harmonise with the 
whole. His best works are extremely valuable and scarce, 
for he died, in 1652, at the early age of thirty-eight years. 

Peters, John, brother of Bonaventura, was born at Ant- 
werp, in 1625. He painted the same subjects as his brother, 
which are as finely touched, as well coloured, as transpa- 
rent, and enriched with excellent figures. His sea-fights 
were much admired ; and he also painted views of villages, 
towns, and fortresses on the banks of rivers, which he de- 
signed after nature. 

PETERSBURG, ST., a government of European 
Russia, extends from 57° 56' to 60° 35' N. lat and from 
21° 5' to 33° 52' E. long. It is formed of the antient pro- 
vince of Ingermannland, or Ingria, a part of Carelia, and 
some circles formerly belonging to Novogorod. It is 
bounded on the north by the Gulf of Finnland, Finn- 
land, and Lake Ladoga; on the east by Novogorod; on 
the south by Ps^ow ; and on the west by Lake Peipua and 


Digitized by 





Face of the Country; Soil; Cltmate.— The country 
is for the most part level, and in the north-east part it 
is low, and full of swamps and morasses. In the south it 
is rather more elevated ; a long range, called the Duderhoff 
mountains, which in fact are only low hills, nowhere rising 
more than 240 or 300 feet ahove the level of the sea, covers 
this part of the country. The government contains many 
forests, and only here and there some good arable land. 
The soil in the eastern, southern, and western circles, even 
on the Gulf of Finnland, is partly sandy, partly clayey, with 
extensive morasses and forests, which, together with the lakes, 
cover two-thirds of the surface. The principal lakes are the 
Ladoga, Peipus, and Pskow : and the chief rivers are the 
Neva, the Luga, the Narova, and the Wolchow. The 
Neva issues from Lake Ladoga, near the fortress of Schlus- 
selburg, from which point to its mouth is only 40 worsts 
in a straight line, but owing to the bend which it makes 
towards the south, the whole course is 60 wersts (40 
English miles) to the bay of Cronstadt, which ought to be 
considered as the mouth of the river, for the water is sweet 
and fit for drinking as far as Cronstadt. The banks are 
rather elevated ; the breadth varies from 600 to 1200 feet, and 
the water is remarkably pure, light, and limpid. Within the 
city of St, Petersburg it divides into several branches. The 
climate is cold, damp, and not favourable to agriculture. 
The summer is short, but in general fine and often very hot: 
thunder-storms are neither frequent nor violent. The area 
of the government, according to Schubert, who is followed 
by Storch, Wichmann, and others, is 17,800 square miles; 
Arsenieflf makes it 16,400, Koppen 18.500, and Horschel- 
mann 18,600. It is divided into nine circles. The popu- 
lation, in 1838, was 890,000. Though the climate is so un- 
favourable, and a large portion of the government covered 
with marshes, the crops raised are by no means scanty, 
though they are not sufficient for the supply of the great 
population of the capital. Flax and hemp are not much 
cultivated ; fruit-trees do not thrive in the open air. There 
are however in the vicinity of St. Petersburg fine gardens 
and parks; kitchen-gardens, which produce vegetables in 
abundance, and numerous hothouses which supply the capital 
with pines, melons, pine-apple9, asparagus, &c. Timber is 
still the chief source of wealth, for the forests, though much 
injured by waste and bad management, are still of immense 
extent. In the forests vast quantities of berries, wild 
fruits, and mushrooms are found. There is no game except 
hares. The country-people rear great numbers of geese, 
ducks, and turkeys for the markets of St. Petersburg. Fish 
are tolerably abundant. The breeding of cattle is very limited 
on account of the cold. The mineral kingdom affords 
granite, limestone, marl, brick earth, potters' clay, &c. The 
villagers manufacture wooden wares of various kinds. Trade 
and manufactures are almost wholly confined to the capital: 
there are however considerable manufactories of cloth, 
camlet, and blankets, as well as several glass-houses at 
Jamburg, on the Luga, with 2000 inhabitants ; and of printed 
calico at Schlusselburg, on an island where the Neva 
issues from Lake Ladoga. Gatschina, situated on a beau- 
tiful lake formed by the Ischora, has 7000 inhabitants, a 
military orphan-house, and a foundling hospital. [Narva ; 

PETERSBURG, ST., the second capital of the Russian 
empire (Moscow being accounted the first), is situated 
in 59° 56' N. lat and 30° 18' E. long., at the eastern 
extremity of the Gulf of Finnland, and at the mouth 
of the river Neva.. Of all the capital cities of Europe, 
St. Petersburg has at first sight the most striking appear- 
ance : the breadth and cleanliness of the streets, the ele- 
gance of the buildings, the noble canals which traverse the 
city, and the regularity of the edifices on their banks, make 
altogether a most impressive spectacle. • The united mag- 
nificence of all the cities of Europe,' says Dr. E. Clarke (since 
whose time it has been very much improved), * could but 
equal St. Petersburg.' There is nothing little or mean to offend 
the eye ; all is grand, extensive, large, and open ; the streets 
seem to consist entirely of palaces ; the edifices are lofty and 
elegant. The public structures, quays, piers, ramparts, 
&c, are all composed of masses of solid granite, and our 
admiration is increased when we reflect that not a century 
and a half has elapsed since its foundation. In 1703 Peter 
the Great chose this spot, then just taken from the Swedes, 
for the site of a fortified seaport. It was a low marshy 
island, covered in summer with mud, and in winter a frozen 
pool. The adjacent country was covered with marshes and 

impenetrable forests, the haunts of bears and wolves. We 
cannot suppose that Peter had any idea of fixing the seat of 
his empire on this extreme frontier, but it was important to 
have a strong position as a check upon the Swedes: this 
was also the only place through which an intercourse could 
be established with civilised Europe, an object which he 
had much at heart. In fact he was probably aware that the 
fort which the Swedes had built about five miles from the 
mouth of the Neva, at the place where it receives the little 
river Ochta, and which they called Nyenschanz, besides its 
importance as a military station, and as the key of the country, 
was not less important as a commercial place, during the 
connection of Novogorod with the Hanseatic league, espe- 
cially in the sixteenth century. Under Alexis Michailo- 
vitsch the fort and the town were almost wholly destroyed 
by fire, and Nyenschanz was only a good military position, 
but an insignificant town when Peter the Great made him- 
self master of it in 1702, after a few days' siege. The habi- 
tations supplied materials for the houses of St. Petersburg. 

The Neva, on the banks and islands of which the city is 
built, runs first towards the north, and then turning to the 
west, sends out towards the north an arm called the Nevka, 
which again divides into two branches called the Great and 
the Little Nevka. The main river, after throwing out the 
Nevka, divides into two branches, the Little Neva, which 
runs north-west, and the Great Neva, which runs south- 
west. Thus the Gulf of Cronstadt receives the, Neva by 
four great arms, which form several islands. The island to 
which the name of St. Petersburg was first given, lies on 
the north side.of the river between the Nevka and the Little 
Neva; and on a small island in the Great Neva, between 
these two arms, Peter laid the foundations of a fortress, which 
however was riot completed till 1740. The difficulties to be 
overcome were immense. In the spring of 1703 he col- 
lected a number of Russian, Tartar, Cossack, Calmuck, 
Finnish, and other peasants, and workmen were sent for 
from all parts of the empire. Peace not being yet concluded, 
soldiers were encamped on both sides of the Neva. The 
great difficulty was to find subsistence for so many persons* 
The surrounding country was desolated by a long war, and 
provisions were very scarce and dear. The workmen, being 
exposed to the cold and the damp, often up to their shoul- 
ders in the water, perished from fatigue and want, and the 
foundation of St. Petersburg cost the lives of one hundred 
thousand men. 

The city, in its present state, is of a circular form, but 
rather irregular. The circuit is about eighteen miles, but 
the smaller portion of the area is covered with buildings. 
The most considerable and the handsomest portion is the 
southern, on the left bank of the Neva, including the four 
Admiralty quarters ; between this and the northern or right 
bank of the Great Nevka, lie, from south to north, 1, Wassily- 
Ostrov ; 2, St. Peter's Island, the Island of Petrovsky, and 
the Apothecaries' Island ; 3, Kammenoi-Ostrov, Krestovsky, 
and Yelagin, a group of islands covered with gardens, 
groves, avenues of trees, and country-houses, which in sum- 
mer are the resort of the rich. The city is divided into 
twelve districts, and these again into quarters. Few cities 
have such long and broad streets as St. Petersburg. They 
are from 60 to 1 20 feet broad ; and the Nevsky Perspective is 
14,350 feet long, the Great Perspective 10,220, and eight 
others 6000. The stone pavement is in general bad, and must 
be laid down afresh every yea* ; a pavement of hexagonal 
blocks of wood, covered with tar, has been found to be more 
durable and cheaper, and is now used in many of the prin- 
cipal streets, which have broad flag- pavement for the foot 
passengers. There are no wells, but the water of the Neva 
is remarkably clear, pure, and wholesome. Those who live 
at a distance from the river use the water of the canals, 
the principal of which are the Fontanka, surrounding the 
whole Admiralty quarter, aud, within it, the Catherine Canal 
and the Moika. There are two bridges of boats over the 
Neva, and three over its arms ; one of them, the Troitskoi 
or Suwaroff Bridge, is 2456 feet long. These bridges are 
all removed whenever danger is apprehended from the ice, 
both at the beginning of the winter and in the spring. 
There are above seventy bridges over the canals, many of 
which are of granite, and ten of cast-iron, two of which are 
handsome suspension bridges, and many of wood. The 
Great or Southern Neva is here from 900 to 1 200 feet wide, 
and its south or left bank, to the extent. of 10,000 feet, ex- 
clusive of the Admiralty, which divides it into two parts, is 
furnished with a quay of granite, a work which, for utility 

Digitized by 





and magnificence, will remain a lasting monument of the 
reign of Catherine II. The bank is raised on piles ten feet 
above the level of the water, and has a foot-pavement seven 
feet broad, a breastwork two feet and a half high, and, at 
convenient distances, double flights of steps for landing, with 
semicircular seats at the top, all of granite. The part of the 
quay to the east of the Admiralty is called the Quay of the 
Court, and that on the west 'The English Quay,' being 
lined with a row of houses chiefly inhabited by opulent 
English merchants. The Quay of Wassily-Ostrov, on the 
opposite bank, which was completed in 1834, is still finer, 
but not so extensive. It is adorned with two colossal 
sphinxes, brought from Egypt, which are placed in front of 
the Academy of Arts. There are 140 Russian-Greek 
churches, 40 of other Christian communities, 2 Greek con- 
vents, a synagogue, and a mosque. Divine service is per- 
formed in fifteen languages. Of the Greek churches the 
most remarkable are, I, the Isaac's Church, which when 
finished will be the most magnificent — it is to be built 
entirely of marble; 2, the beautiful cathedral of the Mother 
of God of Casan ; 3, the church of St. Nicholas ; 4, the 
church of Alexander Nevsky, in the convent of the same 
name, containing the body of the saint in a silver sarcophagus 
(the convent is the residence of the archbishop of Peters- 
burg, and contains an academy and a seminary, with a 
fine library); 5, the church of St. Peter and St. Paul, in 
the citadel, which contains the tombs of the imperial 
family. The number of ^magnificent palaces and public 
buildings is so great that we can do little more than barely 
enumerate the most remarkable:—!, The Imperial Winter 
Palace has been described as the most conspicuous by all 
travellers : it was entirely destroyed by fire, about three 
years ago, but is now rebuilt. It was fortunate that, by the 
great exertion of the imperial guard, the fire was prevented 
from extending to the Hermitage, built by Catherine, which 
contains a costly library, a valuable collection of paintings, 
and other treasures. 2, The Marble Palace, an elegant but 

floomy-looking building. 3, The Taurida Palace, with its 
ne gardens, presented to Prince Potemkiu by Catherine II. 
4, The Anitchkov Palace, the residence of the emperor 
Nicholas while he was grand-duke. 5, The Old Miohailov 
Palace, where the emperor Paul resided and died. 6, The 
New Michailov Palace, with a park, the residence of the 
grand-duke Michael. It was built between the years 1819 
and 1825, and is one of the finest palaces in Europe. The 
number of what are called crown-buildings is very great. 
Among them are, 1, the Admiralty, surrounded on three 
sides by the dock-yards ; 2, the splendid building belonging 
to the general staff; 3, in the very extensive Isaacs Square, 
the Senate House, the General Synod, the Palace of the 
War Department, the large and handsome riding-school of 
the guard ; 4, the Alexander Theatre, in the Nevsky Per- 
spective ; 5, the fine palace of the Imperial Assignat Bank; 
6, the *New Arsenal; 7, the Gostinoi-Dvor, a great bazaar, 
two stories high, each containing 170 shops ; 8, the Academy 
of the Fine Arts, &c. The Field of Mars, adorned with a 
statue of Suwaroff, is extensive enough to admit 40,000 or 
50,000 men to be reviewed in it. The Field of Mars is 
bounded on two sides by the imperial gardens, on the 
third by the Winter Palace, and on the fourth by a row of 
massive buildings. The most recent of the public monu- 
ments is the Alexander Column, erected in honour of the 
emperor Alexander. There are also a celebrated equestrian 
statue of Peter the Great, a granite obelisk, 82 feet high, in 
honour of Romanzov, and the above-mentioned statue of 

The Russian sovereigns have done much to promote 
science and learning: academies and schools have been 
founded and liberally endowed by them, and learned men 
invited from foreign countries. Among these establish- 
ments are the university, founded in 1819, which has neither 
a theological nor a medical faculty ; the academy of sci- 
ences, founded by Peter I., on the plan of Leibnitz; the 
academy of fine arts ; the pedagogical institution for train- 
ing teachers in the higher departments of learning ; the 
ecclesiastical seminary in the convent of St. Alexander 
Nevsky; the medico-chirurgical academy ; four gymnasia; 
the Oriental institution; numerous institutions for the 
army and navy ; the mining academy ; the female schools 
of St. Catherine; the Smoluoi conveut, and the foundling hos- 
pitals. There are also a great number of private schools, and 
many private masters and governesses in families, who are 
mostly Germans. The collections of all kinds are very 

rich. The imperial public library consists of above 400,000 
volumes ; that of the academy of sciences, of 1 00,000 ; and 
almost every establishment has its own library. The principal 
collections are the zoological, the antiquarian, and that of 
Asiatic coins in the academy of sciences ; the cabinet of coins 
of the Oriental institution ; the splendid collection of mi- 
nerals of the mining academy, in which there is a lump of 
pure native gold weighing 25 lbs. and a lump of platinum 
of 10 lbs. ; the collections in the Hermitage, Romanzov's 
museum, the extremely rich collections of exotic plants in 
the hothouses of the botanic garden, and many private 
collections. The hospitals or charitable institutions of all 
descriptions are very numerous and well supported, rivalled 
perhaps only by those of London, the virtue of- charity 
being one of the most prominent features of tjie Russian 
character. The number of houses in 1838 was 8665, of 
which 3243 were of stone, and the remainder of wood : this 
seems a small number in proportion to the population, but 
some of the houses are extremely large; in 1833 there were 
13 houses each inhabited by above 1000 persons, 121 by 
300 to 1000 persons, 223 by 200 to 300 persons, and 671 
by 100 to 200 persons. 

The ground on which St. Petersburg stands is low and 
swampy, and the surrounding country is a morass and 
forest, except where it has been ameliorated by industry 
and art. It has been calculated that, on an average of 10 
years, there are 97 bright days, 104 rainy, 72 of snow, and 
97 unsettled. The ice in the Neva never breaks up before 
the 22nd of March (once only on the 6th of March), 
nor later than the 27th of April ; the earliest time of 
the river's freezing is the 20th of October, and the latest 
the 1st of December. The few bright days are generally 
during the greatest heat or the severest cold. The spring 
is very short; a sudden transition brings summer at 
once, which all classes hasten to enjoy, in the adjacent 
villas, in hospitality and social amusements. In sum- 
mer the nights are bright and generally warm. During the 
night, parties, frequently attended by music, promenade the 
streets in every direction, and the simple melody of the 
popular ballads floats on the air, from the boats that glide 
on the canals and the smooth surface of the Neva. Charmed 
by the novelty and beauty of the scene, the stranger, ex- 
pecting the approach of night, continues to linger till he is 
beguiled of his sleep, and sees with surprise the first beams 
of the rising sun gild the summits of the palaces and 
temples. In autumn St. Petersburg is one of the most 
disagreeable spots on the face of the earth. On the whole, 
winter is perhaps the best season ; at least it has many ad- 
vantages over the foggy winter of more southern climes. 
The cold, when it once sets in, is equal and constant, and it 
strengthens and braces the body. Travelling in sledges 
over the hard snow is convenient and agreeable ; the Rus- 
sians too know how to defend themselves against the cold 
better perhaps than any other people. All commercial in- 
tercourse with foreign countries being suspended during the 
winter, the citizens indulge their national fondness for luxury 
and amusements. The great masked ball (as it is called) on 
New Year's Day brings together persons of all classes in 
the Winter Palace : tickets are very easily obtained, and 
above 30,000 are usually issued. Nobody however is 
masked, nor is there any (lancing. The river being frozen 
over for several months, the surface presents a scene like 
that which was exhibited when a fair was held on the 
Thames, nearly resembling Bartholomew fair. The popu- 
lace are amused with swings, roundabouts, and the like, 
and above all by the ice-hills, which are inclined planes of 
considerable height, covered with blocks of ice. The ascent 
is by a flight of steps at the back. A low sledge with one 
person in it glides down the plane with such rapidity that 
it is carried by the impetus to the next ice-hill, when the 
driver takes his sledge on his back, ascends the steps, and 
descends on the other side. This is the favourite amuse- 
ment of the Russians. There are likewise great popular 
amusements during Lent in Isaac's Square. 

In summer all those who have the means go into the 
country. There are numerous country-houses in the islands, 
and on the road to Peterhof, Strelna, and Oranienbaum. 
Of the islands in the Neva, north of St. Petersburg, 
that of Krestovsky is the most beautiful; the isle of 
Yelagin has an imperial summer palace with a fine 
park. Kammenoi-Ostrov, another island, contains a 
palace belonging to the grand-duke Michael. Peterhof, on 
the bay of Cronstadt, the road to which is a noble causeway 

Digitized by 





bordered by fine gardens and country-seats, has a large 
garden and fine waterworks. A grand fSte is generally 
celebrated here on the 13th of July, in honour of the birth- 
day of the empress Alexandra, when the gardens are splen- 
didly illuminated and enlivened with bands of music, and 
above 100,000 persons are assembled. Oranienbaura, on 
the Gulf of Finnland, the summer residence of the grand- 
duke Michael, is still more beautifully situated than Peter- 
hof. Zarskoje-Selo is a very magnificent imperial country- 
seat, with an immense park and noble gardens. A large 
portion of this palace was burnt down in 1820. At a short 
distance is the Pulkowaberg, on which the emperor Nicholas 
has caused a fine observatory to be erected, and furnished 
with the best instruments. Pavlovsk, near the town of 
the same name, is an imperial country-seat, with a fine park 
laid out in the English style by Brown.* At Gatschina, 
Tschesme, and Strelna there are likewise country-seats 
belonging to the Imperial family. [Cronstadt ; Narva.] 
According to the account given by the chief of the police 
for 1839, the population amounted in that year to 476,386, 
of whom 338,512 were males and 138,874 females: in 1838 
the total was 469,720, so that there was an increase in 1839 
of £666. It appears from M. Kbppen, that of the 469,720 
inhabitants, in 1838, there were in the city and its district, 
including Cronstadt, only 53,883 males who had their legal 
settlement there. Supposing the total to be 109,000, in- 
cluding females, there remain 360,000 strangers from other 
provinces, of whom the great majority are males. We quote 
from the official tables a few instances : — 

Men. ' Women. 

Persons not of noble birth . 19,210 9,687 

Artisans included in the guilds 19,238 3,692 

The garrison, not including the 

officers . 48,406 10,336 

Domestics . 52,357 14,674 

Workmen of the class of pea- 
sants . . • • 103,237 23,076 

St Petersburg is not only the capital but the greatest 
manufacturing city of the empire. There are above two 
hundred manufactories of different descriptions, some car- 
ried on by private individuals, of silk, cotton, woollen, lea- 
ther, glass, gold and silver articles, watches, surgical instru- 
ments, paper, snuff and tobacco, sugar, &c. There are 
others which the government has considered it advisable to 
carry on upon its own account ; such are the great manu- 
factory of tapestry, a large manufactory of aqua-fortis, with 
an assay-office and a mint; a plate-glass manufactory, which 
produces mirrors 14 feet high and 7 feet wide, a porcelain 
manufactory, and a great manufactory of cotton and linen, 
in which steam-engines are employed, at Alexandrovsk, 
near the city ; a considerable part of this manufactory was 
last year destroyed by fire. The government has likewise a 
cannon- foundry and powder-mills. 

The commerce of St. Petersburg is very considerable. 

• The construction of an iron rail-road from St. Petersburg to Pavlovsk and 
Zarskoje-Selo has greatly increased the number of visitors to those places. 

Cronstadt is the harbour. The following is the official 
account for the year 1839:— arrived at Cronstadt, in 1839, 
1378 ships, of which 912 with cargoes and 466 in ballast; 
1395 sailed, of which only 27 were in ballast — of these 50 
had wintered at Cronstadt ; this year only 33 remained to 
winter. Above 700 of these strips were English. The steam- 
boats to Lubeck performed twenty-one voyages, those to 
London twelve, to Hfivre eight, and to Revel twenty-one. 
Above 12,000 barks bring to St. Petersburg from the inte- 
rior articles of Russian produce and manufactures for the 
consumption of the capital and for exportation. The 
total value of the imports was 198,961,386 rubles (in 
bank ass i gnats), and the value of the exports 13*2,018,295 
rubles; total 330,979,681 rubles. Deducting 2,504,445 
rubles, the value of the goods exported and imported by the 
captains of ships and passengers, the remaining operations 
were effected by 170 commercial houses, of which 94 
transacted business under a million of rubles, and 76 
above that amount. Three houses did business to the amount 
of more than seven millions, two of eight millions, three often 
millions, one of twelve millions, one of nineteen millions, and 
one of twenty-six millions. Among these eleven houses there 
is not one Russian name; they are all German and English, 
except one French. The exports are hemp, flax, tallow, lea- 
ther, iron, tobacco, canvas, coarse linen, bees'-wax, linseed, 
linseed-oil, tar, potash, &c. The increased exportation of 
wool deserves to be noticed. From 1800 to 1814, the average 
annual quantity exported was under 20,000 poods; from 
1814 to 1824, under 36,000 poods; from 1824 to 1834, 
112,000 poods; and in 1838 it was 360,760 poods. The 
imports are colonial produce of all . kinds, manufac- 
tures of silk, cotton, hardware, French wines, jewellery, 
and all articles of luxury and fashion. The immense 
preponderance of the trade with England is proved 
by the number of ships employed iu it. The effects of a 
rupture with England may be inferred from the fact that 
in the year 1808, which followed the alliance between 
Alexander and Napoleon, concluded at Tilsit in Sep- 
tember, 1807, the value of the imports fell to 1,152,000 
rubles, that of the exports to 5,875,000 rubles, and the 
duties of customs from five millions to 918,000 rubles. 
The actual revenue now derived from the customs is about 
50 millions of rubles. 

( Sch mid tl in. La Bussie et laPologne; Horschelmann ; 
Stein's Handbuch; Conversations Lexicon; Cannabich, 
Lehrbuch der Geographie ; the Russian Journal of Com- 
merce, and Journal of the Department of the Interior; and 
Plan of St. Petersburg, published by the Society for the 
Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.) 

Though by no means so complete as could be wished, the 
following table will serve as an architectural synopsis of the 
more remarkable structures of St. Petersburg, few of which, 
it must however be confessed, are of high architectural qua- 
lity, or calculated to stand the test of critical examination, 
although from their magnitude and general air of stateliness 
they produce a favourable first-sight impression on the 
stranger : — 

Table of Public Buildings. 




The Fortress 



Directory Senate 


Originally Prince Menzikov's palace. 

Cathedral of St. Peter and 



Paul in Fortress 



The Foundry . ... 



Summer Palace 



Smolnoi Monastery, Church 


St. Nicholas Morskoi . 


The Anitchkov Palace 



Winter or Imperial Palace . 



A very large but grotesque pile ; burnt down December 

Marble Palace . 



1837; rebuilt 1839. 

Hermitage, the Little 



? — the Great 






Interior, plan of an antient theatre. Order Corinthian. 

Nevsky Monastery Church 


Old Arsenal 


Hexastyle Doric in centre. 

Colossal equestrian statue . 



(Peter the Great) 

Taurida Palace 



Obutchov's Hospital . 


Manege of the Imperial 


A Roman Doric octastyle portico entire width of front 


Sculptured pediment; ditto frieze within portico. 

Digitized by 





Gostinoi Dvor, or Bazaar 
Academy of Fine Arts 

Cathedral of St. Alexander 


Marine Cadets* College 
Palace of St. Michael . 
Catholic Chapel, Knights of 

Imperial Bank . 
Institut Demoiselles Nobles, 

Smolnoi Monastery 
Foundling Hospital on the . 

Medical, &c. Academy 
Troitzki Church 
Romanzov Obelisk 
Academy of Sciences . 


The Casan Cathedral . 

Russian Academy 

Imperial Hospital for Sick 

Great Theatre . . 
Birzha, or Exchange . 

New Arsenal 

St. Sergius* Church . • 
Salt Magazine . 
Church of St. Vladimir 

— - St. Peter . 

St. Catherine, 

Vassili Ostrov 

Imperial Mews • 

Isaac's Church (rebuilding). 
Churoh of the Skorbyashtnik 

(or Sufferers) 
Grand-duke Michael's palace 

Hotel des Mines, or Mining 

The Etat Major 
The Hall of Archives 

Theatre, Aplugin Island ' . 
Narvsky Gate, or Triumphal 

Alexandrinsky Theatre 
Lutheran Church of St. Peter 

and St. Paul 
Alexander Column . " . 
Church of St. Catherine the 

Michailovsky Theatre" 
Winter Palace . 


Triumphal Arch • . 

Duke of Leuchtenberg*s 

• Date. 



























Sokolov and 

















RoSsi & Bruilov 
Rossi & Clarke 



Const. Thon 

Bruilov and 

Quarenghi and 




A very handsome structure. A Roman Doric order on a 
' loftv arcaded basement. 

Ionic on basement 

Italian style. Now used for the engineer corps. 
Order Corinthian; front four attached columns beneath 

Front 730 feet; centre Ionic octastyle on basement 

Corinthian portico. 

Byzantine style. 

Bronze. Height 82 feet. 

Octastyle Ionic portico. 

A most extensive range of buildings of rich design. 

Corinthian hexastyle [see Portico, Plans], .with curved 
colonnades extending from it. 

Octastyle Ionic portico. 


Roman Doric, peripteral decastyle, with two rostral columns 
in front 

Corinthian hexastyle portico. Dome. 

Front, Ionic hexastyle, attached columns. Interior a ro- 
tunda with 24 cplumns. 

Corinthian order on basement. Centre an octastyle pro- 

Entirely constructed of cast-iron. Style Gothic. Dimen- 
sions 142 by 57 feet. 

Previously designed by Quarenghi. and erected tempora- 
rily in timber ; now executed in metal by Clarke and, 

Shaft a granite monolith, 84 feet high, surmounted by a 
colossal figure of Faith. 

Grecian style. 

PETERSFIELD, a market- town, parish, and parliamen- 
tary borough in the hundred of Finch-Dean, and in the 
present northern, but in the old southern division of Hamp- 
shire. The town, which is on the road from London to 
Portsmouth, is 52 miles south-west from London, and 16 
miles east by south from Winchester, direct distances. It 
is a clean country town, partly lighted with gas, tolerably 
paved, and amply supplied with water. The trade is unim- 
portant, but fairs for sheep and horses are held March 5, 
July 1 0, and December 11. The market-day is Saturday. The 
assessed taxes levied in 1830 amounted to 540/. The popu- 
lation of the town and parish in 1831 was 1803. The living, 
attached to the chapelry of Peters field, is a curacy, which, 
with the rectory of Buriton, are in the diocese of Winches- 

ter and patronage of the bishop of that see, and yield an 
average net income of 1 1 94/. Near the chapel is an eques- 
trian statue of William III. There is a school called 
Churcher's college, from the name of the founder, who, m 
1722, bequeathed the sum of 3000/. Bank stock and 500/. 
in cash for its establishment and support. The boys, from 
ten to twelve in number, are clothed, fed, and instructed in 
writing, arithmetic, and so much of the mathematics as is 
applicable to navigation. Several acts of parliament have 
been obtained for regulating the expenditure of the funds 
of the charity, which have increased considerably. 

According to the Corporation Reports, no royal charter of 
incorporation is known to have been conferred upon the 
town; but in Warner's 'History of Hampshire, and 

Digitized by 





in other wonts, it is stated to have been incorporated by a 
charter of Queen Elizabeth, which is also confirmed by the 
Report of the Commissioners on the boundary of the borough. 
The town is governed by a mayor, chosen annually at the 
court-leet of the lord of the manor, but the functions of the 
mayor are merely nominal. The borough of Petersfleld re- 
turned members to parliament as early as Edward 1., and 
two members continuously from the reign of Edward VI. 
till the passing of the Reform Act, since which it has been 
represented by one member. The present parliamentary 
boundary includes the old borough of Petersfield and the 
tithing of Sheet; the parishes of Buriton, Lyss, and Frox- 
field ; the tithings of Ramsden, Langrish, and Oxenbourn, 
in the parish of East Meon, and also the parish of Steep, 
except the tithings of North and South Ambersham. 

(Sixteenth Report of the Commissioners on Charities, p. 
296 ; Reform Act and other Parliamentary Papers ; War- 
ner's Hist, of Hampshire, &c.) 

PETERWARDEIN. or PETERVARA, the principal 
and frontier fortress of Slavonia, the Gibraltar of Hungary, 
is situated in 45° 1 5' N. lat. and 19° 55 r E. long., in the neigh- 
bourhood of some mountains and fruitful hills, on the right 
bank of the Danube, near the angle formed by the sud- 
den change in the course of that river from due south to 
east. On a rock isolated on three sides stands the upper 
fortress and .the hornwork ; on the northern foot of the 
rock lies the lower fortress, which includes what is pro- 
perly the town, and is partly on a gentle slope. It com- 
mands the Danube, whose waters bathe the walls on the 
west and south sides. It i3 a place of extraordinary strength 
both by nature and art. As a precaution in case of a very 
close siege, a well has been excavated in the rock to a depth 
below the surface of the Danube. The lower fortress has 
very broad and deep moats, which may be filled with water 
from the Danube, lofty walls, and many bastions and rave- 
lins, by which it is separated on the south side from the two 
suburbs Ludwigsthal and Rochusthal. One principal street, 
and two others parallel to it, with a pretty extensive parade, 
form the whole town, which consists of only fourteen public 
buildings and forty-eight houses, most of the latter being 
only one story high. The principal buildings are the 
arsenal, the residence of the commandant, and the Roman 
Catholic parish church, formerly belonging to the Jesuits. 
Besides the two above-mentioned suburbs, some writers 
reckon the village of Bukowitz, about a league distant, as 
belonging to Peterwardein. The population of the town, 
the two suburbs, and Bukowitz, including the garrison, is 
stated at 6500. The fortress is capable of containing a 
garrison of 1 0,000 men. 

Peterwardein is connected, by a bridge of boats over the 
Danube (here 700 feet wide, and from 50 to 60 feet deep), 
with' the town of Neusatz, on the opposite bank. 

(Von Jenny, Handbuch fur Reisende in dem Oester- 
, reichischen Kaiser stoat e ; W. Blumenbach, Neuestes Ge- 
m'dlde der Oesterreichischen Monarchies 

PETIOLE is that part of the leaf commonly called the 
stalk ; it is usually a contracted part of the leaf through 
which the wood-reins pass from the trunk, but in other 
rases it is thin, expanded flat, or rolled up in a sheathing 
manner, when it is scarcely to be distinguished from the 
felade of the leaf itself. It is the opinion of some botanists 
that the leaves of endogens, in which the veins are parallel 
instead of being reticulated, consist exclusively of petiole ; 
ibut this seems contradicted by grasses which have both a 
petiole and lamina, with parallel veins. 

PETIS DE LA CROIX, FRANgOIS, a learned French 
Orientalist, born at Paris, towards the close of 1653, was the 
sonaf the king's interpreter for the Oriental languages, and 
ceceicred an education to qualify him for the same employ- 
ment. At the early age of sixteen he was sent, by the 
minister Colbert, to reside in 'the East He spent several 
years at Aleppo, Ispahan, and Constantinople, where he 
became master of the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish lan- 
guages. During his stay at the first-named city he trans- 
lated into elegant Arabic an account of the campaign of 
Louis XIV. in Holland, which his contemporary Pellisson 
published in 1671. He returned to Paris in 1680, and two 
years afterwards was sent to Marocco, as secretary to M. 
de Saint Amand, who had been appointed ambassador to 
MuJey Ismail, the reigning sultan. He is reported to have 
pronounced before that sovereign a speech in Arabic which 
exeited the admiration of the. whole court by the facility of 
the delivery and the elegance and purity of the style. In 

the two following years he accompanied the French arma- 
ments against Algiers, under Duquesne, . Tourville, and 
D'Amfreville [Algiers], filling untier each of these generals 
the situation of secretary-interpreter of the marine, in which 
capacity he was employed to translate into Turkish the 
treaty of peace, concluded in 1 684, between France and the 
regency of Algiers. In 1685 he performed the same office 
with respect to the negotiations with Tunis and Tripoli, 
when he gave decisive proofs of his integrity and patriotism. 
It is asserted that while the negotiations with the latter 
power were goiug on (one of the conditions of the treaty 
Deing that the bey of Tripoli should pay to the king of 
France the sum of 600,000 livres) Petis was offered a con- 
siderable bribe if he would put down in the original treaty 
Tripoli crowns instead of French ones, which would have 
made a difference of a sixth part, but his fidelity to his 
sovereign was incorruptible. In 1687 he assisted the Duke 
de Mortemart in concluding a treaty of peace and commerce 
with the empire of Marocco. In short, it was through his 
intervention that all the affairs between France and the 
Eastern courts were transacted from the year 1680, when 
he was first employed in diplomacy, to the time of his 
death. As a reward for his eminent services, Petis was 
appointed, in 1692, Arabic professor to the College Royal 
de France, and after the death of his father (1695) the office 
of Oriental interpreter was also conferred upon him. From 
this period Petis never left his native country, but employed 
himself in various translations from the Eastern languages, 
With most of which he was perfectly well acquainted; for, 
besides the Arabic, Turkish, and Persian, ne is said to 
have been well acquainted with the Mogul, Armenian, 
and Ethiopian. 

He died at Paris, December 4, 1713, at the age of sixty, 
leaving a son, named Alexandre Louis Marie, who suc- 
ceeded him in his office of secretary-interpreter of the 
marine, and made likewise several translations from the 
Persian and the Turkish. 

His principal publications are, 'Les Mille et un Jours' 
(the thousand and one days), translated from the Persian, 
Paris, 1710-12, 5 vols. 12mo. ; 'Contes Turcs/ a translation 
from Sheikh Zadeh, Paris, 1707, l2mo. ; 'The History of 
Timur,' translated from .the Persian of Sheref-ed-din Ali 
Yesdi, Paris, 1722, 4 vols. 12mo. Most of his works how- 
ever still remain in manuscript; these are his 'Travels 
through Syria and Persia, from 1670 to 1680 ;' a ' History 
of the Conquest of Syria by the Arabs,' translated from 
the Arabic of Wakedi ; ' The Bibliographical Dictionary of 
Haji Khalfah,' from the Turkish ; a • History of the Otto- 
man Empire,' from the same language ; a ' Dictionary of 
the Armenian Language ;' a work on ' The 4ntiquities and 
Monuments-of Egypt ;' an ' Account of Ethiopia ; a treatise 
entitled 'Jerusalem, Modern and Antient;' and several 
others, the titles of which are given at full length in the 
* M6moire sur le College Royal,' by Goujet, Paris, 1758. 
In some biographies of Petis de la Croix, a ' History of 
Gengis-Khan,' from the Persian (Paris, 1710), is attributed 
to him ; but this is an error, since the above translation, 
though edited by Petis, was the work of his father, whose 
Christian name was also Francois. 

(Goujet, Memoir e Historique et Litter aire sur le College 
Royal de France, Paris, 1758, 4to.; Biographie Universale, 
vol. xxxiii.) 

PETIT, JEAN LOUIS, was born at Paris in 1674. 
Littre, a celebrated professor of anatomy, being a resident 
in his father's house, inspired the young Petit with such a 
zeal for the same study, that at twelve years of age he ac 
quired sufficient dexterity in dissecting to be appointed to 
prepare the subjects for his preceptor's lectures, and to be 
placed at the head of his anatomical class. At sixteen he 
was apprenticed to a surgeon ; and so great was his zeal in 
his studies, that Mareschal, the chief surgeon of the Hos- 
pital La Charite", on going very early in the morning to visit 
his patients, more than once found Petit asleep by the door, 
awaiting his arrival, that he might secure a good place 
during the operations. In 1692 he obtained the post of 
surgeon in the army, and was in active service till 1700, 
when he returned to Paris and obtained the degree of Mas- 
ter in Surgery. Here he delivered several courses of lec- 
tures to a school of anatomy and surgery which he estab- 
lished, and in which many of those who were afterwards 
among the first surgeons in Europe were pupils. His repu- 
tation rapidly increased, and he was elected a member of 
the Academy of Sciences at Paris, of the Royal Society of 

Digitized by 





London, and of many learned societies. In 1731, at the 
foundation of the Academy of Surgery in Paris, of which he 
was one of the most active promoters, he was elected director. 
He died in 1760. 

Petit was for many years the most renowned surgeon in 
Europe, and contributed more to its advancement as a 
science than any one who had preceded him. He not only 
raised the character of surgery in France, but many of his 
pupils were invited to take charge of important offices in 
different parts of Europe, and by carrying thither his im- 
provements and some of his zeal, gave a fresh stimulus to 
its progress. 

At the time of his death, Petit had been engaged twelve 
years in the composition of an extended 'Treatise on Sur- 
gery.' It was completed and published in 1774, by De 
Lesne, and is still a standard work. The other most im- 
portant of his surgical writings are a 'Treatise on the Dis- 
eases of the Bones,' and numerous papers published in the 
Memoirs of the Academies of Surgery and of the Sciences. 

PETIT, PETER, was born 3 1st December, 1598 (Nice- 
ron), or 8th December, 1594 (Biog. Univers.), at Montlucon, 
a small town in the present department of the Allier. When 
young, he occupied himself in mathematical studies and 
experimental philosophy, which he afterwards evinced con- 
siderable aptitude in applying. In 1626 he succeeded his 
father in the office of ' Controlleur en 1' Election de Mont- 
lucon/ which office he sold in 1633, after the death of his 
parents, and then removed to Paris. Here he was intro- 
duced to the Cardinal de Richelieu, and appointed by that 
minister to inspect the seaports of France and Italy. Be- 
tween this time and 1649 there were conferred upon him 
the appointments of provincial commissary of artillery, 
intendant of fortifications, and geographer, engineer, and 
councillor to Louis XIII. Upon his return from Italy, he 
communicated to Mersenne a critical examination of the 
' Dioptrics* of Descartes, which led to his being introduced 
to Format, who had also questioned the soundness of the 
Cartesian theory. Subsequently however he became very 
intimate with Descartes and an unreserved supporter of all 
his doctrines. In 1 646;7, a series of experiments made by 
Pascal and Petit eon firmed the explanation then recently 
given by Torricelli of the phenomena of the barometer and 
common pump. Petit died 20th August, 1667, at Lagni 
on the Marne, about five leagues from Paris. 

The following list of his works is given by Niceron, in 
the forty-second volume of the * M6moires des Hommes 
Illustres:'— 1, *L'Usagedu Compas de Proportion/ Paris, 
1634, 8 vo.; 2, 'Discours Chronologiques/ Paris, 1636, 4to.; 
3, 'Carte du Gouvernement de la Capelle;' 4, 'Avis sur la 
Conjonction proposee des Mers Ooeane et Mediterranee par 
les Rivieres d'Aude et de Garonne/ 4to. ; 5, 'Observations 
touchant le Vide fait pour la premiere fois en France,' 
Paris, 1647, 4to.; 6, * Discours touchant les Remedes qu'on 
peut apporter aux Inundations de la Riviere de Seine dans 
Paris/ 1658, 4to.; 7, ' Observations aliauot Eclipsiuro— 
Dissertatio de Latitudine Luteti© et Magnetis Declina- 
tione— Novi Systematic Confutatio/ published in Duhamel's 
'Astronomy/ Paris, 1659-60— (the object of the second 
of these tracts is to prove that the latitude of Paris 
was not permanent, an opinion which bad been entertained 
with regard to geographical positions generally by the Ita- 
lian astronomer Maria) ; 8, ' Dissertation sur la Nature des 
Cometes/ Paris, 1665, 4to. (written at the desire of Louis 
XIV., to lessen the alarms of the people occasioned by the 
appearance of the comet of 1664); 9, ' Lettre touchant le 
Jour auquei on doit cellbrer la Feto de Pfiques/ Paris, 
1666, 4to. ; 10, ' Dissertations sur la Nature du Chaud et du 
Froid/ Paris, 1671, 12mo. 

(Montucla, Histoire dee MathcmcUiques ; Niceron.) 

PETITION. A petition is an application in writing, 
addressed to the lord chancellor, the master of the rolls, or 
to the Equity side of the Court of Exchequer, in which the 
petitioner states certain facts as the ground on which he 
prays for the order and direction of the court. Petitions 
are either cause petitions or not. A cause petition is a pe- 
tition in a matter of which the court has already possession 
bv virtue of there being a suit concerning the matter of 
the petition ; and the petitioner is generally either a party 
to such suit, or he derives a title to some interest in the 
subject matter of the suit from a party to it. When there is 
no suit existing about the matter of the petition, it is called 
an ex parte petition. 

Some cause petitions are called petitions of course, and 
P. O, No. 1107. 

relate to matters in the ordinary prosecution of a suit, and 
before a decree. Such petitions are granted upon application 
of the party petitioning; and they may be presented at any 
time, whether the courts are sitting or not They are not 
answered when presented, in the same manner that other 
petitions are; but the order to be made on such petition (if 
presented at tho Rolls) is at once drawn up bv the secretary 
of the master of the Rolls, unless they are petitions for re- 
hearing. Such petitions may also be presented to the lord 

Other petitions in a cause, which are not petitions of course, 
and may be called special petitions, have for their object to 
carry a decree into execution. Thus a party who has an 
interest in a fund in court, a legatee for instance who was 
a minor when the decree was made, may, when he is of age, 
apply by petition to have his share paid to him, because his 
right to it has been recognised by a decree or order of the 
court, or by a master's report which has been confirmed. 
The nature of the petitions in a cause will of course vary 
with the subject-matter of the suit. 

Petitions, not in a cause, are of various kinds, and many 
of them are presented under the authority of particular acts 
of parliament. These also are called special petitions. Thus 
a petition may be presented for the appointment of guardians 
to infants, and for an allowance for their maintenance ; for 
the purpose of procuring an order of court that infant trus- 
tees and mortgagees may execute conveyances ; and for va- 
rious other purposes. In matters of lunacy, the form of pro- 
ceeding in the first instance is by petition to the chancellor, 
to whom the care of lunatics and idiots is specially dele- 
gated by the crown, and the prayer of the petition is for a 
commission to inquire into the state of mind of tho alleged 
lunatic. [Lunacy.] In subsequent proceedings relating to 
the property of a person, when found lunatic by a jury, a 
petition is the regular and usual course of proceeding; and 
suits are not commenced or defended for the lunatic with- 
out the previous approval and direction of the court. 

All special petitions must be presented to the court to 
which they are addressed, in order to be answered : until they 
are answered, the court is not fully possessed of the matter 
of the petition. The answer, which is written on the copy 
of the petition and signed by the judge, requires the attend- 
ance before him of all parties concerned in the matter of the 
petition at the hearing thereof, It is the business of the 
petitioning party to serve all proper parties with notice of 
this petition, and the answer to the petition becomes an order 
of the court, upon every person whom the petitioner chooses 
to serve with- the petition, to attend at tne hearing of it ; 
and if such person be absent at the hearing, he will be 
bound by the order made on the petition. Service of the 
petition consists in delivering a true copy of the petition as 
answered to the clerk in court whose attendance the peti- 
tioner thinks necessary, or to the party himself. In some 
special cases, the petitioner is permitted, on special motion, 
supported oy an affidavit that he is unable to serve the party 
personally, to leave the copy of the petition at the party's 
house with one of his family, and this will be considered 
good service. Special petitions frequently require to be 
supported by affidavits of the petitioner or some other person, 
or of both ; and such affidavits may be filed at any time 
after the petition is answered. If a petitioner choose to 
serve a party with a petition, whose presence is considered 
by the court to be unnecessary, he must pay such party the 
cost of attending at the hearing of the petition. 

A petition is heard in court by the counsel for the peti 
tioner stating the substance and prayer of the petition, and 
by reading or briefly stating the contents of the affidavits 
filed in support of the petition, if any have been filed. If 
the prayer of the petition is opposed bv any of the parties 
who have been served with it, they are heard by their coun- 
sel, and their affidavits also, if any have been filed, arc read 
or briefly stated to the court. On hearing the matter of 
the petition and the affidavits on both sides, the court either 
dismisses the petition or makes such order as it thinks fit. 
The order when made is drawn up, passed, entered, served, 
and enforced like any other decree or order of the court. 
Before any order made on a petition can be passed, the ori- 
ginal petition must be filed with the clerk of reports. The 
order itself in the present practice recites no part of the 
petition except the prayer. 

PETITION OF RIGHT. Where the crown or a sub- 
ject has a cause of action against a subject, the ordinary 
mode of putting that cause of action into a course of legal 

Vol. XVIII.— F 

Digitized by 





investigation is by the king s writ, requiring the party to 
appear in court to answer the complaint. Where the claim 
is against the crown itself, as this course cannot be pursued, 
the mode of proceeding provided by common law is to pre- 
sent a petition to the crown, praying for an inquiry and for 
the remedy to which the party conceives himself to be en- 
titled. A« by Magna Charta the king ia not to delay right, 
he is bound, if the petition presents that which has the 
semblance or a legal or equitable claim, to indorse the peti- 
tion with the words 'let right be done;' which indorsement 
operates, in the case of a claim of a legal nature, as a war- 
rant and command to the lord chancellor to issue a com- 
mission to inquire into the truth of the matters alleged in 
the petition. A commission accordingly issues to six or 
eight persons, who summon a jury, of whom not less than 
twelve or more than twenty-three are impannelled, and 
who, under the superintendence of the commissioners, hear 
the evidence wbicn the petitioner, or, as he is called, the 
suppliant, has to adduce in support of his statement If 
the jury negative the allegations contained in the petition, 
the commission is at an end ; but the suppliant is at liberty 
to sue out a new commission or commissions till a jury 
return an inquisition in which the allegations are found 
to be true. The crown may, upon this return, insist that 
the facts alleged by the suppliant, and found by the inquisi- 
tion, do not in point of law entitle the suppliant to the re- 
medy which he claims. The question of law thus raised by 
demurrer to the inquisition is argued before the lord chan- 
cellor. The crown liowever, notwithstanding the 6nding of 
the jury, may deny the truth of the facts, or, admitting 
them to be true, may allege other facts which show that the 
suppliant is not entitled to what he claims. To sueh facts 
the suppliant must reply. Any issue of fact joined between 
the suppliant and the crown is tried in the court of King's 
Bench, the lord chancellor not having the power to summon 
a j ury. Final j udgme nt is given for or against the suppliant 
according to the result of the argument upon the demurrer 
or of the trial of the issue. 

If the suppliant in hjs petition pray that the investi- 
gation may take place in a particular court, and the royal 
indorsement on trie petition directs that course to be pur- 
sued, the proceedings take place in the court indicated by 
the indorsement, instead pf the Court of Chancery. 

Before the abolition of the feudal tenures by the Com- 
monwealth (confirmed after the Restoration, by 12 Car. II., 
c. 24), the rights of the crown and of the subject being often 
brought into collision, occasions for proceeding by petition 
of right were very frequent, and as this mode of proceeding 
was dilatory and expensive, two acts, passed in the reign of 
Edward 1(1., enabled parties aggrieved in certain cases by 
legal proceedings of the crown, to enter their claim upon 
those proceedings, without bein^ put to their petition of 
right, with its expensive commission to inquire. This new 
course was called a ' traverse of office,' where the subject 
denies the matters contained in the • office' or ex parte re- 
cord constituting the king's title, and a • monstraunce de 
droit,' where the facts upon which the king's title rests are 
admitted but their effect is avoided by the allegation of 
other facts showing a better title in the claimant. In mo- 
dern practice the petition of right is not resorted to, 
except in cases to which neither a. traverse of office nor a 
monstraunce de droit applies, or after those remedies have 

The petition of right is supposed by Lord Coke and others 
to be so called because the investigation prayed for is de- 
mandable as of right, and not granted as a matter of grace 
or favour; but the Latin term *petitio justiti®' shows that 
the words are used in the sense of a 'petition for right' 

PETITION OF RIGIIT. In the first parliament of 
Charles I., which met in 1626, the Commons refused to 
grant supplies until certain rights and privileges of the 
subject, which they alleged had been violated, should have 
been solemnly recognised by a legislative enactment. With 
this view they framed a petition to the king, in which, after 
reciting various statutes by which their rights and privileges 
were recognised, they pray the king ' that no man be com- 
pelled to make or yield any gift, loan, benevolence, tax, or 
such-like charge, without common consent by act of parlia- 
ment, — that none be called upon to make answer for refusal 
so to do, — that freemen be imprboned or detained only by 
the law of the land, or by due process of law, and not by the 
king's special command, without any charge, — that persons 
be not compelled to receive soldiers and mariners into their 

houses against the laws and customs of the realm,*^thai 
commissions for proceeding by martial law be revoked: 
all which they pray as their rights and liberties according 
to the laws and statutes of the realm.' 

To this petition the kins at first sent an evasive answer: 
'The king willeth that right be done according to the laws 
and customs of the realm, and that the statutes be put in 
due execution, that his subjects may have no cause to com- 
plain of any wrongs or oppressions contrary to their just 
rights and liberties, to the preservation whereof he holds 
himself in conscience obliged .as of his own prerogative.' 
This answer being rejected as unsatisfactory, the king at 
last pronounced the formal words of unqualified assent, 
4 Let right be done as it is desired.' (1 Car. I., o. 1.) Not- 
withstanding this however the ministers of the crown caused 
the petition to be printed and circulated with the first in- 
sufficient answer. 

PETITOT, JOHN, a.n eminent painter in enamel, the 
son of a sculptor and architect, was born at Geneva, in 1607. 
Being designed for the trade of a jeweller, he was placed 
under the direction of Bordier, and in this occupation waa 
engaged in the preparation of enamels for the jewellery 
business. He was so successful in the production of colours, 
that he was advised by Bordier to attempt portraits. They 
conjointly made several trials, and though they still wanted 
many colours which they knew not how to prepare for the 
fire, their attempts had great success. After some time 
they went to Italy, where they consulted the most eminent 
chemists, and made considerable progress in their art, but it 
was in England, whither they removed after a few years, 
that they perfected it. 

In London they beeame acquainted with Sir Theodore 
Mayern, first physician to Charles I., and an intelligent 
chemist, who had by his experiments discovered the prin- 
cipal colours proper to be used in enamel, and the means of 
vitrifying them, so that they surpassed the boasted enamel- 
ling of Venice and Limoges. Petitot was introduced by 
Mayern to the king, who retained him in his service and 
gave him apartments in Whitehall. He painted the por- 
traits of Charles and the royal family several times, and 
copied many pictures, after Vandyck, which are considered 
his finest works. That painter greatly assisted him by his 
advice, and the king frequently went to see him paint. 

On the death of Charles, Petitot retired to France with 
the exiled family. He was greatly noticed by Charles II., 
who introduced him to Louis XIV. Louis appointed him 
his painter in enamel, and granted him a pension and apart- 
ments in the Louvre. He painted the French king many 
times, and, amongst a vast number of portraits, those of 
the queens Anne of Austria and Maria Theresa, He also 
occupied himself in making copies from the most celebrated 
pictures of Mignard and Lebrun. 

Petitot, who was a zealous Protestant, dreading the effects 
of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, solicited Wave, but 
for a long while in vain, to return to Geneva. The king 
employed Bossuet to endeavour to convert him to Ro- 
manism, in which however that eloquent prelate was wholly 
unsuccessful. At length Louis permitted him to depart, 
and leaving his wife and children in Paris, he proceeded to 
his native place, where he was soon after joined by his 
family. Arrived now at eighty years of age, he was sought 
by such numbers of friends and admirers, that he was forced 
to remove from Geneva and retire to Vevay, a email town 
in the canton of Berne, where he continued to labour until 
1691, in which year, whilst painting a portrait of his wife, 
he was suddenly attacked by apoplexy, of which he died. 

Bordier, in conjunction with whom he worked for fifty 
years, and who painted the hair, backgrounds, and draperies 
of his pictures, married his wife's sister. In the museum 
of the Louvre there is a collection of fifty-six portraits by 
Petitot; but his principal work is a magnificent whole- 
length portrait of Rachel de Rouvigny, countess of South? 
ampton, in the collection of the duke of Devonshire, painted 
from the original in oil by Vandyck, in the possession of the 
earl of Harawicke. This enamel is nine inches and three- 
quarters high, by five inches and three-quarters wide, a 
prodigious size for a work of this description, and by far the 
largest that had been then, and for a century and a half 
afterwards, executed. It is dated 1642. This work was 
some years ago entrusted to the late Mr. Bone, the enamel 
painter and royal academician, to repair, it having been 
seriously damaged by a fall, by which a large portion of the 
enamel had been displaced. Different from the practice 

Digitized by 






now adopted* the plate on which this was pain tad is formed 
upon a very thick piece of gold, the back having Crossbars 
attached of the tame metal* filled up with enamel, the 
metal alone weighing more than three ounces. 

In the earlier part of his career Petitot received twenty 
guineas for a portrait, which price he afterwards raised to 
forty. He generally used plates of gold, but seldom copper, 
and sometimes, it is said, silver, though this seems impro- 
bable, for that metal generally has the effect of tinging the 
enamel with yellow. Amongst a vast number of his works 
painted in England, we have never met with one the plate 
of which was composed of silver. His custom was to have a 
painter to draw the likeness Of his sitter in oil, from which 
ne commenced his enamel, and then finished it from life. 
He copied those of Louis XIV. from the best portraits of 
him, but generally obtained one or two sittings for the 

The pictures which Petitot painted in England are exe- 
cuted in a more free style, ana have a greater depth and 
richness of tint than those executed in France, whilst the 
latter are remarkable for the extreme delicacy of touch and 
the exquisitely elaborate finish. He may be called the 
inventor of enamel painting, for though subjects of fruit 
and flowers were long before painted on this material for 
the purposes of jewellery, he was the first who made the 
attempt to execute pictures, and it was he who at once 
brought the art to perfection 1 , the principal objection to 
the tone of .colour of his Works, a defect observable in the 
pictures of all other practitioners in enamel till the present 
century, is a prevalence Of purple in the flesh tints. 

He had a son, John, who followed this art in England, 
but his pictures, though possessing great merit, are inferior 
to those of the father. (Walpole's Anecdotes of Phinting, 
by Dallaway ; tiiogtaphie Umverselle.) 

PETRA (tUTpa, 6t ai Ttirpat), which lav nearly half way 
between the Dead Sea and tbe head of the jElartitic Gulf, 
was one of the most important towns in the* north of Arabia, 
and the capital of the Nabatbcei. It is in all probability the 
Sola (yhV) of the Old Testament, which signifies, like the 

Greek word, a ' rock.' This town, which originally belonged 
to the Edomites, was taken by Amaziah, king of Judah, 
who changed its name into that of Joktheel (2 Kings, xiv. 
7 ; compare Joseph., Antiq., ix. 9, $ 1 ) ; but it seems in later 
times to have belonged to the Moabites. (/#., xvi. 1.) 

Petra is described by Strabo (xvi., p. 779) and Pliny 
(Hist. Nat., vi. #2) as situated on level ground about two 
miles in size,* and surrounded by precipitous mountains. The 
town itself was well watered, but the surrounding country, 
and especially the part towards JudsDo, was a complete 
desert. It was 600 Roman miles from Gaze, and three or four 
days' journey from Jericho. In the time of Augustus, Petra 
was a large and important town, and its greatness appears 
to have been principally owing to its situation, which caused 
it to be a great halting-place for caravans. A friend of 
Strabo's, of the name of Athenodorus, who had resided at 
Petra for many years, informed the geographer that many 
Romans lived there, as well as other foreigners. (Strabo, 
xvi., p. 779.) It maintained its independence against the 
attempts of the Greek kings of Syria (Diod. Sic, xix. 95- 
97), and was governed by a native prince in the time of 
Strabo. It was taken by Trajan (Dion Cass., Ixviii. 14); and 
it appears from coins (Eckhel, Doctr. Num., ii. 503) that 
Hadrian called it after his own name CAdptApti). 

The ruins of Petra still exist in the Wady Musa, two days' 
journey from the Dead Sea, and the same distance north- 
east of Akaba. They were visited by Burckhardt in the 
year 1812, by Captains Irby and Mangles in 1818, and more 
recently by Laborde. Burckhardt's visit was brief and 
hasty, but a minute description of the ruins has been given 
by Captains Irby and Mangles, from whose account we 
extract the following remarks. The principal entrance to 
the town appears to have been through a narrow valley 
formed by the passage of a small rivulet through the rocks, 
which in some places approach so near to one another as 
only to leave sufficient room for the passage of two horsemen 
aorcast. This narrow valley extends for nearly two miles; 
and on each side of it there are numerous tombs cut out of 
the rocks, which, as you approach nearer the city, become 
more frequent on both sides, till at length nothing is seen 
but a continued street of tombs. Nearly at the termination 
of this valley there are the ruins of a magnificent temple, 

# Fltuy probably means cbcumferciico ; he merely say* * amptitudin;*.' 

entirely out out of the rock, < the minutest embellishments 
of which, wherever the hand of man has not purposely 
effaced them, are so perfect that it may be doubted whether 
any work of the antients, excepting perhaps some on the 
banks of the Nile, have come down to our time so little 
injured by the lapse of age. There is in fact scarcely a 
building of forty years' standing in England so well pre- 
served in the greater part of its architectural decorations.' 

After passing this temple, the valley conducts to the 
theatre, 'and here the ruins of the city burst on the view 
in their full grandeur, shut in on their opposite sides by 
barren craggy precipices, from which numerous ravines and 
valleys,. like those we had passed, branch out in all direc- 
tions. The sides of. (he mountains, covered with an endless 
variety of excavated tombs and private dwellings, presented 
altogether the most singular scene we have ever beheld, 
and we must despair of giving the reader an idea of the sin- 
gular effect of rocks tinted with the most extraordinary 
hues, whose summits present to us nature in her most 
savage and romantio form, while their bases are worked ou 
in all the symmetry and regularity of art, with colonnade 
and pediments, and ranges of corridors adhering to the pet 
penuicular surface. 1 

The best description of the ruins of Petra is given in La- 
borde*8 ' Voyage de TArabie Petree,' Par., 1830, of which an 
English translation was published in 1836. 

PETRARCA, FJRANCESCO, born at Arezzo, in July, 
1304, was the son of Pietro, or Petracco (an idiomatic form 
of Pietro), a notary of Florence, who was banished in 1302, 
at the same time as Dante and others of the Bianchi fac- 
tion. [Dantb.] The true name of Petraroa was Francesco 
di Petracco, or ' Francis the son of Petracco,' which he after- 
wards changed into the more euphonic name of Francesco 
Petrarca. After losing all hope of being restored to his 
native town, Petracco removed with his family to Avignon, 
where Pope Clement V. had fixed the residence of the Papal 
court, and whither strangers from every countrv resorted. 
His son Francesco, after studying grammar and rhetoric, 
was sent by his father to Montpellier, and afterwards to 
Bologna to study law, which was considered the most profit- 
able profession. Young Petrarca however had little taste 
for the l^r, especially as it was taught in that age, and he 
devoted much of his time to reading and copying MSS. of 
the classic writers. His father and mother having died at 
Avignon nearly about the Same time, Petrarca left Bologna, 
and on his arrival at Avignon he found that his paternal 
inheritance was but little. He assumed the clerical 
dress, without however having taken priestly orders, that 
habit being then, as it still is, the customary dress of good 
company at the Papal residence. The Papal court Of Avig- 
non was very gay and even licentious; and Petrarca, who 
was then only two and twenty years of age, and of a band- 
some person, was one of the gayest in the fashionable circles. 
But his love of pleasure was tempered by the love of study. 
He contracted a friendship with the jurist Soranso, with the 
canon John of Florence, who was apostolic secretary, and 
with James Colonna, bishop of Lombes in Gascony, and 
other distinguished men, who were fond of learning, and whe 
supplied him with books, a scarce and expensive commuditj 
in those times. Petrarca accompanied the bishop of Lornbet 
to his diocese at the foot of the Pyrenees, where they spent 
much of their time in literary discussions and excursions in 
the mountains, with two other friends of similar tastes, whom 
Petrarca has recorded under tbe classical names of Socrates 
and Laelius (Trionfo (TAmore, ch. 4). On his return to 
Avignon, the Cardinal John Colonna, brother of James, gave 
Petrarca apartments in his own palace, and became his 
patron; and when his father, Stephen Colonna, a sturdy war- 
like old baron, but not illiterate, and well known for his 
quarrels with Boniface VIII., came from Rome to Avignon 
on a visit to his sons, Petrarca was introduced to him, and 
soon won his favour. Petrarca, who was an admirer of the 
heroes of antient Rome, fancied that he saw in Stephen Co- 
lonna their worthy descendant, and in several of his verses, 
addressed to him, he calls him • the hope of the Latin name* 
(Sonetto 10). Azzo da Correggio, lord of Parma, having 
come to Avignon to defend, before Pope Benedict XII., his 
title to that sovereignty against the claims of Marsiglio 
Rossi, became acquainted with Petrarca, and prevailed on 
him to act as his advocate at the Papal chancery. Petrarca 
undertook the cause and won it. Azzo had brought with 
him Guglielmo Pastrengo, a learned man of Verona, the 
author of a work ' De Originibus Rerum>* a kind of his- 


Digitized by 





torical dictionary in alphabetical order, which is considered 
the first specimen of that kind of work. Petrarca formed 
an intimacy with Pastrcngo as well as with the Calabrian 
monk Barlaam, who came to Avignon on a mission from the 
emperor Andronicus the younger, and from whom he 
learned the rudiments of Greek. But before this time an 
incident had occurred which exercised a powerful influence 
over Petrarca's life. 

On the 6th of April, 1327, while he was attending service 
in the church of St. Clair, at Avignon, he was struck with 
the beauty of a young lady who happened to be near him, 
and he conceived a violent passion for her. The lady's name 
was Laura. According to the received opinion, supported 
by documents, for Petrarca himself never mentions her 
family name, she was the daughter of Audibert of Noves, 
a small place in the territory of Avignon ; she had a con- 
siderable fortune, and had been married about two years to 
Hugh de Sade, a gentleman of Avignon: when Petrarda 
first saw her, she was nineteen years of age. The attrac- 
tions of Laura's person have been so fully described and 
probably exaggerated by Petrarca, that it is needless to say 
anything on the subject. But the qualities of her mind, 
which he also praises, seem to have been truly remarkable 
in a provincial lady of those times and of no very exalted 
rank. In her conduct for a long course of years towards 
her handsome, accomplished, and impetuous admirer, whom 
she could not help meeting wherever she went, at parties of 
pleasure, in walking, or at church, she exhibited a rare mix- 
ture of firmness and courtesy, of respect for her own charac- 
ter with a considerate regard for her enthusiastic lover. 
She has been called a coquette, but we ought not to judge 
the conduct of a Frenchwoman of the fourteenth century 
by the standard of manners in England or even France in 
the nineteenth century. To those acquainted with the 
manners of Italy and Spain even at the present day, the 
passion of Petrarca for Laura de Sade is notning uncommon. 
iSuch attachments are frequent, and though often of a pla- 
tonic nature, are certainly not always so. That the attach- 
ment of Petrarca continued to be platonic, was owing to 
Laura's sense of duty, or to her indifference, or to both, but 
that it did not drive her lover to madness and ruin was 
owing to her consummate address, of which we ha\#abundant 
evidence in Petrarca's own confessions. When be ventured 
on a declaration, she sternly rebuked him, and avoided his 
presence ; but when she heard that he was ill, she assumed 
towards him the manners of a friend interested in his welfare ; 
she succeeded in purifying his passion, and in making him 
satisfied with her conversation, and with giving vent to his 
feelings in poetry. (Petrarca's Latin Epistle to James Co- 
lonna, bishop of Lombes.) She was probably flattered by 
his praise, which brought no imputation on her character, 
and made her the most celebrated woman of her day. Pe- 
trarca's sonnets and canzoni in praise of Laura circulated 
throughout Europe. When Charles of Luxemburg, after- 
wards the emperor Charles IV., came on a visit to Avignon, 
one of his first inquiries was after the Laura celebrated by 
Petrarca, and being introduced to her in the midst of a large 
assembly, he respectfully begged to be allowed to kiss her 
on the forehead as a mark of his esteem. (Petrarca, Sonnet 
201.) It was not however without a violent struggle that 
Petrarca allowed himself to be led by her better judgment. 
For ten years after he had first seen Laura, his life was one 
continued strife between his passion and his reason. He 
left Avignon repeatedly, travelled about, returned, but was 
still the same. Wishing, if possible, to forget Laura, he 
formed a connection with another woman, and had by her 
a son, and afterwards a daughter. But still his mind recurred 
perpetually to the object of his first attachment. He took 
care of his illegitimate children, but broke off the connec- 
tion. For several years he fixed his residence at Vaucluse, 
a solitary romantic valley near Avignon, on the banks of the 
Sorga, of which he has given some beautiful descriptions. 
In a letter addressed to James Colon na, and dated June, 
1338, he assigns as a reason for his retirement, that he was 
disgusted with the vice and dissoluteness of the Papal court 
of Avignon, in leaving which, he says, he sang to him- 
self the psalm ' In exitu Israel de iEgypto.* He also says, 
that he was tired of waiting for the fulfilment of the 
promises of honour and emolument made to him by the 
pope. . 

Meantime, year after year rolled on, and the beauty of Laura 
faded away. She became the mother of a large family. But 
Petrarca continued to see her with the eyes of youth, and 

to those who wondered how he could still admire her, he 
answered : 

' Ptaga per allantar d'arco noo tana. 

('The bow can no longer wound, but its mortal blow has 
been already indicted. If I had loved her person only, I 
had changed long since/) In the year 1343, sixteen years 
after his first sight of Laura, he was writing in the sober- 
ness of self-examination : 'My love is vehement, excessive, 
but exclusive and virtuous. — No, this very disquietude, these 
suspicions, this watchfulness, this delirium, this weariness 
of every thing, are not the signs of a virtuous love. 1 (De 
Seereto Conflictu.) 

In the year 1348, while Petrarca was staying in Italy, 
the plague spread into France and reached Avignon. Laura 
was attacked by the disease, and she died after three days* 
illness, on the 6th of April, in the fortieth year of her age. 
Her death, from the account of witnesses, appears to have 
been placid and resigned as her life had been. Petrarca 
has beautifully described her passing away like a lamp which 
becomes gradually extinct for want of nourishment : 

' A guun d'un wave o chtaro lame 

Cui nutrimr nto a poco a poeo manca. 
Pallida no, ma pi& chc neve bianca, 

Ch« seuza T«uto in nu bel colle fioachi. 

Pa re a poaar come persona ftanca.' 

{Trionfo delta Morte, ch. i.) 

When the news reached Petrarca in Italy, he felt the 
blow as if he had lost the only object that attached him to 
earth. He wrote on a copy of Virgil, his favourite author, 
the following memorandum : ' It was in the early days of 
my youth, on the 6th of April, in the morning, and in the 
year 1327, that Laura, distinguished by her virtues, and 
celebrated in my verses, first blessed my eyes in the church 
of St. Clara, at Avignon ; and it was in the same city, on 
the 6th of the very same month of April, at the same hour 
in the morning, in the year 1348, that this bright lumin- 
ary was withdrawn from our sight, whilst I was at Verona, 
alas! ignorant of my calamity. The remains of her chaste 
and beautiful body were deposited in the church of the 
Cordeliers, on the evening of the same day. To preserve 
the painful remembrance, I have taken a bitter pleasure 
in recording it particularly in this book, which is most 
frequently before my eyes, in order that nothing in this 
world may have any further attraction for me, and that this 
great bond of attachment to life being now dissolved, I may 
by frequent reflection, and a proper estimation of our transi- 
tory existence, be admonished that it is high time for me to 
think of quitting this earthly Babylon, which I trust will 
not be difficult for me, with a strong and manly courage, to 
accomplish.' Petrarca's ' Virgil,' with this affecting memo- 
randum, is now in the Ambrosian library at Milan. (Valcry, 
Voyages Litteraires.) 

Here begins a new period of the life of Petrarca, and with 
it the second part of his love poetry. Hitherto he had written 
verses in praise of Laura ; he now wrote verses ' on Laura's 
death.' He fancied himself in frequent communion with 
her spirit; he describes her appearing to him in the middle 
of the night, comforting him, and pointing to Heaven as 
the place of their next meeting. (Sonnet beginning Le- 
vommi il mio pensier, and the other Nc mat pietosa madre.) 
This delusion, if delusion it be, is the last remaining conso- 
lation of impassioned minds which have lost all that they 
valued in this world; and it has at least one beneficial effect, 
that of rendering life bearable and preventing despair. The 
second part of Petrarca's poetry is superior to the first in 
purity of feeling and loftiness of thought. He himself felt 
this, and blessed the memory of her who, by the even tenon r 
of her virtue, had been the means of calming and purifying 
his heart. 

* Benedctta colci che a miglior riva 
Volsc il mio corso, e l'empia voglia ardente 
Lusiugaudo affrend perctrio non pcra.* (Sonnet 249.) 

More than twenty years after Laura's death, when he 
was himself fast verging towards the grave, and when he 
was able to think of her with more composure, he drew 
from his memory a picture of the heart, the principles, and 
the conduct of the woman who had made all the happiness 
and all the misery of his life. He describes Laura as ap- 
pealing to him through a mist, and reasoning with him on 
the happiness of death to a well prepared mind ; she tells 
him that when she died she felt no sorrow except pity for 
him. On Petrarca entreating her to say whether she ever 
loved him, she evaded the question by saying that although 
she was pleased with his love, she deemed it right to tem- 
per his passion by the coldness of her looks, but that whea 

Digitized by 





she saw him sinking into despondency, she gave him a 
look of consolation and 6poke kindly to him. * It was by 
this alternation of kindness and rigour that I hare led thee, 
sometimes happy, sometimes unhappy, often wearied in 
truth, but still I have led thee to where there is no more 
danger, and I have thus saved us both. There has been 
little difference in our sympathy, except that thou didst 
proclaim thine to all the world, and I concealed mine. But 
complaint does not embitter suffering, nor does silence 
soften it' 

1 Nun & minora il duol. perch* altri 11 prema ; 
Ne maggior per andani lametitamlo. {Trionfo ihlla Morte, ch. ii.) 

We have dwelt at some length on this subject because it 
has acquired an historical importance, and has been the sub- 
ject of much controversy. Unable to comprehend feelings 
with which they were unacquainted, some critics have 
sneered at the passion of Petrarca for Laura ; others have 
doubted its existence ; whilst others again have disbelieved 
the purity of Laura's conduct. We have now however suf- 
ficient evidence to establish two facts : 1, that the attach- 
ment of Petrarca for Laura was real and lasting ; 2, that 
Laura's conduct was above suspicion. What her inward 
feelings were towards the poet we have no means of know- 
ing, and Petrarca himself does not seem to have ever known. 
Laura appears to have been imbued with religious senti- 
ments, united with serenity of mind, self-possession, discre- 
tion, and good sense. There have been doubts expressed 
concerning the identity of the Laura of Petrarca with Laura 
de Sade, but the evidence seems to be strong in favour of 
that identity. (De Sade, Mimm'res pour laVie de F. Pctrar- 
que ; Foscolo, Essays on Petrarch ; Baldelli, Del Petrarca 
e deHe sue Opere, 2nd edition, Fiesole, 1837 ; and the article 
• Noves, Laure de,' in the Biograpkie Universelle.) 

But the life of Petrarca was not spent in idle though 
eloquent wailings. He was an active labourer in the field 
of learning, and this constitutes his real merit and his best 
title to fame. Besides the works which he wrote, he en- 
couraged literature in others, and he did everything in 
his power to promote sound studies. Petrarca was a great 
traveller for his age ; he visited every part of Italy, he went 
several times to France and Germany, and even to Spain. 
Wherever he went, he collected or copiecLMSS., and pur- 
chased medals and other remains of antiquity. At Arezzo 
he discovered the ' Institutions ' of Quintilian ; at Verona, 
Cicero's Familiar letters; in another place, the epistles to 
Atticus ; at Liege be found some orations of Cicero, which 
he transcribed ; he also speaks of Cicero's book ' De Gloria,' 
of Varro's treatise ' De Rebus Divinis et Human is,' and of 
a compilation of letters and epigrams of Augustus, which 
he had once seen or possessed, but which have not come 
down to us. (Rerutn Memorandarum, b. i.) He was liberal 
in lending MSS., and thus several of them were lost He 
applied himself also to the diplomatic history of the dark 
ages, and he investigated the means of distinguishing au- 
thentic diplomas and charters from numerous others which 
were apocryphal. {Epistolte Seniles, b. xv„ ep. 5.) He was 
the friend and instructor of Boccaccio, John of Ravenna, 
and other Italian and foreign contemporaries. He was the 
founder of the library of St. Mark at Venice. He encouraged 
Galeazzo Visconti to found the university of Pavia. In his 
extensive correspondence with the most distinguished persons 
of his time, he always inculcated the advantages of study, 
of the investigation of truth, and of a moral conduct ; he 
always proclaimed the great superiority of intellectual over 
corporeal pleasures. He and his friend Boccaccio are justly 
considered as the revivers of classical literature in Italy. 
His admiration of antiquity was carried to excess, not being 
tempered by the light of criticism which arose much later 
in Europe. It was this classical enthusiasm that led him 
to support the tribune Rienzi, and attach too great im- 
portance to his abortive schemes. Petrarca beheld Rome 
as entitled to be again what she had once been, the mistress 
of the world, as if the thing were possible, or even desira- 
ble. This error he perpetuated by his writings, and his 
authority has contributed to that classical tendency of recol- 
lections and aspirations which has led astray many Italian 
minds. By aspiring to be what they cannot be again, they 
have lost sight of what they might and ought to be as mem- 
bers of the great modern European family. 

Petrarca acted an important part in the affairs of state 
of his time. His influence over the great and powerful 
is one of the most extraordinary parts ot his character, but 
it is a well ascertained fact. He enjoyed the friendship of 

several popes, of the Correggio lords of Parma, of the Co- 
lonna of Rome, the Visconti of Milan, the Carrara of Padua, 
the Gonznga of Mantua, of Robert, king of Naples, and of 
Charles IV., emperor of Germany. He was invited in turn 
by them all, was consulted by them, and was employed by 
them in several affairs of importance. He was sent by the 
nobles and people of Rome as their orator to Clement VI.. 
in order to prevail on that pope to remove his residence 
from Avignon to Rome. He afterwards wrote a Latin epistle 
to Urban V., Clement's successor, urging the same request, 
and the pope soon after removed to Rome, at least for a 
time. In 1340 the senate of Rome sent him a solemn in- 
vitation to come there and receive the laurel crown as a 
reward of his poetical merit. Petrarca accepted the invi- 
tation, and, embarking at Marseille, landed at Naples, where 
King Robert, himself 4 a man of learning, in order to enhance 
his reputation, held a public examination in presence of a41 
his court during three days, in which various subjects of 
science and literature were discussed. At the termination 
of these meetings, King Robert publicly proclaimed Pe- 
trarca to be deserving of the laurel crown, and sent an 
orator to accompany him to Rome to attend the ceremony, 
which took place on Easter-day in the year 1341, when 
Orso dell' Anguillara, senator of Rome, crowned the poet 
in the Capitol, in presence of a vast assemblage of spectators, 
and in the midst of loud acclamations. 

Petrarca had ecclesiastical benefices at Parma and at 
Padua, which were given to him by his patrons of the Cor- 
reggio and Carrara families, and he spent much of his time 
between those towns. From Padua no sometimes went to 
Venice, where he became acquainted with the Doge Andrea 
Dandolo, who was distinguished both as a statesman and 
as a lover of literature. Venice was then at war with Genoa. 
Petrarca wrote a letter to Dandolo from Padua, in March, 
1351, in which he deprecated these hostilities between two 
Italian states, and exhorted him to peace. Dandolo, in his 
answer, praised his style and his good intentions; but he 
defended the right of Venice, after the provocations that she 
had received from her rival. In the following year, after 
a desperate battle between the fleets of the two nations in 
the Sea of Marmara, Petrarca wrote from Vaucluse, where 
he then was, to the doge of Genoa, for the same laudable 
purpose, that of promoting peace. Iu the next year, 1353, 
the Genoese fleet was totally defeated by the Venetians off 
the coast of Sardinia; and Genoa in its humiliation sought 
the protection of John Visconti, archbishop and lord of 
Milan, the most powerful Italian prince of his time. Pe- 
trarca was staying at Milan as a friend of Visconti, who had 
made him one of his councillors, and as such he was present 
at the solemn audience of the deputies of Genoa and at 
the act of surrender. In 1354 Visconti sent Petrarca on a 
mission to Venice to negotiate a peace between the two re- 
publics. He was received with great distinction, but failed 
in the object of his mission. Soon after, John Visconti 
died, and his three nephews divided his dominion amongst 
them. The youngest and tho best of them, Galeazzo, en- 
gaged Petrarca to remain at Milan near his person. In 
November, 1354, the emperor Charles IV. arrived at Mantua 
from Germany ; and be wrote to Petrarca, who had been in 
correspondence with him before, to invite him to his court. 
Petrarca repaired to Mantua, spent several days with tho 
emperor, and accompanied him to Milan. Petrarca wished to 
persuade him to fix his residence in Italy ; but the emperor, 
after being crowned at Milan and at Rome, hastened to 
return to Germany. However, before he left Italy, peace 
was proclaimed between Venice and Genoa. In 1356 Pe- 
trarca was sent by the Visconti on a mission to the emperor, 
whom they suspected of hostile intentions towards them. 
He met Charles at Prague, and having succeeded in his 
mission, he returned tc Milan. In 1360 he was sent by Ga- 
leazzo Visconti on a mission to Paris to compliment King 
John on his deliverance from his captivity in England. In 
his ' familiar epistles ' he describes the miserable state of 
France, and the traces of the devastation perpetrated by 
fire and sword. He was well received by the king and the 
dauphin, and after three months spent at Paris, he returned 
to Milan. The next year he left Milan to reside at Padua. 
The introduction into Italy of the mercenary bands, called 
• Companies,' which the marquis of Montferrat and other 
Italian princes took into their pay, and which committed 
the greatest outrages, and the plague which they brought 
with them into Lombardy, were the reasons which induced 
Petrarca to remove to Padua. In 1362, the plague having 

Digitized by 





reached Padua, he retired to Venice, taking his books with 
him. Soon after his arrival, he offered to bequeath his 
library to the church of St. Mark. The offer was accepted, 
and a large house was assigned for the reception of Petrarca 
and his books. This was the beginning of the celebrated 
library of St. Mark, which was afterwards increased by Car- 
dinal Bessariou and others. At Venice, Petrarca was 
visited by his friend Boccaccio, who spent three months in 
his company. Petrarca passed several years at Venice, 
honoured by the doge and the principal senators, and now 
and then making excursions to Padua, Milan, and Pavia, 
to visit his friends the Carrara and Galeazzo Visconti. In 
1368 he was present at the marriage of Galeazzo's daughter 
Viol ante with Prince Lionel of England. From Milan he 
returned to Padua, where he received a pressing invitation 
from Pope Urban V., who had fixed his residence at Rome, 
and who wished to become acquainted with him. Petrarca 
had a great esteem for Urban's character; and he deter- 
mined, notwithstanding his age and his infirmities, on a 
journey to Rome ; but, on arriving at Ferrara, his strength 
failed him ; he fell into a swoon, and remained for thirty 
hours apparently dead. Nicholas d'Este, lord of Ferrara, 
and his brother Hugo, took the greatest care of him, and 
he was restored to life ; but the physicians declared that he 
was unable to proceed to Rome, and he was taken back to 
Padua in a boat. Petrarca had been long subject to pal- 
pitations and epileptic fits, the consequence of his too great 
application to study. From Padua he removed, in the sum- 
mer of 1370, to Arqua, a pleasant village in the Euganean 
Hills, where he enjoyed a pure air and retirement. He 
built a house there, and planted a garden and orchard: 
this is the only residence of the numerous houses which he 
had at Parma* Padua, Venice, Milan, Vaucluse, and other 
places, which still remains, and is shown to travellers. In 
this retirement he resumed his studies with fresh zeal. 
Among other things he wrote his book ' De sui ipsius et 
inultorura aliorum Ignorautia,' intended as a rebuke to 
certain Venetian freethinkers who, inflated with the learn- 
ing which they had gathered from Averroes' ' Commentaries 
on Aristotle,* of which a Latin translation had spread into 
Italy, sneered at the Mosaic account of the creation, and at 
the Scriptures in general. Four of these young men had 
sought the society of Petrarca while he resided at Venice, 
and he was at first highly pleased with them ; they were ac- 
complished and witty, and fond of study. But this sympa- 
thy did not last long. Petrarca had no blind veneration for 
Aristotle, and still less for Avenues ; he was a believer in the 
Scriptures, and moreover he had no great bias for natural 
history, in which his visitors were skilled, and he used to 
observe to them that it was of greater importance to ' investi- 
gate the nature of man than that ef quadrupeds, birds, and 
fishes.' The four admirers of Aristotle were scandalised at 
bis own freethinktng concerning their oracle, and they held 
a kind of jury among them to decide upon the true merits 
of Petrarca. The verdict was, that Petrarea was a good kind 
of a man, but destitute of real learning, ' Bonus vir, sine 
Uteris.* This judgment spread about Venice, and made a great 
noise. Petrarea at first laughed at it, but his friends took 
up the business seriously, and urged him to defend himself, 
which he did in his retirement at Arqua, by the book 
already noticed. In this work he acknowledges his own 
ignorance, but at the same time he exposes the ignorance 
of his antagonists. With regard to Aristotle he says what 
others have said after him, that ' he was a great and powerful 
mind, who knew many things, but was ignorant of many 
more.' As for Averroes, who discarded all revelation, and 
denied the immortality or rather the individuality of the 
human soul, Petrarca urged his friend Father Marsili of 
Florence to refute his tenets. (Epistolce sine Titulo, the 
last epistle.) But the tenets of Averroes took root at Venice 
and at Padua, where many professors, down to the time of 
Leo X., among others Urbeno of Bologna, Nicola Vernia, 
Agostino Niso, Alessandro Achillini, Pomponacio, and 
others, professed them, and commented on the works of the 
Arabian philosopher. It has even been said that Poliziano, 
Bembo, and others of the distinguished men who gathered 
round Lorenzo de' Medici and his son Leo X. entertained 
similar opinions. 

The air of the Euganean hills did not prove sufficient to 
restore Petrarca to health. Hi* physician Dondi told him 
that his diet was too cold; that ho ought not ta drink 
water, nor eat fruit and raw vegetables, nor fast, as he 
often did. But Petrarca had no faith m medicine. He 

absolutely wrote four books of invectives against physicians 
He valued Dondi, not as a physician but as a philosopher 
and he used to tell him so, but Dondi still remained attached 
to him. The news of Urban V.'s return to Avignon, and of 
his subsequent death, caused much grief to Petrarca, who 
had a great esteem for that pontiff. His successor Gregory 
XL, to whom he was also personally known, wrote to Pe- 
trarca, a.d. 1371, a most kind letter inviting him to his 
court But Petrarca was unable to move. He was often 
seized with fits, and sometimes given up for dead. He wrote 
to Francisco Bruni, the Apostolic secretary, that • he should 
not ask the pope for anything* but that if his Holiness chose 
to bestow on him a living without cure of souls, for he had 
enough to take care of his own soul, to make his old age 
more comfortable, he should feel grateful, though he felt 
that he was not long for this world, for he was waning away 
to a shadow. He was not in want ; he kept two horses, and 
generally five or six amanuenses, though only three at the 
present moment, because he could find no more. He could 
have more easily obtained painters than transcribers. Al- 
though he would prefer to take his tneals alone, or with the 
village priest, he was generally besieged by a host of visitors 
or self-invited guests, and he must not behave to them as a 
raiser. He wanted to build a Small oratory to the Virgin 
Mary, but he must sell or pledge his books for the purpose.' 
( Variarum Kputolarutrii the 43rd.) Some months after 
(January, 1372), writing from Padua to his old college 
friend Matthew, archdeacon of Lidge, he says, ' I have been 
infirm these two years, being given up several times, but 
still live. I have been for some time at Venice, and now 
I am at Padua, performing my functions of canon. I am 
happy in having left Venice* on account of this war between 
the republic ana the lord of Padua. At Venice I should 
have been an object of suspicion, whilst here I am cherished. 
I spend the greater part of the year in the country ; I read, 
I think, I write; this is ray existence, as it was in the time 
of my youth. It is astonishing that having studied so long, 
I have learnt so little. I hate no one, I envy no one. In 
the first season of my life, a time full of error and presump- 
tion, I despised everybody but myself; in a more mature 
age I despised myself alone ; in my old age I despise almost 
everybody, and myself most . . . Not to conceal anything 
from you, I have had repeated invitations from the pope, the 
king of France, and the emperor, but I have declined them, 
preferring my liberty to all.' 

In September, 1373, peace was made between Venice 
and Francis of Carrara, lord of Padua. One of the con- 
ditions was that the latter should send his son to Venice to 
ask pardon and swear fidelity to the republic. The lord of 
Padua begged Petrarca to accompany his son. Petrarca 
appeared before the senate, and pronounced a discourse on 
the occasion, which was much applauded. After his return 
to Padua he wrote his book, ' De Republics optime ad rain ts- 
tranda,' which he dedicated to his patron and friend Francis 
of Carrara. 

The following year his health grew worse ; a slow fever 
consumed his frame. He went as usual to Arqua for the 
summer. On the morning of the 18th of July, one of the 
servants entered his library and found him sitting motion- 
less, with his head leaning on a book. As he was often for 
whole hours in that attitude, the people of the house at first 
took no notice of it, but they soon perceived that their 
master was quite dead. The news of his death soon reached 
Padua. Francis of Carrara, accompanied by all the nobi- 
lity of Padua, the bishop and chapter, and most of the 
clergy repaired to Arqua to attend the funeral. Sixteen 
doctors of the university bore his remains to the parish 
ehuroh of Arqua, where his body was interred in a chapel 
which Petrarca had built in honour of the Virgin Mary. 
Francesco da Brossano, his son-in-law, raised him a marble 
monument supported by four columns; and in 1667 his bust 
in bronze was placed above it. On one of the columns the 
following distich was engraved: — 

Iflreni requiem ; *pe* e\ fortnna vdete; 
Nil mihi vobueum est, ludite none alios. 

Petrarca had had two natural children, a son and a 
daughter. The son died before his father. Thedaughter, 
Tullia, married, in her father's lifetime, Francesco da 
Brossano, a Milanese gentleman, whom Petrarca made his 
heir. He left legacies to various friends, and among others 
to Boccaccio, who did not survive him long. The portraits 
of Petrarca are numerous, but they differ from one ano- 
ther; that which is considered the" most authentic is at 

Digitized by 





Padua, In the Episcopal palace, above the door of the 
.ibrary. It is a fresco painting, which was cut out of the 
wall of the house of Petrarca at Padua, when it was pulled 
down in 1581. (Valery, Voyage* Litteraires.) An en- 
graving of it is given at the head of the handsome edition of 
Petrarca's verses by Marsand. 

The worts of Petrarea are of three kinds: 1, his Italian 
poetry, chiefly concerning Laura ; 2, his Latin poetry ; 3, his 
Latin prose. His Italian poetry, eailed ♦ II Cansoniere,' or 
'Rime di Petrarca/ consists of above 300 sonnets, about fifty 
cansoni, and three short poems, in tersa rima, styled ' Trionfo 
d'Araore,' •Trionfo della Morte,' and 'Trionfo della Fama.' 
Petrarca's * Cansoniere' has gone through more than three 
hundred editions, with and without notes and commentaries. 
The best is that edited by Professor Marsand, 2 vols. 4to., 
Padua, 1819-20, with a biography of Petrarca, extracted 
from his own works. The character of his poetry is well 
known. Its greatest charm consists in the sweetness of 
numbers, 'enlivened by a variety, a rapidity, and a glow 
which no Italian lyric has ever possessed in an equal degree. 
The power of preserving and at the same time of diversifying 
the rhythm belongs to him alone ; his melody is perpetual, 
and yet never wearies the ear. His canzoni (a species of 
composition partaking of the ode and the elegy, the character 
and form of which are exclusively Italian) contain stansas 
sometimes of twenty lines. He has placed the cadences 
however in such a manner as to allow the voice to rest at the 
end of every three or four verses, and has fixed the recur- 
rence of the same rhyme and the same musical pauses at 
intervals sufficiently long to avoid monotony, though suffi- 
ciently short to preserve harmony. It is not difficult there- 
fore to give credit to his biographer, Filippo Villani, when 
he assures us "that the musical modulation of the verses 
which Petrarch addressed to Laura flowed so melodiously, 
that even the most grave could not refrain from repeating 
them. Petrarch poured forth his verses to the sound of his 
lute, which he bequeathed in his will to a friend } and his 
voice was sweet, flexible, and of great compass." ' (Foscolo, 
Essays on Petrarch, • On the Poetry of Petrarch/) That 
in Petrarca's sonnets there is too muoh ornament, that he 
indulges too much in metaphors, that his antitheses are 
often forced, and his hyperboles almost puerile, all this 
is true; and yet there is so much delicacy and truth in 
his descriptions of the passion of love and of its thousand 
affecting accessories which he brings before the mind of 
the reader, that he awakens many associations and recol- 
lections in every heart, and this is perhaps the great secret 
of the charm of his poetry, notwithstanding its perpetual 
egotism. There is much to choose among his sonnets, many 
of which, especially those which he wrote after Laura's 
death, are far superior to the rest in loftiness of thought 
and expression. He borrowed little from the Latin poets, 
and much from the Troubadours ; but his finest imitations 
are drawn from the sacred writings. He improved the ma* 
terials in which the Italian language already abounded, and 
he gave to that language new grace and freshness. No term 
which he has employed has become obsolete, and all his 
phrases may be and still are used in the written language. 
Far inferior to Dante in invention, depth of thought, and 
in boldness of imagery, Petrarca is superior to him in 
softness and melody. Dante was a universal poet; he 
describes all passions, all actions ; Petrarca paints only one 
passion, but he paints it exquisitely. Dante nerves our 
hearts against adversity and oppression ; Petrarca wraps us 
in soft melancholy, and leads us to indulge in the error of 
depending upon the affections of others, and his poetry, 
chaste though it be, is apt to have an enervating influence 
on the minds of youth. At a more mature age, when man 
is sobered by experience, Petrarca's poetry produces a sooth- 
ing effect, and, by its frequent recurrence to the traneitoriness 
of worldly objects, may even have a beneficial moral influence. 
There are some of his canzoni whioh soar higher than the 
rest in their lyric flight, especially the one which begins 
' Italia mia,' and which has been often quoted ; and another 
which he wrote in 1383, when a new crusade was in con- 
templation. His beautiful canzone, or * Ode to the Virgin,' 
with which he closes his poetry about Laura, is also greatly 
admired for its sublimity and pathos. 

Petrarca's Latin poetry consists, \, of the • Africa,* an epic 
on the exploits of Scipio in the second Punie war, a dull 
sort of poem, with some fine passages: it was however much 
admired at the time; % Epistles, in verse* addressed to 
several popes, for the purpose of urging their return to 

Rome, and also to several friends; 3, Eclogues or Bucolics, 
which are acknowledged by himself to be allegorical, and 
were in fact, like Boccaccio's eclogues, satires against the 
powerful of his time, and especially against the Papal court 
of Avignon. 

Ginguen6, in his * Histoire LittOaire,' and others, have en- 
deavoured to find the kev to these allegories. The sixth and 
seventh eclogues are evidently directed against Clement VI„ 
and the twelfth, entitled ' Oonttictatio,' has also some violent 
invectives against the Papal court This circumstance has 

given rise to strange surmises, as if Petrarca were a secret 
eretic, an enemy of the church of Rome, belonging to some 
supposed secret society. We know from Petrarca's own 
letters, especially those styled < sine titulo,' that he spoke very 
plainly to his friends concerning the disorders ana vices of 
the Papal court, which he called the modern Babylon, the 
Babylon of the west. He says that Jesus Christ was sold 
every day for gold, and that his temple was made a den of 
thieves ; but we also evidently see that in all these invectives 
he spoke of the discipline of the Church, or rather of the 
abuses of that discipline, and not of the dogmas, things whioh 
have been often confounded, both by the advocates and the 
enemies of Rome. Petrarea, like many other observing men 
of that and the succeeding century, could not be blind to the 
enormous abuses existing in the Church ; hut their indigna- 
tion was poured out against the individuals who fostered 
those abuses, and they never thought of attacking the fabric 
itself. This was especially the case in Italy. There might 
be in that country secret unbelievers and scoffers at revela- 
tion, but there were no heretics. There were many who 
openly charged the pope and his court with heinous crimes, 
but who at the same time felt a sort of loathing at the very 
name of heretic or schismatic. The influence of traditional 
veneration for the authority of the Church, the persuasion 
of its infallibility, remained, although divested of ail devo- 
tion, of all enthusiasm, of all respeot even for the person of 
the head of that Church. 

Petrarea was not a man of extremes : his dislike of the 
Papal court of Avignon originated in two feelings, one of 
honest indignation against its corruptions, and another of 
national or rather classical attachment to Rome, which 
made him urge with all his powers of persuasion the 
return of the head of thefChurch to a residence in that 
city. When he spoke of Babylon, he alluded to the 
captivity of the Jews, to which he compared the residence 
of the popes at Avignon. Of several popes, such as Urban 
VI. and Gregory XL, he speaks in nis letters with great 
respect and personal attachment. He went to Rome 
expressly to attend the jubilee of 1350, and, as he states 
in his letters to Boccaccio (Epistokv Familiar**), for the 
sake of obtaining the plenary indulgence, and • with a firm 
resolve of putting an end to his career of sin.* He had an 
accident en the road, which made htm lame, and which he 
said was a salutary punishment for his sins. He gives some 
account of that jubilee, and of the vast number of pilgrims 
who resorted to Rome on the occasion. After having visited 
the churches and performed his devotions, he wrote that 
* he had now become free from the plague of concupiscence, 
which had tormented him till then, and that in looking 
back to his past life, he shuddered with shame.' (Epistolo 
Seniles, viii. 1.) So much for those who would persuade 
us that Petrarea was a concealed heretic His hostility was 
local and personal ; it was directed against Avignen, and 
not against Rome; against the corrupt dignitaries of the 
church, not against the Church itself. Petrarca however, 
although religiously disposed, was fat from superstitious. 
He was one of the few of his age who spurned astrology, 
and yet, strange to say, a cardinal had nearly persuaded 
Pope Innocent VI. that he was a magician, because he was 
familiar with strange books, a very serious charge in those 
times. Petrarca's letter of advice to Boecaccio, when he 
thought of turning monk, is a lasting monument of sound 
religion and good sense. 

The Latin Epistles of Petrarca are the most important el 
his prose writings. We have no Italian prose of his except 
two or three letters to James Colonaa, the autographs of 
which are now in the possession of Lord Holland, and whioh 
show that he was not much in the habit of corresponding in 
that language. Petrarca's Epistles are very numerous; they 
embrace a stormy and confused period of nearly half a cen- 
tury, for the history of which many of them afford ample 
and trustworthy materials. Petrarca was one of the earliest 
and most enlightened travellers of modern Europe; he was 

Digitized by 





an eye-witness of many important events ; be corresponded 
with kings, emperors, popes, statesmen, and men of learn- 
ing. His Letters have not been sufficiently noticed by 
historians: many of them are scattered MSS. in various 
libraries, and we have no complete edition of them arranged 
in order of time. Those which have been published are 
classed as follows:— 1, ' Epistola? de Rebus Familiaribus/ 
in viii. books; 2, 'De Rebus Senilibus,' written in Pe- 
trarca's old age, in xvi. books ; 3, one book ' Ad Viros 
quosdam ex veteribus Illustriores ;' these epistles are ad- 
dressed to various historical characters of antiquity; 4, one 
book ' Variarum Epistolarum ;' 5, one book * Epistolarum 
sine Titulo.' To this last book Petrarca had prefixed a 
curious preface, in which he says, • that well knowing truth 
to be odious to the world, especially in times of corruption, 
lie had taken the precaution of writing the Bucolics in an 
ambiguous kind of slyle, in order that their real sense might 
be understood only by the few, and that for a similar consi- 
deration he now has collected in one separate book certain 
letters written to several friends at various times and upon 
different occasions, in order that they might not be scat- 
tered through the body of his correspondence, and be the 
means of having the whole condemned. Those who wished 
to read them would thus know where to fiud them, and 
those who thought that they ought to be suppressed, might 
exclude them from the rest of the collection. 

Professor Levati, of Milan, has composed out of the 
Epistles of Petrarca a work descriptive of the manners and 
history of his age, in which he gives copious extracts trans- 
lated into Italian : • Viaggi di Francesco Petrarca in Franc ia, 
in Germania, ed in Italia,* 5 vols. 8vo^ Milan, 1820. This 
work was severely criticised in the ' Biblioteca ltaliana,' 
vol. xxiii. and xxiv. It is however on entertaining book, 
containing considerable information concerning Petrarca 
and his times which is not collected in any other work. 
Professor Meneghelli, of Padua, published in 1818, 'Index 
F. PetrarchsB Epistolarum quae cditm sunt, et quae adhuc 
inedita?;' but his list, as he himself admits, is not complete. 
Domenico de* Rossetti, of Trieste, has published a biblio- 
graphy of the works of Petrarca, their various editions, 
commentators, &c, and he has also edited a biography of 
Petrarca by his friend Boccaccio. ' Serie cronologica di edi- 
zioni delle Opere di Petrarca,' TOeste, 1834. 

The prose works of Petrarca, besides those already men- 
tioned, are : 1, ' De Remediis utriusque Fortunes, ' libri ii. ; 
2, ' De Vitil SolitariaY lib. ii. ; 3, ' De Otio Religiosorum,' 
lib. ii. ; 4, ' Apologia contra Galium ;' 5, • De Officio et Vir- 
tutibus Imperatoris ;' 6, 'Rerum Memorandarum,' libri iv. 
In this work, in which he has imitated Valerius Maximus, 
without however borrowing from him, Petrarca quotes a 
vast number of facts from antient and modern history, each 
illustrative of some principle of moral philosophy ; "it is in 
fact a treatise of practical ethics. 7, ' De vera* SapientiaY 
being dialogues between a sophist and an uneducated man. 
8, 'De Contemptu Mundi,' being imaginary dialogues be- 
tween the author and St. Augustin. Petrarca had studied 
the Latin fathers attentively. 9, ' Vitarum Virorum illus- 
trium Epitome.' Another and ampler work of Petrarca 
under the same title, of which the one just mentioned is 
only an abridgement, has remained inedited, but an imper- 
fect Italian translation, by Donato degli Albanzoni, was 
published at Venice, in 1527. (D. de Rossetti, Petrarca, 
Giulio Celso, e Boccaccio, illustrations Bibliologica, Trieste, 
1828.) 10, 'De Vita BeataY 1 1, ' De Obedient la ac Fide 
UxoriaV 12, ' Itinerariura Syriacum.' 13, Several orations, 
' De Avaritia* vitanda,' • De Libertate capescend&V &c Of 
his Latin style the following judgment is given by an Italian 
scholar: ' In modelling his style upon the Roman writers, 
he was unwilling to neglect entirely the Fathers of the 
Church, whose phraseology was more appropriate to his 
subjects ; and the public affairs being, at that period, trans- 
acted in Latin, he could not always reject many of those 
expressions which, although originating from barbarous 
ages, had been sanctioned by the adoption of the universi- 
ties, and were the more intelligible to his readers. In sacri- 
ficing gravity he gained freedom, tluency, and warmth; 
and his prose, though not a model for imitation, is beyond 
the reach of imitators, because it is original and his own.' 
(Foscolo ' On the Poetry of Petrarch.') Pet r area's * Opera 
Omnia* were published at Basle, in 1581, 2 vols, folio. 
Biographies of Petrarca have been written by Villani, Ver- 
gerio, Tomasini, Leonardo Aretino, and many others: the 
best arc — Baldelli ' Del Petrarca e delle sue Opere,' 2 vols. 

8vo. ; * Mem oi res pour la Vie de Petrarque, avec des Pieces 
justificatives,' 3 vols. 4to., Amsterdam, 1746; Foscolo, 
' Essays on Petrarch.' 

PETRELS, the English name for the Procellarida, a 
family of oceanic birds, well known to the seaman when far 
from the land, and with which his superstition was once 
more busy than it is now; but even at the present day 
they are not unfrequently regarded as ominous, and many a 
hard-a- weather old quarter-master still looks upon Mother 
Carey's Chickens as the harbingers of a storm. 

Though zoologists have differed as to the genera to be 
included in this extraordinary group, they have been pretty 
well agreed as to the forms which should be congregated 
in it 

The genus Proceliaria of Linnaeus was formed by that 
great zoologist for the Petrels, and it is closely fol- 
lowed by his genus Diomedea (Albatrosses), between which 
and the Petrels there are many points of resemblance both 
in their structure and their pelagic habits. In the article 
Larid.b, to which family so many ornithologists have 
referred the Petrels, will be found the opinions of most of 
the leading writers who had then written upon the sub- 

The Prince of Musignano (Geographical and Compara- 
tive List, 1838) makes the Procellaridee the thirty-fourth 
family of the birds, and places them between the Lartdar 
and the ColymbidUe. The Prince's Procellaridce (European 
and American only) consist of the genera Diomedea, Pro- 
celiaria, Puffinus, and Thalassidroma. 

Mr. G. R. Gray (List of the Genera of Birds, 1840) 
makes the Diomedeina? the first subfamily of the Laridcp. 
This subfamily comprehends the genera Pelecunoides, Puf- 
finus, Daption, Thalassidroma, Wagellusft Proceliaria, 
Diomedea, and Prion. 

M. Temminck, in his 'Manuel' (2nd part, 1820), arranges 
all the Petrels under the generic name Procelluria, Linn., 
but divides them into the following sections* — 
Petrel properly so called. 

Proceliaria glacialis. 


Proceliaria Puffinus, Anglorum, and obscura. 
Swallow-like Petrels (Petrels ndelles), 

Procellarice Pelagica and Leachii. 

In the 4th part of his ' Manuel ' (1840), Temminck 
admits the genera Proceliaria, Puffinus, and Thalassidroma, 

Pelecanoides. (Laccpede.) 

This is the genus Haladroma of Uli»er, and the genus 
Puffinuria of Lesson. 

The last-named author states that his reason for chang- 
ing the generic name of the only species which serves as the 
type of this genus is the uncertainty in which he finds him- 
self as to what is really the genus Pelecanoides of Lacepdde, 
or Haladroma of Illiger. Some strong shades of difference, 
he observes, appeared to exist between the characters given 
by these authors and those which he cites, and he further 
says that he has seen nothing of the small membranous and 
dilatable pouch, which ought to exist under the lower man- 
dible. The sole species above alluded to he records as 
Puffinuria Garnoti, Less. (ZooL de la Coq., pi. 46 ; Procel- 
iaria urinatrix, Gmel. ?) 

Mr. G. R. Gray gives Proceliaria, Gra., Haladroma, 111., 
and Puffinuria, Less., as synonyms of Pelecano'ides ; and 
refers, without a query, to P. Urinatrix, Gin. (Forst, Draw., 
t 88 — from which our cut is taken) as the species. 

Generic Character, — Bill enlarged, composed of many 
pieces soldered together, the edges smooth and re entering ; 
the upper demi-bill composed of two pieces, furnished with 
feathers at the base up to the nostrils, which are very open, 
forming an oval circle, the aperture of which is above, 
separated one from the other by a simple internal partition ; 
this partition supports a slight ledge which divides each 
nasal fossa in half; the enlarged portion of the upper demi- 
bill goes beyond the lower mandible, and terminates at the 
contraction of the bill, which is narrow, convex, very much 
curved, and very robust. The lower mandible is formed 
equally of two soldered pieces ; that of the edge is narrow, 
inserted in the upper demi-bill ; that below is formed by 

* In the article Lartda, vol. xrii., j>. 333, right-baud column, lino 35 from the 
top, for * HcroudelU*/ read ' Hiroudelle*.* 
t S«e post. p. 4$. 

Digitized by 





two branches, slightly convex, separated outwards, where the 
space is filled by a very small and rather indistinct naked 
skin ; the extremity of the mandible is convex on the edges, 
concave below, and sharp. First and second quills, which 
are the longest, equal; third and fourth rather shorter. 
Tail small, nearly equal, pointed, formed of twelve feathers. 
Tarsi moderate, weak, furnished with small areolated scu- 
tella ; three anterior toes envelooed in an entire membrane ; 
hind-toe wanting. (Less.) 

M. Garnot describes the sole species above noticed, as 
follows -.—Size of the Blue Petrel, from the extremity of the 
bill to the tail, 84 inches. The plumage has no brilliancy ; 
a blackish-brown on the upper part of the back glazed with 
a slight tint of blue and a lustrous white on all the fore- 
parts of the body are the two colours which it presents, 
beneath the wings, as well as on the sides, the hue is greyish- 

The head approaches, a little, that of the Pelagic Petrel ; 
the bill is articulated and hooked like that of the Puffins, 
but differs from that genus in the aperture of the nostrils, 
which is turned upwards in the form of a heart on a playing 
card; a partition separates the two nasal conduits; the 
colour is black ; the palmated feet, which want the hind- 
toe, are of the same colour, and are placed very near the tail, 
which is intermediate between that of the Petrels and the 
Grebes. The eye, which is situated a little above the level 
of the commissure of the mandibles, has the iris of a red- 
brown. Total length 8 inches 6 lines. 

M. Garnot further describes the tongue as elongated, 
thick, and dentilated on its edges ; the stomach large and 
occupying nearly the whole abdominal cavity, measured 
from the cardiac to the pyloric orifice three inches and some 
lines. The intestine, which forms many duplicatures, or 
folds, is from 21 to 22 inches long. The two ca*ca are 
scarcely perceptible. The stomach was full of an oily grey 
matter, and its internal surface was covered with mu- 
cous follicles: the very small gizzard is composed of mus- 
cular fibres united by a cellular tissue not of a close texture. 
The liver, which has not much volume, is divided into two 
parts. The spleen is very small. The pancreas is but 
little developed. The testicles were rounded, yellow, and of 
the size of peas. The larynx, which is three inches long, 
has no partition in the lower portion, whence M. Garnot 
concludes that there is no lower larynx; two muscles are 
there fixed. The heart is small. 

Locality and Habits. — This species is found in great Hocks 
along the coast of Peru, flying moderately well in a precipi- 
tous manner, and skimming the sea, but it prefers repose on 
the surface, and dives very frequently, like the Grebes, 
doubtless for the purpose of capturing the small fish 
which form its food. M. Garnot thinks that it is interme- 
diate between the Petrels, whose bill and feet it very nearly 
possesses, and the Grebes, whose port and habit of diving it 
has ; and hence he proposes for it the name of the Grebe- 
Petrel. The parts between Sangallan and Lima are the 
localities mentioned by M. Garnot 

Pclccanoidcs Urinatrlx. 

Mr. Darwin notices Puffinuria Brerardii as one more 
example of those extraordinary cases of a bird evidently be- 
longing to one well-marked family, yet both in its habits 
and structure allied to a very distinct tribe. ' This bird 
never leaves the quiet inland sounds, 1 says Mr. Darwin ; 
* when disturbed, it dives to a distance, and on coming to 
the surface with the same movement takes wing. After 
flying for a space in a direct course, by the rapid movement 
of its short wings, it drops as if struck dead, and then dives 
again. The form of the beak and nostrils, length of foot, 
and even colouring of the plumage, show that this bird is a 
P. C., No. 1 1 Ob. 

petrel ; at the same time, its short wings and consequent 
little power of flight, its form of body and shape of tail, its 
habits of diving, and the absence of a hind toe to its foot, 
and its choice of situation, make it doubtful whether its 
relationship is not equally close with the auks as with the 
petrels. It would undoubtedly be mistaken for one of the 
former, when seen either on the wing, or when diving and 
quietly swimming about the retired channels of Tierra del 
Fuego.' (Journal and Remarks.) Prior as is the claim of 
Lac6pede's generic name, there can be no doubt that M. 
Lesson's designation is much more consonant to the habits 
of the bird. 

Puffinus. (Ray.) 

Generic Character.— -General characters those of the true 
Petrels, from which Puffinus "is distinguished by the bill 
being longer, by the extremity of the lower mandible, which 
follows the curvature of the upper, and by the tubular nos- 
trils opening not by a common aperture, but by two distinct 

This is the genus Thiellus of Gloger, Thalassidroma, 
Sw., and Nectris, Klug. 

Example, Puffinus Anglorum. 

Summit of the head, nape, and all the upper parts of the 
body generally, the wings, the tail, the thighs, and tho bor- 
ders of the lower tail-coverts, of a lustrous black ; all the 
lower parts of a pure white ; the black and white of the 
sides of the neck are in demi-tints which produce a kind of 
crescents ; bill blackish-brown ; feet and toes brown, mem- 
branes yellowish. Length nearly 13 inches. Male and 
female. (Temminck.) 

In the 4th part of his * Manuel,' M. Temminck observes 
that the natural colour of the feet being badly indicated, 
he gives it from Graba. The trenchant posterior border of 
the tarsi and the external toe are deep brown ; the other 
parts of the tarsus are flesh-coloured, and the membranes 
of a livid tint with brown streaks. Iris deep brown. 

Young of the Year.— All the lower parts of a more or 
less deep ash-colour. 

This is the Procellaria Puffinus of Brunnich and Latham, 
Puffinus Arcticus of Faber, Der Nordische uncf Englische 
Sturmtaucher of Brehm, Petrel Manks of Temminck, Pwf- 
fingen Fanaw of the antient British, and Shearwater Petrel, 
Manks Puffin % and Manks Shearwater of the moderns. 

Localities; Habits; Utility to Man; #c— Willughby 
says : — • At the south end of the Isle of Man lies a little 
islet, divided from Man by a narrow channel called the Calf 
of Man, on which are no habitations, but only a cottage or 
two- lately built. This islet is full of conies, which the 
Puffins, coming yearly, dislodge, and build in their burroughs. 
They lay each but one egg before they sit, like the Razor- 
bill and Guillem, although it be the common persuasion 
that they lay two at a time, of which the one is always 
addle. They feed their young ones wondrous fat. The old 
ones early in the morning, at break of day, leave their 
nests and young, and the island itself, and spend the wholo 
day in fishing in the sea, never returning or once setting 
foot on the island before evening twilight ; so that all day 
the island is so quiet and still from all noise, as if there 
were not a bird about it. Whatever fish or other food they 
have gotten and swallowed in the day-time, by the innate 
heat or proper ferment of the stomach is (as they say) 
changed into a certain oily substance (or rather chyle), a 
good part whereof in the night-time they vomit up into the 
mouths of their young, which, being therewith nourished, 
grow extraordinarily fat. When they are come to their full 
growth, they who are intrusted by the lord of the island 
(the earl of Darby) draw them out of the cony-holes; and 
that they may the more readily know and keep an account 
of the number they take, they cut off one foot and reserve 
it, which gave occasion to that fable, that the Puffins are 
single-footed. They usually sell them for about ninepence 
the dozen, a very cheap rate. They say their flesh is per- 
mitted to be eaten in Lent, being for the taste so like to 
fish. We are told that they breed not only on the Calf of 
Man, but also on the' Scilly Islands. Notwithstanding they 
are sold so cheap, yet some years there is thirty pounds 
niade*of the young Puffins taken in the Calf of Man, whence 
may be gathered what number of birds breed there.' 
Speaking of the flesh, the same author says, that from its 
extraordinary fatness, it is esteemed unwholesome mnat, 
unless it be well seasoned with salt. Pennant states that 
they are salted and barrelled, and when they are boiled, are 
eaten with potatoes. He further says that they quit tho 

Vol. XVIII.-G 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 





Generic Character of Thalassidroma.— Bill shorter than 
tho head, much compressed in front of the nasal sheath, 
with the tip of the upper mandible suddenly curving and 
hooking downwards, and that of the lower one slightly 
angulated and following the curve of the upper. Nostrils 
contained in one tube or sheath, but showing two distinct 
orifices in front Wings long and acuminate, with the first 
quill shorter than the third, the second being the longest. 
Tail square or slightly forked. Legs having the tarsi rather 
long and slender, reticulated. Feet of three toes united by 
a membrane ; hind toe represented by a small straight de- 
pendent nail. (Gould.) 

Head and fool of Thalamdioma polagic*. 

The group generically subdivided as above, or rather the 
most of them, have been regarded as the indicators of storm 
and tempest. Rapidly spurning the billows as they skim 
along the undulating waves, they are ever on the watch for 
what the troubled water may offer to them, and they congre- 
gate in the wake of the sea-going ship not so much perhaps 
for shelter as for \vhat is turned up from the furrow ploughed 
by the keel. Mr. G. Bennett, during his voyage, observed 
that the Cape Petrels, Albatrosses, and other birds followed 
the ship during the whole of the night, reposing for a short 
period on the water, but seldom remaining long on the 
waves. They usually alighted for food, and soon resumed 
their flight. Marked birds were seen about the ship for 
days together when the strong gales carried the vessel at a 
rapid rate through the water. Cape Petrels and Albatrosses 
were seen flying near the stern as late as midnight, and it 
was not unusual to hear the twittering note of the Stormy 
Petrel {Thalassidronia pela^ica) under the stern during the 
night. {Wanderings %n New South Wales, vol. i.) 


Example, Daption Capensis, Stephens • Procellaria Ca- 
pernio JLinn. ; Cape Pigeon of the English ; Peintada of 
the Portuguese. 

Daption Capen$i». 
Description.— Plumage variegated with brown and white. 
The total length of one measured by M. Lesson was thirteen 
inches, that of the tube of the nostrils six lines. The testi- 
cles were rather deep grey, the larynx had two muscles 
proper to it, and the total length of the intestinal tube was 
47 inches. M. Garnot communicated to M. Lesson a species 
which the latter believed to be new, with an elaborate de- 

scription and anatomical detail?, which M. Lesson quotes at 

Captain P. P. King, in a letter to Mr.Broderip from New 
South Wales (April, 1834), states that from the meridian of 
the island of St. Paul's, on about the parallel of 40° S. lat,, 
the ship was daily surrounded by a multitude of oceanic 
birds. Of the Petrel tribe, the Cape Pigeon, Procellaria 
Capensis, Linn., was most abundant ; but Proc. vittata (vel 
carulea)— Prion — frequently was observed ; as was also a 
small black Petrel which Captain King did not recollect to 
have before seen. (Zool. Proc, 1834.) The same author 
states that the Pintado Petrel (the species now under con- 
sideration), seems to be spread over the whole of the 
southern hemisphere. {Zool. Journ., vol. iv.) 

Thalassidroma. (Vigors.) 

This is the genus Hydrobates of Boie. 

Mr. Selby remarks that the members of this genus, which 
are all of small size, have been very properly separated by 
Mr. Vigors from the rest of the Petrel group. They are, he 
observes, birds of nocturnal or crepuscular habits, and are 
seldom seen except in lowering weather, or during storms, 
when they frequently fly in the track of ships. At other 
times, and in clear weather, they remain concealed during 
the day in the holes of rocks, rat-burrows, &c, and only 
come forth at nightfall in search of food, consisting of marine 
crustaceans, small roollusks, and other oily animal matter 
which they find floating on the surface of the ocean. Their 
flight equals in swiftness that of the Swallow tribe, which 
they resemble in size, colour, and general appearance. All 
the known species are of a dark hue, more or less relieved 
with white, and are widely distributed, some being found in 
both hemispheres, and in a variety of climate. They breed 
in the crevices of rocks, caverns, &c, and, like the Fulmars 
and Shearwaters, lay but one egg, which is white, and com- 
paratively large. {Illustrations of British Ornithology, 
vol. ii.) 

Examples. -— Thalassidroma pelagioa, and Thalassi- 
droma Wilsonii. 

Description of Thalassidroma pelagica.— Head, back, 
wings, and tail dull black ; lower parts sooty bhick ; a large 
transverse band of pure white on the rump; scapulars and 
secondary quills terminated with white; tail and quills 
black, the first quill not- the longest, but shorter by four 
lines than the second and third, which is the longest ; bill 
and feet black ; iris brown. The tail is square, and the tips 
of the wings reach but very little beyond its point. The 
length of the tarsi is ten lines. Total length five inches six 
lines. (Male and female.) 

young of the Year. — These have the tints less deep, and 
the edges of the feathers sooty or rusty : in other respects 
they resemble the adults. t 

Localities.— More common in North America than in 
Europe ; found on the coasts of England ami Scotland ; 
rather common at the Orcades and Hebrides ; more abun- 
dant in the island of Saint Kilda; wanders rarely on the 
coasts of the ocean, and very accidentally on the lakes of 
tho centre of Europe. (Teraminck.) Mr. Selby states that 
they are found upon the seas surrounding Britain at all 
seasons of the year, and that they have been ascertained to 
breed not only upon the Shetland and other northern 
islands of Scotland, but upon the rocky coast of the north- 
west of Cornwall at the opposite extremity of the kingdom. 
The geographical distribution of this species has, he adds, 
been supposed to be very extensive, but the discovery of 
other species very closely allied to it both in size and colour 
(and only to be distinguished by narrow inspection and 
comparison) in various parts of the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans, makes it more than probable that these latter have 
been mistaken for it, and that its distribution is in fact 
much more limited, being in all likelihood confined to the 
European seas. 

The bird above described, which is considered to be the 
smallest of the web-footed birds, is the Procellaria pefagica 
of Linnseus ; Ucoello deUe Tempest* of the modern Italians; 
Oiseau de Tempfte, Petrel, and Petrel Tempcte of the 
French and Temminck ; Ungewitter Vogel, Kleinsier 
Sturmvogel, and Meer Peters Vogel of the Dutch ; Storm 
Zwalu of the Nethei landers ; Stromwaders Vogel of the 
Swedes; Soren Peder, St. Peders Fugl, Vestan-vinds or 
Sonden-vinds Fugl, and Uveyrs Fugl of the Norwegians ; 
Cas gan Longwr of the antient British ; Common Sturm 
Petrel, Stormy Petrel, and Storm-finch of the modern 

G2 . 

Digitized by 





British, who call the species also (provincially) Little Petrel, 
Mitty, As si lag, Spency, Sea-swallow, Allamouty, Witch, 
and (mariners especially) Mother Carey's Chickens, a title 
which is not confined to ProcellaHa pelagica, but is shared 
hy and more generally applied to the more oceanic species, 
such as Thalassidroma Wilsonii, &c. 

This, or. some other species of Thalassidroma, is in all 
probability the Cypselus of Pliny, who describes (Nat. 
Hist., x. 39) the swallow-like appearance of his Cypseli, 
their nesting in rocks, their wide spread over the sea, and 
says that however far ships go from land, these birds fly 
around them. 

Habits, Food, Reproduction, <£c.— The habits of this 
species very much resemble those of the other Petrels. 
Mr. Selby remarks that most authors state that it lays but 
one egg, which M. Temminck describes as being pure white, 
nearly round, and of the shape of an owl's. Mr. Selby be- 
lieves that a single egg is the general law, but he refers to 
Mr. Scarth's paper in the 'Linnean Transactions' (xiii.). 
The latter gentleman found a nest in passing over a track 
of peat- moss near the shore upon an uninhabited islet in 
Orkney. He was directed to it by the low purring noise of 
the female, and found two pure white eggs, of a very large 
size* as compared to the bird. Upon seizing the old one, 
she squirted out a very rancid oily substance. Upon taking 
her home, she was put into a cage, and various worms were 
offered to her, all of which she refused. At the end of four, 
days, Mr. Scarth saw that she occasionally drew the feathers 
of her breast singly across or rather, through her bill, and 
appeared to suck an oily substance from them. Upon this, 
he smeared her breast with train oil, and as she greedily 
sucked it, he repeated the smearing twice or thrice a day 
for a week. He then placed a saucer containing oil in the 
cage, in which she regularly dipped her breast, and then 
sucked her feathers as before. Thus he kept her alive for 
three months. Mr. Selby observes that some authors have 
stated that the young, as soon as hatched, are conducted to 
the water ; but this he says is a mistake, as they remain in 
the holes till fully able to fly, which docs not take place for 
some weeks, and during this time they are fed by the 
parents with oily matter ejected from their stomachs. * In- 
stances,' continues Mr. Selby, ' frequently occur of its being 
found rather far inland, either dead or in an exhausted and 
dying state ; but the cause of such mortality has not hitherto 
been satisfactorily accounted for; it may however arise 
from weakness, occasioned either by old age or accidental 
illness, rendering it unable to contend with the autumnal 
and wintry blasts, during which period such instances are 
most frequent ; and this is rendered more probable by its 
being commonly in an emaciated condition. The flight of 
the Storm-Petrel is remarkably swift, and is equalled by 
few of the feathered race. It is often seen darting from 
wave to wave, at intervals dipping its bill into the water as. 
if in search of insects, or picking up food, during which it 
will stand as it were upon the summit of the billow with 
wings expanded and raised, but it is very rarely seen to 
alight for swimming, and is totally unablo to dive, a faculty- 
attributed to it in an eminent degree by some of the earlier 
writers.' In December, 1 823, whilst sailing on the Thames, 
we saw one of these birds in the middle of the river, just 
below the Tower of London. It was disporting on the wing 
just above the surface of the water, which was very rough, 
and ever and anon settled on it, rising again almost imme- 
diately. It had blown a gale (which still continued when 
the bird was seen) for twenty-four hours. Many persons 
were in unsuccessful pursuit of it, they being apparently 
unacquainted with its habits, and taking it for a stray and 
wearied land-bird which was constantly dropping into the 

M. Temminck (Manuel, 4th part) observes that M.Graba 
presumes that the moult of this species is double, and that 
in autumn their plumage has some obscure spots. M. Tem- 
minck further remarks that the variety found at Feroe 
differs from that found accidentally on his coasts in the 
want of the white on the Scapulars and secondaries of the 
wings; in other respects there is no marked disparity. This 
is the Hydrobates Feroensis of Brehm, and is in all proba- 
bility that alluded to bv Brunnich, when he tells us that 
the inhabitants of the fceroe Isles make the bird serve as a 
candle, by drawing a wick through the mouth and rump, 
which, being lighted, is fed by the fat and oil of the 

* About tho size of a blackbird's. 

Thalassidroma Wilsonii. — Description.— Head and all 
the lower parts sooty black ; back, scapulars, and wings black ; 
some of the great wing-coverts bordered with whitish ; all 
the upper tail-coverts, and, in some individuals, a part of the 
feathers of the thighs also or some of the lower coverts, pure 
white; tail nearly square, only slightly emargiuate, the three 
lateral feathers white at their base ; wings exceeding the tail 
more than an inch; bill and feet (tarsi 15 lines long) black ; 
on the membranes a long yellow stain and the edges of the 
toes finely bordered with that colour; iris black; extremity 
of the nasal tube turned up. Total length of the bird 6 
inches 3 or 4 lines. (Both sexes in perfect plumage.) 

M. Temminck, who gives the above description, observes 
that the young birds doubtless differ but little from the 
adults; but they are not as yet exactly known. (Manuel, 
4th part, 1840.) 

This species appears to be the Procellaria pelagica of 
Wilson ; Procellaria oceanica of Banks ; Procellaria^ Wil- 
sonii of the Prince of Musignano ; VOiseau Tempete of 
Buffbn, *Enl.' 993; and Petrel echasse ot Temminck. 

Localities.— The whole of America to Cape Horn ; com- 
mon on the coasts of Chili, the United States, and Brazil ; 
more rare at the Cape of Good Hope than Procellaria pela- 
gica; shows itself accidentally on the coasts of Spain and 
in the Mediterranean. (Temminck, Manuel, 4th part.) 

Habits, Food, Reproduction, <$*c— Nuttall, who enume- 
rates their vulgar names of Stormy Petrels, Devil's Birds, 
and Mother Carey's Chickens with remonstrance, well de- 
scribes their habits. 'On the edge of soundings, as the 
vessel' loses sight of the headlands, flocks of these dark, 
swift flying, and ominous birds begin to shoot around the 
vessel, and finally take their station in her foaming wako. 
In this situation, as humble dependents, they follow for 
their pittance of fare, constantly and keenly watching the 
agitated surge for floating raollusca, and are extremely gra- 
tified with any fat kind of animal matter thrown overboard, 
which they instantly discover, however small the morsel, or 
mountainous and foaming the raging wave on which it may 
happen to float. On making such discovery, they suddenly 
stop in their airy and swallow-like flight, and whirl instantly 
down to the waters. Sometimes nine or ten thus crowd to- 
gether like a flock of chickens scrambling for fhe same 
morsel, at the same time pattering on the water with 
their feet, as if walking on the surface, they balance 
themselves with gently fluttering and outspread wings, 
and often dip down their heads to collect the sinking 
object in pursuit. On other occasions, as if seeking relief 
from their almost perpetual exercise of flight, they jerk and 
hop widely over the water, rebounding as their feet touch 
the surface with great agility and alertness. There is some- 
thing cheerful and amusing in the sight of these little voy- 
aging flocks, steadily following after the vessel, so light and 
unconcerned across the dreary ocean. During a gale it is 
truly interesting to witness their intrepidity and address. 
Unappalled by the storm that strikes terror into the breast 
of the mariner, they are seen coursing wildly and rapidly 
over the waves, descending their sides, then mounting with 
the breaking surge which threatens to burst over their 
heads, sweeping through the hollow waves as in a sheltered 
valley, and again mounting with the rising billow, they trip 
and jerk sportively and securely on the roughest sea, defy- 
ing the horrors of the storm, and like magic beings seem to 
take delight in braving overwhelming dangers. At other 
times we see these aerial mariners playfully coursing from 
side to side in the wake of the ship, making excursions far 
and wide on ever}* side, now in advance, then far behind, 
returning again to the vessel as if she were stationary, 
though moving at the most rapid rate. A little after dark 
they generally cease their arduous course, and take their 
interrupted rest upon the water, arriving in the wake of the 
vessel they had left, as I have observed, by about 9 or ]0 
o'clock of the following morning. In this way we were fol- 
lowed by the same flock of birds to the soundings of the 
Azores, and until we came in sight of the Isle of Flores.' 
v Manual of the Ornithology of the United States and of 
Canada.) Temminck states that their food consists of the 
seeds of some marine plants, small testaceans, mollusks, 
&c. ; Wilson says that they feed on the gelatinous spora of 
the Gulf- weed (Fucus natans), as well as small fish, bar- 
nacles, &o. Nuttall informs us that these Petrels breed in 
great numbers on the rocky shores of the Bahama and the 
Bermuda islands, and along some parts of the coast of East 
Florida and Cuba, Mr. Audubon informed him that they 

Digitized by 





trate. But both Ray and Willughby (to say nothing of 
other parts of their descriptions) describe the bill of their 
bird as black, which appears not to be the colour of that 
of Fulmar us glacialis, either in the young or the adult 
state. Willughby 's figure (t. 66), though not a good one, 
can hardly be taken for a Fulmar ; the nostrils are not re- 
presented as tubular, nor the bill itself as large ; and there 
is nothing to lead the observer to suppose that the figure 
was intended for that bird. Mr. Selby quotes the figure 
and description of Willughby as referrible to Larus argen- 
tat us of Brunnich. 

Example, Fulmarus glacialis. 

This species has been considered the typo of the restricted 
genus Procellaricii Linn., by those who confine the subdi- 
vision of that genus to the genera Procellaria, Puffinus, and 
77ialassidroma. The bill of the Fulmar is stout, thick, 
with the upper mandible considerably hooked at the tip 
(where it is also dilated) and sulcated. The lower mandi- 
ble is straight and slightly truncated. The nostrils are 
united in a single tube. The legs are moderate, and a sharp 
claw exists in the place of a hind toe. 

Description.— Head, neck, all the lower parts, rump, and 
tail pure white; back, scapulars, wing-coverts and seconda- 
ries pure bluish-ash ; quills bright grey brown ; tail well 
rounded, conical ; bill bright yellow tinged with orange on 
the nasal tube; iris and feet yellow. Length 16 inches. 
{Both sexes, summer plumage.) 

Youttg of the Year. — The whole body bright grey clouded 
jtrith brown ; feathers of the wings and tail terminated by a 
deeper brown ; the quills and caudal feathers have only a 
tinge of grey-brown ; in front of the eyes an angular black 
spot ; bill and feet yellowish ash. (Temminck.) 

Head ucd foot of Fulmar. 

This is the Procellaria glacialis of Linnaous and authors ; 
Le Petrel Fulmar and Petrel de Vile de Saint Kilda of 
Buffon ; Hav-hest of the Norwegians, by whom it appears 
to be also called Mallemoke or Mullemuke; Gicylan y Uraig 
of the antient British ; Fulmar and Fulmar Petrel of the 
modern British, by whom it is also named (provincially) 
Mallemuck, Malmoke, and Mallduch. 

Localities. — The Polar regions principally during sum- 
mer. It is noted by Major Sabine as occurring within the 
Arctic Circle (Parry's First Voy., Append.), and as abund- 
ant at all times in Davis's Straits and Baffin's Bay: in his 
Greenland Birds the same author states that during the 
time of the detention of the ships by ice in Jacob's Bay 
(lat. 71°), from the 24th of June to the 3rd of July, Ful- 
mars were passing in a continual stream to the northward, 
in numbers inferior only to the Hocks of the Passenger 
Pigeon in North America. Captain James Ross (Append, 
to Sir John Ross's Second Voy.) records it as abounding 
in most parts of the North Atlantic Ocean, but as pecu- 
liarly numerous in Hudson's Bay, Davis's Strait, and Baf- 
fin's Bay. He says that these birds are also occasionally 
met with to the westward of Lancaster Sound, and in Re- 
gent's Inlet, following the whale ships, and availing them- 
selves of the success of the fishermen, by feeding off the 
carcass of the whale after it has been deprived of its blub- 
ber and turned adrift. Temminck places the species always 
on the shelves and lioating ice of the pole, and says that'll 
is very accidental on the coasts of England and Holland; 
but that the seas of the Arctic Pole are covered with it at 
great distances from land. Mr. Selby (Illustrations of Brit. 
Ornith.) informs us that the steep and rocky St. Kilda, one 
of the western islands of Scotland, is the only locality 
within the British dominions annually resorted to by the 
Fulmar, the rest of the Scottish and our more southern 
coasts being rarely visited even by stragglers. Mr. Gould 
(Birds of Europe) observes, that although the Polar re- 
gions constitute its native locality, it is nevertheless found, 
but in much less abundance, in more temperate climates, 
such as the northern seas of Europe and America, extend- 
ing itself throughout the lengthened coast of Norway, and 
not unfrequently Holland and France. It frequents also, 
he adds, the northern isles of Great Britain, resorting to 
the Orkneys and Hebrides for the purpose of breeding, but 
particularly to the island of St. Kilda. 

Habits; Food; Reproduction ; Utility to Man. — Tem- 
minck states that the Fulmar never comes to the coast ex- 
cept for the purposes of nesting, or when driven there by 
gales. Its flight is easy and buoyant. Besides the flesh 
and blubber of dead whales or seals, for penetrating whose 
thick skins their trenchant and hooked upper mandible is 
admirably formed, barnacles and other parasites which 
attach themselves to the whales, mollusks, &c, form their 
food. Captain James Ross (loc. cit.) says that the bird is of 
essential service to those employed in the capture of the 

Digitized by 


P E T 



whale, by guiding them to those places where the whales 
are most numerous, and by giving notice of the first ap- 
pearance of those animals at the surface of the water, by 
crowding to the spot from all quarters. The Fulmar also 
attends the fishing- vessels on the hanks of Newfoundland, 
where it is caHfed John Down, for the offal of the cod-fish, 
and is often taken with a hook baited with a piece of cod's 
liver or flesh. At St. Kilda they breed gregariously in the 
caverns and holes of the rocks ; a single white large egg, 
with a very brittle shell, is deposited by the female, and the 
young, which are hatched about the middle of June, are fed 
with oily matter disgorged by the parents. As soon as they are 
fledged they are eagerly sought by the cragsmen* who scale 
the precipitous cliffs for them at the risk of their lives, for 
the sake of their down, feathers, and oil. * No bird,' says 
Pennant, Ms of such use to the islanders as this; the Ful- 
mar supplies them with oil for their lamps, down for their 
beds, a delicacy for their tables, a balm for their wounds, 
and a medicine for their distempers. The Fulmar is also a 
certain prognosticator of the change of wind ; if it comes to 
land, no west wind is expected for some time ; and the con- 
trary when it returns and keeps the sea/ These birds are 
said to be salted for winter provision by the inhabitants of 
Baffin's and Hudson's Bay. Like the other Petrels, the 
Fulmars eject oil through their nostrils in self-defence, and 
it therefore becomes, as Mr. Selby observes, an essential 
point that they should be taken and killed by surprise, in 
order to prevent the loss of a liquid so valuable to those who 
capture them. 

Pulmanu glncialis. 

Procellaria. (Linn.) 

The type of this genus, as restricted by Mr. G. R. Gray, is 
Procellaria diquinQctialis, Linn. ; The Great Black Petrel of 

Mr. Darwin, in his valuable • Journal and Remarks' ( Voy. 
of Adventure and Beagle), remarks that the southern seas 
visited by the expedition are frequented by several species of 

Petrels. The largest kind, Procellaria gigantea, or Nelly 
(Quebrantahuesos, or Break-bones, of the Spaniards), is, he 
observes, a common bird, both in the inland channels and 
on the open sea. ' In its habits and manner of flight/ con- 
tinues Mr. Darwin, ' there is a very close resemblance with 
the Albatross, and as with the latter bird a person may 
watch it for hours together without seeing on what it feeds, 
so it is with this petrel. The Break-bone* is however a 
rapacious bird, for it was observed by some of the officers at 
Port S. Antonio chasing a diver. The bird tried to escape, 
both by diving and flying, but it was continually struck 
down, and at last killed by a blow on its head. At Port St. 
Julian also these great petrels were seen killing and devour- 
ing young gulls.' The same author adds that the Spaniards 
were probably aware of the rapacity of this petrel, for 
• Quebrantahuesos' means properly an osprey. These large 
petrels are called Mother Carey* s Geese by the sailors. 

Diomedea. (Linn.) [Albatross.] 

Captain P. P. King, R.N., in his letter to Mr. Broderip 
above alluded to, says, 'Of the genus Diomedea the species 
which I regarded as the D. spadicea, chlororhynchos, and/u- 
liginosa of authors, were the most remarkable. Near Tristan 
d Acunha the first (D. spadicea) most abounded ; between 
the Cape and the longitude of 30° east, the second (D. chlo- 
rorhynchos) became more numerous ; and in the neighbour- 
hood of St. Paul's their place was supplied by D.fuhginosa. 
Where one species abounded, the others were only occa- 
sionally seen ; from which it may be inferred that each 
species breeds in distinct haunts. Occasionally two or three 
varieties of the D. exulans, Linn., the large wandering 
Albatross, attended the ship, but they rarely remained be- 
yond the day. D. exulans varies very much in plumage; 
generally however the head, ueck, back, and wings are 
more or less mottled-grey, and the breast, abdomen, vent, 
and uropygium snowy white ; the bill is horn-coloured, and 
the feet yellow. We saw a bird that might be referred to 
M. Lesson's D. epomophora, if that is really a distinct 
species. Another, of very large size, was near us for two 
days, which, with the exception of the back of the wings 
and tips of the under-side of the pen feathers and extremity 
of the tail being black, was of a snowy white colour.' 

Drawings of D. spadicea and D. chloroi'hynchos, and 
descriptions of three of the species sent by Captain King, 
were read and exhibited. The descriptions agreed essen- 
tially with those from the same specimens in * Wanderings 
in New South Wales,' by Mr. G. Bennett, who was a fellow- 
voyager wilh Captain King. The Report goes on to state 
that the reference of these to the species quoted is pro- 
visional only, as they differ in some important particulars 
from the original description of those species ; it is there- 
fore probable that they are rather to be viewed as indi- 
cating races hitherto unknown to zoologists. (ZooL Proe^ 

The author of the 'Wanderings' above noticed states 
that the known species arc, D. exulans, D. spadicea, Z>. 
chlororhynchus, D.fuliginosa; and also, as enumerated by 
Cuvier, D. brachyura (Tern.), and D. melanophris (Tem.) ; 
to these two last Mr. Bennett had no opportunity of refer- 
ring. He, gives a description of a species found at Bass's 
Straits, among others, and has a chapter containing much 
interesting observation on the habits of the Albatrosses and 
the mode of capturing them. They appear to be unsparing 
in their voracity, for Mr. Bennett saw one which was shot 
dead instantly fallen upon by its companions, eager to make 
it their prey. The excretory duct of the nasal gland of the 
Wandering Albatross (£>. exulans) was traced by Mr. Ben- 
nett for nearly two inches under the external plate of the 
upper mandible, in a direction towards the nostrils, but in- 
clining slightly upwards, until he lost sight of it among the 
cellular substance of the bone. 

Habits, Reproduction, #c.— Captain Carmichacl (Linn. 
Trans., vol. xii.) gives an account of the breeding of these 
birds, from personal observation, in the island of Tristan 
d'Acunha. As he and his party walked down the mountain 
on their return, they passed among flocks of ^Albatrosses 
engaged in the process of incubation or tending "their young. 
Four species (Diomedea spadicea, exulans, chlororhynchus^ 
and fuligt nosa) breed on the island; none of them hatch 
more than one egg at a time. The two former give them- 
selves no trouble, it appears, in constructing tneir nest, 
merely choosing a dry spot of ground, and giving it a slight 
concavity, to prevent the egg from rolling out of its place. 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 





break on the following morning, the ship having frequently 
run a distance of nearly 100 miles during the night.' (Zool. 
Proc, 1839.) 

Fossil Albatross. 
Professor Owen, in the present month (May, 1840), de- 
scribed at a meeting of the Geological Society certain orni- 
tholites. discovered in the chalk near Maidstone. They 
consisted of the shaft of a humerus eleven inches long, 
wanting both ends, and two fragments of a tibia. Their 
proportions were such that the Professor could not refer 
them to any other group of birds than the Longipennes of 
the Palmiped order of Cuvier's system ; and the humerus 
equalled in size that of the largest Albatross with which 
Professor Owen had been able to compare it. 

PETRl'COLA. [Lithophagim, vol. xiv., p. 48.] 
PETRIFACTIONS, one of the general terms by which 
naturalists have at different times sought to designate the 
vast variety of plants and animals whose remains are pre- 
served in the earth. It may be thus considered as an equi- 
valent for such expressions as * formed stones,' • imbedded 
fossils,' * organised fossils.' * organic remains,' &c. None 
of these expressions are free from objections more or less 
serious, hut tho difficulty of superseding them by better is 
more obvious than the advantage of changing them. Against 
the use of the word Petrifactions, it is reasonably argued 
that a very considerable proportion of the plants, shells, and 
bones of vertebrated animals enclosed in the rocks are 
not at all petrified; while, on the other hand, the process of 
lapidification has been found to have been perfectly per- 
formed on objects of comparatively recent date never im- 
bedded in the earth, as the wood of a Roman aaueduct in 
Westphalia. Calcareous deposits from springs, which invest 
mosses, shells, and bones with a stony case, are often called 
petrifactions. [Organic Remains.] 

PETROCINCLA. [Merulid.b, vol. xv„ p. 122.] 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sykes, in his 'Catalogue of Birds 
observed in the Dukhun' (Deccan), records a species under 
the name of Petrocincla Pandoo, and remarks that it differs 
from the Solitary Thrush of Europe (Tardus Cyaneus, 
Linn.) in its smaller size, slighter form, want of orange 
eyelids, and white tips to the feathers. Pet. Pandoo is 
found only in the dense woods of the Ghauts, and its flight 
is low and rapid. Colonel Sykes adds, that it appears to 
correspond with Var. A. of Dr. Latham's Solitary Thrush, 
vol. V., p. 47. Petrocincla Maal and Petrocincla cinclo- 
rhyncha are recorded by Colonel Sykes in the same cata- 
logue. (Zool. Proc., 1832.) 
PETROICA. [Sylviada] 

PETRO'LEUM, a viscid variety of bitumen, which it 
found in many parts of Europe and America, but chiefly in 
Asia, flowing from beds associated with coal strata. As 
much as 400,000 hogsheads is said to be collected annually 
in the Birman empire. It is also abundant in Persia, and it 
is found, among other places, in the island of Barbadoes. It 
is sometimes used in medicine, and it is contained in the 
materia medica of the London Pharmacopoeia, under the 
name of Petroleum Barbadense. 

This substance has a dark reddish-brown colour; it is 
slightly translucent, and its odour is bituminous. The pe- 
troleum of Bechelbronn in the department of the Bas Rhin 
has been particularly examined by Boussingault: it is 
viscid, and has a very deep brown colour ; it is known in 
the neighbourhood of the place in which it occurs by the 
name of stone oil, and is employed as a substitute for 
grease in diminishing the friction of machinery. It is 
totally and readily soluble in aether. When this petroleum 
is heated to the temperature of 212° in a retort, nothing 
whatever distils; it is evident therefore that it contains no 
naphtha. When however the heat is raised to nearly 450°, 
drops of an oily fluid come over, though very slowly; this 
oily body has a brown colour, and is very liquid; it is ren- 
dered pure by drying over chloride of calcium, and rectifica- 
tion. In obtaining this oil in the first instance the petroleum 
is mixed with water. Petrolene is the name given by Bous- 
singault to this oil ; its properties are, that it has a pale 
yellow colour, slight taste, and a bituminous smell. Its 
specific gravity is about • 89 1 . Even when cooled down to 
about 10° Fahr., it retains its fluidity. It stains paper 
like the volatile oils, boils at 536°, burns with a good deal of 
flame, but accompanied with much smoke. It is sparingly 
soluble in alcohol, but in larger quantity in epther. It 
yielded by aualysis:-^ 



87 04 

Dr. Thomson considers it to he constituted of 
16 equivalents of hydrogen = 16 
20 equivalents of carbon =120 




Asj.haltene is the solid portion of petroleum. Bouk 
singault obtained it by treating petroleum witli alcohol, 
which dissolves the greater part of the petroleum and leaves 
the asphallene unacted upon; by the application of heat 
the whole of the more volatile constituent is expelled, and 
asphaltene, possessing the following properties, remains: — 
Its colour is black, and it has a great deal of lustre. It 
breaks with a conchoidal fracture, and is heavier than water. 
When heated to about 572°, it becomes soft and clastic. 
It burns, like the resins, without leaving any residue. 

Dr. Thomson concludes, from the experiments of Bous- 
singault, that asphaltene is composed of 
15 equivalents of hydrogen =15 
1 9 equivalents of carbon =114 

3 equivalents of oxygen = 24 

Equivalent 153 100* 

He is also of opinion that asphaltene is nothing more 
than petrolene combined with 3 equivalents of oxygen. It 
appears probable also that the petroleum of Bechelbronn is 
composed of 

1 equivalent of petrolene =136 or 14*53 

5 equivalents of asphaltene =765 85*47 

Equivalent 901 100* 

It is extremely probable that substances very differently 
constituted may be classed together under the general term 
of petroleum ; for while Boussingault obtained a fluid car- 
burctted hydrogen, which we have just described under the 
name of petrolene, from the petroleum of Bechelbronn, 
Drs. Christison and Reichenbach produced a solid carhu- 
retted hydrogen from the petroleum of Rangoon : the for- 
mer called it pelroline, and the latter paraffin. [Hydro- 
gen, Carburets of.] 

PETROMY'ZON, according to Linnaeus; a genus of 
fishes, but now usually regarded as a family, called Petro- 
myzidro. These fishes constitute tho section Cyclostomi of 
the • Regne Animal,' and are distinguished by their im- 
perfectly developed skeleton, their want of pectoral and 
ventral fins, combined with an eel-like form of body. The 
mouth is circular, consisting of a cartilaginous ring which 
supports the lips, this ring being formed by the soldering 
together of the palatine- and mandibular bones. The 
branchiso, instead of being pectinated, as in most other 
fishes, are purse-shaped ; they are moreover fixed, and open 
externally by several apertures. 

From the very imperfect state of their skeleton (which 
consists chiefly of a ribless series of cartilaginous rings), 
and some other peculiarities in their structure, these fishes 
may be regarded as the lowest of the vertebrate animals. 
The genus Petromyzon, as now restricted, contains the 
fishes commonly known as Lampreys. These eel-like fishes 
are of a cylindrical form, compressed towards the tail, and 
destitute of scales; they have seven branchial openings on 
each side, and a small opening connected with these on the 
upper surface of the head, situated nearly between the 
eyes the mouth, or maxillary ring, is armed with strong 
teeth, and on the inner disk there are smaller rasp-like 
tubercles: there are moreover two longitudinal series of 
small teeth on tho tongue, which is so formed that, by its 
movement in the mouth, it acts as a piston, and enables the 
animal to attach itself by suction to any foreign body. 

The Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, Linn.) is usually 
about two feet in length, of a yellowish colour marbled 
with brown ; its two dorsal fins are distinctly separated, 
the second one joins with the tail fin, as well as a small 
strip which represents the anal fin. 

* The Lampreys, like the Sharks and Rays,' says Mr. 
Yarrell, 'have no swimming bladder; and being also 
without pectoral fins, are usually seen near the bottom. 
To save themselves from the constant muscular exertion 
which is necessary to prevent them from being carried along 
with the current of the water, they attach themselves by 
| the mouth to stones or rocks, and were in consequence callc-4 

Digitized by 




P E'l 

Petromyzon, or Stone-sucker; while the circular form of 
the mouth induced the name Cyclostomes, or round- 
mouthed fishes, which was bestowed upon them by M. Du- 

The Lamprey is highly esteemed for the* table, and is con- 
sequently much sought after in the various rivers in which 
it is found. According to the author just mentioned, it is 
rather common during the spring and summer season in 
some of the rivers on the southern coast of England, par- 
ticularly the Severn; and is found in smaller numbers in 
several of the rivers of Scotland and Ireland about the 
same period of the year. ' In Scotland,' Sir W. Jardine 
says, .' they ascend our rivers to breed about the end of 
June, and remain until the beginning of August. They 
are not furnished with any elongation of the jaw, afforded 
to most* of our fresh-water fishes, to form the receiving fur- 
rows at this important season ; but the want is supplied by 
their sucker-like mouth, by which they individually remove 
each stone. Their power is immense. Stones of very large 
size are transported, and a large furrow is' soon formed. 
The P.marinus remains in pairs, two on each spawning- 
place ; and while there employed, retain themselves affixed 
by the mouth to a large stone/* 

The Lamprey feeds upon soft animal substances, and often 
attacks fishes of large size ; and fixing itself upon them, 
it eats the flesh by means of its rasp-like teeth. 

Two other species of Lamprey, the Petromyzon Jiuvia- 
tilt's and P. plyneri, are found in England. The first, 
called the Lampern, or River Lamprey, is common in many 
of the English rivers. ' Formerly,' says the author of the 
' History of British Fishes,' * the Lampern was considered 
a fish of considerable importance. It was taken in great 
quantities in the Thames, from Battersea Reach to Taplow 
Mills, and was sold to the Dutch as bait for the turbot, cod, 
and other fisheries. Four hundred thousand have been sold 
in one season for this purpose, at the rate of forty shillings 
per thousand. From five pounds to eight pounds the 
thousand have been given ; but a comparative scarcity of 
late years, and consequent increase of price, has obliged the 
line fishermen to adopt other substances for bait. Formerly 
the Thames alone supplied from one million to twelve hun- 
dred thousand lamperns annually. They are very tenacious 
of life, and the Dutch fishermen managed to keep them 
alive at sea for many weeks.? 

This fish is usually about one foot in length, and coloured 
like the common eel : the lip surrounding the mouth has a 
continuous row of small points ; there are two large teeth 
on* the maxillary ring; and the dorsal fins, which are elon- 
gated, are distinctly separated. The third species, called 
the fringed-lipped lampern {P. Planeri), has the two dorsal 
fins placed close together ; it is of a shorter and stouter 
form ; and it may moreover be distinguished from the com- 
mon lampern by its lips being furnished with numerous 
papilla?, forming a thickly-set fringe. 

The fringed-lipped* lampern appears to be usually smaller 
than the common species ; it is found in the Tweed, and 
in some of the streams in the southern parts of Great 
Britain, but appears to be comparatively scarce. 

The seeond genus of Petromyzid® is the Mixine of Lin- 
nseus. In this genus the maxillary ring is altogether mem- 
branous, and only furnished with a single tooth on its upper 
part; the series of teeth on the tongue are strong, and 
arranged in two rows on each side, so that the jaws of 
these fishes appear to be lateral, like those of insects or 
the Nereides, a circumstance ^vhich induced LinnsBus to 
place them in the 'class Vermes. The mouth is circular, 
and furnished with eight cirri ; in its upper margin is a 
spiracle which communicates with its interior. The body 
is cylindrical, and furnished with a fin which surrounds the 
tail. The skeleton is here reduced to a mere cartilaginous 
tube. These singular fishes pour out such an abundance 
of mucus through the pores of their lateral line, that the 
water in the vases m which they are kept seems to be 
converted into a jelly. They attack and pierce other fishes 
like the lampreys. A certain Myxine found in the South 
Seas (Petromyzon cirrhatus of Forster), owing to its pos- 
sessing seven branchial apertures like the lampreys, has 
furnished the type of DumeriPs subgenus Heptatremus. 
In the subgenus Gcutrobranchus (Block) the intervals of 
the branchiae, instead of having separate openings, commu- 
nicate with a* common canal on each side, each of which 
terminates in a distinct hole situated under the heart. To 


• Hittory of British Fit hei,* vol. H. 
No. 1109. 

this section belongs the Myxine, Glutinous Hag, or Borer of 
English authors, the Mixine glutinosa of Linn©u3, and 
Gastrobranchns ccecus of modern authors. [Myxine.] 

The next genus of this section {Ammocetes, of Dumeril) 
has the same general form as the lampreys, and the branchial 
orifices are the same ; but the mouth is semicircular, and 
the lip only covers the upper portion ; hence the fishes have 
not the power of fixing themselves, like the true lampreys. 
They have no teeth, but the mouth is furnished with a series 
of fleshy tubercles. 

• The fish found in our streams, and known by the names 
Pride, Sandpride, and Mud Lamprey (Ammocetes branchia- 
lis, Cuv.), affords an example of this genus. This little fish, 
which is seldom more than six or seven inches in length, 
and about the thickness of a quill, lives chietiy in the mud 
at the bottom of fresh-water streams, and is said to be much 
preyed upon by eels. 

The last division of this family is the genus Amphioxw 
of Yarrell, and this contains but one species, a most extra- 
ordinary little fish, which, it appears, was first described by 
Pallas, under the name of Limax lanceolatus % but had not 
been seen since his time till the subject of Mr. Yarrell's 
description was discovered by Mr. Couch on the shore near 

The Amphioxus lanceolatus, or Lancelet, is rather more 
than one inch in length, of a compressed form, and pointed 
at bolh extremities, but most so at the tail, and of a pale 
yellowish colour. * The head is pointed,' says Mr. Yarrell, 

• without any trace of eyes ; the nose rather produced ; the 
mouth on the under edge, in shape an elongated fissure, 
the sides of which are flexible ; from the inner margin ex- 
tend various slender filaments, regularly disposed, which 
cross and intermingle with those of the opposite side : along 
the sides of the body the muscles are arranged in regular 
order, diverging from a central line, one series passing 
obliquely upward and backward, the other series as obliquely 
downward and backward : the anal aperture is situated one- 
fourth the whole length of the fish in advance of the end 
of the tail; the tail itself is pointed : from, the nose^ to the 
end of the tail a delicate membranous dorsal fin extends the 
whole length of the back, supported by very numerous and 
minute soft rays; the surface of the body is smooth. The 
body is supported internally throughout its length by a 
flexible cartilaginous column, from which the numerous 
muscles diverge.' 

PETRO'NIUS A'RBITER is the name of the author, 
or supposed author, of a kind of novel in Latin, of which we 
have only fragments, descriptive of the licentious manners 
of the Romans under the empire. Several young. debau- 
chees, one of whom is the chief narrator, are represented 
strolling about Campania, and then* proceeding by sea to 
Croton ; they meet with numerous adventures with men and 
women of various ranks, but all as profligate as themselves. 
Both the descriptions and the dialogue are extremely 
obscene, and serve to corroborate the testimony of Juvenal 
and other writers as to the excessive depravity of morals 
under the empire. As a picture of manners, the work is 
not without its value, though it is totally unfit for general 
readers. The style is fluent and the language is considered 
classical. The episode entitled * Triraalcion's Feast' is a cu- 
rious description of a banquet given by a pompous wealthy 
freedman. The narrative is intermixed with verses and 
fragments of poems, one of which refers to the civil wars of 
Ceesar, and contains a very strong invective against the cor- 
ruption of Roman manners. The prose narrative has been 
supposed by some to be a satire on Nero an<l his court, but 
this supposition does not seem to rest on sufficient evidence. 
Indeed the age of the work is not ascertained, and some 
date it as late as the time of the Antonines. (Ignarra, De 
Palcestra Neapolitana.) Caius Petronius, a man of high 
rank, is mentioned by Tacitus (Annal., xvi. 18, 19) as being 
for a time a favourite of Nero, and minister of his pleasures, 
* arbiter elegantisB,' which may be translated umpire of 
fashion and master of the ceremonies. Being afterwards 
discarded by Nero through the jealousy of Tigellinus, and 
expecting his sentence of death, he anticipated it by causing 
his veins to be opened in the bath, and allowing himself to 
die -gradually while conversing with his friends on light 
subjects. He is stated during this interval to have written 
an account of Nero's secret debaucheries, which he sent to 
the emperor. Whether the fragment which we have was 
part of this work, or whether it was written by another 
Petronius, has been much disputed. The best edition of 

Vol. XVIII.— H 

Digitized by 





Pctronius is that by P.Burraann, 2 vols. <lto. 1743, in which 
all the various opinions on the work and its author are 

PETRO'PHILA. [Mbrulidje, vol. xv. f p. 122.] 

PETRO'SILEX. This irame has probably been given 
to two different minerals, viz. compact quartz and compact 
felspar ; the latter has also been termed fusible petrosilex. 


clergyman at Moscow, where he was born in 1736. While 
in the Zaikonospasskoi school in that city, he distinguished 
himself by his aptitude for antient and modern languages, 
and also by a natural eloquence, and fluency of ideas and 
words. Whether he exhibited much precocity of talent in 
poetry is less certain, for it was not until his. twenty-seventh 
year that he composed the ode on Catherine's coronation, 
which obtained for him the notice and protection of the era- 
press herself, and of many of the nobles at her court, and 
especially of Prince Potemkin. For a time he helol the ap- 
pointment of reader to the empress, but at his pressing soli- 
citations obtained leave to trorvel. He visited England and 
several other countries, from the year 1772 to 1774. After 
his return he was made imperial librarian, which situation 
however he was obliged to give up in 1780, on account of 
ill health, and he retired with a pension to a village in the 
government of Orlov. Here he divided his time between 
literary and agricultural pursuits, visiting Moscow every 
winter for the purpose of availing himself of its libraries. 
So diligent were his habits of study, that at the age of 
sixty he began to learn the modern Greek language. He 
died December 4-16, 1799, in his 64th year. 

A complete edition of his original works appealed in 3 
vols. 8vo., 1811; besides which there is a translation by him 
of Virgil's 'iEneidY in 2 vols., 1781-6. His poems consist 
chiefly of odes and epistles, and although they have now 
lost much of their first interest, having been written upon 

Particular occasions, many of the former are stamped by 
igh poetical beauty and merit, by vigour and originality of 
ideas, and by energy of expression ; but it must at the same 
time be admitted that his versification is occasionally harsh, 
and his diction not sufficiently polished. It should be borne 
in mind however, that at the time Petrov began to write, 
the language itself had not received that refinement which 
it now possesses, and he certainly did much for his native 
literature. Merzliakov calls him the * philosopher bard,' 
and says that he ' abounds in transcendent imagery, traced 
with a pen of fire.' 


PETRUS HISPA'NUS, a native of Lisbon, son of a 
physician named Julia£, became eminent .for his acquaint- 
ance with the sciences, particularly that of medicine, the 
practice of which he followed for some time with great 
reputation. He afterwards entered holy orders, and ad- 
vanced by degrees to high preferment. After being arch- 
bishop of Braga in Portugal {Bracara Augusta), he was 
made cardinal by Gregory X., a.d. 1273; and on the death 
of Adrian V. he was elected to the pontifical dignity, 
Sept. 13, 1276. He took the name of John, and styled 
himself on hisseaiJoannesXX. ; but in his epitaph at Viter- 
bo he is called Joannes XXI.* One of the first acts of his 
pontificate was to confirm Adrian's revocation of the famous 
constitution of Gregory X. (enacted at the council of Lyon, 
1274), which ordered that the cardinals should be strictly 
shut up iu the conclave during their election of a new pope. 
Jle did all in his power to assist the Chris tiars in the East, 
and sent legates to the different princes of Europe to per- 
suade them to engage in a fresh crusade against the Sara- 
cens. He died at Viterbo, about eight months after his 
elevation to the holy see, May 17, 1277, of the injuries 
occasioned by the falling of the roof of his bed-chamber. 
He was a vqry learned man himself, and a great patron of 
learning in others; but he does not seem to have been 
eminent for piety and holiness of life. He wrote several 
works on medicine, logic, &c, of which the greater part are 
still unpublished. A list of their titles may be seen in Oia- 
conius, • Vit© Pontiff. etCardd.,' torn, ii., p. 213. The most 
celebrated is a short medical treatise entitled ■ Thesaurus 
Pauperum, seu de Medendis Corporis Humani Morbis per 

9 The confusion about tbe popes of the name of John is partly occasioned 
by the fictitious Pope Joan being reckoned as John VIII. This however will 
not entirely account for it, as Petrus HUpanus is sometimes called John^UX., 
and sometimes John XXII, (See Genebrard, Chronograph., lib, iv., Paris, 
1580, fol.) 

Euporista,' of which there are several editions. It was first 
printed 1476, Antwerp, fol. ; the last edition was published 
1577, .Paris, 16mo., with a sort of continuation by J. Lie- 
baul-t, entitled * Thesaurus Sanitatis, Paratu facilis.' A 
Spanish translatipn was published at Valladolid, 1672 ; and 
an English one by Humphrey Lloyd, London, 1585, 8vo. 
It -consists of 90 chapters, containing a short account of a 
great number of diseases, and at the end of each is given & 
quantity of medical formul® taken from the works jof the 
Greek, Latin, and Arabic physicians, to which is now and 
then added the word expertum. It is not of much value, 
and contains a great deal that is foolish and superstitious. 
In the collected edition of the works of Isaac (commonly 
called • Isaac Israelita'), Lugd., 1515, foU there are three 
treatises by PetrusHispanus: one entitled ' Coramentariura 
singulare super Librum Dietarum Universalium Isaac, 
fol. xi.-ciii. ; the second a commentary on Isaac's work * De 
DioBtis Particularibus,' fol. ciii.-clvi. ; and the third on his 
work * De Urinis,' fol. clvi.-cciii. There is a tract by J. T. 
Kohler, which the writer of this article has not been able to 
consult, entitled • Vollstandige Nachricht von Pabst Jo 
hann XXL, welcher unter dem Namen Petrus Hispanus 
als ein Arzt und Weltweiser beruhmt ist,' Gotting., 1 760, 4 to. 
(Ciacon., Vitce Pontiff, et Cardd.; Halier, Biblioth. Medic. 

PETTY, SIR WILLIAM, an eminent political econo- 
mist, was born May 16th, 1623, at Romsey in Hampshire, 
where his father carried on the business of a clothier. After 
remaining until the age of fifteen at the grammar-school of 
his native place, he went to pursue his studies at Caen in 
Normandy. On his return, he is said to have entered the 
navy, but the time which he spent in this service must have 
been short, as in 1643 he again visited the Continent, and 
spent three years in France and the Low Countries. Dur- 
ing this interval he studied medicine and anatomy. In 
1648 he published a small work, addressed to Mr. Samuel 
Hartlib, recommending the extension of education to ob- 
jects connected more immediately with the daily business of 
life. Soon afterwards he went to Oxford, where the visitors 
appointed by the parliament had ejected the royalists, and 
employed himself in giving instruction in anatomy and che- 
mistry; in 1649 he was created doctor of physic, and elected 
a fellow of Brazen-nose College. In 165b he was appointed 
to the anatomical professorship in the university. He was 
an active member of a society instituted in Oxford for the 
cultivation of natural science, and which was the immediate 
precursor of the Royal Society. When the Royal Society 
was established, he was one of the council. In 1652 the 
period of his good fortune commenced by his appointment 
as physician to the army in Ireland. In 1654 he was em- 
ployed in that country in the survey of forfeited estates, a 
work which he performed with great ability. He was sub- 
sequently engaged as a commissioner in dividing these 
lands amongst the officers and soldiers of. Cromwell s army, 
when, besides the land allotted to him, he made advan- 
tageous purchases. He also acted as secretary to Henry 
Cromwell, lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He appears however 
to ba7e been well received by Charles II. at the Restoration, 
and in 1661 was knighted. Sir William Petty died at his 
house in Westminster, December 16th, 1687, and tyas buried 
in the church of his native town, where a plain stone marks 
his grave, * with the simple inscription — * Here lyes Sir 
William Petty.' His last will contains the following pro- 
fession of his religious opinions: — '1 die in the profession 
of that faith and in the practice of such worship as 1 find 
established by the laws of my country ; not being able to 
believe what I myself please, nor to worship God better 
than by doing as I would be done unto, and observing the 
laws of my country, and expressing my love and honour of 
Almighty God by such signs and tokens as are understood 
fo be such by the people with whom I live, God knowing 
my heart even without any at all.' The widow of Sir 
William Petty was created Baroness Shelburne. He left 
two sons and a daughter. The eldest son succeeded to the 
title, but dying without issue, it was revived in Henry, the 
second son, great-uncle of the first marquis of Lansdowne. 

Sir William Petty was the author of several scientific 
works and inventions, and various papers on mathematical 
and chemical subjects in the ' Philosophical Transactions;* 
but he is far better known in the present day as a writer upon 
trade and commerce and political arithmetic. Notwith- 
standing the great variety of his pursuits, he had emanci- 
pated himself from nearly all the errors and prejudices of 

Digitized by 


P E U 


P E U 

Lis contemporaries. The 'Political Anatomy of Ireland,' 
one of his best works, contains valuable information re- 
specting the state of Ireland in the latter, part of the seven- 
teenth century, and gives the first authentic account of the 
population. Sir William Petty clearly foresaw the advan-* 
tages of a union of Great Britain and Ireland, and of a free 
commercial intercourse between the two countries. The 
survey of Ireland which he made during the Protectorate 
continues, after the lapse of nearly two centuries, to be a 
work of reference in courts of law in matters relating to 
landed property. His treatise on ' Taxes and Contributions,' 
published in 1667, contains in general sound views on the 
subjects of finance and revenue ; and in this work the doc- 
trine was first clearly stated, though only in an incidental 
manner, that the labour required for the production of com- 
modities alone determines their value. The f Political 
Arithmetic' treats chiefly on the subject of population, 
particularly with reference to London. His predictions 
concerning the growth of the metropolis are amusing, 
and do not exhibit his usual acuteness. At the time 
when he wrote, he calculated that the population of Lon- 
don doubled itself in 40 years, and that of England in 
360 years; and hence he concluded that the population 
must reach a stationary point before 1840, at which period 
it would be ten millions for the metropolis, and also ten 
millions for the rest of England. * Wherefore (he remarks) 
it is certain and necessary that the growth of the city must 
stop before the said year 1 840.' Since 1 700 however London 
has increased 122 per cent., and England 154 percent. 
Sir William Petty published his 'Quantulumcunque* (a 
treatise on money) in 1682, at which period the uuestion of 
the mouetary circulation was of great interest. He recom- 
mended that one metal should be made the uniform, mea- 
sure of value, in which view he was supported by Locke: 
Sir Isaac Newton proposed both the precious metals. The 
subject is treated with great ability, but the error of his 
time is perceptible in some of his arguments, which show 
that he entertained the false notion that there was something 
about gold and silver distinguishing them as articles of 
commerce from all other commodities. In this work he 
condemned laws regulajing the rate of interest, observing 
that there might as well be laws to regulate the rate of 
exchange; and he exposed the prevailing fallacy that a 
country may be drained of cash by an uritavourable balance 
of trade. A list of the remainder of Sir William Petty's 
works is given in Watt's** Bibliotheca Britannica.' 

PETUNTZE, the Chinese name for a white earth used 
with kaolin in the manufacture of porcelain : it is stated 
that while the Jbrmer [Kaolin] is derived from the de- 
composition of the felspar of granitic, rocks, the latter, or 
pctuntze, is the same mineral which has not suffered decom- 
position, and that on account of its fusibility it is employed 
in blazing the porcelain. 

PETWORTH. [Sussex.] 

PEUCE'DANIN, a peculiar principle obtained from the 
peuceddnum officinale, or sea sulphur-wort. By treatment 
with alcohol a solution was obtained which deposited crys- 
tals, to which the name of peucedanin was given by 
Schlatter. These crystals are colourless, acicular,.transparent, 
inodorods, and insipid ; but when dissolved in alcohol, their 
taste is very aromatic ; they melt at 140° without losing 
weight; and when the heat is increased, the fluid mass as- 
sumes a greenish and afterwards a greyish-white tint: they 
are insoluble in cold water, and melt in it when boiling 
without dissolving; in cold alcohol they dissolve but spa- 
ringly, but when it is heated to 140°, they dissolve in it 
'readily, and trie-solution is decomposed by water, and also* 
by solutiou of chloride of tin, sulphate of copper, and ace- 
tate of lead, .but. not by sulphate of iron. It does not appear 
to possess either acid or alkaline properties. It yielded by 
analysis: — 

2 equivalents of hydrogen 2 or '5*8 
4 equivalents of carbon .24 70*6 

1 equivalent of oxygen .' 8 23*6 

Equivalents 34 100* 

PEUTINGERIAN the name given to a map 
of the roads of the antient Roman world, which is on parch- 
ment, and was found in a library at Speyer in the fifteenth 
century. It was bequeathed by the prop/ietor Conrad 
Celtes to his friend Conrad Peutmger, a learned man of 
Augsburg, who began to prepare a copy of it for publica- 
tion, but died in 1547, before he could effect his purpose. 

Mark Velter however copied it on a scale less than one-half 
of its original size, and sent his copy to Ortelius, who for- 
warded it to Muretus, who published it in 1098. This re- 
duced copy has been inserted in the Ptolemy of Bert his, 
in Horn's 'Orbis Delineatio,' and in Bergier's 'Histoire 
des grands Chemins de l'Empirc Romain.* The original 
map remained at Augsburg, in the possession of Peutinger's 
descendants, till 1714, when it was purchased by a book- 
seller, and sold by him to Prince Eugene, who gave it to 
the imperial library of Vienna. An exact copy of it was 
made by F. C. von Scheyb, at Vienna, with an introduction 
and index, and dedicated to the empress Maria Theresa ; 
'Tabula Itineraria Peutingeriana, quso in Augusta Biblio- 
theca Vindobonensi ntinc servatur, adcurate exscripta a 
Fr. Christoph. De Scheyb, cum Indice,' fol.. Vienna, 
1753. The map is 21 feet in length, and about one foot 
wide. The author, whoever he was, did not intend to draw 
a proper geographical map, with the relative position of 
countries [Map; Agathod,emon], but merely to collect 
all the great roads of the empire into a long narrow strip, 
marking the stations upon each, and the distauces between 
the stations, for the information of travellers and chiefly of 
military and civil officers. In consequence of this arrange- 
ment, the great lines of roads are represented as nearly 
parallel, and most of the great rivers are also made to run in 
the same direction, from west to east or east to west, wbich 
was that ofthe greatest length of the Roman empire. But the 
northern and southern boundaries of the empire are brought 
into close approximation to each other, without anjr regard 
to the latitude. For the same reason, the Mediterranean, 
Adriatic, ^Egean, and Euxine seas are all compressed in 
breadth into the shape of long channels, the peninsula of 
Italy appears to run straight from west to east, and the 
islands, such as Sicily, have undergone a like compression of 
form. The towns on the roads are marked by small houses ; 
some, being worthy of particular notice, are designated by 
square buildings like barracks ; and -some more important 
towns and military stations, such as Aquileia, Ravenna, &c, 
are distinguished by walls and towers. Rome is distinguished 
by a circle with a crowned figure seated in the middle, and 
the port of Trajan is conspicuously sketched near the right 
bank of the Tiber, at the mouth of the river. Constantinople 
is marked by a circle and a figure, which however is not 
crowned. Antioch is the only other city which is also dis- 
tinguished by a circle;and a figure, in which last Mannert 
thinks that he recognises the Virgin Mary, which he believes 
to be an interpolation of some copyist of the middle ages, 
who had before him an older map of the time of the Pagan 
emperors. (Mannert' s * Introduction' to his new edition of 
Peutinger's Table, folio, Leipzig, 1824.) That the original 
map was drawn while the old religion of the empire was still 
dominant, seems proved by the heathen temples which are 
marked upon it, whilst there is no Christian name, with the 
exception of St. Peter's at Rome, which is probably also an 
interpolation of the copyist, who has taken care to notice 
the desert between the Red Sea and Palestine, as being 
that ' in which the, children of Israel, wandered for forty 
years,' as well as Mount Sinai, where ' they received the 
law.' Several other particulars on the map seem to fix the 
date of its original construction to about the time of Alex- 
ander. Severus, after tbe Persians had overthrown the 
Parthian dominion, a.d. 226. The Persian empire is marked 
in its full extent and written in large capitals, whilst Parthia 
is indicated by smaller clraracters as a province. Palmyra 
is marked as an important place, with roads leading to it 
through the desert, which would seem to refer to an epoch 
previous to its destruction by Aurelian. Edessa in Mace- 
donia is marked under that name, whilst in the Antonine 
Itinerary it is called Diocletianof)olis. This and other evi- 
dence collected, by Mannert indicate at all events an epoch 
between the reign of Alexander Severus and the end of the 
third century, making allowance for. the interpolations of 
subsequent copyists. . 

The Peutingerian Table 'does hot always agree with the 
Antonine Itinerary ; several stations and towns which are 
in the one are not in the other ; the distances between the 
stations marked on both sometimes disagree ; besides which, 
in consequence ofthe form ofthe map, severaProads which 
are distinct on the Itinerary are placed on the map consecu- 
tively, as if they all formed one line ; whilst others, which 
are single roads on the Itinerary, are cut into two or three iu 
the map. However the Itinerary is still of great use 'n ex- 
plaining the map, and the two together are among the most 


Digitized by 




P E Z 

valuable autient works on geography which have como down 
to us. 

The map extends to the right, or east, as far as the mouths 
of the Ganges. Roads are traced through India to several 
emporia, or places of trade, on the coast. To the west the 
map ends abruptly on the borders of Spain, including 
farther north only the eastern part of Britain. It is evi- 
dent, as Mannert maintains, that one leaf is wanting, and it 
has perhaps been lost. 

PEW. A pew is defined by Dr. Johnson to be 'a seat en- 
closed in a church.' Sittings enclosed in a church would 
perhaps be a more correct description, inasmuch as a pew 
contains several seats ; and it not unfrequently happens 
that different families have the right of sitting in the same 
pew. The word pew is scarcely to be met with in authors 
upon ecclesiastical law, who almost invariably use the ex- 
pression • church seat.' 

There were no pews in churches until about the period of 
the Reformation, prior to which the seats were moveable, 
such as chairs and benches, as we see at this time in the 
Roman Catholic churches on the Continent. Before that 
time no cases are to be found of claims to pews, although in 
the common-law books two or three claims are mentioned 
to seats in a church or particular parts of a seat, which were 
probably moveable benches or forms. 

• By the general law and of common right,' Sir John 
Nicholl observed (in Fuller v. Lane, 2 Add. Eccl. Rep., 425), 
' all the pews in a parish church are the common property 
of the parish ; they are for the use in common of the parish- 
ioners, who are all entitled to be seated orderly and con- 
veniently so as best to provide for the accommodation of 
all.' The right of appointing what persons sh*ll sit in each 
seat belongs to the ordinary (3 Inst., 202) ; and the church- 
wardens, who are the officers of the ordinary, are to place 
the parishioners according to their rank and station ; but 
they are subject to his control if any complaint should be 
made against them.; (Pettman v. Bridger, 1 Phill., 323.) 
A parishioner has a right to a seat in the church without 
any payment for it, and if he has cause of complaint in this 
respect against the churchwardens, he may cite them in the 
ecclesiastical court to show cause why they have not seated 
him properly ; and if there be persons occupying pews who 
are not inhabitants in the parish, they ought to be displaced 
in order to make room for him. This general right how- 
ever of the churchwardens as the officers of the ordinary is 
subject to certain exceptions, for private rights to pews may 
be sustained upon the ground of a faculty, or of prescription, 
which presumes a faculty. 

The right by faculty arises where the ordinary or his pre- 
decessor has granted a licence or faculty appropriating cer- 
tain pews to individuals. Faculties have varied in their 
form ; sometimes the appropriation has been to a person 
and his family 'so long as they continue inhabitants of a 
certain house in the parish :' the more modern form is to a 
man and his family ' so long as they continue inhabitants 
of the parish ' generally. The first of these is perhaps the 
least exceptionable form. (Sir J. Nicholl, 2 Add,, 426.) 

Where a faculty exists, the ordinary has parted with his 
right, and therefore cannot again interfere : it has however 
been laid down in the ecclesiastical court that where a party 
claiming by faculty ceases to be a parishioner, his right is 
determined. Sir John Nicholl states, * Whenever the occu- 
pant of a pew in the body of the church ceases to be a 
parishioner, his right to the pew, howsoever founded, and 
now valid soever during his continuance in the parish, 
at once ceases.' (Fuller v. Lane, 2 Add., 427.) The same 
doctrine has been sanctioned by the Court of King's Bench. 
(Byerley v. Windus, 5 Barn, and Cress., 18.) But in a case 
in the Court of Exchequer, chief-baron Macdonald was of a 
different opinion. The question there was whether there 
could be in. law a prescription for a person living out of the 

Earish to have a pew in the body of the church, and it was 
eld that there might (Lousley v. Hayward, 1 V. and I., 
583). As prescription presumes a faculty, these opinions 
seem to be at variance. Where a claim to a pew is made 
by prescription, as annexed to a house, the question must be 
tried at law. The courts of common law in such cases exer- 
cise jurisdiction on the ground of the pew being an ease- 
ment to the house (Mainwaring v. Giles, 5 Barn.' and Aid., 
361); and if the ecclesiastical courts proceed to try such 
prescription, a prohibition would issue. In -order to sup- 
port a claim by prescription, occupancy must be proved, and 
also repair of the pew by the party, if any has been re- 

quired ; the onus and beneficium going together. (Pett- 
man v. Bridger, 1 Phill., 325 ; Rogers t>. Brooks, 1 71 i?., 
431 ; Griffith v. Matthews, 5 71 /?., 297.) The above ob- 
servations apply to pews in the body of the church. With 
respect to seats in the chancel, it is stated in the Report of 
the Ecclesiastical Commission, page 49, ' the law has not 
been settled with equal certainty, and great inconvenience 
has been experienced from the doubts continued to be en- 
tertained. Some are of opinion that the churchwardens 
have no authority over pews in the chancel. Again, it has 
been said that the rector, whether spiritual or lay, has in the 
first instance at least a right to dispose of the seats ; claims 
have also been set up on behalf of the vicar ; the extent of the 
ordinary's authority to remedy any undue arrangement with 
regard to such pews has been questioned.' (Gibson, 226 ; 
3 Inst, 202 ; 1 Brown and Goul., Rep., 4 ; Griffith v. Mat- 
thews, 5 T. R., 298; Clifford v. Wicks, 1 B. and Ad., 
498 ; Morgan v. Curtis, 3 Man. and Ryl. t 389; Rich v. 
Bushnell, 4 Hagg., Ecc. Rep., 164.) 

With regard to aisles or isles (wings) in a church, dif- 
ferent considerations apply. The whole isle or particular 
seats in it may be claimed as appurtenant to an antient 
mansion or dwelling-house, for the use of the occupiers of 
which the aisle is presumed to have been originally built. 
In order to complete this exclusive right it is necessary that 
it should have existed immemorially, and that the owners 
of the mansion in respect of which it is claimed should 
from time to time have borne the expense of repairing that 
which they claim as having been set up by their predeces- 
sors. (3 Inst., 202.} 

The purchasing or renting of pews in churches is con- 
trary to the general ecclesiastical law. (Walter v. Gunner 
and Drury, 1 Hagg., Consist. Rep^ 314, and the cases referred 
to in the note, p. 318; Hawkins and Coleman v. Com- 
peigne, 3 Phill, 16.) 

Pew-rents/ under the church-building acts, are exceptions 
to the general law ; and where rents are taken in populous 
places, they are sanctioned by special acts of parliament. 
Pew-rents in private unconsecrated chapels do not fall 
under the same principle, such chapels being private pro- 

■ PEWTER, a compound metal extensively employed, 
especially in the manufacture of those drinking-vessels 
callecj pewter pots. The finest pewter is said to consist of 
12 parts of tin, 1 part of antimony, and a very little copper; 
while common pewter consists of about 80 parts of tin and 
20 of lead. Pewter was formerly much more employed 
than at present, especially in the manufacture of plates and 

PEYER, JEAN CONRAD, was born at Schaffhausen 
in 1653. He studied medicine at Basle and at Paris, and 
having taken the degree of doctor of medicine at the former 
university, returned to practise at his native town. He held 
there successively the professorships of eloquence, of logic, 
and of the physical sciences ; but his present reputation is de- 
rived chiefly from his having first clearly described the little 
bodies which are scattered in patches along the end of the 
small intestines, and which are therefore commonly called 
Peyer's glands. He died in 1712. Besides his work on 
the intestinal glands, Peyer wrote numerous detached papers 
on morbid anatomy, of which he was one of the most assi- 
duous of the early cultivators, and a few on practical medi- 
cine and comparative anatomy. 

PE'ZE'NAS, a town in France, in the department of 
Herault, on a cross-road from Aix to Perpignan, 39 miles 
from Moqtpellier, the capital of the department. Pezenas 
# was known to the Romans by the name Piscenae ; and is 
mentioned by Pliny {Hist. Nat, lib. viii., c. 48) as produc- 
ing in the neighbourhood wool which resembled hair rather 
than wool. In the middle ages it was the capital of a county. 
The town is pleasantly situated on the Peyne, a little stream 
which falls into the Herault on its right bank, just below 
Pez6nas. It has some tolerably good houses, and a hand 
some theatre. The population in 1831 was 7481 for the 
town, or 7847 for the whole commune. The townsmen 
manufacture blankets and coverlets, serges and other 
woollen stuffs, linens, cotton -yarn, thrown silk, hats, brandy, 
distilled waters, syrup of sugar and grapes, and chemical 
products. There are some dye-houses and tan-yards. Con- 
siderable trade is carried on in wines (of which the neigh- 
bourhood produces some of excellent quality), wheat, oats, 
seeds, red tartar, dyeing herbs, dried fruits, capers, olives, 
oil, cotton, wool, and woollen cloths. There is a considera - 

Digitized by 


P F O 


P H A 

ble weekly market, and there are three yearly fairs. Tho 
neighbouring hills are covered with vines and almond and 
olive trees, and there is near the town an old castle built 
by the Constable Montmorency [Montmorency], to whose 
family the county of Pez6nas at one time belonged. There 
are a high school, a subordinate court of justice, and an 
PEZOTORUS. [Psittacidx.] 
of classic reputation in that branch of literature which 
comprises thje tale, the fable, and the epistle, was born 
June 28th, 1736, at Colraor, where his father held an ap- 
pointment in the office for foreign affairs. His parent dying 
in 1738, Pfeffel was left entirely to the charge of an excel- 
lent mother. At the age of fifteen he was sent to the uni- 
versity of Halle for the purpose of applying himself to the 
study of jurisprudence ; but this plan was entirely frustrated 
by a severe attack of ophthalmia, which terminated in his 
total blindness at the age of twenty-one. He married about 
two years after this misfortune, and at a later period (1 773) 
obtained permission to establish at Colmar a seminary for 
the education of Protestant youths, in conducting which 
lie had an able • colleague in his friend Hofrath Lerse. 
Among his pupils, who were chiefly the sons of Swiss 
families, were many who afterwards distinguished them- 
selves. The changes produced by the French revolution 
however caused this school, which bore the title of a military 
one, to be broken up, and Pfeffel henceforth applied himself 
entirely to those literary occupations which, notwithstanding 
his blindness, he had before pursued at intervals. In 1803 
he was made president of the Evangelical Consistory at 
Colmar, then recently established. He died May 1st, 1809, 
just after the publication of the ninth volume of his 
• Poetischen Versuche.' 
His poems generally display shrewdness and humour, to- 

f ether with a strong vein of moral and religious feeling ; 
ut his peculiar power shows itself most in his fables, 
which have frequently an epigrammatic energy- and a 
piquant turn of expression that render the moral couched 
in them additionally striking and effective. Besides these 
and his tales, his other productions consist chiefly of poetical 
epistles, epigrams, ballads, and lyrical pieces. In addition 
to these original compositions, he translated a great many 
dramatic pieces from the French, which he published in five 
separate volumes or collections, from 1765 to 1774. These 
were indeed rather free versions than literal translations of 
the originals ; for he did not scruple to retrench on the one 
hand what he considered their prolixities, and on the other 
to expand those parts of the dialogue which furnished hints 
for the purpose. His own dramatic attempts were less suc- 
cessful, since notwithstanding the skill shown in the arrange- 
ment of their plan, and the merit of many of their detached 
scenes, they were deficient in sustained interest and effect. 
PFORZHEIM, the most important manufacturing town 
in the grand-duchy of Baden, is situated in 48° 55' N. lat. 
and 8° 48' E. lonaf., in the circle of the Middle Rhine, at the 
entrance of the Black Forest, and on the navigable river 
Ens, near its junction with the Nagold and Wurm. It is 
surrounded with a wall and moat, and consists of the town 
and three suburbs. There are four churches and an an- 
tient palace, the church of which contains a handsome 
monument to the late Duke Charles Frederick. Among the 
public institutions are a convent for noble ladies, an hospital, 
an infirmary, an orphan-house, an asylum for the deaf and 
dumb, &c. The population of the town and suburbs is 
above 6500. The manufacture of trinkets employs above 
1000 workmen ; the value of the 'articles manufactured by 
them (in which no gold under 14 carats must be used) is 
100,000/. sterling per annum. The manufactures of watches, 
superfine cloth and kerseymere, leather, hardware, and iron- 
wire are flourishing. There are also an iron-foundry, which 
furnishes annually 5000 cwt. of bar-iron, a copper-foundry, 
a manufactory of chemicals, many establishments for dye- 
ing Turkish-red, and extensive bleaching-grounds. Pforz- 
heim has a very great trade in timber from the neighbour- 
ing forests of Hagenschiess, which is floated down the 
Neckar and the Rhine to Holland. The trade in corn, oil, 
wine, and cattle is not inconsiderable, for which the situa- 
tion of the town, on the high road from France to the 
south of Germany, is very favourable. The inhabitants have 
been always distinguished for. their bravery and devoted 
attachment to their princes. Four hundred citizens, com- 
manded by their burgomaster Deimling, formed the body- 

guard of the brave margrave George Frederick, in the battle 
of Wimpfen, May 6, 1622, in which, with 20,000 men, he 

engaged tho far superior Imperial army commanded by 
Tilly. Victory already inclined to his side, when the powder- 
waggons were blown up, and scattered destruction among his 
troops. Flight was the only resource, which the Margrave, 
at the earnest entreaty of his followers, resolved to adopt. 
But even flight could not have saved them, if those 400 
brave men had not arrested the advance of the enemy, till 
the Margrave and all the rest of the army were in safety, 
by sacrificing their lives to the last man. 
(G. L. Posselts, Gedachtnissrede aufdie Gefallenen.) 

PHAEDRUS, a Latin writer of the Augustan age, 
according to the general opinion. Little is known of his life 
except that it appears that he was born in Thrace, was 
brought to Rome in his youth as a slave, found friends at 
Rome, applied himself to study, and became a perfect master 
of the Roman language, and was made free by Augustus, 
who patronised him. He wrote several books of fables in 
iambic verse, borrowing, as he says in his prologue, his sub- 
jects from Aesop. The fables of Phaedrus have long been 
a favourite work, for the graceful simplicity of their style, the 
pointedness of their humour, and the general soundness of 
their morality. [Fable.] They were first published by 
Pi thou, in 1596, from, a MS. supposed to have been written 
in the tenth century, and which is called the Rosamboanus 
MS., from the name of the owner of it. Another MS., which 
existed at Rheims, was destroyed by fire in the last century, 
but it had been previously collated with Pithou's edition, 
and the variations had been copied, as well as those in an- 
other MS., called Danielinus, and they have been used in the 
later edijions of Phaedrus. The latest edition of Phaedrus 
has the following title : — • Phaedri Augusti Liberti Fabul© 
Aesopia), prima editio critica cum integra varietate Codd. 
Pithoeani, Remensis, Danielini, Perottini, et editionis prin- 
cipis, reliqua vero selecta,' by J. C.Orell, 8vo., Zurich, 1832, 
with an ' Introduction.' Perotto, bishop of Manfredonia in 
the fifteenth century, made a* collection of Latin fables from 
Phaedrus, Avienus, and others, for the instruction of his 
nephew, among which were thirty-two fables which are not 
contained in the usual editions of Phaedrus, in five books. 
These fables, • Fabulas Novas,' were published at Naples, in 
1 808, as an additional or sixth book of Phaedrus. Perotto's 
MS. however was found much damaged, and the fables 
were in a mutilated state. Since that time Angelo Mai has 
discovered in the Vatican Library another MS. of Perotto, 
in a state of good preservation, with a prefatory letter of the 
bishop to his friend Mannus Veltrius, of Viterbo, and from 
this MS. the additional fables have been published in a cor- 
rect form : 4 Phaedri Fabul® Nov® XXXII., e Codice Vati- 
cano reintegrate ab A. Maio, Supplementum Editionis 
Ordnance,' Zurich, 1832. There seems little doubt now 
that these fables belong to Phaedrus ; they are perfectly 
similar in style and manner to the rest The tables of 
Phaedrus were also edited by Bentley, and appended to his 
edition of Terence. 

PHiENICORNIS. [Shrikes] 

are those which have visible flowers and seeds. The words 
are used indifferently in contradistinction to Cryptogamous, 
which includes those plants which either have no sexes or 
none which are distinctly visible. 

PHA'ETON (Ornithology). [Tropic Bird.] 

PHAKELLOPLEU'RA, the Rev.Lansdown Guilcling's 
name for a genus of Chitons, with rather small dorsal 
plates, and the fleshy zone ornamented with a broad single 
row of elongated spiculate fasciculi. Example, Chiton 
fascicularis. [Chitons, vol. vii., p. 96.] 

Mr. Swainson {Malacology, 18*10), not having analysed 
this tribe, has adopted the genera and arrangement of 
Guilding. (Zool. Journ., vol. v., p. 25.) Mr. Guilding's 
genera are : — 

1. Chiton, which be divides thus:— 

Zone distinctly scaly. * 

t Disk subcarinate, transverse-marginal areola distinct 
Example, Chiton squamosus, Sowerb., Gen., f. 2 ; Ch. Ca- 
pensis, Gray, &c. 

ft Disk rounded, smooth ; areola angulate and obsolete. 
Example, Chiton marmomtus, Blainv. 
* * 
Zone slightly reticulated. 

Digitized by 


P H A 


P H A 

Example, Chiton leevis, Lowe, Zool. Journ. 

* * * 
Zone smoothed. 

Examples, Chiton marginatum, Linn. "Trans., viii., p. 21, 
t. 1, f. 2 ; Ch. latus, Lowe. 

2. Acanthopleura. The zone thick, fleshy, spinous, spi- 
nulous, hairy or rough, &c. 

Zone spinous. 
Example, Chiton sj)inosus, Sow., Gen:, f. J. 

* * 
Zone spinulous. 
- Example, Chiton Carmichaelis, Gray, Spicel. 

* * * 
Zone granulous. 

. Example, Chiton \ Aselt us, Lowe, Zool. Journ, 
* * * * 
Zone rugoso-granulous. 
Example, Chiton aselloides, Lowe. 


Zone hairy. 

Example, Chiton crinitus, Wood, Ind. 


Zone villous. » 

Example, Chiton Peruvianus, Fremhly. 

Zone mealy (farinosus). 
Example, Chiton cinereus, Lowe. 

3. Phakellopleura. 

4. Chitonellus, Lam. 

Animal larviform. ~ 
Examples, Ch. la*vi$, Blainv. ; Ch. larviformir, Barrow; 
Ch. striatum, Sow. 

Animaf shorter, subovate. 
Example, Ch. latus, Guilding. 

5. Cryptoconchus, Blainv. 

Example, Cryptoconchus porosus, Burrow. 

See further, Zool. Journ., vol. v. [Chitons.] 

These subdivisions may be convenient for the purpose of 
arrangement; but we are not aware of any generic distinc- 
tions in the animals themselves. 

PHALACRO'CORAX. [Pelecanid*, vol.xvii.,p. 381.] 

PllAL^ENA. [Lepidoptera.] . 

PH ALA'NGER. [Marsupialia, vol. xiv., p. 459 et seq.] 

PHALANGI'STA. [MARSupiALiA,vol.xiv.,p. 459etseq.] 

PHALANX (0a\ay£), a name given by the Greeks to the 
whole of the heavy-armed infantry in an army, but particu- 
larly to each of the grand divisions of that class of troops. 
The number of men composing a phalanx was various, but 
the general depth of the files in the body so called was six- 
teen men. The primary signification of phalanx is uncertain ; 
a straight bar or rod of any material appears to have been so 
called, and the word may have been applied to a corps of 
troops, in line, from a fancied resemblance in the latter to 
such object. Eustathius, in his notes on the Iliad, supposes 
that the term was applied to bodies of soldiers from the 
clubs or stakes which were the arms of the primitive warriors. 

According to the fabulous story in Polyronus, the first 
who disposed troops in a regular order for battle was Pan, 
the leader of the army ofBacchus in the expedition to 
India ; he also divided the body of men so formed into two 
parts, designated the right and left wings, and he gave to 
the whole the name of phalanx. (Stratag. t lib. i.) It is 
easy to imagine that a disposition of troops in solid masses, 
such as the phalanges were, would be adopted in the earli- 
est ages, when the military art was in its infancy, and 
when instinct must have led men, in time of danger, to 
keep themselves collected together for the sake of mutual 
support. In antient warfare, the success of an action de- 
pended on the power of resisting the shock of an enemy's 
charge, and hence it >vas important to have the bodies of 
infantry arranged in deep order, that they might maintain 
unbroken their position on the ground. 

The Greek troops are represented by Homer as so dis- 
posed, and the word phalanges is, in several parts of the 
Iliad, applied to the masses combatants, both Greeks 
and Trojans: 

9 Afi(f>t <T ap A'lavrciQ tioioi'c 'iaravro <f>aX\ayyig 
(//., xiii. 12G; see also //., iv. 332, vi. 83); and the close 

order of the Greeks previously to coming into action is de- 
scribed in //., xiii. 130, and the succeeding lines. 

A like disposition prevailed among the Egyptians in the 
earliest times of their monarchy, and of this fact some 
interesting vestiges are preserved in the sculptures on the 
walls of the temple at Ipsambul and of the palace at 
Luxor. At the former place an Egyptian army is repre- 
sented as marching in separate divisions of chariots and 
foot soldiers drawn up in quadrangular bodies, in ranks, 
and in close order. Each man of the infantry is armed 
with cuirass and helmet, and carries a shielcl and a short 
javelin ; and among the figures is that of Sesostris in full 
panoply, standing in a highly ornamented car. (Rosselini, 
/ Monumenti delV Egitto, plates 87 to 103.) But, from the 
nature of the arms and the apparent discipline of the troops, 
it may be inferred that, at -the epoch to *rhich the monu- 
ments relate, the tactics of the Egyptians were in a very ad* 
vanced state, and consequently that the order of battle there 
represented was in use among that people at a time much 
more remote than the age of Sesostris. 

The antient Jewish army, modelled probably on that of 
the people who had long held them in servitude, was di- 
vided into bodies of 1000 men each, which were again 
divided into companies of 100 men (2 Sam., c. 18)f and it is 
plain, from other passages in the Scriptures, that these were 
further subdivided into sections. It consisted both of heavy 
and of light armed troops : the former wore helmets, coats 
of mail, and greaves, and in action they carried bucklers 
and used both spears and swords ; the latter also carried 
shields and used bows or slings. The* men who, from the 
different tribes, assembled at Hebron to confirm the elec- 
tion of David, are described as being armed with spear and 
shield, and their discipline is indicated by the expression— 
they could keep rank. 

The troops in the army of Croesus are said by Xenophon 
to have been drawn up in vast masses, the depth of the 
Lydians being thirty men, while that of the Egyptian auxi- 
liaries was one hundred; and it is added that the whole army 
had the appearance of three great phalanges. {Cyrop&dia t 
lib. vii.) It is sufficiently evident therefore that the deep 
order of battle, wjth a regular arrangement of the men in 
rank and file, and some systematical division of the pha- 
lanx into sections, prevailed in the earliest times ; but it is 
to the Greek writers that we must go for an account of the 
particular scales of subdivisions by which the evolutions of 
the phalanx on the field of battle were facilitated, and which, 
joined to the high discipline of the troops, gave to the body 
so denominated the reputation which it enjoyed till the fall 
of the Macedonian kingdom. The formation of such scales 
of subdivisions, and some changes in the arms or armour of 
the men, are probably what are meant when it is said that 
Lycurgus, Lysander, and Epaminondas introduced the p/ta- 
lanx among the Lacedaemonians, the Argives, and the 
Thebans. The Macedonian phalanx, the formation of 
which is ascribed to Philip, the father of Alexander, ap- 
pears to have been a body of 6000 men, chosen for their 
good military qualities, particularly well armed, and subject 
to certain strict regulations. And its efficiency was so 
great, that the name of the country became afterwards very 
generally applied to what was in reality the usual designa- 
tion of the bodies of heavy-armed infantry in the Grecian 

Xenophon, though constantly using the word phalanx in 
speaking of the whole body of troops which he commanded 
in the retreat from Cunaxa, when he has occasion to men- 
lion the formation or employment of a small body of men 
for any particular purpose, gives it the name of \6 X oq, and 
such body appears to have consisted either of 50 or .100 
men. On one occasion, some lochi being detached from 
the army, two of them, amounting to 100 men, are said to 
have been cut off {Anabasis, lib. i.) ; and at another time, 
from an apprehension that the order of the phalanx would 
be broken in ascending a mountain, the army was divided 
into separate lochi of 100 men each. (lb., lib. iv.) But in 
the* Cyropsedia' (lib. ii.) a division of 100 men is called 
rd&Ct and this is stated to have been subdivided into sections 
often and of five men each. 

The scale just hinted at was probably peculiar to the 
Athenian army, for Xenophon describes the Spartan troops 
as formed into, six fidpai, each commanded by a polemarch ; 
he adds also that the mora was divided into four X6 X oi, eight 
TrtvTviKoaTVQ, and sixteen Ivuporicu. (De Repub., lib. xi.) 
The mora is said to have consisted of 600 men, but its 

Digitized by 


P H A 



strength appears to have varied considerably at different 

The only existing works expressly written on the subject 
of the Greek tactics are those of iElian and his abbreviator 
Arrian, and these authors lived in the time of Hadrian and 
Antoninus, that is, long after the age in which the phalanx 
was superseded by the legion. Therefore, since their de- 
scriptions do not agree with what we find concerning the 
phalanx in the works of Thucydides and Xenophon, it seems 
reasonable to conclude that they appertain to the state of 
this- body of troops in and subsequent to the times of 
Philip and Alexander, ^lian makes the phalanx to con- 
sist of 16,384 men of the class called bvXirai, or heavy- 
armed infantry ; but this must be understood to be the whole 
body of that denomination in an army, and to be composed 
of four simple phalanges. Joined to the phalanx is a divi- 
sion (Mraypa), consisting of half that number of men of 
the class called i/oAoi, or light-armed troops, and another, 
called also an epitagraa, of cavalry (tT7r«7j;), consisting of 
one-fourth of the number. 

The peltasta (vtXratrTctl), who are also mentioned by 
4£lian, but not as appertaining to the phalanx, united in 
some measure the firmness of tlje heavy with the agility of 
the light armed men. They were first instituted by the 
Athenian commander Iphicrates, and in the course of time 
they became very numerous in the Greek armies: they 
served as the guards of the princes, and were often reckoned 
among the heavy-armed troops. 

The number above mentioned is expressly said to have 
been chosen because it is continually divisible by 2, and 
thus admits of a very simple distribution of numbers for 
the subdivisions. What really was the strength of the pha- 
lanx when in the field", during the existence of the Mace- 
donian monarchy, is uncertain, and probably it varied much. 
The army of Alexander at the battle of Arbela is said* to 
have consisted of two great phalanges, each divided into 
four parts, which were also called by that name ; there were 
besides, two divisions of peltastce ; in all, according to Ar- 
rian; 40,000 infantry : and there were 7000 cavalry. (Exped. 
Alex., lib. iii.) At the battle of Raphea, between Antiochus 
and Ptolemy, there is said to have been a phalanx of 20,000 
men in the army of the former. (Polyb., lib. v., c. 8.) 

The simple phalanx, according to iElian, consisted of 
4096 men ; one half of that number, or 2048 men, consti- 
tuted the merarchy (ptpapxia) ; and one-fourth, or 1024 
men, was called a chiliarchy (xiXiapx*a). One-fourth of the 
last constituted a syntagma (avvTaypa) , or xenagy (Uvayla), 
which was a complete square of 16 men each way ; and the 
lowest subdivision was called lochus (Xoxoc), decuria (deed?), 
or enomoty (lvw/u>ri'a), which is, by that writer, considered 
as a single file of 16 men. The officers do not appear to be 
included in the numbers of the different divisions: each 
xenagy had its own chief or captain ((xwrayjiarapx^c) at the 
head, and a lieutenant (ovpayog) brought up the rear. The 
leader of a single file is called by iElian a decurion, perhaps 
because originally the file consisted of 10 men. A pha- 
langarch commanded each phalanx. 

AUian divides the epitagma of light troops info sections, 
each of which has half the strength of the corresponding 
division in the phalanx; the lowest division is the lochus 
or file, which consists of 8 men. The epitagma of cavalry- 
is divided in the same proportions as the bodies of infantry, 
down to the lowest subdivision, which is called 7\rj, and is 
made to consist of 64 men. 

The phalangists were armed with helmets, cuirasses, and 
greaves ; and in the early ages they carried an oval buckler 
and a pike, the latter about 10 feet long. The change intro- 
duced by Philip in the arms of the oplit® consisted in the 
substitution of a larger shield, and of the <?api<j<ra, a pike 
from 18 to 20 feet in length. The arms of the peltastse 
seem to have differed from those of the oplitae chiefly in the 
buckler (from whence their designation is derived) being 
round and only about two feet three inches in diameter, and 
in the pike being short. It is said that Iphicrates, instead 
of a metal cuirass, allowed to this class of troops only a 
corslet of strong linen; but apparently this regulation was 
not always followed. The light-armed troops were fre- 
quently provided with a helmet only, and their arms were 
small javelins, bows* or slings. 

A phalanx, in line, was considered as being constituted of 
two, equal parts or wings (Kipara) ; there was no central 
division, but the place of junction of the two wings was 
called the d/aftaXbg. In the usual order of battle it was drawn 

up with its front parallel to that of the enemy, but it not 
unfrequently happened that one wing was kept retired. 
This last method was practised by Eparainondas at the 
battle of Leuctra; the wing engaged was strengthened so 
as to have 50 men in depth, and the line gradually di- 
minished to the opposite extremity, where it was only six 
men deep. Sometimes also two phalanges advanced in 
columns, with their heads united, the two lines gradually 
diverging to the right and left ; and this is that disposition 
which was called tfiGoXov, or the wedge. 

The phalanx was frequently drawn up in the form of 
a quadrangle, which might be solid or hollow, according to 
Circumstances ; and this disposition was called the plinth 
(ttX»v0iW), or the nloesium (irXaiffiov). When a double 
phalanx was formea with their fronts in reversed positions, 
the order was called a/j^t'oro/toc. The order called avrioro/xoc. 
seems to have been similar to the last, except that the men 
faced in opposite directions, from the centre towards the 

When standing at open order, each soldier in the pha- 
lanx was allowed a square space about six feet each way; 
but when prepared for action, this was reduced to three 
feet, and occasionally to about eighteen inches. The file- 
leaders and the rear-rank men were always chosen from the 
best of the troops, for on the first depended chiefly the 
success of the charge, and the latter performed the im- 
portant duty of urging on the men immediately before 
nim, in order that the whole body might not give way 
by the counter-pressure of the enemy's mass. 

After the introduction of the Macedonian sarissa above 
mentioned, the phalanx might present a fcrmidable array 
of five ranks of such weapons projecting horizontally be- 
fore the front of the line ; for, admitting the men to be 
three feet from each other in depth, and that each man 
held in his hands about six feet of the length of the wea- 
pon, the point of that which belonged to the fifth man 
would project two feet beyond the file leader. jElian 
also mentions another and perhaps a preferable practice, 
which was that of giving to the men from the first to the 
third or fourth rank spears successively longer in proportion 
to the distance of the rank from the front ; in which case 
all those weapons must have projected equally before the 
line of troops. 

The position of the nhalanx was sometimes changed by a 
wheel of the whole body on either extremity as a pivot ; and 
this was done with the men drawn up in close order. But 
the reversion of the front was performed in one of the three 
following ways:— The Cretan method, as it was called, con- 
sisted in making each file countermarch almost upon the 
ground it occupied, the file-leader going to the right-about, 
and moving to the rear, all the men of the file following 
him till the rear-rank man came into the line which was 
before the front. The Spartan method was also performed 
by a countermarch, but the file-leader moved to the rear, 
followed by the other men, till he arrived at a distance from 
bis first place equal to twice the depth of the phalanx, the 
rear-rank man only changing his front. Lastly, the Mace- 
donian method was performed by the front-rank man going 
right about on his own spot, the others passing him in suc- 
cession and arranging themselves behind him. These 
movements appear to have been preferred by the Greeks to 
a simple change of front to be effected by making each man 
turn upon the ground he occupied, since they allowed the file- 
leaders to constitute always the foremost rank of the line. 

The number of men in front of the phalanx was doubled 
by causing every second man in the depth to move up to 
the interval between every two men in the rank immediately 
before him ; thus reducing the depth of the phalanx to 
eight files without extending the front. And when the 
front was to be extended without increasing the number of 
men in it, the troops merely, by a flank movement, opened 
out from the centre each way. Arrian justly observes that 
these evolutions should be avoided when in presence of 
the enemy ; and he adds that it would be preferable to 
extend the front by bringing up cavalry or ligfit troops to 
the wings. 

On a march, the phalanx was thrown into a column, 
whose breadth depended on that of the road ; and a forma- 
tion of some separate bodies, consisting of 100 men each, for 
the purpose of protecting the main body while returning to 
its former order after having passed a defile, is mentioned by 
Xenophon (Anabasis, lib. Hi.) as being then, for the first time, 
employed. The march of two phalanges in parallel and 

Digitized by 


P H A 


P H A 

contiguous columns is stated to have been sometimes made 
by the columns keeping their proper fronts towards the 
exterior ; but sometimes both columns were in like posi- 
tions, the front of one and the rear of the other being to- 
wards the exterior, on the two sides of the line of march. 

The strength of a Grecian army consisted in the deep 
array of its heavy infantry. No body of men less protected 
by defensive armour could make any impression upon the 
solid phalanx: and the latter, by the momentum of its 
charge, could not fail to overwhelm any troops who were 
differently formed. But the advantage of the phalanx, while 
it continued embodied, did not extend beyond the imme- 
diate field of battle ; and the enemy, if he thought proper to 
decline an engagement, could, without interruption, except 
that which might arise from the light-armed troops and 
cavalry, ravage the country, and by cutting off its supplies 
compel the army to retreat. The phalanx moreover could 
only be advantageously employed on ground which was 
nearly level and free from obstacles ; since whatever tended 
to derange its compact order, necessarily diminished or an- 
nulled the effect of its charge. At the battle of Issus, the 
phalanx of Alexander, while in a state of disorder, as the 
troops were passing the river, was engaged with the Greeks 
in the service of Darius ; and though it succeeded in repel- 
ling the enemy, it sustained considerable loss. (Arrian, 
Exped. Alex., lib. ii.) 

Polybius, in comparing (lib. xvii., extract 3) the efficiency 
of the phalanx with that of the Roman legion, observes that 
the latter never opposed the former on a line parallel to its 
front, but alwaj* with one wing thrown back ; by which 
means it broke the line or else compelled the phalanx to 
change its disposition ; in either case there wese formed 
iutervals of which the legionary soldiers could avail them- 
selves to engage the phalangists in flank, and thus render 
their close array and their unwieldy weapons useless. 

PHALANX. [Skeleton.] 

PHA'LARIS, a tyrant of Agrigentum in Sicily, of 
whom very little is known. He was a native of Asty- 
palaea in Crete. It is generally agreed that he reigned 
sixteen years, but accounts differ in regard to the com- 
mencement of this period. Eusebius and Suidas place his 
accession in 01. 52 (b.c. 570) ; Jerome, in 01. 53, 4 (b.c. 565). 
A still earlier date than the former has also been given, 
namely, 01. 31, $ (b.c.655)*; but this is contradicted by the 
statement of Aristotle {Rhetor., ii. 20, sec. 5), who "speaks 
of Phalaris as the contemporary of Stesichorus, and by Dio- 
dorus Siculus {Excerpta Vaticana, xxviii., p. 25), who men- 
tions Phalaris between jEsop and Croesus. Phalaris was 
deposed and put to death by Telemachus, the great-grand- 
father of Theron and Xeuocrates, who flourished in the time 
of Pindar. (Schol. Find., 01. 3, 68.) Phalaris was in- 
famous for his cruelty, and especially for the particular 
device, which he owed to Perillus, of burning the victims 
of his savage tyranny in a bull of bronze, in order that he 
might enjoy the pleasure of hearing their cries. {Cic.,De 
Republ., iii. 30, sec. 41.) This appears to have been the 
tradition widely spread even in the time of Pindar, who 
says {Pyth., i. 95) : — ' Oobsus's reputation for hospitality 
fades not away, but an evil report everywhere attaches 
itself to the cruel Phalaris, who burned people in a brazen 
bull ; nor is he praised in festal meetings where the harps 
resound in the hall and where the youthful choruses sing.' 
Perillus, the maker of the bull, was the first of those who 
perished in this way ; and when Phalaris was deposed, the 
mob rose against hica, and practised upon him the same 
cruelty to which he had often subjected others. (Cicero, 
Off., ii. 7, } 26 ; De Nat. Deorum, iii. 33, $ 82 ; Verr., 
t. 56, $ 145; De Fin., iv. 23, sec. 64.) Ovid, Ibis, 439, 
says that his tongue was first cut out {lingua prius ense 
reseda) ; and Heracleides Ponticus, that his mother and 
his friends were burnt with him. The other accounts of 
his death are not trustworthy. (Bentley's Phalaris, p. 135.) 
This bull was carried to Carthage : the image which was 
shown by the people of Agrigentum in the time of Timceus 
was not the bull of Phalaris, but a representation of the 
river Gela ; the bull of Phalaris was however afterwards 
restored to the Agrigentines by Scipio. (Cic, Verr., iv. 
33, sec. 73 ; Diodorus Siculus, p. 614, 90.) On the bull of 
Phalaris, see Ebert, SuctXtW, Regiomont, 1830, p. 10, seqq.) 
There were other stories about this tyrant : as that he was 
an eater of human flesh (Aristot., Ethic. Nicom., vii. 5, } 
7); that he used to devour sucking children (Clearchus, 
apud Athenseum, p. 396) ; and that he even fed upon his 

own son (see the passages quoted by Bentley, Plial., p. 369). 
The name of Phalaris is best known in modern times from 
the celebrated controversy between Bentley and Boyle with 
regard to the authenticity of the epistles attributed to him, 
the spuriousness of which was most satisfactorily established 
by Bentley in his admirable * Dissertation on the Epistles of 
Phalaris.' These epistles, which were probably written by 
some rhetorician or sophist in the time of the CeBsars, are 
utterly worthless in a literary point of view, though Sir Wil- 
liam Temple ventured to select them as one of the greatest 
works of antiquity. They have been reprinted several 
times since Boyle's notorious edition. The best edition is 
that by Schiifer {Phalaris Epistolce, Gr. et Lot., cum notis 
Lennepii, Valchenaerii, et Schaeferi, Lips., 1823). 

PHA'LARIS, a small genus of grasses, of which the 
seed of one of the species is extensively employed as food 
for birds, and commonly known as Canary seed. The 
species of the genus are found in warm parts of the world ; 
but Phalaris canariensis, a native of the Canary Islands, 
is naturalised in Europe, and is the only one which is culti- 
vated. The seed is imported into the South of Europe 
from Barbary. It is also cultivated in the Isle of Thanet 
and some other parts of Kent. It is sown in February and 
reaped about the end of September, but being a plant of 
southern climates, and late in ripening its seed, it is an un- 
certain crop. The produce is from thirty to forty bushels 
per acre, but sometimes even fifty bushels are obtained. 

PHA'LAROl'E. [ScolopacjdO 

PHA'LERIS. [Auk, vol. iii., p. 100.] 

PHALE'RUM. [Athens.] 

PHALLU'SIA, M. Savigny's name for a subgenus of 
Ascidians, which differs from Cynthia in not having the 
branchial sac plicated; their test or case is gelatinous. 
[Cynthia; Boltenia.1 

PHANERO'GAMOUS. [Phjenogamous.] 

PHANODE'MUS, an historian of Athens, is referred to 
by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, as having written upon 
Attic antiquities. (Hoffmann's Lexicon; Fabricius. Bibl. 
GrcBca.) Fragments of Phanodemus, together with some 
of Demou, Clitodemus, and Ister, were edited by Siebelis, 
8vo., Leipzig, 1812. 

PHA'RAMUM, De Montfort's name for a genus of 
microscopic Foraminifera, generally arranged under the 
genus Robulina of D'Orbigny. [Foraminifera, vol. x., 
p. 348.] 

PHARISEES, a sect among the antient Jews. The 
name is derived from the Greek *ap«raToi, and this most 
probably from the Hebrew VftB, parash, to separate. Sui- 
das says, * The Pharisees are by interpretation &<j^puTfikwi 
(the separated), because they divided and separated them- 
selves from all others, in exactness of life and in attention 
to the injunctions of the law.' 

The origin of this sect is unknown. Josephus, who was 
himself one of the Pharisees, speaks of them as flourishing 
long befbre he was born. He says {Antiq., b. 13, c. 9), € At 
this time (about 150 b.c.) there were three sects of the Jews, 
the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Essenes.' On several 
occasions he describes the Pharisees as the chief sect, and 
as possessing great authority among the people. 

They believed in the existence of angels and spirits, and 
held the doctrine of the resurrection ; hut their notion of 
the latter appears to have been Pythagorean, namely, that 
there is a resurrection of the soul only by a transmigration 
into another body. From the benefits of this resurrection 
they shut out all the notoriously wicked, consigning them 
at once to eternal misery, upon the separation of the soul 
from the body. While the Essenes maintained that all 
things were ruled by absolute fate, and the Sadducees that 
all things were under human control, the Pharisees adopted 
a middle course, maintaining that some things were pre- 
destinated, and others left for men to determine. It was a 
leading maiim of the Stoics that some things were in our 
power, and others not in our power ; and Josephus tells us 
that the sect of the Pharisees was very much like that of 
the Stoics. 

But they were mainly distinguished by their zeal for ' the 
traditions of the elders,' to which they attached an import- 
ance equal to that of the Mosaic Writings ; and it was from 
a strict adherence to these traditions, as well as from, an 
observance of the punctilios of the law itself, that they were 
called Pharisees. Several of these traditions are mentioned 
in the New Testament, but they are only a small portion of 

Digitized by 


P H A 


P H A 

the whole. 'To go through them all,' says Prideaux, 
would he to transcribe the Talmud, a book of twelve 
volumes in folio.' 

The Pharisees are represented in the New Testament as 
a hypocritical, proud, aud arrogant people, pretending to be 
emphatically 'the separated,' trusting to themselves that 
they alone were righteous, and despising all other men. 
This was their character as a body ; but there were among 
tnem individuals free from these bad qualities, such as Ni- 
codemus, Joseph of Arimathaea, Gamaliel, and, as some 
think, Simeon, who uttered the hymn called • Nunc dimittis,' 
to whom must be added Josephus, their historian. 

(Jfisephus, Antiq^ xiii. 9, 18; xvii. 3; xviii. 2; Be Bell. 
Jud., ii. 7; Be Vita sud; Suidas, *api<raio«; Prideaux, Con- 

PHARMACOLITE, native arseniate of lime; it occurs 
crystallized and fibrous, and there is a variety, called 
haidingerite, which differs in crystalline form and com- 

The primary form of pharmacolite is an oblique rhombic 
prism. Cleavage parallel to the oblique diagonals of the 
terminal planes. Fracture uneven. Hardness 2*0 to 2*5 ; 
easily scratched. Colour white. Lustre vitreous. Trans- 
parent ; translucent ; opaque. Specific gravity 2*640 to 2'8. 

Fibrous pharmacolite occurs in white diverging needles 
and small globular and botryoidal masses, which are fre- 
quently coloured by arseniate of cobalt. 

When heated by the blowpipe, pharmacolite emits the 
alliaceous smell, and fuses with difficulty into a white 
enamel ; it dissolves in nitric acid without effervescence. 

This mineral is found at Andreasberg in the Harz, and 
in Thuringia, and at Wittichen, near Fiirstenberg in Ger- 
many, and some other places. 

The pharmacolite of Wittichen was analyzed by Klaproth 
(1), ana that of Andreasberg by John (2) ; the results were 



Arsenic Acid 











Haidingerite. — Primary form a right rhombic prism. 
Cleavage parallel to the short diagonal of the terminal planes, 
very distinct. Hardness 20 to 2*5. Colour white, and 
streak the same. Lustre vitreous. Translucent; trans- 
parent. Specific gravity 2*84. It accompanies the phar- 
macolite of Baden, and was found by Dr. Turner to consist 
of arseniate of lime 85*68, water 14*32. 

PHARMACOPCEIA, a book published by the colleges 
of physicians with the sanction of government, containing 
directions for the preparation of medicines. 

PHA'RMACY, in a comprehensive sense, means the 
department of natural science which treats of the collection, 
preparation, and preservation of medicines, and also of the 
art of dispensing them according to the formulae or pre- 
scriptions of medical practitioners. It is however more com- 
monly used in a limited sense, as a branch of chemical 
science, and termed pharmaceutical chemistry, or the appli- 
cation of the laws of chemistry to those substances which are 
employed for the cure of diseases, so as to render them 
more commodious, or their administration more easy, and 
their action mo* perfect and certain. It should not be 
understood as merely depending upon some mechanical 
processes, such as trituration, rasping, or other means of 
subdivision, or even the simpler chemical actions involved 
in the processes of infusion or decoction, hut as requiring 
a knowledge of vegetable physiology, and an acquaintance 
with the chemical constitution of the substances to be pre- 
pared. In many continental nations this department is the 
subject of very strict legal enactments, and forms an im- 
portant part of medical police, especially as regards the dis- 
pensing of poisonous drugs ; while in Britain any one who 
chooses may affix the terms chemist and druggist to his 
name, and may deal in the most useful or dangerous in- 
gredients, without that previous education which would fit 
him to be the appropriate assistant of the physician, whose 
most judicious plans are often frustrated by the • ignorance 
or carelessness of those to whom the compounding of his 
prescriptions is entrusted. [Materia Mkdica.1 

PHA'RNACES. [Pontus] 

PHAROS. [Alexandria] 

PHARSA'JUA. [Cjesar; Thessaly.] 
P.O. No. 1110. 

PHARYNX is the cavity in which the food is received 
in its passage from the mouth to the oesophagus or gullet. 
In man it is somewhat funnel-shaped, having its widest 
part above, where it is fixed to the base of the skull. The 
nasal passages, the mouth, and the air passages, open into 
the pharynx in front ; behind, it is attached to the spinal 
column ; and at its sides it is bounded by the deep vessels 
and muscles of the neck. It is lined by a mucous membrane, 
but is chiefly composed of layers of strong muscular fibres, 
called the constrictors of the pharynx, by whose successive 
contractions the food received from the mouth is gradually 
forced from above downwards into the oesophagus. 

PHASCALOTHE'RIUM. [Marsupialia, vol. xiv., p. 

PHASCO'CALE. [Marsupialia, vol. xiv., p. 456] 

PHASCOLA'RCTOS. [Marsupialia, vol. xiv., p. 461.] 

PHASCO'LOMYS, M. Geoffrey's name for the Wombat. 
[Marsupialia. vol. xiv., p. 463, et seq.] 

PHASE (0*<yic, phasis, appearance). When a phenome- 
non changes its character gradually, any particular state 
wliich it is necessary to distinguish is called a phase. Thus 
we have the phases of the moon, meaning the different forms 
which the enlightened part takes during the month ; the 
phases of the weather, meaning the succession of heat and 
cold, wet and dry, &c. 

PHA'SEOLUS, a genus of plants of the tribe Phaseo- 
leae, in the natural family of Leguminos®. The name is 
said to be derived from phaselus, a little boat, which the 
pods are thought to resemble; but it may be that the 
meaning of 4 boat' is derived from the resemblance of a boat 
to the form of a bean. Two species are very well known in 
this country, P. vulgaris, the common Kidney bean, and P. 
multiflorus, the Scarlet runner ; their unripe pods being 
much esteemed as legumes, and also for pickling. The ripe 
seeds are however employed on the Continent, and form the 
haricots of the French. The genus is however one of 
which the species are indigenous in tropical parts both of 
the Old and New World. Several are cultivated in India, 
and are some of the principal articles of the agriculturist's 
attention, as the ripe seeds of several species form pulses 
which are much used by the natives as a portion of their 
diet, and some of which, like the Kidney bean, abound in 
nutritious matter. 

The genus Phaseolus is characterised by having a bell- 
shaped two-lipped calyx. The corolla is papilionaceous, and 
has the keel, as well as the diadelphous stamens and the style, 
spirally twisted. The Legume is compressed or cylindrical, 
with two valves, and is many-seeded, with more or less con- 
spicuous cellular partitions between the seeds. The nil urn of 
the seed is oval oblong. The plants are herbaceous or suffru- 
tescent in habit. The leaves are pinnately trifoliolate, the 
leaflets with partial stipules. Racemes axillary. Pedicels 
usually in pairs, single flowered. 

Phaseolus vulgaris (Kidney Bean) is said to be a native 
of India, but Dr. Royle stales that seeds were brought to 
him from Cashmere, and he is therefore inclined to consider 
that it was introduced into Europe from the most northern 
parts, such as Caubul and Cashmere, and that this accounts 
for our being able to cultivate it at a lower temperature 
than other species of the genus. P. multiflorus, or the 
Scarlet runner, is a native of South America. Both are de- 
licate, and cannot be safely planted in the open air till the 
beginning of May. In a stove or pit, green pods of the 
dwarf kinds may be gathered all the winter, and they have this 
advantage, Mr. Loudon observes, over forced productions of 
the fruit kind which require to be ripened, that the pods are as 
good from plants in the stove in midwinter, as from those 
in the open garden in midsummer. The Kidney bean is an 
article of field culture in France, America, and in most 
warm countries. Speechley suggests that it might become 
an object of field culture in this country, and be useful m 
times of scarcity more especially, as on good land it will 
flourish and grow luxuriantly even in a dry parching sea- 
son, in which respect it differs from most other culinary 

In India several species of Phaseolus are extensively 
cultivated : — 

Pfiaseolus Mungo, or Moog, is one of the dry legumi- 
nous grains of India, which are of great value whenever 
the periodical rains fail and rice cannot be grown, and fa- 
mine is the consequence. It requires a strong rich dry 
soil, and is raised in the greatest quantities on rice lands 
during the cold season. In from seventy-five to ninety days 

Vol. XVIII.— I 

Digitized by 





it is ready to cut, and yields about thirty-fold. The ripe 
grain is well tasted, nutritious, and is considered whole- 

JP. Max., Kala Moog of the natives, and black Gram of the 
English, is like the former, but distinguished by its black 
seeds, and is, like it, found in a cultivated state : it takes about 
the same time to ripen, and yields nearly the same pro- 

P. radiatus, called by the natives Mash and Oorud, is, like 
the two former, found in a cultivated state, and is the most 
esteemed of all the Indian leguminous plants. Besides 
using it as an article of diet, the natives make bread of the 
meal for some of their religious ceremonies. 

P. aureus, or Sona Moog of the Bengalees, is found in a 
cultivated state in the Bengal presidency, but is not known 
on the Cororaandel Coast. It is sown, like the others, about 
the end of October or beginning of November, and reaped 
in February on the beginning of March. 

P. aconitifolius, Moth of the natives, is cultivated in the 
north-western provinces, and used for feeding cattle. 


PHASIANE'LLA. [Trochid.e.] 

PHASIA'NIOE. [Pavonidjb; Pheasants.] 

PHASIS (fcatnc), the principal river in antient Colchis, 
and called at present the Faz, and sometimes the Rion. rises 
in Armenia, according to Strabo (xv. 498), and among the 
Moschi, according to Pliny (Hist. Nat., vi. 4). It flows in 
a westerly direction into the Black Sea. It was navigable in 
antient times for large ships for thirty-eight miles from the 
coast, and for smaller vessels as far as the fort of Sarapana 
(Sharapan), on the boundaries of Colchis and Iberia, from 
which place goods were conveyed by waggons in four days to 
the river Cyrus. (Strabo, xv.498 ; Plin., Hist. Nat., vi. 4.) 
There are no antient remains at Sharapan. The Phasis was 
sometimes considered as the boundary between Asia and 
Europe (Herod., iv. 45), and was regarded in the time of Au- 
gustus as the northern boundary of the Roman dominions 
in that part of Asia. (Strabo, vi. 288.) The Phasis received 
many affluents, of which the principal were the Glaucus and 
the Rion, by the latter of which names the Phasis itself is 
sometimes called. The Glaucus appears to be the modern 
Quirilla, which comes from Elburz. From the junction of 
the Rion and Quirilla the river is navigable for boats at all 
seasons, has no obstructions, and is from twenty to thirty feet 
deep, with a current of about two miles and a half an hour. 
It flows through a level country, which is lower than the 
banks of the river. There is a bar at the mouth of the 
Phasis, with only six feet water, the only circumstance that 
prevents the river being entered by the largest vessels. The 
navigation of the Phasis is now entirely in the possession of 
the Russians. At Poti, near the mouth of the Phasis, the 
Russians have a station or castle. Kootais on the Rion is 
the seat of the Russian government of Imiretia. 

In antient times there were one hundred and twenty 
bridges over the Phasis (Strabo, xv. 500 ; Plin., Hist. Nat., 
vi. 4), and many towns upon it, of which the most important 
were JEa, the old capital of the yEetes, which is celebrated in 
the legends of the Argonautic expedition [Argonauts], and 
Phasis (Poti), situated at its mouth. There are no remains 
of antiquity on the Phasis. On the banks of the river there 
were in antient times, as is also the case at the present day, 
great numbers of pheasants, which are said by Martial 
(Epig., xiii. 72) to have been brought into Greece by the 
Argonauts, and to have been called Phasiani, from this river. 

The Phasis was noted in antient times for the excellence 
and purity of its waters, Arrian, in his • Periplus of the 
Euxine Sea,' informs us that water taken from it will pre- 
serve its goodness for ten years ; and though this is doubt- 
less an exaggeration, it serves to show in what high estima- 
tion its waters were held at that time. [Georgia, p. 176.] 
(London Geog. Journal, vol. hi., p. 33, &c.) 

PHAVORl'NUS VARINUS, a native of Favera, a 
place near Camerinum in Italy, whence he called himself 
Favorinus, in Greek Phavorinus (4>a/3tup«Voc). His family 
name was Guarino, which he turned into Varinus (Bapivoc). 
He is also called Camers, from the town of Camerinum. 
The precise time of his birth is unknown, but it was probably 
some years after the middle of the fifteenth century. He is 
represented, about 1490, as a pupil of Angelo Poliziano, 
and as exquisitely skilled in Greek and Latin. He devoted 
himself to the service of the church, and joined the order 
of the Benedictines. In 1512 he became librarian to Gio- 
vanni de' Medici, afterwards pope Leo X. ; and in 1514 he 

was made bis*hop of Nuceria, over which diocese be, presided 
twenty-three years. He died in 1537. 

Phavorinus, assisted by two other eminent scholars, 
Charles Antenoreus and Aldus Manutius, edited, in 1496 
' Cornu Copise et Horti Adonidis,' consisting of seventeen 
grammatical tracts in Greek, selected from thirty-four an- 
tient grammarians. In 1517 he published a collection of 
apophthegms from Stobrous, which he dedicated to Leo X. 
But the work by which he is chiefly known is his Greek 
Lexicon, which, after the labour of many years, he com- 
pleted in the lifetime of Leo X. It was published at Rome 
in 1523, fol., and repriuted at Basle in 1538, fol., under the 
direction of Joachim Camerarius, with several improve- 
ments. The last edition, still further improved, was printed 
at Venice, in 1712, by Antony Bortoli, in a neat type and 
in a handsome form. The first edition is beautifully printed 
and the paper is excellent; but the edition of 1712 is by far 
the best For all the purposes for which a lexicon is consulted. 
This very useful lexicon is compiled from the various pre- 
ceding lexicons, grammars, &c, or, as the title expresses, 
* from many and different books.' The words are given in 
alphabetical order, and all the definitions and explanations 
are in Greek, which Phavorinus is said to have spoken and 
written as well as a native Greek. Henry Stephens appears 
to have been greatly indebted to the work of Phavorinus 
in the compilation of his Greek Lexicon, though he nowhere 
acknowledges his obligation. 

(Fabricius, Bibliotneca Grceca; Roscoe, Life of Leo X. ; 
Quarterly Review, vol. xxii.) 

PHEASANTS. If we owe to America that useful and 
sapid bird the Turkey, we are indebted to Asia for those 
equally desirable additions to our homesteads, preserves, and 
farm-yards, the Peacocks, the Pheasants, and our common 

The views of Mr. Vigors and some other ornithologists 
with regard to *he Phasianidce are sketched in the article 


Mr. G. R. Gray arranges the Phasianida as the second 
family of Rasores, Cracxdce being the first ; and he divides 
the Phasianidce into the subfamilies Pavonince, Pkasianince, 
Gallince, and Meleagrince. The Pavonince and Melea- 
grinm are noticed iu the article Pavonid*. The Pha- 
sianinw consist of the genera Argus, Phasianus, Syrmatieus, 
Thaumalea, and Gennceus. fhe Gallince comprehend the 
genera Euplocamus, Monaulus, Lophophorus, G alius y and 

Phasianus. (Linn.) 

Generic Character. — Bill of mean length, strong ; upper 
mandible convex, naked at the base, and with the tip bes| 
downwards. Nostrils basal, lateral, covei?ad with a cartila- 
ginous scale ; cheeks and region of the eyes destitute of 
feathers, and covered with verrucose red skin. Wings short, 
the first quills equally narrowed towards their tips, the 
fourth and fifth the longest. Tail long, regularly wedge; 
shaped, and composed of eighteen feathers.* Feet having 
the three anterior toes united by a membrane as far as the 
first ioint, and the bind toe articulated upon the tarsus, 
which, in the male birds, is furnished with a horny cone- 
shaped sharp spur. (Gould.) 

The type of this genus is generally considered to be the 
Common Pheasant, Phasianus Colchicus, Linn., a bud 
which, though not originally British, is completely naturalised 
in our islands, and indeed appears to adapfcitself with great 
facility to most countries where ordinary care is taken to 
preserve it and the temperature is not too low for its .con- 
stitution. The species is too well known to need description, 
but an account of its introduction into Europe generally and 
into our own country particularly, together with a summary 
of its habits, will be expected, and we shall endeavour jto 
lay before the readers some information on these points. 

If we are to listen to the tales which form that period of 
history which borders upon fable, we owe this ornament *o 
our preserves and tables to Jason and his companions, who 
brought it from Colchis, in the good ship A rgo. Martial 
thus notices its introduction into Europe (lib. xiii., ep. 7j2): 
Phasianus loquitur — 

ArgivA primum «um ttamportata cacfoS; 
Auto mihi notum oil nisi Phasis erat.' 

In Greece it soon became known under the name of 
(f>amav6c (Phasianus) and tpaviavuctc fyvic (Phasian bird). 
( Aristoph., Clouds, 110; Birds, 68.) Indeed it iad become 
sufficiently celebrated in the time of Aristophanes to form 
a proverb, — 'Not if you would give me the pheasants which 

Digitized by 


P H E 


P H E 

Leogoras feeds,' says Strepsiades, in the Clouds (109, 1 10). 
Aristotle writes succinctly but clearly of the habits of the 
pheasant as a well-known bird (Hist. Anim., v. 31 ; vi. 2){ 
nor is Athenseus silent concerning so delicate a dish, which 
appears to have become more common as luxury waxed 
*trong> nor regarding the royal conduct of Ptolemy, who, 
though he kept them and provided them with hens 
(vofiaSac &pvi9ag) for multiplication, being aware of their 
excellence for the table, appears not to have tasted them. 
From the same author it would appear that the antients, 
contrary' to the opinion of modern epicures, thought the 
cock birds the best. (Deipn., xiv., lxix., p. 654.) It 
is the Phasianus of the antient Italians (Pliny, Nat. Hist., 
x., xlviii. ; xi., xxxvii.), but seems to have only been within 
reach of the wealthy. Thus Martial (xiii., xlv., Pulli gal- 
linacei), — 

' Si Libyoa nobis ▼olncres e\ PhasMes esaent, 
Aedfxsre* : at nunc ftcctpe cottis avca.' 

and again, in the epigram addressed to Bass us (iii. 58), 
which gives to pretty a picture of a genuine rural Roman 
villa, and so agreeably fills the imagination with country 
sights and sounds, 

* Vngiihir otnnfi turba awdidae cortii, 
Argutua anicr, getnrneique pavonca, 
Nomenque debet qua>* Tubentibus pennia » 
Et pkla perdii. Nuinldicseque guttatte, 
Et vmpiorum vhasUna Colcbontm. 

Rhodiaa auperbi f»mtn%s premirtnt f?alli 
Sonautqne turres plausibus columbarum. 
Gemit liiue pahirabus, inde cerens turtur.' 

The pheasant has now been spread over the whole of tem- 
perate Europe, and the greater part of the old Continent ; 
and it is probable that it will be introduced with success 
wherever the face of the "country and the supply of food are 
congenial to it, and the temperature does not vary too much 
from that of its native river, the modern Rion, along whose 
banks Mingrelia, formerlv Colchis, extends, and lies be- 
tween 42° and 43° N. lat.', and 41° 19"' and 42° 19' E. long. 
[Georgia, vol. xi., p. 1F6 ; Phasis.] It is even said to be 
common in Siberia, a much colder climate, which would prove 
the facility with Which it adapts itself to temperature ; and 
an attempt lias, We believe, been made to introduce it into 
North America, a locality Well suited to its habit*. 

, The south of Europe owed the pheasant, in all probability, 
partially to the Greeks, and more proximately to the Ro- 
mans ; it is the Fasiano of the modern Italians, and Paisan 
of the French. More doubt hangs about its introduction 
into Great Britain, and the time of that introduction. We 
are told that the price of one Was fourpence in the titne of 
our first Edward (A.d. 1299). In 'The Forme of Cury,' 
which is stated to have been compiled by the chief master- 
cook of King Richard II., we find a receipt * for to boile 
Fesant, £twch (partridges), Capons, and Curlew,* which 
carries us back to 1381. We read of the 

•Fawkon aind the Fesaunt both/ 

in the old ballad of the '* Battle of Otterbourne.' At the 
• Intronazation of George Novell,* archbishop of York, in 
the reign of our fourth Edward, we find among the goodly 
provision, ' Fessauntes, 200.' In the * Northumberland 
Household-Book,' begun in 1512, 'Fesauntes' are valued at 
twelve pence each. In the charges of Sir John Net iie, of 
Chete, at Lammas Assizes, in the twentieth year of the reign 
of King Henry VIII. , we find twelve pheasants charged 
twenty shillings; and they seem to have rapidly increased 
in price, as, among the expenses of the sam% Sir John 
Nevile, for, as he writes it, 'the marriage of my son-in-law, 
Roger Rockley, and my daughter Elizabeth Nevile, the 14th 
of January, in the seventeenth year of the reigneofour 
soveraigne lord King Henry VIII./ is the following: • Item 
in Pheasants 18, 24 shillings.' We trace the nirds in 
'A. C. Mery Talys/t printed by John Rastell, where we 
read of *Mayster Skelton, a poyct lauryat, that broughte 
the bysshop of Norwiche ii. fesauntys.' Rastell began to 
print as early as 1517, and ceased in 1533. In Turbervile's 
'Booke of Falconrie' the * Fezant' and' Feasants'— for, with 
the licence of the time, it is spelled both ways — are men- 
tioned as the subjects of hawking, and so the bird may be 
traced as a dis'h for the table, or the object of field sports, 
down to the present time. 

Habits, Reproduction, fyc. — Hen pheasants in this country 
begin to lay in April, aud deposit from eight or ten to 'four- 
teen olive-brown eggs, in a rough nest on the ground. 
Sometimes two will lay in the same nest. The young 

• The Flmningo. 
\ Alluded to in Shakspere*s ' Much Ado about Nothing. 

make their appearance towards the end of May or beginning 
of June. 

Where the country is favourable, it is easy to get up a 
head of pheasants, with the aid of good keepers ; but it is 
more difficult to keep them at home, for they are wandering 
birds, and will often leave the place where they are bred, in 
search of food more agreeable to them and localities more 
congenial to their habits. Warm covers and water are ab- 
solutely necessary; and if they are plentifully supplied with 
grateful food, but few of them will become vagrants. Jeru- 
salem artichokes, potatoes, and buckwheat, as well as barley, 
are favourites. Small stacks of the latter grain in the straw 
are frequently placed about the preserves, and there the 
pheasants may be seen scratching at their feeding-time; 
but this mode of supply is objectionable, as the poacher soon 
finds out the several points of attraction, and avails himself 
of them accordingly. Mr. Yarrell states that one good mode 
of inducing them to stop at home is to sow, in summer, 
beans, peas, and buckwheat mixed together, leaving the 
whole crop standing on the ground. The strong and tall 
stalks of the beans carry up and sustain the other two, and 
all three together afford, for a long time, food and cover. 
(Hist, of British Birds.) The same author tells us that 
at the end of autumn he has found the crops of the 
birds distended with acorns, of so large a size that they 
could not have been swallowed without great difficulty. 
In December, 1834, we saw eight ripe acorns and a ripe 
hazel-nut taken out of the crop of a hen pheasant from 
Sussex. The acorns had begun to germinate with the 
heat and moisture of the crop, and they were sent up to the 
gardens of the Zoological Society in the Regent's Park, and 
there planted. For autumnal and winter home-feeding we 
have seen potatoes used with excellent effect, not only in 
keeping the birds from wandering, but in increasing their 
weight and fatness. Carls loaded with raw potatoes were, 
from time to time, driven into the covers, and the potatoes 
were scattered about by hand. The pheasants soon found 
them out and throve accordingly, without being collected 
together at particular sjpots, as they too often are to their 
destruction. They are very general feeders ; neither black- 
berries, sloes, nor haws come amiss to them, and grain, 
seeds, and tender leaves find their way into the pheasant's 
crop as well as insects. Mr. Selby observed that these bird% 
sought after the root of the acrid bulbous crowfoot (Ranun- 
culus bulbosus, Common Buttercup) in May and June, and 
a friend informed Mr. Yarrell that they also feed on the 
Pile wort Crowfoot {Ranunculus ficaria). Mr. Selby further 
states that the bulb of the garden tulip is an article of diet 
which the pheasant omits no opportunity of obtaining; and 
which, however deeply buried, the bird is almost certain to 
reach by means of its bill and feet. The size to which these 
birds attain when well fed is considerable. In the catalogue 
of Norfolk and Suffolk birds, by the Rev. Revett Sheppard 
and the Rev. William Whitear (Linn. Tra?is., vol. xv.), the 
weight of a cock pheasant killed at Campsey Ash, where 
the oirds were well fed with potatoes, buckwheat, and bar- 
ley, is stated at four pounds and a half. * Some winters 
since,' says Mr. Yarrell. ' my friend Mr. Louis J aquier, then 
of the Clarendon, produced a brace of cock pheasants which 
weighed together above nine pounds. The lighter bird of 
the two just turned the scale against four pounds and a 
half; the other bird took the scale down at once. The 
weights were accurately ascertained, in the presence of 
several friends, to decide a wager, of which I was myself the 

Among the diseases and disorders to which the pheasant, 
in common with other gallinaceous birds, is subject, the 
fatal gapes holds a prominent place. The cause of this 
disease is an intestinal worm, which adheres to the internal 
surface of the trachea, and causes death by suffocation, 
sometimes arising from inflammation of the part, and not 
unfrcquently by actual obstruction. This entozoon is Syn- 
gamus trachealis (Distoma linear c of Rudolphi, Fasciula 
Trac/iea of Montagu), and a most curious animal it is. The 
bifurcation of the anterior extremity was taken by earlier 
observers for a double head, and thence probably came the 
name Distoma (double-mouth); but this bifid termination 
is in reality due to the two sexes. The female is long ; and 
the short male is affixed to her for life by means of an in- 
tegument which holds him to her, but which, if cut open, 
exhibits an otherwise free and distinct animal. In the 
museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, Nos. 199, 200, 
201 (Preparations of Natural History in Spirit), exhibit 

Digitized by 





this destructive worm. The first shows several specimens 
from the trachea of a chicken ; the second consists of a 
small portion of the trachea of a bird laid open, and exhibit- 
ing one of this species which has lost its original pink 
colour and become blanched in the spirit; and in the third 
is to be seen the trachea of a partridge completely choked 
up by them. Mr. Selby observes that many recipes for the 
cure of this fatal malady (which is provincially called the 
Wax in Northumberland) have been suggested, but that 
none of them seem to be effectual, except the one recom- 
mended by Montagu, namely, fumigating by tobacco, found 
to be an infallible specific when administered with due care 
and attention. The mode of administering this remedy is 
by putting the young pheasants, turkeys, chickens, or par- 
tridges affected into a common wooden box, into which the 
fumes are blown by means of a tobacco-pipe. That this 
often succeeds is true, but we cannot confirm its infallibility 
n all cases: a pinch of common salt, put far back into the 
mouth of the patient so as to reach the upper part of the 
trachea, is a neater and less operose method of cure. With 
reference to this, it has occurred to us that we never heard 
of any pigeons being "affected with the gapes, and the fond- 
ness of these birds for salt is well known. We have heard 
of a sparrow being attacked by this entozoon, but we did 
not see the case. 

The assumption of the plumage of the cock pheasant by 
the female, when, through old age or organic defect, she is 
no longer capable of reproducing the species, is by no 
means uncommon, not more rare indeed, if so much, as it is 
in the peafowls [Pavonid.b, vol. xvii., p. 334], common 
poultry, &c. ; indeed John Hunter (Animal Economy) re- 
marks that this change has been principally observed in 
the common pheasant ' It has been observed,' says Hunter, 
* by those who are conversant with this bird when wild, that 
there every now and then appears a hen pheasant with the 
feathers or a cock ; all however that they have described on 
the subject is, that this animal does not breed, and that its 
spurs do not grow. Some years ago one of these was sent 
to the late Dr. William Hunter, which I examined, and 
found it to have all the parts peculiar to the female of that 
bird. This specimen is still preserved in Dr. Hunter's 
museum. Dr. Pitcairn having received a pheasant of this 
kind jVom Sir Thomas Harris, showed it as a curiosity to 
Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander. I, happening to be 
then present, was desired to examine the bird, and the 
following was the result of my examination: — I found the 
parts of generation to be truly female, they being as perfect 
as in any hen pheasant that is not in the least prepared for 
laying eggs, and having both the ovary and oviduct. As the 
observations hitherto made have been principally upon birds 
found wild, little of their history can be known ; but from 
what took place in a hen pheasant in the possession of a friend 
of Sir Joseph Banks, it appeal's probable that this change 
of character takes place at an advanced period of the ani- 
mal's life, and does not grow up with it from the beginning. 
This lady, who had for some time bred pheasants, and paid 
particular attention to them, observed that one of the hens, 
after having produced several broods, moulted, when the 
succeeding feathers were those of a cock, and that this ani- 
mal was never afterwards impregnated. Hence it is most 
probable that all the hen pheasants found wild, having the 
feathers of a cock, were formerly perfect hens, but have 
been changed by age, or perhaps by certain constitutional 
circumstances. Having bought some pheasants from a 
dealer in birds, among which were several hens, I perceived, 
the year after, that one of the hens did not lay, and that she 
began to change her feathers. The year following she had 
nearly the plumage of the cock, but less brilliant, especially 
on the head ; and it is more than probable that this was an 
old hen, nearly under circumstances similar to those before 
described.' The alternative above alluded to has been 
proved (Phil. Trans., 1827) by Mr. Yarrell, whose dissec- 
tions demonstrate this change and its causes, and whose 
observations show that it is not uncommon. He states that 
certain constitutional circumstances producing this change 
may and do occur at any period during the life of the fowl, 
aud that they can be produced by artificial means. The 
same author, in his excellent ' History of British Birds,' now 
in course of publication, observes that these cock-plumed 
hens are usually called by sportsmen and gamekeepers 
' Mule Pheasants,' a designation which he considers to be 
correct, since some of our dictionaries show that the term 
Mule is derived from a word which signifies barren, and 

such hen pheasants are incapable of producing eggs, from 
derangement of the generative organs ; sometimes an origi- 
nal internal defect, sometimes from subsequent disease, and 
Sometimes from old age. He adds that he has seen this 
disorganisation and its effects among birds in the Gold, 
Silver, and Common Pheasants; in the Partridge, the Pea- 
fowl, the Common Fowl, the Crowned Pigeon, tho King- 
fisher, and the Common Duck : in the latter species he 
states that the change, in two instances, went on even to 
the assumption of the two curled feathers above the tail. 

But we must not forget thatBlumenbach, in his interest- 
ing paper * De anomalis et vitiosis quibusdam nisus forma- 
tivi aberrationibus eommentatio,' read before the Gottingeu 
Royal Society, in July, 1812, has entered fully and particu- 
larly into this subject. The species in which he had known 
the change of plumage to be observed were Columba (Enas t 
Phasianus Gallus, Colchicus, and pictus, Pavo cri status, 
Otis tarda, Emberiza paradisea and longicauda, Pipra ru- 
picola, and Anas Boschas. Alluding to the eggs which 
have been sold as Cock's Eggs, he observes, that to him it 
seems most probable that such specimens have been laid by 
hens which had either assumed the plumage of cocks from 
their youth up, or upon whom the change had come in their 
old age. Though such phenomena are usually gallinaceous, 
they are riot confined to that family ; for he relates that 
Professor Erhard sent to him an egg laid by a Canary Bird, 
that sang loudly and excellently, having all the appearance 
of a cock bird. The egg was one-half less than the usual 
size, but of the ordinary form and colour. Our limits will 
not allow us to quote this important memoir further ; but 
we would particularly recommend to the attention of the 
reader who is studying this branch of physiology, the 
second, third, and fourth sections, respectively entitled 
Fabriece androgynes phcenomena—Generatio hybrida— 
Animalia in varietates sic dictas degenerantia. — (Commen- 
tationes Societatis Regies Scientiarum Gottingensis Re- 
centiores, Classis Physicce, torn, ii.) 

That hen pheasants which have begun to put on the 
livery of the male are not always incapable of producing 
eggs, is a fact for which we are indebted to Sir Philip Grey 
Egerton, Bart., well known, for theacuteness of his obser- 
vations in many departments of natural history. Sir Philip 
informs us that about four years ago a hen pheasant at 
Oulton Park, Cheshire, which had nearly assumed the plum- 
age of the cock, laid a nest full of eggs, from which she 
was driven by the curiosity of persons who came to gaze at 
so strange a sight. She then laid another nest full of eggs, 
sat upon them, and hatched them ; but the young all died 
soon after they were excluded. This is a very curious case, 
and seems to show that though the capacity of producing 
eggs still remained, the organic defect was sufficient to pre- 
vent the production of a healthy offspring. 

Varieties. — White and Pied: the Ring-necked and Bo- 
hemian Pheasants appear to be considered as varieties by 
Mr. Yarrell; Temminck and §ir W. Jardine consider the 
former to be completely distinct. The English reader will 
find the reasons for the latter opinion stated at length in 
that useful work 'The Naturalist's Library' (Ornithology), 
vol. iii v 


Various instances of the common Pheasant breeding 
with other gallinaceous birds are on record. Edwards has 
figured a bird supposed to have been produced between a 
pheasant and a turkey. Three or four of these were disco- 
vered in the woods near the house of Henry Seymour, Esq., 
of Handford, Dorsetshire, and he shot one in October, 
1759, the bird which he sent to Edwards. Mr. Yarrell 
(British Birds) observes that he has twice been shown birds 
that were said to be the produce of the Pheasant and the 
Guinea Fowl, and the evidence of the plumage was in fa- 
vour of the statement. We have seen such a bird, and its 
feathers corroborated the allegation that it had been so pro- 
duced. In the article Black Cock will be found accounts 
of hybrids between the Cock Pheasant and the Grey Hen. 
Mr. Eyton, in his valuable work on the, Rarer British 
Birds, adds to the account of the hybrid shot near Merring- 
ton, figured in that work, and noticed in our article, that 
the brood to which it belonged consisted of five : one re- 
mained in the possession of J. A. Lloyd, Esq., of Leaton 
Knolls ; the other three, with the old Grey Hen, fell vic- 
tims to a farmer's gun, and were destined to the table. Mr. 
Eyton further states that he had also seen another specimen 
killed near Corwen in Merionethshire, then in the collec- 

Digitized by 


P H E 


P H E 

tiou of Sir Rowland Hill, Bart. Mr. Thompson of Belfast 
describes (Magazine of Zoology and Botany) another hy- 
brid shot at Lochnaw, Wigtonshire, where, it had been 
seen several times on the wing by persons who supposed it 
to be a wild turkey. In the surrounding plantations Phea- 
sants and Black Grouse were numerous ; but this individual, 
which was preserved for Sir Andrew Agnew, Bart., M.P., 
was the only one of the kind observed. Mr. John Lead- 
beater, in 1837, exhibited a hybrid between the Pheasant 
and Black Grouse, shot near Alnwick, at a meeting of the 
Zoological Society. This the Duke of Northumberland 
presented to the British Museum. Dr. Edward Moore 
(Magazine qf Natural History, 1837) notices another hy- 
brid of this kind shot near Plymouth by the Rer. Mr. 
Morshead, and Mr. Yarrell {British Birds) records his 
obligation to the Rev. W. S. Hore, of Stoke near Devon- 
port, for the knowledge of two other specimens killed in 
Devonshire: one a fine male, in his own collection; the 
other believed to be at this time in the collection of Dr. 
Rodd, of Trebartha Hall in Cornwall. To conclude this 
part of the subject in the words of Mr. Yarrell : — 'The last 
of thirteen examples of hybrids between the Pheasant and 
Black Grouse here recorded was killed in Northumberland, 
for a knowledge of which I am indebted to Mr. Selby, of 
Twizell House. This bird was shot early in December, 1 839, 
by Lord Howick, in a large wood belonging to Earl Grey, a 
few miles to the east of Felton, and, having been sent to 
Twizell, I was not only immediately made acquainted with 
the occurrence, but Mr. Selby has since supplied me with 
a coloured drawing of the bird, from which the representa- 
tion at p. 311 was executed.' (History of British Birds, 
May, 1840.) 
The union between the common hen and the cock phea- 

sant is by no means rare, as is well known to those whose 
homesteads border upon pheasant preserves: the produce of 
this union is called a Pero. Many of these, some of them 
very fine birds, have been kept together in the Gardens of 
the Zoological Society in the Regent's Park, but they never, 
as far as we have been able to learn, exhibited any inclina- 
tion to breed. They are generally -considered, as Mr. Yar- 
rell observes, to be unproductive among themselves, all being 
half-bred ; but the case is different when they are paired 
either with the true pheasant or the common fowl. Edward 
Fuller, Esq., of Carleton Hall near Saxmundham, has re- 
corded that his gamekeeper had succeeded in rearing two 
birds from a barn-door hen, having a cross from a pheasant, 
and a pheasant cock, which he presented to the Zoological 
Society. On the same evening when these three-quarter- 
bred pheasants were noticed, hybrids between tbe Pheasant 
and Common Fowl, the Common Pheasant and the Silver 
Pheasant, and the Common Pheasant with the Gold Phea- 
sant, were placed on the Society's table for exhibition. 
(ZooL Proc., 1836.) 

Before we leave the True Pheasants, we must notice some 
of the magnificent Indian species, which exhibit such a 
prodigality of splendour and beauty in their plumage as 
almost realises the birds which we read of in fairy tales. 
Such are the well-known gorgeous Gold Pheasant (Phasia- 
nus pictus, Linn. — Genus Thaumalea, Wagler, Chrysolo- 
phus, J. E. Gray, Nycthemerus, Sw.), the equally well- 
known delicately pencilled Silver Ptieasant (Phasianus 
Nycthemerus, Linn. — Genus Gennceus, Wagler, Nyctheme- 
rus, Sw., Euplocomus, J. E. Gray), and the noble Reeves's 
Pheasant (Phasianus veneratus, Temm.— Genus Syrmati- 
cus, Wagler). Of these forms we have endeavoured to give 
some representation as far as our means will permit' 

a, Silver Pheasant; 6, Gold Pheasant; c, Reeves's Phea»ant (Syrmnticus Itcevesii")— male*. 

The two first of these (natives of China) are common in 
almost every aviary, and there is no reason why they should 
not thrive well if turned out in our preserves; the second 
species has, we believe, been so turned out with success : the 
last is also found in China, but, as it would seem, on the 
very confines of the empire. It is very rare in Pekin. Dr. 
Latham's description was taken from Sir John Anstruther's 
drawings, and from some writing under them in the Per- 
sian language it appeared that the bird was called Doom- 
durour, or Long-tail, and it was found on the snowy moun- 
tains of Surinagur. 

To Mr. Reeves we are indebted for the first individual 
ever brought alive to Europe. It was a male, and conti- 

nued to live for some time in the Garden in the Regent's 
Park. Tail-feathers from it were exhibited to the Society 
in 1831, measuring each about five feet six inches m length. 
A second male specimen was also sent to their menagerie 
by the same liberal donor in 1834. Hybrids were obtained, 
one of which is, we believe, still alive at the Garden, from 
one of these birds and the common Pheasant. 

Then there are the beautiful Diard's Pheasant (Phasia- 
nus versicolor, Vieill.), which haunts the Japanese woods, 
and exhibits the manners and habits of our common Phea- 
sant; the rare and elegant Soemmering'* Pheasant (Pha- 
sianus Soemmeringii, Temm.), also a native of Japan : but 
our limits warn us, and we shall proceed to notice some 

Digitized by 


P H E 



observations of Mr. Vigors, which appear to us to be valua- 
ble as conducting the reader to the next form which we 
shall have to lay before him. 

At a meeting of the Zoological Society in 1832, a male 
and female pheasant were exhibited from the collection, 
which appeared to be Phasianus leucomelanos of Dr. La- 
tham. Mr. V uxors pointed out the difference between this 
species and Phasianus alhocri status, which he had de- 
scribed in the first part of the Proceedings, and he added 
that these two species, together witli the Phasianus It neatus 
of Dr. Latham, exhibited to the Committee in 1831, and 
described in the Proceedings of that date, as well as the 
Firebacked Pfieasant (Phasianus ignitus, Lath.), formed a 
group among the Pheasants, which appeared intermediate 
between the typical birds of that family and the genus 
Gallus, or Jungle Fowl. This group, he observed, distin- 
guished by their crests and by their tails partaking equally 
of the elevated character of that of the Jungle Fowl and 
the recumbent character of that of the Pheasant, had been 
set apart by MM. Temminck and Cuvier under the name of 
Houppiferes, and by the former naturalist under the scien- 
tific name of Euplocamus. 

Euplocamus. (Temm.) 

Example, Euplocamus ignitus. 

Sir George Staunton, in his 'Embassy to China,' first 
made this highly interesting form known to European zoolo- 
gists. His host at Batavia had, it appears, a very curious 
collection in the several departments of natural history. He 
made presents to his quests of several specimens, and among 
them was this beautiful pheasant, which was sent to Eng- 
land and described by Dr. Shaw. The tail was mutilated, 
for which reason the representation in the plate, No. 13 
(Atlas to Sir George's work), was so conducted as purposely 
to leave the form of the tail undetermined. 

Description. — Length of adult male about 2 feet. Skin 
of the nostrils stretching backwards over the sides or* the 
head behind the eyes and bluish purple. A crest upon the 
crown of the head composed of naked-shafted feathers ex- 
panding at their tips into slender spreading barbs. Head, 
neck, breast, belly, and upper part of the back, deep chaly- 
bean or steel-blueshot black ; lower part of the back fiery 
orange red or flame colour, varying in intensity according 
to the incidence of the light, and passing like a zone round 
the body, though more obscure on the abdomen ; rump and 
tail-coverts broad and truncated, brilliant bluish green with 
a paler bar at the tip. Tail when erect folded in some de- 
gree like that of a hen ; the middle feathers white, and the 

Euplocamu* ignitus (ru.U©) 

EnplocamuB ignitus (female). 

outside ones black with green reflections. Legs and feet 
Vermillion, spurred. 

Female, length about 20 inches. Plumage almost en- 
tirely rich cinnamon brown ; feathers of the upper parts 
slightly mottled with black ; throat white ; lower parts of a 
paler tint than those above, and having the feathers bor- 
dered with white. Elongated head-feathers capable of be- 
ing erected into a crest, but not equal to that of the male. 
Tail folded. Legs spurless. 

Locality, Sumatra. 

This is the Fire-backed Pheasant of Java ('Atlas' to 
JStaunton's Account of Lord Macartney's Embassy to 
China), The Macartney Cock of English authors, Phasia- 
nus ignitus of Latham. 

Gall us. (Brisson.) 

Generic Character.— Bill moderate, strong, convex above, 
curved towards the point, naked at the base, and furnished 
with two pendant and compressed caruncles or wattles. 
tlead surmounted with a fleshy crest or comb. Tarsi (in 
the male) furnished with a long and recurved spur : the 
mind toe only resting on the ground at its. tip. Wings 
short and graduated, tile fourteen tail-feathers forming 
two Vertical planes with \he backs of the feathers towards 
each other, and so making what may be called a folded tail ; 
the middle feathers longest and recurved. 

The ancestors from which our domestic poultry have de- 
scended were undoubtedly natives of Asia ; but some doubt 
still hangs over the questions of the precise breed from 
which they came, and the exact locality where they were 
found. That fowls were domesticated at a very early period 
there is tio doubt, and both "historians and poets speak of 
the high antiquity of the race. Thus Peisthetsorus relates 
<vhy the cock is called fr*p(rucoc 5p»'ic (the Persian Bird), and 
how it reigned over that country before Darius and Mega- 
bazus. (Aristoph., Birds, 483 et seq.) 

To the forests and jungles of India we must look for the 
race in a state of nature ; and though the denizens of our 
farm-yards may be the result of a mixture of many of the 
species which there inhabit, zoologists in general agiee 
with M. Temminck in thinking that to the Malay Gigantic 
Cock or Fowl (Gallus giganteus, Temm.) and the Bankiva 
Cock (Gallus Bankiva, Temm.) we are chiefly if not en- 
tirely indebted for our common poultry. 

The domestic cock and hen are the aXwrrpvwv (Alectryon) 
and aXiKTopig (Alectoris)of the Greeks ; Gallus and Gallma 
of the antient Italians; Gallo and Gallina of the modern 
Italians; Haus Hahn and Haus Henne of the Germans; 
and Coq (Gau, Geau, Gal, Gog), Gelline, and Poule of the 

Bold, ardent, and vigilant, the cock has been always con* 
sidered the emblem of watchful courage, whilst the hen has 

Digitized by 





been considered a patern of maternal solicitude. In this 
and other polygamous species, the object to be attained is 
the effective impregnation of the greatest numbers of fe- 
males by the most vigorous male. In the cock accordingly 
the spurs are developed as the sexual organs are matured; 
and it is principally with these weapons of combat that the 
battle which is to leave the field in the possession of the 
strongest is decided. The conqueror in his turn, as, the 
weakness of age comes upon bun, yields to a younger and 
more powerful rival ; and thus a numerous, healthy, and 
stout progeny is secured. 

How the 4omestic cock and hen were introduced into 
Greece and the south of Europe is not known : upon such 
occasions of doubt the Phoenicians are usually resorted to ; 
but we are ignorant of proof which can bring home the be- 
refaction to them more than others. We find it early on the 
Greek and Roman coinage, and vCpon gems ; and it figured 
in the public shows of those nations. It was dedicated to 
Apollo, to Mercury, to iEsculapius, and to Mars. Socrates, 
in his dying moments, reminded his disciples that he 'owed 
a cock to iBsculapius.' The Rhodian fowls (Martial, iii. 
58, above quoted) and those from the Isle of Delos were 
celebrated for their superiority in fight and their delicacy 
for the table. The luxurious Roman had his hens fed, per- 
haps crammed, with meal in the dark. Thus Martial (xiii. 
62, 'Gallon Altilis'):— 

' Pascitur et dulci facili* gallina farina, 
Pascitur et teaebris : ingeaiosa guJa e»t.' 

Nor was the same gastronomer ignorant of the value of the 
capon. (Martial, xiii. 63.) 

The bird appears to have been in Britain before the inva- 
sion of Julius Caesar, who tells us that the Britons abstained 
from tasting the hare, the hen, and the goose ; though they 
bred them for their pleasure. This abstinence seems to 
have originated in superstitious feeling : ' Leporem et gal- 
linam et anserem gustare fasnon putant: haec tamen alunt, 
animi voluptatisque causa.' {De Bello Gallico, lib. v.) The 
race is now spread all over the civilised world. 

M. Lesson asks if it is not remarkable to find the domes- 
tic hen, differing in nothing from that of our countries, in 
all the islands of the South Sea, and among people with 
whom Europeans have certainly never communicated? 
Cocks and hens, he tells us, were very common at Oualan 
for example, anil the natives were ignorant that these birds 
were good to eat. They were found among the Papuans, 
and among others there was a white variety with ail the 
feathers frizzled. 

We now proceed to Jay before our readers a sketch of the 
wild breeds; and first of tne Gigantic Cock. 

This, the Kulm Cock of Europeans, often stands con- 
siderably more than two feet from the crown of Ae head to 
the ground. The comb extends backwards in a line with 
the eyes , X is thick, a little elevated, rounded upon the 
top, and has almost the appearance of having been cut off. 
The wattles of the under mandibles are comparatively small, 
and the throat is bare. Pale golden- reddish hackles orna- 
ment the head, neck, and upper part of the back, and some 
of these spring before the bare part of the throat Middle 
of the back and lesser wing-coverts deep chestnut, the webs 
of the feathers disunited ; pale reddish-yellow long droop- 
ing hackles cover the rump and base of the tail, which last 
is very ample and ^entirely of a glossy green, of which co- 
lour are the wing-coverts; the secondaries and quills are 
pale reddish-yellow on their outer webs. All the under 
parts deep glossy blackish green with high reflections ; the 
deep chestnut of the base of the feathers appears occasionally, 
and gives a mottled and interrupted appearance to those 
parts. (Jardine principally.) 

Lieut.-Col. Sykes, in his memoir on ;the birds found 'm 
tjie Dukhuh (Deccan), states that it is only there met with 
as a domestic bird, and that he has reason to believe that it 
is not a native of India, but has been introduced by the 
Mussulmans from Sumatra or Java. The iris, he says, of 
the real game bird should be whitish or straw-yellow. The 
colonel landed two cocks and a hen in England in June, 
183.1 ; and they bore the winter well. The hen laid freely, 
and in September, 1832, had reared two broods of ♦chickens. 
The cock had not the shrill clear pipe of the domestic bird, 
and his scale of notes appeared to be more limited. A cock 
in the colonel's possession stood 26 inches to the crown of 
the bead, but they attain a greater height. The length 
from the tip , of the bill to the insertion of the tail, 23 inches. 
Ben one-third smaller than the male. {ZooL Proc, 1832.) 

Bankiva Cock. 

Description. — Space round the eyes and throat bare, 
comb much developed, deeply lobated along the upper 
ridge, wattles of the lower mandible rather large; long, 
clear, brilliant, golden orange hackles cover the head, sides 
of the neck, back, and rump. Upper part of the back 
below the hackles bluish-black, the middle and lesser 
wing-coverts rich deep chestnut, with the webs of the fea- 
thers disunited ; greater coverts steel-blue, secondaries the 
same, with a broad chestnut border: quill* brownish-black, 
edged with pale reddish-yellow. Tail black, richly glossed 
with green and blue. Under parts black. 

This is the Coq et Pouh Bankiva of Tern mi nek ; Gallus 
Bankiva and Ayam utan or Brooga {Linn. Trans., xiii.) ; 
Javan Cock of Latham; and many Bantams resemble it 
very closely. 

Sir W. Jardine states that he has seen three or four spe- 
cimens of another bird very closely allied to G alias Bankiva, 
but rather larger, and certainly distinct : they were all from 
the cdhtinent of India. 

Gallus Bankiva. 

We have also to notice the Bronzed Cock (Gallus coneus), 
figured by M. Temminck from a specimen sent from the 
interior of Sumatra by M. I)iard. This is somewhat larger 
than the Bankiva Cock, and its large comb is without deji- 
tilations ; indeed the .edge is quite unbroken ; the feathers of 
the h^ad y neck, and upper part of the back are rather elon- 
gated, but not hackles. The Fork tailed Cock {Gallus 
furcatus,T erani. ; Galhis Javanicus, Horf) has the comb 
also entire, and the throat is adorned with a single large 
wattle springing from the centre. The head, neck, and 
upper part of the back are covered with feathers, which are 
not hackles, shorter and more rounded than those in the 
Bronzed Cock. 

But the species which bears the name of Sonnerat is, in 
tfte judgment of that traveller, the probable stock from 
which our poultry are derived. The general opinion of 
naturalists is however adverse to that of Sonnerat; and in- 
deed the great difference in the structure of a part of the 
plumage militates against it; not that it is to be concluded 
that the bird would not breed with our domestic lien, and 
produce fertile progeny; on the contrary, there is good 
reason for believing that such offspring would be capable of 
continuin the species. 

Gallus Sonneratii. 
Description. {Male.)— -Size nearly equal to that of a do- 
mestic cock; but the bird is* altogether lighter, more grace- 
ful, and has a higher bred look about it; comb lar»e, and 
with an unequaj margin, but though this margin is jagged, 
it is not deeply dentilaled; wattles double, depending from 
the base of the lower mandibles ; hackles of the neck and 

Digitized by 


P H E 


P H E 

of the wing and tail-coverts dark greyish, with bright 
golden orange shafts dilating in the centre and towards the 
tip into a flat horny plate. In some of these feathers the 
shaft takes an elliptical or oar-like shape ; in others it puts 
on the appearance of a long inverted cone, from the centre 
of the base of which a battledore-like process arises. The 
substance and appearance of these plates have been not in- 
aptly compared with the wax-like plates which ornament 
the wings and tail of the Bohemian Chatterer. [Bom- 
bycilla.] The effect produced by this modification of the 
shafts is singular and beautiful. Feathers of the middle of 
the back, breast, belly, and thighs deep rich grey, with paler 
shafts and edges ; tail generally rich deep green ; the fea- 
thers which immediately succeed the hackles are rich 
purple, with a pale yellow edge ; those next in succession 
are golden-green, with grey edges, and all are glossed with 
brilliant metallic reflections. Bill, legs, and feet yellow. 
The living bird presents altogether a rich and striking ob- 
ject, especially wnen the sun shines on the plumage. 

Female less than the cock by about a third, without comb 
or wattles, but a trace of nakedness round the eye. The 
plumage (generally) is without the horny structure which 
distinguishes that of the male. Upper parts uniform 
brown; neck feathers with dark edges, those of the back 
and wing- coverts with a pale streak along the shaft, and 
those of the wings, tail-coverts, and tail waved and mottled 
with darker pencillings; throat and front of the neck 
white ; feathers of the rest of the lower parts greyish-white, 
edged with dark brown, which predominates towards the 
vent. Legs and feet bluish-grey 

This is the Coq sauvage of Sonnerat ; Coq et Poule Son- 
nerat of Temminck ; SonneraVs Wild Cock of Latham ; 
Rahn Komrah of the Mahrattas ; Jungle Cock of the Eng- 
lish sportsmen in India. 

Col. Sykes, in his valuable catalogue, notes this npble 
bird as being very abundant in the woods of the Western 
Ghauts, where (and this is well worthy* the attention of 
ornithologists) he says there are either two species or two 
very strongly marked varieties. In the valleys, at»2000 feet 
above the sea, he tells us SonncraVs species is found slen- 
der, standing high upon the legs, and with the yellow carti- 
laginous spots on the feathers, even in the female. In the 
oelts of wood on the sides of the mountains, at 4000 feet 
above the sea, there is a short-legged variety. The male 
aas a great deal of red in the plumage, which Sonnerat' s 
•has not ; the female is of a reddish-brown colour, and is 
without cartilaginous spots at all : ' in fact,' continues the 
Colonel, ' the female of this variety is the Gallus Stanleyi 
of Mr. Gray's Illustrations? Eggs exactly like those of 
the domestic fowl in form and colour, but less in size. Col. 
Sykes shot a hen upon her nest, wherein there were three 
eggs only, in which the process of incubation had evidently 
been going on for some days, whence it is concluded that 
the wild hen sits upon a less number of eggs—qucere tamen. 
In the craw and stomach of many birds Col. Sykes found 
nothing whatever, excepting the seeds of a stone-like hard- 
ness called Job's tears {Coix barbata). The irides are 
stated by Colonel Sykes to be brownish deep orange, and 
he says that the crow or call of this species is like that of 
the Bantam Cock. (Zool. Proc, 1832.) 

Dr. Latham remarks that this jungle-fowl is by far the 
boldest and strongest for its size, and that it is anxiously 
sought after by cock-fighters in Hindustan, who rely on it 
for victory when pitted against larger game-cocks. 

Individuals of this species have been exhibited alive in 
the garden of the Zoological Society in the Regent's Park/ 

But whatever may have been the source or sources from 
which our domestic poultry sprang, and the probability is 
that more than one wild race have contributed to improve 
it, the varieties in a reclaimed state are almost infinite. The 
Spanish breed, entirely black, grows to a considerable size, 
and the eggs are remarkable for their volume. The Dorking 
poultry have long been celebrated, and they are known, 
principally, by having supernumerary toes. The true 
Dorkings are purely white, and are much esteemed for the 
table. Dr. Latham mentions one of this breed that Weighed 
nearly fourteen pounds. Some of the Sussex fowls are very 

The fancy breeds are very numerous : among them the 
Dutch and Polish top-knotted and pencilled breed, of two 
sorts, known as Gold Spangles and Silvef Spangles, are 
much prized by some amateur^ if clean- feathered, and malyj 
a very handsome appearance in the poultry-yard. Sir John 

Gallus Sonneratii (cook). 

Gaflns Sonneratii (hen). 

Sebright brought a dwarf Bantam breed, with unfeatbered 
legs, no top-knots, and gold-spangled and silver-spangled 
plumage to great perfection, as he did the breeds of most 
animals in which he took an interest These clean-legged 
bantams were further remarkable, when true-bred, for having 
the tail in the cocks folded like that of a hen, and without 
tlje usual recurved drooping feathers ; whence they were 
called hen-cocks. But though without these feathers, which 
are the usual indications of the common cock, no birds could 
possess higher courage or a more gallant carriage : we have 
seen one of these cocks bear himself so haughtily that the 
back of his head nearly touched the two almost upright 
feathers of his tail ; and both cocks and hens without one 
foul feather about them. The ordinary bantams have fea- 
thered legs and the recurved sickle-like tail-feathers. Colonel 
Sykes remarks that the supposed species Gallus Morio very 
frequently occurs accidentally in the Dukhun (Deccan), and 
that, though unsightly, this fowl is very sweet eating. The 
periosteum of its bones is black, and the comb, wattles, and 
skin dull purple. Gallus crispus, according to Colonel 
Sykes, occurs accidentally in the Deccan, like the last-men- 
tioned variety. This, generally known as the Friesland or 

Digitized by 


{ M^ 



P H E 

Crested Cock, has all the feathers frizzled, or curled, as it 
were, the wrong way. It occurs also in a domesticated state 
in Java and Sumatra. The general colour of the plumage 
is white. Tnen there is the Silk-fowl (Gallus lanatus), 
which M. Temminck is inclined to consider distinct, and 
which comes from Japan and China. This hird is rather 
small in size, and the webs of the white feathers, which are 
silky to the sight and touch, are disunited. The comb and 
wattles are of a lake-purple colour. The periosteum and 
skin of this kind are also dark; but the flesh is very white. 
These silk-fowls make very good nurses, and are easily 
crossed withthe common poultry. The Rumpless or Persian 
Cock, or * Rumkin,' as it was formerly termed, is tailless. 
Colonel Sykes states that the domestic fowl (Gallus do- 
mesticus, Trlay, Phasianus Gallus cristatus, Linn.) is so 
abundant in Deccan, that in parts of the country not much 
frequented by Europeans he has bought from eight to 
twelve full grown fowls for two shillings. Many of the 
hens, particularly of the villages in the Ghauts, are not, he 
says, to be distinguished from the wild bird, excepting only 
in the want of the cartilaginous spot on the wing-coverts. 

For an account of the Hybrids, see above (p. 60). 

The common hen is subject to the assumption of the plu- 
mage of the cock, under certain circumstances, us we have 
already noticed above (p. 60).* Whilst on this point we 
would observe that the pea-hen noticed by John Hunter 
[Pavonid^b, vol. xvii.] is preserved stuffed in the Museum 
of the College of Surgeons, as well as the internal parts. 

The proper mode of rearing poultry and hatching chickens, 
both naturally and by artificial heat (hotbeds, steam, &c), 
together with the mode of constructing an artificial mo- 
ther for the young which are so produced, and the me- 
thod of ordering a poultry-yard generally, will be more 
properly treated of under the article Poultry, as well as 
the diseases to which the birds are subject. Of the gapes 
we have already spoken (ante, p. 59). 

Tragopan. (Cuv.) 

This is the genus Ceriornis of Swainson. 

Generic Character. — Head crested on the crown, partly 
naked (on the cheeks and round the eyes), the naked 
parts terminating in horn-like caruncles behind the eyes; 
under the lower mandible and on the forepart of the throat 
a subpendent composite caruncuiated wattle. Tarsi 
armed with a blunt spur in the male ; unarmed in the 

Mr. Gould (Century of Birds from the Himalaya Moun- 
tains) remarks that the genus Tragopan appears to take an 
intermediate station between that of Meleagris and the 
more typical Phasianidce, forming one of the links of a chain 
connecting these groups of the Rasorial order. The affinity 
of this genus, he observes, to that of Meleagris, is evident 
in many characters ; nor are some wanting which indicate a 
relationship to Numida, and even to Francolinus. 

Tragopan Satyrus appears to have been the only species 
originally known. Mr. Gould, in his ' Century,' describes 
another species, Tragopan Hastingsii, and refers to an- 
other, which Mr. Gray, of the British Museum, has dedi- 
cated to M. Temminck. (Indian Zoology.) 

Example, Tragopan Hastingsii. 

Description. — Head of the adult male covered with a 
pendent crest of feathers, which, as well as the ear-coverts 
and throat, are black ; the neck and shoulders are rich ma- 
roon ; the chest rich glossy orange red ; the naked skin 
around the eyes is red ; the fleshy horns and wattles mingled 
blue and purple ; the upper parts exhibit a mixture of zig- 
zag lines and marks of dark and light brown, with nume- 
rous and distinct spots of white ; each of the upper tail- 
coverts ends in a large white eye, bordered on the sides 
with brown, and tipped with black ; the tail deepens till it 
ends in uniform black ; the feathers of the under surface 
are maroon, largely tipped with black, in the centre of 
which is a large white spot; the beak is black, the tarsi 

In the young male the plumage is much less brilliant, 
the wattles being of a pale flesh-colour, and little developed, 
as is also the naked skin of the face. 

The plumage of the female consists of a uniform brown, 
mottled and barred with mingled lines and dots of various 
tints, the feathers of the back and chest having a central 
dash of a lighter colour ; the head is crested, with short 

• Set aiM> Dr. Butter*! paper, • Memoirs of the Wernerian Society,' vol. iii. 

P.O., No. 1111. 


rounded feathers ; the sides of the cheeks are 
there are neither fleshy horns nor wattles. (Gould.) 

Mr. Gould observes, that although this species and T. 
Satyrus are closely allied to each other, and doubtless 
possess similar habits and manners, he is led to believe 
that their local distribution is somewhat different ; at least, 
he generally receives but one species in a collection from 
the same quarter; Tragopan Satyrus being transmitted 
from the Nepaulese Hills, while T. Hastingsii is sent from 
the more northern range of the,. Himalaya. He further 
well observes that the changes of plumage which birds of 
this genus, especially T. Hastingsii, undergo in passing 
from youth to maturity (and this is well illustrated in Mr. 
Gould's beautiful plates), arc such as to have caused an ap- 
parently erroneous multiplication of species. 

Tragopan Satyrus ; according to the same author, is an 
exclusive inhabitant of the colder regions of the mountains, 
in conjunction with the Lophophorus, its proximate relative, 
feeding on grains and roots, the larvro of ants, and other 
insects. [Pavonid^e.] 

Tragopan Hastingsii (male). 

Tragopan Hastingsii (female). 

In conclusion we have to call the reader's attention to 
the beautiful Phasianus Staceii (figured and described by 
Mr. Gould in his • Century') as one of the true pheasants ; 
and to Phasianus Pucrasia and Phasianus albo-cristatus, 
also there figured. Phas. Pucrasia appears to us to 
lead the way from the true pheasants to the Lophophori ; 
and Ph. albo-cristatus to be an Euplocamus, wnich, even 

Vol. XVIII.-K 

Digitized by 




P H I 

more immediately than Euplocamus ignitus, forms a 
transition from the genus Phasianus to the genus Gallus. 

We cannot forbear to add that the Argus Pheasant 
[Pavonidje, vol. xvii., p. 338, et seq.] has been brought 
alive to this country by that indefatigable collector Hugh 
Cuming, Esq. It was obtained from Malacca, and is now 
(June 1 1, 1840) in good health at the garden of the Zoolo- 
gical Society of London in the Regent's Park. We are not 
aware of any other instance of a living specimen of this 
noble bird having been brought home. 

PHEIDON, the supreme ruler of Argos, lived in the 
eighth century before the Christian sera. The Parian mar- 
ble (No. 31), and several antient writers make him contem- 
porary with Iphitus and Lycurgus ; but the statement of 
Pausanias (vi. 22, } 2), that he celebrated the eighth Olym- 
pic games, places him in B.C. 748, which date is also sup- 
ported by trie testimony of Ephorus (apud Strab., viii., p. 
358), that he was in the tenth generation from Temenus. 
Pheidon is usually called tyrant of Argos, but he was in 
fact the hereditary king. He appears to have obtained the 
name of tyrant on account of having made himself abso- 
lute. (Aristot, Rep., v. 8, } 4.) Pheidon was an active 
and enterprising prince ; and while Sparta was weakened 
by her wars with the Messenians, he greatly extended the 
dominions of Argos, and appears to have acquired posses- 
sion of the whole eastern coast of Laconica as far as Cape 
Malea, and of the island of Cythera, which, as we learn from 
Herodotus (i. 82), once belonged to Argos. He attacked 
the towns which were said to have been taken by Hercules, 
and claimed the right of presiding over all the festivals 
which Hereules bad instituted. On this ground he de- 
prived the Eleans of their presidency of the Olympic games, 
which he presided over in conjunction with the Pissaans. 
(Strabo, viii. 858 j Paus., vi. 22, $ 2.) But his usurpation 
united the Bleans and Lacedaemonians against him, and 
thus led to his overthrow. 

Pheidon is said to have invented weights and measures, 
which bore his name (8trabo, viii. 376 ; Plin., Hist. NaU 
vii. 56 ; Pollux, x. 179). and is also stated by most antient 
writers to have been the first person to coin silver money, 
though, according to Herodotus (i. 94), the Lydians were the 
first people who put a stamp upon gold and silver. 

(Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, vol. i., appendix 1 ; Miiller, 
jEginetica, p. 51-63; Dorians, vol. i., p. 177-180, trans- 

PHE'NE, Savigny's generic name for the Lamm er gey cr 
(Gypactus barbatus of Storr). Savigny's name is a restora- 
tion from Aristotle and the Greek writers on natural his- 
tory ; but the form is known to zoologists under the title 
attached to it by Ray, vis. Gypa'e'tus. [Vulturid;E.] 

PHERE'CRATES (*cpfcp4nfc). a writer of the old 
comedy, was contemporary with Plato, Aristophanes, Phry- 
nichus, and Eupolis. (Suidas, Plato.) His play, called 
the ' Countrymen ' ("Ay/hoi), was represented B c. 420. 
(Athen., v., p. 218, d ; Plato, Protag., c. 47, p. 327 d.) He 
wrote seventeen comedies (Suidas, Pherecrates), of which 
a few fragments remain, which have been published, toge- 
ther with those of Eupolis, by Runkel, Leip., 1829. Phere- 
crates is only mentioned once by Aristophanes (Lysist., 158). 
He invented a particular kind of metre, which has been 
called from him the Pherecratic. 

PHEREOV'DES (topiMn). There were two Greek 
writers of this name, the philosopher and the historian, who 
are frequently confounded, as in Lucian, Macrob., c. 22 ; 
Clem., Strom., v., p. 567, c ; Euseb., Ckron. ad Otymp., 
59, 4. 

Phbubcyms, the philosopher, was a native of Syros. 
His father's name was Babis, and he was born, according to 
Suidas (Pherecydes), in the 45th Olympiad, that is, about 
b.o. 600. Diogenes Laertius informs Us (L 121) that he 
flourished in the 59th Olympiad, that is, about B.C. 544 ; 
which date agrees with the account of Cicero, who says 
(TWc, i. 16) that he was contemporary with ServiusTullius. 
He is said by some writers to have obtained his knowledge 
from the sacred books of the Phoenicians or from Egypt, 
and by others to have been a disciple of Pittacus. (Diog. 
Laert, i. 1 1 6.) He taught Pythagoras (Suidas ; Cic, Tusc, 
L 16 ; De Div., i. 50), and appears to have had a consider- 
able acquaintance with natural science. (Diog. Laert., i. 
116.) He is said by Cicero (Tusc, i. 16) to have taught 
the immortality of the soul. According to Suidas, one of 
his works was entitled 'Evrauvxoc, or the ' Seven Secrets,' 
and another QcoXoyia, which gave an account of the genera- 

tion and succession of the gods. Theopompus says (apud 
Diog. Laert., i. 116) that Pherecydes was the first among 
the Greeks who wrote on the nature of the gods. 

There are no particulars of the life of Pherecydes worth 
recording. His death is variously related: some wi iters 
say that he died in the territory of Magnesia in Asia Minor; 
some, that he threw himself down from the Corycian rock 
above Delphi; and others, that he died in Delo*. 

Pherecydes, the historian, was contemporary with 
Herodotus, and flourished betweeen B.C. 480 and 45G. 
Suidas mentions two historians of this name, and says that 
one was born at Athens and the other at Leros ; but Vos- 
sius (De Hist. Gr., iv. 4) has shown that they are the same 
person. It appears probable that Pherecydes was boru at 
Leros, and afterwards settled at Athens, whence the mis- 
take of Suidas arose. The work of Pherecydes, which is 
often quoted by the Scholiasts and by Apollodorus, was a 
mythological history in ten or twelve books ; but it also in- 
cluded events subsequent to the mythological period, as the 
Scythian invasion of Darius (Clem., Strom., v., p. 567, c), 
and the Ionic migration led by the sons of Cadmus (Strabo, 
xiv., p. 632). Compare Clinton's Fast. Hell., vol. ii., p. 

The fragments of Pherecydes have been published by 
Sturz under the title of * Pherecydis Fragmenta, e variis 
scriptoribus collegit, emendavit, commentationera dePhere- 
cyde utroque, et historic© et philosopho prannisit, &c* 
Gerae, 1787 ; 2nd edition, Lip., 1824. 

PHERU'SA, Dr. Leach's name for a genus of the Am- 
phipodous order of Edriophthalmian Crustaceans, [Edrioph- 

The genus Amphithoe, which generally precedes Pherusa 
in the systems, has the four anterior feet nearly identical in 
both sexes, and their penultimate joint, or hand, is ovoid • 
in Pherusa the hand is filiform. 

Example, Pherusa fucicola. 

Description. — Yellowish ash-colour, or grey-ash varied 
with red. 

Locality. — Coasts of England, where it is rare, and found 
among the sea-weed. 

PHERUSA, a Lamarckian genus of Zoopbyta. [Poly- 
pi aria MEMBRANACBA.] 

PHIAL, LEY DEN. [Electricity.] 

PHIBALU'RA, M. Vieillot's name for a genus of Am- 
pelidce (Fruit- eater 8 or Chatterers), placed both by Mr 
Swainson and Mr. G. R. Gray in the subfamily of Bomby- 
cillince, the Swallow- Chatterers of the former zoologist 
The genera included by both in the subfamily are the same ; 
Mr. Swainson's genera being Phibalura, Bombycilla [Bom- 
bycilla}, and Procnias, and those of Mr. Gray Pkibatura, 
Bombycilla, and Tersa, Yieill., the latter being the Proc- 
nias of I Niger and others. 

Generic Character.— -Bill remarkably short, but rather 
strong ; culmen arched ; Nostrils concealed ; Gape enor- 
mous ; the sides smooth. Feet pale ; anterior scales trans- 
verse; lateral scales minute, reticulate. Tail lengthened, 
deeply forked. (Sw.) 

Example, Pkibalura eristata. 

Description.— Total length 9 inches, of which the tail 
occupies 4} inches. Bill whitish and remarkably short, 
measuring only 3 hues from the nostrils to the tip, but 
three-quarters of an inch from the angle of the mouth, 
which opens just under the eye. Plumage singularly varie- 
gated. Crown of the head furnished with a crest, which, 
when not elevated, is scarcely seen, and appears a deep 
glossy black mixed with grey and rufous ; but, when erected, 
is verv conspicuous, all the feathers being bright rufous, 
tipped more or less with black ; upper sides of the head grey, 
the lower part and ears deep black ; the neck above greyish 
white, with blackish transverse lines : the back, scapulars, 
rump, and tail-covers varied transversely with olive, shin- 
ing black, and bright yellow, each feather olive at the base, 
black in the middle, and yellow at the tip. Beneath, the 
feathers of the chin and part of the throat are somewhat 
lengthened, semi-setaceous, and of a bright yellow ; the neck 
and breast white, with two transverse lines of deep black on 
each feather; these lines diminish, and are broken into 
spots on the body, and nearly disappear on the vent: the 
edges of the feathers are tipped with yellow, and this colour 
increases downwards on the vent and tail-covers, which lat- 
ter are entirely yellow. The wings, 4 inches long, are 
uniform deep black, with a blue gloss, much pointed, and 
calculated for rapid flight. Tail the same colour, the exte- 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

rior basal margins olive ; all the feathers narrow, pointed, 
and gradually lengthening ; the feet pale yellow, and three- 
quarters of an inch from the knee to the claws, the three 
foremost of which are equally connected together (though 
slightly) nearly as far as the first joint; outer and inner 
toes equal,' and rather shorter than the hind-toe; claws 
slender and much compressed. (Sw.) 

Observations.-* Nostrils not covered by a membrane, open 
obliquely and ovately round, with a narrow rim round the 
margin : first and third quills of equal length, and shorter 
than the second, which is longest. (Sw.) 

Locality. — South America. A beautiful figure accompa- 
nies Mr. Swainson's description in the Zoological Illustra- 
tions, first series. 

PHl'DIAS, one of the most celebrated artists of antiquity, 
was a native of Athens. His father's name was Charm idas. 
The exact time of his birth is not known, but, as far as can 
be judged from the ascertained dates of some of his works, 
it seems to be generally admitted that it must have occurred 
between the seventieth and seventy-third Olympiads, that 
is, from 490 to 480 B.C. It is said that in early life Phidias 
practised painting, but there is no authority for his having 
followed it as a profession, and if he ever practised it, as it 
is probable he did, from some of his fkmily being painters, 
he doubtless soon relinquished it for the sister art of sculp- 
ture, in which he afterwards became so eminent. Phidias, 
according to antient writers, had two masters, Hippies, and 
. Eladas, Geladas, or Ageladas. Hippias is mentioned only 
by one author (Dion. Chrysostom., Oral., lv.), and the mo- 
dern writers on the life of Phidias seem disposed to reject 
that testimony. (Emeric David, Miiller, Sillig, and others.) 
Ageladas was one of the most distinguished artists of the 
age. He was a native of Argos. 

The times in which Phidias lived were peculiarly favour- 
able to the development of his genius and talents, and his 
ability must have been shown at a very early age, as it ap- 
pears he was extensively employed upon great public works, 
even during; the administration of Cimon. Afterwards, 
when Pericles attained the supreme power in Athens, Phi- 
dias seems to have been consulted on all occasions in which 
the embellishment of the city, either by magnificent build- 
ings or by sculptured decorations, was contemplated. ' It 
-was Phidias,' says Plutarch (Pericles), * who had the direc- 
tion of these works, although great architects and skilful 
artificers were employed in erecting them/ Among the 
more remarkable objects upon which his talents were at 
this time exercised, the temple of Minerva, called the Par- 
thenon, justly claims pre-eminence. No pains and no ex- 
pense were spared to make this one of the most splendid and 
perfect monuments of art ; and, fortunately, enough exists 
in the present day, both of its architecture and sculptural 
decorations, to confirm the high encomiums passed upon it 
by those who saw it in its perfection. The temple itself 
was constructed of marble. The architects employed upon 
it, under the direction and superintendence of Phidias, 
were Call ic rates and Ictinus ; but the statue of the goddess 
within the temple was the work of Phidias himself, and, 
with the exception of the statue of the Olympian Jupiter, 
which he made at Elis, was the most celebrated of his per- 
formances. Minerva was represented standing. In one 
hand she held a spear ; in the other a statue of Victory. 
Her helmet, highly decorated, was surmounted by a sphinx. 
The naked parts of the figure were made of ivory. The 
eyes were of precious stones, and the drapery throughout 
was of gold — of which metal, it is said, no less than forty 
talents' weight was used. We are told that by the advice 
of Pericles, Phidias so arranged the drapery that it could 
at any time be removed without injury. This seems to have 
been suggested by the feeling that the Athenians might 
possibly desire to ascertain whether the gold was fairly ap- 
propriated ; and subsequent events proved the wisdom of the 
counsel. The people, desiring to have all the glory of this 
work, had a decree passed prohibiting Phidias from inscrib- 
ing his name on the statue, but he contrived to introduce 
his own portrait (as an old bald-headed man, hurling a stone) 
in the representation of the combat of the Athenians and 
Amazons which decorated the shield. A likeness of Pericles 
was also introduced in the same composition. The exterior 
of this temple was likewise enriched with sculpture ; the 
two pediments, the metopes, and the frieze being filled with 
statues and rilievi, many of them from the hand and all of 
them executed under the direction of Phidias. Part of 
these (known ;iow as the Elgin Marbles, from their haying 

been brought to this country by the earl of Elgin) form a 
portion of our collection of sculpture in the British Museum. 
[Basso Rilievo ; Elgin Marbles.] Of their merits it is 
enough to say that the most eminent judges of modern 
times have added their testimony to that of the antients by 
bestowing on them the highest commendation. (Quatre- 
mire de Quincy, Lettres de Londres d Canova; MSmoire 
sur les Ouvrages de Sculpture qui appartenaient au Par- 
thenon, &c, par M» Visconti ; Report of Select Committee 
oftfie House of Commons, 1815, in which the opinions of 
West, Lawrence, Flaxman, and Westmacott will be found 
well worthy the attention of the student and amateur ^ 
Miiller, De Parthenonis Fasti gio ; and others.) The emi- 
nent sculptor Canova, after visiting London, declared, ' that 
he should have been well repaid for his journey to England 
had he seen nothing but the Elgin Marbles.' 

The enemies of Pericles, with the view of implicating him 
also in the charge, accused Phidias of having misapplied 
part of the gold entrusted to him for the statue of Minerva, 
and desired that he should be brought to trial. The prudent 
foresight of Pericles saved both Phidias and himself. He 
immediately ordered the gold to be taken off and weighed 
before the people. This however was not done, and the 
accusation of embezzlement fell to the ground. They then 
declared the sculptor was guilty of sacrilege in having 
placed his own portrait on the shield of Minerva. Some 
accounts say he was thrown into prison, and there died by 
poison ; others, that he was banished. Some affirm there 
was no sentence passed, but that, fearing the consequences 
of this charge, the sculptor fled from Athens and took re- 
fuge in Elis, and that he was employed there to execute a 
costly statue of the Olympian Jupiter, to be erected in his 
temple in Altis. This statue was the most renowned of the 
works of Phidias. It was of colossal dimensions, and was 
what the antients called chryselephantine ; that is, com- 

Eosed of gold and ivory. The god was represented seated on 
is throne. His brows were crowned witli a wreath of olive, 
and he held in his hand a statue of Victory. The acces- 
sories and enrichments of the throne, footstool, and pedestal, 
which were of the highest quality of art, are described by 
Pausanias (v., 11, 14, 15), Strabo (via., p. 353. Casaub.), and 
other antient writers ; and in the highly valuable work, by 
M. Quatreme're de Quincy, 'Sur le Jupiter Olympien.' 

A tradition connected with this statue is interesting from 
its exhibiting the importance which the Greeks attached to 
works of art of high character and merit Phidias, after the 
completion of his design, is said to have prayed Jupiter to 
favour him with some intimation of the divine approbation. 
A flash of lightning immediately darted into the temple 
and struck the pavement before him. This was hailed as a 
proof of the favour of the god, and in commemoration of the 
event a brazen urn or vase was placed on the spot. Pausa- 
nias (v. II) says that this existed in his time. It is pre- 
tended that Phidias was again accused of robbery by the 
people of Elis, and that he died in prison. There are how- 
ever strong reasons for thinking that these accusations 
against Phidias not only are false, but that the accounts of 
his death and disgrace are not founded on fact The scholar 
will find much that is interesting on this subject in some of 
the works before referred to. To these we would add O. C. 
Miiller, De Vitd Phidice ; an Essay by Emeric David, en- 
titled Examen des Inculcations dirigkes contre Phidias, 
1817; also an article, by t ne same, in the Biographie Uht- 
verselle (' Phidias') ; in Junius, Catalogus Artiflcum, and 
in the work of Sillig with the same title. There can be 
little doubt, from an expression in Aristophanes (' Peace/ 
605, etc.), that an unjust feeling had been excited against 
Phidias, though it is not clear whether he fled or was exiled; 
and it seems highly probable that he died at Elis. Miiller, on 
the other hand, supposes that Phidias executed the Minerva 
of the Parthenon, and was then- invited by the people of 
of Elis to execute for them the statue of Jupiter; that he 
returned to Athens, and was, after a time, accused by the 
enemies of Pericles, who threw him into prison, where he 
died in the 87th Olympiad. The scholiast on Aristo- 
phanes (' Peace,' 604) says he died at Elis ; it is also said 
that he was put to death by the people of Elis, but for 
what reason is not stated, though some say it was to prevent 
his ever producing a work that should eclipse their statue. 
An honour which was paid to his memory would go far to 
disprove the assertion that he suffered the death of a cri- 
minal. The care of his master-piece, the statue of the 
Olympian Jupiter, was entrusted to his family under the 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

title of Phaidruniai. His study or workshop near the 
temple was also preserved with great respect, and in the 
middle of it an altar was raised, consecrated to all the gods. 
Pausanias (v. 14) tells us that the Phaidruntai, descendants 
of Phidias, existed in his time— six hundred years after the 
erection of the statue of Jupiter. 

Phidias has been called the 'sculptor of the gods' (Quin- 
tilian, xii. 10) from the grand and sublime character which 
he threw into his productions. Reference has already been 
made to his two greatest works, the Minerva of the Par- 
thenon, and the Jupiter at Elis. He also executed 
much admired statues, some in marble, but chiefly in 
t>ronze, of Venus, Apollo, Mercury, an Amazon, &c, &c. 
(See Pausanias, passim ; Plin., Hist. Nat, xxxvi. ; Lucian, 
De Imag.) His statues of Minerva were numerous : no less 
than eightor nine are recorded. One of these, the Minerva 
Areia of the Plataeans, was of wood, gilt ; with the excep- 
tion of the extremities, which were made of the marble of 
Pentelicus. Although Phidias exercised his skill as a 
sculptor in all the materials which were in general use for 
the purposes of art, gold, ivory, bronze, marble, and even 
wood, yet his productions in a mixture of the two former 
{chryselephantine sculpture) appear to have been the most 
highly esteemed, both from the extensive scale upon which 
he used such rich materials, and from the great importance 
of the works to which they were applied. This is a branch 
of what the antients called toreutic art, which seems to 
mean the union of metal with any other material. 

Phidias brought to perfection the grand or sublime style 
of sculpture. The artists before him are represented as 
having a hard, stiff, dry manner. Phidias improved upon 
this by making a more careful selection and use of the 
finest models in nature. After Phidias a softer stylo was 
introduced, in which Praxiteles, and after him Lysip- 
pus, were eminent. The age of Phidias is justly considered 
the grand and golden age of sculpture. 

PHIGALIA (*«7aXia), a town of Arcadia, the site of 
which is supposed now to be occupied by the modern town 
of Paulizza. Nothing certain is known respecting its foun- 

Phigalia was attacked by the Spartans, and abandoned 
by its inhabitants, in the second year of the thirtieth Olym- 
piad (659 B.C.), when Miltiades was archon of Athens. The 
rhigalians consulted the oracle ai Delphi, and the Pythia 
declared that they could only recover possession of their 
city with the assistance of a chosen band of one hundred 
Oresthasians, wh) should all perish in the battle. The 
prediction was fulfilled. One hundred Oresthasians wil- 

lingly devoted themselves, and the Phigalians were re- 
established. Their heroic deliverers were buried in the 
forum, and funeral games were celebrated annually in their 
honour. (Pausanias, viii. 39-41.) 

PHIGALIAN MARBLES, a series of sculptures in 
alto-rilievo, preserved in the British Museum, which are so 
called from having been discovered among the ruins of a 
temple at the antient Bassae on Mount Cot) lion, not far 
from the site of Phigalia. The subjects represented in 
them are the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithaj, which 
occupies eleven slabs, and that of the Greeks and Amazons, 
in twelve slabs. The height of each is two feet one inch, 
and the whole length about 100 feet. These rilievi formed 
a frieze round the interior of the cella, and were elevated 
about 22 feet from the ground. 

Pausanias (viii. 41), describing the edifice from which 
these marbles were brought, says, ' After that at Tegea, it 
may be considered the most beautiful of all the temples of 
the Peloponnesus.' The roof of the building was of stone. 
It was dedicated to Apollo Epicurius (or the Deliverer), a 
title conferred upon him because he had delivered the Phi- 
galians from a pestilence. 

These sculptures are of various degrees of merit as re- 
gards execution ; but the composition, expression, and style 
of art prove that they came from a fine school of design. 
The evidence of this in the works themselves is confirmed 
by the history, which has fortunately reached our times, of 
the temple which they decorated. The name of the archi- 
tect was Ictinus, the same who, when Phidias was appointed 
to superintend the various public works carried on at Athens 
during the administration of Pericles, was associated with 
Calibrates to erect the temple of Minerva, or the Parthenon ; 
one of the most splendid monuments of the golden age of 
art. This gives us the proximate date of the execution of 
the sculptures under consideration. The Parthenon was 
finished about 437 b.c. The temple of Apollo at Basses may 
therefore be attributed to about the same period. 

The quality of the design of these rilievi warrants the 
assumption that the eminent sculptor who directed the 
decoration of the former great work of Ictinus may have 
contributed the advantage of his skill by suggesting the fine 
compositions of the sculptures for his present undertaking. 
It is not difficult to discern in them the same sentiment and 
character which pervade the marbles of the Parthenon. 
This correspondence is particularly observable in comparing 
portions of the Phigalian frieze with the metopes of that 
building : see Jigs. 1 and 2 (Phigaliau Marbles), and figs. 
6 and 7 (Metopes of the Parthenon), where the same subject, 

*itf. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

Fig. 3. 

Fig. 4. 

Fig- 5. 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 7. 

the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithse, is represented. The | where gentler expression is to be conveyed (/igs. 3 and 5), 
same may be remarked with respect to other parts of this fine for playful How of lines (as in groups in Jigs. 3 and 4). or 
series, whether it be considered for the energy displayed in far the just balancing of parts as the means of producing 
violent action {figs. 1, 2, and 4), for grace and tenderness I an harmonious whole. Throughout there is the stamp of 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

careful thought, and evidence of an intimate knowledge of 
art, combined with a free and bold style. Among the ex- 
cellencies of treatment, as it is technically called, the value 
and quality of flesh and drapery, in contrast, are finely ex- 
hibited in parts of figs. 3 and 4. The few specimens here 
chosen for illustration are sufficient to show the claim these 
marbles have to our admiration as compositions. The 
difference alluded to in the merit of the execution may pro- 
bably be owing to the working out of the general design 
having been entrusted either to pupils or to various and 
inferior artists, the idea and the compositions alone being 
furnished by the master-mind. 

These interesting specimens of Greek sculpture were dis- 
covered in the year 1812. They were purchased for the 
British Museum in 1814, and arrived in England in the 
following year. The slabs were found, with two or three 
exceptions, lying on the floor or pavement of the temple, 
under the identical places they had originally occupied. 
They were much mutilated, both from the injury they had 
sustained from their own weight in falling, and from the 
heavy masses of the building which had fallen on them. 
They have been put together with great care, the pieces 
being secured by copper bolts; but in no instance has their 
integrity been impaired by restorations. For detailed de- 
scriptions of these marbles, the reader is referred to the 
elaborate work of Baron von Stackelberg, ' Der Apollot em- 
pel zu Bassao in Arcadien,' &c, Rome, 1826; also to Part 
IV. of * Description of the Antient Marbles in the British 
Museum ;' and to the 'Elgin Marbles,' published under 
the superintendence of the Society for the Diffusion of Use- 
ful Knowledge. 

PHILADELPHA'CEjE form a small natural order of 
exogenous polypetalous plants, with an inferior ovary, the 
principal genus being that after which the order is named. 
[Philadelphia.] The species are American, European, 
and Asiatic shrubs of temperate climates, with opposite 
leaves, distinct styles, and capsular fruit, containing a large 
number of minute seeds. Their nearest affinity is, on the 
one hand, with Myrtacero, from which they differ in having 
separate styles, dotless leaves, and albuminous seeds, and 
on the other with Saxifragace®, from which their strictly 
inferior fruit, opposite leaves, and parallel styles suffici- 
ently distinguish them. Many of the species, especially in 
the genus Deutzia, are clothed with beautiful stellate hairs, 
whicli form excellent opaque objects for examination with 
the microscope. 

Deutzia scabra. 

1, a vertical section of a flower deprived of petals; 9, a transverso section of 
the ovary ; 3, one or the stellate hairs. 

PHILADELPHIA, formerly the capital of the state of 
Pennsylvania, in the United States of North America, is 
situated in the county of Philadelphia, in 39° 57' N. lat. and 
75° 10' W. long. With the exception of New York, it is the 
largest city in the United States. The population in 1810 was 
96,664; in 1820, 119,325; in 1830, 167,811; and may 
therefore be now (1840) estimated at upwards of 200,000. 

Philadelphia is about 120 miles from the Atlantic, fol- 

lowing the course of the Delaware, and about 55 miles from 
it in a straight line. It lies immediately above the junction 
of the Schuylkill with the Delaware, and occupies the space, 
about two miles in width, between the two rivers. The 
city is about four miles in length ; the streets which run 
north and south, parallel with the rivers, are called First 
Street, Second Street, and so on, except Broad Street and 
Schuylkill Street. These streets are crossed at right angles 
by others which run from east to west, and which are al- 
most all named aftei trees, as Chestnut Street, Walnut 
Street, &c. The squares thus formed are subdivided by 
other streets still smaller and by alleys. The streets are 
paved with stones; the foot-pavements are of brick, de- 
fended by curb-stones. Most of the principal streets have 
rows of locust and other trees, which afford a delightful 
shade in the summer. The houses are generally of brick, 
but many of them have the outer steps and also the window- 
sills of white marble. The streets, steps, and windows are 
kept extremely clean, and the whole city has an air of pecu- 
liar neatness. Under the main streets there are sewers, 
which empty themselves into the Delaware. The city is 
lighted with gas. There are a few squares. Independence 
Square is about 270 yards each side. Washington Square 
is the largest in the city, and is a fashionable promenade. 

Of the public buildingsof Philadelphia, the old State House 
is one of the most interesting, though one of the plainest. It 
is of brick, still of the pristine colour. The Declaration of 
Independence was read from the steps in front of the build- 
ing, on the 4th of July, 1776. The District Court for the 
city and county of Philadelphia is held in the State House. 

The United States' Mint was established at Philadelphia 
by an act of Congress passed April 2, 1 792, where it has 
ever since been continued. It is the only place in the 
United States where coin is struck. A new building was 
commenced in 1829 on a large scale. The order is Ionic. 
It has a front of 122 feet, faced with marble, and consists 
of a portico of 62 feet, and two wings of 30 feet each. 

The Bank of the United States is a splendid edifice, en- 
tirely of white marble. The portico is copied from the Par- 
thenon at Athens. The Pennsylvania Bank and that of the 
late Mr. Girard are much smaller, but the fronts of both are 
of white marble, and they have a very neat appearance. 

The Pennsylvania Hospital was instituted in 1751 by 
voluntary subscriptions, and opened to the public in 1752; 
from that year till 1832, as many as 29,616 patients were 
admitted, of whom 15,293 were paupers; 18,400 were re- 
stored to health, and 3188 died in the hospital. The num- 
ber of lunatics admitted during the same period of eighty 
years was 3718, of whom 1289 were cured, and 530 died in 
the hospital. It is calculated that about 1400 patients are 
admitted annually, of whom three-fourths are paupers, and 
a large number insane. The mode of treatment of the in- 
sane patients is one of uniform mildness, and the most 
beneficial effects have been found to result from it. The 
hospital has a library of 7000 volumes. The buildings 
occupy an entire square, in the middle of which is a 
a bronze statue of William Penn in the dress he used to 
wear, the square-cut coat, long waistcoat, and cocked hat. 

The House of Refuge occupies a plot of ground 400 feet 
in length by 230 feet in breadth, enclosed by a stone wall 
20 feet high. The main building is 92 feet long by 30 feet 
deep. It receives all destitute males under 21 and all 
females under 19. It is a school for the reformation of cha- 
racter, which has been productive of great benefit. About 
280 can be accommodated. 

The Deaf and Dumb Asylum is built of granite. It is 
96J ^et long by 63 feet deep. [Deaf and Dumb, p. 336.] 

The Public Almshouse, with an Infirmary attached to it, 
is a large pile of building, capable of containing 1600 
patients. The average number of patients is about 1000. 
There are many lunatics in one of the wards, who are treated 
in the same mild manner as at the House of Refuge. 

There are several other benevolent institutions, among 
which the most important are— the Marine Asylum, which 
has a front of 386 feet, consisting of a portico of 90 feet and 
two wings of 148 feet each; the Widows' Asylum; the 
Orphans Institution ; the Magdalen Institution ; the Asy- 
lum for the Blind; and the Sunday-school Association. 
There are also a great number of Benefit Societies, for the 
support of the members in sickness, who contribute a small 
sum weekly or monthly. 

There are upwards of a hundred places of public worship 
in Philadelphia, but none of them are distinguished either 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

for architecture or size. In 1833 there were 9 Protestant 
Episcopal churches, 4 Roman Catholic, 19 Presbyterian, 
1 Scotch Presbyterian, 10 Methodist, 3 Reformed Dutch, 6 
Baptist, 5 German Lutheran, 6 Quakers, 1 Free Quakers, 1 
Covenanters, 2 German Reformed, 2 Universalists, 2 Syna- 
gogues, 1 Bible Christian, 1 Mariners, 1 Swedenborgian, 10 
Unitarians, 1 Moravian, I Menonist, 1 Swedish Lutheran, 
1 Mount Zion. 

In literary institutions Philadelphia ranks perhaps higher 
than any other city in the United States. The Philadelphia 
Library was commenced by Franklin in 1731. The building, 
which is rather handsome, was erected in 1790. A marble 
statue of Franklin, executed in Italy, is placed over the 
front door. The library contains 45,000 volumes. Tha 
American Philosophical Society reckons among its members 
distinguished literary men in all parts of the world. The 
library contains upwards of 10,000 volumes of scientific 
works. The American Historical Society has also a high 
reputation. The Academy of Natural Sciences possesses a 
library consisting of upwards of 6000 volumes. The Phila- 
delphia Athenseura, established in 1814, has a library of 
about 6000 volumes, and a reading-room in which 70 or 80 
newspapers of the United States, as well as English, 
French, and other foreign journals, may be seen. Peale's 
Museum has an excellent collection of stuffed quadrupeds 
and birds, and possesses the most perfect specimen of a 
mastodon in the world ; it is nearly complete, and so large 
that the skeleton of an elephant placed by its side appears 
small. [Mastodon, p. 5.] 

The University of Pennsylvania is distinguished for its 
medical school The new halls, built in 1 830, are spacious 
and handsome. The Jefferson Medical College has also a 
spacious hall. The Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts 
has a handsome rotunda with a dome. There are several 
galleries of paintings and statues, which include sculptures 
by Canova and Chantrev, as well as pictures by the best 

The first newspaper published in Philadelphia, entitled 

* The American weekly Mercury,' was printed on a half 
sheet of pot paper, bearing date December 22, 1719. The 
second newspaper was commenced in 1728; its title was 

• The Universal Instructor in all the Arts and Sciences, and 
Pennsylvania Gazette.' Before the end of the first year it 
fell into the hands of Franklin, who was long connected 
with it as joint or sole proprietor. This paper, under the 
abridged title of * The Pennsylvania Gazette,' was continued 
till within the last fifteen years, having been for a consider- 
able time the oldest newspaper in the United States. 
There were eight daily newspapers published in Philadel- 
phia, as early as 1807, and we believe the same number 
still continues. The weekly newspapers vary from 15 to 20. 
There are 8 or 10 monthly publications, and 4 quarterly. 

There are three theatres in Philadelphia ; the one in Arch 
Street is a handsome building, with the front and columns of 
white marble. 

The markets are admirable, particularly one long range 
in High Street, which is a pattern of perfect cleanliness 
and neatness. 

There are four prisons. The system of solitary confinement 
was commenced in the Eastern Penitentiary, a building with 
lofty castellated walls and towers, loop-holed windows, port- 
cullis, and ponderous iron-studded gates ; but a new prison 
has been built which is more suitable for the purpose. 
The centre is a rotunda, which is used as a watch- 
room. From this run long passages so contrived that, by- 
means of echoes, every sound may be heard from the most 
distant part ; the cells are on each side of these passages, 
and are so separated that communication between the in- 
mates is impossible. Each cell is eight feet wide, twelve 
feet long, and sixteen feet high. Outside the cell is a yard 
eight feet wide and twenty feet long, surrounded by a high 
wall, where the prisoner is permitted to walk. From the 
passages, through small openings, everything that is pass- 
ing in the cells may be seen. The prisoners are kept em- 
ployed, but are never permitted to leave the cell or yard till 
the term of imprisonment has expired, which may continue 
for years. It has been stated that a prisoner, once released, 
has never exposed himself to the risk of being committed a 
second time to the walls of this prison, which, if not strictly 
true, is perhaps very nearly so. For an account of the 
mode of treatment and its results, see Miss Martineau's 
4 Retrospect of Western Travel,' vol. i. 

The works for supplying Philadelphia with water are at 

Fair Mount, near the city, on the eastern bank of the 
Schuylkill. The projects for supplying the city with water 
by means of steam-engines having failed, after having been 
persevered in at an enormous expense for upwards of twenty 
years, in 1819 the present simple and efficient machinery 
was commenced. A dam, 1 500 feet long, was thrown in a 
sloping direction across the Schuylkill, so as to be less ex- 
posed to the force of the current. There are eight water- 
wheels, which can raise nearly seven millions of gallons a 
day into the reservoirs on the summit of a hill 100 feet 
above the level of the river and 50 above the highest part 
of the cit)\ The reservoirs can contain 20 millions of gal- 
lons. The water is conveyed to the city in pipes. The ex- 
pense is very trifling, and the supply far beyond what either 
is or is ever likely to be required. 

A wooden bridge of a single arch, of the large span of 
340 feet, crosses the Schuylkill near the waterworks. There 
is a second wooden bridge, about a mile lower down, which 
consists of three arches supported on stone piers. 

The fire-engine establishment is worthy of the highest 
admiration. There are thirty engine companies and sixteen 
hose companies, which latter supply the fire-engines with 
water. The firemen consist generally of young merchants 
and tradesmen, and are all volunteers. Each member pays 
a certain sum on his admission, and a small annual sub- 
scription ; and a fine is imposed upon any member who 
attends without his waterproof dress. The institution is 
kept up with an enthusiastic public spirit, and fires are ex- 
tinguished with a promptitude which raises the astonish- 
ment of all strangers who happen to witness an instance. 
About 5000 dollars are annually distributed to the different 
companies from the city funds. 

The manufactures of Philadelphia are considerable, espe- 
cially the warping-mills ; there are two shot- towers, and there 
are manufactures of nails, leather, hardware, &c. A great 
trade is carried on up the Schuylkill and Lehigh, in convey- 
ing the produce of the coal-mines, one hundred miles dis- 
tant, though the coal in summer is seldom under seven 
dollars a ton, and iu winter as high as eleven dollars. It has 
almost superseded the use of wood. The coal is chiefly an- 
thracite ; it is hard and shining, throws out little smoke, does 
not blaze, and requires bituminous coal to be mixed with 
it, which is generally imported from Liverpool. 

The municipal government of the city proper is vested in 
a mayor, a recorder, fifteen aldermen, a select council, and 
a common council. The recorder and aldermen are ap- 
pointed by the governor of the state, and hold their offices 
during good behaviour. The mayor was chosen annually 
by the two councils from among the aldermen till April 
10, 1826, when the legislature passed an act authorising 
the councils to elect him from the body of the citizens. The 
members of the two councils are chosen annually. They serve 
gratuitously, sit in separate chambers, and each body has a 
negative on the legislative acts of the other. The mayor, 
recorder, and aldermen, or any four of them, of whom the 
mayor or recorder must be one, constitute the mayor's court. 
The district court of the city and county of Philadelphia 
has three judges, one of whom is the president. Each judge 
has a salary of 2000 dollars a year. 

The city proper sends seven representatives and two 
senators to the state legislature. 

Stephen Girard, a Frenchman, who from a humble origin 
became a banker in Philadelphia, left nearly the whole of 
his large property towards beautifying Philadelphia and 
New Orleans, and to establish a college in the former city 
which should accommodate at least 300 scholars. He 
bequeathed two millions of dollars for building and esta- 
blishing the college, the income of so much of it as remained 
unexpended to be employed in maintaining as many poor 
orphans of white parents as it was adequate to. The build- 
ings of the Girard College were commenced some time since, 
and are now probably nearly completed. The whole of the 
buildings are of white marble. 

The river Delaware, in front of the city, is about a mile 
wide, but the width is contracted by an island, which ex- 
tends nearly the whole length of the city, and somewhat 
impedes the navigation. Both the Delaware and the 
Schuylkill are frozen over during the winter months, which 
renders Philadelphia, as a harbour, inferior to Now York. 
A portion of the navy of the United States is stationed at 
the southern extremity of the city, and ships of the largest 
size are built. The Delaware is navigable for steam-boats 
and small vessels as high as Trenton. 

Digitized by 


P H I 72 

P H I 

The following is a statement of the number and tonnage 
of vessels, with the value of their cargoes, which arrived at 
and departed from Philadelphia in the year 1837 : — 





Value of 

1 Value of 









British . 







United Stat. 







DanUh . 














Bremen . 





















Swedish . 







French . 





















Total i 




| 332 



Of the 53 British vessels above mentioned, 3 were from 
Liverpool, with cargoes valued at 8600/., consisting of iron, 
salt, coals, &c. ; 2 from Bristol, with cargoes valued at 
14,105/., consisting of railroad-iron, iron for other purposes, 
glass, copper, &c. ; 9 from Londonderry, with cargoes valued 
at 3373/.. consisting of salt and provisions; 19 from St. 
John's, New Brunswick, with cargoes valued at 2064/., con- 
sisting of salt, plaster, fish, &c, and 20 vessels were freighted 
back to St. John's with provisions valued at 16,468/. The 
rest were generally single vessels from various places. 

Philadelphia was founded by William Penn in 1682. On 
the 5th of September, 1774, the members of the first Con- 
gress assembled at Philadelphia, where they adopted the 
• Declaration of Rights,' which may be regarded as the pre- 
face to the * Declaration of Independence,' which was pro- 
claimed at Philadelphia in April, 1776. Congress continued 
to sit at Philadelphia till the close of the autumn in the same 
year, when the approach of the British compelled them to 
retire to Baltimore. The British forces obtained possession 
of the city on the 26th of September, 1777, and occupied it 
till the 18th of the following June. The city remained un- 
injured during the remainder of the war. It was the seat 
of the federal government till the year 1800, and the capital 
of Pennsylvania till 1 799. 

(Arfwedson's United States and Canada; Coke's Subal- 
tern's Furlough : Encyclopcedia Americana.) 


PHILADELPHIA, a genus of plants of the natural 
family of Philadelphacea?, which is also the name of a tree, 
now unknown, mentioned by Athenseus, but was applied to 
the present genus by Bauhin. Philadelphusis characterised 
by having a calyx with an obovato-turbinate tube and a 4-5 
partite limb. Petals vary in number from 4-5. Stamens, 20-40, 
free, are shorter than the petals. Styles 4*5 united toge- 
ther, or more or less distinct. Stigmas 4-5, oblong or linear, 
generally distinct. Capsule 4-5-celled, many-seeded. Seeds 
dust-like, enclosed in a membranous aril, oblong, and 
fringed at one end. 

The plants consist of shrubs with white pedicillate flowers 
arranged in a corymbose cyme, in a panicle-like manner, 
or sometimes in the axils of their leaves, supported by bracts. 

The greatest number of species are indigenous in North 
America, whence they have been introduced into the shrub- 
beries of this country, to which they form a highly orna- 
mental addition. A species has also been discovered in the 
Himalayas, at elevations of 6000 and 7000 feet, of which 
there are two varieties, sometimes considered distinct spe- 
cies, P. tomentosus being apparently only a more advanced 
stale of P. triflorus. The best known species however is P. 
coronarius, commonly called Syringa, which is so easy of 
culture, and found in most gardens. It is supposed to be a 
native of the south of Europe, but it has hardly ever been 
found in a wild state, and even in these few cases it may 
have escaped from cultivation. As one species has been 
found in the Himalayas, there is no reason why other spe- 
cies should not exist still farther to the north-west, as in the 
Hindoo- koosh, and that the Syringa may be found to be 
one of those plants which was in early times introduced 

from some part of the Persian region of Botanists into the 
south of Europe. 

PHILA'RETUS (*cXaptroc), the reputed author of a 
short treatise 'De Pulsibus,' which is written in Greek, 
but of which only a Latin translation has hitherto been pub- 
lished. Nothing is known about his life, nor the time 
when he lived; nor is it even certain that he is the 
author of the work in question, as it is sometimes at- 
tributed to Philotheus and sometimes to Theophilus Pro- 
tospatharius. It was written (as the author tells us) 
because he thought all former writers on the subject were 
either too superficial and inaccurate or too prolix; but it is 
not of much value, and seldom if ever ventures to differ 
from Galen. It consists of ten chapters, and was translated 
by Albanus Torinus, and published, Basil., 1533, 8vo. An 
older and barbarous translation is inserted in the various 
editions of the curious old collection of medical works called 
• Articella.' The translation by Albanus Torinus is to be 
found also in the second volume of the • Medic© Artis 
Principes,' by H. Stephens, Paris, 1567, fol. 

PHI'LEDON, Cuvier's name for a genus of Meliphagid*. 
[Mkliphagim, vol. XV., p. 82.] 

Of this form, Mr. Swainson, in his « Classification of Birds, 
vol. ii., remarks that the head is nearly bare of feathers, 
and the neck surrounded with a ruff somewhat similar 
to that of the Vultures. Their size is nearly equal to 
that of a jay, and the claws are strong and acute. The 
same zoologist further observes, that as they are said to cha*e 
other birds of a small size, one would almost imagine they 
represented the rapacious order. 

Mr. G. R. Gray quotes as the synonyms of his genus, 
Meliornis Certhica, Lath., Meliphaga (Lew.), V. and H. ; 
and Philedon, Cuv., wjth Meliornis Novce Hollandia 
(Vieill., Ois. dOr^ pi. 57), M. Balgonera, Steph., as the type, 
{List of the Genera of Birds, 1840.) 

PHILE'MON, Vieillot's name for a genus of birds (An- 
throchara, V. and H., Merops, Lath.) placed by Mr. G. R. 
Gray in his subfamily Meliphagince, which consists of the 
genera Meliornis [ Philedon] ; Prosthemadera. G. R. 
Gray (Merops, Lath., Anthrochcera, V. and H., Philemon, 
Vieill., Sturnus, Daud.-— type P. cincinnata, Levaill., Ois. 
d'4fr. t pi. 92) ; Meliphaga, Lew. (Ptilotis, Sw„ Philemon, 
Vieill., Certhia, Lath.) ; Anthornis, G. R. Gray (Melithrep- 
tus, Vieill., Anthomyza, Sw., Fumarius, Steph., Certain, 
Sparr — type A. melanura, Sparr, Mas. Carls., t. 5) ; the 
genus at the head of this article ; Phyliornis, Boie ( Tardus, 
6m., Chloropsis, Jard. and Selby, Meliphaga, Horsf.); 
Zanthomyza, Sw. (Merops, Lath., Meliphaga, Lew., Phile- 
mon, Vieill., Anihochcera, V. and H.) ; Anthoch&ra, V. and 
H. (Creadion, Vieill., Philedon, Cuv., Merops, Lath.); 
Acanthogenys, Gould; Entomyza, Sw. (Gracula, Lath., 
Philemon, Vieill., Gymnops, Cuv., Entomyzon, Sw., Tropi- 
dorhynchus,V. and H.); and Tropidorhynchus,V. and H. 
{Philedon, Cuv., Merops, Lath.). Of these, Anthomyza is 
employed in entomology. 

The other two subfamilies of Meliphagidce, according to 
Mr. G. R. Gray's arrangement, are the Myzomelince (sub- 
family 1 ) and Manorhinince (subfamily 2). 

The Myzomelince consist of the genera Myzomela, V. 
and H.; Acanthorhynchus, Gould ; and Glyciphila, Sw. 

The Manorhinince comprehend the genera Plectoramphus, 
G. R. Gray (Plectorhyncha, Gould); Manorhina, Vieill.; 
Psophades, V. and H.; Eidopsarus, Sw.; Melithreptu$, 
Vieill. ; and Entomophila, Gould. 
Plectorhyncha had been already used in ichthyology. 
PHILE'MON (4>iXtyxwv), a writer of the new comedy, 
was born at Soli in Cilicia, according to Strabo(xv., p. 671), 
or at Syracuse, according to Suidas (Philemon), Philemon 
began to exhibit comedies a little earlier than Menander, 
and before the hundred and thirteenth Olympiad, that is, 
B.C. 328. He lived to the age of ninety-six or ninety-seven 
tLucian, Maerob., 25), and died in the reign of the second 
Antigonus, son of Demetrius ; he must consequently have 
been alive subsequent to B.C. 283. He is said to have written 
97 comedies, of which Fabricius, in his 'Bibliotheca GrcDca' 
(vol. ii., p. 476, ed. Harles), has preserved the titles of fifty- 
three. Of these comedies, fragments only have come down 
to us, which are usually published with those of Menander, 
of which the best edition is by Meineke, Berl., 1823. It 
seems possible that some of these plays may exist ; at least 
there is evidence that some if not all of them were in exist- 
ence in the seventeenth century. (Journal of Education, 
vol. i., p. 188.) 

Digitized by 


P H I 



Philemon wai the great rival of Menander, and was con- 
sidered superior to him by many of their contemporaries ; but 
posterity, as Quintilian informs us {Inst. Orat.,x. 1., p. 222, 
ed. Bipont), regarded him as inferior to Menander. From 
the ' Mercalor' of Plautus, and the fragments which remain 
of his plays, Philemon appears to have closely resembled 
Menander, of whose style, and of the new comedy in general, 
an account is given under Menander. 

The son of Philemon is also said to have written comedies. 
(Athen., vii., p. 29 1, E.) Suidas says that they were fifty-four 
in number 

There is extant a grammatical work entitled 'Lexicon 
Technologicon' (AfgucAe nxvokoyixov), written by a gram- 
marian of the name of Philemon, who probably lived in the 
twelfth century of the Christian sera. This work is divided 
into eight books, according to the eight parts of speech, 
which are respectively treated of in each book. The Greek 
text was first published by Burney, Lond. t 1812, 8vo. ; but 
a more accurate edition, with valuable notes, was published 
byOsann, Berlin, 1821. 

PHILE'MON, EPISTLE TO. Philemon was a man of 
distinction, if not a presbyter, of the church at Colossae, and 
was probably converted from heathenism by St. Paul. 
Theoduret, who wrote at the beginning of the fifth century, 
says that in his time Philemon s house was yet standing. 
He had a slave named Onesimus, who robbed his master 
and fled to Rome, where he met with St. Paul, a prisoner 
there, about a.d. 62, and through him he became reformed. 
St. Paul then wrote the ' Epistle to Philemon,' and sent it 
to Colossco by Onesimus, recommending him to the kind 
consideration of his injured master; stating how sincere 
was his penitence, how excellent a Christian he was, how 
much he had won the affection of his spiritual father, and 
how worthy therefore he was to be regarded henceforth by 
Philemon as a brother rather than a slave, and adding the 
expression of confidence in the readiness of Philemon to 
receive Onesimus even more heartily than he was desired. 

The epistle of St. Paul to Philemon furnishes a beautiful 
specimen of gentleness united with commanding authority, 
in the style and manner of the writer. The Greek original 
evinces extraordinary skill in the choice and arrangement of 
words ; so that any reader who has well studied the other 
Pauline epistles, would conclude this epistle to be un- 
doubtedly St. Paul's. Moreover, there is all the historical 
evidence that can be required to prove it a canonical book. 

Onesimus is said by Jerome and others to have become at 
length a bishop, but whether of Ephesus,as Grotius thinks, 
or of some other place, is uncertain. 

The Apphia mentioned in the epistle is supposed to have 
been Philemon's wife, and they are said to have been both 
stoned to death under Nero. In the calendar of the church 
of Rome the names' of Philemon and Apphia occur as those 
of saints, as does also the name of Onesimus, the two former 
being commemorated November 22, the latter February 16. 

(Theodoret, On St. PauTs Epistles ; Fabricius, Bibiiotheca 
Grceca ; Butler's I+ives of the Saints ; Schott's Isagoge.) 

PHILES, or PHILE (MANUEL), (MavovtfX *iXfa, ot 
*iX»/), a native of Ephesus, to be distinguished (according 
to Fabricius, Bibl. Gr.) from four other persons bearing the 
same surname. As his work is dedicated to the emperor 
Michael Palaeologus the younger, he must have lived about 
the beginning of the fourteenth century. He was born of 
poor parents, came at an early age to Constantinople, be- 
came one of the pupils of George Pachymer, and made 
great progress in literature. He afterwards gave offence 
to the emperor by some expressions made use of by him in 
one of his works, called ' Chronographia,' which is no longer 
extant, and was thrown into prison. He is supposed to have 
died somewhere about the year 1 340. He is known chiefly 
as the author of a work flcpi Z&uv Wiorijroc, ' De Animalium 
Proprietate,' written in a sort of barbarous Greek iambics, 
called ' versus politic!.* (See Is. Vossius, * De Poematum 
Cantu et Viribus Rythmi,' Oxon., 8vo., 1673, p. 21, sq.) 
It is a curious work, but of little or no value to a zoologist, 
taken almost entirely from ifiiian's * Natural History,' and 
full of the most absurd fables. It was first published at 
Venice, 1533, 8vo., Greece, by Arsenius, archbishop of Mo- 
nembasia (a iown on the east coast of Laconia, now called 
Napoli di Malvasia). An edition was published at Leipzig, 
1574, 4to. (or, with a fresh title-page, Heidelb., 1596), Gr. et 
Lat., by Bersmann, in which the Greek text was altered in a 
very arbitrary manner by Camerarius, who had persuaded 
himself that the numerous false quantities that he found 
P. C, No. 1112. 

in the verses were merely the mistakes of the transcribers. 
I. Corn, de Pauw's edition, Traj ad Rhen., 1 730, 4to., Gr. 
et Lat., is augmented by some fragments taken from a MS. 
in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, which Fabricius had be- 
fore inserted in his • Biblioth. Grseca:' it is not very highly 
esteemed, and was severely criticised by D'Orville, in the 
sixth volume of Burmann's 'Observations Miscellanea.' 

An edition of the other poems of Philes (some of which 
had been inserted by Fabricius in his ' Bibl. Gr.*) was pub- 
lished, Lips. 1768, 8vo., Gr. et Lat, by Wernsdorf, with 
notes and an excellent preliminary dissertation on the Life 
and Works of Philes. The longest poem in the volume is 
one of nearly a thousand lines written in the same barbarous 
kind of verse, in the form of a dialogue between the author 
and the city of Constantinople, which he designates by the 
name Novc, mens. It is composed in praise of Joannes 
Cantacuzenus, who was afterwards emperor, and in it is 
introduced a personification of his several virtues, Prudence, 
Fortitude, Justice, Temperance, Truth, Memory, Pity, Cle- 
mency, Sagacity, Rectitude, Continence, and Modesty. The 
other poems consist of epigrams and various shorter pieces, 
together with one of nearly four hundred verses on the 
Elephant, addressed to an emperor named Leo, which (as 
no emperor of that name was contemporary with Philes) 
probably belongs to some other person. (Miscell. Observ. in 
Auctor. Vet. et Bec. t vol. ii., torn, hi., p. 425.) Two other 
short poems, in the same metre as the rest, are to be found 
in the first volume of Cramer's ' Anecdote Graeca Parisien- 
sia/ p. 43, Oxon., 8vo. 1839. Wernsdorf gives, in his * Pre- 
liminary Dissertation/ a list of several works by Philes 
which still remain unedited in various libraries of Europe. 
(Fabr., Bibl. Gr. and Biogr. Univers., as the writer has 
not been able to consult Wernsdorf s * Dissertation.*) 

PHI LET AS, a grammarian and poet of the island Cos, 
flourished in the times of Philip and Alexander the Great, 
and was preceptor to Ptolemy Philadelphus. He wrote 
epigrams, elegies, and other poems, and died of emaciation 
brought on by excessive study. (Suidas, Lexicon.) Frag- 
ments of Philetas and two other poets were edited by 
Bachius, 8vo., Halle, 1 829. 

PHILIDOR, ANDRE', a French dramatic composer of 
eminence in his day, but better known out of his own coun- 
try as a most distinguished and unrivalled chess-player, was 
bornatDreux in 1726. His grandfather was musician in 
ordinary to Louis XIII. : his father held the same office, 
and his* uncle established, in 1726, the famous Concert 
SpiritueL Andre* was admitted at the usual early age as a 
page, or chorister, in the chapel of Louis XV., and studied 
under Campra, Maitre de la Chape lie. In 1737, when he 
had only completed his eleventh year, he produced a motet 
for a full choir, for which the Grand Monarque deigned to 
thank him ; but it does not appear that this condescension 
was followed by any acknowledgment of a more solid kind, 
for after quitting the chapel on his voice changing, he sub- 
sisted for some time by copying music — a drudgery to which 
Rousseau was obliged to submit-rand in giving a few les- 
sons. But all his vacant hours, and these were many, he 
devoted to the game of chess, in which his proficiency was 
so great, that he sought to profit by his skill, and in 1 745 
commenced a tour in Holland, Germany, and England. 
This also enabled him to improve his knowledge ana taste 
in music, by hearing the best works of the great masters. 
He tried his strength as a composer in London in 1753, by 
setting Congreve's Ode to Harmony, which Handel heard, 
who approved his choruses, but thought him defective in 
melody. Chess however had occupied more of his thoughts 
than his avowed profession, and he had previously, in 1749, 
published his Analysis of the Game of Chess, for which he 
obtained a great list of subscribers, and his reputation was 
established. This work gives several games, with notes 
explaining the reasons for the moves ; and thus it is the most 
useful of all books for those who study chess. 

In 1754 he returned to Paris, and devoted himself wholly 
to his profession. He composed some sacred music, which 
the king thought too much in the Italian style, and thus his 
effort to obtain the appointment of Maitre de la Ckapelle 
was frustrated. Four years after this he turned his atten- 
tion to dramatic music, and produced at the Opera- Comique 
many works, most of which proved eminently successful, 
insomuch that M. de Laborde, in his voluminous Essai sur 
la Musique — a work to which we are indebted for most of 
the foregoing— does not hesitate to pronounce him one of 
the greatest of French composers. The author of the Die- 

Vol. XVIII -L 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

tionnaire des Mtmcicns considers him to have been, toge- 
ther with Duni and Monsigny, the joint father of the Opera 
Comique, but adds that, though he was a profound har- 
monist, he was not so happy in melody. 

In 1777 Philidor reprinted his treatise on chess, consi- 
derably augmented. In 1779 he produced at Free-Masons' 
Hall, in London, the Carmen Seculars of Horace, set to 
music, consisting of airs, choruses, &c, which it was ru- 
moured he had written in imitation of the antient music, 
though such had never been his intention, and some disap- 
pointment was excited in many who expected a revival of 
those miraculous effects, in which a few were still credulous 
enough to believe. This was published in 1788, in a splen- 
did volume in score, dedicated to Catherine of Russia ; and 
as the work is now' before us, we are enabled to corroborate 
what Dr. Burney*hai said of it ; — that the choruses are after 
the model of Handel, and the airs after those of his own 
and Gretry's comic operas, many of which, « particularly 
Gretry's, would be elegant and pleasing music anywhere/ 
It was again performed, under the composer's direction* 
in 1 788, at an entertainment of a mixed kind given by the 
Knights of the Bath at the Pantheon. From that period 
Philidor seems to have passed much of his time in London, 
chiefly occupied by the game of chess, at which he played 
at Parsloe's (now the Albion Club) in St. James's Street, 
where, we believe, persons were admitted to witness his ex- 
ploits, on the payment of a small fee. It was there he 
exhibited his marvellous powers, by playing three games, 
against different adversaries at different boards, all at the 
same time. And only two months before his decease he 
played two games, blindfolded, simultaneously, against very 
expert players, and was victorious. 

His health now rapidly declining, he applied for a pass- 
port to return to his native country, but was refused, having 
been, most unjustly, proscribed by the French government 
as a suspected person. This affected him deeply ; his grief 
admitted of no alleviation, and he died in London, in 1 795. 

Philidor was a very worthy and amiable man ; but it was 
the generally-received opinion that his mental powers were 
almost exclusively confined to music and chess. 

PHILI'NUS (fciXTvoc), a Greek physician, born in the 
island of Cos, was one of the pupils of Herophilus, and (ac- 
cording to Galen, Introduct.), the founder of the sect of the 
Empirici. [Empirici; Skrapion.] He lived somewhere 
about the year b.c. 250 (Oi. 132, 3), wrote a work on botany 
(Athen., Deipno*., lib. xv., sec. 28, pp. 681, 682), Which is 
probably the work quoted by Pliny {Hist. Nat. 9 lib. xx, 
cap. 91), and some commentaries on the aphorisms of Hip- 
pocrates (Erotian, Lex. Voc. Hirpocr. in d/i/Stfv), neither of 
which works is now extant. With respect to the system 
of the Empirici, the rejection of anatomy, physiology, and 
pathology as useless studies, would of course, at least in the 
opinion of modern physicians, prevent their ever attaining 
any higher rank than that of clever experimentalists ; but 
Still it must not be denied that Materia Medica is indebted 
to them for the discovery of the properties of many valuable 
drugs. A parallel has been drawn between the antient 
Empirici and the modern Homceopathists, by Fred. Ferd. 
Brisken, entitled ' Philinus et Hahnemannus, seu Veteris 
Sect® Empiric© cum Hodierna* Sectfi Homoeopathic^ 
Comparatio,' 8vo., Berol., 1834, pp. 36. 

PHILIP, the name of several kings of Macedonia, of 
whom two deserve particular notice. [Macedonia.] 

PHILIP, a younger son of Amyntas, succeeded (b.c. 359) 
at the age of twenty-three Years to a throne which, since 
the death of his father, and during the reigns of his two 
elder brothers, Alexander and Perdiccas, had been shaken 
to its foundation by foreign invasion and civil war. For- 
tunately for the independence of his kingdom, the young 
monarch was endowed with talents and energies of the 
highest order ; and a residence during his boyhood at Thebes, 
whither he had been sent as a hostage in the best days of 
the republic, while the celebrated Pelopidas and Epami- 
uondas were in power, had obtained for him all the advan- 
tages of a liberal Grecian education. On his accession to 
the throne, his inheritance was overrun by the victorious 
Illyrians, who had defeated and slain his brother Perdiccas; 
his own title was disputed by two pretenders to the crown ; 
and the people of Macedonia were dispirited by accumu- 
lated national calamities. But his courage and eloquence 
revived the hopes of his subjects; and his military skill and 
activity soon inspired them with confidence. ' While these 
qualities were successfully exerted in the field, negotiations 

and bribes were as artfully employed to induce the support- 
era of the rival claimants to abandon their cause; and 
Philip finally not only repelled the Illyrian and Pceonian 
invaders of his country, but penetrated in turn into their 
territory, and extended his own dominions at their expense. 
He subsequently further strengthened himself by a marriage 
with Olyrapias, daughter of the king of Epirus, who became 
the mother of Alexander the Great, but whose temper and 
conduct made her so little agreeable to her husband, that 
he finally divorced her. 

From the period of the full establishment of his authority 
over his native kingdom, Philip seems to have commenced 
the design, which he thenceforth steadily pursued and ulti- 
mately accomplished, of destroying the power and influence 
of the Athenian people on the northern shores of the 
ifigean Sea. As his projects, both on the present occasion 
and subsequently, brought him into frequent collision with 
that republic, the state of affairs at Athens throughout his 
reign requires some detailed notice. 

After the general peace which followed the battle of 
Mantineia and death of Epaminondas (b.c. 362), Athens 
had again become the most prominent state in Greece. 
The naval successes and moderation of Timotheus and a 
a few other officers of similar character had won her the 
public respect ; and the people of the iEgean islands and 
coasts, to secure the protection of her navy against piracy, 
had resumed their relations to her as subject allies. She 
had thus nearly recovered the naval supremacy lost by the 
fatal termination of the Peloponnesian War: but this brief 
renovation of glory was soon obscured by a relapse into 
former habits of oppression towards her allies ; and these 
produced (b.c. 358) the Confederate or Social War, by a 
league of some of the dependent islands and towns against 
her, which lasted three years, and ended in the loss of her 
sovereignty. Philip ably took advantage of the distraction 
of Athens in this contest to reduce or win over in succession 
Amphipolis, Pydna, Potidtea, and other towns on the north- 
ern shores of the iEgean* until in those parts Methone alone 
remained in the Athenian interest. Some conquests in 
Thrace also gave the Macedonian prince possession of the 
gold-mines of Pangsus ; and near these he built or enlarged 
a city, which he peopled with Greeks from the conauered 
towns, and named after himself Philippi. Here, under his 
personal inspection, the mines were worked to such advan- 
tage, that they produced him one thousand talents annu- 
ally; and the gold 'Philips' which he coined served him 
in the sequel both to bribe the venal orators of the Grecian 
states ana to hire the mercenary troops with which he now 
openly assailed their freedom. 

The ambition of Philip indeed soon taught him to extend 
his views of aggrandisement into Greece itself; and, at 
whatever epoch the plans were organised which he formed 
and realised for the acquisition of a general supremacy over 
the Grecian states, the first occasion for interfering in their 
domestic politics was afforded to him by the Pnooian or 
Sacred War, which had already commenced before the 
txlose of the contest between Athens and her allies. The 
real cause of the persecution of the Phocians was the hatred 
with which that people had inspired the Thebaus by refus- 
ing to join them in the late war against Sparta. To this 
source of political enmity were added some uncertain mo- 
tives of personal offence between individuals of the neigh- 
bouring communities ; and, moved by such passions of 
public and private revenge, the Thebans rashly excited a 
commotion which was doomed eventually to bring destruc- 
tion upon their own state, as well as to annihilate the ge- 
neral liberties of Greece. Availing themselves of their 
influence in the Araphictyonic Council, of which they hoped 
also to obtain the absolute control, as well as the command 
of the temple of Delphi and its- treasures, by destroying the 
Phocians, they accused that people of having cultivated 
lands which had been devoted to the Delphic god. The 
Phocians were found guilty by the compliant Ampbictyons, 
and condemned to pay a fine so enormous, that for its liquida- 
tion their whole country was declared forfeit to the god. 
Perceiving that their only appeal against this iniquitous 
sentence must be to arms, the Phocians anticipated their 
enemies by boldly seizing upon Delphi (b.c. 357), and, 
supported by Athens and Sparta, they commenced a san- 
guinary war with the Thebans and their allies. 

During the progress of this struggle, Philip gained a 
footing in Thessaly by assisting some of the The&salian 
nobles, or the AleuadsB, the antient allies of Macedon, 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

against the tyrants of Pherso, who were supported by the 
Phooians and their Athenian confederates. The successful 
interference of Philip in this quarter brought him into op- 
position with Athens ; but the jealousy of that republic 
was still more excited by his continued machinations against 
her influence on the Thracian coasts. When she attempted, 
in conjunction with the people of Methone, to repel these 
injuries by hostilities, he suddenly appeared before that 
place, and took it, after an obstinate siege, in which he lost 
his left eye by an arrow. The people of Olynthus, hitherto 
his allies, now taking alarm at his ambition, applied to 
Athens for aid against him ; but' though the Athenians, 
moved by the eloquence of Demosthenes, repeatedly sent 
reinforcements to the Olynthians, Philip defeated the con- 
federates, and finally besieged and captured Olynthus (B.C. 
347). After this event, both the Athenians and the Mace- 
donian prince were equally desirous of peace, and in the 
following year a treaty was concluded between them. But 
the ambassadors who were sent to Philip to arrange the 
terms suffered themselves to be either outwitted or bribed 
by the artful monarch ; and the Phocian allies of Athens 
were excluded from the benefits of the treaty. 

That brave and unfortunate people, who had hitherto 
maintained the war with advantage, were now abandoned to 
the mercy of their more numerous and powerful enemies. 
The Thebans, who were nearly exhausted in the Btruggle, 
applied to Philip for aid, which he was but too happy to 
render. From Thessaly, passing the defiles of Thermopylae, 
which had been left unguarded, he marched rapidly into 
Proper Greece ; and, profiting by the misconduct of party 
leaders and the treachery of the Phocian general, he was 
completely successful. The Phooians were compelled to 
surrender unconditionally ; the Amphictyons assembled, and 
decreed that their towns should be destroyed and the inha- 
bitants disarmed and heavily assessed ; and their privileges 
at Delphi and votes in the Amphictyonic Council were so- 
lemnly transferred to the pious monarch of Macedon. Thus 
ended (b.c. 346) the 8acred War, which ruined an innocent 
people and destroyed the little reverence fur religion that 
had yet remained in Greece. 

The crisis was now approaching in the great struggle be- 
tween Athens -and Philip, which, on the part of the former, 
was for the independence of Greece, and on that of the 
latter, for the general supremacy in her national govern- 
ment and councils. But the contest was almost as much 
one of factions at Athens itself, as between the republic and 
the Macedonian king. The aristocratic party in that city 
inclined, perhaps naturally, to the side of Philip, through 
conviction of the degenerate character oithe democracy and 
consequent hopelessness of a successful collision with the 
power of Macedon, which they either thought it useless to 
resist, or considered not likely to be injurious to their 
country. They might also sincerely believe that in Greece, 
for all the evils of intestine commotions of which they were 
weary, there remained no cure but a general diversion, 
headed by Macedon, of the national energies against Persia. 
Their leaders were the venerable Isocrates and upright 
Pbocion, both patriots of unquestionable integrity, and 
anxious for the independence of Athens. But it was the 
misfortune of this party, that its ranks gave shelter to the 
venal orators, such as iEschines, Demades, and others, 
who were undoubtedly in the pay of Philip, and who basely 
promoted his designs. On the other hand the democratic, 
or war party, as a modern historian has termed it, ever 
eager for the licence and plunder which were promised by 
a state of hostilities, was principally guided by the infamous 
Chares, to whom, together with the mercenary Charidenrus, 
the conduct of military expeditions was often entrusted. But 
to this party, through a well-founded persuasion of the am- 
bitious project of Philip, and a generous and patriotic en- 
thusiasm for the independence of his country, had the great 
Demosthenes attached himself , and a view of the principles 
upon which he acted will be found in a former article. [De- 

After the conclusion of the Phocian war, Philip turned 
his attention for a time again to the northward of Greece, 
and laboured to consolidate his empire in that quarter by 
obtaining possession of the cities of the Propontis and 
Thracian Chersonese. But Demosthenes had now roused 
the Athenians to so much alarm and energy, that when the 
Macedonian attacked and invested Perinthus and Byzan- 
tium, a stroug armament was fitted out at Athens, which, 
under the command of Phocion, compelled him to raise the 

siege of those cities (b.c. 339). This was perhaps the most 
glorious moment in the life of Demosthenes, and the most 
mortifying check in the successful career of Philip. But 
the triumph of the great orator and the disappointment of the 
ambitious prince were alike only momentary ; and the event 
soon proved how unequal was the conflict between the de- 
sultory impulse whioh could be given to a fickle and divided 
democracy, without secrecy, unity, or consistency of purpose, 
and the concentrated power of a monarch of high talent and 
immense resources, whose politic designs were veiled in 
the profoundest mystery until they were ripe for execution 
by adroit ministers, experienced generals, and well-disci- 
plined armies. In the very next year after his repulse before 
Byiantium, Philip found a pretext for appearing again in 
arms in Greece itself. He was appointed by the obse- 
quious Amphictyonic council their general in a new sacred 
war which they had denounced against the people of Am- 
phissa for cultivating some devoted lands ; and after reduc- 
ing that city, he suddenly threw off the mask by seizing 
Elateia, the kev of Bosotia, at the head of 32,000 veteran 
troops. The Athenians were filled with dismay ; but the 
eloquence and activity of Demosthenes both animated them 
to signal exertions, and induced the Thebans, Corinthians, 
and others to join with Athens in the cause' of independence. 
The numerical superiority of the confederates however, 
though they fought with great bravery, could not prevail 
against generalship and discipline ; and the fatal battle of 
Chseroneia (b.c. 338) for ever extinguished the liberties of 
antient Greece. 

Nothing was more characteristic of the disposition and 
policy of Philip than his conduct after the battle of Charoneia. 
As soon as the victory was secured, he immediately, with his 
usual humanity, stopped the slaughter; and when, on re- 
visiting the field next morning, after a night of carousal, he 
beheld the dead Thebans of the Sacred Band lying in ranks 
where they had valiantly fought and fallen, he is said to 
have shed tears, and exclaimed, ' Perish they who imagine 
these to hare done or suffered shame !" But this burst of 
admiration did not prevent him from treating the party that 
had been hostile to him at Thebes with great severity ; and 
he imposed a Macedonian garrison upon the subjugated city. 
To the Athenians, on the contrary, he behaved with the 
greatest clemency, dismissing without ransom those among 
them who had been made prisoners, and granting their re- 
public peace upon very easy terms, the principal condition 
being that they should send deputies to a general congress 
of the Amphictyonic states at Corinth. Here the great object 
of the ambition of Philip seemed to approach its fulfil- 
ment. After his orators had set forth the injuries which 
Persia had continually inflicted upon Greece, it was unani- 
mously resolved in the assembly that a national war should 
be declared against the Persian empire, and that the Mace- 
donian king should be appointed oommander-in-chief, with 
power toj apportion the contingent of each Grecian state. 
But when he was making the most active preparations for 
the great expedition which he meditated, and which his son 
was destined to accomplish, his days were cut short by the 
hand of an assassin. While celebrating the nuptials of his 
daughter Cleopatra with the king of Epirus, he was stabbed 
by a young Macedonian of his own body-guard, Pausanias, 
whose motive for the deed, as h*e was himself put to death 
on the spot, could not be ascertained, but has been most 
probably ascribed to personal revenge, on the king's refusal 
to grant him redress for an intolerable insult which he had 
received from the queen's uncle. 

Thus fell Philip (b.c. 336), at the early age of forty-seven 
years, and in the full vigour of life and intellect, at the mo- 
ment when he seemed to be entering on the meridian 
splendour of his career of glory. 

The character of Philip of Macedon has often been 
sketched, like too many other historical portraits, in the 
spirit of party. A distinguished historian of our own times 
has depicted all his actions in the most favourable colours, 
apparently with no better object than to blacken the general 
cause of democracy in the conduct of his Athenian opponents. 
On the other hand, the ardent advocates of republican free- 
dom have not unnaturally been led to regard the Mace- 
donian king with strong prejudice as the exemplar of mo- 
narchical tyranny. Of all the princes of antiquity however, 
it would be difficult to name one worthy of comparison with 
Philip in the fairer features of his character. His govern- 
ment of his own kingdom must be judged, by the silence of 
his opponents, to have been mild, just, and popular. Per- 

L 2 

Digitized by 


P H I 



sonally kind to his enemies, he was to a singular degree 
free from that cruelty which was the common reproach of 
the Greeks of his age : humane, generous, and magnani- 
mous, he often showed himself capable of forgiving injuries, 
of sparing the vanquished, and of using success with mode- 
ration. It was indeed his boast and his truest glory, that 
he conquered more by mercy and conciliation after victory 
than by mere force of arms. H's splendid abilities were 
equally conspicuous as a statesman and a general ; and his 
intellectual tastes for literature and philosophy, for the 
drama and the arts, were alike refined and passionate. He 
made his court, therefore, no less tre seat of eloquence and 
mental cultivation than it was the school of consummate 
political science. That he was as insatiable in his ambitious 
schemes as he was unscrupulous in the means which he 
employed to advance them, is true : he hesitated as little as 
most politicians at corruption and perfidy. But his am- 
bition was not of a vulgar cast ; nor while the conquest of 
the vast Persian empire was its magnificent project, does he 
at all seem to have aimed at the internal subjugation of the 
Grecian states, or to have desired more than the supreme 
authority to lead their free and enlightened confederation 
against the barbarism of the East. The vicious intempe- 
rance of his private life will not bear any comment ; but his 
vices, like his accomplishments, were those of the Greeks, 
and of the state of society which produced them : his vir- 
tues were peculiar to himself, and superior to his times. 

Coin of Philip II. 
British Muteam, Actual size. 

PHILIP, the only other of the Macedonian kings of that 
name whose life and reign merit some attention, ascended 
the throne (b c. 220) at an early age, on the death of his 
uncle Antigonus Doson. He was the grandson of Anti- 
gonus Gonnatas, and therefore lineally descended from the 
first Antigonus, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, 
whose family, in the vicissitudes which succeeded the dis- 
memberment of that conqueror's empire, had finally ob- 
tained the crown of Macedon and a general ascendency 
over the affairs of Greece. Philip was an able prince, whose 
character, both in its political energies and personal vices, 
was not without some points of resemblance to that of his 
greater namesake aud predecessor on the Macedonian throne. 
At the commencement of his reign, the struggle between 
the jEtolian and Achaean leagues, in which the latter people 
had been worsted, caused them to call in his aid ; and in 
the war which followed, and in which he was placed at the 
head of the AchsBan confederation, his activity and military 
skill were much distinguished. His successes soon disposed 
theifStolians to peace, which he as readily granted them, in 
order that he might direct his sole attention to Italy, where 
the disasters of the Romans in the second Punic War in- 
spired him with the hope that, by throwing his weight into 
the Carthaginian scale, he might finally acquire the prepon- 
derance of power for himself. Willi this view, after the 
battle of Cannae (b.c. 216), he formed with Hannibal an 
alliance offensive and defensive, which he prosecuted with 
little vigour, but which ultimately proved his own ruin; 
for the Romans, after the great crisis of their fate was over 
in Italy, no sooner began to prevail in the struggle with 
Hannibal, than they determined to take vengeance upon 
Philip for his aggression. After some intervals of indeci- 
sive hostility and hollow pacification, during which they 
found means to deprive him of most of his allies in Greece, 
they declared war anew against him on various pretexts ; 
and at length he sustained from the consul T. Quinctius 
Flamininus, at Cynoscephalso, inThessaly (B.C. 197), a defeat 
so decisive, as for ever to break the Macedonian power. 
Philip however, after this calamity, obtained peace on terms 
less severe than might have been anticipated : but his proud 
and restless spirit could ill brook the subjection to which he 
was reduced; and the remaining years of his life were 
passed in covert preparations for a new war with Rome, 
which he saw to be inevitable. He died (B.C. 179) just 
before the last crisis in the fortunes of Macedon, leaving 
his unworthy son Perseus to abide the struggle which was 
to bereave him of his crown and liberty. 

The original materials for the life and reign of the first 
of these two Philips are scattered through the extant ora- 
tions of i^schines and Demosthenes, the compilation of 
Diodorus Siculus, and the Lives of Demosthenes and Phocion 
by Plutarch. Among our modern historians, Mitford has 
given an elaborate though far too favourable view of his 
actions and character. The original authorities for the reign 
of the last Philip are Polybius and Livy. 

PHILIP, ST., was the first disciple of Jesus Christ, and 
one of the twelve apostles. He was a native of Bethsaida, a 
town near the sea of .Tiberias. After his call to the apos- 
tleship not much is recorded of him in the New Testament. 
He has sometimes been confounded with Philip the Deacon, 
mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles ; but a little exa- 
mination will plainly show that they were quite different 

Nicephorus Callisti tells us that in the distribution of 
regions made by the Apostles for their respective spheres of 
labour, St. Philip had Syria and Upper Asia assigned to 
him, with St. Bartholomew ; and that having there made 
numerous converts, he came into Hierapolis in Phrygia, 
where he succeeded in bringing many of the inhabitants 
from gross idolatry to the belief and practice of Christianity, 
on which account he was at length seised by the authorities, 
imprisoned, and scourged, and then martyred by being 
hanged upon a pillar, but in what year is not stated. 

The Gnostics attributed a book to St. Philip, which they 
called his Gospel ; but no other sect ever pretended that 
this apostle left any writings. 

The feast of St. Philip is observed by the Eastern churches 
November 14th. but by the Western on the 1st of May 

(Isidore of Pelusium ; Nicephorus Callisti ; Cave, Lives qf 
the Apostles.) 


PHILIP was the name of five Spanish sovereigns, four of 
whom were of the house of Austria, and one of the Bourbon 

PHILIP I., king of Castile, surnamed the Handsome, was 
the son of Maximilian I., emperor of Germany, by Mary of 
Burgundy, in right of whom be inherited and transmitted to 
his posterity of the house of Austria, the seventeen provinces 
of the Netherlands. In the year 1496 he married Joanna, or 
Jane, eldest daughter of Ferdinand the Catholic and Isa- 
bella, sovereigns of Aragon and Castile ; and in 1 504, on 
the death of Isabella, who bequeathed the kingdom of Cas- 
tile to her daughter Jane, Philip, as well as his consort, 
assumed the regal title. He was crowned at Burgos with 
her ; and in consequence of her mental weakness, exercised 
all the functions of government during the short remainder 
of his life, which closed in the following year, at the early 
age of twenty-eight. 

His queen Jane survived him for fifty years, in a state 
between insanity and fatuity ; and her malady is said to 
have been much aggravated by grief at his death, though 
he had never loved her. She traversed her kingdom, car- 
rying his dead body with her, and causing it to be un- 
covered at times that she might behold it; until she was at 
last persuaded to permit its removal and interment. She 
had by Philip, besides daughters, two sons, both in the 
sequel emperors of Germany, as Charles V. and Ferdinand 
I., the elder of whom, Charles, on the death of his grand- 
father Ferdinand the Catholic, finally re-united the crowns 
of Castile and Aragon. But such was the attachment of the 
nation to their insane queen, that throughout her long life 
she was always recognised as sovereign of Spain in con- 
junction with her son ; and their names were mentioned 
together in every formal act of government. 

PHILIP II., king of Spain, the only legitimate son of the 
emperor Charles V. by Isabella of Portugal, was born in the 
year 1527, and ascended the Spanish throne on his father's 
abdication in 1556; having in the preceding year entered 
on the government of the Netherlands, which Charles had 
in the same manner resigned to him. His inheritance also 
included the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Milan with other 
Italian provinces, and the empire of the New World ; and it 
was a true and expressive phrase for the extent of his power, 
that ' the sun never set upon his dominions.' The reve- 
nues which he drew from the American mines and his 
European realms far exceeded those of any prince of his 
times, and are declared to have amounted to twenty-five mil- 
lions of ducats yearly. His navy was more numerous than 
that of any other power ; and his veteran armies were com- 
posed of the best troops, led by the ablest generals of the age. 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

As the reign of Philip II., which fills a long and im- 
portant period in European history, received its dark 
colouring from his personal qualities, a slight preliminary 
sketch of his private character will best illustrate the 
features of his policy and the events which it produced. He 
was naturally of a stern and morose temperament ; and the 
austerities of a monastic education, aggravating this consti- 
tutional defect, had extinguished in his soul every joyous 
emotion. As he had also been deeply imbued from his 
youth with religious doctrines, the very sincerity of his 
belief acting upon a cold heart, a gloomy temper, and a 
narrow mind, was sufficient to render him obstinately 
bigoted and inexorably cruel. In temporal affairs, the 
despotic principles in which he had been brought up had 
filled him with extravagant ideas of regal authority; and 
his father's example had taught him to aspire to universal 
monarchy. With a superstitious creed be therefore min- 
gled the most unbounded schemes of worldly ambition ; and 
perhaps conscientiously believing that with his own projects 
of dominion be was promoting at the same time the glory 
of God, he pursued without remorse the most inhuman 
course of religious persecution and civil tyranny. 

Philip has therefore truly been represented as a monster 
of bigotry and cruelty ; but it appears unjust to add to these 
revolting qualities, as some writers have done, the reproach 
of hypocrisy. Schiller, who has deeply studied his cha- 
racter with philosophic scrutiny, and whose feelings are any- 
thing but favourable to him, yet concludes, with more can- 
dour and acuteness {Abfall der Niederlande), that he was a 
better man than his father : since Charles V. was a perse- 
cutor only from policy, but Philip from conviction. Charles 
made religion subservient to his views of temporal aggran- 
disement ; Philip often sacrificed his true political interests 
to what he conceived to be the service of religion. The em- 
peror held the pope a prisoner, while he burnt others for 
denying his supremacy: his son engaged only with deep 
reluctance in a legitimate war against pope Paul IV. ; and 
in order to purchase a reconciliation with that arrogant pon- 
tiff, he abandoned the fruit of victory like a repentant cri- 
minal. The indulgence of sensual passion has been adduced 
as another proof, no less than his cruelty, of the hyprocrisy 
of Philip's religious pretensions : but the occasional licence 
of his private life in this respect was one of those inconsis- 
tencies which have sullied purer minds. There seems in- 
deed no reason to doubt the sincerity of Philip's faith ; it is 
more rational and useful to observe the fatal perversion of 
principle, by which the infliction of torture and death is 
imagined to be an exercise of virtue, a religious duty, and 
an acceptable offering to the God of mercy. 

The marriage of Philip II. with Mary, queen of England, 
which had taken place in 1554, enabled him, soon after his 
accession to the Spanish crown, to engage his consort's 
kingdom with his own, in 1557, in a war against France. 
The only memorable event of this contest was the victory of 
St. Quentin, gained by his troops. He was not himself 
present at the battle : but at the subsequent assault of the 
town he showed himself in armour to encourage the sol- 
diery, though without sharing their danger; and it was 
observed that this was the first and last time in which he 
wore a military dress or appeared on the field. The war 
was concluded in 1 559, by the peace of Cateau Cambresis, 
upon terms advantageous for Philip. He had meanwhile, 
by the death of Mary, to whom he had been a cold and 
unkind husband, lost his connection with England. Leaving 
his provinces of the Netherlands under the government of 
his natural sister Margaret, duchess of Parma, Philip sailed 
for Spain, which he never quitted again ; and his arrival in 
that kingdom was immediately followed by a sanguinary 
persecution, through which he succeeded in crushing the 
germs of the Reformation in the peninsula. He was pre- 
sent at an auto-da-fe, or public act of faith, at which forty 
unhappy persons were led to the stake by the Inquisition. 
When passing him, one of the victims in this dreadful pro- 
cession appealed to him with loud cries of mercy : ' Perish 
thou and all like thee !' was his merciless reply. ' If 
my own son were a heretic, I would deliver him to the 

It was amidst such scenes that he accomplished a vow 
made to heaven and to St. Lawrence, on the day of which 
saint the battle of St. Quentin had been gained, to testify 
his gratitude for that victory. At the village of Escurial, 
near Madrid, he built a superb palace, to which, in honour 
of the saint and of the instrument of his martyrdom, he 

gave the form of a gridiron. At the same period he trans- 
ferred the seat of government from Toledo, the antient 
capital of Castile, to Madrid, which latter city thenceforth 
became the metropolis of Spain. In the south of that king- 
dom, his persecution goaded to revolt the Moorish popula- 
tion, who had compounded for the quiet possession of then- 
native seats by a pretended conversion to Christianity ; and 
after a furious contest, embittered by religious hatred and 
marked by horrid atrocities on both sides, a portion of the 
Moors were driven to seek refuge in Africa, and the remain- 
der (a.d. 1571) reduced to submission. 

Meanwhile Philip diligently applied himself to the extir- 
pation of heresy in the rest of his dominions. In his Italian 
possessions, both of Milan and Naples, fire and the sword 
were successfully employed for this purpose; but the at- 
tempt to establish the Spanish Inquisition in the Nether- 
lands with the same view, first provoked a spirit of insurrec- 
tion (a.d. 1566), which, throughout the remainder of his 
long reign, exhausted his immense resources of men and 
money, and after the frightful devastation of those fertile 
and flourishing provinces, for ever tore seven of them from 
the Spanish monarchy. When Philip found that the govern- 
ment of Margaret of Parma wanted strength to enforce his 
religious edicts in the Netherlands, he replaced her by the 
ferocious Ferdinand Alvarez de Toledo, duke of Alva. 
The character of this man's administration may be estimated 
by his sanguinary boast, that in less than six years he had 
consigned 18,000 heretics to the stake and the scaffold, 
before his master was compelled, by the failure of his cruel 
measures, to recal him. The milder government of his 
successor Requesens; the warlike renown, the energies, 
and the artifice of Don John of Austria, natural brother of 
Philip (who had gained for him the great naval victory of 
Lepanto over the Turks in 1571) ; and the military genius 
of Alessandro Farnese, duke of Parma, the ablest general of 
his times ; — were all in succession equally ineffectual to sup- 
press the revolt of the Netherlands. William the Silent, 
prince of Orange, whose de ep enmity Philip had provoked, 
proved the most dangerous of his insurgent subjects; and 
under that prince and his son Maurice, they successfully 
prosecuted a struggle, of which the principal events are 
related under another head. [Nassau, House of.] 

While the bigoted tyranny of Philip was thus dissevering 
seven provinces of the Netherlands from his dominions, he 
unexpectedly acquired possession of another kingdom. 
On the death of Henry, king of Portugal, without issue, 
Philip as his nephew asserted his title to the succession ; 
and his power easily enabling him to prevail against his 
feeble competitor, Don Antonio de Crato, his troops, under 
the Duke of Alva, entered Lisbon, and in two months (a.d. 
1580) annexed the Portuguese crown and colonial depend- 
encies for sixty years to the Spanish monarchy. 

This acquisition seemed but a step to the universal domi- 
nion at which Philip aimed; and in the pursuit of his 
double ambition of extending his sway and extirpating the 
Protestant faith, the remainder of his life was passed in 
designs for subjugating both France and England. In the 
former country, after secretly allying himself with the 

Jiueen mother, Catherine de* Medici, and the Romish party, 
or the destruction of the Huguenots, he subsequently and 
openly supported the Catholic league, under the Guises, 
against Henri IV. ; and it was not until that sovereign, by 
chauging his religion, completed his victories over the 
league, that the subtle tyrant of Spain abandoned his hopes 
of reducing France to subjection. His project for the con- 

Suest of England was more avowedly proclaimed, and more 
isgracefully defeated. But it is needless in this place to 
repeat the narrative, so glorious in our annals, of the de- 
struction of the magnificent fleet of one hundred and fifty 
vessels of war, which, under the presumptuous title of the 
Invincible Armada, Philip had equipped for the reduction of 
this island (ad. 1588). The manner in which he received 
the mortifying intelligence of the annihilation of his fondest 
hopes by the shipwreck as well as the defeat of his navy, 
displayed some greatness of mind as well as religious resig- 
nation : ' I sent my fleet,' said he, ' to combat with the 
English, but not with the elements: God's will be done!' 

1 he close of Philip's reign and life must have been em- 
bittered by the failure of all his plans of ambition and in- 
tolerance. The contest in the Low Countries was daily be- 
coming so adverse to the Spanish arms, that one of his last 
acts was an abdication of his title over the whole of those pro- 
vinces in favour of his daughter Isabella and her consort the 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

Archduke Albert. His haughty spirit was reduced to sub- 
mit to this measure, as the only remaining expedient for 
Ere venting the total alienation of the Netherlands from his 
ouse. England and France also had escaped from his 
toils; and the peace of Vervins, which he was compelled to 
conclude with Henri IV., left that sovereign securely esta- 
blished on the French throne. Philip died in the same 
year (a.d. 1598), at the age of seventy-two, after protracted 
and excruciating suffering, under a complication of dread- 
ful maladies, which he bore with exemplary fortitude and 

Philip II. was four times married. The queen of Eng- 
land, by whom he had no issue, was his second wife. His 
first was his cousin, Mary of Portugal ; and by her he had 
one son, Don Carlos, whose fate has deepened the sombre 
aspect of his reign. That young prince, who appears to 
have been of a haughty and violent temper, was exasperated 
by his father's refusal to' admit him £o a share in the admi- 
nistration of the kingdom, though he had never shown any 
capacity for public affairs. After giving many proofs of a 
discontented and disordered mind, he was, on an accusation 
of holding a treasonable correspondence with the Flemish 
insurgents, arrested in his bed by Philip himself, at mid- 
night on the 18th of January, 1568, and committed to a 
prison, where in a few months he terminated his miserable 
existence, at the age of twenty-three years, and not without 
the horrid suspicion that his death had been hastened, 
through poison or other means, by his father's command. 
But the authentic version, which we have related, of this 
mysterious and tragical affair has been variously discoloured 
by calumny and fictiou. Writers, who believed or feigned 
Philip capable of any atrocity, have asserted without suf- 
ficient evidence that he was the murderer of his son ; and 
upon this foundation has the superstructure been formed 
for a romantic tale of a mutual and criminal passion be- 
tween Don Carlos and his father's third wife, the Princess 
Elizabeth of France, who had originally been betrothed to 
himself, and whose life, which cjosed quickly afterwards, is 
also said to have been sacrificed to the jealous vengeance of 
her husband. For this charge against all the parties, there 
seems however to have been no foundation. By Elizabeth, 
Philip had two daughters, who, together with his son and 
successor by bis fourth wife Anne, daughter of the emperor 
Maximilian II., were the only legitimate issue which he 
left. In the midst of his persecuting zeal, he had given one 
purer proof of his regard for religion ; and sacred literature 
owes an obligation to his memory for the publication of the 
beautiful Polyglot Bible which bears his name, and which 
was printed at Antwerp in 1569-72, in 8 volumes, folio. 

PHILIP III. was a prince, in everything except the 
bigotry of his faith, of a character most opposite to that of 
his father. Gentle, humane, and unconquerably indolent, 
he surrendered himself and the whole management of his 
affairs, from the very commencement of his reign, to the 
guidance of his favourite, the marquis of Denia, who had 
been his chief equerry, and whom he raised to the dignity 
of duke of Lerma. This nobleman, who governed Spain as 
prime minister with unbounded power for twenty years, was 
a personage of dignified mien and of a mild and beneficent 
disposition ; but as a statesman, though he wanted neither 
prudence nor firmness of spirit, he was otherwise of only 
moderate capaoity, and he rendered his administration inju- 
rious to the state by his love of pomp and lavish expendi- 
ture, and the consequent derangement of the national 
finances. He was supplanted at last in the affections of his 
feeble master (a.d. 1618) by his own ungrateful son, the 
duke of Uzeda, under whom the kingdom was not better 
governed ; and the aged Lerma was solaced by the pope in 
his unmerited disgrace with a cardinal's hat, which he had 
used the foresight to solicit a little before his fall, as a pro- 
tection from the persecution of his enemies. 

The principal circumstances which distinguished the reign 
of Philip III. were the -recognition of the independence of 
the revolted provinces in the Low Countries, and the expul- 
sion of the Moors from Spain. Notwithstanding the ces- 
sion by Philip II. of the general sovereignty of all the 
Netherlands to his daughter Isabella and her husband the 
archduke Albert, which was ratified by Philip III. imme- 
diately after he ascended the throne, the war in those pro- 
vinces continued with unabated fury, and with indifferent 
success to the Spanish arms, until the year 1609 ; when the 
exhaustion of the immense revenues of the monarchy com- 
pelled the duke of Lerma to conclude in his master's name 

a truce for twelve years with the Seven United Provinces, 
by which the king of Spain acknowledged them for free 
and independent states. In the same year, under the plea 
that the remains of the Moorish population in Spain, not- 
withstanding their pretended conversion to Christianity, 
continued in their hearts to be obstinate infidels, and to 
hold treasonable correspondence with their African brethren, 
a royal edict was issued, commanding all the Moors in the 
kingdom of Valencia to quit the Spanish dominions; and 
soon after a decree, extending this sentence of banishment 
to all the Moors in the peninsula, completed (a.d. 1610) the 
fatal measure, from which Spain has never recovered. On 
the impulse of a blind superstition, and contrary to every 
dictate of wise policy, above a million of the most industrious 
subjects of the Spanish crown were driven into exile; and 
the most flourishing provinces were depopulated by their 
removal to the opposite shores of Barbary. [Mori scobs.] 

After these events Spain may be said to have languished, 
rather than found refreshment, in peace, which was inter- 
rupted but slightly, by the commotions of the times in 
Italy and Germany, during the remainder of the reign of 
Philip. That prince terminated his existence by a fever in 
the year 1621, at the age of forty- three years. By his queen, 
Margaret of Austria, he left three sons : Philip, who suc- 
ceeded him ; Charles, who died in 1632 ; and Ferdinand, for 
whom, at the age of only ten years, he obtained from the 
pope a cardinal s hat, with a dispensation to hold by proxy 
the archbishopric of Toledo, and who, in consequence of 
these ecclesiastical dignities, is known in history under the 
title of the cardinal-infant. Of his daughters, the eldest, 
Anne, married Louis XIII. of France ; and the second, 
Maria Anne, after having been contracted to Charles I. of 
England, when prince of Wales, was finally married to the 
king of Hungary, who subsequently ascended the Imperial 
throne under the title of Ferdinand III. 

PHILIP IV. was only sixteen years of age when he as- 
cended the throne; and, like his father, after he had be- 
come the sovereign of his people, he remained the subject 
of a favourite. This was the famous count-duke Olivares, 
by which peculiar title he chose to be styled, a man of self- 
sufficient confidence and inordinate ambition, who affecting 
to condemn the supine inactivity of the last reign, and to 
pursue a more vigorous course of policy, concluded for his 
sovereign with the emperor a strict family league for the ag- 
grandisement of both branches of .the House of Austria. 
The means proposed for this object were the renewal of the 
war in the Low Countries at the expiration of the twelve 
years' truce, and the consolidation of the Spanish power 
both in these provinces and in Italy; while in Germany the 
Imperial authority should be secured by the subjugation of 
the Protestants. It was hoped that France, torn by reli- 
gious wars, could offer no resistance to these designs; and 
England was to be amused with that matrimonial treaty 
which produced the strange journey of Prince Charles, at- 
tended by the duke of Buckingham, to woo the infanta 
Maria Anne at Madrid. 

These intrigues were among the preludes to the long and 
sanguinary wars which were only terminated in Germany 
by the peace of Westphalia, and which continued between 
Spain and France above ten years later, until the treaty of 
the Pyrenees. In the Netherlands, during the life of the 
renowned Spinola, the Spanish arms long maintained an 
ascendant : but in the maritime war which extended to the 
New World, the Dutch fleets were everywhere victorious 
over those of Spain ; and the policy of Olivares drew upon 
his country the temporary assaults of England as well as 
the more lasting hostilities of France. Directed by the ge- 
nius of Richelieu, the energies of that monarchy were ably 
and successfully applied to humble the power of the House 
of Austria ; and the ambitious projects of foreign dominion, 
which Olivares had built up, crumbled one after another to 
the ground. 

Meanwhile a dangerous insurrection in Catalonia, pro- 
voked by the imprudent measures of that minister, and the 
revolt of Portugal (a.d. 1640), were added to the distresses 
of the Spanish monarchy. Olivarez announced this last 
event to his master as a subject of congratulation : ' Sire, 
the duke of Braganza has had the madness to suffer him- 
self to be proclaimed king of Portugal. His imprudence 
will bring a confiscation of twelve millions into your trea- 
sury.' Portugal was irrevocably lost by mismanagement 
and defeat to the Spanish crown ; but Catalonia, after a 
desperate struggle of many years, was finally reduced to 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

obedience. Olivarez, whom Philip IV. was himself at last 
compelled to recognise as the cause of these multiplied dis- 
asters, was disgraced in 1647, and Was succeeded as prime 
minister by his nephew Don Louis de Haro, who however 
was neither attached to him nor disposed to imitate his 

In the following year (a.d. 1648) was concluded the 
peace of Westphalia, by which Philip IV., for himself and 
his successors, Anally and formally renounced all claim of 
sovereignty over the Seven United Provinces. The war 
with France, which still continued for eleven years, and the 
reverses of which were increased by the league of England, 
under the protectorate of Cromwell, with France, was little 
else than one long train of loss and disgrace to Spain ; and 
the peace of the Pyrenees (a.d. 1669), which closed the 
struggle, was only obtained by territorial sacrifices. 

This treaty Was also distinguished by the marriage of 
Maria Theresa, eldest daughter of Philip IV., to Louis XIV. 
of France, an event which, despite of the solemn renuncia- 
tion of the French king, was destined to convey the crown 
of Spain to the house of Bourbon. After this pacification 
Philip continued his vain efforts to recover the crown of 
Portugal for some years ; and his death, which occurred in 
1665, is said to have been hastened through grief at the 
continued defeat of his troops by the Portuguese. He was 
a prince of some talents, and of upright intentions : but a 
propensity to pleasure, which Olivarez had artfully encou- 
raged, immersed him in indolence ; and these habits ener- 
vated his understanding and rendered him incapable of 
applying to business. He left one son, who succeeded him 
under the title of Charles II., and died childless ; and two 
daughters, Maria Theresa, married to Louis XIV., and Mar- 
garet Theresa, who became the wife of the emperor Leopold. 

PHILIP V., king of Spain, was great-grandson of 
Philip IV., through his daughter Maria Theresa, grandson 
of Louis XIV. of France, and second son of the dauphin. 
He was born in 1683, received the title of di^ke of Anjou 
in his infancy, and was called by the last testament of 
Charles II. to the throne of Spain and the Indies in the 
the year 1700. The circumstances which attended thi3 
inheritance, and produced the memorable war of the Spanish 
succession, belong more appropriately to the reign of his 
grandfather [Louis XIV.] ; and it will suffice in this place 
to sketch the principal events of his life after his recognition 
as king of Spain by the treaty of Utrecht (a.d. 1713). He 
had married, two years before, Maria Louisa, a princess of 
Savoy, to whom he became so tenderly attached that on her 
death (a.d. 1714) he abandoned for a time all care of busi- 
ness, and resigned himself to the guidance of the cele- 
brated princess Des Ursins, a French woman of spirit and 
intelligence, the favourite of the deceased queen, who had 
accompanied her into Spain from Italv, and retained equal 
influence after her death on the mind of Philip. He de- 
sired to follow her advice in the choice of a second consort, 
and she was induced by Alberoni, an Italian priest, to select 
for his queen Elizabeth Farnese, daughter of the duke of 
Parma. But the new queen proved of a very different cha- 
racter from that which Alberoni had artfully ascribed to 
her; and instead of exhibiting the pliant temper and feeble 
mind which the princess Des Ursins had been taught to ex- 
pect and reckoned upon governing, her first act was to cause 
the astonished favourite to be sent out of the kingdom. 

Alberoni succeeded immediately to the influence of the 
discarded princess; was shortly appointed prime minister;' 
and soon obtained from the pope the dignity of cardinal. 
This man, in whose mind there was much that was uncom- 
mon, and something of grandeur, had conceived the design 
of restoring Spain to her rank and power among nations. 
He began by the attempt to recover for her the Italian pro- 
vinces, which had been lost by the treaty of Utrecht : but 
this, though only a part of the vast schemes which he had 
formed, was sufficient to alarm the leading powers of Europe; 
and it produced the quadruple alliance of England, France, 
the Empire, and Holland (a.d. 1718), which Spain was un- 
able to withstand. Philip yielded to the demands of the 
allies by disgracing and banishing Alberoni, under the pru- 
dence and vigour of whose brief domestic administration agri- 
culture and commerce had already begun to revive in Spain. 
A few years later, Philip, who, though not without some 
talents, was of a weak ana melancholy disposition, abdicated 
his crown in favour of his son Louis (a.d. 1724), and retired 
with his queen to a religious seclusion at St. Ildefonso. But 
on the death of Louis, who, in a few months after his acces- 

sion, fell a victim to the small-pox, Philip found himself 
compelled to resume the toils of government. 

The period of his second reign, which was protracted for 
twenty-two years after his son's death, was occupied chiefly 
in obtaining possessions in Italy for his two sons by his 
ambitious queen Elisabeth Farnese, both of whom she suc- 
ceeded in establishing in that country, Don Carlos as king 
of the Two Sicilies, and Don Philip as duke of Parma and 
Piacenza. In other respects the transactions of this long 
reign present nothing remarkable which does not belong to 
the general history of Europe rather than to that of Spain ; 
and Philip died in 1 746, leaving an only surviving son by 
his first wife, who succeeded him under the title of Ferdi- 
nand VI., and a numerous family by his second queen, one 
of whom, Don Carlos, afterwards ascended the Spanish 
throne as Charles III. 

(For these reigns of the five Philips of Spain we have con- 
sulted VArt de verifier lee Datet ; the Universal History 
(vols.xvii.,xviii.); Schiller, Oeschichte de$ Abfalls der Nie~ 
derlande ; Watson, History of the Reigns of Philip I Land 
Philip III. ; Coxe, Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of the 
House of Bourbon, &c.) 

PHILIP OF ORLEANS, Regent. [Orleans, House 

PHILIPPE I., king of France, son of Henri I., and 
third both in descent and succession from Hugues Capet, 
founder of the third dynasty of France, was born a.d. 1 053, 
and succeeded his father a.d. 1060. His mother was Anne 
of Russia, daughter of the Czar Jaroslaf I. On his death- 
bed, Henri committed the care of the child and the admi- 
nistration of the government to his brother-in-law, Bau- 
douin or Baldwin, count of Flanders. Baudouin did little 
more till the time of his death (a.d. 1067) than occasionally 
visit his ward, who was brought up sometimes at Paris, 
sometimes at one or other of the royal castles. The death 
of Baudouin removed from Philippe the restraint which his 
station and inexperience required, and he plunged into a 
series of excesses of the most disgraceful character. The 
means of indulgence were supplied from various sources, 
especially from the sale of ecclesiastical benefices and digni- 
ties, which subsequently drew upon him the hostility of the 
church, but although he had not sufficient energy vigor- 
ously to struggle against the growing spirit of ecclesiastical 
domination, his necessities and bis profligacy prevented his 
entire submission to the claims of the popes, who desired to 
engross to themselves all the higher ecclesiastical appoint- 
ments. Philippe was engaged, not long after the death of 
Baudouin, in a war with Robert le Frison, or the Frisian, 
who had usurped the county of Flanders from his nephew 
Arnolphe, the grandson of Baudouin. The hasty and inade- 
quate force assembled by Philippe was surprised and routed 
by Robert near Cassel: the young Count Arnolphe was killed, 
and the king only saved himself by a hasty and inglorious 
flight (a.d. 1071). In a second attempt to subdue Robert, 
Philippe met with no better success. He then made peace 
with him, and married Bertha of Holland, his step-daughter. 

From 1075 to 1087, Philippe was engaged in occasional 
hostilities with Guillaume, or William, duke of Normandie, 
and king of England, which kingdom he had acquired by 
conquest (in 1066) during Philippe's minority. But the war 
was languidly conducted, on the part of Philippe from in- 
dolence, and on that of William from full occupation in 
other quarters, and perhaps from the feudal sentiment of 
respect for his suzerain. Philippe however encouraged the 
discontented vassals and rebellious children of William; 
and the contest did not finally terminate until the death of 
the Conqueror (a.d. 1087). He had become excessively cor- 
pulent, and a coarse jest of Philippe, who inquired ' when 
he would be put to bed,' excited his indignation. 'When I 
go to be churched at St. Genevieve, I will offer a hundred 
thousand tapers,* was the reply of the angry veteran. He 
entered the territory of Vexin, and stormed Mantes ; but a 
hurt which he received by his horse falling proved mortal, 
and relieved Philippe from his hostility. 

The year 1092 was marked by the most important inci- 
dent of Philippe's lifb. He had become weary of his wife 
Bertha, by whom he had four children, and had confined her 
in the castle of Montreuil, which had been settled on her by 
way of dower. He now married Bertrade, wife of Foulques 
le Rechin, count of Anjou, who, dreading her husband^ 
inconstancy, forsook him and took refuge with Philippe. 
This marriage was bo glaringly inconsistent, not only with 
good morals and decency, but with ecclesiastical law, that 

Digitized by 


P H I 



it was with difficulty that any bishop could be procured to 
solemnise the union. It involved Philippe in two wars, one 
with Robert le Frison, who took up the cause of the re- 
pudiated Bertha; and another with Foulques of Anjou, 
who sought to recover Bertrade. The church also took 
up the matter, and Philippe was daily attacked with re- 
monstrances, censures, and threats of excommunication. 
In return he threatened the bishops, and even subjected 
one of them to a short imprisonment. Philippe had ob- 
stinacy enough to retain Bertrade, but not sufficient 
strength of character to silence the bishops. Some of 
them indeed embraced his cause, after the death of his 
injured wife Bertha (a.d. 1094), and, in a council held at 
Reims, showed a disposition to attack the bishop of Chartres, 
his sturdiest opponent. But the majority of the French 
bishops, in a national council at Autun, excommunicated 
both Philippe and Bertrade (a.d. 1094). The pope, Urban 
II., despising his weakness, thought it not necessary to pur- 
sue him to extremity, and the sentence was only so far en- 
forced as to deprive him of the liberty of Wearing" the ensigns 
of royalty, and to prevent the celebration of public worship 
in the place where he was. He retained the exercise of such 
power as he possessed, and was allowed to perform his de- 
votions in his private chapel. 

Near the close of the eleventh or the beginning of the 
twelfth century, Philippe, being engaged in hostilities with 
William II., the Red, who then held Normandie, associated 
with himself in the honours and powers of royalty his son 
Louis VI., then only eighteen or twenty years of age, after- 
wards known as Louis le Gros. The activity and good con- 
duct of the prince gradually raised the royal power from the 
contempt into which it had fallen, but excited the jealousy 
of his step-mother Bertrade. The court was divided; Louis 
is charged with seeking a pretext to have Bertrade mur- 
dered, and Bertrade practised on his life by poison. Neither 
the divisions of his family nor the power of the church could 
prevail on Philippe really to put away Bertrade, or to de- 
prive her of the title of queen. A declaration of penitence, 
an engagement no longer to regard her or live with her as 
a wife, which engagement he afterwards openly violated, 
were accepted by the church, and the excommunication was 
taken off (a.d. 1 104). Bertrade afterwards succeeded in re- 
conciling both herself and Philippe with her former husband, 
Foulques le Rechin, and the degrading intercourse of the 
two husbands of this infamous woman is described by Sis- 
mondi after Orderic Vitalis. The remaining years of 
Philippe were marked by little except the intrigues of Ber- 
trade for the advancement of her children by both mar- 
riages. In 1106, Constance, daughter of Philippe by his 
first wife, married Boemond, or Bohemond, the Norman, 
prince oT Antioch, who had come to France in discharge of 
a vow, and to raise recruits for the Holy Land. 

Philippe died at Melun, of premature old age, the result 
of his intemperance, a.d. 1108, having nearly completed the 
forty-eighth year of his reign, and was succeeded by Louis 
VI. His worthless character, combined with the low state 
of the regal power, rendered him a spectator rather than an 
actor in the events of his reign. France possessed at this 
time little national unity, and the history of the time is the 
history of the great nobles and of the provinces, rather than 
the history of the king or the kingdom. From the time of 
Philippe the royal power revived. The activity of Louis 
had given an impulse to it even in his father's time, and his 
activity and that of his immediate successors gave perma- 
nence to the movement 

PHILIPPE II., better known as PHILIPPE AU- 
GUSTE (a name which he is thought to have derived from 
being born in the month of August), was the son of Louis 
VII., surnamedLe Jeune, or the Young, and Alix, daughter 
of Thibaut le Grand, count of Champagne, his third wife. He 
was born a.d. 1165, and was crowned at Reims, when little 
more than fourteen years of age, in his father's lifetime, upon 
whose death, in the following year (a.d. 1180), he came to 
the throne. He had however exercised the sovereign power 
from his first coronation, his father being disabled by palsy, 
and one of his earliest acts was a general persecution of 
the Jews, whom, when assembled in their synagogues on 
the Sabbath, he caused to be surrounded by soldiers, dragged 
to prison, and despoiled of all the gold and silver that was 
found on them. He also published an edict, by which all 
debts due to them were to be annulled on condition that the 
debtor should pay to the royal treasury a fifth part of the 
amount due. Other acts of persecution followed, and in 

1 181, the Jews were commanded to dispose of all their move- 
able property and quit the kingdom for ever ; all their real 
property was confiscated to the crown, and their synagogues 
were ordered to be converted into Christian churches. The 
intercession both of nobles and ecclesiastics, for whose good 
offices tbey paid large sums, was in vain ; and after experi- 
encing a heavy loss from the enforced sale of their effects, 
they were expelled from all the domains of the crown. 
The great vassals of the crown were in no hurry to repeat 
the royal edict, and in the county of Toulouse especially the 
Jews remained undisturbed. Other acts of persecution fol- 
lowed, and the king is recorded ' not to have allowed to live 
in all his kingdom a single individual who ventured to gain- 
say the laws of the church, or to depart from one of the 
articles of the Catholic faith, or to deny the sacraments.' 

The pride and ambition of Philippe led him, even before 
his father's death, to embroil himself with the queen his 
mother and her four brothers, the counts of Blois, Cham- 
pagne, and Saucer re, and the archbishop of Reims, who had 
taken advantage of the weakness of Louis VII. to govern 
France in his name, and who concluded that it belonged to 
them to direct the administration of a minor king. The 
good offices of Henry II. of England arranged the dis- 
pute. Philippe married, before his father's death, Isabelle, 
niece of the count of Flanders, his godfather ; and was, 
with her, crowned a second time at St. Denis, by the arch- 
bishop of Sens. This marriage was one of the causes of 
dispute with his mother and uncles. He soon alienated 
the count of Flanders, as well as most of the other great 
vassals of the crown, who united to oppose his rising power; 
but the good offices of Henry of England again restored 
quiet (a.d. 1 182). It was a little after this that he caused 
some of the streets of Paris to be paved. [Paris.] After 
an interval of three years (aj>. 1185), war between Philippe 
and the count of Flandersfagain broke out, and ended, after 
a short campaign, by a peace which added to the territory 
and resources of the king. A struggle with the duke of 
Bourgogne (a.d. 1186) also terminated favourably for the 
king. Hostilities with Henry II. of England followed, and 
were attended with success ; and that powerful monarch, 
broken-hearted at seeing his own sons in league with his 
enemy, died at Chinon (a.d. 1 1 89). 

In a.d. 1188 Philippe had taken the cross. In 1190 the 
combined forces of Philippe and Richard I. of England ren- 
dezvoused at Vezelay, not far from Auxerre ; and in the au- 
tumn of the same year they embarked, Philippe at Genoa, and 
Richard at Marseille. They met and wintered at Messina 
in Sicily, and in 1191 proceeded to the Holy Land; but 
before long, Philippe, jealous of the superiority of Richard 
as a warrior, made ill health an excuse for returning to 
France, and reached Paris in December, 1191. He had 
left his mother Alix, and his uncle, the archbishop of Reims, 
regents of his kingdom. The incidents of the crusade had 
made Philippe and Richard rivals ; and the former, on his 
return, commenced his attack on the other, at first by in- 
trigues, and afterwards by force. He made some acquisi- 
tions in Normandie, but failed (a.d. 1194) in attacking 
Rouen. The following years were occupied with alternate 
periods of truce and hostility, in which the policy and steadi- 
ness and the feudal superiority of the French king rendered 
him a match for the more soldier-like qualities of Richard; 
and on the death of Richard (a.d. 1199), the incapacity of 
John, his successor, enabled Philippe to establish decisively 
the superiority of the Capet race over the rival family of 
Plantagenet. During this war, Philippe, now a widower, 
married Ingeburge, or Isamburge, sister of Canute VI., 
king of Denmark (a.d. 1193); but having in a short time 
obtained a divorce in an assembly of prelates and barons, 
he married Marie, or Agnes, daughter of Berchtold, duke of 
Merania, a German noble (ajd. 1196), in contempt of the 
authority of the pope, before whom the case of Ingeburge 
had been carried, and by whom the divorce had been an- 
nulled. The struggle between the king and the pope (In- 
nocent HI.) continued for some years, until an interdict laid 
on Philippe's dominions obliged the king to submit the 
affair to an ecclesiastical council at Soissons(A.D. 1 201) ; but 
he evaded their decision by a pretended reconciliation with 
his queen Ingeburge, whose real condition was however 
little improved. Marie of Merania, from whom he had been 
obliged to separate himself, died soon after, leaving two chil- 
dren, whom the pope did not scruple to declare legitimate. 

The murder of Arthur of Bretagne, by his uncle John of 
England, having roused general indignation, Philippe seized 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

the occasion to attack Guienne, Normandio, Touraine, Anjou, 
and Poitou. These, except Guienne, he speedily conquered ; 
and prosecuting John before the court of the twelve peers 
of France, by a sentence quite unprecedented in France and 
unauthorised in such a case by the institutions of feudalism, 
procured the confiscation of all his French dominions (a.d. 
1205). Crimes, however flagrant, which did not violate 
the duty of the noble to his feudal superior, had not hitherto 
been cognizable in the great feudatories ; and the Court of 
Peers, which Philippe professed to revive from the institu- 
tions of Charlemagne, was probably an innovation, founded 
on romances to which the ignorance of the age gave the 
credit of being faithful historical traditions. It consisted of 
twelve members, viz. : six of the great nobles (the dukes of 
Normandie, Bourgogne, and Aquitaine ; and the counts of 
Toulouse, Flanders, and Vermandois, for the last of whom 
the count of Champagne was substituted), and six pre- 
lates, by means of whom the king sought to influence the 
decisions of the tribunal. As in judgments involving a 
capital sentence the ecclesiastics could not take part, it is 
probable that the number of twelve was made up out of the 
higher nobility who were at court at the time. The nobles 
forming the court, proud of sitting in judgment on a crowned 
head, lent themselves to the purpose of Philippe, who met 
with no opposition in thus establishing a jurisdiction which 
might hereafter promote the aggrandisement of the crown. 
John succeeded in preserving Guienne and recovering 
Poitou and part of Touraine ; but Normandie, and his other 
dominions to the north of the Loire were finally lost 

In the interval of peace which followed, Philippe endea- 
voured to consolidate the institutions of his kingdom by 
holding national assemblies ; but his authority in the south 
of France, where the crusade against the Albigeois was about 
this time (a.d. 1207, 1213) carried on, continued to be 
merely nominal. He embellished Paris, protected the uni- 
versity of that city, and sought the favour of the church by 
sending to the stake those charged with heresy. Under 
pretence of supporting the cause of the church against John 
of England, Philippe prepared for the invasion of that king- 
dom; and when John had submitted to the church, under 
the protection of which he placed himself, Philippe turned 
his arms against Flanders, the count of which had refused 
to join in the invasion of England. He obliged the chief 
towns to surrender, and committed great ravages ; but lost 
his fleet, part of which was taken by the English, and the 
rest burnt in the port of Dam to prevent its falling into their 
hands (a.d. 1213). Next year Philippe was attacked on 
the side of Poitou by John, and on that of Flanders by the 
Flemish nobles and burghers, supported by the emperor 
Otho IV.; but John was repelled -by Louis, the son of 
Philippe ; and the emperor, whose array consisted almost 
entirely of Flemings, was defeated by Philippe himself at 
Bou vines, between Lille and Tournay (a.d. 1214). 

In 1216, Louis, son of Philippe, went over to England, 
whither he was invited by the malcontent barons ; but he 
was obliged to return the next year. In 1219 he took part 
in the crusade against the Albigeois ; and was afterwards 
(a.d. 1221) engaged in hostilities in the provinces held by 
the English king Henry IIL The Count of Montfort, 
unable to retain the conquests which his father, Simon de 
Montfort, had made in the county of Toulouse [Lanoubdoc], 
offered to cede them all to Philippe Auguste ; but the king, 
who had never taken much interest in the affairs of the 
south, declined engaging in the negotiation. The feeble- 
ness of his health increased the natural caution of age, and 
he took little part in the affairs of foreign lands. He em- 
ployed himself chietiy in strengthening and improving the 
domains of the crown, which he had so widely extended ; 
and he walled in the towns and villages which it compre- 
hended. His regular management of his revenues enabled 
him to effect this, and yet to bequeath to his various legatees 
an immense sum, of which the maxims of the time enabled 
him to dispose as if it had been his own property. He died 
at Mantes, a.d. 1223, in the fifty-eighth year of his age, 
having reigned forty-three years. 

PHILIPPE III., surnamed LE HARDI, or the Bold, 
was the eldest son of Louis IX. (or St. Louis). He was bom 
in May, a.d. 1245; and was proclaimed king in the camp 
before Tunis, which city his father was besieging at the time 
of his death, August, a.d. 1270. The army remained yet 
two months in Africa, suffering much from the climate : at 
length peace was made with the king of Tunis ; and part of 
the besiegers determined to proceed with Alphonse, count 
P. 13. 

of Poitou and Toulouse, the king's uncle, to the Holy Land ; 
another part with Charles of Anjou, another of his uncles, 
for Constantinople ; while the remainder, under Philippe 
himself, were to return to France. Before their final separa- 
tion, the division destined for the Holy Land was shattered 
by a tempest, and many vessels were lost. The expeditions 
to the Holy Land and to Constantinople were consequently 
given up, except by an auxiliary division of English, which 
proceeded under Prince Edward (afterwards Edward I.) to 
Acre ; and the wreck of the army, diminished by sickness, 
proceeded with Philippe to France. His father and one of 
nis brothers had died at Tunis, and he lost, on his way 
through Sicily and Italy, his brother-in-law, the king of 
Navarre, through disease, and his wife, Isabella of Aragon, 
who died through premature childbirth, the consequence of 
a fall. It was not till May 21st, 1271, that he reached Paris. 
He was crowned at Reims in the following August, and 
shortly after, by the death of his uncle Alphonse, acquired 
the counties of Poitiers and Toulouse, which that prince had 

It was the object of Philippe to render the great feudal 
nobles more completely subject to his sceptre, and he 
reduced to subjection the count of Foix, who had refused 
obedience to his commands (a.d. 1272). He married (a.d. 
1274) Marie, daughter of the duke of Brabant, who was 
crowned as queen the following year. He interfered in the 
affairs of Navarre, during the minority of his kinswoman 
Jeanne, heiress of that kingdom, who was designed to be 
married to one of his sons ; and in the affairs of Castile, to 
support the claims of the Infants of La Cerda, his sister's 
children, and heirs in the direct line to that kingdom, whom 
the Cortes had set aside in favour of Sanchez, their maternal 
uncle. He succeeded in retaining Navarre for some years, 
but his projects in Castile failed of success. 

During the earlier years of his reign Philippe was much 
under the influence of Pierre de la Brosse, who had com* 
menced his career at court as barber-surgeon to Saint Louis, 
and had risen to the rank of chamberlain. His elevation, 
and the abuse, real or supposed, of his influence over the 
king, caused his downfal ; he was arrested (a.d. 1278), tried 
on some charge never promulgated, before a commission 
of nobles, condemned to be hung, and executed in pursu- 
ance of his sentence. The immediate cause of his down- 
fal is supposed to have been his inspiring Philippe with a 
suspicion that his Queen, Marie of Brabant, had poisoned 
her step-son Louis, Philippe's eldest son by his first wife, 
in order to open a way for her own children to the succession. 

In* 1283 Philippe engaged in war with Pedro, king of 
Aragon ; the crown of which kingdom had been offered by 
the pope (who had excommuncated Pedro) to Charles of 
Valois, Philippe's second son, to be held in feudal sub- 
jection to the holy see. The French king assembled his 
barons and prelates to deliberate on the matter, and by 
their advice accepted the pope's offer. The prelates and 
nobles formed on this occasion two separate chambers. 
In 1285 he invaded Catalonia, took the town of Etna by 
assault and massacred the inhabitants, compelled Rosas 
and Figueras to submit, fought an indecisive battle at Hos- 
talricb, and took Gerona by capitulation. But the long siege 
and severe loss which this last- mentioned town had cost him, 
the superiority of the Aragonese and Sicilians by sea, and 
the wasting of his army by disease, compelled him to com- 
mence a retreat, which he did not effect without considerable 
loss. Philippe was himself seized by the disease which had 
wasted his army, and died, on his return to France, at Per- 
pignan, 5th October, a.d. 1285. 

PHILIPPE IV., better known as PHILIPPE LE BEL, 
son of Philippe le Hardi, by his first wife, Isabella of Ara- 
gon, was born a.d. 1268; and succeeded his father on the 
throne of France, October, a.d. 1285, having previously 
acquired, in right of his wife Jeanne, the crown of Navarre. 
He was crowned at Reims, January, 1286. The war with 
Aragon continued, but was carried on languidly. The young 
king gave, from the first, his confidence to the lawyers, who 
were gradually working the overthrow of the feudal system, 
and giving consistency and stability to a system of jurispru- 
dence favourable to despotism ; they flattered him, by 
describing his power as absolute; and inspired him with 
mistrust both of the dignified clergy and of the nobles, whom 
they looked upon as rival classes to themselves. It is likely 
that in the earlier period of his reign he indulged the love of 
luxury and refinement then prevalent ; though this appears, 
not from direct testimony, but from his continual poverty, 

Vou XVIU.— M 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

In 1290 lie despoiled the Jews; and in 1291 he ordered the 
Italian merchants, who engrossed nearly all the commerce 
of his kingdom, to he imprisoned ; and by the apprehensions 
of further violence, with which he inspired the no, induced 
them to ransom themselves hy heavy payments. Most of 
them speedily quitted the kingdom. Two brothers, Floreu* 
tines, Biccio and Musciatto Franzesi, are supposed to have 
prompted Philippe to this deed of violence and injustice, by 
which thev not only filled the king's coffers, but acquired 
for themselves the monopoly of the French markets. The 
success of these experiments encouraged the king to make 
the lawyers the instruments of his exactions ; his policy in 
fact nearly resembled that pursued at a later period by our 
own Henry VII. ; and had a like effect in amassing wealth 
and in depressing the power of the nobility. 

In 1290 Philippe paid a visit to the south of France, in 
order to form with his allies a plan of combined operations 
against Aragon, to confirm his authority over his remote 
vassals at the foot of the Pyrenees, and to gain the affec- 
tions of the nobles of Guienne, then subject to Edward L of 
England, of whom Philippe began to be jealous. In 1291 
he proposed to renew the attack upon Aragon, refusing to 
ratify the treaty which had been concluded by the other 
belligerent parties atTarascon in the early part of the year: 
but the proposal was probably a mere feint to raise money. 
In this point too the policy of Philippe bears a close resem- 
blance to that of Henry VII. 

In 1292 a quarrel between some English and Norman 
sailors at Bayonne, followed by mutual hostilities between 
the vessels of the Cinque Ports and France, ripened the 
jealousy of Philippe into determined hostility to Edward. 
He summoned the latter, under certain penalties, to appear 
before the parliament at Paris (a.d. 1293), to answer for the 
hostilities committed by his vassals; and Edward, observant 
of his subordination as a vassal of the king of France, 
obeyed the summons by sending his brother Edmond to ap- 
pear for him (ad. 1294). Anxious to avoid a continental 
war, he consented to deliver up six towns in Guienne to 
commissioners appointed by Philippe; and to surrender 
twenty of the persons most deeply implicated in the previous 
hostilities, to take their trial before the parliament of Paris. 
Instead of six towns, Philippe caused the whole of Guienne 
to be occupied by an armed force ; and when he had thus 
obtained possession, he charged Edward with contumacy, and 
cited him again before the parliament, under heavier penal- 
ties for non-appearance than before. Enraged at being thus 
outwitted, the English monarch renounced his allegiance, 
sent an army to recover Guienne (aj>. 1295), and formed 
alliances with various continental princes against Philippe. 
But the war was languidly carried on, for Edward's atten- 
tion was engrossed by Scottish affairs, and his continental 
allies made few efforts, except the Flemings, who were un- 
fortunate. Hostilities were terminated by a truce of inde- 
finite length, and by the arrangement of some matrimonial 
alliances between the two royal houses, concluded by the 
mediation of the pope Boniface VIII. (a.o. 1298.) By the 
terms of this truce, part of Guienne was restored to Edward, 
hut the final adjudication of that great fief was reserved for 
the future decision of the pope. The expenses of this war 
increased the necessities of Philippe, and these led him into 
disputes with the clergy and the pope, and made him per- 
secute the Jews in order to extort from them a portion of 
their wealth. One beneficial result sprang from his desire 
of money— he emancipated the serfs of Languedoe, com- 
muting his rights over them for a pecuniary payment 

Philippe was anxious to avenge himself on the princes who 
had allied themselves with Edward. The defeat and death 
of Adolphus of Nassau, king of the Romans, may be ascribed 
to his intrigues (a.d. 1298). The count of Flanders was im- 
prisoned and his county seized ; but the oppressions of the 
French caused a revolt of the Flemings, in attempting to sup* 
press which the French suffered a complete defeat at Courtrai 
(a.d. 1302). Philippe advanced next year into Flanders 
with a vast army, but effected nothing ; and in order to have 
his hands free for this war, and for a dispute with the pope, 
which he had been long carrying on, he made a definitive 
peace with Edward of England, to whom he restored the 
whole of Guienne (a.d. 1303). He advanced into Flanders, 
defeated the Flemings both by Beaand land (a.d. 1304), but 
found still so obstinate a resistance, that he made peace, 
contenting himself with the cession of a small part of the 
country, and conceding the independence of the rest. The 
pop* had meanwhile been seized by Nogaret, Philippe's 

envoy at Anagni ; and though released by tne populace, 
had died about a month after of a fever, the result probablj 
of the agitation to which he had been exposed, (a.d. 1303.) 
Benedict XL, who succeeded him, lived but a short time, 
and on his death the pontificate came to Clement V. (a.d. 
1305). The exactions and the depreciation of the coinage, 
by which Philippe provided resources for the Flemish war, 

Erovoked discontent in various parts of his dominions, which 
e endeavoured to suppress by merciless severity. The 
seizure and banishment of the Jews of Languedoe, and the 
confiscation of their property, was another of the measures 
to which he had recourse at this time (a.d. 1306). 

Among the methods which Philippe employed to fill bis 
exchequer, the depreciation of the coinage had been one of 
the most usual. He had paid in this depreciated coinage 
the sums he had borrowed in a currency three times more 
valuable. When however he found that his plan began to 
tell against himself, his revenues being paid in the depre- 
ciated coinage, he found it necessary to correct the abuse, 
and to issue money eaual in value to that of previous reigns. 
This however caused fresh disturbances ; debts contracted 
in the depreciated money had now to be paid in the new and 
more valuable coinage ; and this hardship led to commo- 
tions, which Philippe repressed with atrocious cruelty. He 
found it necessary however to publish some new edicts, in 
order to remedy the evil complained of (a.d. 1305). In order 
to conciliate the nobility, whose alliance he wished to make - 
a counterpoise to the popular discontent, Philippe restored 
the practice of judicial combat in all heavier accusations 
against the nobility. 

It was probably the desire of Philippe to obtain their 
wealth, that led to the suppression of the great military 
order of the Templars. They were accused of crimes the 
most revolting by two worthless members of their own 
order ; and Philippe gave secret orders for the arrest of all 
who were in France ; and these orders were executed in all 
parts of his dominions at the same time. The trials were 
carried on before diocesan tribunals ; and though (he pope 
(who was a creature of Philippe) at first claimed for himself 
the investigation of charges affecting an ecclesiastical body, 
he gave up the point, reserving to himself only the trial of 
the grand-master and a few other chief men. The judges 
were eager to convict the accused : confessions were wrung 
from many by torture ; numbers were brought to the stake 
for denying the confessions thus extorted ; others were con- 
demned to various inferior penalties. The persecution 
became, general in Europe, but out of France the Templars 
were generally acquitted of the charges brought against 
them. The pope however, at the instance of a council 
assembled at Vienne, suppressed the order by virtue of his 
papal authority, and granted their possessions to the Hos- 
pitallers (a.d. 1311). But Philippe and his nobles had 
already seized their French possessions, and the Hospital- 
lers were obliged to redeem them with heavy payments. 
Jacques de Molay. grand-master of the Templars, and the 
commander of Wormandie, were burnt at Paris for retract- 
ing their confessions (a.d. 1314). 

The last years of Philippe's reign Were signalised by these 
infamous proceedings. He managed about the same time 
(a.d. 1310) to gain possession of Lyon, which had previously 
enjoyed a considerable degree of independence, though 
nominally subject to the empire. [Lyon ] He also inter- 
fered as mediator (a.d. 1313) between Edward II. of Eng- 
land, who had married his daughter Isabelle, and the dis- 
contented barons of that kingdom. His necessities induced 
him to persecute afresh the Jews and the Lombard mer- 
chants ; and his severe aud suspicious temper led him to 
reiterated cruelties. The wives of his three sons were 
charged with adultery, and two of them were declared 
guilty, and condemned to imprisonment; while their lovers, 
and those who were supposed to have aided in their crimes, 
were put to death by the most horrid tortures. The wife of 
Philippe, count of Poitiers* his second son, was acquitted 
(a.d. 1314). 

Philippe le Bel died at Fontainebleau, from the effect of 
an accidental fall while hunting, 29th of November, 1314, 
in the thirtieth year of his reign, and the forty-sixth of his 

It was in the reign of Philippe le Bel that the Tiers Etat, 
or commons, were admitted for the first time to take part in 
the national assemblies subsequently designated let Etatt 
Gcniraux, or States-General, 1 hey were present at a council 
held (a.d, 1302) on occasion of Philippe s dispute with the 

Digitized by 


P H 1 


P H I 

pope Bonifice VIII. It was in this reign also that the sit- 
tings of the parliament, the supreme justiciary court, into 
which, by the substitution of the lawyers for the nobles, the 
antientCour de Pairs [Philippe II.] had been transformed, 
became fixed at Paris. 

second son of Philippe IV., or ' Le Bel,' was born a.d. 1294, 
and'succeeded to the throne a.d. 1316. His elder brother, 
Louis X., or Louis le Hutin, had died 5th of June, 1316, 
leaving by his first wife a daughter, who succeeded him on 
the throne of Navarre, and his queen, who was his second 
wife, pregnant. On the news of his brother's death, Philippe, 
who was at Lyon, where the conclave of cardinals were en- 
gaged in the election of a pope, hastened to Paris, and 
assumed the government, which was confirmed to him by 
the barons of the kingdom, who were assembled for the 
purpose, until the birth of the child, of which the widowed 
queen was then pregnant. If she produced a son, he was to 
retain the government as regent auringthe minority of the 
child ; if a daughter, he was to be recognised as king. The 
child, which was a boy, died a few days after birth (No- 
vember, 1316), and Philippe assumed the sovereignty in 
full right, and was crowned at Reims, Jan. 9th, 1317. 

It was upon this occasion that the Salic law, by which 
females were excluded from the succession to the throne, 
was established as a constitutional law in France. Louis X. 
had left a daughter, Jeanne, queen of Navarre ; and there 
appears to have been no just ground, either from precedent 
or from the analogy of the laws of succession which prevailed 
in other kingdoms, or in the great fiefs, for her exclusion. 
The ground urged by the legal supporters of Philippe's 
claim was an antient law excluding females from the suc- 
cession to the Salic lands, a peculiar species of allodial pos- 
sessions, but which law could only by a remote analogy be 
made to bear on. the succession to the throne. The case of 
a sole heiress to the crown had not however occurred before ; 
and if there was no precedent for the exclusion of a female, 
there was no instance of one having really occupied the 
throne. Jeanne was, besides, a female and a minor : the duke 
of Bourgogne, her maternal uncle, who was her natural 
supporter, was induced to surrender her claim ; the States- 
General, being convoked, confirmed the title of Philippe ; 
and the death of his only son induced his brother Charles 
to assent to it, in the hone of turning against Philippe's 
own daughters the law of which he was desirous to avail 
himself to the exclusion of hid niece. The Salic law was 
thus firmly established as the fundamental law of succession 
in the French monarchy. 

The States-General were assembled three times in this 
reign ; first to confirm Philippe's title to the throne, then to 
regulate the finances, and lastly for a general reform of 
abuses. In the first of these assemblies Philippe issued an 
edict, giving a military organization to the communes, 
though he was subsequently obliged, by the jealousy of the 
nobility, to make some modifications in it. Another of his 
edicts revoked the grants made by his father and brother 
from the royal domain, and became the foundation of the 
constitutional principle that that domain was inalienable. In 
other edicts he gave increased regularity to the legal and 
fiscal institutions which were gradually superseding the 
arrangements of the feudal system. These edicts were issued 
by the king as from himself, and the States-General were 
carefully precluded from the exercise of any properly legis- 
lative functions. 

The south of France was during this reign the scene of 
cruel persecutions, directed by the influence of the pope, 
John XXII., against those accused of sorcery and against 
the Franciscan monks. In 1320 an immense body of the 
French peasantry assembled from all parts for a crusade, 
attracted by two priests, who preached that the deliver- 
ance of Jerusalem was reserved not for the high-born and 
noble, but for the meek and lowly. They soon became 
disorderly, and perpetrated the most merciless outrages 
on the Jews, until tney were put down by force, or died of 
famine and disease. The most fearful severities were 
exercised against those of them who were taken. In 
1321 a dreadful persecution was directed against those 
afflicted with leprosy (a disease which the crusaders had 
brought from the East), on a charge of having poisoned the 
wells ; and also against the Jews, on a charge of having in- 
stigated them. A hundred and sixty Jews of both sexes 
were burnt in one fire at Chinon near Tours ; others were 
banished and their goods confiscated. It was while engaged 

in these cruel proceedings that Philippe le Long died, Jan. 
3, 1322, at Longcharaps near Paris, after a reign of rather 
more than five years. He left four daughters; but the 
Salic law excluded them from the throne, and he was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Charles IV., or Charles le Bel, 

PHILIPPE VI., or, as he is usually called, PHILIPPE 
DE VALOIS, succeeded to the throne shortly after the 
death of Charles IV. le Bel (a.d. 1328), and was the first 
king of the collateral branch ofValois. He was son of 
Charles, count ofValois, a younger son of Philippe III. le 
Hardi, and cousin to Louis X. le Hutin, Philippe le Long, 
and Charles le Bel, who successively wore the crown. In 
the reign of Philippe le Long he had headed an expedition 
of the nobles and gentry of France to overthrow some chief- 
tains of the Ghibelin party in Lombardy. His presumption 
and incapacity involved him in difficulties, from which he 
was relieved only by the policy or generosity of his opponents, 
who allowed him to retire with nis army into France (aj>. 

Charles le Bel died Feb. 1, 1328, and left no male heirs; 
but his widow was pregnant, and the nobles of the king- 
dom determined to wait the result of her confinement; 
and in the mean time the sovereign power, with the title of 
regent, was confided to Philippe de Valois. When the 
queen was delivered of a daughter (April 1), the right of 
succession was far from clear. All the doctors of civil and 
canon law agreed that women were excluded from the suc- 
cession ; but they were divided on the question whether 
a woman, being disqualified merely by sex, might transmit 
a right to her descendants, just as a lunatic or an idiot might 
be supposed to do ; or whether the disqualification affected 
not only the woman herself, but all who might otherwise 
have derived a claim through her. But however the lawyers 
might agree as to the exclusion of females, the operation of 
the Salic law had been too recent, and too obviously the 
result (in part at least) of the superior power of the male 
claimant, to be entirely satisfactory to the public mind, or 
to those whose interests were concerned in the dispute ; and 
Philippe, count of Evreux, who had married the daughter 
and heiress of Louis le Hutin, and was, in right of his wife, 
the nearest in direct succession, might have been a powerful 
rival, had he not readily exchanged a right of so doubtful a 
character for the peaceful possession of the throne of Na- 
varre. The daughters of Philippe le Long and Charles le 
Bel, all yet in childhood, wanted either the inclination or 
the power to advance their claims against so formidable a 
competitor as Philippe de Valois ; and Edward III. of Eng- 
land, who was next in succession, as being son of Isabelle, 
sister of the last three kings, was as yet also a minor, and 
too closely beset with difficulties at home to think of serious 
measures to vindicate his claim. The power therefore of 
Philippe as regent, his mature age, his large hereditary 

Possessions, and his popular character, added to the plausi- 
ility of his claim, as the nearest male heir claiming through 
male ancestors, enabled him quietly to ascend the throne. 
He was crowned at Reims, May 29, 1328. Isabelle, in the 
name of her son Edward III., protested against this invasion 
of his rights ; but as Edward did homage to Philippe the 
next year for Guienne, he may be considered as having re- 
nounced his claim, which would probably never have been 
revived but for subsequent events. 

The first important enterprise of Philippe after his coro- 
nation was an expedition into Flanders, to put down the 
burghers of the great towns, who had revolted against their 
count. The Flemings surprised him in his camp at Cassel, 
but were aefeated with great slaughter (Aug. 23, 1328), and 
Philippe returned to France with all the glory of victory. 
The early years of his reign were also occupied in regulating 
the coinage by successive edicts, in settling the boundaries 
of the civil and ecclesiastical jurisdictions, and in determin- 
ing the succession to the county of Artois. This was 
claimed by Robert, count of Beaumont, more familiarly 
known as Robert of Artois, against his aunt Mahaut, who had 
usurped the county in his minority, and had been confirmed 
in possession by the parliament of Paris, influenced by the 
king Philippe le Bel. Robert had subsequently tried to 
obtain his right both by force and by legal process, but 
was defeated. He now (a.d. 1330) made another attempt 
with more favourable prospects, but was again defeated, 
and banished the kingdom for having forged some docu- 
ments in support of his claim. He subsequently retired 
into England (a.d. 1333), and instigated Edward III. to 
renew his claim to the French throne. 


Digitized by 


P H 1 


P H I 

A crusade against the Moors of Granada was a favourite 
project of Philippe ; but the concessions which be demanded 
of the pope, as the price of his services in this affair, were 
too exorbitant, and the project failed (a.d. 1332). He also 
sent assistance to David Bruce, king of Scotland, against 
Edward III , and afforded him a refuge at his court: these 
measures, and disputes which arose in Guienne, tended to 
hasten the approaching rupture between France and Eng- 
land. He renewed his project of a crusade, and visited the 
pope, Benedict XII., at Avignon (a.d. 133G), but the project 
never took effect ; and he endeavoured to obtain by exchange 
possession of the duchy of Bretagne ; but this plan also 
failed. At length (a.d. 1337) war between Edward III. and 
Philippe broke out. The former assumed the title of king 
of France, and formed an alliance with the Flemish burgh- 
ers, at that time under the influence of James Arteveld of 
Ghent. His fleet took and destroyed Cadsand (ad. 1337), 
and he made two fruitless campaigns on the side of Flanders 
(a.d. 1338, 13>9). In 1340, the French, first under Jean, 
son of Philippe de Valois, and then under the king in per- 
son, attacked Hainault, the count of which was in alliance 
with Edward; but the defeat of the French fleet at Sluys 
(J une 24th), induced Philippe to retire ; and after some 
other hostilities, an armistice of six months Was concluded. 

Our limits do not allow us to particularise the incidents 
of the struggle which was carried on, both in Bretagne, 
where Edward and Philippe engaged as auxiliaries [Bre- 
tagne], and in other parts. In the course of it, Philippe 
sought to obtain money by depreciating the coinage (a.d. 
1342), and by establishing the gabelle, or government mo- 
nopoly of salt (a.d. 1343). He violently and arbitrarily put 
to death some Breton and Norman gentlemen (ad. 1343), 
and tampered repeatedly with the currency. Some regula- 
tions were issued (a.d. 1344) in order to revive commerce 
and regulate the administration of justice, the last almost 
the only acts of his reign that were really useful (a.d. 1344). 
He arrested the Lombard and other Italian merchants in 
his dominions, and confiscated their goods (a.d. 1347). 
The latter years of his reign were as unfortunate as his 
measures were unj ust. He sustained a great defeat at Crecy 
(a.d. 1346) [Crecy]; lost Calais, the key of his kingdom 
on the side of England (a.d. 1347) [Calais]; and was un- 
successful on the side of Guienne and Poitou (a.d. 1345, 
1347). A dreadful pestilence, which swept away a third part 
of his subjects (aj>. 1348), filled up the measure of his ad- 
versity. The acquisition of the district of Viennois, ceded 
to him by the dauphin or lord of that country [Dauphine], 
was a poor counterbalance to these calamities. 

The death of Philippe was owing to debility, the result of 
an unseasonable marriage with the princess Blanche of 
Navarre, a girl of eighteen, who had been promised to Jean? 
Philippe's eldest son. During Jean's absence, the king 
married her himself. He died at Nogent-le-Roi, near 
Chartres, Aug. 22, 1350, in the fifty-seventh year of his age, 
and the twenty-third of his reign. 

PHILIPPE (Dukes of Burgundy). [Bourgogne.] 

PHIUPPI. [Brutus; Macedonia.] 

epistles written by St. Paul during his first imprisonment 
at Rome. [Paul, St.] 

Like the other early churches planted out of Palestine, 
the church at Philippi in Macedonia consisted of Jews and 
Gentiles, the latter forming the larger portion. These Phi- 
lippians must however have had cultivated minds, and have 
been acquainted with the manners, customs, and philosophy 
of the Greeks, since the epistle contains allusions Ae force of 
which no other persons could fully understand. They were 
•first converted by the preaching of St Paul about twelve 
years before the date of this epistle, which was written 
apparently but a short time before his release from his im- 
•prisonment at Rome, a.d. 63. 

The occasion of its composure seems to have been the fol- 
lowing :— the Philippians, having heard that St. Paul was a 
prisoner at Rome, sent contributions for his relief by the 
hand of Epaphroditus, whom Theodore t and others repre- 
sent as their bishop. .St. Paul, being much rejoiced by 
this proof of their affection towards him, and by learning 
how great was their proficiency in all Christian excellences, 
sends back Epaphroditus with this epistle. 

In addition to the utterance of his joy on these accounts, 
he gives them admirable instructions for the purpose of for- 
tifying them amidst their exposure to the scourge of perse- 
cution and the contagion of false teaching ; and of exciting 

them to cultivate a oneness of thought and feeling, and 
ever to aim at higher measures of knowledge and obe- 
dience. These instructions he enforces by holding up the 
most ennobling views of the Christian religion, as affording 
its disciples a scope for leading a life at once contemplative 
and active, and so giving them the power of enjoying and 
diffusing substantial happiness. 

in this epistle St. Paul discovers much of his own cha- 
racter, the traits of which cannot fail to create in the mind 
of an attentive reader an idea of true dignity. He delicately 
proposes his own conduct for the imitation of the Philippians, 
and, with no mixture of affected humility, he disclaims all 
personal merit for whatever wisdom or goodness they had 
seen in him or heard of him. His language is for the most 
part constructed with great skilfulness ; his thoughts are 
arranged in an order exactly suited to his design; and his 
manner is at once affectionate and authoritative. 

The canonical authority of this epistle has never been 
doubted. But because St. Polycarp speaks of St Paul as 
having written to the Philippians ejnstles, some critics have 
thought that this is not the only epistle which they received 
from St. Paul, or that it was originally two. In reply to 
this it may be observed that instances from writers both 
Greek and Latin could easily be produced to show that the 
plural form of this word must sometimes be understood in 
the sense of one epistle onlv; and that there is no other 
reason to suppose that St. Polycarp referred to any writing 
but this epistle of St. Paul as we now find it. 

(Theodoret and Bishop Fell On St. PauFs Epistles; Fa- 
bricius, Bibliotheca Grceca; Schott, Isagoge.) 

PHILIPPICS. [Demosthenes.] 

PHILITPIDES of Athens, a poet, and a writer of the 
new comedy, flourished about B.C. 335. He wrote forty-five 
plays, of which the titles of twelve are mentioned by antient 
authors. He died of joy at an advanced age, after he had 
obtained a prize which he did not expect. (Suidas, Lexicon; 
Fabricius, Bibl. Grceca.) Some fragments of Philippides 
have been collected by Hertelius and Grotius. 

PHILIPPINES, THE, constitute the most northern 
group of the islands that compose the extensive archipelago 
known under the name of the Indian Archipelago ; and 
they lie between 5° and 20° N. lat. and between 120° and 
127° E. long. The Strait of Balingtang, or Great Passage, 
separates them from the Batanes and Bashee Islands, which 
lie farther north. On the east extends the Pacific, and on 
the south the Celebes Sea. Two rows of small rocky 
islands, which run from the southern coast of Magin- 
danao, the most southern of the larger Philippine Islands 
southward to the northern parts of Gilolo and Celebes, 
unite the Philippines with the Moluccas, and separate the 
Pacific from the Celebes Sea. Another row of rocky 
islands runs from the south-western extremity of Magiu- 
danao west-south-west to Capes Unsang and Labian in 
Borneo. They are called the Sulo Islands, and between 
their eastern extremity and Magindanao is the Strait of 
Basilan, which is frequently navigated by vessels sailing to 
China. Farther north, the Philippines are connected with 
Borneo by another chain of islands, which extends in a 
north-north-east and south-south-west direction between 
the island of Mindoro, one of the Philippines, and the Capes 
of Inaruntang and Sampanmangio in Borneo. This chain, 
which is called the Palawan Islands, or the Archipelago of 
Felicia, separates the Mindoro Sea from the Chinese Sea, 
which are connected by Mindoro Strait. The Mindoro Sea 
and the Chinese Sea wash the western shores of this group. 

The Philippines consist of ten larger and a great num- 
ber of smaller islands. The larger islands have altogether 
an area of more than 120,000 square miles, according to 
the estimale of Berghaus, in which the surface of Magin- 
danao, whose coasts are very imperfectly known, is esti- 
mated at 36,140 square miles. The smaller islands com- 
prehend, according to the same authority, 6230 square 
miles; and the whole group more than 127,000 square 
miles, which is about 15,000 square miles more than the 
surface of the British Islands. Nine of the larger islands 
are considered as subject to the Spaniards, who have also 
some settlements on the northern and south-western coast 
of Magindanao, the remainder of this island being in pos- 
session of the sultan of Magindanao and some native tribes. 
We shall notice the larger islands separately. 

1. Luzon, which is by far the largest of these islands, has 
according to Berghaus, an area of 57,405 square miles, which 
approaches very nearly the area of England and Wales 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

The name means a mortar. When the Spaniards, at their 
arrival, asked for the name of the island, the natives, who 
had mortars before their doors, called lotong, and which are 
used in cleaning rice, thought thev were asking for the 
name of these utensils, and answered accordingly : thus the 
island, whose proper name seems to be Ybalon, received the 
name of Luzon. The form of the island, which is extremely 
irregular, may be compared to a bent arm. Its length, along 
a straight line drawn from the most southern point, Punta 
Calaan, to Punta Cabicunga, hardly exceeds 420 miles, but 
measured along the bend it is more than 550 miles. The 
width varies between 10 and 136 miles. Where the bend 
occurs, which is near 14° N. lat., a deep bay enters the land 
from the north, and divides the island into two peninsulas. 
The isthmus which connects the two peninsulas is only from 
10 to 12 miles wide, and nearly 50 miles long. The western 
and smaller peninsula is distinguished by the name of Cama- 
rines. Besides the bay, which lies to the east of the isthmus, 
and is called Seno de Lamon, the rocky coast of the island 
is indented by a great number of larger and smaller bays, 
among which the most extensive on the larger peninsula 
are the Bahia de Manila and the Golfo de Lingayen, both 
on the western side ; and on the peninsula of Camarines, 
the Bahia de S. Miguel and the Seno de Albay on the 
northern coast, and the Seno de Ragay on the southern. 

That portion of the island which lies north of 16° N. lat. 
seems to consist of one extensive mass of rocky mountains, 
which in many places come close to the shore of the sea, 
and in others are divided from it only by a narrow strip of 
low and frequently sandy ground. This mountain-mass 
terminates on the eastern shores of the island in very 
steep and high rocks, which render nearly the whole of 
this coast inaccessible. Accordingly we find that, except 
at one place, where there is a bay of moderate extent, there 
is no settlement of the natives of Malay origin, and the 
mountains, which rise to a great elevation, are only inhabited 
by the wandering Haraforas. This mountain-region, which 
extends from Cabo S. lldefonso, on the south, to Punta S. 
Vincente on the north, a distance of nearly 200 miles, with 
an average width of 30 miles, is known under the name of 
Montes Caravallos. Along its western declivity there is a 
valley which is traversed in its whole length by a river 
called Cagayan or Tagayo. Between 14° and J 5° N. lat 
this valley enlarges to a plain of considerable extent, called 
Llanada del Difun, on which there are several Malay settle- 
ments, as well as in the valley itself, which extends to the 
northern coast of the island, and seems to be in general of mo- 
derate width. These are the only settlements in the interior 
of the northern districts of Luzon which are subject to the 
Spaniards, and they do not appear to be numerous or large. 
We are not informed whether the river Cagayan is navigable. 
West of the vale of the Cagayan there is" another moun- 
tain-region, which is also 200 miles long, and probably 
above 60 miles in width. It is called Sierra Madre, and ap- 
pears to rise even higher than the Montes Caravallos ; 
the western declivity however is not steep, but has a gentle 
slope, which in some parts sends out low rocky ridges to the 
beach, but generally terminates at some distance from it, 
leaving between its base and the sea a wide tract of compara- 
tively level and fertile ground. On this tract, and on the banks 
of some rivers which furrow the mountain-slope, the settle- 
ments are numerous. The Sierra Madre only extends to 
the northern coast of the island in one place, where a high 
rocky mass, called also Montes Caravallos, reaches the 
very beach. The low country which separates the sea from 
the steep declivity of the Sierra Madre along the northern 
coast is sandy, and generally sterile ; the settlements in this 
part are consequently small and few in number. The ele- 
vation of the mountains has not been determined, but it is 
observed that they do not attain the snow-line, and probably 
they do not rise ri)ove the line of trees. 

The Montes Caravallos, or eastern mountain-mass, do 
not terminate at Cabo de S. lldefonso, but continue south- 
ward to Puerto Lapan (15° N. lat.), and so far they seem 
to preserve their high and rugged character, though the 
width is diminished to about 10 miles. But as they proceed 
farther south between the sea and the lake, called Laguna 
de Bay, they diminish in height as well as in width. Their 
general elevation in this part, according to an estimate of 
Meyen, does not exceed 4000 feet above the sea-level, though 
.a few summits may rise 2000 &r 3000 feet higher. In this 
part of the range both declivities are gentle, and admit 
agricultural settlements, which however are more numerous 

towards the lake than towards the sea. The Montes Cara- 
vallos continue farther south, and turning to the south-east 
they apparently run in an unbroken line through the isth- 
mus which joins the peninsula of Camarines to the main- 
body of Luzon, and they terminate at the south-eastern 
extremity of the isthmus in the projecting promontory called 
Cabesa Bondoc. 

The Montes Caravallos are not united by a mountain- 
ridge with the Sierra Madre; but south of 16° N. lat., 
near the southern extremity of the last-mentioned moun- 
tain-mass, a broken and elevated tract extends between 
them, which constitutes the uniting link between the two 
mountain-masses; along the south-western base of this 
tract and the western of the Montes Caravallos, there is a 
level plain of great extent and fertility, called the Plain of 
Pampanga. This plain extends from, the innermost recess 
of the Gulf of Lingayen (16° N. lat.) on the north, to the 
Bahia de Manila (14° 45') on the south. It is about 90 
miles in length, with an average width of about 30 miles, so 
that it covers a surface of 2700 square miles. A few isolated 
hills rise on this plain, among which one attains a con- 
siderable elevation : it is called Mount Aragat, and is re- 
markable for the great number of hot springs which issue 
from its base, and the deep ravines by which its sides are 
furrowed. The whole plain is very little elevated above 
the sea-level, full of lakes, and traversed by rivers, whose 
course is nearly imperceptible except in the rainy season. 
In the northern districts there is a large lake, the Laguna 
de Canarim, on the most elevated part of the plain ; two 
rivers issue from it, one towards the north, which falls into 
the Gulf of Lingayen, and the other towards the south, 
which enters the Bahia de Manila. These rivers, of which 
the first is called Rio Grande, and the second Rio de Pam- 
panga, are of great importance, as the produce of this rich 
and well cultivated tract, which is mostly covered with 
plantations of sugar, can be brought by water to Manila 
during the rainy months. The population of this plain 
probably does not fall short of half a million. 

The Plain of Pampanga does not extend on the west to the 
shores of the Chinese Sea, being separated from it by another 
mountain-region, the Montes Zambales, which extend from 
the promontory of Bataan, on the west of the Bahia de Ma- 
nila, northward to Cape Bolinao, which constitutes the wes- 
tern side of the Gulf of Lingayen. This mountain-region is 
about 100 miles long and 20 miles wide. The highest por- 
tion of it is towards the south, where its general elevation is 
estimated to exceed 7000 feet. North of 15° N. lat. how- 
ever the mountains grow lower, and where they approach 
Cape Bolinao they are of moderate elevation. Five sum- 
mits in this mountain-mass rise to a greater elevation, but 
the height of none of them has been determined. These 
mountains approach very near the sea, and agricultural set- 
tlements have been formed only in a few places. The 
mountains themselves are wooded, and in possession of the 
Aetas, or original inhabitants of the island. It is not said 
that any active volcanoes exist in any of the mountain- 
regions in the northern districts of Luzon, except that a 
mountain, probably that which on our maps is called St. 
Thomas, 'and which lies on the western side of the Gulf of 
Lingtyen, in 16° 12' N. lat., made an eruption in 1641. 

The Bahia de Manila, is one of the finest basins in the 
world. It is nearly of a circular form, and measures from 
20 to 25 miles in every direction. It is nearly free from 
shoals, and contains excellent anchorage. The surface is 
rarely agitated by winds. It is entered by two channels : 
the northern, called BocaChica (little mouth), is more than 
2 miles wide between the large island of Corredigor and 
the peninsula of Bataan ; the southern, between the small 
island of Pulo Cavallo and the Isla Sinalan, near the 
southern coast, is nearly 6 miles wide, and called Boca 
Grande. The bay is usually entered by the Boca Chica, 
except when the wind blows from the east, which always 
produces a strong current running westward through this 
channel, and the Boca Grande is then preferred. The tides 
in this bay are very irregular during the north-east mon- 
soon, when the low tides run through the Boca Chica with 
rather a strong current for 18 hours, whilst the high tides 
last only six, and are sometimes feeble, sometimes strong. 
The rise is about three feet at full and change. There is an 
excellent harbour before the Boca Chica called Puerto de 

The shores surrounding the bay are low, except at the 
entrance, where there are rocky mountains of considerable 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

elevation. Along the northern shores the low Plain of 
Pampanga extends for nearly 20 miles, and is here divided 
inio a great number of islands by the numerous branches 
into which the Rio de Pampanga divides as it approaches 
the bay. A hilly country begins west of the bay and a mile 
or two from the shores, and extends eastward to the La- 
guna de Bahia. This lake is about 20 miles long, and on an 
average 10 miles wide, but is divided into two nearly equal 
parts by a projecting tongue of land and an island situated 
opposite its termination. The western part of it is in general 
only from 5 to 6 feet deep, but the eastern part is much 
deeper, and in the centre it is from 17 to 20 feet deep. It 
is surrounded by low land, which at a short distance rises 
into hills. The surface of the water is about 36 or 40 feet 
above the sea-level of the bay. The water of the lake is 
carried off by five very narrow channels, which soon unite, 
and, being joined by a small river, constitute a wide and 
tolerably deep stream, called the Rio Pasig, which flows 
westward to the Bahia de Manila, and has its outlet between 
the two towns of which the capital consists. The slightly 
hilly country that surrounds the lake and extends on both 
sides, of the Rio Pasig is very fertile and populous. 

From the banks of the river and of the lake the country 
rises gradually to the south for 10 or 12 miles, when it is 
followed by a tract of land the surface of which is extremely 
uneven, and has a number of isolated mountain-summits 
scattered over it, many of which a considerable height. 
Nearly in the middle of this region is the Laguna de Taal, 
a lake of a circular form, about 12 miles in length from 
north to south, and 10 miles in width where it is broadest 
This lake contains the island of Taal, and the volcano of the 
same name, which made a great eruption in 1754 : in 1825 
smoke issued from it At a considerable distance east of 
the lake is another volcano, called the Banajan de Tayabas. 
The country which extends southward from these volcanoes 
appears to be of great fertility, and is pretty well settled : it 
terminates on the south at the Est r echo de Mindoro, or.the 
Little Strait of Mindoro, so called to distinguish it from the 
Large Strait of Mindoro, which lies farther west and sepa- 
rates the island of Mindoro from the islands of Calaroianes. 
The Little Strait of Mindoro is nearly 50 miles long and 
about 5 miles wide in the narrowest part It is navigated by 
vessels, which when coming from the Pacific sail round 
the south-eastern extremity of Luzon through the Embo- 
cadero de S. Bernardino. On the northern shores of the 
Little Strait of Mindoro are two good harbours, called 
respectively Ensenada de Batangas and Ensenada de Ba* 

The peninsula of Camarines, or the south-eastern part of 
the island of Luzon, is -not connected with the north- 
western part by a range of mountains. Towards the eastern 
extremity of the isthmus, which connects both parts, the 
mountains entirely disappear, and where the two bays called 
Seno de Lamonand Senode Rag ay approach nearest to one 
another, and are only about 1 5 miles apart, the intervening 
country is low, and constitutes a valley several miles wide, 
which runs across the island from one bay to the other. It 
is not improbable that a natural water-communication exists 
between the two bays, like that in the Plain of Pampanga, 

The peninsula of Camarines is chiefly occupied by a mass 
of high mountains, which come close to the southern shores, 
and only in a few places leave a narrow strip of level 
ground. But the northern declivity of this range is not 
so steep, and terminates about 6 or 8 miles from the sea. 
The intervening tract is at some places covered with rocky 
hills, and in others it extends in low plains. On this tract, 
and at a short distance from the mountain-range, there are 
ten volcanoes, the names of which, from north-west to south- 
east, are Bonotan, Bacacay, Lobo, Colasi, Ysarog, Yriga, 
Bugi, Masaraga, Albay, or Mahon, and Bulusan. The 
Volcano de Ysarog, which occupies the centre of the isth- 
mus between the Bahia de S. Miguel and the Seno de La- 
gonoy is distinguished by its size and elevation ; that of 
Albay or Mahon is noted for the frequency of its eruptions, 
No eruptions of the other volcanoes are recorded. There is a 
considerable number of agricultural settlements on this 
volcanic tract, especially in the country surrounding the 
Bahia de S. Miguel. This bay is about 25 miles long from 
north to south* with an average width of 1 % miles. On the 
south it is enclosed by a low and fertile tract, but near its 
entrance the country rises into high hills. Being enclosed 
by high ground, and having excellent anchorage, it forms a 
very good and safe harbour. A shoal in the middle of the 

entrance has only four feet water on it, but the channels on 
each side of the shoal are deep and free from rocks. The 
strait which divides the most south-eastern extremity of 
Luzon from the island of Samar, is called the Embocadero 
de S. Bernardino, and is dreaded by navigators on account 
of its currents and eddies. 

2. Mindoro, which is separated from the island of Luzon 
by the Little Strait of Mindoro, and from the islands of Ca- 
lamianes by the Great Strait of Mindoro, is 100 miles long, 
and rather more than 40 miles wide on an average. Its 
area, according to Berghaus, is 41 15 miles. The mountains 
which occupy the interior rise to a very great elevation ; 
but they descend in gentle slopes, and the sea-shore is 
skirted by low hills, which are covered with forests of lofty 
trees. There is only a small number of Malay families 
settled on some points of the coast In 1818 their number 
did not exceed 951, an<J the whole population amounted 
only to 4680 individuals. It is the least important island 
of the whole group, though it has several good harbours 
on the Great Strait of Mindoro, among which the Ensenada 
of Manguirin, towards the north, and the Ensenada of Pa- 
lavan, towards the north, are the most extensive ; but the 
approach is dangerous, owing to reefs. 

3. Panay has the form of an isosceles triangle, the base 
of which is more than 1 00 miles long, and the other sides 
more than 80 miles. The area, according to Berghaus, is 
4579 square miles, or nearly double that of Devonshire. 
Along the western coast the countrv is of moderate elevation, 
well cultivated, and populous ; villages are numerous ; and 
the churches, though small, are well built. At some dis- 
tance from the shore, a mountain-ridge runs from Punts 
Polol, on the north, to Punta Nasog, or Naso, on the south, 
and appears to be very 6teep. We have no account of the 
natural features of the countries contiguous to the northern 
and south-eastern coast. According to the census of 1818, 
the population of this island was 292,750 ; and according to 
an estimate in 1837, it had increased to 406,030 individuals. 
This shows that Panay is the most important island of the 
whole group next to Luzon, and is even more densely peopled 
than that island. 

•4. Negro8 is about 140 miles long, with an average 
width of about 25 miles. The surface, according to Berghaus, 
is 3827 square miles, or 1000 miles more than the county 
of Lincoln. We are not acquainted with its surface and 
soil. It seems to be very mountainous, and contains a com- 
paratively small number of agricultural settlements. Tbe 
population subject to the Spanish government in 1818 con- 
sisted of 35,445; and in 1837, of 35,622 individuals. 

5. Zebu, or Cebv, extends in length from south to north 
rather more than 100 miles, but it is hardly more than 20 
miles wide on an average. The area, according to Berghaus, 
is 2193 square miles, or about 150 square miles more than 
that of Norfolk. We are not acquainted with its natural 
features and tho quality of the soil, but we may presume 
that it does not contain much waste land and high moun- 
tains, as the population is very considerable. In 1818 it 
amounted on the island to 68,772 inhabitants: and in tbe 
whole province, which included the island of Bobol and four 
smaller islands, it amounted to 168,426 individuals. Ac- 
cording to the returns of 1837, the population of the whole 
province had increased to 250,817 individuals. 

6. Bohol, situated between Zebu on the west and Leyte 
on the east, is the smallest of the larger Philippines except 
Masbate. It extends in length from west to east about 45 
miles, with an average width of 30 miles. Berghaus de- 
termines the area to be 1354 square miles. We have no 
account of its natural capabilities, but they roust be great, 
as it contained in 1818a population of 80,344 individuals, 
or nearly 60 persons to a square mile. According to the 
account of 1837, in which the island is included in the go- 
vernment of the province of Zebu, we must suppose that it 
has greatly increased since the census was taken. 

7. Leyte, or Leite, extends from south to north about 
120 miles, with an average width of 35 miles. According 
to Berghaus, the area is 4257 square miles. We are no 
better acquainted with this island than with those to the 
west of it The population of the province of Leyte, to 
which two smaller islands of inconsiderable extent belong, 
amounted, in 1818, to 40,623; but in 1837, to 92,165. 

8. Samar, or, as it is also called by the natives, Yba- 
bat, is the largest of the Philippines which are subject to* 
Spain* next to Luzon. It has the form of a triangle whoso 
apex is turned to the south: the base measures about GO 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

miles, and the perpendicular length about 115 miles. The 
surface is 5547 square miles, or about 300 square miles less 
than Yorkshire. A great part of this island, especially to- 
wards the north, is covered with high mountains, which are 
visible from a great distance at sea. The soil in general, 
though not distinguished by fertility, is far from being sterile. 
According to the census of 1818, the population of Samar and 
the small island of Capul amounted to 57,922 individuals, 
a number which had increased in 1837 to 99,635. 

9. Masbate is in the middle of that sea basin which is 
surrounded by the islands described from No. 2 to No. 
8, and by the" peninsula of Camarines, and is called the 
Bisaya Sea : the islands surrounding this basin and those 
within it are comprehended under the general name of the 
Bisaya Islands. Masbate has a triangular form, whose apex 
is to the east. The base, or western coast, is nearly 40 
miles long, and the perpendicular length about 55 miles. 
Berghaus makes the surface 1225 square miles. This island 
appears to be a mass of high rocks, and to contain very little 
cultivable ground. The population is very small. In 1818 
it did not contain more than 2310 persons. 

Between the most northern point of Masbate and the 
promontory of Cabesa Bondoc is the island of Burias, which 
has an area of only 327 square miles. It does not acknow- 
ledge the authority of the Spaniards. When Forest was on 
Mindanao, he was informed that the Illanos from that 
island had formed a settlement on Burias, and that the 
Spaniards had been unable to expel them. 

10. The island of Magindanao, or Magindano, is the most 
southern of the Philippines, and the largest next to Luzon. 
Its form is extremely irregular. Berghaus makes the area 
36,140 square miles, or about 14,000 square miles less than 
that of England without Wales. The coast-line perhaps 
considerably exceeds 1000 miles. Our information respect- 
ing this island is very scanty, and we are indebted for the 
little that we know to Forest, who visited the island in 1 775, 
and remained there nearly eight months. From the infor- 
mation that he collected during his stay, we learn that 
where the meridian of 124° E. cuts the island, two bays pe- 
netrate into it, the Bay of Illano from the south, and that 
of Siddum, or Panguyl, from the north, and that their inner- 
most recesses are only two days 1 journey from each other. 
Near the isthmus which is thus formed is a large lake called 
Lano, which is from 15 to 20 miles wide from south to north, 
and has a greater extent from east to west. The country 
enclosing the western portion of the lake is hilly, but on 
the east of it extends a large, fertile, well-cultivated, and 
populous plain, inhabited by a tribe of the Malay race, called 
Illanos. The population of the country enclosing the lake 
was stated to be 61,300. Along the southern shores the 
country, as far as Forest had an opportunity of seeing it, 
was in most parts hilly, but not mountainous: in some 
places there were extensive plains, and most of the valleys 
were wide and fertile. It seems however that the country 
which lies along the eastern shores of the island contains 
ranges of lofty mountains, which are inhabited by the Ha- 
raforas, or original inhabitants of the island. The country 
west of the isthmus, between the bays of Illano and of 
Siddum, probably contains mountains only in the northern 
districts, and is entirely inhabited by Malays. Numerous 
rivers water this large island; but we are only acquainted 
with the Pelangy, which flows from east to west, rising near 
125° 30' E. long., and falling into the Bay of Bongo opposite 
the island of Bunwert. Though its course probably does 
not exceed 100 miles, it is navigable for large river- boats to 
a great distance from the mouth, and drains a wide and 
fertile valley, which enlarges near the sea into an extensive 
plain, where the river divides into several arms, and forms 
a very fertile delta. Forest observes that large tracts of 
this island are destitute of trees and covered with fine 
grass, and that such savannahs do not occur in any other 
island of the Indian Archipelago. There are volcanoes on 
Magindanao: the existence of three is certain. One of 
them, the Sanguili, is not far from the southern extremity, 
5° 44' N. lat. and 1 25* 1 8' E. long. There is another north- 
west of Cape S. Augustin, the south-eastern point of the 
island ; and a third on the eastern side of the Bay of Illano. 
Between the northern coast of Magindanao and the island 
of Zebu, is the island of Siquijor, or Fuego, on which also 
there is an active volcano. 

Magindanao is politically divided into three psrts. The 
Spaniards have formed a great number of settlements on 
the eastern and western coast, where the inhabitants consist 

almost exclusively of Bisayes, or Malays of the Philippines. 
These settlements constitute two provinces of the general 
Capitanancy of the Philippines. The Spaniards have also a 
military establishment at Zamboanga, on the Strait of Ba- 
silan, at the south-western extremity of the island, in order 
to prevent the pirates from the Sulo Islands from extending 
their predatory visits to the Mindoro Sea. But these islands 
are exposed to the depredations of the Illanos, who not only 
possess the country about the lake of Lano, but also the 
greatest part of the shores of the Bay of Illano, and the 
western coast of the island between the Strait of Basilan 
and the wide and open bay of Sindangan. The large pen- 
insula which extends between the Bay of Illano on the 
west and the Pacific on the east acknowledges the authority 
of the sultan of Magindanao, whose subjects are mostly 
Malays, and inhabit the country along the coast ; but the 
interior is occupied by the Haraforas, who are treated by 
the Malays not as subjects, but as slaves* 

Climate, — We do not possess a regular series of me- 
teorological observations for any of the Philippines, except 
those made by Le Gentil at Manila more than sixiy years 
ago, and they are of little value. Meyen, who was there in 
September and October, found that in this season of the 
year the thermometer, never exceeded 83° at noon, and ge- 
nerally remained below 80°, and that the difference between 
day and night rarely amounted to 6 degrees. Comparing 
his observations with those of Le Gentil, he thinks that the 
mean temperature of the summer may be fixed between 
80° and 82", and that of the winter between 70° and 72°, and 
that the mean temperature of the whole year probably would 
fall somewhat short of 77°. The year is divided between 
the dry and rainy seasons, which depend on the monsoons. 
The rainy season occurs in the south-west monsoon, during 
which an immense quantity of water comes down, the rains 
sometimes continuing for ten or even fourteen days without 
intermission. The rains commence in the beginning of 
May, and do not cease before the end of October or the be- 
ginning of November. They attain their maximum in the 
month of July. Between the beginning of November and 
the end of April showers sometimes occur. The northern 
part of Luzon is situated within the range of those terrific 
hurricanes which are called tjfun % and which are rarely felt 
south of 1 4° N. lat. These winds occur between the begin- 
ning of May and the end of December, but are less violent 
towards the end of the year. In June and July they rage 
with incredible fury; but they generally blow only four 
or six hours, and frequently for a shorter time. They 
begin to blow from the east, in a contrary direction to the 
then prevailing south-west monsoon, and turn gradually to 
the south and south-west, when their force begins to fail. 
The damage which is caused by them is as great as that 
produced by the hurricanes or the West Indies. Earth- 

3uakes occur frequently, and sometimes cause great 

Productions. — The staple articles for the European market 
are sugar, indigo, rum, and tobacco ; and for the Chinese 
market, sapan-wood, rice, edible birds' nests, and trepang. 
The sugar-cane is most extensively cultivated in the Plain 
of Pampanga; and though the manner of preparing the 
sugar is not a goed one, the sugar itself is much prized, 
and sent to many parts of Europe. Indigo is cultivated to 
a great extent, and some has been exported, which was not 
considered inferior to that of Guatemala; but in general 
the manufacture of this article is not conducted with suffi- 
cient attention. Tobacco, which grows very well in many 
places, and is of the first quality, is only exported in the 
form of cigars. Rice, for which there is always a ready 
market, and which constitutes the principal food of the bulk 
of the population, is the first object of cultivation nearly all 
over the island. Where the fields cannot be put under 
water, the upland rice is cultivated. Sapan-wood (Caesal- 
pinia sapan) abounds in some of the mountainous districts, 
in the forests, and finds a ready sale in China. The quantity 
of edible birds* nests and trepang which is sent to China is 
not great. A small quantity of coffee, ebony, sulphur, cot- 
ton, pearls, mother-of-pearl shells, tortoise-shells, and cord- 
age, are also exported. The coffee-plant was introduced 
about fifty years ago, and is now found wild in many of the 
woods surrounding the Laguna de Bay, having been propa- 
gated by a species of civet cat which swallows the berries. 
The greater part of the coffee exported from Manila is 
gathered from these wild plants, and is equal or superior 
in flavour to that of Bourbon. Cotton cannot become an 

Digitized by 


p h i 

P H I 

important article of exportation until some method is 
adopted, less expensive than that now in use, of separating 
it from the seed. Cordage is made from the fibres of a 
species of banana. The exterior fibres of its stem, which 

trows to the height of seven or eight feet, are coarse, like 
emp ; but the inner fibres are finer ; and those near the 
centre are finer than the best flax, and are used in the 
island in the manufacture of several stuffs for clothing. 
The hemp itself has also of late supplied an article of ex- 
portation. Cacao, which has been brought from Guatemala, 
is cultivated in many places in Luzon, and has even spread 
to the most southern islands. Forest found a cacao-tree 
in Magindanao. The consumption of chocolate being great, 
cacao is not exported, though it is said to be equal to the 
best grown in America. Cinnamon is said to grow wild in 
many of the islands, and the clove-tree is found on Magin- 
danao. The sago-palm is also indigenous, but the cultiva- 
tion is little attended to. 

The principal food of the inhabitants consists of rice and 
fish. They also cultivate millet and several kinds of beans 
and other pulse. The fruit-trees which succeed best, be- 
sides the cocoa-nut, the cultivation of which is carefully 
attended to, are the bread-fruit, mango, and two kinds of 
oranges and figs. The plantations of plantains are exten- 
sive, and also those of areca-nuts. The bamboo and prickly 
calamus are cultivated, and both of them supply materials 
for the construction of the habitations of the natives. 

The buffalo is universally used in all field-labour, though 
in some parts people have begun to substitute the bullock 
for it. The buffalo here, as on all the islands of the Indian 
Archipelago, is of uncommon size and strength ; the cay- 
mans, which are in the Laguna de Bay, and rather of a 
large kind, never attack a buffalo. Cattle have been intro- 
duced by the Spaniards, and are abundant in some parts of 
the plains, which are destitute of woods, like the prairies of 
North Ameriea. Horses have also been introduced by the 
Spaniards ; the breed is small, but very hardy ; they are 
only used for riding. Sheep are few, but goats are more 
numerous. Pigs are plentiful, except on Magindanao, where 
the inhabitants are Mohammedans. Domestic fowl are 
reared in immense numbers, especially ducks on the banks 
of the Laguna de Bay. Except the caymans, which are 
numerous in the Laguna de Bay, there are no rapacious 
animals. The woods swarm with deer and wild hogs. The 
Philippines are rather distinguished by the number than 
by the variety of wild fowl. The sea abounds with fish, and 
the inhabitants, like all the tribes of the Malays, prefer fish 
to meat. The number of families which gain their sub- 
sistence by fishing is very great. Among the fish found in 
the Laguna de Bay is a saw-fish of large size, which attacks 
the cayman. Besides pearls and great quantities of mother- 
of-pearl shells, cowries are very plentiful about some of the 
smaller islands and rocks. Wild bees are very numerous 
in the woods, and wax and honey are important objects of 
internal commerce. The islands rarely suffer from drought, 
and are periodically (perhaps once in ten or fifteen years) 
devastated by locusts. 

Gold, iron, and copper are said to exist in Luzon and 
Magindanao,but at present none of these metals are worked. 
It is said that gold is tolerably abundant on the mountains 
along the northern shores of Magindanao. Salt is made in 
several places, and brimstone is collected on some of the 
mountains of Luzon. 

Inhabitants. — When the Spaniards took possession of the 
Philippines, they found the islands occupied by two dif- 
ferent races of men. In the plains and hilly tracts several 
tribes of Malays had settled, who spoke different dialects of 
the same language, and were subject to a great number of 
petty sovereigns. The mountains were occupied by a black 
race, which belongs to the race of Austral negroes, and was 
called by the Spaniards, Negritos or Aetas, while the Malays 
were called Indios. The Negritos were probably the abori- 
gines of the islands, and had retired to the mountains when 
the Malays began to occupy the lower country, being of a 
diminutive size, and unable to offer resistance: in the 
mountains they had maintained their independence. The 
Malays have submitted to the sway of the Spaniards, but 
the Negritos are independent in the mountain fastnesses: 
they run away at the sight of foreigners, and avoid all 
communication with them. It is however stated by Forest 
that many of the Negritos have been converted to Christ- 
ianity on the island of Magindanao, where the Malays treat 
them as slaves, and take from their huts what they like. 

The Negritos of Magindanao consequently often change 
their abodes, and retire to those parts which are subject to 
the Spaniards, where they embrace Christianity in preference 
to Islam ism, because they are permitted to eat pork, of which 
they are very fond. In Magindanao the Negritos are agri- 
culturists, and the Malays who .reside along the coast 
receive from them a considerable part of the agricultural 
produce necessary for their consumption, giving in return 
several utensils and baubles, which are brought from other 
countries. The Negritos in Luzon are savages, who have no 
fixed abode, but rove about the mountains, and live by the 
chase, and on wild fruits and honey. They occupy the 
greatest part of the Montes Caravallos, and also the higher 
part of the Montes Zambales. The Malays are divided into 
a great number of tribes, of which that called Tagala occu- 
pies the neighbourhood of Manila and the country round 
the Laguna de Bay. The other tribes that are numerous, 
the Pampanga, Zambales, Pangasinan, Ylocos, and Ca- 
gayan, inhabit the other plains and lower country. They 
are all subject to the Spaniards. Some of the tribes in the 
Sierra Madre have not embraced Christianity, and are not 
regularly subject to the Spanish government. One of them, 
the Ygorrotes, who inhabit the mountains cast of the Gulf 
of Lingayen, are distinguished by a peculiar physiognomy 
aud a lighter colour, which, it is supposed, must be attri- 
buted to a mixture with Chinese. As to the political con- 
dition of the Malays, it is unanimously slated that they are 
proprietors of the soil and free subjects, and treated by the 
Spaniards as such. The forts, which are built in many 
places along the coast to oppose the pirates, are in their 
power, and are garrisoned by them. It must be a matter of 
surprise that, under such circumstances, the Spaniards, 
whose number is very small (in 1818 it did not exceed 3000;, 
are not driven out by the Malays ; but this is explained by 
the fact of the great authority which the clergy exercise 
over them, and by which they are kept quiet, so that they 
never rise against government except when excited by the 
cbrgy, which has been the case several times. Though 
such a subjection to the clergy would lead us to suppose 
that the people must be in a low condition, this supposition 
is contradicted by travellers. Meycn found them well 
lodged, clothed, and abundantly provided with food. They 
seem not to be inferior to the peasantry of most countries 
of Europe. Besides the Spaniards, there are a few people 
of colour, who, in 1818, amounted to 6170 souls: there are 
also some Chinese, who, in 1818, were not more than 6201, 
of which number 1569 were Christians. 

Political Divisions and Population. — The Philippines, as 
far as they are subject to Spain, are divided into twenty- 
nine provinces, of which seventeen are situated in the 
island of Luzon, and twelve in the smaller islands, and on 
the northern and eastern coast of Magindanao. The popu- 
lation, iu 1818, amounted, according to the census, to 
2,214,142 individuals; and in 1837, according to an esti- 
mate founded on the number of families paying the capi- 
tation tax, to 3,202,760. The following tables exhibit the 
particulars : — 

1. Population of the Provinces on the Island of Luzon, or 
Nueva Costilla. 

Names of ProTiucct. 1818. 1937. 

1. Tondo . . . 149,095 230,025 

2. Bulacan . . . 125,021 181,970 

3. Pampanga . . . 106,381 181,720 

4. Pangasinan . . 119,322 229,402 

5. Ylocos del Norte . . 135,748 172,207 

6. Ylocos del Sur . . 147,095 236,510 

7. Cagayan . . . 61,322 92,222 

8. Zambales . . . 18,841 36.0&0 

9. Bataan . . . 23,393 36,087 
10 Nueva Ecija . . 15,506 44,570 

11. Tayabas . . 48,676 85,245 

12. Camarines del Sur I inflQ0 / 158,972 

13. Camarines del Norte J * UJ » 8J - \ 2 4,9S5 

14. Albay . . . 92,665 131,745 

15. Laguna de Bay . . 86,689 142.S05 

16. Baiangas . . . 112,120 188,660 

17. Cavite . . . 51,665 91,602 

1,407,431 2,264,807 

The difference between the population of 1818 and 1837 

may partly be explained by the great increase of cultivation 

in cousequence of the increased demand for the produce 

of the country, which was caused by opening the port of 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

Manila to the commerce of all foreign nations. It may also 
be partly accounted for by. the circumstance that in the 
census of 1837 the tribes which are either independent or 
not quite subject to the Spaniards were comprehended, 
while in 1818 they were omitted; and their number was 
estimated at the last-mentioned period at the following 
rate : — 

564 families newly converted and still under the 

sway of the monks, composed of 2,820 

788 families of friendly Ygorrotes in the province 

of Pan gas i nan, containing . 3,940 

2160 families of Tinguianos in the provinces of 

Ylocos # 10,800 

1180 families of unconverted Ygorrotes in the 

same provinces 5,900 

1523 families of non-converted Negritos in the 
same provinces 


If these are added, the population of the island of Luzon 
consisted, in 1818, of 1,438,506 individuals. 

2. Population of the Islas Bisayas. 

Nam«i of Provinces. 

1 8. Mindoro, comprehending the is- 
lands of Mindoro . . 4670 souls 

Marinduque . 9777 
Islas de Luban . 4349 

19. Antique, or the western coast of 
the island of Panay 

20. Iloilo, or south-eastern part of 
the island of Panay 

2 1 . Capiz, or northern part of Panay, 
including the islands — 

Romblon and Sibuyan 3840 
Banton, Tablas, Simara, 

and Maestro de Cam po 2824 — 

22. Ley te, comprehending the island 
of the same name, and the islands of 

Panamao . . • 1065 
Panaon . . . 37G6 

23. Zebu, comprehending Zebu, and 
the islands- 
Ban tayan . . 5,235 
Siquijor . . 5,748 
Bohol . . . 80,344 
Davis . . . 4,981 

Panglao . . 3,346 

The Islas Camotas are comprehended 

in a parish of Zebu. 

24. Samar or Ybabao, consisting of 
the island of that name and the island 
of Capul, with 3013 inhabitants 

25. Calamianes, comprehending a 
group of islands called Islas de Calami- 
anes. which properly do not belong to 
the Philippines, but to the Archipela- 
go de Felicia or Palawan, and the 
northern portion of Palawan, called 

The Islas de Calamianes 
• 2,060 inhabitants and 



18,796 29,632 

50,597 55,100 

176,901" 230,410 

65,262 120,520 

40,623 92,165 

160,099 250,817 

57,922 99,635 




26. Islas Batanas, which are situated 
north of the Strait of Balingtang, or the 
Great Passage, by which they are 
divided from Luzon 

27. Negrds, embracing the island of 

13,157 16,052 



35,445 35,622 

619,378 937,953 
3. Papulation of the Spanish portion of Magindanao. 

Names of the Province*. 1818. 1837- 

28. Caraga, comprehending theeastern 

coast of the island . . . 15,957 29,977 

29. Misamis, embracing the northern 

coast east of the Bay of Sindangan . 26,226 34,583 

To these two provinces is to be added 
tbe Presidio, or military establishment 
atZamboanga .... 8,640 10,000 

P. C., No. 1114. 

50,823 74,560 

According to the census of 1818, the whole population 
was 2,108,707, to which however it was thought necessary 
to add 5 per cent, on account of some small errors, which 
gave the whole amount of the population 2,214,142. 

The rapid increase of the population in the period be- 
tween 1792 and 1837 may be inferred from the number of 
families paying capitation tax, which in 
1792 amounted to 280,093 1815 amounted to 385,568 

805 „ 347,841 1817 „ 412,679 

1812 .. 382,568 1818 „ 436,047 

and in 1837 they amounted to 654,670. 

Towns.— -It may be presumed that in so populous a 
country there must be a considerable number of towns, but 
as travellers do not extend their excursions to any great dis- 
tance from the capital, Manila, we are not acquainted with 
them. In the census a considerable number of towns are 
mentioned with a population exceeding 5000 souls, and in 
34 places it is stated to exceed 10,000 individuals. Six 
places of the last description are noted in tbe province of 
Iloilo, in the island of Panay. 
Manila, the capital and seat of the captain-general or 

governor of the island, is built on the eastern shores of the 
iahia de Manila, at the mouth of the river Pasig, or the 
channel by which the Laguna de Bay discharges its water 
It consists of two towns with extensive suburbs. The city, 
Manila, is built on the southern banks of the Pasig, and 
enclosed by high walls, and a ditch which is connected with 
the river. The streets are straight, wide, and well paved. 
The houses are built of stone, and are substantial. There are 
several well-built churches and convents. The palace of 
the captain-general is not distinguished by its architecture, 
but the custom-house, or aduana, is a large and fine build- 
ing. The city is only inhabited by Spanish families, and in 
1818 did not contain above 6875 inhabitants, including the 
Malay servants of the Spaniards. Close to it on the south 
are the suburbs of Hermita and Malate, which in 1818 con- 
tained 10,550 inhabitants. A well-built bridge leads from 
the city over the Pasig to Bidondo, a large place, which 
however only contains habitations built in the fashion of 
the Tagala, though it is the commercial town. In 1818 
Bidondo contained 21,386 inhabitants. Contiguous to it 
on the beach is Tondo, the capital of the province of the 
same name, whose population in 1818 amounted to 14,610 
inhabitants. At the back of Bidondo are eight suburbs, 
the population of which in 1818 amounted to 23,462. The 
population of all these places together amounted in 1818 to 
76,883 individuals. It has been asserted that the popula- 
tion was not less than 150,000, which is probably an exag- 
geration ; but when the increase of the population of the 
province of Tondo is considered, we may reasonably suppose 
that Manila at present can hardly contain less than 120,000 
inhabitants. The houses in all these places are built of 
bamboos, and are elevated from 6 to 8 feet above the ground, 
resting on thick pieces of bamboo. The number of Chinese 
is considerable, and is said to amount to 30,000, which how- 
ever seems to be an exaggeration. In the large square of 
the city, which is more than 100 yards wide, stands the 
statue of Charles IV. of Spain, of bronze, somewhat larger 
than life. Ferdinand VII. gave it to the town of Manila in 
1824. It is considered a good work, but is too small for tho 
square. Manila contains a royal college for the instruction 
of youth, a university which was founded by Philip IV. in 
1645, a nautical academy, an hospital for the poor, and 
various other religious and charitable establishments. 

Cavite, which lies south of Manila, is a well built fortress, 
situated at the extremity of a tongue of land about two 
miles long: it protects the Ensenada de la Estanzuela, 
the only harbour in the Bahia de Manila. The arsenal is 
in that fortress, and vessels are built there. The fortress 
contained in 1818 only 1926 inhabitants, but the adjacent 
town of S. Roque contained a population of 9926. 

Manufactures. — The Malays use very few manufactured 
goods exported from other countries, and they havo applied 
themselves to somo branches of manufacture with success. 
They make very good earthenware, which however is not 
exported, being much inferior to that of China. But tho 
cotton stuffs, which are made in some parts, are, or were 
formerly, exported to Mexico. Another branch of industry 
in which they excel is the plaiting of straw and slips of 
wood. Hats made of the latter material are highly prized 
and exported. A single hat of the first quality fetches in 
Manila from 17 to 18 Spanish dollars, or 4/. Mats and 
similar objects are also exported. At Manila thero is a 

Vol. XVIII.— N 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

royal manufacture of cigars, in which 450 persons are con- 
stantly employed. 

Commerce, — The commerce of the Philippines was for- 
merly limited to the mother- country and the Spanish 
colonies in America. The most important and lucrative 
branch was the commerce with Mexico, which was con- 
ducted by means of gall ion a that sailed onee a year between 
Acapulco and Manila. They chiefly carried to America 
silk manufactures and other goods obtained from the 
Chinese, and brought in return the produce of the Mexican 
silver- mines. This commerce had little effect on the in- 
crease of population and the improvement of cultivation. 
At that time no foreign vessels, except from China, were 
admitted into the ports of the Philippines, and the islands 
accordingly advanced very slowly. But since the Spanish 
colonies in America have obtained their independence, the 
port of Manila has been thrown open to all commercial 
nations, and the increase of the exports has been very rapid, 
as appears from the following table, which shows the quan- 
tity of the principal articles exported in 1818, 1829, and 




Sugar 14,405 




Indigo 3,400 




Sapan- wood 18,825 




Rice • . . 




Cigars . . . 




1 picol =r 140 lbs. 1 arroba = 25 lbs. 
Manila carries on trade with Canton, Arnoy, and Shang- 
liae, in China ; Awatska in Kamtchatka ; Acapulco and other 
ports of Mexico ; with four of the ports of the United States 
of North America ; with London, Gibraltar, three ports of 
France, with Hamburg, the Mauritius, British Hindustan, 
Singapore, Batavia, Cochin-China, Borneo, and the Sulo 
Archipelago. The Chinese junks from Shang-hae do not 
visit any port farther west than Manila. In 1818 the num- 
ber of foreign vessels that entered the port of Manila did 
not exceed 61 ; they were, Spanish 9, Portuguese 4, French 
6, English 17, American 10, Chinese junks 13, and Borneo 
junks 3. The following table shows the number of vessels 
that entered the port and cleared out from it in 1828 and 

Names of the Nations to whom the 

vessels belonged. Outwards. 






Spanish • 






. — 





— • 





. — 



— . 

Dutch ;. 










Portuguese . 

• — -■ 









, — 









Other vessels, the 


of the nation to 


they belong not slated 80 




118 186 164 184 

This list is very far from being correct, as is evident from 
the circumstance that the nations to which nearly half the 
number of vessels belong, are not mentioned. But as it 
may serve to give some idea of the increase of the commerce 
of the town of Manila, we have given it as it appears in 
Meyen's * Travels.' 

The same author states that in 1828 the value of the 
goods exported amounted to 1,475,034 Spanish dollars 
(331,882/.), and that of bullion and specie to 62,486 Spanish 
dollars (14,059/.); in 1829 the goods to 1,397,623 Spanish 
dollars (314,465/.), and the bullion and specie to 62,275 
dollars (12,012/.), and in 1830 the exported goods 
amounted to 1,497,621 (336,964/.), and the bullion and 
specie to 81,952 dollars (18,440/.). The value of the goods 
imported in 1828 amounted to 1,550,933 dollars (348,960/.), 
and that of bullion and specie to 401,827 dollars (90,411/.) ; 
in 1829 the former to 1,654,502 dollars (372,263/.), and the 
latter to 398,447 dollars (84,650/.). In 1830 the imported 
goods were to the value of 1,562,522 dollars (351,567/.), 
and the bullion and specie to the value of 178,063 dollars 

European vessels do not visit any other harbours of the 
Philippines except Manila, but it is very probable that the 

Bugis and inhabitants of Sulo, as well as the Chinese, 
who have a great number of junks in these seas, visit some 
of the smaller islands, especially the well-cultivated and 
populous island of Panay. The coasting trade of the Phi- 
lippines is very active. It is carried on in small brigs, and 
in still smaller vessels, called galores, goletas, pontines, &c ; 
a great number of these vessels are employed in the 
coasting trade between Manila and the provinces of Ylocos 
and Pangasinan, and the islands of Panay and Zebu. In 
1818 there cleared out from Manila 637 vessels of that 

History, — The Philippines were discovered by Fernando 
Magalhaens in 1521, who was killed in one of the islands. 
[Magalhaens.] In 1564 a small squadron under the 
orders of Lopez de Legaspi was sent from Mexico to form 
an establishment, which he effected in the following year 
on the island of Zebu, the inhabitants of which submitted 
to the Spaniards without any resistance. In 1571 Legaspi 
founded the town of Manila ; and as the Malays of this 
island were divided into a great number of communities 
independent of one another, and not accustomed to war, 
they also submitted to the foreigners almost without a 
struggle. Thus the Spaniards obtained the possession of this 
important group of islands almost without bloodshed, and 
they have preserved it by converting the inhabitants to Chris- 
tianity, in which they have been perfectly successful, as the 
Islam at the time of the conquest had not extended farther 
than to the Moluccas. The Spaniards remained in undis- 
turbed possession of the Philippines to 1762, when the 
English took the town of Manila. The inhabitants of 
Luzon however did not submit, but continued the war 
against the English under a Spanish officer, though with 
no great vigour. In 1 764 the English restored Manila to 
the Spanish government. The Philippines, together with 
the Marianas, are administered by a governor who has ex- 
tensive powers. The islands are divided into provinces, at 
the head of which is a governor, or alcalde mayor ; and the 
provinces are subdivided into pueblos, which have also their 
petty governor, and officers subordinate to bim. 

(Martinez de Zuiiiga's Historical View of the Philippine 
Islands ; Kotzebue's Voyage of Discovery into the South 
Sea, #c, ; Meyen's Reise um die Erde ; Y ldefonso de Ara- 
gon, Estado de la Poblacion de Filipinos correspondente al 
anno de 1818; Forest's Voyage to New Guinea; Moor's 
Notices of the Indian Archipelago; Berghaus's Memoir von 
den Philippinen und Sulu Inseln, and his Map; Calendario 
de las Islas Filipinos, for 1839, Manila.) 

PHILIPPINES, NEW. more frequently called the 
Carolines, are a number of islands situated in the Pacific, 
between 138° and 164° E. long., and between 5° and 13° 
N. lat. In this wide tract of ocean there are several groups 
of small islands enclosed by reefs, and others are isolated. 
These islands are very imperfectly known, though the 
Spaniards, who obtained some knowledge of them from the 
natives who visited their settlement on the island of Guahan 
(Ladrones), claim the sovereignty of the New Philippines. 
They have however never made a settlement on any of 
these islands, though a Spaniard has occasionally paid them 
a visit, or a monk has gone for the purpose of converting 
the natives. Twelve years ago these islands were partly 
surveyed by the Russian navigator Liitke. 

The islands, which lie either within the basins formed by 
the coral reefs, or contiguous to the reefs themselves on 
their interior side, are all small, and produce hardly any- 
thing except cocoa-nuts and bread-fruit. All the isolated 
islands are high, and some rise to a great elevation. The 
island of Feys rises on the shore to more than 1200 feet, 
but gradually slopes towards the centre, resembling in that 
respect most of the lower islands, which consist of a nar- 
row strip of land of a circular form, enclosing a lagoon. 
The elevated islands have a great variety of trees and 
plants which afford food. The cultivated fields contain plan- 
tains and arums ; from the root of the latter the inhabitants 
make flour. They also cultivate the sugar-cane, and have 
several fruit-trees besides the cocoa and bread-fruit, espe- 
cially some kinds of fig-trees, among which is the ficus in- 
dica, or banyan-tree. The areca-palm also grows on these 
islands. The mountains and hills are generally covered with 
high forest-trees, among which the cabbage-tree is common. 
The inhabitants belong to the Malay raoe, and go nearly 
naked: they are industrious agriculturists and fishermen. 
They make excellent mats, and canoes of a large size, with 
which they undertake voyages of several hundred miles, 

Digitized by 




P H I 

visiting from time to time the Spanish settlements of 
Guahan, to which they bring such articles of agricultural 
produce as will bear the voyage. They are governed by 
kings: the government is not strictly hereditary, but partly 
elective. [Liitke, Voyage auloitr du Monde] 

PHILIPPUS was also the name assumed by the impostor 
Andriscus, who, by pretending to be the son of King 
Perseus, induced the Macedonians to acknowledge him as 
their king, and met with so much success as to defeat one 
of the Roman officers. But he was ultimately driven out of 
Macedon by Q. Caecilius Metellus, and given up to the Ro- 
mans by atfhracian prince with whom he had taken refuge. 

PHILIPPUS, M. JULIUS, a native of Bostra in 
Trachonitis, according to some authorities, after serving 
with distinction in the Roman armies, was promoted 
by the later Oordianus to the command of the imperial 
guards after the death of Misitheus, ad. 243. [Gor- 
dianus ; Marcus Antoninus Pius.] In the following 
year he accompanied Gordianus in his expedition into Per- 
sia, when he contrived to excite a mutiny among the sol- 
diers, by complaining that the emperor was too young to 
lead an army in such a difficult undertaking, "fhe muti- 
tineers obliged Gordianus to acknowledge Philippus us his 
colleague ; and in a short time, Philippus wishing to reign 
alone, caused Gordianus to be murdered (Capitol in us, in 
Historia Augusta). In a letter to the senate, he ascribed 
the death of Gordianus to illness, and the senate acknow- 
ledged him as emperor. Having made peace with the Per- 
sians, he led the army back into Syria, and arrived at An- 
tioch for the Easter solemnities. Eusebius, who with Orosius, 
Zonaras, and other Christian writers, maintains that Philip- 
opus was a Christian, states merely as a report that he went 
with his wife to attend the Christian worship at Antioch, 
but that Babila, bishop of that city, refused to permit him 
to enter the church, as being guilty of murder, upon which 
Philippus acknowledged his guilt, and placed himself in the 
ranks of the penitents. This circumstance is also stated by 
John Chrysostom. From Antioch, Philippus came to 
Rome, and the following year, a.d. 245, assumed the con- 
sulship with T. F. Titianus, and marched against the Carpi, 
who had invaded MoDsia, and defeated them. In the year 
247 Philippus was again consul, with his son of the same 
name as himself, and their consulship was continued to the 

t blowing year, when Philippus celebrated with great splen- 
our the thousandth anniversary of the building of Rome. 
An immense number of wild beasts were brought forth and 
slaughtered in the amphitheatres and circus. In the next, 
under the consulship of iEmilianus and Aquilinus, a revolt 
broke out among the legions on the Danube, who pro- 
claimed emperor a centurion named Carvilius Marin us, 
whom however the soldiers killed shortly after. Philippus, 
alarmed at the state of those provinces, sent thither Decius 
as commander, but Decius had no sooner arrived at his post 

Coin of Philippus. 
Britbh Museum. Actual Size. 

Coin of Philipptu the Younger. 
British Museum. Actual Site." 

than the soldiers proclaimed him emperor, 
marched against Decius, leaving his son at Rome, 
two armies met near Verona, where Philippus was defeated 
and killed, as some say by his own troops. On the news 


| reaching Romo, the praetorians killed his son also, and 
1 Decius was acknowledged emperor a.d. 249. . Eutropius 
states that both Philippi, father and son, were numbered 
among the gods. It is doubtful whether Philippus was 
really a Christian, but it seems certain, as stated by Euse- 
bius and Dionysius of Alexandria, that under his reign the 
Christians enjoyed full toleration and were allowed to preach 
publicly. Gregory of Nyssa slates that during that period 
all the inhabitants of Neocaesarea in Pontus embraced 
Christianity, overthrew the idols, and raised temples to the 
God of the Christians. It appears that Philippus during his 
five years' reign governed with mildness and justice, and 
was generally popular. 

PHILI'PPUS (*t\i7nroc), the name of several antient 
physicians enumerated by Fabricius {Biblioth. Grated). The 
most celebrated is Philippus of Acarnania, the frfend and 
physician of Alexander the Great, who was the means of 
saving the king's life when he had been seized with a 
violent attack of fever, brought on by the excessive cold- 
ness of the waters of the river Cydnus, Ol. Ill, 4(b.c.333). 
Parmenio sent to warn Alexander that Philippus had 
been bribed by Darius to poison him ; the king however 
did not doubt his fidelity, but, while he drank the draught 
prepared for him, put into his physician's hands the letter 
he had just received. His speedy recovery fblly justified 
his confidence, and proved at once the skill and honesty of 
Philippus. (Q. Curt„ lib. iii., cap. 6 ; Val. Max., lib. iii., 
cap. 8, in fine ; Plut., cap* 19 ; Arrian, lib. ii., cap. 4 ; Justin, 
lib. xi., cap. 8 ; Diod. Sic, lib. xvii., cap. 31.) 

PHILIPS, AMBROSE, was born about the year 1671, 
and is said to have been descended from an old Leicester- 
shire family. He was educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, and his first printed performance is a copy of English 
verses in the Collection published by that university on the 
death of Queen Mary, in 1695. From this date nothing is 
known of him till the appearance of his six Pastorals, which, 
Johnson observes, he must have published before the year 
1708, because they are evidently prior to those of Pope. 
They are spoken of in the ' Guardian " (No. 40) as having 
been published in the same volume with Pope's, that is, in 
TonsonV Miscellany,' which appeared in 1709, and probably 
they had not been printed before. Philips's next performance 
was his • Letter from Copenhagen' (in verse) to the earl (after- 
wards duke) of Dorset, dated March 9, 1709, which was 
printed in the 12th No. of the ' Tatler' (May 7, 1705), with 
an introductory eulogium by Steele, who styles it * as fine 
a winter-piece as we have ever had from any of the 
schools of the most learned painters.' He afterwards trans- ' 
laled the ' Persian Tales* from the French for Tonson, and 
brought out an abridgment of Racket's 'Life of Archbishop 
Williams.' The next event of his literary life, and, on the 
whole, perhaps the most considerable, was the production 
at DruryLane, in February, 1712, of his tragedy of the 
• Distressed Mother,' which, although little more than a 
translation of the • Andromaque ' of Racine, was received 
with great applause, and long continued to keep possession 
of the stage. Pope, who a year or two before had bestowed 
high praise upon the 'Letter from Copenhagen,' calling it the 
performance of a man • who could write very nobly,' but 
who had now been divided from Philips partly by feelings 
of poetical rivalry and jealousy, partly by their opposite 
party politics, told his friend 8pence that the • Distressed 
Mother* was in great part indebted for its success on the 
first night to a packed audience. The author's Whig friends 
certainly did their best for the play. It was elaborately 
praised, before its appearance, in the 290th No. of the • Spec- 
tator* (for 1st February, 1712); and Addison, in the name 
of Budgell, wrote an epilogue for it, which took so greatly, 
that, according to Johnson, on • the three first nights it 
was recited twice ; and not only continued to be demanded 
through the run, as it is termed, of the play, but, whenever 
it is recalled to the stage, the epilogue is still expected, and 
is still spoken.' Other ' Spectators^ were devoted (No. 335, 
for 25th March, 1712, by Addison) to an account of the 
strong impression made by the tragedy on Sir Roger de 
Coverley ; and (Nos. 338, for 28th March, and 341, for 1st 
April) to an animated controversy about the merit of the 
epilogue, issuing of course in a triumphant vindication of 
it. A short time before, Philips's translation of • Sap- 
pho's Hymn to Venus' had been printed, with strong com- 
mendation from Addison, both of that poem and of the 
author's ' admirable pastorals and winter-piece,' in the * Spec- 
tator/ No. 223 (for 15th November, 1711) : and the pas- 


Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

torals are again highly praised in Nos. 400 (for 9th June, 
1712) and 523 (for 30th October), by Addison; and likewise 
in the • Guardian,' No. 30 (for 15th April, 1713). But now 
Pope managed to play off a singular trick upon the guileless 
or careless nature of Steele, by imposing upon him as a 
serious critique an ironical discourse on Philips's Pastorals 
as compared with his own, in which, while the superiority 
was in terms assigned to Philips, every quotation and the 
whole treatment of the subject were artfully adapted to turn 
him into ridicule. It is surprising that any degree of sim- 
plicity could be so taken in ; but Steele at once printed the 
paper, which forms the 40th No. of the * Guardian ' (for 
27th April, 1713). Its appearance must at first have per- 

Slexed and puzzled the public; but Addison's quick eye 
etected at once the mockery which had escaped his more 
inattentive or more unsuspecting friend. This affair gave 
rise to an open feud between Pope and Philips, which was 
never healed. For many years Pope continued to make 
his unfortunate contemporary his butt ; in particular, Phi- 
lips's verses will be found to furnish, along with those of 
Blackmore, Theobald, and Welsted, the choicest specimens 
in the famous treatise of Mar tin us Soriblerus on the ' Art of 
Sinking in Poetry.' To all this persecution Philips had 
nothing to oppose but threats of personal chastisement, 
which had however the effect of making the satirist keep 
out of his way. Meanwhile his poetical reputation, which 
had previously been in a most flourishing condition, was 
undoubtedly very seriously damaged even by Pope's first 
insidious attack ; he continued indeed to rhyme notwith- 
standing, but nothing which he produced after that paper 
in the * Guardian ' brought him much reputation. Conceiv- 
ing himself to have a turn for simplicity and natural ex- 
pression, he fell into a peculiar style of verse, in which the 
lines were very short, and the thoughts and phraseology 
approaching to the infantine ; and this the public were 
taught to call ' Namby-pamby,' a name first bestowed, we 
believe, not, as has been stated, by Pope, but by Henry 
Carey, the clever author of * Sally in our Alley ' and * Chro- 
nonhotonthologos,' a volume of poems published by whom 
in 1737 contained one so entitled in the form of a burlesque 
on one of Philips's productions. If the muses failed him 
however, Philips was consoled by the favour of his party and 
by considerable success as a politician. Soon after the ac- 
cession of the House of Hanover, which fixed his Whig 
friends in power, he was made a commissioner of the lottery 
and one of the justices of the peace for Westminster, the 
latter, in those days, an appointment more lucrative than 
honourable. In 1721 he produced two more tragedies, 'The 
Briton,' and ' Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester/ both now 
forgotten. He next engaged in a periodical paper called 
' The Freethinker,' in which one of his associates was 
Dr. Boulter, who was afterwards made bishop of Bristol 
and then archbishop of Armagh, and who, when he went 
over to Ireland, took Philips with him, and provided so 
well for him as to enable him to represent the county of 
Armagh in the Irish parliament. He at last rose to be 
judge of the Prerogative Court in Ireland; but resigned 
that place in 1 748, and returned to his native country, where 
he died of a stroke of palsy, on the 8th of June, 1 749. 

PHILIPS, JOHN, was the sou of Dr. Stephen Philips, 
archdeacon of Salop, and rector of Bampton in Oxfordshire, 
at which latter place he was born, in 1 6 76. Having received 
his school education at Winchester, he was entered at 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1694. It is said that he intended 
to follow the medical profession ; but it does not appear that 
he pursued that object further than by engaging with much 
zeal in the study of botany and natural history. He first 
became known beyond his college, or university, by his 
poem entitled ' The Splendid Shilling,' which appeared in 
1703. His intimate friend Edmund Smith says, in a frag- 
ment of a discourse on the works of Philips, which Dr. 
Johnson has printed, • This poem was written for his own 
diversion, without any design of publication. It was com- 
municated but to me; but soon spread, and fell into the 
hands of pirates. It was put out, vilely mangled, by Ben 
Bragge, and impudently said to be corrected by the author/ 
The ' Splendid Shilling is a composition of the mock heroic 
kind, ihe verse being an imitation of that of Milton. Of 
course, it is absurd to contend, as has been done, that 
Philips here makes the little appear great, and is therefore 
to be distinguished from and set far above such parodists 
as only make the great appear little, as, for example, Cotton 
and Scarron. The truth is, that in both cases the great 


is made to appear little : what of piquancy there is in Phi 
lips's poem does not arise from any exaltation of the shilling, 
but from the application of the versification and expression 
of Milton to so mean a subject. In 1705 Philips produced 
his next poem, entitled ' Blenheim,' at the instigation, it is 
understood, of the Tory party, who wanted a poetical effusion 
on that victory to rival Addison's; but, notwithstanding an 
imitation of Milton of a more legitimate kind than in the 
4 Splendid Shilling,' Philips's ' Blenheim ' found compara 
tively few admirers in that day, and has been generally for- 
gotten since. His friend Smith attributes the general 
dislike of it partly to the circumstance of the author having 
been, like his prototype Milton, on the wrong side in politics, 
but principally to his readers having formed their taste upon 
French models, whence they had learned to admire points 
and turns, and consequently had no judgment of true great- 
ness and majesty. Philips's chief work, his • Cider,' a poem 
in two books, was published in 1706: like everything else 
that he wrote, it is in blank verse, and an echo of the num- 
bers of ' Paradise Lost ;' but, as a poetical composition, it 
belongs to the same class as Virgil s ' Georgics ;' and con- 
sequently it is, as well as the ' Blenheim,' a serious, not a 
mock, imitation of Milton. Johnson says he was told by 
Miller, the eminent gardener and botanist, that there were 
many books written on the same subject in prose which do 
not contain so much truth as that poem. A complication 
of consumption and asthma put a period to the life of this 
amiable man, on the 15th of February, 1708, when he had 
just completed his thirty-second year. His friend and 
patron Sir Simon Harcourt, afterwards lord-chancellor, 
erected a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey, 
which carries a long inscription in very flowing latin ity„ 
said by Johnson to be the composition of Bishop Atterbury, 
though commonly attributed to Dr. Friend. One passage 
is especially remarkable as expressing a notion of the perfec- 
tion of verse, in which the writer of the inscription must 
have found himself widely at variance with the reigning 
taste of his day : Philips, he says, in the poetry he wrote 
in his native tongue, had learned, from the fountains of 
Greek and Roman song, to measure the harmony of verse 
• rythmo . . . antiquo illo, libero, multiformi, ad res ipsas 
apto prorsus et attemperato, non numeris in eundem fereor- 
bem redeuntibus, non clausularum similiter cadentium 
sono.' Curiously opposed to this stands the criticism of 
Johnson:— 'Deformity is easily copied; and whatever there 
is in Milton which the reader wishes away, all that is ob- 
solete, peculiar, or licentious, is accumulated with great care 
by Philips. Milton's verse was harmonious in proportion 
to the general state of our metre in Milton's age ; and if 
he had written after the improvements made by Dryden, it 
is reasonable to believe that he would have admitted a more 
pleasing modulation of numbers into his work ; but Philips 
sits down with a resolution to make no more music than he 
found— to want all that his master wanted, though he is very 
far from having what his master had. The asperities there- 
fore that are venerable in the ' Paradise Lost,' are con- 
temptible in the ' Blenheim.' ' The insensibility which 
would have had Milton to take lessons in the music of verse 
from Dryden is startling enough ; but there is justice in the 
contempt expressed for the mimetic Miltonism of Philips, 
who was without any true passion, or strength or elevation of 
fancy, and whose poetry in its most ambitious passages has 
little more than merely something in the sound to remind 
us of that of Milton. 

PHILISTINES. [Palestine.] 

PHILPSTION (*fXi0f-M»v), an antient Greek physician, 
the tutor of Eudoxus and Chrysippus. (Diog. Laert., Vit. 
Philosophy lib. viii., cap. 8, sees. 86 and 89.) He is called a 
Sicilian by Diogenes Laertius (lib. viii., sec 86), but (if the 
same person be meant) he is said to have been an Italian 
by Rufus Ephesius {De Corp, Hum. Part. AppelL, p. 41, 
ed. Clinch), and a Locrian by Plutarch (Sympos., lib. vii., 
quaest. 1, sec. 3), Aulus Gellius {Noct. Att. f lib. xvii., cap. 
1 1, sec. 3), and AthenaBus {Deipnos* lib. iii., sec. 83, p. 115). 
He lived about the year 370 b.c, 01. 102, 1. According to 
Plutarch and Aulus Gellius {locis cii.) he defended the 
opinion that part of what is drunk goes into the lungs, 
which is the more remarkable as Galen informs us that he 
was well skilled in anatomy. He belonged to the sect of the 
Empirici (Galen, Subfig. Empir. cap. i.), and was supposed 
by some persons to be the author of the treatise * De Victu 
Salubri,' commonly attributed to Hippocrates. (Galen, 
Opera, torn, xv„ p. 45$ ; torn, xviii., A, n. 9, ed Kuhn.) H« 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

is quoted several times by Pliny (Hist. Nat., lib. xx.,"cap. 
15, 34, 48, ed. Tauchn.) ; Oribasius (De Machinam. cap. iv.) 
attributes to him the invention of a machine for reducing 
luxations of the humerus ; and (if the same person be meant) 
Athena?us (Deipnos., lib. xii„ sec. 12, p. 516) mentions him 
among those who had written on cookery (dx^aprvrued). 

PHILISTUS was a native of Syracuse, and a person of 
great wealth and influence. He was very intimate with the 
elder Dionysius, whom he assisted in obtaining the supreme 
power, B.C. 406 ; but having displeased the tyrant, he was 
banished from Syracuse. He retired to a city on the 
Adriatic Gulf, probably one of the Greek cities in southern 
Italy, and did not return to Syracuse till the accession of 
the younger Dionysius (Plutarch, Dion., ell; Diod. Sic, 
xiii. 91), during whose reign the direction of public affairs 
appears to have been almost entirely in the hands of Phi- 
listus. When Syracuse was taken by Dion, b.c. 356, Phi- 
listus used great exertions in favour of Dionysius. He 
passed over into Italy, and procured from Rhegium alone 
500 horse. After making an unsuccessful attempt upon 
Leontini, which had declared in favour of Dion, he joined 
Dionysius in the citadel, and was shortly after killed in a 
naval engagement, or, according to other accounts, was 
taken prisoner and put to death. (Plutarch, Dion, c. 35 ; 
Diod. Sic, xvi. 16.) 

Philistus must have lived to a considerable age, since he 
was an eye-witness of the Athenian defeat at Syracuse, in 
b.c. 415, fifty-nine years before his death. (Plutarch, Nic, 
c. 19.) , 

Philistus wrote a history of Sicily, which appears to have 
been a work of great merit, but of which we haVe only frag- 
ments. Cicero, in a letter to his brother (ad Qu. Fr., ii. 13), 
speaks of the style of Philistus as brief and terse, and con- 
siders him as resembling though inferior toThucydides ; and 
in another passage (Brut., c 85) he also classes him with 
Thucydides, and says that these two writers were superior to 
all others. (Compare De Div. % i. 20 ; Quint, Inst. Orat., x. 
i.. p. 222, ed. Bipont) The Sicilian history of Philistus was 
divided into two parts ; of which the first contained seven 
ancf the second four books. (Diod. Sic, xiii. 103.) The 
first part embraced a period of 800 years, and terminated 
at the archonship of Callias and the battle of Agrigentum, 
that is, b.c. 406 ; the second part, which commenced at 
the point where the first terminated, contained the history 
of the elder Dionysius, and terminated at b.c. 363. (Diod. 
Sic, xv. 89 ; Clinton's Fast. Hell., ii., p. 119.) 

PHILLIPSITE, a mineral, the primary form of which is 
a right rhombic prism. It occurs crystallized only in 
macles which have much the appearance of harmotome; 
cleavage imperfect; fracture conchoidal; hardness 4*5. 
Scratches carbonate of lime. Colour white, flesh- red, or 
greyish. Streak white. Lustre vitreous. Transparent, 
translucent, opaque. Specific gravity 2*0 to 2*2. 

This mineral occurs with gmelenite, in the county of 
Antrim, and at the Giant's Causeway ; at Capo di Bove, near 
Rome; in Sicily ; in the lavas of Vesuvius, and at Marburg 
in Hesse, &c 

Analysis of the mineral from the last-mentioned place, 
by Gmelin :— 

Silica . 48 02 

Alumina . 22*61 

Potash . 7*50 

Lime . 6*56 

"Water . 16-75 


PHILLY'REA, the fiKkvpia of Discorides, is a genus of 
Mediterranean evergreen shrubs, many varieties of which 
are cultivated in our gardens. They are much like the 
evergreen shrubs called Alaternus, from which however they 
are readily known by their leaves being opposite, not alter- 
nate. Some botanists regard them as species of olive, to 
the fruit of which that of the Phillyrea nas much resem- 
blance. The hardiest and handsomest variety is P. obliqua , 
the most tender and the least beautiful is P. angustifolia. 

PHILO (QiXcjv), the name of several antient physicians, 
though it is difficult to determine exactly how many. Fabri- 
rius (Biblioth. Gr&ca) supposes four, of whom the most emi- 
nent was the author of the celebrated antidote called, after 
his name, Philonium. He left behind him directions for 
composing this medicine in a short Greek poem, of twenty- 
six lines, written in a very enigmatical style, which, together 
with an explanation of it, may be seen in Galen. (De 
Compos, Medicom., nara r&rovc, lib. ix., cap, 4, p. 207, ed 

Kiihn.) It seems to have been something like the Mith- 
ridate, the Theriaca, and the Hiera Archigenis, and was, as 
Galen tells us, one of the most antient as well as one of 
the most esteemed of this kind of medicines. Philo was 
born at Tarsus in Cilicia (Galen, loco cit.), and is supposed 
to have lived about the beginning of the Christian sera. 

Another physician of this narae> probably contemporary 
with Plutarch, in the second century a.d. is quoted by him 
(Sympos., lib. viii., quaist. 9, sec. 1) as having said that 
Elephantiasis first appeared shortly before his time. In this 
opinion however he is probably mistaken. See a treatise by 
Jul. Alb. Hofmann, entitled 'Rabiei Caninra ad Cclsum 
usgue Historia Critica,' Lips., 1826, 8vo., p. 53. 

PHILO JUD.EUS, that is, Philo the Jew, was a native 
of Alexandria. The precise time of his birth is unknown ; 
but he represents himself as of advanced age about a.d. 40, 
when he was sent as chief of an embassy from the Jews of 
Alexandria to the emperor Caligula, for the purpose of 
pleading their cause against Apion, who charged them 
with refusing to pay due honours to Ceesar. He went again 
to Rome in the reign of Claudius, and after this nothing 
is known with certainty about him. 

Philo had a brother employed in the affairs of govern- 
ment at Alexandria, named Alexander Lysimachus, who is 
supposed to be the Alexander mentioned in Acts, iv. 6, as a 
man « of the kindred of the high-priest.' That Philo was 
a member of the sacerdotal family is asserted by Euscbius 
and others, and his own writings indirectly testify that such 
was the fact v There is also reason to believe that he belonged 
to the sect of the Pharisees. 

Philo was eminent for his learning and eloquence. To 
the attainments usually made by the Jews of his condition, 
he added an extensive knowledge of the Greek philosophy, 
and especially of that of Plato. He has been represented 
by Scaliger and Cud worth as ignorant of Jewish literature 
and customs ; but Fabricius and Mangey have clearly shown 
that such representation is entirely groundless. 

As an interpreter of the Jewish scriptures, he is fond of 
allegorising, a species of interpretation which had long pre- 
vailed at Alexandi ia. That Philo was a follower of Plato in 
philosophy there can be no doubt : but it must not therefore 
be concluded that his style is Platonic or his language 
Attic. He writes well indeed, but still as an Alexandrian 
Jew. Mangey styles him * the chief of the Jewish, and 
not much inferior to the Christian writers/ 

The principal editions of Philo are those of Geneva, 1613 ; 
Paris, 1640; Mangey, London, 1742; Richter, Leipzig, 

Mangey's edition, in two vols, folio, was printed by the 
learned William Bowyer. It is a splendid book, and does 
great honour to the English press. The works of Philo, as 
they are here presented, amount to forty-seven treatises, 
with six fragments, upon subjects mostly referring to the 
Jewish religion. The arrangement of these treatises appears 
to be arbitrary, and it would perhaps be impracticable to 
reduce them to order. This edition contains two treatises 
not before published, one on the • Posterity of Cain/ from 
a MS. in the Vatican Library ; the other on the * Last Three 
Commandments,' from a MS. in the Bodleian. It is dedi- 
cated to Archbishop Potter, and a valuable preface follows 
the dedication. 

m Richter's edition, in 8 vols, small 8vo., follows Mangey's 
text, but does not give the Latin version. It contains two 
more tracts of Philo, on the ' Feast of the Basket ' and on 
* Honouring Parents,' which tracts Angelo Mai discovered 
in the Laurentian Library at Florence, and published with 
a Latin version, at Milan, in 1 818. Richter's edition contains 
moreover a Latin translation of seven treatises of Philo 
existing in an Armenian version, supposed to have been 
made in the fourth or fifth century, and published in Arme- 
nian and Latin by John Baptist Aucher, at Venice, in 1822 
and 1826. 

Richter's publication is printed with great care, and may 
be pronounced the most complete and useful edition of Philo. 
An ample account of Philo and his writings may be found 
in the ' Bibliotheca Grseca' of Fabricius, and in Mangey's 
preface, whose materials are derived from Joseph us, J ustin 
Martyr, Clemens of Alexandria, Eusebius, Jerome, and 
others, including of course Philo himself. On the additional 
publications of Mai and Aucher, see British Critic and 
Quarterly Theological Review, vol. v., 1 829. 

PHILO. Many .other Philos are named; but as they do not 
appear worthy of particular notice, it may suffice to state 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

that a catalogue of them, to the number of more than forty, 
is given in the third volume of the ' Bibliotheca Graoca' of 
Fabric iua. 

PHILODE'MUS was an Epicurean philosopher and poet, 
and is mentioned by Cicero and Horace. Fragments of his 
epigrams are in the Greek Anthology. (Fabricius, Biblio- 
theca Gracu.) 

PHILOLA'US, a native of Crotona, flourished about 
b.c. 374. He was a Pythagorean, a disciple of Archytas, 
and the first who wrote on the subject of physics. It is 
said that Plato bought, at an enormous price, three books 
of Philolau9, with the aid of which he composed his 
'Timaeus.' In several antient writers quotations are made 
from Philolaus. (Fabricius, BibL Graca.) 

PHILO'LOGY (0iXo\o 7 ia). It is difficult to attach a meaning to this word, as it is used in different sig- 
nifications by different writers. Among the Greeks and 
Romans, the term philology was originally used to signify a 
love for the investigation of all subjects connected with lite- 
rature. (Plat., Theaet., c. x., p. 146 ; c. xlvii., p. 161 ; Cicad 
Div., xvi. 21 ; Emesti, Clavis Ciceron., under fiXoXoy&rtpa.) 
The Alexandrine critics applied the term philologus to a 
person who was well acquainted with the antient Greek 
writers and with the subjects treated of in their works ; 
and we learn from Suetonius (De Illustr. Gramma t., e. 10) 
that Eratosthenes, who lived in the second century before 
the Christian tera, was the first who obtained this name, in 
consequence of his extensive and varied learning. In later 
time<, a philologus was merely a person skilled in language, 
and the word became almost synonymous with grammaticus. 
Some modern writers have included under the term phi- 
lology the study of Greek and Roman antiquities, but the 
majority of writers appear to regard the study of the theory 
of language and of languages in general as the only sub* 
jects strictly belonging to philology. 

The reader who wishes further information respecting 
the different meanings attached to the word philology, may 
consult Ast's ' Grundriss der Philologie,' Landshut, 1808, 
and the first essay in Wolf and Buttmann's ' Museum der 
Alterthums-Wissenschaft,' Berlin, 1 807. 
PHILOME'LA. [Nightingale; Sylviaok.] 
PHILOMELI'NiE. [Sylviad*.] 
PHILOME'LUS. [Phocis.] 

PHILOPCEMEN, the son of Craugis or Crausis of Me- 
galopolis in Arcadia, was born about 253 B.C. Having lost 
his father when he was still a boy, he was educated by Ole- 
ander of Mantineia, an intimate friend of Crausis. He 
was afterwards placed under the tuition of Ecdemus and 
Demophanes, two distinguished citizens of Megalopolis and 
friends of Aratus. Philopcemen studied philosophy and 
the art of war, of which he was very fond from early youth: 
' he considered it,' as Plutarch says, the most important and 
useful occupation of men, and despised those who were not 
versed in it.' When he attained the age of manhood, he 
engaged in predatory incursions which the people of Mega- 
lopolis, the constant enemies of Sparta, made into Laconica. 
In his leisure he applied himself to agricultural pursuits 
for the purpose of improving his paternal estate. 

Philopcemen was thirty years of age when Cleomenes, 
king of Sparta, surprised Megalopolis by night [Cleo- 
menes' III.], and he was one of the last to leave the 
town. Some time after, the Achaeans, in order to oppose 
Cleomenes, having by the advice of Aratus allied them 
selves with Antigonus Doson, king of Macedonia, that 
prince came into Peloponnesus, and defeated Cleomenes at 
the battle of Sellasia, 222 B.C., to which victory Philopcemen 
mainly contributed. He received a severe wound in this 
battle. His reputation now rose high, and he was offered 
by Antigonus a command in his army, which he declined, 
• because,' says Plutarch, • he could not bear to be under 
the direction of another.' Philopcemen now repaired to 
Creta, and engaged as a volunteer in the war which dis- 
tracted that island. During this campaign he greatly im- 
proved himself in strategy. Aratus died b.c. 213, and 
Philopcemen, on his return home, was made general of the 
Achcean cavalry. He improved the discipline of that body, 
recruited its strength, and made it completely efficient. In 
a battle which was fought near the river Larissus, he de- 
feated the united ^Etolians and E leans, and killed with his 
own hand Demophantus, the Elean general. He also effected 
many improvements in the tactics and discipline of the 
Achaean infantry, and introduced the Macedonian order of 
battle, Ww having broken out between the Acbwaw and 

Maohanidas, tyrant of Sparta, Philopcemen marched against 
the Spartan, and defeated him near Mantineia. Machanidas 
fell in the battle, by the hand of Philopcemen. In consequence 
of this exploit, the Acheeans voted him a statue of bronte, 
which was placed in the temple of Delphi. In 20 1 b.c Philo- 
pcemen was made strategos,or captain-general, of the Achsean 
league, of which, from that time till his death, he was con- 
sidered as the principal leader, having succeeded Aratus in 
tho confidence of the people. Philopcemen being a great ob- 
stacle in the way of Philip of Macedonia, who wished to ex- 
tend his sway over the independent states of Greece, the king 
tried to have him assassinated, but the plot was discovered, 
and only served to increase the influence of Philopcemen. 
Nabis, who had succeeded Machanidas as tyrant of Sparta, 
seised Messenia, but Philopcemen drove him out of that 
country, and restored the Messenians to their independence 
as allies of the Achaeans. Wanting employment at home, 
he went a second time to Crete at the request of the Gor- 
tynians, and served in the wars of that island. Returning 
home about 197 B.C., he found Philip beaten by the Romans 
under Flamininus, and obliged to sue for peace, the Achaans 
allied to Rome, and Nabis at war both with the Ach scans 
and with Rome. Philopcemen equipped a fleet against 
Nabis, but he failed in his naval operations. He then at- 
tacked him by land and defeated him ; and Gvthium and 
the other seaports of Laconica, being taken from Nabis, 
were occupied by Achcean garrisons under an agreement 
with Flamininus, the Roman commander. When Nabis was 
murdered by his yEtolian auxiliaries, 192 b.c, Philopcemen 
marched upon Sparta, which was in a state of great confu- 
sion, and obliged the citixens to join the Achaean League, 
which then included all the Peloponnesus, with the excep- 
tion of Elis. 

During the subsequent war between Antiochus and the 
Romans, Philopcemen, who was more clear-sighted than 
most of his countrymen with respect to the ambitious po- 
licy of Rome, recommended caution, and observed to Dio* 
phanes, who was then strategos of the Achaeans, that 
' while Antiochus and the Romans were contending with 
two such powerful armies in the heart of Greece, the duty 
of an Achaean general was to watch them attentively, and, 
instead of lighting up a fresh war at home, rather to over- 
look some real injuries/ This referred to Diophanes' 
marching against Sparta, which had withdrawn itself from 
the league. Some time after however the citizens of 
Sparta, impatient at being cut off from the sea-coast, at- 
tempted to surprise a seaport called Las, but were repulsed 
by the Achaeans, joined to the Lacedaemonian emigrants 
who had been exiled by Nabis. The Achsoans passed a 
decree requiring Sparta to give up the authors of the attempt 
upon Las. The pride of the Spartans was roused; they 
refused compliance, put to death several of their country- 
men who were in favour of the Achaeans, and sent envoys 
to the Roman Proconsul Fulvius, who had just effected the 
subjugation of the iEtolians, 189 b.c. Philopcemen, who 
was strategos of the Achaeans for that year, devastated La- 
conica. Fulvius came into Peloponnesus, and advised both 
parties to send messengers to Rome, and to suspend hostili- 
ties. The Achaeans sent Diophanes and Lycortas, the 
father of the historian Polybius. The senate returned an 
ambiguous answer, which the Achieans interpreted in 
their favour; and Philopcemen, being re-elected strategos 
for the following year, 188 b.c, marched into Laconica, and 
again demanded the authors of the attack upon Las and of 
the withdrawal from the Achaean alliance, with a promise 
that they should not be punished without trial. U|>on this 
several of the persons implicated in this affair came forward 
and went voluntarily to tne Achaean camp, accompanied by 
others of the principal citizens of Sparta. As they ap- 
proached the Achaean camp, the emigrants who formed the 
Achaean advanced-guard fell upon their own countrymen, 
-and killed seventeen of them, when Philopcemen interfered 
and saved the rest (sixty-three in number) from immediate 
destruction. The next day he brought them before the 
assembled Achceansand Lacedaemonian emigrants, and, after 
a mock trial, they were sentenced to death and executed. The 
Spartans in dismay submitted to Philopcemen, who dictated 
to them hard conditions, namoly, that the walls of the town 
should be razed, that all emigrants should be restored, that 
all the mercenary troops should quit Laconica, as welLas all 
the slaves who had been emancipated by Nabis and other 
tyrants. About 3000 of these refusing to leave the country, 
Philopcemen sold them, and applied the money thus pro- 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

duced to rebuilding a portico in Megalopolis which had 
been destroyed by Cleomenes. But the hardest condition 
which Philopcemen imposed upon Sparta was that of abo* 
lishing the laws and discipline of Lycurgus, and obliging 
the Spartans to adopt the institutions of the Achaeans and 
bring up their children after the Achaean fashion, being 
convinced, says Plutarch, ' that their spirit could never be 
humbled so long as they adhered to their old institutions.' 
Thus, in the year 188 b.c* the laws of Lycurgus were abro- 
gated, after having subsisted for seven centuries, during 
which Sparta had maintained a proud station among the 
states of Greece. It is true that for a long time previous 
to their abrogation they had been ill observed, but still they 
existed, at least in name, and it required only a determined 
spirit like that of Cleomenes to enforce obedience to them. 
The Spartans again appealed to Rome, and the consul Q. 
C. Me tell u s, ou his return from Macedonia, where he had 
been on an embassy, appeared before the council of the 
Achseans assembled at Argos, and complained that they 
had treated the Spartans with undue severity. Aristssnus, 
the Strategos for the year, was in the Roman interest, and 
Diophanes also blamed the conduct of Philopoernen ; but 
Lycortas defended his conduct, and the council resolved 
that the decree concerning Sparta should not be repealed. 
It was perhaps on this occasion that Philopcemen, indignant 
at the servility exhibited by Aristnnus towards the Romans, 
is reported by Plutarch to have exclaimed, ' And why in 
such haste, wretched man, to see an end of Greece? ' En- 
voys were sent to Rome by the Achieans to justify their 
conduct, and the Spartans, on their side, sent two of the 
restored exiles, who took a violent part against the Achaean*. 
The senate, having heard both parties, sent Appius Clau* 
dius and others as commissioners to the Peloponnesus. A 
general congress of the Achssans being called, Appius 
Claudius declared that the senate was displeased with the 
manner in which Sparta had been treated, the massacre of 
eighty of its citizens, the demolition of its walls, aud the 
abrogation of the laws of Lycurgus. It was on this oeca* 
sion that Lycortas made that eloquent speech in reply 
which is given by Livv (xxxix. 36, 37), in which, after de- 
fending the conduct of the Achaean*, he retorted upon the 
Romans their own conduct towards the free state of Capua 
during the second Punic war. The speech of Lycortas was 
generally approved ; * so that,' adds Livy, < it was easy for 
Appius to see that the dignity of Rome could not be up* 
held by gentle proceedings.' Accordingly Appius haugh- 
tily advised the Achoeans to do with a good grace that 
which otherwise they would be obliged'to do against their 
will. The congress then declared, that rather than reverse 
their own decrees, they left it to the senate to make what 
changes they thought proper. The senate, seemingly satis- 
fied with this submission, allowed Sparta to continue in 
the Achaean league, on the condition of a general amnesty 
and the restoration of all political exiles. 

In the year beginning May, 183 b a, Philopcemen, then 
seventy years of age, was elected strategos for the eighth 
time. About this time Messene, through the influence of 
one of its citizens named Dinocrates, threw off its alliance 
with the Aehseans. It appears from some passages of Po- 
lyoma that Dinocrates was a friend of Flamininus, the 
Roman general, who had been just appointed ambas- 
sador to Prusias, king of Bithynia, to demand of aim the 
person of Hannibal. Flamininus on former occasions had 
shown that he was no friend to Philopcemen, and indeed 
the personal character of the latter made him obnoxious to 
the Roman policy. Flamininus, on arriving at Naupaetus, 
wrote to Philopcemen, requesting him to call together a 
general congress of the Achseans to discuss the affairs of 
Meisene. Philopcemen, knowing that he had no instruc- 
tions from the senate for the purpose, declined to do so, and 
prepared for war against Messene. He marched with a 
body of cavalry, but finding a stout resistance, he was 
obliged to fall back. Being the last to retire, he was sur- 
rounded by the enemy, thrown from his horse, wounded in 
the fall, and taken prisoner to Messene. The eitisens of 
Messene felt for his age and his misfortune, hut a few of 
the leading men of the faction of Dinocrates determined on 
getting rid of him. They put him in a dark dungeon 
called ' the Treasury,' and in the night they sent the execu- 
tioner to him with a cup of poison. Philopcemen asked the 
man whether he knew what bad become of the Aohsdan 
cavalry* and especially of his friend Lycortas ? The man 
answered that they had retired in safety, ' Then we are nut 

altogether unhappy,' observed the aged general, and he 
took the cup and drank the poison, which soon put an end 
to his life (182 b.c). The news spread rapidly through 
Aoheea. Lycortas, being appointed strategos, marched to 
avenge the death of his friend. The Messenians opened 
their gates, Dinocrates killed himself, and the remains of 
Philopcemen being burned, the ashes were collected in an 
urn, which was carried by young polybius in solemn pro- 
cession of the Achaean army to Megalopolis. The Messe- 
nian prisoners who had been concerned in the death of 
Philopcemen were stoned to death. Statues to his honour 
were set up in most Grecian oities. Philopcemen has been 
styled by some the last of the Greeks : he was certainly 
the last of their successful commanders. 

(Plutarch, Philopcemen; Polybius, xxiii.; Fragments, 
xxiv. 5 ; Livy, xxxix.) 

PHILCSCIA. [Isopoda, vol. xiii., p. 55.] 

PHILOSOPHY, from the Greek philosophia C*iXo<ro*w). 
literally signifies ' love of wisdom or knowledge,' and a phi- 
losopher (^X6<tq0oc) is a 'lover of wisdom.' Pythagoras 
(Diog. Laert, Proaem.) is said to have first used the term 
philosophy, and to have called himself a philosopher, in- 
stead of a soph us (otyoc), or * wise man,' for, he added, no 
one is wise but God. Among the Greeks, philosophy was 
sometimes viewed as comprising or consisting of three parts, 
physio (*v<n*6v), ethic (i)0<c4v), and dialectic (&«Aicrue<$v). 
Physio treated of the universe and that which it contained; 
ethic treated of things that concerned human life and roan. 
The term dialectic is explained in the article Organ or*. 
This division of philosophy is in itself of no value, and is 
merely a matter of history. 

The terms philosophy, philosophical, philosopher, are 
often used in our own language apparently with no great 
precision, though it is not difficult to deduce from the use 
of these terms the general meaning or notion which is at- 
tached to them* We speak of the philosophy of the human 
mind as being of all philosophies that to which the name 
philosophy is particularly appropriated ; and when the term 
philosophy is used absolutely, this seems to be the philosophy 
that is spoken of. Other philosophies are referred to their 
several objects by qualifying terms: thus we speak of 
natural philosophy, meaning thereby the philosophy (what- 
ever that word may mean) of nature, that is, as the term 
nature is generally understood, of material objects. We 
also speak of the philosophy of positive law, understanding 
thereby the philosophy of those binding rules, properly 
called laws. The terms philosophy of history, philosophy 
of manufactures, and other such terms, are also used. All 
objects then which can occupy the mind may have some- 
thing in common, celled their philosophy ; which philosophy * 
is nothing else than the general expression for that effort of 
the mind whereby it strives, pursuant to its laws, to reduce 
its knowledge to the form of ultimate truths or principles, 
and to determine the immutable relations which exist be- 
tween things as it conceives them. The philosophy which 
comprises within itself all philosophies is that which labours 
to determine the laws or ultimate principles in obedience to 
which the mind itself operates ; and both those laws or ulti- 
mate truths, which must be considered as constituting the 
mind what it is, and which are therefore independent of all 
external impressions, and those laws by which the mind 
operates upon the sensuous impressions produced by objects 
which it conceives and can only conceive as being external 
to itself. - 

Thus every kind of knowledge, the objects of which are 
things external, has its philosophy or principles, which, 
when discovered and systematised, form the science of the 
things to which they severally belong. But inasmuch as 
the mind, in striving after this science, must act by its own 
laws and powers, and as these must in their form, viewed 
independently of their special objects, always be the same 
laws and powers (for we cannot conceive the mental powers 
to vary or differ in their essential qualities merely because 
they are applied to things that are conceived as different), 
we therefore assume that the mind has its laws and powers, 
which may be discovered by observation, as we discover by 
observation the laws or principles which govern the rela- 
tions of things external to the mind, or conceived as ex- 
ternal. Thus the human mind, by the necessity imprinted 
upon it, seeks to discover the ultimate foundation of all that 
it. knows or conceives; to discover what itself is, and what 
is its relation to all things. Accordingly it strives to form 
a system out of all such ultimate laws or principles. Such 

Digitized by 


P H I 


P H I 

a system tnay be called a philosophy, in the proper and 
absolute sense of the term, and the attempt to form such a 
system is to philosophise. Systems of philosophy have existed 
in all nations ; even in the most uncivilised, in some form, and 
particularly in the form of a religion ; for the highest aim of 
philosophy is to ascertain the relation of man to the infinite 
Being whom he conceives as the end and limit of all his 
inquiries. In nations which have made further progress in 
mental culture, the systems of philosophy are not limited to 
the dogmas of a religion, but those who have leisure, and 
whose minds have been disciplined, have in all ages ven- 
tured to transcend the limits of the religious system of their 
society or age, and to form what are called philosophical 
systems. The history of such systems is the history of phi- 
iophy, which thus viewed is a history of the progress of the 
human mind towards the knowledge of itself, a knowledge 
which, imperfect as it is, is the accumulation of many cen- 
turies, and the work of many contributors. 

PHILOSTO'RGIUS, a native of Cappadocia, born A.n 
364, came to Constantinople to complete his studies, and 
afterwards wrote a History of the Church, in twelve books, 
from the beginning of the schism of Arius, to a.d. 425. The 
work is lost, but we have an epitome of it by Photius, inde- 
pendent of a short notice of it in his 4 Bibliotheca.' (My- 
riobiblon, Cod. 40.) Photius inveighs against the author as 
a heretic, and an apologist of Arius, Eusebius of Nicomedia, 
Apollinaris, and other heretics. Philostorgius was a man of 
general information, and he inserted in his narrative many 
geographical and other details of remote countries, especially 
of Asia and Africa. The author was rather credulous with 
regard to prodigies, monsters, and other wonderful things, 
and Photius censures his credulity in attributing miracles 
to those whom the Patriarch considered as heretics. The 
epitome was translated into Latin, with comments, by J. 
Gothofredus, 4 to., Geneva, 1642, and also by H. de Vaiois, 
'Compendium Histori® Ecclesiastic® Philostorgii, quod 
dictavit Photius Patriarchal Paris, 1673, with notes. It 
has also been translated into French : ' Abrege* de l'His- 
toire de VEglise de Philostorge/ Paris, 1676. 

PHILO'STRATUS, FLAVIUS, a native of the island 
of Lemnos, born in the second half of the second century 
of our rora, taught rhetoric first at Athens and afterwards 
at Rome, where he became known and was patronised by 
the empress Julia, the wife of Sept ira ins Severus, who was 
partial to the learned. She commissioned him to compile 
the biography of Apollonius of Tyana from some memoirs 
written by a certain Damis of Nineveh, who had accompa- 
nied Philostratus in his peregrinations, and which had come 
into her possession. Philostratus professes also to have 
used in his compilation a collection of letters of Apollonius, 
which were at one time in the possession of Hadrian, and 
were placed by that emperor in his palace at Antium, toge- 
ther with certain responses of the Oracle of Trophonius, 
which Apollonius had also collected. The biographer 
availed himself also, according to his own statement, of the 
narrative of a certain Maximus who had known Apollonius. 
[Apollonius of Tyana.] The book of Philostratus dis- 
plays great credulity, either real or affected, in the compiler, 
and a great want of critical discrimination; it also contains 
many anachronisms and geographical errors. Huet and 
others have imagined that the object of Philostratus was to 
write a parody of the life of Christ, but this seems doubt- 
ful : the parody, if intended as such, is too gross ; besides 
which, it appears from tho testimony of Lampridius {Life of 
Alex, Severus), that Christ was really worshipped by some 
of the later heathen emperors, together with Abraham, Or- 
pheus, and Apollonius, these being all looked upon as holy 
men and tutelary genii. That Apollonius of Tyana was a 
real character, a philosopher, and a traveller, appears from 
various passages of antient authors. Vopiscus, among 
others, in his Life of Aurelian, says that his statues were in 
many temples ; but his adventures were probably magni- 
fied and distorted in course of time, and it is remarkable 
that no one mentions him until nearly a century after 
the time assigned for his death. The empress Julia, a Sy- 
rian by birth, was probably fond of the marvellous, and 
Philostratus, intending to entertain her, inserted in his 
book all the wonderful stories he could collect relative to 
his hero. It seems however that in the time of the great 
struggle between tho heathen and Christian religions, under 
Diocletian and his immediate successors, some of the hea- 
then writers thought of availing themselves of the Life of 
Apollonius as a kind of counterpoise to the Gospel narra- 

tive. Hierocles, prefect of Alexandria, and an enemy of the 
Christians, wrote a book with that object, in the shape of a 
comparison between the Life of Apollonius by Philostratus 
and that of Christ, of which book Eusebius wrote a refuta- 
tion : • Eusebii Pamphili Animadversiones in Philostrati de 
Apollonio Tyanensi Commentaries ob institutam cum iilo 
ab Hierocle Christi comparationem, adornat®.' Lac- 
tan ti us (Divin. Ins tit., v. 3) also combats the same notion 
as absurd. St. Augustin (Epist. 4) alludes to Apollonius 
as a magician whom the heathens compared with Christ. 
(See Tillemont, Hist, des Empereurs Romcdns, vol. ii., and 
Bayle's article ' Apollonius de Tyane.') 

The other works of Philostratus are: 1, ' The' Lives of 
the Sophists,' in two books ; 2, ' Heroica,' Or comments on 
the lives of some of the heroes of Homer, in the shape of a 
dialogue ; 3, ' I cones/ or descriptions of 64 paintings which 
were in a portico near Neapolis by the sea-shore (these de- 
scriptions contain valuable information concerning the 
state of antient art) ; 4, Epistles, mostly erotic, excepting 
a few on matters of literature : one, which is inscribed to 
Julia Augusta, is an apology for the sophists. Philostra- 
tus wrote other works, such as a * Lexicon Rhetor icurn,' ora- 
tions, &c, which are lost His nephew, who is styled 
Philostratus the Younger, and who lived under Macrinus 
and Elagabalus, wrote also a book of ' Icones,' which are 
not descriptions of actual paintings, but are so many sub- 
jects proposed to painters. 

Olearius published all the existing works of the two Phi- 
lostrati, with a Latin version, foi., Leipzig, 1709, including 
also some letters attributed to Apollonius and the work of 
Eusebius against Hierocles. The ' Heroica' of Philostratus 
were edited by Boissonade, Paris, 1806, 8vo n upon a colla- 
tion of nine MSS. An edition of the ' Icones' of both the 
Philostrati appeared at Leipzig, 1825, 8vo., with a com- 
mentary by F. Jacobs, and notes by F. G. Welcker. 

PHILO'TAS. [Parmenio.] 

PHILO'XENUS, a native of Eretria, was the pupa of 
Nicomachus of Thebes, whom he imitated, and even sur- 
passed in rapidity of execution : he is said by Pliny (Hist. 
Nat., xxxv. 10, 36) to have discovered some more expeditious 
methods of operation in painting. He was the most rapid 
painter of antiquity, the ' Fa presto' (Luca Giordano) of the 

Philoxenus was particularly distinguished for a Battle of 
Alexander and Darius, which, according to Pliny, was not 
inferior to any of the productions of antient painting. It 
was painted by order of Cassander, king of Macedon, and 
therefore probably not long after the hundred and sixteenth 
Olympiad, or 316 b.c. 

It is not improbable that the large mosaic, apparently re- 
presenting the battle of Issus, which was discovered in tho 
year 1831, in Pompeii, in the so-called house 'del Fauno,' 
and is still preserved there, is a repetition of the celebrated 
picture by Philoxenus of that subject ; for, independent of 
Alexander and Darius being the tiro most conspicuous 
figures, the design and composition of the work are so su- 
perior to the execution, that its original has evidently been 
the production of an age long anterior to the degenerate 
period of the mosaic itself. With the single exception of 
the execution, the mosaie exhibits, in every respect, merits 
of the highest order, and is certainly one of the most valu- 
able relics of antient art : the composition is simple, forcible, 
and beautiful, and its original, if not actually a production 
of the most renowned times of Grecian painting, still cannot 
have been far short of meriting the commendation bestowed 
by Pliny upon the battle-piece of Philoxenus. 

Pliny has mentioned only two works by Philoxenus, the 
one alluded to, and a lascivious piece, in which were three 
satyrs feasting, a style of art much in vogue with Grecian 
painters, even of the best days. 

PHILTER ($i\rpov,philtrum) f was a potion given among 
the Greeks and Romans to excite love. It is doubtful of 
what these potions were composed, but their operation was 
violent and dangerous, often depriving those who drank 
them of their reason. (Ovid, Ar. Amat. 9 ii. 106.) Lucretius 
is said to have died from drinking a potion of this kind, and 
the madness of Caligula is attributed by some to a similar 
potion, which was given him by his wife Csosonia. (Suet., 
Cat., 50; Juv., vi. 615, 616.) The most powerful love po- 
tions were prepared by the Thessalians, whence Juvenal 
speaks (vi. 610) of Thessala philtra. 

PHI'LYRA, Fabricius's name for a genus of the tribe oi 
Leucosians. [Oxystomes, vol. xvii., p. l io.] 

Digitized by 


P H L 



The Philyrte are small crustaceans, with a circular and 
depressed carapace, the/row/ of which is much less advanced 
than the epistome. The external antenna are nearly trans- 
versal in flexion, and the buccal frame is nearly circular an- 
teriorly; the principal portion of the external jaw-feet is 
triangular, as in the other Leucosians, but the palp or ex- 
ternal branch of those organs is much dilated outwards, and 
describes a very curved line. Feet of the four last pairs 
with the tarsus depressed and nearly lamellar. Nothing 
else remarkable. (M. Edwards.) 

Example, Philyra scabriuscula. (PI. to M. Edwards's 
Hist. Nat. des Crustaces, pi. 20, figs. 9 and 10.) Colour 
rosy grey ; length six lines. 
Locality.— East Indies. 

PHLEGM is the mucus secreted by the air passages. 
[Mucus.] In its common acceptation the term includes 
nearly all materials coughed up from the lungs. 

PHLEGON (*X«ywv), a native of Tralles in Lydia 
(Suidas), a freedman of the emperor Hadrian. (Vopiscus, 
in Saturnino, p. 245 ; Spartianus, in Hadriano, p. 8, et in 
Severo, p. 71, ed. Salmas., Par., 1620 ; Photii Biblioth., cod. 
U7, p. 83, ed. Bekker.) Nothing is known of the events of 
his life, and the date of his death is uncertain : however, as 
one of his chronological works, which is no longer extant, 
carried the history down to Ol. 229.2 — a.d. 141 (Suidas), 
he probably lived to the middle of the second century a.d. 
Some fragments of his works are all that remain ; the 
longest belongs to a treatise irepe Qavfiammv, * De Mirabili- 
bus.' It is a curious work, divided into thirty-five chapters 
(some of which are very short), and containing (as might 
be expected from the title) a great many absurd fables. 
The same may be said of a shorter fragment of four chap- 
ters, wtpi paKpofiuav, • De Longawis.' The third fragment 
that remains is a chapter ircpi rdv 'OXvjimW, ' De Olym- 
pus,' which is supposed by Salmasius (Ad Spar/tan., p. 43) 
to be the preface to a lost work, 'De Olympionicis.* He 
mentions (De Mirab., capp. 6-10) several curious cases of 
hermaphrodites (dvipoywoi), or persons supposed to be 
women who afterwards turned out to be men. (For similar 
instances see Cyclop, of An at. and Physiol., art. ' Herma- 
phroditism,' p. 692, &c.) He quotes Craterus, the brother 
of King Antigonus {De Mirab., cap. 32), as saying that he 
had known a person who, within seven years, was an infant, 
a youth, an adult, a father, an old man, and a corpse. (For 
similar instances see Good's Study of Med., cl. v., ord. 2, 
pen. 2, sp. 1.) He gives several instances of monstrous 
births, and of three, four, and five children being born at 
once, and says, on the authority of Megasthenes, that the 
women at Palsea become mothers at six years old. (Ibid., 
cap. 33.) He gives a list of persons who had lived more 
than a hundred years, but says that the Erythrroan sibyl 
attained nearly the age of one thousand. (De Longcev., 
cap. 4.) He speaks of a child who was able to converse 
with others when only nineand-forty days old. (Steph. By- 
zant, De Urb. in Tappaxivi;.) 

But what has made Phlegon's name more familiar 
among the moderns is his being cited, though a heathen, 
as bearing witness to the accomplishment of Christian 
prophecies. (Origen, Cont. Cels., lib. h., } 14, p. 69, ed. 
Spencer., Cantab., 1677.) The passage referred to is as 
follows : — • Phlegon, in the thirteenth, or, as I think, the 
fourteenth book of his Chronicles, ascribes to Christ the 
knowledge of some future things, though he makes a 
mistake in the person, naming Peter instead of Jesus; 
and he allows that the things foretold came to pass.' 
Upon this Lardner remarks (Credibility, Pt. II., 'Heathen 
Testimonies,' ch. 13) — 1, that Origen seems to have 
trusted to his memory in this quotation ; 2, that if Phlegon 
named Peter instead of our Lord, it is a mark of careless- 
ness and inaccuracy ; 3, that, for want of seeing the pas- 
sage more at length, we cannot form any clear judgment 
about it ; 4, that Phlegon was so credulous, that his testi- 
mony concerning things of a marvellous nature must be of 
little weight ; and 5, that Origen is the only person that 
has mentioned this. He concludes therefore that 'upon 
the whole this citation is of no great moment.' But there 
is another passage of this author which may be reckoned 
more material, as it has been supposed to relate to the mi- 
raculous darkness which prevailed at the time of our Lord's 
crucifixion. In St. Jerome's Latin version of the ' Chroni- 
cle' of Eusebiu3 (p. 155, ed. Pont., Burdig., 1604), the 
passage occurs as follows: — 'And so writes Phlegon, an 
excellent compiler of the Olympiads, in his thirteenth 
P. C, No. 1115. 

book, saying, "In the fourtn year of the two hundred 
and second Olympiad there was a great and extraordinary 
eclipse of the sun, distinguished among all that had hap- 
pened before. At the sixth hour the day was turned 
into dark night, so that the stars in the heavens were 
seen, and there was an earthquake in Bithynia which 
overthrew many houses in the city of Nice.'" (Compare 
Origen, Cont. Cels., lib. ii., } 33, p. 80 ; lb, $ 59, p. 96 ; and 
other authorities quoted by Lardner.) This passage was 
the origin of a controversy in England in the early part of 
the last century between Mr. Whiston, Dr. Sykes, Mr. 
Chapman, and others, a long and complete account of which 
may be found in the English translation of Bayle's Dic- 
tionary, and in Chaufepie's Supplement to it The imme- 
diate cause of the controversy was the omission of the 
passage in the eighth edition of Dr. S. Clarke's 'Boyle 
Lectures,' published soon after his death in 1 732, although it 
had been inserted in the first edition, which came out in 
1 706. This was done at the persuasion of Dr. Sykes, who 
had suggested to Clarke that an undue stress had been 
laid upon the passage. But besides these, other and 
greater names are to tre found in direct opposition to each 
other upon this question. The testimony of Phlegon is 
highly valued by Colon ia (La Relig. ChrSt. autotisde par 
lee Aut. Pay., vol. i., ch. 1, pp. 1-44) ; by Huet (Demonstr. 
Evang., prop. 3, }9, pp. 25-6); by Fabricius (Bibliog. Gr. 9 
torn, iii., p. 403) ; by Petavius (De Doctr. Temp., lib. xii., 
cap. 21, p. 458): on the other hand, it is rejected by 
G. J. Vossius (Harm. Evang., lib. ii., cap. 10) ; by Scaliger 
(in Euseb. Chron. pp. 185-6); by Kepler (Ed. Chron., 
pp. 87, 126); by Tillemont (M4m. Eccles., Note xxxv„ sur 
N. S. Jesus Christ, p. 449); byBayle (Diet, Hist. andCriU 
art. • Phlegon ') ; and by Lardner (loco cit.). The principal 
objections against the authority of the passage in question 
are thus briefly summed up by Dr. Adam Clarke (Comment, 
on Matth. xxvii. 45) : — 1, All the authors who quote Phlegon 
differ and often very materially, in what they say was found 
in him ; 2, He says nothing of Judcea : what be says is, 
that in such an Olympiad (some say the 102nd, others the 
202nd) there was an eclipse in Bithynia, and on earthquake 
at Nice ; 3, He does not say that the earthquake happened 
at the time of the eclipse ; 4, He does not intimate that 
this darkness was extraordinary, or that the eclipse hap* 
pened at the full of the moon, or that it lasted three hours ; 
all of which circumstances could not have been omitted by 
him if he had known them ; 5, He speak* merely of an or- 
dinary though perhaps total eclipse of the sun, and cannot 
mean the darkness mentioned by the Evangelists ; and 6, 
He speaks of an eclipse that happened in some year of the 
102nd or 202nd Olympiad, and therefore, upon the whole, 
little stress can be laid on wbat he says as applying to 
this event. 

The three remaining fragments of Phlegon were first 
published in 1568, Basil., 8vo., Gr. et Lat., by Xylander, 
together with Antonini Liberal is Transform. Conger.; 
Apollonii Hist. Mirab. ; Antigoni Carystii Hist. Mirab. ; and 
M. Antoninus, De Vitd sua. An improved edition, with 
notes by Meursius, appeared in 1620, Lugd. Bat, 4to., Gr. 
et Lat., which is reprinted by Gronovius, in his 'Thesaur. 
Antiquit. GroBc.,' vol. viii., p. 2690, sq., and p. 2727, and 
vol. ix., p. 1289, sq.; and also inserted among the works of 
Meursius, vol. vii„ p. 77, sq. This was republished with 
notes by J. G. Franzius, ana an 'Epistola de Longsvis,' by 
Meibomius, Hal©, 1775, 8vo., and lastly, with additional 
observations, by J. Bast i us, Halse, 1822, 8vo., Gr. et. Lat. 

PHLEGR^EI CAMPI, the antient name given by poeta 
to a volcanic hilly region situated west of the city of Na- 
ples, embracing the not yet extinct volcano called La Solfa- 
tara, the basins of the lakes of Agnano and Ave mo, the 
extinct crater called Degli Astruni, that called Monte Bar- 
bar o, and the hill called Monte Nuovo, which was thrown 
up by an eruption in 1538 on rhe site of the former lake 
Lucrinus [Agnano; Averno]; in short, the whole district 
rouqd Pozzuolo, bounded on the east by the hill of Posi- 
lipo, which separates it from the basin of Naples Proper, 
and Mount Gaurus and Mount Grillo on the west and south- 
west, which divide it from the coasts of Cumro and Baiae. 
[Bai« ; Cvum.] On the uorth this volcanic district ii 
bounded by the plain of Campania. It must not be sup- 
posed however that the Phlegraei Campi constitute the 
whole volcanic region west of Naples, which extendson the 
other side of the hills of Baia> and southwest to the Monte 
di Procida, and also beyond the narrow channel called 


Digitized by 


P H O 


P H O 

Bocche di Procida, including the island of that name and 
the neighbouring island of Ischia. [Ischia.] Breislak, 
in his • Topos:rafia Fisica della Campania,' gives a good 
description of this volcanic tract, with a map of it. See also 
G. Poulett Scrope, 'On the V r olcamc District of Naples/ in 
▼ ol. ii. of the second series of the ' Geological Transactions/ 

With the exception of the hill of Solfatara, about 300 feet 
in height, which emits almost continually a sulphureous 
steam through several fissures, the other craters of this 
region have been long extinct. 

Poetical descriptions of the volcanic phenomena exhibited 
by the Phlegrffii Campi have been given by Virgil, Petro- 
nius Arbiter, and other Latin poets. Diodorus Siculus 
(iv. 21) says that this region, in which Hercules defeated 
the giants, was called * Phlegrasus Campus, from a hill which 
once threw up flames in the same manner as iEtna, retain- 
ing still the traces of former eruptions.' This hill was pro- 
bably that now called Solfatara, though Diodorus adds, that 
•in his time it was called Vesuvius;' but this must be an 
error either of the author or of the copyist, as Vesuvius, in 
the time of Diodorus, had not begun to vomit flames. Be- 
sides this, Diodorus characterises the region, which he de- 
scribes as being near the shore of Curaa?, which description 
-could not apply to Vesuvius. Stiabo (p. 245. Casaub.) 
says that the Cnmeea, as some suppose, was called Phlegra 
from the circumstance of its being full of sulphur, and fire, 
and hot springs. 

PHLEUM, a genus of grasses, contains, among many 
unimportant species, one of considerable agricultural value. 
This, the P. pratense, or meadow cat's- tail grass, is a general 
inhabitant of the most fertile pastures, and is regarded as 
a sign of rich soil. It bears its dowers in a long cylindrical 
soft head, and is extremely like the meadow foxtail [Alo- 
pecurus] in appearance; from which it differs in having 
unequal glumes, and two palete instead of one. This plant 
is very productive, especially m the early spring, and is a 
Very general component of hay. Nevertheless, according 
to Mr. Low, it is not a peculiarly good hay-grass, from the 
wirvness of its stem and the shortness of its aftermath. It 
is of the greatest use when the object is to procure a sward 
of permanent herbage. 

PI1LCEOMYS, Mr. Watcrhouse's name for a subgenus 
of Muridre, which is in the habit of feeding chiefly on the 
birk of trees, according to Mr. Cuming, after whom the 
typical species (Mus {Phl&omys) Cumin «i) is named. 
, Locality. — The Island of Luzon. (See futther, ZooL 
Proc. t 1839.) 


PHLOGISTON, an hypoihetical substance, by supposing 
the existence of which Stahl [Stahl] explained the pheno- 
mena of combustion. He imagined that by combination 
with phlogiston a body was rendered combustible, and that 
its disengagement occasioned combustion, and after its evo- 
lution there remained acid or an eanh : thus sul- 
phur was by this theory supposed to be composed of phlo- 
giston and sulphuric acid ; and lead, of the calx of lead and 
phlogistpn. &c. 

At this period however oxygen had not been discovered, 
and although Jean Rev had shown that metals by burning 
increased in weight, and Hooke and Mayow had attributed 
combustion to the presence of the air in which it occurs, yet 
the doctrine proposed by Stahl maintained its ground for 
about half a century. Soon after the discovery of oxygen 
gas by Dr. Priestley, the experiments which others had made 
on the calcination of the metals weie repeated with great ac- 
curacy by Lavoisier ; the consequence Was, that the phlo- 
fistic theory gave way to the antiphlogistic; for the com- 
ustion, which had been attributed to the extrication of 
phlogiston, was known in all common cases to be derived 
from the absorption of oxygen, and this explained the in- 
crease of weight which bodies acquired by combustion, 
whereoj on the phlogistic theory they ought to have suffered 
a diminution by the process. 

PHLORIZIN, a peculiar vegetable matter which exists 
in the bark of the trunk and roots of the apple, pear, cherry, 
and plum trees. According to Sta*s, it is most readily ob- 
tained, and in large quantity, by treating either the fresh 
or dried roots of the apple tree with weak alcohol at the 
temperature of about 150° Fahr. When the digestion has 
been continued for some hours, the clear solution is to be 
poured off, and the alcohol distilled; the residual liquor on 
cooling deposits phlorizin, which is to be rendered colourless 
by animal charcoal. 

Phlorizin, when deposited from a saturated solution, has 
the form of silky tufts; but when obtained by the slow 
cooling of a dilute solution, it is in long flat brilliant needles. 
The taste of phlorizin is rather bitter, followed with slight 
sweetness; it is scarcely soluble in cold water, but boiling 
water dissolves it in large quantity ; alcohol and pyroxylic 
spirit also readily take it up, and at all temperatures ; aether, 
even when boiling, dissolves only traces of it, though, when 
mixed with alcohol, it dissolves it very well ; it has no action 
on vegetable colours. 

Phlorizin contains no azote, but, according to St ass, is 
composed nearly of — 

Hydrogen . • 5*4 

Carbon . . . 58*6 

Oxvgen . . . 30-0 


Phlorizin is by various processes, described by M. Stass, 
converted into phlorizein, phloretin, and phloretic acid: 
for an account of these, we refer to his memoir contained 
in the 69th vol. of ' Annales de Chiraie et de Physique.' 

PHOCA. [Seals] 

PHOCjEA. [Ionia; Marseille.] 

PHOCiE'NA, Cuvier's name for the Porpeaes, Mar- 
souins of the French. [Whales.] 

PHOCAS, a native Of Asia Minor, of an obscure 
family, entered the army under the reign of the emperor 
Mauritius, and attained the rank of a 6enturion. He hap- 
pened to be with hit company on the banks of the Danube 
when one of those mutinies so frequent in the history of the 
Eastern empire broke oat among the troops on that station, 
and having probably made himself conspicuous among the 
disaffected, he was tumuHuOusly proclaimed leader of the 
insurgents, and he marched with them to Constanstinople. 
At the approach of the rebels an insurrection broke out in 
the capita), and the emperor dnd his family were obliged to 
escape in a boat to Calchedon. Phocas was proclaimed em- 
peror and crowned by the patriarch, a.d. 602. Mauritius, 
being taken, was put to death, together with his five sons, 
and some time after the rest of his family shared the 
same fate. Phocas sent ambassadors to Khosru II. to an- 
nounce his accession to the throne, but the Persian monarch 
having learned the circumstances, took up arms to avenge 
the cause of Mauritius, and carried on a destructive war in 
the Asiatic provinces. Phocas found more favour with 
Rome. Gregory I. wrote him some complimentary letters 
in which he extols the condition of the Italian subjects of 
the empire as being free men in comparison with those who 
were subject to the Longobard and other kings, who treated 
them as little belter than slaves. These letters of Gregory 
to Phocas and his wife Leontia have been much censured, 
but we ought to consider that the Roman pontiffs, being at 
a dis:ance from the Eastern capital, were not competent 
judges of the frequent insurrections and changes of dynasty 
which occurred there, while, exposed as they and their 
flocks were to eminent danger from the Longobards, it was 
their interest to propitiate the Byzantine ruler for the time 
being, without investigating too closely his title to the 

Phocas remained on good terms with Boniface III. and 
Boniface IV, the successors of Gregory. He is said by An- 
astasius, the Papal chronicler, to have acknowledged Boni- 
face III. as the head of all the Christian churches; but that 
which is better authenticated is his act of donation of the 
Pantheon at Rome to Boniface IV., to be transformed into 
a Christian church, a.d. 607. 

In the mean time insurrections broke out in several parts 
of the Eastern empire, which the suspicions and cruelties 
of PhoCas only served to exasperate. Heraclius, exarch of 
Africa, sent two expeditions, one by sea and the 6ther by 
land, under his son Heraclius and his nephew Nicetas, who 
joining before Constantinople, took possession of the city, 
after some resistance. Phocas was taken and put to a cruel 
death by order of the younger Heraclius, who succeeded him 
in the empire, a.d. 610. 

(Cedrenus (Xylandri), p. 331, &c; Gibbon.) 

PHOCENiC ACID and PHOCENIN. This last is 
a peculiar fatty matter contained in the oil of the porpoise, 
combined with olein and a very small quantity of phdcenic 
acid. To procure it, nine parts of the oil are to be treated 
with ten parts of hot alcohol of sp. gr. 0*797: the liquor, 
when it has become cold and clear, is to be submitted to 
distillation, by which an acid of am oleaginous appearance 
is obtained: if the acid is separated by carbonate of mag- 

Digitized by 


P H O 


P H O 

nesia, and the remain ing"oil treated with cold weak alcohol, 
the phocenin is dissolved by it, and it has the following pro- 
perties: — at 65° its sp. gr. is 0954 ; it exhales a weak pe- 
culiar odour, somewhat resembling that of sether and pho- 
cenic, acid. It is insoluble in water, but very soluble in 
boiling alcohol. 

Wlfen 100 parts of phocenin are treated with potash, they 
are converted into 59 parts of hydrated oleic acid, 15 of gly- 
cerin, and 32*82 of dry phocenic acid. 

Phocenic Acid is colourless, liquid at usual temperatures, 
and in appearance resembles a volatile oil ; its sp. gr. is 
about 0*932. It has a very strong smell, and its taste is 
sour and penetrating. It remains liquid below 32°, and 
boils at about 212°. It may be distilled in vacuo without 
alteration ; but when distilled in a retort containing air, it 
is considerably altered, unless distilled with water, and then 
it rises with it, and it is condensed in a pure state in the 
receiver. It is nearly as combustible as volatile oils. 

According to Chevreul, it is composed of — 
Hydrogen . . 8 "25 

Carbon . . . 65* 

Oxygen . . . 26*75 


PHOCIANWAR. [Philip (of Macedonia); Phocis.] 

PHO'CID^S. [Seals.] 

PHOCION (*<iuriwv), an Athenian general and states- 
man, was a contemporary of Demosthenes. His first ap- 
pearance in history is at the battle of Naxos, B.C. 376, when 
Demosthenes was seven years old, being himself twenty- 
seven. He survived Demosthenes four years, and, accord- 
ing to Mr. Thirlwall, is the representative of that party in 
Athens to which Demosthenes was the constant antagonist. 

Plutarch relates that Phocion was the son of a turner, 
but he disbelieves the story on account of the goodness of 
his education and the liberal turn of his mind. Whatever 
was his rank, Phocion found admittance into the school of 
Plato, and afterwards studied under Xenocrates, * whose 
lessons had perhaps greater influence on his character than 
even those of Plato ; at least it is not difficult to trace a 
resemblance between Phocion and Xenocrates, while it 
would be hard to acknowledge any between Phocion and 
Plato. To a stern and forbidding aspect, a stoical de- 
meanour, and habits of rigid simplicity, Phocion united a 
kind and generous heart. These qualities secured for him 
so great a measure of popularity that he was forty-four 
times elected general, and that in an age when public 
offices were generally obtained by bribery. He was also 
heard with so much attention in public, that even Demos- 
thenes dreaded the effect of his terse and pithy harangues. 

Plutarch records many of his sayings. There is much 
wit and point in most of them, indeed they go quite beyond 
the style of antique jokes, usually so dull to modern ears, 
and there is much political wisdom in them ; but still they 
have an air of intended wit and a striving after effect 
which make them look different from the strong and 
genuine thoughts of an earnest and true-hearted patriot. 
But after all, when biographer and subject each lived in an 
age more distinguished for smartness than solidity, we need 
not hold these speeches inconsistent with that high cha- 
racter for wisdom which Phocion bears. 

The public incidents recorded of Phocion's life are, as is 
natural for the head of the peace party, not numerous. He 
commanded many times and often successfully, but he 
seems to have acted the part of an ambassador better than 
of a general. His death (b.c. 317) took place under circum- 
stances much like those which accompanied that of Socrates. 
During the confusion which ensued after the death of Alex- 
ander, a revolution occurred at Athens, and the democratic 
party, drunk with success, condemned their chief opponents 
to death. Among these was Phocion • he died with the 
greatest composure, and left an injunction to his son, to pre- 
serve no remembrance of the wrongs which Athens had done 
to his father. As in the case of Socrates, the people soon saw 
their error ; repentance however does not usually atone for 
political crimes, and the parallel between Phocion and So- 
crates holds good with regard to the evil times which fol- 
lowed their respective executions, showing public ingrati- 
tude to be the parent as well as the child of civil corruption. 
(Plutarch's Life of Phocion ; Thirlwall's Hist, of Greece.) 

PHOCIS (*omcic) was bounded on the south by the 
Corinthian Gulf, on the west by Doris and the Locri 
Ozol©, on the north by the Locri Epicnemidii and Opuntii, 
and on the east by Boeotia. The territory of Phocia origin- 

ally extended to theEubcean channel, but was in later times 
entirely separated from the sea by Locris. Strabo says (ix., 
p. 416) that Phoois was divided into two parts by the range 
of Parnassos, which extends in a south-easterly direction 
through Phocis till it joins Mount Helicon on the borders 
of Boeotia. Parnassos and the mountains which separate 
Phocis from Locris form the upper valley of the river Ce- 
phissus, on the banks of which there is some fertile country, 
though in many parts the mountains approach very near 
both banks of the river. The southern part of Phocis is 
almost entirely covered with the mountains which branch 
off to the south from the huge mass of Parnassos, though 
there are a few fertile plains between these mountains, of 
which the largest is the celebrated Crisssean plain. 

We know very little respecting the early inhabitants of 
Phocis. According to Pausamas (ii., 4, § 3 ; x., 1, J 1) 
the people derived their name from a king Phocus; and that 
the name is of considerable antiquity is evident from the 
Phocians being mentioned by Homer (//., ii. 5 1 7). Previous 
to the Persian invasion they appear to have been frequently 
engaged in hostilities with the Thessalians, and to have been 
successful in maintaining their independence. (Herod., viii. 
27, 28.) Xerxes, at the instigation of the Thessalians, 
ravaged Phocis with fire and sword, and destroyed many 
of their cities. (Herod., viii. 32.) 

The Phocians had no political importance till after the 
battle of Leuctra: but shortly after that event, circum- 
stances occurred which occasioned the celebrated Phocian or 
Sacred War, in which ail the great states of Greece were 
more or less concerned. The immediate occasion of this 
war is said by Diodorus (xvi. 23) to have been an act of 
sacrilege committed by the Phocians in cultivating a part 
of the Cris<»an plain, which had been doomed by a decree 
of the Amphictyons, in B.C. 585, to lie waste for ever. J3ut 
whatever may have been the immediate, the real occasion 
of the war was the animosity between Thebes and Phocis, 
which had long prevailed under a show of peace. The 
Thebans used their influence in the Amphictyonic council 
to induce the Amphictyons to sentence the Phocians to pay 
a heavy fine to the god for the violation of the sacred land ; 
and on their refusing to pay this fine, the council passed 
a decree that if the fine were not paid, the Phocians should 
forfeit their territory to the gods, which decree was in all 
probability intended to reduce the Phocians to the condition 
of the Helots in Laconica, subject to the jurisdiction of the 
temple of Delphi. In these alarming circumstances the 
Phocians were induced by Philomelus, who appears to have 
held some high office in the Phocian state, and was a man 
of great talent and energy, to make the bold attempt at 
seizing the city and temple of Delphi. This attempt was 
successful, and the Phocians obtained in the treasures de- 
posited in the temple ample means for carrying on the war. 
This war, which lasted for ten years, was carried on with 
various success on both sides. The Thebans and almost all 
the northern states of Greece were opposed to the Phocians ; 
and though the Athenians and Spartaps were willing, in 
consequence of their fear of the power of Thebes, to afford 
assistance to the Phocians, the former were too much 
weakened by the Peloponne^lan war, and the latter by the 
Theban victories and the formation of Messenia as an inde- 
pendent state, to render any effectual aid. But what the 
Phocians wanted in allies was compensated by mercenary 
troops ; and it is difficult to say how long the struggle 
might have lasted, had not the Amphictyons called in the 
assistance of Philip of Macedon, who took possession of 
Delphi, and put an end to the war, B.C. 346. The Phocians 
were severely punished for their sacrilege ; all their cities, 
with the exception of Abso, were razed to the ground, and 
their inhabitants dispersed in villages not containing more 
than fifty inhabitants. Their two votes in the Amphic- 
tyonic council were taken away and given to Philip. (Paus., 
x., 3, } 1 ; Diod., xvi. 59 ; .flsscbin., De Fals. Leg at., 
p. 45.) Many of the towns however appear to have been 
rebuilt soon afterwards. [Philip, p. 74.] 

The principal towns of Phocis were Delphi [Delphi] and 
Elatea; the latter of which was situated on a small bill above 
the plain watered by the Cephissus. It was taken and burnt 
by the army of Xerxes (Herod., viii. 33), but was rebuilt soon 
afterwards, and became from its position the most important 
town in Phocis. It commanded the chief road which led 
from the north of Greece to Bwntia and Attica (Strab., ix., 
p. 424), and hence we read in Demosthenes (De Corona, 
p. 284) that the greatest alarm prevailed at Athens when 

' 02 

Digitized by 





intelligence was brought that Elatea was ieized by Philip. 
The ruins are at the modern Elephta. 

On the sea coast the first town we come to after leaving 
the Locri Ozolse is Cirrha, situated at the head of the 
Crissroan Gulf (Bay of Sal on a) and at the mouth of the 
Pleistus. Cirrha was the port of Delphi, from which it was 
distant 60 stadia according to Pausanias (x. 37, $ 4), and 80 
according to Strabo (ix., p. 418). This town is frequently 
confounded with Crissa, which is mentioned as a separate 
place by Strabo, and said to have been situated between 
Delphi and Cirrha. The Crissseans were charged by the 
Delphians with undue exactions from the strangers who 
came to consult the Delphian oracle. The Amphictyons 
declared war against them, which, after lasting for ten years, 
ended in the destruction of Crissa, B.C. 585, the land of 
which was dedicated to the god. (Paus., x. 37, $ 4.) 

The next town to Cirrha on the coast was Anticyra, cele- 
brated for its preparation of hellebore, which grew in the 
mountains above the town. (Strab., ix., p. 418; Paus., x. 
36, { 3.) Next to Anticyra was Medeon, destroyed with 
the other Phocian towns after the termination of the Sacred 
War and never restored (Paus., x. 36, $ 3); and after it the 
small town of Marathus (Strab., ix., p. 423), beyond which 
was the Pharygian promontory with a station for ships. 
The most easterly town in Phocis on the coast was Mychus. 
(Strabo, ix., p. 423.) ' 

There are few towns of any importance inland, with the 
exception of Delphi and Elatea. North-east of Delphi was 
Lycorea, a place of great antiquity. It is said in the Pa- 
rian Marble to have been the residence of Deucalion, and 
Strabo (ix. 418) speaks of it as more antient than Delphi. 
(Compare Paus., x. 32, $ 6.) Above Lycorea was Tilhorea 
or Neon, at the distance of 80 stadia from Delphi. (Paus., 
x. 32, $ 6.) Its ruins are near the modern village of Ve- 
litza. Pausanias (x. 32, $ 1 1 ) says that the oil of Tithorea 
was admirable for the composition of perfumed ointments. 
West of Tithorea, and at tne foot of Parnassos, was the an- 
tient city of Lilaa, which is mentioned by Homer (//., ii. 
523) as near the sources of the Cephissus. It was distant 
from Delphi 180 stadia across the Parnassos. (Paus., x. 33, 
$ 1.) On the borders of Boeotia was the town of Ambysus or 
Ambyssus (Paus.. x. 36, $ 2; Strabo, ix. 423), which is not 
unfrequently mentioned in history. In the Macedonian war it 
was taken by Flamininus. (Li v., xxxii. 18.) Its ruins were 
discovered by Chandler near the modern village of Dys* 

Coin of PhocU. 
British Museum. Actual *ize. 

PHOCY'LTDES, of Miletus, was a philosopher and 
poet, and flourished about B.C.* 535. An admonitory poem 
(iroityiet vovOeriKbv) is attributed to this Phocylides; but it 
is uncertain whether it was written by him or by another of 
the same name in later times. The reader is referred, for a 
discussion of this question, to the first volume of the ' Bib- 
liotheca Grseca* of Fabricius. 

There are several editions of Phoc) tides, both separate 
and along with Theognis and others. A convenient and 
correct edition of these Greek gnomic or sententious poets 
is that printed by Tauchnitz, Leipzig, 1819, which includes 
seven fragments of Phocylides, besides the above-mentioned 

PHCENI'CE, PHOENICIANS (froivfeiy, *ot'v*«c). PhoB- 
nice* proper, even in ite most flourishing state, was a very 
small country. It extended along the eastern coast of the 
Mediterranean, from- the town of Aradus and the river Eleu- 
therus, on the north, to Mount Carmel, or Dora, on the 
south. (Ptolem., v. 15; Flin., Hist. Nat., \\ 13, 17 ; Joseph., 
Apion, ii. 9.) It was bounded on the east bv the moun- 
tains Libanus and Antilibanus, from which numerous 
streams descended, which rendered the land exceedingly 
fertile. (Ammianus Marcell., xiv. 8.) The physical cha- 

• Modern writers usually call the country Phoenicia, but this form b not 
•nee found iu the antient writers* with the exception of a doubtful passage in 
Cicero. (Ifc Ft» H W. *0). 

racter of this country is more particularly described under 

This short line of coast was covered with numerous towns, 
which were more or less celebrated for their arts and manu 
factures. The most southerly town of importance was Acco» 
called by the Greeks Acca, and subsequently Ptolemais 
(St. Jean dAcre), which the Israelites did not conquer, 
though it was included in the division of the Holy Land 
made by Joshua. (Judges, i. 31.) In the time of Augustus 
(Strabo, xvi., p. 758) it was a large city ; and under Clau- 
dius it became a Roman colony. (Plin., Hist. Nat., v. 1 7.) 
The subsequent history and present state of this city are 
given under Acre. 

North of Acco was Tyre, the principal of the Phoeni- 
cian cities, and north of Tyre, Sidon. Between Tyre and 
Sidon was Sarepta (Sarph'and), which is mentioned' in the 
history of Elijah (1 Kings, xvi. 9) under the name of Za- 
rephath. (Compare Obadiah, v. 20 ; Luke, iv. 26 ; Joseph., 
Antiqu., viii. 13, $ 2.) About eight miles and a half north 
of Sidon was Berytus, a very antient town with a harbour. 
(Ptolem., v. 1 5 ; Strabo,, xvi., p. 755 ; Joseph., Bell. Jud., 
vii. 3, { 1 ; Amraian. Marcell., xiv. 8; Mela, i. 12.) It is 
supposed by some writers to be the same place as Berothai, 
which was taken by David. (2 Sam., viii. 8.) Berytus was 
destroyed by Diodotus Tryphon (b.c. 1 40), but was rebuilt 
by Agrippa, who stationed there two legions. (Strabo, xvi., 
p. 756.) It also became a Roman colony under the name 
of Felix Julia. (Plin., Hist. Nat., v. 17.) The modern, 
town of Bairuth or Beirut is still a place of some importance. 

Twenty-four miles north of Berytus was Byblos, situated 
on rising ground, not far from the sea. It was celebrated 
for the worship of Adonis. (Strabo,* xvi., p. 755; Plin., 
Hist. Nat., v. 17; Mela, i. 12; Ptolem., v. 15.) Winer sup- 
poses (Biblisches Reulwbrterbuch, art. Byblos) that the town 
Gebal mentioned in the Old Testament (Ezek., xxvii. 9 ; 
compare Josh., xiii. 5) is the same place as Byblos. [By* 

North of Byblos was Botrus; and beyond it Tripolis* 
which originally consisted of three distinct towns, founded 
respectively by Sidon, Tyre, and Aradus, and was used by 
the inhabitants of the different cities of Phoeniee as a com- 
mon place of meeting for deliberating on subjects of common 
importance. (Strabo, xvi. 754; Plin., v. 17; Diod. Sic, 
xvi. 41 ; Mela, i. 12.) North of Tripolis was Orthosias 
(Plin., Hist. Nat., v. 17 ; Strabo, xvi., p. 753 ; 1 Mace, xv. 
37), and still farther north Aradus, a colony of Sidon, and 
the most important town in Phoenice after Tyre and Sidon, 
situated in an island of the same name, which is called 
Arvad in the Old Testament (Ez* xxvii. 8 ; Gen., x. 18.) 
This island was at the mouth of the Eleutherus, and 2U 
stadia from the mainland. It was only seven stadia in cir- 
cumference, but was crowded with houses. (Strabo, xvi. 
753 ; Plin., v. 1 7 ; Mela, ii. 7.) Opposite to it on the main- 
land was the town of Antaradus. 

The Phoenicians were a branch of the great Semitic or 
Aramaean family of nations, and originally dwelt either on* 
the Red Sea or the Persian Gulf. (Herod., i. 2; vii. 89; 
Strabo, i., p. 42.) It is uncertain at what time they emi- 
grated to the coast of the Mediterranean ; but it must have? 
been at a very early period, since Sidon was a great city in 
the time of Joshua (Josh., xix. 28). The Phoenicians far sur- 
passed all the other nations of antiquity in commercial en- 
terprise. Their greatness as a commercial people was> 
chiefly owing to their peculiar natural advantages. Their 
situation at the extremity of the Mediterranean enabled 
them to supply the western nations with the different com- 
modities of the East, which were brought to Tyre by cara- 
vans from Arabia and Babylon ; while their own country 
produced many of the most valuable articles of commerce 
in antient times. Off the coast the purple fish was caught 
which produced the most celebrated dye known to the an- 
tients, and the sand on the sea-shore was well adapted for 
the manufacture of glass. (Strabo, xi. 758 ; Plin., xxxvL 
65.) Mount Libanus supplied them with abundance of 
timber for ship-building, and the useful metals were ob- 
tained in the iron and copper mines near Sarepta. In tho- 
west they in all probability visited Britain [Cassiterides] j 
and on the north coast of Africa, in Spain, Sicily, and Malta,, 
they planted numerous colonies, which they supplied with 
the produce of the East. Their settlements in Sicily and 
Africa became powerful states, and long opposed a formida- 
ble barrier to the Roman armB. [Carthage.] By their 

Digitized by 


p h ce 



alliance with the Jewish state in the time of »Solomon, they 
were enabled to sail to Ophir in the south of Arabia, where 
thev obtained the produce of India. (2 Chron., viii. 17, 18 ; 
1 Rings, ix. 27, 28.) Herodotus says that they circumna- 
vigated Africa, but there appears considerable reason for 
doubting the truth of this account. [Africa, vol. i., p. 172.] 
It has been even maintained by some writers that they 
sailed to America. (Diod. Sic, v. 19.) 

The Greeks attributed the invention of letters to the 
Phoenician*, and there can be little doubt that the Greek 
alphabet was derived from the Phoenician. They are also 
said to have invented arithmetic and many of the sciences; 
but the traditions on these subjects are too vague to enable 
us to come to any safe conclusion. There can be no doubt 
however that they attained to great perfection in the arts in 
very early times. The Tyrians supplied Solomon with all 
kinds of artificers to assist in the building of the temple at 
Jerusalem (2 Chron., ii.), and the workmanship of the art- 
ists of Sidon was celebrated in the Greek towns of Asia 
Minor aa early as the time of Homer. (//., xxii. 741 ; Od., 
xv. 118.) 

The Phoenician cities appear to have been originally in* 
dependent of one another, and to have possessed for the 
most part a monarchical form of government. The oldest 
of these cities was Sidon (Gen., x. 15), but Tyre became in 
later times the most important, and probably exercised 
some degree of authority over the other states. After the 
conquest of Samaria and Judaea, the Phoenicians became 
subject successively to the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Per- 
sian monarchies. In the wars between the Greeks and Per- 
sians, the Phoenicians formed the chief and most efficient 
part of the Persian navy. They afterwards formed part of 
the dominions of the Seleucid®, and were eventually in- 
cluded in the Roman province of Syria. 

The language of the Phoenicians and of the different 
colonies which they planted closely resembled the Hebrew 
and Aramaic. Even if we had no remains of the language 
we could have little doubt that such was the case ; hut Ge- 
senius has satisfactorily shown, from numerous coins and 
inscriptions, the intimate connection between the Phoeni- 
cian and the other languages of the Semitic nations. The 
letters of the Phoenician alphabet closely resemble those of 
the Samaritan. In addition to which it may be remarked, 
though no further proof is wanted, that Jerome represents 
(Comment, ad Is. vii. 19) the Phoenician language as allied to 
the Hebrew, and he says the same of the Punic, which how- 
ever, he observes, was more remote from the mother tongue. 
(Comment, ad Gen. xxxvi. 24.) Augustin also makes the 
same remark respecting the Punic, which was spoken at 
Hippo in his time. For further information upon this sub- 
ject the reader is referred to Gesenius's • Palaographische 
Studien liber Phonizische und Funische Schrift,' 4to., 
Leip., 1835, and 'Scriptur® Linguaeque Phoeniciaeque 
Monument a,' &c, 4to., Leip., 1837. Among the works 
written in the Phoenician language, the most celebrated is 
the history of the Phoenicians and Egyptians, in nine 
books, by Sanchoniathon, of which a Greek translation was 
made by Philo Byblius in the first half of the second cen- 
tury of the Christian sera. [Sanchoniathon.] 

PHCENI'CIA. [Phcenice.] 


PHCBNICOPHAIN/E. [Phcsnicophaus ] 

PHCENICOPHA'US, M. Vieillot's name for a genus of 
birds founded on the Malkohas, or Malcohas. Levaillant 
appears to have been the first who proposed a separation 
of the form from the Cuckoos, and Mr. Swainson, who 
in his 'Synopsis' places it among the Croiophaginee, or 
Horn-Bill Cuckoos, observes that the passage from the 
Toucans to the Cuckoos seems to be marked by such genera 
as Phamicnphaus or Saurothera, where the bill, as in the 
first, is eithc* much larger and thicker than in the gene- 
rality of Cuckoos, and is thus assimilated in shape to that 
of the Toucan, or as in Saurothera, where the edges be- 
come dentated. 

The Generic Character, as restricted by Mr. Swainson, will 
be found in the article Indicatorina. 

Example, Phamicophaus Pyrrhocephalus. 

This appears to be the Cuculus Pyrrocephalus of Forsler 
and the Phamicophaus leucogaster, Desm. 

In Juiy, 1839, Mr. Fraser read to a meeting of the 
Zoological Society of London his description of a bird of 
this genus, Phamicophaus Cumingi, belonging to Mr. 
Swainson's subdivision Dasy tophus, forwarded t>y Hugh 

Cuming, Esq., corresponding member from Luzon. Mr. 
Fraser pointed out that it might at once be distinguished 
from all the known members of the family by the singular 
structure of the feathers of its crest and throat ; the shafts 
of these feathers are expanded at their extremities into 
lamina?, which may be compared to the shavings of whale- 
bone; and in this respect they resemble the crest o*f the 
Toucan, to which Mr. Gould, in his monograph, applies 
the name Pteroglossus ulocomus, which is the Pt. Beau- 
harnesii of Wagler, but are not curled as in that species. 
The feathers above the nostrils, of the crest and chin, and 
along the middle of the throat, are grey at the base, have 
a decided white spot towards the middle, and are termi- 
nated by a broad expansion of the shaft, which is of a 
glossy black colour, with blue or greenish reflections. 
The external edge of this expanded portion of the shaft 
is minutely pectinated. The occiput and sides of the 
head are grey, passing into dirty white on the cheeks 
and sides of the throat ; the hinder part and sides of the 
neck and the breast are of a deep chestnut colour ; the 
back, wings, and tail are of a deep shining green colour ; 
all the tail-feathers are broadly tipped with white ; the 
vent, thighs, and under tail-coverts are dusky brown tinged 
with green ; the bill is horn-colour ; the feet olive. Accord- 
ing to that indefatigable collector Mr. Cuming, this beautiful 
and interesting bird is named Ansic En Bicol in the Albay 
tongue. The eyes were red, and the pupil large and black. 
The length from beak to tail was eight inches and a half, and 
the measurement round the body five inches. Total length 
sixteen inches. (Fraser.) (Zool. Proc., 1839.) In the same 
volume another species, from Malaya, Phamicophaus viridi- 
rostris is described by Mr. Eyton — native name, see Lafiia. 
The synonyms given are Psittacula Malaccensis, Kuhl — 
native name, Tana ; Bucco trimuculata. Gray — native 
name, Tanda ; and Bucco versicolor, Raff. — native name, 
Tahoor. Phamicophai tricolor, Steph.— native name, Kado 
besar; Chlorocephalus (Cuculus chlorocephalus. Raffles — 
native name, see Lahia) ; Crawfurdii, Gray— native name, 
Kada Kachie ; and Javanicus, Horsf. — native name, Kada 
Apie, are also referred to by Mr. Eyton as synonyms of An- 
threptes modesta from Malaya — native name, Chichap Nio. 

In Mr. G. R. Gray's arrangement the Phamicophaince 
consist of the genera Phamicophaus, Vieill. ; Carpococcyx. 
G. R. Gray; Rhinortha, Vig. ; and Taccocua, Less.; and 
the six subfamilies of the Cuculidee are Indicatorinee, Sau- 
rotherinaj, Centropince, Phamicophainte, Coccyzina?, and 

PHCENICOPTERI'NjE, Mr. Swainson's name for his 
first subfamily of the Anatidce, consisting of the genus 
Phamicopterus only. The same position is given to the 
Phamicopterinee by Mr. G. R. Gray. 


PHCBNICCRNIS, Mr. Swainson's name for a genus 
of Ceblepyrxnee, or Caterpillar- Catchers. [Shrikes.] 

PHCBNICU'RA. Mr. Swainson's name for the Red- 
starts. [Sylviadje.] 

PHCENISO'MA, Mr. Swainson's name for a genus of 
Fringillida? ; and placed by him in the subfamily Tana' 
grime. [Fringillida; Tanagrin^k] 

PHCRNIX (♦oTviC), one of the most renowned of the 
fabulous monsters of antiquity, defined by the Arabians to 
be maloumo 'l-ismo, majnoulo H-jismo ' (a creature) whose 
name is known, its body unknown.' (Richardson's Arabic 
and Persian Diet.) It is supposed by some persons to 
be mentioned in the Bible, Job, xxix. 18, and Psalms, 

xcii. 12. In the former passage 7V7D ia translated in our 
version ' as the sand,' but by Bede, ' Sicut Phoenix ;' 
in the other, ^DiHD, which is rendered in our version • like 

T T - 

the palm tree,' is explained to mean the phoenix by Tertul- 
lian (De Resurrect. Carnis, sec. 13, p. 387). Omitting 
these two passages, which are rightly translated in our ver- 
sion, and therefore have no reference to the phoenix, the ear- 
liest author who mentions it is Hesiod (an. Plut., De De- 
fectu Orac, cap. 11, ed. Tauchn. ; and ap. Plin., Hist. Nat., 
lib. vii., cap. 4U), who merely says that it lives nine times as 
long as a crow. The first detailed description and history 
that we meet with is in Herodotus, whose words on that 
account deserve to be quoted at length. • There is also,' 
says he, in his account of Egypt (lib ii„ cap. 73), • another 
sacred bird, the name of which is the phoenix ; I have not 
myself seen it except in a picture, for it seldom visits them, 
only (as the people of Heliopolis say) every five hundred 

Digitized by 





years. And they say that he oply comes when his sire dies. 
And he is, if he is like his picture, of size and shape as fol- 
lows: part of his plumage is gold coloured, and part crim- 
son ; and he is fur the most part very like to the eagle in 
outline and bulk. And this bird, they say, devises as follows, 
but they say what is to me beyond belief: that setting out from 
Arabia, he brings his sire to the temple of the sun ; that he 
covers him with myrrh, and buries him in the temple of the 
sun : and that he conveys him thus : first he forms an egg of 
myrrh as large as he is able to bear, and afterwards tries 
whether he can carry it ; and when he has made the trial, upon 
this he hollows out the egg, and puts his sire into it, and 
covers with other myrrh that part of the egg where he had made 
the hole and put in his sire; and when his sire lies inside, 
the weight [of the ejjg] is the same [as it was before it was 
hollowed out], "and having covered him up, he conveys him 
to Euypt into the temple of the sun. Such are the things 
which they say this bird performs.' Such is the story as 
told in Herodotus, and it is substantially the same as what 
was afterwards, though with various embellishments, re- 
peated and believed for more than a thousand years. It 
would be tedious and useless to quote the words of each 
author who forms a link in the chain : it will be sufficient 
to mention that, between the times of Herodotus and Taci- 
tus, the fable of the * Phoenix' is told more or less fully and cir- 
cumstantially by the following classical writers : An tip banes 
(Iv TotQ 'OpoirarpioiQ, ap. A then.. Deipnos, lib. xiv„ sec. 70, 
p. 655),Chaeremon (ap.Tzetz., Chil, v. 395), Lucan (Phars., 
lib. vi., v. 680), Martial (Epigr., v. 7), Mela (De Situ Orb., 
lib. iii, cap. 6), Ovid (Metam., lib. xv., v. 391, sq.; Anyrr., 
lib. ii., el. 6, v. 54), Pliny (Hist. Nat., lib. x., pap. 2; lib. 
xi, cap. 44; lib. xiii., cap. 9), Seneca (Epist., 42. sec. 1), 
and Statius (S//t>., lib. ii, 4, 36; lib. iii., 2, 114). The 
passnge in which Tacitus notices the Phoenix ^ very re- 
markable, and deserves to be quoted at length as being 
the most authentic account of it that has been preseryea 
and also as showing that so cautious and accurate a man as 
he is always considered to be entertained no kind of doubt 
as to its real existence and its periodical appearance in Egypt. 
' In the consulship of Paulus Fabius and Lucius yiteHius/ 
says he (in Murphy's translation, Annul., lib. vi., cap. 28) 
A.u.c. 787, ad. 34, ' the miraculous bird, known to the 
world by the name of the phoenix, after disappearing for 
a series of ages, revisited Egypt. A phenomenon so very 
extraordinary could not fail to produce abundance of 
curious speculation. The learning of Egypt was dis- 
played, and Greece exhausted her ingenuity. The facts, 
about which there seems to be a concurrence of opinions, 
with other circumstances, in their nature doubtful, yet 
worthy of notice, will not be unwelcome to the reader. 
That the phoenix is sacred to the sun, and differs from the 
'rest of the feathered species in the fdrra of its head and 
the tincture of its plumage, are points settled by the natu- 
ralists. Of its longevity the accounts are various. The 
common persuasion is that it lives five hundred years' [He- 
rodotus, Ovid, Seneca, and Mela, loci* cit.; BhUostratus (in 
Vitd Apollon. Tyan., iii., 49, ed. Olear., p. 134 and 135), 
jElian (Hist. Animal., lib. vi., cap. 58), Aurelius Victor 
(De Ctesar., cap. 4, sec. 12; Epit., cap. 4, sec. 10), Hor- 
apollo (in Hieroglyph., No. 34, p. 41) ; St. Clement of Rome 
(Epist, ad Corinth., cap. xxv., p. 98, ed. Jacobson), St. 
Cyril of Alexandria (Catech. xviii. 8)]; 'though by some 
writers the date is extended to one thousand four hundred 
and sixty-one.* The several oeras when the phoenix has 
been seen are fixed by tradition. The ftrst, we are told, 
was in the reign of -Sesostris ; the second, in that of Amasis ; 
and in the period when Ptolemy, the third of the Mace- 
donian race, was seated on the throne of Egypt, another 
phoenix directed its flight towards Heliopolis, attended 
by a group of various birds, all attracted by the no- 
velty, and gazing with wonder at so beautiful an appear- 
ance. For the truth of this account we do not presume 
to answer. The facts lie too remote; and covered, as 
they are, with the mists of antiquitv, all further argument 
is suspended. From the reign of Ptolemy to Tiberius, the 
intermediate space is not quite two hundred and fifty years. 
From that circumstance it has been inferred by many 
that the last phoenix was neither of the genuine kind nor 
came from the woods of Arabia. The instinctive qualities 
of the species were not observed to direct its motions. It 

• Manilius (ap. Tlin.. Hist. Nat., lib. x. f cap. 2} says that it lived five bun- 
drvdatxl uineyvars; Solinus, five huudred and forty'; Martial, one thouaaod ; 
*«.„_ u ^ ^^u thousand and six ' 

is the genius, we are told, of the true phoenix, when its 
course of years is finished, and the approach of death is felt, 
to build a nest in its native clime, and there deposit the 
principles of life, from which a new progeny arises*. The 
first care of the young bird, as soon as Hedged, and able to 
trust to its wings, is to perform the obsequies of his father 
But this duty is not undertaken rashly. He collects a 
quantity of myrrh, and to try his strength, makes frequent 
excursions with a load on his back. When he has made his 
experiment through a long tract of air, and gains sufficient 
confidence in his own vigour, he takes up the body of his 
father, and tiies with it to the altar of the sun, where he 
leaves it to be consumed in (lames of fragrance. Such, 
adds Tacitus, * is the account of this extraordinary bird. It 
has, no doubt, a mixture of fable ; but that the pbiBnix, 
from time to time, appears in Egypt, seems to be a fact 
sufficiently ascertained.* 

After the time of Tacitus the fable of the phoenix is re- 
peated or alluded to by the following; classical authors, 
besides those already referred to:— Achilles Tatius (De 
Leuc. et Clit., lib. iii., cap. 25, p. 147, ed. Mitscherl.), 
Aristides (OraU, torn, ii., p. 107, ed. Jebb. et ibi Scho- 
liast), Arteraidorus (Oneirocrit., lib. iv., cap. 49, p. 228, 
ed. Rigalt), Ausonius (Eidyll., 18, v. 6, p. 535: and 
Eidtrll,U, v. 1G, p. 454, ed. Toll.). Claudian (Eidyll, I, 
' De Phoenice;' in Prim. Consul. Stilich., lib. ii., v. 414, 
sq. ; Epist., i. 'Ad Seren.,' v. 15). Dion Cassius (Hist. 
Bom-, lib. 58, cap. 27), Diogenes Laertins (De Vit. Phi- 
losophy lib. ix., cap. 11, sees., 9 and 79), Lampridius fin 
Heliogab.* cap. 23), Lucian (Hermot.. cap. 53: Navig., cap 
44; De Morte Peregr., cap. 27), Oppian (De Aucujrio, i. 
28, ec). Schneid., p. 182), Photius (Biblioth., cod. 126, p 
305). and Solinus (Polyhist., xxxiii. 11). Of these passages 
perhaps the only one curious enough to be particularly 
noticed is that in Lampridius, who tells us that Helioga- 
balus promised his guests a phoenix for supper : he was 
howeyer obliged to be content with a dish of the tongues 
of phosnicopters (or flamingos). 

But it is not only in heathen authors that this fable is 
to be found ; it is mentioned and believed by the Jewish 
Rabbinical writers, and by the early fathers of the Christian 
church. Ezekiel, the Jewish tragic writer [vol. ix., p. 
135, col. b], describes the phoenix in his * Exagoee' (ap 
Euseb., Prcepar. Evangel., lib. ix., cap. 29, p. 44 H. ed. Colon., 
1688) ; and Kimchi informs us (ap. Bochart, Hitroz.. part ii., 
lib. vi., cap. 5, p. 8 1 8) that in the passage of Job quoted above 
some of the Rabbis read 7H. the Phoenix, instead of ^17. the 
sand. The very words of several of these writers may be 
seen in flochart (loco cit.) ; but the only Rabbinical addi- 
tion to the story worth noticing is preserved by Rabbi Osaia 
in his • Berescith Rabba,' cap. 19 (ap. Bochart, loco cit.), 
who says that the reason why the phoenix lives so long, and 
is in a manner exempt from death, is because it was the 
only animal that did not eat of the forb ; dden fruit in Para- 
dise. A somewhat similar bird seems to have been known 
to the Arabians under the name of Anka. Mr Lane, in the 
notes to his new translation of the * Tales of a Thousand 
and One Nights' (ch. 20, note 22), tells us. on the authority 
of Kaswini, that the anka is the greatest of birds; that it 
carries off the elephant as the kite carries off the mouse: 
that, in consequence of its carrying off a bride, God, at the 
prayer of a prophet named Handhalah, banished it to an 
island in the circumambient ocean, unvisited by men, under 
the equinoctial line; that it lives one thousand and se\en 
hundred years; and that when the young anka has grown 
up, if it be a female, the old female bird burns herself; and 
if a male, the old male bird does so. 

Many of the early fathers believed the story so firmly that 
they did not hesitate to bring it forward as a proof of the 
resurrection; and that, not as an argumentum ad hominem, 
when disputing with heathens, but seriously, and in writings 
addressed to converts to Christianity. St. Clement is the 
first who uses this argument (loco cit.), in which he is fol- 
lowed by St. Cyril and Tertullian (locis cit), and Epipha- 
nius (Ancor., sec. 84, p. 89). The passage in St. Cyril (which 
also contains two or three additional embellishments) will 
serve as a specimen. ' God knew men's unbelief, 1 says he 
(in Mr. Church's translation, Oxford, 1838), ' and provided 
for this purpose a bird called a phoenix. This bird, as 
Clement writes, and as many more relate, the only one of 
its race, going to the land of the Egyptians at revolutions o. 
five hundred years, shows forth the resurrection ; and this, 
not in desert places, lest {he mystery which cornea to pas* 

Digitized by 





should remain unknown, but in a notable city, that men 
might even handle what they disbelieve. For it makes 
itself a nest of frankincense and myrrh and other spices ; 
and entering into this when its years are fulfilled, it evi- 
dently dies and moulders away. Then from the mouldering 
flesh of the dead a worm springs, and this worm, when 
grown large, is transformed into a bird ; and do not dis- 
believe this, for thou seest the offspring of bees also fashioned 
thus out of worms, and from eggs which are most moist 
thou hast seen the wings and bone's and sinews of birds 
issue. Afterwards this phoenix, becoming fledged and a 
perfect phcBnix, as was the former one, soars up into the air 
such as it had died, showing forth to men a most evident 
resurrection from the dead. The phoenix indeed is a won- 
drous bird, yet is irrational, nor sings psalms to God ; it 
flies abroad through the sky, but it knows not the only-be- 
gotten Sun of God. Is then a resurrection from the dead 
given unto this irrational creature, which knows not its 
maker; and to us, who ascribe glory to God and keep His 
commandments, shall there no resurrection be granted?' 
The story is also mentioned at greater or less length by 
Alcimus Avitus (De Orig. Animce, i. 14, sec. 3), St. Ambrose 
iHexaem., lib. v., cap. 23 ; In Psalm cxviii., Serm. 19), St. 
Augustin (De Nat. et Orig. Ammce, torn, vii., lib. iv., col. 
1203 ; Serm., 18, torn. X., col. 1308), Epiphanius {Physiol., 
torn, ii , p. 203), Eusebius (De Vitd Constant^ lib. iv., cap. 
72), Isidorus Hispalensis (Orig., lib. xii., cap. 7), Lactantius 
( Phoenice), St. Gregory of Nazianzura (Oral., 37, 
p. 598), and Ruflinus (in Symb. Exposil., p. 548). Ofigen 
seems to doubt its truth (Cont. Cels., lib. iv.,cap. 98, p. 229), 
and Photius blames St. Clement for his credulity in men- 
tioning it (Biblioth., cod. 126, p. 305); but these two are 
fas far as the writer is aware) the only two of the antient 
authors who do not believe it. This however ought not to 
lessen the authority of the fathers on other matters, nor 
should it be made a subject of reproach against them that 
4 tbey wfere not proficients in a branch of knowledge which 
has been a peculiar study of modern times.' (See Mr. New- 
man's preface to Mr. Church's Translation of St. Cyril, Oxf, 

It would be almost impossible to enumerate all the more 
modern authors who, during the middle ages, expressed their 
belief in the existence of the Phoenix, for the list would include 
almost all the writers on natural history, besides a great num- 
ber of others. Perhaps the most curiouscircumstance relating 
to it is what is told us bv Camden {Britannia, p. 783, ed. 
Loud., 1607), viz. that Pope Clement VIII. sent, in 1599, 
to Lord Tyrone, the chieftain of the Irish rebels, a Phoenix's 
feather. This was mentioned in his Work only eight years 
after the event took place, but we are not informed how the 
Pope procured the feather, or what had become of it at the 
time when Camden wrote.* Patricius Jttnius (Patrick 
Young), in his note on the passage of St. Clemfent, published 
1633, argues in favour of the existence of the Phoenix, and 
says, • Malo cum Clemente, Tertulliano, Origene, &c, errare, 
miam Maximum' (i.e. Max. Mart. Lib. ad Petrum cent. 
Severi Dogmata) 'et ejus sequacium opinionem sequi.' Sir 
Thomas Browne, in his 'Vulgar Errors,' (of which the first 
edition was published in 1646), thinks it necessary to state 
at some length his reasons for disbelieving the existence of 
the Phoenx (book iii., ch. 12) ; and in 1552 he was attacked 
for this and other pieces of incredulity by Alexander Ross, 
in a work entitled ' Arcana Microcosrai ;' or, • The Hid 
Secrets of Mail's Body discovered,' &c. With respect to 
the Phoenix, the writer is not surprised at its seldom making 
its appearance, its instinct teaching it to keep out of the way 
of the tyrant of the creation — man ; 'for had Heliogabalns, 
that Roman glutton, met with him, he had devoured him, 
though there were no more in the world !' (Area. Micr., p. 
202. ) Alexander Ross, who was really a person of some sense 
and learning, was probably one of the last believers in the 
Phoenix, which is now given up entirely to the poets; indeed, 
since the appearance of the 'Rejected Addresses/ almost 
abandoned even by them.t Of modern writers, besides Bo- 
chart and Sir Thomas Browne, the following are best worth 
consulting :— Henrichsen, ' Commentatio do Phoanicis Fa- 

• It must he the fellow to this feather that UVckford saw io the Eccurial, and 
wltich wa» Mid to come from the wing of the Archangel Gabriel. He describes 
it \ letters from Spain, let. xi.) as ' the most glorious specimen of plumage ever 
beheld in terrestrial regions, full three feet long, ana of a blushing hoe, more 
sot «tid delicate than that of the loveliest rose.' 

t The writer wishc* tt to be recorded for the information of posterity, that 
since writing the shove sentence, he has found at Oxford a very learned scholar 
win, at this very *ime (June, 1840), seriously believes ia the existence of the 


bulaV Ham, 1825, 1827, 8vo.; Martini's edition of Lac- 
tantii * Carmen de Phoenice,' 8vo., Lunrob., 1825; Salmasius, 
* Exercit. Plin.,' p. 386, seq. ; Creuzer, * Symbolik uud My- 
thologies &c, vol. i., p. 438, sq. ; Miinter, * Sinnbilder und 
Kunstvorstellungen der alten Christen,' 4to., Altona. 1825, 
p. 94, sq. ; Metral, *Le Phenix,ou TOiseau du Soleil,' Paris, 
1824; from one or other of which works the writer, to avoid 
the appearance of pedantry and ostentation, freely and 
willingly confesses that all the above references have been 
taken, except three; and of those three, two were furnished 
him by a friend. 

PHCENIX, a southern constellation of Bayer, which may 
be best described as close to (but farther from the south 
pole than) the bright star in Eridanus (Achernar). Its 
principal stars are as follows: — 


No. in 



Catalogue of 



"8 J8 

a ►» 
































X 1 

25 C 




41 C 








68 C 








91 C 




1906 C 





5 1 


PHCENIX, a genus of palms, which has been so named 
from one of its species, the date-tree, having been called so 
by the Greeks : this name is thought by some to be derived 
from Phoenicia, because dates were procured from thence. 
The genus is common in India and in the north of Africa, 
and one of the species grows in Arabia, the lower parts of 
Persia, and along the Euphrates to Syria. The genus is 
characterised by having flowers dioecious, sessile, in a 
branched Spadix, supported by a simple spathe ; calyx ur- 
ceolate, 3-toothed ; corol 3-petalled ; stamens 6 or 3 ; filaments 
very short, almost wanting ; anthers linear ; (female) calyx 
urceolate, 3-toothed j corol 3-petalled, with the petals con- 
volute ; pistil with three ovaries, distinct from each other, 
of which one only ripens; stigmas hooked; drupe one- 
seeded; Seeds marked on one side with a longitudinal fur- 
row ; albumen reticulate ; embryo in the back of the seed ; 
palms with tfhns of a moderate height and ringed, or marked 
wiih the semis of the fallen leaves; fronds or leaves pin- 
nate; pinnae or leaflets linear, with the spadix bursting 
among the leaves, surrounded with an almost woody two- 
edged sheath ; flowers yellowish-white ; fruit soft, edible, of 
a reddish yellow colour. 

Phoenix dactylifera. or the date-tree, is one of the 
best known and probably the earliest known of the palms, 
and though belonging to a family which abounds and 
flourishes most in tropical regions, itself attains perfec- 
tion only in •bmparatively high latitudes. It is no 
doubt the species to which the name Palma was originally 
applied, as we may infer from its being common in Syria, 
Arabia, the lower parts of Persia, as well as Egypt and' tho 
north of Africa, whence it has been introduced into the 
south of Europe, and cultivated in a few places, not only as 
a curiosity, but on account of its leaves, which are sold twice 
in the year, in spring for Palm Sunday, and in September 
for the Jewish Passover ; and also, from the name not being 
applicable to the other species known to the antients, as it is 
considered that the bunches of dates were likened to tho 
fingers of the hand, as appears from tho present specific 
name, dactylifera, from the Greek dactylus, a finger. It is the 
palm-tree of Scripture, and was emblematic of Judsca, as we 
see in coins with the inscription of Jtideea capta. It is found 
in oases in the desert, and round Palmyra, which is supposed 
to have been named from itsjpresence. Tfiis appears indeed to 
be only a translation of the Oriental name, which is Tadmor, 

Digitized by 




P H O 

supposed to be a corruption of Tamar (from tamr, a date), 
a city built in tbe desert by Solomon. The date-tree is 
therefore a subject of classical as well as of scriptural in- 
terest, besides its fruit forming a large portion of the food 
of a great part of the Arab race, and also a considerable 
article of commerce. 

The date-palm being dioecious, that is, the stamens and 
pistils, or the male and female parts being not only in dif- 
ferent flowers, but even on different plants, the crops entirely 
fail, or the fruit is worthless and unfit for food, if fertiliza- 
tion is in any way prevented. To ensure this, the Arabs 
have long been in the habit of banging the clusters of male 
flowers on the trees which bear only female ones, and there- 
fore the date-tree is one of those which led to a knowledge 
of the sexes of plants. 

The extensive importance of the date-tree is, says Dr. 
Clarke, one of the most curious subjects to which a traveller 
can direct his attention. A considerable part of the inha- 
bitants of Egypt, Arabia, and Persia subsist almost entirely 
on its fruit. They make a conserve of it with sugar, and 
even grind the hard stones in their hand-mills for their 
camels. In Barbary they form handsome beads for pater- 
nosters of these stones. From the leaves they make 
couches, baskets, bags, mats, brushes, and fly-traps; the 
trunk is split and used in small buildings, also for fences to 
gardens, and the stalks of the leaves for making cages for 
their poultry. The threads of the web-like integument at the 
bases of the leaves are twisted into ropes, which are era- 
ployed in rigging small vessels. The sap is obtained by 
cutting off the head of the palm and scooping out a hollow 
in the top of the stem, where, in ascending, it lodges itself. 
Three or four quarts of sap may be obtained daily from 
a single palm, ibr ten days or a fortnight, after which the 
quantity lessens, until, at the end of six weeks or two months, 
the stem is exhausted, becomes dry, and is used for firewood. 
This liquor is sweetish when first collected, and may be 
drunk as a mild beverage, but fermentation soon takes place, 
and a spirit is produced, which is distilled, and forms one of 
the kinds of aruk (arrack), or spirit of Eastern countries. 
Such being the importance and multiplied uses of the date- 
tree, it is not surprising that in an arid and barren country 
it should form so prominent a subject of allusion and de- 
scription in the works of Arab authors, and that it should be 
said to have 300 names in their language. Many of these 
are however applied to different parts of the plant, as well 
as to these at different ages. 

Pfiaenix sylvestris is a species common in the arid parts 
of India, and there commonly called hhutioor by the 
natives, and the date- tree by Europeans, which it resembles 
in appearance. In its parts of fructification it is like the 
following species, but differs in growing to be a tree, with a 
tall pretty thick trunk and large yellowish or reddish fruit. 
It yields tarri, or palm wine, commonly called toddy. The 
mode of obtaining this is by removing the lower leaves and 
their sheaths, and cutting a notch into the centre of the 
tree near the top, from which the liquor issujt^ and is con- 
ducted by a small channel, made by a bit oiKe palmyra- 
tree leaf, into a pot suspended to receive it. This juice is 
either drank fresh from the tree, or boiled down into sugar, 
or fermented for distillation, when it gives out a large por- 
tion of spirit, often called paria aruk. Mats and baskets 
are made of the leaves. 

Sugar has always been made from this species, and ac- 
counts of it have been given by Drs. Roxburgh and 
Buchanan Hamilton. Date-sugar is not so much esteemed 
in India as that of the cane, and sells for«bout one-fourth 
less. It has been imported in considerable quantities into 
this country of late, but is not distinguished from the cane 
sugar. Dr. Roxburgh calculated, forty years ago, that about 
lOO.OOOlbs. were made annually in all Bengal. At the age 
of seven or ten years, when the trunk of the tree is about 
four feet high, it begins to yield juice, and continues pro- 
ductive for twenty or twenty-five years. The juice is extracted 
during the months of November, December, January, and 
February, during which period each tree is reckoned to 
yield from 120 to 240 pints of juice, averaging 160 pints. 
Every twelve pints or pounds is boiled down to one of goor 
or jagari, and four of goor yield one of good sugar in powder, 
so that the average produce of each tree is about seven or 
eight pounds of sugar annually. 

P.Jurinifera is a dwarf species of this genus, which is a 
native of dry ground or sandy hills, not far from the sea on 
the Coromaudcl coast. It flowers iu January aud February, 

and the fruit ripens in May. The leaflets are wrought into 
mats for sleeping on, and the common petioles are split into 
three or four, and used for making baskets. The small trunk 
is generally about fifteen or eighteen inches long, and about 
six in diameter. It encloses in its substance a large quantity 
of farinaceous substance, which the natives use for food in 
times of scarcity. To procure this meal, the small trunk is 
split into six or eight pieces, and. dried and beaten in wooden 
mortars till the farinaceous part is detached from the fibres ; 
it is then sifted, to separate them : the meal is then fit for 
use. The only further preparation which this meal under- 
goes is the boiling it into a thick gruel, or canji. It seems 
to possess less nourishment than common sago, which is 
obtained in a similar manner from another palm, and is 
less palatable when boiled, but it has saved many lives in 
times of scarcity. 

PHCETHORNIS. [Trochilim:.] 

PHOLADA'RIA, Lamarck's name for a family belong- 
ing to the division of Dimyarian Conchifers, which he has 
termed Crassipedes, and consisting of the genera Pholas and 
Gastrochccna ; but M. Deshayes, in tbe last edition of the 
Animaux sans Vertebres, remarks that this family can no 
longer remain in the same state as that which Lamarck as- 
signed to it. The Gastrochcenee, he observes, are, as he had 
already stated, true Fistulance, and if either of the genera, 
Gastrochcena* or Pholas, be elected, the other must disap- 
pear. [Gastroch.bna.] He suggests that the genus Pholas 
alone should remain, unless the evident relations which 
connect it with Teredo and Teredina should render it 
necessary to unite all three genera into one natural family. 

PHOLADIDjEA. [Pholas, p. 109] 

PHOLADOM'YA. •Qu'est-ce que le genre Pholadomie 
de quelques auteurs Auglois? C'est ce que nous ignorons; 
il parol t qu'il est 6tabli avec une coquille fossile cunfo forme, 
trds-large et tres-b£illante en avant.' We will endeavour 
to answer the question thus put by M. de Blainville in his 
• Malacologie.' 

The genus Pholadomya is a most interesting form, for the 
knowledge of which we are indebted to Mr. G. B. Sowerby, 
who described it from a recent species brought from the 
island of Tortola by Mr. Nicholson, and in the possession of 
Mrs. Ma we, from whom it passed into Mr. B rode rip's collec- 
tion, and consequently is now in the British Museum. 

The discovery of this recent species led at once to the 
more perfect knowledge of several fossils, whose genus, as 
Mr. Sowerby observes, in his Genera (No. xix.), was before 
exceedingly doubtful, insomuch that from a consideration 
of their external appearance alone, authors had been in- 
duced to place them in several genera, to none of which 
they really belonged ; and he refers to Sowerby's Mineral 
Conchotomy, t. 197, 225, 226, 227. 299, and 327, where se- 
veral of the species are figured under the names Carditat 
producta, obtusa, lyrata, deltoidea, and margaritacea ; and 
Lutraria lyrata, ovalis, ambigua, and angustata. These 
occur in several rocks of the oolitic series, particularly the 
cornbrash, inferior oolite, and fullers' earth; as well as in 
the lias, the London clay, and the Sutherland coal-field; 
also in the dark-coloured clay at Alum Bay. 

Generic Character.— Shell very thin, rather hyaline, 
transverse, venti'icose ; inside pearly ; posterior side short, 
sometimes very short, rounded ; anterior side more or less 
elongated, gaping ; upper edge also gaping a little. Hinge 
with a small, rather elongated, triangular pit, and a mar- 
ginal lamina in each valve, to the outer part of which is 
attached the rather short external ligament. Muscular 
impressions two: these, as well as the muscular impression 
of the mantle, in which there is a large sinus, are indistinct, 
(G. B. Sowerby.) 

The same zoologist remarks that this shell is the only in- 
stance known to him in which tbe umbones are so approxi- 
mated as to be worn through by the natural action of the 
animal in opening and closing its valves. He further ob- 
serves that the general aspect of this shell is between that 
of Pholas and Anatina of Lamarck, but most of the fossil 
species have been arranged as Lutrarice. * We have called 
it,' says Mr. G. B. Sowerby, • Pholadomya with reference to 
its resemblance to shells of two Linnean genera, the Pho- 
lades and Myce. It is related to Panopcca in the charac- 
ters of the hinge, but may be distinguished from that genus 
bv its thin, semitransparent, pearly shell ; from Pholas and 
Anatina, by its external ligament, and its want of external 
and internal accessory valves; and lastly, from the La- 

Digitized by 


P H O 105 P H O 

C. Vs* nt*. 1 I ID. 

* Vbi S» ▼ *»*. 4. 

Digitized by 





Pholas Dactylus (animal and shell); the lower or .ventral parti are pre- 
sented to the spectator, 
a, mantle ; 6, foot; c, tube; dd, shell. 

Aninuu of a Pholae (Julan— Pholas clavata ? Lam.) from Adanson— side 
a, tube ; b, mantle; c, foot. \ 


Shell of Pholas Dactylus. 

I. Accessory valves t a, anterior pair; 6. central piece; e. posterior piece. 
2, Exterior view of shell, side view. 3, Iuternal view of valve : a, Spoon- 
shaped process. 

cular impressions. Lamarck places the Pholades among 
the Dimyaria, and M. de Blainville sees but a single mus- 
cular impression: but M. Rang, speaking for himself, says 
that he has no doubt that these shells have two muscular 
impressions, which he has positively traced in Pholas cos- 
tata, in following the pallia! impression from its departure 
from the posterior muscular impression, which is always 
sufficiently evident, to the point where the former termi- 
nates anteriorly. There a small irregularly rounded im- 
pression may be very well distinguished. It has, continues 
M. Rang, been equally observed by M. Charles des Moulins 
in the same species, but science owes to that naturalist an 
observation relative to the Pholades perhaps even more 
important ; it is, that these shells sometimes are seen accom- 
panied b * a calcareous tube, applied, like that of the Gas- 

trochance, to the internal wall of the cavity which they 
inhabit. M. Rang had not been able to verify this fact in 
relation to living species; but M. des Moulins showed him 
several fossils from Merignac, in whicli he completely 
recognised this important character, which more firmly esta- 
blishes the generally admitted relationship between the 
Pholades, the Teredines* and the Fistulance. M. Rang 
further remarks that there are some species of Plioladet 
which seem to lead to Teredo. These shells inhabit stones, 
madrepores, wood, and sometimes mud or sand (vase). 
When the reflux of the sea leaves them, and the animals 
are disquieted, they eject through their siphon to a consi- 
derable distance the water contained in their mantle, and 
which bathes the gills. (Manuel de VHisloire Naturelle 
des Mollusques.) 

' We believe,' says Mr. G. Sowerby, • that all the shells 
of this genus are furnished with a greater or less number of 
accessory valves, which appear to be caused by the deposi- 
tion of shelly matter (within the epidermis, and connected 
with the valves by that membrane), wherever such valves 
were necessary for the security of the inmate ; they are con- 
sequently very various in form, and placed in different situ- 
ations in the different species, though in most cases they 
are placed near the hinge, and have ever been considered 
to be substitutes (in these shells) for the permanent liga- 
ment of other bivalves: we must, for the present, withhold 
our assent from this opinion, because, on account of the 
situation in which they live, the animals inhabiting these 
shells can have very little occasion to open their valves. 
Whether or not there is any permanent ligament in this 
genus, as we feavc never observed the animal alive, we can- 
not undertake to determine: Turton says it has none; 
Lamarck, on the contrary, speaks of the accessory valves 
covering and hiding the ligament. As far as we can form 
an opinion from dried specimens, we cannot consider the sub- 
stance to which these valves are attached as the ligament, 
but as part of the adductor muscle ; nevertheless we think 
we can in some species perceive a very small internal liga- 
ment, attached to two unequally sized small curved teeth 
(one in each valve), placed in the same situation as the 
hinge teeth of common bivalves. The adductor muscle 
forms two principal impressions, one of which is placed on 
the reflected margin, over the umbones, and the other about 
half-way between the umbones and the longer end of the 
shell : there is also a large sinus in that narrower part of 
its impression by which the mantle is affixed ; and at the 
angle that is formed by this sinus, very near the basal mar- 
gin of the shell, the impression is somewhat expanded. The 
principal differences between Pholas and Teredo consist in 
the latter forming a shelly tube behind its valves, and in its 
being destitute oi accessory valves ; moreover the two valves 
of this latter, when closed, are nearly globular: the same 
characters distinguish Pholas from Xylotrya of Leach : Xy- 
lophaga of Turton, which has accessory valves, and which 
does not form a shelly tube, is however destitute of the 
internal curved tooth, which is common to Pholas and seve- 
ral Tubicolces* (Genera, No. xxiii.) The same author (loc. 
cit.) remarks that he had endeavoured formerly to show 
that Gastrochcena belongs rather to the Tubicolees than to 
the Pholadaires; and he asks whether it would not have 
been more consistent with the rules of association appa- 
rently entertained by Lamarck, if he had united the Petri- 
colee, Venerirupes, and other terebrating conchifera, which 
do not form a shelly tube open at one or both ends ? He 
also inquires if the commonly called Pholas papyracea (a 
shell which had lately become pretty generally known) may 
not be considered as the type of the connecting link between 
the two families, inasmuch as it has the general form and 
characters of a Pholas, and apparently commences a shelly 
tube at one end ? 

Dr. Leach divided the Linn ©an Pholades into several 
genera ; but as his distinctions consisted principally in the 
number of the accessory valves, Mr. G. B. Sowerby has not 
adopted any of his genera : they may, according to Mr. 
Sowerby's opinion, appear to be calculated for divisions of 
the genus, but are not sufficiently strong for generic distinc- 
tions. Mr. Sowerby admits indeed that some species (Pho- 
las clavata. Lam., for instance) may, on account of their 
being closed at both ends, be distinguished generically, 
because this circumstance implies a difference in the habits 
of the animals by which they are formed : this character 
therefore, he remarks, has been seized by Dr. Leach, and 
upon it the doctor founded his genu* Martesic^ an example* 

Digitized by 


P H O 


P H O 

which Mr. Sowerby says he should have been induced to 
have followed, had he been convinced of its necessity. The 
same acute and experienced naturalist, upon the occasion 
of describing several new species of Pholas from the collec- 
tion formed by the zealous Hugh Cuming, chiefly on the 
western coast of South America and among the islands of 
the South Pacific Ocean, prefaces his descriptions with the 
following admonition, which is well worthy of the attention of 
those who are interested in this branch of natural history : — 

* The utmost caution is necessary in the examination and 
description of the various sorts of Pholades, on account of 
the extraordinary difference in the form of the same species 
in different stages of growth. The addition of accessory 
valves also, as they increase in age, must be carefully ob- 
served, in order to guard against too implicit a confidence 
in their number and form ; and though I might be con- 
sidered guilty of asserting a truism by stating that the dif- 
ference in size of different individuals of the same species 
may, and sometimes does, mislead the tyro in the science 
of malacology— lest such difference should mislead the 
adept also, let him too proceed cautiously ; and where he 
finds a fully grown shell of half an inch in length agreeing 
perfectly in proportions and characters with another of two 
inches long, let nim not conclude that it is a distinct species ; 
but if he can find no other difference except that which 
exists in their dimensions, let him consider the one a giant, 
the other a dwarf. Let it be remembered that among the 
Cypr&ee it is not uncommon to observe young shells of 
three inches in length, and fully grown ones of the same 
sort only one inch in length; likewise of the well-known 
British Pholades, there are individuals quite in a young 
state of two inches in length, and perfectly formed shells of 
the same species not more than half an inch long. For 
instance in demonstration, I need only refer to the Pholas 
papyraceus, so abundant at Torquay, of which the young 
shells have been considered by many as a distinct species, 
and have been named by Dr. Turton Pholas lamellosus. 
This varies in size exceedingly, so that it may be obtained 
both in an incomplete and young state, and in a fully 
grown condition from half an inch to nearly two inches in 
length. The circumstance of its having rarely occurred in 
an intermediate state of growth, when the anterior open- 
ing is only partly closed, and the accessory valves only 
partly formed, led Dr. Turton and others to persist in re- 
garding the young and old as two distinct species. Other 
similar instances will be shown in the course of the presetit 
concise account of some hitherto und escribed species of the 
same genus brought to England by Mr. Cuming.' (Zool. 
Proc, 1834.) 

Before we proceed any further, it becomes necessary to 
notice the genus Jouannetia of M. Ch. des Moulins, which 
is thus characterised : — 

Animal unknown, but having, certainly, the characters 
of the family. 

Shell spherical, cuneiform, equivalve, inequilateral, hardlv 
gaping posteriorly, but widely open anteriorly ; valves solid, 
short, curved, pointed below, striated obliquely, the stri© 
converging towards a median furrow ; umbones but little 
distinct, with accessory pieces soldered over them ; a very 
large, smooth, delicate, fragile scutcheon enveloping, with 
age, all the anterior part, formed of two rather unequal 
halves, fitting (s'emboitant) one in the other, each soldered 
by one of their edges to one of the valves, and closing in 
this manner the anterior gape of the shell ; no ligament nor 
hinge (engrenage) ; a setiform vertical appendage proceed- 
ing from the umbo, soldered to the interior of each valve, 
and occupying a third of its height; muscular impressions 
still unknown ; pallial impression very strong, and deeply 
excavated backwards. Accessory, pieces, but soldered ; no 
enveloping calcareous tube, the large scutcheon occupying 
its place. 

M. ftang speaks irighly of the Aisfcovery of this genus by 
M. des Moulins, and tawing stndia&it with that naturalist, 
he pronounces it to be very distinct from the Pholades, and 
its place to be clearly fixed betweeen them an4 the Tere- 
dines to which it leads so naturally by its valves. Jouan- 
netia, he observes, has no enveloping calcareous tube, as 
sometimes happens to the Pholades, &c. ; and though only 
one species is yet known (JouanVieHn semicaudata, fossil, 
from the faluns of MeTignac, in the interior of madrepores, 
&c), he does not think that a similar tube ever exists, if 
the amplitude and disposition of the scutcheon, which ap 
pears Jo him to take its place, is a generic character. 

Af. Deshayes, in the* last edition of the ' Animaux sans 
VertSbres,' does not think quite so highly of the genus 
Jouannetia, as we shall presently see. With regard to the 
accessory pieces of the Pholades, he considers that they are 
no other than vestiges of the complete tube of the Tere- 
dines; and this opinion, he observes, may rest upon the 
fact that those pieces are larger in proportion as the shell is 
more gaping posteriorly, and the external parts of the ani- 
mal of greater size ; so the shell of the Teredines being 
able to cover only a very small part of the animal, that 
defect is supplied by a great tube : on the contrary, in pro- 
portion as the shell of the Pholades is better closed, the 
number and size of the accessory pieces diminish. M. Des- 
hayes then goes on to remark that, according to Lamarck, 
these pieces cover the ligament which is external ; but M. 
Deshayes is convinced, both from the observations of Poli 
and his own, that the Pholades have no true ligament ; and 
the same is the case with the Teredines. A part of the an- 
terior muscle is inserted on the cardinal callosities, and 
occupies the place of the ligament. A posterior expansion 
of the mantle glides between these callosities, penetrates 
into the porous tissue placed below the callosities, and forms 
externally a fleshy surface more or less great, on which the 
posterior pieces are fixed. With regard to the internal ap- 
pendages springing from the umbones, and which have 
somewhat the form of little spoons, they are buried in the 
thickness of the animal, and embrace in their concavity a 
part of the liver, the heart, and the intestine. M. Deshayes 
dismisses the genera Xylophaga and Jouannetia very 
shortly ; the first he rejects as useless, nor can he allow that 
the last has more just claims to admission. If, he observes, 
genera so slightly characterised as these are were to be 
adopted, there would be as good reason for making a par- 
ticular genus of each of the speces of Pholas. 

Mr. Swainson makes the Pholida; the first family of his 
tribe Macrotrachice, and thus characterises that family : — 

'Shell bivalve, sedentary, generally perforating, open- 
ing at one or both ends ; the valves often prolonged into 
a shelly tube, sometimes of great length, representing the 

"Under this family he assembles several forms, and 
makes it consist of the following genera and subgenera : — 

1, Aspergillum; including the subgenera Aspergillum* 
Clavasella, and Fistulana. 

2, Uastrochina (Gastrocheena), Lam. 

3, Pholadomya, Sow. 

4, Pholas, Linn., with the subgenera Pholas, Linn* 
Pholidcea, Leach, Martesia, Leach, and Xylophaga, Sow. ; 

5, Teredo, Linn., with the subgenera Teredo, Linn., and 
Teredina. (Malacology, 1840.) 

Locality, Habits, Organization, &c. of the genus Pholas. — 
The geographical distribution of the Pholades is very wide, 
and their habit of boring hard substances, such as indurated 
mud or clay, wood, and stone, renders them, as well as other 
tereb rating testaceans, an object of anxious interest to those 
who construct submarine works. The Breakwater at Ply- 
mouth was soon attacked by the Pholades, and in Dr. 
Goodall's fine collection, now dispersed by the hammer, 
there was a specimen from the Breakwater perforated by 
these testaceans. Wood is also attacked by this genus, and 
submarine piles are consequently exposed to their ravages. 
To counteract their operations in the latter substance, nails 
closely driven into the submerged part of the timber, as in 
the piles which support the pier at Southampton, seem to be 
the test safeguard hitherto applied. When unmolested, the 
young Pholades excavate burrows in the substanco which 
chance has opposed to them, or to which choice — for it is not 
improbable that the young shell-fish may in some cases 
have the faculty of making the selection of the material in 
which it is to pass the whole of its life — has directed it. 

The mode in which this operation of boring is conducted 
is not quite satisfactorily accounted for ; but the better opi- 
nion seems to be that in this, as in other excavating testa- 
ceans, the currents of water produced by the vibratjle cilia 
of the animal, as noticed by Mr. Garner, are the principal 
agents. [Ljthophagid*: seo also Clavagella and Gas- 
TROCHJEtf a.] Mr. G. B. Sowerby, in his description of Pholas 
acuminata, found by Mr. Cuming at Panama in limestone 
at low water, notices one specimen in that gentleman's col- 
lection, as TOmonstrating a fact of considerable importance 
to geologists : it is in argillaceous limestone, very much re- 
sembling lias, and, in forming the cavities in which it re- 

X it 

Digitized by 


P H O 


P H O 

sides, it has, by such chemical process as, in Mr. Sowerbj 
opinion, frequently takes place, absorbed a much great 
quantity of the rock than could be retained or convert© 
this is again deposited at the upper part of the cavity, ai 
thus the rock is rccoinposed. (Zool. Proc., 1634.) M 
Garner, in his valuable paper • On the Anatomy of t 
Lamellibranchiate Conchifera' (Zool Trans., vol. ii ), i 
marks, that there is a cartilage between the two small s] 
nous processes of the hinge in the Pholas candidus. 
other species which have no rudiment of it, and allied C 
nera which have a particular character of articulation, 
considers the motion of the valves as but a secondary cau 
in the perforation of the substances in which these animi 
are found. His strictures on the opinions of M. de Bel 
vue and Mr. Osier with regard to the crypts of Saxica 
will be found under our notice of that animal in the arti< 
LiTHOPHAGiafi [vol. xiv., p. 51]; and he follows them 
by observing that Turton says the valves of the Teredo 
not correspond with the bore, though Mr. Garner thin 
that in this case they do act as mechanical instrument 
but, he adds, the Pholas conoldes is often found in ha 
timber, though its valves do not seem in the least adapt 
for any boring or filing. See further on this point N 
Garner's observations on the subject of a supposed solve 
fluid in the description of Lilhodomus. [Mytilid*, vol. Xi 
p. 49.] Mr. G. B. Sowerby had previously (Genera, IS 
xxiri.) remarked that the manner in which these ai 
other perforating shells produce the cavities in which th 
live had long been subject to controversy, and observ 
that, as he did not wish to add himself to the number 
disputants, he would only state that the effect cannot 
produced by rotatory motion, since the cavities are fitted 
the shape of the shell, and since animals whose shells s 
perfectly smooth on their outside are equally capable 
producing these cavities with others whose external surfa< 
are rough like a file; nor did he think it could be by t 
chemical action of any solvent, since the same effect is pi 
duced on wood, limestone, and sandstone. He stated tt 
he lad been informed that the Teredo eats its way ir 
wood, and inquires whether the Pholas and others perfon 
wood, chalk, limestone, and even sandstone in the same ma 
ner? or have some of them the power of dissolving stoi 
while others form their cavities by eating away wood? 

Mr. Garner (he. cit.) mentions Pholas as one of t 
genera in which supplementary branchim exist, and as o 
of the forms in which a disposition of those organs diffi 
ent from that observed in Anomia, Pecten, Area, Modio 
Unio, and Cardium, &c, where no complete division of t 
sac of the mantle exists, is found. In Photos the branch 
are prolonged into the inferior siphon, and as they are r 
separated from the base of the foot within nor from t 
mantle without, the water drawn in through the infer 
orifice must make its exit by the same or by the anter 
opening : but water is likewise drawn in by the super 
siphon, and so gets access to the interior interlamins 
spaces of the branchiae (oviducts of some) ; and by tl 
superior siphon the ova,feeees, and secretions are discharg< 
He also remarks, in another part of his paper, that the o 
duct is distinct from the sac in Modiola, Mytilus, Lithoc 
mus, &c, whilst in Tellina, Cardium, Mactra, Pholas, M% 
and most others, the ova are discharged into the excrete 

To return to tne perforating habits of these anima 
The accompanying cuts will convey some notion of tin 
ravages upon the substances which they penetrate : — 



Pholas rtrUtua in rood. 

Digitized by 


P H O 


P H O 

This species, which is found in cylindrical cavities eaten? 
in wood (see cut at p. 108), bears some resemblance to 
Teredo, but is without the shelly tube, nor has it the pos- 
terior hiatus. 

PhdUa pftpyrftotttt. 
a, rid* tmw ; b, dorsal view ; c, cap*haped membrane. 

This is the genus Pholadidcea of Leach. 

Fossil Pholades. 

Mr. G. B. Sowerby (Genera) observes that fossil Pholades 
are rare, but that they occur in the calcaire grossier and con- 
temporaneous formations, in several places, and also in our 
crag: several very interesting specimens, he adds, are found 
in Italy and in Touraine, as well as in the vicinity of Paris, 
where these and several other perforating shells have been 
discovered in a fossil state in the cavities which they have 
themselves formed. M. Deshayes, in his Tables, gives the 
number of fossil species (tertiary) as nine; but in the last 
edition of Lamarck only two appear : one, P. Candida, re- 
cent and fossil ; the other, Pholas Jouanneti (Jouannetia), 
fossil only. In Professor Phillips's Illustrations of the 
Geology of Yorkshire, we find Pholas recondita and P. con- 
stricta recorded ; the first from the coralline oolite, the se- 
cond from the Speetonclay. In Dr. Fitton's list {Strata 
below the Chalk), we find Pholas t gigantea and prisca 
noted ; the first from the gault and the lower green-sand, the 
second from the lower green-sand and Blackdown. 

PHONE'MUS, De Montfort's name for a genus of 
microscopic Foraminifera. [Foraminifbra, vol. x., p. 348.] 

PHONY'GAMA, M. Lesson's name for a genus of 
birds placed by Mr. Swainson in the subfamily Corvine of 
his family Corvidee. 

Generic Character.— Bill large, strong, considerably com- 
pressed ; very high at the base, gradually narrowing towards 
the end ; the front advancing on the crown of the head, and 
considerably dividing the frontal plumes ; upper mandible 
distinctly notched. Nostrils very large, placed in a deep 
depression of the bill ; the aperture large, oval. Frontal 
feathers short, reflected forwards. Tail moderate, rounded ; 
the feathers broad, truncate, and ending in setaceous points. 

Example, Phonygama Lessonia (Voy., pi. 13). 

PHORCY'NIA. [Pulmoorada.] 

PHO'RMIUM, a genus of plants of the natural family of 
Liliaeeee, tribe Agapanthe® of Bndlicher, Asparagese of 
Lindley, contains only a single species, which is re- 
markable for its useful product, so well known under, the 
name of Ne*v Zeand flax, and which is found indigenous 
in New Zealand and Norfolk Island. The genus is charac- 
terised by having a coloured tubular perianth, of which the 
tube is very short, and divides into six segments, of which 
the three inner are the longest ; stamens six, inserted into 
the base of the tube, ascending exserted ; capsule oblong, 
three- cornered ; seeds numerous, compressed ; embryo in 
the centre of the seed, longer than half the albumen, with 
its radicle next the umbilicus. The root is tuberous, 
fleshy, and bitter tasted; the leaves are numerous, all 
radicle, linear-lanceolate, five or six feet long* and from one 
and a half to two inches broad, two-rowed, equitant at the 
base, leathery, and very tough. Its flowers are numerous, 
showy, yellow-coloured, arrauged on a tall branch panicle. 

The leaves of this plant yield a very beautiful and a very 
strong fibre, which has been of late imported in considerable 
quantities under the name of New Zealand flax. It was ex- 
pected to be much more useful than it has proved to be, 
m consequence of its having the defect of breaking 
easily when made into a knot. Being a plant of high 
southern latitudes, it was supposed that it might easily be 
gmwn in different parts of Europe. The French have at- 
tempted to cultivate it near Cherltoure, Toulon, and other 
places, and it has been introduced into Ireland, of which the 

moist insular*~climate is probably favourable to its growth. 
It grew remarkably well for a number of years in the Chelsea 
Botanic Garden, but was killed by the severe winter of 1 837- 
38. Its cultivation has also been attempted in Australia, 
but has not yet succeeded to any extent. 

PHO'RUS, De Montfort's name for the trochoid form 
which is loaded with pebbles, shells, &c. (Trochus aggluti- 
nans of authors, genus Onustus, Humph.), generally known 
to collectors by the name of Carrier Shells. [Trochidje.] 

PHOS, De Montfort's name for a genus of turbinated 
gastropods with a turrited thick shell, which is carinated 
and varicose ; spire pointed, but not produced ; aperture 
rounded or oval; outer lip ridged internally; columella 
with an oblique plait or plaits ; canal short, with the ex- 
ternal form of a raised varix. The notch at the extremity 
of the columella brings this shell into the group of Ento- 
mostomata, and the raised external surface of the columella 
very near to Buccinum ; but the general aspect of most of 
the species more resembles that of Murex ; there can hardly 
however be said to be any true varices on the whorls, the 
elevations are rather ribs or bars. 

Example.— Phos senticosus. 

PHOSGENE GAS. [Chlorocarbonic Acid Gas.] 

PHOSPHORIC ACID. [Phosphorus.] 

OF. Dry phosphoric acid is sometimes used in the form of 
pills, but this is not an eligible mode ; the common form is 
that of solution, constituting the dilute acid of the ' Phar- 
macopoeia.' This differs from the other dilute mineral acids 
in not affecting so strongly the digestive organs, on which 
account it may be persevered in for a longer time. It is 
peculiarly suited to disordered states of the mucous surfaces, 
and also to states of debility, characterised by softening of 
the bones and a phosphatic condition of the urine. In this 
latter state it is often more efficacious when combined with 
iron, in the form of a phosphate of that metal. The 
same combination is of great utility in most cases of dia- 
betes. In passive hemorrhages, phosphoric acid, properly 
diluted, quickly arrests the bleeding, as it coagulates the 
blood. This property is possessed in a stronger degree by 
the undiluted acid ; and hence if injected into a vein, causes 
death. A poisonous dose of the strong acid may be counter- 
acted by chalk or carbonate of soda. 

PHOSPHORUS. This elementary, solid, non-metallic 
body was discovered in 1669, by Brandt, an alchymist of 
Hamburg; he kept the mode of preparation for a long 
time secret, but as he could not conceal the fact of its being 
obtained from urine, Kunkel tried to procure it from the 
same source, and he succeeded in the attempt. 

It will not be requisite to describe the original mode of 
preparing this very peculiar substance, and we shall give an 
outline merely of the method at present employed. It has 
been shown that animal bone [Bone] contains a large quan- 
tity of phosphoric acid combined with lime, forming a sub- 
sesqui-phosphate of that earth ; and it was first proposed by 
Scheele to obtain phosphorus from bone ; for this purpose 
the bones are ignited or calcined in contact with the air till 
they become white ; and when this happens ft is a proof 
that the charcoal derived from the decomposition of the 
animal matter is entirely expelled. In this state they con- 
sist of phosphate of lime mixed with little else than a small 
portion of carbonate of lime. After being reduced to a fine 
powder, they are digested for a day or two with sufficient 
water to form a thin paste, and half their weight of sul- 
phuric acid. In this case sulphate of rime is formed, and 
the greater part of it remains insoluble, and a superphosphate 
of lime remains in solution ; this is to bo evaporated in a 
copper vessel, and the precipitate formed being separated, 
the clear fluid, which is chiefly phosphoric acid, is to be 
evaporated nearly to dryness, and mixed with about a fourth 
of its weight of powdered charcoal ; this mixture is to be 
strongly heated in an earthen retort, the beak of which is 
immersed in water ; by the action of the heat the phos- 
phoric acid yields oxygen to the carbon, and the results are 
carbonic acid or oxide, which is evolved in the gaseous state, 
and the vapour of phosphorus, which is condensed by pass- 
inginto water. 

The properties of phosphorus are, that it is solid, trans- 
lucent, ana nearly colourless ; but sometimes it has a yellow 
or reddish tint; it is so soft that it may be indented by the 
nail, and it is very readily cut. When heated to about 108* 
it fuses, and at 550° it is converted into vapour; it has a 
peculiar smell when exposed to the air, but this is probably 

Digitized by 


P H O 


P H O 

derived from the action of the oxygen of the air upon it. 
Neither water nor alcohol dissolves phosphorus, but it is 
dissolved by aether and by oils. It emits light when ex- 
posed to the air in the dark, and hence its name (from 
<}>u>c t light, and ^pav, to carry). It is extremely inflam- 
mable, and has been known to take fire spontaneously 
In the atmosphere when its temperature was not above 
£0°. Its specific gravity is about 1*77. Phosphorus 
is also soluble by the aid of heat in naphtha, sul- 
phuret of carbon, and sulphuret of phosphorus, and on 
cooling from solution in the last-men I ioned it has been 
obtained in dodecahedral crystals ; and by mere fusion and 
slow cooling of a larger quantity, it has been procured in 
octohedral crystals. 

Oxygen and Phosphorus combine with great readiness, 
and form several different compounds. We shall first de- 
scribe the 

Oxide of Phosphorus.— -This is prepared by melting phos- 
phorus in hot water, and in this state forcing a jet of oxygen 
gas upon it. The phosphorus burns under water, and the 
results are phosphoric acid, which remains in solution, and 
which we shall presently describe, and a red pulverulent 
body, which remains at the bottom of the vessel, and is 
the oxide of phosphorus. Its properties are, that it is ino- 
dorous and tasteless, and is insoluble in water, alcohol, 
®ther, or oil. It undergoes no change in the air, even when 
heated to above 600° Fahr.; but at a low red heat it burns. 
In chlorine gas it inflames. It decomposes nitric acid 
readily, and combining with its oxygen, it becomes phos- 
phoric acid. It does not possess either acid or alkaline 

It is composed of— 

One equivalent of oxygen . . 8 
Three equivalents of phosphorus . 48 

Equivalent . 56 
Hypophosphorous Acid was discovered in 1816 by M. Du- 
long. When phosphuret of barium is acted upon by water, 
both suffer decomposition, and there are formed phosphu- 
retted hydrogen, phosphoric acid, hypophosphorous acid, and 
barytes; this earth combines with both these acids, and 
the phosphate of barytes, being insoluble, is precipitated, 
while the hypophosphite is soluble, and sulphuric acid 
being added to the solution, sulphate of barytes is precipi- 
tated, and free hypophosphorous acid remains in solution ; 
by evaporating this, a viscid strongly acid substance is 
obtained, which is hydrated hypophosphorous acid. 

The properties of hypophosphorous acid are, that it is 
liquid, uncrystallizable, has a powerful taste, is heavier 
than water, and cannot be obtained in a dry state. When 
subjected to the action of heat, it is quickly decomposed 
into phosphuretted hydrogen gas, which escapes, and phospho- 
rous and phosphoric acids. Water dissolves this acid in all 
proportions ; it acts very powerfully as a deoxidizing agent, 
taking oxygen from many compounds containing it : it ne- 
vertheless combines with many salifiable bases, forming 
salts which are termed hypophosphites ; these salts are re- 
markably soluble in water ; they are usually deliquescent, 
and crystallize with great difficulty. 
Hypophosphorous acid is composed of 

One equivalent of oxygen . 8 

Two equivalents of phosphorus 32 

Equivalent . 40 

Phosphorous Acid, like the preceding, is entirely an arti- 
Xlcial product.; it is obtained jn the greatest purity by sub- 
liming phosphorus through bichloride of mercury in a 
glass tube- During the action of the heat, the phosphorus 
takes half the chlorine from the mercury, and they form a 
volatile compound which condenses into a limpid liquid. 
When this chloride of phosphorus is mixed with water, 
mutual decomposition occurs ; the hydrogen of the water 
and the .chlorine of the chloride form hydrochloric acid, 
while the oxygen and phosphorus unite to form .phosphorous 
acid. By evaporation the hydrochloric acid is expelled, and 
when it has eeen continued until the residue, while hot, 
has the consistence of a syrup, it becomes a solid crystal- 
line mass on cooling, which is hydrated phosphoric acid. 
This acid dissolves very readily in water ; it has a sour 
taste, reddens vegetable blue colours, and combines with 
some bases to form salts, which are called phosphites. 

Phosphorous acid is also formed when phosphorus ishurnt 
tn rarefied air. When phosphorus is exposed to air and 

moisture, it has been long known that a dense sour fluid is 
formed by the ahorptien of oxygen: this was supposed by 
M. Dulong to be a peculiar acid, and he called it phoBpha- 
tic acid ; it was however subsequently shown by Davy to be 
mixture of phosphorous and phosphoric acids. 
Phosphorous acid appears to be composed of 

One and a half equivalents of oxygen 1 2 

One equivalent of phosphorus • 16 

Equivalent . . 28 

Phosphiie of Ammonia is procured by adding carbonate 
of ammonia to the acid to saturation. It crystallizes in de- 
liquescent needles ; when heated, it is decomposed, giving 
out ammonia, and by the continued application of heat the 
phosphorous acid remaining is converted into phosphoric 
acid. It is not a salt of any importance. 

Phosphoric Acid.— This aeid exists largely in nature, not 
only, as has been already mentioned, in combination with 
lime, forming bone, but also in some vegetable products, and 
often in the bowels of the earth, combined with lime, form- 
ing a mineral which, when crystallized, is frequently called 
apatite. It also occurs in combination with oxide of iron, 
copper, lead, manganese, and uranium ; but the quantity of 
these compounds is by no means large, and they are regarded 
chiefly as objects of curiosity. 

Phosphoric Acid may be artificially formed by the direct 
combination of its elements. When a piece is intlamed, and 
it is immediately covered by a large bell glass, the phos- 
phorus is converted into white Hakes of phosphoric acid, 
which mil like snow in the vessel. When exposed 
for a short time to the air, the acid deliquesces, 
and so great is its affinity for water, that when the 
solid acid is collected, and a little water is added to it, 
it is converted into a hydrate with explosive ebullition, 
owing to the heat which is evolved during combination. 
Phosphoric acid, when free from water, is exceedingly 
fixed in the fire, but when the hydrate is heated it is dis- 

Phosphoric acid is also formed when phosphorus is heated 
in moderately strong nitric acid ; the nitric acid is decom- 
posed, and yields oxygen to form the phosphoric aeid. By 
evaporation in a platina capsule hydrated phosphoric acid is 

Phosphoric acid is composed of 

Two and a half equivalents of oxygen* £0 
One equivalent of phosphorus .* . 4 16 

Equivalent • . 4 36 

Phosphoric acid is colourless, inodorous, dense, extremely 
sour to the taste, and acts strongly on vegetable blue co- 
lours ; it does not however, like sulphuric acid, destroy the 
skin when applied to it. According to Professor Graham, 
phosphoric acid is peculiarly disposed to combine with dif- 
ferent proportions of water, and these compounds exhibit 
properties so different, that they might be supposed to be 
three different acids, instead of different hydrates of the 
same acid. When the dry acid, obtained as described from 
the combustion of phosphorus, is thrown inte water, a mix- 
ture of the three hydrates is obtained invariable proportions, 
but tbey may be separately obtained^ a pdre state from 
the common phosphate of soda of the shops; after it has 
been purified by solution and re-crystallization. Decompose 
a warm solution of this salt by means of a solution of acetate 
of lead, and wash the precipitated phosphate of lead, and 
then pass a current of hydrosulpburic acid through it while, 
suspended in water. When the excess of hydrosulphurjc 
acid has been expelled by heat, a very sour fluid remains, 
which, according to Professor Graham, is a terhydrate ot 
phosphoric acid; but folio wing the practice of some other 
chemists, we have reckoned the equivalent of phosphorus 
at only half the weight which he has done, and conse- 
quently 4his hydrate we regard as a sesquihydrate, com- 
posed of 

One and a half equivalents of water 1 3 • 5 
Ono equivalent of phosphoric acid 36 

Equivalent , 49 "5 

Thisacifi is unalterable by boiling its solution or keeping 
it for any length W time. The class of salts which this 
hydrate forms are the old or common phosphates, which 
give a yellow precipitate with nitrate of silver. Common 
phosphate of soda contains therefore thia sesquihydrated 
phosphoric acid. 

Digitized by 


P H O 


P H O 

Pyrophosphoric Acid. — Professor Clark of Aberdeen 
first discovered that when common phosphate of soda is 
heated to redness, it is completely changed in some of its 
properties, and after being dissolved in water, it affords 
crystals of a new salt, which he named pyrophosphate of 
soda. It gives a white precipitate with nitrate of silver, 
instead of a yellow one. If a solution of this salt be decom- 
posed by one of acetate of lead, and the precipitated phos- 
phate of lead be treated with hydrosulphuric acid as already 
described, and the excess of it be suffered to escape by ex- 
posure to the air, without the application of heat, the 
remaining solution is hydro phosphoric acid, consisting of 

One equivalent of water . 9 

One equivalent of phosphoric acid 36 

Equivalent . . 45 

When saturated with soda, the pyrophosphate is 6btained 
without the further agency of heat. Unlike the sesquihydrate 
above described, this acid, if exposed for some time to a high 
temperature, undergoes a change, it being in fact converted 
into sesquihydrate. 

Metaphosphoric Acid. — If biphosphate of soda be heated 
to redness, a salt is formed which, treated as the last, gives 
an acid liquor, containing the metaphosphorio acid or dihy- 
drated phosphoric acid. 

Glacial phosphoric acid is also in general mostly meta- 
phosphoric acid. This hydrate is characterised by producing 
a white precipitate in solution of albumen, and in solutions, 
of the salts of earth and metallic oxides ; precipitates which 
are remarkable semifluid bodies, or soft solids without crys- 

Hydrogen and Phosphorus combine, and in different pro- 
portions. According to Magnus, phosphuret of potassium 
is obtained when these elements are fused together under 
water ; and when this compound is thrown into water, a 
yellow powder precipitates, which is a solid phosphuret of 
hydrogen, containing less hydrogen than 

u hosphuretted Hydrogen Gas.— This gas was obtained 
by Gengembre in 1 783 : it is procured by boiling phosphorus 
in a solution of potash. The gas which arises is spontaneously 
inflammable ; and during its combustion there are formed 
water and phosphoric acid : it is colourless, and has a disagreea- 
ble odour resembling that of onions. Water dissolves about 
two per cent, of this gas ; but the solution, unlike that of 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas, has no acid properties. It 
suffers no change of composition, whether kept in the dark 
or exposed to light. The specific gravity of this gas, ac- 
cording to Dumas, is 1*761. It is stated that its spontaneously 
inflammable property is lost by being kept over water : this 
power, according to rrof. Graham, must depend upon some- 
thing extraneous; this is shown by the circumstance that 
the gas which is obtained by heating hydrated phosphorous 
acid, and which Davy called hydrophosphoric gas, is not 
spontaneously combustible. It has been further shown by 
Prof. Graham that the gas is deprived of its power by porous 
absorbents, such as charcoal, by phosphoric acid, and by a 
most minute quantity of several combustible bodies, such as 
potassium, the vapour of aether, and essential oils; and he 
also discovered that the property was communicated to the 
gas obtained by either process, by the addition of a very 
minute quantity of nitri^ oxide gas, or of nitrous acid, vary- 
ing from 1-1 000th to 1-1 0,000th of the volume of the gas. 

PliosphvUretted hydrogen gas decomposes some metallic 
solutions, such as those of copper and mercury, and metallic 
phosphurets are precipitated ; and when it is pure, it is 
entirely absorbed by sulphate of copper and chloride of 

It is probably composed of— 

One and a half equivalents of hydrogen 1 • 5 
One equivalent of phosphorus . • 1G* 

Equivalent . . 17*5 
Chlortne and Phosphorus combine in two proportions, 
forming the protochloride and perchloride. 

D rotochloride or Sesquichloride of Phosphorus.— When 
a mixture of bichloride of mercury and phosphorus is heated, 
we have already had occasion to notice that protochloride of 
phosphorus is produced. When first procured it has gene- 
rally a reddish colour, owing to the presence of a little un- 
combined phosphorus. When this has had time to deposit, or 
when it is purified by slow distillation, it becomes limpid 
and colourless. It has a suffocating odour, and exhales and 

fumes when exposed to the air. Its specific gravity is 1M5. 
It does not alter the colour of dry litmus paper, but if moist, 
then hydrochloric and phosphorous acids are formed, which 
redden it strongly. The vapour of this compound is com- 
bustible, and acts with great energy upon water, producing 
the changes which have been described. 
It is composed of 

One and a half equivalents of chlorine 54 
One equivalent of phosphorus . 16 

Equivalent . . 70 

Perchloride of Phosphorus is obtained by the spontaneous 
combustion of phosphorus in chlorine gas ; a white, flaky, 
volatile compound is formed, which is the perchloride. 
It is volatile, rising in vapour at 200°. It is fusible under 
pressure, and crystallizes in prisms. It reddens dry litmus 
paper, owing, as has been suspected, to its acquiring oxygen 
and hydrogen from the decomposition of the paper. Like 
the protochloride, it acts strongly upon and decomposes 
water, but the results are phosphoric instead of phospho- 
rous acid, and hydrochloric acid. 
It is composed of 

Two and a half equivalents of chlorine 90 
One equivalent of phosphorus . 16 

Equivalent . . # 106 

Azote and Phosphorus form phosphuret of azote. This 
compound cannot be obtained by direct action ; it is the re- 
sult of the action of ammonia on the chlorides of phospho- 
rus. The changes which occur are effected with difficulty, 
but the phosphuret of azote eventually obtained has the 
following properties : it is a light white powder, and although 
formed or very volatile constituents, it remains fixed and 
infusible even at a red heat, when the access of air is pre- 
vented ; but if that be present, white vapours of phosphoric 
acid are formed. This compound of azote is remarkable 
also for its indifference even to the most powerful reagents ; 
it is insoluble in water and in acids, nitric acid even attack- 
ing it only after long continued exposure to it. Chlorine 
and sulphur do not act upon it ; it is insolnble in alkaline 
solutions, but when heated with solid hydrate of potash, 
ammonia is evolved. It is composed of 

One equivalent of azote . . 14 
One equivalent of phosphorus . 16 

Equivalent . . 30 

Sulphur and Phosphorus may be made to combine by 
fusion in an exhausted flask or under water, but the ope- 
ration requires great caution. Mr. Faraday melted seven 
parts of phosphorus with five parts of sulphur ; a reddish- 
brown liquid was obtained, which was rendered of a light 
yellow and semitransparent by agitation in solution of am- 

This compound remained fluid even when cooled down 
to 20°, and was perfectly liquid at 32°. After being kept 
for some weeks in a bottle of water, crystals were deposited 
which were sulphur, and at the temperature of 40° it 
became a crystalline mass ; the relative proportions of sul- 
phur and phosphorus appeared to be four and eight, and it 
was therefore probably a bisulphuret, consisting of— 
Two equivalents of sulphur . • 32 
One equivalent of phosphorus . 16 

Equivalent . . 48 
Bromine and Phosphorus combine when brought into 
contact in a flask filled with carbonic acid gas : heat and 
light are evolved, and two bromides are formed ; one is 
solid, crystalline, and collects in the upper part of the flask, 
and the other is fluid, and remains at the bottom. 

The liquid compound is probably a protobromide, composed 
of single equivalents of its elements; this remains liquid at 
52° Fahr. When heated it is readily converted into vapour, 
and on exposure to the air it emits penetrating fumes. It 
reddens litmus slightly, an effect which is probably derived 
from the moisture which it contains. When only a small 
quantity of water is added to this compound, heat is excited 
by their action, and hydrobromic acid is evolved ; in a large 
quantity of water, the "gas is dissolved. The perbromide, 
while it remains solid, is yellow ; but by heat it first melts 
into a red-coloured liquid, and is afterwards converted into 
a vapour of the same colour ; by fusing it yields rhombic 
crystals, but by sublimation they are acicular. When ex- 
posed to the air, it emits dense peuetrating fumes ; and on 

Digitized by 


P H O 


P H O 

the addition of water to it, it is converted into hydrobromic 
and phosphoric acids. 

Iodine and Phosphorus.— -When these substances, per- 
fectly dry, are heated together in an exhausted vessel, they 
act violently, giving out heat, unaccompanied by light. When 
the proportions are one of phosphorus and about twelve 
of iodine, the compound is reddish-brown, very fusible, and 
is probably a sesqui-iodide of phosphorus. It is decomposed 
by water, and resolved into hydriodic and phosphorous 

When the proportions are one of phosphorus and about 
forty of iodine, a black and less fusible compound is formed, 
which is resolved by water into hydriodic and phosphoric 
acids : it is probably composed of two and a half equivalents 
of iodine and one of phosphorus. 

Selenium and Phosphorus may be made to combine by 
dropping the selenium into the melted phosphorus. It is 
an unimportant compound, and is probably a di-seleniuret. 

Phosphorus may be made to combine with the greater 
number of the metals ; the most important of these com- 
pounds will be found under each particular metal. 

This elementary substance exists as an essential constituent 
both of vegetable and animal bodies ; yet when applied in a 
concentrated and pure state to any organised structure, it 
acts upon it as a violent and corrosive poison. Into animal 
bodies it is introduced in a diluted and combined state, by 
which it is disarmed of its virulence, as an ingredient of 
many common articles of food. One of the chief sources of 
it is the starch of the cereal grains, such as wheat-flour, in 
the ashes of which, when burnt, it amounts to 23 per cent. 
(Prout's Bridgewater Treatise, book Hi.); also alliaceous 
plants, such as onions, in which it exists as a phosphate of 
iron ; polygonous and other plants, in which it occurs as a 
phosphate of lime. It also exists not only in the bones and 
other hard parts of animals, but in many of the fluids, es- 
pecially the excretions. Thus it is found in the milts and 
roes of fishes, the substance of oysters, the yelk of eggs, in 
the liver, and also the brain, in which organ of the human 
being it amounts to from 2 to 2£ per cent. 

Phosphorus is of all stimulants the most powerful and 
diffusible, but, on account of its activity, highly dangerous. 
Its poisonous action seems to be connected with its strong 
affinity for oxygen, by which it is converted into phosphorous 
and phosphoric acids. Hence when brought in contact with 
the animal tissues, it abstracts oxygen from them, and pro- 
duces an eschar, resembling a burn: the phosphorus in 
this way loses weight and is absorbed, so that the exhalation 
from the lungs and the cutaneous perspiration are impreg- 
nated with the vapour, and, under certain circumstances, 
luminous. A very small quantity of solid phosphorus, even 
one grain and a half, has proved fatal. Solutions of phos- 
phorus in oils, fixed or volatile, or in aethers, are still more 
active and dangerous. 

Little use is made of phosphorus or its oleaginous so- 
lutions in medical practice in Great Britain, though in cases 
of extreme prostration of the nervous system it is not with- 
out its value. 

In the event of a poisonous dose being taken, bland mu- 
cilaginous fluids should be freely administered, followed by 
magnesia or chalk. 

PHCTIUS was born in the early part of the ninth 
century, of a patrician family of Constantinople. He studied 
in that city, and attained great proficiency in all kinds of 
learning, which was enhanced by an irreproachable morality. 
He was noticed by the emperor Michael HI., who employed 
him in various important offices. The emperor sent him on 
a mission to Assyria (probably Persia is meant), and on his 
return made him proto-spatharius, or commander of the 
guards, and proto-secretarius and member of the emperor's 
privy council. Bardas, the uncle and colleague of Michael, 
was very partial to Photius ; and having, on account of 
some dispute as to jurisdiction, removed and banished the 
patriarch Ignatius, he determined to put Photius in his 
place. Photius, being a layman, took all the various clerical 
orders one after the other in six consecutive days ; and after 
being ordained priest, he was installed in the patriarchal 
chair, a.d. 853. But the informality of his appointment 
was too glaring, especially as Ignatius, although threatened 
and imprisoned in order to force him to abdicate, refused to 
do so. A subservient council was assembled at Constanti- 
nople, a.d. 858, which deposed Ignatius and confirmed the 
appointment of Photius. Photius sent two bishops to Rome 

with letters for Pope Nicholas L, in which he gave a specious 
account of his election, and invited the pope to send legates 
to Constantinople, in order to co-operate with him in putting 
down the remains of the Iconoclastic heresy. The legates 
came ; and a new council being assembled, a.d. 859, which 
the legates attended, Ignatius was brought before it, and 
was again deposed on the score of incapacity and other 
charges, and obliged to sign his own abdication, with the 
concurrence of the papal legates, who were either deceived, 
or bribed, or frightened into compliance by the party of 

The see of Rome had for more than a century past been 
disputing with that of Constantinople on a question of ju- 
risdiction. During the period of the superiority of the 
Iconoclasts at the court of Constantinople, the patriarchs of 
that city, supported by the emperors, had appropriated to 
themselves the spiritual jurisdiction over the extensive pro- 
vinces of Illyricum, Macedonia, Achaia, and Sicily, which 
had formerly been subject to the Roman see. A fresh sub- 
ject of contention afterwards served to embitter the quarrel. 
The heathen inhabitants of Bulgaria being converted to 
Christianity by both Latin and Greek missionaries, Photius 
placed the new churches of Bulgaria Under his own juris- 
diction, a measure which seemed justified by the proximity 
of Bulgaria to Constantinople. But the pone alleged that 
his own missionaries had been first in the field, and that 'the 
king or chief of Bulgaria had sent his own son to Rome, 
which was a sort of acknowledgment of spiritual obedience. 
In short Nicholas demanded the restitution of the pro- 
vinces of Illyricum, Macedonia, Achaia, Sicily, and Bulgaria, 
which Photius stoutly refusing, the pope assembled a council 
at Rome, a.d. 862, in which he pronounced the election of 
Photius to be illegal, and excommunicated him with all his 
abettors. Photius however remained quietly in his see ; 
and in the year 866, having assembled a council at Constan- 
tinople, he produced five charges, some relating to doctrine, 
and others to discipline, against the Roman or Western 
Church. The charges were proved ; and Photius, at the 
head of his council, excommunicated the pope, and declared 
him and bis abettors to be removed from the communion of 
orthodox Christians: the charges were:— 1, that the Ro- 
mans fasted on the Sabbath, or seventh day ; 2, that they 
allowed the use of milk and cheese during the first week 
in Lent ; 3, that they forced celibacy on the clergy, the 
consequence of which, observed Photius, was, that their 
country swarmed with bastards ; 4, that their bishops alone 
anointed persons with the holy chrism, withholding that 
power from presbyters ; 5, that they had interpolated the 
Nicene creed on the subject of the HolyGhost, by adding 
the word ' filioque,' thus asserting the Holy Ghost to pro- 
ceed from the Son as well as from the Father, ' a tenet 
unknown till the fifth or sixth century, and even then only 
partially admitted by some of the Western churches.' (Pho- 
tius, Epistles.) 

In the year 867, alter the murder of the emperor Michael, 
Basilius the Macedonian ascended the throne. It is said by 
some that Photius refused him the sacrament, and re- 
proached him with the murder of his benefactor. However 
this may be, Basilius soon after deposed Photius, exiled 
him to Cyprus, and restored Ignatius to his see ; and this 
act was confirmed by a general council assembled at Con- 
stantinople, a.d. 869, which was attended by legates of 
Pope Adrian II., and in which Photius was condemned. 
This is called the eighth (Ecumenical council, having 
been acknowledged by both the Eastern and Western 

Photius in his exile found means to deprecate the hostility 
of the emperor, and after some years he was allowed to re- 
turn to Constantinople. He is said to have composed a 
genealogy of Basilius, in which he made him descend from 
Tiridates, king of Armenia. At the end of the year 877, 
the patriarch Ignatius died ; and the canonical impediment 
to the exaltation of Photius no longer existing, he was re- 
placed on the patriarchal see ; and Pope John VIII. was 
induced to approve his nomination, with the view of re- 
storing peace to the church. In 879 Photius assembled a 
new council at Constantinople, in which the word 'filioque' 
was erased from the creed. The separation however between 
the two churches was not. finally consummated till nearly two 
centuries later, when the patriarch Michael Cerularius, after 
a long and angry correspondence with Leo IX., was excom- 
municated, with all his adherents, by the pope's legates, who 
solemnly deposited the written act of excommunication on 

Digitized by 


P H O 


P H O 

the grand-altar of Sancta Sophia, and having shaken off the 
dUst from their feet, departed from Constantinople, a.d. 
1054. # 

In the year 886, Leo, the son and successor of Basrlius, 
exiled Photius, for reasons not clearly ascertained, into Ar- 
menia, where the patriarch died some years after ; hut the 
epoch of his death is not exactly known. Photius was of 
an ambitious and turbulent disposition, and this was his 
chief failing. Much has been written for and against him ; 
the Greek and Protestant writers being mostly in his favour, 
and the Roman Catholics against him. All however agree 
in admitting his very extensive learning, which was truly 
wonderful for his age, as well as his exquisite critical judg- 

The following are his principal works: — 1, * Myriobiblon, 
sive Bibliotheca librorum quos legit et censuit Photius,' 
with a Latin translation, fol., 1653. 1mm. Bekker published 
the Greek text, corrected after a Venetian and three Paris 
MSS., with an index, Berlin, 1824, 2 vols. 4to. The Biblio- 
theca is a kind of review of the works which he had read, 
many of which have been since lost. Photius gives a brief 
epitome of each, adding his own critical judgment of the 
merits of the writer, and of his statements and opinions. 
In this manner Photius reviews more than fifty historians, 
a still greater number of divines, besides orators, philoso- 
phers, grammarians, rhetoricians, &c, in all 279 works 
which he had read and examined. Fabricius (Biblioth. 
Greece^ v. 35) gives an accurate list of the works noticed by 
Photius. 2, a Greek Lexicon, published by Hermann, 4to. 
Leipzig, 1808: another edition by Porson appeared after his 
death, under the superintendence of Dobree, London,- 1822 ; 
it is entitled *<un'ov tqv Uarptapxov A*$£wv cvvaytoyfi. E. 
Cod. Galeano, descripsit R. Porsonus, 2 vols. 8vo. 3, * Epistles/ 
fol., London, 1651. 4, • Nomocanon, being a Collection of 
the Acts of the Councils, to the Seventh (Ecumenical, with 
the corresponding decrees of the Emperors concerning Ec- 
clesiastical Matters,' Basle, 1652. 5, A treatise, 'Ad versus 
Latinos de Processione Spiritus Sancti,' and other theological 
and controversial works, several of which are still unpub- 
lished : among others, one against the Paulicians, of which 
Montfaucon gives some fragments in his ' Bibliotheca Cosli- 
niana.' 6, * Amphilochia, being Answers to Questions re- 
lative to various Passages in the Scriptures, with an Ex- 
position of the Epistles of St. Paul.' 

PHOTOGENIC DRAWINGS, facsimile representa- 
tions of objects produced according to the recent discovery 
of M. Daguerre, mechanically by the chemical action of 
light on a prepared metallic tablet, upon which the images of 
the objects are thrown by a camera-obscura. Such apparatus 
is named after its inventor the Daguerrotype, and the process 
itself either photogeny, photography, or heliography (sun- 
drawing). The invention was first formally communicated 
to the public by M. Arago, who read an account of the 
Daguerrotype before the Academy of Sciences, January 7th, 
1839. From that moment Daguerre (who was afterwards 
rewarded by a pension by the government) and his inven- 
tion engrossed general attention. The discovery was spoken 
of as little short of miraculous; and as having realised 
what had long been considered a hopeless desideratum, 
namely, the giving permanency to the beautiful pictures pro- 
duced by the camera-obscura, with the exception indeed of 
colour and motion, on both of which, the latter quite as much 
as the first, the peculiar charm of the camera-obscura depends ; 
whereas the slightest degree of motion, even that of clouds 
and trees, is positively injurious to the action of the Daguer- 
rotype, producing indistinctness of form, and blurring thos*e 
parts of the picture which are affected by the motion. Hence 
not only powerful sunshine, but perfect stillness in the at- 
mosphere is required for its successful operation, and its 
practical usefulness becomes limited to the delineation of 
buildings, sculptures, and other inanimate objects, more 
especially such as are independent of sunshine, and which 
may at any time be copied by means of a sufficiently strong 
artificial light thrown upon them. 

Still, though, even after the great improvements since 
made in it, the powers of the Daguerrotype are so far circum- 
scribed, the invention is highly valuable, because itnotonly 
ensures perfect fidelity of likeness where it is most essen- 
tial, and where it is hardly attainable by the most practised 
and patient hand and eye, but also gives us the minutest 
details — those which are imperceptible to the naked eye, 
and of course cannot possibly be represented upon paper, 
P.O., No. 1117. 

yet become visible in a photogenic drawing when'it is exa 
mined with a magnify ing-glass. If therefore the Daguerro- 
type should be found susceptible of no further improve* 
ments, it will still be an invention of the greatest utility to 
art, since by means of it facsimiles of the most beautiful 
and valuable works, of the finest buildings and statues, of 
the most elaborate carvings and designs, furniture, &c, 
may be obtained with great expedition. Nevertheless, 
now that the first novelty has worn off, the interest taken 
by the public in the discovery has greatly diminished. 
This is easily accounted for, since besides that the class of 
objects for which it peculiarly recommends itself are not 
appreciated by the many, there certainly are defects and 
inconveniences attending photogenic drawings : the principal 
one is, that they must be upon metallic tablets with a highly 
polished surface ; consequently their appearance is not that 
of a print or drawing, but of an engraved steel plate, devoid 
of any general effect as to light and shade, and producing 
a glare offensive to the eye, in order to avoid which it is 
necessary to hold the tablet in a particular direction. The 
metallic tablets render them expensive, and their material 
and fitting- up (as each plate is fixed upon a pannel, and pro- 
tected by a glass over it) makes it difficult to keep any num- 
ber of them, except in cabinets with shallow drawers for 
the purpose. Neither can they be hung up in frames, since 
in addition to their appearing only like so many polished 
plates of metal, it would be necessary to take them down 
whenever it was required to look at them. 

More recently M. Bayard has found out a method of taking 
similar delineations by means of the camera-obscura upon 
paper, which, besides having the advantage of being much 
cheaper, and capable of being kept like prints, are said to be 
far more pleasing to the eye, and in fact to have nearly the 
effect of sepia drawings. But on the other hand they fall 
infinitely short of metallic photogenic drawings; for not 
only is the outline of objects less distinct, but no more can 
be shown than what appears to the naked eye, no further 
details being rendered visible by the use of a convex lens. 
This invention is however at present quite in its infancy, 
and may possibly receive great improvements, although it is 
not at all likely that it will ever be able to accomplish what 
is the most wonderful and valuable characteristic of the 
Daguerrotype drawings, namely the delineation of objects 
as they really exist, with all those minutiae which are in- 
visible to the naked eye. 

Photogenic drawings are produced upon plates of copper 
coated over with silver, which are found to answer better 
than such as are entirely or^the last-mentioned metal. After 
being washed with a solution of nitric acid, the plate is put 
into a well-closed box, where it is exposed to the action of 
iodine, a small quantity of the latter being placed at the bottom 
of the box with a thin gauze between it and the plate. A 
layer of ioduret of silver is thus formed on the surface of 
the plate, and manifests itself by the yellow huaproduced on 
the silver, which shows that the process of giving the. plate 
the sensitive coating on which the action of light delineates 
objects is completed. Thus prepared, the plate is next 
placed within a camera-obicura of particular construction, 
and the delineation of the object is then effected in a very 
short space of time, but has to be afterwards brought out 
and rendered distinct by another operation, namely submit- 
ting the plate to the action of vapour of mercury. Even then 
the process is not completed, for the plate has to be plunged 
into a solution of hyposulphite • of soda,, and afterwards 
washed in distilled water, which being done, the impression 
is fixed, and the plate may be exposed to light with perfect 
safety. For further details and instructions relative to 
these different operations, the reader may consult the 4 Hand* 
book of Heliography/ London, 1840. But as yet the art 
is only in its infancy, and yery great improvements in it 
may be looked forward to. 

PHOTO'METER (literally Might-measurer.' from *«c 
and pirpov), the name given to instruments constructed for 
the purpose of measuring the relative illuminating powers 
of different sources of light. When light or heat falls upon 
any substance, it is disposed of either by reflection, absorp- . 
tion, or transmission, or else by two of them, or all three of 
them combined. If two substances could be found which 
would reflect, absorb, and transmit calorific rays with the 
same intensity, and likewise reflect luminous rays equally, 
but differ in their powers of absorbing and transmitting 
light, we should then possess the means of at least ascer- 

Vol. XVIH.-Q 

Digitized by 


P H O 


P H R 

taming whether the absorption of light alone will produce 
effects analogous to what is observed to follow the absorp- 
tion of caloric. For this purpose it would be only necessary 
to prepare a differential thermometer whose bulbs were of 
the substances possessing the properties alluded to. The 
calorific rays accompanying the incident light would, by 
acting equally upon the two bulbs, produce no change in 
the indications of the instrument, and the only alteration, if 
any, which could ensue, would arise from the unequal ab- 
sorption of light by the two bulbs. This alteration how- 
ever, when observed, though it might be considered a cor- 
rect measure of the quantity absorbed, could not be taken 
for a, measure of the quantity or brightness of the incident 
light, unless it could be further shown that the quantity 
absorbed by the same substance is proportional to the quan- 
tity of incident light, whatever may be its nature, that is, 
whether it be solar light, gas light, &c. 

The photometer invented by Leslie differs from the 
instrument we have supposed merely in its being in 
some respects less deserving of the name. It consists of 
a differential thermometer having one of its bulbs of 
plain transparent glass, the other of the same material 
coated either with Indian-iuk or black enamel, and is 
described by its author in the article ' Meteorology ' in 
the Encyclopeedia Britannica, wherein he observes, — ' The 
rays which fall on the clear ball pass through it without 
suffering obstruction ; but those which strike the dark ball 
are stopped and absorbed at its surface, where, assuming a 
latent form, they act as heat. This heat will continue to 
accumulate till its further increase comes to be counter- 
balanced by an opposite dispersion, caused by the rise of 
temperature which the ball has come to acquire. At the 
point of equilibrium therefore the constant accessions of 
heat derived from the action of the incident light are exactly 
equalled by the corresponding portions of it again abstracted 
in the subsequent process of cooling. But in still air the 
rate of cooling is, within moderate limits, proportional to the 
excess of the temperature of the heated surface above that 
of the surrounding medium. • Hence the space through 
which the coloured liquid Binks in the stem will measure 
the momentary impressions of light, or its actual intensity/ 
Allowing that the light incident upon the clear ball is 
wholly transmitted, and that that which strikes the dark ball 
is wholly absorbed, assumes a latent form, and then acts as 
heat, it by no means follows that the effect produced upon 
the instrument was wholly or even chiefly attributable to 
the absorption of light, since we learn from Leslie's own 
experiments {Heat, p. 87) that the calorific rays which 
accompany the incident light would be more abundantly 
absorbed by the dark than by the light ball. This has since 
been so satisfactorily established by the observations of 
Thomson and others, that, as a measurer of light, the in- 
strument may be regarded as useless. 

The defects of Leslie's photometer were to a considerable 
extent obviated by Mr. Ritchie, the late professor of natu- 
ral philosophy in the London University College, and then 
rector of the academy of Tain, who, in 1 825, communicated to 
the Royal Society the description of a new photometer. In 
order to intercept the calorific rays accompanying the light 
experimented upon, he transmitted the latter through a thick 
circular disk of glass into a metallic air-light cylinder, the 
diameter of which was considerable compared with its depth. 
The axis of the cylinder was placed horizontally, and the 
aperture covered by the glass was the only one through which 
the light was admitted. Across the interior of the cylinder 
was stretched a circular sheet of dark paper, which absorbed 
the transmitted light, and, as was supposed, thereby con- 
verted it into heat, which became sensible by its expanding 
the air within the cylinder. A second cylinder of the same 
form and construction was placed by the side of the first so 
that the line of axes might coincide, but with the aperture 
for the admission of light turned in the contrary direction, 
and in that position they were connected by a bent thermo- 
meter tube containing a coloured fluid, which served to pre- 
vent the air of one cylinder mixing with that of the other. 
, So long as the air in the two cylinders possessed the same 
degree of elasticity, the level of the fluid in the two branches 
of the tube was of course the same ; and a variation of level 
indicated a variation in the elasticity of the two bulks of air, 
arising from the more energetic action of the medium ad- 
mitted through one aperture than through the other. To 
compare the relative intensities of two lights, the instru- 

ment was placed anywhere between them, and approached 
towards one or the other, until it was found that the posi- 
tion of the fluid in the tube was the same as when the 
instrument was not under the influence of the lights. 
Supposing the whole of the calorific rays and none of the 
luminous rays to have been intercepted by the glass, this 
position determined the point at which the intensity of the 
two lights was the same; and hence, since the intensity of 
light varies inversely as the square of the distance from its 
source [Light, p. 472], it followed that at equal distances 
from their respective sources their intensities were directly 
proportional to the squares of their observed distances from 
the instrument. 

More recently the same gentleman constructed a very 
simple instrument which affords an almost unerring mea- 
sure of the relative brightness of two lights, provided they 
aro of the same colour. The principle originated with Bou- 
guer, who published it in his • Trait6 d'Optique,' in 1760. 
The annexed figure represents a vertical section of the in- 

strument It consists of a rectangular box open at both 
ends and blackened upon its inner surface. On the top is 
a long narrow rectangular slip AB, covered with tissue or 
oiled paper. Within are two sheets of plane looking-glass, 
CD and CE, cut from the same slip to ensure uniformity of 
reflexion. Each sheet has the same width as the box, and 
its length equal to the hypothenuse of a right angled isos- 
celes triangle, whose side is the height of the box. Their 
reflecting surfaces are turned towards the open ends of the 
box, and their upper extremities rest against each other 
along a line, which in the figure is projected into the point 
C, and which divides the aperture AB into two equal parts, 
separated by a narrow strip of black card to prevent the 
mingling of the lights reflected from the two planes. In 
using the instrument, it is placed between the lights whose 
intensities are to be compared, so that they may be reflected 
from CD and CE upon the tissue AB. It is then approached 
nearer to one or the other until, to an eye situated above 
AB, the two portions AC and BC appear equally illumi- 
nated, which, on account of the immediate proximity of AC 
and BC, may be determined with tolerable correctness; the 
colour of the two lights being supposed the same. The dis- 
tances of tho lights from the vertical CF being measured 
and squared, give the direct ratio of the intensities as 

It remains to notice a mode of comparing the illuminat- 
ing powers of two lights suggested by Count Rumford, which 
is remarkable for the facility with which it may bo applied, 
and the simplicity of the requisite apparatus, nothing more 
being needed than a smooth surface of small extent and of 
a light uniform colour, and a blackened stick for throwing 
a shadow. The surface is illuminated by the two lights 
experimented upon, which are to he so placed, that when 
the stick is interposed between them and the surface, the 
two shadows may be nearly in contact, which will enable the 
eye to decide whether they are of equal depth, and will at the 
same time ensure the intercepting of rays equally inclined 
to the surface. So long as the shadows are of unequal 
depth, one of the lights must be brought nearer to or retired 
farther from the surface till an equality of depth is obtained, 
and then the squares of the perpendicular distances of the 
lights from the surface give the ratio of their intensities. 
If an equality between the inclinations of the intercepted 
rays to the surface cannot be obtained, then, when the two 
shadows are of the same depth, the intensities of the lights 
will be directly proportional to the squares of their perpen- 
dicular distances from the surface, and inversely propor- 
tional to the sines of the inclinations of the intercepted rays 
to the surface. 

The last two methods are theoretically perfect, when 
applied to lights of the same colour ; those which precede, 
though independent of the colour of the light, rest upon 
hypotheses which, if not untrue, are unestablished. 

Digitized by 


P H R 


P H R 

(For further information the reader may consult Lam- 
berts Photometria; the article * Light' in the Encylopcedia 
Metropolitans by Sir John Herschel ; The Edinburgh 
PJtilos. Trans., x., part 2 ; The Transactions of the Royal 
Society, J 825; and Brewster's Journal, 1825, ii., pp. 321 
and 339 ; hi., p. 105 : and 1830, iii., new series, p. 284.) 
PHRAA'TES. [Parthia.] 

PHRAGMITES, or the Reed, is a plant formerly re- 
garded as a species of Arundo, but now separated from that 
genus on account of its lower floret being male while the 
others are hermaphrodite, and its rachis being fringed with 
long silky hairs. It is a tall plant with annual stems and a 
perennial root, and is found exclusively in places overflowed 
even during summer. In such situations it occurs all 
through Europe, and is common in Siberia, Japan, North 
America, and even New Holland, forming thick coverts, 
and yielding an abundance of stout durable grass of great 
value for the purpose of thatching the roofs of buildings. 
This is undoubtedly the ohragmites (fpayiiirtic) of the Greeks. 
A second species is said to grow in Egypt, and a third in 
the Isle of France ; the two latter species are however little 

PHRAGMO'CBRAS. Broderip's name for a genus of 
cam era ted shells found hitherto only in a fossil state. 
Generic Character. — Animal unknown. 
Shell incurved and compressed, more or less conical ; 
septa entire at their edges, crossed externally by the lines of 
growth ; siphuncle near the inner margin ; aperture con- 
tracted at the middle, its outer extremity produced into a 
subcylindrical beak. 

This genus is distinguished from Orthoceras by being 
curved, and having a nearly marginal siphuncle ; and also 
from all the species of that genus except 0. piri forme, by 
the form of the aperture, which further distinguishes it 
from Cyrtoceras of Goldfuss, the aperture of which is 

Three species, P. arcuatum, P. ventricosum (Orthocera- 
tites ventricosus t Steminger), and P. compressum, from 
the lower Ludlow rock, are figured in Murchison's great 
work on the Silurian System ; where another species, P. 
nautileum, is also figured with a