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Full text of "The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge"

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THE 



PENNY CYCLOPAEDIA 

of $y 



THE SOCIETY 



FOR THE 



DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOLUME XXII. 
SIGONIO STEAM-VESSEL. 



LONDON: 
CHARLES KNIGHT AND Co., 22, LUDGATE STREET. 

MDCCCXLII. 



Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence, bound m cloth. 

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J&2& 



Mfr,>¥ 



Wfllian Alleo. Esq., F.R. tod R.A.S 

Captain Beaufort, R.N., F.R. and R.A.S. 

George Birkbeck, M. D. 

George Burrows, M.D. 

Peter Stafford Carer. Esq., A.M. 

John Coaolly, M.D. 

William Coulson, Esq. 

R. 1). Craig, Esq. 

J. P. Davis, Esq., F.R.S. 

H. T. Del* lUche. Esq., F.R.S. 

The Right Hon. Lord Denman. 

Samuel Duckworth, Esq. 

The Right Iter, the Bishop of Durham. D.D. 

Sir Henry Rlllt. Prln. Lib. Brit. Mils. 

T. P. Kills. Esq.. A.M., P.R.A.S. 

John Elliotson, M.D.. F.R.S. 

George Evans, Esq.. M.P. 

Thomas Falconer, Esq. 

1. L. Goldsmld, Esq., F.R, and R.A.S. 



OOMMITTSE. 

-Tho Right Hon LORD BROUGHAM. P.R.S., Member of the National Institute of Pranoe. 
Vic+Chairman— The Right Hon. EARL SPENCER. 
Treaturcr-JOllS WOOD, Esq. 



Francis Henry Goldsmld, Esq 

B. Gomnertx, Esq., F.R. and R.A.S. 

J. T. Graves, Esq. A.M., F.R.S. 

G. B. Greenough. Esq., F.R. and L.S. 

Sir Edmund Head, Bart., A.M. 

M. D. Hill, Esq.. Q.C. 

Rowland Hill, Esq., P. R.A.S. 

Right Hon. Sir J. C. Hobhouse, Bart., M.P. 

Thos. Hodgkin. M.D. 

David Jardine, Esq., A.M. 

Henry B. Ker, Esq. 

Tho ma* Hewett Key, Esq., A.M. 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., M.P. 

George C. Lewis,, Esq., A.M. 

Thomas Henry Lister. Ran. 

James Loch, Esq , M.P„ F.G.S. 

George Long. Esq., A.M. 

H. Maiden, Esq. A.M. 

A. T. Malkin, Esq.. A.M. 



Mr. Sergeant Manning. 

R. I. Murchisoo, Esq.. P.R.S, F.O.8. 

The Right Hon. Lord Nugent. 

W. S. O'Brien, Esq., M.P. 

The Right Hun. Sir Henry Parnell, lit . M.P. 

Richard Qnain. Esq. 

P. M. Roget, M.D. Sec. R.S., F.H.A.S. 

R. W. Rothman, Esq., A.M. 

Sir Martin Archer Shee, P.R.A . F.lt.S. 

Sir George T. Staunton, Bart., M.P. 

John Taylor. Esq. F.R.S. 

A. T. Thomson, M.D. F.L.S. 

Thomas Vardon, Esq. 

Jas. Walker. Esq., F.R.S., Pr. Inst., Civ. Kng 

H. Waymouth, Enq. 

Thos. Webster. Esq., A.M. 

Right Hon. Lord Wrottesley, A.M., F.lt.A.S. 

J. A, Yates, Esq., M.P. 



Alton, Staffordshire— Tie*. J. p. Jones. 
Angtesea—ller. K. Williams. 

Her. W. Johnson. 

— Miller, E»q. 
Barnstaple. Bencraft, Esq. 

William Gribble.Esq. 
Belfast— M. D. Drummond, Esq. 
Birmingham— Paul Moon James, Esq., Tna- 

eurer. 
nrtdport—J&mc* Williams, Esq. 
Bristol- J.N.Sanders, Esq.. F.G.S. Chairman. 

J. Reynolds. Esq., Treasurer, 

J. B. Estlln, Esq., F.L.S., Secretary. 
Calculi a— James Yonng. Esq. 

C. H. Cameron. Esq. 
Cambridge— Rev, Professor Henalow, M.A* 
F.L.S. & G.S. 

Rev. !«eonard Jenyns, M.A., F.L.8. 

Rev. John Ludge, M.A. 

Rev. Prof. Sedgwick. M.A., F.R.S. lie G.8. 
Canterimry— John Brent, Esq., Alderman. 

William Masters. Esq. 
Canton— Win. Jardine, Esq.. President, 

Robert Inglls, Esq., Treasurer. 

Rev. C. Brldgman. ) 

Rev. C. Guulaff, } Secretaries. 

J. R. Morrison, Esq., J 
Carlisle— Thomas Barnes, M.D., F.R.8.B. 
Carnarvon— R. A. Poole, Esq. 

William Roberts, Esq. 
Chester— Henry Potts, E*q% 
Chichester— C. C. Dendy. Ksq. 
Cockermonth—nmr. J. Whltrldge. 
LWu— John Crawford, Esq. 

Plato Pekrldes 
Coventry— C. Bray, Esq. 
Denbigh— Thomas Evans. Esq. 
Derbv— Joseph Strtitt. Esq. 

Edward Strutt, Esq., M.P. 



LOCAL OOIVtltlXTTEBS. 

Devonport and Storehouse— John Cole, Esq. 

John Norman, Ksq. 

Lt.Col. C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.S. 
Durham— The Very Rev. the Dean. 
Edinburgh— S\r C. Bell, F.R.S.L. and E. 

J. S. Traill, M.D. 
Btruria— Josiah Wedgwood, Esq. 
Exeter— J.Tyrrell, Esq. 

John Mil ford, Esq. {Coaver.) 
Glamorganshire— Dr. Malkin, Cowbrldge. 

W. Williams, Esq., Aberpergwm. 
Glasgow — K. Finlay, Esq. 

Alexander McGrlgor, Esq 

James Couper, Esq. 

A. J. D. D'Orsey, Esq. 
Guernsey— Y. C. Lukis, Esq. 

Hull Bowden, K«j. 

Leeds— J. Marshall, Esq. 
Lewat— J. W. Woollgar, Esq. 

Henry Browne. Esq. 
Liverpool J.oc. As,—}. Mulleneux, Esq. 

Rev. Wm. Shepherd, L.L.D. 
Maidenhead— R. Goolden, Esq., F.L.S. 
Maidstone— Clement T. Smyth, Esq. 

John Case, Esq. 
Manchester J.oc. As.—G. W. Wood, Esq., 
M.P.. CA. 

Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bt, Treasurer. 

Sir George Philips, Bart.. M.P. 

T. N. Winstanby, Ksq, Hon. Sec, 
Merihyr Tydvil—SU J. J. Gu*sf, Bart, M.P. 
A/incAinAawip^n— John G. Rail, Esq. 
Monmouth— hinVbew Moggridge, Esq. 
Neath— John Rowland, Esq. 
Newcastle— Rev. W. Turner. 

T. Sopwith. E«q., F.G.S. 
Newport, Isle of Wight— Ab. Clarke. Esq.' 

T. Cooke, Jun., Esq. 

R. G. Kirkpatrick, Esq. 
Newport PagneU—i. Millar. Esq. 
Newtown, Montgomeryshire— VI . Pugh, Esq. 



Norwich— Richard Bacon, Esq. 

Wm. Forster, Esq. 
Orsett, Essex— Corbett, M.D. 
Oxford— Ch.Daubei.y.M D.P.U.S.Prof.Cliem. 

Rev. Baden Powell, Sav. Pof. 

Rev. John Jordan, H.A. 
Pesth t Hungary — Count Sxechenyl. 
Plymouth— H. Woollcombe, Esq.. P. A.9., Uh, 

Wm. Snow Harris. Esq.. F.R.S. 

E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S., Secretary. 

G. Wightwick, Esq. 

Dr. Traill. 
Presteign—Rt. Hon. Sir H. Brydges. Bart. 

A. W. Davis, M.D. 
Ripon— Rev. H.P.HamlIton,M.A,F.It.»,G.3. 

Rev. P. Kwsrt. M.A. 
Ruthin— Ret. the Warden of 

Humphreys Jones, Esq. 
Ryde t I. of fright— Sir Rd. Simeon. Bt. 
Salisbury— Rev. J. Barfitt. 
Sheffield — J. H. Abraham, Esq. 
Shepton Mallet— O. F. Burroughs, Esq. 
Shrewsbury— R. A.SIaney, Esq., M.P. 
South P ether ton— John Nicholetts, Esq. 
Stockport — H. Marsiand, Esq., Treasurer. 

Henry Cop nock, Esq., Secretary. 
Sydney, New S, Wales— Vf. M. Manning, Esq. 
Tavistock— Her. W. Evans. 

John Rundle, Esq., M.P. 
TVaro— Henry Sewell Stokes, Esq. 
Tunbridge Welle— Yeats, M.D. 
Vttoxeter— Robert Blurton. Esq. 
Virginia, U. S.— Professor Tucker. 
Worcester— Chas. Hastings, M.D. 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
Wrecham— Thomas Edgworth, Esq. 

Major Sir William Lloyd. 
Yarmouth— C. E. Rumbold. Esq. 

Dawson Turner, Esq 
Yor*— Rev. J. Kenrick, M.A. 

John Pbiliipi, Esq.. F.R.S., F.O.St 



THOMAS COATES, Esq., Secretary, No. 50, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 



Loudon : Printed by William Clowzi and Sows, Stamford Street 



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THE PENNY CYCLOPAEDIA 



OF 



THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF 
USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



S 1 G 

SIGCNIO CA'ROLO was born at Modena, about the 
year 1520. He was a pupil of Franciscus Portus, who 
taught him Greek. He afterwards studied medicine and 
philosophy at Bologna, and he also visited the university of 
Pavia. In 1546 he was invited back to Modena to fill the 
chair of Greek literature, which had become vacant by the 
departure of Portus. In 1552 he accepted the chair of 
belles-lettres at Venice, where he became acquainted with 
Panvinio, who, like himself, was a diligent student of anti- 
quity. His reputation having become widely spread by 
various works on classical antiquity, he had invitations both 
to IJrfune and Padua, at which latter place he accepted the 
4ffeir of eloquence in 1560. At Padua he again met with 
Robortello, with whom he had already had a dispute on the 
names of the Romans, and the disputes between these two 
tcholars, being renewed, were carried to such a pitch that the 
*ena e of Venice found it prudent to silence the combatants. 
[Robortello.] 

Sigonio left Padua in the year 1563 for a place in 
the university of Bologna, where he received a handsome 
salary, and was made a citizen. His reputation attracted 
numerous students to Bologna. Roman antiquity was his 
special subject, and his instruction was characterised both 
by comprehensiveness and accuracy. He also occupied 
himself with middle-age history, and with this object he 
visited the great libraries and collections of Italy. It was at 
the request of Pope Gregory XI II., in 1578, that he com- 
menced the ecclesiastical history, of which his friend Pan- 
vinio had formed the plan. Sigonio having discovered some 
fragments of Cicero's treatise ' De Conaolatione,' undertook 
to restore the work, which he completed and published as a 
genuine work of Cicero. The fraud was detected and ex- 
posed by Riccoboni, one of his pupils; but Sigonio, instead 
of confessing the fact, endeavoured to reply to the argu- 
ments of his opponent; and so well has he succeeded in 
imitating the expression and manner of Cicero, that the work 
* De Consolatione' long passed for genuine, notwithstanding 
the criticism of Riccoboni; and Tiraboschi, who maintained 
this side of the question, was only convinced by seeing some 
unpublished letters of Sigonio, in which he acknowledges 
himself to be the author. Sigonio retired to the neighbour- 
hood of Modena, where he died in 1584. His numerous 
writings were collected by Argellati, Milan, 17321737, in 
6 vols, folio, to which is prefixed a Life by Muratori. All 
bis works on matters of antiquity are also contained in the 
'Thesaurus Antiquitatum Grsecarum et Romanarum' of 
Graevius and Gronovius. 

The following, which are among the principal works of 
Sigonio, will indicate the general character of his labours: 
• Reguro, Consul um, Dictatorum ac Censorum Romano- 
rum Fasti, una cum Aclis Triumphorum a Romulo rege 
usque ad Tiberium CiBsarem ; in fastos et acta triumphorum 
explicationes,' Modena. 1550, fol. : there is also a second 
edition of this work, Venice, 1556; • De Antiquo Jure 
Civium Romanorum Libri Duo ; de Antiquo Jureltaliae Libri 
Tees; de Antiquo Jure Provinciarum Libri Tree,' Venice, 
P C. No. 1359. 



S I K 

1560, fol. ; ' De Republica Atheniensium Libri Quinque ; de 
Atheniensium et Lacedrcmonio rum Tern poribus Liber Uuus,' 
Bologna, 156*4, 4 to. ; 'De Judiciis Romanorum Libri Tres,' 
Bologna, 1574, 4 to.; ' De Occidental! Imperio Libri xx., ab 
anno 281 ad 575/ Bologna, 1577, fol. ; ' Historiae Ecclesias- 
ticae Libri xiv. ;' this work comes down to the year 311, but 
it was the intention of the author to continue it to 1580. 

Sigonio was one of the great scholars to whom we owe 
much of our knowledge of antiquity, and particularly of 
Roman history. His industry was unwearied, and his 
learning was sound and comprehensive. He wrote the Latin 
language with ease and correctness, and his style is simple 
and perspicuous. Modern scholars have often been more 
indebted to Sigonio than they have been willing to allow, 
and the results of his labours have been used by one person 
after another, and sometimes without making any discri- 
mination between what is right and what is wrong. Hei- 
neccius was largely indebted to him, as will appear from 
examining his 'Syntagma.' If we consider what was done 
before his time, and what he accomplished towards the il- 
lustration of Roman antiquity, we shall find few scholars 
who have so well deserved a lasting reputation. It would 
require a minute investigation to ascertain how far some of 
the more recent views of the Roman polity have been sug- 
gested by the writings of Sigonio. His remarks on the 
Agrarian laws, though far from being marked by sufficient 
clearness and precision, are still worth reading. (De An- 
tiquo Jure Italiae.) 

S1GUENZA, a large town of the province of Guada- 
laxara in Spain, situated on the declivity of a hill near 
the source of the river Henares, in 40° 58' N. lat. and 2° 
57' W, long. It is the see of a bishop, suffragan of Toledo, 
and has a university, which was founded in the year 1441. 
The town is badly built ; the streets are narrow and crooked, 
but clean. Of the numerous ecclesiastical buildings which 
this town contains, thecathedral is the only one worthy of men- 
tion. It was built at the beginning of the fourteenth century, 
in the pure Gothic style ; it contains one nave and t hree aisles, 
and measures 330 feet by 112. One of its chapels, that of 
Santa Catalina, is greatly admired for its large dimensions 
and the beautiful marble tombs which it contains. Siguensa 
is the antient Saguntia, mentioned by Pliny (iii 4) as one of 
the six towns among the Arevaci in Hispania Tarraconensis. 
Livy (xxxiv., 19) calls it Seguntiaj and in the •Itinerary* 
of Antoninus it is mentioned as Segontia. Inscriptions 
bearing the latter name have been found in the neighbour- 
hood. It was the seat of a contested battle between rompey 
and Sertorius. In 1106 Alfonso VI., king of Leon and 
Castile, wrested it from the Moors, who had occupied it 
since the beginning of the eighth century. An antient 
castle which commands the town is the only remain of 
Mohammedan architecture. The population, according to 
Mifiano (Diccionario Geogrdftco, #c.) 9 was about 30,000 in 
1832. The only trade of the place consists in coarse flan- 
nels, blankets, and hats, which are exported to Toledo and 
Guadalaxara. 

VOX..XXII.-B 



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SIKE or SIECKE, HENRY, an Oriental scholar of 
some repute, who lived in the latter half bf the seventeenth 
and the beginning of the eighteenth centuries. He was a 
native of Bremen, and a professor of Oriental languages at 
Utrecht, and afterwards at Cambridge. It appears that 
owing to some misdemeanor he was to be subjected to 
punishment; and in order to escape from this disgrace, he 
put an end to his life by hanging htmself in 1712. The only 
work of any note which he published is the ' Evangelium 
Infantiee Christi, adscriptum Thorns/ 1697, 8vo., a very 
curious apocryphal gospel It Js reprinted in Fabrjeius's 
* Codex Anocrypbus fcfori Testament]/ torn, j., pp. lgf-212, 
Sike also founded with L. Kuster, at Utrecht, the literary 

Eb nodical called ' Bibliotheca Novorum Librorum/ to which 
e contributed several papers. 

(Saxii Onomasticon Literariwn, v., 490, &c.) 

SIKHS. [HiNBWAJf. p, ?33,1 

S1LBURY HILL. {Wiltshire] 

SILCHESTER. [Hampshire.] 

SILENA'CEiB, a natural order of plants, belonging to 
the syncarpous group of the Polvpetalous subclass of Exo- 
gens. This order is a part of the larger order Caryophyllem 
[Caryophyllka] of Jussieu, and was originally separated 
by De Candolle. It has since been adopted by Bartling 
and Lindley in their systematic works. It differs from the 
remaining portion of the order Caryophylle®, which are now 
called Alsinacese, in the possession of a tubular caJyx, and 
petals with claws. 

SILE'NE, the name of an extensive genus of plants be 
Jonging to the natural order Ceryophyllaeem. It is knpwn 
by its having a tubular, naked, ^-toothed calyx; 6 bifid 
unguiculate petals, winch are usually crowned in the throat 
with ■> bilid scales, 10 stamens; 3 styles; capsules 3 -celled 
at the base, ending in 6 teeth at the apex. The speeies are 
in geueral herbaceous, many of them are annual, very few 
shrubby. Their stems are leafy, pointed, branched, and 
frequently glutjnous below each jpii?t. The calyx end 
leafs talks are also frequently viscous. Tb* leaves are oppo- 
site, simple, and entire. The petals are mostly red and 
white, sometimes greenish or yellowish* S"ipe of them 
give off a delicious perfume, especially a* night. The ex- 
tent of this geuus is very great, and constant additions are 
being made to it by t#e collections of travellers. The 
greatest proportion are inhabitants t^t the South of Europe 
and North of Africa. Don, in If i))er's Dictionary, enume- 
rates 236 speeies of this genus; of these we shall give a few 
.examples of the more common and interesting forme. 

S awatli*, stemless Catch fly. or Moss Campion whole 
plant glabrous, ce*pito*e ; (eaves linear, ciliated at the base ; 
peduncles solitary, 1- flowered; petals crowned, slightly 
notched. Jt is a native pf Europe, and i» found abundantly 
on the Alps. It is found on nearly all the Scottish moun- 
tains, and also on gnewdpn, an4 the highest hills of De- 
vonshire. Chamisso also gathered it on the islands of tftf 
western coast of North America. The flowers ere of a 
beautiful purple colour, and u fena* one of the greatest 
ornaments of pur Alpine flora, Several varieMet of this 
plant have been recorded, varying chiefly in the form and 
-existence of parts pf the floggr- 

S. i*tfat<h bladder Campion at Cateftff s stems branched ; 
flowers numerous, penieled ; nely* iniatad, petted; petals 
deeply cloven, scarcely any crowo; leave* oraftHeneeolete. 

This is a very common plant throughout Europe, and is 
met with in almost every field and wayside in Grant Britain. 
Like most plants that are widely and largely dif used, 
roauy varieties of it have been recorded* This plant has 
been recommended to ft* cultivated in the garden on account 
of its edible properties. Die shoots gatbened young, when 
about two inches high* and boiled, are a good substitute for 
green peas or asparagus. Tfcey are thus eaten by the na- 
tives of Zante, and in ltea the inhabitants of Minorca are 
-said to hove been saved from <anknp,oeea*tonnd by a swarm 
«of locusts, by using this f*ant as food. 

S. nocti/tara, night- towering Catchfly . panicles forked ; 
petals bifid ; oalyx with long teeth, oblong in fruit, with ten 
connected ribs; leaves lanceolate, lower ones spathulaJe; 
whole plant clammy, pubescent. It is a native of Sweden, 
Germany, and Great Britain ; it resembles very much the 
common red and white campion {Lycknig dioica). It is 
not a common plant, and is remarkable for opening its 
flowers at night only, and in warm weaihar, when they ex- 
hale a powerful and delicious scent 

8. qmnquevuinarota, five- wounded Catchfly . stems branch- 



ed ; leaves lanceolate, lower ones obtusej calyx very villous, 
with short teeth ; petals roundish, entire, with toothed at-' 
pondages. The petals of this plant are of a deep crimson 
with pale edges, giving them the appearance of having 
been stained vrith blood in the centre ; hence their specific 
name. It is a native of Spain, France, and Italy, and has 
been found in the county of Kent in Great Britain. It is 
frequent in gardens, but loses by cultivation much of the 
colour of its flowers. 

& mutdmUa, Spanish or Fly-trap Catchfly : plant 
smoothish, clammy ; stem erect ; branches alternate, long ; 
lower leaves lanceolate, upper ones linear ; flowers panicled ; 
calyx clavate, netted ; petals bifid. It is a native of Spain, 
with intensely red petals. It is exceedingly clammy, so 
that when flies alight on it they are caught ; and hence the 
name Catchfly, which is given to the whole genus, though 
few of ibe species possess the property. 

8. fruHcma, shrubby Catchfly : stem shrubby at the 
base, much branched, tufted; flowering stems simple; 
leaves pbovale, idark-green, permanent, ciliated, particularly 
towards the base ; flowers crowded ; calyx clavate ; petals 
deeply emarginate, obtuse, with 4- parted appendages. This 
plant is a native of Sicily and of the island of Cyprus, and 
grows among rocks. It is frequently cultivated in gardens, 
and makes a handsome ornament. 

S. compacta, close-flowered Catchfly plant glabrous, 
glaucous; stem erect, branched; leaves ovate-cordate, sea 
site ; flowers crowded joto dense corymbs ; calyx very loog; 
petals entire, obovate, crowned* It is a native of Russia, 
and v«ry nearly. resembles the 5. urmena, but is distinguished 
by its entire petals. It is one of the most beautiful of the 
genus, and deserves a place in every collection of flowers. 

In the cultivation of the species of Siiene no great art is 
required. The hardy kinds may he planted in the open 
bolder, end the tinaller species are well adapted fur rock 
work. The seeds of the hardy annual kinds may be sown 
in the beginning of the spring, where they are to remaiu 
The perennial kinds are best increased by dividing-tyejn at 
the roots in the spring. The greenhouse kinds thrive i«& 
in a rich light soil ; the cuttings of shrubby species should 
be placed under a hand-glass. 

SIjLE'NUS (JfciXn^.a Greek deity. The traditions of 
his hirth are various he is said to he son of Pan, of a 
nymph, of the earth, and to have sprung from the blood x>f 
Uranus. He was the instructor of Bacchus, a lawgiver and 
prophet, sometimes confounded with Bacchus himself, of 
the family of Satyrs, whom he resembled very much in 
appearance and habits. He is represented as an old man, 
bald, with a heard, and depressed nose, sometimes with 
a tail, at times holding the infant Bacchus in his arms, 
or with a wine-skin on his shoulders. He has a conspi- 
cuous place in the Bacchic chorus, and occurs in various 
combination with fauns and nymphs. Though endowed 
with supernatural wisdom, be is of a comic disposition ; 
his whole character is a mixture of jest and earnest; 
he is harmless, anertive, fond of children, addicted to 
wine; sometime* he rides on his ass reeling and sup- 
ported by a satyr; is said to have conducted Bacchus 
from Thrace to Fhrygia; and to have been ensnared by 
Midas in a garden, and compelled to exert his marvellous 
power of speech. His discourse was of the second world, 
of the land of Meropis, and of its strange men, beasts, and 
plants, of the origin of things and birth of the gods, and he 
showed the miserable condition of this present life. In all 
that he uttered was an irony consistent with his motley cha- 
racter* The ass by which he is accompanied has given rise 
to many conjecture*; the Bacchic myths and those of 
Apollo speak of this animal as sacred to both deities. It 
may therefore be considered as the link uniting the two 
prorsbins, and we find accordingly Apollo called the son of 
Suenu*. (Porphyry, Fit. Pythw* p. 10. ed. Rome, 1630.) 
Attentate have been made by Boohart and others to con- 
nect Silenus with the name Shiloh in Scripture, and hie 
ass with that of Balaam* Other imaginary resemblances are 
noticed by Oeuser (Symbolik), founded on the theory that 
the ass is the symbol of prophecy in the East. The myth 
of 6 ilen us baa been further thought by Creuzer to hive 
reference to cosmogony. He quotes Porphyry (Euseb„ Pr. 
.£*♦„ uL, p. 110, Cologne, 1687) in support of this opinion, 
and considers SilenuB as 4 the half-embodied soul of tie uni- 
verse, the struggle of the shapeless into shape, or, to speak 
physically, the moist breath which, according to the Egyp- 
tian and old Ionian philosophies, nourishes the stars.' 



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Tllte Cheery M made till further to interpret t h e co nne c t i on 
between Silenns and Bacchus, sad ike various modes in 
whfc&he is 1 represented on antieht monuments: tbe,argu- 
WBttt* e* which* to rests ere however toe anamrotts and in- 
tffeate to be here entered upon 4 . 

Th*ffisth*fciew between Sfleni end Satyrs done m>t appear 
ve*y olettftty made ttifc According to s*th^l**e auoted by 
Grettfer, th* StiterJi are the otter of the two. lW terms 
were certartrty not oowctenarve ; that of Satyr may be eon- 
e*d*red as- the genua. They were moawy represented » the 
sftttie mtfnnef) With beardsv tailsy *«d pricked ears like 
beasts. Iff the procession of Pfofetny Phikdetpbusfitfafi.* 
t. T97) the> were dressed differently from! each other, and 
tbtf Sileni have sometimes a more foraran form. Sec Grou- 
se* *Symbotm t , artd6rttber , e ' Worterbuekder Mythologie/ 
ft* representations of Bilenus; MiHiu'e • Gelefie Jdytbolo- 
gique,' and the various works on gemsv sculpture, vases* ana 
other monuments 6f classical antiquity. 

SILESIA. This country which is new divided between 
Prnssia- and Austria, was onoe inhabited by thai Lygii and 
Quadi, who, m the sixth century, were forced to yield to the 
pressure of a Slavonian tribe from Poland* by whieh event 
Silesia became subject to that Country/ Under the ue- 
wrttion of Poland, the Polish language and manners, whieh 
still remain in the eastern eerie of the province* and Ike 
Christian religion, were introduced. To promote the letter 
* bishopric was founded In 006, at Sehfaeger, which was 
afterwards transferred to Breslau. The ootmtry beraej in 
coarse of time divided and subdivided among the descen- 
dants of Bolestaefs 111., king of Poland, numerous smeU 
principalities arose. Being weakened by these divisions* 
and by the dissensions between the prince*, it was anbdned 
by the king of Bohemia m the fourteenth century* Under 
the dominion of Bohemia the doctrines of Hues* Luther, 
and Calvin gamed ground, and their adherents obtained 
the* partial exercise of their religion. With the Polish 
princes Polish manners and customs disappeared; every- 
thing was placed on the same looting ee in Germany? 
trade, manufactures, arts, and sciences nourished. The 
prosperity of the country would have been greater in 
former times, had not the Protestants been so much op- 
pressed under the Austrian government. Austria, which ob- 
tained possession of Silesia, together with Bohemia, in the 
early part of the sixteenth century, retained it undisturbed 
tall the death of the emperor Charles VI. m 1 740, on which 
Frederic 1!. of Prussia retired a dormant ekiat to the 
western part of Silesia, whieh he immediately invaded ; and 
the greater part we* ceded to him in 1742, and contained to 
htm by th* f reaties Of Dresden, iri 1 746, and of HuaertsW g» 
Id 1 769. Austria retained the smaller portion/ 

SILESIA (in Germed Stfhhm&M, the Prussian Province 
of, is situated between 49° 40' and *2° ¥ N* lit., and! between 
i4°2tt'aftd 19° lyB.IWig. It rtbeandedonthwDertk-weSiby 
Brandenburg ; 6tt the iWrth-eest by Poena) eto the east by 
Pohtnd ; on the south-east by QreeoW and €le*iei*t en the 
south by Atrstrtert Silesia ; and oh theses th- west by Bohemia. 
Including the county of Gfett f and thePrnsemn part of Upper 
Lusatia, its area is rfl,60» square miles. The province k 
2 1 miles in length from north-east to south-west* and from 
70 to 80 miles in breadth from east to west, The river Oder, 
which becomes navigable soon after entering the Prussian 
boundary, divides the province m its whole length into two 
nearly equal parts, Which are very Afferent from each other. 
That on the left bank, which is called the German -side* is 
mountainous, but has a very fertile soil, Which amply rewards 
the labour of the husbandman, and supplies almost the whole 
province. That on the right bank, called the Polish side, is 
very different ; it consists chiety at a sandy and not Very 
fruitful soil. There are however some sandy tracts on the 
German side, and some rich andprodootivespcteon the Peiish 
side. The Country is highest on the south-eastern frontier, 
and declines more towards the north-western frontier, where 
it is the lowest. 

Where the frontiers of Silesia and Bohemia meet, a 
Tnonntaih-ch&m rises, which extends southwards to tne 
sources of the fereswa and the Ostrewitsay where it jom» the 
Carpathians, divides the basin of the Oner on the one side 
from those of the Elbe and Danube on the ether, and forms 
the natural boundary between Silesia and Bohemia and 
Moravia. This chain, called by the general name of the Su- 
detic chain, is divided into different parts, bearing different 
names, as the Isergebirge, the Riesengebirge, the loftiest and 
wiliest part of the whole chain, the Setofteekovs* whjah » | 



4950 feet above the level of the sea, the Glats Mountains, &c„ 
In the interior tnere are some janges unconnected with the 
great chain — tne principal of which is tne Zobterigebrrge, 
23 18 feet above the level of the sea. On the right side of the 
Oder, from tne part where its course is to the northward, the 
high land disappears, and those immense plains begin which 
characterise tbts uart of Eurose. The Oder. Catted by the com- 
mon people the Ader, that is, the vein/ comes from Moravia, 
; and receives ail its' rivers, with the exception ofsome on the 
frontiers* The principal are the Etsa, the KlodnitS. the 
Slober, ana the Earisch* on tne right side ; the Oppa, the 
: Neisse, the Ohiau* andt ttc tCatzbeeh, on the left. There 
are few lakesw ana those which are so called are rather 
large ponds. The largest are the Koscbnits, Moswitz, and 
Schlawer lakes. The last is however four miles in length, 
but nowhere above a mile in breadth. The climate varies 
| very much in the different parts of the province. The air 
on the whole is very mildf, except in tne mountainous tracts ; 
i but in proportion as we approach the southern frontier, the 
temperature becomes lower, and the winter longer and more 
severe, which is owing to ih^ elevation of the country, to 
the extensive forests, and partly to (he lofty Carpathians 
an4 the winds that come from them, 

Natural Proctuciu)ru.--^Tbe animals are — horses, horned 
cattle, sheen; coats, swine, game? fish, bees, and domestic 
poultry. Wolves are found on the Zobtengebirge, otters 
in the Bober, and sometimes beavers in the Oder. The 
vegetable products are — corn, pulse, garden vegetables, 
fruit, flax, tobacco, hops, madder, Woad, teazle, and timber. 
The minerals are copper, lead, cobalt, arsenic, iron, and 
sine. This last metal is found in Silesia and in the ad- 
joining republic or Cracow in fay greater quantities than 
in any other country in Europe. Other mineral products 
are sulphur, marble, alum, lime, and, above all, coal, of 
which from two millions to two millions and a half tons 
are annually obtained, which are worth from 100,000/. to 
130,<H)e£ sterling. 

Though Silesia is on the whole one or* the most fertile 
and best-cultivated provinces of the Prussian monarchy, 
and produces much corn, so that in good* years it can exnort 
a portion to Bohemia, vet, as it is very densely populated, it 
has not sufficient in unfavourable years for its own consump- 
tion, and is obliged to import The cultivation of pota- 
toes has become much more general of late years. 

The manufactures of Silesia are of the greatest importance, 
and that ef linen has existed from a very remote time. It is 
carried an with little aid from machinery, and chiefly by 
the eouBtry-poople, though this branch of industry affords 
them but a scanty subsistence : it is however their chief 
occupation. Djater ici savs:— • A third part of all the looms 
at work in the Prussian dominion* vis. 1 2,799 out of 36,879, 
in in Silesia. The linen annually manufactured in Silesia 
is estimated at between eiant ana nine millions of dollars 
(1<33JM>0*£ to M»0,000/.)7 Uncertain »a such estimates 
are, the Quantity exported' may he assumed to be worth 
between three and fouj- millions ol dollars. Woollen cloths 
are mapunuslnred in some towns* and cottons at Reicben- 
eeujw There are. sugar-houses in several places * tanneries 
al Breskvu and whweidnitSr »»d breweries and brandy-dis- 
tilleries inmost oi tne towns. With respect to spinning and 
weaving, w« may observe that machinery is beginning to be 
introduced into some larger manufactories. The population of 
the province, whieh at the end of 1 837 was stated at 2,6 79,4 73 p 
bad inoreaaadVat the and of 1840, to 2,868,820. They are 
mostly Germans, aud some Slavonians of Polish origin. 
About half the inhabitants are Protestants, and the remain- 
der Reman Catholics, besides about 18,000 Jews: all have 
the free exercise of their religion. The province is divided 
into the three governments of Breslau, Oppeln, and Lieg 
nits; and kaa twenty towns with above 5000 inhabitants, 
as noted in the statistical table in the article Prussia. All 
the most Important of tkese towns are described under 
their reapeotive beads. 

AuavniAN Silpsi* is that part of the province which was 
retained bv Austria in the treaty of Mubertsburg in 1763 
It is united with Moravia, with which it forms one province. 
It is bounded on the north- west, north, and rmrtb-east by 
Prussian Silesia* en tne east by Galicia, on the south by 
Hungary and Moravia, and on the south-west by Moravia. 
The area is about 1 750 square mites, with 430,000 inhabi- 
tants, who are partly of German and partly of Slavonian 
origin. Next to the kingdoms of Lombardy and Venice, it 
is tbe most tonseiy peopled part of the Austrian dominions. 

B2 



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The country is mountainous, and on the south-east are the 
Carpathians (of which the Sigula is 4300 feet high), and on 
the north-west the Moravian-Silesian chain, a branch of the 
Sudetes. Near the Carpathians, and about the source of 
the Oppa and the Mohra, the climate is cold, and the 
mountains are partly covered with snow till the middle 
of June. The southern part of the circle of Teschen is not 
fruitful, the soil being stony; in other parts it is better. 
The principal rivers are the Oder, with its tributaries the 
Oelsaand the Oppa ; the Vistula (in German, the Weichsel) 
rises on the north side of the Carpathians from three sources, 
Called the Little, the White, and the Black Vistula; this 
last rises in the village of Weichsel, at the foot of the 
Tankowberg, which village gives its name (Weichsel) to the 
whole river. 

The inhabitants have a very good breed of horses, and of 
oxen, and especially a very improved breed of sheep. They are 
very skilful and industrious farmers. The manufactures, 
especially those of linen and woollen cloth, are very im- 
portant. The exports are linen, thread, woollen cloth, wire, 
paper, earthenware, cheese, flax, rosoglio, &c. The transit 
trade is very profitable: the chief articles are Hungarian 
and Austrian wines, Russia leather, tallow, linseed, and 
furs ; Galician rock-salt, Moldavian oxen, Vienna fancy- 
goods, &c. [Moravia ; Tbschen ; Troppau.] 

SI LEX. [8iLiciTjM.] 

SILHET, or SYLHET, is a district of Bengal, lying 
along its eastern border, on the east side of the Megna, as 
the lower course of the Brahmapootra is called. Up to the 
year 1 830 it consisted only of what must now be called 
Silhet Proper, or a country situated between 24° and 25° N. 
lat., and^91° and 92* 30' E. long., which, according to the 
most recent information, contained about 4500 square miles, 
and a population of 1,083,120, which gives 241 to the square 
mile. It is about 1300 square miles less than Yorkshire, 
but more populous, as Yorkshire, in 1831, did not contain 
more than 235 persons to the square mile. In 1830 the 
royal family of Kashar, a country east of Silhet, became 
extinct; and a few years later the raja or sovereign of 
Jyntea, a country north of Silhet, was obliged to give up 
his territory to the British, and both countries were annexed 
to Silhet. These two countries taken together are at least 
three times as large as Silhet Proper, and the district at 
present contains about 18,000 square miles, or two-thirds 
of the area of Ireland. Silhet, in this extent, lies between 
24° 10' and 26° 20' N. lat, end between 90° and 94* R. 
long. On the west it borders on Bengal, on the district of 
Mymansing, and on the mountain-region of the Garrow* ; 
on the north on Asam; on the east on Muneepoor, and on 
the south it is bounded by the unknown region called the 
Tiperah Mountains or Wilderness. It is only towards Munee- 
poor that it has a natural boundary, which is formed by the 
course of the river Barak, where it runs from south to 
north, east of 93° E. long., and by two of its confluents, the 
Jeeree, which joins it from the north, and the Tooyaee, or 
Chikoo, which falls into rt from the aouth. 

Surface and Soil. — Silhet is naturally divided into two 
regions. The northern part is a mountain region, which 
extends along the southern boundary of Asam, and divides 
that large vale from the valley of the Barak, which riven as 
far as it drains Silhet, runs through a wide valley that con- 
stitutes the low and level portion of Silhet. The mountain 
region comprehends about two-thirds of the country, or 
12,000 square miles, and the plain about one-third. 

The Mountain Region, of which Silhet now comprehends 
nearly one-half, extends along the southern border of Aeam, 
and at its most eastern extremity, near 97* Ei long, and 
28° 40' N. lat, at the sources of the Lohit river, or Brah- 
mapootra, it is united to the high tableland of Central 
Asia. Its western extremity comes close to the Brahma- 
pootra, where this river, after leaving Asam, forms its 
great bend to the south (90° E. long.). The western 
portion of this extensive mountain region i» oalled the 
Garrow Mountains, which are considered to extend east- 
ward to the river Pa tit, which, traversing the mountain 
region in a southern direction, joins the Koottna near the 
town of Laour (91° 10' E. Ia1.). The mOst western offset 
of the Garrow Mountains skirts the banks of the Brahma- 
pootra, between the mouth of the river Lalu and the village 
of Mahendragandj. a distance of about twelve miles. Along 
the banks of the river the mountains are merely rocks, from 
150 to 200 feet above the level of the river, rising wiih a 
steep ascent They are called the Caribari Rocks, from a 



small towutituated somewhat to the south of their southern 
termination. . But in proceeding farther east, the mountain- 
mas* rises gradually in elevation, and occupies a greater 
breadth. In 90°. 2 O' E. long, it has attained a general ele- 
vation of more than 2000 feet above the sea-level, and 
occupies a width of about 50 miles. We are only acquainted 
with the outer border of this mountain-mast, where it con- 
sists of ridges broken by numerous watercourses, and is 
entirely covered with trees and dense underwood. Some 
isolated peaks rise 2090. feet above the general level of the 
mass. According to information collected from the natives, 
the interior of this elevated region is nearly s level table- 
land, destitute of trees, and covered only with grass ; and 
this is probable, as it corresponds to the characteristic fea- 
tures of the mountain region farther east. Only the lower 
portion of the Garrow Mountains is subject to the British, 
and united to the three divisions of Bengal, Rangpoor, My- 
mansing, aud Silhet The interior, called Gonaser, or Ganes- 
wara, is occupied by the Garrows, a mountain- tribe which 
has never been subjected by the princes of Bengal, as the 
country is only accessible by long and winding mountain- 
passes, which are so narrow as to be impracticable for 
horses or other beasts of burden : they are properly only 
paths over rugged crags, and along steep precipices, 
and through extremely narrow gorges. From these fast- 
nesses the Garrows make incursions into the adjacent 
countries, and hence several tracts of some extent along the 
boundary of their country have been entirely abandoned. 
They cultivate rice, millet, and cotton, and use as food 
several plants, which grow wild in the forests, as different 
kinds of arum, caladrura, and dioscurias. They cultivate 
capsicum, onions, and garlic. They keep cows, goats, hogs, 
and eat cats, dogs, foxes, and snakes. Different kinds pf 
deer are said to be common in Gonaser. 

Adjacent to Gonaser on the east, and only separated from 
it by the river Path, is the mountain region of the Kasias 
(Cussyas), which extends eastward to the river Koptti, an 
affluent of the Deyung, which falls into the Brahmapootra. 
This mountain region runs above 100 miles east and west be- 
tween 91° 10' and 93° £. lung. ; and in proceeding eastward 
it gradually enlarges in breadth from 50 miles to about 70 
miles. This portion of the mountain region is much better 
known than Gonaser, being subject to the British, who have 
traversed it at two places in passing from Silhet to Asam, 
and who have erected on it several sanatory stations, among 
which that of Chirra Punji is very much frequented. The 
western road leads from Pondu&in Silhet, through Chirra 
Punji, Moiplong, Lombray, and Nungklao, to the batiks of the 
river Katlasi r an affluent of the Brahmapootra, and to the low 
land of Asam. The traveller, passing by a steep ascent over 
four ridges, arrives at Ckirra Punji, which is 5000 feet above 
the sea-level. Here begins a table-land, the surface of which 
is often level, but generally exhibits very gentle slopes, which 
continues to Nungklao. The most elevated points are at Moip- 
long (5942 feet) and Lombray (5914 feet). At Nungklao it 
is only 4550 feet Nertk*f the last-mentioned place it sinks 
by three wide terraces with steep descents to the plain of 
Asam. The table-land is entirely destitute of trees and 
hushes, especially in the southern parte. This sterility, as 
Fisher thinks, is closely connected with the character of the 
sandstone-rocks of which the mountain- mass is composed, 
and with the disturbance of the strata, but more especially 
the latter; for where the strata are horizontal* there is an 
absence of vegetation, and where the strata are inclined, 
symptoms of fertility begin to show themselves. Through- 
out the ascent from the plains of Silhet to Chirra Punji, 
the vegetation is only dense on the slopes; and where 
ledges or steppes occur, it is comparatively barren* -The 
table-land itself is covered with a short turf, and there 
occur only a few bushes, as raspberries ; stunted fir-trees 
only occur in the glens which are formed by the river- 
courses— as, for instance, in that of the Bogapani. To tlie 
north of this river the aspect of the country changes gra- 
dually; and though the elevation is greater, the vegetation 
increases, and continues to increase, until in the vicinity of 
Nungklao it becomes abundant, though it does not exhibit 
that excess which prevails farther to the north, on the lower 
descent of the table-land towards Asam. This change is attri- 
buted to the numerous large granite boulders which are scat* 
tered in great abundance over the country. The disintegia- 
tion of these boulders has largely contributed to the forma- 
tion of the soil, especially where it has been favoured by the 
configuration of the surface. But in those tracts where 



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there are no boulders, and the strata preserve their hori- 
zontal position, vegetation is deficient. The climate at 
Chirra Punji is very temperate and pleasant, especially be- 
tween November and March. Neither snow nor frost 
occurs; but in December and January hoar-frost is very 
common. The sky is generally clear, but violent showers 
frequently occur. The almost continual coolness of the air, 
and the absence of frost, has pointed out this place as a 
convalescent station. Near Moiplong however frost occurs 
even in November, as the thermometer then descends to 21°. 
Nongklao has a more pleasant di mate. The earlier part 
of the summer is not much warmer at that place than in 
London, as the thermometer ranges between 65° and 74°. 

Cultivation appears only on the southern declivity, and 
in the neighbourhood of Nungkko* where rice is grown in 
considerable quantity. On the southern declivity of the 
mountain-mass many fruits are cultivated, as oranges, plan- 
tains, and the areca palm ; and much honey and wax is 
collected. On the northern declivity, where fir-trees cover 
large tracts of land, European fruit-trees grow, especially 
apples, pears, and plums, and also strawberries and rasp- 
berries. The eastern road traverses theKasia Mountains, be- 
tween 92° aud 92°20 ; E. long , from the town of Jynteapoor, 
the capital of the former kingdom of.Jyntea, to Raha 
Choky in Asam, situated where the Deyung unites with 
the river Kulung. The southern edge of ihe mountain 
region, which is only a few miles distant from Jynteapoor, 
seems to be formed by a ridge which is considerably elevated 
above the table-land farther north, and which is traversed 
by the mountain- pass of Mutagul. North of this ridge 
Jtera plain, about 2000 feet above the sea-level, whose sur- 
face is undulating, and in some parts hilly, but it is covered 
only with thick grass, without bushes or trees, except that 
in a few places, and at great distances from one another, 
small groves of firs or other trees are met with. It cer- 
tainly might be used as pasture-ground, especially as the 
climate ts very mild ; but the few inhabitants say that they 
are prevented from keeping cattle by their neighbours, who 
frequently make predatory incursions into their country. 
This- fable-land occupies a width of 50 miles along the road. 
The northern edge is less distinctly marked, snd the descent 
occupies about twelve miles. The nature of the table-land' 
precludes agriculture; but in the northern districts rice is 
raised in considerable quantity, particularly in the smsll 
glens and on the sides of the valleys, where irrigation is 
practised, water being brought to the fields through narrow 
canals, and conveyed over hollows and up heights for short 
distances by means of trunks of trees and bamboos. Rice 
and yams ere cultivated, and a kind of coarse silk called 
mong is Collected on the trees. 

That portion of the mountain legion which lies east of 
the Kopili and Deyung rivers, and extends eastward to the 
river Dooyong and the boundary of Muneepoor, comprehends 
Upper Kechar, and is called the Kaohar Mountains. It is 
likewise a tableland, the southern edge of which is marked 
by an elevated range, which continues to run east to 93° 12' 
B. long., when it turns north-east and continues in that direc- 
tion till it approaches 94° E. long., where it again runs east 
and stretches into an unknown country. Where this range 
runs north-east it is called the Bura Ail Mountains, and at- 
tains a mean elevation of 6000 feet above the sea-level. It is 
covered witu-large trees and light underwood. The southern 
declivity of the Bura Ail Mountains is very little known, 
but it seems to be certain that this side of the range is 
intimately connected with the three ridges which traverse 
the western portion of Muneepoor, and by running norlh and 
south unite the mountain region which we are now noticing 
with the extensive mountain- system of Tiperah. The ridges 
are called, from west to east, theKeibuuda, Kubitshing, and 
Muneepoor Mountains. These chains and their numerous 
short offsets . render the western portion of Muneepoor a 
rapid succession of elevated ridges and deep and narrow 
valleys. The country whsfth lies north of the Bura Ail Moun- 
tains, both near the range and to the distance of 10 or 12 
miles, is covered with the high offsets of the range, and has 
an entirely mountainous character. North of this compara- 
tively narrow mountain-tract the surface of the country is 
nrlly. Most of the hills ase isolated, but in some places 
they form ridges. This hilly, tract occupies a width of about 
20 miles, and it is followed by a plain. Both the hilly and 
level country are almost entirely covered with forests. The 
northe^ edge of the table- land is marked by a range of low 
hats^anta^enile descent, the greater part of which seems 



to skirt the southern banks of the Sumoona, an affluent of 
the Deyung, the country north of that river constitut- 
ing a portion of the plain of Asam. It is much more thickly 
inhabited than the table-land of the Kasia Mountains. A 
very large portion of it is fit for agriculture, and the small 
progress that both agriculture and population have made is 
mainly if not exclusively to be attributed to the unsettled 
state iu which the country has been for a long time, under 
the sway of petty sovereigns, who were never able to* 
defend their subjects against the incursions of the bold 
tribes who inhabit the mountains, especially the Angamee? 
Nagas. Some large tracts are quite uninhabi ted, though the: 
vigorous growth of the trees shows the excellent quality of 
the soil. But along the large rivers and in their neighbour- 
hood cultivated tracts and villages are numerous, and will 
increase, since the British have compelled the Angameo 
Nagas to keep quiet. The inhabitants cultivate rice, and 
in the valleys of the hilly and mountainous part of the coun- 
try several kinds of coarser grain are grown ; there is also a> 
very fine-flavoured kind of purple vetch. About the vil- 
lages of the more elevated region there are groves of peach- 
trees in the most luxuriant state, and the apple-tree grows* 
wild and produces a well-tasted fruit. The bay-leaf and a 
very small kind of orange are also natives of these mout>- 
tains. Cloth is made of a nettle, which is procurable in 
great abundance. On the lower hills cotton and chillies 
are grown as articles of commerce, and in these parts also 
mueh wax and honey is collected. The cultivation of ihe 
lower and level country resembles that of Asam, being simi- 
lar in climate and soil, but no part of it is subject to annual 
inundations. 

The /Yoin.— Along the southern base of the mountain 
region hitherto noticed there is a plain, or rather a vale, for 
along its southern side the mountain-system of Tiperah rises 
to a great height. The length of this vale may be about 120 
miles, and the width in the western half about 50 miles on 
an average, but towards the east it narrows to 30 and even 
20 miles, until it is shut up by the Keibunda range, which 
lies near the boundary and within the territories of Munee- 
poor. As to the configuration of its surface and the capaci- 
ties of the soil, it may be divided into two portions. A line 
drawn from Chattac on the Soorma, south-west of Pondua 
(9J° 40' E. long.), passing in a south by west direction west of 
Taj pur, through Nubigunj and thence to the hills south-east 
of Turruf near the Tiperah Mountains, very nearly separates 
these two tracts. The country west of this line is very low 
and level, and constitutes properly a portion of the lower 
portion of the plain of Bengal. It is in most parts marshy, 
and the whole is subject, like the greater part of Lower Ben- 
gal, to periodical inundations of long duration, being in 
general under water from April to the middle of November. 
These inundations are partly the effect of the heavy rains 
which fall during the south-west monsoon, and partly of the 
immense volume of water which is brought down by the 
rivers during that season, especially by those which drain 
the mountain -system, of Tiperah, the Manu, Khwa-hi, and 
Cognati. This lower tract is called Bhatta. The towns 
and villages, which in some parts, especially to the south, 
are numerous, are built on mounds of earth; huts, temples, 
mosques, and sheds for cattle are huddled together. 
When the inundations are at their height, there are from 
8 to 12 feet water on the lower grounds. As soon as they 
have sufficiently subsided, or in the beginning of No- 
vember, such lands as are high enough for the purpose are 
sown with rice and millet; the crop is cut in April. The 
lands yield only one crop. There appear occasionally a 
little sursoo and hemp, with some gourds and cucumbers 
about the huts. The marshes are however filled with cattle, 
from which profit is derived sufficient to make the occupa- 
tion of these desolate tracts desirable. Ghee and cheese are 
made from the milk of buffaloes and cows, and the upper 
country, which lies farther east, is furnished with young 
bullocks for the plough. During the inundations the cattle 
are confined to the sheds and feed on green fodder brought 
in boats from the jhils or marshy tracts. 

From this low country a few tracts of low and level land 
extend eastward of the line above indicated. They run up 
for several miles, more especially between the courses of the 
great rivers, where they form jhils of great depth, which 
are uncultivabie. The remainder of the eastern division has 
a higher level, and rises gradually towards the mountains 
on both sides. This country is in general dry, though there 
are some marshes of small extent. The surface of this divi- 



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•ion presents great irregular* itie*. It is ofcesed by several 
ranges of alluvial formation, which tan up thttt ridges 
from one to three hundred feet high; arid (fee valleys be- 
tween rise gently towards each side. The 1 batiks of the* 
Soorma and all the taouirtarh rivers are also considerably 
elevated above the general level ; the tracts which lie near 
the swampy places, and are not much elevated above theif 
level, are under Water for some weeks, arid yieM only one 
Ctop. They are sown irt January, atifd the ettori inundation 
does riot damage 1 the* grata*. The crops are much more 
abundant than ift the Bhefta, The more elevated parts; 
which are never inundated, and especially the slopes of the 
ridges, yield two crops of gram,* which are generally good. 
Some experiments which have been made show that wheat, 
barter, oats, and potatoes' might be raised. All the grains 
found in the plains of the Ganges ate cultivated. In&go is 
riot cultivated, hut aft excellent dye very similar to it is 
obtained from a plant which grows wrM on the hills. 
Poppy, rftfgar-caue, safflower, sursoo arid other plants yield* 
ing oil, and also hemp and fiat are grown. Orange-trees 
and the areca are cultivated on the declivities of the Kasia 
Mountains, arid large quantities of the produce are annually 
sent to Calcutta arid other places in Bengal. Areca of in- 
ferior quality is found all over Silhet, but it deteriorates in 
quality towards the east, and mKachar It wholly disappears. 
Among other fruits the plantain is particularly fine, the 
lemon grows wild in the Kasia Mountains, and the apricot 
arid lichi in those Of Kachar. It is thought that the tea- 
plant would succeed in some ef the attuViat soils of Keener 
or Tiperah. 

The Tiperah Mountains, which lie to the south ef the 
plain hitherto noticed, belong to Silhet only so rat *4 a por- 
tion of their lower deorrtfties r# included Within the bound- 
ary of the district. We are not aequairiteti with the interior 
of this extensive mountain-system^ The central parts, be- 
tween 23° and 24° N. lat. and 91° and $4* E. long., probably 
attain a great elevation, which ttrty be inferred from the 
great volume of water brought down by the rivers Which fell 
from the south into the Soorma arid Kusiera, as the Dtem- 
sen, the Sungai, the Munu, theKbwa-hi, artd theOogneti? 
and from their rapid course, ttartng the rains each of these 
rivers discharges ort an average a volume of about 25,000 
cubic feet per secotid, though none of them are more than 50 
yards wide. It is certain that they have a long course, and 
descend from" a very elevated country. The northern por- 
tion* of this mountain-regiort, towards Silhet, as Well as that 
which towards the south enters the district of Chittagorig, 
consists of ranges tanning south and north, divided by wide 
valleys. Sortie of these ranges enter the northern plain, as 
the Banca Mountains, which extend alotig the western 
banks of the Delaseri, and the feokman range in iCaebar, 
Which compels the rrvet Barak to change its southern 1 course 
into a northern one. Immense masses of lava Occur even on 
the northern ranges of the Tiperah Mountains, and it is sup- 
posed that this is the termination of the long series of vol- 
canoes which stretch from the island of Java northward 
through Sumatra, Barren Island, the island of Nareonetas, 
and those of Cheduba and Ramri on the coast at Arraoan, 
where the traces of volcanic agency are lost : they appear 
again in the Mountains of Tiperah. The southern declivi- 
ties of the Tiperah Mountains are noted for immense 
forests of bamboo and large herds of elephants. The 
northern declivities are also Covered with forests of trees 
and bamboos, from which the inhabitants of the plain derive 
great profit, but they resort also to these hills to cultivate 
cotton, which does not grow in the plain. The quantity ef 
cotton which is raised is barely sufficient for domestic con- 
sumption. It U short in staple, but the cloths made from it 
combine warmth with lightness. 

Rivers.— The largest of the rivers of Silhet is called in 
the upper part of its course Barak, and in the lower part 
Soorma. The Barak originates in the mountain region 
north of the plain Of Muneepoor[Muw**Pdoft], near *5° 30' 
N. lat. and 94° 20' fi. long., and traverses in a south' 
west and south by west direction the mountain region 
which connects the Tiperah Mountains with the Bura Ail 
range. After a course exceeding a hundred miles, it meets 
with the Bokman ridge of the Tiperah Mountains, which 
compels the river to change its southern into a northern 
course. Flowing fn that direction 3ff miles, it turns round 
the northern extremity of the Bokman ridge westward* and 
thus enters the plain, where it begins to be navigable, a few 
miles above Lukipoor. It runs westward with numeieat 



windings through the upper plain in one channel for 4+ 
miles, hut having passed the northern extremity of the 
Banca ridge, it begins to divide at Bangs. In these parts the 
name of Soorma begins to prevail. The northern arm, or 
the Soorma, flows along fhet southern base of the Kasia 
Mountains with numerous windings, sometimes approach- 
ing the hills and sometimes receding from them, until rf 
reaches the town of Sonamgimy after a course of 9e miles, 
when it turns southward, and in that direction* traversing 
the lower plam, ioiri* the southern afar after having run 7U 
miles. The southern arm of the river branching off at Banga 
bears different names, but m h* upper Course it is general \y 
known by that of Kusiera, and in the lower by that of Barak 
or Brak. Its direction through the plain if west-south-west 
for about loe miles, when it joins the Soorma, and the 
united river jotfts the Megna near SurJsrampeor by a more 
southern course of about 20 miles. These appear to be the 
principal branches of the river, hut both ef then* divide and 
subdivide again so frequently, that the whole oT tire lower 
plain is traversed by numerous watercourses, all of which 
join, either sraalyor united, the Megna between the town ef 
Oeribari and that of Sninetampeor, which are more than \m 
miles from one another Nearly all these wafereoUrSes are 
navigable for boslts, and greatly facilitate the transport ef 
grain from the upper plain of Silhet to other districts of 
Bengal. It is observed that these rivers are subject to 
change their beds in the districts wbteh approach the Megna, 
which is the ease with the Soorm* itself below Asmeri- 
gwnj. 

Of the rivers wbkft join the Brahmapootra or Lohit, we 
shall ettty mention the Deoyung and the Deyung. The 
first-mentioned rivet, which falls into the Brahmapootra 
West of 94° E. long., probably rises north east of the source 
of the Barak, but Ha source has nut been ascertained. Its 
course is nearly doe north, and about 30 mi lee from its 
mouth it is joined on the left by the river Dhunsiri, which 
rises in the Bura Ail Mountains, and skirts their northern 
declivity for more than 3d miles. The Dooyuag, as well 
as the Dhunsiri, is navigable. The Deyung rises in the 
Bura Art Mountains near 93* B. long., and after having 
been joined by some small rivers it become* navigable about 
20 miles below its source at Aloogong (26° 25' N. lat.), and 
continues to be navigable to its mouth, with the exception 
of one place, where a ledge of reeks traverses the bed of the 
river. The Deyung is Joined from the left by the Kopili, 
and from the east by the Soemeona river, of which the latter 
is navigable about 30 miles above its mouth. It is not 
known bow far the Kopili is navigable, but this important 
point will soon be ascertained, ae it is supposed that a good 
road, made between the places where the Kopili and the 
Jatinga, an affluent of the Barak, become navigable, will 
establish an easy cemmuQication between Asam and the 
plain of Silhet 

C7tm«/e.— The chelate ef the lower plain does net appear 
to differ hi any respeet from that ef Bengal [Bbkoal, vet 
iv., p,23U] ; hut the upper plain haethe advantage of earlier 
rains* which begin to flail m February, and become more 
abundant in the following month* Owing probably to 
these rains, the lower plain of Stlbet la under water earlier 
thari that of Lower Bengal. 

Producticns.'^in the forests of the Tiperah Mountains 
there are herds of elephants, many of which are annually 
sent to Calcutta, where however they are reckoned inferior 
in siSe and quality to those brought from Chittagong. 
Among the minerals the chuuam, or lime, perhaps is still 
the most important, as large quantities of it are taken from 
the lime- Mils which skirt the Gar raw and Kasia Mountains 
at Pondua and farther west, whence it is conveyed by 
water %b Calcutta and other places in Bengal. Many years 
t^o coal was discovered in the Garrow and Kasia Moun- 
tains* but it was not tamed to any profit until the introduc- 
tion of steam>-UBvigatfon\ It is now known that coal is 
found on the tabtaMand ef the Kasia Mountain* at Chirrs* 
Funji and Serarinv and at the base of these mountains near 
Silhet ami Laser. Bat none of these ooal-depotits seem to 
be extensive. It is however stated that those which occur 
m the Caribari Hills and along the southern boundaries of 
Asam, both which localities are within the Garros* Moun- 
tain* are net inferior hi extent to any in England, Iron-ore 
is abundant in the Kasia Mountains north of Chirra-Panji, 
where it is worked, and whence iron is sent to Beasjat 

Inhabitant*.— The inhabitants of 8ilhet Proper are Ben* 
g*4isy and hardry #a«^stt*Jshablt from that race irt the tit* 



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tricts farther west. But among them there are also many 
families of Hindustani and Persian origin, who are distin- 
guished by their features and the stronger make of the 
oody. 

The Kacharis form the bulk of the population in Kaehar, 
but they are also found in Asam and Tiperah. They con* 
stitute a distinct people, differing in appearance, religion, and 
customs from the other inhabitants. The antient religion 
of Kaehar is different from Brahmanism. It acknowledges 
a Supreme Being, or first prineiple. from which the world 
and all that it contains is derived. The manifest powers of 
nature are worshipped, or rather, certain spirits who have 
authority over them and influence the changes of the 
seasons. But in modem times Brahmanism has gained 
footing, and is spreading. The Kacharis have a distinct 
language, but as it is unwritten, it has been superseded 
for all purposes of business by the Bengali for many cen- 
turies, so that at present the language is not known by 
many of the Kacharis themselves. The Kacharis are in- 
dustrious agriculturist?. 

The Kasias, commonly called Cossyas, call themselves 
Khyee, end inhabit the mountains, which have obtained 
their name from this nation. They are an athletic race of 
mountaineers, fond of martial appearance, and their repu- 
tation as warriors is hardly extinct, for their extensive pre* 
datory inroads are still remembered in Silhet and Asam. 
Their religion is limited to certain superstitious practices, 
and to reverencing and sacrificing to the presiding deities 
of villages, hills, and similar localities, without the know- 
ledge of a universal and all-pervading intelligence. Brah- 
manism has made some progress among the Kasias, espe- 
cially those of Jyntea, but it has not led to the entire abolu- 
|ion of their national superstitions, connected with which 
was the practice of human sacrifice. The Khyee language 
is unwritten, and exhibits no affinity to any of the neigh* 
bouring languages, some of which, numerous and diver- 
sifted as they are, contain various indications of a common 
origin. }io great respect is paid by the Kasias to hereditary 
chiefs, though their rank is readily admitted, but their in- 
fluence depends more on their personal character and their 
power to direct the public assemblies without which nothing 
is determined either in il)e community collectively or in 
the several villages. It was reserved to the British govern- 
ment to subdue the martial disposition of this people, and 
to compel them to discontinue their predatory incursions 
into Silhet and Asam. Polyandry is said to exist among 
the Kasias, but if it is still in use, it is far from being 
genera). 

The Nagas are another race of mountaineers, consisting 
of numerous small tribes, which extend from the southern 
border of the vale of Asam. east of the Kopili river, to the 
eastern portion of the Tiperah Mountains. On the north- 
east they appear to be neighbours of tlje Kbantf i* f They 
are- generally a ss o ciate d witfe the fcukfs, from wtjom how- 
ever they differ essentially jn lavage, customs, and ap? 
peatanee. Though m gonadal tall, wgll made, and pften 
powerful mm, the limbs of the Nagas have not the massive 
configuration of those of the gulf is and other hill-wen. I \, 
appears from (he features of tfceir face that they belong to 
the Mongol ic race, The Nagas are not a migratory or wan- 
dering people, )ike the hj 11 Kacharis and Kukis, who con- 
tinually change thejr locality, and seldom keep their vil- 
lages more than three years in one spot, whilst the Nagas 
itemajn fixed. AH their villages we built on the tops of 
the mountains, and fortjfled wfth stockades and a ditch. 
like the nations that inhabit the peninsula beyond the 
Granges, they eat all kinds of animals, tigers, elephants, 
hags, dogs, cats, monkeys, and even servants. It is certain 
IhfrMbe different dialects which are spoken by them differ 
sa much tfcat several tribes living not far from pne another 
can have no intercourse without an interpreter, Several of 
their tripe* afe much addicted to plundering. Jn J 839 
setae troops were sent by the British against the Angatnee 
Nagas, whp inhabit the mountainous country north of the 
JJure Ail range, and bad become very txpubjasome to tfre 
Kafihar is who inhabit Upper Kaehar- 

Tha Kukis inhabit the Tiperah Mountains. A few families 
of this race, which are found in Upper Kaehar, have been 
transplanted to that country in modern times. Though 
short of stature, they seem to be the most powerful of all 
the mountaineers in that part of the world, and have long 
bean notorious for their attacks on the peaceful inhabitants 
tftim&Wt ty>t for tip purpose of plundering tfrem, but in 



f Sit 

order to hill them and carry off their heads. These beads 
are used in certain ceremonies which ate performed at the 
funerals of their chiefs. In this particular, and also in their 
features, which approach those of the Chinese end other 
nations of the Mongol race, they resemble thejGferrows, who 
also, like the Kukis, eat all kinds of animals, But both 
nations, as well as the Nagas, and the Mugs in Arracaa, 
cannot be induced to take milk or anything made of it, 
This similarity in customs, and also in their physical cba- 
racter, leads to the conclusion that all these nations belong 
to the same race of which the Chinese constitute a branch* 
It is however remarkable that the Garrows are separated 
from those nations by the Kasias and Kacharis, who differ 
in the conformation of their bodies, and among whom all 
the customs just enumerated are unknown. It is nearly 
certain that the Kukis are cannibals. 

Political Divisions and Towns ^-Th^ portion of jSUbet 
which forms a part of the British possessions, contains the 
district of Silhet, and the two countries of Jyntea and 
Kaehar, which have lately been annexed to it, 

1. Silhet comprehends the whole of the lower and a part 
of the upper plain as far east as the Banca Mountains or 
the Delaseri river. It seems to contain many small towns, 
and some of considerable extent. The largest is probably 
Baniachung, situated in the low plain between the Soorma 
and Brak rivers. It is the residence of the raja pf Banjar 
chung, the greatest land proprietor in Silhet, and is a large 
place, containing a great population. The town of Axme- 
rigunj, west of Baniacbung, on the banks of the Sperms* is 
a place of considerable inland traffic, with a boatbuilding 
establishment for the construction of native craft, The town 
of Silhet is built on the upper plaint on the banks of the 
Soorma. and is the seat of the local government. Laour, 
farther west, at the foot of the Garrows Mountains, carries 
on a considerable commerce with the Garrows, whp bring 
cotton, wax, and honey, which they exchange for salt and 
some cotton-cloth and brass ornaments. Lime is sent from 
this place to Calcutta. Pondua, a small fortress, at the 
base of the Kasia Mountains north-north-west of Calcutta, 
is the market for the Kasias, who inhabit the western part of 
the mountain region. They exchange wax, honey, oranges, 
areca nuts, cassia, and other products of iheir country, for 
eotton stutib, salt, rice, and other provisions. 

2. Jyntea lies north of the upper plain of Silhet, of which 
a small portion also belongs to it, and it extends northward 
to the boundary of Asam, where also a part of the low 
and fiat country was subject to its raja, but the greater por- 
tion of this country was in the Kasia Mountains, and the 
If asias constituted the principal population of the raja's ter- 
ritory. Eastward it extended to the Kopili, or the boun- 
dary of Kaehar ; and on the west it was separated from the 
mountains inhabited by the Garrows by two smaller coun- 
tries, called Koiram and Pulle» whose sovereigns however 
seem to have been dependent in some decree on the raja of 
Jyntea, as they now are on tfie British- Jvnfeapopr, the 
capital, is built no* far from, the southern declivity of the 
Kasia Mountains in the plain* about 20 miles to the north of 
the town of Silhet, Tpa convalescent station, of Chirra 
Punji is in the territories of tfie raja of Ifoirani, and that of 
Nungklao is in those of tl>e raja of Dul}a. 

3. Kaehar. or Kirumbha, extends over the larger part of 
the upper plain, and the whole of the mountain region 
which is east of the Kopili and west of th^ Dooyong. But 
within these boundaries are the territories of the Toolerara 
raja, and the country inhabited by the Angamee Naga 
tribe, which is quite independent, whilst the Tooleram raja 
is 4eppndent on the British. The country is chiefly inha- 
bited by Kacharis, among whom many Naga tribes are dis- 
persed, ana also a number of Jfukis, Bengalis, and fugitives 
from Mu nee poor. Kachpoor, the capital, is on the plain 
between tfie banks pf the Barak river and tlje base of the 
Bura Ail range: it is a poor place. East of it, and south of 
the pass pf Haflong, is the village of Oodarbund, which is 
much, reported to by the Naga tribes, who exchange cotton, 
ivory, wax, and chillies* for salt, dried fish, conch shells, 
heads, and brass ornaments. But the chief part of the 
cotton collected in these parts is brought in boats to Halia 
Chocky ip Asam. 

History,. — Silhet Proper seems always to have been sub? 
ject to f he soye reign of Bengal, and it passed with that pro 
vinee under the dominion of the British : but it dpes not 
appear that any portion of (he mountain region, or even 
£?wex Kaehar, has aver belonged to any sovereign of Hin 



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dustan. Some centuries ag*> however the greater part of 
these coon tries was included in the empire of Kamroop, 
which also extended over the greater part of Asara. This 
sfrpire fell to pieces, and then the kingdoms of Muneepoor, 
Kachar, and Jyntea were formed. Continual disputes in 
the reigning families rendered them weak, but the dif- 
ficulties of entering their country with an army secured 
them against foreign invasion. The English* after taking 
possession of Bengal, did not pay attention to these coun- 
tries, considering this frontier sufficiently defended by the 
weakness of their neighbours. In 1774 they punished the 
Kasias of Jyntea for their predatory incursions by taking 
possession of that country, but restored it to the raja on 
payment of a fine. The Burmese, taking advantage of dis- 
putes in the royal family of Muneepoor, possessed them- 
selves of that country, and at last (1820) declared it to be a 
part of their empire, and they soon after sent an army from 
Birma, and another from Asam, to the conquest of Kachar. 
^Jpon this the sovereign of that country and the raja of 
Jyntea placed themselves under the protection of the 
British. During the war with the Burmese, the possession 
of these countries was obstinately disputed, but by the peace 
of Yandaboo (1825) they were given up to the British, who 
.restored them to their legitimate sovereigns. In 1830 the raja 
-of Kachar, Govind Chandra, died, without leaving any issue, 
*nd the East India Company took possession of Kachar. A 
few years afterwards the raja of Jyntea was deprived of his 
•country on account of his crimes and his cruelty, and since 
.that time both countries have been united to Silhet. 

(Walter's Journey across the Pundoa Hills, in Asiatic 
Researches, vol. xvii. ; Pemberton's Report on the Eastern 
Frontier of British India; MacClelland, On the Dif- 
ference of Level in Indian Coal-fields, in Journal of the 
Jtsiatic Society of Bengal, 1838; Grange's Narrative of an 
Expedition into the Naga Territory of Assam, in Journul 
of Aeiai. Society of Bengal, 1839; Fisher's Memoir of 
Sylhet, Kachar, and the adjacent Districts, in Journal of 
the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, 1840; Wilson's History of the 
Burmese War.) 

SILHOUETTE, a name frequently applied to the black 
profile portraits commonly known simply as profiles or 
shades. The latter name indicates the origin of this simple 
class of pictorial representations, they having been probably 



suggested by the shadow thrown upon a wall. Beckinann, 
in his paper on * Plant Impressions' (Hist of Inventions, 
English edit, of 1814, vol iv., p. 621), observes, in reference 
to such productions and profile portraits, • If it be true that 
the extreme boundaries of all things approach or touch each 
other, one might almost believe that the arts of drawing and 
engraving on copper must have attained nearly to the 
highest degree of perfection.' ' At present,' he continues, 
' while we have among us a Tischbein, a Haid, and other 
great artists, whose portraits of the persons whom they 
honour with their pencil or graver are such striking like- 
nesses that they appear to live, we return again to the 
commencement of the art of drawing, the paltry outline of 
a shadow, like the love-sick daughter of Dibutades, and 
think we ornament our apartments and books with these 
dark and dismal profiles, and that we can discover by them 
the talents and disposition of the persons they are supposed 
to represent.' The name silhouette has been said to be 
derived from Etienne de Silhouette, French minister of 
finance in 1759. It appears that several parsimonious 
fashions introduced during his administration, in order, by 
severe economy, to remedy the evils of a war that had just 
terminated, were called, after this minister, a la Silhouette ; 
and that the name has continued to be applied to one of 
them, — the use of profiles in shade. 

Silhouettes are executed in various ways. One of the 
simplest is that of tracing the outlines of a shadow thrown 
on a sheet of paper, and then reducing them to the required 
size, either by the eye or by means of a pantograph. (Pan- 
tograph, vol. xvii., p. 192.] Another mode is tracing the 
outline upon a glass supported in a suitable position, and 
either coated with a solution of gum-arabic in water, in order 
to enable a lead pencil to mark upon it, or covered with a 
sheet of very thin tracing-paper. The camera-obscura and 
camera lucida are also occasionally used for the purpose. 
A more certain mode of obtaining an accurate outline is by 
the use of the machine invented for the purpose by Mr. 
Scbmalcalder, and patented by him in 1806. The prin- 
ciple of this machine is very simple, and may be readily 
understood by the aid of the annexed d agram. a b is an 
inflexible rod, usually about nine or ten feet long, supported 
by a ball and-socket joint at c, in such a manner as to leave 
the ends free to move in any direction. At the end a, a 





tracer, which is tapered off to a fine point, is attached to 
the rod, so as to form a continuation of it ; while at the 
opposite end, b, a steel point is similarly fixed. The person 
whose profile is required is seated, in the position indicated 
in the cut, in a chair having a rest for the back of the head, 
in order that he may sit perfectly still, while the operator 
gently passes the side of the tracer, a, over his features. By 
the intervention of the universal joint ate, a perfectly similar 
motion is communicated to the steel point at b t although, 
owing to the pivot being placed nearer to it than to the other 
•end of the rod, it moves in a path smaller than that of the 
tracer a. The pivot c being stationary, the steel point at b 
moves in the arc of a circle of which it (the pivot) is the 
centre, as indicated by the dotted line in the diagram ; and 
therefore, in order to keep the paper always in contact with 
it, it is fixed on a swinging board, pivoted at d, and con- 
stantly pressed against the steel point by means of a weight 
or spring, with a sufficient degree of force to make it act 
efficiently. The steel point does not come into immediate 
contact with the white paper, but with a piece of blacked 
paper placed over it, the pressure of the point transferring 
a sufficient quantity of the colour to form a distinct line. 
This part of the operation resembles that of a manifold- 
writer ; and, as in that instrument, several copies may be 
produced simultaneously, by using a number of pieces of 
white and blacked paper, laid alternately upon the swinging 
board. The size of trie reduced outline drawn on the paper 
may be regulated by varying the relative proportions of ac 
and cb; this and several other adjustments being effected 
by apparatus which it is unnecessary here to detail. By 
means of a cord tee, held in the hand of the operator, the 



swinging board d may be drawn back from the steel point 
when it is required to move the rod without making a mark 
upon the paper. As it is desirable to have the tracer a of 
small diameter, it is usually formed of steel, and carefully 
tempered, to avoid the risk of breakage. Greater accuracy 
may be attained by substituting for the tracer a thin wire, 
tightly stretched in a bow, and adjusted so as to coincide 
perfectly with the axis of the rod. Some friction may he 
avoided by using a double-swivel joint, instead of the ball- 
and-socket, at c; but whatever kind of pivot be adopted, 
great care should be taken to have it perfectly accurate, as 
any defect in it will produce a distorted drawing. When 
the outline of a profile is obtained by any of the means just 
described, it requires to be carefully filled in with colour by 
hand. In some cases, in the use of Scbmalcalder s machine, 
a kind of knife is substituted for the steel point at b, and 
the profile is thus cut out of a piece of thin black paper 
placed on the swinging board. This machine may also be 
used for making reduced copies of drawings or prints, by 
attaching a suitable tracing-point at a, and fixing the origi- 
nal drawing on a second swinging board in contact with it; 
the operator guiding the tracing-point over all the outlines 
that he wishes to copy. Some pro fi lists display considerable 
talent in cutting silhouettes by hand, with a pair of scissors, 
out of pieces of black paper, without the assistance of an 
outline. 

Although silhouettes have no claim to the character of 
works of art, they frequently convey a verv good idea of the 
person represented ; and they may be made even elegant in 
appearance. Some of the best profllists greatly improve 
the appearance of their silhouettes by adding the principal 



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markings of the hair and drapery, which, if judiciously 
done, has a very good effect. Of the great extent to which 
this kind of portrait has been patronised, some idea may be 
formed from the fact that Mr. Schmalcalder has made and 
sold nearly a hundred of his machines. 

SILl'CIUM, or SI'LICON, the base of the well-known 
earth Silica or Flint. By some chemists it is regarded as a 
metal, and lience the termination of its name in urn, while 
others consider it as non-metallic, but more allied to boron, 
and these adopt the term Silicon. 

Sir H. Davy, by acting upon Silica with potassium, ar- 
rived at the conclusion that it was an oxide, containing a 
peculiar inflammable base, to which he gave the name of 
Silicium ; the accuracy of this determination has since been 
demonstrated by Berzelius. 

In Davy's experiments the silica yielded its oxygen 
directly to the potassium. The process of Berzelius was 
different : he prepared it more advantageously by passing 
fluosilicic acid into a solution of potash, evaporating the 
solution to dryness, and heating the residue nearly to red- 
ness; this being then heated with about an equal weight of 
potassium in a green glass tube, the potassium combines 
with the oxygen of the silica ; the resulting mass is of a 
brown colour, and is to be washed at first with cold water, and 
afterwards with hot ; then heated to redness ; and, lastly, 
digested in dilute hydrofluoric acid, to separate any adhering 
silica:- the silicon then remains nearly pure. 

The properties of silicon are. that it has a dark-brown 
colour, no lustre, and is a non-conductor of electricity : it is 
this latter circumstance which has induced many chemists 
to question or deny the propriety of classing it with the 
metals. It is insoluble in water, and incombustible in air 
or in oxygen gas; it neither fuses nor undergoes any other 
change when heated in the flame of the blow-pipe. Neither 
the nitric, hydrochloric, sulphuric, nor hydrofluoric acid 
oxidizes or dissolves it ; but a mixture of nitric and hydro- 
fluoric acid dissolves it readily, even cold. When ignited 
with chlorate of potash, silicon is not acted upon ; but if 
deflagrated with nitrate of potash, the silicon combines with 
the oxygen of the decomposed acid, and is converted into 
silica, or silicic acid; and this uniting with the potash of 
the decomposed nitrate, silicate of potash is formed. 

Oxygen and Silicon form only one compound, namely, 
silica, or silicic acid. It may be obtained artificially, but 
very inconveniently, in the mode just mentioned, of defla- 
grating silicon with nitrate of potash. Silica exists very 
largely in nature; it is indeed probably the most abundant 
of all substances whatever. Many of the forms under 
which it occurs are described elsewhere. [Quartz.] Rock 
crystal is silica, nearly or quite pure, and flints or white 
sand are but slightly intermixed with other bodies. It is 
artificially obtained in a pure form by fusing crystal, sand, 
or flints, with about four times their weight of carbonate 
of soda or carbonate of potash ; the resulting fused mass is 
either silicate of soda or silicate of potash ; the latter is a 
deliquescent substance, and when it has become fluid by 
exposure to the air, has been long known by the name of 
liquor of flints ; when either of these silicates is treated with 
hydrochloric acid diluted with water, it combines with the 
alkali, and with any impurity which the sand or flint might 
contain, such as lime, alumina, or oxide of iron, and pre- 
cipitates the silica as a hydrate in the state of a colourless 
gelatinous mass. It possesses the following properties: — 

When recently precipitated, and while it retains the state 
of moist hydrate, it is to a certain extent soluble in water, 
and still more so in acids, and also in solution of potash or 
soda. When it has been dried, it is an opaque white powder, 
inodorous, insipid, and gritty, and then with more difficulty 
soluble in the alkaline solutions, and scarcely at all so in any 
other acid than the hydrofluoric. It is infusible by the heat 
of ordinary furnaces, but by the oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe it 
is more readily fused than lime or magnesia. Its specific 
gravity is about 27. 

It consists of 

1 Equivalent of Oxygen . . 8 
1 Equivalent of Silicon . • 8 

Equivalent . .16 

Although this substance is tasteless, and does not change 
vegetable blue colours red, and is insoluble in water, except 
under the peculiar circumstances mentioned, it is neverthe- 
less by many chemists considered as and classed with acids, 
under the name of Silicic acid; and the various compounds 
P. C. t No. 1360. 



I which it makes with alkalis and earths, to form glass, are 
considered as salts. Thus with potash it forms silicate of 
potash ; with soda, silicate of soda ; and with oxide of lead, 
silicate of lead; and these are all constituents of glass. 
China and porcelain, on the other hand, may be regarded 
as silicates of alumina and magnesia, and mortar is probably 
a silicate of lime. 

It must be evident from what has been stated, that silica 
is a substance of the utmost importance in many respects ; 
it enters largely into the constitution of minerals, rocks, and 
fossils, and is employed in the manufacture of glass, porce- 
lain, pottery, bricks, tiles, and mortar. 

The compounds which silicon forms with other elements 
are comparatively unimportant* we shall mention only u 
few of them, and those but briefly. 

Chlorine and Silicon may be made to combine by heating 
the silicon in chlorine gas, or by passing the gas over silicon 
heated to redness in a porcelain tube ; or, according to Oersted, 
by passing chlorine gas over a red-hot mixture of finely 
powdered silica and charcoal. 

Chloride of Silicon is composed of 

1 Equivalent of Chlorine . . 36 
1 Equivalent of Silicon . . 8 

Equivalent . . 44 

It is a volatile liquid which emits acid fumes ; when ex- 
posed to moist air, or mixed with water, both are decom- 
posed, and the results are hydrochloric acid and silica. 

Fluorine and Silicon, [r luosilicic Acid. J 

Metals with Silicon. — Some of the metals may be com- 
bined with silicon : these compounds, which are not impor- 
tant, are termed Siliciwets. Some varieties of cast-iron 
contain nearly 8 per cent, of the siliciuret of that metal. 

SIU'CULA (in Botany ).a kind of fruit. In its structure 
it resembles the Siliqua [Siliqua], and differs in nothing 
but its figure, which is rounded and much shorter, and in 
the number of its seeds. It is never more than four times 
as long as broad, and often much shorter. Examples of it 
muy be seen in the whitlow-grass (Draba), in the shep- 
herd 's-purse (Capsella), and in the horse-radish. 

Sl'LIQU A (in Botany), a kind of fruit It is characterised 
by having one or two cells, with many seeds, dehiscing by 
two valves, which separate from a central portion called the 
renlum. It is linear in form and is always superior to the 
calyx and corolla. The seeds are attached to two placenta?, 
which adhere to the replum, and are opposite to the lobes 
of the stigma. This position of the seeds, being abnormal, 
can only be explained in two ways : either this fruit is in 
reality composed of four carpels, two of which have, during 
the growth of the pistil, become abortive; or the stigmas 
must be looked upon as the fusion of two halves, one from 
each side. The dissepiment of the fruit in this case is 
most probably a spurious one formed by the projecting 
placenta?. It is sometimes found incomplete, from the 
edges of the placentae not meeting ; it is then said to be fe- 
nestrate. This kind of seed-vessel is possessed by a large 
number of plants belonging to the order Cruciferro, and ex- 
amples may be seen in the stock or wall-flower (Cheiran- 
thus), in the ladies* smock (Cardamine), and in the cabbage, 
turnip, and mustard. The Linnaean class Tetradynamia 
is divided into two orders, according to the form of its fruit: 
those plants of the class having a silique are comprised 
under the order Siliquosa; those having a silicle [Sili- 
cula], under the order Siliculosa. 

SI'LIQUA (Megerle), a genus belonging to the Legu- 
minaria, Schum., and consisting of those species of Solen % 
A net., which are furnished with an internal rib— *Solen ra- 
diatus for example. [Pyloridians.] 

SILIQUA'RIA. [Vermetus] 

SILl'STHIA, a sandjak (district) of Bulgaria, in Euro- 
pean Turkey, situated between 42° 12' and 45° 22' N. lat., 
and 26° 11' and 29° 3' E. long., is one of the most fertile 
parts of Turkey. This sandjak is bounded on the north 
by the Danube and Sireth, which separate it from Mol- 
davia and Bessarabia ; on the east by the Black Sea ; on 
the south by the sandjaks of Kirk-kilissia and Tchirmen ; 
and it has on the west Rustchuk and Lower Wallachia. It 
is crossed in the south by the Balkan, which forms Cape 
Emineh, at the termination of the mountain-range * and 
by a ramification of less height in a northern direction 
which terminates on the Black Sea in Cape Calaghriah. 
From these heights descend the numerous rivers which 
fertilise the province: the Pravadi, the Buyuk-Campt- 

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Chile, the Nadir, and the Aidos flow into the Black 
Sea, into which the Danube empties itself on the northern 
extremity of the province, after receiving the Dristra, the 
Taban, and the Karasu. It is chiefly an agricultural 
couniry. 

SI LI STRIA, or Drystra, the antient name of which is 
Dorostero or Durosterum, in 44* 7' N. lat and 27° 12' E. 
Ion?., 155 miles north-north-east of Constantinople, is the 
capital of the sandiak which bears the same name. The 
town is large, and defended by a citadel, which is kept in 
good order, and surrounded by double walls and ditches. 
The city itself is surrounded by ditches from twelve to fif- 
teen feet deep, and defended by strong palisades. The fort 
is situated on the extreme west of the town, which, upon the 
whole, is ill built ; the streets are narrow and crooked, the 
houses low and dull ; even the five mosques and the two 
public baths partake of the general ugliness. There is how- 
ever at the eastern extremity ofthe town a custom-house in a 
better style of architecture. The large magazines which sur- 
round it contain chiefly corn and flour. As it is a fortress 
built on the northern frontier, in the neighbourhood of the 
Danube, and is principally of a military character, the com- 
merce has never been flourishing; and although many mer- 
chants have lately settled in Silistria, it is not likely that 
any greater commercial activity will be the consequence. 
The population amounts to 20,000, the greater part of whom 
are Greeks. 

The environs of the town are rather pleasant, and the 
numerous vineyards which border the Danube give them a 
cheering aspect. There are also ruins, which are said to 
have formed part of the wall raised by the Greek emperors 
against the incursions of the barbarians. 

Silistria has frequently been the theatre of sharp actions 
between the Russians and the Turks. It was unsuccessfully 
besieged by the Russians in 1773, and was again attacked by 
them in 1 779, on which latter occasion they suffered a con- 
siderable loss. In 1828 General Rosh was obliged to retreat 
after besieging the town for some months; but it fell into 
the hands of the Russians in 1829, when Generals Diebitch 
and Krassowski touk it by assault on the 30th of June. 

SI'LIUS ITA'LICUS, CAIUS. The place of this poet's 
birth is unknown. It has sometimes been stated tliat the 
name is derived from Italica (near Seville) in Spain, and 
that this was the birth-place of himself or of his ancestors. 
But to this conjecture we must oppose the silence of Martial, 
who frequently mentions Silius without speaking of his 
Spanish origin. The name also ought in that case, accord- 
ing to analogy, to be Italicensis. Silius was of an illustrious 
plebeian family. He studied oratory, in which Cicero was 
his pattern ; and lie also aspired to make himself a poet on 
the model of Virgil. He is said to have possessed himself 
of a country-house that had belonged to Cicero, and of one 
that had belonged to Virgil. (Martial, Epig., xi. 48.) In 
the year ad. 68, in the last year of the reign of Nero, be 
was consul with M. Valerius Trachalus Turpilianus; and 
some time after he was governor of the province of Asia, 
which he is said to have administered in a creditable man- 
ner. He was a friend of Vilellius, and appears to be the 
Silius Italicus who is mentioned by Tacitus {Hist., iii. 65). 
There was, says Pliny (Ep., iii. 7), a rumour that he had 
acted the part of an accuser or informer under the reigu of 
Nero ; but while he enjoyed the friendship of Vitellius, he 
conducted himself with prudence. He finally retired to his 
estate in Campania, where he devoted himself to poetry and 
philosophy. Silius was fond of objects of art, and he en- 
riched his residence with statues, paintings, and books. 
When his old age became troubled with infirmities, he has- 
tened his death by starvation, in which he followed the 
fashion of those times, when suicide was not uncommon. 
Silius was a Stoic. The time of his death is fixed at a.d. 
100, when he is said to have completed his seventy-fifth 
year. He was married, and had two children. He enjoyed, 
says Pliny, unmingled happiness to the day of hii death, 
with the exception of the loss of his younger child. 

The only extant work of Silius Italicus is an epic poem 
on the second Punic war, in seventeen books, entitled 
• Punica.' This poem, which may be called an historical 
epic, comprises the chief events of the war from the com- 
mencement of the siege of Saguntum (i. 268), to the defeat 
of Hannibal in Africa and the triumph of Scipio Africanus. 
[Scipio.] The materials of Silius seem to be chiefly taken 
from Poly bius and Livy, and the poem has consequently a 
kind of historical value. As a work of art, it has been va- 
riously estimated, but the judgment of the younger Pliny 



(Ep., iii. 7) seems to us to be correct: 'Silius wrote with 
more industry than genius. 1 His poem is in fact a very 
laboured composition, and the labour is apparent. Nume- 
rous episodes interrupt the continuity of the narrative. 
Silius falls short of his model, Virgil, in simplicity and 
clearness ; and he endeavours to make up for force and pre- 
cision by rhetorical ornament and long-drawn description. 
Instead of making a picture by a few striking touches, be 
fills it with detail till the whole is trivial. His invention is 

foor. There are few passages which excite our sympathies, 
n short, the poem is a rhetorical history in verse. All bis 
contemporaries however did not judge so unfavourably of 
him. Martial on several occasions speaks very highly of 
him, and compares him with Virgil (Ep. t iv. 14 ; "vi. 64;*vii. 
63; 'perpetui nunquam moritura volumina Sili;' viii. 66 ; 
ix. 86; xi. 49, 51): he also celebrates his eminence as an 
orator. According to Martial, in an epigram written after 
Silius had enjoyed the consulate, he did not attempt to imi- 
tate Virgil till he had acquired distinction as an advocate. 
Martial mentions the court of the Centumviri as one of 
the places in which he practised: Pliny the younger also 
practised in this court. [Pliny.] 

The poems of Silius seem to have been forgotten after his 
death, if we may judge from the silence of subsequent 
writers as to them. Sidonius Apollinaris is the only writer 
who mentions them. Poggio is said to have discovered a 
MS. of Silius in the library of the eonvent of St. Gallon, in 
Switzerland, which was printed at Rome, 1471, folio. An- 
other MS. was afterwards found at Cologne by Ludwig C&rrio, 
from which the text of Silius was improved. It was to supply 
the loss of the * Punica' that Pet r area, as it is said, wrote his 
' Africa.' It has been conjectured that Petrarca had a copy 
of Silius, which he made use of, and carefully suppressed. 
Such conduct would be quite inconsistent with the character 
of Petrarca, and one would suppose that a comparison of the 
two poems would soon determine whether there is any foun- 
dation for such a statement. 

There are numerous editions of Silius. The editio prin- 
ceps is that of Rome already mentioned. There is an edi- 
tion by Drakenborch, Utrecht, 1717, and Mitau, 1775 ; by 
Ernesti, Leipzig, 1791-2; and by Ruperti, with a preface 
by Heyne, Giktingen, 1795-98. 

There is an English translation by Thomas Ross, London, 
1661, 1672, folio; and a French translation by Le Feb vie 
de Villebrune, Paris, 1781, 3 vols. 12rao. 

SILIVRI, a seaport of Romania, in European Turkey, 
in 41° 4' N. laL and 28° 13' E. long., thirty- two miles west 
of Constantinople, is built in the form of an amphitheatre, 
on the declivity of a small hill facing the Sea of Marmara. 
It forms a beautiful objeot when seen from the sea, and 
commands a fine prospect of the Sea of Marmara. The top 
of the hill is crowned by the ruins of a fort, which was 
built under the Greek empire. The population is 1500 
Greeks and 200 Jews. The part of the town below the fort 
is solely occupied by Turks, who are about 4500. The Turks 
have several mosques, and a market-place, which is much 
admired. The harbour admits only small vessels, and is 

generally filled with fishing-boats, which furnish the inha- 
itants with a plentiful supply of food. The environs of 
the town are covered with vineyards and corn-fields. The 
antient name is Selybna, often written Selymbria. (Steph. 
Byzant., ^tjXvfifipia ; Strabo, p. 319, Casaub., StjXvppia.) It 
was a colony of the Megarians. 

SILK. The manner in which raw silk is produced has 
already been described [Bombyciok], and its value when 
wrought and manufactured has also been noticed. [Riband.] 
China was undoubtedly the country in which men first 
availed themselves of the labours of the silk-worm. Serica 
(the country of the Seres) was a name by which the Mace- 
donian Greeks designated the country which produced the 
silk that came overland from the north of China. The au- 
thor of the • Periplus of the Erythraean Sea' speaks of silk 
in Malabar as an article imported from countries farther to 
the east ; from which it may be inferred that the culture of 
the silk-worm and the manufacture of silk had not been in- 
troduced even into India four hundred years after silk was 
known in Europe. In speaking of the country of the 
Thinse, the same author observes that both the raw mate- 
rial and manufactured article were obtained there. The 
1 Median robes,* spoken of by the Greek writers ofthe period 
ofthe Persian empire, and extolled for their lustrous beauty 
and brilliancy, were no doubt silken vestments, as Proco- 
pius, long afterwards, when silk had been introduced into 
Europe, states that 'the robes which were formerly called 



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Median by the Greeks are now called silken.' Aristotle is 
the first Greek author who mentions the silk-worm (Nat 
Hist, v. 19) ; and he states that silk was first spun in the 
island of Cos, but the raw material was still an oriental pro- 
duct; and Pliny (xi. 22), in commenting on this passage, 
states that the silk came from Assyria, and was worked up 
by the Greek women : it may be remarked that Assyria was, 
like Media, frequently Used in an indefinite^ sense by antient 
writers. The probability is that silk was used in Western 
Asia before it was known to the Greeks; and that it was in 
use among the Greeks long before they knew whence the 
substance came or how it was produced. Thus Virgil (Georg., 
ii. 121) supposes that the Seres carded the silk from leaves ; 
and Dionysius Periegetes also supposed it to be a vegetable 
product : thus he says,— 

* Nor flocks not herds the distant Seres tend; 
Put from the flow'rs that in the desert bloom 
TincturM wiih every varying hue, they cull 
The glossy down, and card it for the loom.' 

Pausanias gives more precise information respecting the 
substance from which the Seres formed their cloths. 'They 
have,* he says, 'a spinning insect, which is kept in build- 
ings, and produces a fine-spun thread, which is Wrapped 
about its feet* (vi. 26). It was not until the sixth century 
that the obscurity which enveloped this subject was cleared 
up. At this time silk was an article of general use among 
the Romans, and was manufactured for them by the inha- 
bitants of Tyre andBerytus in Phoenicia. The Persians mo- 
nopolised the supply of the raw material, and guarded their 
trade with so much jealousy, both bv land and sea, that 
travellers from or to China were not allowed to traverse the 
Persian dominions; and in the time of Justinian, in conse- 
quence of some interference with the trade, they had en- 
tirely stopped the importation of silk. The trade in silk 
was in this unsatisfactory state, when two Nestorian monks 
of Persia, who had travelled to China, acquainted Justinian 
with the mode of producing silk, and undertook to return 
and bring back with them some of the eggs of the silk- 
worm. They were perfectly successful in their expedition, 
and a quantity of eggs, secured ih a hollow cane, were 
brought in safety to Constantinople, hatched by the heat of 
a dunghill, and fed witli mulberry-leaves. The monks also 
taught the subjects of Justinian the art of manufacturing 
silk. 

The breeding of silk-worms in Europe was for six centu- 
ries confined to the Greeks of the Lower Empire. In the 
twelfth century the art was transferred to Sicily ; ih the 
thirteenth century the rearing of silk- worms and the manu- 
facture of silk were introduced into Italy, from whence it 
was successively introduced into Spain and France, and in 
the fifteenth century the manufacture was established in 
England. 

James I. was extremely solicitous to promote the breed- 
ing and rearing of silk-worms in England ; and in 1608 is- 
aued circular letters, which were addressed to persons of 
influence throughout the country, recommending the sub- 
ject to them, and arrangements were made for the distribu- 
tion of the mulberry in the different counties. Most of the 
old mulberry-trees "found in the neighbourhood of antient 
mansions at the present day were planted at the above 
period. The experiment was not successful, in conse- 
quence of our climate being unsuited to the silk-worm. 
James also encouraged the introduction of the silk-worm 
into the English settlements in America. About a century 
afterwards (1718) a company was incorporated, which ob- 
tained a lease for one hundred and twenty-two years of 
Chelsea park,where mulberry-trees were extensively planted, 
and large buildings erected for managing the business of 
breeding silk-worms. This scheme also failed. An attempt 
was next made to introduce the silk-worm in the settlements 
of Georgia and Carolina ; the importation of raw silk from 
these colonies was permitted free of duty, and its production 
was further encouraged by direct bounties; but the quality of 
the silk proved indifferent, and after the trade had languished 
for some time, the hope of deriving any large supply from 
this quarter was abandoned. About the year 1789 nurse- 
ries of mulberry-trees were planted in several states of the 
American Union*, but though the climate is not unfavour- 
able to the rearing of silk-worms, which are found in their 
natural state in the forests, the high rate of Wages is an 
obstacle to this sort of employment, which is better adapted 
to the social condition of China, Italy, the South of France, 



and Malta, where the wages of labour have nearly reached 
their minimum. The subject however has again recently 
attracted attention in the American Union ; and in 1831 a 
small quantity of raw silk was exported. The production of 
raw silk is fast extending in British India, and the quality 
has been for some years gradually improving, There is 
every prospect of the English market being iu time almost 
exclusively supplied with silk from our Indian possessions ; 
as labour is not only cheaper than in any part of Europe, 
but three 'crops' of silk may be taken in the year, while 
from countries west of India, including Turkey, only one 
can be obtained. In Graham's 'India,' it is said that in the 
Deccan the mulberry-trees may be deprived of their leaves 
six times a year, and that six crops of worms may be ob- 
tained with ease in the same period. The Chinese method of 
rearing silk-worms, and their mode of treating the mulberry- 
tree (described in Davis's China* p. 280), were introduced at 
St. Helena, under the auspices of the East India Company, 
but on the expiration of their charter the establishment 
was given up. Some of the silk produced in France is be- 
lieved to be better than that of any country in the world. 
The average price is twenty francs per lb., and the quantity 
produced exceeds three million lbs. The Italian silk is 
also highly esteemed : the quantity produced is estimated at 
from six to seven million lbs. In Russia Peter the Great 
formed mulberry plantations, and the rearing of silk-worms 
was strongly encouraged by the Empress Catharine, and 
at present those who engage in this business obtain many 
important privileges. In Bavaria and other parts of Ger- 
many, with the exception of Saxony, the silk- worm is suc- 
cessfully reared as a commercial object ; also in Sweden, 
where the silk is said to possess some valuable pro- 
perties not found in that produced in a warmer latitude. 
The last attempt to introduce the silk-worm in the United 
Kingdom on a large scale was made in 1835, by a company 
which commenced its operations by planting 80 acres in the 
county of Cork with 4U00 mulberry- trees ; but the design 
has been abandoned as far as relates to the United King- 
dom, and the company has transferred its operations to 
Malta. 

There are several works devoted to details of the manage- 
ment of silk-worms, one of the best of which is that of 
Count Dandolo, an Italian nobleman : it has been translated 
into French. There are also works on the same subject 
in our own language. 

It is said that sixteen yards of gros-de- Naples of ordinary 
quality, or fourteen yards of a superior description, aro 
manufactured out of 1 lb. of reeled silk, to produce which 
twelve lbs. of cocoons are required. The average weight of 
a cocoon is from three grains to three grains and a quarter; 
its average length when reeled off, about three hundred 
yards. Taking the silk consumed in the United Kingdom 
in a single year at 5,000,000 lbs. the following are the sta- 
tistics of productiou :— 

Raw silk 5,000,000 lbs. 

12 lbs. of cocoons to 1 lb. of raw silk . 60,000,000 lbs. 
30,000 Worms to 1 lb. of cocoons, 18,000,000,000 worms. 

1 os. of eggs to 100 lbs. of cocoons . 600,000 ( ™' ° f 

1 6 lbs. of leaves to I lb. of cocoons 96,000,000 [ /^^ 
100 lbs. of leaves from each tree . 9,600,000 trees. 

Silk is obtained from the spider, not the cobweb, but the 
silky thread which the female spins round her eggs has been 
woven ; the silken fibres of the pinna form a strong and 
beautiful fabric [Mytilid-s] ; and some species of moths 
form cocoons which may be spun as a matter of experiment 
and curiosity, but not with a view to commercial profit. 

The quantities of raw, waste, and thrown silk taken for 
consumption in the United Kingdom in the following 
periods was as under : — 

Annual average, 
lbs. 

1765 to 1767 (inclusive) . . . 715,000 

1785 to 1787 „ . . . 881,000 

1801 to 1812 „ . . . 1,110,000 

1814 to 1822 „ . . . 1,940,902 

1824 to 1835 „ . . . * 4,164,444 

1836 to 1840 „ . . 4,999,791 

The countries from which we imported raw, waste, and 
thrown silk, in 1839, were as follows : — 

C2 



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Waife, Koul)S, 






Raw Silk. 


and Husks. 


Thrown Silk. 




lbs. 


lbs. 


lb«. 


India . 


1,385,932 


2,012 


. . 


China . 


349,549 


10,951 


. , 


Turkey, Syria, 








and Egypt . 


731,121 




• • 


Italy . . . 


181,743 


436.819 


755 


France . . 


1.018,901 


568,754 


213,991 


Other countries 


79,002 


23,954 


10,522 



Total 



3,746,248 1,042,490 225,268 



The duty on raw silk is \d. per lb. ; on waste, knubs, and 
husks, Is. per cwt; and on thrown silk the following duties 
are imposed:— 5s. 2d. per lb. on organzine and crape, and 
3s on tram and singles, dyed; 3s. tirf. on organ zine and 
crapes, 2s. on tram, and 1*. 6d. on singles, not dyed. It is 
objected to this duty on foreign-thrown silk that it raises 
unnecessarily the price of all silk thrown at home. A draw- 
back is allowed on the exportation of foreign-thrown silk : 
no British-thrown silk is exported. The first silk-throwing 
mill erected in England was at Derby, in 1718. [Derby.] 

Reeling from the cocoons is only performed in countries 
where the silk is produced. Silk reaches the weaver in 
three different states, in which it is called singles, tram, and 
organs ine [Riband], the preparation of which is the busi- 
ness of the throwster. In plain silk-weaving the process is 
much the same as in weaving woollen or linen ; but the 
weaver is assisted by a machine for the even distribution of 
the warp, which frequently consists of eight thousand 
separate threads in a breadth of twenty inches. The Jac- 
quard loom, invented by a weaver of Lyon, has been the 
means of facilitating and cheapening the production of fancy 
or figured silks to an extraordinary extent. Patterns which 
required the greatest degree of skill and the most painful 
labour are produced by this machine by weavers of ordinary 
skill, and with but little more labour than that required in 
weaving plain silks. The Jacquard loom has been im- 
proved by Mr. Hughes and Mr. Jennings, but at Lyon it 
has undergone no alteration. The power-loom has been 
only partially employed in the silk manufacture; and ex- 
cepting for the commonest goods, it does not possess any 
great advantage over the hand-loom, as the delicacy of the 
material to be worked, and the attention which must be 
given to the process of the weft, frequently render it neces- 
sary to stop the machine. 

Brocade and damask, the most sumptuous articles of silk 
manufacture a century ago, are now comparatively unknown. 
Persian, sarsnet, gros-de-Naples, ducapes, satin, and levan- 
tines, are the names given to plain silks, which vary from 
one another only in texture, quality, or softness. Satin 
derives its lustre from the great proportion of the threads 
of the warp being left visible, and the piece being afterwards 
passed over heated cylinders. Other varieties of silk goods 
are produced by mechanical arrangements in the loom, such 
as using different shuttles with threads of various substances, 
&c. The pile which constitutes the peculiarity of velvet is 
produced by the insertion of short pieces of silk thread, 
which cover the surface so entirely a3 to conceal the inter- 
lacings of the warp and woof. The process of weaving 
velvet is slow, and it is paid for at five times the rate of plain 
silks. There are several sorts of goods in which silk is em- 
ployed with woollen materials, as poplins and bombazines. 
The Chinese, says Mr. Davis (p. 286), make a species of 
washing silk, called at Canton 'ponge,' which becomes more 
soft as it is longer used. Their crapes have never yet been 
perfectly imitated; and they particularly excel in the pro- 
duction of damasks and flowered satins. * 

The silk manufacture, after its introduction into England 
in the fifteenth century, remained for a long period one of 
the least important branches of the national industry. 
After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685, about 
50,000 refugees fled to England, a large proportion of whom 
settled in Spitalfields, and carried on the silk manufacture. 
At this period foreign silks were freely admitted ; and 
from 1685 to 1692, bilks to the value of from 600,000/. to 
700.000/. were annually imported. In 1692 the refugees 
obtained an exclusive patent for certain articles ; and in 
1697 parliament prohibited the importation of French and 
other silk goods; and in 1701 the silk goods of India and 
China were included in the prohibition. Some inconsiderable 
relaxation was made in this policy in 1713. but in 1765 the 
system of prohibition was again fully adopted, and continued 
in operation until 1824. During this period the state of the 



manufacture was anything but satisfactory; the manufae* 
turers complaining of the smuggling of foreign silks, par- 
liament vainly endeavouring to exclude them, with constant 
disputes about wages on the part of the weavers. In 1773 
they obtained an act, called the Spitalfields Act, which 
entitled the Middlesex weavers to demand fixed wages, to 
be settled by the magistrates. To this act mavbe attributed 
the establishment of the silk manufacture in various parts 
of the country ; and having done great mischief, it was 
repealed in 1824. The changes introduced in 1824 (some 
of which only came into operation July 5th, 1826), wiih a 
view of stimulating the silk manufacture, have been most 
successful, as the table of the consumption of silk, be- 
fore and after the duties were reduced, sufficiently proves. 
Now that silk has become cheaper, and consequently a 
commoner article of dress, it is less dependent on the caprice 
of fashion than when it was an expensive luxury. The 
declared value of silk goods exported since 1820 is shown 
in the following table : — 

Aoonal average. 
£. 
1820 to 1823 (inclusive) . . . 369,835 
1824 to 1827 „ 286,119 

1828 to 1831 „ 405,961 

1832 to 1835 „ 693,961 

1836 to 1840 771,479 

The declared value of silk manufactures exported in 1839 
was 868,1 18/. : of which the United States of America took 
410,093/.; British North America, 136,750/.; Australian 
settlements, 46,724/. ; France, 44,628/. ; British West 
Indies, 38,467/.; Chili, 44,733/.; Brazil, 23.117/.; other 
states of Central and Southern America, 49,060/. ; German v, 
17,135/.; East Indies and Ceylon, 14,713/.; Holland, 
14,306/.; Belgium, 10,316/.; all other parts, 18,136/. 

The value of the silk manufactures of Great Britain is 
estimated at between 6,000,000/. and 7,000,000/. One-half 
of the silk factories are in Cheshire, next to which stand 
Lancashire, Somerset, Derbyshire, and Sta (lord shire. There 
are one or more factories in above one-half of the counties 
of England; one or two factories have been established in 
Ireland, and a few more in Scotland. They employ alto- 
gether in these factories above 30,000 persons, of whom 
two-thirds are females. 

The duty on silk manufactured goods imported from 
European countries is equivalent to 30 per cent, ad va- 
lorem. In 1839 this duty produced 227.438/., and the 
value of the goods was therefore about 700,000/ , nine-tenths 
of which were from France. The exportation of silk goods 
from France to England was 3,589,594 lbs. from 1827 to 
1838; but the quantity entered at the English custom- 
house was only 1,875,708 lbs., and there were therefore 
1,713,886 lbs. introduced by smuggling, or 48 per cent, of the 
total quantity entered at the French custom-house for ex- 
portation to England. The duty on the legally imported 
goods averaged 20*. id. per lb. ; but if the illegal imports 
could have been charged also, a duty of 10*. lie/, would 
have produced the same revenue. (Table by G. R. Porter, 
Esq., of the Board of Trade, in the Report of Committee on 
Import Duties ) 

The silk manufactures of India are subject to an ad va- 
lorem duty of 20 per cent., which, in 1839, produced 
19,867/. The imports consisted in that year of 503,182 
pieces of bandannoes, romats, and silk handkerchiefs, of 
which only 112,280 paid duty for consumption in this 
country ; and of other articles the greater part were re-ex- 
ported. 

( Treatise on the Silk Manufacture, in Lardner's • Cyclo- 
paedia ;' Ure's Philosophy of Manufactures ; Manual for 
the Culture of Silk, prepared by order of the Massachusetts 
Legislature, Boston, 1832 ; Essays on American Silk, with 
Directions for raising Silk-worms, Philadelphia, 1830; 
Second Report on Commercial Relations between Great 
Britain and France (Silk). 1835.) 

SILK-WORM. [Bombycid*.] 

SILLIMANITE, a crystallized silicate of alumina. It 
occurs in rhombic prisms imbedded in quartz. Cleavage 
parallel to the long diagonal. Colour dark brownish-grey or 
clove-brown. Fracture uneven, splintery. Specific gravity 
3*41. Lustre vitreous, nearly adamantine on the face of 
cleavage. Nearly opaque. Hardness 8*0 to 8*5. Brittle 
and easily reduced to powder. 

It is met with at Say brook, Connecticut, North America. 
It was at one time considered to be a variety of anlhoph\l- 
lito, but it is much harder than this mineral, and contains 



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more alumina and less silica and oxide of iron. It more 
nearly resembles sienite both in form and composition. 
It yielded by the analysis of Bo wen — 

Silica . . . .42-67 

Alumina . . . 54*11 

Oxide of Iron . . 2*00 

Water .... 0-51— 99'29 
Sl'LPHIUM {<rik<(>iov). Antient authors mention this 
plant and its juice. In the article on Laser, it has been 
stated that two kinds are described of this substance, which 
is also called juice of silphium. One kind, from Cyrcno, 
was probably yielded by Thapsia Silphium [Laser], and 
the other was most likely assafoctida, which has been em- 
ployed medicinally by Asiatics from very early times, though 
it has been known by this name in comparative modern 
times. 

Silphium was however remarkable for other properties, 
and hence has attracted the attention of modern travellers 
who have recently visited the countries where the silphium 
is described as growing by the antients. The army of 
Alexander, in crossing the mountain-range which Arrian 
calls Caucasus (iii. 28, 10), and which is the same range that 
ne afterwards mentions under the name of Paropamisus (v. 
5, 3), met with the Silphium. Arrian says, on the authority 
of Aristobulus, 'In this part of the Caucasus nothing grows 
except pines and Silphium, but the country was populous, 
and fed many sheep and cattle, for the sheep are very fond 
of the silphium. If a sheep should perceive the silphium 
from a distance, it runs to it, and feeds on the flower, and 
digs up the root and eats that also. For this reason in Cy- 
rene they drive the sheep as far as possible from the spots 
where the silphium grows, and some even fence in such 
places to prevent the sheep from entering them, if they 
should approach ; for the silphium is worth a good deal to 
the Cyrenoeans.' Burnes, in crossing the Hindu Koosh, and 
seeing both the men and cattle eating the young parts of 
the assaffBtida plant, supposed that it must be the silphium 
of Arrian. But as this author describes the country where 
the silphium grows as abounding in cattle, Dr. Royle had 
concluded that the Prangos of Mr. Moorcroft was the sil- 
phium alluded to, and which is much fed on by sheep and 
cattle in the present day in Tibet. Mr. Vigne, when tra- 
velling in these regions, came to the same conclusion. It is 
probable therefore that both plants, being umbelliferous, 
and employed for the same purposes in nearly the same 
regions, may have contributed to form the accounts which 
are so brief in antient authors. [Laser; Prangos.] 
SI'LURES. [Britannia.] 

SILURIAN SYSTEM. One considerable group of the 
fossiliferous primary strata, occurring in remarkable perfec- 
tion in Wales, especially in the eastern and some of the 
southern districts, and in some of the adjoining English 
counties, is thus named by Mr. Murchison in a very splendid 
work, the fruit of his long investigation of this part of the 
series of British strata. Under this title we propose to ar- 
range some general views of the present state of our know- 
ledge regarding the history of the lower Palaeozoic strata. 
[Geology; Primary Strata; Paleozoic Rocks ; Sali- 
ferous System.] 

When Mr. Murchison commenced his researches in 
Shropshire and Wales (1831), the principal knowledge we 
possessed of the succession of the older stratified rocks of 
Britain, then commonly called grauwacke and transition 
formations, was based on the still incompletely published 
labours of Sedgwick in Wales and the district of the Eng- 
lish lakes ; and so little was known of their fossil contents, 
that it is believed the first definite notice of this kind was 
contained in Mr. Phillips's description of a group of slate- 
rocks in the vicinity of Kirby Lonsdale. (Geol. Trans. % 
1827.) Now, in consequence principally of the develop- 
ment given to this subject by the appearance of the Silurian 
researches of Mr. Murchison, and other works to which it 
has led, we are able to trace in one consecutive history 
nearly the whole series of mineral depositions and organic 
combinations of which the ocean was anliently the theatre, 
from the period of the mica schists to the termination of 
the carboniferous cera. 

In this survey, the Silurian strata form a very conspicuous 
and interesting portion, and in the district from which the 
type was originally drawn they appear within distinct and 
definite limits which seem to insulate them from the older 
and new rocks, and to justify their claim to the rank of a 
peculiar system ; but in other districts phenomena appear 



which show that the order of physical changes and organic 
combinations which characterise the Silurian System, was 
in operation both before and after the period included in 
the ages of the four Silurian groups of Llandeilo,' *Cara- 
cloc,' • Wenlock,' and 'Ludlow;' while in other districts 
these characteristic assemblages do not all clearly appear ; 
and thus we are naturally conducted to a more comprehensive 
view of the whole of the antient (Palaoozoic).formations. 

Whatever be the true theory of the origin of the Grant" 
toid Strata of gneiss and mica schist (with their many and 
various quartzose, chloritic, and calcareous acebmpaniments), 
it is at least certain, asta general rule, that rocks of this 
general type are prevalent among the very deepest and 
oldest deposits from water which retain proof of their watery 
aggregation, and that they are in this position devoid of the 
traces of antient life. 

Equally certain is the character of the great series of 
Neptunian rocks which lies upon the mica schist ; it is a 
vast and various mass of strata (principally argillaceous, 
locally arenaceous or conglomeritic, rarely yielding lime- 
stone), in which, though unequally, and in degrees varying 
with locality, slaty cleavage tends to be developed. Organic 
life has left traces in this series of muddy sediments both 
of vegetable and animal origin ; in the lower and older parts 
very sparingly, in the upper parts abundantly. If, with 
Professor Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison, we take the series 
of these rocks as they appear in Wales and Cumberland* 
namely — 

Silurian, or upper group ; 
Cambrian, or middle group ; 
Cumbrian, or lower group ; 

we shall find in the mineral characters of these groups* 
in the countries named, some diagnostic marks of import- 
ance, but they vanish or become equivocal in other regions. 
In like manner the organic contents seem, in the countries 
named, to be definitely arranged in zones, so as to mark 
successive periods there: no organic remains are known in 
the Cumbrian rocks; they are rare, and confined to a few 
layers, in the Cambrian deposits; and are very plentiful 
and general in the Silurian group. The districts in which 
these peculiarities occur are probably more wide and scat- 
tered farther asunder than those in which the original 
tvpe.i of mineral structure prevail ; but yet it is evident 
that they are limited in respect of geographical area, and 
variable in regard to the distinctness and completeness of 
the terms, even in districts not far removed from the centre 
of investigation. Let any one who may desire proof of this 
compare the argillaceous series of Ayrshire, Westmoreland, 
Pembrokeshire, Tyrone, or Waterford, in which Silurian 
fossils occur, with the full and varied series of Shropshire, 
the Berwyn, and Snowdon. 

Under these circumstances of difficulty in regard to tho 
right general view of the antiont fossiliferous strata, we 
must consider the series of Silurian rocks and fossils not as 
the typo of this enormous sequence of mineral and organic 
phenomena, but as one, and perhaps the richest of all the 
local physical combinations of that antient period, and em- 
ploy it as a general term of comparison for reducing to 
order and place many detached and difficult districts in 
which the strata have local, peculiar, and perhaps excep- 
tional aspects. 

Mr. Murchison arranges the Silurian strata in groups, as 
follows ; in a descending order : — 

Thick n cm 
Divisions. in feet 

( Upper Ludlow rocks ) 

< Aymestry limestone > 1500 

( Lower Ludlow rocks J 



Upper 
Silurians 



Formations. 



Ludlow rocks 



»»"»"■{»££?" )■••» 



:}. 



very 
ariable 



Lower ( Caradoc rocks 
Silurians ( Llandeilo rocks • 

We shall present a very brief analysis of some of their 
characters. 

Upper Ludlow Rocks. 

Mineral Character.— Greyish, argillaceous, or calcareous 
sandstones, very slightly micaceous, decomposing to nshen 
or rusty-brown "colour. 

Structure. — Mostly laminated, parallel to the stratifica- 
tion, with joints considerably symmetrical, nearly rectangu- 
lar to the plane of tho beds, as near Ludlow. 

Aspect of the Country.— A region rising from beneath 
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<he old red-sandstone, often to a considerable and rather 
continuous escarpment, as near Usk and Ludlow. 

Organic Contents.— Polypiaria, 2 ; Crinoidea rare ; Con- 
chifera Plagirayona rather plentiful, 10; Conchifera Meso- 
myona, 1 ; Conchifera Brachiopoda, 1 5 ; Gasteropoda, 6 ; 
Cephalopoda Monothalamacea, 3 ; Cephalopoda Polythala- 
macea, 6; Crustacea, 5; Annelida?, 1; Fishes, 7; Doubt- 
ful, 3 (in all about 58 species). 

Localities. — Ludlow; vicinity of Usk. 
Aymestry Limestone* 

Mineral Character.— Subcrystaljine, argillaceous lime- 
stone, bluish-grey, or mottled, as near Aymestry. 

Structure. — Irregularly laminated, or nodular; with 
cross joints nearly rectangulated to the plane of stratifica- 
tion. 

Aspect of the Country. — Often a slightly prominent ter- 
race on the woody steep escarpment of a hill, capped with 
Upper Ludlow rocks, as near Ludlow. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 12 ; Crinoidea rare ; Pla- 
giary ona, 6 ; Mesomyona, 2; Brachiopoda, 12; Gastero- 
poda, 9 ; Monothalamacea, 1 ; Polythalamacea, 4 ; Crusta- 
cea, 3 (in all about 49 species). 

Localities. — Aymestry ; Sedgeley near Dudley, &c. 
Lower Ludlow Rocks. 

Mineral Character.— Argillaceous (called *Mudstone')> 
light-grey, dark-grey, or black, but weathering to ashen 
hues, as in the Wigmore Valley. 

Structure. — Partially flaggy, in places the lamination is 
uneven and nodular. In the lower parts, nodules of black 
limestone in lines of stratification. 

Aspect of the Country. — Toward the base of the steep 
escarpment of a hill, which may contain the whole Ludlow 
formation, as in the Wigmore Valley. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 9; Crinoidea rare; Pla- 
gimyona, 8; Mesomyona, 2; Brachiopoda, 19; Gastero- 
poda^; Monothalamacea?; Polythalamacea, 27; Crus- 
tacea, 3 ; Annelida, 1 ; Fishes, 1 ; Doubtful, 2 (in all about 
79 species). 

Localities.— Ludlow ; Usk. 

Wenlock Limestone. 

Mineral Character. — Grey, bluish, or pinkish crystalline 
and subcrystalline limestone, arranged in strata of concre- 
tionary aspect, separated by much argillaceous matter. 

Structure. — As above stated, concretionary in detail, but 
stratified on a large scale with considerable persistence of 
the parts. The concretionary structure most remarkable at 
top and bottom. 

Aspect of the Country. — Usually a prominent or terrace- 
like escarpment, where the beds dip moderately ; rising to 
insulated hills, where contortions prevail, as near Ludlow, 
Wenlock, Malvern Hills. 

Organic Contents.— Polypiaria, 53; Crinoidea, 14; Pla- 
gimyona?; Mesomyona, 1; Brachiopoda, 28; Gasteropoda, 
8; Monothalamacea, 2 ; Polythalamacea, 9 ; Crustacea, 14 ; 
Annelida, 1 ; Doubtful, 2 (in all about 132 species). 

Localities. — Dudley; Wenlock; near Usk. 
Wenlock Shale. 

Mineral Character. — Dull argillaceous shale,. with concre- 
tions of impure argillaceous limestone, much analogous to 
the argillaceous Ludlow rocks. 

Structure. — Laminated, with spheroidal calcareous con- 
cretions, especially toward the ba*e. 

Aspect of the Country.— Owing to the wasting of the 
middle beds, this shaly mass is often the line of a valley. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 18; Crinoidea rare ; Pla- 
gimyona, I ; Mesomyona?; Brachiopoda, 33 ; Gasteropoda, 
4 ; Monothalamacea ? ; Polythalamacea, 5 ; Crustacea, 2 ; 
Annelida?; Doubtful, 2 (in all about G5 species). There 
are marine plants in this deposit, and we have szen them 
of a vermilion colour. 

Locality.— Wigmore Valley. 

Caradoc Sandstone. 

Mineral Character. — Sandstones of various colours, more 
or less micaceous, sometimes quartzose or congloinentic, 
with thin courses of impure limestone, especially in the 
upper part. (Where altered by igneous action, this sand- 
stone becomes a sort of quartz rock.) 

Structure.— Usually laminated. Where altered by heat, 
the stratification is nearly or quite lost. 

Aspect of the Country. — Very characteristic where the 
strata are indurated by vicinity of trap-rocks : the quartz- 
ose masses then assuming very picturesque forms. 

Organic Contents.— Polypiaria, 12; Crinoidea rare; Pla- 



gimyona, 1 ; Mesomyona, 3 : Brachiopoda, 53 ; Gastero- 
poda, 7 : Monothalamacea, 3 ; Polythalamacea, 6 ; Crus- 
tacea, 8; Doubtful, 2 (in all about 95 species). 

Mineral Veins. — Green copper-ore (Malachite) ; thin 
strings of galena ; and in the vicinity of trap true mineral 
veins occur. 

Localities. — Caer Caradoc ; May Hill ; near Llandeilo. 
Llandeilo Flags. 

Mineral Character. — Hard dark-coloured flags, some- 
times slightly micaceous, frequently calcareous. 

Structure. — Thinly laminated, parallel to the stratifica- 
tion, with some internal oblique cleavage. 

Aspect of the Country. — Not characteristic, the stratifi- 
cation being commonly very highly inclined and the masses 
very thick. 

Organic Contents. — Polypiaria, 4 ; Crinoidea rare ; Pla- 
gimvona, 1; Mesomyona?; Brachiopoda, 26 ; Gasteropoda, 
3 ; Monothalamacea, 1 ; Polythalamacea, i ; Crustacea, 1 1 
(in all about 47 species). 

Mineral Veins. — Occur in the vicinity of trap, as in the 
Shelve and Corndon district. 

Localities. — Near Built; Llandeilo; Pembrokeshire. 

Pyrogenous rocks are associated with the Silurian strata 
in many situations — as the Caradoc Hills, where compact 
felspar predominates — the Wrekin and Lilleshall Hill, cha- 
racterised by sienitic rocks — Corndon, full of greenstone. 
Alterations of stratified rocks by the contact of igneous 
rocks are common in the Caradoc, Stiperstones, &c. The 
trap rocks near Welshpool are in places columnar; the 
Breiddyn Hills are mostly greenstone, and yield elongated 
dykes in a north-east direction, which traverse the new red- 
sandstone. Mineral veins (yielding lead-ore) are plentiful 
in Lower Silurian rocks, in the Shelve district, adjacent to 
the trap rocks of Corndon, and the altered sandstones of the 
Stiperstones. * In a plan of Mr. More's of Linley Hall, the 
chief proprietor of this district, upwards of 24 are laid down 
in the district of Shelve alone, excluding the tracts around 
the Bog and Penally: so that, comprehending the principal 
portion of the mining-ground, we may say that it contains 
upwards of 30 metalliferous veins which have been profita- 
bly worked/ (Murchison, Sil. Syst., p. 282.) 

Volcanic grits, composed of materials derived from igneous 
action, and subsequently arranged in water, aie mentioned 
by M. Murchison rather frequently. In the Shelve district 
they are traversed by lead veins; in the Caradoc Hills, they 
abound, and were noticed as * allied to greenstone' in the 
Wrekin by Mr. A. Aikin. They contain organic remains in 
several places, as near the Corndon Hills. 

On reviewing the series of strata comprised in the Silu- 
rian System, in the vicinity of Ludlow, Usk, Llandeilo, or 
Denbighshire, we see them to form in reality one closely 
associated sequence of oceanic deposits — apparently accu- 
mulated with little local disturbance and very slight admix- 
ture of organic exuvia) from the land. Volcanic eruptions 
appear to have rather varied than greatly disturbed this 
system of operations, though it is evident they contributed 
no small part of the granular materials of the principally 
sedimentary strata. The formation of limestone is local: — 
where coral prevailed, we find the Aymestry and Wenlock 
limestones, and even the calcareous parts of the Landeilo 
rocks, to be in a great degree filled with coral. The Brachio- 
pod shell ' Pentamerus' fills some whole beds of limestone 
(near Aymestry), and where it is deficient the limestone 
also fails, as in the district of Usk. In their course from 
Shropshire, northward to Denbighshire, Mr. Bowman (lie- 
ports of the British Association for 1840-41) has found the 
general type of the Silurian rocks to vary, and the line of 
distinction between it and the slaty strata below to be ex- 
tremely obscure ; and similar observations are recorded by 
M. Murchison in the account which he gives of these lucks 
in Caermarthenshire and Pembrokeshire. 

Mineral character alone will scarcely suffice, anywhere, 
for any but an arbitrary (and therefore unsatisfactory) 
boundary-line between the Silurian and Cambrian deposits. 
It is extremely probable, perhaps we may say it is already 
proved, that no distinction of higher value can be found on 
comparing the organic remains of these groups. In Snowdon 
(supposed to be very low in the Cambrian series of rocks) 
are shells and corals, which are perhaps the same, but cer 
tainly are congeneric with and very similar to • Silurian : 
fossils ; and there is really as great (if not greater) difference 
between the Llandeilo and Wenlock rocks, in regard to 
fossils, than between the Silurian and Cambrian strata. 



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If we turn to other districts where Silurian fossils occur 
plentifully (North America, Ireland, Norway), the result 
appears the same. There is apparently only one great series 
of organic combinations distinguishable among the fossil i- 
ferous strata anterior to the old red-sandstone sera, and it 
was with a perception of this important truth that Mr. Mur- 
chison once proposed for the Silurian strata the title of Pro- 
tozoic. If instead of this we employ Palaeozoic (as suggested 
by Sedgwick), and adopt the general view advocated in this 
work [Palaeozoic ; Saliferous System], we shall rank all 
the fossiliferous strata of the Cumbrian, Cambrian, and Silu 
rian groups as Lower Palaeozoic Strata. 

The lower arbitrary boundary of the Silurian strata being 
thus softened or erased, we may regard its upper surface as 
only locally more definite. Certainly in all the region 
around Wales the separation of the Silurian and old red 
deposits is somewhat sudden ; the colour changes from grey 
to red; the dull mudstones become micaceous sandstones; 
the richly fossiliferous Upper Ludlow loses its character in 
unprolific red marls and grits. What few fossils do occur 
in these overlaid strata (except near the very bottom) are 
of quite other types of organization. But these are local 
truths, depending mainly on the introduction of new sedi- 
ments poisonous to marine invertebral life; and as these 
sediments are very local, wo may find in other countries 
groups of strata newer than the Silurian, older than the 
Carboniferous, with fossils intermediate in character and 
combination to both. 

This expectation is in course of fulfilment, but it is not 
yet fully satisfied. In Devonshire, the Rhine Valley, the 
Eifel, we find numerous assemblages of such Middle Palceo- 
zoic fossils, but they do not by any means fill the whole in- 
terval between the Silurian and Carboniferous types; nor 
have we seen in collections from North America, Australia, 
the Harlz, Brittany, or Russia, all that is desired to fill the 
void. Ever alive to this most interesting inquiry, the author 
of the ' Silurian System* is perhaps at this moment adding 
valuable facts concerning it, the fruit of his continued 
researches in Russia; and we believe that by further exami- 
nation of the lower strata of the Rhine Valley, and the 
Harz, some additional data may be gathered. 

At present the most important of the discoveries which 
(however incompletely) represent a Middle hxlceozoic 
Period, have been in Devonshire and Cornwall, in the 
Fichtelgebirge, and in the Eifel and Rhine Valley. The 
principal of these, at least in regard to the analogies which it 
offers to the strata of earlier and more recent date, is the 
district of Devon and Cornwall ; from which ten years ago 
only a small number of fossil species was known, but which 
has now yielded to numerous inquirers fully 300 distinct and 
recognisable forms. Of these, according to Mr. Lonsdale, 
who gives (Geol. Trans. 1840) a table of the species which 
he examined, and to Mr. Mnrchison and Professor Sedg- 
wick, who enumerate 128 species, a few of these species are 
found in the Silurian and a few in the Carboniferous rocks. 
Professor Phillips, in his recent work (Palaeozoic Fossils of 
Devon and Cornwall), discusses the relations of 275 species, 
and arrives at the conclusion that both by numerical valuations 
of the general combinations of groups of invertebrata, and 
by specific analogies, the conclusion of the intermediate age 
of the Devon and Cornwall strata is confirmed. As the 
differences of the Devonian and Silurian fossils are very 
much greater than those between the Silurian and Cambrian 
fossils, it appears probable that the boundary assumed by 
Mr. iMurchison for the upper termination of the Silurian 
jjToup may remain with but slight alteration. One change 
contemplated by the author himself we should bc*glad to 
see adopted : — there are some fossiliferous bands placed by 
Mr. Murchison near the base of the old red system, which 
would better go to the Silurian ranks, since, in respect of 
the shells which they contain and their mineral composition, 
they are scarcely distinguishable from Silurian strata. 

On considering the distribution of organic remains in 
the successive stages of the Silurian rocks, it is evident 
that the greatest variety of species occurs in the lower part 
of the upper and towards the upper part of the lower Silu- 
rian rocks. In other words, the conditions favourable to 
organic life in the sea were in the earliest period consider- 
able; they arrived at a maximum in the middle part of the 
period, in the Caradoc sandstone, the Wenlock shale and 
the Wenlock limestone, and still continued considerable till 
the Silurian depositions ceased, and were replaced by old 
red-sandstone nearly devoid of organic remains. Polypiaria, 



Crinoidea, and Crustacea are most numerous in the princi- 
pal calcareous rock, Wenlock limestone ; Brachiopoda are 
most pleutiful in Caradoc sandstone ; Cephalopoda, in the 
Wenlock shale ; fishes, in the upper Ludlow rock. 

Mr. Murchison gives the following general recapitulation 
of organic remains in these strata* — 





Genera. 


Specie* 


Pisces .... 


15 


24 


Crustacea . , , 


10 


37 


Annelida 


5 


6 


Mollusca (Heteropoda*) . 


1 


11 


(Cephalopoda) . 


6 


4] 


(Gasteropoda* 


13 


34 


Conchifera (Brachiopoda) . 


8 


107 


(Monomyaria) . 


1 


6 


(Dimyaria) 


10 


21 


Crinoidea 


5 


14 


Polypiaria 


35 


65 


Doubtful 


6 


9 



U5 



375 



SILU'RIDiE, a family of fishes of the order Malacop- 
terygii, placed by Cuvier, in his * Regne Animal,' between 
the Esocidce, or Pike tribe, and the Salmonidte, or family 
of the Salmons ; but in the ' H is toil e Naturelle des Pois- 
sons,' the present group commences the Malacopterygii. 
The family Siluridce constitutes a very extensive section of 
fishes, the species of which are for the most part confined to 
the fresh waters of warm climates. No group perhaps pre- 
sents greater diversity of form than the Silurians, and their 
habits are equally interesting. Their most obvious external 
characters are, the want of true scales; the skin is generally 
naked, but in parts protected by large bony plates; the 
foremost ray of the dorsal and pectoral fins almost always 
consists of a strong bony ray, often serrated either in front 
or behind, or on both sides. These fishes moreover fre- 
quently are furnished with a small adipose fin on the hinder 
part of the back, as in the Saimonidte. The mouth is al- 
most always provided with barbules. 

The genus Silurus, as now restricted, is distinguished by 
the dorsal fin being very small, without any distinct spine, 
and situated on the fore part of the back ; the anal fin is of 
great length, extending along the whole belly of the fish, 
and sometimes joining the tail-fin ; the raaxillaries and in- 
ter max lllaries are furnished with small thick-set curved 
teeth, and there is a band of similar teeth on the vomer. 

The species of this genus are confined to the old world ; 
the only known European species is the Silurus giants 
(Linn.), a fish of very large size, which is found in the lakes 
of Switzerland, in the Danube, the Elbe, and all the rivers 
of Hungary. In Prussia and Sweden it is also found. 

The Silurus glanis is introduced in several works on the 
fishes of this country. It has however, says Mr. Yarrell, 
been suspected that the so-called Silurus, supposed to have 
been found formerly in some of the Scottish rivers, might 
have been the burbot. 

Cuvier states that this fish is sometimes upwards of six 
feet in length, and is said to weigh three hundred pounds 
(French). The body is elongated, and has the hinder part 
compressed, but towards the head its width gradually in- 
creases, and the head itself is depressed and large; its 
colour is dark-green above, of a pale-green below the lateral 
line, and yellowish on the belly, and the whole body is 
covered with dark spots ; six barbules surround the mcMth, 
and two of these, which have their origin (one on each side) 
just above the angle of the mouth, are very long. 

Mr. Yarrell observes, ' The Silurus is represented as slug- 
gish in its habits, and a slow swimmer, taking its prey by 
lying in wait for it, in a manner somewhat similar to the 
Angler, Lophius ; hiding itself in holes or soft mud, and 
apparently depending upon the accidental approach of fishes 
or other animals, of which its long and numerous barbules 
may be at the same time the source of attraction to the 
victims, and the means of warning to the devourer. From 
its formidable size, it can have but few enemies in the fresh 
water; and from them, its dark colour, in addition to its 
habit of secreting itself either in holes or soft mud, would 
be a sufficient security. .In spring, the male and female 
may be seen together, about the middle of the day, near the 
banks or edges of the water, but scon return to their usual 
retreats. The ova, when deposited, are green; and the 
• Theee, Lb the preceding paragraphs, we here celled Moaafthalamioee. 



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young *r<3 excluded between tbe sixteenth and nineteenth 
class. ' . 

•The flesh of the Silurus is white, fat, and agreeable to 
Irtany persons as food, particularly the part of the fish near the 
tail; but on account of its being luscious, soft, and difficult 
to digest, it is not recommended to those who have weak 
stomachs. In the northern! countries of Europe the flesh 
is preserved by drying, and the fat is used as lard.' 

It appears by some statements in the ' Histoire Naturelle 
des Poissons,' that the present fish is so voracious, that it 
has been known, in several instances, to devour children; 
and in one instance the body of a woman was found in one 
of these fishes. 

Several examples of the restricted genus Silurus are 
found in Asia. 

Cuvier separates from the typical Siluri, as a genus, the 
Silurus mystus of Linnaeus, and some others, on account of 
the compressed form of the body, and the dorsal fin having 
a strong bony spine in front, which is denticulated on the 
hinder margin. The body is deepest near the middle, but 
tapers somewhat suddenly towards the extremities. The 
head is small and depressed, and the eyes are placed low 
down. 

The species upon which Cuvier founds this genus— to 
which he applies the name Schilbe — are found in the Nile, 
but there are others described in this author's great work 
on fishes, one of which is found at Senegal and another in 
India. 

Genus Cetopsis.— This genus is founded by Agassiz on 
certain species found in Brazil, which in their affinities ap- 
proach the genus Silurus, but are distinguished by the ex- 
tremely small size of their eyes.* 

Genus Bagrus, Cuvier. — The species of this genus are 
distinguished from those of the genus Silurus, as restricted, 
by their possessing an adipose fin on the hinder part of the 
back. The body is naked — that is, unprovided with bony 
plates — and the mouth is provided with barbules, the num- 
ber of which, varying in different species, has been selected 
for the minor divisions of the group. Numerous species 
are found in the Indian and African rivers. 

Genus Pimelodus, Lacep. — Differs from Bagrus in having 
no teeth on the vomer ; the palatines however are often pro- 
vided with teeth. The species vary much in the number of 
their barbules, and in the form of the head, which is often 
protected by a bony plate, and a large bony plate is situated 
between that on the head and tbe dorsal spine; similar 
bony plates on the head however are observable in many of 
the species of the preceding genus. The species of Pime- 
lodus are very numerous, and are found both in the Old and 
New World. Numerous species are described from North 
America, others are found in South America, and the rivers 
of India also furnish numerous examples. 

Genus Phr otocephalus, Agassis.— This genus contains 
but one species, an inhabitant of the Brazils; its generic 
distinction consists in its possessing some incomplete osseous 
rays enchased in the upper margin of the adipose fin. The 
head is depressed and covered by a deeply sculptured bony 
plate ; a secoud bony plate, of a transverse oval form, is 
situated' in front of the first dorsal fin. The branchioste- 
gous rays are nine in number, and tbe mouth is provided 
with six barbules. 

^ Genus Hatystoma, Agassiz, is composed of several South 
American species of Siluridee which have the muzzle de- 
pressed, and are remarkable for the great number of their 
brancbiostegous rays, which amount in .some to fifteen in 
number. Some of the species attain a large size, there 
being specimens in the Paris Museum as much as five feet 
in length, and they have been seen of stil) greater bulk. 

Genus Galeichthys, Cuv. and Val. — This genus is nearly 
allied to Bagrus, but distinguished by the head being round 
and unprotected by any distinct bony plate : the branchios- 
tegous rays are six in number. Some possess six barbules, 
and others have four. One species is found at the Cape 
of Good Hope, a second is said to be found both in North 
America and at Rio Janeiro ; several species occur in 
Brazil, and the Ganges also furnishes a species of the pre- 
sent genus. 

Genus Silundia, Cuv. and Val.— This genus is founded 
upon a fish from the Ganges, which has the head small and 
smooth, a very small adipose fin, and a long anal fin. It 
has but two barbules, and they are very small ; the bran- 

• See the pact on Iehthyology or tbe 'Voyage of MM, SpU aud Max- 

tln.1 



chiostegons rays are twelve in number ; the teeth are longer 
and less abundant than usual in the Siluridce. The only 
species known (Silundia Gangetka, Cuv. and Val. ; Pime- 
lodus Silundia of Hamilton) is said to be very common at 
the mouth of the Ganges, and to bo much esteemed for 
food. 

Genus Arias, Cuv. and Val.— Contains many species of 
Silurid®, allied to the Bagri, but distinguished by their 
palatine teeth forming two distinct and widely separated 
masses. In some species the teeth are minute and dense, 
like the pile on velvet, or like the teeth of a carding-machine, 
and in others the palate is furnished with teeth in the 
rounded form of paving-stones, instead of having them 
pointed. Species of this genus are found in the tropical 
portions of both continents, and also in North America. 

Genus Auchenipterus, Cuv. and Val. — May be distin- 
guished from other genera which possess the adipose fin by 
the small size of the head, the very minute size of the teeth, 
and there being five brancbiostegous rays. It evinces an 
affinity with Pimelodus in having no palatine teeth, and in 
the number and form of the maxillary barbules. The first 
dorsal is situated very forward, a circumstance which sug- 
gested the generic name. The bony shield which covers 
the upper surface of the bead is, in the fishes of this genus, 
united by a suture with the dilated bony nuchal plates. All 
the known species are from the tropical portions of South 
America. 

Genus Trachelyopterus. — The genus is founded by 
MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes, upon a small Silurian from 
Cayenne, in which there is no adipose fin ; the teeth are 
fine, like the pile of velvet, and the palate is destitute of 
teeth ; the barbules are six in number. The head is some- 
what short, and protected by a stout bony shield, which is 
united almost immediately with the dorsal on account of 
the shortness of the interparietal plate, and almost rudimen- 
tary state of the chevron, placed generally in front of the 
spiny rays of the dorsal fin ; the pectoral fins are inserted 
as it were under the throat. 

Genus Hypophthalmus (Spix), Cut. and Val.— This genus 
is composed of but few species, and these are frOm the tropi- 
ca] portions of South America. The principal characters 
are: — Mouth destitute of teeth ; eyes placed very low down 
near the angle of the mouth ; brancbiostegous rays fourteen 
in number; body furnished with an adipose fin. 

Genus Ageneiosus (Lac6pdde), Cuv. and Val.— -This genus 
is thus characterised in the * RSgne Animal :' — Characters the 
same as in Pimelodus, excepting that there are no barbules 
properly so called. In some, the maxillary bone, instead of 
being prolonged into a fleshy and flexible barbule, assumes 
the form of a projecting denticulated horn. In others this 
bone does not project, but is concealed under the skin ; the 
dorsal and pectoral spines are but little apparent. All the 
species are from South America. 

Genus Synodontis, Cuv. — This genus is composed of 
Silurians found in the Nile and Senegal, which have an 
adipose fin, the muzzle narrow, and terminated by an 
ethmoid which supports two small intermaxillary bones 
armed with bristle-like teeth ; the lower jaw composed of 
two short and slender rami, bearing in front a mass of teeth 
which are in the form of very slender lamina? and closely 
packed— each of these teeth is attached to the jaw by a 
flexible and very slender stalk. The stout bony plate which 
covers the head is joined to the nuchal plate, and this extends 
to the first spine of the dorsal fin, which is of very large size, 
and in this respect resembles the first spine of the pectoral 
fins. The inferior barbules, and sometimes the maxillary 
barbules, have small lateral branches. 

Genus Doras, Lac6p&le.— The species of this genus are 
distinguished by the lateral line being armed with bony 

{ilatesj which are carinated, and terminate in a spine. They 
iave a second adipose dorsal fin, and the foremost spine of 
the pectoral and anterior dorsal fins is very large and deeply 
serrated. Osseous plates cover the upper surface of the 
head and extend to the dorsal fin, and the humoral bone is 
produced backwards and pointed. 

These may be regarded, say tbe authors of the ' Histoire 
Naturelle des Poissons,' as the most powerfully armed of 
all the Siluridtv ; thus the Spanish colonists in South 
America have given to them the name Maia-ca'iman (or 
Crocodile-killer), because it often happens that when they 
are swallowed by these large reptiles, the oesophagus and 
pharynx of those animals are so lacerated by the spines of 
the Silurus as to cause death. Strabo also (p. 624, Casaub. 



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attributes similar power to certain fishes of the Nile, which 
he called ehoerus (xotpoc), and which are supposed by some 
naturalists to belong to the modern genus Synodonlis. 

The genus Doras is divided into two sections on account 
of the structure of the mouth. In some it is situated at the 
end of a depressed muzzle, and is provided with two broad 
bands of delicate teeth, both in the upper and lower jaws. 
In others the opening of the mouth is situated on the under 
side of a conical muzzle, and the opening is of a circular 
form — here the teeth are either wanting or are hardly 
visible; the maxillary barbules are sometimes furnished 
with small lateral branches. To the first of these sections 
belongs the Silurus costatus of Linnaeus, a species found in 
the rivers of Guiana. 

A species of Doras, described by Dr. Hancock, in the 
fourth volume of the ZooiogicalJournal, p. 241, under the 
name of D. costatus, is a native of Dernerara, where it is 
called the Flat-head Hassar: it possesses the singular property, 
says Dr. Hancock, of deserting the water, and travelling 
over land. 'In these terrestrial excursions large droves of 
the species are frequently met with during very dry seasons, 
for it is only at such periods that they are compelled to this 
dangerous march, which exposes them as a prey to many 
and such various enemies. When the water is leaving the 
pool in which they commonly reside, the Yarrows (a species 
of Esox, Linn.), as well as the second species of Hassar, to 
which I shall presently refer, bury themselves in the mud, 
while all the other fishes perish for want of their natural 
element, or are pioked up by rapacious birds, &c. Thz flat- 
head Hassars, on the contrary, simultaneously quit the 
place, and march over land in search of water, travelling for 
a whole night, as is asserted by the Indians, in search of 
their object. I have ascertained by trial that they will live 
many hours out of water, even when exposed to the sun's 
rays. Their motion over land is described to be somewhat 
like that of the two-footed lizard. They project themselves 
forwards on their bony arms by the elastic spring of the tail 
exerted sideways. Their progress is nearly as fast as a man 
will leisurely walk. The strong scuta or bands which en- 
velope their body must greatly facilitate their march, in the 
manner of the plates under the belly in serpents, which are 
raised and depressed by a voluntary power, in some mea- 
sure performing the office of feet. It is said that the other 
species, the round head (Callichihys littoralis, Hancock), 
has not been known to attempt such excursions, although 
it is capable of living a long time out of its element ; but, as 
I before observed, it buries itself in the mud in the manner 
of the Yarrows, when the water is drying up. 

* The Indians say these fishes, carry water within them 
for a supply on their journey. There appears to be some 
truth in this statement; for I have observed that the bodies 
of the Hassars do not get dry, like those of other fishes, when 
taken out of the water ; and if the moisture be absorbed, or 
they are wiped dry with a cloth, they have such a power of se- 
cretion that they become instantly moist again. Indeed it 
is scarcely possible to dry the surface while the fish is 
living.' 

Both the species of Hassar here mentioned, it appears, 
make nests in which they lay their eggs in a flattened cluster, 
and cover them over most carefully. This care does not end 
here. They remain by the side of the nest till the spawn is 
hatched, with as much solicitude as a hen guards her eggs ; 
both the male and female Hassar, fa? they are monogamous, 
steadily watching the spawn, and courageously attacking 
any assailant. Hence the negroes frequently take them -by 
putting their hands into the water close to the ne,st; on 
agitating which, the male Hassar spnngs furiously at them, 
and is thus captured. 

4 The round-head forms its nest of grass ; the flai-head, of 
leaves ; both at certain seasons burrow in the bank ; they 
lay their eggs only in wet weather. I have been surprised 
to observe the sudden appearance of numerous nests in a 
morning after rain occurs, the spot being indicated by a 
bunch of froth, which appears on the surface of the water 
over the nest ; below this are the eggs, placed on a bunch of 
fallen leaves or grass, if it be the littoral species, which they 
cut and collect together. By what means this is effected 
seems rather mysterious, as the species are destitute of cut- 
ting teeth. It may possibly be by the use of their serrated 
. arms, which form the first ray of the pectoral fins.' 

Genus Callichthys, Linn. — The species of this genus 
have the body almost entirely covered by largo bony plates, 
these forming four longitudinal ranges, two on each side; 
P.O.. No. 1361. 



the head is also protected by bony plates ; the mouth is but 
slightly cleft, and provided with four long barbules; the 
second dorsal has a bony spine in front ; the foremost ray 
of the pectoral fins is strong, but that of the anterior dorsal 
is comparatively feeble and short. The species of Callichthys 
appear to be confined to the tropical portions of South 
America. [Callichthys.] # 

Genus Arges t Cu\. and Val.— The principal characters of 
this genus are — teeth bifid at the extremity, and with tho 
points curved inwards; palate destitute of teeth; opening of 
ihe mouth large ; maxillary barbules two in number; an- 
terior dorsal fin small, and with the front ray feeble ; adipose 
fin long; the other fins with the outer rays prolonged into 
a filament. 

The species which forms the type of this genus (Argei 
sabalo, Cuv. and Val.) is a small fish about eight inches ftt 
length, which was brought by Mr. Pentlaud from Upper" 
Peru, being found in the neighbourhood of the mission of 
Santa Anna, at a height of from 4500 to 4800 French 
metres above the level of the sea. The specimen was given 
to M. Valenciennes, who prized it much, since it threw a 
light on the affinities of a fish described by Humboldt, under 
the name Pimelodus Cyclopum, relating to which that 
author has given such an interesting account. The Ptme* 
lodus Cydlopum, which M. Valenciennes thinks most pro- 
bably belongs to the present genus, is about four inches in 
length, and is found in lakes at the height of 3500 metres 
above the level of the sea. But the most remarkable cir- 
cumstance relating to these fishes is that they arc fre- 
quently ejected in the eruptions from the volcanoes of the 
kingdom of Quito, and in such quantities that the fetid 
odour arising from their putrefaction was perceived at a 
great distance, and the putrid levers which prevailed in 
those districts were attributed to the miasmata they pro- 
duce. These fishes sometimes issued from the crater of the 
volcano, and sometimes from lateral clefts, but constantly at 
an elevation of from 5000 to 5200 metres above the level of 
the sea. In a few hours millions are seen to descend from 
Cotopaxi, with great masses of cold and fresh water. 

The genus Brontes, Cuv. and Val, is founded upon a fish 
possessing all the characters of the preceding genus (and 
which, it appears, like the Pimelodus, is thrown out from 
the volcanoes of Cotopaxi), but which differs in having no 
adipose fin. 

Genus Astroblepus, Cuv. and Val., consists of but one 
species (the Astroblepus GrixaJvii of Humboldt). This 
fish possesses all the characters of the genus Brontes, hav- 
ing, like it, the head depressed, the eyes directed upwards, 
a single dorsal fin, the external rays of the fins prolonged 
into a filament, and four branchiostegous rays, but it pos- 
sesses no ventral fins. This fish is found at Rio de Palace, 
near Pa pay an a, where it is known by the name pescado 
negro; it attains about fifteen inches in length. 

Genus Heterobranchus, Geoff.— Here the head is fur- 
nished with a rough bony shield, which is fiat and broader 
than in the other Silurians, on account of the lateral lamina 
furnished by the frontals and parietals, which cover the 
orbital and temporal bancs. The operculum is still smaller 
than in the preceding fishes, and what chiefly distinguishes 
these fishes from others of the family is, that, besides the 
ordinary branchiae, they have an apparatus ramifying like 
the branches of a tree adhering to the upper branch of the 
third and fourth branchial rays; the branchiostegous rays 
vary from eight or nine to fourteen or fifteen in number. 
The pectoral spine is strong and denticulated, but there is 
no bony spine to the dorsal fin. The body is elongated and 
naked, and the dorsal and anal fins are greatly extended!^ 
the longitudinal direction. The barbules are eight in num- v - 
ber. Tne species inhabit tho rivers of Africa, and some 
of those of Asia. 

In some species the long dorsal fin is supported through- 
out by rays; these constitute the subgenus Clarias, Val.; 
and in others there is a dorsal fin supported by rays, and a 
second behind this, which is adipose. To them the term 
Heteiobranchus is restricted in the Histoire Naturelle des 
Puissons. 

Genus Saccobranchus, Cuv. and Val. — This genus is 
founded upon the Si turns Singio of Hamilton s * Fishes of the 
Ganges,' which possesses some interesting peculiarities in its 
internal organization, pointed out by Mr. Wyllie, in the * Pro- 
ceedings of (he Zoological Society,' for May, 1840. 

Genus Plotosus, Lacep&de, is distinguished by the elon- 
gated form of the bodv and the possession of two dorsal fins* 

Vol. XXII.— D 

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the hindermost being supported by rays as well as tfie other. 
The head is protected by a bony plate, the lips are fleshy 
and pendent, the jaws are furnished with strong and conical 
teeth, and the vomer with rounded teeth. The species in- 
habit India. 

Genus Aspredo, linn. — The fishes of this genus, says 
Cuvier, present very singular characters, particularly in the 
flattening of the head and in the dilatation of the anterior 
portion of the trunk, which chiefly arises from that of the 
bones of the shoulder; in the proportionate length of the 
tail ; in the small size of their eyes, which are placed in the 
upper surface of the head. The intermaxillaries are situated 
under the ethmoid, directed backwards, and are only fur- 
nished with teeth in their hinder margin. But the most 
striking character consists in there being no power of motion 
in the operculum, a character which distinguishes the pre- 
sent genus from all other osseous fishes. The branchial 
opening consists of a simple slit in the skin under the ex- 
ternal edge of the head, and the branchiostegous membrane 
is provided with five rays ; the dorsal fin is of moderate size ; 
the anal is long; the tail moderate, and the adipose fin is 
wanting: the whole of the body is smooth and without bony 
plates. The species are found in the tropical parts of South 
America. 

Genus Chaca,C\iv. and Val., which is the next in succes- 
sion in the Histoire des Frissons, is founded upon the Pla- 
tystacus Chaca of Buchanan Hamilton. It inhabits the 
rivers of India. 

The genus Sisor is also founded upon a single species 
described (under the name Sisor rhabdophorus) by the 
author just mentioned, in his Fishes of the Ganges. 

Genus Loricaria. — Linnaeus gave this name to a group 
of Siluridce distinguished by the head and body being co- 
vered throughout by large angular bony plates ; they differ 
moreover from certain other Siluri which have the body 
protected by plates (such as Callichthys and Doras), in having 
the opening of the mouth on the under side of the muzzle* 
in this respect approaching the genus Synodontis. The 
intermaxillaries are small and suspended beneath the 
muzzle, and the mandibles are transverse and not united ; 
they are furnished with long and slender teeth, and these 
are flexible and terminate in a hook. The mouth is en- 
circled by a large, circular, membranous veil; the pha- 
ryngeal bones are furnished with numerous teeth rounded 
like paving-stones. The true opercula are fixed as in 
Aspredo, but two small external plates, which are movable, 
appear to take their place. The branchiostegous rays are 
four in number. The first ray of the dorsal, pectoral, and 
anal fins is in the form of a strong spine. 

This genus is subdivided into two subgenera. In the 
one (Hypos iomus, Lacen), there are two dorsal fins; the 
hinder one is small and provided with but one ray. The 
labial veil is covered with papillaD, and provided with a small 
barbule on each Bide. The belly is not protected by plates. 
The species are found in the rivers of South America. In 
the second subgenus, to which Lacepede restricts the term 
Loricaria, there is but one dorsal fin; the labial veil is fur- 
nished with several barbules, and sometimes beset with 
villosities ; the belly is protected by plates. The species of 
this section are also found in South America. 

SILVA Y FIGUERO'A, GARCIA DB, was born of 
illustrious parents at Badajoz, in 1574. At the age of 
fifteen his father sent him to court, where he entered the 
household of Philip II. as page. He then joined the 
Spanish army in Flanders, where he greatly distinguished 
himself, and obtained the command of a company. Having 
jlJ>sequently shown some talent for diplomacy, he was de- 
patched by Fhilip III. on an embassy to Shah Abbas, king 
of Persia, who was willing to conclude a treaty of commerce 
with Spain. Siiva embarked for Goa, where he arrived in 
1614; but the governor of that place, who was a Portu- 
guese, fearing lest Silva's mission should lead to an inquiry 
into the administration of the Spanish possessions in India, 
threw every impediment in his way, and refused to provide 
hun with a vessel and money to prosecute his journey, as he 
was ordered to do. Impatient at the delay, Silva embarked 
on board a native vessel and sailed for Ormuz, which port 
he entered on the 1 2th of October, 1617. Thence he sailed 
to Bandel (Bender Abassi) in the dominions of the Shah, 
when he was well received. He reached Ispahan on the 
18th of April, 1618, by the then usual route of Lar and 
Shiraz. After a short residence in the latter place, Silva 
started for Kazwin, or Casbin* where Shah Abbas was 



18 S I h 

then holding his court, who received him with every mark 
of distinction, but would not hear his message until be had 
himself returned to Ispahan, where he directed Silva to 
wait till his arrival. Accordingly, after a stay of two 
months at Kazwin, the Spanish envoy returned to Ispa- 
han, where Shah Abbas arrived shortly after, in July, 
1619. He granted Silva an audience; but though he ma- 
nifested a wish to conclude a commercial treaty, and to be 
upon friendly terms with Spain, the Shah refused to sub- 
scribe to two conditions stipulated by the ambassador of 
Philip III., namely, that he should restore some fortresses 
belonging to Ormuz, which he had lately seized ; and that 
he should exclude all other European nations from trading 
with his dominions. The negotiations for the treaty being 
thus suspended, Silva left Ispahan on the 25th of August, 
1619, and returned by the same route to Goa, where he 
landed in November, 1620. From Goa he sailed to Spain, 
where he died in 1628. 

During his residence in Persia Silva wrote an itinerary of 
his travels, with an account of such events as came within 
his observation ; and a sketch of the manners and customs 
of the inhabitants of that empire. This work was never 
printed in the original Spanish, though a French translation 
— *~ «— aA in 1667, under the title of • L'Ambassade de Don 



Garcias de Silva Figueroa en Perse, contenant la Politique 
de ce Grand Empire, les Moeurs du Roi Shah Abbas, et une 
relation exacte de tous lesLieux de la Perse etdeslndes oft 
oet Ambassadeur a ele" l'espace de huit annees qu'il y a de- 
meureV par M. Wicqfort, Paris, 1667, 4to. It is one of the 
best accounts of Persia that we possess, and is much com- 
mended by Chardin. During his residence in Goa Silva 
also made an abridgment of Spanish history, which appeared 
at Lisbon soon after his death: 'Breviarium liistori© 
Hispanic©,' Lisbon, 1628, 4 to. A Latin letter ofiiis, dated 
Ispahan, 1619, and addressed to the Marquis of Bedmar,in 
which he gave a short account of his travels, was also pub- 
lished at Antwerp: • Garciee Silva Figueroa, Pbilippi Hi. 
Hispaniarum Indiarumque Regis, ad Persarum Regem Le- 
gati, de Rebus Persarum E pistol a,' Antw., 1620, 8vo. 

SILVER, a metal which has been well known and highly 
valued from the remotest period— circumstances which are 
readily explained by the facts of its occurring frequently 
native, ana possessiug great lustre and fitness for immediate 
use without being subjected to any metallurgic process. 

Ores of Silver. 

Native Silver**- This occurs crystallized, arborescent, or 
dendritic, capillary, reticulated, granular, and massive. The 
primary form of the crystal is a cube. It has no cleavage 
Fracture hackly, dolour white, but externally often 
blackish, owing probably to the presence of a little sulphur. 
Hardness 2*5 to 3. Lustre metallic. Colour pure white, 
except when tarnished. Streak shining. Opaque. Specific 
gravity 10* 47. Malleable, but commonly less so than pure 
silver, probably owing to an admixture of other metals. 
Soluble in nitric acid, and the solution colourless when 
pure, but blue if copper be present; and if antimony, a 
white substance, and if gold, a black one remains undis- 
solved. Fuses into malleable globules before the blowpipe. 

Native silver is met with in most parts of the world, in 
the British Isles, Germany, Hungary, in the north of 
Europe, but especially, and in largest quantity, in Mexico 
and South America. Silver occurs in mixture or com- 
bination with other metals, as already hinted at. The first 
compound of this nature we shall describe is 

Antimonial Silver. Stibiuret of Silver. — This occurs in 
crystals, in grains, and massive. 

Primary form of the crystal a right rhombic prism. 
Cleavage parallel to the terminal plane and short diagonal 
of the prism. Fracture uneven. Colour silver white, or, 
when tarnished, yellowish white. Streak silver white. 
Lustre metallic. Opaque. Slightly malleable. Easily 
frangible. Hardness 3 * 5. Specific gravity 9 • 44 to 9 ' 8. 

Before the blow-pipe on charcoal readily melts, with the 
formation of white antimonial vapour, into a greyish globule, 
which is not malleable, but eventually pure silver is ob- 
tained. * It is not totally soluble in nitric acid, oxide 'of 
antimony remaining undissolved. 

The Massive Varieties are amorphous, and have a gra- 
nular or foliated structure. 

Antimonial silver is found in clay-slate at Andreasberg in. 
the Harz ; in Baden ; near Guadalcanal in Spain ; at Salz- 
burg; and at Allemont in France, 



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The Andreasberg mineral (1), analyzed by Vauquelin, 
and the Baden (2), by Klaproth, gave the annexed re- 
mits • — 

CD (2) 

Silver . .78*0 . 84*76 

Antimony . 22 '0 . 16' 24 

100 100 

Telluric Silver occurs in coarse-grained masses. Colour 

§rey. Lustre metallic. Soft. Somewhat malleable, 
pecific gravity about 8'5. It is dissolved by nitric acid, 
and when heated, and before the blow-pipe, or charcoal, 
gives a fused blackish mass, containing specks of metallic 
silver. 

It is found at the silver-mines of Savdinski, in the Altai 
Mountains, Siberia. 
Analysis by Rose — 

Silver . . .62*42 

Tellurium . . .36*96 

Iron . . . . '24 

99*62 

Native Amalgam is a compound of silver and mercury. 
[Mercury.] 

Auriferous Native Silver occurs crystallized in cubes, 
capillary, and disseminated. Colour yellowish white. Spe- 
cific gravity 14*0 to 17*0. Different varieties gave the 
annexed results to 

Fordyee. Klaproth. Bouftsingault. 



Silver 72 
Gold 28 



34 

64 



15*5 
84*5 



17*6 

82*4 



26 
74 



35-07 
64*93 



100 98 100* 100' 100 100' 

Arsenical Antimonial Silver, or rather Arsenioferru- 
ginous Antimonial Silver. — This substance occurs mam- 
milla ted or in small globular and re ni form masses, and 
sometimes investing other substances. When untarnished it 
is nearly silver white, but is commonly tarnished yellowish 
or blackish; its lustre is metallic. It is harder than anti- 
monial silver, but is sectile and brittle. Specific gravity 9*4. 

Before the blow-pipe antimony and arsenic are volatilized 
with the alliaceous smell, and a globule of impure silver 
remains. Its localities are nearly the same as those of 
antimonial silver. Klaproth obtained from a specimen from 
Andreasberg— 

Silver . . . .12*75 

Antimony . . .4*00 

Iron . . . .44*25 

Arsenic . . .35* 

96 

The native compounds of silver next to be described are 
those in which it occurs in combination with the tioti- 
raetallic elements. It is not found simply combined with 
oxygen, nor at all with azote, hydrogen, or fluorine. 

Chloride of Silver. Horn Silver. Muriate of Siher. 
Laxmannite. — This ore occurs crystallized and massive. 
Primary form of the crystal a cube. No cleavage. Frac- 
ture uneven. Hardness 1 • to 1 • 5. Yields to the pres- 
sure of the nail. Streak shining. Specific gravity 4* 75 to 
5*55. Translucent. Opaque. Lustre resinous. Colour 
grey, yellowish, greenish, and blue of various shades. Mal- 
leable and sectile. Fusible in the flame of a candle. 
Heated with potash by the blow-pipe, yields a globule of 
metallic silver. Insoluble in nitric acid, but dissolved by 
ammonia. When rubbed with a piece of moistened zinc, 
the surface becomes'covered with metallic silver. 

This ore occurs in various parts of Europe and America, 
along with others of the same metal. The largest masses, 
which are of a greenish colour, are brought from Mexico 
and Peru. It is found in veins, chiefly in primitive rocks. 

Two specimens from Peru (1) and from Saxony (2), ana- 
lyzed by Klaproth, gave — 

(1) 
. 24 . 
. 76 . 



Chlorine . 
Silver . 
Oxide of Iron 
Alumina 
Sulphuric acid 



(2) 
21*50 
67*75 
6'00 
1*75 
0'25 



100 



97'25 



Buttermilk Stiver. Earthy Corneou* Silver.— -This is 
regarded as a variety of the foregoing. It is described as 
being of a brownish colour, with occasionally a tinge of 
green or blue. It is opaque, dull, with an earthy fracture, 
and is soft, sectile, and heavy. It occurs massive, and also 



investing other substances. It occurs only at Andreasberg 
in the Harz. 

According to Klaproth, it is composed of — 

Chlorine . . 8' 28 

Silver . . . .24*64 

Alumina . . . 67*08 

100 

Iodide of Silver. Herreralite. — Occurs massive in thin 
plates, which are silver or greyish white, and which become 
bluish by exposure to the air. Transparent. Translucent 
Lustre resinous to adamantine; in thin laminae flexible 
and malleable. Melts on charcoal before the blow-pipe, 
vapour of iodine being evolved, and globules of silver 
remaining. Found at Abarradon near Mazapil, in the 
state of 2acatecas, Mexico, in serpentine. 

Sulphuret of Silver. Vitreous Silver. Silver Glance. 
Henkelite. — Occurs crystallized and massive. Primary 
form a cube. Fracture fine-grained and uneven ; sometimes 
small and flat conchoidal. Colour lead-grey; blackish 
when tarnished. Lustre metallic. Opaque. Hardness 
2'0 to 25. Malleable. Sectile. Specific gravity about 7*2. 
When heated by the blow-pipe, sulphur is expelled and 
silver remains. It occurs in Saxony, Bohemia, and in great 
abundance in Mexico. It has been occasionally found in 
Cornwall, and in most silver-mines. 

Analysis, (1) by Klaproth, of a specimen from Freiberg, 
(2) by Berzelius : — 

0) (2) 

Sulphur ... 15 12*95 

Silver ... 85 8705 

100 100 

Black Sulphuret of Silver. Earthy Silver Glance. — 
Derived from the decomposition of the last mentioned. 
Occurs massive and pulverulent. Fracture uneven. Colour 
dark lead-grey, inclining to black. Devoid of lustre, or 
only feebly glimmering. Somewhat sectile. Streak shin- 
ing, metallic. It is found in Norway, Siberia, Hungary, &c, 
usually investing other silver -ores or filling up cavities 
in them. 

Sulphuret of Silver and Arsenic. Light Bed Silver. 
Proustite. — Primary form a rhomboid. Colour cochineal 
to aurora red ; streak lighter. Lustre adamantine. Trans- 
lucent to transparent. Specific gravity 5*5 to 5*6. 

It is found at Joachirasthal, Johanngeorgenstadt, Anna- 
berg, &c. 

Rose's analysis (1) and Proust's (2) give the following as 
the composition of a specimen from Joachimsthal : — 



(1) 




(2) 




Sulphur . . 


19*51 


Sulphuret of Silver . 


. 74-35 


Silver . . . 


64'67 


Sulphuret of Arsenic 


. 25' 


Arsenic . . 


1509 




— 


Antimony 


00'69 




9925 



99'96 

Sulphuret of Silver and Antimony. Buby Silver. Dai 
Bed Silver. Braardite.— Occurs crystallized and massive. 
Primary form a rhomboid. Cleavage parallel to the primary 
planes, usually indistinct. Fracture conchoidal. Colour, 
by reflected light, from lead-grey to iron-black ; by trans- 
mitted light, from brilliant to dark red. Lustre adamantine. 
Translucent. Opaque. Hardness 2'0 to 2*5. Extremely 
brittle. Streak red. Specific gravity 5'8 to 5'9. 

Massive Varieties.— Structure granular, compact, lamel- 
lar, dendritic, amorphous. 

It is found in many parts of Europe and America, as 
Germany, Norway, Mexico and Peru, and also in Corn- 
wall. 

According to Bonsdorff, a specimen from Andreasberg 
yielded by analysis- 
Sulphur . 16*609 
Silver . . . 58'949 
Antimony . . 22846 

98-404 
Sulphuret of Silver and An timony. Miargyrite. — Occurs 
crystallized. Primary form an oblique rhombic prism. 
Cleavage imperfect. Fracture uneven. Colour iron-black 
in mass ; but in thin fragments deep red by transmitted light. 
Nearly opaque. Lustre bright metallic. Hardness 20 to 
2'5. Very sectile. Streak dark red. Surfaces of the crys- 
tals usually striated. Specific gravity 52 to 5'4. 

It is found with argentiferous arsenical pyrites at Brauns- 
dorft, near Freiberg, Saxony. 

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According to Rose, it yielded — 
Sulphur 


21 '95 


Silver 


36*40 


Antimony 

Copper 

Iron 


39*14 
106 
0*62 



9917 

Sulphurel of Silver and a little Iron. Biegsamer Sil- 
berglanz.— Occurs crystalline and massive. Crystals small 
and tabular. Cleavage parallel to the terminal planes. 
Colour nearly black. Lustre metallic. Very soft. Readily 
separable iuto thin flexible laminae 

Found only in Hungary aud at Freiberg. 
According to Wollaston, this mineral (which is extremely, 
rare) consists of sulphuret of silver with a little iron. 

Sulphuvet of Silver and Iron. Sternbergite. Flexible 
Sulphuret of Silver. — Occurs crystallized. Primary form 
a right rhombic prism. Cleavage parallel to the terminal 
plane, distinct. Larainm very flexible. Colour dark-brown, 
often with a blue tarnish. Streak black. Lustre metallic. 
Hardness 1*0 to 1*5. Specific gravity 4*2 to 4*25. 

It is found at Johanngeorgenstadt, Schnecberg, and Jo- 
achimstahl in Bohemia, with other silver-ores. 

A specimen from the last-mentioned locality yielded, ac- 
cording to the analysis of Zippe — 

Sulphur . . . 30 

Silver . . 33*2 

Iron ... 36- 

. 99-2 

Brittle Sulphuret of Silver, Antimony, and Iron. Brittle 
Silver Glance. — Occurs crystallized. Primary form a right 
rhombic prism. Crystals commonly macled. Fracture 
usually conchoidal, with a shining metallic lustre. Colour 
dark grey or iron-grey. Hardness 20 to 3. Specific 
gravity 5*9 to 6*4. 

It is found in Saxony, Bohemia, Hungary, Siberia, and 
Mexico. 

Analysis of a specimen from Frieberg by 

Klaproth. Ruse. 

Sulphur 12 . 16 42 

Silver . . 66'5 . 68*54 

Antimony . . 10* . 1468 

Iron ... 5* . 000 

Copper . 0*5 0*64 

985 tyO'28 ! 

Sulphuret of Silver and Copper. Silberkupferglanz.— 
Occurs massive. Compact. Fracture brilliant, granular, 
flat conchoidal. Colour dark lead-grey. Streak shining. 
Lustre metallic. Opaque. Soft. Specific gravity 6*25. 
Found at Schlangenberg, near Col i van in Siberia. 
Analysis by Stromeyer : — 

Sulphur '. 15*96 

Sdver . . . 52-87 

Copper , . . 3083 

Iron . . . 0034 

~+ 100 

Sulphuret of Silver, Antimony, and Copper. Romelite. 
Mine d 'Argent grise Antimoniale. — Occurs crystallized. 
Primary form a right rhombic prism. Cleavage parallel to. 
the lateral planes. Colour nearly silver-white. Lustre 
shilling, metallic. Opaque. Hardness 2 to 2*5. Ex- 
tremely brittle. Specific gravity 5*5 to 5'6. 

It consists principally of sulphur and the metals above 
named, but in proportions not yet determined. 

Sulphuret of Silver, Arsenic, Antimony, and Copper. 
Polybasite. Brittle Silver. — Occurs crystallized. Primary 
form a right rhombic prism. Cleavage imperfect. Fracture 
uneven. Colour iron-black. Lustre metallic. Translucent. 
Opaque. Hardness 20 to 2*5. Specific gravity 6*269. 

Occurs in Bohemia, Saxony, and other parts of Europe; 
and in Mexico and Peru. 

Analysis (I) of a specimen from Mexico by Rose, and 
(2) from Freiberg by Brandes : — 

(1) (2) 

Sulphur . . 17*04 . 19*40 
Silver . . 64 29 . 65'50 

Arsenic . . 374 . 3*30 

Antimony . . 5*09 . 00 

Copper . . 9-93 . 375 

Iron . . 006 . , $*46 

100 15 9741 

Sulphuret of Silver, Iron, Qopger, Bismuth, and Lead. 



Bismutkfa S^t7tfr.^*Orc-aniaadcularervstftls«nd massive. 
Fracture uneven. Colour, when first broken, lead-grey* bat 
liable to tarnish. • ■ 

Mastive Varieties disseminated, amorphous. Fracture 
fine-grained, uneven. Lustre metallic. Opaque. Soft. 
Sectile and brittle. 

It is found accompanying pyrites and galena at Schap- 
pach in the valley of Kinzig, Baden. 
Analysis by Klaproth : — 

Sulphur . • 

Silver . 

Iron . . 

Copper 

Bismuth 

Lead • • • 

96-5 

Seleniuret of Silver. Selensilver.— Occurs crystallized. 
Primary form a cube. Occurs in thin plates. « Hardness 
between gypsum and calcspar. Flexible. Specific gravity 
80. Colour iron-black ; streak the same, but brighter. 
Occurs at Til ke rode in the Harz, associated with seleniuret 
of lead. 
Analysis by G. Rose ;— 

Selenium . . . 24'A5 

Silver . . . , . 65*56 

Seleniuret of lead, with a little iron 679 

p. 96M0 

Seleniuret of Silver and Copper. Ruhairite.— Occurs 
massive. Structure granular. Colour grey. Lustre shin- 
ins:. Disposed in films on calcareous spar. 

Found in a copper-mine at Skrickerum in Smaland, 
Sweden. 
Analysis by Berzelius :— 

Selenium • . . 26* 

Silver . . . 38*93 

Copper . . . 23*05 

Earthy matter . . 890 

Carbonic acid aud loss 3*12 



100 



Carbonate of Silver and Antimony, i Selbite.— Oeeurg 
massive and disseminated. Fracture uneven. Colour 
greyish-black. Structure fine granular. Lustre metallic 
Opaque. Soft. Brittle. Heavy. 
Found at Altwolfach in the Black Forest. \ 
Analysis by Selb : — 
Carbonic acid . 
Silver . , . 

Oxide of antimony and a trace of \ 
copper • . . .j 



12 
72-6 

15-5 



100-1 

This analysis cannot however be correct, if the ore contain 
carbonate of silver. . ? 

Arseniateof Silver end Iron. Gansekothig+etz ; Goose- 
dung Silver ore. —Occurs massive. Mammillated. Fracture 
conchoidal ; sometimes earthy, and mixed with cobaltorc. 
Colour yellow or pale green. Streak white. Lustre resinous. 

Found chiefly in the mines of Clausthal in the Harz ; 
and also an Cornwall, and at Allemont in France. 

It does not appear to have been accurately analyzed. 

Having now mentioned the principal minerals which con- 
tain silver, it is to be observed that few of them are largely 
worked as ores: the principal are native silver, chloride of 
silver, and sulphuret of silver. The first, When the quantity 
is considerable, is separable by mere fusion; the chloride 
and the sulphuret are obtained by amalgamation with mer- 
cury; the sulphuret being first converted into a chloride 
by treatment with common salt, &c» A considerable quafr 
tity of silver is also procured from the lead-ore of this 
country by cupellation. 

Properties of Silver. 
The properties of silver are, that it has * purer white 
colour than any other metal; it has great britttancy, and is 
susceptible of a very, high polish* Its specific gravity is 
about 10-4 when east, and I0'5 t to 10*6 when stamped or 
rolled. It is sufficiently soft to be cut with a knife. It it 
very malleable and ductile, so that it may be beaten into 
leaves about 1 -10,000th. of an inch in thickness, and drawn: 
into wire much finer than a human hair* Jt does not rust 
or oxidize by exposure to the, eir, but wnen tbenir contains 
sulphureous vapours it tarnishes, becoming first yellowish 
and afterwards black* Three melalsonly, vis. iron,, copper, 
and platinum, exceed silver in tenacity,; u&'mA'W of a 



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line in diameter supports rathe? more than 187 pounds 
without breaking. When exposed to a bright red heat 
stiver melts, which, according to Daniell, is equivalent to 
1873° of Fahrenheit; on fusion its appearance is extremely 
Brilliant, and during this it absorbs oxygen from the air to the 
amount of about 22 times its volume, and this it gives out 
either by cooling or by being poured into water. When leaf- 
silver or fine silver-wire is heated by voltaic electricity, it 
burns with a fine green flame ; if intensely heated in the 
open fire, it boils, and a portion is vaporised. 

Oxygen and Silver combine to form three compounds, 
▼iz. suboxide, protoxide, and peroxide. 

Protoxide of Silver is prepared by oxidizing and dissolv- 
ing the metal in dilute nitric acid; when lime or barytes 
water, or solution of potash or soda, is added to the solution 
of nitrate of silver, a precipitate is formed, which is the prot- 
oxide of silver, composed of 

One equivalent of oxgyen . . 8 

One equivalent of silver . 108 

Equivalent . 116 

The properties of this oxide are, that it is of a brownish 
colour, inodorous, tastless, very slightly if at all soluble in 
water; it is decomposed by the action of light, being reduced 
to metallic silver and oxygen gas, and the same effect is 
produced by heat. It is insoluble in the alkalis or alkaline 
earths in general, but is rapidly and largely dissolved by 
ammonia. Nitric, acetic, sulphuric, and some other acids 
combine with it readily, but it is decomposed by hydro- 
chloric acid, the results being chloride of silver and water. 
It gives a yellow colour to glass and porcelain. This is the 
oxide which is the basis of all the common salts of silver. 

Suboxide of Silver was first procured by Faraday, by the 
partial decomposition of the protoxide ; when the ammonia- 
cal solution of this is exposed to the air, its surface becomes 
covered with a pellicle or dark film, which is the suboxide in 
question ; it is probably owing to the decomposition of a 
portion of the ammonia', which in this case yields hydrogen 
to a part of the oxygen of the protoxide of silver. 

According to Wbhier, it may be obtained also by subject- 
ing citrate of silver to a temperature of 212°. 

Suboxide of silver appears to be a di-oxide, composed of— 
One equivalent of oxygen . . 8 

Two equivalents of silver « • 216 

Equivalent • 224 
It does not readily, if at all, form salts with acids. 
Peroxide of Silver has been stated to be obtained by elec- 
trizing a weak solution of silver. It separates at the positive 
pole in the state of minute acicular crystals. 

Sulphuric and phosphoric acid decompose it with forma- 
tion of respective salts of the protoxide, and by ammonia it 
» acted upon and decomposed with great energy. 
It appears to be a bmoxide, composed of 

Two equivalents of oxygen . 16 

One equivalent of silver . . 108 

Equivalent • 124 
Chlorine and Silver readily combine, and the compound, 
as already mentioned, forms one of ore of silver. 

It may be artificially formed in several ways, fi rst by hea t- 
ing the metal in a finely divided state in the gas, or by 
adding any soluble chloride, as common salt, to nitrate or 
any soluble salt of silver, except the hyposulphite. 

When recently precipitated, or if kept from the action of 
light, chloride of silver is perfectly white, but by exposure to 
dayljght it becomes slowly bluish-white, and eventually 
almost Mack. The direct rays of the sun produce this effect 
almost instantaneously ; on this property is founded its use 
in photogenic drawing : the exact nature of the change which 
takes place does not appear to have been satisfactorily 
determined This chloride is quite insoluble in water, either 
<sold or hot; the stronger acids take it up sparingly, and it is 
precipitated from them by dilution ; it is dissolved however 
to some extent by hyposulphuroos acid, and readily and 
largely by ammonia. It is decomposed by hydrosulphuric 
acids, and soluble sulphurets, which immediately blacken it 
by converting it into sulphuret of silver; it is also decom- 
posed by hydrogen 1 gas, and by iron and zinc when put into 
contact with it and water. By mere heat it undergoes no 
change except fusion, and when it has solidified on cooling, 
it ha* the appearance of horn; hence the name of horn silver 
tot the native Chloride. 



It is composed of— 

One equivalent of chlorine • * 36 

One equivalent Of silver . 108 

Equivalent * 144 
Chloride of silver is largely and advantageously used 
both in qualitative and quantitative analyses, to determine 
the presence and quantity of chlorine, chlorides, and hydro- 
chlorates. 

Fluorine and Silver may be combined to form fluoride of 
silver. It is on uncrystallizable soluble compound ; when 
heated it fuses ; and at a higher temperature and exposed 
to the air it is slowly reduced. 
It is composed of 

One equivalent of fluorine • • 18 

One equivalent of silver • . 108 

Equivalent . 1 26 
Sulphur and Silver form sulphuret of silver; this com* 
pound has been already noticed as existing in nature and 
constituting the vitreous silver-ore. It may be prepared by- 
direct action, as by heating alternate layers of silver and 
sulphur ; thus obtained, it is a soft malleable dark-coloured 
compound ; it may be procured also by decomposing solu- 
tion of nitrate or of ammoniuret of silver by hydrosulphuric 
acid, hydros ulphates, or soluble sulphurets. It is insoluble 
in water, ammonia, or other alkalis or acids, except nitric 
acid, which decomposes and is decomposed by it with the 
formation of sulphate of silver. 
It is composed of— 

One equivalent of sulphur • 16 - 

Oue equivalent of silver . 108 

Equivalent . 1£4 
Phosphorus and Sitver. — The sesubstances combine when 
heated together; and form a white brittle compound; when 
fused and exposed to the air, it loses phosphorus. It may be 
formed either by projecting phosphorus on red-hot silver, 
or by heating a mixture of silver filings, phosphoric acid, 
and charcoal. 
It is composed of 

One equivalent of phosphorus . 16 

One equivalent of silver . . 1 08 

Equivalent . 124 
Iodine and Silver readily combine when hydriodic acid 
or iodide of potassium is added to a solution of nitrate of 
silver. The iodide of silver formed is precipitated of a; 
greenish-yellow colour: it is insoluble in water or ammonia,, 
and decomposed when heated with potash ; when fused, it 
acquires a red colour, and is discoloured by light ; in the 
invention of the Daguerreotype, a film of this compound, on 
the surface of a polished plate of silver, is the substance 
that receives the impressions of light. It is decomposed by 
concentrated nitric or sulphuric acid. 
It is composed of 

One equivalent of iodine « 126 

One equivalent of silver . . 108 

Equivalent . 234 

The compounds containing oxide of silver consist of the* 
ammoniuret and the oxisalts of silver : we shall first mention 
the 

Ammoniuret of Silver. — Protoxide of silver dissolves with- 
great readiness in ammonia, and by careful operation the 
substance discovered by Bert hoi let, and called fulminating 
silver^ is obtained. It should be prepared only in very small 
quantity at a timet on account of the facility and violence 
with which it explodes ; in exploding it forms water, sets 
free azotic gas, and metallic silver, remains ; it is procured by 
adding a small quantity of solution of ammonia to oxide of 
silver; a portion is dissolved, and a black powder, which is 
the fulminating ammoniuret of silver remains; it may be- 
also formed by adding solution of potash from the amnion io- 
nitrate of silver ; a very gentle heat or slight friction causes, 
it to explode, sometimes even before it is dry. Its exact 
composition has not been determined. 

We come now to the compounds of the oxacids and oxide 
of silver, or the oxisalts of silver ; it is the protoxide onljr 
which enters into combination with acids; at least they are 
the only well known compounds. The first we shall men- 
tion is 

Nitrate of Silver.— This is one of the moit important 



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salts of silver. It is generally prepared by adding the metal 
to the diluted acid, in which case the silver is oxidized by 
decomposing a portion of the nitric acid, and that which re- 
mains undecomposed dissolves the oxide formed. It may also 
be prepared, but less advantageously, by dissolving the prot- 
oxide of silver in the dilute acid ; in this case no nitric 
oxide is evolved, for no nitric acid is decomposed. The 
solution is colourless, and by evaporation colourless crystals 
are readily obtained, the primary form of which is a right 
rhombic prism. Nitrate of silver has a bitter metallic taste, 
is soluble in about its own weight of water at CO , and in half 
its weight of boiling water ; the solution is neutral to litmus- 
paper. Cold alcohol dissolves only a little of this salt, but 
when boiling takes up a considerable quantity of it, the 
greater part of which separates on cooling. 

By the action of light, especially when in contact with 
organic matter, nitrate of silver is rendered of a dark 
colour, and is then insoluble in water. When moderately 
heated, nitrate of silver fuses, and being then cast in a mould 
in small cylindrical sticks, it constitutes the argenti 
nitras of the Pharmacopoeia, commonly called lunar caustic ; 
if the heat applied be too great, the salt is decomposed, 
oxide of silver being left, which, if still more strongly heated, 
gives metallic silver. When sulphur, phosphorus, or char- 
coal is mixed with nitrate of silver, and struck on an anvil, 
detonation ensues, and metallic silver is obtained; the 
experiment should be made on very small quantities, 
Nitrate of silver is decomposed by simply placing charcoal 
or phosphorus in its solution, metallic silver being deposited 
in the crystalline state ; the same effect is produced by 
several metals, and more especially copper, which is used in 
silver- refilling for precipitating the silver from the nitrate 
in a pure state. 

Chlorate of Silver may be obtained by dissolving prot- 
oxide of silver in chloric acid ; the solution yields small 
rhombic crystals, which are soluble in four parts of water at 
60°. This salt is not applied to any use. 

Nitrate of silver is decomposed by sulphuric and phos- 
phoric acids, and their soluble salts, sulphate and phosphate 
of silver, are thrown down. Potash and soda and the 
alkaline earths precipitate protoxide of silver; ammonia pro- 
duces the same effect, but when added in excess, redissolves 
the oxide at first precipitated. Hydrosulphuric acid, hydro- 
sulphates, and soluble sulphurets occasion the formation and 
precipitation of black sulphuret of silver. 

Chlorine partially, and soluble chlorides and hydrochloric 
acid and hydrochlorates, perfectly, decompose nitrate of silver, 
cnloride of silver being precipitated. It is on this account 
that nitrate of silver is employed, and with great accuracy, in 
both qualitative and quantitative analyses. 

Nitrate of silver is composed of 

One equivalent of nitric acid . 54 

One equivalent of protoxide of silver 1 1 6 

Equivalent . 170 
Besides the uses already named, nitrate of silver is em- 
ployed by precipitation with carbonate of soda, &c. for 
writing on linen ; it is commonly called indelible ink. 

Carbonate of Silver is prepared by adding a solution of 
carbonate of potash, or of soda, to one of nitrate of silver. 
It is a white substance, insoluble in water, but dissolved by 
ammonia, and decomposed by acids; it is blackened by ex- 
posure to light, and readily decomposed by heat. It is pro- 
bably composed of 

One equivalent of carbonic acid . 22 
One equivalent of oxide of silver .116 

Equivalent . 138 
Sulphate of Silver.— This salt may be formed by boiling 
finely divided silver in strong sulphuric acid, by dissolving 
the protoxide in dilute sulphuric acid, or by adding a solu- 
tion of sulphate of soda to one of nitrate of silver, when it 
is thrown down as a crystalline precipitate. 

Sulphate of silver is a colourless salt, soluble in about 90 
parts of water at 60° ; a saturated boiling solution deposits 
crystals on cooling, which are prismatic and anhydrous; 
when strongly heated, the acid is expelled, and metallic sil- 
ver remains. It is sometimes employed as a chemical re- 
agent, and is composed of 

One equivalent of sulphuric acid . 40 
One equivalent of oxide of silver . 1 16 



Equivalent 



156 



It is decomposed by chlorides and sulphurets, in the same 
manner as the nitrate of silver. 

Sulphite of Silver may be obtained by adding sulphite of 
potash to a solution of nitrate of silver, or by digesting oxide 
of silver in a solution of the acid. It has the form of crys- 
talline grains, and, unlike most other salts of silver, is 
stated to retain its whiteness when exposed to light. It is 
composed of 

One equivalent of sulphurous acid . 32 
One equivalent of oxide of silver .116 

Equivalent . .148 
Hyposulphate of Siloer is prepared by digesting carbonate 
of silver in hyposulphuric acid. It crystallizes in prisms. 

Hyposulphite of Silver.— It is obtained by gradually 
adding a weak solution of nitrate of silver to a dilute one of 
hyposulphite of soda. It is a precipitate of a grey colour, 
and the supernatant liquor is stated by Herschel, who has 
particularly examined this salt, to be remarkably sweet, 
without any metallic flavour. It is also formed when 
chloride of silver is dissolved in a hyposulphite. This salt 
is very liable to spontaneous decomposition, and becomes 
black owing to the formation of sulphuret of silver. The 
hyposulphites have been advantageously employed in re- 
moving of the unchanged salt of silver in photogenic draw- 
ings. Hyposulphite of silver is composed of 

One equivalent of hyposulphurous acid 48 
One equivalent of oxide of silver . 116 

Equivalent . .164 
Phosphate of Silver. — This is prepared by adding a solu- 
tion of the common neutral phosphate of soda to one of 
nitrate of silver ; a yellow precipitate is formed, which is 
quickly discoloured by exposure to light; becomes brown 
when heated, but regains its yellow tint on cooling ; and 
when strongly heated, it melts. It is soluble in nitric and 
phosphoric acid. It is a subsesquiphosphate, composed of 
1 equivalent of phosphoric acid . 36 
l£ equivalent of oxide of silver . 1 74 

Equivalent . .210 
Pyrophosphate of Silver is obtained by heating neutral 
phosphate of soda so as to expel its water, and adding a so- 
lution of it to one of nitrate of silver. This precipitate is of 
a white colour. Like the preceding, it is composed of one 
equivalent each of acid and base. 

We shrill mention the properties of a few of the salts 
formed by the combination of the vegetable acids with oxide 
of silver. 

Acetate of Silver. — It may be prepared by dissolving oxide 
of silver in acetic acid, or, as it is a salt of' slight solubility, 
in water, by decomposing nitrate of silver with acetate of 
soda, when it is thrown down as a crystalline ttocculent 
precipitate. It is a colourless salt, sparingly soluble in 
water, and decomposed at a red heat. It is occasionally 
used as a chemical re- agent. It consists of 

One equivalent of acetic acid . 51 

One equivalent of oxide of silver .116 

Equivalent .167 

Benzoate of Silver may be obtained either by digesting 
moist oxide of silver in a solution of benzoic acid, or by 
adding a benzoate to it It is a white anhydrous com- 
pound. 

Citrate of Silver is formed by adding a citrate to nitrate of 
silver. It is an insoluble white powder, which blackens by 
exposure to light, and detonates slightly when heated. It 
is composed of 

One equivalent of citric acid . 56 

One equivalent of oxide of silver . 116 

Equivalent . .172 
Oxalate of Silver is precipitated when oxalic dcid or an 
oxalate is added to nitrate of silver. It is insoluble in 
water, white, and rendered black by exposure to light. It 
detonates slightly when struck on an anvil. It is soluble in 
nitric acid, and decomposed by hydrochloric adid. It is 
probably composed of 

One equivalent of oxalic acid . . 36 
One equivalent of oxide of silver .116 

Equivalent . .152 
Cyanide of Silver is prepared by adding hydrocyanic acid 



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to a solution of nitrate of silver; the hydrogen of the acid 
uniting with the oxygen of the oxide of silver, water is 
formed, and the cyanogen and silver combine, and form 
cyanide of silver, which is precipitated. It is colourless, in- 
soluble in water or solution of potash or soda, but readily 
taken up by ammonia. Nitric and sulphuric acid act but 
slightly upon it, unless concentrated and heated ; hydro- 
chloric acid decomposes it, and hydrocyanic acid and chlo- 
ride of silver result, and this is one of the methods of pro- 
curing the last-mentioned acid, adopted in the London 
Pharmacopoeia. It is decomposed by hydrosulphuric acid, 
by which sulphuret of silver and hydrocyanic acid are ob- 
tained. It is composed of 

One equivalent of cyanogen . . 26 
One equivalent of silver . . . 108 

Equivalent . .134 

Ferrocyanide qf Silver is obtained when ferrocyanide of 
potassium is added to nitrate of silver. It is a white insolu- 
ble substance. 

Cyanate qf Silver is formed when cyanate of potash is 
added to nitrate of silver. It is a white powder, slightly 
soluble in hot water, and also in ammonia. It blackens 
when heated, and burns with deflagration, and there are 
produced di cyanide of silver, cyanic acid, carbonic acid, and 
azotic gas. 

Fulminate qf Silver. Fulminating Silver.— This very 
explosive compound is formed by dissolving 60 grains of 
silver in half an ounce of nitric acid of specific gravity 1*38 ; 
to the solution are to be added two ounces of alcohol of spe- 
cific gravity 088, and the mixture is to be heated in a capa- 
cious flask; a white flocculent precipitate soon begins to 
appear, and when ebullition commences, the flask is to be 
removed from the heat; the effervescence still continues, 
and when it has ceased, the product is to be collected on a 
filter, washed with cold water, and dried at a temperature 
not exceeding 100° Fahrenheit. 

Fulminate of silver is a greyish-white crystalline powder. 
It becomes darker by exposure to light ; it dissolves in about 
40 parts of boiling water, and separates, as the solution 
cools, in minute crystals. In the quantity even of a half 
grain it detonates violently, either by the action pf heat, 
electricity, strong sulphuric acid, or friction. When placed 
on one flint, and slightly touched with another, explpsjon 
also takes place. It has been known to detonate with great 
violence when a little has remained between a stopper and 
the neck of a bottle, on screwing in the stopper. It should 
be preserved therefore in small portions, in paper, in a wide- 
mouthed corked vial. It is composed of 

One equivalent of fulminic acid • 68 
Two equivalents of oxide of silver . 232 



Equivalent . 300 

Alloys of Silver. — Little or nothing is known respecting 
the alloys of silver with the following metals : — Potassium, 
sodium, and the metals of the alkaline earths ; manganese, 
cadmium, nickel, uranium, tellurium, titanium, cerium, 
chromium, and vanadium. 

Iron and silver combine with difficulty. They separate 
on cooling, the iron retaining about one-eightieth of silver, 
and the silver about one-thirtieth of iron. According to 
Faraday and Stodart, steel containing about one five-hun- 
dredth of silver forms a good alloy for cutting instruments. 
Iron and silver form a bluish-white granular alloy; tin and 
silver, a white, hard, brittle alloy. When cobalt and silver 
are fused together, they separate during cooling, each re- 
taining a portion of the other. Lead and silver give a dull 
brittle alloy; antimony and silver, a white brittle alloy; 
arsenic and silver form a grey, brittle, granular compound, 
containing about 14 per cent. of the former metal. Bismuth 
and silver give a yellowish-white, brittle, lamellar alloy; 
molybdenum forms a compact, brittle, grey, granular com- 
pound with silver; and tungsten, a brown, slightly malleable 
button ; copper and silver readily combine, and the silver is 
rendered harder by it without much deterioration of colour; 
the standard silver of this country is composed of 11' 10 silver 
and 0*90 copper. Mercury and silver amalgamate readily, 
and this compound is sometimes employed for plating, but 
this operation is now being most advantageously carried on 
by precipitation by means of voltaic electricity. 

Properties qf the Salts qf Silver. — The solutions of the 
salts of silver are recognised by the following, among other 
properties which have been occasionally mentioned : — 



They give a white precipitate, insoluble in water or in 
dilute acids, but readily in ammonia, by chlorides and hy- 
drochlorates ; the precipitate becomes black by exposure to 
the light. 

Metallic silver is precipitated by copper and the solution 
of protosulphateof iron ; black sulphuret, by hydrosulphuric 
acid and hydrosulphates. A yellow precipitate by arsenious 
acid and phosphate of soda ; a red-brown, by arseniates ; a 
crimson, by chromates ; and white, by the ferrocyanide of po- 
tassium. 

With respect to the uses of silver it is scarcely requisite 
to say anything, as they are well known in its applica- 
tion to coin and the formation of vessels of great beauty and 
durability. 

SILVER, PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION. 
Silver-ores are found chiefly in veins which traverse the 
primary and the older of the secondary stratified rocks, but 
especially the former ; and also the unstratified rocks, such as 
granite and porphyry, which are associated with the above. 
Some of the richest mines in South America are situated in 
primary strata; also in limestone and in grauwacke, and in 
still more secondary strata. In some of the miues of Peru, and 
in those of Kongsberg in Norway and Freiburg in Saxony, 
silver has been discovered in masses weighing from 100 to 
800 lbs. In the mines of Europe the veins are numerous and 
6lender ; in some of the mines in the Harz Mountains and in 
the Hungarian mines the veins occur in a small number ot 
spots, and are of considerable dimensions. In three of the 
richest districts of Mexico there is only one principal vein, 
which is worked in different places. One of these veins, in 
the district of Guanaxuato, is from 130 to 148 feet wide, and 
it has been traced and worked to an extent of nearly eight 
miles. 

In Mexico there were 600 mining establishments, called 
Reales, at the time of Humboldt's visit, and from 3000 to 
4000 veins or masses were worked. The most common ores 
are the sulphuret of silver, antimoniai silver, and muriate 
of silver. 

The average richness of all the ores in Mexico is from 3 
to 4 ounces per quintal of 102 lbs. In one of the Mexican 
mines a working of one hundred feet in length yielded in six 
months 432,274 lbs. troy of silver, equal in value to about 
1,000,000/. In Chili some of the mines yield only 8oz. in 
5000 lbs* of ore; but in the rich mine of Copiapo, discovered 
in 1832, the ore frequently contains 60 or 70 per cent, of silver. 
The average produce of the mines in Saxony is from three 
to four ounces in the quintal. The lead- mines of Craven 
in Yorkshire contained 230 ounces per ton; and those of 
Cardiganshire, worked in the reign of Charles I., yielded 
80 ounces. The average proportion of the lead-mines of 
the north of England is 1 2 ounces per ton. Even when 
the proportion of silver is so low as eight ounces, or one 
grain per 41b., it has been found profitable to separate it. 

The pure metal is separated from the ore by various pro- 
cesses; by mechanical division, roastings to separate the 
sulphur and other volatile matter, and melting at different 
stages of purification, with the addition of fluxes of various 
sorts. Refining is performed by amalgamation with quick- 
silver, the two metals being afterwards separated by dis- 
tilling off the quicksilver. 

The produce of the Mexican mines averaged annually 
4,800,000/. from 1793 to 1803, of which nineteen- twentieths 
were silver. In the first ten years of the present century 
the average annual value was about 5,000,000/., the quan* 
tity of pure silver annually produced in that time being 
1,440,650 troy lbs. The mines of Potosi in Peru are the 
most famous in South America. [Potosi.] The produce 
Qf the Chilian mines in 1832 was about 1,000,000 ounces. 
At the commencement of the present century Humboldt 
estimated the annual produce of the silver-mines of Chili, 
Peru, Buenos Ay res, and New Grenada, at nearly 700,000 lbs. 
troy, valued at 2,074,476/. sterling. 

The annual average of both gold and silver coined in the 
different mints of Spanish America was estimated, in 1810, 
at d millions sterling, namely, in Mexico 24 millions of dol- 
lars; Lima, 6 millions; Potosi, 4£ millions; Santa Fe* and 
Santiago, each 1} million; and Popayan and Guatemala, 
nearly 1 million. The proportion of silver to gold coined at 
all these mints was stated as 30 to 1 ; but the proportion of 
silver to gold produced from all the American mines was as 
62 to 1 ; and from the mines of oil countries as 52 to 1. 
In a work published at Paris in 1807 by M. Brongniart, the 
Value of the gold and silver brought annually into circulation 



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from all parte of tlio world was estimated at nearly 46 mil- 
lions of dollars ; of which 36 were from the mines of Spanish 
America, 4£ from those of Portuguese America, and 54 from 
Hie mines of the Old World. (Report of Bullion Com- 
tnittee, 1810.) 

The most productive mines in Europe are those in Saxony, 
Austria, Hungary, Norway, Russia, and Spain. The mines 
in Saxony have been worked since the tenth century. The 
average annual produce of all the European mines in the 
last twenty years of the eighteenth century did not exceed 
600,000/. in value. In the early part of the thirteenth cen- 
tury the mines of Schneeberg in Saxony are said to have 
yielded 600,000/. annually ; but taking the average of all 
the mines of late years, the annual produce does not, ac- 
cording to the estimate of Mr. Jacob, exceed 400,000 lbs., or 
100.000C. in value. The mines of Chemnitz unci Kremnitz 
in Hungary have been worked about a thousand years. 
Those of the Tyrol have long ceased to be productive. The 
mine of Kongsbcrg in Norway was probably the richest in 
Europe during the middle df the last century. It yielded 
649,270 lbs. troy, value nearly 2,000,000/., in the forty 
years from 1728 to 1768. The silver of Russia is obtained 
from the refining of stream gold found in the Ural Moun- 
tains, and from lead-ores. Silver- mines were worked in 
Spain from a very early period by the Phoenicians, Cartha- 
ginians, Romans, and Moors ; but they are now abandoned 
as unprofitable. 

Native silver and several of the other varieties of the ores 
are met with in some of the Cornish coppen-mines, and silver 
is extracted from the ore of English lead ; but with these 
exceptions, and very small quantities which are occasionally 
found of this metal, silver cannot be considered as consti- 
tuting one of the mineral treasures of the United Kingdom. 
A vein of silver-ore and the sulphuret was worked in Stir- 
lingshire during the latter part of the last century, and 
from 40,000/. to 50,000/. were obtained, when the vein was 
lost. In 1607 a silver-mine was worked in Linlithgowshire. 

The silver-mines of Asia have ceased to be very produc- 
tive in modern times. There are mines in Armenia, but 
none are known to exist in Persia, nor in any part of the 
East India Company's possessions. Silver-mines are worked 
in China; and Mr. Davis remarks (Chinese) that the great 
quantities of silver brought to Lintin for many years past, 
to be exchanged for opium and exported to India, prove that 
there must be abundant sources in the empire. Silver is 
not obtained in any part of Africa. 

Gold and silver appear to have been in request from the 
earliest ages. Abraham was rich in silver and in gold. 
He bought a field for a burial-place, for which he paid 400 
shekels of silver, delivered ' by weight, according to the 
currency of the merchants.' (Genesis, xxii., 14-16.) 
Joseph, his great-grandson, was sold by his brethren for 
twenty pieces of silver (Genesis, xxxviii., 29) ; and when 
aftewards they went to Egypt to purchase corn, they brought 
•silver in their sacks' mouth/ (Genesis, xlv., 22.) In 
the book of Job (xlii., 11-12), we read of silver passing 
from hand to hand as money. The writer of that book 
was acquainted with the fact that silver was found in veins 
and gold in particles, though the country in which he lived 
did not produce the precious metals. It is said (1 Kings, 
x.) that in the days of Solomon silver was nothing ac- 
counted of, and that * the king made silver to be as stones 
in Jerusalem.' Darius Hystaspes, king of Persia, annually 
collected 9880 talents of silver, besides gold, as tribute from 
Asia and Africa ; subsequently tribute came in also from 
the islands of the Mediterranean and from Europe as far 
west as Thessaly. Herodotus states (iii. 96) that the gold 
and silver were melted and poured into earthen vessels, 
and that the earthen vessels were then removed, which left 
the metal in a solid mass : when any was wanted, a piece 
was broken off as the occasion required. Silver was coined 
at Rome 266 B.C., before gold had been so employed. [Coin.] 

For further information on the production and uses of 
the precious metals, the reader may refer to Mr. Jacob's 
elaborate ' History of the Consumption of the Precious 
Metals,' 2 vols. (1831). Chapter ii. contains an account of 
the mines of the antients, and their modes of mining and 
smelting. Chapter x. is an inquiry into the production of 
the precious metals during the middle ages, from the disso- 
lution of the Western Empire to the discovery of America. 
Another chapter is on the produce of the mines at the epoch 
of this discovery ; also one from this period to the opening 
of the mines of Potosi, in 1564; and two other chapters, 
oue on the produce of gold and silver from 17G0 to 1809, 



and the other extending the inquiry from 1809 to 1629, 
complete this part of the subject. The investigations of 
Humboldt, ana the personal inquiries of Mr. II. G.Ward 
(Mexico in 1827), with the scattered notices of other writers, 
are collected and arranged by Mr. Jacob, whose work must 
always be valuable for reference in all questions relating to 
the history of prices. Several chapters of the work are de- 
voted to this topic in connection with the increased supply 
of the precious metals after the discovery of America, and 
the rise of prices which occurred in Europe in the sixteenth 
century. The gold and silver coin in Europe, in 1492, Mr. 
Jacob estimates at 34,000,000/., which was increased in the 
course of the next 112 years by 138,000,000/., making the 
total gold and silver currency in 1599, allowing for abrasion, 
&c, 1 72,000,000/. In book i., chapter xi„ of the * Wealth of 
Nations/ there is a ' Digression concerning the Variation! 
in the Value of Silver during the course of the Four last 
Centuries.' 

The proportional value of gold to silver was 12 and 10 to 1 
from the Anglo-Saxon times to the discovery of America* 
it is at present 14'28to I. In antient Greece the propor- 
tion varied from 15 and 10 to 1, and in Rome from 12 and 
7 to 1. Herodotus (iii. 95) estimates it at 13 to 1. Since 
the discovery of America the proportion throughout the 
world has been 17 and 14 to 1. (Kelly's Cambist.) 

Mr. Jacob gives the amount of silver coined in each 
reign from the time of James I. : — 

James I. . . (22 years) 1,807,277 
Charles I. and the 

Commonwealth . (35 years) 9,776,544 

Charles 11. . . (22 years) 3,722,180 

James II. . . ( 4 years) 2,115,115* 
William and Mary, 

and William III. (12 years) 7,093,074 

Anne . . . (13 years) 618,212 

George I. . . (13 years) 233,045 

George II. . . (33 years) 304,360 
George III. from 

1760 to 1809 . (49 years) 63,419 

1809 to 1820 . (11 years) 6,933,346 

The last new silver coinage for the United Kingdom was 
commenced in 1816, since which time the quantity of silver 
coined in each year has been as follows :— 

Yean. Amount Coined. Yean. Amount Coined. 

1816 £1,805,251 1829 108,259 

1817 2,436,297 1830 151 

1818 576,279 1831 33,696 

1819 1,672,272 1832 145 

1820 847,717 1833 145 

1821 433,686 1834 432,775 

1822 31,430 1835 146,665 

1823 285,271 1836 497,719 

1824 282,070 1837 75,385 
1826 417,535 1838 174,042 

1826 608,605 1839 390,654 

1827 33,019 1840 207,900 

1828 16,288 

Total £11,108,265 
The weight of silver coined, and the number and deno- 
mination of each coin issued from 1816 to 1840 inclusive, 
were as follows, according to a parliamentary paper (Set*. 
1841):— 

Weight. Number. Value. 

lbs. £ 

Crowns . 140,144 1,849,905 462,476 

Half-crowns . 1,190,876 31,438,434 3,929,604 . 

Shillings . 1,540,080 101,645,280 5,082,264 

Sixpences . 441,852 58,324,595 1,458,114 

Fourpences . 52,140 10,325,320 177,062 
Maunday money: — 

Fourpences . 306 60,720 1,012 

Threepences , 270 71,368 892 

Twopences . 225 89,100 742 

Pence . 272 215,424 897 

The seignorage, or the difference between the price at 
which bullion is purchased and the mint price of the coin 
at 5s. 6d. an ounce, amounted to 616,747/. on the abovet 
The Maunday money is coined for the purpose of being 
distributed by the Lord Almoner in Whitehall Chapel on 
Maunday Thursday. 

When silver is issued for coin, it is always alloyed with 

• I Deluding £1,596*799 bate money coined for Ireland. 

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copper : the maximum of hardness is produced by one-fifth 
of copper. One lb. of standard silver of the English coin- 
age contains 11 oz. 2 dwts. of pure silver and 18 dwts. alloy, 
or 925 parts of pure silver in 1000 parts of standard silver. 
[Money.] For purposes connected with the manufacture of 
various articles of use and ornament the alloy is greater. At 
Birmingham rolled sheets are made which do not contain 
more than 3 or 4 dwts. of silver to each lb. of the inferior 
me:al 

The rolling of silver in contact with the inferior metals is 
performed by powerful flatting-mills. A bar ot copper is 
nlade quite smooth and clear on one of its surfaces, and is 
then sprinkled over with glass of borax, and there is laid 
upon it a plate of fine silver, and the two are carefully bound 
together by wire. The mass is then exposed to a full red 
lieat, which melts the borax and causes the silver to adhere 
to the copper. The ingot is now passed through a rolling- 
press and formed into a plate, both the silver and copper 
extending uniformly during the whole process, at the con- 
clusion of which they are inseparably joined. The art of 
silver-plating was introduced at Sheffield about the middle 
of the last century. Another mode of plating is called 'sil- 
vering,' when an amalgam of silver and mercury is well 
rubbed upon the surface of the copper; by the application 
of heat the mercury is driven off, and the silver remains 
behind, adhering firmly to the copper, and capable of being 
highly polished. 

Mr. Jacob estimates the annual consumption of silver in 
the United Kingdom at 3,282,046 oz., valued at 820,521/. 
The consumption for watch-cases is about 506,000 oz. 
annually: 100,000, each weighing on an average 2^oz., are 
stampea annually at the London Assay-office; 60,000, each 
weighing 2oz., are stamped at Birmingham ; and 80,000, of 
the same weight, are stamped at the other assay-offices in the 
kingdom. About 900,000 oz. are used by coach-makers, 
harness- makers, and saddlers' ironmongers. In articles of 
small size, such as thimbles, of which hundreds of thou- 
sands are annually made; chains for watch-guards, pencil- 
cases, necks of smelling bottles, locks of pocket-books, in- 
strument cases, and portfolios, and small portions to handles 
of penknives and razors, the silver used is under the 
weight which subjects it to the stamp-duty of Is. 6d. an oz., 
but a very considerable quantity of silver is employed in 
these minor objects. Leaf-silver for gilding is made two 
and a half times thinner than gold, and the gold-beaters 
require a considerable quantity of the metal for this pur- 
pose. Some articles are * washed' with silver. Mr. Jacob 
distributes the total consumption as follows: — 

That paying duty . . . 1,275,316 oz. 
That used in watch-cases • . 506,740 

That used in plating . . 900,000 

That for other minor purposes .. 500,000 

3,282,046 
The value of the stock of silver in the hands of the ma- 
nufacturers and dealers is estimated by the same authority 
at 3,280,000/. The value of ornaments and utensils of the 
precious metals in Europe and America, if brought to the 
crucible, Mr. Jacob values at 400,000,000/., or one fourth 
more than the value of the coined metals. The annual con- 
sumption of gold and silver in Europe and America for or- 
namental purposes be states to be nearly 6,000,000/., that of 
Great Britain being valued at 2,457.000/. In MCulloch's 
•Dictionary of Commerce,* it is stated that Mr. Jacob's cal- 
culations are generally too higln Silver forms by far the 
largest proportion of the value of domestic utensils in which 
either of the two precious metals are used. In England the 
gold currency is of much higher relative value than that 
of silver [Currency]; but in most other countries this is 
not the case. The coinage of silver and gold in France is 
estimated at 100,000,000/., a very largo proportion of which 
is of silver. Since the peace, the number of silversmiths 
ami persons engaged in working silver and gold into articles 
of ornament and use has greatly increased on the Continent ; 
and the increase of the same class is probably also con- 
siderable in the United Kingdom. See the articles Andes, 
Chile, Mexico, Peru. Potosi, for an account of the South 
American mines; Austria, Hungary, Saxony, &c, for 
those of Europe. 

(Jacob's Inquiry into the Production and Consumption 
of the Precious Metals, 2 vols., London, 1831 ; Humboldt's 
New Spain; Personal Researches, &c; Ward's Mexico, 
&c.) 

P. G. No. 1362. 



SILVER, Medical Properties of. In a purely metallic 
state silver has no action on the animal frame, and the only 
salt much used is the nitrate, termed also lunar caustic. 
This is always fused in proper moulds, from which it is 
turned out in the form of cylinders, about three inches long, 
and the eighth of an inch in diameter. They are at first 
while, but quickly become of a dark grey or black eolour, 
from combining with organic matter in the air. To prevent 
this the cylinders are generally wrapped up in blue paper. 
When nitrate of silver is brought in contact with any part 
of the human frame, it causes first a white mark, which 
gradually changes to blue, purple, and at last to black. This 
occurs more rapidly if moisture be present; and is owing to 
a cbemical combination of the metal with the albumen and 
fibrin of the animal tissues. If the part be wetted, and the 
caustic applied several times at short intervals, vesication 
results. Nitrate of silver acts therefore locally as an irri- 
tant and corrosive. When taken internally in small doses 
for a considerable time, such as six or twelve months, it is 
absorbed and deposited in various parts of the body, and 
when it is deposited in the rete mucosum of the skin it 
causes discoloiations, which inmost cases prove permanent. 
It has been employed frequently with success, but often 
with failure, in the treatment of epilepsy, chorea* and some 
forms of angina pectoris, as well as morbid sensibility of 
the stomach. Larger doses can be borne when it is admi- 
nistered in the form of pill than in solution. The pi II a 
should be made with mucilage and sugar, but not with 
bread-crumb, as the common salt, or chloride of sodium, de- 
composes the nitrate and renders it inert. In cases of poi- 
soning by nitrate of silver, common salt is a ready and 
effectual remedy. The liability of nitrate of silver to pro- 
duce discolorations of the skin in persons taking it inter- 
nally constitutes a serious objection to its employment, and 
there appears little necessity for giving it, since any case of 
epilepsy likely to be benefited by it will generally receive 
equal good from the use of oxide of zinc, without the risk 
oi stains or other inconvenience. It has been suggested 
that the use of nitric acid internally as well as externally 
may remove the discolorations ; but it is better not to incur 
the chance of causing them, than trust to the remote chance 
of removing them by such an expedient. 

The external employment of this agent is not liable to 
any objection when used cautiously, while its advantages 
are very great. It is the most powerful direct antiphlogistic 
agent known. All subacute inflammations in any part to 
which it can be immediately applied will subside under its 
iniluence. In inflammations not merely of the skin, but of 
mucous membranes when they occur in parts which are 
accessible, its iniluence is great, and speedily manifested. 
Many of the cases of croup which in an advanced stage aro 
unmanageable, begin in the back part of the throat (fauces), 
and if these parts arc freely touched with a pencil dipped in 
a strong solution of nit rut o of silver, tho farther downward 
progress of the inflammation may bo arrested. The same 
treatment is applicable to the erythematous inflammation 
which frequently begins either externally, and spreads 
through the mouth or nose to the fauces, and thence down 
the oesophagus, or originates in the fauces, leading to \Qry 
serious results. Erysipelatous inflammation occurring in 
any part of the body may be effectually, limited by nitrate 
of silver. For this purpose a complete circle should be 
formed round the inllamed part, but on the sound skui. 
For this case the solid cylinder, moistened at the end, is 
best. The circle must be perfect, or the morbid action 
may extend, escaping at the smallest breach. Chronic 
inflammation, and even ulceration of the eyes, may be re- 
moved by nitrate of silver applied in different forms. Old 
indolent ulcers are stimulated to a healthy action by its use; 
and many cutaneous diseases removed by it. Recent burns 
have the severe pain ofien very much mitigated by it; but 
it must not in any of these cases be applied to too large a 
surface at once, as ill effects have followed such a practice. 
To specify all the uses of nitrate of silver would be impos- 
sible here, but one more deserves to be extensively known. 
It is the best application to chilblains, especially at first; 
but even after they break, it disposes them to heal. 

When a solution of nitrate of silver is made, distilled 
water should invariably be used. Tho neglect of this rule 
causes many pf the solutions applied to the eye to be not 
only useless, but hurtful. Oxide of silver has been recently 
strongly recommended as an antispasmodic, and not liable 
to the objections wh'ch attach to the nitrate. 

Voi~XXIL-E T 

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SILVER, GERMAN. [Tutbnao.] 

SILVER-GRAIN. In making a horizontal section of 
the trunk of any tree, a number of straight lines will be seen 
radiating from the central pith through the wood to the 
hark. These rays are called by botanists medullary rays or 
plates, and by persons who work on wood silver-grain. 
They are composed entirely of cellular tissue, which is of a 
compressed form, and thence called muriform, and often do 
not consist of more than a single layer of cells, although in 
some trees, as Aristolochias, the layers are very nu- 
merous. In longitudinal sections of the stem they give it a 
remarkable satiny lustre, which constitutes the great beauty 
of some woods, as the plane and the sycamore. The great 
variety that is seen in the character of different woods ap- 
pears to depend on the nature of the silver-grain, for the 
woody and vascular tissues do not present sufficient dif- 
ference to constitute any obvious peculiarity. Thus in the 
cultivated cherry the plates are thin, and their adhesion to the 
bark slight, so that a section of this wood has a pale, smooth, 
homogeneous appearance : but in the wild cherry the silver- 
grain is much thicker ; it adheres closely to the bark, and 
is arranged with great irregularity, so that this wood when 
cut has a deeper colour, and a twisted, knotted, irregular 
appearance. In the two species of oak the same kind of 
differences are observable. In Quercus sessili flora the rays 
are thin and distant from each other, so that when a wedge 
is driven into the end of the trunk the plates of wood do not 
readily break into each other ; but in Quercus pedunculata 
the rays are hard, and are so close together that the wood 
may be split up without any difficulty. [Stem.] 

SI L VIC ACID, a substance which with pinio acid 
[Pinic Acid] constitutes the greater portion of colophony, 
or common rosin. When this substance is digested in cold 
alcohol of specific gravity 0*833, the pinic acid dissolves, 
but the silvic acid remains insoluble In alcohol until it is 
boiled ; on cooling, it separates in crystals of considerable 
size, the form of which, according to Unverdorben, is a 
rhombic prism terminated by four facets, but Laurent repre- 
sents it as an acute rhomboid, the edges of which are usually 
serrated. 

Silvic acid melts below 212°; is insoluble in water, but 
dissolves readily in hot alcohol and in eether, and is prece- 
pitated by water ; it is soluble also in all proportions in the 
volatile and fixed oils. Concentrated sulphuric acid dis- 
solves and water precipitates it from the acid ; by the action 
of nitric acid it is converted into another resinous acid when 
it has been precipitated from alcohol by water; ammonia 
dissolves this acid readily, and the silvate of ammonia 
formed, as well as that of potash and of soda, is soluble 
in water; most silvates are however insoluble in it, but 
many of them are dissolved by alcohol and by eether ; the 
silvate of magnesia especially is taken up by alcohol ; the 
silvates of silver and lead are colourless and insoluble in 
water. 

Silvic acid may be regarded as an oxide of oil of turpen- 
tine; its composition, as stated by the chemists aoove 
named, is as follows : it will be observed that there is no 
great difference between them, but they do not agree as to 
its constitution : — 



Hydrogen 
Carbon . 
Oxygen . 


Unverdorben. 
. 10-36 
. 79-28 
. 10*36 


Laureot. Equivalents. 

97 or 40 . . =s 40 
79-7 „ 52 . . =r 312 
10-6 „ * . . = 40 


10-2 
79*6 
102 



100- 100* 392 100- 

SIMARU'BA is the bark of the root of the Simaruba 
amara (Aublet), S. officinalis (of Dec. and ' Pharm. Lond.'), 
a tall tree, native of Guayana, and also of Jamaica, if 
the tree found in that island be not a distinct species. 
It is imported in bales containing pieces a foot or more in 
length, tolerably broad, and generally formed into rolls the 
whole length of the piece. Externally it is rough, warty, 
and has a dirty-yellow cuticle marked with transverse 
ridges; the epidermis below this is of a whitish-yellow 
colour. Internally smooth, with a greyish yellow colour. It 
is devoid of odour, but intensely bitter. Its chief constituents 
are quassite, resin, a volatile oil having an odour like ben- 
zoin, ulmin, mucilage, and some salts. It is tonic and de- 
mulcent in small doses, and therefore useful in the later 
stages of dysentery, but in larger doses it is emetic. The 
bark of the root of Simaruba versicolor (St. Hilaire) is very 
like that above described, and is used externally by the 
Brazilians as a wash to ill-conditioned ulcers, and to destroy 



vermin ; but if taken internally it causes stupor and other 
narcotic symptoms ; it should therefore be carefully distin- 
guished from the former. 

SIMARUBA'CEJB, a natural order of plants belonging 
to the gynobasic group of polypetalous Exogens. The 
plants of this order are trees o~ shrubs, with alternate ex- 
stipulate usually compound leaves, and mostly without dots. 
The flowers are whitish-green or purple, on axillary or 
terminal peduncles, hermaphrodite, or occasionally unisexual. 
The calyx is 4 or 5 parted ; petals four to five, twisted in 
aestivation ; stamens twice as many as the petals, arising 
from the back of an hypogynous scale ; ovary 4 to 5 lobed ; 
style simple ; stigma 4 or 5 lobed ; fruit a drupe ; seeds 
pendulous, exalbuminous, with a superior short radicle 
drawn back within thick cotyledons. With one exception 
they are all natives of Africa, India, and tropical America. 
This order was formerly included under Rutaceas, but their 
differences from that order appear to many of sufficient 
importance to constitute a separate family. A. de Jussieu 
says, ' They are known from all Rutaceous plants by the 
coexistence of these characters, namely, ovaries with but one 
ovule, indehiscent drupes, exalbuminous seeds, a membra- 
nous integument of the embryo, and by the radicle being 
retracted within thick cotyledons.' 

The plants of this order are all intensely bitter. The 
Quassia on this account is used in medicine. [Quassia.] 
Simaruba versicolor is so bitter that no insects will attack 
it; and when all other specimens of plants in dried col- 
lections have been attacked by Ptini, &c, specimens of 
this plant have been left untouched. The Brazilians use 
an infusion of this plant in brandy as a remedy against the 
bites of serpents. 



Quassia amara. 

o, brauch, showing flowers and compound learcs: 6, flower; e, stamens 
separated, attached to hypogynous scale i d, stamens surrounding ovary ; #, 
ovary eeated on a stalk, to which the stamens are attached. 

SIMBIRSK, a government of Asiatic Russia, is situated 
between 52° and 57° N. lat., and between 42° 20' and 58° 
20' E. long. It is bounded on the north by Kasan, on the 
east by Orenburg, on the south by Saratow and Pensa, and 
on the west by Nischnei Novgorod, The area is 24,000 
square miles. The surface is in general an undulating 
plain, but on the right bank of the Volga there is a range 
of hills, composed or clay, marl, limestone, and freestone, 
which rise to the height of 400 feet. The principal river 
of this government is the Volga, which enters it from Ka- 
san, about the middle of the northern frontier, and runs in 
a direction nearly south to Stavropol, where it turns to the 
east ; and there, after being joined by the Sok, coming 
from Orenburg, it makes a semicircular bend, and at Sa 
mara turns due west, in which direction it proceeds as far 
as the town of Sysran, when it again turns to the south. It 
is at this bend that the eminences on the Volga are highest* 
though they accompany the river in its whole course frcm 
north to south. Beyond the bend the surface of the country 

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tooome* flat, end assumes a character resembling that of 
the Steppe. All the rivers belong to the system of the 
Volga, which receives on the right the Ousa and the Sys- 
ren, and on the left the Teheremchan,. the Sok after its 
junction with the Kandoustcha, and the Samara. The 
vviaga, running parallel to the Volga from south to 
north, joins that river in the government of Kasan : and 
the Soars, which is navigable in spring, coming from Pensa, 
traverses the western part of the government, and joins the 
Volga in the government of Nischnei Novgorod. The 
lakes and rivers are 660 in number, but they are all small. 
The climate is generally healthy ; but the winter is verv cold, 
and the summer very hot. The Volga is usually frozen for 
five months in the year. 

The soil is generally fertile, consisting of a good black 
mould, which requires no manure. It is pretty carefully 
cultivated, and produces more corn than is wanted for the 
home consumption : the principal species of grain are rye, 
wheat, and spelt ; hut there are likewise oats, barley, millet, 
and buckwheat. The inhabitants cultivate also the poppy, 
peas, lentils, Hex, much hemp, tobacco, and some potatoes. 
Horticulture is in a very backward state: uone but the 
most ordinary kinds of culinary vegetables are grown, and 
the fruit is of bad quality. In the northern parts of the 
government there are extensive forests ; but in the south 
4hey scarcely suffice for the supply of the inhabitants. 
Though there are good pastures, the breeding of cattle is 
not much attended to, except among the Calmucks, in the 
steppe of the circle of Slavrepel. The rich Calmucks have 
one hundred horses, as many oxen, and four hundred sheep. 
The Tartars apply to agriculture with great success. Game 
it pretty abundant, but the fur-bearing animals are scarce. 
The fisheries of various kinds in the Volga are productive. 
The minerals are alabaster, sulphur, and limestone; but 
neither salt nor metals, except some iron. 

The population amounts to 1,200,000, of whom about 
1,080,000, are Russians and Cossacks : the remainder may 
be estimated as, Tartars 60,000, Tcheremisses 40,000, 
Mordwias 4000, Tchuswasches 5000, Calmucks 8000, and 
Kissilbasehes 2000. These numbers are of course only 
approximative. Not only the Russians, but most of the 
Tcheremisses, the Tchuswasches, and the Mordwius, profess 
the Greek religion : some few are still adherents to Shaman- 
ism, and the Tartars and Kissilbasehes are Mohammedans. 

Though agriculture is the chief occupation of the in- 
habitants, there are some manufactures, both in the country 
and in the towns ; they are woollen cloths, blankets, carpets, 
sailcloth, leather, and some of silk and nankeen. Glass- 
wares, soap, and candles are also manufactured ; and there 
are many brandy-distilleries, A great improvement in the 
manufactures has been made of late years. The exports 
consist of horses, oxen, hemp, apples, water-melons, in good 
years corn, fish, tallow, leather, raw hides, and millstones. 
The principal trading towns are Simbirsk and Samara. 
The schools in this government are under the university of 
Kasan ; but they are very few, and only a small proportion 
of the inhabitants receive any educatiou. The government 
endeavours to remedy this want by establishing every year 
some new schools. 

Simbirsk, the capital of the government, is situated 
near the junction of the Sviaga and the Volga, on the right 
bank of the latter river. It stands on an eminence which 
commands a fine view of the Volga and over an immense 
extent of country uninterrupted by forests. The town is not 
regularly built, but there are some broad and straight streets. 
Almost all the houses are of wood, but neat and convenient 
within. The churches, 16 in number, are all of stone, 
except one, which is of wood. There are two monasteries, 
* gymnasium, and manufactories of candles and soap, and 
some tanneries. The town is in a very fertile plain, and on 
one side there are gardens and orchards. The population 
amounts to 13,500, who are in general in easy circum- 
stances ; but even the higher classes are without intellectual 
resources. Of the other towns the most considerable are 
the following : — 1, Sysran, on the river of the same name, 
not far from its conflux with the Volga, has 7000 inhabit- 
ants (Schnitzler says 9800) ; 2, Samara, on the Volga, be- 
yond the bend which it makes here, is a trading town, with 
$000 inhabitants, which was built in 1591 as a defence 
•gainst the Calmucks; 3, Stavropol, the chief town of the 
Calmucks, on the right bank of the Volga, was built ex- 
pressly for these people, on their conversion to Christianity, 
About the year 1737. In the centre is a kind of fort, sur- 



rounded with palisades, which is the residence of the chief 
of the Calmucks. The Russian or Cossack garrison is in 
the upper town. The merchants reside together in a slobod, 
and the citizens in the lower town. 

SIMEON STYUTES. [Monachism.] 

SIMEON SETH (Zyu&v 2*0), or SIMEON SETHUS, 
or Simeon the Son of Seth, the author of several Greek 
works still extant, lived at Constantinople towards the end 
of the eleventh century. He held there the office of wpuro* 
/Sfrrtfcpxw, or ' Master of the Wardrobe,' in the palace o. 
Antiochue, from whence originated his title Magister An- 
tiochiat, and this gave occasion to the false opinion that he 
was horn at Antioch. His office appears to have given him 
the charge of the imperial jewels, which were kept in the 
palace named after the Eunuch Antiochus, who was consul 
an. 431. (Du Cange, Glouar. Med. et Inf. Grant., torn. 
i., p. 194, ed. Lugd., 1688, and Constant* nop. Christ., lib. ii., 
cap. 16, i 5, p. 168, ed Lutet. Paris., 1680.) Having taken 
the part of the unfortunate patrician Dalassenus against tho 
usurper Michael of Papblagouia, the latter banished him 
from Constantinople, a>o. 1038. He retired to Thrace, and 
founded on Mount Olympus a monastery, in which he com- 
posed several works, and peaceably ended his days. (Georg. 
Cedreni Hittor. Cowtpend, p. 737, ed. Paris, 1647.) Some- 
time after the foundation of this monastery, Michael Dukas 
having ascended the throue, ajx 1071, Simeon Seth dedi- 
cated to him his work entitled Xwraypa wtpi Tpo<pHv Awd- 
pewy, ' Syntagma de Cibariorum Facultate.' This contains 
an alphabetical list of eatable things and their properties, 
according to the opinions of Greek, Persian, Agarenian (or 
Arabian), and Indian physicians; and is the more valuable 
as at that time the trade with the East, and the seeking alter 
foreign and costly articles of food at Constantinople, were very 
extensive. It is compiled chiefly from the treatise of Michael 
Psellus on the same subject, and shows us that the Greeks 
were beginning already to learn Materia Medica from the 
Arabians, to whom in return they imparted their theories. 
Simeon Seth also goes through the medicines then in use 
in alphabetical order, and he explains their mode of action 
according to the elementary qualities of Galen, and their 
different degrees. He says that Asparagus had been fur 
some time introduced as au article of food (p. 6, ed. Gyrald), 
and that it possesses great medicinal virtues. He is the 
irst who speaks of yellow Amber (&pwmp) which comes from 
a town in India, and which is the best; and also of Amber- 
gris, which is an animal production, coming from fish (p. 8). 
Apricots (fitpUtKa), he says, are indigestible and produce 
poorness of blood (p. 9). His work contains the first descrip- 
tion of Camphor, which he says is the resin of a very large 
Indian tree ; that it is cold and dry in the third degree ; aud 
that it is used with much advantage in acute diseases, espe- 
cially in inflammations (p. 35). He is also the first who 
speaks of Musk, of which the best is of a yellow colour, 
aud comes from a town to the east of Khorasan ; the bluck 
musk comes from India: the properties attributed to this 
medicine are the same as those given to it in the present 
day (p. 41). The best Cinnamon comes from Mosul (p. 32). 
This work was first published, Basil., 1538, Gr. and Lai., 
8vo., ed. Lilius Greg. Gyrald us, ap. Mich. Isingrinium. The 
Latin translation was improved and published separately, 
Basil., 1661, fcvo, ed. Domin. Monthesaurus, ap. Pet. Per- 
nam. The last and best edition was published Paris, 1656, 
Gr. and Lat, 8vo.» ed. Mart. Bogdan, ap. Dion. Bechet et 
LufL Billanium. 

Another of his works, entitled ' £vwj«c ecu 'AwavOurpa 
Qveu&vT£Kal&kowty»v AoypanM',* 'Compendium et Floies 
Naturalium et PhilosoDUorum Placitorum/ is still in MS. 
in several European libraries. A long account of it (ex- 
tracted from AUatiue, ' De Simeonum Scriptis) is given 
by Fabricius {Biblioth. Gr~ torn, xi., p. 323-326, ed. Harios). 

But Simeon Seth is octter known in the history of 
literature than in that of medicine, as having translated 
from the Arabic into Greek the work known under the 
name of ' Pil pay's Fables,* in which ' fifteen moral and 
political sentences' (says Gibbon, Decline and Fall, 
chap. 42) 'are illustrated in a series of apologues; but 
the composition is intricate, the narrative prolix, end the 
precept obvious aud barren,' An account of the history, 
translations, and editions of this antient and curious work 
is given under Bidpai. (See also Fabricius, loco cit. ; and 
Mil man's note to Gibbon, vol* \u„ p. 310.) He is also 
said to have translated from the Persian a fabulous his- 
tory of Alexander the Greek* which at present exists, says 



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Warlon (Hist of English Poetoy, voL 1., p. 129), under 
the adopted name of Callisthenes, and is no uncommon 
manuscript in good libraries. It is entitled Bioc 'AXtJ-av- 
ipov tov Macf^ovoi; icai npagecc, * De Vita et Rebus Gestis 
Alexandri Mace don is;' and a long passage from the begin- 
ning of the work is quoted by Abr. Berkel in the notes to 
Stephanus Byzantinus (in v, BovicefaXeui), and by Fabri- 
cius, Biblioth. Gr„ torn, xiv., p. 148-150 (ed. Vet.). This 
fabulous narrative is full (as might be expected) of pro- 
digies and extravagancies, some specimens of which are 
given by Wartoru Of all the romances on the subject 
of Alexander the Great, this by Simeon Seth was for 
some centuries the best known and the most esteemed; 
and it was most probably (says he) very soon af- 
terwards translated from the Greek into Latin, and at 
length from thence into French, Italian, and German. The 
Latin translation was printed at Colon. ArgentoraL, 1489; 
perhaps before, for in the Bodleian Library there is an 
edition in 4to., without date, supposed to have been printed 
at Oxford, by Fred. Corsellis, about the year 1 468. It is 
said to have been made by one iEsopus, or by Julius Vale- 
rius ; supposititious names, which seem to have been forged 
by the artifice or introduced through the ignorance of 
scribes and librarians. This Latin translation however is of 
high antiquity in the middle age of learning; for it is 
quoted by Gy raid us Cambrensis, who flourished about the 
year 1190. It was translated into German by John Hart- 
lieb Holler, a German physician, at the command of Albert, 
duke of Bavaria, and published at August Vindel., fol., 
1478. Scaliger also mentions (Epist. ad Casaubon., 113, 
115) a translation from the Latin into Hebrew by one who 
adopted the name of Joseph Gorionides, called Pseudo Go- 
riouides. 

SIMEON OF DURHAM, an English historical writer 
who lived about the beginning of the eleventh century. 
He was a teacher of mathematics at Oxford, and was after- 
wards precentor in Durham oathedral. He wrote a his- 
tory of the kings of England from 616 to 1 130, for which 
he was at great pains to collect materials, especially in the 
North of England, where the Danes hod established them- 
selves. The work was continued to 1 156 by John, prior of 
Hexham. Simeon of Durham is supposed to have died 
soon after 1 130, when his history terminates. This work is 
included in Twysden's 'Anglican© Histories Scriptores 
Decern.* Simeon also wrote a history of Durhamcathe- 
dral, which was published in 1732: ' Historia Ecclesin 
Dunhelmensis, cui preemittttur T. R. Disquisitio de Auctore 
hujus Libelii ; ediditT. Bedford,' Lond,, 1732, 8vo. 

SIMFEROPOL, the seat of the Russian government of 
Taurida, is situated in 45° 12' N. lat. and 24° 8' E. long., on 
an elevated plateau on the river Salgir. Simferopol is 
a modern town. There was indeed on this spot, in the 
time of the Khans, a place called Akmetschet (the white 
church), end sometimes called Sultan Serai, but it was of 
little importance, and now forms a small part of Simferopol, 
under the name of the Tartar quarter. The antient capital 
of the Khans was Baktschiserai, but it is confined to a small 
space in a rocky valley. The Russians, who love everything 
spacious and open, left that town to the Tartars, and built at 
Simferopol a capital according to their own taste, with im- 
mensely long and broad streets, in which horse-races might 
be held without interrupting the usual traffic. Being near the 
centre of the peninsula, it is well calculated for the seat of 
government. There are many pretty houses, with iron roofs 
painted green and adorned with many columns, like all the 
new Russian towns. Besides the government offices there 
are a Russian church, a pretty German church, one Greek 
and one Armenian church, four Tartar chapels, a gymna- 
sium, and a seminary for Tartar schoolmasters. The popu- 
lation, about 6900 inhabitants, is a, medley of Russians, Tar- 
tars, Armenians, Greeks, and 40 or 50 German families. 
There is here a very good botanic garden, or more properly 
speaking, a nursery where ail kinds of useful plants, shrubs, 
and trees are cultivated, and sent to various parts of the 
empire. The town has no manufactures, and has only an 
inconsiderable trade by land, and scarcely any by sea. The 
immediate vicinity of the town does not produce much 
fruit or culinary vegetables. During the hot season fevers 
are very prevalent, and the water is very indifferent. Use- 
woloiski (as quoted by Hassel in 1821) makes the number 
of inhabitants 20,000; we imagine this is a misprint for 
2000, for Stein in the same year gives 1800, and no sub- 
sequent account that we hare seen states it above 6000. 



(Hassel; Horschelmann ; Kohl, Seise in Sud Russfamd* 
1841.) 

SI'MIADiE, the name of a quadrumanous family of 
mammals. [Ape ; Atelks ; Baboon ;«Chbiropoda ; Chim- 
panzee; Hylobates; Lagothrix; Mycetes; Nasal is; 
Orano-Utan; Quadrumana; Sakis; Sapajous; Sem 
nopithbcus, &c.] 

These animals were known at a very early period. Tho 
Kophim of the Scriptures (1 King*, x. 22,; 2 Chron., 
ix. 21), the Ceph of the Ethiopians, the Keibi and Kubbi 
of the Persians, the ktj€oi of the Greeks, and Cephi of the 
Romans, were clearly apes. They are to be traced in some 
of the earliest paintings of the Egyptians. (Resell in i, &c.) 

In the garden of the Zoological Society of London, among 
a great variety of the Simiadte, three of the forms which ap 
proach nearest to the human race may now (Sept., 1841) 
be studied ; for three Chimpanzees (two males and a female^ 
an Orang-lJtan, and a Gibbon (Hylobates agilis)— the two 
latter females— are all living at the menagerie in the Re- 
gent's Park. 

The Cepfn exhibited by Porapey (Pliny, Nat Hist., viii. 
19), as well as those shown by Cesser, appear to have been 
Ethiopian apes; and in the Greek name inscribed near the 
quadrumanous animals, in the Progestine pavement, the 
oriental origin of the word is apparent. It is remarkable 
that the name Cebus [Sapajou»] is applied by modern 
zoologists to a genus of monkeys which could not have been 
known to the antients ; for the Cebi of our present cata- 
logues are exclusively American. 

Fossil Simiaok. 

Remains of Simiadce have been discovered and described 
from the tertiary formations of India, France, England, and 
Brazil. These fossils are illustrative of four of the existing 
types of quadrumanous, or rather Simious form. Thus 
we have Semnopithecus from India; Hylobates from the 
south of France ; Macacus (rem Suffolk ; and Callithrix, 
peculiar to America, found in Brazil. Nor is it unworthy 
of remark, that we here have evidence that so high a qua- 
drumanous form as the Gibbon, a genus in which the skull 
is even more approximated to that of man than it is in the 
Chimpanzee, was living upon our globe with the Palseothere, 
Elephants, and other Pachyderms. We say that the skull 
of the Gibbon comes nearest to that of man ; because, 
though the cranium of the young Chimpanzee approaches 
that of the human subject, it is far removed from it when 
the permanent teeth are developed. 

From these evidences we have also proof that Sitniadce 
lived in our island during the Eocene period; whilst the 
presence of fossil vegetables, abundant in the London clay 
at Sheppy, and the remains of serpents in the same locality, 
show tho degree of heat that must have prevailed here 
during that period, when Simiadec were co-existent with 
tropical fruits and Boa Constrictors. 

But Dr. Lund's observations relating to the extinct quadru* 
manous form detailed in his f View of the Fauna of Brazil,' 
previous to the last geological revolution, require special 
notice. He states that it is certain that the family of Si' 
miadce was in existence in those antient times to which the 
fossils described by him belong; and he found an animal of 
that family of gigantic size, a character belonging to the 
organization of the period which he illustrates. He describes 
it as considerably exceeding the largest Oran-Utan or 
Chimpanzee yet seen ; from these, as well as from the long- 
armed npe& {Hylobates), he holds it to have been generically 
distinct. As it equally differs from the Simiudce now living 
in the locality where it was discovered, he proposes a generic 
distinction for it under the name of Protopithecus, and the 
specific appellation of Protopithecus Brasiiietisis. 

As connected with this discovery, Dr. Lund records a tra- 
dition existing very generally over a considerable extent of 
the interior highlands, especially in the northern and 
western portions of the province of S. Paul and the Sertao 
of S. Francisco. According to this tradition, that district 
is still inhabited by a very large ape, to which the Indians, 
from whom the report comes, have given the name of Cay- 
pore, or Dweller in the Wood. This Caypore is said to be 
of man's stature, but with the whole body and part of 
its face covered with long curly hair ; its colour brown, 
with the exception of a white mark on the belly imme- 
diately above the navel. It is represented as climbing 
trees with great facility, but most frequently going on 
the ground, where it walks upright like a man. In youth 
it is held to be a quiet inoffensive animal, living upon fruits, 



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ob which it feeds with teeth formed like those of the human 
race ; but as it advances in age, its character is denounced 
as rapacious and blood-thirsty. Then it chooses birds and 
small quadrupeds ; large canine teeth project from its mouth, 
and it becomes formidable to man* Its skin is supposed to 
be impenetrable to ball, with the exoeption of the white 
mark on the belly. It is an object of dread to the natives, 
who shun its haunts, which are betrayed by the Caypore's 
extraordinary footmark ending in a heel both before and 
behind, so that it is impossible to know in what direction 
the animal is gone. 

.Upon this tradition Dr. Lund remarks, that it is easy to 
trace in it the childish embellishments of a savage race ; and 
he finds in the alleged double heel the meaning that the 
forepart of the foot is not broader than the hind and that 
the impressions of the toes are not distinguishable. As to 
the white spot in the belly, he remarks, that all the long- 
haired apes now found in Brazil have the central part of 
the belly very thinly covered with hair, so that when the 
hair is of a dark colour and the skin light, an effect is pro- 
duced during the act of respiration as if there were a white 
spot on the stomach. The impenetrability of its bide, he 
observes, mav seem fabulous, but he states that he is ac- 
quainted with a species of this family, the Outgo {Mycetes 
crinicaudus, Lund), which has this property This undo- 
scribed animal, he adds (which constitutes a remarkable 
link between Mycetes and Cebta, inasmuch as it combines 
the vocal organs of the former with the perfectly hairy tail 
of the latter), is provided with a skin clothed with such long 
and felted hair as to be shot- proof on the back and sides. It 
would seem, says Dr. Lund, to be well aware of iU shield ; 
for instead of seeking safety in flight, like other Simiadee, 
when danger approaches it rolls itself up in a ball, so as to 
cover the least protected part, and thus defies the shot of 
the hunter. 

Dr. Lund further remarks that he has introduced this 
tradition, less on account of its ecological interest, than for 
the striking coincidence it displays in many points with the 
stories related of the Pongo of Borneo. He asks, if no such 
animal exists in the district where the tradition is current, 
whence did it take its origin? Did the Indians receive it 
from their forefathers? May this tradition be considered 
one more testimony in favour of the Asiatic origin of the 
first inhabitants of America ? In the Sertao of S. Francisco 
the tradition is coupled with additions which though, he 
remarks, they weaken its zoological interest, impart to it 
another, as betraying the only trace he had met with in that 
district of a belief in fairy existence. According to the na- 
tive of Sertao, the Caypore is lord of the wild hogs, and 
when one of them has been shot, his enraged vo : ?e may be 
heard in the distance, when the hunter quits his game to 
save himself by flight. The Caypore is said to have been 
beheld in the centre of a herd of swine riding on the 
largest, and indeed has been described as an ape above and 
a hog below. 

SIMILAR, SIMILAR FIGURES (Geometry). Simi- 
larity, resemblance, or likeness, means sameness in some, 
if not in all, particulars. In geometry, the word refers to a 
sameness of one particular kind. The two most important 
notions which the view of a figure will give, are those of 
size and shape, ideas which have no connection whatsoever 
with each other. Figures of different 6izes may have the 
same shape, and figures of different shapes may have the 
same size. In the latter case they are called by Euclid 
eqwl> in the former similar (similar figures, dpoia ffgq/jara). 
The first term [Equal ; Reunion], in Euclid's first use of 
it, includes united sameness, both of size and shape ; but 
he soon drops the former notion, and, reserving equal to 
signify sameness of size only, introduces the word similar to 
denote sameness of form: so that the equality of the funda- 
mental definition is the subsequent combined equality and 
similarity of the sixth book. 

Similarity of form, or, as we shall now technically say, simi- 
larity, is a conception which is better denned by things than 
by words ; being in fact one of our fundamental ideas of 
figure. A drawing, a map, a model, severally appeal to a 
known idea of similarity, derived from, it may be, or at least 
nourished by, the constant occurrence in nature and art 
of objects which have a general, though not a perfectly 
mathematical, similarity. The rudest nations understand a 
picture or a map almost instantly. It is not necessary to do 
more in the way of definition, and we must proceed to point 
out the mathematical tests of similarity. We may observe 



indeed that errors or monstrosities of size are always more 
bearable than those of form, so much more do our concep- 
tions of objects depend upon the latter than the former. A 
painter is even obliged to diminish the size of the minor 
parts of his picture a little, to give room for the more im- 
portant objects : but no one ever thought of making a change 
of form, however slight, in one object, for the sake of its 
effect on any other. The giant of Rabelais, with whole 
nations carrying on the business of life inside his mouth, is 
not so monstrous as it would have been to take the ground 
on which a nation might dwell, England, France, or Spain, 
invest it with the intellect and habits of a human being, 
and make it move, talk, and reason : the more tasteful fiction 
of Swift is not only bearable and conceivable, but has actu- 
ally made many a simple person think it was meant to be 
taken as a true history. 

Granting then a perfect notion of similarity, we now ask 
in what way it is to be ascertained whether two figures arc 
similar or not. To simplify the question, let them be plane 
figures, say two maps of England of different sizes, but 
made on the same projection. It is obvious, in the first 
place, that the lines of one figure must not only be related 
to one another in length in the same manner as in the other, 
but also in position. Let us drop for the present all the 
curved lines of the coast, &c, and consider only the dots 
which represent the towns. Join every such pair of dots by 
straight lines: then it is plain that similarity of form 
requires that any two lines in the first should not only be in 
the same proportion, as to length, with the two correspond- 
ing lines in the second, bnt that the first pair should incline 
at the same angle to each other as the second. Thus, 
if LY be the line which joins London and York, and FC 
that which joins Falmouth and Chester, it is requisite that 
LY should be to FC in the same proportion in the one map 
that it is in the other; and if FC produced meet LY pro- 
duced in O, the angle COY in one map must be the same 
as in the other. Hence, if there should be 100 towns, which 
are therefore joined two and two by 4950 straight lines, 
giving about 12 millions and a quarter of pairs of lines, it is 
clear that we must have the means of verifying 1 2} millions 
of proportions, and as many angular agreements. But if it 
be only assumed that similarity is a possible thing, it is 
easily shown that this large number is reducible to twice 98. 
For let it be granted that ly on the smaller map is to re- 
present LY on the larger. Lay down/ and c in their pro- 
per places on the smaller map, each with reference to / and 
y, by comparison with the larger map: then /and c are in 
their proper places with reference to each other. For if not, 
one of them at least must be altered, which would disturb 
the correctness of it with respect to I and y. Either then 
there is no such thing as perfect similarity, or else it may bo 
entirely obtained by comparison with / and y only. 

We have hitherto supposed that both circumstances must 
be looked to ; proper lengths and proper angles ; truth of 
linear proportion and truth of relative direction. But it is 
one of the first things which the student of geometry learns 
(in reference to this subject), that the attainment of correct- 
ness in either secures that of the other. If the smaller map 
be made true in all its relative lengths, it must be true in 
all its directions; if it be made true in all its directions, it 
must be true in all its relative lengths. The foundation of 
this simplifying theorem rests on three propositions of the 
sixth book of Euclid, as follows : — 

1. The angles of a triangle (any two, of course) alone are 
enough to determine its form : or, as Euclid would express 
it, two triangles which have two angles of the one equal to 
two angles of the other, each to each, have the third angles 
equal, and all the sides of one in the same proportion to 
the corresponding sides of the other. 

2. The proportions of the sides of a triangle (those of two 
of them to the third) are alone enough to determine its form . 
or if two triangles have the ratios of two sides to the third 
in one, the same as the corresponding ratios in the other, the 
angles of the one are severally the same as those of the 
other. 

3. One angle and the proportion of the containing sides 
are sufficient to determine the form of a triangle: or, if two 
triangles have one angle of the first equal to one of the 
second, and the sides about those angles proportional, the 
remaining angles are equal, each to each, and the sides 
about equal angles are proportional. 

From these propositions it is easy to show the truth of all 
that has been asserted about the conditions of similarity, 

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and the result is, that aby number 'of points are "placed 
similarly with any other number of points, when, any two 
being taken in the first, and the corresponding two in the 
socond, say A, B, and a, o, any third point C of the first 
gives a triangle ABC, which is related to the corresponding 
triangle abc of the second, in the manner described in either 
of the three preceding propositions. For instance, let there 
be five points in each figure : 





In the triangles BAE and bae, let the angles AEB and 
EBA be severally equal to aeb and eba. In the triangles 
ADB and adb let DA : AB : : da : ab, and DB : BA : : db : 
ba. In the triangles ACB and acb let the angles ABC and 
abc be equal, and AB : BC : : ab : be. These conditions 
being fulfilled, it can be shown that the figures are similar 
in form. There is no angle in one but is equal to its corre- 
sponding angle in the other ; no proportion of any two lines 
in one but is the same as that of the corresponding line in 
the other. Every conception necessary to the complete 
notion of similarity is formed, and the one figure, in common 
language, is the tame as the other in figure, but perhaps on 
a different scale. 

The number of ways in which the conditions of similarity 
can be expressed might be varied almost without limit; if 
there be n points, they are twice (n— 2) in number. It 
would be most natural to take either a sufficient number of 
ratios, or else of angles : perhaps the latter would be best. 
Euclid confines himself to neither, in which he is guided by 
the following consideration : — He uses only salient or con- 
vex figures, and his lengths, or sides, are only those lines 
which form the external contour. The internal lines or 
diagonals he rarely considers, except in the four- sided 
figure. He lays it down as the definition of similarity, that 
all the angles of the one figure (meaning only angles made 
by the sides of the contour) are equal to those of the other, 
each to each, and that the sides about those angles are pro- 
portional. This gives In conditions in an n-sided figure, and 
consequently four redundancies, two of which are easily de- 
tected. In the above pentagons, for instance, if the angles 
at A, E, D, C, be severally equal to these at a, e, d, c, there 
is no occasion to say that that at B must be equal to that at 
b, for it is a necessary consequence : also, if B A : AE : : ba : 
ae t and so on up to DC : CB : : dc : cb t there is no occasion to 
lay it down as a condition that CB : BA : : cb : ba, for it is 
again a consequence. These points being noted, the defini- 
tion of Euclid is admirably adapted for his object, which is, 
in this as in every other case, to proceed straight to the 
establishment of his propositions, without casting one 
thought upon the connection of his preliminaries with na- 
tural geometry. 

Let us now suppose two similar curvilinear figures, and 
to simplify the question, take two arcs AB and ab. Having 
already detected the test of similarity of position with refer- 




.^^\ 



ence to any number of points, it will be easy to settle the 
conditions under which the arc AB is altogether similar to 
ab. By hypothesis, A and B are the points corresponding 
to a and 6. Join A, B, and a, b : and in the arc AB take 
any point P. Make the angle bap equal to BAP, and abp 
equal to ABP ; and let op and bp meet in p. Then, if the 
curves be similar, p must be on the arc ab ; for every point 
en AB is to have a corresponding point on ab. Hence the 
definition of similarity is as follows : — Two curves are simi- 
lar when for every polygon which can be inscribed in the 
first, a similar polygon can be inscribed in the second. 

It is easily shown that if on two lines, A and a, be de- 
scribed a first pair of polygons, P and p, and a second pair, 
Q and q, the proportion of the first and second pairs is the 
same, or P : p :: Q j q. The simplest similar polygons are 
squares; consequently, any similar polygons described on A 
and a are to one another in the proportiou of the squares on 
A and a. This is also true if for the polygons we substitute 
similar curves; aud it must be proved by the method of 



exhaustions [Geometry, p. 154], or by the theory of limits 
applied to the proposition, that any curve may be approached 
in magnitude by a polygon within any degree of nearness. 

The theory of similar solids resembles that of similar poly- 
gons, but it is necessary to commence with three points in- 
stead of two. Let A, B, ft and a, b, c, be two sets of three 
points each, and let the triangles ABC and abc be similar: 
let them also be placed so that the sides of one arc parallel 
to those of the other. If then any number of similar pyra- 
mids be described on ABO and abc, the vertices of these 
pyramids will be the corners of similar solids. If P and p 
be the vertices of one pair, then the pyramids PABC and 
pabc are similar if the vertices P and p be on the same side 
of ABC and aba [Symmetry], and one of the triangles, say 
PAB, be similar to its corresponding triangle pab t and so 
placed that the angle of the planes PAB and CAB is the 
same as that of the planes pab and cab. The simplest 
similar solids are cubes ; and any similar solids described on 
two straight lines are in the same proportion as the cubes 
on those lines. Similar curve surfaces are those which are 
such that every solid which can be inscribed in one has an- 
other similar to it, capable of being inscribed in the other. 

It is worthy of notice that the great contested point of 
geometry [Parallels] would lose that character if it were 
agreed that the notion of form being independent of size, is 
as necessary as that of two straight lines being incapable of 
enclosing a space ; so that whatever form can exist of any 
one sice, a similar form must exist of every other. There 
can be no question that this universal idea of similarity in- 
volves as much as this, and no more ; that in the passage 
from one size to another, all lines alter their lengths in the 
same proportion, and all angles remain the same. It is the 
subsequent mathematical treatment of these conditions 
which first points out that either of them follows from the 
other. If the whole of this notion be admissible, so in any 
thing less; that is, the admission implies it to be granted 
that whatever figure may be described upon any one line, 
another figure having the same angles may be described 
upon any other line. If then we take a triangle ABC, and 
any other line ab, there can be drawn upon ab a triangle 
having angles equal to those of abc. This can only be done 
by drawing two lines from a and b, making angles with ab 
equal to BAC and ABC. These two lines must then meet 
in some point c, and the angle aeb will be equal to ACB. 
If then two triangles have two angles of one equal to two 
angles of the other, each to each, the third angle of the one 
must be equal to the third angle of the other ; and this 
much being established, it is well known that the ordinary 
theory of parallels follows. The preceding assumption is 
not without resemblance to that required in the methods of 
Legend re. [Parallels.] 

SI'MILE is admirably defined by Johnson to be ' a com- 
parison by which anything is illustrated or aggrandised/ a 
definition which has been often neglected by poets. A Me- 
taphor differs from a Simile in expression, inasmuch as a 
metaphor is a comparison without the words indicating the 
resemblance, and a simile is a comparison where the objects 
compared are kept as distinct in expression as in thought. 
Dr. Thomas Brown has well said, ' The metaphor expresses 
with rapidity the analogy as it rises in immediate sugges- 
tion, and identifies it, as it were, with the object or emotion 
which it describes; the simile presents not the analogy 
merely, but the two analogous objects, and traces their 
resemblances to each other with the formality of regular 
comparison. The metaphor, therefore, is the figure of pas- 
sion ; the simile the figure of calm description.' (Lectures, 
xxxv.) The metaphor is only a bolder and more elliptical 
simile. When we speak of the rudeness of a man, and say 
4 Mr. Jones is as rude as a bear,' we use a simile, for the 
rudeness of the two are kept distinct but likened ; when we 
say • that bear Mr. Jones/ we use a metaphor, the points of 
resemblance being confounded in the identification of rude- 
ness with a bear. So, • brave as a lion' is a simile — the 
1 lion Achilles' a metaphor. Where the resemblance is ob- 
vious, it may be more forcibly and as intelligibly expressed 
by a simple metaphor ; but when the resemblance is not so 
obvious, it requires fuller elucidation, and then it must bo 
expressed by a simile. Similes therefore, from their ten- 
dency to detail, are usually misplaced in passionate poetry, 
but metaphors constitute the very language of passion ; for 
the mind, when moved, catches at every slight association 
to express itself, but never dwells on them with the nelibe* 
rateness of a comparison. 

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Poets should never forget that similes are not used for 
their own sake, but for the sake of • illustrating or 'aggran- 
dising* the object or emotion they would express : lienee an 
important hut overlooked canon of criticism. Metaphors 
may be indefinite, for they are themselves the expressions 
of strong hut indefinite emotions ; but similes must be uni- 
formly definite, clear, and correct, otherwise they are use- 
less; for the simile is used to illustrate, by a known object, 
one unknown or indescribable; hence the necessity for its 
being intelligible. Moreover, images addressed to the eye 
most be such as are visually clear. These rules are conti- 
nually violated by minor poets, but there are few cases of 
such violation in the greater poets, and even there the ex- 
ceptions prove the rule. 

(Brown's Lectures on the Philosophy of the Mind; 
Karnes's Elements of Criticism; Bishop Lowth's Lectures 
on Hebrew Poetry; Hegel's Vorlesungen iiber die Methe- 
tiM; Solger's JEsiheti k.) 
SIMMENTHAL. [Bkrn.] 

SI'MMIAS was a native of Thebes, and is said to have 
been a disciple of Philolaus. He was a friend of Socrates 
(Plat., Crito, p. 45, B), and is introduced by Plato as one of 
the speakers in his 'Phsdon.' (Diogenes Laertius (it. 16, 
124) mentions the titles of twenty-three dialogues which 
were in his time attributed to 8immiaa (Suidaa, v. Xta/uac), 
but none of his works have come down to us. 

A second Simmi as, a grammarian, was a native of Rhodes, 
and probably lived about the year 300 b.c. He is said to 
have written a work on languages, consisting of three books, 
and a collection of miscellaneous poems, consisting of four 
books. (Suidas, v. 2<p/f«ic ; Strabo, xiv., p. 655.) Some 
of his poems, which however are of little value, are contained 
in the • Anthologia Grssccu* (Compare A then., vii., p. 327 ; 
xi, p. 472 and 491.) 

A third Simmias, who lived about the commencement of 
the Olympiads, wrote a work called 'ApxatoXoyia rSv 2a/*i«v, 
of which nothing has come down to us. Suidas confounds 
this historian with Simmias the grammarian. 
SIMNEL, LAMBERT. [Hknry VII.) 
SI'MOIS, River. [Teoad.] 

SIMON MACCABAEUS, or MATCHES, sur named 
Thasi, was the second son of Mattathias, and brother of 
Judas Maccabaeus and Jonathan Apphus, Mattathias, 
when dying, recommended him to his brethren as their 
counsellor (I Macc. t ii. 3). He distinguished himself on 
several occasions during the lives of Judas and Jonathan. 
(I Mace., v. 17 ; x. 74; 2 Mace* viii. 22; xiv. 17). Under 
the latter he was made, by Antiochus Theos, governor over 
the coast of the Mediterranean from Tyre to the frontier of 
Egypt (1 Mace., xi. 59) ; and here he took the fortified towns 
of Bethsor and Joppa, and founded Adida, in the plain of 
Sephela. ( 1 Macc^ xi. 65 ; xii. 33, 38.) 

After the treacherous seisure of Jonathan by Trvpho 
[Jonathan Apphus], Simon was chosen by the people as 
their chief (1 Mace., xiii); and, according to Josephus 
(Antiq., xiii. 6, 6), as high-priest also. After putting Jeru- 
salem in a state of defence, he marched out to meet Trypho, 
who did not venture to give him battle, and who was soon 
after compelled to retreat into winter-quarters in Gtlead, 
where he murdered Jonathan and his two sons. Simon 
recovered his brother's corpse, and interred it in his father's 
sepulchre at Modin, and built over it a magnificent mauso- 
leum, which was standing in the time of Eusebius. About 
this time (bx. 143) Trypho had murdered Antiochus, and 

{proclaimed himself king. Simon immediately declared for 
lis competitor, Demetrius Nicator, with whom he made a 
very favourable treaty, whereby Simon was recognised 
prince and higtvpriest of the Jews, all claims upon whom 
for tribute Demetrius relinquished, and consented to bury 
in oblivion their offences against him. Thus the Jews be- 
came once more free and independent, and they began to 
reckon from this period (170 Aer. Seleuc; 143-142, B.C.) a 
new civil sera, which is used on the coins of Simon as well 
as by Josephus and the author of the First Booh of Macca- 
bees (1 Mace* xiii. 41.). The last remains of their bondage 
to the Syrians were removed m the next year by the 
surrender of the Syrian garrison in the citadel of Jeru- 
salem. 

The succeeding period of peace was employed by Simon 
in extending and consolidating his power, and improving 
the condition of his people. He made a harbour at Joppa, 
established magazines and armouries, improved the laws and 
administered them with vigour, restored the religious rites, 



and renewed the treaties of alliance which Jonathan had 
made with the Romans and Spartans. (1 Macc. % xiv., xv.) 
In the year 141 B.O, the people met at Jerusalem, and 
registered a publio act recounting the services of the house 
of Mattathias, and recognising Simon and his heirs as per- 
petual prince and high-priest of the Jews : and this act was 
afterwards confirmed by Demetrius. (1 Mace, xiv. 35.) 
After the capture of Demetrius by the Parthians, his suc- 
cessor Antiochus Sidetes renewed the treaty with 8imou, 
allowed him to coin money, and declared Jerusalem a free 
and holy city. Soon afterwards however Antiochus not 
'only refused to ratify this treaty, but demanded of Simon 
the surrender of several fortified places, including the citadel 
on Mount Zion, or .the payment of 1000 talents. Simon 
refused these demands, and Antiochus sent a large army 
into Palestine, which was soon however driven back by John 
Hyrcanus and Judas, the sons of Simon (b.c. 1 39-8). For 
the next three years the Jews again enjoyed a season of 
tranquillity, during which Simon occupied himself in in- 
specting and improving the state of the country. In the 
course of his tour he visited bis son-in-law Ptolemy, at his 
castle of Doc, where he and bis two sons Mattathias and 
Judas were*ireaeherously put to death by Ptolemy, who 
aimed at the principality of Judroa (b.c. 135). He was suc- 
ceeded by bis surviving son John Hyrcanus. [Hyrcahus* 
John; Asmonaeans; Maccabees.] 

The coinage of Simon is the first of which we have any 
historical account among the Jews. [Shekel.] 

(Josephus, Antiq. ; Prideaux's Connection ; Jatin's He- 
brew Commonwealth ; V9 iner's Biblisches Reahoorterbuch.) 
SIMON MAGUS, that is, the magician, is mentioned in 
the Acts of the Apostles as having imposed upon the people 
of Samaria by magical practices. When Philip the Deacon 
preached the gospel at Samaria, Simon was among those 
who received baptism at his hands. But when Peter and 
John came down to Samaria, and Simon perceived that the 
Hoi v Ghost was received by those upon whom they laid their 
hands, he offered them money if they would give him the 
same power. Peter vehemently rebuked him, and he showed 
some appearance of penitence {Acts, viii. 9-24) ; but the 
early Christian writers represent him as afterwards becom- 
ing one of the chief opponents of Christianity. According to 
them he was the founder of the Gnostic heresy, and was ad-* 
dieted to magical practices and to abominable vices. After 
travelling through several provinces, endeavouring as he went 
to spread his errors and to damage Christianity as much as 
possible, he came to Rome, where it is said that he worked 
miracles which gained him many followers, and obtained for 
him the favour of Nero. At last, as he was exhibiting in 
the emperor's presence the feat of flying through the air in 
a fiery chariot, which he was enabled to perform by the aid 
of daemons, the united prayers of Peter and Paul, who were 
present on the occasion, prevailed against him, and the dce- 
mons threw him to the ground. There are also other mar- 
vellous stories about his life and doctrines. 

(Calmet's Dictionary; Winer's Biblisches Realwdrter- 
buch ; Lardner's Credibility,) 
SIMON MATTHES. [Simon Maccabaeus.1 
SIMON, RICHARD, was born at Dieppe, in Normandy, 
May 13, 1638. After he had finished his studies, he entered 
into the Congregation of the Oratory, and became lecturer on 
philosophy at the College of JuiHy. Being summoned by 
nis superiors to Paris, he applied himself to the study of 
divinity, and made great progress in oriental learning. 
There being a valuable collection of oriental manuscripts in 
the Oratory of Rue St. Honore, Simon was directed to make 
a catalogue of them, which he did with great skill. In 1668 
he returned to JuiHy, and resumed his lectures on philo- 
sophy, and two years after published his defence of a Jew 
whom the parliament of Metz condemned to be burned on 
the charge of having murdered a Christian child : • Factum 
pour le Jutf de Mete,' &c. Paris, 1670. In the following year, 
with a view to show that the opinions of the Greek cnurch 
are not materially different from those of the Church of 
Rome with respect to the Sacrament, he published his 
'Fides Ecelesiee Orien talis,* Paris, 167], 8vo„ and 1682, 
4 to. This work, which is a translation of one of the tracts 
of Gabriel, metropolitan of Philadelphia, with notes, Simon 
gave as a supplement to the first volume of the ' Perpetuity 
of the Faith respecting the Eucharist/ whose authors he 
accused of having committed many gross errors, and not 
having sufficiently answered the objections raised by the 
Protestant minister Jean Claude, in his 'Reponeeau Trait* 



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<k la Perp&uite' cle la Foi sur rEucharistie.' [Claude.] 
This involved him in a controversy with the writers of Port- 
Royal, and laid the foundation of that opposition which he 
afterwards met with from the learned of his own communion. 
His next publication, which came out under the assumed 
name of Recared Simeon, was a French translation of the 
work of Leo of Modena: 4 C6r6 monies et Coutumes qui 
s'observent aujourd'hui parmi les Juifs,' Paris, 1674, 12mo. 
A second edition appeared in '1681, under the name of the 
Sieur de Simonville, containing also a supplement respect- 
ing the Canutes and the Samaritans, and a comparison be- 
tween the ceremonies of the Jews and the discipline of the ' 
Church. In 1675 he published the ' Voyage de Mont Liban,' 
from the Italian of Dan din i, with notes, and about the same 
time his ' Factum du Prince de Neubourg, abb6 de Fes- 
champs, contre les Religieux de cette Abb aye,' in which work, 
as was usual with him, he took an opportunity to attack 
the Benedictines. But the work which rendered him most 
famous is his ' Histoire Critique du Vieux Testament/ which 
immediately after its publication (Paris, 1678, 8vo.) was sup- 
pressed on the ground that it contained doctrines dangerous 
to religion ana the Church. The work however was so 
much admired for its learning and criticism, that it was re- 
printed the year after, and translated into Latin at Am- 
sterdam, 1681, and into English at London, 1682, 4 to., by 
John Hampden. After the publication of his • Histoire 
Critique,' Simon left the Congregation of the Oratory, and 
repaired to Belleville, a village near Caux, where he held a 
curacy; but in 1682 he resigned his office and removed to 
Dieppe, and thence to Paris to renew his studies and make 
arrangements for the publication of other works. In 1684 
he published at Frankfort, * Histoire de TOrigine et du Pro- 
res des Revenues Ecclesiastiques,' under the name of 
erome a Costa, of which a second edition appeared at the 
same place in 1709, in 2 vols. 8vo. In the same year (1684) 
he printed in London his ' Disquisitiones Critics de variis 
per diversa Loca et Tempora Bibliorum Editionibus,' which 
was immediately translated into English. In 1688 he pub- 
lished at Frankfort, under the name of John Reuchlin, 
* Dissertation Critique sur la Nouvelle Bibliotheque des 
Auteurs Ecclesiastiques par Du Pin/ in which he defends 
some opinions contained in his ' Histoire Critique,' which 
had been controverted by Du Pin. His next publication 
was 'Histoire Critique du Nouveau Testament/ Rotter- 
dam, 1689, 4to., an English version of which appeared the 
same year at London. Besides the above, Simon was the 
author or editor of many other works. He was unquestion- 
jably a man of profound learning and great acuteness, and 
he contributed in no small degree to lessen the authority 
of his own church ; but a love of controversy, in all its bit- 
terness, and too great a propensity to depreciate and abuse 
those who happened not to acquiesce in his opinions, ren- 
dered him equally obnoxious to Protestants and Roman 
Catholics. He died at Dieppe, in April, 1 7 12, in the seventy- 
fourth year of his age. 

SIMO'NIDES was a native of Iulis, in the island of 
Ceos, and was born about b c. 556. His father's name was 
Leoprepcs, and his grandfather's Simon ides, who was also a 
poet 

Simon ides is said to have obtained great fame as a poet 
at an early age. He appears to have remained in Ceos till 
about n.c. 525, when he removed to Athens, where he was 
honourably received by Hipparchus, and became acquainted 
with Anacreon and Lasus (Plato, Hipparch., p. 228 ; Aehan, 
Var. Hist., viii. 2). After the murder of Hipparchus, he took 
refuge with the Aleuadae and Scopadae in Thessaly, whose 
praises he celebrated in some of his poems (Theocrit., xvi. 34, 
&c, with the Schol. ; compare Plato, Protagor., p. 333). How 
long Simonides remained in Thessaly is not known ; but after 
the battle of Marathon (b.c. 490) we find him again at 
Athens. For the next ten years he appears to have lived 
chiefly at Athens, and to have been actively engaged in the 
pursuit of his art. After the banishment of Themistocles 
and the death of Pausanias, with both of whom he lived. on 
intimate terms, he retired to Hieron's court at Syracuse 
(Aelian, Var. Hist., ix. 1 ; iv. 15), where he died, B.C. 467, in 
his ninetieth year. 

Most of the poems of Simonides are lost ; but enough 
have come down to us to enable us to form some opinion of 
the merits of his poetry, and to justify the panegyrics which 
the antient writers bestow upon him. He was one of the 
most distinguished of the elegiac poets, and particularly ex- 
oelled in the pathetic, as we see in his 'Lament of Danae' and 



in other remains of his poetry. He is stated to have had 
the superiority over Aeschylus in an elegy which he com 
posed in honour of those who died at Marathon, when the 
Athenians instituted a contest of the chief poets. But some 
of Simon ides' s best poems are epigrams, which species of 
poetry he carried to greater perfection than any of his pre- 
decessors. The Persian war gave constant employment to 
this muse, as he was frequently employed by the different 
states of Greece to adorn with inscriptions the tombs of 
those who fell, and the votive offerings which were dedi- 
cated in the various temples. We still possess several of his 
epigrams belonging to this period. Of these one of the 
most celebrated is upon the Spartans who fell at Thermo- 
pylae : ' Stranger, tell the Lacedaemonians that we are lying 
here in obedience to their laws;' and another upon the 
Athenians who fell at Marathon : • Fighting in the van of 
the Greeks, the Athenians at Marathon destroyed the power 
of the glittering Medians.* Simonides also celebrated the 
sea-fights of Artemisiura and Sal am is in two larger poems, 
which are often referred to by antient writers, but of which 
no fragments have come down to us. 

The remains of the poems of Simonides have been pub- 
lished by Schneidewin, under the the title of * Simonidis 
Carminum Reliquiae/ Bruns., 1835, 8vo. The Greek letters 
K, ¥, Q, are said to have been invented by Simonides, who 
is also stated to have converted the sign of the aspirate H 
into a long e. 

Simonides of Ceos must not be confounded with Simo- 
nides of Amorgus, which is an island not far from Paros. 
The latter was a contemporary of Archilochus, and flourished 
from B.C. 693 to 662. He wrote iambics, in which he at- 
tacked private persons, and of which a few fragments have 
come down to us. He also wrote a satirical poem upon 
women in the iambic metre, which is still extant. The 
fragments of his poems have heen published by Welcker 
Bonn, 1835. 

(Miiller's History of the Literature of Greece, p. 125, 
&c, 140; Bode's Geschichte der Lyrischen Dichtkunst der 
Hellenen, vol. i., p. 318, &c; vol. ii., p. 122, &c.) 

SIMONY is the buying or selling for money or other 
corrupt consideration any ecclesiastical benefice, dignity, or 
preferment, or the causing a clerk to obtain or to relinquish 
such benefice or preferment for corrupt consideration. The 
word is derived from Simon, who is mentioned in the ' Acts 
of the Apostles' (viii., 18-24) as having offered money to 
Peter and John in order that he might obtain from them 
apostolical powers. 

Whether Simony was an offence at common law is at 
least doubtful. Lord Coke, it is true, repeatedly says that 
the common law doth abhor Simony, and adduces as evidence 
of this repugnance the fact that a patron of a living could not 
by the common law recover a pecuniary compensation for 
being impeded in his presentation. It is certain that Simony 
is a great ecclesiastical offence by the canons both of the 
Roman Catholic and of the Anglican church. The 40th 
canon of the latter (a.d. 1603), ' to avoid the detestable crime 
of Simony,' and because the buying and selling of spiritual 
and ecclesiastical functions, &c. * is execrable before God/ 
prescribes an oath to be ministered to every person assum- 
ing such offices, by which he denies that he has made any 
Simoniacal payment, contract, or promise, directly or indi- 
rectly, for procuring such ecclesiastical office, or that he 
will perform any such contract made on his behalf without, 
his knowledge. 

But the offence now depends on the statute 31 Elizabeth, 
c. 6, although the word Simony is not mentioned in the act. 
By that statute any person presenting to a benefice for 
profit or ' any such corrupt cause 1 forfeits to the crown that 
presentation and double the value of one year's profit of the 
benefice, and the person paying the price is rendered in- 
capable of holding that benefice (§ 5). Any person so cor- 
ruptly admitting or instituting another is subject to the 
like pecuniary penalty, and the benefice is * eflsoons merely 
void,' and the presentation reverts to the patron as though 
the party so admitted were dead (} 6). An incumbent 
resigning or exchanging a benefice with cure of souls for 
profit, and the person with whom the bargain is made, both 
forfeit double the price, together with two years' profit of 
the benefice ($ 8). Any person obtaining for such corrupt 
consideration the ordaining of a minister, forfeits 40/., and 
the minister so corruptly ordained forfeits 10/. and is in- 
capable of holding any ecclesiastical preferment for seven 
years. The modifications which that enactment has under* 



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gone by subsequent statutes and decisions will be found 
under the head Benefice (p. 223-6). 

The indignation of ecclesiastical authorities against 
Simony, excepting in so far as relates to the admission of 
persons into the ministry, seems somewhat unreasonable, 
and is certainly inefficacious, for the trafficking in ecclesias- 
tical preferment is extensively pursued. Provided that the 
qualification of persons for holy orders is carefully in- 
Testigated before their admission to the ministry, and that 
the discipline of the church can be strictly and easily en- 
forced by the bishops and other ecclesiastical authorities, the 
reason why a minister who has been admitted to a benefice 
for a pecuniary consideration should be disqualified for his 
office is not very obvious, especially in a country where 
adyowsons are by law a marketable commodity, and the 
legislature recognises a bargain for compelling a minister 
to resign a benefice in favour of another person, provided 
the latter is within certain degrees of consanguinity to the 
patron. 

(Rogers's Ecclesiastical Law ; Bacon's Abridgment, 'Si- 
mony.') 

SIMOOM. [Samieu.] 

SIMPLE BODIES. [Atomic Theory.] 

SIMPLE CONTRACT debts are those which are con- 
tracted without any engagement under the seal of the debtor 
or of his ancestor, and which are not of record by any judg- 
ment of a court Money due for goods bought by the debtor 
is the most usual of simple contract debts ; and the declara- 
tion against a defendant, in an action for goods sold, usually 
alleges that the defendant undertook (or contracted) to pay 
the plaintiff the sum due. Simple contract debts are the last 
which are payable out of a deceased person's estate, when 
the assets are insufficient. [Executor.] 

SIMPLTCIUS, a native of Tibur, succeeded Hilarius as 
bishop of Rome, a.d. 467. He had a controversy with 
Acacias, Patriarch of Constantinople, about precedence. 
SimpliciuB dedicated several churches at Rome to particular 
saints, and he also framed several regulations concerning 
the discipline of the clergy of Rome. He died a.d. 483. 

SIMPLI'CIUS was a native of Cilicia, and lived in the 
reign of Justinian. He had been trained in the study of 
philosophy by Ammonius, and appears to have been engaged 
in teaching at Athens when Justinian issued the decree which 
imposed perpetual silence on the few yet remaining votaries 
of heathen science and superstition in that city. Simplicius 
and six of his philosophic friends, who were resolved not to 
abandon the religion of their forefathers, left Athens, to seek 
in a foreign land the freedom which was denied to them at 
home. They went to Persia, where Chosroes then reigned, 
expecting to find all their hopes realised ; but when they 
saw the actual state of affairs in the East, they repented of 
the steps which they had taken, and declared that they 
would rather die on the borders of the empire than enjoy 
the favours and the wealth which the barbarian monarch 
might bestow upon them. They returned to their country ; 
and Chosroes, in a treaty which he at the time concluded 
with the Greek emperor, nobly stipulated that the seven 
philosophers who had visited his court should be exempt 
from the penal laws which Justinian enacted against his 
pagan subjects. Simplicius and his friends, after their 
return, lived in peace and retirement at Athens, where they 
devoted the remainder of their lives to the study of philo- 
sophy, enjoying the reputation of being wise and virtuous 
men. 

Simplicius wrote Commentaries on Aristotle's Catego- 
goriee, Physica, DeCoelo, and De Anima. One of his objects 
in these commentaries is to reconcile the Platonic and Stoic 
systems with the Peripatetic school, to which he himself be- 
longed. They are the most valuable of all the extant Greek 
commentaries on Aristotle ; for Simplicius possessed a pro- 
found knowledge of his author, as well as of other philoso- 
phical writers of antiquity ; and as he frequently quotes the 
opinions of antient philosophers whose works are no longer 
extant, his commentaries are a fruitful source for those who 
with to study the history of antient philosophy. His com- 
mentaries are printed in some of the early editions of Aris- 
totle ; they are also contained in • Scholia in Aristotelem, 
oollegit Ch. A. Brandis,' Berlin, 1836. &c. 

Simplicius also wrote a Commentary on the Enchiridion 
of Epictetus, which for its pure and noble principles of mo- 
rality has commanded the admiration of all ages. The best 
separate edition of this commentary is that by Schweig- 
hauser, with a Latin translation, in 2 vols., Leipiig, 1800. 
P C* No. 1363. 



It has been translated into English by Dr. G. Stanhope, 
London, 1704, 8vo. ; into French by Dacicr, Paris, 1715 ; 
and into German by Schulthess, Zurich, 1778. 
SIMPLON. [Switzerland.] 

SIMPSON. THOMAS, a distinguished English mathe- 
matician, was born at Market-Bosworth in Leicestershire, 
August 20, 1710. He appears even in his boyhood to have 
had a strong inclination for acquiring information by read- 
ing and conversation ; but his father, who was a weaver, 
intending that he should follow that occupation, endea- 
voured to divert him from a pursuit which interfered with 
the labour of his hands. The impulse of genius howevei 
prevailed over the remonstrances Of the parent, and the 
youth, having quitted his father's house, went to reside 
at Nuneaton, where, in the exercise of his trade, he ob- 
tained the means of subsisting, and during the intervals 
of leisure he indulged his taste for the acquisition of know- 
ledge. 

\oung Simpson was led to the study of mathematics by 
having accidentally obtained possession of a copy of Cocker's 
• Arithmetic,' to which was annexed a short treatise oil 
algebra ; and, similarly to what is related of Tycho Brahe", 
it is said that he applied himself to astronomy from admi- 
ration of the science in consequence of the occurrence (in 
1724) of a great eclipse of the sun at the time, which had 
been predicted. It is added that an itinerant pedlar and 
fortune-teller instructed him at the same time in the mys- 
teries of judicial astrology, and this art he occasionally prac- 
tised during several years. 

While yet a stripling he married a woman about fifty 
years of age, the widow of a tailor and the mother of two 
children, of whom the younger was his senior by two years * 
all the family however appear to have lived together in har- 
mony, Simpson working at his trade by day, and increasing 
his income by keeping a private school in the evenings. In 
1733 he went to reside at Derby, where he continued to fol- 
low the united avocations of weaver and schoolmaster, and 
where he found means to increase his knowledge of mathe- 
matics. With arithmetic, geometry, and algebra he was 
already acquainted; and now, having obtained a loan of 
Stone's translation of the Marquis de rH6pital's ' Analyse 
des Infinimens Petits,' he was enabled by the force of 
genius and unremitting application to make himself master 
of the direct and inverse method of fluxions. Being thus 
qualified, he began in or before the year 1735 to write 
answers to the mathematical questions in the 'Ladies* 
Diary,' and even to propose questions for solution in that 
work. Some of the questions have a certain degree of 
intricacy, and they afford evidence that, at this time, the 
scientific attainments of Simpson, considering his means, 
must have been very extensive. 

In the year 1735 or 1736 Simpson came to London and 
took lodgings in Spital fields, where at first he both worked 
at the loom and gave instruction, as he had done in the 
country ; but his great abilities becoming known to the 
world, and being perhaps more conspicuous from the ob- 
scurity of his situation, ne was enabled to give up his trade 
and devote himself wholly to science. Having brought his 
family to the metropolis, he established himself there as a 
teacher of the mathematics, and employed his leisure hours 
in extending his researches into the highest branches of the 
science. 

On the death of Dr. Derham, Mr. Simpson was. in 
1743, appointed professor of mathematics in the Royal 
Military Academy at Woolwich; and this post he held 
during nearly all the rest of his life. He is said to have 
been successful in acquiring the friendship and esteem of 
his pupils; and while exerting himself diligently in fulfil- 
ling his public duties, he found time to compose numerous 
works on the most abstruse points in the mathematical and 
physical sciences. 

In 1746 he was admitted a fellow of the Royal Society, 
and on account of the mediocrity of his circumstances he 
was excused the payment of the admission fee and the an- 
nual subscriptions : several of his mathematical papers were 
printed in the • Transactions,' but most of them were after- 
wards republished in the volumes of his works. In 1760, 
when the present bridge at Blackfriars was about to be 
built, Mr. Simpson was consulted with other mathemati- 
cians concerning the form which would be most ad van- 
tageous for the arches ; he appears in consequence to have 
taken some pains in. investigating the conditions of the sta- 
bility of vaults, and to have given the preference to those 

Vol. XXIL— F 



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of a bemi-cylindrical form, but ^e did not live to complete 
the work, and the results of his researches Have never been 
made public. 

As Mr. Simpson advanced in life, he became gradually 
a prey to melancholy, which* appears to Tiave been in- 
creased by the i^u'ence of bad habits ; his mental faculties 
were at length so far itnpaired that he became incapable, of 
performing the duties of his professorship^ and in the be- 
ginning of the year 176 } he was prevailed oh to retire to 
his native town. The fatigues of the journev increased his 
disorder, and he died May 14, in that year, in the fifty-first 
year of his age. 

Considering the circumstances attending Simpson's early 
life, and the laborious occupation in 1 which he was after- 
wards engaged, it is not without surprise that we contem- 
plate the number of worlds which be wrote; and the pro- 
found research those works display. His first publication, 
which came out \n 1737, was entitled * A New Treatise of 
Fluxions,* in which the direct and inverse uiethods,' as they 
were called, are demonstrated with considerable precision 
and perspicuity, and agreeably to the manner of Newton ; 
the work also contains several useful applications of the' cal- 
culus to subjects in natural philosophy and astronomy. 
Thirteen years afterwards, that is, in 1750, he published 
'The Doctrine and Applications of Fluxions,' which he 
dedicated to the earl of Macclesfield, and which, though it 
embraces the same subjects as form the body of the, 'Trea- 
tise,' must, from the numerous improvements it contains, be 
considered as a separate work. 

In 1740 Simpson published ' A Treatise on the Nature 

id Laws of Chance/ besides ' IJssays on several' subjects 

nnva nni) miTail Mo(Vianinti/<a .* ati/T twA «nn» ■ - 



and 



Physical ap3 4P a ty 
found* an tnvestigatj 

were ie^ic^\e^ *^o ^^rt^ 
{loyal Society. 



cls* s among which will be 
gureof a planet teyolvin- 



kes, fcsq., the president of the' 




geometry a^ given notes i in which are suggested improve- 
ments on some of the ^eniqnst rations ofTiuclid ; but in 
making occasional observations on the notes given in the 
first edition of t)r. Robert Simson's ''Jluclifl,' for example 
oil the note to t^e first proposition of the eleventh book, he 
has fallen 1 info some slight inaccuracies Which' nave been 
remarked oq jn the succeeding editions of the latter work! 
A second edition of Thomas Simpson's 'Geometry' was pub- 
lished in 1760. ' 

In the year 1753 he, published 'Select Exercises in Ma- 
thematics,' in. winch are given many geometrical and 
algebraical problems "with their solutions, and a theory of 
gunnery; but bis last arid most valuable work was mat 
which is entitled k Iflisceltaneous Jracts ' (V754). This 
consists of eight separate papers, four of which relate to 

5ure mathematics, and the others fo physical wtroiiptny. 
'he first paper coptains' investigations for determining the 
precession of the equinoxes a, nd tjie nutations of the earth's 
axis ; the second contains equations for correcting; the place 
of a planet in its orbit on the hypotheses of ^uUialdus an£ 
Seth Ward; ape} the third is on the manner of transferring 
the motion of a comet from a parabolical to an elliptical 
orbit. In the fourth paper are explained the advantages; in 
point of accuracy, which arise from using a mean of several 
astronomical observations instead of one single observation. 
The fifth contains the determination of certain fluents ; the 
sixth, the resolution of algebraic equations by means' of 
surd divisors ; and the seventh, a general rule for the reso- 
lution of isoperimetrical propositions, tbe eighth paper 
contains the resolution of some important problems in 
astronomy ; the propositions in the third and ninth sec- 
tions of the first book of Newton's ' Principia ' are demon- 
strated, and the general equations are applied to the deter- 
mination of tbe lunar orbit 

In order that the merit of this last paper may be rightly 
appreciated, it is necessary to observe that about the, year 
1745 the modem analysis was first applied to the determi- 



nation of the elements of the orbits of the earth, moon, as^ 
planets; these bodies being supposed to perturbate each 
other's motions by their mutual attractions, as well as Ufte 
subject td the general attraction of the sun. In the prose? 
cutibh of the research, the mathematicians Clairaut, 
D'Alembert, and Ruler particularly investigated the effect 
Of the suri'S attraction in causing a progression of the apogee 
of the moon's orbit, which progression, being a remarkable, 
consequence of perturbation, was considered as a test of the 
correctness bf the general principle and law of attraction 
wbich had been assumed by Newton. The first effort* of 
M. Clairaut showed an amount of progression in the period 
of a revolution 6f the moon about the earth, equal to abouf 
half only of that which had been determined from astrorick 
mical observations ('Me" mo ires de 1' Academic,' 1747) ; and it 
is remarkable that'bbth D'Alembert and Euler obtained at 
the same time a like erroneous result This circumstance 
at first cttused some doubts to be entertained of the truth of 
Newton's hypothesis, that the force of attraction varies in- 
versely as tbe square 6f the distance: but the process em- 
ployed by the three mathematicians being one of successive 
approximations only, it was afterwards discovered by Clairaut 
that, on continuing the process, the second step in the 
approximation produced a quantity nearly equal to that 
wnictf mid been obtained by the first step ; and thus the 
(^mpUteo^ progression was found to coincide with the results 
of observation. Now Simpson, employing a differential 
equation of motion like that which had been used by the 
foreign mathematicians, obtained the values of its terms by 
means of indeterminate coefficients ; a method which en- 
tirely avoided the inaccuracy resulting from the species of 
approximation which they had adopted ; and' thus he arrived 
at once at the true value of the progression. 

The ' Tracts' were not published till seven years after 
Clairaut's 'M&noire ' came out, and it appears that, in the 
interval, that mathematician during a visit to England had 
an interview with Simpson; the latter states bowever, in 
(he preface to bis 'Tracts,' that previously to having had 
any T communication with M. Clairaut, he had discovered 
(hat tbe movement of the 1 monn** nnrStro* cnnl'd be accounted 
tor on' the Newtonian 'laWN There is there- 

fore no reason to doubt th 1 the merit of 

arriving at a determination to conuYm tbe 

trutli of that law by a process entirely liis own: the whole 
invesiigatipn exhibits profoijrid mathematical skill, and fully 
Entitles him to the Character of having been one of the 
ablest an aTysts, fj>f all "the purposes of practical science, of 
which the countify can boast. • l * ' ' : 

Mr. Simpson /continued during the whole of his life his 
contributions to tbe * Ladies' Difiy, of which work be was 
the editor from 1 7*54 to 1 *60. " ' ~~ 
"SlltSON, ROBERT, one of t^o many mathematicians 
who have given a lustre to the universities of Scotland, was 
a son of Mr. John Simson, OfKirton Hall fn Ayrsbire, and 
was born in October, 1687. About the year T761 be was 
sent to the university of 6las£ow, where he acquired that 
broficiency in the learned languages which he retained dur- 
ing all his life 1 , and at the same time he made considerable 
progress' in 'fcboralphilosophy and theology, being destined 
by pis father 4 for the church. Young Simson soon however 
found a pursuit more congenial to his taste in the study of 
mathematics, and chiefly of the antient geometry: to this 
subject' he applied himself at first as a renef from what be 
considered as a more laborious occupation, and it became at 
length almost the sole employment of* hi* life. 

Itl 1 tiy Mr. Simson made a visit td iJoridon, where he 
remained about a year, and where he became acquainted 
with Dr. Halley, Mr. Caswell, Dr. Jurini and Mr. Dittori ; 
from the conversation of the last gentleman, who was then 
mathematical master of Christ's Hospital, be gained, not as 
a pupil, but' as a friend, a considerable accession to his 
knowledge of science. 

On the resignation of Dr. Robert Sinclair, Mr. Simson 
was appointed, in 1711, to succeed him as professor of ma- 
thematics in the university of Glasgow. He then applied 
himself to the duties of his office, and regularly gave lec- 
tures on five days in each week during the session of seven 
months. This practice he continued for nearly fifty years ; 
but iri 1758, being then seventy-one years of age, he was 
obliged to employ an assistant, and three years afterwards 
the Rev. Dr. Williamson, who had been one of his pupils, 
was appointed his successor. ■-..--•• 

In 1735 Dr. Simson published in 4to. a ' Treatise, on Conio 



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Sections,' and a second edition in 1750; in this work the 
investigations are conducted agreeably to the snirit of the 
antient geometry, and propositions are introduced expressly 
that, it might serve as an introduction to the treatise of 
Apollonius on the, same subject. , 

By the advice, it is said, of Dr. Hallay, Sirason early di- 
rected his attention to a. restoration of the works of the 
Greek geometers, and. his first. effort was made on the 
porisms of Euclid 2 a, branch of the. antient analysis which 
is only knpwn from the short account in the works of & ap- 
pus. In this difficult task however he succeeded, hut his 
• Tract' pn the subject, was not published till after his 
death. Saving acquired a sort of. key to that analysis, 
he undertook a restoration of the ' loci plani' of Apollonius, 
and tpib he completed about the year 1 738. The work was 
first published in 1746. and Dr. Simson acquired by it the 
reputation of being one of the most , elegant geometers of 
the age. Another subject on which the. peculiar talents of 
Dr. Simson were exercised*, was the ' sectio determinate ' of 
Apollonius, and this also he was so fortunate as to restore. 
The work appears to have been commenced at an early pe- 
riod of his life, but. it was only published, alotig with the 
Porisms, after bis death. 

A perfect edition of the principal part of Euclid's • Ele- 
ments' was the next object of Dr. Simson's labours. Nu- 
merous errors were known to exist in the Greek copies, and 
the correction of these was a task worthy of a scholar who 
had made the antient geometry almost exclusively his 
study. An edition of the • Elements' and of the * Data' was 
published in 4to. about .1 768, and the work has always en- 
joyed a high character both for precision in the definitions 
and accuracy in the demonstrations. It is probable that the 
British mathematician has even . corrected errors which 
existed in the original text, though his high regard for 
Euclid has led hioa to assume that all those which he has 
discovered have arisen from the negligence or unskilful- 
ness of .the antient editors or copyists. Having been very 
generally used for the purposes of elementary instruction, 
many editions of this work have since been published. 

After his retirement Dr. Simson employed himself chiefly 
in correcting his mathematical .writings ; but though he 
had several works nearly fit for publication, he printed 
none except a new edition of Euclid's ' Data. 9 He was 
seriously ill only during a few weeks previously to his death, 
which took place October 1, 1768, in the eighty-first year of 
his age. 

In 1776 Earl Stanhope published, at his own expense, 
and for private circulation, the above-mentioned restora- 
tions of Euclid's books of Porisms, and of the two books of 
Apollonius ' De Sectione Determinate :' together with these 
works the same nobleman published a tract on- the limits 
of ratios and another on logarithms, both of which had also 
been written by Dr. Simson. An edition of the works of 
Pappus was found among the Doctor's MSS., and was sent 
by his executors to the University of Oxford. 

Dr. Simson, though devoted to geometry, was well ac- 
quainted with the modern analysis, and the latter was 
occasionally the subject of his college lectures; it is how- 
ever to be regretted that so much of his time was spent in 
the effort to restore the precise works of the antients, when 
it might have been more profitably employed in forming a 
connected system of their analysis, and in showing its appli- 
cation to the solution of problems relating to physical 
science. He was never married, and the greater part of 
his long life was spent within the walls of the college ; his 
hours of studv, his exercises, and even his amusements be- 
ing regulated with great- precision* In his disposition he 
was cheerful and sociable; and his conversation, which 
was animated, abounded with literary anecdote and good 
humoar, though he was subject, when in company, to occa- 
sional fits of absence. He was a man of strict integrity and 
pure morals, and he appears to have had just impressions 
of religion, though he never allowed the subject to be intro- 
duced in mixed society. 

81N. One of the few passages of Scripture in which we 
have something which approaches to the character of a 
definition relates to this word : ' Sin is the transgression of 
the law.' (I Jakri, Hi. 4.) Within this definition would be 
comprehended all actual sins, when the word law is inter- 
preted to mean the Christian law, the rule by which the 
minds of all who profess Christianity are bound; and not 
merely open palpable offences against the law, such as mur- 
der, theft, lying) and the like, hut sinful omissions of duty, 



and those sins which are only those' of contemplation and 
thought: since the Christian rule commands us net to 
neglect the performance of our duties, and to keep a watch 
over the thoughts as well as over the actions and words. 

It was this comprehensive and most excellent law which 
was in the mind of the Apostle when he said that ' sin was 
transgression of the law,' or at least that other divine law 
which bound the conscience of the Jews. But the expres- 
sion may be taken to express more generally any law which 
a person holds in his conscience to be binding upon him, 
whether it be a law of nature only, or a law in which the 
natural perception of right and Wrong is .modified by and 
mixed with what is received as the will of God concerning 
us by direct revelation from him. 

When the word sin is however applied to any act, it is 
always, among correct writers or speakers, used with refer- 
ence, either expressed or implied* to religious obligation, 
and to the responsibility in which we stand to God, and the 
liability in which we are to future punishment. * To do 
Wrong" would express the same act as ' to commit sin ;' but 
we use the former phrase without thinking of the offence 
which is done against God in any act of the kind ; not so 
when we use the other phrase. 

Under this definition it is evident that there may be 
degrees in sin: and we mention this to remove What we 
deem, an erroneous opinion on this subject, which goes the 
length of saying that there is really no difference between 
the slightest violation of any moral obligation and the more 
heinous transgressions. The error on this point arises out of 
one of the commonest mistakes in respect of language— con- 
founding words in their abstract with words in their concrete 
state. It is true that sin in the abstract is one and indivisi- 
ble, and there are no degrees in it; it expresses that which 
is most offensive in the sight of a pure, holy, and judging 
God. But when we say ' a sin,' we then refer to some par- 
ticular act ; and common sense tells its that in all acts in 
which the law is transgressed there is not the same amount 
of moral turpitude, the same amount of defiance to the 
Divine Power, the same injury to society or to our neigh- 
bour, and consequently not the same amount of offence in 
the sight of God. At the same time it cannot be too strongly 
inculcated upon all to Jteep a watchful guard upon them- 
selves lest they commit even the smaller offences; for 
nothing is more certain in the philosophy of mind, than that 
small offences lead imperceptibly to the toleration of 
greater, so that the man who thinks little of small offences 
may become, before he is aware, guilty of those of the most 
heinous nature. 

There is also what divines call Original Sin * a phrase 
which is differently interpreted by different persons. By 
some it is considered as being the act of sin committed by 
our first parents when they transgressed the law which had 
bound them not to eat of the fruit of a certain tree ; and 
this act of sin is regarded as partaken in by all the posterity 
of Adam, who Were, as it were, existent in him their com- 
mon father, and as fixing upon all the guilt of his sin, and 
exposing them to punishment which would be inflicted for 
this particular sin, to say nothing of their own sin, but for 
the great redemption. There are many modifications of 
this notion and many intermediate shades of opinion till we 
arrive at the view of original Sin which represents the 
nature of man as changed hy the transgression in this par- 
ticular of our common ancestor ; so that a nature previously 
perfectly innocent and free from the least tendency to sin, 
became changed into one in which the disposition to sin is 
inherent and the repugnance to the Divine will strong and 
universal. There are some classes of professing Christians 
who do not use the phrase original sin, though they admit 
the proneness of man to sin, attributing it to his ignorance 
and imperfection, to the violence of his appetites and pas- 
sions, and in general referring it to that state of probation in 
which it seems to them to have been the intention of their 
Maker to place us. 

SINAI, MOUNT. [Arabia, t>. $13.] 

SINA'PIS, the name of a genus of plants belonging to 
the natural order Cruciferte or Brassicaceaa. All the species 
are known by the name of mustard, a word derived from 
mustum ardens, in allusion to their hot and biting charac- 
ter. The genus is known by its siliqhOse fruit, which is 
rather terete with nerved valves ; small, short, acute style ; 
subgloboae seeds disposed in one row in each cell, and spread- 
ing calyx. The leaves are of various forms, Ivrate or deeply 
tooihed. The flowers yellow, arranged oh terminal bractless 

F2 



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raeemes. They are chiefly natives of the teafperate parts 
of both hemispheres of the old world. Between 40 and 50 
species of this genus are enumerated. Of these two species 
are well known and much cultivated in this country, Swa- 
pi* nigra and S. alba, the black and white mustard. 

& nigra, the black mustard, is known by its smooth, even, 
somewhat tetragonal siliques closely pressed to the pe- 
duncle ; lyrate lower leaves, and lanceolate upper leaves. 
It is found in cultivated fields, waste grounds, and road- 
sides throughout Europe. The young plants of both black 
and white mustard are eaten as salad, and are both culti- 
vated for this purpose. The black however differs from the 
white mustard in the flowers and seed being much smaller, 
and in the latter being black. But the great purpose for 
which the black mustard is grown is for the seeds, which 
when ripened and powdered form the well-known condi- 
ment mustard. 'To raise the seed for flour of mustard and 
other officinal occasions, sow either in March or April in an 
open compartment, or large sowings in fields, where designed 
for public supply. Sow moderately thick, either in drills six 
or twelve inches asunder, or broad-cast, after the ground has 
been properly ploughed and harrowed, and rake or harrow 
in the seed. When the plants are two or three inches high, 
hoe or thin them moderately where too thick, and clear 
them from weeds. They will soon run up to stalks, and in 
July, August, or September return a crop of seed ripe for 
gathering ; being tied up in sheaves and left three or four 
days on the stubble.' (Don's Miller.) Rain damages the 
crop very much. Black mustard exhausts the soil rapidly. 
It is cultivated to a great extent in the county of Durham. 
"When once grown it is difficult to extirpate ou account of 
the great vitality of the seeds, which, if buried at almost 
any depth and for any length of time, will germinate when 
brought to the surface. In preparing the flour of mustard 
in this country, the black husk of the seed is separated by 
delicate sifting. This process, which is not gone through 
on the Continent, makes the British mustard of so much 
lighter and more agreeable 'colour. The mustard ou the 
Continent however is stronger, as the greater proportion of 
the volatile oil on which the strength of the mustard depends 
resides in the testa, or husk of the seed, which in this coun- 
try is thrown away. 

S. alba, white mustard : siliques hispid, spreading, rather 
narrower than the ensiform beak : leaves lyrate, smooth ish ; 
stem smooth. It is a native of Britain and most countries 
in the south of Europe. It is frequently cultivated, and when 
young is eaten as a salad. Its seeds are white, and by ex- 
pression yield a bland insipid oil perfectly free from acri- 
mony, but leaving behind a cake more pungent than the 
seeds themselves. In the culture of this plant for salad the 
seed should be sown once a week or fortnight, in dry warm 
situations, in February and March, aud in shady borders in 
the heat of summer. They are best sown in shallow flat drills, 
from three to six inches apart The seeds should be put in 
thick and regular, and covered with not more than a quar- 
ter of an inch of mould. In winter or early spring it may 
be grown under a hand-glass, or in hotbeds and stoves. 

SIN APIS. Two species of this genus are used in this 
country to yield the mustard of commerce, S. alba and S. 
nigra, or white mustard and black mustard. Both are 
annuals, the latter extensively cultivated in Yorkshire and 
Durham. Of the former the seeds are large, smooth, not 
veined or reticulated, and when bruised and mixed with 
water, do not evolve a pungent odour. The integument or 
skin is also thin, and the quantity of fixed oil obtained 
from it is less than from that of the black mustard. White 
mustard is of a light colour externally (but one variety is 
blackish), and when reduced to powder, is of a light yellow 
colour. 

The seeds of black mustard are about the size of the 
head of a common pin, ovato-giobose, of a reddish-brown, 
beautifully veined, internally yellow, oily, and yielding a 
yellowish-green powder. The chemical constitution of the 
two is essentially different, as it is only the black mustard 
which evolves, when bruised and mixed with water, the 
pungent principle which irritates the eyes, nostrils, and 
skin. The white mustard possesses a non-volatile principle, 
which is developed by the addition of water. It is the 
young plants from this species which are eaten with cress 
as a salad. 

The chemical constitution of black mustard seems to be 
of the most complex kind. According to Dr. Pereira, it 
coutains myronate of potash, myrosvne, fixed oil, a pearly 



fat matter, gummy matter, sugar, colouring matter, sinft- 
pisin, free acid, peculiar green matter, and some salts, 
chiefly sulphate and phosphate of lime. The volatile oil 
does not pre-exist in the mustard, but is formed, when water 
is added, * by the mutual action of the contained myrosyne 
and myronate of potash (sinapisin ?).' It may be obtained 
by distilling one part of the marc (t.0. the cake of bruised 
mustard-seeds which remains after the fixed oil has been 
expressed) with from five to eight parts of water. It is so- 
luble in alcohol and ether, and also, what is very singular, 
in water, requiring however five hundred parts for its solu- 
tion. Water in which it is dissolved is a powerful vesicant 
and rubefacient. It has been recommended as a counter- 
irritant in the same cases as sinapisms or mustard-poultices 
are employed. It possesses the advantage of extreme ra- 
pidity of action ; and when used in cases of torpor or coma, 
if on the return of sensibility the patient complains of pain 
from the application, this can be immediately removed by 
washing the part with sulphuric aether, a property no other 
rubefacient agent possesses, and which entitles it to a pre- 
ference in many cases. It is the only volatile oil of indi- 
genous origin which is heavier than water, its specific 
gravity being 1*015 at 68° of Fahr. It possesses the same 
power as other volatile oils in preventing the development 
of fungi. 

The fixed oil is perfectly bland, like that of olive or rape, 
which last it greatly resembles. It exists to the extent of 
20 per cent in white, and about 28 per cent, in black mus- 
tard-seed. To obtain it the seeds are crushed in a mill or 
between rollers, and the skins should be subjected to pres- 
sure as well as the farina or flour. The cake may then be 
sifted and reduced to a fine powder, as it retains all the 
pungent properties. In France the oil is generally left in 
the seeds, which renders them very difficult to powder, and 
makes it expensive. It is also less potent than English 
mustard in equivalent quantity. The marc or cake is 
sometimes used as manure, but this is a waste. The oil is 
valuable for burning, especially as it does not freeie, except 
at a temperature below zero. It also forms, with an alkali, 
a firm good soap. It has been supposed to be anthelmintic 
as well as purgative, but its medicinal properties are insig- 
nificant 

Flour of mustard, mixed with water, forms the well- 
known condiment so muoh used with all the more indi- 
Sistible articles of food, the solution of which it seems to 
vour by rousing the powers of the stomach. A table- 
spoonful of mustard in a tumbler of water forms a ready and 
useful emetic in many cases of poisoning, especially when 
narcotic poisons have been taken. Added to foot-baths, 
mustard has a revulsive action, which is often serviceable 
in the commencement of colds, and when gout has seized 
the stomach or brain ; also when cutaneous diseases have 
suddenly receded. 

Sinapisms are generally directed to be made with vinegar, 
but water of the temperature of about 100° Fahr. is pre- 
ferable, and less expensive. French mustard for the table 
is often prepared with vinegar. Some years ago, the seeds 
of white mustard, taken whole, in the dose of a table- 
spoonful, were recommended as a cure for many complaints. 
This was only an old practice revived, and not free from 
danger, as the seeds have been known to lodge in the in- 
testines and cause death. See Cullen's * Materia Medica,' 
vol. ii., p. 1 70. Respecting the mustard-plant of Scripture, 
see * Trans, of Linnean Society of London,' vol. xvii., p. 449. 

SINGAPORE. [Singapore.] 

SINCLAIR, SIR JOHN, Bart, third son of G. Sin- 
clair. Esq., heritable sheriff of Caithness, was born at Thurso 
castle, in the county of Caithness, in the year 1764. 

He embraced the profession of the law, and was called to 
the English bar in 1 782, having been admitted a member 
of the faculty of advocates in Scotland in the year 1 775. 

In 1780 he was chosen member for his native county, 
and sat in the house during several successive parliament's, 
sometimes for Caithness, sometimes for other places. He 
was created a baronet in 1786, and in 1810 was honoured 
with a seat at the board of privy council. He was likewise 
a member of several learned societies, and became exten- 
sively known by his writings, which, for more than fifty 
years, issued rapidly from the press. His death took place 
at Edinburgh, on December 21, 1835, in the 82nd year of 
his age. 

Sir J. Sinclair did much for the improvement of his 
country. He established a very useful society in Scotland 



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in 1 791 for improving wool, and his exertions led to the for- 
mation of the Board of Agriculture in 1 793, of which he was 
the first president. Among the most important of his nu- 
merous works may he mentioned his * Statistical Account 
of Scotland ;' * History of the Revenue of Great Britain ;' 
and 'Account of the Northern Districts of Scotland.' The 
. first of these is an extraordinary work, and displays an 
almost incredible amount of labour and research. 

SINDE. [Hindustan] 

8INDI A, FAMILY OF. The origin of this celebrated 
family of Mahratta chiefs and princes is comparatively mo- 
dem. The family were sudras, of the peaceful tribe of 
koombee, or cultivators. The first who distinguished him- 
self as a soldier was 

Ranojee S india, who was originally a potail, or head 
map of a village. . The Paishwa Bajerow, who succeeded 
his father Biswanath Row in 1720, appointed Ranojee to 
the humble office of bearer of his slippers. A circumstance 
which seemed to show his fidelity and attachment to his 
master is said to have led to his promotion. Bajerow one 
day found htm asleep on his back, with the slippers firmly 
clasped to his breast, and was so much pleased as to ap- 
point him immediately to a station in his body-guard. Ra- 
nojee Sindia was active and enterprising, and he was rapidly 
Sromoted. In 1743 be had risen to the highest rank of 
[ahratta chiefs ; for when Bajerow came into Malwa in 
that year, Ranojee signed a bond which was required by the 
emperor of Delhi, Mahomed Shah, as a surety for the good 
conduct of his master the Paishwa. Before Ranojee diea he 
had obtained the hereditary government of one-half of the 
extensive province of Malwa. By his wife, who belonged to 
his own tribe, he had three sons, Jeypah, Duttagee, and 
Juttabah; and by a Rajpoot woman he had two sons, Tu- 
kajee and Madhajee, of whom 

Madhajee Sindia became the head of the family. The 
date of his birth is uncertain; it was probably about 1743 ; 
he was present at the battle of Paniput in 1761, when the 
Mahrattas were defeated by Ahmed Shah Abdallah and his 
Afghans, in union with the Rajpoot and Mohammedan 
princes of northern Hindustan. In this disastrous battle 
one-half of the Mahratta army, which amounted to 200,000 
men, are said to have been slain. Madhajee Sindia was 
pursued by an Afghau horseman for many miles, who at 
length overtook him, and left him for dead in a ditch, after 
having wounded him wiih his battle-axe in the knee in 
such a manner as to render him lame for life. The Sindia 
family, as well as the other Mahratta chiefs, were for a time 
deprived of all their possessions in Malwa and Hindustan 

£ roper; but this was not of long continuance. The Paishwa 
lajerow died in 1761, and was succeeded by his son Mad- 
hoo Row, under whom, on the death of Mulhar Row Holkar 
in 1 764, Madhajee Sindia became the most powerful of the 
Mahratta chiefs. Besides being the principal leader of the 
household- horse of the Paishwa, he had a large army of his 
own; and the return of Ahmed Shah to Cabui, and the 
contests among the Mohammedan princes under the weak 
emperor Shah Alim II., in a few years afforded opportunity 
to him and his brother Tukajee Sindia to recover their 
former hereditary government and possessions in Malwa 
and northern Hindustan. 

In 1 770, on the invitation of Nujeeb ud Dowlah, who was 
the minister of Shah Alim, Madhajee Sindia, Bassajee Row, 
and Tukajee Holkar entered Hindustan proper with their 
armies, for the purpose of expelling the Sikhs, who had in- 
vaded the emperor's territories. This was soon accom- 
plished; and on the death of Nujeeb ud Dowlah in 1771, 
Madhajee Sindia obtained possession of Delhi, whither he 
invited Shah Alim to return from Allahabad, where he had 
been living under the protection of the British since 1 755. 
In December the same year the emperor was crowned with 
great pomp in his capital. He was not however the less in 
subjection. Madhajee compelled him to sign a commission 
by which he appointed the Paishwa vicegerent of the em- 
pire; and the Paishwa, by a like commission, appointed 
Madhajee his deputy. 

In 1772, and again in 1773, with his two colleagues 
Bassajee and Holkar, Sindia invaded and ravaged Rohil- 
cund, and was preparing to cross the Ganges, when the 
murder of the young Paishwa Narrain Row, the usurpation 
of the office by his uncle Ragoba, and the appearance of the 
British and the nabob of Oude, who had been invited to 
assist the Rohillas, caused him to return to Poona. A con- 
federation of Mahratta chiefs was got up against Ragoba, 



who, after a reign of a few months, was compelled to fly. 
Sevajee Madhoo, the posthumous son of Narrain Row, was 
appointed Paishwa, and Ballajee Pundit, better known as 
Nana Furnavese, was elected dewan, or minister. The 
British, on the condition of his ceding to them certain ter- 
ritories, came to the assistance of Ragoba, which occasioned 
a war between them and the Mahrattas. This war, twice 
interrupted by treaties which were not completed, con- 
tinued till 1782, when the treaty of Salbhye was concluded, 
by which Madhajee Sindia was confirmed in all his posses, 
sions, the places taken from him by the British were re. 
stored, and he was recognised by them as an independent 
prince. 

Madhajee Sindia had now time and opportunity to prose- 
cute his plans of aggrandisement. In 1 785 he again ap- 
peared at Delhi, and by the murder of two of the imperial 
ministers once more got the emperor into his power j he 
also conquered Agra and Alyghur, and obtained possession 
of nearly the whole of the Doab About this time he en- 
gaged in his service a Frenchman, De Boigne, who became 
of the most essential service to him ; for by his assistance he 
formed an army consisting of troops regularly disciplined, 
he fought pitched battles, besieged fortresses previously 
deemed impregnable, gradually subjected raja after raja to 
contribution, and added district after district to his posses- 
sions, till he became master of nearly all the territory south- 
west from the banks of the Ganges to the Nerbudda. The 
battle of Meerta, gained by De Boigne in 1 790 over the col- 
lected forces of Joudpoor, had made Sindia master of that 
principality,' as well as of the weaker state of Odeypoor ■, to 
these conquests was added soon after that of J y poor, which 
was followed in 1792 by the defeat of the troops of Junka- 
jee Holkar, when four corps of regular infantry belonging 
to Holkar*s army, which were commanded by a Frenoh 
officer, were almost utterly destroyed Sindia himself had 
returned to Poona in 1791, where he died in 1794. 

Madhajee Sindia's life was one of incessant activity - t he 
was engaged in a series of contests in which he displayed 
great talent and untiring energy, and by which his powei 
and possessions were gradually extended, consolidated, and 
confirmed. His habits throughout the whole of his career 
were those of a plain soldier ; he was never seduced by 
luxury, and he despised the trappings of state. Though 
occasionally guilty of violence and oppression, his life was 
for the most part unstained by cruelty; his disposition 
was mild, and he was desirous of improving the countries 
which he conquered. Towards the British and those states 
which were unconnected with the Mahratta government 
he conducted himself as an independent prince, but in mat- 
ters relating to the Paishwa he paid the roost scrupulous 
attention to ail the forms of humility, of which he made a 
curious display when Sevajee Madhoo Row, at the termina- 
tion of his minority in 1791, entered upon the duties of his 
office, and Sindia came to Poona to pay his respects to him. 
Sir John Malcolm thus relates it: ' The actual sovereign of 
Hindustan from the Sutleje to Agra, the conqueror of the 
princes of Rajpootana, the commander of an army composed 
of sixteen battalions of regular infantry, 500 pieces of can- 
non, and 100,000 horse, the possessor of two thirds of 
Malwa, and some of the finest provinces in the Deckan, 
when he went to pay his respects to a youth who then held 
the office of Paishwa, dismounted from his elephant at the 
gates of Poona ; placed himself in the great hall of audience 
below all the mankarries, or hereditary nobles of the state, 
and when the Paishwa came into the room, and desired him 
to be seated with others, he objected on the ground of be- 
ing unworthy of the honour, and. untying a bundle that he 
carried under his arm, produced a pair of slippers, which 
he placed before Madhoo Row, saving, 'This is my occupa- 
tion ; it was that of my father.' Madhajee, at the moment 
be said this, took the old slippers the Paishwa had in use, 
which he wrapped up carefully, and continued to hold them 
under his arm ; after which, though with apparent reluct- 
ance, he allowed himself to be prevailed upon to sit down. 
It has been supposed that by this affected humility he 
aimed at obtaining the situation of dewan to the Paishwa ; 
if such however was his object, he was frustrated in it, for 
Nana Furnavese still retained it 

Madhajee Sindia had no sons. His brother Tukajee had 
three, of whom the youngest, Anund Row, became the 
favourite of his uncle, who adopted Dowlut Row Sindia, the 
son of Anund Row, as his heir. • 

Dowlut Row Sindia, at the death of his grand-uncle, 



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was only thirteen yean of age. He was opposed by the 
widows of Madhajee, who set up another prince in Oppor 
sition to him, and he was not established in hie Jxwer till 
after several battles had been fought. He married, soon after 
his accession, the daughter of Sirjee Row Gatkia* an artful 
and wicked man, who becatne.hiaminister, to whom is doubt- 
less to be ascribed much of the rapacity and cruelty which 
marked the early part of Dowlut Row's reign. The leisure 
and imprisonment of. Nairn Furnavese, the murder of several 
Brahmins, the plundering of Poona and the neighbouring 
places under pretence of paying the expenses of his mar- 
riage ; and the aiding of Casee Row Holkar in the mutator of 
his brother Mulhar Row, are among his early atrocities; in 
addition to which it should be mentioned, that wjien Sirjee 
Row Gatkia defeated Jeswunt Row Holkar in 1801, he plun- 
dered the city of Indore, set fire to the best house*, and mur- 
dered many of the inhabitants y in 1802 however Holkar de- 
feated Sindia, and re-established himself inMalwa, But the 
interference of the British at length put a stop to this career 
of spoliation and bloodshed. The Paishwa Bajerow, having 
been defeated by Jeswont Row Holkar in 1801, lledtoBassein, 
and placed himself under the protection of the British, by 'a 
treat)', the chief conditions of which were, that he should cede 
4o them the island of Salsette, ahd they should restore him 
to the office of Paishwa. After many fruitless negooiations 
with Sindia and the Raja of Berar.the British resident left the 
court of Sindia, August 3, 1803, ahd war was commenced 
on the 8th by an attack on the fortress of Ahmedhugghurty 
Major-General Wellesley, which he soon took, and followed 
up on the 25th of September, 1803, by the battle of Assays 
when he gained a complete victory over the confederated 
forces of Sindia and the Raja of Berer, which were under the 
command of the French general Peron, and greatly more 
numerous than his own. In Hindustan Proper, General 
Lake, on the 29th of August, 1803, defeated Sindia's forces 
in the Doab, took the strong fort of Alyghur, ahd afterwards 
the cities of Delhi and Agra. In the short period of five 
months was included a series of the most brilliant and deci- 
sive victories ; the battles of Delhi and Laswaree, of Assaye 
and Arghaum, the reduction of the strong forts of Ahmed- 
nugghur, Alyghur, Agra, Gwalior, Asserghur, and Cuttaek, 
besides a number of inferior conquests. The two Mabratta 
chiefs were compelled to sue for peace separately. Sindia's 
brigades, which had been trained under De Boigne and 
Peron, and which amounted to at least 40,000 well-dis- 
ciplined infantry, were destroyed J 500 guns, cast in the 
foundries which Madhajee had established, were taken; and 
by the treaty of December, 1803, he was compelled to cede 
to the British the Upper Doab, Delhi, Agra, Saharunpoor, 
Meerut, Alyghur, Etawah, Cuttaek, Balasore, the fort and 
territory of Baroach, Sec, amounting altogether to more 
than 50,000 square miles. By a treaty of defensive alliance, 
February 27, 1 804, he engaged to receive a British auxiliary 
force in those dominions which he was suffered to retain, 
which were still large, and which were considerably in- 
preased, after the subjugation of Holkar, by the territory of 
Gohud and the strong fort of Gwalior, which were given 
up to him by the treaty of Muttra, November 23, 1805, one of 
the conditions of which treaty was, that his father-in-law Sir- 
jee Row Gatkia should be for ever excluded from his councils. 

Dowlut Row Sindia, though he retained for a consider- 
able time no friendly feeling towards his British alllies, by 
whom he had been so severely humbled, never again ven- 
tured into a direct contest with them ; and after he was freed 
from the influence of his father-in-law, he became by de- 
grees better disposed towards them ; so that in the war of 
1818, by which the Mahratta power was entirely destroyed, 
he prudently kept aloof, though the Paishwa urgently called 
upon him for his assistance. The consequence was that he 
retained his territories, and continued on friendly terms 
with the British till his death, which took place March 21, 
1827. He left an army of about 14,000 infantry, 10,000 
cavalry, and 250 pieces of ordnance, with territories worth 
about 1,250,000/. per annum. 

Janko Row Sindia, the present Raja of Gwalior, was 
elected by the widow of Dowlut Row, Baiza Bai. She was ex- 
pelled from his territories in 1833 by Janko Row, who is 
now (1841) about 19 years of age. 

(Malcolm's Political History of India ; Malcolm's Central 
India; Mill's British India; Biographic Universale; Art 
de verifier les Dates.) 

SIN E and COSINE. We separate from the article Tm- 
ooHottETRY the mere description and properties of theses 



fundamental terms, which, though originally derived from 
simple trigonometry, are now among ihs most useful foun- 
dations of mathematical expression. For what we have to 
say. on their history, we refer to the article just cited. 
. According to the aatient. system of trigonometry* the sins 
and cosine are only names given lo.tfce abscjssajAd ordinate 
of a point, not with reference to the position, of that point in 
space, but to the radius vector of that jjoint and its angle. 
Thus, measuring angles from the. line ON, and in the, di- 
rection of the arrow* the angle HO P \W Jan infinite nutaW 
of sines and cosines; Wifli reference to the f adius O P, 



rS. 



J?N is the sine and ON the cosine of Z N OP; but with 
reference, to (he radius OQ, QR is the Sine and OR the 
cosine. The fundamental relation .. , 

(sine 6) 1 + (cosine 6)' = (radius) 8 
is obvious enough. 

The student always began trigonometry with this multi- 
plicity of definitions, and with the idea of some particular 
radius being necessary to the complete definition of the sine 
and cosine. But as he proceeded, be was always taught to 
suppose the radius a unit; that is, always to adopt that line 
as a radius which was agreed upon to be represented by 1. 
Hence lie gradually learned to forget his first definition; 
and, passing from geometry to arithmetic, to use the follow- 
ing: PO being unity, the sine of NOP is PN, which is 
therefore in arithmetic the fraction which PN is of PO; 
and the cosine is the fraction which ON is. of P O. If Q O 
had been used as a unit, the result would have been the 
same ; for by similar triangles, RQ is the same fraction of 
QO which NPisofPO. 

In the most modern trigonometry, and for cogent reasons, 
the student is never for a moment allowed to imagine that 
the sine and cosine are in any manner representatives of 
lines. In a practical point of view, the final definition of 
the old trigonometry coincides exactly with that of the new ; 
bnt the latter has this advantage, that all subsequent gee- 
metrical formulas are seen to be homogeneous m a much 
more distinct manner. The definition is this : The sine of 
N O P Is not N P, nor any number to represent N P.; it is 
the traction Which N P is of P O, considered as an abstract 
number. Thus if O N, N P, P O, be in the proportion of 
3, 4, and 6\ PN is f of O P: this J is the sinerf NOP, not 
} of any line, nor any line considered as | of a unit; but 
sitatoly | four-fifths of an abstract unit Similarly the cosine 
is the fraction which ON is of OP. In just the same 
manner the abstract number «-, or 3*1 4 159..- is not styled 
(as it used to be) the circumference of a circle whose di- 
ameter is a unit, but the proportion of the circumference to 
the diameter, the number of times which any circumference 
contains its diameter. We cannot too strongly recommend 
the universal adoption of this change of style, a slight 
matter with reference to mere calculation of results, but 
one of considerable importance to a correct understanding 
of the meaning of formulto. 

The line OP being considered as positive [Sign], the 
signs of PN and NO determine those of the sine and 
cosine ; and the manner in which the values of these func- 
tions are determined when the angle is nothing, or one, two, 
or three right angles, is easy enough. The following short 
table embraces all the results of sign t— 

o 1 if in iv 

Sine b+i+o-1 -P- 6 
Cosine 1 4-0- 1-0 + 1. 
Read this as follows :— When the angle =0, the sine =0 ; 
from thence to a right angle the sine is positive : at the right 
angle the sine is +1 > from thence to two right ingles the 
sine is positive, $o. 

The fundamental theorems of the sine and cosine, from 
which all their properties may be derived, are, 
sin (a-f 0) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b 
sin \a—b\ =r sin a cos b — cos a sin b 
cos {(t\bS = cos a cos b — sin a sin ft 
cb8(o^)^teMOW*+*ifr*sin^ 



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BIN SO 8 T.N 



nTroaoetioil ortne npiare nw or too neganre quanruy. n « to general, inai exponent or toe xorm a+o v- r Bnaii DC- 
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included: without this, tbe new algebra just referred to is 
not free from the results of Interpretation. 

However we may proceed, the series above given for the 
sine and cosine of x become 

x* _ x* * 7 



sin *=*— 277+2.3.4.5 

X* x* 

cos a?=l— -t - + ' 



2.3.4.5.6.7 
x* 



+ .. 



+ .. 



2.3.4 2.3.4.5.6 
and these series are always convergent Their present form 
depends entirely on the unit chosen ; if however by x we 
mean x° 9 x* t or x", we must write 

a 9 X s a* X s 
sin *«a*-: 273" + 2T3747r • • • ' 



a* x* a 4 x* 
cos*=l-- -2-+273T4 



where [Angle, p. 23] a is -0 1 745,32925 . . . ., -00029,08882, 
'00000,48481, .... according as x means a number of degrees, 
of minutes, or of seconds. 

The preceding is enough on the fundamental meanings 
of these terms, and on their connection wilh algebra. Some 
applications will be seen in Trigonometry. 

SINE and COSINE, CURVES OF. By the curve of 
sines is meant that which has tbe equation y=sin x, and 
by the curve of cosines, that which has the equation y= 
cos x : it being understood that x stands for as many angu- 
lar units as there are linear units in the abscissa. The 
undulatory forms of these curves are easily established * and 
if the ordinate of a curve consist of several of them, as in 
y=za sin x+b cos x+c sin 2x, the several parts of the com- 
pound ordinate may be put together in the same manner as 
that in which the simple undulations are compounded in 
Acoustics, p. 92. Except as expressing the most simple 
form of undulating curves, these equations are of no particu- 
lar use in geometry. 

SINE-CURE. Sinecures are ecclesiastical benefices 
without cure of souls, and are of three sorts:— 1. Where the 
benefice is a donative [Benefice, p. 220], and is com- 
mitted to the incumbent by the patron expressly without 
cure of souls, the cure either not existing or being entrusted 
to a vicar ; this is the strictest sine-cure. 2. Certain cathe- 
dral offices, viz. the canonries and prebends, and, according 
to some authorities, the deanery. 3. Where a parish is desti- 
tute, by some accident, of parishioners ; this last kind has 
been called depopulations, rather than sine-cures. 

Rectors of a parish in which vicars were likewise esta- 
blished with cure of souls have often by degrees exempted 
themselves from their ecclesiastical functions, and so have 
obtained sine-cures ; but this is rather by abuse than legiti- 
mately. 

Sine-cures are exempt from the statute of pluralities. 
(Burn's Ecclesiastical Law.) 

SINEW. [Tendon.] 

SINGAPORE is a British settlement in the East Indies, 
situated at the most southern extremity of the Malay Penin- 
sula. It consists of the island of Singapore, and about fifty 
islets dispersed in the sea south and east of the principal 
island, or in what is called the Straits of Singapore. The 
territories of this settlement embrace a circumference of 
about a hundred miles, including the seas and straits within 
ten miles of the coast of tbe island of Singapore, and they 
lie between 1° 8' and 1° 32' N. lat., and between 103° 30' 
and 104° 10' E. long. 

The island of Singapore occupies about half the space be* 
tween the two capes with which the Malay Peninsula ter- 
minates on tbe south, Capes Bum and Ramiinia (commonly 
called Romania). It has an elliptical form, and is about 25 
miles in its greatest length from east to west, and 15 in its 
greatest width. It contains an estimated area of about 275 
square miles, and is about one-third larger than the Isle of 
Wight. It is divided from the continent of Asia by a long 
and narrow strait called Salat Tabrao, or the old strait of 
Singapore. This strait is nearly forty miles long, and varies 
in width between two miles and a quarter of a mile. At its 
western extremity, near the island of Mara m bong, it has 
only a depth of 2j fathoms, but farther east it is nowhere 
less than five fathoms deep. This strait was formerly navi- 
gated by vessels bound for the China Seas ; but the advan- 
tages which the Straits of Singapore offer for a speedy 
and safe navigation are so great, that the Salat Tabrao has 
not been used since the Straits of Singapore have become 



known. The last-mentioned strait extends along the south- 
em coast of the island of Singapore, and the most navigable 
part lies within the British possessions. It is the high road 
between the eastern and western portions of maritime Asia. 
The surface of the island is gently undulating, here and 
there rising into low rounded hills of inconsiderable elevation. 
The higher ground rises in general not more than a hun- 
dred feet above the sea ; the highest hill, called Bukit Tiraa, 
which is north-west of the town, but nearer the northern 
than the southern shores of the island, does not attain 
200 feet Tbe shores of the island are mostly low, and 
surrounded by mangrove-trees. In a few isolated places low 
rocks approach the sea, chiefly along the Salat Tabrao. In 
several places however the coast is indented by salt creeks, 
which sometimes penetrate into the land three and even five 
or six miles. When the island was first occupied by the Bri- 
tish it was entirely, and is still for the greater part, covered 
wilh a forest composed of different kinds of trees, five or 
six of which are well adapted for every object of house- 
building. The soil of the interior is composed of sand and 
of clay iron-stone, mixed up with a large portion of vegetable 
matter, which gives it a very black appearance. There is a 
general tendency to the formation of swamps. Rivulets are 
numerous, but they are of inconsiderable size. Their 
waters are almost always of a black colour, disagreeable 
taste, and peculiar odour, properties which they appear to 
derive from the peculiar nature of the superficial soil over 
which they pass, which in many parts resembles peat- moss. 
The water however drawn from wells which are sunk lower 
than the sandy base is less sensibly marked by these dis- 
agreeable qualities. 

The climate of Singapore is hot, but equable, the seasons 
varying very little. The atmosphere throughout the year 
is serene. The smooth expanse of the sea is scarcely ruffled 
by a wind. Tbe destructive typhons of the China Sea, and 
the scarely less furious tempests which occur on the coasts 
of Hindustan, are not known. The tempests of the China 
Sea however sometimes occasion a considerable swell in tbe 
sea, and a similar but less remarkable effect is produced by 
a tempest in the Bay of Bengal. It is only in this way, and 
as it were by propagation, that the sea is affected by remote 
tempests, ana their effects are particularly remarkable in 
the irregularity of the tides, wnich at times run in one 
direction for several days successively, and with great ra- 
pidity. In the numerous narrow channels which divide the 
smaller islands, their rapidity is sometimes so great that it 
resembles water issuing through a sluice. The regular and 
periodical influence of the monsoons is slightly felt, the 
winds partaking more of the nature of land and sea breezes. 
To these circumstances must be attributed the great uni- 
formity of the temperature, the absence of a proper con- 
tinual and periodical rainy season, and the more frequent 
fall of showers. Few days elapse without the occurrence 
of rain. According to an average of four years, the num- 
ber of rainy days was 185, and that of dry only 180. The 
greatest quantity of rain falls in December and January, 
and the smallest in April and May. These frequent rains 
keep the island in a state of perpetual verdure. 

The thermometer ranges during the year between 72° 
and 88°. The mean annual temperature is 807° of Fah- 
renheit. In the four months succeeding February it rises to 
82*50°, and in the four months succeeding October it sinks to 
79°. The daily range of the thermometer never exceeds 
ten degrees. Crawford states that the climate of Singa- 
pore is remarkably healthy, which he attributes to the free 
ventilation that prevails, and to the almost entire absence 
of chilling land-winds, but Newbold thinks that it is not so 
healthy as Malacca, and he ascribes this to the less regular 
alternations of the land and sea breezes. 

Singapore is not rich in agricultural productions. No 
part of it was cultivated when the British took possession of 
the place, and at first the soil was considered ill adapted for 
agricultural purposes. But it now appears that consider- 
able tracts near the town have been cleared by the Chinese, 
and that this industrious people have succeeded in culti- 
vating different kinds of fruits and vegetables, rice, cof- 
fee, sugar, cotton, and especially pepper and the betel- 
vine (Piper siriboa). Only the summits of the higher 
grounds are barren, but on their slopes and in the depres- 
sions between them the soil frequently has a considerable 
degree of fertility. Tropical fruits succeed very well, such 
as the mangusteen, pine-apple, cocoa-nut, orange, and 
mango. The mango is found wild in the forests. The tro- 



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pical vegetables, as the egg-plant, different kinds of pulse, 
the yam, the batata, different varieties of cucumber, and 
some others, grow very well, but the climate is too hot for 
most European vegetables. The produce of the paddy- 
fields, as well as of the orchards, is far from being sufficient 
for home consumption, and accordingly large quantities of 
rice are imported from Sumatra and Java, ana fruits from 
Malacca. 

The animals of Europe have been introduced, but most of 
them are few in number, as pasture-grounds are scarce. 
The Chinese however keep a great number of hogs. None 
of the large quadrupeds of the continent of Asia, such as 
elephants, rhinoceroses, tigers, and leopards, are met with on 
the island, but there are several kinds of monkeys, bats, and 
squirrels ; also the Ictides, the porcupine, the sloth {Brady- 
put didactylus), the pangolin, the wild hog, and two species 
of deer, the Moschuz pygmaeus, which is smaller than an 
English hare, and the Indian roe (Cervus munjac). Some- 
times the dugong (Halicora dugong) is taken in the straits. 
It is ten or twelve feet long, and the flesh is considered for 
flavour and delicacy not inferior to beef: the skin is as 
strong as that of the hippopotamus. Birds are numerous, 
especially different kinds of passeres, climbers, and waders, 
particularly the first, which are remarkable for their no- 
velty and beauty. Tortoises are common. The coral reefs 
and shoals in the vicinity of Singapore furnish that delicate 
fern-like sea-weed called aggar-aggar (Fucus Saccharinu*) 
in abundance, and it forms an article of considerable export 
to China, where it is used in thin glues and varnishes. It 
is made into a very fine jelly by Europeans and the native 
Portuguese. The average annual produce is 6000 peculs, or 
7980 cwt., and it is sold at three dollars the pecul. 

In 1819, when the British took possession of the islands, 
the population amounted to about 1 50 individuals, mostly 
fishermen and pirates, who lived in a few miserable huts ; 
about thirty of these were Chinese, the remainder Malays. 
The first census was taken in 1824, and then the population 
amounted to 10,683 individuals. Since that period it has 
constantly been increasing, and at the census of 1836 it was 
found to amount to 29,984 individuals. More than half of 
the population were settled in the town of Singapore, 
which contained 16,148 individuals, of whom there were 
12,748 males and 3400 females. West of the town only 
a few settlements occur along the southern shores of the 
island, and on some of the small islands near the coast. 
These settlements constitute the district of Singapore town, 
and contained in 1836 only 4184 individuals, viz. 2338 Chi- 
nese, of whom forty-one only were females, and 1755 
Malays, of whom 759 were females ; and the remainder, 
with a trifling exception, Klings and Bugis. The country 
east of the town, which is named the District of Kampong 
Glum, contains a greater number of settlements, and they 
extend to the shores of the Salat Tabrao, and the islands of 
Tekong and Pulo Ubin, which lie within the strait. In 
this district there were 9602 individuals, viz. 4288 Malays, 
of whom 2050 were females; 3178 Chinese, of whom 72 
onlv were females ; 1515 Bugis, of whom 672 were females ; 
and the remainder 671 were made up of Javanese, Balinese, 
and a few Bengalees and Klings. The islands of Tekong 
and Ubin contained 1901 inhabitants. 

The population is composed of nearly all the nations of 
Southern Asia and the Indian Archipelago, among whom 
a small number of individuals of European origin have set- 
tled, as appears from the following table, which also shows 
the increase of the population in two years, and the dispro- 
portion between males and females:* 

Population of the Island of Singapore in 1834 and 1836. 

Nations constituting the 1834. 1836. 

Population. Males. Females, Males. Females. 

Europeans, nearly all 

Britons . . 100 38 105 36 

Indo-Britons 55 58 65 52 

Native Christians, 

mostly Portuguese . 186 140 224 201 

Armenians 32 12 26 8 

Jews . • • 6 4 

Arabs ... 55 11 33 8 

Malays . . . 5,173 4,279 5,122 4,510 
Chinese . . . 9,944 823 12,870 879 

Natives of the Coast 

of Coromandel, Chu- 

liahs, and Klings 

CTelingas) . . 1,659 69 2,246 102 

P. C., No. 1364. 



Nations constituting the 


1834. 


1836. 


Population. 


Males. 


Females 


Males. 


Pemaiea 


Natives of Hindustan 


439 


155 


427 


155 


Javanese 


400 


269 


580 


323 


Bugis and Balinese • 


1,346 


1,018 


1,032 


930 


CafTres . 


37 


25 


17 


24 


Siamese • 


, . 


• • 


2 


1 


Parsees . 


. . 




2 


• • 



19,432 6,897 22,755 7,229 

These censuses do not include the military, their follow- 
ers, nor the convicts, as Singapore is a place of banishment 
from Calcutta and other parts of Hindustan. The number 
of these classes of inhabitants may be estimated at about 
1200. The Europeans and Chinese constitute the wealthier 
classes. The Europeans are for the most part merchants, 
shopkeepers, and agents for mercantile houses in Europe. 
Most of the artisans, labourers, agriculturists, and shop- 
keepers are Chinese. The Malays arc chiefly occupied in 
fishing, collecting sea-weed, and cutting timber, ana many 
of them are employed as boatmen and sailors. The Bugis 
are almost invariably engaged in commerce, and the natives 
of India as petty shopkeepers, boatmen, and servants. The 
Chuliahs and Klings are daily labourers, artisans, and petty 
traders. The Caffres are the descendants of slaves, who 
have been brought by the Arabs from the Arabian and 
Abyssinian coasts. The most useful are the Chinese set- 
tlers. A common Chinese labourer gets from four to six 
Spanish dollars a month, a Kling from three to four and a 
half, and a Malay from two and a half to four and a half. 
A Chinese carpenter will earn about fifteen dollars a 
month, a Kling eight, and a Malay only five. The immi- 
gration of the Chinese is much favoured by circumstances. 
Among the dense population of China there are many pau- 
pers, who are a burden to the state, and the government 
connives at the poorer classes quitting the country, though 
it is contrary to their antient laws. The poor Chinese 
leaves his country without a penny, and agrees with the 
captain of the junk to pay from eight to twelve dollars for 
the passage. On landing he enters into one of the secret 
societies, which are always formed by the Chinese, and the 
society pays the passage-money and engages his services. 
In three months he has generally paid his debt, and then 
he begins to make his fortune. The Chinese emigrants at 
Singapore and Penang are mostly from Canton, Macao, or 
Fokien. Many of those of Fokien become merchants, and 
show a strong propensity to speculate largeljt The Canton 
emigrants are the best miners and artisans. 

It is very probable that the population of the settlement 
now (1841) amounts to more than 36,000 individuals, which 
gives more than 130 individuals to a square mile, which is 
a considerable population even in a country that has been 
settled for centuries, and is certainly a very surprising 
population in a country which twenty years ago was a 
desert. 

The town of Singapore stands on the southern shores of 
the island, in 1° 17* 22" N. lat. and 103° 51' 45" E. long., 
on a level and low plain of inconsiderable width, fronting 
the harbour. It extends about two miles along the shore, 
but only a thousand yards inland, where it is enclosed by 
hills from 1 00 to 1 50 feet high. The commercial portion of 
the town occupies the most western extremity, and is se- 
parated from the other parts by a salt creek, called the Sin- 
gapore river, which is navigable for small craft. A good 
wooden bridge connects it with the eastern part, which con- 
tains the dwellings of the Europeans, the public offices, and 
the military cantonments. Contiguous to this portion of 
the town is the government-house, which is built on a hill. 
The most eastern part is occupied by the sultan of Johore, 
the Malavs, and Bugis. The whole of the warehouses, and 
all the dwelling-houses in the principal streets in their 
vicinity, are built of brick and lime, and roofed with red tiles. 
The more distant dwelling-houses are built of wood, but 
roofed with tiles. It is only on the distant outskirts of the 
town that there are huts with thatched roofs. The Malays 
and Bugis live in huts. The population (16,148 individuals) 
consisted, in 1836, of 8233 Chinese, 3617 Malays, 2157 Chu- 
liahs and Klings, and the remainder was made up by Java- 
nese, Bengalees, Bugis, native Christians, and Europeans. 
Ships lie in the roads of Singapore at the distance of from 
one to two miles from the town, according to their draught. 
With the assistance of lighters, cargoes are discharged and 
taken in with scarcely any interruption throughout the year. 

Vol.. XXII.— G 



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The lighters convey the goods to the river of Singapore, 
where they discharge them at a convenient quay, and at the 
door of the principal warehouses. There is no want of com- 
mon artisans. The Chinese follow the occupations of shoe- 
makers, hakers, butchers, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, gold- 
smiths, and carpenters; they also manufacture pearl sago 
on an extensive scale, for the European market, the mate- 
rial being obtained from the island ef Sumatra. They also 
employ a great number of forges, in which native arms 
ana domestic and agricultural implements are made. These 
latter articles are mostly sent to the settlements of the 
Chinese on the different islands of the Indian Archipe- 
lago. 

The principal public buildings at Singapore are the go- 
vernment-house, a court-house, a gaol, custom-house, Mis- 
sion chapel, and the Singapore Institution. Sir Stamford 
Raffles formed a very extensive plan for this institution, 
which however has not been earned into effect. At present 
t consists of three schools, English, Malay, and Tamul, and 
the number of scholars amounts to upwards of seventy. A 
Chinese school on a large scale was contemplated in 1837, 
and has probably been opened. Some Chinese youths are 
to be admitted as students, to reside at the institution, and 
to receive instruction both in English and Chinese for a term 
of four or five years. There are several native schools in the 
town. 

If the commerce of Singapore were limited to the pro- 
duce of the place, it would hardly give employment to two 
or three vessels. Besides the pearl sago and the iron im- 
plements, it exports only a small quantity of pepper and 
gambier, and perhaps at present coffee of its own growth, 
together with a large quantity of aggar-aggar. But Singa- 
pore has become the London of Southern Asia and the In- 
dian Archipelago. All the nations that inhabit the countries 
bordering on the Indian Ocean resort to it with the produce 
of their agriculture and manufacturing industry, and take 
in exchange such goods as are not grown or produced in 
their own countries. All of them find there a ready market, 
which at the same time is well stocked with European 
goods. This effect has partly been produced by the wise 
policy of declaring the harbour of Singapore a free port, in 
which no export or import duties, nor any anchorage, har- 
bour, nor lighthouse fees are levied. The effect of this 
policy was evident even at the beginning of the settlement. 
In the first year the exports and imports by native boats 
alone .exceeded four millions of dollars, and during the first 
year and a half no less than 2889 vessels entered and 
cleared from tne port, of which 383 were owned and com- 
manded by Europeans, and 2506 by natives : their united 
tonnage amounted to 161,000 tons. In 1822 the tonnage 
amounted to 130,639 tons, and the total value of exports 
and imports to upwards of eight millions of dollars. 

Number and tonnage of square-rigged vessels which entered 
into and cleared at the port </ Singapore in 1835 and 
1836. 







INWARD 






OUTWARD. 


Names of Places 
from and to. 




1835. | 


1836. 




1685. 




1836. 


No. 


Tonnage' No. 


Tonnage 


No. 


Tonnage 


No. 


Tonnage 


iitetit Britain . . 


16 


5316 


19 


5596 


32 


9482 


25 


7210 
i794 


Continental Europe 


3 


961 


3 


836 


6 


1585 


? 


America . . . . 


8 


894 


a 


70i> 
19U 


I 


450 


2147 


Mauritiiu . . . 


1 


598 


i 


2 


506 


2 


906 


liuurbou .... 


1 


120 


l 


286 


1 


120 


1 


214 


China . . . . 


62 


29.351 


83 


40 .592 


■s 


61,302 


134 


66.023 


Manilla .... 


22 


5668 


27 


6379 
38,01» 


3754 


13 


1834 


Calcutta . . . 


79 


80.985 


87 


54 


18,108 


53 


17.131 


Madras and Coast 


13 


« 40 Z 9 


18 


10,337 


8 


¥618 


10 


5771 
18.704 


Bombay and Coast 


45 


26,770 


31 


15.0*1 


1 


16.319 


34 


Arabia . . . . 


1 


448 


1 


254 


904 


5 


1378 
2214 


Moulmein . . . 


1 


2U3 


3 


900 


8 


610 


7 


Ceylon • • • . 


6 


1021 


4 


665 


% 


550 


2 


5390 


Malacca . . . . 


54 


6535 


53 


5812 


33 


3945 


52 


Penang . . ' \ . 
Java . . • • . 


S 


19.013 


% 


10.157 
16.677 


68 

7* 


7618 
17.025 


54 
52 


8566 
11.082 


Sumatra • • . 


15 


2652 


14 


3417 


h 


3439 


12 


2759 
2009 


Kbio 


10 


S409 


3 


304 


16 


3219 


12 


Siam ..... 


6 


1984 


9 


3050 


6 


1683 


8 


2862 


Cochin China . . 


5 


1662 


4 


1657 


1 


230 


6 


1686 


N«*w South Wales 


9 


2737 


6 


2 


357 


2 


394 


Cape of Good Hope 














1 


218 


Borneo .... 


U 


3013 


18 


S484 


16 


2815 


17 


2688 


Tringanu and the 


















other neighbouring 


















ports .... 


« 


988 


7 


646 


8 


825 


6 


648 


Sally and Eastern 


















Island* .... 


7 


1423 


10 


1764 


1 


405 


11 


2047 


u 


517 1 


156,513 


539 


166.063 


617 


166.974 


5331 165,417 



According to this statement the number of vessels which 
entered the port in 1836 exceeded the number in 1835 by 
22, and by 9540 tons ; and the number of vessels which 
cleared out in the first-mentioned year exceeded that of tho 
preceding year by 16, and by 9443 tons. This statement 
nowever does not include the native craft, which are largely 
used in the intercourse with Sumatra, the Malay Penin- 
sula, Rhio, Borneo, and the neighbouring islands, and which 
in 1836 amounted to 1484, of 37,521 tons. If these are 
added, the shipping that entered the port in 1836 amounted 
to 203,574 tons. 

The commerce of the newly established colony increased 
at first with incredible rapidity. In the year 1824, oaly 
five years after its foundation, the imports amounted to 
6,914.536 Spanish dollars, and the exports to 6,604,601. In 
the following year however it suffered some slight diminu- 
tion, and it may be said that it has been nearly stationary 
since that period ; for in 1835 the imports amounted only to 
6,611, 778 dollars, and the exports to 6,238,131. In the for- 
mer account however the exports to and the imports from 
Malacca and Penang probably were included, whilst they 
were not taken into account in 1836. In this year goods to 
the value of 160,970 dollars were imported from Malacca, a ad 
others amounting to 168,867 dollars exported to that settle- 
ment. The commercial intercourse with Penang was much 
more important ; the goods imported from that settlement 
were to the value of 426,176 dollars ; and those that were 
exported rose to 544,640 dollars. If these sums are added, 
the exports in 1835 amounted to 7,325,285 dollars, and the 
imports to 6,825,277; and the whole commerce exceeded 
that of 1824 by 631,425 dollars. From 1835 an increase 
both in imports and exports took place ; for in the year end- 
ing with the 30th of April, 1837, the imports amounted to 
8,243,629 dollars, and the exports to 7,806,965 dollars, ex- 
clusive of the trade with Malacca and Penang, so that the 
difference between that year and the preceding was 1,900,032 
Spanish dollars. 

The commerce of Singapore may be divided into the 
Eastern trade, that of the Straits, and the Western trade. 
The Eastern trade, or that which is carried on with the 
countries east and south-east of Singapore, comprehends 
the commerce with China, the Spanish settlement of Ma- 
nilla, the independent tribes of the Indian Archipelago, the 
Dutch settlements on the island of Java and at Rhio, and 
the countries of the Peninsula beyond the Ganges which 
lie east of the Malay Peninsula. The most important 
branches of this commerce are those with China, Java, and 
Siam. 

The commerce with China is entirely carried on in 
Chinese vessels. The Chinese junks come from the ports 
of Canton, Changlim, and Ampo, in the province of Quan- 
tong, from Amoy in the province of Fokien, and from the 
island of Hainan. They leave their respective ports during 
the north-east monsoon, about January, and return with the 
south-west monsoon, which blows from April to October. 
They perform the voyage from Canton in from 10 to 20 days» 
and from Fokien in 12 or 15 days. The most valuable, but 
not the largest of the Chinese junks are from Amoy; the 
largest come from the province of Quantong, and the 
smallest and least valuable from Hainan. They bring an- 
nually from 2000 to 2500 emigrants to Singapore. The 
imports from China amounted, in the year ending the 30th 
of April, 1836, to 712,265 dollars; the most important ar- 
ticles were Spanish dollars, 138,927 in number; raw silk, 
113,942 dollars; chinaware, 93,902; tea, 57,509; tobacco, 
47,239; cassia, 93,092; nankeens, 25,715; and gold- 
thread, 11,016 dollars. Minor articles were camphor, 
copperware, earthenware, ironware, paints, piece-goods, 
salt, sugar-candy, and woollens. The imports entered under 
the head of sundries amounted to 152,440 dollars. The ex- 
ports to China amounted in the same year to 1,079,752 
dollars, and consisted chiefly of opium and such articles as 
had been brought to Singapore from the Indian archipelago 
Next to opium, which amounted to 252,327 dollars, the most 
important articles were edible birds'-nests, to the amount of 
162,852 ; tin, 1 1 7,386 ; and trepang, 74,723 dollars. Rice was 
sent there to the amount of 59,408 ; pepper, 56,023 ; betel- 
nut, 44,962; and ratans, 36,019 dollars. Other articles of 
importance were woollens (25,064 d.), European piece-goods 
(20,796 d.), cotton-twist (18,100 d.), raw cotton (16,155 d.), 
aggaraggar (16,100 d.), camphor barus (16,155 d.), spices 
(1 1,31 4d.), tortoise-shell (12,684 d.), sandal-woodd 1,143 d.) f 
and lakka-wood (10,800 d.). Minor articles were antimony. 



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birds' feathers, canvas, dragon's-blood, gambier, gold-dust, 
glassware, European gold thread, hides, garro-wood, spirits, 
and sundries. Spanish dollars were sent to China to the 
Dumber of 21,864. 

The commerce between Singapore and Manilla is carried 
on partly by Spanish and partly by American and English 
Vessels. In the year ending on the 30th of April, 1836, the 
imports from that settlement into Singapore amounted to 
166,086 dollars, of which cigars constituted more than one- 
half the amount, viz. 89.468 dollars. Sugar was brought to 
the amount of 23,190 dollars, and the other minor articles 
were trepang, cotton, hides, indigo, mother-of-pearl shells, 
Oils, wines, sapan-wood (8802 d.), spirits, and sundries (8842 
d.). Cowries were imported to the amount of 2252 dollars, 
and also 3000 dollars. 

The trade with Celebes is almost exclusively in the hands 
of the Bugis of Waju, a country on the western side of 
that island, the inhabitants of which have colonized many 
islands of the Indian Archipelago, and carry on what may 
he called the foreign trade of the countries in which they 
have settled. They disperse the goods obtained at Singa- 
pore over most of the islands east of Celebes, as far as the 
soastof New Guinea, and also over that chain of islands called 
the Lesser Sunda Islands. [Sunda Islands.] Their coun- 
try vessels, called prahus, arrive at Singapore during the 
prevalence of the eastern monsoon. The goods brought by 
the Bugis from Celebes in 1835 amounted to 214.703 dol- 
lars. The most important articles were tortoise-shell 
(61,878 d.), gold-dust (23,230 d.), mother-of-pearl shells 
(21,277 d.), coffee (14,098 d.), trepang (12.755 d.), birds*- 
nests (10,190 d.), and rice (10,501 d.). Minor articles were 
birds' feathers and birds of paradise, bees'- wax, hides, oils, 
paddy, ratans, aggar-aggar, spices, and tobacco. The importa- 
tion of sundries amounted to 23,287 dollars, and 21,650 
dollars in specie were also brought to Singapore. The value 
of the goods exported to Celebes was 339,966 dollars, and the 
principal articles were derived from Europe and Hindustan, 
vix. opium (71,162 d.), India piece-goods (66,236 d.), Euro- 
pean piece-goods (47,881 d.), cotton-twist (44,244 d.), and 
copper com brought from England (12,076 d.). The expor- 
tation of raw silk (17,498 d.)and of gambier (13,334 d.) was 
also considerable. Minor articles were arms, benjamin, 
or benzoin, chinawaie, earthenware, gold thread, ivory, iron 
and steel (7315 d.) ironware and cutlery (5510 d.), nan- 
keens, stick-lac, tobacco (7569 d.), and woollens (7547 d.). 
besides, there went 8792 dollars in specie and 4000 Java 
rupees. 

The commerce between Singapore and the northern coast 
of Borneo is almost exclusively carried on by native vessels, 
many of which are of great size ; some of them are managed 
by Bugis. The articles imported from that island in 1 835 
amounted to 268,074 dollars. The most important article was 
gold-dust, to the value of 128,748 dollars. Other articles of 
importance were edible biraY-nests (30,355 d.), ratans 
(28,776 d.), antimony-ore (24,872 d.), pepper (17,847 d.), 
and camphor barus (10,478 d.). Minor articles were sago 
(9102 d.), tortoise-shell (8624 d.), bees' wax (8360 d.), tre- 
pang (5067 d.), ebony, hides, rice, sugar, tobacco, garro- 
wood (5957 d.), and lakka-wood (4472 d). The sundries 
amounted to 7137 dollars, and the dollars in specie to 5290. 
The goods exported to Borneo were to the value of 231,342 
dollars. The largest articles were India piece-goods (1 1 0,934 
d.), opium (73,490 d.), nankeens (17,311 d.), Malay piece- 
goods (17,024 d.), and European piece-goods (9150 d.). 
There were also arms (5507 d.), iron and steel (6775 d ), iron- 
ware and cutlery (4449 d.), raw silk (5155 d.), china-ware 
(3J38d.), gambier (3792 d.), cotton-twist (2627 d.), gun- 
powder (2001 d.). and China sundries (2309 d.). Minor 
articles were trepang, benjamin, earthenware, ivory, rice, 
salt, saltpetre, stick-lac, tea, tobacco, woollens, Java and 
Eastern sundries. To these were added 9389 dollars in 
specie, Java rupees to the amount of 4840 dollars, and cop- 
per coin to the amount of 100 dollars. 

An active commerce is carried on between Singapore and 
the rival settle nwnt of the Dutch at Rhio. [Rhio.J The 
imports into Singapore from that place amounted, in 1835, 
to 111,395 dollars, of whieh the pepper alone amounted to 
82,483 dollars, and the rice to 1 2,349. Minor articles were 
bees'-wax, cotton, gambier, hides, sugar, tin (2700 d.), and 
Java sundries; there were also 7933 dollars in specie im- 
ported. The exports to Rhio amounted to 167,461 dollars, 
and consisted especially of dollars in specie (84,882), Euro- 
pean piece-goods (25,938 d.), India piece-goods (16,940 d.), 



rice (12,911 d.), and opium (5252 d.). Minor articles wera 
anchors and grapnels, arms, chin aware, ebony, iron and 
steel, lead, oils, paints, ratans, raw silk, sago, salt, spelter, 
tea, lakka-wooa, and sundries, with Java rupees amounting 
to 400 dollars. 

The direct commerce between Singapore and Java is 
limited to the three ports of Batavia, Samarang, and Sura- 
baya, but European and India goods may be snipped from 
these places to any other Dutch settlement on the island of 
Java, or on the other islands of the Archipelago, the Mo- 
luccas excepted. The exports of Java to Singapore, in 1835, 
amounted to 876,321 dollars. The most considerable articles 
were — tin (155,527 d.), European piece-goods (142,317 d.), 
birds'-nests (101,949 d), and rice (86,479 d). Next to these 
were tobacco (44,139 d.), spices (41,845 d.), ratans (34,589 d.), 
spirits, especially hollands (26,938 d.), Java sundries 
(26,145 d.), pepper (18,176 d.), sandal-wood (18,490 d.), 
sugar (17,043 d.), gold-dust (14,523 d ), cotton (10,751 d.), 
and tortoise-shell (10,059 d.). The importations were— 
woollens (9394 dollars), European sundries (8088 d.), ar- 
rack (7856 d.), hides (7519 d.), glassware (6275 d.), 
mother-of-pearl shells (5308 d.), and cotton-twist (4223 d.). 
Minor articles were camphor, camphor barus, coffee, cop- 
per-ware, copper sheathing, ebony, ivory, indigo, oils, paints, 
provisions, spelter, stick-lac, sugar-candy, tea, wine, garro- 
wood, and Eastern sundries. There were also brought to 
Singapore 48,374 dollars in specie, Java rupees to the 
amount of 4709 dollars, doubloons (980 dollars), and cow- 
ries (150 dollars). The exports from Singapore to the 
ports of Java were of the value of 568,470 dollars. The most 
valuable articles were India piece-goods (135,900 d.), 
opium (118,495 d.), and China sundries (70,790 d.). 
Next to these were raw silk (40,135 d.), cigars (27,112 d.), 
china-ware (22,336 d.), gunnies (15,252 d.), tea (14,310 d.), 
wheat (11,749 d.), and nankeens (10,994 d.) ; Euro-' 
pean sundries (9231 d.), China piece-goods (7617 d.), India 
sundries (7308 d.), copper (6433 d.), pepper (6014 d), 
iron and steel (5537 d.), Straits sundries (4935 d.), tobacco 
(4829 d.), saltpetre (4449 d.), tin (4000 d ), and cassia 
(3340 d.) Minor articles were arms, benjamin, bees'-wax, 
canvas, cordage^ dragons'-blood, earthenware, glue, glass- 
ware, gunpowder, ivory, lead, oils, provisions, European 
piece-goods, Malay piece-goods, sago, stick-lac (3758 d.), wool- 
lens, and American sundries (2052 d.). There are still to 
be added 7024 dollars in specie, and Java rupees to the 
amount of 2000 dollars. 

The island of Bally, whose surface does not much exceed 
2000 square miles, sent to Singapore goods to the amount of 
59,724 dollars, of which the nee alone fetched 37,274 dol- 
lars ; the tobacco 8288 d., the tortoise-shell 4021 d., and the 
edible birds'-nests 2755 d. Minor articles were trepang, 
bees' -wax, coffee, hides, sandal-wood, and Eastern sundries 
(1230 d.) ; also 4270 dollars in specie. The goods exported 
from Singapore to Bally amounted to 65,073 dollars, and 
consisted especially of opium (24,264 d.), copper coin 
(13,339 d.), India piece-goods (10,119 d.), and European 
piece-goods (4583 d\), with several minor articles, as arms, 
chinaware, earthenware, gold thread, ivory, ironware, China 
piece-goods, raw silk, woollens, and China sundries, with 
200 dollars in specie. 

The commerce between Singapore and the several islands 
which lie in the sea between the settlement and Java, in- 
cluding Banca, is also considerable. The goods brought 
from them amounted to 133,536 dollars. The larger arti- 
cles were tin (47,461 d.), trepang (10,662 d.), India sundries 
(7942 d.), Eastern sundries (5622 d.), pepper (5689 d.), aggar- 
aggar (4869 d.), and tortoise-shell (4882 d.). Minor articles 
were bees'-wax, birds' nests, chinaware, coffee, ebony, ghee, 
gambier, gold-dust, gram, oils, paddy (3612 d.), ratans, rice, 
sago, tobacco, wheat, garro-wood, and sapan-wood. There 
were also 12,296 dollars in specie sent to Singapore. The 
exports from our settlements amounted to 101,180 dollars, 
and consisted principally of opium (18,528 d), India piece- 
goods (12,450 d.), rice' (11,902 d.), raw silk (6858 d-.), 
European piece-goods (5829 d.), and Malay piece goods 
(5047 d.). Minor articles were anchors, arms, cotton- twist, 
earthenware, gambier, gold thread, gunpowder, iron and steel, 
ironware, nankeens, ofls, sago, stick-lac, sugar, tea, tobacco 
(2500 d.), wheat, garro-wood, spirits, and sundries. Besides, 
17,110 dollars in specie and 300 dollars in copper coin 
were exported. 

The commerce between Singapore and Siam is mostly 
carried on by the Chinese who are settled in that country. 

G2 



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And in junks built at Bangkok and other places. The im- 
ports from Siam amounted, in the year terminating with the 
30th of April, 1836, to 282,019 dollars. The principal 
articles were sugar (114,453 d.), rice (43,330 d.), stick-lac 
(18,264 d.), iron-ware (12,379 d.), sapan-wood (1 1,674 d.), 
oils (8485 d.), salt (7959 d.) and Eastern sundries (6483 d.). 
Minor articles were china-ware (2147 d.), hides, ivory, paddy, 
India piece-goods, raw silk, sugar-candy (2250 d.), tea, 
spirits, and China sundries. The imported silver consisted 
of 12,120 dollars, and ticals to the amount of 35.913 dollars. 
The goods imported into Siam were of the value of 180,604 
dollars. The principal articles were European piece-goods 
(58,155 d.X India piece-goods (26,845 d), cotton-twist 
(19,913 d.), opium (18,925 d.)» ratans (9533 d.), ebony 
(9200 d.), bees'-wax (8475 d.), woollens (5085 d), gambier 
(4708 d.), and iron and steel (4560 d.). Minor articles were 
anchors, arms, betel-nut, earthenware, lead, lakka-wood, 
and European, India, China, and Eastern sundries. Only 
400 dollars, and cowries to the amount of 100 dollars, were 
sent to Siam. 

The commerce with Cochin China is much less consider- 
able. It is likewise carried on by the Chinese settled at 
Kangkao and Saigun in Camboja, and at Quinhon, Faifo, 
and Hu6 in Cochin China. In 1835 the imports from these 
places amounted to 62,319 dollars, and consisted chiefly of 
sugar (27,055 d.), rice (10,356 d.), copper (9300 d.), and 
salt (4388 d.) f with some ebony, indigo (2970 d.), iron, oils, 
raw silk, tea, and Eastern sundries. The exports amounted 
to 91,073 dollars, and the principal articles were woollens 
(28,534 d.) and opium (26,019 d.). The other articles, as 
arms, canvas, copper sheathing, gambier (4708 d.), iron, 
iron-ware (2485 d.), lead, piece-goods, ratans, saltpetre, 
spelter, tea, tobacco, sapan-wood, European sundries (3267 
<L), and China and Eastern sundries, amounted in general to 
Small sums ; but 9500 dollars in specie were exported. 

The commerce of the Straits is carried on witn the Malay 
Peninsula and with the island of Sumatra. The harbours 
on the eastern side of the peninsula, which trade with 
Singapore, are Pahang, Tringauu, and Calantan, and this 
trade is rather active. The trade with the western coast of 
the peninsula is not important, and is almost entirely 
limited to the harbour of Salangore. In 1835 the imports 
from these places to Singapore were 319,134 dollars. The 
most valuable articles were gold-dust (145,040 d.) and tin 
(107,670 d.). Pepper amounted to 11,273 dollars, and sugar 
to 4210 dollars. The other articles were trepang, bees'-wax, 
birds'-nests, coffee, ebony, ghee, hides, ivory, iron-ware, 
ratans (2216 d.), raw silk, rice, slick-lac, tortoiseshell, garro- 
wood, lakka-wood, and several other articles; 31,313 dol- 
lars were also imported. The exports in 1835 amounted to 
316,370 dollars. The principal article was opium, to the 
amount of 169,348 dollars, and next to it followed cotton- 
twist (40,867 d.), tobacco (30,034 d.), Malay piece-goocls 
(21,538 d.), European piece-goods (14,994 d.), and India 
piece-goods (9474 d). Minor articles were arms, bees'-wax, 
cotton, earthenware, gambier, iron and steel (3431 d.), iron- 
ware and cutlery, raw silk, salt, and several sundries. There 
were also 14,408 dollars sent from Singapore to these ports. 

The commerce between Singapore and the island of Su- 
matra is almost entirely limited to the ports along the 
eastern coast of the island; there is hardly any commercial 
intercourse with the Dutch settlements of Bencoolen, Padang, 
and Trappanuli, which are on the western coast. The com- 
merce of the eastern coast is divided between Singapore and 
Penang. The ports south of the free port of Batu Bara send 
their goods to Singapore, whilst those which are farther 
north visit Penang. The harbours connected with the first- 
named settlement are Campar, Siack, Indragiri, Iam- 
bie, Assahau, and Batu Bara. The goods imported from 
these places amounted to the sum of 130,921 dollars. The 
principal articles were coffee (44,842d.), betel-nut (24,946 d.), 
cotton (12,134 d.), sago (10,972 d.), ratans (8261 d.) gold- 
dust (5936 d.), and benjamin (4652 d.). Minor articles were 
trepang, hoes'- wax (3712 d.), dragon's-blood, gambier, 
hides, ivoiy, iron, iron-ware, mother-of-pearl shells, paddy, 
pepper, rice (3682 d.), spices, tortoiseshell. lakka-wood, and 
several sundries. There were also sent to Singapore 1250 
dollars, and Java rupees to the amount of 300 dollars. The 
goods exported to tnese places amounted to the value of 
165,601 dollars. The principal articles were India piece- 
goods (37,774 d.), European piece-goods (16,443 d.), raw-silk 
(12,680 d.) opium (1 1,767 d.), Malay piece goods (10,837 d.), 
China sundries (8995 d.), iron (6390 d.), and salt (5915 d.). 



Minor articles were arms (2475 d.), brass-ware, china-ware 
(3196 d.). copper sheathing, cotton-twist, earthenware, gold 
thread, gunpowder, iron-ware, nankeens, oils, stick-lac, tea, 
tobacco, wheat, woollens, and several sundries. There were 
also sent to Sumatra 26,906 dollars, and Java rupees to the 
amount of 1800 dollars. 

The western trade of Singapore comprehends that with 
Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, the island of Ceylon, and 
Arabia, with the Cape of Good Hope, Mauritius, and Aus- 
tralia, and with Europe and America. In the commerce 
which is carried on between Singapore and Calcutta larger 
capitals are employed than in that with China or Great 
Britain. The imports from Calcutta amounted, in 1835, to 
1,191,390 dollars. The principal article was opium, of 
which 1640 chests, of the value of 957,855 dollars, were 
imported. Next to it were India piece-goods, which 
amounted to 135,679 dollars; gunnies (24,745 d.), cot- 
ton (21,060 d.), rice (14.042 d.), wheat (13,978 d.), India 
sundries (8024 d.), and saltpetre (7451 d.). The other arti- 
cles, as brass-ware, canvas, copper-ware, cordage, copper 
sheathing, ebony, ghee, hides, mother-of-pearl shells, 
tobacco, and European sundries, amounted only to small 
sums. The exports from Singapore to Calcutta were to 
the value of 876,851 dollars. The most valuable article 
was gold-dust, which amounted to 473,565 dollars. Tin 
was sent to the amount of 69,045 dollars, pepper 44,839 d., 
cigars 29,550 d., European piece-goods 20,669 d., sapan- 
wood 18,829 d., spirits 17,992 d., ratans 13,465 d., gambier 
10,230 d., Java sundries 8402 d., spices 6333 d., Eastern 
sundries 5721 d., canvass .5931 d., cotton-twist 5619 d. t 
European sundries 4712 d., and tea 4510 d. Minor articles 
were anchors and grapnels (2014 d.), arms, benjamin, bees'- 
wax, betel-nut (3589 d.), cassia (3951 d.), copper, cordage, 
glass-ware, iron and steel, sago (3142 d.), sugar-candy, to- 
bacco, wine, sandal- wood, woollens, and India, China, and 
American sundries (3916 d.). From Singapore there were 
sent to Calcutta 70,189 dollars, sicca rupees to the amount 
of 5092 dollars, Java rupees 1943 dollars, sycee silver 650 
dollars, ticals 25,004 dollars, sovereigns 475 dollars, gold 
mohurs 93 dollars, and cowries 2989 dollars. 

The commerce with Madras is much less important. The 
imports from that place to Singapore amounted only to 
151,133 dollars. The largest article was India piece-goods 
(132,679 d.), and all the others, except ebony (6822 d.), 
amounted to small sums, and were trepang, earthenware, 
ghee (2993 d.), mother-of-pearl shells, European piece- 
goods (2880 d.), rice, wine, spirits, and a few sundries. The 
exports to Madras amounted to 138,365 dollars, and con- 
sisted principally in money, viz. 99,758 dollars in specie, 
ticals to the amount of 17,000 dollars, sicca rupees 311 
dollars, and Java rupees 125 dollars. Cigars, amount- 
ing to 5187 dollars, were the most important article. 
Other articles were benjamin, china ware, cordage, earthen- 
ware, gold-dust, glassware, iron and steel, ironware (2984d.), 
European piece-goods, ratans, sago, spices, sugar-candy, 
woollens (2168 d.), spirits, and some sundries. 

The commerce with Bombay is more important. The 
imports from that place amounted to 1 56,904 dollars. Opium 
was to the amount of 1 17,195 dollars, and India piece-goods 
1 9,5 78 dollars. The other articles were of little value, and con- 
sisted of brassware, cotton (2308 d.), grain, saltpetre, tor- 
toiseshell, woollens, and a few sundries ; there were also 
imported 13,000 dollars. The exports to Bombay amounted 
to 196,757 dollars. The largest articles were gold-dust 
(38,683 d.), tin (3 1 ,050 d.), sugar (30,489 d.), spice3 (17,05 1 d.), 
piece-goods (1 1,202 d.), ratans (7598 d.), and cigars (5441 d.). 
Minor articles were benjamin, betel-nut, cassia (2962 d.) t 
gambier, ivory, oils, pepper, raw silks, sago, garro-wood 
(3360 d.), sapan-wood, spirits, and several sundries. Bombay 
received also from Singapore 30,437 dollars, ticals to the 
amount of 5896 dollars, Bombay rupees 371 dollars, gold 
coins 92 dollars, and doubloons 62 dollars. 

The exports from Singapore to Ceylon amounted only to 
3849 dollars, and consisted of chinaware (1097 d.j, ratans, 
cigars, sugar (1358 d.), and a few sundries. But Ceylon 
sent to Singapore goods to the amount of 30,876 dollars, of 
which ebony alone was of the value of 19,872 dollars. The 
other articles, except cordage (4669 d.), were small, and 
consisted of trepang, birds' feathers, canvas, ghee, hides, 
India piece-goods, wheat, spirits, and some sundries. 

The imports from Arabia to Singapore amounted oniy to 
6395 dollars, and consisted of India sundries (4240 d.), and 
small quantities of gold thread, tortoiseshell, oils, and salt. 



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But Singapore exported to Arabia, probably on account of 
the pilgrims who go from the Malay Peninsula and the 
Indian Archipelago to Mecca, the value of 70,153 dollars, 
of which 41,000 dollars were in specie. The largest articles 
of goods were benjamin (8708 d.), tin (6779 d.), sugar 
(5885 d.)> and garro-wood (4710 d.) Minor articles were 
gold-dust (607 d.), pepper, India piece-goods, rice, sago, 
spices, sugar-candy, sapan-wood, and a few sundries. 

The imports into Singapore from the Cape, Mauritius, and 
Australia amouuted only to 4860 dollars, of which 2900 
were in specie, to which arms and ebony in small quantities 
were added. But Singapore exported to these places goods 
to the amount of 88,674 dollars. The most important 
articles were tin (12,570 d.), cigars (11,272 d)., wheat 
(1 1,017 d.), Eastern sundries (8739 d.), sugar (6425 d.). and 
coffee (5886 d.) The other articles were of less importance, 
and consisted of antimony, bees'- wax, canvas, cassia, cord- 
age (2608 d.), gram, gambier, gold-dust, tunnies, opium 
(2400 d.), pepper, paddy, provisions (2302 d.), ratans, rice 
(2633 d.), sago, sugar-candy, tea (2360 d.), tobacco, wines, 
spirits, and European sundries (3216 d.). 

Tne United Stales of America carry on an active com- 
merce with Singapore, but as most of their goods are not 
adapted for the market of Southern Asia, they generally 
pay for the goods that they buy with ready money. They 
imported 87,600 Spanish dollars, and also manufactured* 
goods 04,548 d.)» provisions (9853 d.), and American sun- 
dries (9122 d.) Minor articles were canvas, cordage, gun- 
powder, hides, cigars, and tobacco (1556 d.) The whole 
importation amounted to 125,897 dollars, whilst the articles 
exported were of the value of 177,526 dollars. The most im- 
portant articles among the exports were tin (43,751 d.), 
sugar (38,184 d.), coffee (34,279 d.), pepper (19,793 d.), 
tortoise-shell (6784 d.), rice (6258 d.), and gunnies (5760 d.). 
Minor articles were antimony, betel-nut, canvas, cassia 
(3956 d.), cordage, dragon's-blood, gambier, hides, oils, 
opium (2660 d.), India piece-goods, ratans (2117 d.), sago, 
cigars, spices (2400 d.), tea, and several sundries. 

As to the harbours of continental Europe, that of Ham- 
burg had the greatest share in the trade. But the imports 
from these places amounted only to 65,657 dollars, and the 
largest articles were spirits (12,876 d.), piece-goods 
(12,700 d.), wine (10,578 d.), and European sundries 
(16,584 d.). Minor articles were arms, canvas (3000 d.), 
cordage (2300 d.), cotton-twist (2340 d.), glassware, gold 
thread, iron (2161 d.), ironware, lead, oils, paints, provisions, 
salt, and woollens. The goods exported from Singapore to 
these partsamounted to 115,303 dollars. The largest articles 
were coffee (42,649 d.), tin (23,319 d.), sugar (15,942 d.), 
pepper (13,772 d.), European sundries (5329 d.), and cassia 
(3355 d.). Minor articles of export were bees'- wax, cordage, 
gold-dust, hides, rice, ratans, sago (2084 d.), cigars (2386 d.), 
tortoise-shell, sapan-wood, arrack, and some sundries. 

The commerce of Singapore with Great Britain is nearly 
equal to that with Calcutta, and more active than that with 
China. Great Britain imported into the port of Singapore 
in the year ending with the 30th of April, 1836, goods to Ihe 
amount of 1,150,808 dollars. The most important article 
consisted of several kinds of piece-goods, to the amount of 
675,776 dollars. Other articles of importance were cotton- 
twist (58,994 d.), European sundries (56,772 d.), iron 
(49,409 d.), woollens (48,976 d.), arms (45.778 d.), earthen- 
ware (3 1,560 d.), glassware (23,480 d.), gunpowder (20,793 d.), 
copper sheathing and nails (16,728 d.), ironware and 
cutlery (15,486 d.), anchors and grapnels (14,383 d.), 
and wines (13,445 d.). The importations were — beer 
(8281 d.), canvas (5188 d.), cordage (6684 d.), opium 
(2000 d.), paints (3077 d.), provisions (4220 d.), spelter 
(3296 d.) t and spirits (4724 d.). Minor articles were brass- 
ware, gold thread, lead, and tea. Great Britain sent also to 
Singapore 17,000 Spanish dollars, and copper coin to the 
amount of 25,072 dollars. The goods shipped at Singapore 
for Great Britain amounted to the value of 890,017 dollars. 
The most important articles were tortoise-shell (125,101 d.), 
tin (101,204 d.), pepper (91,289 d.), raw silk (70,675 cl.), 
sugar (62,406 d.), Eastern sundries (59,586 d.), coffee 
(53,644 d.), tea (44,376 d.), sago (35,89 1 d.), soices (34,939 d.), 
mother-of-pearl shells (27,570 d.), China sundries (25,544 d.), 
bees*- wax (22.656 d.), cassia (22,298 d.), antimony (18,704 d.), 

fimbier (16,339 d.) hides (13.950 d ), benjamin (8708 d.), 
ava sundries (7982 d.), ratans (6988 d.), Straits sundries 
(5943 d.), and ivory (5053 d.). Minor articles were birds' 
feathers and birds of paradise, camphor, cordage (2524 d.), 



coloured cotton-twist (2541 d.), dragons'-blood, ebony, goIdV 
dust (4355 d ), nankeens (3440 d.), oils, China piece-goods,, 
rice, cigars, wines, sapan-wood (4262 d.), and India sundries 
(3106 d.). There were also sent to Great Britain 95 sove*- 
reigns, and cowries to the value of 1086 dollars. 

Such is the state of the commerce of Singapore at present,, 
but it will probably increase largely in a few years. If the' 
Chinese government continue the vexatious restrictions on 
our commerce at Canton, it may be expedient to discontinue 
the direct commercial intercourse with the Celestial empire. 
Instead of Canton, the settlement of Singapore would be 
the market to which tea and other articles of Chinese in- 
dustry would be brought, and our goods adapted for their 
consumption would be sold. The consumption of all these 
articles, with the exception of opium, would probably be? 
much increased by such a change, for the Chinese them- 
selves would be able to sell their goods at a less price att 
Singapore than we have hitherto paid for them at Cantons 
Our vessels and merchants have to pay very heavy dues,, 
whilst Chinese vessels pay very little in comparison, and are* 
almost entirely free from dues whenever a part of their 
return cargo consists of rice. This article is at present 
always to be had at Singapore, and might be grown to an 
indefinite extent in the eastern districts of Sumatra and in 
our Tenasserin provinces, if there was a demand for it. 
Thus it is probable that the Chinese junks would be able to 
sell tea and other articles at least 1 per cent, less than we 
pay for them at Canton ; besides, the tea is brought to Canton 
by a transport over land of many hundred miles, whilst 
the countries in which it grows are near the sea ; and it 
could be brought directly from Amoy, Ningpo, and Sanghae, 
to Singapore, at a much less expense. The only difference 
would be, that our vessels, instead of proceeding to Canton, 
would slop at Singapore ; but that can hardly be considered 
a loss, when we reflect that the increased consumption 
of Chinese goods, in consequence of the decrease in pricev 
would certainly be attended by an increase of our shipping. 

History. — On the site of the present British settlement 
formerly stood the capital of a Malay kingdom. According 
to the history of that nation, Sang Nila Utama, from Men- 
angkabau in Sumatra, founded the city of Singh apura (the 
lion's town) about 1160, and Rallies was able in 1819 to 
trace the outer lines of the old city. It then was the capital 
of the kingdom of Malacca. This town was taken in 1252 
by a king of Java, and the residence of the king was trans- 
ferred to the town of Malacca, which was then founded. 
After that event the town seems gradually to have decayed, 
and the country to have been abandoned; for when the 
British, after having restored the town of Malacca to the 
Dutch in 1816, wished to form a settlement on the shores 
of the Strait of Malacca or its neighbourhood, that they 
might not be entirely excluded from the commerce of the 
Indian Archipelago by the Dutch, they found on their 
arrival at Singapore that the population of the whole island 
did not exceed 150 individuals, as already stated. It was 
then a part of the kingdom of Johore, which had been so* 
reduced by internal discord, that some of the superior 
officers had become independent. One of tbem, the Tu- 
mungong, or chief justice, had got possession of the island 
of Singapore and the adjacent country, and from him the 
British obtained, in 1819, permission to build a factory on 
the south shore of the island. Soon afterwards a person 
who had some claim to the throne of Johore came to the 
British settlement and received a small pension. From this 
person, who was afterwards king of Johore, and theTumun- 
gong, the British obtained, in 1824, the sovereignty and 
fee-simple of the island, as well as of all the seas, straits, 
and islands, for the sum oP 60,000 Spanish dollars, and an 
annuity of 24,000 Spanish dollars for their natural lives. 
In 1826 Singapore was placed under the provincial govern- 
ment of the Straits Settlement, which is fixed on the island 
of Penang. 

(Crawfurd's Journal of an Embassy to the Courts o/Siam 
and Cochin China; Finlayson's Mission to Siam and Hub; 
Moor's Notices of the Indian Archipelago, &c; Newbold's 
Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements 
in the Straits of Malacca.) 

S1NIGAGLIA. [Pesaro et Urbino.] 

SINKING FUND. [National Debt.] 

SINO'PE, or SINUB. [Paphlagonia.] 

SINTOC, or SIN DOC, sometimes written Syndoc, is 
the bark of a ppecies of Cinnaraomum, which has been 
called C. Sintoc by Blurae, who says it is a tree 80 feet in 



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height, indigenous in the primeval forest* of Java. It is in 
flattish pieces, of a warm spiey taste, but is seldom seen in 
this country. It resembles the Calilawan bark* called clove- 
bark by some, which is called hulie lawan by the natives of 
Java, and is the produce of a nearly-allied species, the Cin- 
namomum Calilawan of Blume, which grows in similar 
situations with the former, and of which the bark is used as 
a spice, and its essential oil is employed as a medicine and 
as a perfume by the Javanese. 

SIOUX INDIANS, one of the most numerous and 
powerful of the native tribes within the territories of the 
United States of North America. Thev inhabit a large tract 
between 42° and 49° N. lat. and 90° 30' and 99° 30' W . Jong., 
comprehending nearly the whole of the country between 
the Mississippi on the east and the Missouri on the 
west, north of 42° 30' N. lat, or the present territory 
of Iowa. They also occupy a large tract of the territory 
of Wisconsin on the east of the Mississippi, extending 
along the river from Fort Crawford on the south to the 
St. Croix river, and the whole country west of the last- 
mentioned river as far north as Lake Spirit, and westward 
to the eastern banks of the Mississippi. In these parts their 
country borders on that of the Algonquins, who occupy the 
tract west of Lake Superior, but along the banks of the 
Red River of Lake Winnipeg the Sioux claim the whole 
traet to the boundary-line of the United States (49° N. lat.). 
On the banks of the Missouri they are found near Fort 
Mandan on the north (47° 30'), and at the mouth of the 
Soldiers' River (42°) on the south, and it is stated that thev 
hunt in the country west of the Missouri between 43° and 
47° N. lat. The southern boundary of their country may be 
marked by a line drawn from the mouth of Soldiers' River 
to Fort Crawford. 

The Sioux Indians eall themselves Dacotas/ but in their 
external relations they assume the nameofOchente Shakoan 
(the nation of the seven fires or councils), a name which re- 
fers to a division into seven great tribes, of which they were 
formerly composed. The French Canadians divide them into 
Gens du Lac and Gens du Large. The former once lived about 
Spirit Lake, and are now principally found along the banks 
of the Mississippi, They live in villages, and have begun to 
apply themselves to the cultivation of the ground. The 
Gens du Large, under which name the greater number of 
the tribes are comprehended, rove about in the prairies be- 
tween the Mississippi and Missouri, and live almost exclu- 
sively by the chase. On these prairies the buffalo is found 
in uncommon numbers, and probably there is no part of 
North America in which this animal is so plentiful. Hence 
the means of subsistence are very abundant, and the nation 
of the Dacotas is more numerous than any other in such 
high latitudes. It is stated that the Dacotas themselves 
compose a population of 28,000 individuals, and that there 
are above 7000 warriors. The Assiniboines, who live north 
of the Dacotas, within the territories of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, formerly constituted an integral portion of the 
Dacotas, but separated from them in consequence of a 
quarrel, whence they are named, by the Dacotas, Hoka 
(the revolted). The Chippewas name them Assiniboines 
or Stone Boines, and the Dacota they call Boines. This 
branch of the Dacota Indians is stated to be no less nu- 
merous than the Daootas themselves. 

The language of these two tribes differs from that of their 
neighbours, yet some distinctions of the nature of dialects 
appear to prevail in some words as spoken by the roving In- 
dians and by the Dacotas. They believe in the existence of 
a Supreme Being, and a great number of subordinate beings, 
whose powers and attributes vary much. The Supreme 
Being is called Wahkan Tanka, or Great Spirit, and they con- 
sider him as the Creator of all things, and as the ruler and 
disposer of the universe; they hold him to be the source of all 
good and the cause of no evil. The next spirit in respect to 
power is the Wahkan Shecha, or Evil Spirit, whose influence 
is exclusively exerted in doing evil. The third divinity is 
the thunder, whose residence they fix iu the west, and some 
believe that it dwells on the summit of the Rocky Mountains, 
because in this country all thunder-storms come from the 
west. The thunder is considered the spirit of war. They 
offer sacrifices to these three powers, and these sacrifices are 
accompanied with prayers, but not with dances. 

To rise early, to be inured to fatigue, to hunt skilfully, to 
undergo hunger without repining, are the only points to 
which the Dacotas think it important to attend in .the 
education of their children. 



The Dacotas who live along the Mississippi and St. Peter's 
river raise maize, and they also cultivate beans, pumpkins, 
and other vegetables. But these agriculturists constitute 
only a small portion of the tribe : by far the larger part oc- 
cupy themselves with hunting wild animals, especially the 
buffalo. The other animals which abound in their country 
are beavers, otters, martens, minxes, musk-rats, lynxes, 
wolverines, elks, moose deer, bears, and wolves. As the 
wild animals are so abundant in their country, the Dacotas 
are not obliged to live in small societies, but they generally 
live in camps consisting of eighty or a hundred lodges, eacn 
lodge containing several families. Sometimes there are 
above three hundred warriors in one encampment. 

(Lewis and Clarke's Travels up the Missouri, &c. ; and 
Keating's Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of the 
St. Peter* s River, $c, under the command of Major Long,) 

SIPHNO, called also Siphanto and Sifanno (by Carps c- 
chi, hole del Mondo), an island in the Archipelago, form- 
ing one of the group called the Cyclades. The original name 
was Merope ; it was called Siphnus from a personage of that 
name. It was colonised bv Ionians from Athens. (Herodot., 
viii. 48.) In the reign of Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos, 
about 520 B.C., the inhabitants were very flourishing in con- 
sea ue nee of their gold and silver mines, and, according to He- 
rodotus (iii. 57), they were the most wealthy of the islanders. 
They had a deposit at Delphi of the tenth of the produce of 
the mines. Some exiles, who were expelled from Samos by 
Polycrates [Samos], invaded Siphnus about this jime, and 
levied a contribution of 100 talents. The Siphnians were 
among the few inhabitants of the Archipelago who resisted 
the Persian claim of earth and water, and they contributed 
one small ship of war at the battle of Salarois. (Herod., viii. 
48.) Their mines were not afterwards so valuable (Demos- 
thenes, xcpi awr&luaQ). Pausanias (x., 11) says that after 
a time they ceased to send treasure to Delphi, and that in 
consequence the sea broke in on their mines and destroyed 
them. Siphnus is very little noticed by antient authors. 
From Stephanus Byzantinus, Hesychius, and Suidas we 
learn that the natives were of dissolute manners, insomuch 
that to do like a Siphnian (Styi'uigctv) was a term of re- 
proach. In the work of Constantino Porpbyrogennetus 
5 De Thematibus,' Siphnus is in the theme of Hellas, and 
in the Syuecdemus of Hierocles it forms part of the Pro- 
yincia Insularum. 

In the reign of Henry I., Latin emperor of Constan- 
tinople, Marco Sanado, the first duke of Naxos, conquered 
the island and made it part of his dominions. It passed 
from him into the hands of the Gozzadini family, who held 
it till it was wrested from them bv Barbarossa, after the cap- 
ture of Rhodes in the time of Soliman II. It was, in com- 
mon with the neighbouring islands, partially protected from 
the oppressions of the Turks by the Venetians; and Tourne- 
fort ( Voyage du Levant) mentions that about 50 years be- 
fore his visit to the place, so little was the power of the 
Porte there, that the inhabitants, assisted by a Provencal 
corsair, expelled the Turks who had been sent there to work 
the lead -mines. 

Siphnus is between 36° 50' and 37' 10' N. lat., and in 25° 
1 0' E. long. : it is situated to the south-east of Serpho, north- 
east of MiTo, and south-west of Paro, lying immediately oppo- 
site Antiparo. It is of an oblong form, narrower at the north 
than at the southern extremity. Pliny reckons it at about 
28 Roman miles in circumference, and Carpacchi (Isole 
del Mondo) at 40. Tournefort mentions five ports, which 
were much frequented about 50 years before his visit there: 
Faro,Vathy, Kitriani, Kironisso, and Kastron, of which Kas- 
tron is on the east, Faro and Kitriani on the south, and 
Vathy on the west side. Another on the east side, Agia 
Sosti, is marked in the map attached to Fiedler's * Reise 
(lurch Griechenland,' 1841. Tournefort gives the names of 
five villages, Artimone, Stavril, Catavati, Xambela, and 
Petali; and of four convents of caloyers, Brici or La Fon- 
taine. Stomongoul, St. Chrysostome, and St. Helie. 

Fiedler mentions only two towns : Kastron, on a strong and 
rocky hill overlooking the sea, which is the residence of the 
governor; and Stawri, the Stavril of Tournefort, in the 
centre of the island. Siphnus is in the pashalik of Nakscha. 
The bishop is also bishop of Milo. The population in the 
time of Tournefort was about 5000 ; they were taxed in the 
year 1700 at 4000 crowns of French money. The lands are 
chiefly laid out in vineyards ; the wine is not so good as that 
of the neighbouring islands. The chief trade is in silk, 
figs, honey, wax, sesame, and cotton stuffs, which are cele- 



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brated for their quaiity : the inhabitants import the raw ma- 
terial. There are very few sheep, horses, or horned cattle. 
The climate is good, and the inhabitants long-lived. 

SiphnUs was celebrated among the antients for a sort of 
stone mentioned by Pliny (Nat. Hist., xxxvi. 22), of which 
drinking-cups were made, which was easily carved, and har- 
dened afterwards by boiling oil. This was a species of talc, 
According to Fiedler, who gives further particulars relating 
to the geology of the island. Tournefort was shown the 
situation of one gold-mine, but could not discover the en- 
trance. Fiedler gives an account of one near Agia Sosti. 

The antiquities of the island are few. On the south side, 
at Porto PJati Gallo, are the remains of an old Greek town. 
Tournefort speaks of a temple sacred to Pan near the 
castle, which is also noticed by Carpacchi, and of several 
rfcurble sarcophagi with good sculpture. There are also 
Greek inscriptions, which are given by him and Fiedler. 
The Greek coins of SiphnUs are very numerous : they are 
of gold, silver, and copper. The types on them are the 
head of Apollo (there was a town called Apollonia in Siph- 
nus, according to Stephanus Byz., 'AroXXowia), the Chi- 
msera, bead of Bacchus, and a dove with wings spread. The 
coins struck under the emperors have Pallas on the reverse. 
Kastron is a castle built apparently when the Venetians first 
occupied the island. Various buildings bear the arms of the 
Gozzadini family, three of whom were still living there in 
the time of Tournefort. 

SIPHON (<rtywv), a tube or pipe. This machine, which 
has been described in the article Hydraulics, was pro- 
bably invented in the second century B.C., by Hero of 
Alexandria, who, in the ' Spiritalia,' or Pneumatics, men- 
tions its employment for the purpose of conveying water 
from one valley to another over the intervening ground. 

In order that a fluid may issue from that branch of a 
siphon which is on the exterior surface of the vessel con- 
taining it, it is necessary, as has been stated in the article 
above mentioned, that the extremity of the branch should 
be below the surltce of the fluid in the Vessel ; but it may 
be observed that there is an exception to the rule when the 
interior diameter of that branch is very small ; for example, 
when it is less than 1-I0th of an inch, the interior diameter 
of the branch in the vessel being considerably greater. For 
if such a fluid as water or wine be introduced into a bent 
tube having one branch only very small, and the open ends 
be uppermost, the top of the fluid in the more slender 
branch will, by the effect of capillary attraction, stand 
higher than the top of that in the other branch. It would 
follow therefore, that if the bent tube were inverted, and 
the orifice of its larger branch were placed under the sur- 
face of the fluid in a vessel, the fluid would begin to issue 
from the other branch, though the orifice of the latter were 
a little above the level of that surface. 

The effect of a siphon may be produced by capillary 
attraction alone ; for if a piece of cotton cloth have one of 
its extremities in a vessel of water, and part of it be made 
to hang over the edge of the vessel, the water will be at- 
tracted along the threads of the cloth, and will descend 
from thence in drops, provided the extremity of the part 
thus hanging over be below the surface of the water in the 
vessel. 

The phenomena presented by springs of water are ex- 
plained by supposing that the rain which is absorbed in the 
earth occasionally finds its way by small channels to some 
interior cavity, and from thence by other channels, which 
may be considered as natural siphons, to an orifice on a 
lower level at the surface of the ground. At this orifice it 
issues in a stream of water, which continues to flow till the 
surface of the water in the cavity has descended below the 
tops of the vertical bends in the channels : the water then 
ceases to flow till the rains again raise the water in the 
cavity above those bends. But it sometimes happens that 
a spring, without ceasing to flow, discharges periodically 
greater and smaller quantities of water in given times; and 
this is accounted for oy supposing the existence of two cavi- 
ties either unconnected or communicating with one another 
by small channels. The channels leading from one of these 
cavities to the point of efflux are supposed to be below the level 
of the water in both cavities, so that the water flows through 
them continually ; but if the channels from the other have 
vertical bends, so that they act as siphons, and at the same 
time these channels carry off the water in them faster than 
it can flow from the first cavity to the second, it will be only 
vhen the water in the latter cavity is above the level of all 



such bends that a discharge will take place from thence. 
As the water in that cavity may only attain the necessary 
height in consequence of periodical falls of rain, it will fol- 
low that corresponding increases in the total quantity of 
water discharged can only then take place. 

For the amusement of young persons, several philoso- 
phical toys have been constructed, in which the effects are 
produced by means of concealed siphons. The siphon is 
sometimes placed within a figure in the middle or on the 
edge of a cup, and sometimes between its exterior and in- 
terior sides. Such are Tantalus's Cup and the siphon 
fountain. 

SIPHONA'RI A. [SemiphVllidians, vol. xxi., p. 218.] 

SIPHONIA. [Spongiad*.] 

SIPHO'NIA, a genus of plants of the natural family of 
Euphorbiacese, consisting of two species, but one may be 
only a variety of the other. This is celebrated as being the 
tree which yields the large quantities of caoutchouc, called 
Cahuchu by the native Americans, annually imported from 
Para in South America. The genus has been named Si- 
phonia, from the Greek word siphon (atycuv) a tube, from the 
purposes to which caoutchouc is applied ; but it was origi 
nally called Hevea by Aublet, ana the name was changed 
by Richard from its similarity to Rvea. The species, or 
South American caoutchouc, was named S. Cahuchu from 
its Indian name Cahuchu. The same plant was first called 
Jatropha elastica by the younger Linnaeus ; so that it is 
known and referred to by three names, and in some works 
these are considered to indicate distinct plants. Aublet 
has figured the plant, and Jussieu the ae tails of its in- 
florescence. 

Siphonia elastica is a tree fifty to sixty feet in height, 
common in the forests of Guiana and Brazil, and which lias 
been introduced into the West Indies. Condamine fre* 
quently mentions it in his voyage down the Amazon. 
Caoutchouc [Caoutchouc] is the milky juice of the plant 
which exudes on incisions being made, and solidifies on ex- 

Sosure to the air. Aublet states that a deep incision is 
rst made into the wood near the bottom of the tree, 
another is then made longitudinally from the upper parts 
of the tree down to the first lateral and oblique incision, 
others are also made along the stem, which terminate in 
the longitudinal one, and the milky juice which exudes from 
all is collected in a vessel placed at the original incision. He 
also states that the nuts are edible, and Mr. Morney says 
that a caterpillar, which spins a tough coarse kind of silk, 
feeds on the leaves. 

SIPHONI'FERA, M. D'Orbigny's name for an order 
of testaceous Mollusks, consisting of the families Spirulida*, 
Nautilida, Ammonitidce, and Peristellidte, according to the 
arrangement of M. Rang. The latter family comprises the 
genera Ichthyosareoliles and Belemnites. 

SIPHONOBRANCHIA'TA, M. De Blainville's name 
for the first order of his first subclass of Mollusks, Para- 
cephalophora dioica. He describes the Siphonobranchiata 
as possessing organs of respiration constantly formed of one 
or two pectiniform bronchia, situated obliquely on the an- 
terior part of the back, and continued in a cavity, the supe- 
rior wall of which is provided with a tubiform canal more 
or less elongated and attached to the columella ; and ar- 
ranges under the order the following families: — Siphono- 
stomata ; Entomostoiiata ; and Angyostomata. 

The Angyostomata are described as differing very little 
from the otner families as far as the animal is concerned, 
and as possessing a very large sub ventral foot, which can be 
folded together longitudinally for the purpose of being 
withdrawn into the shell. 

The aperture of the shell of the family is described as 
being more or less notched anteriorly, generally very nar- 
row, but always much longer than it is wide, and the colu- 
mella as being straight or nearly straight. 

The operculum is rudimentary in a certain number of 
genera, and entirely null in others. 

The genera arranged under the Angyostomata are Strom- 
bus, Conus, Terebellum, Oliva, Ancillaria, Mitra, Voluta, 
Marginella, Peribolus, Cypnea, and Ovula. 

SIPHO'NOPS, Vfagler's name for a genus of CeociU- 
oi'dians. 

The first suborder of the Batrachians, the Pcromiles of 
MM. Dum6ril and Bibron, consists but of one family, the 
Ophiosomes (snake-bodied Batrachians) or Coeeilioidiuns. 
Their round elongated form, without either tail or /feet, ap- 
proximates so closely to that of the serpents, that the 



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greater huflaber oT authors have arranged them itt the order 
phidians, acknowledging at the same time the anomalies 
which they present, and observing that they ought to form 
a very distinct group. [Serpents, vol. xxi., p. 281.] 

The characters which lead to the classification of these 
reptiles into one family, and to their separation from all 
others, are, 1st, a body extremely extended in length, and 
of a cylindrical shape ; 2nd, the absence of limbs or lateral 
appendages proper for locomotion ; 3rd, a skin naked in ap- 
pearance and viscous, but concealing between the circular 
folds which it forms many rows or rings of flat, delicate, 
imbricated scales, with free and rounded borders, resem- 




Scalet of Cwcilia albirentris. 

^lingtfhose of the greater part of the fishes ; 4th, the rounded 
orifice.af their cloaca situated below, very near the posterior 
extremity of the body, which is sometimes truncated, as it 
were,. and rounded ; sometimes obtusely pointed, as in the 
genus Typhlops ; 5th, their head, as in all the Batrachians, 
is articulated to the spine by means of two distinct and sepa- 
rate condyles ; 6th, their lower jaw moves upon the cranium 
without any separate articular bone, and the two branches 
which form it are short and very solidly soldered together 
towards the symphysis of the chin. 

In the Serpents the occipital bone presents, below the 
vertebral hole, a single articular eminence, or condyle ; and 
the structure and disposition of the jaws will be remem- 
bered by those who have referred to the article Serpents. 
The brevity of the jaws, and their construction in the Caeci- 
lioidians, reduce the aperture of their mouth to a very small 
diameter. 

The bodies of the vertebrae of the Caocilioidians are doubly 
v excavated into cones, instead of being concave before and 
'Convex behind. Their tongue is large, papillose, fixed by 
.its borders upon the gums in the concavity of the jaw, and 
:not protractile, nor forked, nor susceptible of entering into a 
-sheath. The disposition and structure of their teeth are 
•noticed in the article Serpents and more fully detailed in 
(this. 

JProfessor Owen observes that in the extinct family of the 

flLabyrjnthodonts [Salamandroides], the Batrachian type of 

ercanieatjon was modified so as to lead directly from that 

order to l&e highest form of reptiles, viz. the loricate or 

crocodilian Saurians ; that some of the existing edentulous 

genera of the Bufonidce [Frogs] connect the Batrachian 

with the Chelonian order, and that the family founded 

upon the Linnean genus Ccecilia forms the transition to 

the ophidian reptiles. 'The characters,* says the Professor, 

• which retain the Ccedlice in the Batrachian order are gene- 

rally known, and may be briefly enumerated as the double 

- occipital condyle, the biconcave vertebrae, the smooth mu- 

. cous integument with minute and concealed scales, and the 

; branchial apertures retained by the young some time after 

: their birth. In the fixed tympanic pedicle, and the ancby- 

. losed symphysis of the lower jaw, the Ccedlice are also far 

l removed from the typical ophidian structures ; but the teeth, 

in their length, slenderness, sharp points, wide intervals, 

.and diminished number, begin to exhibit the characters of 

.the dental system of the serpent tribe/ (Odontography.) 

The characters above set forth show the connection which 
.these reptiles have with the Batrachians; but there is one 
striking feature, metamorphosis, which is not yet quite satis- 
factorily made out. Muller indeed states that he had ob- 
served young Ccedlice whose neck was furnished with small 
'branchial fringes, as will be hereafter more particularly 
noticed. 

The departure in a degree of the Ccedlio'idians from the 
"Batrachians is marked by the presence of small scales ; by 
ribs which are forked at their vertebral extremity, andmucn 
more distinct than in the genus Pleurodeles ; by the ab- 
sence of a sternum ; and especially by the form and struc- 
ture of the mouth, the aperture of which is small, the lower 
jaw being shorter than the upper, and the teeth long, sharp, 
and generally curved backwards. 

The Cceciliotdians resemble many species of the osseous 
fishes of the division of the Murcenidce in the form and 
structure of the skeleton, the articulation of the jaws, the 
mode of implantation of the teeth, &c. ; but the mode of 
junction of the head with the spine by means of two con- 



dyles, the presence of lungs and nostrils which open dis- 
tinctly within the cavity of the mouth, and the entire ab- 
sence of branchiae, remove these animals from that class. 
Organization. 

Skeleton. — The cranium presents above a single vaulted 
piece, in which no trace of orbits is perceptible. The lower 
jaw is not articulated with the skull by an intermediate 
bone, as in the birds, lizards, and serpents, but nearly as it 
is in the mammals, without however there being the 
slightest trace of a zygomatic bone. The branches of the 
lower jaw are joined anteriorly by a true suture, as in the 
lizards. 

Professor Owen states that the teeth are implanted in a sin- 
gle row upon the maxillary, intermaxillary, and palatine bones, 
the upper jaw being thus provided with two semi-elliptical 
and sub-concentric series ; that there are also two rows of 
equal-sized teeth on the premandibular bones of the lower 
jaw in certain species : the Ccedlia, he remarks, is the 
last example in the ascending survey which he has taken 
of the dental system of this disposition of teeth, which was 
so common in the class of fishes. 

' There are/ writes the Professor, ' twenty teeth in the an- 
terior or outer premandibular row in the lumbricoid and 
white bellied Ccecilia, and ten or twelve of much smaller 
size in the second row. There are twenty teeth in the outer 
row of the upper jaw, of which six are supported by the 
interraaxillaries, and sixteen in the inner or palatine row. 
All these teeth are long, slender, acute, and slightly recurved. 
In the rostrated Ccecilia the first two teeth of the maxil- 
lary and premandibular series are longer and stronger than 
the rest : they are succeeded by small and recurved teeth ; 
the median margins of the palatal bones are bristled with 
small teeth ; the second row in the lower jaw is repre- 
sented by two small recurved teeth on the internal bordet 
of the premandibular bones. In the modification of the 
dental system presented by this species may be perceived a 
retention of the Batrachian type. The ,annulated Cecilia 
(Siphonops annulatus) has the maxillary and palatine teeth 
strong, pointed, and slightly recurved. In the glutinous 
and two-banded Ccedlice (Epici'ium), the teeth are slender, 
acute, and more inclined backwards, thus approaching 
nearer to the ophidian type; in the latter species (Epicrium 
— Rhinatrema—bivittatum) the palatal series, instead of 
ranging concentrically with the outer row, is chevron- shaped 
with the angle turned forwards and rounded off. The teeth 
of the Ccecilia are sub-transparent ; their intimate struc- 
ture corresponds with that of the frog's tooth ; but their 
mode of implantation resembles that of the teeth of the 
Labyrinthodonts, the base being an chy losed to the parietes 
of a shallow alveolus.* (Odontography.) 

In the junction of the vertebrae there is an entire differ- 
ence from that of the lizards and serpents, and a perfect 
approximation to that of the perennibranchiate batrachians 
and fishes. All the bodies of the vertebrae are hollowed, 
both before and behind, by tunnel-shaped cavities, in which 
ligamentous fibres are implanted ; they are not really arti- 
culated, but placed one upon the other. Their superior 
spinous processes are like those of the Amphisbeence and 
those in the neck of birds, in other words, depressed so as to 
present only a slight carina. Each body of a vertebra is 
furnished below with an apophysis curved backwards, and 
forked forwards for the reception of the eminence of the 
preceding vertebra. On the sides is seen a small projection, 
on which one of the bifurcations of the rib is applied, for the 
other and longer fork rests upon an inferior eminence. The 
ribs are short, straight, directed backwards, and triangular, 
forked as in the birds, and united to the vertebrae very nearly 
in the same manner. * 

Respiratory System.— In Ccecilia lumbrico'idea the rudi- 
ment of a lung only has been observed ; and Meyer, who 
made this observation, and 'recognised also scales under the 
folds of the skin, conceives that these animals are species 
between the two orders of reptiles which he indicates under 
the name of Ophisaurians on account of the existence of 
the ribs and the presence of the single lung. Muller an- 
nounced the existence of branchial holes in a young Ccecilia 
(hypocyanea) preserved in the Museum of Natural History 
at Leydeh. He noticed an aperture of the size of a line on 
each side of the neck, at some lines' distance from the ex- 
tremity of the buccal slit. This aperture was much wider 
than it was deep, situated in the yellow stripe which exists 
on the sides. The edge of the hole was rough (Spre), and 
in the interior were observed black fringes, which appeared 



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to be fixed to the horns of the os hyoides, or branchial arcs ; 
but they did not project beyond the external orifices. The 
holes themselves are in free communication with the buccal 
cavity. It must be remembered that this observation was 
made without dissection. The specimen is four inches and 
a half in length, whilst an adult individual, which showed 
no trace of holes, was more than a foot long. 

Generation.— Mayer thinks that he observed two intro- 
mittent organs in the Ccecilia?. See further the remarks at 
the end of this article. 

Systematic Arrangement. 

The position assigned to the Ca>cilioidians will be found 
in the articles Reptiles and Serpents. We will only here 
add that Muller proposes for them the name of Gymnophids, 
his first order of naked amphibians. The second order con- 
sists of the Derotremes, the third of the Prote'idians, the 
fourth of the Salamandrines, and the fifth of the Batra- 
chians. Tschudi arranges the Ccecilio'idians between the 
Pipas and Salamanders, adopting the three genera of Wag- 
ler, who placed them between the Amphisbcence and the 
Batrachians. 

Geographical Distribution of the Suborder. — America, 
Asia, and Africa. 

Genera. — Ccecilia, Siphonops, Epicrium, Rhinatrema. 
Ccecilia. 

Generic Character. — head cylindrical; muzzle project- 
ing. Maxillary and palatine teeth short, strong, conical, and 
slightly curved. Tongue velvety or cellulose, most fre- 
quently offering two hemispherical convexities correspond- 
ing to the internal orifices of the nostrils. Eyes distinct or 
not distinct through the skin. A fosset or false nostril 
below each nostril. (D. and 13.) 




Head of Cacilialumbricoidca. 

a, seen iu profile : *, mowh open, to show the tongue, the teeth, and the in- 
ternal orifices of the nostrils. (Dum. and Bib.) 

Geographical Distribution of the Genus.— Of the four 
species, one is Asiatic, one African, and two American. 

Example, Ccecilia lumbricoidea. 

Description. — The longest and most slender of the whole 
family, its length being more than ninety times the diameter 
of its body measured towards the middle. MM. Dum6ril 
and Bibron state that individuals fifty-three centimetres 
long havo the thickness of a stout goose-quill ; cylindrical ; 
its body however being rather smaller in its last part than 
its first, excepting at the extremity, where it is always a 
little convex. The muzzle is wide and rounded ; the maxil- 
lary and palatine teeth are rather long, sharp, a little sessile 
backwards, and separated from each other. The tongue 
adheres to all parts in the concavity formed by the submax- 
illary branches; its surface exhibits small vermiculiform 
fulds and furrows, and there are two hemispherical convex- 
ities, corresponding to the internal orifices of the nostrils, 
which are great and oval. The external nostrils are two very 
small lobes situated on each side of the end of the muzzle, 
under which are seen two very small apertures, upon a por- 
tion of the border of each of which there seems to be a 
small tentacle. MM. Dumenl and Bibron were unable to 
perceive the eyes through the skin, which is perfectly smooth 
over the whole head; that which envelopes the body is 
scarcely marked with circular folds, except at the posterior 
extremity, that is to say, at about the twenty-seoondth of 
the length of the body, where there are from twelve to 
fifteen. When these folds are raised, large but delicate 
scales arc discovered, bearing much resemblance to those 
of the carp, forming one or two verticillations, in the com- 
position of which they show themselves to be very distinctly 
imbricated. The vent is situated under the terminal ex- 
tremity of the body, which is rounded. The colour is of a 
brownish or olive tint. 

Locality. — Surinam. 
P. C„ No, 1360, 



Siphonops. (Wagler.) 

Generic Character. — Head aud body cylindrical ; muzzle 
short ; maxillary and palatine teeth strong, pointed, and a 
little recurved ; tongue large, entire, adhering on all sides, 
with a surface hollowed into small vermiculiform sinkings. 
Eyes distinct through the skin. A fosset or false nostril in 
front of and a little below each eye. 

MM. Dumeril and Bibron remark that the species of this 
genus generally have the muzzle shorter than the Ccecilice, 
which gives their mouth the air of opening less under the 
head. The fossets or false nostrils aie placed not under the 
muzzle, but under the eyes, a little more or less forward. 
The skin which covers the eye is sufficiently transparent to 
enable the observer to see that organ through. The border 
of their nostrils and false nostrils are without the least ru- 
diment of a tentacle. Their teeth resemble those of the 
Ccecilice ; but their tongue, whose surface is furrowed with 
small vermiculiform sinkings, has no hemispherical protu- 
berances. 

Geographical Distribution of the Genus. — Two species 
only are known, both American. 

Example, Siphonops annulatus {Ccecilia annulata, 
Auct.). 

Description.— Muzzle very short, very thick, very much 
rounded, hardly less than the back of the head. Nostrils 
opening on the sides of the muzzle, entirely at the end, and 
a little upward. False nostrils placed below each eye, and 
very slightly forward. Diameter of the body a sixteenth or 
seventeenth of its total length : it is rather strong, and per- 
fectly cylindrical, of the same size throughout its extent. 
There are from eighty-six to ninety annular folds, slightly 
and equally separated from each other ; these cease a little 
in front of the vent, so that the skin of the terminal extre- 
mity of the body, which is rounded, offers no wrinkles. 

MM. Dumeril and Bibron state that in no individual 
could they discover scales in the thickness of the skin, where 
they probably exist, as in the other Ccecilice, but doubtless 
much smaller and more difficult of exposure, on account of 
the extremely close tissue, which renders it as it were cori- 
aceous. Colour olive or bluish-ash, but, in all, the circular 
folds have a white tint. 

Locality ». — Cayenne and Surinam. 




1, Siphonops aumilatus very much reduced, «i, head and neck aeon in 
profile ; b, mouth open, to show the tongue, the teeth, and the internal orifices 
of the nostrils; c, termiual extremity of its body seen below. (Dum- and 
Bibr.) 

Epicrium. (Wagler. Ichthyophis, Filzing.) 
Generic Character. — Head depressed, elongated ; muzzle 
obtuse ; maxillary and palatine teeth of loose texture ( offi- 
ces), sharp, and couched backwards. Tongue entire, with 
a velvety surface ; eyes distinct through the skin, a fosset 
(with a tentaculated border?) below the eye, near the border 
of the upper lip. Body subfusiform, with numerous circular 
folds close-set one against the other. (Dum. and Bibr.) 

Example, Epicrium glutinosum; Ccecilia glutinosa, 
Linn. : the only species known. 

Description.— The diameter of the body taken near the 
middle is the twenty»second or twenty-third part of the total 
length. There are about three hundred and twenty-five 
folds, rather uniformly approximated. Those which occupy 
the two first thirds of the length of the trunk do not com- 
pletely surround it, that is to say, they do not descend so as 
to meet under the belly. These same folds of the two first 
thirds of the length of the trunk are remarkable for break- 

Vo*. XXII.-H 

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ing on & point of their circumference, so as to form, each of 
them, a very open chevron, the summit of which, directed 
forwards, is found placed on the medio-longitudinal line of 
the back. The other folds of the body, those, namely, which 
surround the last third of it, form complete rings. The 
scales which these folds hide are small, numerous, delicate, 
transparent, subcircular, and offering on their superior sur- 
face a small figure in relief, representing a net with quadri- 
lateral meshes. A yellowish band extends to the right and 
left all along the body, from the muzzle to the anal extre- 
mity : above and below the tint is slate-colour. 

Locality, — Java and Ceylon. 

Rbinatrema. (Dum. and Bibr.) 

Generic Character. — Head depressed, elongated ; muzzle 
obtuse; maxillary and palatine teeth of loose structure 
(effilees), sharp, and couched backwards. Tongue entire, 
of a velvety surface. Eyes distinct through the skin. No 
fossets, neither under the muzzle nor below the eyes. Body 
subfusiform, with numerous circular folds. 

Example, Rhinatrema bivittatum ; Ccecilia bivittata, 
Auct. : the only species. 

Description. — Head a little elongated and slightly de- 
pressed, bearing some resemblance in form to that of certain 
Ophidians, particularly of the CoronelUe. The teeth very 
loosely constructed (effilees), and very much couched back- 
wards ; the second row above, instead of forming a curved 
line like the first, makes an angle rounded at its summit. 
The diameter of the middle of the trunk is one twenty-sixth 
of the total length of the body, round which there are three 
hundred and forty perfectly annul i form folds. There exists 
a small conical tail. The folds of the skin may be easily 
raised by a point ; and a great number of circular transparent 
scales, with a surface relieved by projecting lines, forming a 
sort of net There is a large yellow band on each side of 
the body; the submaxillary branches, whose border is 
brown, are of the colour of the lateral bands, as well as the 
margin of the cloaca, and a small longitudinal stripe upon 
the tail. 

Locality. — Cayenne ? 



Rhinatrema bivittatum. a, its scales. 

MM. Dumeiil and Bibron terminate their account of the 
Ccr cities with the following information. 

M. Leperieur, during his stay at Cayenne, having procured 
a living Ccecilia, which he placed in a vessel filled with 
water, he saw it bring forth, in the space of some days, from 
five to seven young, perfectly similar to their mother. Upon 
this MM. Dum6ril and Bibron observe that the Ccecilia, in 
spite of their bearing a greater resemblance to the Batra- 
chians than to the other reptiles, must be ovoviviparous. 
The fecundation of their germs must be effected in the 
interior of their body ; and their metamorphoses must take 
place in the body of their mother, as in the case of the 
Black Salamander of the Alps. [Cbcilians.] 

SIPHONOSTO'MATA, M. de Blainville's name for his 
first family of Siphonobranchiata. 

The forms comprised under this family are principally to 
be found under the extensive genus Murex of Linneeus. 
All the known animals belonging to it are carnivorous and 
marine, and all are furnished with a horny operculum. 
The SiphotiQstomata are thus subdivided by M. de Blain- 
ville:— 

* No persistent bourrelet on the right l'p. 



Pleurotoma. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. — Animal f 

Shell fusiform, slightly rugose, with a turrioulated spire ; 
aperture oval, small, terminated by a straight canal more or 
less long. The right lip trenchant and more or less incised. 

Operculum horny. 

A. Species in which the incision is a little behind the 
middle of the lip, and the tube of considerable length. 

Example, Pleurotoma Babylonia. 

Description.— The shell fusiform-turreted, transversely 
carinaled and belted, white, with black-spotted belts, the 
spots quadrate ; whorls convex ; tube or canal rather long. 

Locality.— 'The East Indian Seas and the Moluccas. 



Pleurotoma Babylonia. * 

B. Species in which the incision is entirely against the 
spire, and whose tube is short. (Genus Clavatula t 
Lam.) 

Example, Pleurotoma auriculifera. 





Pleurotoma anriculifera. 

This genus has been taken on different bottoms at depths 
varying from eight to sixteen fathoms. 

Lamarck characterises 23 living species of Pleurotoma, 
and 30 fossil, the latter mostly from Grignon. Defiance 
makes the number of fossil species 95. 

Mr. G. B. Sowerby has described in addition 36 living 
species collected by Mr. Cuming, M. Desbayes one, and 
Dr.Turton one. (Synopsis Testaceorum ; ZooL Proc. t &c) 
M. Desbayes in his tables makes the number of living spe- 
cies 71, and the number of fossil (tertiary) 150. Of these 
he records PL Cordieri, Caumarmondi, Vulpecula, craticu- 
lata, and a new species as both living and fossil (tertiary). 
In Europe the principal localities for the fossils are the 
calcaire grossier, the London clay, the contemporary beds 
near Bordeaux, and the Subapennine beds. Dr. Mantell 
notes an imperfect Pleurotoma in the blue clay of Brackles- 
ham. Mr. Lea has described and figured eleven fossil spe- 
cies from the new tertiary at Claiborne, Alabama. Professor 
Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison notice three species, priscaO), 
fusiformis, and spinosa, from the Gosau deposit and its 
equivalents in the Alps ; and Mr. Murchison records two 
species, Pleurotoma articulata and PL corallii, in the Silu- 
rian rocks. (Silurian System.) 

Rostellaria. (Lam.) 
This genus, in our opinion, belongs to the Strombidje, 
under which article it will be described. 



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Fusus. (Lam.) 

Generic Character.— Animal not differing much from 
that of Murex. 

Shell fusiform, often ventricose in the middle, rugose, 
thick, and with a very elevated spire ; canal very straight 
and elongated ; aperture oval ; right lip trenchant, the left 
smooth. 

Operculum horny 



Animal of Fusus. a, operculum. 

A. Turriculate or subturriculate, but not umbilicated 
species. 

Example, Fusus Colus (Murex Colus, Linn.). 

Description.— Shell fusiform, narrow, transversely fur- 
rowed, white, the apex and base rufous ; whorls convex, 
nodulously carinated in the middle ; canal long and slender ; 
the lip sulcated within, and denticulate on the margin. 

Locality. — The East Indian Ocean. 



Lamarck records 37 living species of jfa ltSt an( i 30 fossil, 
nearly all from France, and principally fr^m Gngtion. De- 
france makes the number of the latter 70, four of which are 
analogues from Grignon, and one from the Plaiaantin. 

M. Deshayes in his tables gives sixty-seven aa \he num- 
ber of living species of Fusus, and 1 1 1 as that of the fossil 
species (tertiary): of these he records Fusi craticulatu* t 
rostratus, strigosus, lignarius, sinistrorsus, Tareniinus, 
antiquus, brevicauda, carinatus, despectus, and Peruvia- 
ns, both living and fossil (tertiary). Dr. Mantell notes 
one species (long&vus) from the blue clay at Bracklesham. 
Professor Sedgwick and Mr. Murchison enumerate six spe- 
cies from the Gosau deposit and its equivalents in the Alps. 
Dr. Fitton notes Fusi clathratus, quadratus, rigidus, rusti- 
cus, and an indistinct species in the strata below the chalk. 
(Observations on the Strata between the Chalk and Oolite, 
&c, in Geol. Trans., 2nd series, vol. iv.) Mr. Lea records 
sixteen new species from the tertiary beds at Claiborne, 
Alabama, and one from Maryland. (Contributions to Geo- 
logy.) 

Pyrula. (Lara.) 

Generic Character. 

Shell pyriform, in consequence of the lowness of the 
spire ; the canal conical and very long or moderate, some- 
times slightly notched; aperture oval, rather large; colu- 
mella smooth and bent; right lip trenchant. 

Operculum horny. 

A. Subfusiform species; the spire being slightly ele- 
vated. 

Example, Pyrula carnaria. (Pyrula Vespertilio,Likm.; 
Fusus carnarius, Mart. ; Murex Vespertilio, Gm.) 

Description— Shell subpyriform, thick, ponderous, mu- 
ricated anteriorly, of a rufous-bay colour ; the last whorl 
crowned above with compressed tubercles ; spire rather pro- 
minent; the sutures simple; canal sulcated and subumbi- 
licated. 

Locality. — East Indian Ocean. 



Fuius Coins. 

B. Species subturriculated and umbilicated. (Genus La- 
tints, De Montf.) 

Example, Fusus Jilosus. 

Description.— Shell fusiform-turreted, thick, knotty, but 
smooth to the touch, whitish yellow girt with numerous 
orange-red lines ; whorls knotty above, the knots hemi- 
spherical; the aperture white; the lip striated within. 

Locality.— The seas of New Holland. 

C. Subturriculate species, with the canal notched at the 
extremity. 

Example, Fusus ariiculatus. 

Description. — Shell fusiform-turreted, very delicately stri- 
ated transversely, shining, saffron-coloured or violaceous- 
coBrulescent, girt with articulated bay lines; lip sulcated 
within; columella with one plait above; canal short and 
emarginate. 

D. Species with the whorls of the spire rounded and 
convex. 

Example, Fusus Islandicus. 

Description. — Shell fusiform-turreted, ventricose below, 
not knobbed, transversely striated, white, the whorls con- 
vex ; the lip thin, smooth within ; the canal rather short 
and subrecurved. 

Locality.— The seas of Iceland. 

E. Muricoid species. 
Example, Fusus muticeus. 

F. Buccinoid species. 
Example, Fusus buccineus. 

Fusi have been found on bottoms of mud, sandy mud, 
and sand, at depths ranging from the surface to eleven 



Pyrula carnaria. 

B. Species with a long and rather narrow tube; sp^re 
very short. 

Example, Pyrula Spirillus. 

Description.— Shell ventricose anteriorly, the canal very 
long, delicately striated transversely, white, spotted with 
saffron-colour; body-whorl abbreviated, carinated in the 
middle, flattened above, tuberculatcd below the middle; 
spire very much depressed, its apex mamilliferous. 

Locality.— East Indian Ocean. Coasts of Tranquebar. 

C. Species with a long and rather narrow tube, but sinis- 
trorsal or left-handed, and with the indication of a 
plait on the columella or pillar. (Genus Fulgur, De 
Montf.) 

Example. Pyrula perversa. 

Description.— Shell sinistrorsal, pyriform, very ventri- 
cose, smooth, yellowish-white, ornamented with broad rufo- 
fuscous longitudinal lines; the last whorl crowned above 
with tubercles; the upper whorls tuberculiferous at the 
base : the canal or tube rather long and striated. 

Locality.— The Antilles. Bay of Campeachy. 

D. Species more ventricose and delicate. 



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Example, Pyrula Ficus. I 

Description.— Shell flg-shaped, delicately decussated, 
ccerulescent-grey ; sprinkled with variegated bay or violet 
spots * transverse stria? the largest and roost crowded ; the 
spire 'short, convex, mucronated at the centre; mouth 
ccerulescent- violaceous generally. 
locality-— The East Indian Ocean. The Moluccas. 



Pyrula Fic:\s. 

E. Ventricose species, with a short tul e ; aperture very 
large and wide, sensibly notched. 

Example, Pyrula Melongena. 

Description.— SheW pyriform, turgidly ventricose, cceru- 
lescent, glaucous, or rufous, banded with white ; the whorls 
channelled at the sutures; the last sometimes unarmed, 
but more frequently muricated, with various sharp tuber- 
cles ; spire short, acute ; aperture smooth and white. 

Locality. — West Indian Seas ; Antilles. 

F. Species still shorter ; aperture very wide ; the right 
lip subalated. 

Example, Pyrula abbreviata. 
' Description.— SbeU subpyriforra, very ventricose, rather 
rough, transversely sulcated, cinerescent-white ; the spire 
rather prominent ; the canal short, widely umbilicated ; 
rouricuiatedon the back with subechinate elevated furrows; 
outer lip striated within, and its margin denticulated. 

Pyrula have been found on mud, sandy mud, and sand, 
at depths ranging from the surface to nine fathoms. 

The number of living species recorded by Lamarck is 
twenty-eight. M. Deshayes has described one more (P. 
fulva), and a variety of P. Vespertilio, Lam. Lamarck re- 
cords six fossil species, four from Grignon and Courtagnon, 
one from Parnes, and one from Houdan. Def ranee notices 
twelve, three of which, from the Plaisantin, he considers as 
analogous, and other three from the neighbourhood of Bor- 
deaux, analogues also. M. Deshayes, in his tables, makes 
the number of living Pyrulce thirty-one, and the number of 
fossil (tertiary) twenty- one ; of these last he indicates Py- 
rula reticulata, Ficus, Melongena, and Spirillus, as being 
found both living and fossil (tertiary). Dr. Mantell records 
two species, buW\formis t and laevigata, from the blue clay 
of Brackleshara in Sussex, and one from the arenaceous 
limestone of Bognor. Dr. Fitton records three, Brightii, 
depressa, and Smithii f, from the strata below the chalk 
(gault of Kent). Mr. Lea records three, Pyrula cancellata, 
elegantissima, and Smithii ', from the tertiary beds at Clai- 
borne, Alabama. 

Fasciolaria. (Lrm.) 

Generic Character. 




Animal of Fasciolaria. a, operculum. 

Shell fusiform, not very thick, rather convex in the mid- 
dle, with a moderate spire; aperture oval; canal rather 
long, sometimes slightly bent; right lip trenchant, often 
wrinkled internally; columellar lip with some very oblique 
plaits. 



Operculum homy. 

A. Fusiform, hut not tuberculous species. 

Example, Fasciolaria Tulipa. 

Description.SheM fusiform, ventricose in the middle, 
unarmed, smooth, sometimes orange-rufous, sometimes 
marbled with white and bay, girt with transverse brown 
lines unequally congregated ; whorls very convex ; sutures 
fimbriated at the margin ; tube sulcated ; outer lip white 
and striated within. 

Locality.— West Indian Seas ; the Antilles. 



Fasciolaria Tulipa. with the operculum in situ. 

B. Fusiform and tuberculous species. 
Example, Fasciolaria Trapezium. 

Description. — Shell fusiform, ventricose, tuberculiferous, 
rather smooth, white or rufescent, girt with rufous lines ; 
the tubercles conical, subcompressed, and in a single series 
in the middle of the whorls ; columella reddish-yellow ; outer 
lip elegantly striated within, the striro red. 

Locality.— The East Indian Ocean. 

C. Tuberculated and turriculated species. 

Example, Fasciolaria filamentosa. 

Description.—She\] elongated, fusiform, turreted, trans- 
versely sulcated, white, painted with longitudinal orange- 
red stripes ; middle of the whorls subangulated, and the 
whorls themselves crowned with short and compressed 
tubercles; the canal rather long; the outer lip striated 
within. 

Locality. — The East Indian Seas. 

Fasciolari a have been found on muddy bottoms, at depths 
ranging from the surface to seven fathoms. 

Lamarck records eight living species. Mr. Broderip has 
described one (granosa) brought by Mr. Cuming from 
Panama. M. de Blainville states that seven fossil species 
are known. M. Deshayes, in his tables, makes the number 
of living Fasciolaria seven only, and the number of fossil 
(tertiary) speeies five. Professor Sedgwick and Mr. Mur- 
chison record one species (Fasciolaria elongata) in the 
Gosau deposit and its equivalents in the Eastern Alps. Mr. 
Lea notices two, Fasciolaria plicata and elevata, in the 
C aiborae tertiary, Alabama. 

Turbinella. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. — Animal imperfectly known. 

Shell ordinarily turbinated, but also sometimes turricu- 
lated, rugous, thick ; spire rather variable in form ; aperture 
elongated, terminated by a straight canal, often sufficiently 



Turbinella Rapa, 

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short; the left lip nearly straight and formed by a callosity 
hiding the columella, which has two or three unequal, 
nearly transverse plaits; right lip entire and trenchant. 

A. Fusiform and nearly smooth species. 
Example, Turbinella Itapa. 

Description.— Shell subfusiform, ventricose in the middle, 
thick, very ponderous, unarmed, white ; the whorls above 
covering the base of the preceding one ; canal rather short ; 
columella subquadriplicated. 

Locality. — Ihe East Indian Ocean. 

B. Turbinaceous and spiny species. 
Example, Turbinella Scolymus. 

Descnpion. — Shell subfusiform, ventricose in the middle, 
tuberculated, pale yellow; spire conical, tuberculato-nodose ; 
the last whorl crowned above with great tubercles ; canal 
transversely sulcated; the columella orange-coloured and 
three-plaited. 

Locality. — The East Indian Ocean. 

C. Turriculated, subfusiform species. 
Example, Turbinella Infundibulum. 

Description. — Shell fusiform-turreted, narrow, many- 
ribbed, transversely sulcated, the ribs longitudinal and 
thick, the furrows smooth and red, and the interstices yel- 
low ; canal perforated, the aperture white. 

Turbinella have been found on bottoms of sandy mud, 
at depths varying from the surface to eighteen fathoms. 

Lamarck records 23 living species, all from the seas of 
warm climates. Mr. Broderip describes three more brought 
by Mr. Cuming from the Galapagos Islands, Elizabeth 
Island, and the Caracas. M. de Blainville observes that 
when he wrote (1825) no fossils had been found. M. Rang 
(1829) states that there are fossil species. M. Deshayes, in 
his tables, makes the number of living species 32 and the 
number of fossil (tertiary) 3. 

* * A persistent bourrelet on the right lip. 

Columbella. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. — Animal incompletely known. 

Shell thick, turbinated, with a short obtuse spire ; aper- 
ture narrow, elongated, terminated by a very short canal 
slightly notched, narrowed by a convexity at the internal 
side of the right lip and the plaits of tne columella. 

Operculum horny, very small. 

Example, Columbella mercatoria. 

Description. — Shell ovate-turbinated, transversely sul- 
cated, white, painted with small, rufo-fuscous, transverse, 
sub fasciculated lines, sometimes banded; outer lip denticu- 
lated within. 

Locality. — The Atlantic Ocean. 





Columbella mercatoria. 

Columbella have been found on bottoms of sandy mud 
and mud at depths ranging from the surface to sixteen 
fathoms. 

Lamarck describes eighteen species, all from the seas of 
warm climates. M. de Blainville acknowledges that this 
genus would perhaps be better placed among the opercu- 
lated Angyostomata, or narrow-mouthed testaceous gastro- 
pods. M. Rang however arranges it between Triton and 
Turbinella. Mr. G. B. Sowerby has described thirty-nine 
additional species brought home by Mr. Cuming. De- 
fiance notices one fossil species. M. Deshayes, in his 
tables, makes the number of living species thirty-three and 
of fossil (tertiary) four. M. de Blainville remarks that the 
Columbella avara of Say has not the character of the 
thickened right lip. 

Triton. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. — Animal a good deal resembling that 
otMurex. 

SheU oval, with the spire and canal straight and moderate ; 
ordinarily rugose, furnished with few varices, which are scat- 
tered and arranged longitudinally ; aperture suboval, elon- 
gated, terminated by a short open canal ; the columellar lip 
less excavated than the right, and covered by a callosity. 

Operculum horny and inclined to oval. 



Animal of Triton. 
a, operculum. 

A. Comparatively smooth species, with cordons slighlly 
or not at all marked, with the exception of that of the 
right lip. 

Example, Triton variegatus, the marine trumpet or 
Triton's shell. 

Description. — Shell elongated-conical, trumpet- shaped, 
ventricose below, girt with very obtuse smooth ribs, white, 
elegantly variegated with red and bay ; the sutures crisped at 
the margin ; the aperture red ; the columella wrinkled with 
white and with a single plait above ; the edge of the outer 
lip spotted with black, the spots bidentated with white. 

Locality. — The seas of the West Indies and the Asiatic 
seas, especially those of the torrid zone. 



Triton Variegatus. 

B. Species more tuberculous, or spiny, whose aperture is 
more open, and terminated by a more or le3s ascending 
canal. (Genus Lotorium of De Montfort.) 

Example, Triton Lotorium. 

Description. — Shell fusiform-turreted, distorted below, 
very much tuberculated, transversely rugous, and striated, 
rufous; the whorls above angulate-tuberculated ; canal tor- 
tuous, the extremity recurved, the aperture trigono-clon- 
gated and white ; the outer lip toothed within. 

Locality. — East Indian Ocean. 

C. Species with a shorter spire, always very tuberculous, 
most frequently umbilicated, a sinus at the posterior 



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junction of the two lips. (Genus Aquillus, De Mont- 
fort.) 

Example, Triton cutaceus. 

Description.— SheW ovate, ventricose-depressed, cingu- 
lated, tuberculato- nodose, yellow-rufescent ; the belts rather 
prominent, separated by a furrow ; the whorls above angu- 
fato-tuberculate, rather flattened above ; canal short, umbili- 
cated ; the outer lip notched within. 

Locality. — The Atlantic Ocean. 

D. Species like those of section C, but whose aperture is 
closely narrowed by a callosity and irregular teeth. 
(Genus Persona, De Montf.) 

Example, Triton Anus, the Grimace of collectors. 

Description.— Shell ovate, ventricose-gibbous, distorted, 
flattened beneath ; nodulous above, subcancellated, white, 
spotted with rufous; the aperture narrowed, sinuous, irregu- 
lar, ringent ; the lip very much toothed ; the canal short and 
recurved. 

Locality. — The East Indian Seas. 

Tritons have been found on various bottoms at depths 
ranging from the surface to thirty fathoms. 

The number of living species recorded by Lamarck 
amounts to fifty-one. Mr. G, B. Sowerby has described 
eight additional species, and Mr. Broderip the same num- 
ber brought home by Mr. Cuming. Lamarck describes 
three fossil species, all from Grignon. M. de Biainville states 
that one of the species has its analogue. Defrance makes 
the number of fossil species ten, one from the Plaisantin, 
an analogue according to Brocchi. M. Deshayes in his 
tables, published before the descriptions of Mr. Sowerby and 
Mr. Broderip, makes the number of living snecie3 of Triton 
43 and of fossil (tertiary) 25. Of these last, he records 
Tritones nodiferus, Lamias, Scrobiculator, succinctus, clath- 
ratus, and unifilosus as both living and fossil (tertiary). 

Struthiolaria. (Lam.) { 

Generic Character. 

Shell oval, the spire elevated, the aperture oval and 
wide ; canal very short, verv much notched ; right lip sinu- 
ous, not toothed, furnished with a bour relet; columellar 
border callous, extended ; a sinus at the posterior union of 
the two lips. 

Operculum horny. 

Example, Struthiolaria nodulosa. 

Description. — Shell ovate-conical, thick, transversely 
striated, white, painted with undulated, longitudinal, saf- 
fron-coloured flame-like lines; whorls angulated above, 
flattened on the upper side, nodulous at the angle ; the 
sutures simple, the outer lip luteo-rufescent within. 

Locality. —The seas of IS ew Zealand. 

Lamarck records two living species. M. Deshayes, in his 
tables, also makes the number of living species two ; and 
he records one fossil (tertiary), with a query, from Paris. 
Ranella. (Lam.) 

Generic Character. 

Shell oval or oblong, depressed, having only two varices 
situated laterally; aperture oval; canal short, and a sinus 
at the union of the two lips, backwards. 

A. Non-umbilicated species. (Genus Bufo, Do Montf.) 
Example, Ranella granulata. 

Description. — Shell ovate-acute, girt with close-set granu- 
lated strise, pale saffron colour, zoned with fulvous; colu- 
mella sulcated; outer lip thick and toothed. 

Locality.— The East Indian Ocean. 

B. Umbilicated species. 
Example, Ranella foliata. 



verse, subgranulated, low ridges, the interstices between 
which are longitudinally striated; the whorls armed with 
one row of sharp tubercles, the middle of which are the 
longest, the other ridges of the borly whorl obsoletely tuber- 
rulated here and there ; the columellar lip expansive and 
foliated, and the margin of the outer lip expanded and thin ; 
the aperture ovate, very strongly and thickly furrowed, of a 
rich orange-colour, and terminating above in a deep foliated 
sinus, which extends beyond the varix. (Brod.) 

Locality.— The Mauritius. 

Ranellce have been taken on different bottoms at depths 
varving from the surface to eleven fathoms. 

Lamarck describes fifteen living species. M. Deshayes 
has described another; and Mr. Broderip nine new species, 
eight of which were brought home by Mr. Cuming. M. de 
Biainville states that there is but one fossil species, but 
allows that Defrance admits five, three of which, from 
Italy, are identical. M. Deshayes, in his tables, gives the 
number of living species as nineteen, and of fossil (tertiary) 
as eight: of these last he records Ranellce gteantea, gra- 
nulata, pygmcea, and tuber osa, as living and fossil (ter- 
tiary). 

Murex. (Linn.) 

Generic Character.— Animal furnished with two long and 
approximated tentacles ; mouth without jaws, but armed 
with hooked denticles in lieu of a tongue ; foot rounded, 
generally rather short; mantle large, often ornamented 
with fringes on the right side only ; branchi© formed of 
two unequal pectinations; anus on the right side in the 
branchial cavity ; orifice of the oviduct on the right side at 
the entrance of the same cavity; orifice of the deferent 
canal at the end of the exciting organ, on the right side of 
the neck. 

Shell.— Oval, oblong, more or less elevated on the spiral 
side, or prolonged forwards ; external surface always inter- 
rupted by rows of varices in the form of spires or ramifica- 
tions, or simply tubercles, generally arranged in regular and 
constant order; aperture oval, terminated anteriorly by a 
straight canal, which is more or less elongated and closed ; 
right lip often plaited or wrinkled; columellar lip often 
callous. 

Operculum horny. 



Ranella folUU, 

Description. — Shell ovate conical, ventricose, not com- 
pressed, of a flesh or pale rote-colour ; with frequent trans- 



Animal of Murex. 
a, operculum. 

A. Species with a very long and spiny tube. ( Thorny 

Woodcocks of collectors.) 

Example., Murex Tribulus, Linn. (Murex tenuiipina. 
Lam.) 

Description. — Shell ventricose anteriorly, the tube very 
long, elegantly spired throughout its length, the spires set 
in triple order, each row at regular intervals, greyish or 
purplish grey ; the spires very long, thin, rather closely set. 
and somewhat hooked ; body of the shell transversely sul- 
cated and striated; the spire prominent. 

Locality.— The Indian Ocean ; Moluccas. 

This is the Venus' s Comb of collectors, and when perfect 
is a most delicate and striking shell. 

B. Species with a very long tube and without spines. 

(Genus Brontes, De Montf.) 
Example, Murex Haustellum {Snipe's or Woodcock's head 
of collectors). 

Description. — Shell anteriorly ventricose, naked, scarcely- 
armed, fulvous inclining to red, lineated with bay ; body of 
the shell rounded and furnished with three or more ribs 
between the varices ; the tube ver , long and slender ; the 
1 spire short ; mouth roundish, red. 



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Murex Trlbulu* (Common Thorny Woodcock ; Murex rarlapina, Lam.)*! 

Locality, the East Indian Ocean ; Moluccas. 




Murex Ilaustellum. 

C. Species with three elevated, flattened, and ccmpa- 
ratively thin varices. 
Example. — Murex acantkopterus. 

Description. — Shell oblong, fusiform, trialated, trans- 
- versely sulcated. and striated, white ; the al® membrana- 
ceous ; whorls angulated ; aperture ovate-rounded. 
Locality.^- East Indian Seas. 



Murex re^ius, 



D. Specie9 with three ramified varices. (Genus Chico* 

reus, De Montf.) 
f Example, Murex adustus. 

Description. — Shell abbreviate-fusiforra, suboval, ventri- 
cose, thick, with three rows of frond-like ramifications, 
transversely sulcated, black; the fronds short, curved and 
dentate-muricated ; the tubercle of the interstices very 
large ; aperture small, roundish, white. 

Locality. — East Indian Ocean. 

E. Species which have a greater number of varices ; 
the tube nearly closed. 

Example, Murex regius. 

No description can convey an adequate idea of the splen- 
did colouring of this species when it is in fine condition ; 
the form is given below. 

Locality. — The western coast of Central and South 
America. 

F. Subturriculated species. 
Example, Murex lyratus. 

Description.— -Shell fusiform-turreted, thin, multifariously 
varicose, horny-fulvous ; the varices thin and lamelliform ; 
the interstices smooth ; the whorls convex ; the tube short. 

G. Subturriculated species; the tube closed; a tube 

pierced towards the posterior extremity of the 
right side, and persistent upon the whorls of the 
spire. (Genus Typhis, De Montf.) 

Example, Murex pungens, fossil. 

H. Species more globular; the spire and canal shorter, 
very open ; the aperture rather wide, 

Example, Murex vittilinus. 

Description. — Shell ovate-oblong, ventricose, somewhat 
rough, with seven rows of varices, which are obtuse, asperu- 
late, and ruddy ; the interstices white ; tube narrow, some- 
what acute ; the aperture white ; the lip toothed internally 

I. Species which have an oblique fold very much anterioi 
to the collumella, and an umbilicus. (Genus Phos, De 
Montf.) 

Murices have been found on different bottoms at depths 
ranging from five to twenty-five fathoms; and species of 
Typhis on sandy mud at depths varying from six to eleven 
fathoms. 

Lamarck records 66 recent and 15 fossil species, mostly from 
Grignon. To the recent species are to be added 26 Murices 
described by Mr. Broderip from specimens brought home 
by Mr. Cuming, and 5 of Typhis (recent), also described by 
Mr. Broderip. 

M. de Blainville remarks that among the fossil species of 
France there is no true analogue ; but he adds that Def ranee, 
who admits 50 fossil species, counts 30 analogues from the 
Plaisantin, after Brocchi. 

M. Deshayes, in his tables, makes the number of recent 
species of Murex (apparently including Typhis) 75, a num- 
ber much below the mark, and gives 89 as the number of 
fossil species (tertiary). Of these last he records the fol- 
lowing as having been found both living and fossil (tertiary) : 
— cornutus t Brandaris, trunculus, erinaceus, tripterus % 
cri status, Jistulosus, tubi/er t a new species, elongatus f an- 
gularis, saxatilis (var.), another new species, Lasseignei, 
and a third new species. 

Dr. Mantell records one species (argutus) from the blue 
clay of Bracklesham (Sussex) ; and another (Srnithii) from 
the arenaceous limestone of Bognor. Professor Phillips 
names one (Haccanensis) from the coralline oolite of York- 
shire. Dr. Fitton records one (Calcar) from the gault of 
Kent and Blackdown ; and Mr. Lea one from the Claiborne 
tertiary, Alabama. 

The Entomostomata and Siphonostomata may be con- 
sidered as the two great tribes of carnivorous gastropods or 
trachelipods appointed to keep down the undue increase of 
the Conchifera and herbivorous gastropods, whose shells 
the majority of those carnivorous testaceans penetrate by 
means of an organ which makes a hole as truly round as if 
it had been cut by an auger, and then feed on the juices of 
the included animal. 

Dr. Buckland notices this habit with a view to the con- 
dition of the testaceous inhabitants of the earlier seas of our 
planet with his wonted felicity. * Most collectors,' says the 
Professor, ' have seen upon the sea-shore numbers of dead 
shells, in which small circular holes have been bored by the 
predaceous tribes, for the purpose of feeding upon the bodies 
of the animals contained within them: similar holes occur 
in many fossil shells of the tertiary strata, wherein the shells 
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this kind are extremely rare in the fossil shells of any older 
formation. In the green-sand and oolite they have been 
noticed only in those few cases where they are accompanied 
by the shells of equally rare carnivorous mollusks ; and in 
the lias and strata below it,* there are neither perforations, 
nor any shells having the notched mouth peculiar to perfo- 
rating carnivorous species. It should seem from these 
facts that, in the economy of submarine life, the great 
family of carnivorous trachelipods performed the same 
necessary office during the tertiary period which is allotted 
to them in the present ocean. We have further evidence 
to show that in limes anterior to and during the deposition 
of the chalk, the same important functions were consigned 
to other carnivorous mollusks, viz. the testaceous cephalo- 
pods: these are of comparatively rare occurrence in the 
tertiary strata and in our modern seas ; but throughout the 
secondary and transition formations, where carnivorous tra- 
chelipods are either wholly wanting or extremely scarce, 
we find abundant remains of carnivorous cephalopoda, con- 
sisting of the chambered shells of nautili and ammonites, 
and many kindred extinct genera of polythalamous shells 
of extraordinary beauty. The molluscous inhabitants of all 
these chambered shells probably possessed the voracious 
habits of the modern cuttle- fish ; and by feeding like them 
upon young testacea and Crustacea, restricted the excessive 
increase of animal life at the bottom of the more antient 
seas. Their sudden and nearly total disappearance at the 
commencement of the tertiary era would have caused a 
blank in the " police of nature," allowing the herbivorous 
tribes to increase to an excess that would ultimately have 
been destructive of marine vegetation, as well as of them- 
selves, had they not been replaced by a different order of 
carnivorous creatures, destined to perform in another man- 
ner the office which the inhabitants of the ammonites and 
various extinct genera of chambered shells then ceased to 
discharge. From that time onwards we have evidence of 
the abundance of carnivorous trachelipods, and we see good 
reason to adopt the conclusion of Mr. Dillwyn, that in the 
formation above the chalk the vast and sudden decrease of 
one predaceous tribe has been provided for by the creation 
of many new genera and species possessed of similar ap- 
petencies, and yet formed for obtaining their prey by habits 
entirely different from those of the cephalopods. The design 
of the Creator seems at all times to have been to fill the 
waters of the seas and cover the surface of the earth with 
the greatest possible amount of organised beings enjoying 
life ; and the same expedient of adapting the vegetable 
kingdom to become the basis of the life of animals, and of 
multiplying largely the amount of animal existence by the 
addition of carnivora to the herbivora, appears to have 
prevailed from the first commencement of organic life to 
the present hour.' (Bridgeicater Treatise.) 

SYRACUSE. [Syracuse.] 

SIRE'DON, Wagler's name for the Axolotl. Since 
that article was written, further information has been ob- 
tained relative to the structure of this genus of perenui- 
branchiate Batrachians. The form and character of the 
teeth, as given by Professor Owen, will be found in the ar- 
ticle Salamandrida, vol. xx., p. 328, and we avail ourselves 
of this opportunity to introduce a reduced copy of the figure 
of the animal, lately published by MM. Dum6ril and Bib- 
ron, to whose excellent work on Reptiles we refer for the 
latest particulars known. 



Siredon eecn in profile ; a, mouth seen in front, open to show the teeth. 

We shall confine ourselves in this article to an account of 
its organization, as observed by Cuvier, so that the reader 

• Carnivorous gastropods occur in the Silurian rocks; and the long tube of 
the SiphimoshmtUa is equally characteristic of carnivorous habits whh the 
notch of the Entopuntomota, 



may have some notion of its relationship to the other percn 
nibranchiate Batrachians. 

Cuvier then remarks that the Axolotl approaches nearly 
to the Salamander, and especially to its larva. The cranium 
of the Axolotl is indeed more depressed ; its sphenoid bone 
wider and flatter; the bones of the nose proportionally 
smaller ; the ascending apophyses of the intermaxillary bones 
longer and narrower; but, especially, in lieu of those large 
and fixed bones which Cuvier calls vomers or palatines, 
there are two oblong plates detached from the cranium be- 
set with teeth in quincuncial order, and continuing them- 
selves with the pterygoids, which reach them because they 
are longer than in the Salamander, and which also carry 
teeth in front on their external edge. Behind, these ptery- 
goids are widened, without always articulating themselves 
to the sphenoid, as in the Salamander of the Alleghanies. 
[SalamandridjE, vol. xx., p. 332.] The space between the 
orbital and the petrous bone is also more considerable than 
in the Salamanders. The lower jaw has a regular dental 
portion forming the symphysis and the greatest part of the 
external surface, and armed all along its superior edge 
with small, fine, and pointed teeth; an articular portion, 
which doubles the posterior part of the internal surface of 
the preceding, forms the posterior angle and carries the 
articular tubercle; lastly, there is a true opercular bone, 
long and delicate, covering at the internal surface the in- 
terval of the two preceding, but furnished throughout with 
very small pointed teeth arranged in quincuncial order. 
And this is the structure which we find in the Siren, with 
this difference, that the dental portion in the latter has no 
true teeth, which are only seen on the opercular bone. 

In all the Axolotls that Cuvier examined, the branchial 
apparatus was cartilaginous. It consisted of two suspensory 
branches, or anterior horns, affixed to the cranium under the 
fenestra rotunda, carrying an unequal piece, to which two 
lateral branches were attached on each side : the first carried 
the first arch of the branchiae ; the second, the three others. 
The first of these arches had dentilations on its posterior 
border ; the two intermediate ones, on both their borders. 
Under the unequal piece was one which went backward, 
and whose extremity was bifurcated. 

When Cuvier wrote this description (in the Ossemens 
Fossilcs), he thought that this animal was the larva of some 
unknown Salamander ; but in his last edition of the R&gne 
Animal he corrected this conjecture, and placed it where all 
zoologists now place it, among the Batrachians. 

SIREN (Zoology), a genus of Perennibranchiate Batra- 
chians. 

Generic Character. — Form elongated, nearly like that of 
the eels ; branchial tufts three on each side ; no posterior 
feet, nor any vestige of a pelvis ; head depressed ; gape of the 
mouth not wide ; muzzle obtuse ; eye very small ; the ear 
concealed; lower jaw armed with a horny sheath and 
several rows of small teeth; the upper jaw toothless; but 
numerous small, pointed, retroverted teeth occur on the pala- 
tal region. [Salamandrid^, vol. xx., p. 328.] 

Dr. Garden appears to be the first who called attention lo 
this form, which is declared by Cuvier to be one of the 
most remarkable of the class of Reptiles, and indeed of the 
whole animal kingdom, from the anomalies of its organiza- 
tion, and its apparent relationship with different families, 
and even classes. Dr. Garden (1765-1766) sent a descrip- 
tion of this reptile toLinnceus and Ellis, and the former, re- 
lying upon Dr. Garden's assurance that the Siren did not 
change its form, established an additional order for it in his 
class Amphibia, with the name of Meantes. 

Pallas, Hermann, Schneider, and Lace'pede however saw, 
as Cuvier remarks, nothing more in the Siren than the 
larva of some large unknown Salamander ; whilst Camper,, 
followed by Gmelin, went so far as to give it a place among 
the fishes. The latter arranges it at the end of the Eels, 
under the name of Murcena Siren. These differences of 
opinion sufficiently show the doubts which arose on the ex 
amination of this extraordinary form. 

Cuvier, in 1807, satisfactorily established, in a memoir 
read to the Institute of France, and inserted in the 1st vol. 
of the ' Zoological Observations of Humboldt,' that whatever 
changes it might undergo, the Siren was a reptile sui ge- 
neris, which never could have hind feet, and whose whole 
bony framework differed essentially from that of the Sala- 
manders ; that there was no probability that it ever changed 
its form or lost its branchice ; and that the Siren is conse- 
, quently a true amphibian, which respires at will throughout 



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its life, either in the water by means of branchto, or in the 
air by means of lungs. This conclusion rested upon that 
solid basis which has given such value — a value daily be- 
coming more- appreciated— to the views of this great zoolo- 
gist, — his personal observations made on the osteology and 
splanchnology of the animal. 

Dr. Garden had, in his correspondence with LinnsDUs 
and Ellis, come to the same conclusion from other evi- 
' dence. Dr. Garden had observed the animal from the length 
of four inches to that of three feet and a half; he had 
satisfied himself that in the whole province there was not, 
with the exception of the alligator, any Saurian or Sala- 
mander which exceeded six or seven inches in length, and 
he had convinced himself that it was oviparous, and that it 
propagated without losing its branchiae. 

In 1766 Hunter, as we shall presently see, declared the 
Siren to be a complete form, on the most satisfactory evi- 
dence : the specimens dissected by him were brought from 
South Carolina in 1 758. 

That the Siren is a perfect animal belonging to the pe- 
rennibranchiate batrachians is now admitted by all zoo- 
logists. Cuvier indeed remarks (Regne Animal), that 
the branchiae of Siren intermedia and Siren striata have 
been regarded as not participating in their respiration, and 
that in consequence Mr. J. £. Gray has formed them into 
the genus Pseudobrancfms. Cuvier however adds, that it 
is, nevertheless, not difficult to see on their lower surface 
folds and a vascular apparatus, the use of which does not 
appear doubtful to him ; and that M. Leconte has satisfac- 
torily demonstrated that both these species, as well as Siren 
lacertina, are perfect animals. 

Cuvier remarks that the Siren should be judged of not 
after Amphiuma, but from itself. He accordingly procured 
some sirens, and saw an osteology so finished and so firm, 
that it was impossible to believe that they were not adult 
The branchi© of these individuals were perfectly entire, 
and their lungs completely developed, and rich in well- 
filled vessels. No doubt therefore existed in his mind that 
the animals used both. 

He observes, that it had been objected that it would be 
impossible for these animals to respire air without ribs or 
diaphragm ; and without the power possessed by the tor- 
toises and frogs to cause it to enter by the nostrils, in order 
that, so to speak, it might be swallowed, because the nostrils 
of the Sirens do not lead into the mouth, and the branchial 
apertures must let it escape. But his own observations made 
upon well-preserved individuals showed Cuvier that the nos- 
trils in the siren do communicate with the mouth by a hole 
pierced, as in the Proteus, between the lip and the palatal 
bone which carries the teeth. The membranous opercula 
of their branchice are muscular internally, and capable of 
hermetically sealing the apertures; then it is very easy for 
the siren, by dilating its throat, to introduce the air into 
the mouth, and to force it afterwards, by contracting the 
throat, into its larynx. Even without this structure of the 
nostrils, the animal could produce the same effect by open- 
ing its lips a little : a theory which Cuvier applies to the iVo- 
teus as well as the Siren. 

The simultaneous existence, observes the same author, of 
a larynx and a trachea with a branchial apparatus not only 
permanent, but perfectly ossified in many of its parts, is 
also worthy of especial attention, and proves, as is evident 
in the frogs and salamanders, that the branchial apparatus 
is no other than a more complicated os hvoides, and not 
a combination of pieces proceeding from the sternum and 
larynx. He adds, that it is to the salamanders that the 
sirens approach most nearly by the structure of the head, 
although neither the general form nor the proportions of 
the parts have so near similarity. 

Having thus given a general view of the conformation of 
this extraordinary animal, we proceed to a sketch of the 
details of its 

Organization. 

Skeleton. — The skull of the siren is narrowed in front by 
reason of the excessive reduction of the maxillary t?ones, 
which consist only of a very small osseous point. Behind 
there is a strong occipital crest on the parietal and petrous 
bones. The pieces which form the lower jaw, instead of 
being transverse like the branches of a cross, are directed 
obliquely forwards. The parietal bones occupy the greatest 
portion of the upper part of the cranium. They have each 
in front a point, expanding so as to lodge between them 
the posterior part of the principal frontal bones, which have 
P. C. f No. 1366. 



each a groove for the lodgment of the posterior point of two 
slender bones, which proceed beside each other to the end 
of the muzzle. At their sides are attached two other bones, 
which are slender and pointed backwards, and which de- 
scend and widen far in order to raise the anterior edge o» 
the jaw. Cuvier takes the first for the nasal bones, and the 
others for intermaxillary bones. These last are toothless, 
but their edge is trenchant, and furnished, when the animal 
is alive or well preserved, as well as the edges of the lower 
jaw, with a sheath which is nearly horny, is easily detached 
from the gum, and has its analogue in the tadpoles of the 
frogs. [Salamandridjb, vol. xx., p. 328.] Between them, 
at the end of the osseous muzzle, is an aperture, but not 
that of the nostrils. In the recent animal it is closed, and 
the nostril is pierced on each side on the outside of the in- 
termaxillary bone. In the crocodile the intermaxillary ad- 
heres to the external side of the nasal bone, and all the 
reptiles, except the crocodile, have the nostril on the out- 
side of the ascending apophysis of the intermaxillary bone; 
but the peculiarity in the Siren is, that the intermaxillary 
ascending to the lrontal bone entirely separates the nasal 
bone from the frame of the external nostril. The maxillary 
bone excludes the nasal in the same way in the chameleon. 
A very small bone, suspended in the flesh Ijelow the exter- 
nal nostril, and without any tooth, is the sole perceptible 
vestige of the maxillary bone. The cavity of the nostril is 
covered below with a simple ligamentous membrane. The 
internal nostril is situated on each side, near the commis- 
sure of the lips, between the lip and the palatine teeth. All 
the lower part of the cranium and the face is composed of 
a large and wide sphenoid, which extends from the occipital 
hole to the intermaxillaries. The sides of the cranium, in 
the orbital region and the front of the temporal bone, are 
closed by a single bone, in which are pierced, forward, the 
olfactory aperture; farther back, the optic hole, and an- 
other for the first branoh of the fifth pair, and probably for 
the small nerves of the eye. The inferior surface of this 
lateral bone forms part of the palate at the sides of the 
sphenoid bone. It is plain that it performs the functions of 
the orbital part of the sphenoid bone, or what has been 
called the anterior sphenoid, and that it fulfils in part those 
of the ethmoid. Between it and the petrous bone is a great 
membranous space, in which is pierced the hole for the rest 
of the fifth pair of nerves. The petrous bone and the lateral 
occipital bone are perfectly distinct. It is in the petrous 
bone only that the fenestra ovalis is pierced, or rather cut 
out, but the lower part of its frame is, nevertheless, com- 
pleted by the lateral occipital and the sphenoid. Its aper- 
ture, which is large, is directed a little downwards. In 
the fresh state it is closed by a cartilaginous plate si- 
milar to that in the Salamander. There is only a single 
tympanic bone fitted obliquely by its posterior stem on 
the superior surface of the petrous bone, and enlarging be- 
low nearly like a trumpet, in order to furnish a large facet 
to the lower jaw. Cuvier found neither masto'idian, ptery- 
goidian, jugal, superior occipital, nor basilary bone, and he 
remarks that the occurrence of the two last is impossible, 
when the position of the suture, which separates the lateral 
occipital bones, is considered. To the palate, under the an- 
terior and lateral part of the sphenoid and orbital bones, are 
fitted two delicate plates beset with hooked teeth. They 
may be taken for the vestiges of vomers and of palatines, or, 
if it be preferred, of palatines and pterygoid ians ; but Cu- 
vier did not find sufficiently marked characters to warrant 
giving them those names, rhe first, which is the largest, 
has six or seven oblique rows of pointed teeth, making a 
kind of wool-card. Those of the middle have each twelve 
teeth; the anterior and posterior ones have less. The 
second plate has four rows of similar teeth, each row con- 
sisting of from five to six. 

The lower jaw of the Siren is composed of four bones on 
each side ; one of which forms the symphysis and the trench- 
ant border of the jaw, which it i a vests externally up to near 
its posterior extremity. One cannot, Cuvier observes, avoid 
taking it for the analogue of the dental portion, but it is not 
the portion which carries the teeth, and it has only its 
trenchant edge invested in the fresh animal with a horny 
covering,* analogous to that which forms the edge opposed 
to the upper jaw. The posterior extremity of this trench- 
ant edge, more elevated than the rest of the border of the 
bone, serves for the coronoid apophysis. The second bone 
forms the greatest portion of the internal surface and the 
posterior angle, and carries, above, the third, which is tho 

Vol. XXII.— I 

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articular tubercle. The fourth U a delicate and narrow 
lamina which performs the office of the opercular bone, and 
covers, on the internal surface, a vacancy lea between the 
two first. The whole of this bone is beset with small 
pointed teeth disposed quincuncially like those of the palatal 
plates. 

The o* hyoides of the Siren is an os hyoYdea of the larva 
of a Salamander or of the Axolotl, bat very much ossified 
in many of its parts. The suspensory branch or anterior 
horn is a bone stouter and longer than the humerus, dilated 
at its two ends, narrowed in its middle, and suspended to 
the cranium by a ligament. The first unequal pieoe is also 
a very hard bone dilated anteriorly, compressed posteriorly, 
and narrowed in its middle. The second unequal piece is a 
pedicle, which is divided behind into many radiating apo- 
physes : the whole of this, again, is very bony, and the two 
lateral branches are equally so. The first, which is the 
stoutest, carries the first arch of the branchiae ; the second, 
which is more slender, carries the three others. These 
gill-arches are not ossified, but always remain cartilaginous, 
as in the Axolotl, and are, like those of the Axolotl, denti- 
lated. They are united by ligaments at their external ex- 
tremity, which a ligament attaches also to the root of the 
anterior horn. • The same pieces, or very nearly the same, 
may be seen in the Proteus. 

The shoulder-blade of the Siren is slender, nearly cylin- 
drical, narrowed in Hs middle, and augmented, on the spinal 
side, by a cartilaginous lamina. The clavicle and the 
coracritd are represented by two cartilaginous lobes, one 
directed forwards, the other much wider, proceeding upon 
the breast and crossing Upon that of the opposite side. In 
the external border of this coracoid cartilage, near and a 
little behind the articular fossa, is a bony semilunar lamina 
which is the sole representative of the bony coracoid : but 
there is nothing similar for the clavicle. The humerus 
compressed laterally above, from before backwards below, 
and narrowed in its middle, has its extremities cartilaginous. 
It is the same with the two bones of the fore arm, both 
rather slender, and the internal bone or radius widened 
below. The bones of the carpus remain cartilaginous. 

Each of the four fingers has a metacarpian and two 
phalanges only. 



biAircated, and aa tranches go to terminate on the articular 
posterior apophysis. Their very Wide transverse apophyses 
are composed of two lamina united at their posterior border 
up to their common point; the upper, which is oblique, 
coming from below the anterior articular apophysis and 
from below the neighbouring part of the lateral crest, the 
lower coming from the sides of the body, to whi«h it ad- 
heres by a horizontal line. The body below is also' com* 
pressed into a sharp ridge (arete). 

In the vertebra which carry the ribs, the upper lamina 
of the transverse apophysis is but little marked, and the 
point is stout and divided into two lobes for the two tubercles 
of the rib, as in the salamanders. Cuvier only found eight of 
these vestiges of ribs on each side, commencing from the 
second vertebra. The two last have the bead simple. At 
the tail, the transverse apophyses, which have already be- 
come rather small, promptly disappear : the articular apo- 
physes diminish also by degrees. The body of the tertebca 
takes a very compressed form, and gives below two small 
lam in®, which intercept a canal for the vessels, like the 
chevron bones in the lizards. 



Jtatorfer poitfaeartfee Aetata* of Sh to laowtkia. a, 
behind; 6, the »*me seen before. 

There is no veitige of a pelvis, not of any posterior extre- 
mity, either osseous or cartilaginous. 
1 Uuvier did not find in a large individual more than forty- 
three vertebree in the trunk and forty -four in the tail? but 
the individual which he described in 1807 had three more. 
These vertebra*, all perfectly ossified and complete, do not 
resemble in his opinion those of any of the reptiles of which 
he had previously treated, nor indeed of any other animal. 
Their bodies have their twd articular faces hollow and united 
by a cartilage in the form of * double cone, as in the fishes. 
Their articular apophyses are horizontal, and the posterior 
apophyses of one vertebra lie on the anterior apophyses of 
the other. A horizontal crest on each side goes from the 
anterior to the posterior, tn lieu of a spinous apophysis, 
they have a vertical crest* which at half its length becomes 




Entire skeleton of Siren lncertinn* 
Respiratory Orgarts.^Jolm Hunter in 1766 gave the fol- 
lowing accurate and interesting description of the two- fold 
respiratory apparatus of the Siren :— " On the posterior and 
lateral parts of the mouth are three openings On each side ; 
these are similar to the slits of the gills in fish, but the par- 
titions do not resemble gills on their outer edge** fof they 
have not the ctimb-Hke structure. Above and close to the 
extremity of each of these openings, externally, so many 
processes arise, the anterior the smallest, the posterior the 
longest ; their interior and inferior edges trod extremity are 
serrated* or formed into fimbria*: these processes fold down 
and cover the slits externally, and would seem to ttnewertbe 
purposes of the comb-like part of the gill in fish. At 
the root of the tongue, nearly as far back a* these openings 
reach, the trachea begins* much in the same manner as in 
birds. It passes backwards above the heart, and there 
divides into two branches, one going to each lobe of the 
lungs. The lungs are two long bags, one on each e'd«; 
which begin just behind the heart, and pass back through 
the whole length of the abdomen, nearly as far as the anus. 
They are largest in the middle, and honeycombed on their 
internal surface through their whole length/ (PML Trans* 
Mi, 1766.) 



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In the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in Loo* 
don this part of the organisation if well illustrated. No. 
1 062 presents a Siren lacertina, with the ventral parietes of 
the abdomen removed, together with all the viscera, except 
the lungs, whieh have been distended with spirit. These 
commence immediately below the pericardium, and extend 
almost to the anus. A bristle is passed through the trachea, 
and the laryngeal orifice is exposed by the removal of the 
cranium. The branchiae are external, three on each side, 
and suspended to four cartilaginous arches of the byoid bone. 
The three internal branchial apertures of the left side may 
be seen. No. 1063 exhibits the right side of the head of a 
larger specimen of Siren laeertina, showing the branchial 
arches and gills of that side. The first and fourth branchial 
arches are fixed, the intermediate ones only being free. 
Their concave margins are provided, as in many fishes, with 
small pointed processes, which look into one another and 
defend the branchial passages. The gills increase in size 
from the first to the third, which is suspended to both the 
third and fourth arches. They are subdivided aod fim- 
briated inferiorly, where the surface is most vascular! the 
branchial arteries may be seen injected on the convex side 
of the cartilaginous arches. The origin and subsequent 
reunion of the branchial vessels to form the aorta are shown 
in the preparation No. 914 (from which the present was 
taken), noticed below. No. 1064 is a portion of the lungs of 
the same Siren, laid open to show the ramifications of the 
pulmonary artery, whieh form a vascular network upon the 
internal surface of this simple respiratory bag. {Catalogue, 
vol. ii.) 

Circulating Syetem.— John Hunter describes (1 706) the 
heart of the Siren as consisting of one auricle and ventricle. 
• What answers/ says Hunter, ' to the inferior vena cava, 
passes forwards above, but in a sulcus of the liver, and opens 
into a hag similar to the pericardium : this bag surrounds 
the heart and aorta as the pericardium does in pther ani- 
mals ; from this there is an opening into a vein whieh lies 
above, and upon the left of the auriole, which vein seems to 
receive the blopd from the lungs, gills, and head* is ana* 
logous to the superior vena cava, and opens into the auricle 
which is upon the left ventricle. The aorta goes out, pass- 
ing for a little way in a loose spiral turn, then becomes 
straight, where it seems to be muscular: at this part the 
branches go off, between which there is a rising within the 
area of the aorta like a bird's tongue, with its tip turned 
towards the heart. This account of the van® eavaa opening 
into the cavity of the pericardium may appear incredible; 
and it might be supposed that, in the natural state of the 
parts, there is a canal of communication going from one 
cava to the other, which being broken or nipt through in the 
act of catching or killing the animal, would give the ap- 
pearance above described. I can only say that the appear- 
ances were what have been described in three different sub- 
jects which I have dissected, and in all of them the pericar- 
dium was full of coagulated blood. But besides the small- 
ness of the subjects, it may be observed that they had been 
long preserved in spirits, whieh made them more unfit for 
anatomical inquiries. They had been in my possession above 
seven years.' {Phil. Trans^ Ivi.) 

In the Museum of the College of Surgeons the prepara* 
tion No. 912 shows the anterior part of the body of & Siren 
lacertina. The ventral parietes have been removed, toge- 
ther with the pericardium, to show the heart intitu. It is 
of an elongated form, and consists of a large fimbriated 
auricle, divided internally into two chambers, and of a flat- 
tened oblong ventricle, giving off a single artery, which, 
after a half-spiral twist, dilates into an elongated fleshy 
bulbus arteriosus. The blood from the body passes into a 
large membranous sinus formed by the union of the two 
anterior venae cam with the large posterior cava. The latter 
vessel pours its blood into the sinus by two orifices on either 
side a septum, which extends forwards as far as the open- 
ings of the anterior cavea, where it terminates in a free 
Semilunar margin ; the sinus is then continued forwards, 
and terminates in the chamber analogous to the right au- 
ricle. White bristles pass from the posterior cava through 
the sinus on either side the septum into the anterior eaves. 
A black bristle is passed through the right pulmonary vein 
into the trunk common to the two, whion traverses but does 
not communicate with the sinus proper to the veine of the 
body, and terminates in the chamber analogous to the left 
auricle. 
The bulbus arteriosus is laid open, to show the val* 



vular protuberance which projects into it from the dorsal 
aspect. On the opposite side of the preparation the cra- 
nium and upper jaw are removed to show the apertures 
leading from the mouth to the lunps and gills, the simul- 
taneous existence of which through life forms the chief cha- 
racteristic of this tribe of truly amphibious reptiles. No. 913 
is the heart of a Siren. The auricle, consisting of two 
chambers, appears as one cavity external!^. It is remark- 
able for its large size, its weak parietes, and the number of 
fimbriated follicular processes which it sends off, and 
which gives it an appearance similar to the branchial 
divisions of the vena cava in the cephalopoda. The 
ventricle is here seen to be slightly bifid at the apex. 
The artery is membranous at its commencement. The bulb 
is here laid open to show the internal valvular projection. 
No. 913 A presents the heart and pericardium of a Siren 
lacertina* prepared to show the internal structure of the 
auricles and ventricle. White bristles pass from the veins of 
the body into the right auricle, and black ones through the 
pulmonary veins into the left auricle. This is much smaller 
than the right auricle, corresponding to the quantity of 
blood which it receives. The pulmonary veins unite into a 
common trunk»wbich seems to pass through the great sinus 
of the veins of the body, hut it adheres to the parietes of 
that sinus by its posterior surface. Here Professor Owen 
remarks that it is probably this remarkable structure which led 
Hunter to suppose that the sinus was part of the pericardium* 
and that the van® eavaa opened into it. The Professor then 
quotes Hunter's description, above gjvep, and adds, with 
truth, that all anatomist* since Hunter's time have con- 
curred in ascribing out one auricle to the heart of the Siren, 
and that Cuvier regards this simple structure of the central 
organ of the circulation as common to the Batrachian order 
of reptiles. The outward forna of the auricle, observes Mr* 
Owen, naturally suggests such an idea, and it is only in 
favourable specimens that the true structure, as it is shown 
in this preparation (made by him), can be made out. The 
ventricle is connected to the pericardium, not only by the 
reflection of the serous layer from the bulbus arteriosus, but 
by a duplicature of the same membrane, which passes from 
the lower third of the posterior edge of the ventricle, and 
incloses the coronary vein ; this vein is continued from the 
apex of the ventricle to the 6inus. The muscular parietes of 
the ventricle are about a line in thickness, and of a loose 
fascicular structure. The cavity is partially divided by a 
rudimentary septum, which extends from the apex half 
way towards the base of the ventricle, and there terminates 
in a concave edge directed towards the orifice of the artery, 
The whole inner surface is reticulated by decussating carnem 
column©, one of which has been detached from its con- 
nection to the septum, which intervenes to the two auri* 
cular apertures, and which supports the valvular structure 
that doses them from within. The artery and bulbus ar- 
teriosus are laid open, showing in the latter the remarkable 
valvular projection described by Hunter. In conclusion, 
Professor Owen remarks that the vessels on the back part 
of the talc, which supports the preparation, are, the inner 
ones, the pulmonary arteries, the outer ones, the jugular 
veins or anterior eavaa. No. 914 is the anterior part of the 
body of a large Siren lacertina, prepared to show the heart 
and principal vessels injected. The fimbriated structure 
and magnitude of the amides are well seen when thus 
distended, and they then advance forwards on both sides of 
th4 ventricle and bulbi so as almost to encompass those 
parts, The two divisions of the venous sinus may be 
observed below the ventricle, with the. termination of the 
coronary vein and the attachment of the veutricle to the 
sinus. Behind the ventricle apnea? two superior cavm which 
terminate at the sides of the sinus. The portions of the 
lungs which remain are laid open to show their reticulate 
Structure, and the relative positions of the pulmonary 
arteries and veins : white bristles are placed in the former, 
and black ones in the lateral vessels. On the left side of 
the preparation* the origin of the pulmonary artery, from 
the posterior branchial arch, is shown. The remainder of 
the branchial vessels, with the exception of small branches 
to the head, are collected into one trunk, which unites with 
the corresponding vessels of the opposite side to form the 
aorta or systemic artery. The tongue, the interior of the 
air tube, the internal branchial aperture, and the branchiae 
of the left side, the eye and nostril, and structure of tho 
integument are also favourably displayed in this preparation* 
[Protivs and Pww>wgiw».J ^ 

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We now procead to lay before our readers such other pre- 
parations in this noble collection as illustrate the circulating 
system in animals approximating to the perennibranchiate 
batrachians, so that the student may compare this part of 
their organization with that of the Siren. 

No. 9 1 5 shows the anterior part of the body of an Amphi- 
tjma {Amph. means, Garden), prepared to show the heart 
and great vessels in situ. Professor Owen states that the 
blood is returned from the body, as in the preceding species, 
*y two anterior ven» cavse, and one large posterior cava, 
which form by their union a membranous sinus. The 
auricles or venous chambers of the heart are proportionately 
smaller and less fimbriated, and are situated more to the 
left and superior part of the ventricle. The ventricle is 
connected to the pericardium at its apex, and gives off from 
its opposite extremity a single artery, which, after a half- 
spiral turn, dilates into a large bulb, which is broader and 
shorter than in Siren lacertina, and is grooved externally. 
The two pulmonary arteries are given off from the posterior 
part of the extremity of the bulb, which then divides into 
two branches, each of which again subdivides on the side of 
the (Esophagus. As there are no external gills, so there 
are no lateral branches sent off from the branchial arteries ; 
but these, after winding round the arches of the hyoYd bone, 
terminate in a single trunk on either side, and form by 
their union the aorta, which is seen* injected, behind the 

Eharynx. On the left side of this preparation the internal 
ranchial aperture is preserved, and on the right side the 
branchial arches of the hyoid bone are shown. The lungs 
are laid open so as to display their reticulate and longitudi- 
nally plicate structure, and the relative positions of the pul- 
monary arteries and veins. 

Professor Owen further observes that this preparation is 
figured by Rusconi (Amours des Salamandres Aquatiques, 

El. v., fig. 8) as a portion of the adult Siren lacertina, which 
e supposes to have lost the external branchiae, and to have 
acquired the posterior extremities in a manner analogous to 
the salamanders ; and that Rusconi endeavours to invalidate 
the opinion which Hunter, after an extensive and minute 
comparison of their entire structure, had formed of the 
specific difference of the Amphiu ma and Siren, as well from 
each other as from the Kattewagoe or Menopoma of Harlan. 
The manuscript alluded to by Rusconi, and which contains 
detailed accounts of the anatomy of Ampkiuma and Me- 
nopoma, as well as of the Siren, is given entire in the de- 
scription of the plates illustrative of the 2nd vol. of the 
Museum Catalogue, where (plates xxiii. and xxiv.) the cir- 
culating and respiratory organs of the 'Chuah Chisstannah, 
or Crawfish-eater, or Kattewagoe' (Menopoma AUegha- 
mentis, Harlan [Salamandrida, vol. xx., p. 332], are 
beautifully displayed ; and Professor Owen remarks that 
the conclusions as to the distinctions of these amphibia to 
which Hunter arrived, have been subsequently confirmed by 
a simitar series of investigations instituted by Cuvier, and 
above noticed. 

No. 916 of the same museum exhibits the lower jaw, 
tongue, fauces, with part of the abdominal viscera, and the 
heart tit situ of Menopoma Alleghaniensis. The greater 
part of the pericardium has been removed. The ventricle 
is of a flattened triangular form, resembling that of osseous 
fishes : the auricles are smaller in proportion than in the 
Siren, and are situated wholly to the left of the ventricle. 
The veins of the body terminate in a membranous sinus 
situated below the auricles. The aorta, after making a spiral 
turn to the left side, dilates into a large bulb which gives off 
four vessels on each side. The first or posterior pair are 
the smallest, and ramify on the oesophagus and lungs ; but 
they are not distinctly shown in this preparation. The 
second and third pairs are the largest : they are seen passing 
outwards, and winding round the arches of the hyoid bone. 
The two branches unite on each side, and, after sending off 
small arteries to the head, converge on the posterior part 
of the oesophagus, and unite to fbrm the descending aorta. 
The fourth small pair of arteries pass outwards, and wind over 
the anterior part of the first hyoidian areh : they seud off 
in this course some small arteries to the head, and ultimately 
unite with a cephalic branch given off from the united trunk 
of the third and second branchial arteries. The right lung 
is here preserved, and a black bristle is inserted into it from 
the trachea. White bristles are placed in the right branchial 
aperture, which is left entire, showing the absence in this 
form, as in Ampkiuma, of external gills. On the left side 
the branchial arches of the hyoid bone are preserved. Be- 



sides the parts concerned in the circulatory and respiratory 
functions, the stomach, duodenum, liver, pancreas, and 
spleen are well shown in this preparation. No. 917 exhibits 
the heart, pericardium, and trachea of the last-noticed 
species. Here the ventricle is laid open to show the loose, 
fasciculate, muscular structure, which, as in the Testudo 
Indica, occupies the whole of its cavity. The bulb of the 
aorta is laid open to show the two rows of semilunar valves, 
three in each row, and the origins of the branchial arteries. 
The preparation is suspended by the pericardium, behind 
which is the flattened air-tube, in which distinct cartilagi- 
nous rings may be seen. {Catalogue, vol. ii.) 

Generative System.— No. 2695 exhibits the posterior part 
of a Siren lacertina, with the ventral parietes of the abdo- 
minal cavity removed to display the female organs of gene- 
ration. The ovaria are seen as two irregular elongated 
bodies, situated on each side of the root of the mesentery, 
and bearing impressions of the convolutions of the intestines. 
They contain innumerable minute ovisacs of a greyish 
colour, with a few others of a larger size, and of a very dark 
colour. The oviducts are external to the ovaria, and are 
attached to the sides of the spine, each by a broad duplica- 
ture of peritoneum : they commence anteriorly by a simple, 
elongated, slit-like aperture, without fimbriated margins, 
and are immediately disposed in about twenty parallel trans- 
verse folds, which gradually diminish, and finally cease about 
three inches from the cloaca, where the oviducts open 
behind the rectum upon small prominences : bristles are 
placed in these outlets. The contracted allantoid bladder 
is seen anterior to the rectum : the posterior extremity of 
the kidney extends behind the oviducts, a short way beyond 
the cloaca. No. 2696 shows the anterior extremity of the 
oviducts and liver of a Siren. The oviducts are much 
attenuated at their commencement, but soon increase in size, 
and become thicker in their parietes. (Catalogue, vol. ii.) 

No preparation of the male organs of the Siren appears 
to exist in the College Museum ; but there are two illustra- 
tive of those of Amphiumatdkd Menopoma, which we proceed 
to lay before our readers. 

No. 2397 is the posterior moiety of an Amphiuma (Am- 
phiuma didactylum), with the abdominal cavity laid open, 
and exposing to view the termination of the intestinal canal, 
supported by its broad and simple mesentery, the termina- 
tion of the right lung, the long allantoid bladder attached 
by a duplicature of the peritoneum to the mesial line of the 
abdomen, and the testes with their adipose appendages: 
the latter may be observed projecting on each side of the 
root of the mesentery ; and behind them are the testes, 
elongated, subcylindrical, ash-coloured bodies, tapering at 
both extremities : the vasa deferentia descend in the form 
of white ligamentous tubes, and finally open into the pos- 
terior part of the termination of the rectum, which is laid 
open. The renal organs are almost concealed by the parts 
above described: they have been injected. No. 2938 
exhibits the male organs, kidneys, allantoid bladder, and 
large intestine of the Menopome (Menopoma Alleghamensis^ 
The testes in this subject are less elongated, and of a more 
compact oval, thus indicating a further stage of advance- 
ment above the class of fishes. The efferent vessels leave 
the testis at a longitudinal groove at their posterior and 
internal surfaces, at the line of reflection of the supporting 
processes of peritoneum, and on each side unite to form a 
vas deferens, which descends along the edge of a process of 
peritoneum external to the kidneys, and finally opens into 
the termination of the rectum, as in the Amphiume. The 
kidneys are opake white bodies, which, beginning by small 
extremities near the lower end of the testes, slightly enlarge 
as they descend to the cloaca. The injected aorta occupies 
their posterior interspace, and there sends off the arteries 
for the hinder extremities. (Catalogue, voL ii.) 

Siren lacertina grows to the length of three feet : its 
colour is blackish. The feet have four toes, and the tail is 
compressed into an obtuse fin. 

This Siren inhabits the marshy grounds of Carolina, espe- 
cially those where rice is cultivated. It lives in the mud, 
from whence it makes excursions, sometimes on land and 
sometimes in the water. From the swampy places by the 
sides of pools and under the overhanging trunks of old 
trees where it is found, it was called by the inhabitants 
' the Mud Iguana.' Garden was of opinion that it feeds 
on serpents, and that it uttered a cry similar to that of a 
young duck; but Barton contests these statements. Its 
food is generally believed to consist of earth-worms, insects. 



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&c. There is now (Sept., 1841) a fine lively specimen in 
the parrot-house in the garden of the Zoological Society m 
the Regent's Park. It is kept in a vessel of pond- water 
with a deep bottom of mud, in which it bides itself, and is 
twenty inches long, as large as the wrist of a stout child 
of six months old, and very eel-like in its movements and 
appearance. About a dozen and a half of earth-worms are 
supplied to it as food every other day. 

Siren striata is blackish, with two longitudinal yellow 
stripes on each side ; has only three toes on each foot, and 
is about nine inches in length. 




Siren striata. 
«, head and anterior part teen in profile, allowing the branchia and foot. 

Whilst the article was passing through the press, Pro- 
fessor Owen was so good as to send the following highly in- 
teresting observations on the blood-globules of the Siren for 
insertion in this work : — 

'Among the important generalizations which the nu- 
merous observations of recent microscopical anatomists 
have enabled the physiologist to establish respecting the 
form and size of the blood-discs in different classes of 
animals, the most interesting seems to be that which Pro- 
fessor Wagner has enunciated respecting the relation of 
the magnitude of the blood-disc to the persistence of the 
branchial apparatus in the Batrachian order of reptiles on 
the occasion of his description of the blood-discs of the Pro- 
teus angtdnus. 

The absolute size of these particles in that perenni- 
branchiate reptile, in which they may he distinguished by 
the naked eye, renders them peculiarly adapted for minute 
investigations into the structure of the nucleus and capsule 
of the blood-disc : but the value of the relation between 
their size and the persistency of the external gills must 
depend upon the correspondence of other perennibranchiate 
reptiles with the Proteus in this respect. The superior size 
of the blood-discs of the newts to those of the land- sala- 
manders and tailless Batrachians has been confirmed by 
Professor van der Hoeven's observations on the blood-discs 
of the gigantic newt of Japan (Sieboldtia, Salamandrid^e, 
vol. xx.. pp. 331, 332), of which a fine specimen has been 
for several years kept alive at Leyden ; and I have been 
able to add another instance of the still greater relative 
size of the blood-discs in the perennibranchiate reptiles 
by the examination of those of the largest existing species of 
that family, the Siren Uicertina, of which a specimen 
twenty inches in length is now (October 15th) living at the 
Zoological Gardens. The blood was obtained from one of 
the external gills, and immediately subjected to examination. 
The blood-discs presented the elliptical form which hitherto 
without exception has been found to prevail among the air- 
breathing oviparous vertebrated animals : the ellipse was not 
quite regular in all the blood-discs ; several were sub-ovate, 
a few slightly reniform and thicker at the more convex 
side : all were as compressed, or disc-shaped, as in other 
Batrachians, with the nucleus slightly projecting from each 
oi the flattened surfaces. 



'The nucleus did not partake in the "same degree with 
these varieties of form, but maintained a more regular ellip- 
tical form ; the varieties in question appearing to depend on 
pressure acting upon the capsule and the coloured fluid 
surrounding the nucleus. Yet when the ellipse of the 
blood-disc was, as it happened in a few cases to be, longer 
and narrower than the average, the form of the nucleus pre- 
sented a similar modification of size. 

'The following is a table of the averages of many admea- 
surements of these blood-discs, made with the screw micro- 
meter* : — 



English inch. 

. 1 -450th 

l-850th to 1 -870th 

. 1-lOOOth 

. 1 -2000th 

l-3800th 



1 Long diameter 
Short diameter 
Long diameter of nucleus 
Short diameter of ditto . 
Thickness of ditto . 
(as viewed edgeways covered by the capsule). 

• The nucleus was circumscribed by a double line, the 
outer one more regular than the inner one, which appeared 
crenated. This appearance was due to the structure of the* 
nucleus, or the contents of the nucleolar capsule, which 
was indicated by the outer line. These contents con- 
sisted, in every blood-disc examined, of a number of mo- 
derately bright spherical nucleoli, sufficiently distinct to 
be counted, when viewed by a Powell's 1-1 0th inch ob- 
jective, with the eye-piece, magnifying 700 linear dia- 
meters: the ordinary number of nucleoli seen in one 
plane or focus being from twenty to thirty, the total 
number was of course much greater. The facility as 
well as certainty of the demonstration of such a structure in 
a good microscope of the present day will be readily ad- 
mitted when it is remembered that the nucleus of the 
blood-disc of the Siren is three times the size of the entire 
human blood-disc. These tuberculate nuclei, when re- 
moved from the capsule, were colourless ; the component 
granules or cells have a high refractiug power: viewed in 
situ they present a tinee of colour lighter than that of the 
surrounding fluid, and dependent upon the thin layer of that 
fluid interposed between the nucleus and the capsule. 

'The external capsule of the blood-disc is smooth, mode- 
rately resisting, elastic, as was easily seen by the flattening 
of the parts of two blood-discs that might come in contact, 
and the recovery of form when they were floated apart. 

4 As the fluid contents of the blood- disc in part evaporated 
during the process of desiccation, the capsule fell into folds 
in the interspace between the nucleus and the outer con- 
tour, these folds generally taking the direction of straight 
lines, three to seven in number, radiating from tbe 
nucleus.' (R. Owen, Sept. 25, 1841.) 



1 



Blood-discs of Man and Siren, drawn by tne camera locida under a magni- 
fying power of 700 linear dimeusious. 

a. Human bluod-discs; o\ ditto viewed edgewise; b. Siren's blood-disc; 
A', ditto viewed edgewise; c, folds of external capsule, produced by desicca- 
tion ; d, capsule of nucleus ; e, nucleoli. 

SIRENS (Setpqvcc) are described in the ' Odyssey' as two 
maidens who sat bv the sea and so charmed with their 
music all who sailed by, that tbey remained on tbe spot till 
they died. Ulysses, by the direction of Circe, had himself 
tiea to the mast, and stopped the ears of his companions 
with wax, by which means he was able to hear their music, 
and escape from its influence. {Od. f xii. 39, &c, 169.) The 

• ' 1 was indebted to Mr. Stokes tor the use of the one attached to his ad 
mirable nftnoscope br Potrelt 



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qhip of Ulysses, with himself tied tp the mast, it frequently 
represented on gems, and other works of antient art. (Sea 
Dictionary qf Greek an4 Roman Antiquities p. 52.) The 
number of the Sirens was afterwards increased to three, 
and various names were given to them by different writers. 
They were usually called the daughters of Melpomene and 
Achelous ( Apollod.. i. 3, § 4), and were represented by art- 
ists with the feathers and wings of birds (compare Ovid, 
Met,, v. 522, &c.) They were urged by Hera to contend 
with the Muses, who conquered them, and tore off their 
wings. (Paus., 4x. 34, $ 2.) 

SIRHIND, a district of northern Hindustan, which ex- 
tends from 29° 27' to 31° N. lat., and from 73° 38' to 77° 
38' B. long. The northern boundary is formed by the 
Sutlej, and the Jumna forms a part of the eastern boun- 
dary. The principal river is the Gagur. Most of the other 
rivers are affluents of the Gagur. Sirhind constitutes a por- 
tion of what are called the Hill States, and is inhabited 
by the Sikhs. [Hindustan, p. 233.] The town of Sirhind, 
from which the district derives its name, though formerly a 
place of importance, is now little else than a heap of ruins, 
SIRI, VITTOTUO, born at Parma in 1625, became a 
priest, and afterwards went to Paris, where he found favour 
with Louis XIV., who appointed him bis almoner and his- 
toriographer. Siri wrote a journal in Italian, entitled * Mer- 
curio Politico/ which he continued for many years, and as 
Louis acted for a long period the principal part on the 
political stage of Europe, he was flattered at having by him 
a writer who contributed to spread his fame in a foreign 
language. Siri however was not a fulsome flatterer, and 
although he often praised Louis, be did not always spare bis 
ministers and other powerful men of that and the preceding 
reign, and this freedom passed unheeded chiefly from the 
circumstance of his writing in a language foreign to France, 
and which was not understood by the people in general. 
Besides the ' Mercurio Politico,' the collection of which coiv 
sists of fifteen thick volumes, Siri wrote another journal, 
entitled 'Memorie Recondite,' which Alls eight volumes, 
Le Clerc {Bibliothkaue Chome, vol. iv., p. 138) observes 
that both these works contain a vast number of valuable 
authentic documents. The general style of the writer is how- 
ever prolix and heavy, Siri died at Paris, in 1685. % Cor- 
niani, Seeoli della Letter atura Italiana.) 

SIIil'CITJS, a native of Rome, succeeded Damasus I. as 
bishop of that city, ad. 384, under the reign of Valentinian 
II. We have several letters by him written to various 
churches on matters both of dogma and of discipline. Some 
of them are in condemnation of the Priscillianists, Dona- 
tists, and other heretics ; one is directed to Anycius, bishop 
of Thessalonica, on matters of jurisdiction ; another to Hi- 
merius, bishop of Tarracona, which is one of the oldest 
instanoes of a bishop of Rome sending mandates to other 
churches to be received as ecclesiastical laws. Siricius is 
also one of the first bishops of Rome who wrote concerning 
the celibacy of the clergy. He directed that a priest who 
married a second wife after the death of the first should be 
expelled from his office. (Platina, Lives of the Popes; 
Dupin, Nouvelle Bibliotheque, Vie d$ Sirice.) The council 
of Nicffla had already decreed that all clerks who had been 
married before they took orders, should be allowed to retain 
their wives according to the antient tradition of the church, 
but that priests and deacons should not marry after their 
ordination. Siricius died a.d. 398. 

SI'RIUS and PRO'CYON (Scipioc and Ilpojcfov), the 
Greek names of the bright stars in the constellations of the 
Great and Little Dog [Can is Major and Minor]. These 
are Orion's dogs, according to some, and those of minor 
personages, according to others: the whole of their mythic 
explanations form a strong proof, in addition to those already 
noticed, that the constellations are not Greek in their 
origin. In a passage of Hesiod he has been supposed 
to speak of the sun under the name of Sirius; and 
Hesychius defines the word to mean both the sun and 
the dog-star. Dr. Hutton informs us that the Egyptians 
' called the Nile Siris, and hence their Osiris,' which 
he has copied from Sir John Hill, who derives Sirius 
from Siris, but does not say where he got his informa- 
tion : probably from some writer of his own calibre. The 
Egyptians called the dog-star Sothis [Sothiac Period], 
and from its heliacal rising had warning that the overflow 
of the Nile was about to commence. Now the overflow of 
the Nile follows the summer solstice; whereas, by the pre- 



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about the tenth Qf Atfgtt*t. This heliacal rising is a very 
indefinite phenomenon, and will serve any system; by it 
Bailly, from Bainbridge's calculations, was able to carry 
back the settlement of Egypt 2800 years before Chrot: 
while Newton, by a reckoning made ou the same principle*, 
made many antient events seem later than was generally 
supposed. 

The greatest heats of summer generally Mow the summer 
solstice, and in the Mediterranean latitudes, and in antient 
times, it was observed that the unhealthy and oppressive 
period coincided with the heliacal rising of the dog-star. 
Wo say the dog-star, without specifying whether it wai 
Sirius or Procyon ; it is uncertain which it was, and may 
have been both, for the heliacal risings do not differ by 
many days. The star itself was in Latin canicula, which 
should seem to apply to the lesser dog. and Horace says — 

* 1mm Procyon ftirit 
Et stolla vetant Laopit [to. Regular 
Sole dies refereote ticcos.' 

Pliny supports the same meaning of canicula, and per- 
haps Hvginus ; also the framers of the Alphonsine Tables, 
and Bede and Kepler, among the older moderns : white Ger- 
man icus and Julius Ftrmtous, with Apian, Magini, Argoli, 
H. Stephens, and Petavius, among the modems, contend 
for Sirius, which is the more common opinion. All anti- 
quity attributed an evil influence to the star ; and though 
Gem in us among the antients, and Petavius among the mo- 
derns, thought that the effects were to be attributed to the 
sun alone, they had hardly any followers until the fall of 
judicial astrology. Even at this day. when the heats of the 
latter part of the summer are excessive, we are gravely told 
that we are in the dog-days ; and the almanacs, in which an 
absurdity has the lives of a cat, persist to this very year in 
informing us that the dog-days begin on the 3rd of July, 
and end on the 1 1th of August. Now as the heliacal rising 
of Sirius takes place about the very end of this period, it is 
clear that the cart has got before the horse, or the mischief 
before the dog. Moreover it is notorious that in our island 
the oppressive heats of the summer, during which dogs are 
apt to run mad (which is what many people think the name 
arises from, as indeed it was antiently recorded among the 
effects of the star), generally fall about the middle or end 
of August. The real classical dog-days are the twenty days 
preceding and the twenty days following the heliacal 
rising of whichever star it was, Sirius or Procyon. It is per- 
fectly useless to retain this period : surely these doga have 
had their day. 

SIRMOND, JACQUES, was born at Riom, in Franc* 
October 22, 1£59. Having completed his studies at the 
Jesuits' college at Billoro, the first which that Society had 
in France, he adopted the rule of St. Ignatius, and prepared 
himself, by a diligent study of the antient languages, for 
fulfilling the duties of a teacher. When he had finished his 
noviciate, his superiors required him to come to Paris as pro* 
fessor of rhetoric, in which city he remained till J 790. when 
he repaired to Rome, on the invitation of the Pere Aqua* 
viva. General of the society of Jesuits, who chose Sirmood 
as his secretary. In this employment he continued sixteen 
years, during which he examined diligently the manuscripts 
in the Vatican library, as well as the inscriptions and other 
remains of antiquity, of which Rome possessed such an 
abundant supplv. 

In 1008 the fere Sirmond returned to Paris, and soon 
afterwards commenced a visitation of the libraries and 
archives of the convents, and was thereby enabled to save 
from destruction a great number of documents of the 
highest value for the history of the middle ages. SirrooneVs 
first publication was the ' Opuscules ' of Geoffroi, abbe* de 
Venddme, in 1610 ; from which time he continued to add 
to his reputation by other publications almost every year. 
Pope Urban VII. invited him te return to Rome, but Louis 
XIII. retained him in France, and in 1637 made htm his 
con feasor. 

The Pere Sirmond, having left the court on the death of 
Louis XIII. in 1643, recommenced his literary labours, 
which had been somewhat interrupted by attention to the 
duties of his late dignified office, and continued with un- 
abated ardour to occupy himself in the same way till hit 
death, October 7, 1661, when he was 02 years of age. 

Sirrnoods * Ouvrages ' were collected and published in 
1696, in 5 vols, folio. The first three volumes contain the 
• Opuscules' of those Fathers and other ecclesiastical writer* 



cession of the equinoxes, the heliacal rising of Sirius is now ' which had been published by Sirmond, with prefaces and 



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notes; the fourth 'volume eoritaind hfe Dissertations ; and 
the fifth volume contains the work* of Theodore Sludite. 
This edition of Sirtnond's Works is by the Pare La Baume, 
and is preceded by A Life of Sirtnond by the editor, his 
Funeral Oration by Henri de Valois. and a list of Sirmorid's 
Wdrks in manuscript as Well as printed. In this edition 
are included the Works of Ennodius bishop of Pavia, at 
Siddnius Apollinaris, of Eugenius bishop of Toledo, the 
Chronicles of ldatius and Marcellinus, the Collections at 
Anastasius the Librarian, the Capitularies of Cbarles-le- 
Chauve and his successors, the works of St. Avit, of Theo- 
dulpbe bishop of Orleans, &o. Father Sirmond published 
other ecclesiastical Writers besides those included in the 
above edition, among which are * L'Histoire de Reims,' bv 
Flodoard, the • Lettres de Pierre de Celles,' the * CCuv^s"' 
of Radbert, of Theodoret, of Hincmar archbishop of Reims, 
&c. Sirmond published also a Collection of the Councils of 
France, * Concilia Antiqua Gallia?,' Paris, 1629, folio. 

{Biosraphie Universetle.) 

SIROCCO. [Wind.] 

SISIN'NIUS. a Syrian by birth, succeeded John Vtt. 
.as bishop of Rome, A.d. 707, and died twenty days after his 
election. He was succeeded by Constantino. 

SISON, the name of a genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order Umbelli ferae. It possesses the following^ 
characters :— calyx obsolete ; petals broadly ObcOrd ate, deeply 
notched, and curved with an indexed point; styles vert 
short: fruit orate, laterally compressed; carpels with 
Ave filiform equal ridges, of which the lateral ones are 
marginal; interstices with single, short, club-shaped vittso ; 
seed gibbous, convert, plane itt front ; universal and partial 
involucre at few leave*. 

Several species were (brtnfcrfy referred to this genus which 
are now placed under Various gettera. The only species that 
is now decidedly referred to Sison is the S. Arnomum, hedge 
bastard stone parsley. It is a native of France, Sicily, Italy, 
Greece, and Great Britain. It is not unfrequent In this 
country, especially in chalk soils in rather moist ground, 
under hedges, &c. It is known by its erect, terete, pani- 
culately branched stem ; pinnate leaves, the lower leaflets 
rather toothed and lobed, upper ones cut into narrow seg- 
ments. The flowers are cream-coloured. The green plant 
when bruised has a peculiarly nauseous Smell, something 
like that Of bugs. The seeds are pungent and aromatic, 
and were formerly celebrated as d diuretic, but are how little 
used. 

SISSOO, a tree well known throughout tho Bengal pre- 
sidency, and highly valued on account of its timber. It is 
common chiefly in the forests and beds of rivers which ex- 
tend all along the foot Of the Himalayas up to 30° N. lat. 
The trunk is generally more or less "crooked, lofty, and 
often from three to four feet in diameter. The branches 
are numerous and spreading; the leaves pinnate, with 5 
alternate roundish acute leaflets, which from their small 
size and drooping nature give the tree a very light and 
elegant appearance. 

The Sissoo yields the Bengal shipbuilders their crooked 
timbers and knees. Dr. Roxburgh describes ft as being 
tolerably light, remarkably strong, but not so durable as 
could be wished ; the colour is light greyish-brown, with 
dark veins : he says that upon the whole he scarcely knows 
any other tree more deserving of attention, from its rapid 
growth in almost every soil, its beauty, and uses. Captain 
Baker, in his ' Experiments on the Elasticity and Strength 
of Indian Timbers,' describes the Sissoo in structure some- 
what resembling the finer species of teak, hut as being 
tougher and rriore elastic, and as employed by the natives 
for house furniture, beams, cheeks, spokes, naves and fel- 
lies of wheels, keels and frames of boats, blocks, and print- 
ing-presses. It is universally employed both by Europeans 
and natives of the north-West provinces where strength is 
required. 

The Sissoo betdngs to a genus Dalbergia, which abounds 
in valuable timber-trees, as D. latifolia, which is usually 
called Blackwood- tree by the English, and of which the 
wood is exported as a kind of ebonv *. sometimes also 
called Black Rose-wood. It is one or the largest timber- 
trees of India, being 15 feet m circumference, with the 
wood of a greenish-black colour, with lighter-coloured veins 
running In various directions, and admitting a fine polish, 
and therefore much admired as furniture-wood. Captain 
Baker found it, like the Sissoo, able to sustain a weight of 
1300 pounds, when teak broke with 1128 lbs. S. Dalber- 



gtaOdgeinensis, found in central India, is alsohighh valued 
f.,r timber: the pillars of Sindia's palace at Ougein are 
made of it. 

S18TERON, the chief town of art arrondisseraent in the 
department of Basses Alpes in France, on the right b ink of the 
Durance, at the junction of the Buech, 437 miles from Paris 
by Lyon, Grenoble, and Gap. Sisteroh was known to the Ro- 
tnansby the name of Segustero (Itttierariurrt Aritoninini, and 
Peutin'gef Table) or the town of the Segesterii (Notitia Pro- 
vit/ciaram), afterwards altered into Segesteriura, Sistericum, 
and Sisteroh. It is not known to what people it belonged. In 
the sixth century it became the seat of a bishopric, and Was 
the object of attack in the ninth century to the Saracens and 
the Hungarians. The toWnsmeti embraced the Huguenot 
party in the religious contests of the sixteenth century. The 
Catholics in consequence attacked the town and took it, a.d. 
1562 ; but it was afterwards retaken by Lesdiguieres. The 
town is calculated to be 479 metres, or 1570 feet, above tho 
level of the sea. It is situated at the foot at a rock, upon 
which is an old citadel, and is surrounded by an em- 
battled wall flanked with towers, but is commanded by the 
surrounding heights, so as to be little defensible in modern* 
Warfare. There are two bridges, one of a single arch ore* 
the Durahce, the other over the Buech. The ex-cathedral 
has a flue altar-piece by Vanloo; ttiere are two other 
churches, an hospital, and a prison. The population in 
1831 was .1937 for the town, or 4429 for the Whole com- 
mune. The townsmen manufacture hats, leather, and pot- 
tery ; there are lime- kilns ; and trade is carried on in almonds, 
Wool, oil, and truffles : there are ten yearly fairs. The sur- 
rounding country produces a great auantlty of walnuts 
and almonds, and some good wine. Urns, vases, lamps, 
medals, and other Roman antiquities have been dug up 
here. 

SISTRUM, a musical instrument of percussion, of the 
highest antiquity, constructed of brass, and shaped like 
the frame and handle of a racket, the head part of which 
had three, and sometimes four, horizontal bard placed 
loosely on it. Which were tuned, most probably, by some 
scale, and allowed to play freely, so that when the instru- 
ment was shaken, piercing, ringing sounds must have been 
produced. Some writers have confounded the sistrum with 
the cymbals, though the instruments could have had nothing 
in common except their harsh metallic sounds. 

SlSY'MBRIUM (from Turvrfptov), the name of a 

fenus of plants belonging to the natural Order Cruciferm. 
t possesses a roundish silique seated Upon a torus ; two 
stigmas, somewhat distinct, or connate into a head; calyx 
equal at the base; ovate or oblong seeds; flat, incumbent, 
sometimes oblique cotyledons; stamens not toothed. Tho 
species are mostly perennial or annual herbs, with yellow 
or white flowers, and leaves very variable on the same 
plant. About fifty-eight species are enumerated, but com- 
paratively few of these are cultivated. Tho genus however 
belongs to an order that possesses no injurious plants, and 
a few of the species are well known on account of their 
uses. 

5. qflcinarum, Common Hedge- Mustard, has muricato 
pilose leaves, a pilose stem, and subolate pods pressed to tho 
rachis. It is a native of Europe, and grows in waste places 
and way-sides, among rubbish, and along the sides of walls. 
It is plentiful in Britain, and also the north of Africa. The 
whole plant is warm and acrid, and is Often cultivated for 
use as a pot-herb. It is eaten by sheep and goats ; but 
cows, horses, and swine refuse it. In medicine it was for- 
merly much used as an expectorant in chronic coughs and 
asthma. It was also recommended in ulcerations of the 
mouth and throat. The stimulant properties of this and 
other plants belonging to the order would make them un- 
doubtedly valuable remedies in many diseases in the ab*ence 
of other means, but in modern medicine more powerful and 
certain remedies have thrown into disuse many agents for- 
merly highly valued. 

& /no, London Rocket or Broid leaved Hedge-Mustard : 
Stem and leaves smooth ; leaves runcinate ; lobes toothed ; 
pod erect. It is a native of waste places throughout Europe, 
but especially about London. It ik said to have entirely 
coverea the ground in the following spring of the great firo 
of London in 1666. The former species is also remarkable 
for appeariug on the ground where flies have existed. In 
Such cases the ashes of the fires constitute a nutriment pe- 
culiarly adapted for the growth and development of these 
plants. The whole of this plant possesses the hot biting 



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character of the mustard. Several varieties have heen re- 
corded. 

S. Sophia, Five-leaved Hedge-Mustard, or Flixweed: 
leaves doubly pinnatifid, slightly hairy; lobes linear or 
oval; pedicels four times longer than the calyx; netais 
shorter. It grows on dry banks, waste ground, dung- 
hills, and among rubbish in most parts of Europe. It is 
frequent in Great Britain. It has derived its name of flix- 
weed and that of ' wisdom of surgeons ' from its supposed 
power of controlling diarrhoea, dysentery, &c. Whatever 
may have been its former reputation, it is now almost 
entirely fallen into disuse. 

5. millefolium, Millfoil-leaved Flixweed: leaves some- 
what tripinnate, hoary ; lobules blunt, small ; stems shrubby ; 
petals larger than the calyx. A native of Teneriffie, on the 
rocks in the lower parts of the island. It is a small branched 
shrub, with corymbose flowers. It is a greenhouse species, 
growing well in a rich light soil ; and young cuttings will 
readily root under a hand-glass when placed in a sheltered 
situation. 

S. strictissimum, Spear-leaved Hedge-Mustard: leaves 
lanceolate, stalked, toothed, pubescent. It has intensely 
yellow flowers, with pods two inches long ; the stem is erect, 
and branching at the top. It is a hardy perennial, adapted 
for shrubberies, and may be easily increased by division of 
the root. 

This genus at one time included that now known under 
the name of Nasturtium. The latter was originally sepa- 
rated by Brown, and is principally distinguished by the 
position of the cotyledons, a point of primary importance in 
the whole order of Brassicacero. In Sisymbrium the cotyle- 
dons are folded with their back upon the radicle, whilst in 
Nasturtium their edges are presented to it ; in the former 
the cotyledons are said to be incumbent, in the latter accum- 
bent. 

A well known species of Nasturtium is the N officinale* 
formerly Sisymbrium Nasturtium, the common water-cress. 
In addition to the characters of the genus, this plant is 
known principally by the form of its leaves. The leaf is 
composed of from 5 to 7 leaflets, which are arranged oppo- 
site each other on a common petiole with a terminal leaflet. 
The leaflets are somewhat heart-shaped and slightly waved 
and toothed ; they are succulent, and their surface is smooth. 
The terminal leaflet is always largest. The upper leaves do 
not separate into distinct leaflets, being pinnatifid with 
narrow segments. The petiole of the leaf does not in any 
manner embrace the stem. The flowers are white, and the 
pods, when ripe, are about an inch long. This plant is a 
native of rivulets throughout the world, and is very plentiful 
in Great Britain. It has a warm agreeable flavour, and has 
long been one of the most popular plants as a salad. It 
was formerly much used in medicine as a diuretic and anti- 
scorbutic, but its great consumption now is as an article of 
diet. As it frequently grows amongst plants that are not 
wholesome, and that bear to it a general resemblance, it 
would be well for every one to be acquainted with its charac- 
ters. The plant most frequently mistaken for it, especially 
when out of flower, is the fool's water- cress. L SiuK.j From 
this it may be always distinguished, and in fact from all 
other Umbelliferro, by the petioles of the leaves noc forming 
a sheath round the stem. 

The water-cress is cultivated to a very great extent in the 
neighbourhood of London. The plants arc placed out in 
rows in the bed of a clear stream in the direction of the 
current, and all that is required for their successful growth 
is replanting occasionally and keeping the plants clear of 
mud and weeds; sandy and gravelly bottoms are best 
* Some market-gardeners who can command only a small 
stream of water, grow the water-cress in beds sunk about 
two feet in a retentive soil, with a very gentle slope from 
one end to the other. Then, according to the slope and 
length of the bed, dams are made six inches high across it, 
at intervals, so that when these dams are full, the water 
may rise not less than three inches on all the plants in- 
cluded in each. The water, being turned on, will circulate 
from dam to dam, and the plants, if not allowed to run to 
flower, will afford abundance of young tops in all but the 
winter months.' (G. Don.) Water-cresses grown in this way 
have not so fine a flavour as those from natural streams. 

S1TKHA is the name of the most important of the 
Russian settlements on the west coast of North America, 
'hough its proper name is New Arkhanghelsk. This place lies 
in 57° 2' 50" N. lat. and 135° 18' W. long., and is built on 



64 SIT 

one of the group of islands which received from Vancouver 
the name of King George III.'s Archipelago. The outward 
coast of this extensive group had been seen before by Cook 
in his third voyage, who called a very elevated island, which 
had the appearance of a cape. Mount Edgecombe, but he 
afterwards suspected that it was an island. The space between 
this small island of Edgecombe and the larger island which 
lies east of it, forms the harbour of the settlement. WhenVan- 
couver surveyed this coast, he thought that the outward coast, 
which extends from Chatham Sound on the south (56° N. lat.) 
to Cross Sound (58° N. lat.) on the north, constituted one large 
island, which he called King George III.'s Island; but it 
was afterwards ascertained that it was divided by a narrow 
strait into two islands, and since that time the northern 
island has been called by the native name of Sitkha, while 
the southern has received the name of Baranoff Island, in 
honour of the founder of the Russian settlement. On the 
last-mentioned island Baranoff built a small fort in 1799, 
which was destroyed in 1802 by the natives of the tribe of 
the Koloshes. But in 1804 Baranoff expelled them from the 
strait which constitutes the harbour of New Arkhanghelsk, 
and founded in the vicinity of one of their villages the pre- 
sent town. The harbour, which Vancouver named Norfolk 
Sound, but which is now better known as the Bay of 
Sitkha, is spacious and safe, and offers excellent anchorage 
-opposite the settlement The place itself is surrounded by 
a wooden wall, and enclosed by mountains of considerable 
elevation, which are almost covered with forests, in which 
excellent timber is found. S hip-building constitutes the 
most important of the branches of industry, and all the 
vessels of the American Company are now built at this 
place, since ship-building has been discontinued at Okhotsk. 
New Arkhanghelsk is the centre of the administration of 
the Russian territories in America, over which the American 
Company exercises sovereign powers, nearly in the same way 
as the Hudson's Bay Company over a much more extensive 
portion of North America. The collecting of furs is the 
exclusive object of both companies, and New Arkhanghelsk 
may be compared with Fort York, which lies nearly under 
the same latitude on the eastern coast of America. But 
New Arkhanghelsk is larger : its population in 1833 amounted 
to 847 individuals, of whom 406 were Europeans, and 307 
descendants of Europeans and native women, and 134 only 
Aleutes and Koloshes. New Arkhanghelsk has also a 
much greater commerce by sea, and the vessels of the Com- 
pany visit California, whence they import grain and salt, and 
dried meat ; and the Sandwich Islands, where they obtain 
salt for curing their fish. The number of vessels employed 
by the Company in this commerce and in the transport of 
the furs which have been collected in the different smaller 
settlements amounts to twelve ; their tonnage is stated not 
to exceed (1833) 1565 tons. 

Wrangell continued to make meteorological observations 
during his stay at New Arkhanghelsk (1833 and 1835), and 
Baer has taken advantage of his work to compare the cli- 
mate of Nain on the coast of Labrador with that of Sitkha. 
The result is contained in the following table, which ex- 
presses the mean temperature of the seasons and of the 
year :— 

New Arkhanghelik. Nam. 

Winter (Dec— Feb.) +34 74 -1*26 

Spring (March— May) 42*28 +22*38 

Summer (June — Aug.) 56*30 45*62 

Autumn (Sept.— Nov.) 47 *89 36 • 00 

Annual mean temper. +45*30 +25*50 

Thus it appears that the mean annual temperature of 
these two places, situated respectively on the eastern and 
western coasts of North America, differs nearly 20 degrees 
of Fahrenheit; in winter the difference amounts to 36 
degrees, and in summer to nearly 1 1J degrees. But though 
these observations prove the great superiority of the western 
coast of North America over the eastern in respect to climate, 
a comparison between Sitkha and Bergen in Norway shows 
that the western coast of the old continent is much more 
favoured by nature. For though Bergen is 3 degrees and 
20 minutas nearer the pole, the mean temperature of the 
winter is +36°, of the spring +45°, of the summer +58°, and 
of the autumn +48°, and the mean annual temperature 
nearly 47°. The climate of the last-mentioned place may 
also in other respects be compared with that of Sitkha, es- 
pecially in regard to humidity. Sitkha however is cer 
tainly more humid; for in 1828 there occurred 120 days 



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in which rain fell without interruption, and 180 days in 
which showers were frequent, so that only 66 days were 
free from rain. Snow is frequent during three or four 
months, hut it does not lie long on the ground. It is consi- 
dered rare if the frost continues for ten days together. 
It is to this great degree of humidity that the failure of 
all attempts to cultivate grain is attributed ; for there are 
many other places in which it succeeds, and in which the 
mean temperature of summer is from 8° to 10° lower. The 
prevailing winds are from the south-east and the south-west. 
Thunder-storms occur only in November and December, 
and never in summer. 

(Langsdorf *s Voyages and Travels in various parts of 
the World; Lutkes Voyage autourdu Monde; and Wran- 
gel's Statistische und Ethnographische NacJirichten iiber 
die Russischen Besitzungen an der Nordwestkuste von 
America.) 

SITKOPF. [Japan.] 

SITTA. [Nuthatch.] 

SITTINGBOURNE. [Kent.] 

SIUM, the name of a genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order Umbelliferaa. The calyx possesses 5 teeth or 
is obsolete ; petals obcordate with an in flexed point, or entire 
and ovate; fruit laterally compressed or contracted, and 
subdidymous, crowned with the reflexed styles with their 
depressed bases ; carpels with 5 equal, filiform, rather obtuse 
ridges, of which the lateral ones are marginal ; interstices 
with one or many vitt® ; seed subterete. The universal 
involucre varies; the partial one is composed of many 
leaves. 

S. Sisarum, Skirret, is the best-known plant of this 
genus. The root is composed of fascicles of fusiform tubers; 
stem terete; leaves pinnate, upper ones tern ate, leaflets 
ovato lanceolate, acute, serrated; involucre of 5 reflexed 
leaves ; commissure, according to Koch, with 4 vittse. It 
has white flowers. The tubers of the root are about the 
size of the finger, and were formerly greatly esteemed in 
cookery, but are now gone much into disuse. The French 
call this plant Chervis, the Germans Zucker-icwzel> and in 
the north of Scotland, where it is much eaten when cooked, 
it is called crummock. When eaten, the tubers are boiled 
and served up with butter, forming, according to an old 
writer, • the sweetest, whitest, and most pleasant of roots.* 

The Skirret is a native of China, and is reputed to possess 
in that country peculiar medicinal virtues. Sir J. E. Smith 
observes that the Chinese have long been in the habit of 
sending this root to Japan as the true Ginseng of Tartary, 
or Panax quinquefolia of Linnaeus, a plant possessing very 
different properties. 

The Skirret may be propagated by seeds and offshoots. 
The seeds should be sown in the months of March and 
April, in small drills eight inches apart, in an open space of 
lightish ground. When the plants are one or two inches 
high, they should be thinned, and they may be used as they 
attain size till August, September, or October. Plants of 
the last year will always afford offsets, which may be broken 
off the old roots and planted in rows. For procuring seed 
the plants should be left till the following autumn. 

S. nodiflorunh Fool's Water-cress, or procumbent Water- 
parsnip, possesses a rooting, procumbent, striated stem; 
pinnate leaves, oblong equally serrated leaflets; umbels 
sessile, opposite the leaves. It is a native of Europe, in 
ditches and rivulets, and is common in Great Britain. A 
small and large variety are recorded, the one not attaining 
more than three or four inches in height, the other as many 
feet. It was formerly admitted into the ' London Pharma- 
copoeia,' on account of its efficacy in cutaneous diseases 
and scrofula. Dr. Withering has recorded his opinion in 
its favour, and related a remarkable case in which benefit 
was derived from its use. He administered three or four 
ounces of the juice in milk daily. This plant has often been 
represented as very poisonous; but if thus much of the juice 
can be taken with impunity, it can hardly be very active. 
This, with some other species of Sium, has been placed by 
Koch under a new genus, Helosciadium. The principal dif- 
ference consists in the number of vittSD found in the inter- 
stices of the carpels ; Sium having several vittae, Heloscia- 
dium only one. 

There are many other species of Sium, four of which are 
British, but none of them are cultivated for their beauty or 
applied to any particular uses. 

SIVA, the personification of the destroyiug principle, 
forms, with the two other gods, Brahma and Vishnu, the 
P.C, No. 13C7. 



Trimftrti, or triad, of the Hindus ; and although, in allusion 
to his office as destroyer, he is classed third, yet he is gene* 
rally allowed to occupy the second place among the Hindu 
deities, or even (according to Kindersley) the first, as his 
supremacy appears to have obtained more general assent 
than that of Vishnu. Indeed the worship of Siva is so pre- 
dominant, that Brahma, who is the only one of the three 
mentioned by Manu, and who seems to have enjoyed a 
larger share of adoration in antient times, has now only one 
temple in India, while Mahfideva (a name of Siva) and the 
adventurous Vishnu, whose incarnations attract so much of 
the veneration of the Hindus, are, in fact, the only gods of 
the whole Hindu pantheon who have numerous worship- 
pers. This however is no proof that Siva or Vishnu dates 
from a later period. The personification of the three divine 
attributes originates, no doubt, with the Vedas, and the 
names of the three gods are mentioned, though rarely, and 
without the least allusion to their pre-eminence over the 
elemental gods or over each other; but we do not find 
that the two great sects of India, the Vaishnavas (followers 
of Vishnu) and the Saivas (worshippers of Siva) came into 
existence before the seventh or eighth century of our aera. 
It is therefore to the Pur&nas (the scriptures of the modern 
Hindu religion) that we must ascribe the extension of the 
worship of Siva and the character which now distinguishes 
this god. We cannot however point out the difference be- 
tween the mode of worshipping Siva now and in the time of 
Manu, the Vedas being too little known, and the extracts from 
them, which have been hitherto published, unsatisfactory. 
We must therefore limit ourselves to the description of the 
present popular form of Siva worship, which in all probability 
had not assumed its actual state before the great Saiva re- 
former, Sankara Acharya, who lived in the eighth or ninth 
century. {Vishnu Purana, pref, p. x.) This opinion is 
supported by the well-founded assertion that the Saiva faith 
was instituted by Paramata Kal&nala, who is described in 
the ' Sankara Vijaya ' of Ananda Giri as teaching at Be- 
nares, and assuming the insignia that characterize the Dan- 
dis, a sect of Saivas of modern times. (As. Res., xvi. 22.) No 
allusion is made in the Purines to the original power of this 
god as destroyer ; that power not being called into exercise 
till after the expiration of twelve millions of years, when 
according to Pauranic accounts, the Kaliyuga will come to a 
close together with the universe ; and Mahideva is rather 
the representative of regeneration than of destruction. In- 
deed the worship of the type which represents him as the 
vivifying principle, the linga (phallus, a smooth black stone 
in the form of a sugar-loaf, with a projection at the base 
like the mouth of a spoon) is spread all over India, and the 
number of worshippers of this image is far greater than the 
worshippers of all the other gods. (Ward, i. 16.) There 
are however a few legends in Hindu mythology in which 
Siva appears as the actor without any reference to the wor- 
ship of the lingo. The linga is indeed the only form under 
which Siva is now adored in most parts cf India. Accord- 
ing to Professor Wilson (Vishnu rurBna, xliv.), 'There is 
nothing like the phallic orgies of antiquity ; it is all mystical 
and spiritual. The linga is twofold, external and internal. 
The ignorant, who need a visible sign, worship Siva through 
'a mark' or 'type,* which is the proper meaning of the 
word ' linga,* of wood or stone ; hut the wise look upon this 
outward emblem as nothing, and contemplate in their 
minds the invisible inscrutable type, which is Siva himself. 
Whatever may have been the origin of this form of worship 
in India, the notion upon which it was founded, according 
to the impure fancies of European writers, is not to be read 
even in the Saiva Purina.' Indeed the emblems under 
which the Hindus exhibit the elements and operations of 
nature are not indecorous, and the low cylinder of stone, 
which is meant for the symbol of the creative power, sug- 
gests no suspicion of its original import ; and nothing what- 
ever belongs to the worship of the linga, or to the terms in 
which this is mentioned, which has the slightest tendency 
to lead the thoughts from the contemplation of the god to 
an undue consideration of the object by which he is typified. 
The best refutation however of the injurious suppositions to 
which the accounts of many travellers have given rise, will 
be the words which Shu^ himself ib supposed to say in the 
Saiva Purina : ' From the supreme spirit proceed Puru- 
s ha (the generating principle), Prakriti (the generative 
nature), and Time; and by them was produced this uni- 
verse, the manifestation of the one god Of all organs 

of sense and intellect the best is mind, which proceeds Iron; 

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Ahankara;* Ahankfra, from intellect; intellect, from the 
supreme being, who is in fact Purusha. It is the primeval 
ma*e, whose form constitutes this universe, and whose breath 
is the sky ; and though incorporeal, that male am I.' This 
doctrine is pure enough, and the few aberrations which 
remind one of the orgies practised in honour of Bacchus, 
are not sufficient to justify us in stigmatizing it as vile and 
infamous. 

The linga however is only the type of Siva as the god 
who presides over generation. His other forms are many, and 
they vary in so far as they attribute to him the qualities of 
creator, preserver, destroyer, and regenerator, and represent 
him in his various avatdras (incarnations, eight of which 
are called by the common name of Bhairava, and are seve- 
rally termed Asildnga, Ruru, Chandra, Krodba, Unmatta, 
Kfipati, Bhlshana, and Sanhdra, all alluding to terrific pro- 
perties of mind or body. He is sometimes seen with two 
hands, at others with four, eight, or ten, and with Ave faces; 
he has a third eye in his forehead, the corners of which are 
perpendicular, which is peculiar to him ; a crescent in his hair, 
or on his forehead, encircling the third eye; he wears ear- 
rings of snakes, and a collar of skulls. Mah&deva, when re- 
presented thus, but with one head, has four hands, in one of 
which he holds a pisa, the use of which is to extract the 
souls out of the bodies of men, when their time is come, and 
is a common attribute of Yama, the god of death (& Sdvi- 
tryupakhyana, ed. Bopp., p. 25), a tris'ula is upheld by the 
other, and the two other hands are in a position of benedic- 
tion. As Bhairava (the lord of dread) he is frightful to be- 
hold ; great tusks burst through his thick lips ; the hair, 
which is stiff and erect, gives his face a dreadful aspect ; the 
fall of the necklace is impeded by numerous snakes which 
twine round his body. This is also the idol which shows him 
as Mahd-kdla, or god of time. It is in this character that he 
is supposed to delight in bloody sacrifices, and that the Saiva 
Sanny&sis (followers of Siva who practise the yoga to the 
highest degree) inflict on themselves the cruelties which have 
rendered so conspicuous the temple of Jaggernaut (Jagan- 
n&tha, the lord of the world). [Yoga.] A very minute 
account of the fortitude and self-denial of the deluded Yogis 
is given in Ward's ' View on the Religion of the Hindus ' 
(i. 19). His consort Sakti, who in her corresponding cha- 
racter is celebrated as the goddess Durgd or K&lt, partici- 
pates in these horrible sacrifices, and has lately become 
more notorious by the exposure of the homicidal practices 
of the Thugs, who recognise in her their tutelary divinity. 
Siva is also the god of justice. In that character he rides 
a white bull, the symbol of divine justice (Manu, viii. 16 X 
and is often seen with the parashu (battle-axe) in his hand, 
and the sacred string. On pictures he is often represented 
as if rubbed over with ashes, and with a blue neck ; the 
epithet of Ntlakanta (blue-necked) was given to him in 
commemoration of bis having drunk the poison which arose 
from the sea, and threatened to destroy mankind. But the 
character in which he is more generally known, and which 
his followers imitate, is that of the Kap&la-bhrit (skull- 
bearer). Skanda-Pur&na makes him describe himself in 
the following words: — 'Pdrvatt (his bride) must be foolish 
to practise so severe a penance in order to obtain me, Rudra 
(one of his 1000 names), a wandering mendicant, a bearer 
of a human skull, a delighter in cemeteries, one ornamented 
with bones and serpents, covered with ashes and with no 
garments but an elephant's skin, riding on a bull, and ac- 
companied by ghosts and goblins.' Now this, except that 
the unearthly beings who follow him are represented by a 
crowd of dirty people, is exactly the description of a Saiva 
digambara (sky-clad, i.e. naked — a kind of religious mendi- 
cants), if, instead of the god's third eye, we add a round dot 
on the nose, made of clay or cow-dung, and a mark on the 
forehead, composed of three curved lines, instead of the 
chandra (half- moon) which Rudra obtained at the churning 
of the ocean. When asked for the reason why they and their 
god carry a human skull, they refer to the Vdmana-Purdna : 
' Formerly, when all things moveable and immoveable had 
been destroyed, and nought remained but one vast ocean.; 
while universal darkness reigned, that lord who is incom- 
prehensible and subject to neither birth nor death reposed 
in slumber on the abyss of the waters for a thousand divine 
years ; but when his night had passed, desirous of creating 
the three worlds, he, investing himself with the quality o? 

• Literally th« • 1- Maker ' U the Hindu term for the power of »elf-couscious- 
n«ts, or, what is fjnpBed by.thif, individuality ; for further information see 
Yet*. 



impurity, assumed a corporeal form with five heads. Then 
also was produced from the darkness another form, with 
three eyes and twisted locks, and bearing a rosary and tri- 
dent Brahma next created Ahankara (self-consciousness), 
which immediately pervaded both Siva and himself, and 
under its' impression Rudra thus said to PitaVMahft :— " Say, 
O lord! how earnest thou here, and by whom wert thou 
created?" Brahma replied, " And whence art thou?" and 
instantly caused the new-made sky to reverberate with a won- 
drous sound. Sambhu (Siva) was thus subdued, and stood 
with a countenance downcast and humbled, like the moon in 
anjeclipse, and the fifth head of Brahma thus addressed him 
rendered red-dark with anger at his defeat i—* 4 1 know thee 
well, thou form of darkness ! with three eyes, clothed with 
the four quarters of the sky (i.e. naked), mounted on a 
bull, the destroyer of the universe." On hearing these 
words Sambhu became incensed with anger, and while he 
viewed the head with the terrible glances of his world-con- 
suming eye, his five heads, from his wrath, grew white, red, 
f olden, black, and yellow, and fearful to behold. But 
trahma, on observing these heads glowing like the sun, 
thus said : — " Why dost thou agitate thyself and attempt to 
appear powerful ? for, if I choose, I could this instant make 
thy heads become like bubbles of water." This beard, Siva, 
inflamed with anger, cut off with the nail of his right band 
the head of Brahma which had uttered such fierce and 
boasting words ; but when he would have thrown it on the 
ground, it would not, nor ever shall it, fall from his hand.' 
The beautiful idea which is obscured by the extravagances 
of this passage, namely, that the creation in itself involvea 
subsequent destruction, need hardly be pointed out In 
nearly all the representations of Siva, the Ganga (Ganges) is 
seen either flowing from his head or beaming on his head- 
piece. There is an interesting fable which makes it flow 
from PSrvati's fingers, but for which we refer our readers to 
Moore's ' Hindu Pantheon* (p. 41). 

The origin of the linga worship is, we find, differently ac- 
counted for in different Purdnas. The ' Linga- Purfina,' which 
contains 1 1,000 verses (Mackenzie Coll., i. 39), states that the 
primitive linga is a pillar of radiance in which MahSdeva 
is present The appearance of the great fiery linga takes 
place, in the interval of a creation, to separate Vishnu and 
Brahma, who not only dispute the place of supremacy, but 
fight for it, when the linga suddenly springs up, and puts 
them to shame ; after travelling upwards and downwards 
for a thousand years in each direction, neither of them can 
approach its termination. Upon the linga, the sacred 
monosyllable Om is visible, and the Vedas proceed from it, 
by which Brahma and Vishnu become enlightened, and ac- 
knowledge the superior might and glory of Siva ( Vishnu- 
Purdna, xliii.). This legend, by which, in its Tamul version, 
the circumstance of Brahma having neither temple nor wor- 
shippers is accounted for, is given in Kindersley's ' Specimen 
of Hindu Mythology' (p. 21). In his travels in search of the 
head of the column, Brahma is said to have found a Cauldairy 
flower which Siva had purposely dropt from his head. He 
entreated it to bear false witness for him, that he had actu- 
ally found the top of the column. The flower rashly con- 
senting to the fraud, both returned to Siva, and asserting 
the falsehood agreed on, Siva, in his just resentment de- 
creed that Brahma should never receive any external wor- 
ship. A very fanciful story about the linga is given in the 
4th volume of the • As. Res.,' p. 368 j and another, which 
Abbe* Dubois states to be derived from the 'Lainga,* but 
which, in fact, is from the * Padma-Purfina,' may be found 
in this author's ' Moeurs, &c. des Peuples de l'lnde,' vol. ii., 
p. 417. But the pure, original, mystical idea, which roust 
undoubtedly have been expressed in the Vedas, is poorly 
preserved in the Purdnas, and almost entirely lost in the 
daily worship of the present Hindus, who, although without 
any admixture of obscene thoughts, adore their stone, or the 
image which they make themselves from the clay of the 
sacred river where they perform their ablutions, in much 
the same way as an African venerates his fetish. Siva, who 
as the type of the regenerating principle is also that of fire, 
which quality is represented by a triangle with the apex 
upwards (A), is the object of a very ludicrous ceremony 
when the heat is great Fearing lest he should set on 
fire the whole world, they put above his idol a basin full of 
water with a small aperture at the bottom, in order that the 
water which drops on him may moderate his ardour. (Du- 
bois, ii., 304.) We need not wonder if the linga worship has 
given rise to sects whose practices are far from admitting 



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any apology IWe if, according to Dubois (i. 154), a sect 
called Vtra-Saiva, who reject altogether the authority of 
the Vedas and the other sacred works of the Hindus, who 
deny the distinction of casts, maintaining that the linga 
renders all men equal ; even a Vaisya, who embraces this 
doctrine, is, in their opinion, equal to a Br&hraana. They 
state that where the linga exists, there is also the throne 
of the deity, without distinction of ranks and persons ; and 
that the humble hut of the labourer where this sacred sign 
exists, is much above the sumptuous palace where it is not 
to be found. This doctrine, which is in direct opposition to 
the customs of the Hindus, has never had many followers. 

To continue the account of his adventures : Siva marries 
Pirvati, and lives with her in the midst of the eternal snows 
of Mount Kail&sa. His heaven is however one of the most 
splendid in Hindu mythology, and a description of it maybe 
found in Ward's • View' (i. 30) ; it is a translation from the 
Kritya Tatwa, There also are his two sons ; Ganesa, the 
leader of the heavenly choristers, and, as Vigneswara, the 
god of difficulties, whose head is that of an elephant; and 
Karttkeya, the six-faced god of war. It is there that he 
was thus addressed by Brahma and the other gods : — ' I 
know that thou, O Lord, art the eternal Brahm, that seed 
which, being received in the womb of thy Sakti (aptitude to 
conceive), produced this universe; lhat thou, united with 
thy Sakti, dost in sport create the universe from thy own 
substance, like the web from the spider.' Here it was that 
he reduced to ashes the 'flowery-bowed mind-bewitcher ' 
K£ma (the god of love), pierced by whose arrows he had 
neglected to avenge the wrong doneto him and his consort by 
his father-in-law Daksha. On the top of Kail&sa it is that 
the worshippers of Siva will be admitted to the sports of the 
inhabitants, where M ahaMeva invented for the amusement of 
his bride the heavenly dance, to which his faithful attendant 
Nandi plays the musical accompaniment. There lie before 
the door his vehicle, the white bull, and the tiger on which 
his consort rides. Though wanting all the splendours of 
the Swarga (Indra's heaven), the abode of Siva, when drawn 
in the glowing colours of the East, is no less gratifying. 
From thence he is supposed to bless his worshippers, • when, 
with PArvatt on his knees, he, the lord of the world, on 
whose brow shines the moon throwing its beams over the 
mountain of the north, deigns to allow the Suras and 
Asuras (gods and daemons) to wear for their frontal orna- 
ment ihe reflection of the radiance of the nails of his feet, 
and the Ganga, rushing from the top of his head, refreshes 
the air of his sacred dwelling' (Katnd Sart't Sdgara). This 
is a favourite subject among the Hindu painters, and we 
must allow that their conception of it is generally good and 
well executed. 

The religious service is the same as that which is used at 
the worship of Siva under his other names. In performing the 
linga-puja, for that is the Sanscrit name for sacrifice or wor- 
ship, all its various parts arc performed in due order. The 
directions for it may be found in the Lainga-Purdna (i. 25), 
translated by Kennedy (p. 306) : — * Having bathed in the 
prescribed manner, enter the place of worship ; and having 
performed three suppressions of breath [Yoga], medi- 
tate on that god who has three eyes, five heads, ten arms, 
and is of the colour of pure crystal, arrayed in costly gar- 
ments, and adorned with all kinds of ornaments : and having 
thus fixed in thy mind the real form of Maheswara, proceed 
to worship him with the proper prayers and hymns. First 
sprinkle the place and utensils of worship with a bunch of 
darbha dipped in perfumed water, repeating at the same 
time the sacred monosyllable Om, and arrange all the uten- 
sils and other things required in the prescribed order ; then 
in due manner repeating the proper invocations, prayers, 
and hymns, preceded by the sacred word Om, prepare the 
offerings. For the Padiam, they should consist of Ushiram 
(root of the Andropogon muricatus), sandal and similar 
sweet-smelling woods, &c. Having then with due rites pre- 
pared a seat, invoke with the prescribed prayers the presence 
of Pararaeswara, and present to him the padiam, the dchatna- 
riiyam, and argyha. Next bathe the linga with perfumed 
waters, the panchagavyam (five produces of the cow), cla- 
rified butter, honey, the juice of the sugar-cane, and, lastly, 
pour over it a pot of pure water consecrated by the requisite 
prayers. Having thus purified it, adorn it with clean gar- 
ments and a sacrificial string, and then offer (lowers, per- 
fumes, frankincense, lamps, fruits, and different kinds of 
prepared eatables and ornaments. Thus worship the lingam 
with the prescribed offerings, invocations, prayers, and 



hymns, and by circumambulating it, and by prostrating 
thyself before Siva represented under this symbol.' For 
an explanation of the technical terms here employed, we 
refer to Dubois (i. 199). 

The PurSnas which the worshippers of Siva are most 
acquainted with, and which have more or less of a Saiva 
bias, are the M&tsya, Kaurma, Saiva, Lainga, Skhanda, 
and Agneya, to all of which the term of T&masa, or works ot 
darkness, is given. The Padma-Purilna contains the 
thousand names of Siva at length, and is better known than 
the others. None of them however have yet been published, 
and the reader will have to judge of the general tendency 
of these works from the extracts that we have given. It is 
remarked that they are not so popular as the Pur&nas, which 
contain the narratives of Vishnu's wonderous deeds, and 
that they have not found their Way into the modern litera- 
ture of India. If therefore the thousand visible manifesta- 
tions of Siva's presence on earth, under as many different 
names, are known to the present Hindus by tradition orfly, 
we shall not be surprised that they united them all in one 
common typification by means of the linga. There are how- 
ever a few exceptions. A form of Siva which is especially 
worshipped by the lower orders, who consider him as the 
destroyer of children, is known under the name of FancM- 
nana ; it is a misshapen stone, anointed and painted, and 
then placed under trees. Another form which is still pre- 
served is that of the Kcllurdya, the god of forests. He is 
represented as sitting on a tiger, and carrying a bow and 
arrows. The woodcutters worship him to insure protection 
from wild beasts. These numerous names of Siva have led 
Europeans into a notion contrary to that which induced the 
Hindus to make the linga the general type for all the forms 
of this god ; they naturally enough supposed each of his 
numerous names and pagodas to belong to a distinct and 
separate deity. Hence the erroneous notion about poly- 
theism in India, whilst it is evident, even from the few pas- 
sages we have quoted, that the original monotheism of 
Hindu religion had in the progress of time become pan- 
theism, which is prevalent all over the East. Even at 
present the follower of Siva denies the divinity of Vishnu, 
and vice versd ; although both these gods, now repre- 
senting the Supreme Being, were only types of divine 
qualities attributed to the Trimfirti. But the allegory 
eventually acted too strongly on the imagination of the 
people. Brahma, as creator, had finished his work, and 
could not with propriety act any more. Siva therefore and 
Vishnu were destined to do all that fancy could suggest; 
but still MahSdeva is the only god to the Saivas. whilst 
NarSyana is the one chosen by the Vaishnavas. For this 
we have the express woTds of the Radha Tantra, which says 
that the form of Arddhanareswara (half man, half woman) 
was assumed by Siva in order to prove that he was the one 
Brahma, in whom both the female and male powers are 
united. (Rolle, i. 15; Bohlen, i. 150.) This notion of the 
animating and recipient principles being united in one, has 
been embodied in the statue termed Arddhanart ; one half 
of Siva, from head to foot, bears all the ornaments of PSr- 
vatt or Bh&vanf ; the other is exactly the same as that in 
which he is usually exhibited. The Vyaghra (tiger) of 
K&lt is also seen under the female half of this symbol, and 
the bull Nandi lies at the foot of the man portion of 
Siva. 

Sects of Saivas. — The Dandis are separated into two 
classes. 1, The Dandis proper are the only legitimate re- 
presentatives of the fourth asrama, or mendicant life, into 
which the Hindu is to enter after passing through the pre- 
vious stages of student, householder, and hermit. (Manu, 
vi. 33.) They worship Siva as Bhairava ; the ceremony ot 
initiation consists in a small incision being made in the inner 
part of the knee, and in drawing the blood of the novice 
as an acceptable offering to the god. 2, The Dasndmi 
Dandis admit only Brahmans into their fraternity, and are 
the primitive members of the Dandi order. S&nkara, the 
teacher of the caste, has perpetuated his influence by writ- 
ings, the best of which are his Bh ashy as, or Commentaries 
on the Sfitras (aphorisms) of Vy&sa, and on the Bhagavad- 
Gtta. They are distinguished by carrying a small dand (or 
wand), whence they derive their name, and a piece of cloth 
dyed with red ochre. They shave their hair and beard: 
wear only a cloth round their loins ; and subsist upon food 
obtained ready dressed from the houses of the Brahmanas. 
Their principal study is that of the Vedanta works. {At. 
Res., xvii. 169.) 



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l The other sects are the Raudras, Ugras, Bhdktas, Jan- 
gamas, Pasupatas, and others, each of which wears the linga 
on some part of the dress or person, and are distinguished 
from each other accordingly. This sign is often worn in 
small cases of silver or brass. (Dubois, i. 147.) Their 
occupations are generally similar to those of the Dandis 
(for the principal points in which they differ, see Vishnu). 
Their scriptural authorities are the Siva-Gita, Siva-sanhita, 
Siva-harasya, Rudra Saraoha Tantra, and a great number 
of Tantras which are little known. 

Among the sects of Siva there are women who are de- 
voted to the service of their gods, under the name of spouses 
of the gods. They are called linga-vadbvas, and wear the 
stamp of the linga on their thigh. Although known to be 
the concubines of the priests, they enjoy considerable 
respect (Dubois, i. 179.) 

Among the chief places of pilgrimage sacred to Siva, is 
Kasi, or Benares, which contains the finest temple, known 
under the name of the Pagoda of Vis'wes'wara. Chandra 
Sekhara, a mountain near Chittaganga, on which stands a 
temple of Siva, is another place of pilgrimage. The surface 
of a pool of water at this place is said to emit inflammable 
air, from the fire of which pilgrims kindle their burnt offer- 
ings. According to a statement of Ward (ii. 130), Ekam- 
rakanana, a place on the borders of Orissa, contains 6000 
temples. Not less than 70,000 or 80,000 people are said to 
visit this place at the drawing of the car of Jagann&lha, when 
all castes eat together. 

Of the festivals of Siva the chief is that called Siva- 
ratri. It lasts three days, which are employed in perform- 
ing various rites before the linga, which they wash four 
times. The occasion of this is the Bhavishya-Purdna.: ' A 
bird-catcher detained in a forest in a dark night climbed a 
Bilwa-tree, under which was an image of the linga; by 
shaking the boughs of the tree the leaves and drops of dew 
fell upon the image; with which Siva was so much pleased, 
that he declared the worship of the linga on that night 
should be received as an act of unbounded merit.' (Ward, 
ii. 20 ; Dubois, ii. 328 and 530.) This takes place on the 
14th of the iucrease of the moon in February. For the 
other festivals common to both sects, see Vishnu. The 
Monday is generally consecrated to Nandi (Siva's bull), and 
no work is done. 

The shape of the temples of Siva does not differ from 
those of the other gods. The chief entrance into the great 
temple is by a high massive pyramid, the top of which has 
generally the form of a crescent ; it invariably faces the 
east. Beyond the gate there is a large court, at the farther 
extremity of which another gate leads through a pyramid 
of less height, but of the same form. A small yard separates 
it from the temple of the idol. In the middle of it there is 
either a huge bull or a linga carved in stone, raised on a 
pedestal, or put under a canopy supported by four pillars. 
This is the first object of adoration to the visitors, who then 
pass through a low narrow door into the inside of the temple. 
This door is the only passage for light and air, there being 
no windows. A lamp, which burns night and day, gives 
a tolerable light. The interior of the building is gene- 
rally divided into two parts, sometimes into three, the first 
of which is the most spacious, and is destined to receive the 
people ; the second, or the adytum, in which the idol re- 
sides, is much smaller and darker, and generally shut, the 
door being opened only by the officiating priest, who, with 
some of his attendants, has alone the right of entering this 
mysterious place for the purpose of washing the image, and 
dressing and bringing offerings to it. This part is often 
built in the shape of a vault, but it is so low as to make a 
prolonged stay in it rather oppressive. 

Among the trees sacred to Siva the chief are the Vepu 
and the Bilwa, the leaves of which are often brought as 
offerings to the god. The first of these trees has to undergo 
the singular ceremony of being married to the Aswata (the 
holy fig-tree) ; the formalities are much the same as those 
which take place at the marriages of the Br4hmanas. Siva 
himself is said to be the stem of the Aswata-tree, of which 
Brahma is the root and Vishnu the branches. Besides the 
Vepu and the Bilwa, there are numberless inanimate objects 
sacred to Siva. 

It has o 1 ready been mentioned that the hull is the ani- 
mal which enjoys the greatest veneration from the Saivas, 
and to which a day in the week is consecrated. 

The worshippers of Siva are distinguished from the rest 
of the Hindus by burying their dead bodies, instead of burn- 



ing them. The obsequies 'are performed in the following 
manner, if the deceased is a Saiva Sanhyasi * — The corpse is 
deposited, with its legs crossed, in a large basket made of 
bamboo, which four Br&hmanas carry to the grave, which is 
dug in the neighbourhood of a river or pond. It is about 
six feet deep, and of a circular form. They cover the bottom 
of it with a thick layer of salt, upon which the deceased is 
placed in a sitting position ; the space between him and the 
sides' of the grave is then filled with salt up to the chin of 
the corpse, with the view of holding up the head so as not 
to allow of its being moved. A great number of cocoa-nuts 
are then thrown against it until the skull is quite broken, 
when they throw salt upon the place so as to hide entirely 
the fractured head. They then erect over the grave a 
kind of tumulus, an elevation about three feet high, on 
the top of which a linga of two feet, made of clay, is placed, 
and immediately consecrated by the mantras (incanta- 
tions) of the Brdhmanas, who present to it kindled lamps, 
flowers, incense, bananas, and other offerings. This cere- 
mony is performed with the accompaniment of sacked 
hymns, which are sung by those who are present at the 
burial. At the termination of this discordant concert, a i it 
is termed by Dubois, he who presides at the ceremony goes 
three times round the linga, inclines himself before it, and 
expresses his hope ' that by virtue of the sacrifice offered to 
the linga, the deceased may be agreeable to Siva, and that 
being once received by Brahma (paramdtma, the universal 
soul) he may not be obliged to be born again.' During two 
days which follow this ceremony, offerings are brought to 
the linga every morning, and the sacred mantras are re- 
peated. A year afterwards the ceremony is performed 
again, but with less expense to the family of the de- 
ceased. 

It has been mentioned in the course of this article, that 
nothing indecent occurred at the festivals in honour of Siva, 
or in worshipping his type the sacred linga; but since so 
much has been said in support of an assertion tending to 
throw doubt upon the strict observance of all the rules of 
decency, and to identify the practices of the linga wor- 
shippers with the phallic ceremonies of the Greeks, it 
seems proper to state what may have occasioned this 
report. 

There is indeed in India a sect, which some writers have 
stated to belong to the Saivas, whilst others describe them 
as votaries of Vishnu; others again, and apparently with 
more reason, speak of them as? independent of either : they 
are called S&ktas, and adore the female organ of generation 
under the type of the yoni (pudendum muliebre, a figure 
of stone or wood in the shape of a heart). Their name 
Sdkta is derived from Sakti, which means power, aptitude* 
and is the name of Siva's consort. 

These S&ktas seem to found their religious belief on a pas- 
sage in one of the Upanishads to the Atharvan-Veda, quoted 
by Windischmann, p. 847 : * Voluptatem in amplexu foeminro, 
ct voluptatem emissionis et voluptatem acquireudi nati faustt, 

3ui desiderium patris post mortem ejus adimpleat, et gau- 
ium quod in illo tempore simul proven it, etiam Brahma 
esse qui scit oportet eum meditari de ilia (t a cum ilia yogam 
inire);' and certainly in some of their festivals they com- 
mit great excesses. Dubois, an eyewitness, states ex- 
pressly that they are held in honour of Vishnu (i. 402). 
The ceremony of the Sakti-puja is performed at night with 
more or less secrecy, a minute description of which is given 
by Dubois. We shall content ourselves with observing that 
the least odious of these orgies are those where they limit 
themselves to drinking and eating all that is forbidden them 
by their Saatras, and where men and women violate the most 
sacred rules of decency. This is the only instance where the 
worship of the generating principle has been made the pretext 
for the most revolting orgies, where the idea degenerated in 
the same manner as it did in Rome and Greece. There 
too the principle was the same— a highly philosophical and 
moral idea. The doctrines of the Egyptians laid the founda- 
tion of the Eleusinian mysteries; Isis became Demeter, 
Orus the Bacchus Iacchus. That same Isis was the Sakti 
of the Hindus : the notion which this Sanscrit word conveys 
suits exactly the description of the Egyptian goddess by 
Plutarch. According to him Isis was the generative power 
(Svvapic), which lay dormant until Osiris's vivifying prin- 
ciple had reproduced himself by her in his son Horus. The 
same idea was in Plato's mind when he said that nature was 
composed of three things, and could be represented by a 
triangle. There are still some passages of Greek and Ro- 



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man writers which prove that the worship of the phallus had 
in other places been as pure as that of the linga. Tacitus, for 
instance (Hist^ ii. 3), describes a linga in the temple of Pa- 
phian Venus without being aware of it; these are his 
words:— 'Simulacrum de» non effigie humana; continuus 
orbis latiore initio tenuem in ambitum, metes modo ex- 
stirgens, et ratio in obscuro;' and Rolle, ii. 342, says, 
without mentioning his authority, 'It was the custom of 
the Greeks to put phalli on the tombs, that the producti- 
vity of nature, extinct, or rather, stopped for a short time by 
death, might take a new life/ This coincides exactly with 
the ceremony observed by the Saivas at their funerals ; it 
does not appear however what kind of images were used 
upon this occasion ; but those whioh Pliny (xix. 4) men- 
tions, and which he calls satyrica signa, must have differed 
from those which are described as belonging to the Greeks. 
Another circumstance which is remarkably like the practice 
of the Hindus which we have mentioned, is the custom of 
wearing phalli in small silver cases to protect children against 
fascinations, as stated by Varro (Ling. Lat., vi. 5, p. 99, Blp.). 
Other traces of the linga, as considered by the Hindus, may 
be found in Socrates (Hist. Eccl n 5, 1 7), where he relates that 
at the destruction of a temple of Serapis in Alexandria a 
number of signs were found, the purpose of which was not 
understood; among them there was one in the shape of a 
cross, which the heathens stated to be the symbol of a 
future life. The Christians, he continues, by the means of this 
cross made a great number of proselytes. Now this cross 
is the same by which we mark the planet Venus ( $ ), and 
which, when first seen, was supposed to mean the key to 
the mysteries. Jablonsky was tho first who understood 
its real import, when be expressed himself thus: 'Cruci 
ansatse sive phallo adoo similis est lingam illud Brahma- 
num ut ovum ovo similiuB esse nequeat. 

For the description of the degraded phallic worship we 
must refer to the 2nd vol., pp. 257-274, of the ' Indian An- 
tiquities ' of T. Maurice, who traces the origin of the linga 
worship back to Egypt, and gives a faithful paraphrase of 
the account contained in Diodorus Sieulus, by which he only 
proved how little he knew the Hindu view of the subject. 

The rage for identifying the gods of the Eastern nations 
with those of the West has not spared Siva. He was 
Bacchus, and Saturn, and Pluto ; in fact, he was said to be 
almost the entire pantheon of Greece and Rome and Egypt 
Neither is this to be wondered at, seeing that the Greeks 
and Latins ascribed different attributes to different deities. 
The Hindus have only one to whom to ascribe all attributes. 
Siva is also, and it appears originally, the representative of 
fire. This element penetrates earth and water, represented 
by Brahma and Vishnu, imparts to them some of its vigour, 
develops their qualities, and brings everything in nature to 
that state of increase, maturity, and perfection which they 
would not attain without it. But ceasing to act beneficially 
on the created things, they perish : this agent of reproduc- 
tion, when free and visible, consumes the body, the compo- 
sition of which he himself had effected : to this quality he 
owes bis title of god of destruction. 

The reader who may wish to see the connection of the 
Hindu gods with those of Greece and Rome will find ample 
materials in the papers which Col. Wilford inserted in the 
earlier volumes of the 'Asiatic Researches:' they cannot 
however be implicitly relied on. 

(Vans Kennedy, Researches into Ancient and Hindu 
Mythology ; Ward, View of the Religion, Literature, <J«. 
of India; Wilson, Vishnu Purdna — Oxford Lectures; 
Rolle, Recherchessur Bacchus et Us Mystcres ; P. von Boh- 
len, Das Alte Indiwi; Kindersley, Specimen of Hindu Litera- 
ture ; Moore, Hindu Pantheon ; Asiatic Researches ; Dubois, 
Mccurs, <J-c. des Peujples de I 'Inde.) 

SIVAS, or SIWAS, a town in Asia Minor, on the north 
bank of the river Kiail-Irmak, in 39° 25' N. lat. and 36° 
55' E. long. ; 165 geographical miles south- west by west 
from Trebizond, and 87 north-east from Kaisariyeh. It is 
the capital of a pashalic which comprehends the whole east- 
ern part of Asia Minor, and which still bears the name of 
Rum, or Rumiyah, which was applied to the whole Turkish 
empire before its expansion. The valley of the Kizil-Irmak, 
tbe antient Halys, here spreads out into a broad and fertile 
plain. The situation being level, with the exception of only- 
one small circular elevation in 'the south-west, the whole city 
is seen to much advantage when approached from the north. 
It is interspersed with trees, without being buried in them, 
like most of the towns in these parts. Tho great number 



of chimneys seen above the house-tops indicate that the 
winter is severe ; and the inhabitants affirm that it is as 
cold as at Erz-rum. The houses are well-built, partly 
tiled, partly flat-roofed, and intermingled with gardens. 
These, with the numerous minarets, give a cheerful aspect 
to the place. Tbe bazaars are extensive and well stocked 
with goods, including many of British manufacture. The 
consumption of Sivas itself, and the circumstance of its fur- 
nishing supplies to many places, causes its transit-trade to 
be extensive. Sivas is inhabited by about 6000 families, of 
whom 1000 or 1100 are Armenians, and the rest Moslems. 
The place was once called Cabira, a name that was changed 
to Diopolis by Pompev, and subsequently to Sebaste. 
Sivas is a corruption of the word Sebaste. It was the theatre 
of the great contest, in 1401 a.d., between Bajaset and Ti- 
raour, in which the former was defeated. An Armenian his- 
torian states that the town then contained 1 20,000 souls ; 
and that it capitulated to Timour, on condition that their 
lives should be spared, which condition he most barbarously 
violated. 

(Mr. Johnston's Journal, in the American Missionary 
Herald, Oct 1837; and Mr. Consul Suter's Journal, in 
London Geographical Journal, 1841.) 

SIWAH is the modern name of the oasis in the Sahara, 
which was called by the Greeks and Romans Ammonium, 
Ammonia, or Aramoniaca, from the celebrated oracle and tem- 
ple of Jupiter Aromon, with whose worship the Greeks be- 
came acquainted through the Cyren roans. The town of 
Siwah is in 29° 12' N. lat. and 26° 17' E. long., and is about 
160 English miles from the sea-coast, and twelve days 
journey from Cairo. The distances between the temple 
of Ammon and several of the Egyptian towns are stated 
by the antients. thus: from Memphis it was twelve days 
journey (Plin., Hist. Nat, v. 5.); from the village of Apis, 
five days' (Strabo, xvii., p. 799); and from Thebes, ten days' 
journey (Herod., iv., 181). The whole oasis is about fif- 
teen geographical miles in length and twelve in breadth ; 
but Diodorus (xvii. 50) says that the length and breadth are 
about 50 stadia, which would only make a little more than 
five geographical miles. Nearly the whole of the oasis has 
a fruitful soil, and is watered by many springs of fresh as 
well as of salt water, the latter of which probably arise from 
the masses of salt mentioned by Herodotus. The aspect of the 
oasis is that of an undulating country, and in the north it is 
surrounded by high limestone hills. The antients speak of 
three things as remarkable in this oasis : first, a well, called 
the Well of the Sun, of which the water was warm in the 
morning and evening, and cold at mid-day (Herod., iv. 181 ; 
Diodor., xvii. 50 ; Lucr., vi. 849, &c. ; Pomp. Mela, i. 8) ; 
secondly, a large palace of the antient kings of the Ammo- 
nians, which was surrounded by a triple wall, and situated 
in the centre of the oasis (Diodor., xvii. 50) ; and thirdly, the 
temple of Jupiter Ammon. which was surrounded by a 
shady grove. Cambyses made an unsuccessful attempt to 
take the Ammonium (Herod., iii., 25) ; and it was visited by 
Alexander the Great [Alexander.] In tbe reign of tbe 
Ptolemies and under the Romans the oasis belonged to 
that nomos or province which was called Libya (Ptolera., iv. 
5). In the time of Strabo (xvii., p. 8 13) the oracle was al- 
most entirely neglected. In the middle ages the Arabs 
called this oasis Santariah. 

The Ammonium, during its most flourishing state in an- 
tient times, seems to have been well peopled ; and the in- 
habitants are said to have consisted of three distinct tribes. 
The southern and western parts were inhabited by Ethio- 
pians, the middle part by tho Nasamones, and the north by 
a nomadic tribe of Libyans. No town however is mentioned 
in the oasis, but it is stated that its inhabitants lived in 
villages (Diodor., xxvii. 50). The description which Dio 
dorus gives of the beautiful climate of the oasis, and of its 
fertility, especially in fruit, is still applicable to it: nearly 
the whole oasis forms one uninterrupted succession of mea- 
dows, fields, and palm-groves; and the gardens produce an 
abundance of the most delicious fruits. The water however 
is said to be injurious to camels. 

The present inhabitants consist chiefly of Berbers mixed 
with negroes, and all are very zealous Mohammedans. 
Since the year 1820 they have been subject to the viceroy of 
Egypt, to whom they pay an annual tribute of 2000 camel- 
loads of dates and 10,000 Spanish piasters. Their jealousy 
of foreigners has frustrated several attempts of Europeans 
to investigate the interior of the oasis. The principal placa 
in it bears the name of Siwah, and has about 8000 inhabit 



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ant* This, aa well aa the several other smaller places in 
the oasis, are built upon eminences, and surrounded by 
walls to protect them from hostile inroads. The houses are 
all wretched huts, and the streets narrow and dark. 

Ruins of the anlient temple of Ammon, as well as of a 
wall by which it appears to have been surrounded, are still 
visible. The paintings, sculptures, and hieroglyphics which 
are still preserved on the walls, are copied and described in 
the work of Minutoli. There are also ruins of other places, 
especially in the neighbourhood of the modern village of 
Shargiah, which probably mark the sites of the antient 
villages. The Well of the Sun is also near Shargiah, and 
is still remarkable for its varying temperature. Catacombs 
cut in the rooks have been discovered in four different parts 
of the oasis* 

In the year 1820 Baron Minutoli undertook a journey to 
Upper Egypt and the oasis of Siwah ; and some years after, 
his account of it was edited by Tolken, under the title 
' Reise au dem Tempel des Jupiter Ammon und nach Ober- 
agypten,* Berlin, 1 824, 4 to. This work contains a map of 
the oasis. In 1827 Tolken published a supplement to this 
work, in which he endeavours to explain the archaeological 
and mythological points which are mentioned in the work 
of Minutoli. 

SIX CLERKS. The office of Six Clerks is an office of 
great antiquity connected with the Court of Chancery, pro- 
probably as antient as the Court itself. The number of 
the Six Clerks was limited to six as long ago as the 1 2th 
Rich. II. The history of this office illustrates the mischief 
of attempting to regulate the supply of legal services to the 
client. It exhibits an instance of the principles of inter- 
ference and monopoly destroying two successive classes of 
officers, in spite of the strongest support which the law and 
the courts could give to them. 

The Six Clerks were originally the only attorneys of the 
Court. By the common law any person who was impleaded 
in any of the courts of law was bound to appear in person, 
unless be obtained the king's warrant, or a writ from Chan- 
cery enabling him to appear by attorney, * by reason whereof,' 
says Lord Coke (1 Inst., 128), 'there were but few suits.' 
There are many early statutes still in force enacted for the 
purpose of empowering the subject to appoint an attorney. 
The earliest statute is that of Merton (a.d. 1235), whereby 
it is ' provided and granted that every freeman which oweth 
suit to the county, tithing, hundred, and wapentake, or to 
the court of his lord, may freely make his attorney to do 
those suits for him.' Subsequent Acts extended this pri- 
vilege to other parties and other courts ; but to this day it 
would appear that by the strict law of the land, except so 
far as it has fallen into desuetude, persons in good health, 
in pleas relating to money, are bound to appear in person. 
None of these statutes however extended to Courts of 
Equity, but, as far as appears, every person who was de- 
sirous of relief, or compelled to defend himself in the Court 
of Chancery, was obliged to employ one of the Six Clerks as 
his representative. 

In early times great exertions were made to limit the 
number of attorneys who were allowed to practise in each 
court The increase of litigation which accompanied the 
increase of property was looked on as an evil to be checked 
in every possible method ; and the method most relied on 
was that of limiting the number of legal practitioners. The 
well-known statute of 1455 (33 Hen. VI., c. 7., which is still 
in force) may be referred to as an instance. It recites a 
practice of contentious attorneys to stir up suits for their 
private profits, and enacts that there shall he but six com- 
mon attorneys in Norfolk, six in Suffolk, and two in Norwich, 
to be elected and admitted by the chief-justice. In 1564 
a rule was made by the Court of Common Pleas, that every 
attorney of that court • should satisfie himself with the 
suits in the same, and forbear to be towards any causes as 
plaintiff in any other the Queen's Majestie*s courts here at 
Westminster.' As late as the year 1616 a rule was made, 
* that the number of attorneys of each court be viewed, to 
have them drawn to a competent number in each court, 
and the superfluous number to be removed.' These various 
regulations, so far as they were enforced, could only have 
been detrimental to the public ; and as regards the Courts 
of King's Bench and Common Pleas, they seem not to have 
been lon£ insisted on. As to the Exchequer, the principle 
of monopoly was continued in force down to the year 1830, 
until which time eighteen attorneys only were admitted to 
I rnctise in it. As a consequence, that court was, before 



the year 1830, scarcely at all resorted to. Since that time 
more actions are commenced in it than in any other court. 
In the year 1632 a new principle was introduced into the 
Common-Law Courts, and all persons wishing to be attor- 
neys were required to serve an attorney under articles for 
six years (since reduced to five). The Six Clerks' Office 
however did not adopt this method until long after. They 
got over the difficulty by admitting under-clerks, afterwards 
called sworn clerks, to practise in their names, and they 
shared in some way or other the profits with them. In 
1548 an inquisition was appointed, to inquire into the sup- 
posed exactions and abuses of the Court of Chancery, and 
the fees then payable for the business of this office. A copy 
of their presentment was printed by order of the House of 
Commons, 8th February, 1831. It shows that all the fees 
payable for business done in this office were at that time 
payable to the Six Clerks ; and it contains no allusion what- 
ever to the under-clerks as being in any way known as 
officers of the court They seem at that time to have held 
a position with regard to the Six Clerks, quite analogous to 
that the solicitors for a long period were under with regard 
to the sworn clerks, and to' have been the real persons who 
prosecuted the causes.. They must have been numerous, 
as in 1596 an order was made limiting the number that 
each Six-Clerk should be allowed to have under biro. Soon 
after this the Six Clerks, instead of taking clients according 
to the clients' choice, agreed to divide the business coming 
from time to time into court among themselves alphabeti- 
cally. This arrangement shows that the scheme of a limited 
number of legalised attorneys for the Court of Chancery had 
now entirely ceased to operate, and had been converted into 
a mere legal pretext to enable these officers to tax all who 
were driven to such Chancery Court for justice. This re- 
gulation for dividing the business was, after some years, set 
aside on petition of the master of the rolls to the crown* as 
a monopoly and a breach of the liberty of the subject In 
1630 the office of Six-Clerk was, if not a sinecure, at least an 
appointment of great value. From a ridiculous story told 
about Sir Julius Cmsar, the master of the rolls, in Claren- 
don's * Rebellion' (vol. i., p. 52), it appears that the appoint- 
ment at that time sold for so large a sum as 6000/. About 
this time the under or sworn clerks, or clerks in court (for 
all these names apply to them), began to be frequently 
mentioned in the orders regukting the court, and soon 
grew into a very important body. The under-clerks were 
the parties who knew the merits of the different causes, and 
were interested in getting the work done, so as to gain the 
fees from the clients. The Six Clerks had begun to sink 
into the lethargy of sinecurists. Many orders were made 
to spur them iuto activity, but all in vain. The following 
may be instanced — the 10th of Lord Coventry's orders 
(1635) : ' The Six Clerks, who are the only attorneys of this 
court, ought to inform themselves continually of the state 
and proceeding of their clients' causes, whereby they may 
be able to defend their clients, and to give account to the 
court, as the attorneys in all other courts do, and not leave 
the care and knowledge thereof upon their under-clerks, 
who attend not in court; and the clients, and such as follow 
their cause, are to acquaint their attorneys for that purpose.* 
Order of 1650 : * Whereas only Mr. Hales, one of the Six 
Clerks of this court, gave his attendance this morning at 
the sitting of the court, at the entering into the hearing of 
the cause wherein Kitchin is plaintiff against Meredith 
defendant, and the rest of the Six Clerks made default: it u 
therefore this present day ordered, that such of the six 
clerks who so made default of their attendance and service 
to this court, at the beginning of that cause, be fined ten 
shillings a-piece to the poor, and the usher of the court is 
to receive the same to the use aforesaid.' 

The Six Clerks, in a paper given in by them to the Chan- 
cery Commissioners of 1825 (kept., Appx. B, No. 20), after 
communicating their present duties, state that * From the 
first establishment of the Six Clerks, up to the Rebellion in 
the reign of King Charles I., many other important duties 
were attached to their office. During the usurpation bow- 
ever a part of the duties was assigned to certain new offi- 
cers entitled the sworn clerks, who have ever since continued 
the execution thereof.' The Six Clerks in this statement 
have fixed rather too early a date to the legal transfer. Great 
efforts were made for reform of legal procedure during the 
Commonwealth. Among others there was an ordinance for 
abolishing the office of Six-Clerk in 1654, but it terminated 
with the other ordinances of the Commonwealth, at the Re 



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toration, and the judges endeavoured vigorously to reinstate 
the Six Clerks in their old position. By an order of Lord 
Clarendon, of 1665, made * On taking into consideration the 
manifold disorders and undue practices which of the late 
times have crept into the Six Clerks' Office, to the great 
dishonour of this court, the obstruction of justice, and the 
damage of the client,' the alphabetical division was re- 
enacted. ' And because it is very manifest that these mis- 
demeanors and enormities are gotten into the office of the 
Six Clerks by the liberty and licence which the infe^r clerks 
have of late assumed to themselves,' the numbers were to 
bo limited to twelve under-clerks to each Six-Clerk. It is 
obvious however that the decrepitude of a rotten constitu- 
tion rendered these efforts nugatory. In orders about this 
time the under-clerks are sometimes referred to incidentally 
as the ' attorneys of the parties,' though it is strongly re- 
peated that ' the Six Clerks are the only attorneys of this 
court.' In 1668 the Six Clerks submitted to their fate; an 
order was made fully recognising the under-clerks, and di- 
viding the office-fees between them and the Six Clerks. The 
Six Clerks, having secured their own monopolv, had, by the 
year 1688, become the agressors, and had schemed to in- 
crease their income by admitting other persons, as well as 
the sworn or under clerks, to practise in their names. This 
was a bone of contention for many years. Before 1693 the 
under-clerks had obtained the privilege of filling up all the 
vacancies in the office by taking articled clerks themselves. 
From this time the office of Six-Clerk has become a complete 
sinecure, and the Six Clerks are only mentioned in the court's 
annals with respect to the fees that they are entitled to 
demand from suitors, as door-keepers, as it were, to the court. 
Their business, such as it is, for a long time has been 
managed by one or two piivate clerks, employed as clerks 
to the whole body of Six Clerks; and the Six Clerks have 
signed the necessary documents for each other, each being 
at the offices for two months only in the year. The office 
is virtually abolished by Lord Brougham's Act, 3 & 4 
Wra. IV., o. 94, s. 28, which enacts that vacancies shall not 
be filled up till the number of Six Clerks is reduced to two. 
Nearly the same story has to be told over again with re- 
ference to the sworn clerks. For a long time these under- 
clerks were the principal solicitors of the court ; and until 
the middle of the last century the chief business of the 
court was transacted by them without the intervention of 
a solicitor. The same principle of monopoly has with them 
led to nearly the results that it did with their titular superiors. 
A vested right to fees in the various stages of equity pro- 
ceedings brought about an inattention to business, which 
has led to the transfer of the prosecution of suits to the 
solicitors. 

In 1 693 a new half-official character was given to the articled 
clerks of the under-clerks. They were legalised under the 
name of • waiting clerks.' This new body soon began, as the 
following extract from an order of the master of the rolls of 
1 693 will show, to imitate towards their own masters the 
insolence which the sworn clerks had thirty years before 
shown to their superiors the Six Clerks: — ' Whereas com- 
plaint hath been made by the petition of the sworn clerks 
of this court to the right hon. the master of the rolls, that 
divers of their under-clerks have of late behaved themselves 
after a bold, insolent, rude, and disorderly manner in the 
Stx Clerks' Office, as well towards their respective masters 
• as to others the sworn clerks, and to the suitors of the court 
attending the despatch of their business there, by unman- 
nerly and abusive language, breaking of windows, cutting 
desks, breaking down seats, throwing stones and other things 
at the said sworn clerks and their clients, whereby, and 
by making rude and indecent noises, they often forced them 
to leave the said office, and caused the same to be shut up 
in the most usual time of business, and whan the court hath 
been sitting, to the great scandal thereof, and damage of 
the said sworn clerks and their clients, and contrary to the 
duty of the said under-clerks, and the antient and laudable 
usage of the said office : and whereas complaint hath been 
likewise made to His Honor by petition of the under-clerks 
that the Six Clerks do take and employ persons to be their 
waiting- clerks who have not been articled clerks, or ever 
educated and employed in the said office ; and that several 
of the sworn clerks have and do not only take more than 
one articled clerk, which they, by the rules and orders of 
the said court for the government of the said office, ought 
not to do, but do likewise carry the records out of the said 



office, and cause the same to be copied at under- rates by 
persons out of the office, rather than to allow to their under- 
clerks their due fees for copying thereof.* It was accordingly, 
amongst other things, ordered ' that no under-clerk in the 
said office shall from henceforth during the time of his 
clerkship presume to wear any sword, either in or out of the 
said office, within the oities of London or Westminster, or 
the liberties thereof; or to be covered, or wear his hat in the 
said office, in the presence of any one of the sworn clerks ; 
but that all the said under-clerks shall, during all the 
time of their respective clerkships, as well in their masters' 
seats as elsewhere in the said office, be uncovered, and 
behave themselves orderly, soberly, and with respect towards 
all the said sworn clerks and suitors of the said court : and 
in case any of the said under-clerks shall be idle in the said 
office, out of their masters' seats, they shall, upon the admo- 
nition or command of any of the said sworn clerks, imme- 
diately repair to their masters' seats, and quietly sit and 
attend their business there, from seven of the clock in the 
morning in summer, and eight in the winter, till twelve of 
the clock at noon, and from two of the clock in the after- 
noon until such time at night as their respective masters 
shall think fit.' 

There is still another class of workers of a semi-semi- 
official character, even now not recognised by the court — the 
sworn clerks' agents. These gentlemen really now perform 
almost all the remaining duties of the office Which the in- 
trusion of the office of solicitor has left to it, except taxing 
the costs ; and are paid (it would appear illegally) by some 
share of the foes received. The necessity for these agents 
seems to prove that a monopoly officer cannot work. After 
so many successive attempts by the court to have each suc- 
cessive class of officers do their duty in person, it is at last 
in the main done by gentlemen who are mere private per- 
sons, hold no official situation, and are liable in point of law 
to be turned away at any moment. 

An effort was made on the occasion of the Chancery Com- 
mission of 1825 by several eminent solicitors to get the 
offices of Six-Clerk and clerk in court abolished. It was 
broadly stated in evidence by a solicitor of celebrity that 
Mr. S. (a gentleman whose mind had failed him) was 
' quite as good a clerk in court after he was a lunatic;' and 
the expense of the office to the suitor was insisted on. The 
commission, influenced (as one of their number has lately 
declared) by Lord Eldon, stated they saw no reason to in- 
terfere with these offices ; and they have remained to the 
present day. It is now however condemned by the unani- 
mous voice of the whole profession, and its fall may be 
shortly expected. At present the client has still to use the 
Six-Clerk's name as his attorney. He therefore pays his own 
solicitor for his services ; he pays a clerk in court (and his 
partner, the real working agent) for letting the solicitor get, 
in his name, to the Six-Clerk for liberty to use the Six-Clerk's 
name, and he pays the Six-Clerk for this liberty also. 
Therefore what was once fair emolument has now become 
plunder. It is mainly to the existence of such legal abuses 
as have here been pointed out, that we must look to account 
for the astonishing fact that more suitors annually applied 
to the Court of Chancery for aid 100 years ago than do now. 
So little does personal talent affect the office of clerk in 
court, that an executor of a clerk in court can sell the prac- 
tice of his testator to another clerk in court, almost with a 
certainty that not a client will be lost, however mean may 
be the talents of the purchaser. 

The emoluments of the office have long been a subject of 
speculation among the profession of the law. They were 
represented by Lord Eldon's commission as causing 'a very 
trifling; expense to the suitors.' The accuracy of this repre- 
sentation was suspected, and orders were made on various 
occasions by the House of Commons for the Six Clerks and 
clerks in court to return tbo amount of their receipts, but 
the return could never be procured, until, in the year 1840, 
a solicitor, by a variety of calculations, demonstrated that 
the amount must be between 58,000/. and 63,000/. a year. 
The return at last has been obtained, and it turns out to 
have been, for the year 1839, 69,967/1 6s. 9<L t with some 
extra foes received by the Six Clerks not included in the 
return. (See Return, printed by order of the House of 
Commons, 1840.) The Six Clerks receive only a small 
amount of the whole sum, about 1300/. a year each. One 
of the clerks in court alone appears to be in the gross annua 1 
receipt of above 10,000/. 



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For further information as to this office, the reader is re- 
ferred to the case 'Ex-parte the Six Clerks,' 3 Vesey's 
* Reports,' 519 ; to the 'Reports of the Commissioners on 
the Offices of Courts of Justice' of 1 816 ; to the " Report of 
1825 of the Chancery Commission ;' to Beames's • Orders of 
the Court of Chancery ;' and to several recent pamphlets 
by Mr. Spence, Mr. Field, Mr. Merivale, and Mr. Waine- 
wright; and to a powerful speech on Equity Reform, 
made in the end of the session of 1840, by Mr. Pemberton, 
since published in a separate form. 

SIXTH, a musical interval, a concord, the ratio of which 
is 5 : 3. [Concord; Harmony.] 

Of the Sixth there are three kinds ; the Minor Sixth, 
the Major Sixth, and the Extreme Sharp Sixth. The 
first (e, c) is composed of three tones and two semitones ; 
the second (c, a), of four tones and one semitone ; the third 
(c, a #), of four tones and two semitones. Ex. :— 



1st. 2nd. 3rd. 



SIXTUS I. is recorded as bishop of Rome after Alexan- 
der I., about the beginning of the second century of our 
sera, but the precise epoch is not ascertained, and nothing 
more is known of him. 

SIXTUS II. succeeded Stephen I., a.d. 257. He is said 
to have been by birth an Athenian, and a philosopher of the 
Academy until be became a convert to Christianity. He 
suffered martyrdom in the persecution of the Christians 
under the emperor Valerianus, a.d. 258. 

SIXTUS III. succeeded Celestine I., a.d. 431. He en- 
deavoured, though with little success, to settle the dispute 
between Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, and John, bishop of 
Antioch, concerning the Nestorians. Several of his letters 
are contained in Constant's collection. He died in 440. 

SIXTUS IV. (Cardinal Francesco dell a Rovere), a Fran- 
ciscan monk, succeeded Paul II. in 1471. He greatly en- 
riched his nephews, or sons, according to some, one of 
whom was afterwards pope under the name of Julius II. 
He seized Citta di Castello from its lord, Niccolo Vitelli, 
and took Forli, Imola, and other places. He afterwards 
supported the conspiracy of the PaZzi against Lorenzo de' 
Medici, and his nephew Cardinal Riario was present in the 
church when Giuliano, Lorenzo's brother, was assassinated. 
The conspiracy however failed of its principal object, for 
Lorenzo was saved, and the conspirators were put to death, 
including Salviati, archbishop of Pisa, who was one of the 
leaders. Riario was saved by Lorenzo's interposition, and 
mereiy confined for a time. Sixtus, on hearing the news, 
excommunicated Lorenzo, and all the magistrates of Flo- 
rence and their abettors, for having hung the archbishop. 
The clergy of Florence took the part of Lorenzo, and being 
assembled in convocation or synod held for the occasion, 
they signed an act of accusation grounded upon depositions 
and statements of facts proving Sixtus to have been acces- 
sory to the conspiracy and the murder of Giuliano. This 
curious document, the original of which, in the hand-writing 
of Gen 1 de d'Urbino, bishop of Arezzo, exists in the archives 
of Flp.ence, is riven by Fabroui and Roscoe in their re- 
spective biographies of Lorenzo. The expressions used by 
the clergy of Florence, in speaking of the head of the 
church, are stronger than any of those used half a century 
later by Luther and the other reformers. Another docu- 
ment, drawn up by Bartolomeo Scala, chancellor of the 
republic of Florence, corroborates the statements in the 
Florentine synod, by giving an historical memorial of all 
the proceedings of that celebrated conspiracy. Popo Sixtus 
induced Ferdinand, king of Naples, to join his troops to 
the papal forces against Florence, but the Florentines 
braved the storm, until Lorenzo took the bold resolution of 
proceeding to Naples alone, to plead the cause of his 
country before King Ferdinand, in which he succeeded. 
Sixtus, being forsaken by his ally, and alarmed at the same 
time at the progress of the Turks, who had landed at 
Otranto, was fain to agree to a reconciliation with the Flo- 
rentines. In 1482 Sixtus entered into another intrigue 
with the Venetians, for the purpose of depriving Duke Er- 
cole of Este of his dominion of Ferrara, which he wished to 
bestow upon Count Girolamo Riario, another of his nephews. 



This led to a war, in which the king of Naples and the 
Florentines supported the duke of Ferrara against the 
pope and the Venetians. The emperor however interposed, 
threatening to call together a general council of the church, 
upon which Sixtus thought it advisable to detach himself 
from the Venetians, and make a separate peace with the duke 
of Ferrara. He then advised the Venetians to do the same, 
and as they disregarded his counsel, he solemnly excommu- 
nicated his late allies. In 1484 however the Venetians 
made peace also, and a few days after Sixtus died. He was 
one of the most turbulent and unscrupulous in the long 
list of pontiffs. 

SIXTUS V, (Cardinal Felice Peretti of Montalto) suc- 
ceeded Gregory XIII. in 1585. His first care was to purge 
the city and neighbourhood of Rome of the numerous 
outlaws which the supineness of }m predecessors had en- 
couraged. He resorted to summary means, he employed 
spies and armed men, and be soon extirpated by the 
sword and the halter the noxious brood. The name of 
4 Papa Sis to,' as connected with his summary justice, has 
continued proverbial at Rome to the present day. Being a 
shrewd politician, he disliked the overgrown power of Spain, 
and was not displeased at the staunch opposition which 
Philip II. received from Elizabeth of England, whom Six- 
tus however formally excommunicated as a heretic. He 
embellished Rome with numerous and useful structures, 
among others the present building of the Vatican library 
(Bocca, De Sixti V. Edificiis, in his Bibliotheca Vaticana. 
He published a new edition of the Sep tu agin t, 1587, and 
one of the Vulgate with improvements, 1590; and he him- 
self edited the works of St. Ambrose, and is said also to 
have superintended an Italian translation of the Bible, which 
was condemned by the Spanish Inquisition, between which 
body and Sixtus there was little sympathy. Sixtus died 
in August, 1589. His life has been written by Leti, Tern- 
pesti, Robardi, and others. As a temporal prince he was 
distinguished in his age. 

SIZAR, a term used in the University of Cambridge for 
a class of students who are admitted on easier terms as to 
pecuniary matters than others. These pecuniary advantages 
arise from different sources in different Colleges, and are of 
different value. Originally certain duties were required of 
the students so admitted, approaching to the character of 
menial, but these have been long discontinued. A similar 
class of students at Oxford are called Servitors. The word 
is supposed to be derived from size, which is used in the 
University to denote an allowance of provisions at the col- 
lege buttery ; and that from the verb to assize, which is 
much the same as the modern assess, which means appor- 
tion. 

SKATE. This name, as well as the term Ray, is used in 
England to designate numerous fishes with cartilaginous 
skeletons, having the body much depressed and more or 
less approaching to a rhomboidal form. The eyes and tem- 
poral orifices are on the upper surface, and the mouth, 
nostrils, branchial and anal apertures are situated on the 
under surface of the body; the tail is long and slender, 
generally furnished with two (analogues of the dorsal fins) 
and sometimes three fins, and usually armed with spines. 
The peculiar form of the skate arises chiefly from the great 
size and expansion of the pectoral fins ; these extend from 
the head to the base of the tail, and are dilated in or near 
the middle in such a manner as to give (combined with the 
pointed snout) that rhomboidal form so peculiar to these 
fishes. The jaws are as it were paved with teeth, and these 
approach more or less to a rhomboidal form, and are flat, 
but in the adult males (at least of many of the species) 
those nearest the centre assume a pointed form. 

The young of the skate, says Mr. Yarrell, are produced 
towards the latter part of the spring or during summer. 
They are deposited by the parent fish in their horny cases, 
like those of some of the sharks; but they are more 
square in form. These horny cases of the young skates are 
by some called purses, and on the coast of Cumberland have 
the name of skate-barrows, from the resemblance they 
bear to a four-handed machine by which two men carry 
goods. As the young skate increases in size, the angular 
parts of the body are curved over. 

Nine species of skates, or rays, are found on the British 
coast, the distinguishing characters of which are carefully 
pointed out in Mr. Yarrell's History of British Fishes 

SKEBN. [Christiania.] 



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SKELETON (from <rMX*a>,'I dry'), is the name applied 
to those harder parts of organized bodies which form the 
framework upon which the softer tissues are fixed. It is 
more particularly applied to the collection of bones which 
in an animal either serve as fixed points for the attachment 
of the soft parts, or form cavities for enclosing and protect- 
ing important organs, or constitute the apparatus of sup- 
port and the passive instruments of voluntary motion. 

The present article will treat of the skeleton of man, 
as a standard with which to compare those of other ani- 
mals described in the several articles on natural history 
and comparative anatomy. On this comparison of skeletons 
many of the most important facts of the latter science de- 
pend ; for the bones, being the least destructible of the 
tissues, are the most convenient organs to examine in the 
different classes of the higher animals ; and in accordance 
with the rule of the exact adaptation of all the parts of an 
organize^ body to each other, the skeleton of each animal 
affords general indications of the characters of every other 
organ in its body. And not only so; but each bone, accord- 
ing to the same rule, affords indications of the characters of 
the rest of the skeleton, and therefore, though less cer- 
tainly, of the other organs of the body. Hence it is that, 
by an examination of a part of the skeleton of an extinct 
animal, geologists are enabled to form very probable sup- 
positions of the form of the whole ; knowing by certain 
marks on the bones, that they served for the attachment of 
muscles of corresponding form and strength, and that 
these muscles were adapted for peculiar movements, which 
again were most probably employed for certain purposes 
closely connected with the mode of life and the whole 
adapted organization* of the animal. 
Fig. I. 




The human skeleton is divided into three principal parts: 
the trunk (2), the head (1), and the extremities (3 and 4). 
Neither the whole number of bones composing it, nor that 
In each main division, can be exactly stated, for many 
which are in early life separated, are subsequently united ; 
but as an approximation, the following enumeration may be 
adopted: — Cranium, 8; face, 14; internal ears, 8; vertebral 
column, 24; chest, 26; pelvis, 11 ; upper extremities, 68; 
lower extremities, 64: in the whole, 223. 

The trunk is composed of the spine or vertebral column 
P. C. No. 1368. 



(extending from a to J in the annexed Fig. 2), the chest, 
including the ribs and sternum or breast-bone (e), and the 



pehi«, the circle of bones on which the spine rests. Tne 
spine is the column of bones which, in the erect posture, 
supports the head on its summit (a), and rests with its base 
(d) upon the sacrum. It consists of 24 bones called verte- 
bral (from rerto, I turn), because it is their motion upon 
each other which enables the trunk to be turned round. 
Of the 24, the 7 upper (a to b) are railed cervical, the 12 
middle (b to c) dorsal, and the 5 lowest (c to d) lumbar, 
vertebra'. With the exception of the two first, they are all 
connected by interposed discs of a very elastic subst n e f 
the intervertebral cartilages. 

The general characters of the vertebrae may be best 
studied on one from the lumbar region; in which the fol- 
lowing parts, common to nearly all of the 24, are well 
marked : — a body, a ring, a spinous process, two transverse 
processes, four articulating processes, and four notches. In 
the annexed plate two lumbar vertebra) are represented : 
that in the figure A, as seen obliquely from behind, from 
above, and from the right side; ana that in the i g re 13, as 
seen from above and behind. 

Fig. 3. 



Voi. XXII.-L 
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The body (1) is a disk of bone with a nearly oval outline, 
larger above and below than at its middle, and having its 
greatest dimension from side to side. Its texture is spongy, 
invested with a thin layer of compact tissue. Its upper and 
lower surfaces, by which it is affixed to the two adjacent in- 
tervertebral cartilages, are nearly flat, and slightly marked 
by radiating lines. At its posterior border the oval outline is 
interrupted by a slight concavity (2), which forms a portion of 
the ring surrounding the spinal marrow, and in which there 
are several apertures larger than those on the rest of the 
body, for the exit of the veins from the interior 

To either side of the posterior part of the body, and near 
its upper border, is affixed one of the extremities of the 
arch (3) by which the ring is completed behind. It is com- 
posed of two flat laminsD, which spring from the sides of the 
body, and meet at an obtuse rounded angle in the middle 
line behind, where they bear the spinous process (5). The 
space (4) included between the body and these laminae is 
called the vertebral foramen ; it is occupied by the spinal 
chord ; it is of a somewhat triangular form, and in the 
lumbar vertebra) is of large size. 

Close to the attachments of the lamina) to the body there 
is in each of their borders a rounded notch (6) ; and when the 
vertebral are applied one on another, these notches form 
oval holes (the intervertebral foramina, see next figure (8), 
through which the spinal nerves pass, one pair going out 
between each two vertebra). [Nerve.] To the rest of the 
laminae are attached the interlaminar ligaments, or liga- 
menta subflava, bands of very elastic tissue by which the 
spaces between the adjacent arches are filled up, and the 
spinal canal completed behind, as it is by the intervertebral 
cartilages before. 

The spinous process (5) is a broad flat quadrilateral por- 
tion of bone directed horizontally backwards from the meet- 
ing of the laminaB. Its posterior border is thickened, and 
to it, as well as to the upper and lower borders, are attached 
strong ligaments binding the spinous process of each ver- 
tebra to those next above and below it. The transverse 
processes (7) project horizontally outwards on either side; 
they are thin and long, and are enlarged and rough at their 
ends, to which several strong muscles and ligaments are at- 
tached. The articulating processes are fiat and oval ; each 
has a smooth surface, by which it is connected with the 
corresponding part of the next vertebra above or below. 
The upper pair (b) are set most widely apart, and their ar- 
ticulating surfaces are concave and turned inwards; the 
lower pair (9) are nearer together, and have their articula- 
ting surfaces turned outwards. When the lumbar vertebra) 
are put together, the lower processes of each are locked 
within the upper processes of the one next below, so that 
scarcely any lateral or rotatory motion is in this part of the 
spine possible. 

The dorsal vertebral, which in the adjacent plate are 
drawn, as seen in A and B, from behind and from the left 

Fig. 4. 



side, and in C from before and from the same side, have the 
same general characters as the lumbar, but are distinguished 
from them by the following: — 

The body (1) is small but deep, and longer from before 
backwards than in any other direction ; its general outline 
is heart-shaped ; it has at each border, just in front of the 
attachment of the laminae, a shallow depression (2) ; and 
when the vertebrae are set together, the depressions on 
either side of each adjacent pair form one cavity, into which 
the head of one of the ribs (C 3) is received for articulation. 
The lamina) are broad and thick ; the vertebral foramen is 
oval and small. The spinous process (5) is long and narrow, 
and projects obliquely downwards ; those of adjacent ver- 
tebrae are imbricated at their bases {Fig. B). The transverse 
processes (6) are long and directed backwards as well as 
outwards ; each of them (except those of the two last verte- 
bra?) has a smooth surface in front of its outer extremity, by 
which it articulates with the tubercle of the corresponding 
rib. The articulating processes (7), both superior and in- 
ferior, are equally wide apart ; the former have their smooth 
surfaces turned backwards, the latter theirs forwards. The 
notches and foramina are smaller than in the lumbar ver- 
tebra). 

The cervical vertebrae, of which one is represented in the 
adjacent cut, as seen from behind and above, are distin- 
guished by the body (2) being small, broad, and shallow 




and wider above than below. In its upper surface also it 
has two elevations (1) between which the lower part of the 
vertebra next above is received. The laminae (3) of the 
arch are long and narrow, and enclose a large somewhat 
triangular vertebral foramen (4). The spinous process is 
short and bifurcated. The transverse processes (6) are 
short, horizontal, and bifurcated ; and each has a foramen 
at Us base, through which the vertebral artery passes. The 
superior articular processes have their smooth oval surfaces 
directed backwards and inwards, and they receive between 
them the inferior processes of the vertebra next above, 
whose articular surfaces are turned in the opposite direction. 
But these distinctive characters of the several sets of 
vertebrae are only general: they are merged at the ex- 
tremes of each set, the lowest dorsal being very like the 
upper lumbar, and the upper dorsal like the lowest cervical. 
Some single vertebrae, moreover, have particular characters. 
The first of the cervical set, or Atlas, is scarcely more than 
a fiat ring of bone with two long transverse processes, two 
superior articulating processes, with large oval concave sur- 
faces opposed to those of the occipital bone, and two infe- 
rior, with large flat horizontal surfaces, which articulate 
with those of the second vertebra. By the former joint the 
chief movements of depression and elevation of the head 
upon the neck are permitted ; by the latter, those of rota- 
tion. The second cervical vertebra (named axis, or V. 
dentata) has a large pointed process, which rises from 
the upper part of its body, and is enclosed in a ring formed 
by the anterior half of the Atlas, and a transverse ligament 
passing from one side to the other of its body. In this ring 
the process of the axis rotates freely ; or rather, the Atlas, 
with the head supported on it, moves round that process, 
and upon the fiat superior articulating surfaces of the axis. 
The seventh cervical vertebra has a remarkably long spinous 
process, to which is attached the ligamentum nuchae, a 
strong elastic band for the support of the head when 
inclined forwards, but which, as well as the spinous pro- 
cesses of all the adjacent vertebrae, is much more developed 
in animals that move horizontally and graze, than in man. 
This vertebra i3 also marked by having a small rib-like pro- 
cess in front of its transverse process ; it is a rudimental rib, 
and is analogous to the cervical ribs of serpents and many 
other animals in whom the chest is more elongated than in 
man. The first and the three last dorsal vertebrae have each, 
at the upper borders of the body, surfaces for articulation 



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with the whole head of the corresponding rib. The fifth 
lumbar has its lower surface cut obliquely upwards to arti- 
culate with the top of the sacrum and form the promontory 
of the pelvis. 

Viewed as a whole, the human vertebral column forms a 
kind of pyramid with its base at the sacrum, and its trun- 
cated summit at the head. It is not however regularly 
pyramidal ; for, as seen from the front, it becomes gradually 
smaller from the base to the fourth dorsal vertebra ; then it 
wideus to the seventh cervical, and then again becomes 
narrower to the second. In the adult it has well-marked 
curvatures. (See Mg. 2.) From the head it is first curved 
slightly forwards to the last cervical vertebra ; then its dor- 
sal portion forms an arch with its convexity backwards and 
ending at the last dorsal ; and then again in the lumbar 
region it arches forwards to the base of the last lumbar 
vertebra. These directions of the column have relations to 
the naturally erect posture of the human body [Man] : in 
correspondence with them the bodies of the cervical and 
lumbar vertebra?, and their intervertebral cartilages, are 
thicker before than behind, and those of the dorsal thicker 
behind than before. 

The spine serves several offices in the economy. One is 
that of guarding the spinal marrow, which, with the roots 
of its nerves, is enclosed in the long canal formed by the 
superposed rings of the several vertebrae. The spini-ccre- 
brate form of nervous system, which consists of a brain and 
longitudinal axis, both placed on the same side of the diges- 
tive canal, is intimately connected with all the rest of the or- 
ganization of the animals in which it exists; and being 
always enclosed in a skull and spinal canal, the vertebral 
column is taken as the most obvious character of the four 
classes cf animals which have this plan of nervous system. 
These therefore, namely, mammals, birds, fish, and reptiles, 
are called vertcbrata; and the other portion of the animal 
kingdom, whatever be the plan of their nervous centres, in- 
vertebrata. 

The spine is also the main support of all the rest of the 
skeleton. The head, the ribs, and the pelvis directly arti- 
culate with it; and through the medium of the pelvis and 
sternum, it suspends both the lower and upper extremities. 
It is the passive instrument of all the motions of the trunk, 
and the ceutrc about which each of the limbs as a whole is 
moved. For these purposes it is adapted by combining 
firmness with flexibility and lightness. Flexibility is ob- 
tained by its being composed of so many pieces separated 
from each other by layers of elastic tissue ; and its strength 
is secured by these layers, which are at the same time firm 
bonds of union, and by numerous other strong ligaments 
passing from bone to bone. In its own movements, extent 
is combined with security by each vertebra (except the first) 
having but little motion on those next to it; the larger 
movements being the result of the combination of a number 
of such small ones. The directions of the processes and the 
diverse modes in which they are locked one within another, 
determine the degrees in which, in each part of the column, 
the several motions of flexion and extension in all diiec- 
tions, and of rotation, can be performed. The pyramidal 
form of the whole is adapted to the accumulated weight 
which the lower vertebra? have to bear. The curvature in 
the back increases the capacity of the chest. The spinous 
and transverse processes especially serve for the attach- 
ments of muscles of the head, chest, back, shoulders, and 
pelvis. The elastic cartilages interposed between the bodies' 
break the shock of any violence upon one end of the body, 
and both they and the interlaminar ligaments tend to keep 
the spine straight, and so diminish the muscular action 
necessary to hold the body erect. 

The base of the spinal column rests on the top of the 
sacrum {FUg, 2, g), which, though commonly described as 
part of the pelvis, is indeed a continuation of the column, 
and is composed of five or six rudimental vertebra?, which 
after about the tenth year become consolidated. The sacrum 
(Fig. 6, A) has a triangular outline, the base being above ; and 
it articulates with the last lumbar vertebra, so as to form an 
obtuse angle, the promontory, by means of an intervertebral 
substance and the other parts common to the rest of the 
vertebral joints. Its anterior surface, which in the erect 
posture looks obliquely downwards, is concave, and on it 
are four or five transverse lines, the traces of the divisions 
between the bodies of the original vertebra?. At each end of 
these lines are as many holes (the anterior sacral foramina), 
which give passage to the anterior branches of the sacral 



nerves. Outside these holes the sacrum has a smooth sur 
face composed of the coalesced transverse processes of its 
several vertebra?. Along the posterior convex surface, the 
sacrum presents corresponding traces of its composition. Its 
upper border is surmounted by two regularly-formed arti- 
cular processes which are connected with those of the last 
lumbar vertebra, and leading downwards from these, in 
converging lines on either side of the middle, is a series of 
slight elevations, the traces of other rudimental articular 
processes. Along the middle line are three or four higher 
ridges, the traces of spinous processes, and between these 
and the former are on either side four or five foramina, 
which give passage to the posterior branches of the sacral 
nerves. These and the anterior sacral foramina already 
mentioned are analogous to the intervertebral foramina; and 
they both lead into the sacral canal, which runs through 
the whole length of the sacrum, and contains the cauda 
equina, or tuft of the last roots of the spinal nerves. The 
outline of the sacral canal is triangular; it grows smaller 
from above downwards, and is closed in behind by a layer 
analogous to the arches of the regular vertebra?. It is con- 
tinuous above with the spinal canal, and below is, in the dry 
bones, open in the middle line, the arch of the last sacral 
vertebra being deficient ; but in the recent subject is closed 
by dura mater and dense ligament. The sides of the sacrum 
are thick above, and become gradually thinner below. In 
the former situation they are marked by large rough oval 
surfaces, directed backwards and somewhat outwards, by 
which the sacrum is on either side articulated immoveably 
with the iliac bones to form the sac ro- iliac symphyses. The 
lower end of the sacrum has a plain oval surface, which is 
fitted to the upper surface of the first bone of the coccyx. 

The coccyx is the lowest part of the whole vertebral 
column. Its bones form the interior frame of the tail in*, 
brutes, but in man are small, short, and not more than four 
or five in number. The uppermost is by far the largest, and 
is surmounted by two processes called cornua, the extre- 
mities of which are adapted to those of two similar processes 
by which the sides of the lower end of the sacral canal are 
bounded. The three or four lower pieces of the coccyx have a 
somewhat oval outline, and are rather deeper than they are 
broad. Up to a late period of life they are articulated 
moveably with thin layers of interposed cartilage. 

The sacrum and coccyx form the middle posterior part of 
the pelvis ; its sides and front are formed by the bones called 
ossa innominata {Fig. 6, B). Each of these is in the young 
subject composed of three parts, which are usually described 
separately, as the ilium, or haunch bone (a), the ischium (ft), 
and the pubes (c). These three meet at the acetabulum (I), 
the hemispherical cavity in which the head of the thigh bone 
is lodged, and of which the ischium forms nearly three- 
fifths, the ilium somewhat more than one-fifth, and the 
pubes rather less than one-fifth. 



Fig- 6. 



The ilium forms the upper broad and expanded part of 
the pelvis. Its outline is somewhat fan-shaped, and in the 
greater part of its extent it is flat and thin. That surface 
which is directed forwards and inwards towards the cavity 
of the pelvis is slightly concave, and gives attachment to 
the strong iliac muscle by which the thigh is raised towards 
the pelvis. Its upper border has a thick strong rim (2), the 
crista ilii, to which parts of the three broad muscles of the 

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abdomen are attached, » and which serves for a fixed point 
towards which the ribs are drawn down by those muscles in 
strong expirations. The extremities of this rim, and the 
anterior and posterior edges of the ilium, into which it is 
continued, have at either end two strong projections for the 
attachment of muscles of the thigh, which are named spinous 
processes. In Fig. 6, 3 is the anterior superior, and 4 the 
anterior inferior spinous process ; 5 is the posterior superior 
spinous process, and 6 the posterior inferior. At the pos- 
terior part of the inner aspect of the ilium is a rough oval 
surface, which is fixed behind that at the back of the sa- 
crum, with which its fore part forms the sacro-iliac sym- 
physis (see Fig. 2). From the upper part of this symphysis 
aline, continuous with that of the top of the sacrum and the 
promontory of the pelvis, passes in a curve across the lower 
part of the ilium to the upper and inner edge of the pubes, 
along which it is continued to the middle line at the sym- 
physis pubis. This line, by which the pelvis is divided into 
an upper and a lower cavity, is called the brim, and the 
space it encloses is named the upper strait of the pelvis (see 
Fig. 2). At and just below the brim is the thickest part of 
the ilium ; its inner surface, which is opposite the acetabu- 
lum, is smooth, and gives attachment to muscles of the 
pelvis and thigh. The outer and back surface of the ilium 
(which is represented in Fig. 6, b) forms the haunch, that 
is, that expansion of bone which is felt above the hip-joint. 
It is marked by curved lines for the attachment of the 
strong glutei muscles of the buttock, and of the ligaments 
connecting it with the sacrum and last lumbar vertebra. At 
its lowest and narrowest part it swells outwards, and is then 
suddenly and deeply hollowed, to form the upper part of 
the wall of the acetabulum. In this cavity it is united with 
the pubes before, and the ischium behind, by fiat surfaces, 
•which in the adult bones are indicated only by slightly ele- 
vated lines tending to the deepest part of the cavity. 

The ischium is the bone on whose lowest part, or tuberosity, 
the body rests in sitting. It is described as composed of 
two principal portions : a body (7), consisting of the tuberosity 
and the thick strong part above it ; and a ramus (8), which 
passes from the tuberosity .obliquely upwards, forwards, and 
inwards. The upper part of the body is united to the lower 
part of the ilium, and its outer and anterior surface is 
deeply hollowed to form the lower and back part of the 
acetabulum. At its posterior and inner border there is a 
strong pointed process, the spine of the ischium (9), to which 
•ne of the main ligaments of the pelvis, the lesser sacro-sci- 
atic, is attached. Above the spine, the body of this bone and 
the adjacent posterior border of the ilium as far as its poste- 
rior inferior spinous process, are cut out in a crescentic form ; 
they thus form the ischiatic notch, and, with the ligament 
just mentioned and the outer border of the sacrum, enclose 
an oval aperture, the great ischiatic foramen, through which 
there pass from the pelvis to the thigh the pyriform muscle, 
and the gluteal, ischiatic, and pudic blood-vessels and nerves. 
Below the spine, another foramen, the lesser ischiatic, is en- 
closed between the same and another stronger ligament, the 
great sacro-sciatic, and the lower part of the body of the 
ischium; through this, together with some vessels and 
nerves, passes trie internal obturator muscle, which, on its 
way to the femur, winds round a smooth oval surface on 
the back of the ischium directly below its spine. The pos- 
terior thick surface of the body is rough for the attachment 
of muscles, especially those of the ham-strings which form 
the greater part of the back of the thigh. From the lowest 
part of the tuberosity, and forming an acute angle with it, 
ascends the ramus, which at its anterior extremity (10) 
unites with the descending ramus of the pubes. 

The pubes forms the anterior part of each os innomina- 
tum, and is composed of a body (11), and a descending ramus 
(12). The body is the upper, anterior, and larger part. At its 
outer extremity it articulates with the ilium just below the 
anterior and inferior spine, from which it descends in an 
even gentle curve, over which the iliac and psoas muscles, 
the chief vessels, and one of the principal nerves of the 
thigh, pass beneath the crural arch. %Its outer end is hol- 
lowed to form part of the acetabulum. The horizontal part 
of the body has a somewhat pyramidal form with three 
sides. Along its posterior and upper border is the line 
which forms part of the brim of the pelvis. Near the ter- 
mination of this line is an elevation, the spine of the pubes, 
for the attachment of one end of the crural arch, the strong 
ligament already mentioned, whose other end is fixed to the 
anterior superior spine of the ilium. The inner ends of the 



bodies of the two pubic bones are opposed by flat o?al sur 
faces, which, with ligaments and a strong intermediate car 
tilage, form the symphysis pubis. From below and the side 
of this, the ramus descends outwards and backwards to meet 
the ascending ramus of the ischium, with which it forms one 
flat and thin beam. Be'tween these rami below, the body of 
the pubes above and on the inner side, and the meeting of 
the pubes and ischium at the acetabulum on the outer side, 
is an oval aperture, the foramen ovale or obturatorium(l3), 
which in the recent body is nearly closed by the obturator 
ligament, and of which the borders, as well as the surfaces 
of the ligament, give attachment to the two obturator 
muscles, which thence proceed to the back of the thigh-bone, 
which it is their office to rotate outwards. The space in- 
cluded between the rami of the pubes and ischia on either 
side and in front, and the great sacro-sciatic ligaments, 
passing from both borders of the sacrum and coccyx to the 
tuberosities of the ischia, behind, is named the lesser aper- 
ture or strait of the pelvis. The meeting of the two rami 
in the middle line makes the angle of the pubes. 

The general purposes served by the pelvis are — to support 
the abdominal viscera, to enclose and guard those in its own 
cavity, to give insertion to muscles of the abdomen, back, 
and thighs, and to be such an intermedium between the 
rest of the trunk and the lower limbs that the latter may 
move freely and yet firmly support the body. For the three 
first of these purposes its adaptation is obvious. For the 
last, the pelvis is fitted by its posterior half forming an arch 
on whose summit the spine is supported, and whose pillars 
rest on the heads of the thigh bones. Of this arch the 
sacrum, impacted between the ilia and held firmly by the 
ligaments of the symphysis, forms a kind of keystone, fitted 
tightly enough to bear, through the medium of the spine, 
the weight of the trunk and of great additional burdens 
The pillars of the arch are terminated by the acetabula, 
which rest on the femora ; and the direction in which the 
weight is thus transmitted from the sacrum to the thighs is 
that in which the strongest and thickest part of the ilium 
(in the line of the brim of the pelvis) is placed. Each ace- 
tabulum forms part of a sphere hollowed out at the meeting 
of the three component bones of the os innominatum. Its 
depth is increased at the upper and back part (where the 
chief pressure falls) by the swelling out of the ilium ; and 
all round, by the cotyloid ligament, a band of tough fibrous 
tissue, by which the bone is bordered. It in a measure en- 
velopes the head of the femur, which is fitted into it air-tight, 
and so closely that even after art the ligaments are removed, 
they cannot without much force % be separated. In the diy 
bones however the border of the acetabulum is not a com- 
plete circle ; there is a notch where the ischium and pubes 
meet at the fore and lower part, to which the round liga- 
ment is in part attached. The head of the femur thus 
moves in the freest manner in the acetabulum by a perfect 
ball-and-socket joint ; and if the thigh-bones be fixed, then 
it is by the rolling of the pelvis on their heads that the body 
is swayed en masse. 

The particular circumstances in the structure of the 
pelvis which are especially adapted to the erect posture, such 
as its hollow expanded sides, the oblique direction of its 
cavity, its width, the strength and position of the tuberosities 
of the ischia, &c, are described in the article Man. Its 
relation to gestation and parturition may also be here 
omitted, except to say that it is in reference to its share in 
these processes that the pelvis is larger in all its dimensions 
in women than in men. 

The last main division of the trunk is the Chest or 
Thorax, composed of the dorsal vertebrae behind, the ster- 
num in front, and the 12 ribs and their cartilages on either 
side. (See Fig. 7.) All the ribs articulate with the spine, 
but only the 7 uppermost on each side have distinct con- 
nections with the sternum ; these are therefore called True 
ribs, and the five lower on each side False ribs. — Of these 
last, the 3 upper have their cartilages united before they 
reach the sternum ; and the two lower, which are sometime* 
called floating ribs, have short cartilages which are not at- 
tached to the sternum at all. 

In each of the greater number of the ribs there are a head, 
a neck, a tuberosity, an angle, a body or shaft, and a carti- 
lage. The head is that part which articulates with the ver- 
tebral column. It is larger than the neck, and its articu- 
lating surface has a somewhat oval outline, and is divided into 
two parts by a transverse elevation. This elevated line corre- 
sponds to the intervertebral cartilage, to whicn it is affixed 



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Fig. 7. 



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Fig. 7*. 

A 



by a ligament The motion permitted at the joint between 
the head of the rib and the border of each of the vertebra 
next above and below it is not extensive ; but it is sufficient 
to give the body of each rib, which has the relation of a long 
lever to the joint as a fulcrum, a wide sweep outwards and 
upwards in the act of deep inspiration. Proceeding onwards 
from the head, and passing over the neck, which is the 
smallest and roundest part of the rib, the next object is the 
tubercle, an elevation on the posterior surface, by which the 
rib is articulated with the end of the transverse process of 
the vertebra next below it. Farther outward is the angle, 
an oblique projecting line at which each rib turns somewhat 
more upwards and becomes flatter. The remainder of the 
rib is its shaft. This is thin and flat; its surfaces are both 
nearly smooth, the outer being slightly convex, the inner as 
slightly concave; the upper edge is rounded; the lower 
(which is also directed somewhat outwards) is sharp, and, 
from the angle inwards, is grooved on its inner aspect, where 
the intercostal vessels and nerves lie. The end of the 
osseous part of each rib has a rough surface, to which is 
adapted one end of the costal cartilage, of which the other 
end (except in the instances already mentioned) is attached 
to the sternum. The costal cartilages have each the same 
general form and direction as the part of the rib to which 
thev are appended ; they may be regarded as mere prolonga- 
tions of the ribs, the purpose of their being cartilaginous 
instead of bony being that of giving more elasticity to the 
walls of the chest. Each of them, except the first, is arti- 
culated with a slight capacity of motion to a depression on 
the border of the sternum. 

The direction of the body of the rib is first downwards 
and backwards, forming an arc of a small circle, to the 
angle, at or near which it seems twisted on itself, and then 
sweeps round forwards and a little upwards in the arc of a 
larger circle. The distance from the head to the part at 
which this change of direction takes place, is greater in the 
lower than in the upper ribs, and in the same progression is 
gradually increased the obliquity of the ascent of the carti- 
lages towards the sternum. The length of the ribs and 
their cartilages together becomes regularly greater from 
the first, that is, the uppermost, to the seventh or eigthth, 
the rest become gradually shorter, especially in their os- 
seous parts. . , 

Some of the ribs have particular characters in which they 
deviate from the general description. The heads of the 
first, eleventh, and twelfth, have but one articular surface 
bein<* each connected with but one vertebra; the first and 
twelfth have no angles, the second and eleventh scarcely 
any The first forms nearly the half of a circle of a very 
small radius compared with those of the ribs below it; its 
surfaces are horizontal ; the upper is marked by two grooves 
over which the subclavian artery and vein pass, and by an 
impression between them to which the anterior scalenus 
muscle is attached; the lower surface has no groove; the 
sternal end is very broad ; the head is small. The second 
rib presents characters intermediate between those of the 
first and those of the true ribs below it. 

The Sternum, or breast bone, is single only in i the adult ; 
in youth it is composed of at least two pieces (of which the 
upper (Fig. 7*, A) is named manubrium), and in tho fetus 
of many more. Considered as one bone, its form is elongated, 
broader and thicker above than below, where it terminates m 



a long narrow process, which is generally cartilaginous, and 
is named the ensiform or xiphoid cartilage (B). The an- 
terior surface of the sternum is marked by four transverse 
lines (3, 4, 5, 6) which indicate the divisions between the 
five principal parts of which it is composed. These marks 
are repealed on the posterior surface. Along its borders 
there are (proceeding from above downwards), first, at each 
of the angles between its upper and lateral edges, a shallow 
depression (1) into which the extremity of the clavicle is 
received; then immediately below this an oval depressed 
surface (2) to which the cartilage of the first rib is fixed ; and 
lastly, along each side six other similar surfaces separated 
by notches with which the cartilages of the six following 
ribs articulate. Of these six, the four upper are placed at 
the ends of the transverse lines ; so that each of these ribs 
articulates at its sternal end with two pieces of the sternum, 
just as, at its other extremity, it articulates with two ver- 
tebra). 

The general structure of the chest, and its adaptation to 
the movements of breathing, the most important function 
in which it is particularly engaged, are described in the ar- 
ticle Respiration. 

The Bones of tho Skull are divided into two chief sets 

Fig. 8. 



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those of the Cranium, or case for the brain, and those of 
the Face. They are represented in the annexed sketches 
separated, yet in their natural relative positions, in three dif- 
ferent aspects : in Fig, 8, as seen from the front ; in Fig. 9, 
as seen in profile; in Fig. 10, as seen when, after removing 
the top of the skull, one looks from above upon the bottom 
of its interior 



on either side of it are fixed parts of the upper jaw, and in 
the middle the nasal bones, which rest behind on a process 
called the nasal spine (3). At the outer extremity of each 
orbital arch is the external angular process (4, 4), and at the 
inner extremity the internal angular process (5,5); the 
former is articulated with the malar, the latter with the up- 
per jaw and lacrymal bones. Near the internal process is 
the Supra-orbital Foramen or notch (6, 6), through which 
the frontal vessels and nerve pass from the orbit to the 
forehead. Just above it and by its side is a rounded eleva- 
tion, the frontal protuberance (7), which marks the situa- 
tion of the subjacent frontal sinuses, air-cavities, between 
the two layers of which the bone is composed. They vary 
much in size in different persons, and communicate with 
the interior of the nose. On either side of the middle line, 
and extending above the orbital ridge, the surface of the 
bone is again elevated in the superciliary ridge (8, 8), an 
arched prominence behind the eyebrow. The rest of this 
anterior surface is smooth and even, but in different persons 
its form is as varied as that of any other feature. On either 
side it terminates rather abruptly with a curved border (9), 
which forms the front boundary of the Temporal fossa (10), 
and behind which there is a smooth surface, to which the 
tore pait of the temporal muscle is attached. 

Fig. 11. 



ttg.io 



The Bones of the Cranium are, the Frontal (a), the two 
Parietal (6), tlie two Temporal (c), the Occipital (du the 
Sphenoid (e), the Ethmoid if) ; those of the face are. the 
two Nasal (g) t the two superior Maxillary, or upper Jaw- 
bones (A), the two Palate, the two Malar (t), the two Lacry- 
mal (j), the two inferior Turbinated, the Vomer (ft), and the 
inferior Maxillary (/). 

The frontal bone {Fig. 11, a, b) forms the forehead and 
the roof of the orbit. The front or frontal portion is the 
larger. Its anterior surface, which is represented in Fig. a, 
is convex and smooth : it is bounded below by two arched, 
thick, and rounded borders, separated by a rough notch in 
the middle line. The borders (1, 1) are called the orbital 
arches or ridges, and they form the front and prominent 
part of the or! its. The notch (2) is named the nasal notch ; 



The posterior or cerebral surface of the Frontal bone (Fig. 
11, b) is concave. Along the middle line there is a broad 
groove (1), in which a part of the longitudinal sinus [Brain] 
lies ; and at the fore and lower end of this a ridge, to which 
a process of dura mater called the falx is attached. The 
ridge ends at a hole named the Foramen ca>cum. The rest 
of this surface is marked by depressions and ridges fitting 
to the convolutions of the surface of the brain. 

The orbital portions {b f 3, 3,) of the frontal bone are thin 
plates extending almost horizontally backwards from the 
orbital arches. Between their inner holders is a space, the 
ethmoid notch, into which the ethmoid bone fits, and just 
anterior to which are the apertures (4, 4) leading into the 
frontal sinuses. The under surface of each plate is con- 
cave, smooth, nnd even ; and has at its outer and fore part a 
shallow depression, in which the lachrymal gland is lodged, 
and at its inner and forepart a mark to which the pulley of 
the trochlearis muscle of the eye is attached. The uppet 
surface is marked in correspondence with the irregularities 
of the under part of the anterior lobe of the brain, which 
rests upon it. 

The posterior and upper margin of the frontal bone (b, 5, 
5) is joined by the coronal suture to the two parietal bones ; 
and it is cut obliquely in such a manner that its edges rest 
upon theirs above, and theirs overlap its below. The lower 
part of this margin is covered by the also of tho sphenoid, 



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where they nse into the temporal fossse. The frontal is 
usually in the adult only a single bone, composed (as all the 
bones in the middle plane of the skeleton are) of two equal 
and similar halves: these are developed separately, and 
they sometimes remain undivided by a continuation of the 
sagittal suture which passes from between the two parietal 
straight down the middle of the frontal. 

Fig. 12. 



The construction of the Parietal bones, which form all 
the upper and middle part of the skull, is very simple. In 
Fig. 12 at a the exterior, and at b the interior, of the right 
parietal is represented. They are quadrilateral, and of nearly 
equal thickness throughout. The outer convex surface is 
everywhere smooth, except at its lower border (1), where 
it is overlapped by the Temporal bone in the squamous 
suture, and just above this part, where there is a slight 
arched ridge (2), for the attachment of a portion of the tem- 
poral muscle. The inner concave surface has impressions 
of the cerebral convolutions, and a deep branching groove, 
which, beginning at the fore and lower angle (3), thence ra- 
mifies diffusely. It lodges the middle meningeal artery of 
the dura mater. r BnAiw J Along the upper border is a broad 
shallow groove (4). which lodges part of the longitudinal 
sinus, and is continuous with that on the interior of the frontal 
bone. The borders of che parietal bones are all, except the 
ower, deeply and irregularly indented; and by the dove- 
tailing of such irregular teeth, they form, with the frontal 
bone in front, the coronal suture, with the occipital behind, 
the lambdoidal, and, in the middle line at their own meet- 
ing, the sagittal. 

The Temporal Bones (Fig. 13, as seen from without) are 
placed in the middle, lateral, and inferior parts of the skull. 
They present each three distinguishable parts, which in the 
foetus are separated: namely, a Squamous portion (]), 
which forms the middle of the side of the skull ; a Mastoid 
portion (2), which forms the thick protuberance that may 
be felt behind the ear ; and a Petrous portion (not visible in 
Fig. 13, but in Fig. 10 marked c), which passes from the 
lower part of the squamous forwards and inwards in the 

Fig. 13. 



oase of the skull. The squamous bone or portion has a 
roundish form. Its upper edge covers in the lower border 
of the parietal. Its exterior surface is smooth, and gives 



attachment to some of the temporal muscle. At the hinder 
part of its lower border is an oval aperture (3), leading to 
the meatus auditorius extern us [Ear], a passage which 
goes forwards and inwards to the tympanum in the interior 
of the petrous portion. Immediately anterior to this, and 
under the fore-part of the bone, is the Glenoid cavity (4)» a 
deep transversely oval hollow, with which the condyle of 
the lower jaw is articulated, and behind which is a narrow 
chink, the Fissura Glaseri, separating it from a strong 
ridge which runs along the upper surface of the petrous 
bone. In front of the glenoid cavity is a prominence, which 
forms its border, the Tuber articulare (5) ; and from its outer 
part there proceeds horizontally forwards, as if springing 
from the tuber and two other slightly elevated lines running 
backwards, a long narrow portion of bone, the Zygomatic 
process (6), the enlarged end of which joins a short process 
of the malar bone to form the zygoma, an arch beneath 
which the temporal muscle plays, and whose size and 
strength are generally in direct proportion to those of that 
muscle, and to the force with which the lower jaw is worked 
in gnashing with the teeth. 

Behind the me tans auditorius is the mastoid portion. It 
is prolonged downwards in a strong conical projection, the 
mastoid process (7) giving insertion to muscles upon and just 
above it, and of which the interior is occupied by nume- 
rous cells communicating with the cavity of the tympanum. 
Behind and within the mastoid process is the digastric 
groove, to which the muscle of the same name is attached ; 
and farther back another more shallow groove for the tra- 
ehelo-mastoid muscle. 

The cerebral surface of the squamous portion has a very 
obliquely cut and groved upper border, which articulates 
with the lower border of the parietal bone. On the same 
surface of the mastoid portion is a deep fossa, which lodges 
part of the lateral sinus. Both are marked by the impres- 
sions of the brain. 

The Petrous process or portion of the temporal bone 
(Fig. 10, c),has received its name from the peculiar hardness 
of its tissue. It has the form of an irregular three-sided 
pyramid, directed from either side forwards and inwards, 
and fitting, at the base of the skull, into the angle left 
between the sphenoid and the occipital bones (e and d). 
Its base is affixed to the interior and lower part of the 
squamous bone ; its summit fits in the apex of the angle 
just mentioned. On its posterior surface the most pro- 
minent object is the oval aperture of the meatus auditorius 
internus, the passage leading to the internal ear, and tra- 
versed by the auditory and the facial nerves. On the 
anterior surface there are a shallow groove leading to a 
small hole, through which the Vidian nerve and blood- 
vessels pass, a slight hollow on which theGasserian ganglion 
of the fifth pair of nerves lies, and a prominence which 
indicates the position of the superior semicircular canal of 
the ear. On the inferior surface, which is placed outside 
the skull, there are seen, at the posterior and outer border, 
a deep fossa (the Jugular), in which the upper part of the 
internal jugular vein is lodged; before and on the inner 
side of this, and separated from it by a prominent ridge, a 
large oval aperture, through which the internal carotid 
artery passes into a tortuous canal, whose other extremity is 
at the very apex of the bone; between the jugular fossa 
and the mastoid process a hole, the Stylo- mastoid foramen, 
through which the facial nerve passes on its way to the face, 
after penetrating the bottom of the meatus auditorius in- 
ternus ; and just anterior to this, a long-pointed process, the 
Styloid (8), to which several muscles and ligaments are 
attached, and whose base is surrounded by an irregular 
sharp-edged elevation, the Vaginal process (9). 

The anterior border of the petrous bone is articulated with 
the posterior part of the ala of the sphenoid, leaving an 
intermediate space, named foramen lacerum medium ; the 

Cterior border is similarly united with the side of the 
ilar process of the occipital bone, leaving another space, 
the foramen lacerum posterius, through which the internal 
jugular vein and the nerves of the eighth pair pass. Near 
the angle where the anterior border joins the squamous 
bone is an irregularly shaped aperture, to which the carti- 
laginous part of the Eustachian tube is affixed. 

The small bones of the internal Ears, and all the other 
parts of the organ of Hearing, which lie within and near 
the petrous bone, are already described. [Ear.] 

The Occipital Bone (Fig. 14 is a view of the internal 
surface) forms the posterior and lower part of the middle ol 



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Kg- 14. 



(he skull, a portion being at the outer wall and a portion at 
the base. Its lower and anterior part is narrow, and has a 
rough surface (1) in front, which is united with the body of 
the sphenoid bone. Viewing it at its internal surface, it 
presents, as one proceeds from this surface backwards and 
upwards, a smooth hollow surface, which gradually widens, 
and is limited behind by a large oval opening. The surface 
(2) is that of the Basilar Process, in which the medulla 
oblongata and pons Varolii [Prain] rest; the aperture (3) 
is the Foramen magnum, through which the medulla passes 
into the spinal canal, where it is continued into the spinal 
cord. By the sides of this foramen, near where the basilar 
process joins the back and expanded part of the bone, there 
are four foramina, two on either side, the anterior and 
posterior condyloid foramina, of which the anterior transmit 
the hypoglossal nerves, on which the motions of the tongue 
depend, and the latter give passage to veins communicating 
with the vertebral veins. Opposite the fore part of the 
foramen magnum the basilar process suddenly widens into 
the greater portion of the occipital bone, which forms the 
back of the head. In this part are four large hollows 
(4, 4, 5, 5), of which the two upper lodge the surfaces of the 
posterior lobes of the cerebrum, the two lower those of the 
lobes of the cerebellum. They are separated by two ridges, 
which bisect each other at nearly right angles. The upper 
part of that which runs vertically has attached to it a portion 
of the falx major, and to its lower part is affixed the falx 
cerebelli ; that which runs transversely gives insertion to 
the back part of the tentorium cerebelli, whose anterior 
borders are fixed to the upper angles of the petrous bone. 
By these ridges are broad shallow grooves, which lodge 
parts of the sinuses of the brain. By the upper half of the 
vertical ridge is the extremity of the longitudinal sinus, the 
grooves for which, in the frontal and parietal bones, are 
already mentioned, and which, at the Internal Occipital 
spine, where the ridges bisect each other, meets the inferior 
longitudinal and other sinuses, to form what is named the 
Torcular Herophili, their common point of meeting. From 
this there proceed the two lateral sinuses, which run 
above the transverse ridge on either side, then cross over 
the posterior inferior angle of each of the parietal bones, 
then lie for a short distance on the inside of the mastoid 
portion of the temporal, from which they pass through the 
foramen lacerum posterius by a special aperture, marked by 
a deep notch in the border of the occipital bone, near the 
angle (6), which separates the basilar from the other 
portion. 

The inferior and outor surfaee presents on the basilar 
process numerous irregularities, from which the back part 
of the pharynx is suspended, and into which certain mus- 
cles and ligaments or the front of the spine are inserted. 
The foramen magnum has here an even and grounded bor- 
der ; and by its sides two elevations, each with a smooth con- 
vex oval surface, whose larger axis is directed forwards, in- 
wards, and downwards ; these are the Condyles, by which 
the occipital bone articulates moveably with the first verte- 
bra of the spine. Near these also are the outer orifices of 
the anterior and posterior condyloid foramina, and around 
them very rough surfaces for the insertion of ligaments and 
muscles. On the outer surface of the expanded posterior 
portion of the bone are three ridges, one of which passes 
from the border of the foramen magnum backwards and 
upwards in correspondence with the internal vertical ridge, 
and is crossed on its way by two transverse arched ridges. 
At the crossing of the upper of these two is a sharp promi- 
nence, the occipital spine or protuberance. The two trans- 



verse ridges and the spaces below them give attachment to 
muscles ; the spine, to the ligamentum nucha?. Above the 
upper ridge the surface is smooth. 

The upper and lateral borders (7) of the Occipital bone are 
deeply toothed, and form the Lambdoidal Suture, with the 
parietal bones above and the mastoid beiow. In the course 
of this suture there occur, more often than in that of any 
other, insulated portions of bone, of various size and form, 
called Ossa Worroiana, surrounded by margins toothed as 
in the regular line of suture. 

The Sphenoid Bone ( Fig. 10, e) is placed in the middle 
of the base of the skull, and has a very complicate form. 
Fig. 15, a, gives a front, and b % a back and upper view of 
it. Its principal parts are described as a body (1, 1), two 

Fig, 15 



Greater Ala) (2, 2), two Lesser Alee (b, 3, 3), and, on each 
side, two Pterygoid Processes (a, 4, 4). The body is the 
central part, and has somewhat the form of a hollow cube. 
Chief part of its upper or cerebral surface is hollowed, 
forming what is called the Sella Turcica (b, 4), and lodging 
the pituitary gland. [Brain] It is bounded at its four 
corners by bluntly pointed prominences called Clinoid Pro 
cesses (see Fig. 10), to which prolongations of dura mater 
are attached. Between, and a little in front of the two an- 
terior of these, is a level surface (6, 5) on which the com- 
missure of the optic nerves rests, and which has behind a 
slight elevation, the Olivary process, and in front a pointed 
one, the Ethmoid spine (b, 6) which fits into the Ethmoid 
bone. The Bides of the body slope obliquely downwards 
towards the great alee, and the cavernous sinus and internal 
carotid artery of each side rest against them. The posterior 
surface (b f 7) of the body is rough, and unites with the 
end of the basilar process of the occipital. The anterior 
presents the openings of large cells which occupy the whole 
interior. These are divided by a middle septum (a, 5), and 
are partly closed in by two small portions of bone called 
Sphenoidal Cornua; where not thus closed, they open into 
the posterior ethmoidal cells. The under surface of the 
body is chiefly flat, but has a ridge called the azygous pro- 
cess along the middle line, which fits to the Vomer. 

The Greater Alee (2) are affixed by the sides of the body, 
and project from it outwards, upwards, and forwards. Oix 
each there are three principal surfaces, turned towards the 
brain, the temple, and the orbit, respectively. The inner 
or cerebral (6, 8) is concave, supports part of the middle 
lobe of the brain, and presents three particular orifices, 
namely • the foramen rotundum, near its anterior and inner 
margin, through which the superior maxillary nerve passes 
from the Gasserian ganglion of the fifth pair; the foramen 
ovale, much larger and near the posterior and inner border, 
through which the inferior maxillary nerve goes from the 
same ganglion ; and the foramen spinosum, near the outer 
and posterior angle, which transmits the middle menin- 
geal artery. This outer angle (b, 9), which fits in between 
the petrous and squamous parts of the temporal bone (see 
Fig. 10), is named the spinous process. The outer or tem- 
poral surface (a, 6) is slightly hollowed, and forms part of 
the temporal fossa, rising up at the lower part of the side 
of the skull as far as the anterior inferior angle of the parie- 
tal bone. At its lower border it turns abruptly inwards at 
a slight ridge, below which it is continued to the ptery- 
goid processes, and forms part of the zygomatic fossa ; its 
posterior border articulates with the squamous, its anterior 
with the frontal bone. The anterior or orbital surface (a, 7) 



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is flat and smooth, and forms part of the outer wall of the 
orbit, where it articulates with the malar, frontal, and upper 
jaw bones. 

The Lesser Al® (b, 3, 3) are long, narrow, sharp-pointed 
processes projecting horizontally outwards from the front 
and upper part of the body. Internally and behind they 
bear the anterior clinoid processes, beneath which are the 
Optic foramina for transmitting the ophthalmic arteries and 
the optic nerves from the commissure to the orbit. The 
upper surface of these alto is flat, and supports part of the 
brain. The anterior border is articulated with the orbital 
plates of the frontal bone on either side, and in the middle, 
where the ethmoidal spine projects, with the ethmoid bone. 
The posterior border lies in the Fissura Sylvii, between the 
anterior and middle lobes of the brain. The under surface 
is smooth : between it and the anterior edge of the great 
ala is a gap, the foramen lacerum anterius, transmitting 
nerves and a vein to the orbit 

The Pterygoid processes (a, 4, 4) are directed downwards 
from the under and outer part of the body. On each side 
there are two lamella?, an external and an internal ; they 
are long and narrow quadrilateral plates nearly meeting in 
front, where they articulate with the palate bone, and di- 
verging behind so as to leave a space, in which the internal 
pterygoid and circumflexus palati muscles are attached. 
The internal and longer of the lamellae has at its lowest 
extremity a hook, the Hamular process, round which, as on 
a pulley, the tendon of the last-mentioned muscle plays. 
At the upper part, where the pterygoid processes join the 
body, is a canal, the Vidian, running from before backwards 
and transmitting the Vidian nerve. 

The Ethmoid Bone ( Fig. 10,/) is situated in the front 
and middle part of the base of the skull, between the orbits. 
Fig. 16 gives a profile view of it from the left side. It pre- 
sents six different aspects, and for the most part is of a very 
light spongy texture. Its upper surface, which is presented 
to the brain, has in front and in its middle line a strong 
triangular process, the Crista Galli (1), to which the front 
of the falx cerebri is attached. The apex of this process is 
directed straight upwards; the base is continuous below 

Fig. 16. 
l 




with the perpendicular or nasal plate (2), which divides the 
Ethmoid bone into two equal lateral halves, and which, 
with the Vomer, which it joins below, forms the greater 
part of the septum of the nose. The Crista Galli, sloping 
downwards and backwards, is gradually lost behind, wnere 
the Ethmoid bone receives the spine of the sphenoid. On 
either side of it is a narrow quadrangular plate (the Cribri- 
form plate), on which the bulb of one of the olfactory nerves 
rests. Each is perforated by a number of holes through 
which the branches of the olfactory and another smaller 
nerve pass to the interior of the nose. In front, and along 
part of the border oi each plate, are the orifices of numerous 
cells, which, in the entire skull, are closed in by the frontal 
bone and its orbitar plates, and communicate with the 
frontal sinuses. 

The surface of the upper part of each side of the ethmoid 
bone is formed by a thin smooth quadrilateral plate, the 
orbitar plate (3), which forms great part of the inner wall of 
the orbit, and unites above with the corresponding plate of 
the frontal (leaving two small apertures, the anterior and 
posterior internal orbitar foramina, for the passage of small 
nerves and vessels), in front with the lacrymal, below with 
the orbitar portions of the upper jaw and palate bones, and 
behind with the sphenoid. Between the oibitar and nasal 
plates, each half of the bone is formed of cells and folds of 
very thin lam ell©, which form part of the chambers of the 
nose, and have the olfactory membrane and nerves spread 
out upon them. [Smell.] The principal parts are the 
middle turbinated or spongy bone (4), a roll of thin bone, 
which forms the lower border of the cells ; and a smaller but 
similar roll higher up, and confined to the back part, called 
the superior turbinated or spongy bone (5). Under each 
roll at its posterior part is a passage to the cells, called re- 
P. C, No. 1369. 



spectively the Superior and the Middle Meatus of the nos?. 
The ethmoidal cells communicate in front with the frontal* 
and behind with the sphenoidal cells or sinuses. 

The six bones just described enclose the Brain, forming a 
cavity whose size, compared with that of the crania of brutes, 
is one of the most distinguishing marks of the human 
species. To the protection of the important organs within 
it, as to their chief office, everything in the structure and 
arrangement of the bones of the cranium is adapted. Those 
parts of them which lie exposed to direct external injury are 
formed of three layers, namely, an outer and inner table, and 
an intermediate diploe.* The outer table is formed of bone 
of ordinary compactness, such as is not liable to be cracked 
by moderate shocks ; the inner, of much harder and more 
brittle bone (whence its name of Tabula vitrea), which may 
be more easily cracked, but less easily cut or pierced. The 
diploe 13 of a soft spongy tissue, calculated to lessen the 
vibrations that are produced by blows on the outer table, 
before they reach the inner and more brittle one. The 
arrangement is thus similar to that by which one might 
safely enclose a substance liable to injury either from 
being shaken or cut, within an inner case of hard porcelain, 
a middle one of soft leather, and an outer one of tough 
wood. 

The formation of the sutures seems to have the same end. 
The outer tables of the exposed bones have their edges finely 
dovetailed, and are thus so immoveably held together that 
none but a violently expansive force exercised at once on the 
whole interior of the cavity can separate them. The inner 
tables are simply apposed with a very thin intermediate 
layer of cartilage; an arrangement which, as Sir Charles 
Bell (who has written most ingeniously on this subject in 
his 'Animal Mechanics'), says, is often imitated in works of 
art, in which tough materials, such as wood, are joined by 
mutually fitting dentations ; and brittle ones, such as glass 
or marble, by smooth edges and a layer of cement. A similar 
mode of opposition is seen between all the bones of the skull 
that are not exposed to direct violence. 

The top of the skull presents transversely an arch formed 
by the two parietal bones (see Fig. 8), whose most prominent 
parts, like those of the frontal, occipital, and others, are 
stronger and thicker than any others; a circumstance 
adapted for greater resistance to force, whether applied 
directly against those parts, or to the summit of the arch 
from whence it would fall chiefly on them. The strength of 
this arch is further secured by the lower parts of the parietal 
bones being held in by the overlapping upper borders of the 
temporal and sphenoidal bones, other parts of which, passing 
across the base of the skull, hold the parietal bones, which 
by pressure from above might be made to start outwards or 
pushed inwards, as beams hold the walls of a house from 
being driven either in or out by the weight of the roof. 
Taking the whole upper part of the skull as a dome, the 
same strength of resistance to superincumbent pressure is 
obtained at every part by nearly similar means, especially at 
at the coronal suture, where, as has been already said, the 
parietal bones overlap the frontal at the supports of its arch, 
and are themselves overlapped by it at the summit of their 
own. In this regard also may be noticed the strength and 
thickness of the angular processes, and of the orbitar arches 
extended between them (see Fig. 1 1 ), which serve as sup- 
ports for the front of the dome; and the thickening of the 
bones along the course of the longitudinal and lateral sinuses, 
resembling groins in masonry. 

The relations of the skull to the erect posture, the adap- 
tations of the ethmoid and sphenoid bones to the sense of 
smell, and the arrangements of the base of the skull in 
reference to the ear, the several nerves, &c, are considered 
elsewhere. [Brain; Ear; Man; Smell, &c] 

The second chief division of the Skull includes the bones 
of the Face, the principal of which are represented in Figs. 
8 and 17. 

The Nasal Bones (Figs. 8, 9, 1 7, g) form the upper part 
of the bridge of the nose. They are narrow and quadri- 
lateral ; thick above, where they fit into the nasal notch of 
the frontal bone ; broad and thin below. The outer border 
of each articulates with that of the ascending process of the 
upper jaw-bone ; the inner is in contact with that of tho 
other ; the lower are in contact with the cartilages that form 
the rest of the groundwork of the nose. The anterior sur- 

• This arrangement does not exist in either the child or the old person. In 
the former nil the bones ore tough and elastic ; iu the latter the diploe is filled 
up by hard bone, and the whole aaniam is therefore more liable to fracture. 

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of Ihe palate bone. The inner or nasal aspect present* 
below, a rough surface by which the bone is united to iU 
fellow on the opposite side, and which is deeper in front than 
behind. It is surmounted by a ridge which extends from 
before backwards, and between which End that of the other 
bone is a narrow groove to receive the vomer. The anterior 
part of the ridge (7) is called the anterior nasal spine, and 
close by it is the foramen incisivum, which leads down to 
the roof of the mouth, and transmits the anterior palatine 
nerve. On the outer side of the ridge is a concave smooth 
surface, the upper surface of the palatine process, of which 
the lower surface forms, as already said, the roof of the 
mouth. From the outer part of this surface, which forms 
part of the floor of the nostrils, the bone rises almost verti- 
cally towards the nasal spine and the inner edge of the orbital 
plate, and, at about its middle, presents a large aperture 
leading into the Antrum Highraori, a cavity occupying the 
whole interior of the body of the bone. 

The Palate bones are placed backward between the superior 
maxillary and the pterygoid processes of the sphenoid. The 



face is concave from above downwards, and convex from side 
to side ; the posterior has opposite directions, and in the 
middle line, where the two bones are in contact, is applied 
on the nasal spine of the frontal, and the edge of the perpen- 
dicular plate of the ethmoid bone. 

Fig. IB. 




The Superior Maxillary or Upper Jaw bones (Figs.S, 9, 
17, h) form the greater part of the front of the face. Fig. 18 
gives a view of the outer part of that of the left side. This 
surface is bounded below by a narrow border, the Alveolar 
border or process (I), in which the upper teeth are set in 
their sockets. Its outline is an elliptical arc, and from it 
the outer surface ascends to the orbit, of which it forms the 
inner and great part of the lower margin (2). It is un- 
evenly depressed in two or three places for the attachment 
of muscles of the face. At the outer part, near the orbit, it 
presents a rough surface, the Malar eminence (8), by which 
it is united with the cheek-bone. Below and in front of 
this is a depression called Fossa canina, and on its inner 
side, just below the orbital margin, is the Infra-orbital fora- 
men, through which the superior maxillary nerve passes 
to the face. The anterior border of this external surface 
first ascends vertically where the two bones are in contact 
in the middle line (see Fig. 8); then is suddenly cut out in 
a crescentic arch (4) so as to leave between the two the large 
aperture into the nasal cavities, and then again ascends 
where the upper maxillary bone unites with the nasal of the 
same side. This ascending part is called the nasal process 
(5) ; its summit is fixed in the nasal notch of the frontal 
bone ; its outer surface looks towards the orbit, is deeply 
grooved, and with the lacrymal bone, to which its posterior 
border is attached, forms a channel for the lacrymal duct ; 
its inner surface is directed towards the cavity of the nose, 
has an oval roughness which is united with the inferior tur- 
binated bone, and above closes some of the anterior eth- 
moidal ceils. Below and behind the malar eminence the 
surface is excavated to form part of the zygomatic fossa ; 
and above this it swells out ana is perforated by numerous 
foramina, through which the nerves of the upper teeth 
pass. 

The upper, or orbitar, surface (6), consists of a thin plate, 
forming the floor of the orbit, and presenting a groove which 
leads to the infra-orbital canal, and a depression for the in- 
sertion of the inferior oblique muscle of the eye. The 
under or palatine surface is rough and concave, and forms 
part of the roof of the mouth. Its outer border is arched, 
and bounded by the alveolar process; the inner is straight, 
and is set against that of the opposite side in the middle 
line; the posterior is ;nked with the corresponding process 




lower, horizontal, or palatine portion (1) of each is attached 
behind the palatine process of the upper jaw, to which it is 
similar in form, and it completes the back part of the roof 
of the mouth or hard palate, and of the floor of the nostrils 
Its posterior border has the Velum palati [Palate] attached 
to it: its under surface presents two foramina, through 
which the posterior palatine nerves pass. From its outer 
border a thin plate (2) ascends vertically ; where it com- 
mences there is, behind, a rough process (3). articulating with 
and filling up the gap between the pterygoid processes of 
the sphenoid. (Fig. 1 5, a. 4, 4.) The nasal or inner surface 
of this ascending portion articulates with the inferior t- 
nated bone, and forms part of the outer wall of the or 
the outer surface articulates with the back and in .<*r jwt 
of the superior maxillary bone, and forms with it the pos- 
terior palatine canal. The upper border has a notch, which, 
in the entire skull, is completed by the sphenoid bone into 
a hole, called the sphenopalatine, for the transmission of 
nerves of the same name : behind it is a triangular process 
(5), of which one surface articulates with the body of the 
sphenoid ; and before it is another (4), of whose surfaces 
one closes some of the ethmoid cells, and another forms a 
small part of the back and floor of the orbit. 

The Malar or Cheek Bones (Figs. 8, 9, 1 7, i) form the most 
prominent part of the cheeks. The form of each is quadran- 
gular. The front surface is slightly convex, and has small 
apertures for vessels and nerves : the back covers the front 
of the zygomatic fossa : the upper surface is the narrowest, 
and forms part of the floor of the orbit, of which also part 
of the front border is formed by the upper margin of this 
bone. By its posterior surface and inner border the malar 
is united to the upper jaw-bone, as already described ; and 
by its posterior and outer angle to the zygomatic process of 
the temporal bone (Fig. 13, 6), with which it forms the 
zygoma. 

The Lacrymal Bones (Fig. 9,j) are two small thin lamella 
of bone at the fore part of the inner wall of the orbit. Each of 
them in some measure resembles a thumb-nail, whence 
they are also called Ungual Bones. Each is composed of 
two parts : the anterior is deeply grooved on the surface 
turned towards the orbit, and contributes to the formation 
of the lacrymal canal with the nasal process of the upper 
jaw-bone, with which its anterior margin articulates. The 
posterior part is flat, and closes those of the ethmoidal 
cells which lie anterior to its orbital plate. The posterior 
margin of this part articulates with the ethmoid bone, the 
upper with the orbital plate of the frontal, and the lower 
with that of the upper jaw-bone. 

The Inferior Turbinated or Spongy Bones are thin rough 
lamellae, whose lower border is rolled up somewhat like a 
scroll. They lie within the nasal cavities, and, except in 
being larger, they closely resemble the bones of the 



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name which are appended to the ethmoid. They are 
attached at either end to the inner surfaces of the nasal 
processes of the upper jaw and palate bones, and, in the 
middle, to the lacrymal and the lower portion of the orbital 
plate of the ethmoid bone : upon these they are suspended 
before the aperture of the Antrum, which, in the entire 
skull, they nearly conceal. Like all the bones which form 
part of the cavities of the nose, they are covered by mucous 
membrane. Beneath their outer concave surface runs the ', 
inferior meatus of the nose. 

The Vomer (Fig. 8, k) is a thin quadrilateral plate which 
forms a considerable part of the middle partition of the 
nose. Its upper border is the thickest, and is articulated 
with the azygos process and under surface of the sphenoid 
bone ; the lower border fits into the groove between the 
ridges in the apposed surfaces of the palatine processes of 
the upper jaw and palate bones ; the anterior joins the ver- 
tical part of (lie ethmoid above, and the cartilaginous part 
of the septum of the nose below : the posterior is free, and 
divides the passage from the nostrils into the pharynx 
behind. 

Fig. 20 



The Inferior Maxillary, or Lower Jaw-Bone (Fig$. 8, 9, /, 
mud Fig. 20), has a form something like that of a hone-shoe. 
It is made up of a body or horizontal portion (1), and a 
ramus, or ascending portion (2). The former is convex 
anteriorly, and on its very front presents the prominence 
which contributes to form the chin (3). This is marked in 
the middle line by the Symphysis, at which the two portions 
of which the jaw was first composed are united. On either 
side of this is a slight depression, the Fossa incisiva; and 
farther out a hole, the mental (4), through which branches 
of the inferior dental nerve and vessels pass to the chin. A 
raised line giving insertion to muscles passes hence obliquely 
outwards to the upper border ; and on the inner surface there 
is another line corresponding to this, and giving origin to 
the mylohyoideus muscle, from whence it is called the 
roylo-hyoidean ridge. On the inner surface there are also 
prominences near the symphysis for the insertion of muscles. 
The lower border is smooth and rounded ; the upper, or 
Alveolar process, is marked by notches corresponding with 
the sockets of the lower teeth, which are set in it. 

The rami ascend almost vertically from the ends of the two 
parts of the body. They are broad, fiat, and quadrilateral. 
At the angle (5), where each joins the body, there are on 
both surfaces hk gh prominences; the external gives at- 
tachment to the masseter, the internal to the internal ptery- 
goid muscle. The internal surface has also, near the end of 
the mylo-hyoidean ridge, a hole, the inferior dental (6), 
through which the nerve of the same name passes into the 
interior of the jaw, from which it again emerges at the 
mental hole (4). Leading from the dental foramen is a 
small groove for a branch of the dental nerve. The anterior 
border of the ramus terminates in a sharp projection, the 
Coronoid process (7, 7), to which the temporal muscle is at- 
tached; the posterior, in a transversely oval process, with a 
smooth summit, the Condyle (8, 8), which articulates with 
full freedom of motion in the glenoid cavity of the temporal 
bone. Below this is the Neck (9), to which the external 
pterygoid musele is in part attached ; and the space between 
the condyle and the coronoid process is the Sigmoid notch 
(10, 10). 

The bones of the face serve as a groundwork to many 
parts whose structures and functions are already described 
in separate articles; and since, in each case, the parts which 
the bones take are at the same time considered, an account 
of their adaptation to the several offices performed by the 
different portions of the face is not here necessary. Their re- 
lations to the features are described in the article Man. 



The last main division of the Skeleton consists of the 
Upper and Lower Extremities (Fig. 1 ; 3, 4). The upper 
are composed of the Scapula, Clavicle, Humerus, Radius, 
Ulna, Carpus, Metacarpus, and Fingers. The scapula and 
clavicle are analogous to the Ossa innominata in the lower 
extremities. 

Fig. 21. 



The Scapula, or shoulder-blade, of which, ia Fig- 21, the 
back is represented, with parts of the clavicle and humerus, 
is triangular in its outline, and flat, being formed of two 
compact layers, and an intermediate diploe, varied in thick- 
ness. It has three borders or Costs, a superior (1), poste- 
rior (2), which lies nearly parallel with the spine, and an 
inferior (3), which is also the longest. They are all thicker 
than the body of the bone, and give insertion to various 
muscles moving the shoulder. From the posterior border, 
about one- third from the upper and two-thirds from the 
lower angle, there commences a ridge called the Spine (4), 
which, as it passes along the back of the scapula towards 
the outer angle, gradually increases in depth, and at its 
end, projecting beyond and above the angle, bears a slrong 
arched process, called the Acromion (5), which articulates 
with the clavicle, overhangs the shoulder-joinr, and gives at- 
tachment to some of its muscles and ligaments. The spine 
divides the back of the scapula into two parts, of which the 
lower is much the larger, and which are named, according 
to their position, Supra- (6) and Infra- (7) Spinous Fossae. 
They give origin to muscles of the same names. The an- 
terior surface, or belly of the scapula, is slightly concave, and 
gives insertion to the subscapularis muscle, for the attach- 
ment of whose several parts it is marked by alternate longi- 
tudinal elevations and depressions. At the outer angle fhe 
bone is terminated by the Glenoid Cavity (8). an ovate sur- 
face slightly hollowed, narrower above than below, and with 
which the head of the humerus (9) articulates with very ex- 
tensive freedom of motion. Its border is thick, and is ren- 
dered deeper in the recent subject by a rim of fibro-carti- 
lage, the glenoid ligament, similar to that which borders 
the acetabulum. Between this border and the base of the 
spine the scapula is narrower than elsewhere ; and this part 
is called the Neck. From the superior costa, near this 
neck, a long and strong curved process, the Coracoid, pro- 
jects forwards, and gives attachment to several muscles and 
ligaments; and at its root there is in the superior costa 
a hole, or a notch, through which the supra scapular nerve 
(and sometimes its accompanying vessels) pass. 

The scapula is attached to the trunk only through the 
medium of the clavicle, and by the muscles which connect 
it to the spine and ribs. It can therefore slide freely on the 
back of the chest ; and, to a certain extent, it follows all the 
larger movements of the humerus, so that its glenoid ca\ity 
and the head of that bone, which have but a small surface 
of mutual contact, almost always preserve the same rela- 
tion to each other, and are less likely to be dislocated than 
they would be if the scapula were more closely fixed. 

The Clavicle, or Collar-bone, extends transversely from 
the notch in the upper angle of the sternum to the anterior 
and outer margin of the acromion (Fig. 21). With both 
of these its ends are articulated with a moderate extent of 
mobility; with the sternum, by the apex of a broad tri- 
angular surface ; with the acromion, by a small fiat oval sur 
face on its posterior edge. The Clavicle has nearly the direo- 

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tibns of the double-curved line of beauty, being slightly 
arched forwards at the sternal, and backwards at the sca- 
pular, half. At the former it is thick, strong, and trian- 
gular; in the latter, broad and flattened. On the upper 
surface, which lies just under the skin, it is smooth; on the 
lower it has, near its sterna* end, a mark where a ligament 
fixing it to the first rib is attached ; farther out a larger 
elevation, to which the subclavian muscle is fixed: and 
near the acromial end, other prominences, to which the 
ligaments connecting it with the coracoid process of the sca- 
pula (which projects just below it) are affixed. 

The chief purpose of the Clavicle is to keep the arm at a 
distance from the trunk for all its outward motions; and in 
adaptation to this, its length and strength form one of the 
most characteristic features of the human skeleton. 

The Humerus, the bone of the upper arm {Fig. 22, A), is 
articulated above with the scapula by a hemispherical 




smooth portion called the Head (1), which is bounded at 
its outer and lower part by a narrow groove called the Neck. 
The axis of the head forms with that of the shaft or body of 
the bone an angle of about 130°. Close by the neck, the 
upper and outer part of the shaft is surmounted by two Tu- 
berosities : the larger and posterior (2) has three fiat surfaces, 
to each of which a muscle from the scapula is attached ; the 
lesser (3) gives attachment to the subscapularis muscle. 
The rest of the upper part of the shaft is round and nearly 
smooth ; but just above the middle of its outer surface is a 
rough elevation (4), to which the deltoid, the chief muscle 
of the shoulder, is attached. About half-way down, the 
shaft begins to be flatter and wider, and at either border of 
it commence sharp ridges, which, as they descend, become 
prominent, and which terminate below at the External (5) 
and Internal (6) Condyles. Each of the Condyles gives 
insertiou to a ligament and several muscles of the fore-arm ; 
the inner is the more prominent, but the outer is the larger. 
Between the condyles is the inferior articular surface, which 
is composed of two parts for articulating separately with 
each of the bones of the fore-arm. On the outer side, just 
within the external condyle, the surface has a smooth rounded 
prominence or tuberosity (7), against which the summit of 
the head of the radius is apposed ; more inwards there is a 
deep groove (8) separated from the tuberosity by a slight 
ridge, und from the inner condyle by one much more pro- 
minent, in which the raised portion of the sigmoid cavity of 
the ulna moves as in a hinge-joint. This part of the joint 
is named the Trochlea. Both before and behind it is 
bounded above by a depression : into that on the posterior 
surface, which is the deeper, the olecranon of the ulna is 
received when the fore arm is extended; and into the an- 
terior, the coronoid process of the same bone, when the fore- 
arm is much bent. 

The Fore-arm contains two bones, the Radius and the 
Ulna (Fig. 22, B.C): the former being that with which the 
movements of roiation are effected; the latter, that which 
takes the chief part in flexion and extension. The radius 
(B), when thepalra of the hand is turned forwards, is on 
the outer side of the arm ; and it is the shorter of the two 
bones. At its upper end it has a circular disk, the Head (I), 
hallowed on its upper surface, where it articulates with the 
tuberosity on the lower end of the Humerus (A, 7), and 



smooth on its circumference, where it is encirclea by a rii.g 
within which it rotates, and which is formed in part by the 
ulna, and in part by a ligament. Just below this is the 
Neck (2), of which the upper part is similarly encircled; 
and below it, on the anterior and inner surface is a knob, 
the Tubercle (3), to which the tendon of the biceps, the chief 
flexor muscle of the fore-arm, is attached. Yet lower, the 
shaft (6, 6) of the radius becomes three-sided, and as it 
descends grows wider. At its lowest part it is much ex- 
panded, is flattened before and behind, and terminates with 
a prominent border to which ligaments of the wrist-joint are 
attached. The posterior and outer surfaces of this lower 
end are deeply grooved for the passage of tendons : and the 
latter is prolonged into a blunt-pointed process, the Styloid 
(4), to which the external lateral ligament is attached. The 
inner surface has a small smooth cavity, the Semilunar, 
which articulates with the outer part of the lower head of the 
Ulna. The terminal surface (at 5) is smooth, somewhat 
triangular, and slightly hollowed ; it articulates with the 
carpus, and is continuous over the inner border with that 
which articulates with the ulna. 

The Ulna (C) is situated on the inner side of the fore-arm. 
At its upper and larger extremity it has a broad and deep 
crescent ic notch, the Greater Sigmoid Cavity (1) whose 
smooth surface is divided into two parts by a middle ridge, 
and which is received in the trochlea of the Humerus. It is 
bounded at either end by a sharp process. The upper and 
posterior is the larger, and is named the Olecranon (2); it 
forms the rough prominence behind the elbow; and when 
the arm is extended, its point, which is curved forwards, 
rests in the fossa at the back of the humerus. The lower 
and anterior (3) is the Coronoid Process, whose point, when 
the arm is fully bent, rests in the anterior fossa of the 
humerus. On the outer side the smooth surface of the 
great sigmoid cavity is continued over a small oval concave 
portion of the side of the bone just behind the coronoid pro- 
cess. This is the Lesser sigmoid cavity ; upon which the 
side of the head of the radius rotates, and to whose borders 
the coronary ligament by which that head is encircled, is 
attached. The' body or shaft (4, 4) of the ulna grows 
smaller from above downwards, and is for the most part 
three-sided ; its external and sharp margin giving origin to 
the interosseous ligament, which, being attached aUo to the 
opposed margin of the radius, fills up the space between 
these bones. At its lower end, the ulna becomes nearly 
cylindrical and then is a little enlarged : at its termination 
it presents a double articular surface; one, on the eDd 
which is nearly circular, and (through the medium of a 
fibro-cartikige) articulates with part of the carpus; the other, 
on the outer border, which is narrow and convex, and is 
received in the semilunar cavity of the radius. The inner 
border of this lower extremity bears a 6hort and blunt pro- 
cess, the Styloid (5), to which the internal lateral ligament 
of the wrist-joint is fixed. 

The motions of which the Fore-arm is capable are Flexion 
and Extension, and Rotation on its axi3. The two former 
are effected at the hinge-like joint between the Greater 
Sigmoid cavity of the Ulna and the Trochlea of the Hume- 
rus; the head of the radius moving at the same time for- 
wards and backwards on the lower tuberosity. The elbow 
affords the best specimen of a hinge-joint in the body, for 
no lateral motion is permitted in it, the ulna being locked in 
the groove between the two side- ridges of the trochlea. Ro- 
tation, by which also the rotation of the hand is effected, is 
performed by the upper head of the radius moving round 
in the ring formed by the coronary ligament and ihe lesser 
sigmoid cavity of the ulna ; and by its lower head at the 
same time being carried round on the outer border of the 
lower head of the ulna. In this movement the ulna is almost 
fixed, its lower end only being carried outwards as that of 
the radius is moved far inwards, when in extreme pronation 
of the hand the two bones are made to cross each other. 

The Hand (22, D) consists of the Carpus, Metacarpus, 
and Fingers. The Carpus (1, 1) is composed of eight small 
bones arranged in two rows, and so nearly immoveahly 
united by ligaments, that, except in being more elastic, they 
serve the purpose of a single bony arch. Those of the first 
row, which lie nearest to tho fore-arm, are (from the outer to 
the inner side) the Scaphoid, Lunar, Cuneiform, and Pisi- 
form bones: those of the second row, following the same 
order, are named Trapezium, Trapezoid, Magnum, and Un- 
ciform. The three first-named articulate with the radiua 
directly and with the ulna indirectly; the trapezium has a 



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surface of peculiar form, concave from side to side and con- 
vex from before backwards, by which the thumb, articu- 
lating with it, is permitted to have a very wide extent of mo- 
tion. 

The Metacarpus (between 2 and 2) is composed of five 
bones, which are called by number according to the order 
in which they stand ; that of the thumb being taken as the 
first. Each is described as consisting of a body and an 
upper and lower heads. The form of the upper head is 
adapted to one or more of the bones of the carpus ; that of 
the lower is in all very convex, and rather narrow. The 
body is compressed from side to side, and is broader behind 
than before, and on its dorsal than on its palmar aspect. 
The first metacarpal bone only has free mobility. 

The Bones of the Fingers are called Phalanges. The 
thumb has two, each of the fingers three. Their form and 
proportionate sizes are plainly exhibited in Figure 22, D. 
They are articulated with each other, and with the meta- 
carpal bones, so as to permit free extension and flexion, 
and at the joints between the phalanges and metacarpus 
there is also permitted a certain extent of lateral motion. 
At that between the carpus and fore-arm there is a very 
extensive hinge-like motion of flexion and extension, as 
well as a wide lateral motion. 

The general arrangement of the bones of the human 
upper extremity is adapted to a far more extensive and 
varied set of movements than exists in the corresponding 
member of any other animal; they have all relation to the 
office of the hand, as an instrument not of support, but of 
prehension, and that in its most perfect form. In this view 
they are fully considered in the article Man. 

Each of the Lower Extremities is formed by a Femur, 
Tibia, Fibula, Patella, Tarsus, Metatarsus, and Toes. 

Fig. 23. 




The Femur, or Thigh-bone, A, is the largest of the Body. 
It articulates with the acetabulum of the Os innominatum 
by its head (1), which forms rather more than half a sphere, 
and is smooth, except at its summit, where there is a de- 
pression for an interarticular hgament. It rests upon a 
narrower part, the Neck (2), which descends obliquely to the 
summit of the shaft, and is at its base somewhat expanded. 
It is here set between two strong processes called Trochan- 
ters, by which the shaft is surmounted, and its base is 
bordered by two oblique lines, named Intertrochanteric, 
which pass on either surface of tho bone, from one to the 
other Trochanter. The Greater Trochanter (3) is the upper- 
most, aud lies at the outer part of the bone; it is thick, 
rou^h, and strong, aud gives attachment to the great muscles 
of the buttock. Behind it is a deep depression, the Digital 
Fossa, in which the obturator and other muscles to rotate 
the thigh outwards are attached. The Lesser Trochanter 
(4) is on the inner aspect of the femur, and also gives a 
point of insertion for muscles. At the level of the Tro- 
chanters the shaft is flattened both behind and before, but 



below thorn it is* round and nearly cylindrical, till, within 
one-fourth of its length from the lower end, it expands, and 
again becomes flattened. The shaft (5, 5) of each femur is 
directed rather inwards, and is slightly arched forwards; 
its axis makes, with that of the neck and head, an anglo 
of about 120°; its surface is everywhere smooth, except 
behind, where there is a prominent line, the Linea asptra, 
running along the middle, and at either end dividing into 
two, which above go each to one of the trochanters, and 
below each to one of the condyles. These condyles are the 
processes in which the lower expanded part of the femur 
terminates. The inner condyle (6) is the narrower, and 
descends lower than the outer (7), which is the broader and 
stronger, 'tfheir articular surfaces are united in front at a 
concave pulley-like surface (6), over which the patella lies ; 
below it they diverge, and at the back of the femur are 
separated widely on two very convex prominences, between 
which there is a deep and rough fossa, in which the Crucial 
ligaments of the knee-joint are fixed. On the sides of the 
femur, just above the lower border of the condyle, are 
eminences, the Tuberosities (9, 9), to which the external and 
internal lateral ligaments respectively are attached. 

The Tibia, or Shin-bone {Fig. 23, B), is placed on the front 
and inner part of the Leg. Its upper part or Head (1) is 
far larger than any other. Its upper surface is nearly oval, 
its greatest diameter being transverse; and it presents two 
slightly concave oval smooth surfaces (2, 2), on which the 
condyles of the femur rest. Between them is an eminence, 
named the Spine, which fits in between the condyles, and 
to which, as well as to rough surfaces before and behind 
it, the crucial ligaments and semilunar cartilages are fixed. 
Below and on the sides of the head are Tuberosities on which 
the lateral ligaments are inserted, and behind the external 
tuberosity is a smooth surface which articulates with the 
head of the fibula. In front, and a little below them, is the 
Tubercle (4), to which the ligamentum patellae is attached. 
Below this the body (5, 5) is triangular, and as it descends, 
becomes smaller : its outer surface is hollowed ; its inner, 
which forms the skin, slightly convex; its posterior rounded. 
The outer border gives attachment to an interosseous liga- 
ment, which fills up the space between it and the opposed 
part of the fibula: the anterior is sharp and prominent, and 
is named the Crest. The lower or tarsal extremity is a 
little expanded, and has a somewhat quadrilateral form. Its 
outer aspect has a slightly concave surface, which is articu- 
lated immoveably with the fibula; the inner is prolonged 
into a bluntly pointed process, the internal malleolus (G), 
which has the internal lateral ligament of the ancle fixed 
to its extremity, and a smooth surface on its outer side, 
which articulates with the astragalus. The anterior surface 
of this extremity is smooth where tendons pass over it; the 
posterior is flat; the lower or terminal surface (7) is quadri- 
lateral and slightly hollowed ; it rests on and is articulated 
with the astragalus. 

The Fibula {Fig. 23, B) is situated at the outer part of tho 
leg, and is fixed immoveably by the side of the Tibia. It is 
long, very slender, for the most part three-sided, and en- 
larged at either extremity. The upper extremity or head (1) 
is the smaller ; it is rounded, and on its upper and inner 
part has an oval smooth surface, with which it articulates 
with the outer tubercle of the Tibia; the rest of its surface 
is uneven, for the attachment of ligaments and a tendon. 
The lower extremity (2) is longer and more pointed than 
the upper ; it forms the external malleolus, or outer ancle, 
to whose extremity the external lateral ligament of the joint 
is attached, and whose inner surface is articulated with tho 
astragalus; behind it is a deep groove, over which the ten- 
dons of some muscles of the leg pass to the sole of the foot. 
Above the malleolus, and on the inner aspect of the fibula, 
is a smooth surface, where it is united with the tibia. 

The Patella, or Knee-pan, has a somewhat triangular out- 
line. Its narrowest part is below, and is fixed by the liga- 
mentum patella? to the tubercle of the tibia. Its anterior 
surface is slightly convex, and looks fibrous, being marked 
by the insertions of the tendons of the extensor muscles of 
the leg ; the posterior is smooth, and divided by a ridge into 
two parts, of which the outer is the larger, and which are 
adapted to the pulley-like surface between the condyles of 
the femur. 

The Tarsus is composed of seven bones, namely, tho 
Astragalus (1), Os Calcis(2), Navicular (3), Cuboid (4), In- 
ternal (5), Middle (6), and External (7) Cuneiform Bones. 
These are set together so that they cannot be moved by any 



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•light force, and yet are possessed of considerable elasticity. 
The Astragalus is that on which, through the TilJia, which 
rests upon its upper quadrilateral surface, the weight of the 
body first falls. With the Tibia above, and the two malle- 
oli on either side of it, it forms the ancle-joint, a hinge with 
a limited lateral motion. Its lower part rests, with two sur- 
faces of contact, on the os calcis, whose hinder prominent 
part (8) forms the heel ; and its anterior portion or head is 
received in a cavity, formed by the navicular bone in front, 
part of the os calcis behind, and a very strong ligament be- 
low and between them. This cavity is at the summit of an 
arch which the tarsus and metatarsus together contribute to 
form, and of which the supports are the os calcis behind and 
the ends of the metatarsal bones before. It is indeed a double 
arch, for it has at the sole a concavity, both from before 
backwards and from side to side ; and the strength with 
which its several parts are joined is so great, that few acci- 
dents are rarer than a fracture or dislocation of any of the 
bones of the tarsus. 

The rest of the bones of the Foot, including those of the 
Metatarsus (9, 9) and the Toes, are in number, arrange- 
ment and form very similar to the Metacarpus and the Pha- 
langes of the Fingers. The metatarsal bones however are 
longer, more slender, and set more closely side by side than 
the metacarpal ; and the Phalanges are all much shorter, 
and (except the two of the great Toe) smaller. Their 
movements are in general the same as those of the fingers, 
but less extensive ; neither is there any adaptation for so 
free a movement of the first toe as of the thumb. 

For the remainder of the mechanism of the bones of the 
leg the article Man may be again referred to. 

There are some supplemental bones of the skeleton, 
which need but just be mentioned. These are the Sesa- 
moid and the Hyoid bones. The former occur within the 
substance or in the course of tendons which are much ex- 
erted ; the patella is the largest of them ; the number and 
existence of the others are not certain, but there are almost 
always two at the first Joints of each of the thumbs and 
great toes ; they are small, oval, or round, and rough on all 
their surfaces, except that by which they articulate with the 
bone on which they lie. The Hyoid bone is that on which 
the larynx is suspended, and the base of the tongue fixed ; 
it is not articulated, except by long ligaments, with any 
other of the bones, and is described in the articles Larynx 
and Tongue. In relation to many points in this article, 
those on Articulations and Bone may be consulted, as well 
as those to which distinct references are given. 

SKELLEFTEA-ELF. [Bothnia.] 

SKELTON, JOHN, an English poet of an antient Cum- 
berland family, was born some time in the latter part of the 
fifteenth century. Very few particulars of his life are 
known. The first mention of him is in the preface to Cax- 
ton's translation of the * iSneid,' printed in 1490, where he 
is said to have been lately created poet-laureate in the 
• Unyversite of Oxenforde.' This honour was a degree in 
grammar conferred by universities, and not, as is now the 
case, an office in the gift of the crown. ( Warton, Hist. Eng. 
Poetry, in the account of Skelton ; and Malone, Life qf 
Dryden, i. 83.) Skelton was ordained deacon in 1498, by 
the bishop of London, and priest the following year. 
{Regis™- Savage. Ems*- London., quoted by Bishop Ken net 
in his collections ; Lansdowne MSS.) He was afterwards 
admitted to an ad eundera degree at Cambridge and allowed 
to wear the dress (habitus) given him by the king. This 
we must suppose to have been some badge of royal favour 
bestowed on him by Henry VII., to whose son Henry VIII. 
he was tutor, being esteemed so great a classical scholar as 
to obtain from Erasmus the praise of being ' Britannicarum 
Literarum Dec us et Lumen.' (Epistle to Henry Vlll. % 
prefixed to his Epigrams, 294, 4to„ Basil., 1518.) In 1507 
we find from his own statement in his poems that he was 
rector of Diss in Norfolk and curate of Trompington in 
Cambridgeshire. 

In the reign of Henry VIII., if not during the lifetime of 
his predecessor, he was appointed orator regius, as he styles 
himself in the title to several of his poems, being, according 
to Warton, a graduated rhetorician employed in the service 
of the king, though whether with any salary does not appear ; 
in one place he is called Reginse Orator (' Poems ), in 
a passage referring probably to the battle of Guinegate, 
1513. 

Skelton became notorious from his coarse and bold invec- 
tive against Cardinal Wolsey and the clergy in general, but 



according to tradition his own conduct as a priest was far 
from being creditable. He was esteemed, observes Wood 
(Athena Oxon.\ in his parish and the diocese mure fit fur 
the stage than the pew or pulpit ; he is said to have been 
sua) ended by the bishop of Norwich, having been guilty oi 
• certain crimes, as most poets are. (Wood, Ibid.) The 
crimes alluded to in this passage were probably something 
more than the mere extravagances of buffoonery; he is 
accused by Fuller of having kept a concubine, or a wife 
(according to Delafield, ' Anecdotes of celebrated Jesters, 
&c, MS. Bodl, quoted by Bliss, Ath. Oxon.\ a graver 
offence at that time. The severe attack upon Wolsey in the 
poem, • Why come ye not to Court T drew down upon him 
the resentment of that great ecclesiastic, who ordered him 
to be arrested. Skelton took sanctuary at Westminster, 
under the protection of Abbot Islip, to whom, in 1512, he 
dedicated the * Preeconium Henrici Septimi.* 

He died in this retreat, June 21, 1529, and was interred 
in the churchyard, with the inscription, ' J. Skeltonus 
Vates Pie ri us hie situs est An imam egit 21 Junii, An. 
Dora. MDXXIX.' 

Skelton was much thought of in his day. We have 
already quoted the praise bestowed on him, and ' of the like 
opinion, says Wood, ' were many of his time. Yet the 
generality saw that his witty discourses were biting, his 
laughter opprobrious and scornful, and his jokes commonly 
sharp and reflecting.' Among the nobility his patron was 
Algernon Percy, fifth earl of Northumberland, and he has 
written a long elegy on the death of that nobleman's 
father. 

The chief of his poems are the * Crowne of Lawrell ' and 
the * Bouge of Courte,' two cold and tedious allegories ; 
' Why come ye not to Court?' a satire against Wolsey, and 
the ' Boke of Colin Clout,' ' Ware the Hawk,' &c, attacks 
upon the whole body of the church. In other poems 
Henry VlII.'s foreign enemies, particularly the Scotch, are 
the victims of his scurrility, or else some private grudge is 
gratified, as in his abuse of William Lilye the grammarian. 
Most of his productions are enumerated in Wood's ' AthenaV 
(Bliss), who says he wrote ' 50 several things.' According to 
Caxton, in the passage quoted above, he translated the 
Epistles of Cicero, Diodorus Siculus, and various Latin 
writers. 

Skelton has been called original and inventive. He is 
rather unique; in style there is no known writer through- 
out our literature to whom he can be compared. His poems, 
if they deserve the name, present a strange mixture of 
ribaldry, learning, malice, and buffoonery, unrelieved by 
any traces of the higher qualities of satire. The structure 
of his verse is irregular and tuneless ; the language, a motley 
jargon, at once pedantic and barbarous ; in the ' Boke of 
Philip Sparow,' he complains of the rude and unpolished 
state of his native tongue, to the improvement of which his 
studied obscurity has certainly not contributed. His Latin 
compositions are written with comparative elegance. 

He appears to have been one of the earliest authors in 
this country who addressed themselves to the nation at 
large, rather than to the nobility or to any particular class. 
Hence perhaps the grotesque combination in his works of 
classical allusions and phraseology, and of doggrcl for the 
unlettered multitude. That he should have been admired 
in an imperfectly civilized age and in the dearth of better 
literature is not surprising, when we consider that in a crisis 
of great political excitement, such as the Reformation, any 
metrical compositions are eagerly circulated which embody, 
however rudely, the feelings and opinions generally preva- 
lent among the people. 

In this point of view, regarding them as eminently typical 
of the bold and unlicensed spirit of his time, we may still 
be interested by the poems of Skelton. They present more- 
over a curiously minute picture of the corruptions of the 
Romish church, to the infamy and downfall of which they 
probably much contributed, and contain several allusions to 
passing events which are not without historical value. In 
the * British Bibliographer ' (iv. 389) there is a full length 
portrait of Skelton in the dres3 of bis time, copied from tbe 
woodcut in a work of Skel ton's in the British Museum 
entitled * A Ryght Delectable Tratyse upon a goodly Gar- 
lande or Chapelet of Laurell, by Mayster Skelton, Poete 
laureat, studyously devysed at Sheryf hotton Castell, &c. 
Inprynted by me Kycharde faukes,' &e., 1523, 4to. A new 
edition of theWorkiof Skelton, with an introductory Life 
by the Reverend A* Dyce, is announced for publication. 



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SKEW-BACK, in civil engineering, the course of mm* 
sonry forming the abutment for the voussoirs of a segmen- 
tal arch, or, in iron bridges, for the ribs. In the latter case 
a plate of cast-iron is usually laid upon the stone skew- 
backs, extending the whole width of the bridge, and form- 
ing a tie to the masonry. On account of the expansion and 
contraction of iron under changes of temperature, the ribs 
should not, especially in large arches, be fixed to their 
abutments. The ribs of South w ark Bridge, over the 
Thames, were originally bolted to the masonry of the piers ; 
but it was found necessary, on this account, to detach them, 
during the progress of the works. 

SKEW-BRIDGE, a bridge in which the passages over 
and under the arch intersect each other obliquely. In con- 
ducting a road or railway through a district in which there 
are many natural or artificial watercourses, or in making a 
canal through a country in which roads are frequent, such 
intersections very often occur. As however the construc- 
tion of an oblique or skew arch is more difficult than that 
of one built at right angles, skew-bridges were seldom erected 
before the general introduction of railways ; it being more 
asual to build the bridge at right angles, and to divert the 
course of the road or of the stream to accommodate it, as 
represented in Fig. 1, in which a b is a stream crossed by 
the road, the general direction of which is indicated by the 
dotted line ca* In a railway, and sometimes in a common 



Fig, 1. 




road or a canal, Buch a deviation from the straight line of 
direction is inadmissible, and it therefore becomes neces- 
sary to build the bridge obliquely, as represented in the plan, 
Fig. 2. Where space and neatness do not require to be eon* 
side red, an oblique arch may be avoided, either by building 
the bridge square with the upper passage, and making the 
span so wide as to allow the stream to pass under it with- 
out being diverted ; or by building the arch square with 
the stream, and of sufficient length to allow the upper pas- 
sage to take an oblique course over it ; but either of these is 
a clumsy expedient, although well adapted for some situa- > 
tions. The arches or tunnels by which the Birmingham 
railway is conducted under the Hampstead-road and Park- 
street, near the London terminus, are instances of the lat- ; 
ter kind of construction ; the length of the arches being ; 
such that they present faces square with the line of rail- 
way, notwithstanding the oblique direction of the roads over 
them. A similar case occurs at Denbigh Hall, on the same 
line, where the railway crosses over the London and Holy- 
head road at such an angle that the difference of direction 
is only 25°. In this case a long gallery is constructed un- 
der the railway, consisting of iron ribs or girders, resting 
upon walls built parallel with the turnpike road ; the ribs, 
and consequently the faces of the bridge, being at right an- 
gles with it. This gallery is about two hundred feet long 
and thirty-four feet wide; and by its adoption, the necessity 
of building an oblique arch of eighty feet span was avoided. 
The necessity of increasing the span of an arch according 
to its degree of obliquity, by which the expense and diffi- 
culty are materially increased, is illustrated by Fig. 3, the 



ground-plan of an oblique arch across a stream a b. Here 
it is evident that c g\% the actual span of the arch ; although 
c d t the breadth of the stream, would be the span of a 
straight arch, leaving the same width of passage under- 
neath. 

Very little is known respecting the origin of skew-bridges. 
It has been repeatedly asserted that those built by George 
Stephenson on the Liverpool and Manchester railway were 
the first erections of the kind ; but this is certainly incor- 
rect, there being some of earlier date even in Lancashire. 
A paper in the 'Transactions of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers,' vol. i., p. 185, alludes to an oblique arch erected 
about the year 1530 by Nicolft, called * II Tribolo,' over the 
river Mugnone, near Porta Sangallo, at Florence. It ap- 
pears however that the principle upon which such bridges 
should be constructed was too little understood to render an 
attempt at constructing them on a large scale advisable. 
The next information the writer has met with on the subject 
is contained in the article * Oblique Arches,' in Rees's 
' Cyclopaedia ;' an article which appears to have escaped the 
notice of modern writers on this branch of engineering 
science. It is written bv an engineer named Chapman, 
who mentions oblique bridges as being in use prior to 1787, 
when he introduced a great improvement in their construc- 
tion. Down to that time, as far as he was informed, such 
bridges had always been built in the same way as common 
square arches, the voussoirs being laid in courses parallel 
with the abutments. How very defective such an arch 
would be may be seen by reference to Fig. 3, in which lines 
are drawn to indicate the direction of the courses. It is 
evident that here the portion c d/e is the only part of the 
arch supported by the abutments ; the triangular portions 
cdff and ef k being sustained merely by the mortar, aided 
by being bonded with the rest of the masonry. This plan 
could therefore only be adopted for bridges of very slight 
obliquity, and even then with considerable risk. About the 
time mentioned above, Mr. Chapman was employed as en- 
gineer to the Kildare canal, a branch from the Grand Canal 
of Ireland to the town of Naas, on which it was desired to 
avoid diverting certain roads which had to be crossed. He 
was therefore led to think for some method of constructing 
oblique arches upon a sound principle, of which he con- 
sidered that the leading feature must be that the joints of 
the voussoirs, whether of brick or stone, should be rectan- 
gular with the face of the arch, instead of being parallel 
with the abutment. Thus the courses, instead of taking 
the direction shown in Fig. 3, were laid in the manner in- 
dicated in Fig. 4. One of the first bridges built on this 
plan, the Finlay bridge, near Naas, crossed the canal at an 



angle of only 39°; the oblique span being 25 feet, and 
the height of the arch 5 feet 6 inches. Mr. Chapman 
observes that the lines on which the beds of the voussoirs 
lie are obviously spiral lines, and to this circumstance 
may be attributed much of the singular appearance of 
oblique arches. The Finlay bridge stood well, but the 
ingenious designer did not think it prudent in any other 
ease to attempt so great a degree of obliquity, although be 
built several other bridges on the same principle, over the 
Grand Canal in Ireland, and over some wide drains in the 
East Riding of Yorkshire. He recommends carrying up 
the masonry as equally as possible from each abutment, in 
order to avoid unequal strains on the oentering. 

On the Liverpool and Manchester railway, out of rather 
more than sixty bridges, about one-fourth were built on the 
skew; one, built of stone, conducting the turnpike-road 
across the line at Rainhill, being at an angle of only 84°, by 
which the width of span is increased from 30 feet, the width of 



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the railway from wall to wall, to 54 feet, the width on the 
oblique face of the arch. Skew-bridges have since become 
very common, and some have been erected of even greater 
obliquity. That at Box-moor, on the Birmingham railway, 
is stated, in Roscoe and Lecount's history of the under- 
taking, to be unrivalled for obliquity by any other brick 
arch. Tts angle is 32°, the square span 21 feet, and the 
oblique span 39 feet. There are also brick arches of great 
obliquity on the Greenwich and Blackwall railways, but 
with their precise angles we are unacquainted. 

The extended use of such structures has led to the pro- 
mulgation of several methods for forming the voussoirs with 
accuracy, and disposing them in the most advantageous 
manner. The common theory, the credit of which is claimed, 
we believe, both by Mr. Nicholson and Mr. Fox, is that the 
courses of the stones should form portions of the thread of 
a square-threaded screw, or rather, of a thread somewhat of 
the dovetail form ; the highest point of each thread, or that 
in the crown of the arch, being at right angles to the direc- 
tion of the road. This theory, it is contended by the author 
of the article ' Skew-Bridge,* in the recent edition of the 
Encyclopedia Britannica, is imperfect ; and he intimates 
that, in the present state of this branch of science, the most 
perfect way of constructing a skew-arch would be to cut the 
stones as they are wanted, forming each of them in such a 
manner • that two of its opposite sides, or at least the mid- 
dle parts of these sides, should be as nearly as possible at 
right angles both to the soffit and also to the direction of 
the passage over the bridge.' Those who wish for further 
information on this subject are referred to Nicholson's 
paper on the Principles qf Oblique Bridges, presented to 
the British Association in 1838; the treatises of Messrs. 
Fox, Hart, and Buck on oblique bridges ; and the article just 
quoted. 

From Mr. Buck's treatise it appears that the difficulty 
of building skew-bridges increases with the obliquity of 
the angle from 90° to 45°, which is supposed to be the 
most hazardous angle for a semicircular arch ; but that be- 
yond that point, instead of increasing, it rather diminishes, 
to about 25°, which appears to be about the natural limit for 
a semi-cylindrical arch. Mr. Buck, whose experience ren- 
ders his opinion highly valuable, considers that oblique 
arches of the elliptical form should not be attempted, as 
they are deficient in stability, more difficult to execute, and 
more expensive than semicircular or segmental arches. 

The construction of skew-bridges of iron or timber is 
comparatively simple, the ribs or girders of which such 
bridges are composed being of the usual construction, laid 
parallel with each other, but the end of each being in ad- 
vance of that next preceding it Fig. 5 represents the 
ground-plan of such a bridge, the dotted lines indicating 
the situation of the ribs upon which the platform is sup- 




ported. The extraordinary iron bridge by which the Man- 
chester and Birmingham railway is conducted over Fair- 
field-street, Manchester, at an angle of only 244°, is a 
fine example of this kind of skew-bridge. It consists of 
six ribs, of rather more than 128 feet span, although the 
width of the street is only 48 feet, resting upon very mas- 
sive abutments of masonry. The total weight of iron in 
this bridge, which is considered to be one of the finest iron 
arches ever built, is 540 tons. It was erected from the de- 
sign of Mr. Buck, who has constructed several other oblique 
bridges of great size and very acute angles. Timber bridges, 
formed of trussed ribs or girders, are built on the same 
principle. One of very great obliquity, on the Sechili rail- 
way, is represented in the second series of Brees's Railway 
Practice. A somewhat similar mode of constructing skew- 
bridges in brickwork has been introduced by Mr. Gibbs on 
the Croydon railway. The Jolly 8ailor bridge, which crosses 
over this line near Norwood, consists of four separate ribs of 
brickwork, each forming an elliptical arch of 60 feet span, 
with a versed sine of n feet 6 inches, supporting a flat 



viaduct of Yorkshire flagstones. Each of these ribs, which 
are three feet wide on the transverse face, is built square, 
so that the brickwork is of the simplest kind ; but by mak- 
ing the respective abutments project beyond each other 
according to the oblique direction of the railway, :he ribs, 
taken collectively, form a skew- arch. In a bridge erected 
by Mr.' Woodhouse on the line of the Midland Counties 
railway, the same principle is adopted, but the ribs are 
placed close together, so that no platform of flagstones is 
required. j 

SKIDD AW. [Cumberland] 

SKIMMER. [Rynchops.] ; " 

SKIN. The skin, or derma, is the outer covering olT the 
body ; and having to serve at once as a defence for the more 
deeply seated structures, as an organ of touch, and as an 
apparatus for secretion, it is one of the most compound of 
all the tissues. 

It is composed of two chief parts: — a vascular basis 
named Cutis, and a superficial layer named Epidermis or 
Cuticle, which is not \iascular. The cutis is made up for 
the most part of fibres and lamina?, like those of common 
cellular tissue. They are much more densely woven near 
the surface than in the deeper part of the skin : in the 
former they constitute a very tough and elastic compact 
membrane; in the latter they are arranged in irregular 
large cells, which in moderately stout persons arc filled with 
fat, but in the emaciated are collapsed, and form a loose 
flocculent white tissue. This general form of structure pre- 
vails through the whole skin; but in different parts of the 
body, and still more in different persons, the density and 
thickness of its layers, the size of the cells, the quantity 
of fat which they contain in the deeper parts, and the fine- 
ness or coarseness of the tissue composing them, vary con- 
siderably. ' 

The external surface of the skin presents a variety ot 
wrinkles. Thd larger of these are produced by the action 
of muscles, which in many parts throw the skin into folds; 
others result from its loss of elasticity in old age, and the 
removal of the fat beneath it ; and again others, which are 
seen most plainly on the palms and the balls of the fingers, 
and on the corresponding parts of the foot, run in very close 
parallel arches, and indicate the arrangement of subjacent 
rows of sensitive papilla?, with which the whole surface of 
the skin is beset, and which in the parts just named, and 
in some others, are arranged in regular double lines. In 
their most developed state, on the balls of the fingers for 
example, the papillae are very fine conical processes, standing 
somewhat obliquely, and so densely set, that their summits 
form a seemingly smooth surface. On these parts each ele- 
vated line which one sees on the surface has beneath it two 
rows of papillae ; for when looked at closely, each such ridge 
shows on its summit a little furrow dotted with minute aper- 
tures, and which fits into the space between the rows of 
papilla?. Over the rest of the body the papillae aro much 
smaller, and are irregularly arranged. Everywhere how- 
ever they are the most vascular part of the skin, each pa- 
pilla receiving a distinct loop from the subjacent network of 
blood-vessels. It is in them also that the greater part of the 
very numerous nerves of the skin terminate; for though 
every part of the skin be sensitive, yet the papilla? are so in 
the highest degree, and are the chief instruments by which 
the sense of touch is exercised. [Senses ; Nerve.] It is 
through their being so much developed, that the tips of the 
fingers are adapted for the perception of the finest impres- 
sions of the sense ; though even they have less delicate per- 
ception than the tip of the tongue, on which similar but 
larger and more pointed papilla? are set. ' ,' "'" 

The chief secretory apparatus of the skin consists of the 
perspiratory glands, which are disposed over its whole ex- 
tent, but, like the papilla?, are largest and most numerous 
in the palms and soles. By looking on the surface of the 
cuticle covering these parts, one may see, especially on a 
warm day, or when perspiring freely, a number of minute 
orifices between and upon the tops of the arched ridges 
already described. These are the orifices of the glands 
by which the perspiration is secreted, and sometimes one 
may squeeze through them a drop of the clear crystal 
fluid which the glands produce. Each orifice leads to a 
fine tube of somewhat ess diameter than itself, which 
passes down through the epidermis, and into the deeper 
parts of the skin, making on its way several spiral turns, 
and ending in a slightly enlarged closed sac. In the sole 
each such tube makes from 15 to 20 spiral turns; in the 



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palm, from 6 to 10 ; in other parts, fewer : in the right hand 
the spiral turns are made from left to right ; in the left, from 
rignt to left. There are about 25 of these orifices in a 
square line of the surface of the tip of the fore-finger; and 
about 75 in the same space between the bases of the fin- 
gers : taking therefore tie whole superficies of the body at 
14 squire feet, it is probable that, as Eichhorn calculated, 
there are not less than ten millions of these glands scattered 
through the skin. 

It is in them that the perspiration is being constantly 
formed, though it most generally passes away as fast as it is 
produced in an invisible vapour, and during health collects 
in the form of sweat only when it is very rapidly formed, as 
during active exercise, or when the surrounding atmosphere 
is already saturated with moisture. The fluid of the per- 
spiration is composed of water, with very small quantities of 
animal and saline manner, some free lactic acid, nitrogen, 
and carbonic acid. By thus removing carbonic acid from the 
blood, the skin is, next to the lungs, the most important and 
essential excretory organ of the body ; some recent experi- 
ments have proved that animals prevented from perspiring 
die of suffocation as certainly, though not so rapidly, as when 
their respiration is obstructed. The quantity of perspira- 
tion secreted amounts to about two pounds in 24 hours; but 
it is liable to considerable variations, according to the habits 
of the individual, the state of the atmosphere, the activity 
of other glands, such as the lungs and kidneys, and other 
circumstances. 

Another secretion from the skin is that of the oily seba- 
ceous matter by which its surface is alwa\s kept in a slight 
degree greasy, so that water adheres to it only in drops, 
ana does not easily soak into the substance of the epider- 
mis. The sebaceous glands by which this secretion is pro- 
duced, as well as the hair- follicles on which they are almost 
always attendant, are already described. [Hair.] 

The loss of fluid by these secretions from the skin is in 
some measure compensated by the absorption which it also 
exercises. It is uncertain how much, if any, of the vapour 
of the atmosphere around us is thus imbibed; but it is 
certain that the skin absorbs fluids placed for a short time 
in contact with it, and this so rapidly, that (especially after 
long fasting) a perceptible increase of weight is observed 
after a person has been immersed in a bath. The obstacle 
to a more constant and considerable absorption of fluid is 
the nearly impenetrable layer of epidermis; and hence the 
substances most rapidly absorbed are those which most 
easily pass through it, such as water, after having been 
imbibed into its deepest layers, vapours of sulphuretted 
hydrogen, hydrocyanic acid, &c, oils rubbed upon it, or 
corrosives which destroy its texture. 

Besides its secretions, there are produced from the vessels 
of the skin materials of which are formed certaiu appen- 
dages for its protection and other purposes, such as the 
cuticle, the hair, and the nails. 

The cuticle, or epidermis, is au insensible and non-vas- 
cular membrane, which is laid over the whole of the exter- 
nal surface of the body in a layer, the thickness of which 
is varied according to the protection required for the well- 
being of the subjacent cutis. The under surface, which 
lies next to the cutis, is accurately fitted into all its irregu- 
larities, and sends prolongations down into the interior of all 
its glands and follicles ; the outer surface, which is exposed 
to friction, is comparatively smooth. The epidermis is com- 
posed of several layers of cells : of the two layers into which 
it may commonly in an ordinary dissection be split, the 
lower is called rete mucosum, or rete Malpigbii; the upper 
and outer, more particularly, epidermis. In the deeper layers 
the epidermis is composed entirely of minute polygonal 
cells, adhering by their edges, and containing nuclei and a 
thin fluid; in the layers nearer the surface are cells of the 
same kind, but larger and flatter; and those on the very 
outer surface are dry and scale-like ; they have lost almost 
all trace of form, and becoming loose, are removed by 
friction at exactly the same rate as, under ordinary circum- 
stances, new cells are produced at the surface next the 
cutis. Thus the epidermis is subject to constant and rapid 
change: its cells, as fast as they dry and are removed in 
the form of scurf [Scurf] from its exterior, being replaced 
by new ones at its interior; and thus, whatever waste 
(within certain limits) it is subject to, its thickness is not 
diminished, but rather, as the waste is increased, so is its 
thickness, till it attains that degree which is competent to 
the protection of the subjacent cutis; as any one may see 
P. C, No. 1370. 



in the palms of his hands, soon after he has begun to occupy 
himself in a more than usually laborious handicraft. 

The epidermis is the seat of the characteristic national 
colours of the skin, as well as of the colours of freckles and 
other superficial marks. In dark-complexioned races, espe- 
cially in negroes, it is very thick, and its cells are filled with 
minute black or otherwise coloured pigment- granules, many 
of which also lie loose among them. The thickness of the 
epidermis in these tribes renders it less penetmblv by the 
rays of heat ; and it is hence (and not on account c f its colour, 
which would have an opposite effect) that a nee ro can bear 
the exposure of his skin to a degree of solar heat which 
blisters that of a European. 

The hairs are already described in a separate : rticlc. The 
nails are thin laminte of horny tissue, prodi ced by the 
cutis on the back of the ends of the fingei i and toes. 
Under each of the more perfect of the nails, si ch as those 
of the fingers and the great toe, the cutis ha $ a peculiar 
structure, called the matrix of the nail, compc >ed of large 
snarply pointed and very vascular papill©, w tich at the 
root are arranged irregularly, but at the body of the nail are 
placed in close-set rows or longitudinal ridges. By all this 
vascular surface the substance of the nail is produced in 
minute cells, which subsequently coalesce an l form the 
dense, obscurely fibrous, and transparent mas* of the body 
of the nail. The crescentic opaque part at ths root of the 
nail owes its whiteness in part to its own subi tance, which 
in the deeper layers is softer and more opaque han in those 
of the body, and in part to the surface beneath it being less 
vascular than the rest. 

The under surface of the nail is grooved or otherwise 
marked in correspondence with the matm, to which it 
closely fits ; the outer surface, exposed to £ iction, is com- 
paratively smooth, though still it presents traces of the 
ridges in which, when it was at the under surface, it was 
formed ; for the nails are produced in the sv>me method as 
the cuticle ; as fast as their exposed surfaces or their ends 
are worn away, they are replaced by layern growing from 
the matrix ; and the whole mass of the nail, growing at 
once from below its body and from its roct, is constantly 
pushed forwards and thickened, at the veiy same rate as 
its free extremity is cut or worn down, and its body thinned 
by friction. 

SKINNER, STEPHEN, M.D., born lfi23, died 1667, 
a skilful physician and a very learned philologist. He was 
born in London or the neighbourhood ; stud ed in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, where he was a commoner of Christ Church ; 
but the civil war coming on, he left Oxford without taking 
a degree, and travelled abroad, occasionally remaining some 
time at the foreign universities. In 1646 he returned to 
Oxford, and took the usual academical deg ees ; after which 
be again went abroad, living in France, Italy, Germany, 
and the Netherlands ; frequenting the courts of princes and 
the halls of the universities, being highly esteemed both for 
his learning and his general deportment. He took the 
degree of M.D. at Heidelberg, ana afterwards at Oxford, in 
1656. He then settled at Lincoln, where he engaged in 
the practice of medicine with great success; but his career 
was short. In the beginning of autumn in 1667 febrile 
complaints were very prevalent in Lincolnshire, and he, 
among others, was fatally attacked. He died on the 5th of 
September in that year, at the age of forty-four, to the great 
regret of his friends, to whom the innocence of his life and 
the cheerfulness of his disposition had endeared him. 

His early decease was a great loss also to the world, for 
he was applying his vast stores of philological knowledge 
to the illustration of his native language ; and had made 
no inconsiderable progress in a work which was designed to 
serve as an etymological dictionary of the language. This 
manuscript came after his death into the hands of Thomas 
Henshaw, Esq., of Kensington, who had a disposition to 
the same kind of studies, and who made additions to it. He 
also superintended the publication of it, which was effected 
in 1671, in a folio volume, under the title of Etymolo- 
gicon Linguae Anglicanae.' Dr. Skinner's work has the 
great disadvantage of having been left unfinished by the 
author, who, it mav be presumed, would have struck out, as 
well as added, as his knowledge advauced and the general 
principles of philology became more distinctly perceived 
by him. which would probably have been the case bad be 
proceeded in his work. As it is, it is to be regarded rather as 
containing anecdotes of the language than as a systematic 
body of English etymologies; but it contains numerous 

Vol. XXII.-N 



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valuable suggestions, and many later English etymologists 
have* made use of his labours. The etymological part of Dr. 
Johnson's Dictionary is almost wholly derived from Skinner 
and Junius. 

SKIPTON. [Yorkshire.] 

SKIRRET. [SiuM.] 

SKODRE'. ffecuTARi.] 

SKORODITE. Cupreous Arseniate of Iron, Occurs 
Cry stall ized and massive. Primary form a right rhombic 
prism. Cleavage parallel to the primary planes, indistinct. 
Fracture uneven. Hardness, scratches carbonate of lime, 
and is scratched by fluor-spar. Rather brittle. Colour 
bluish-green of different degrees of intensity, also blackish- 
green, brown, and black. Streak white. Lustre vitreous. 
Transparent; translucent; opaque. Specific gravity 3*162 to 
3*2. 

Massive varieties globular, fibrous, radiating. 

By the blow-pipe gives arsenical vapours, and fuses into a 
globule attracted by the magnet. Found in Cornwall, 
Saxony, near Huttenburg in Carinthia, Brazil, &c. 

Analysis by — 

Chenevix. Fidnus. 

Arsenic Acid . . 33*5 Arsenious Acid . . . 31*40 

Oxide of Iron. . 27*5 Protoxide of Iron . . 36'35 

Oxide of Copper . 22*5 Protoxide of Manganese 4*00 

Water .... 12 Sulphuric Acid . . . 1'54 

Silex (matrix) . 3 Lime 200 

Magnesia 2*00 

98-5 Water 1800 

Gangue ... . 1*40 

96-59 
It would appear that different substances have in this, as 
in other cases, been called by the same name. In one ana- 
lysis we have arsenic and in the other arsenious acid ; one 
contains no oxide of copper, and the other no oxide of man- 
ganese A specimen examined by R. Phillips contained 
no copper. . 

SKOVORODA (known in the Ukraine under the name 
of Gregory Sawicz, or Gregory the son of Sava) was born 
about 1730, of poor parents, m a village near Kiew, where 
his father was subdeacon or parish clerk. He was admitted 
at the age of twelve years into the ecclesiastical academy of 
Kiew, in the capacity of a servant, but was soon allowed to 
attend the lectures there, in consideration of the talent 
which he showed. After obtaining the reputation of being 
the best classical scholar of the place, and in vain soliciting 
permission to go abroad, he set out on foot, without the 
knowledge of his superiors, for Pesth, where he commenced 
the study of the German language, and in six months was 
able to profit by the lectures. His account of these 
lectures however shows them to have been very inefficient, 
and moreover the fame of Wolf was then at its height and 
attracting students from every part of Germany to Halle. 
Skovoroda went to Halle, where he devoted three years to 
metaphysical and theological studies ; and that his country 
might profit by the advantages which he derived from foreign 
learning; he made at this time translations from the Homi- 
lies of St. Chrysostom, and composed moral fables which 
have been handed down orally by the inhabitants of the 
Ukraine, the surest possible test of their popularity. After 
four years he returned to Kiew, but was not re-admitted 
into the academy, nor appointed to any post in which his 
energies might find exercise. Upon this he applied himself 
to mitigate the persecutions of the United Greeks, concern- 
ing whom a few details are necessary. 

This sect had arisen in Russia from a kind of politico- 
religious compact between the Holy See and the sovereign of 
Russia about the year 1610, for the purpose of reducing 
Russia under the papal dominion. In order to effect this, 
the two powers established a medium sect, partly Romanist, 
partly Greek: the pope sent Jesuits to teach the necessary 
doctrine; and the emperor Wladislaw, by a power over the 
consciences of his people which we can scarcely understand, 
imposed this body of doctrine as the creed of the provinces 
on the border of Russia and Poland, whose situation had 
already exposed them to the influences of both parties. 
The Unites (as the members of the Greek Church who ac- 
knowledge the supremacy of the pope are called in Russia) 
had already appeared in the north of Italy, in Illyria, and 
Croatia; but nowhere under similar circumstances. In 
Russia this sect became a sort of rallying-point for the 
members of both churches, teaching the Russians gra- 



dually to confound distinctions of doctrine, and so to think 
little of the purer faith and system handed down to them 
by their ancestors. It has existed to the present day, 
and so late as 1840 the emperor of Russia, by a dispensing 
power as strange as that which he exercised originally, 
decreed that the United Greeks should exist no more. But 
in the reign of Catherine II., under which Skovoroda* lived, 
the oppression of the inhabitants of the Ukraine (who had 
lost the privileges guaranteed to them by Peter the Great 
after the battle of Poltava) had so far spoiled their disposition, 
as to render them willing in their turn to oppress any one who 
was weak enough to fear them. The United Greeks, who 
had from the commencement of the sect lived under the 
protection of the throne, were selected as the objects of their 
persecution. The most rational way of checking these per- 
secutions was to destroy the spirit which gave them birth. 
To this task Skovoroua appked himself: in the mixed 
character of priest and minstrel, he proceeded from village 
to village through his native Ukraine, preaching the words 
of peace, sinfcinn the religious songs which he had composed 
for them, and inculcating the same truths under the attrac- 
tive form of fables. Still he constantly refused to head the 
sect of the Unites, as his object was not to create or foster 
schism, but merely to give both parties the benefit of his 
lessons. By this time the influence which he had justly 
acquired had pleaded strongly in his favour, and the aca- 
demy conferred on him the vicarage of his native village. In 
this station he prohibited all rigour against the persecuted 
Unites, and endeavoured to gain them over by his doctrines, 
which were enforced by an eloquence unequalled in the pul- 
pit of South Russia. This at the same time gave an impulse 
to the clergy of the province, which however unhappily 
ceased with his death. Even when ordered by the synod, 
be refused to use the means of persecution, and his refusal 
led to his ejection from the cure which his exertions had so 
greatlv benefited. His occupation being gone, he resolved 
to indulge a long- felt desire to visit Rome, the nurse of 
doctors and confessors, and to view her who, in his eyes, had 
been glorious as the queen of nations. But almost imme- 
diately on his arrival in that city he was recalled by the 
news of fresh persecutions at home ; his works however show 
what an impression Christian rather than Pagan Rome 
had left on his mind. His return again checked the fv.ry 
of the opposite parties; but his exertions, though success- 
ful, were only working out his own ruin. The jealosy of 
the court at St. Petersburg could not allow a single indi- 
vidual, in a cause however humane, to stand in the way of 
its views. He was considered as a rebel, and orders for 
his apprehension were issued, which he evaded by taking 
refuge at the country residence of a noble who had often 
pressed him to become tutor to his son. This sanctuary of 
feudal power could not be invaded even by the imperial 
authority, and he miebt still have lived in a diminished 
sphere of usefulness, out he died at the early age of forty- 
eight, and traditions say that he foretold his own death the 
day before it occurred, and dug his grave in the garden, 
unwilling to give this last trouble to the friends to whom be 
thought lie had long enough been a burden. 

He was the only author in Little Russia who has yet 
written in prose : his work called ' Symphonon ' is a solitary 
instance of that kind of composition, and it has the advan- 
tage over the works written in Great Russia in being formed 
rather on the antient Greek model than on that of the Latin 
or German languages, a style of which Lomonossof was the 
founder. His translations have been already noticed. Some 
original essays in the Latin and Russian languages, which 
remain, show much good taste and elegance, with a great 
extent of reading, qualifications which were little known in 
his age or country. With the exception of the common 
songs of war and love, all traditional songs of the present 
day are attributed by the bandurists (the troubadours of the 
Ukraine) to Skovorodfi. 

The object* of this notice is to rescue from utter neglect 
the name of one who in his exertions resembled Felix 
NerT (whose name and character have become generally 
known through the memoir of the Rev. W. S. Gilly), but 
has still further claims on our notice as the founder of a 
national literature. 

Further details, garnished with all the romantic circum- 
stances with which tradition loves to invest its heroea, may 
be found in the ' Moskowski Telegraph/ 
SKULL. [Skeleton.] 
SKUNK. [Weasels.] 



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SKYE. [Hebrides.] 

SKYLIGHT. Including under this term every mode of 
admitting light into an apartment through its roof or ceil- 
ing, we may here briefly notice that particular fashion of 
skylight distinguished in Gothic architecture by the namo 
of Lantern, though lanterns in Gothic buildings were not 
so much intended to admit light, as to supply ventilation 
and the means of escape to smoke. Accordingly their 
sides were generally left unglaied or open, whence such 
lanterns were distinguished by the name of Louvre (fou~ 
vert); and though no longer required for its original pur- 
pose, afier fireplaces were introduced, the lantern was still 
retained as a characteristic feature of the hall, not only in 
monastic and collegiate, but also in domestic architecture, 
when that apartment showed itself externally as a distinct 
portion of the building, being carried up as a small turret 
rising out of the ridge of the roof. The lantern over the 
hall of the Middle Temple, London, is an example. Lanterns 
of this kind appear to have been invariably polygonal in 
plan, octagonal or hexagonal, and had apertures or windows 
on all sides* But the term lantern is occasionally used in 
two other significations: it is applied to the lower part of a 
tower placed at the intersection of the transepts with the 
body of a church, which, being open below, forms a 
lofiier portion of the interior, lighted by windows on each 
side ; and again to an upper open story, that is, one en- 
tirely filled with windows, on the summit of a tower, and 
frequently forming; a superstructure different in plan from 
the rest, as at Fotheringay Church, and that at Boston, 
Lincolnshire, in both which examples the lantern forms an 
octagon placed upon a square. The upper portion of the 
tower of St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, London, may also be 
described as a lantern. 

Of skylights however, properly so called (that is, which 
are nearly in the same plane as the general surface of the 
ceiling), or of lanterns intended to light the whole of an 
interior, without other windows in its side walls, no exam- 
ples are to be met with in our antient architecture ; not but 
that skylights might be, and probably in some cases have 
been, introduced into buildings in the Pointed style, without 
doing violenee to its character, by merely perforating some 
of the compartments and tracery in a groined ceiling. As 
one instance at least of the kind, we may mention the con- 
servatory that was at Carlton House, which had a roof of 
fan- tracery, designed after that of Heury Vll.'s Chapel, the 
whole of which was perforated and filled in with glass; but 
as the ceiling itself was low, and three sides of the building 
consisted entirely of windows, it conveyed only an imperfect 
idea of the effect that might be produced in an interior of 
the kind, if lighted from above only, particularly if the per- 
forated parts of the ceiling were filled in with stained glass. 
Notwithstanding both the variety as to design and decora- 
tion of which skylights are susceptible, and the picturesque 
effect produced in an interior where the light falls in from 
above, so far from having been turned to account for archi- 
tectural purposes, and studied as ornamental features, sky- 
lights have generally been considered and treated as mere 
shifts and expedients in building, excusable only when re- 
sorted to from necessity, and for inferior rooms situated 
where it was impossible to obtain side-windows. Hence 
scarcely anything on the subject, hardly the bare mention of 
skylights, is to be met with in architectural works. In Italian 
buildings such mode of lighting rooms is almost unknown, 
even where it recommends itself as being greatly preferable 
to that by side-windows, and in fact scarcely less than in- 
dispensable, as is the case with sculpture and picture gal- 
leries, staircases, and libraries; and though, as regards these 
last, it is not very material whether the light is admitted 
from the side of the room or from above, the second method 
is attended with this advantage, that it allows the. bookcases 
to be continued on all sides of the room. 

For rooms in general, the plan of lighting them from the 
ceiling would not be practicable ; yet, where suitable oppor- 
tunity offers, it should be adopted, not only for the sake 
of variety of effect, but also as affording great scope for 
ornamental design. 

Scarcely anything of the kind occurs in Italian architec- 
ture, except it be in the form of a cupola over a central 
saloon. [Saloon.] Neither is the very best effect usually 
studied in Italian cupolas and domes, the light being gene- 
rally admitted partly through small apertures in the con- 
cave of the dome itself, or through a mere lantern on its 
summit, and partly through upright windows in the tam- 



bour or cylindrical wall immediately beneath it; insteaJ of 
being concentrated and diffused through a single largo 
opening, as in the Pantheon at Rome, which, though pro- 
fessedly so much admired, has very rarely indeed been fol- 
lowed as a model by the architects of Italy. The same 
remark applies to their followers in other countries: so far 
from studiously availing themselves of opportunities of 
lighting interiors from above, and varying the means of 
accomplishing it according to the particular occasion or 
design, they have rather avoided everything of the kind. 
Even where it would seem the most direct mode of obtain- 
ing light, as in the case where a dome is introduced, the 
effect that might be so produced is more frequently than 
not quite neutral^ed, if not destroyed, by the chief light 
being derived from lateral windows. Of this we have an 
instance in St. Stephen's, Walbrook, which, whatever merit 
it may possess in regard to proportions, most assuredly does 
not exhibit the most refined taste, the small oval holes 
in the walls, serving as windows, being in fact, so many- 
blemishes in the design. In that and most other examples 
of the same kind the lantern is so narrow or small in dia- 
meter compared with the dome, that it seems as much in- 
tended to obstruct as to admit light, and applied rather with 
a view to external than to internal effect and utility, — as an 
architectural finish to the outside of the dome, than in order 
to light the inside of the building. 

It seems indeed a strange kind of perverseness, that while 
lighting interiors entirely from above has been employed 
not only for picture and sculpture galleries, but also for 
concert-rooms, lecture-rooms, and other places intended to 
accommodate an auditory or congregation, it should hardly 
in any instance have been applied to churches, though by 
getliug rid of apertures in the walls, noises and sounds from 
the street would be excluded. If the style of the building 
be Gothic, such mode of course becomes out of the ques- 
tion; for windows in the walls themselves are then essen- 
tial, being not only characteristic features, but one chief 
source of decoration, while owing to their being divided by 
mullions into compartments, and more or leas filled up 
with tracery, the glare of light is properly attempered. 
With regard to other styles, Grecian or Italian, the case is 
widely different: in them the windows are internally no 
better than so many gaps — mere glazed apertures, which, 
so far from contributing to decoration, have not even any 
kind of finishing bestowed upon them, neither architrave, 
mouldings, nor cornices. 

The only instance that we are acquainted with of a church 
lighted entirely from above, without lateral windows, is that 
of St. Peter-le-Poor, Broad Street, London, which is a ro- 
tunda, covered by a cove, and a large circular lantern, whose 
tambour forms a sort of clerestory, consisting of a conti- 
nuous series of arched windows, while the ceiling makes a 
very flat or slightly concave dome. In point of design this 
example is not particularly tasteful, but the principle de- 
serves attention. Other ideas of a similar nature have occa- 
sionally been thrown out, though not carried to the same 
extent: the centre of the interior of St. Mary Woolnoth's 
is covered by a square clerestory lantern, having a large 
semicircular window on each of its sides, — a peculiarity pro- 
bably forced upon the architect (Hawksmoor)on account of 
its being desirable to have no windows on the side towards 
Lombard Street, and it is only to be regretted that any 
were allowed on the opposite one, as the whole interior 
would have been materially improved by the omission of 
them. A more recent instance is that of Hanover Chapel, 
Regent Street, London, which has what may be conve- 
niently distinguished by the term lantern- dome, via a dome 
where the light is admitted neither through a smaller lan- 
tern, or other aperture at its apex, nor through windows in 
a tambour beneath it, but by a series of windows or glazed 
panels in the lower part of the concave of the dome itself, 
similarly curved, and therefore narrower at top than below. 
Taken by itself, this is a very pleasing feature of the inte- 
rior, but its effect is counteracted by the numerous windows 
on the sides, which, in addition to being mere plain openings 
in the walls, destroy all architectural repose, by the spotty 
cross-lights which they occasion. Under such circumstances, 
it is to be wished that the architect could not possibly obtain 
light except from above. Fortunately this is sometimes the 
case, if not in regard to churches, in other spacious apart- 
ments, where it has been turned to more or less account in 
the design, and the necessity of lighting them, if not im- 
mediately from the ceiling, at least through the upper part 

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The Waterloo gallery or saloon at Windsor Castle has a 
lantci n ceiling of unusual design, not so much on account 
of the style of decoration, as of its arrangement and the 
mode in which the light is admitted. The only other 
instance we shall add, and it deserves to he noticed for 
the novelty of the idea, is that of a skylight in a shop at 
Southampton, forming a dome raised upon four columns, 
square in its plan, and semicircular in section, and entirely 
filled in with stained glass of various colours, forming a 
mosaic pattern in the Alhamhra style, executed, we be- 
lieve, from designs by Mr. Owen Jones. 

SKYROS (SKupoc), an island in the^Egean, lying to the 
east of Phalasia in Negroponte, and to the west of Psara, 
but nearer to the former, in 39° 10' N. lat. and 25° 12' E. 
long. The earliest inhabitants were Pelasgians and Carians, 
according to Nicola us, quoted by Stephanus Byzantinus 
CSKupof), and Dolopes (Thucyd., i. 98). Homer records the 
capture of it by Achilles (//., x. 664), who is said to have 
been discovered there disguised in female attire before the 
Trojan war. Theseus was sent into exile to this island, 
and was murdered by Lycomedcs, its king, who became jea- 
lous of his popularity. (Pausan., iii. 6.) In 476 B.C. it was 
taken by Cimon, when the inhabitants were enslaved, and a 
colony was sent thither from Athens (Thuc)d., i. 98), but not 
in consequence of the oracle which directed the removal of 
the bones of Theseus, as Pausanias asserts, for the delivery 
of the oracle and the disinterment did not take place till 
six or seven years after the capture. It afterwards passed 
out of the hands of the Athenians, but was restored to them 
by the peace of Antalcidas, uc. 386. It was taken by De- 
metrius Polioreetes, and again given to Athens, B.C. 196, in 
the treaty between Romo and Philip of Macedon. (Livy, 
xxxiii. 30.) 

In the division of the Greek empire by Constantino Por- 
tohvrogennetus, Scyrus was placed in the Thema iEgceum 
Pelagus, and in the Synecdemus of Hierocles, in the Pro- 
vincia Helladis Achaiso. After the taking of Constantinople 
by the Latins, it was seized by Andrew and Jerome Gizi. 
It afterwards formed part of the duchy of Naxos, and 
finally of the Turkish empire. In 1823 the Skyriotes were 
among the islanders who renounced their allegiance to the 
Porte, and repulsed the troops sent against them with great 
slaughter. This island was however restored at the close 
of the Greek war to the Turks, by the protocol of 1829. 

According to Dapper the bearings of Skyros are as fol- 
lows : — Ten or eleven leagues to the north of Cap Mantelo, 
the south-east cape of Eubcea; on the east it is sixteen or 
eighteen leagues from Lesbos, and the same on the north- 
east from Lemnos; and on the north-west six or seven 
leagues from the island of Skopelo. Tournefort states the 
circumference at sixty miles. On the west side is a large 
bay, with several islands at the mouth. The harbour here 
is called Kalamitza by the Greeks, and by the Italians Gran 
Spiaggia. Opposite to this, on the other side of the island, 
is Port Akhili. The isthmus between these two points 
divides the island into two parts ; the southern portion is un- 
cultivated, full of high mountains, intersected by deep 
gullies, and rugged and bare, except at their summits, 
where they are covered with oak, fir, and beech. 

Mount Cocyla, on the east coast, a little to the south of 
Port Akhili, is 2588 feet high, according to some authorities. 
At the southern extremity of the island is a port called 
Trimpouchais, a corruption of Tro Boche, or the three 
mouths. It is surrounded by wooded hills, and has three 
entrances, the one on each side being about one-third of a 
mile in width, and the middle one rather narrower. They 
are all safe and deep. There is about twenty fathoms water 
in the centre of the harbour. 

The northern division of the island is less mountainous. 
The town of St. George, on the east coast, covers the 
north and west sides of a high rocky peak, which termi- 
nates abruptly on the sea. On the table summit of this 
hill are the ruins of a castle built during the middle ages, 
and many houses, all abandoned, which are used by the 
inhabitants to keep stores in. The houses of Skyros are fiat- 
roofed, of two stories, the lower of stone, the upper of wood, 
surmounjed by terraces covered with earth. This hill was 
the site of the antient Acropolis. The remains of Hellenic 
walls may be traced round the edge of the precipices, parti- 
cularly at the north end of the castle, and others halfway 
down the peak, or among the modern houses. The greater 
part of the antient city lay to the east, near the sea. In 
this direction there is a large semicircular bastion almost 



entire, Thence the wall is continued along the slope above 
the sea as far as a round tower, half of which is si ill 
standing. Beyond this are the remains of another tower, 
and a wall from each connects the city with the sea, like 
the long walls of Athens and other antient cities. Tour- 
nefort (yoyage du Levant) makes mention of the ruins of 
a temple of Pallas near the town. This goddess was wor- 
shipped here, as appears from Stalius (Achtll, i. 285). 

In the neighbourhood of St. George is a plain four square 
miles in extent, which bears corn, grapes, and figs. There is 
another at Kalamitza, which is also fertile. On the steep 

f round in the north part of the island madder is grown, 
'he wheat of Skyros equals in quality that of any island in 
the iEgean. Its productions are, 10,000 barrels of wine in 
a good vintage, three-fourths of which are exported; 15,000 
kila of corn, 2000 of which are exported; 500 kanthars of 
fasulia; 2000 okes of wax; 8000 okes of honey; 100,000 
oranges and lemons ; and 400 kanthars of madder. There 
are a few oxen, and about 15,000 head of sheep and goats, 
of which 2000 are annually exported. The taxes are 20 
purses, paid by 500 families living in SL George. I here 
are three kaiks belonging to the island, and many feluccas 
built with the fir of the mountains. The oak timber is only 
used for firewood. (Leake's Travels in Northern Greece.) In 
1813 Scyros had 12 ships, with an average tonnage of 100; 
average number of crews 12 ; of cannon 4. (Pouqueville, 
Voyage dans la Grece,) The inhabitants are good seamen, 
and fond of the chase. They retain more antient customs 
than most of the islanders in the Archipelago, and are at- 
tached to the early Greek traditions. The memory of 
Achilles is still preserved in the name Akhili ('AxiXXaor). 
Skyros was much celebrated among the autients for its red 
and white marble, which, as Strabo informs us, was used at 
Rome in preference to white marble. (Strabo, 437, Casaub.) 
There is a bishop, who resides in the deserted part of St. 
George. His see is dependent on that of Rhodes. Tourne- 
fort mentions two monasteries — St. George and St. Dimitri. 

SLANDER consists in the malicious speaking of such 
words as render the party who speaks them in the hearing 
of others liable to an action at the 3uit of the party to whom 
they apply. 

Slander is of two kinds: one, which is actionable, as neces- 
sarily importing some general damage to the party who 
is slandered; the other, which is only actionable where it 
has actually caused some special damage. The first kind 
includes all such words as impute to a party the commission 
of some crime or misdemeanour for which he might legally 
be convicted and suffer punishment, cither by the general 
law, or by the custom of a particular place, as where one 
asserts that another has committed treason, or felony, or 
perjury, &c. It also includes such words spoken of a 
party, with reference to his otlice, profession, or trade, as 
impute to him malpractice, incompetence, or bankruptcy ; 
as of a magistrate, that he is partial or corrupt ; of a clergy- 
man, that ' he preaches lies in the pulpit ;' of a barrister, that 

* he is a dunce, and will get nothing by the law ;' of a physi- 
cian, that * he is an empiric, a mountebank ;' of an attorney, 
that * he hath no more law than a goose, bull/ &c, or that 

• he is no more lawyer than the devil;' of a trader, that he 
has failed, or uses deceit in his trade, &c. ; or that charge 
a party with having, at the time being, an infectious dis- 
ease which prevents his having intercourse with others; 
or that tend to the disherison of a party, as where it is 
said of one who holds lands by descent, that he is illegi- 
timate. Where a party is in possession of lands which he 
desires to sell, he may maintain an action against any one 
who slanders his title to the lands ; as by stating that he 
is not the owner, or that another has a lease of the lands 
or is in possession of a mortgage or other incumbrance upon 
them. With respect to the second class of slander, the law 
will not allow damage to be inferred from words which are 
not in themselves actionable, even although the words are 
untrue and spoken maliciously. But if, in consequence of 
such words being so spoken, a party has actually sustained 
some injury, he may maintain an action of slander against 
the person who has uttered them. In such case the injury 
must be some certain actual loss, and it must also arise as 
a natural and lawful consequence of speaking the words. 
No unlawful act done by a third person, although he really 
was moved to do it by the words spoken, is such an injury 
as a party can recover for in this action. Thus, the loss of 
the society and entertainment of friends, of an appointment 
to some office, the breach of a marriage engagement caused 



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by the slanderer's statement, are injuries for which a party 
may recover damages. But he can have no action because 
in consequence of such statement certain persons, to use an 
illustration of Lord Ellenborough's, * have thrown him into 
a horse-pond by way of punishment for his supposed trans- 
gression.' 

With respect to both kinds of slander, it is immaterial 
in what way the charge is conveyed, whether by direct 
statement, or obliquely, as by question, epithet, or exclama- 
tion. But the actual words used must be stated in the de- 
claration, and upon the failure to prove them as stated, the 
plaintiff will be nonsuited at the trial : it is not sutficient 
to state the meaning and inference of the words. They will 
be interpreted in the sense in which they are commonly 
used, but where they are susceptible of two meanings, one 
innocent, the other defamatory, the innocent interpretation 
is to be preferred. Where words are equivocal either in 
their meaning or their application, a parenthetical explana- 
tion may be inserted in the declaration. This is called an 
innuendo. It may be employed to explain and define, but 
not to enlarge or alter, the meaning or application of the 
words spoken. The declaration must state the publication 
of the words, that is, that they were spoken in the hearing 
of others, and spoken maliciously. Two cannot join in 
bringing one action of slander, except in the case of husband 
and wife, or of partners for an injury done to their joint 
trade ; nor can an action be brought against two, except 
a husband and wife, where slanderous words have been 
spoken by the wife. Where an action is brought for slan- 
derous words spoken of a party relative to his office or pro- 
fession, the declaration must state that he was at the time 
of speaking the words in possession of the office or engaged 
in the profession. And where the knowledge of extraneous 
facts is necessary to show the application of the slander, 
these should be stated in the introductory part of the de- 
claration. 

In answer to an action of slander the defendant may 
plead that the words spoken were true, or that they were 
spoken in the course of a trial in a court of justice, and 
were pertinent to the case ; or formed the subject of a con- 
fidential communication, as where a party on application 
bond fide states what he believes to be true relative to the 
character of a servant, or makes known facts merely for 
the purpose of honestly warning another in whom he is 
interested. (Com., Dig., 'Action on the case for Defama- 
tion/ D. 1, &c.) 

SLANE. [Mkath.1 

SL AN E Y, River. [Wexford.] 

SLATE. By some geological writers the laminar struc- 
tures which prevail in many stratified and in some meta- 
morphic rocks are called slaty or schistose; but, in con- 
sequence of the progress of investigation, one of these struc- 
tures, locally superinduced in deposited strata, which is cha- 
racterized by planes of cleavage generally meeting those of 
deposition at considerable angles, is specially called the slaty 
structure. If, in the diagram below, c, s, I, represent in 




section a series of deposited beds of clay (c), sandstone (*), 
and nodules of limestone (J), all dipping, as the arrow S 
(south) indicates, at 20°: the lines which cross these beds at 
oblique angles, and are more highly inclined, as in the 
arrow K = 60°, are the edges of innumerable parallel 
planes of cleavage, which are continuous through the finely 
argillaceous bedsc; more or less twisted in and about the 
limestone nodules / ; more or less interrupted by the are- 
naceous beds*, or represented therein bylines more nearly 
rectangled to the plane of deposition. The law here indi- 
cated of the want of coincidence in the planes of cleavage 
and deposition is almost universally observed in nature. 
Nearly horizontal strata are crossed by inclined cleavage; 
highly inclined strata are traversed by nearly Vertical cleav- 



age. In strata which dip different ways from an axis or to 
an axis, the cleavage planes are sometimes found to be paral- 
lel throughout the mass on both sides of the axis; and even 
where strata are variously contorted, they are frequently 
dissected through a great part or the whole of their mass 
by cleavage planes passing in one direction. Hence the 
conclusion is obvious that this slaty structure, this raono- 
hedral symmetry (if we may not call it crystallization), is 
the fruit of a general cause acting subsequently to the do- 
position and disturbance of the strata, capable of pervading 
and rearranging the particles so as to polarize and systema- 
tize their mutual attractions, but not to fuse them together, 
destroy their original distinctness, or obliterate the evidence 
of their original condition. This force was so general, that 
along many miles of country, as, for example, in the whole 
Snowdonian chain, one particular direction (north-north- 
east), in North Devon and Pembrokeshire another (nearly 
east and west), is found to prevail more or less distinctly in 
all the rocks ; though, as before observed, arenaceous and 
pebbly beds are least influenced by it, and limestones are 
unequally and variously affected. 

This dependence of the slaty structure on the nature of 
the rock is sometimes very positively pronounced, as in 
some classes of rock the cleavage does change and even re- 
verse its inclination where contortions prevail. (Thi* is 
very observable in some cases of cleavage in the old red 
sandstone of Pembrokeshire.) On a first view it appears to 
be equally dependent on geological time, since it is prin 
ci pally among the older strata that it is well exhibited on a 
large scale ; but on this bead doubt arises, when we find 
the Silurian rocks, which are not slaty at Ludlow, become 
so near Llandovery ; the old red-sanastone slaty in Pem- 
brokeshire and not so in Monmouthshire; the mountain 
limestone shales slaty near Tenby and not so in Yorkshire; 
the lias shales slaty on the northern slopes of the Alps, but 
not so in England. 

There are then local conditions which influence the deve- 
lopment of slaty cleavage, and it is essential to a general 
solution of the problem which this structure involves, that 
these conditions should be determined. Proximity to rocks 
of igneous origin has been freely appealed to for this pur- 
pose; but this appears an insufficient and not often appli- 
cable cause. The most general condition which has occurred 
to our observation is the fact of remarkable displacement 
of the strata on one or more anticlinal or synclinal axes; 
and it is of consequence to this inference to remark that 
very often, approximately or even exactly, the horizontal 
edge (' strike') of the inclined cleavage planes coincides with 
the axis of movement (and therefore with the strike) of the 
stratification. Pressure in some peculiar application ap- 
pears to us to be indicated by all the phenomena as the 
grand agent in the production of slaty cleavage. Only one 
tolerably successful effort has been made experimentally to 
reproduce this structure by art. Mr. R. W. Fox has caused 
electrical currents to traverse a mass of moist clay, and has 
observed in consequence the formation of numerous fissures, 
more or less similar to slaty cleavage, in planes parallel to 
the vertical bounding surfaces of the mass, and at right 
angles to the electrical currents. The exact application of 
this experiment is not understood. Perhaps however, con- 
joined with the admission that the great movements of 
strata, by which apparently slaty cleavage was determined, 
depended on disturbed equilibrium of internal heat, which 
might, or rather must, have developed electrical currents, 
this solitary experiment may be the commencement of a 
right mode of more extensive inquiry embracing the many 
circumstances of chemical nature, stratified arrangement, 
disturbed position, and proximity of igneous rocks, which 
must all be included in a good theory of slaty cleavage. 

For economical purposes there appears little chance of 
obtaining in the British Islands good slate (properly so 
called) from any but the antient argillaceous strata super- 
posed on mica schist and gneiss, and covered by old red- 
sandstone or mountain limestone. From these strata in 
Scotland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Yorkshire, Cham- 
wood Forest, North Wales abundantly, South Wales, De- 
vonshire, Cornwall, the north and south of Ireland, slates of 
various value are dug. The thin flagstone of the eoal forma- 
tion in many parts of England and Wales, the laminated 
sandy limestone of Stonesfield, Colly wist on, &c, which are 
often called slates, and are extensively used in roofing, are 
all obtained by natural partings parallel to the stratification. 
True slate is solit by wedges from the apparently solid rock 



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along planes often no more discoverable than those of a real 
crystal. In colour it is purple, blue, green, yellowish, or 
almost white, or striped across the planes. In some slates 
(west of Scotland, Ingleton, &c) crystals of cubical iron 
pyrites are scattered. Much of the Cumberland slate ap- 
pears full of fragments (Borrodale), and some contains chi- 
astolite (Skiddaw). 

SLAVE, SLAVERY. The word slavery has various ac- 
ceptations, but its proper meaning seems to be the condition 
of an individual who is not master of his own actions, and 
who is also the property of another or others. Such was the 
condition of the • servi,' or slaves among the Romans and 
Greeks; such is still that of the slaves in Eastern countries, 
and that of the negro slaves in many parts of Africa and 
America. A mitigated form of this condition exists in the 
case of the serfs in Russia and Poland, and of a similar class 
in India and some other parts of Asia. The Russian and 
Polish serf is bound to trie soil on which he is born; be 
may be sold or let with it, but cannot be sold away from it 
without his consent; he is obliged to work three or four 
days in the week for his master, who allows him a piece of 
land, which he cultivates. He can marry, and his wife and 
children are under his authority till they are of age. He can 
bequeath his chattels and savings at his death. His life is 
protected by the law. The real slave, in the Greek and 
Roman times, had none of these advantages and securities, 
any more than the negro slave of our own tiroes; he was 
bought and sold in the market, and was transferred at his 
owner's pleasure ; he could acquire no property ; all that he 
had was his master's ; ail the produce of his labour belonged 
to his master, who could inflict corporeal punishment upon 
him ; he had no right of marrying ; and if he cohabited with 
a woman, he could be separated from her and his children 
at any time, and the woman and children sold ; he was, in 
short, in the same condition as any domesticated animal. 
The distinction therefore between the slave and the serf is 
essential. The villeins of the middle ages were a kind of 
serfs, but their condition seems to have varied considerably 
according to times and localities, and in many cases it ap- 
pears to have been more advantageous. The villaniorcoloni 
were in a less dependent condition than the adscriptitii, or 
than the actual Russian and Polish serfs. This subject 
however is treated under Villeinage. Servitude of every 
kind is now abolished in the greater part of Europe. In 
the present article we treat only of the real slave of antient 
and modern times. 

Slavery, properly so called, appears to have been, from 
the earliest ages, the condition of a large proportion of man- 
kind in almost every country, until times comparatively 
recent, when it has been gradually abolished by all Chris- 
tian states, at least in Europe. The prevalence of domestic 
slavery constitutes one great difference between antient and 
modern society. Slavery existed among the Jews : it existed 
before Moses, in the time of the Patriarchs; and it existed, 
and still continues to exist, all over the East. The 'ser- 
vants' mentioned in Scripture history were mostly uncondi- 
tional and perpetual slaves : they were strangers, either 
taken prisoners in war or purchased from the neighbouring 
nations. They and their offspring were the property of their 
masters, who could sell them, ana inflict upon them corpo- 
real punishment, and even in some cases could put them to 
death. The three hundred and eighteen servants born in 
Abraham's own house (Genesis, xiv. 14) were of this descrip- 
tion. But the Hebrews had also slaves of their own nation. 
These were men who sold themselves through poverty, or 
they were insolvent debtors, or men who haa committed a 
theft, and had not the means of making restitution as re- 
quired by the laws, which was to double the amount, and in 
Borne oases much more. (Exodus, xxii.) Notonlv the person 
of the debtor was liable to the claims of the creditor, but his 
right extended also to the debtor's wife and children. Moses 
regulated the condition of slavery. He drew a wide distinc- 
tion between the alien slave and the native servant. The lat- 
ter could not be a perpetual bondman, but might be redeemed ; 
and if not redeemed, he became free on the completion of 
the seventh year of his servitude. Again, every fifty years 
the jubilee caused a general emancipation of all native 
servants. During the time of their servitude they were to 
be treated with kindness; 'for the children of Israel are 
servants unto me,' saith the Lord. ' Both thy bondmen and 
thy bondmaids which thou shalt have shall be of the hea 
then that are round about you, of them shall you buy 
bondmen and bondmaids. Moreover, of the children of the 



strangers that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye buy, 
and of their families that are with you which they begat in 
your land ; and they shall be your possession. And ye shall 
take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to 
inherit them for a possession, they shall be your bondmen 
for ever ; but over your brethren the children of Israel ye 
shall not rule one over another with rigour. And if a so- 
journer or stranger wax rich by thee, and thy brother that 
dwelleth by him wax poor, and sell himself unto the stranger 
or sojourner bv thee, or to the stock of the stranger's family, 
after that he is sold he may be redeemed again, one of his 

brethren may redeem him And if he be not redeemed 

in three years, then he shall go out in the year of the jubilee, 
both he and his children with him.' (Leviticus, xxv. 44-54.) 

The sources of the supply of slaves have been the same 
both in antient and modern times. In antient times all 
prisoners were reduced to slavery, being either distributed 
among the officers and men of the conquering army, or sold 
by auction for the benefit of the troops. In very remote 
times, when the early jEolian and Ionian colonies settled in 
the islands of the^Egean Sea, or on the coast of Asia Minor, 
it was a frequent practice with them to kill all the adult 
males of the aboriginal population, and to keep the wives 
and children. As however dealing in slaves became a profit- 
able trade, the vanquished, instead of being killed, were sold, 
and this was so far an improvement. Another source of 
slavery was the practice of kidnapping men and women, 
especially young persons, who were seized on the coast, or 
enticed on board by the crews of pirate vessels ; and most 
vessels were piratical in the earlier ages. The Phoenicians, 
and the Etruscans or Tyrrhenians, had the character of 
being raen-stealers; and also the Cretans, Cilicians, Rho- 
dians, and other maritime states. Another source was, sale 
of men, either by themselves through poverty and distress, 
or by their relatives and superiors, as is done now by the 
petty African chiefs, who sell not only their prisoners, but 
often their own subjects, and even their children, to the 
slave-dealers. The sale of Joseph by his brethren to the 
Midianite or Arabian merchants, who sold him again in 
Egypt, is a proof of the antiquity of the practice. 

The sequel also shows, that in Egypt, unlike most other 
countries of antiquity, the life of a slave was protected by 
law ; for Joseph's master, when he had reason to believe 
him guilty of a heinous offence, did not put him to death, 
but sent him to prison, there to await his trial, and this in- 
ference is confirmed by Diodorus, who, in speaking of the 
laws of the Egyptians, says, that whoever murdered a man, 
whether free or slave, was punished with death. 

Among the Greeks slavery existed from the heroic times, 
and the purchase and use of slaves are repeatedly mentioned 
by Homer. The household of Ulysses was served by slaves, 
over whom their master had power of life and death. The 
use of such domestics however was confined, in those early 
ages, to the houses of the great, who alone could afford the 
purchase money. As war and piracy became fiequent, 
slaves taken or bought became more plentiful and cheaper, 
and they were chiefly employed in handicraft and household 
labours. The labours of husbandry were performed in some 
instances by poor freemen for hire, but in most places, es- 
pecially in the Doric states, by a class of bondmen, the de- 
scendants of the older inhabitants of the country, resem- 
bling the serfs of the middle ages, who lived upon and cul- 
tivated the lands which the dominant or conquering race 
had appropriated to themselves ; they paid a rent to the re- 
spective proprietors, whom they also attended in war. They 
could not be put to death without trial, nor be sold out of the 
country, nor separated from their families; they could ac- 
quire property, and were often richer than their masters. 
Such were the Clarotse of Crete, the Penesta? of Thessaly 
Proper, and the Helots of Sparta,who must not be confounded 
with the Perioeci, or country inhabitants of Laconica in gene- 
ral, who were political subjects of the Doric community of 
8parta, without however being bondmen. [Sparta.] In the 
colonies of the Dorians beyond the limits of Greece, the condi- 
tion of the conquered natives was often more degraded than 
that of the bondmen of the parent states, because the for- 
mer were not Greeks, but barbarians, and they were reduced 
to the condition of slaves. Such was the case of the Kalli- 
rioi or Kalltkurioi of Syracuse, and of the native Bithynians 
at Byzantium. At Heraclea in Pontus, the Mariandyni 
submitted to the Greeks on condition that they should not 
be sold beyond the borders, and that they should pay a fixed 
tribute to the ruling race. 



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The Doric slates of Greece bad few purchased slaves, but 
Athens, Corinth, and other commercial states bad a large 
number, who were mostly natives of barbarous countries, 
according to the Greek phraseology. The slave population 
in Attica has been variously estimated as to numbers, and 
it varied of course considerably at different periods, but it 
appears that in Athens, at least in the time of its greatest 
power, they were much more numerous than the freemen. 
[Athens.] From a fragment of Hyperides preserved by 
Suidas (t?. Airf^i^itraro), the number of slaves appears to 
have been at one time 150,000, who were employed in the 
fields and mines of Attica alone. Even the poorer citizens 
had a slave for their household affairs. The wealthier 
citizens had as many as fifty slaves to each family, and some 
had more. We read of philosophers keeping ten slaves. There 
were private slaves belonging to families, and public slaves 
belonging to the community or state. The latter were em- 
ployed on board the fleet, in the docks and arsenal, and in the 
construction of public buildings and roads. Pausanias says 
that slaves were introduced for the first time among the 
land forces at the battle of Marathon; but this was, it 
seems, in the ranks of the Platsans, for the Athenians did 
not introduce them into their armies till a later period. At 
the sea fight of Arginusao there were many slaves serving 
in the Athenian fleet, and they were emancipated after the 
battle. Again at Cheronroa the Athenians granted liberty 
to their slaves who served in the army. 

Slaves were dealt with like any other property: they 
could be given as pledges; they worked either on their 
master's account or on their own, in which latter case they 

Eaid a certain sum to their master; or they were let out on 
ire as servants or workmen, or sent to serve in the navy of 
the state, the master receiving payment for their services. 
Mines were worked by slaves, some of whom belonged to 
the lessees of the mine, and the rest were hired from the 
great slave proprietors, to whom the latter paid a rent of so 
much a head, besides providing for the maintenance of the 
slave, which was no great matter. They worked in chains, 
and many of them died from the effect of the unwholesome 
atmosphere. Nicias the elder had 1000 slaves in the mines 
of Laurium ; others had several hundreds, whom they let to 
the contractors for an obolus a day each. At one time the 
mining slaves of Attica murdered their guards, took pos- 
session of the fortifications of Sunium, and ravaged the 
surrounding country. (Fragment of Posidonius's Continua- 
tion of Polybius ; see Boeckh's Public Economy of Athens, 
b. i.) The thirty-two or thirty-three iron-workers or sword- 
cutlers of Demosthenes annually produced a net profit of 
thirty minae, their purchase value being 190 mincD; whilst 
his twenty chair-makers, whose value was estimated at 40 
minsB, brought in a net profit of 12 mince. (Demosthenes 
Against Aphobus, i.) The leather- workers of Timarchus 
brought in to their master each two oboli a day, and their 
foreman three. The master furnished the raw materials. 
The price of slaves at Athens varied from half a mi na to 
five and ten minae a head: a common mining slave, in the 
age of Demosthenes, cost from 125 to 150 drachmae. The 
profits derived from slave labour must have been very high, 
as the owner had to replace his capital and to obtain the 
usual rate of interest for his money, which was a high rate, 
and the slave was only valuable so long as he had health 
and was able to work. There was also the danger of his 
running away, especially in war time. Antigenes of Rhodes 
was the first to establish an insurance for slaves. For a 
yearly contribution for each slave serving in the army he 
undertook to make good his price to the owner, in case of 
his running away. 

The antients were so habituated to the sight of slavery, 
that none of the antient philosophers make any objection to 
its existence. Plato, in his * Perfect State,' desires only 
that no Greeks should be made slaves. The only states of 
Greece in which no slaves appear to have been introduced 
were Locris and Phocis, probably by reason of the poverty 
of the people and the simplicity of their manners. 

The Etruscans and other antient Italian nations had 
slaves, as is proved by those of Vulsinii revolting against 
their masters, and by the tradition that the Bruttii were run- 
away sliwes of the Lucanians. The Campanians had both 
slaves and gladiators previous to the Roman conquest But 
the Romans by their system of continual war caused an 
enormous influx of slaves into Italy, where the slave popu- 
lation at last superseded almost entirely that of the free 
labourers. 



The Roman system of slavery had peculiarities winch 
distinguished it from that of Greece. One distinction 
existed in principle. The Greeks considered slavery to be 
derived from the law of nature and from permanent diver- 
sities in the races of men. (Aristotle, Polity i.) The Ro- 
mans admitted in principle that all men were originally 
free {Ins lit ^ i., tit. ii.) by the law of nature (j ur e natQ - 
rali), and they ascribed the rights of roasters ovei their slave* 
entirely to the will of society, to the 'jus gentium,' if the 
slaves were captives taken in war, whom the conquerors, in- 
stead of killing them, as they might have done, spared for 
the purpose of selling them, or to the ' jus civile/ when a 
man of full age sold himself. It was a rule of Roman 
law that the offspring of a slave woman followed the 
condition of the mother. (Inst , i., tit. 3.) Emancipation 
was much more frequent at Rome than in Greece : the eman- 
cipated slave became a freedman (libertus), but whether he 
became a Roman citizen, a Latinus, or a Dediticius, de- 
pended on circumstances. If the manumitted slave was 
above thirty years of age, if he was the Quiritarian property 
of his manumittor, and if he was manumitted in due form, 
he became a Roman citizen. At Athens, on the contraiy, 
emancipation from the dominion of the master was seldom 
followed by the privileges of citizenship even to a limited 
extent, and these privileges could only be conferred by 
public authority. It is true, that at Rome, under the em- 
pire, from the enactment of the Lex Aelia Sentia, passed in 
the time of Augustus, there were restrictions, in point of 
number, upon the master's power of freeing his bondraen 
and raising them to the rank of Roman citizens ; still iu 
every age there was a prospect to the slave of being able to 
obtain his freedom. 

The slaves of the Romans were called by the names of 
servi, servitia, mancipia, famuli, and, as being members of 
a familia, also familiares. A slave was often called ' puer/ 
which was sometimes contracted into 'por,' and added to 
the master's name, as 'Marcipor,' the slave of Marcus. 
Slaves were not considered members of the community: 
they had no rights, and were not legally considered as per- 
sons, but as things or chattels. They could neither sue nor 
be sued, and they could not claim the protection of the 
tribunes. When an alleged slave claimed his freedom on the 
plea of unjust detention, he was obliged to have a free pro- 
tector to sue for him, until Justinian (Code, vii., tit 1. 7, 'De 
adsertione tollenda') dispensed with that formality. Slaves 
had no connubium, that is, they could not contract a Roman 
marriage; their union with a person of their own rank was 
styled contubernium, and cohabitation with another person 
was not adultery ; and even the Christian church for several 
centuries did not declare the validity and indissolubility of 
slave marriages. At last the emperor Basilius allowed slaves 
to marry and receive the blessing of the priest, and Alexius 
Comnenus renewed the permission. As slaves had no con- 
nubium, they had not the parental power (patria potest as) 
over their offspring, no ties of blood were recognised among 
them, except with respect to incest and parricide, which 
were considered as crimes by the law of nature. Though 
slaves were incapable of holding property, they were not in- 
capacitated from acquiring property, but what they did ac- 
quire belonged to their masters. They were often allowed 
to enjoy property as their own, ' peculium,' consisting some- 
times of other slaves, but they held it only by permission, and 
any legal proceedings connected with it could only be con- 
ducted in the name of the master, who was the only legal 
proprietor. No slave could hold a public office, and if a slave 
unknown to be such had obtained a responsible office, it was 
a question among the jurists whether his acts would be 
valid or null. Until the latter period of the republic slaves 
and even freedmen were not admitted into the ranks of the 
army. In cases of urgent public danger, such as afier the 
defeat of Cannse, slaves were purchased by the state and 
sent to the army, and if they behaved well, they were eman- 
cipated. (Livy, xxii. 57, and xxiv. 14-16.) 

Male slaves were not permitted by law to wear the toga 
and bulla, nor females the stola, but otherwise there was no 
fixed distinctive costume for them, and they were mostly 
dressed like poor freeman, who could not afford to wear the 
toga. A distinct dress for slaves had been proposed in the 
decline of the republic, but the proposition was rejected 
upon some senator adverting to the danger of showing the 
slaves how much superior in numbers they were to the 
freemen. Slaves were forbidden the use of horses, car- 
, riages, or litters (lecticee) within the walls of the city 



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They were not however denied the rights of buiial, and nu- 
merous inscriptions attest that monuments were often 
erected to the memory of deceased slaves by their masters, 
their fellows, or friends, some of which bear the letters D. 
M ' Diis Man i bus,* for according to the Roman principle 
. that slavery was not by nature, but was the effect of law, 
death was considered as putting an end to the legal dis- 
tinction between slaves and roasters, and the manes of a 
departed slave might be an object of reverence even to a 
freeman. Slaves were often buried in the family burying- 
place of their masters. The • sepulchretum ' or burial- 
vaults of the slaves and freedmen of Augustus and his 
wife Livia, discovered in 1726 near the Via Appia, and 
which has been illustrated by Bianchini and Gori, and 
another in the same neighbourhood also belonging to the 
household of the early Caesars, and containing at least 3000 
urns with numerous inscriptions, which have been illus- 
trated by Fabretti, throw much light upon the condition 
and domestic habits of Roman slaves in the service of great 
families. [Bianchini, Francesco.] 

"With regard to the classification and occupations of 
slaves, the first division was into public and private. Public 
slaves were those which belonged to the state or to public 
bodies, such as provinces, municipia, collegia, decurisB, &c, 
or to the emperor in his sovereign capacity, and employed 
in public duties, and not attached to his household or pri- 
vate estate. Public slaves were either derived from the 
share of captives taken in war, which was reserved for the 
community or state, or were acquired by purchase and 
other civil process. Public slaves of an inferior description 
were engaged as rowers on board the fleet, or in the con- 
struction and repair of roads and national buildings. Those 
of a superior description were employed as keepers of public 
buildings, prisons, and other properly of the state, or to 
attend magistrates, priests, and other public officers, as 
watchmen, lictors, executioners, watermen, scavengers, &c. 

Private slaves were generally distributed into urban and 
rustic; the former served in the town houses, and the 
others in the country. Long lists of the different duties per- 
formed by slaves of each class are given by Pignorius, * De 
Servis et eorum apud Veteres Ministeriis,' Amsterdam, 
1674 ; Popma, • De Operis Servorum,' ibid., 1672 ; and Blair, 
• An Inquiry into the State of Slavery amongst the Ro- 
mans,' Edinburgh, 1833, which is a very useful little book. 
It will be enough here to say, that for all the necessities of 
domestic life, agriculture, and handicraft, and for all the 
imaginable luxuries of a refined and licentious people, there 
was a corresponding denomination of slaves. Large sums 
were occasionally paid for slaves of certain peculiar kinds, 
some of which we should consider the least useful. Eu- 
nuchs were always very dear; the practice of emasculating 
boys was borrowed by the Romans from the Asiatics, among 
whom it was a trade as early as the time of Herodotus 
(vrii. 105): it continued to the time of Domitian, who forbade 
it ; but eunuchs continued to be imported from the East. 
A * morio,' or fool, was sometimes sold for 20,000 nummi, or 
about 160 pounds. Dwarfs and giants were also in 
great request. Mare Antony paid for a pair of handsome 
youths 200 sestertia, or 1600 pounds. Martial (/?/?., iii. 
62) mentions a single handsome youth who cost as much as 
thoso two. Actors and actresses and dancers sold very dear, 
as well as females of great personal attractions, who were 
likely to bring in great gains to their owners by prostitution. 
A good cook was valued at four talents, or 772 pounds. 
Medical men, grammarians, amanuenses, anagnostso or 
readers, and shorthand-writers, were in considerable request. 
With regard to ordinary slaves, the price varied from fifty to 
twenty pounds, according to their abilities and other cir- 
cumstances. The lowest legal valuation of a man slave in 
the time of Justinian was twenty solidi, or about sixteen 
pounds ; and the value seems to have been about the same 
in the time of Horace (So/., ii. 7 ; v. 43). After a victorious 
campaign, when thousands of captives were sold at once on 
the spot for the purpose of prize-money, to the slave-dealers 
who followed the armies, the price sunk very low. Thus in 
the camp of Lucullus in Pontus slaves were sold for four 
drachmae, or two shillings and sevenpence, a head ; but 
the same slaves, if brought to the Roman market, fetched 
a much higher price. Home-bom slaves, distinguished by 
the name of • vera*,' in contradistinction to * servi empti,' 
o» • venales,' or imported slaves, were generally treated with 
greater indulgence by their masters in whose families they had 
been brought up ; and for that very reason, when taken to 
P. U, No. 1871. 



market, bore an inferior value to the imported slaves, being 
considered as spoilt and troublesome. The number of slaves 
born in Roman families appears at all times to have been 
far inferior to that of the imported slaves. In general the 
propagation of slaves was not much encouraged by masters* 
many of whom considered slaves born at home to cost 
more than those who were imported. Ordinary female slaves 
were inferior in numbers to the males, and were generally 
cheaper in the market. 

There was a brisk trade in slaves carried on from the coasts 
of Africa, the Euxtne, Syria, and Asia Minor. The island of 
Delos was at one time a great mart for slaves, who were im- 
ported thither by the-Cilician pirates. (Strabo, p. 668,Casaub.) 
The Illyrians procured numerous slaves for the Italian mar- 
ket, whom they bought or stole from the barbarous tribes 
in their neighbourhood. Thrace was the parent country of 
numerous slaves, and the selling of children by their pa- 
rents was an antient practice among the Thracian tribes. 
(Herod., v. 6.) But the chief supply of slaves was derived 
from Asia and Africa* In most countries it was customary 
for indigent parents to sell their children to slave-dealers, 
and even Roman citizens a4 times sold themselves or their 
children through distress. Criminals were also in certain 
cases condemned to slavery, like the galley-slaves of our 
own times. 

Both law and custom forbade prisoners taken in civil 
wars, especially in Italy, to be dealt with as slaves ; and 
this was perhaps one reason of the wholesale massacres of 
captives by Sulla and the Triumviri. In the war between the 
party of Othoand VitelUus, An ton ins, who commanded the 
army of the latter, having taken Cremona, ordered that 
none of the captives should be detained, upon which the 
soldiers began to kill those who were not privately ransomed 
by their friends. 

In the latter period of the empire free-born persons of 
low condition were glad to secure a subsistence by labouron 
the estates of the great landowners, to which, after a con- 
tinued residence for thirty years, they and their families be- 
came bound by a tacit agreement under the name of ad- 
scriptitii, or adscript! glebao, and this was one of the sources 
of the servitude of , the middle ages. 

The customary allowance of food for a slave appears to have 
been four Roman bushels, * modii,' of corn, mostly * far/ per 
month for country slaves, and one Roman libra or pound 
daily for those in town. Salt and oil were occasionally al- 
lowed, as well as weak wine. Neither meat nor vegetables 
formed part of their regular allowance, but they got, ac- 
cording to seasons, fruit, such as figs, olives, apples, pears, 
&c. (Cato, Columella, and Varro.) Labourers and artisans 
in the country were shut up at night in a house ('ergastu- 
lum'), in which each slave appears to have had a separate cell. 
Males wero kept apart from females, excepting those whom 
the master allowed to form 'coutubernia' or temporary con- 
nections. Columella adverts to some distinction between the 
ergastuluro for ordinary labourers and that for ill behaved 
slaves, which latter was in fact a prison, often underground, 
but generally speaking the ergasiula in the later times of 
the republic and under the empire appear to have been t 
no better than prisons in which freemen were sometimes 
confined after being kidnapped. The men often worked in 
chains. The overseers of farms and herdsmen had separate 
cabins allotted to them. Slaves enjoyed relaxation from 
toil on certain festivities, such as the Saturnalia* {Satur- 
nalia.] 

Every individual master had the power of manumitting . 
his slave, and this he could effect in several forms, by Vin-r 
dicta, Census, or by Testamentum. All slaves manumitted 
by a Roman citizen, (subject to the conditions above men- 
tioned) became Roman citizens and members of his gens, 
of which they took the, name. They laboured however 
under several disabilities. They were enrolled in the lowest 
of the city tribes; they were ineligible to the consulship and 
other high offices; and they were not generally admitted 
into the nest society. [Li^krtinus.] 

The number of slaves possessed by the wealthy Romans 
was enormous. Some individuals are said to have possessed 
10,000 slaves. Scaur us possessed above 4000 domestic and 
as many rustic slaves. In the reign of Augustus, a freed- 
man who had sustained great losses during the civil wars left 
41 16 slaves, besides other property 

The Lex Aelia Sentia, as already mentioned, laid various 
restrictions on manumission. Among other things it pre- 
vented persons under twenty years of age from rnaax- 

Vol. XXII.— O 



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mitting a slave except by the V in dicta, and with the ap- 
probation of the Consilium, which at Rome consisted of five 
senators and five Roman equites of legal age (puberes), and 
in the provinces consisted of twenty recuperatores, who were 
Roman citizens. (Gaius, i. 20, 38.) The Lex Aelia Sentia 
also made all manumissions void which were effected to cheat 
creditors or defraud patrons of their rights. The Lex Furia 
Caninia, which was passed about a.d. 7, limited the whole 
number of slaves who could be manumitted by testament to 
100, and when a man had fewer than 500 slaves, it de- 
termined by a scale the number that he could manumit. 
This Lex only applied to manumission by testament. (Gaius, 
i. 42, &c.) 

In the earlier ages of the Republic, slaves were not very 
numerous, and were chiefly employed in household offices or 
trs operatives in the towns ; and they were generally treated 
like members of the family, and joined their masters in 
offering prayers and sacrifices to the gods. (Horace, Ernst., 
ii. 1, 142.) But after the conquests of Rome spread be- 
yond the limits of Italy, the influx of captives was so great, 
and their price fell so low, that they were looked upon as a 
cheap and easily renewed commodity, and treated as such. 
The condition of the Roman slave, generally speaking, be- 
came worse in the later ages of the republic than that of the 
slave at Athens. It is worthy of remark that many of the em- 
perors, even some of the worst of them, interfered on behalf of 
the slave. Augustus established courts for the trial of slaves 
who were charged with serious offences, intending thus to 
supersede arbitrary punishment by the masters, but the 
law was not made obligatory upon the latter to bring their 
slaves before the courts, and was often evaded. The same 
emperor strongly reprobated Vedius Pollio, a Roman knight, 
for sentencing a slave to be thrown alive into a fish-pond 
to be devoured by lampreys, and he took the slave into 
his own household. By a law passed in the time of Clau- 
dius, a master who exposed his sick or infirm slaves for- 
feited all right over them in the event of their recovery. 
The Lex Petronia, probably passed in the time of Augus- 
tus, or in the reign of Nero, prohibited masters from com- 
pelling their slaves to fight with wild beasts, except with 
the consent of the judicial authorities, and on a suffi- 
cient case being made out against the slave. Domitian 
forbade the mutilation of slaves. Hadrian suppressed the 
ergastula, or private prisons for the confinement of slaves ; 
he also restrained proprietors from selling their slaves to 
keepers of gladiators, or to brothel- keepers, except as a pun- 
ishment, in which case the sanction of a judge (judex) was 
required. The same emperor banished a lady of rank for 
five years on account of her cruelty to her slaves. Anto- 
ninus Pius adopted an old law of the Athenians, by which 
the judge who should be satisfied of a slave being cruelly 
treated by his owner, had power to oblige the owner to 
sell him to some other person. The judge however was 
left entirely to his own discretion in determining what mea- 
sure of harshness on the part of the owner should be 
a proper ground for judicial interposition. Septimius Se- 
verus forbade the forcible subjection of slaves to prostitu- 
tion. The Christian emperors went further in protecting 
the persons of slaves. Constantine placed the wilful mur- 
der of a slave on a level with that of a freeman ; and Justi- 
nian confirmed this law, including within its provisions cases 
of slaves who died under excessive punishment. Constan- 
tine made also two laws, both nearly in the same words, to 
prevent the forcible separation of the members of servile 
families by sale or partition of property. One of the laws, 
dated a.d. 334, was retained by Justinian in his code. The 
Church also powerfully interfered for the protection of 
slaves, by threatening excommunication against owners who 
put to death their slaves without the consent of the judge; 
and by affording asylum within sacred precincts to slaves 
from the anger of unmerciful masters. A law of Theo- 
dosius I. authorized a slave who had taken refuge in a 
church to call for the protection of the judge, that he might 
proceed unmolested to his tribunal in order that his case 
might be investigated. After Christianity became the pre- 
dominant religion in the Roman world, it exercised in 
various ways a beneficial influence upon the condition of the 
slaves, without however interfering, at least for centuries, 
with the institution of slavery itself. Even the laws of the 
Christian emperors abolishing the master's power of life and 
death over his slave were long evaded. Salvianus (De Gu- 
bernatione Dei % iv.) informs us that in the provinces of Gaul, 
in the fifth century, masters still fancied that they had a 



right to put their slaves to death. Macrobiufl ( Saturn. 1 1., 
1 1) makes one of his interlocutors, though a heathen, ex* 
patiate with great eloquence on the cruel and unjust treat- 
ment of slaves. In Spain, in the early period of the Visi- 
goth ic kings, the practice of putting slaves to death still 
existed, for in the ' Foio Judicum ' (b. vi., tit. 5) it is said 
that as some cruel masters in the impetuosity of their prido 
put to death their slaves without reason, it is enacted that a 
public and regular trial shall take place previous to their 
condemnation. Several laws and ecclesiastical canons for- 
bade the sale of Christians as slaves to Jews or Saracens 
and other unbelievers. 

The northern tribes which invaded the Western empire 
had their own slaves, who were chiefly Slavonian captives, 
distinct from the slaves of the Romans or conquered inhabi- 
tants. In course of time however the various classes of 
slaves merged into one class, that of the ' adscript! glebsc/ 
or serfs of the middle ages, and the institution of Roman 
slavery in its unmitigated form became obliterated. The pre- 
cise period of this change cannot be fixed ; it took place at 
various times in different countries. Slaves were exported 
from Britain to the Continent in the Saxon period, and the 
young English slaves whom pope Gregory I. saw in the mar- 
ket at Rome were probably brought thither by slave-dealers. 
Giraldus Cambrensis, William of Malmsbury, and others 
accuse the Anglo-Saxons of selling their female servants 
and even their children to strangers, and especially to the 
Irish, and the practice continued even after the Norman 
conquest. In the canons of a council held at London, a.d. 
1102, it is said, 'Let no one from henceforih presume to 
carry on that wicked traffic by which men in England have 
been hitherto sold like brute animals.' (Wilkin s Concilia, 
i , p. 383.) 

But although the traffic in slaves ceased among, the 
Christian nations of Europe, it continued to be carried on by 
the Venetians across the Mediterranean in the age of the 
Crusades. The Venetians supplied the markets of the Sa- 
racens with slaves purchased from the Slavonian tribes 
which bordered on the Adriatic. Besides, as personal 
slavery and the traffic in slaves continued in all Moham- 
medan countries, Christian captives taken by Mussulmans 
were sold in the markets of Asia and Northern Africa, and 
have continued to be sold till within our own times, when 
Christian slavery has been abolished in Barbary, Egypt, and 
the Ottoman empire, by the interference of the Christian 
powers, the emancipation of Greece, and the conquest of 
Algiers by the French. 

With the discovery of America, a new description of 
slavery and slave-trade arose. Christian nations purchased 
heathen negroes for the purpose of employing them in the 
mines and plantations of the New World. It was found by 
experience that the natives of America were too weak and 
too indolent to undergo the hard work which their Spanish 
task-masters exacted of them, and that they died in great 
numbers. Las Casas, a Dominican, advocated with a per- 
severing energy before the court of Spain the cause of the 
American aborigines, and reprobated the system of the 
' repartimientos, by which they were distributed in lots 
like cattle among their new masters. [Casas, Bartholomb 
db las] But it was necessary for the settlements to be 
made profitable in order to satisfy the conquerors, and it 
was suggested that negroes from Africa, a more robust and 
active race than the American Indians, might be substituted 
for them. It was stated than an able-bodied negro could 
do as much work as. four Indians. The Portuguese were at 
that time possessed of a great part of the coast of Africa, 
where they easily obtained by force or barter a considerable 
number of slaves. The trade in slaves among the nations 
of Africa had existed from time immemorial. It had been 
carried on in antient times : the Garam antes used to supply 
the slave-dealers of Carthage, Cyrene, and Egypt with black 
slaves which they brought from the interior. The demand 
for slaves by the Portuguese in the Atlantic harbours gave 
the trade a fresh direction. The petty chiefs of the interior 
made predatory incursions into each other's territories, and 
sold their captives, and sometimes their own subjects, to the 
European traders. The first negroes were imported by the 
Portuguese from Africa to the West Indies in 1503, and in 
1511 Ferdinand the Catholic allowed a larger importation. 
These however were private and partial speculations ; it is 
said that Cardinal Ximenes was opposed to the trade because 
he considered it unjust. Charles V. however being pressed 
on one side by the demand for labour in the 



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settlements, and on the other by Las Casas and others who 

E leaded the cause of the Indian natives, granted to one of 
is Flemish courtiers the exclusive privilege of importing 
4000 blacks to the West Indies. 

The Fleming sold his privilege for 25,000 ducats to some 
Genoese merchants, who organised a regular slave-trade 
between Africa and America. As the European settlements 
in America increased and extended, the demand for slaves 
also increased; and all European nations who had colonies 
in America shared in the slave-trade. The details of that 
trade, the sufferings of the slaves in their journey from the 
interior to the coast, and afterwards in their passage across 
the Atlantic — their treatment in America, which varied 
not only according to the disposition of their individual 
masters, but also according to different colonies, are mat- 
ters of notoriety which have been amply discussed in every 
country of Europe during the last and present centuries. 
It is generally understood that the slaves of the Spaniards, 
especially in Continental America, were the best treated of 
all. But the negro slaves in general were exactly in the 
same condition as the Roman slaves of old, being sale- 
able, transferable, pawnable, and punishable at the will of 
their owners. Restrictions however were gradually intro- 
duced by the law of the respective states, in order to protect 
the life of the negro slave against the caprice or brutality of 
his owner. In the British colonies, especially in the latter 
part of the last century and the beginning of the present, 
much was done by the legislature; courts were established 
to hear the complaints of the slaves, flogging of females was 
forbidden, the punishment of males was also limited within 
certain bounds, and the condition of the slave population 
was greatly ameliorated. Still the advocates of emancipa- 
tion objected to the principle of slavery as being unjust and 
unchristian ; and they also appealed to experience to show 
that a human being cannot be safely trusted solely to the 
mercy of another. 

But long before they attempted to emancipate the slaves, 
the efforts of philanthropists were directed to abolish the 
slave traffic, which desolated Africa, wholly prevented the 
advance in civilization, and encouraged the maltreatment 
of the negroes in the colonies, by affording an unlimited 
supply, and making it not the planter's interest to keep up 
his stock in the natural way. The attention of mankind 
was first effectually awakened to the horrors of this trade by 
Thomas Clarkson. His labours, with the aid of the zealous 
men, chiefly Quakers, who early joined him, prepared the 
way for Mr. Wilberforce, who brought the subject before 
parliament in 1788, and although, after his notice, the 
motion, owing to his accidental illness, was first brought 
forward by Mr. Pitt, Mr. Wilberforce was throughout the 
great parliamentary leader in the cause, powerfully sup- 
ported in the country by Thomas Clarkson and others, as 
Kichard Phillips, George Harrison, William Allen, all of the 
Society of Friends, Mr. Stephen, who had been in the West 
Indies' as a barrister, and Mr. Z. Macaulay, who had been 
governor of Sierra Leone, and had also resided in Jamaica. 
A bill was first carried (brought in by Sir W. Dolben) to 
regulate the trade until it could be abolished, and this in 
some degree diminished the horrors of the middle passage. 
But the question of abolition was repeatedly defeated, 
until 1804, when Mr. Wilberforce first carried the bill 
through the Commons ; it was thrown out in the Lords, and 
next year it was again lost even in tie Commons. Mean- 
while the capture of the foreign colonies, especially the 
Dutch, during the war, frightfully increased the amount of 
the trade, by opening these settlements to British capital ; 
and at one time the whole importation of slaves by British 
vessels amounted to nearly 60,000 yearly, of which about a 
third was for the supply of our old colonies. At length, in 
] 805 an order in council prohibited the slave-trade in the 
conquered colonies. Next year the administration of Lord 
Grenville and Mr. Fox carried a bill through, prohibiting 
British subjects from engaging in the trade for supplying 
either foreign settlements or the conquered colonies. A 
resolution moved by Mr. Fox, the last time he took any 
part in public debate, was also carried in 1806, pledging the 
Commons to a total abolition of the trade early next session, 
and this was, on Lord Grenville's motion, adopted by the 
Lords. Accordingly next year the General Abolition Bill 
was brought in by Lord Howick (afterwards Earl Grey), and 
being passed by both houses, received the royal assent on 
the 25th of March, 1807. This act prohibited slave- 
trading from and after the 1st of January, 1808; but as 



it only subjected offenders to pecuniary penalties, it was 
found that something more was required to put down a 
traffic the gains of which were so great as to cover all losses 
by capture. In 1810 the House of Commons, on the motion 
of Mr. Brougham, passed unanimously a resolution, pledg- 
ing itself early next session effectually to prevent • such 
daring violations of the law;' and he next year carried a 
bill making slave-trading felony, punishable with fourteen 
years' transportation, or imprisonment with hard labour. 
In 1824 the laws relating to the slave-trade were con- 
solidated, and it was further declared to be piracy, and 
punishable capitally, if committed within the Admiralty 
jurisdiction. In 1837 this was changed to transportation for 
life, by the acts diminishing the number of capital punish- 
ments. Since the Felony Act of 1811, the British colonies 
have entirely ceased to have any concern in this traffic. If 
any British subjects have engaged in it, or any British capital 
has been embarked in it, the offence has been committed in 
the foreign trade. 

The influence of Great Britain was strenuously exerted 
at the peace in 1814 and 1815, and afterwards at the con- 
gress of Aix-la-Chapelle, to obtain the concurrence of foreign 
powers in the abolition ; and with success thus far, that all 
of them have passed laws prohibiting the traffic, and all, 
except the United States of North America, have agreed to 
the exercise of a mutual right of search, the only effectual 
means of putting it down. As the United States were the 
first to abolish the foreign trade by law, having passed their 
abolition act before ours, and as early as the constitution 
gave congress the power to do so, it is the more to be 
lamented that they should still refuse a right of search, 
which France herself has given, and should thus enable 
slave-traders to use their flag to a dreadful extent The 
Duke of Wellington, while ambassador at Paris in 1814, 
used every effort to obtain from the restored government a 
prohibition of the traffic; but the West Indian interest, 
and commercial jealousy of England, frustrated all his 
attempts, and Napoleon, during the hundred days, on his 
return from Elba, first abolished the trade by law. The 
right of search has been most honourably granted by the 
revolutionary government of 1830. The History of the 
Abolition is to be found in the work under that, title, by T. 
Clarkson (edition 1834), and the state of the law, as well as 
the treatment of slaves practically in the colonies, is most 
fully treated of hi a work on that subject by Mr. Stephen. 
T. Clark son's other works on the nature of the traffic, which 
first exposed it to the people of this country, were pub- 
lished in 1787. 

The slave-trade was suppressed, but slavery continued to 
exist in the colonies. In 1834 the British parliament passed 
an act by which slavery was abolished in all British colonies, 
and twenty millions sterling were voted as compensation 
money to the owners. This act stands prominent in the 
history of our age. No other nation has imitated the 
example. Slavery exists in the French, Dutch, Spanish, 
and Portuguese colonies, and in the southern states of the 
North American Union. The new republics of Spanish 
America, generally speaking, emancipated their slaves at 
the time of the revolution. As the slave population in 
general does not maintain its numbers by natural increase, 
and as plantations in America are extended, there is a de- 
mand for a fresh annual importation of slaves from Africa, 
which are taken to Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Monte Video, 
and, it is said, clandestinely and circuitously, also to Texas. 
In a recent work, * The African Slave-Trade and its Re- 
medy/ by Sir T. Fowell Buxton (who, after Mr. Wilber 
force's retirement, took a roost active part in parliament on 
the subject of slavery), it is calculated, apparently on suffi- 
cient data, that not less than 150,000 negro slaves are 
annually imported from Africa into the above-mentioned 
countries, in contravention to the laws and the treaties 
existing between Great Britain and Spain and Portugal, the 
local authorities either winking at the practice or being 
unable to prevent it. But another appalling fact is, that 
since the slave-trade has been declared to be illegal, the 
sufferings of the slaves on their passage across the Atlantic 
have been greatly increased, owing to its being necessary for 
masters of slave-traders to conceal their cargoes by cooping 
up the negroes in a small compass, and avoiding the British 
cruizers ; they are often thrown overboard in a chase. There 
is a considerable loss of life incident to the seizing of slaves by 
force in the hunting excursions after negroes, and in the 
wars between the chieftains of the interior for the purpose of 

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making captives. There is a lots on their march to the sea- 
coast : the loss in the middle passage is reckoned on an 
average at one-fourth of the cargo ; and, besides this, there 
is a further loss, after landing, in what is called the ' season- 
ing ' of the slaves. At present the Portuguese and Brazilian 
Hags are openly used, with the connivance of the authorities, 
for carrying on the slave-trade. The Spanish flag is also 
used, though less openly, and with greater caution, owing 
to the treaty between England and Spain which formally 
abolishes the slave-trade on the part of Spain. A mixed 
commission court of Spaniards and British exists at Havana 
to try slavers ; but pretexts are never wanting to elude the 
provisions of the treaty. There seems indeed to be a great 
difficulty in obtaining the sincere co-operation of all the 
Christian powers to put down the slave-trade effectually, al- 
though it is certain that in all but the Portuguese and Spanish 
settlements the traffic has now almost entirely ceased. 

Besides the slave-trade on the Atlantic, there is another 
periodical exportation of slaves by caravans from Soudan 
to the Barbary states and Egypt, the annual number of 
which is variously estimated at between twenty and thirty 
thousand. There is also a trade carried on by the subjects 
of the Imam of Muscat, who export slaves in Arab vessels 
from Zanzebar and other ports of the eastern coast of 
Africa, to Arabia, Persia, India, Java, and other places. In 
a despatch, dated Zanzebar, May, 1839, Captain Uogan esti- 
mates the slaves annually sold in that market to be no less 
than 50,000. The Portuguese also export slaves from their 
settlement on the Mozambique coast, to Goa, Diu, and their 
other Indian possessions. 

By a law of the Koran, which however is not always ob- 
served in all Mohammedan countries, no Mussulman is 
allowed to enslave one of his own faith. The Moslem 
negro kingdoms of Soudan supply the slave-trade at the 
expense of their pagan subjects or neighbours, whom they 
sell to the Moorish traders. There is no likelihood that 
Mohammedan powers will ever suppress this trade of their 
own accord. 

There is also a considerable internal slave-trade in the 
United States of North America. Negroes are purchased 
in Maryland and Virginia, and some other of the slave- 
holding states, and carried to the more fertile lands of Ala- 
bama, Louisiana, and other southern states. 

It is maintained by some that the African slave-trade 
cannot be effectually put down by force, and that the only 
chance of its ultimate suppression is by civilizing central 
Africa, by encouraging agricultural industry and legitimate 
branches of commerce, and at the same time spreading 
education and Christianity; and also by giving the pro- 
tection of the British flag to those negroes who would avail 
themselves of it. It is certain that if other countries will 
not exert themselves to enforce these laws, the abolition 
must be postponed to this remote period. The Africans 
sell men because they have no other means of procuring 
European commodities, and there seems no doubt that one 
result of the slave-trade is to keep central Africa in a state of 
barbarism. We refer for evidence of this, and of the na- 
ture of the traffic generally, to the numerous authorities 
quoted in Sir T. Buxton's book, aud to the works of T. 
Clarkson, and Messrs. Wilberforce, J. Stephen, Brougham, 
and Macaulay. 

The amount of the slave population now existing in 
America is not easily ascertained. By the census of 1835 
Brazil contained 2,1 00,000 slaves. The slaves in Cuba, in 
1826, were, according to Humboldt, about 260,000. In the 
United States, in 1830, the number of slaves was a little 
more than two millions. For more precise details we refer 
to the separate heads of each state, Carolina, Georgia, 
Virginia, &c. 

Societies for the ultimate and universal abolition of 
slavery exist in England, France, and the United States, 
and they publish their Reports ; and a congress was held in 
London, June, 1840, of delegates from many countries to 
confer upon the means of effecting it. The American So- 
ciety has formed a colony called Liberia, near Cape Mesu- 
rado, on the west coast of Africa, where negroes who have 
obtained their freedom in the United States are sent, if they 
are willing to go. The English government has a colony 
for a similar purpose at Sierra Leone, where negroes who 
have been seized on board slavers by English cruisers are 
settled. [Sierra Leone.] 

SL AVON I A is a province of the Austrian dominions, 
which, though incorporated with the kingdom of Hungary, 



is still styled in official documents the kingdom of Slavoria, 
It is situated between 44° 50' and 46° 12 r N. lat., and be- 
tween 17° and 20° 40' E. long It is bounded on the west 
by Croatia, on the north and east by Hungary, and on the 
south by Turkey. It is separated from Hungary by the Drave 
and the Danube, from Turkey by the Save, and has the II- 
lowa on part of the western frontier. It consists of two 

Sarts, the province of Slavonia, and the Slavonian part of the 
lilitary Frontier. The area of the whole is 6600 sq. mil**, 
and the population is 598,800. The province has an area of 
3570 square miles, divided into the three counties of Posega, 
Veroez, and Sirmium, with 348,000 inhabitants. A chain 
of high mountains coming from Croatia traverses the pro- 
vince. Where this chain enters the province the valleys are 
narrow, but they gradually become more open towards the 
middle of the province, and form near Posega a wide plain 
bounded by lofty mountains, which is called the Posega 
Valley ; but at the eastern frontier of tbis county, the 
branches of the mountains again join in one principal chain, 
which covers all the northern part of the county of Sir- 
mium. This chain is covered with vast forests. The high- 
est points are 2800 feet above the surface of the three 
principal rivers. The remaining part of Slavonia consists 
partly of fertile eminences planted with vines and fruit- 
trees, and partly of beautiful and extensive plains. But as 
many tracts of land on the Save and Drave are very low, 
they are subject to be frequently overflowed, and there are 
several large and small pieces of stagnant water, and exten- 
sive marshes. Many of these are presumed to have been 
formed through neglect, and some have already been 
drained and cultivated. The country produces corn of all 
kinds, hemp, flax, tobacco, and great quantities of liquorice. 
There are whole forests of plum-trees: chesnut, almond, 
and fig-trees are likewise found, and the white mulberry 
abounds. Slavonia is rich in useful domestic animals. The 
horses are of a small race, and sheep are not numerous. 
Of wild animals, the bear, wolf, fox, pole-cat, and vulture 
are common. Swarms of troublesome insects are bred in 
the marshes, and a long continuance of southerly winds 
sometimes brings locusts from Turkey. The only minerals 
of which there are considerable quantities are sulphur, lime- 
stone, coal, salt, and iron. It may be said that there are 
no manufactures in Slavonia. The peasant makes all his 
farming implements— his cart, his plough, &c, and his wife 
and daughters weave the cloth and knit the stockings for 
the family. The anonymous author of the 'Geographical 
and Statistical Description of Hungary, Croatia, and Sla- 
vonia,' says that wheat yields 20-fold and sometimes 30- fold, 
and that one grain of maize yields 2000. In so fertile a 
country agriculture and the breeding of cattle are the most 
profitable occupations of the inhabitants. The culture of 
silk is flourishing. The quantity of wine produced is very 
large, especially in the county of Sirmium, where the vine was 
planted in the third century by the soldiers of the emperor 
Probus: about 560,000 eimer (the eimer is 10 gallons) are 
produced in one year in that county. The wines, both red 
and white, are very fiery, but will not keep long, and are 
therefore not fit for exportation. The export trade is 
confined almost entirely to the natural productions of the 
soil, such as corn, swine, and oxen to Austria; tobacco to 
Italy, France, and Belgium ; spirits, distilled from plums, 
to Hungary, Turkey, and Germany ; silk to Ofen ; honey, 
wax, liquorice, gall-nuts, and raw hides to Austria and Italy ; 
pipe-staves and wooden hoops are sent to Hungary ; some 
salt and oil are also exported ; and Peterwardein has a con- 
siderable trade in fruit. 

Religion and Education. — The inhabitants are Roman 
Catholics and Non-united Greeks; the latter are the most 
numerous, in the proportion of about five to three. Till 1827, 
tho law excluded Protestants from Slavonia, though it made 
an exception in favour of those who were settled in the coun- 
try in 1791. There are now two flourishing Protestant 
communities in Old and New Panza, consisting of about 
3500 persons ; and a few Jews, mostly in Peterwardein, and 
about 300 in Semlin. There are about 30 Roman Catholic 
schools in the province, and as many in the Military Frontier ; 
and two Roman Catholic gymnasia at Essek and Posega. 
The Non-united Greeks have an archbishop at Carlowitx, 
where there is a flourishing lyceum. There is likewise a 
clerical school at Carlowitz, and another at Pakratz. In 
the archbishopric there are above 260 national schools. 

The earliest known inhabitants of Slavonia were the 
Scordisci ; it was afterwards inhabited by the Pannoniana* 



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who were subdued by Augustus. The country was after- 
wards part of Pannonia Inferior, and was called Pannonia 
Savia. The emperor Probus, who was a native of Sir- 
mium, did much to improve the cultivation of the country, 
and caused the first vines to be planted in the year 270. 
Subsequently, several portions of Slavonia were detached 
from the Byzantine empire ; but Sirmium continued to be- 
long to it, even when the whole counti) was a prey to the 
Avari. When the Avari were overpowered, in 796, by Pepin, 
the father of Charlemagne, the greater part of Pannonia Savia 
was a desert, and Charlemagne afterwards allowed a Slavo- 
nian tribe living in Dalmatia to settle in it. The first settlers 
were soon followed by others, and the Slavi (or Slavonians) 
soon became a numerous people, who in the time of the 
emperor Louis the Pious had their own prince, named 
Lindewit, subject however to the Franks. In 827 the 
Bulgarians invaded the country, but were repulsed by the 
Franks. The Slavonians had indeed been partially converted 
to Christianity on their first settling, but as they fell into 
gross ignorance for want of instruction, two brothers, Cyrillus 
and Methodius, went in 864 to visit the Slavonian tribes in 
the west, and to instruct them. In the tenth century, the 
Magyars, having conquered all Pannonia, afterwards sub- 
dued Slavonia also ; Sirmium however still remained subject 
to the Byzantine empire, but by degrees became inde- 
pendent, and had its own princes. In 1019 it was again, 
for a short time, subject to Byzantium, and continued for 
many years the theatre of war between the Byzantines 
and the Hungarians; the latter ultimately got possession 
of it, till it was finally ceded to the Hungarians in 1 165. In 
1471 the Turks invaded Slavonia for the first time. In 1524 
the whole country was conquered by the Turks, to whom 
the counties of Valpo, Posega, Veroez, and Sirmium were 
ceded in 1562, and erected by them into a distinct pashalik. 
It was recovered by the emperor Leopold I., and after 
having been for a long time the theatre of war, was ceded 
to Austria by the treaty of Carlowitz in 1699. The country 
having become almost a desert while under the Turks, 
numbers of Illyrians were settled in it. In 1690 and the 
following years the country was placed under a military 
administration ; the inhabitants were exempted from taxes, 
but were bound to arm themselves, and be always ready for 
the defence of the country. This military administration 
was abolished in 1 745, but in later times it has been again 
intioduced under a better form, which is chiefly confined 
to the tract along the Turkish frontier. 

The Slavonian Military Frontier (including what is called 
the district of the Czaikist Battalion, between the Danube 
and the Theis) has an area of 3030 square miles aud 
250,000 inhabitants, and is divided into the three regimen- 
tal districts of Peterwardein, Brod, and Gradiska, and the 
Czaikist district. [Essek ; Military Frontier; Peter- 
wardein; Semlin.] 

{Oesterreichische National Encyclopedic ; Statistisch- 
Geographische Beschreibung des Kbnigreichs Ungarn, Cro- 
atien, und Slavonien; Stein ; Hassel ; Horschelmann.) 

SLAVONIANS. The Slavonian or Slavic race, which 
now extends from the Elbe to the Pacific, and from the 
northern ocean to the frontiers of China, Persia, and the 
Mediterranean, comprehends about 70,000,000 inhabitants, 
divided into several nations, who speak various cognate dia- 
lects, and live within the dominions of Russia, Austria, 
Turkey, Prussia, and Saxony. The name ' Slavonian* is 
deduced from the word slava, 'glory/ or elovo, * word.* The 
advocates of the first etymology support it by referring to 
the usual termination of Slavonian names in slav, such as 
Stanistav, ' establisher of glory ;' Vladislav, * ruler of glory ;' 
and Yaroslav, ' furious for fjlory/ Others maintain that 
the name of Slavonians, which is often written Slovenie 
instead of Slovenie, is derived from slovo, • word,' and that 
the Slavonians being unable to understand the language of 
the nations with whom they came into contact, called them 
Nicmetz, that is, * mute,' an appellation which is given to 
the Germans in all the Slavonian dialects, whilst they 
called themselves Slovenie, that is, ' men endowed with the 
gift of the word.' The Byzantine writers changed the ap- 
pellation of Slavonians into Sclaben or Sclav (2*:\a/3i|vo*, 
Procopius); and hence the appellation of Sclavonians, 
adopted by the western authors. 

According to Jornandes, the first writer who mentions the 
Slavonians, they were formerly called Venedi ; and Pliny 
(iv. 13) says that they lived about the banks of the Vistula. 
Ptolemy places them on the eastern shore of the Baltic, which 



he calls the Venedian Gulf. This is the oldest account that 
we have about the country inhabited by the Slavonians ; but 
whence and when they came to these parts is unknown. Jor- 
nandes gives the following account of them : — ' Dacia is se- 
cured by Alps (i.e. Carpathian), on whose left side, which from 
the source of the Vistula runs to the north through an im- 
mense extent, the nation of the Winidi have their settle- 
ments. Although their names vary in various tribes and 
places, they call themselves Slavonians and Ant®/ Jor- 
nandes also says that this nation was conquered, a.d.376, by 
Hermanarik, king of the Goths ; and he says in another 
place, ' These, as we have said, proceed from the same 
blood, and have three names, Venedi, Ant®, and Sla- 
vonians, who for our sins are now ravaging everywhere 9 
(i.e. in the Roman empire). 

Hie evidence of Jornandes proves that the Venedi, 
Anteo, and Sclavini or Slavonians were the same race, al- 
though they may have formed separate tribes or nations, as 
the Bohemians, Poles, and Russians of our days; and we 
may add that the Slavonians of Lusatia and Saxony are 
even now called Veudes by the Germans. 

The Slavonians appeared on the borders of the empire 
about a.d. 527, and having invaded the Greek provinces 
committed terrible ravages. The Imperial legions were de- 
feated by them, and the wall erected by the emperor 
Anastasius to arrest the savage tribes of the north was 
forced by the Slavonians, who devastated all the country 
from the Ionian Sea to the walls of Constantinople. They 
besieged the capital itself, and nobody dared to encounter 
them. Belisariusatlast succeeded, more by presents than 
force, in removing this dangerous enemy from Constan- 
tinople. After that time they settled on the banks of the 
Danube, alternately ravaging the provinces of the empire 
or serving in its armies. The Slavonians were conquered 
in the sixth century by the Avari, with the exception of 
those who were settled on the Danube, and who, in the year 
5$1, invaded the empire. The emperor Tiberius, who was 
occupied at that time with the Persian war, was unable to 
repel the Slavonians, and he induced the Khan of the Avari 
to attack them. The power of the Slavonians was destroyed, 
and they were obliged to submit to the Khan. After that 
time they served in the wars of their new master, and the 
Greeks experienced their desperate valour when the Avari 
besieged Constantinople in 629, on which occasion the 
Slavonians nearly carried the town. 

The Slavonians who inhabited the vicinity of the Baltic 
remained free, while their brethren of the south were under 
the yoke of the Avari. This yoke was at last broken by the 
Slavonians of Bohemia, who rose against their oppressors, 
and defeated them under the command of a chieftain called 
Samo, who was chosen king by his grateful countrymen. 
The emancipation of the Slavonians from the dominion 
of the Avari was followed by an extension of their posses- 
sions. In the seventh century, having concluded an alli- 
ance with the emperors of Constantinople, they entered 
Illyria, and after having expelled the Avari, they founded 
new colonies under the name of Slavonia, Croatia, Servia, 
Bosuia, and Dalmatia. The Greek emperors favoured their 
settling in the Imperial provinces. In the seventh century 
there were Slavonian settlements on the river Strymon in 
Thrace, in the vicinity of Thessalonica, and in Moesia, or 
the modern Bulgaria. Many of them settled in the Pelo- 
ponnesus, and a considerable number passed into Asia and 
settled in Bithynia and other provinces.* 

From this time the Slavonians are no longer historically 
known under that general appellation, but thev continued to 
take a prominent part in political affairs under the various 
denominations by which the nations belonging to that 
race are distinguished, as Poles, Russians, Bohemians, &c 

The customs, religion, and language of the Slavonian 
race are still characterised by a family likeness, which is 
preserved in the numerous nations which have sprung from 
the same stock, notwithstanding the modifications produced 
in the respective nations by local circumstances and his- 
torical events. 

Procopius (De Bello Goth., iii.) gives the following 
account of the Slavonians : ' The nations of the Slavonians 
and Ant© do not obey a single master, but live under a de- 
mocratical government ; therefore the gains and losses are 
common amongst them, and all other things go in the same 

• At the same time Christianity began to spread among them. The sixth 
Ryuod of Constantinople (a.d, 680) enumerates the Slavonians among the 
Christian i 



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way. They acknowledge as god and at the lord of all their 
nation the maker of the thunder, to whom they offer oxen 
and other sacrifices of every kind. They do not acknow- 
ledge fate, and do not even admit its influence on mortal 
men ; and when they apprehend, in sickness or trouble, a 
speedy death, they vow to God some bloody sacrifice for their 
health or safety ; and believe, when they come out of danger, 
that they did so in consequence of their vow. Thev worship 
also river-nymphs and some other divinities, to whom they 
offer sacrifices, making at the same time divinations. They 
live in miserable huts, standing isolated, and they change 
their settlements. In a battle many of them fight on foot, 
armed only with a small target and a lance. They do not 
wear any armour, and they have not even a shirt or a cloak ; 
but they encounter the enemy only in breeches covering 
the secret parts. They all speak the same very barbarous 
language, and do not differ much in their exterior. Their 
complexion is not very white, and their hair is neither fair 
nor black, but dark. They lead, like the Massage tee, a 
rude and wandering life, and they are always dirty. Their 
mind is neither malicious nor fraudulent, and they preserve, 
with the simplicity, the manners of the Huns in many things. 
Formerly the Slavonians and Antse had the same name ; 
both were called Spori, probably because they live in a scat- 
tered manner (sporaden) in isolated huts, and they occupy 
for that reason a large extent of country. They possess 
the greatest part of the farther banks of the Danube. Ac- 
cording to some they feed their flocks wandering about.' 

This description shows that the Slavonians then lived in 
a state of barbarism. They were inured to every kind of 
fatigue and privation, and accustomed to all the expedients 
of a savage warfare. These qualities made them formidable 
enemies and invaluable allies to the Greeks. They were 
rapacious, like all savage tribes, but the cruelty with which 
they were taxed may be partly ascribed to the provocation 
of the Greeks, who frequently treated their vanquished ene- 
mies with great barbarity. But the Slavonians exhibited, 
notwithstanding their state of barbarism, virtues of the 
noblest kind, and a mildness of character unparalleled even 
among the civilised nations of that time. According to 
the emperor Mauritius, they treated their prisoners with 
great humanity, and instead of keeping them in servitude 
like other nations, they always fixed a limit to it, and gave 
them the choice of paying a ransom and returning to tneir 
country, or remaining with them as freemen and friends. 
A stranger was welcome among them, and hospitably en- 
tertained. The houseowner was answerable to all his nation 
for the safety of the stranger whom he had received ; and 
he who had not preserved his guest from injury drew upon 
himself the vengeance of his neighbours. 

The matrimonial fidelity of the Slavonian wives and hus- 
bands is extolled by foreign authors. The wives were 
complete slaves, as is generally the case amongst uncivilised 
nations : the widow was burnt on the same pile with her 
deceased husband, as it was disgraceful to survive him. It 
is also said that a Slavonian father might destroy a female 
child, when he was already overcharged with a large family, 
but he might not put a male child to death ; and that the 
children might put their parents to death, when from old 
ago and infirmity they were a burthen to them. Their chief 
occupation was agriculture. They seem to have possessed 
some knowledge of the arts, and they were exceedingly fond 
of music. The most antient musical instrument of the Sla- 
vonians is a kind of lyre called gutla, which is still preserved 
among some nations of their race. 

Although the Slavonians who appeared on the borders of 
the Greek empire were rude and uncivilised, those who lived 
on the southern shores of the Baltic had towns and enjoyed 
the advantages of a considerable commerce. Their chief 
cities were Arcona, on the island of Riigen, which con- 
tained the most celebrated fane of their worship, and Vineta, 
at the mouth of the river Oder. Adam of Bremen, who 
wrote in 1067, and Helmold, state that all the Slavonians 
were idolaters, but that no nation was more hospitable and 
honest than they ; that the original form of government was 
democratical, tbat the fathers of families had great authority 
over their wives and children, and that they met together 
occasionally to consult on the affairs of their, community. 
With the progress of time, and probably also from the neces- 
sities created by their coming into contact with more civilised 
nations, the Slavonians introduced permanent authorities 
and chiefs. Aristocracies were formed, either by military 
leaders, or by the more wealthy and cunning persons, who 



succeeded in establishing an hereditary influence. Many 
Slavonian communities came under the rule of hereditary 
chiefs or sovereigns ; others elected their chiefs for life ; 
whilst many retained their primitive democratic form, some- 
what modified by circumstances. The Slavonian chiefs 
were called Krai or Krol, which signifies king. Kniaz or 
Knez, is now employed for prince ; Boyar, a warrior, from 
Boy, fight ; Lekh, or noble ; Voyevoda, i.e. leader of war, 
perhaps a more modern translation from the Saxon heretog, 
or German herzog ; Pan, in Polish, lord ; Zupan, the chief 
of a district, Zupa. All these dignities, whether hereditary 
or elective, by no means implied absolute authority, and the 
persons holding them were always subject to the popular 
will, which decided on public affairs in the assemblies, which 
were held in the open air, and called Viecha or Vieche t pro- 
bably from the Slavonian word vieshchat, ' to proclaim.' 

The religion of the antient Slavonians seems to have been 
different from that of the Teutonic nations. The latest ac- 
count of the Slavonian idols and pagan rites is given by the 
German missionaries, who had an opportunity of observing 
the Slavonians of the Baltic coast, or at least derived in- 
formation on that subject from eye-witnesses, as well as by 
some Scandinavian authors. 

According to the above-mentioned authors, the Slavo- 
nians of the Baltic acknowledged two principles, one of 
food, and the other of evil. They called the former Biel 
tog, or the 'white god,' from whom all that was good pro- 
ceeded ; and the second Cherni Bog, or ' black god, who was 
the cause of all evil. This latter was represented in the 
form of a lion. The roost celebrated Slavonian idol, whose 
temple was at Arcona, was Sviatovid, that is, • holy sight.' He 
was held in great veneration by the Slavonians, and even 
the kings of Denmark, who then professed Christianity, 
frequently sent him offerings. This idol represented a man 
larger than life, dressed in a short garment made of many- 
coloured wood. He had two chests and four heads. He 
stood with his feet on the ground, held in one hand a bow, 
and in the other a horn, which was filled once every year 
on a solemn occasion with mead. Near the idol were 
placed, as belonging to him, a bridle and saddle, and a 
sword richly ornamented with silver. His festival was cele- 
brated on a certain day after harvest, when the priest brought 
out to the assembled multitude the horn which the idol 
held in his hand, and from the decrease of the liquid 
poured into it the year before the result of the next harvest 
was prognosticated. The mead of the last year was poured 
at the idol's feet, and his horn was replenished, with appro- 
priate ceremonies and prayers. The remainder of the day 
was spent in feasting; abstemiousness on that day was 
considered sinful, and the greatest excess in drinking and 
eating was accounted an act of devotion. 

The Slavonians paid a tax to the temple of the idol, and 
cave him the third part of their booty. There were also 
three hundred horsemen belonging to the idol, who deposited 
in his temple all the spoils that they made. These dif- 
ferent donations were employed to ornament the temple, 
or deposited in the treasury, which contained a great num- 
ber of chests filled with coin, rich stuffs, and other precious 
things. There was a white horse consecrated to the same idol, 
which was led and mounted only by the priest The Sla- 
vonians believed tbat Sviatovid occasionally rode upon this 
horse, in order to combat the enemies of their faith ; and its 
moving with the right or left foot over lances placed on the 
ground, decided the most important undertakings. The 
temple of Sviatovid was destroyed in the twelfth century by 
Waldemar, king of Denmark. Some German chroniclers 
believe that Sviatovid was the same as St. Vitus, whom the 
Slavonians had adopted after having heard of bis great 
miracles ; but this is evidently an error founded on the si- 
milarity of names.* 

There were also several other divinities worshipped by the 
Slavonian idolaters, such as Porenut, whose idol had four 
faces, and a fifth on his breast, supposed to have been the 
god of seasons, from the word pora, ' season ;' Porevit, 
represented with five hands ; Rughevit, supposed to be the 
god of war, whose idol had seven faces, seven swords sus- 
pended at his side, and an eighth in his hand. All these 
three were in the island of Riigen, the last asylum of Sla- 
vonian idolatry. 

This account of the Slavonian deities is founded, as already 
observed, on the report of writers who bad either seen the 

• The moat detailed account of Sviatovid and hie worship is given b* 8a» 
Gramaatioos. 



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idols or derived their information from hearsay. The only 
genuine monuments of Slavonian idolatry which have 
reached our times are the idols dug up about the end of the 
seventeenth century in the village of PrillwiU, on the hanks 
of the lake Tollenz, in the territory of Mecklenburg. This 
village is supposed to occupy the site of the Slavonian town 
of Retra, which was destroyed by the Saxons in the middle of 
the twelfth century, and was celeb/ated in its time for its 
temples and idols. These archaeological treasures remained 
unknovn to the learned world till 1771, when Mr. Masch, 
chaplain of the duke of Mecklenburg, published a descrip- 
tion of them with engravings. These antiquities were found 
in two metal vessels, supposed to have served for sacrifices, 
and which were so placed that one formed a cover to the 
other : they had engraved on them several inscriptions, 
but unfortunately they were both melted for the casting of 
a bell before they were examined by any person competent 
to judge of the inscriptions. The contents of these vessels 
were not only idols, but also several objects employed in 
the performance of sacrifices. They are all of brass, with 
more or less admixture of silver. The greatest part of 
them have inscriptions in Runic characters: one of them 
however, exhibiting the attributes of autumn, has the Greek 
inscription OITQPA. The greater part of these idols have 
Slavonian names, such as Radegast, Cherni Bog, Zibag, &c. 
(Bog in Slavonian signifies God) ; several of them however 
have Lithuanian names, and must belong to the Lithuanian 
and Prussian idolaters, who probably sought refuge among 
the Slavonians from their common enemies the Christians. 
Both Slavonian and Lithuanian idols correspond to the de- 
scriptions given of them by the old chroniclers. The Sla- 
vonian divinities usually have more than one head : many 
of them have on some part of their body either a human 
face, signifying the good principle, or a lion's head, denoting 
the evil principle. Many have also the figure of a beetle on 
them, which might denote an Egyptian origin*. They are 
in general only a few inches long. 

The chief Slavonian divinities represented by these idols 
are Radegast, having the head of a lion, surmounted by a 
bird ; Woda, represented as a warrior, perhaps the Scandi- 
navian Odin, &c. 

These monuments of Slavonian idolatry present a wide 
field for investigation, and they prove that the nation with 
whose religious worship they are connected was not a 
stranger to the arts. It is difficult to ascertain whether the 
divinities of Lithuanian and Scandinavian origin, which were 
foreign to the Slavonians, were adopted by them, or only 
found an asylum with their worshippers when expelled from 
their countries by the progress of Christianity. 

The eastern Slavonians worshipped Perun, or the god of 
thunder ; Volos, the god of the flocks ; Koleda, the god of fes- 
tivals, whose festival was celebrated on the 24th of December, 
and it is remarkable that the common people in many parts of 
Poland and Russia on that account even now call Christ- 
mas, Koleda; Kupala, the god of the fruits of the earth, re- 
ceived sacrifices on the 23rd of June, and in many parts 
of Russia and Poland, St. John, whose festival falls on the 
same duy, is called John Kupala. Dittmar, a German 
writer, pretends that the pagan Slavonians did not believe 
in the immortality of the soul ; but this statement is suf- 
ficiently refuted by several customs and ceremonies which 
they observed for the repose of the dead. 

In the uinth century the Slavonians occupied a large 
part of Eastern Europe. They extended from the Black 
Sea along the Danube and to the westward of that river on 
the shore of the Adriatic, occupying the antient Roman 
provinces of Pannonia, Dacia, Ulyricum, and Dalmatia. 
The Slavonian settlements reached from the northern 
part of the Adriatic bordering on the Tyrol and Bavaria to 
the upper part of the Elbe, and they occupied the country 
between that river and the Saal, as well as all the right 
bank of the Elbe, extending over the southern shore of the 
Baltic from Jutland to the mouths of the Vistula. From 
the Vistula (with the exception of the coast of the Baltic 
inhabited by another race) the Slavonians spread over all 
the country between that river and the Danube. Thus 
they possessed the countries which now constitute the 
greater part of the Austrian dominions, Hungary, the pro- 
vinces bordering on Italy and the Tyrol, Bohemia and 
Moravia, a great part of Saxony, the March of Brandenburg, 
Silesia, Poinerania, and the island of Riigen, to which must 
be added the territory which constituted antient Poland, and 
a great part of the present Russian empire. 



The Slavonian population of Pomerania, Mecklenburg 
the island of Riigen, the March of Brandenburg, and of 
Saxony, on the left bank of the Elbe, was either extermi- 
nated or so completely Germanised, that the language of 
their country is completely superseded by the German ; but 
there are traces of this language being used in official docu- 
ments in the country about Leipzig as late as the beginning 
of the fourteenth century. The names of many towns and 
villages situated in those parts of Germany are evidently of 
Slavonian origin. 

The following are the Slavonian nations now in ex- 
istence : — 

1. The Bohemians and Moravians, who inhabit Bohemia 
and Moravia, and are scattered in some parts of Hungary 
and Silesia. 

2. The Poles, who inhabit the territory of antient Poland, 
Silesia, and Prussia. 

3. The Muscovites or Great Russians, who have a con- 
siderable admixture of Finnish blood, and have become 
semewhat orientalised by the dominion of the Tartars in 
Russia. They inhabit the north-eastern provinces of 
Russia in Europe. 

4. The Russians, who are auite distinct from the Great 
Russians or Muscovites, are divided into Little Russians, 
who inhabit the antient Polish provinces of the Ukraine, 
Podolia, and Volhynia, now incorporated with Russia, a part 
of the kingdom of Poland, Gallicia or Austrian Poland, and 
some parts of Northern Hungary ; and White Russians, 
who inhabit a part of Lithuania, and chiefly the provinces 
of Mohilof ana Witepsk, which were acquired by Russia at 
the first dismemberment of Poland, in 1772, as well as a 
part of the government of Smolensk. 

5. The Slovacka, who inhabit the north of Hungary. 

6. The Croats, who inhabit the south-west of Hungary. 

7. The Illyrians, who inhabit the Austrian provinces of 
Carinthia, Carniola, and Dalmatia. 

8. The Servians, who inhabit Servia, to whom may be 
added the Montenegrins. 

9. The Bulgarians and Bosnians in Turkey, of whom a 
part have embraced Mohammedanism, while others profess 
the Christian religion according to the Eastern church. 

10. The Syrbes or Wends, who inhabit Lusatia, and 
whose settlements are about 25 miles from Dresden. 

Slavonian Tongue. — It has been observed that Procopius, 
who described the Slavonians in the fifth century, says that 
they and the Antas used the same language, and a similar 
opinion is expressed about the Slavonians of the eighth 
century, by Eginhard, the historian of Charlemagne. It is 
however impossible to admit the perfect universality of the 
same language among a race composed of so many tribes, 
and occupying such a vast extent of country. The evidence 
of the writers above mentioned, who have not transmitted 
to us any monument of the Slavonian language, and pro- 
bably did not understand it, cannot be admitted as conclu- 
sive, except to prove that all the Slavonians, who were di- 
vided into various tribes or nations, could easily understand 
each other. The truth of this fact cannot be doubted ; for not- 
withstanding the lapse of ages, during which many Slavonian 
nations have remained completely isolated from several of 
their kindred populations, and have lived in constant inter- 
course with nations of an entirely foreign race, their re- 
spective dialects preserve a strong similarity, so that a 
Slavonian inhabiting the shores of the Frozen Sea may fre- 
quently understand the language of those who live on the 
coasts of the Adriatic. This fact is moreover corroborated 
by the circumstance that the monuments of the different 
Slavonian languages, though written several centuries ago, 
exhibit a much greater similarity among themselves than 
is the case with those languages in our time. We may there- 
fore conclude that at some unrecorded period all the Slavo- 
nian race had the same tongue, which began to split into dif- 
ferent dialects at the same time when the race, increasing in 
numbers, began to divide into various tribes; and that the 
differences among those dialects grew in the same proportion 
as the surrounding tribes who spoke them became more 
estranged from each other by physical, political, and religi- 
ous causes. The Slavonian tongue is generally considered 
to havo an Indian origin, and thiB supposition is founded on 
the great number of Sanscrit roots which it contains, as well 
as on some traces of a similar origin exhibited in the religion 
of the antient Slavonians, of which the most striking circum- 
stances are the burning of widows on the funeral pile of 



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their deceased husbands, the idol of Sviatovid, represented 
with four heads, and other resemblances of a like kind. The 
most antient written Slavonian language is that into which 
Cyrillus and Me i hod i us translated the Scriptures in the 
mnih century, and which must have been the dialect of the 
Slavonians who inhabited the banks of the Danube, for 
whom this translation was made from the Septuagint. and 
for which an alphabet, formed on the model of the Greek 
one, was introduced by the translators. 

Although the above-mentioned alphabet was adopted for 
the translation of the Scriptures, it is impossible to admit 
that the Slavonians were, previously to their conversion to 
Christianity, totally unacquainted with the use of letters, and 
indeed the Bohemian chronicles speak of legislative tables 
(deski pravodatne) in the seventh century. (Palatzky, 
Gcschichte von Bohmen, vol. i., p. 182.) The antient Sla- 
vonian name for a wizard iczarnoknijnik), signifying one 
occupied with black books, leads to the supposition that the 
antient Slavonian conjurors made use of certain writings 
in performing their incantations. Martinus Gallus speaks 
of Polish chronicles previous to the introduction of Christi- 
anity, which were aestroyed by Christian missionaries. 
Dithmar of Merseburg, who wrote in the eleventh century, 
positively states that the Slavonian idols had inscriptions on 
them, a statement fully confirmed by the discovery of* the 
monuments of the antient Slavonian worship found at 
Prillwitz. It is true that the above-mentioned inscriptions 
were Runes borrowed from the Scandinavians, and one of 
them was Greek, which may lead to the conclusion that the 
Slavonians employed foreign characters, but they tend to 
show that they were not strangers to the art of writing. 

The conversion of the south-eastern Slavonians by Greek 
missionaries was a circumstance highly favourable to their 
national language, as the Eastern church left to the newly 
converted nations the use of the vernacular tongue in the 
performance of divine service, instead of introducing the 
Latin, as was the case with the Western church. The 
conversion of the majority of the Slavonians was effected 
principally by the exertions of Cyrillus and Methodius, As 
early as the seventh century a great number of Slavonians 
has been converted to Christianity, and were followers 
of the Eastern church. This seems to have been par- 
ticularly the case with those who had settled within the 
confines of the Greek empire, whilst those who lived beyond 
its borders remained either in a complete state of idolatry 
or exhibited only some individual conversions. Among 
the Slavonian states of that time, the most important was 
that of Grand Moravia, which must however not be con- 
founded with the province that now bears this name: it 
extended over part of Hungary and some adjacent countries, 
and it was converted, though it appears rather nominally 
than really, about the beginning of the ninth century, by 
the missionaries of the West; for the Papal records prove 
that Moravia about 820-830 was under the spiritual au- 
thority of the archbishop of Passau. Nestor, a monk of 
Kief, one of the oldest Slavonian chroniclers, says that 
ihe princes of Moravia sent, about 863, a message to the 
Greek emperor Michael, stating that their country was bap- 
tised, but that they had no teachers to instruct the people 
and to translate for them the sacred books, and accordingly 
they requested him to send them men capable of performing 
such a task. The emperor complied with their request, 
and sent them the two brothers named Cyrillus and Metho- 
dius, natives of Thessalonica, who were distinguished by their 
learning as well as piety, and possessed a thorough know- 
ledge of the Slavonian tongue. 

The missionaries, having arrived in Moravia, translated 
the Scriptures, or at least a part of them, into the Slavonian 
tongue of the country ; they also invented the letters, which, 
being called the Cyrillic alphabet, are still used, with some 
few variations, by the Slavonians who follow the tenets of 
the Eastern church, who also employ in the performance of 
divine service the same Slavonian idiom into which the 
Scriptures were translated, and which is now become the 
sacred tongue of those nations. Cyrillus and Methodius, 
having completed the translation, established the worship in 
the vernacular language, founded schools, and organised 
everything necessary for the promotion of the Christian 
religion. They extended their labours beyond the frontiers 
of Moravia, and converted Bohemia, a.d. 873. It is even 
supposed that they visited Poland, and there can scarcely 
baa doubt that their disciples were active in that country. 

The apostolical labours of Cjrillus and Methodius took 



place during the time of those disputes between the patri- 
arch of Constantinople and the pope of Rome which led to 
the final separation of the Eastern from the Western church. 
Among many causes of dispute, the dominion over the 
newly converted Slavonian nations formed an important 
subject of contention between Rome and Constantinople. 
Cyrillus and Methodius, although they introduced among 
their new converts the rites of the Eastern church, and the 
worship in the vernacular* tongue, acknowledged the supre- 
macy of i he pope, and not that of the Greek patriarch, as is 
evident from the approbation of their proceedings, which 
they sought and obtained from pope John V1IL, before 
whom they were accused of deviating from the line of con- 
duct followed by Roman missionaries in the conversion of 
pagan nations. 

The confirmation granted by pope John VIII. to the na- 
tional mode of worship introduced by Cyrillus and Metho- 
dius, was rather a concession extorted by circumstances, and 
particularly by apprehension lest the missionaries, in case of 
refusal, should transfer their obedience from Rome to Con- 
stantinople, than a real approbation of the use of the verna- 
cular language in the divine service, a principle considered 
by the Western church as prejudicial to its polity, the object 
of which is not only unity of dogma, but also uniformity of 
ritual; and indeed although some successors of John VIII. 
assented to the Slavonian mode of worship, they constantly 
endeavoured to abolish it, or at least to limit its use. This 
tendency became much stronger when the final separation 
between the Eastern and the Western churches removed 
the reasons which the latter had for conciliating the nations 
that were wavering between the two churches. Rome 
declared an unrelenting hostility against every ritual which 
deviated from that which it had established, and the coun- 
cil of Salona, held in 1060, proclaimed Cyrillus a heretic, 
and his alphabet a diabolical invention. The kingdom of 
Grand Morayia was destroyed by the pagan Hungarians 
about the middle of the tenth century, and the Slavonian 
population either fled to other countries inhabited by theit 
own race, or remained under the yoke of their conquerors, 
who, having embraced Christianity from the Western 
church, promoted the papal views as to the Slavonian wor- 
ship. In Bohemia the same worship struggled for some 
time against the Roman ritual, till its last stronghold, the 
convent of Sazava, was abolished in 1094, and the Sla- 
vonian books were destroyed by the zealous promoters or 
the Roman ritual. In Poland, where Christianity was esta- 
blished in 966 bv Bohemian priests, when the national 
mode of worship was still prevailing in that country, and 
where Christianity had partly penetrated, even before its 
final triumph, from Moravia and Greece, the same mode of 
worship struggled for some time against the Roman ritual, 
and seems to have been continued in some parts as late as 
the fourteenth century. 

The Slavonian service and the use of the Cyrillic letters, 
which were completely superseded by the Latin worship and 
letters among the Slavonians who followed the Western 
church, remained in full vigour among those who belonged 
to the Eastern church. This was the case with the Servians 
and other Slavonians of the Danube, the population of Mus- 
covy, and of many provinces of Lithuania and Poland. And 
it is moreover used by the Wallachians, who inhabit Moldavia, 
Wallachia, and several parts of Hungary, although their 
language is derived from the Latin and has only a slight ad- 
mixture of the Slavonic Several Slavonian nations, which 
had originally followed the Eastern church, but submitted 
to the supremacy of Rome after the union of Florence, were 
allowed to retain the Slavonian liturgy and the use of the 
Cyrillic letters. The most antient manuscripts written in 
the Cyrillic alphabet are the gospel of Ostromir, written 
in 1056, which is preserved at St. Petersburg, and a Sbor- 
nik, or collection of religious tracts, of the year 1073, now at 
Moscow. An inscription in the same letters, preserved in a 
church at Kief, is supposed to date from the reign of Vladi- 
mir the Great. The first printed works with the same cha- 
racters are a book of prayers, entitled « Oktoikb,' &c, printed 
at Cracow in 1491, and another work of a similar descrip- 
tion, at Venice in 1493. 

Besides the Cyrillic letters, there is another alphabet used 
by some Slavonian populations of Dalmatia and Illyria, 
which is called the Glagolite character, and the use of 
which, as well as of the liturgy in the Slavonian language, 
has been allowed by the Roman see to these nations. The 
invention of that alphabet has been ascribed to St. Hicro- 



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nymus, a native of Dalmatia, but this origin of the Gla- 
golite letters, probably invented by their advocates in order 
to gain the approbation of Rome, cannot stand the test of 
historical criticism, as St. Hieronymus lived in the fourth 
century, being born ajx 331, in Dalmatia, while the Slavo- 
nians settled in that province only in the seventh cen- 
tury. Many Slavonian scholars supposed that the Glagolite 
alphabet was comparatively a modern invention, and that it 
was nothing more than the Cyrillic, disguised by some altera- 
tions and the addition of superfluous ornaments. This opinion 
was supported by the circumstance that the oldest monument 
of the above-mentioned characters was a Psalter written in 
the thirteenth century, and their invention was considered on 
that account to be of no earlier date. The same opinion 
seemed to be corroborated by the fact that it was only in 1248 
that Pope Innocent IV. permitted the use of the Slavonian 
liturgy, and of those letters which they had from St. Hierony- 
mus, to those nations that had still retained them. This 
theory about the Glagolite alphabet, which was combated by 
many Slavonian scholars, has been recently overturned by the 
learned Kopitar, librarian of the Imperial Library at Vienna, 
one of the first Slavonian scholars of our time. He has 
proved, from a manuscript written in the Glagolite characters, 
that the Glagolite character was coeval with the Cyrillic, 
if it was not more antient This manuscript, which was 
long considered to be an autograph of St. Hieronymus, is of 
a very antient date, and belongs to Count Cloz, in the 
vicinity of Trento. The lovers of Slavonian antiquity may 
consult Kopitar, Glagolita Clotzianus, $c., Vienna, 1836. 

It has^een said that the liturgy in Slavonian with the 
use of the Glagolite letters was approved by Pope Innocent 
IV. in 1248. A Slavonian missal was printed in these 
characters, at Venice, in 1483. In the tenth century, when 
a revision of the Roman missal and breviary was made by 
the order of the popes, the same measure was extended to 
the Slavonian missal, and the congregation De Propaganda 
Fide intrusted that task to a Franciscan monk, Raphael 
Levakovich, a native of Croatia; but as he was not com- 
pletely master of the sacred Slavonian tongue, he called to 
his assistance Terletzki, a Greek bishop of Lutzkn in Poland, 
who, having subscribed the union with Rome at Brest in 
Lithuania, in 1 5 76, came to Rome. Terletzki replaced many 
words which he could not understand, by others employed 
in the Slavonian liturgy of the Greek churches in Poland 
and Russia, by which the original text was spoiled. The 
Slavonian missal thus revised was printed at Rome, 1631- 
1648. Another revision was made by Rastricius, a Dalma- 
tian clergyman, who spoiled it still more by substituting 
modern words for those which he could not understand. 
It was printed in 1688-1706. The third and last revi- 
sion of the Slavonian missal, published in 1741*1748, was 
made by Mathias Caruman, a clergyman of Dalmatia, who, 
having remained for some time at St. Petersburg, and 
acquired a thorough knowledge of the Russian language, 
disfigured the missal still more by introducing into it many 
Russian idioms, so that the missal became less intelligi- 
ble to the inhabitants of Illyria and Dalmatia, for whom it 
was designed, than it had been before. 

Except the populations of Dalmatia and Illyria, who, as 
we have just said, have retained the Slavonian liturgy and 
the use of the Glagolite characters, all the other Slavonian 
nations which were converted by the Western church 
adopted the Latin alphabet. 

The sacred Slavonian tongue, having been originally the 
dialect of the Slavonians who inhabited the banks of the 
Danube, cannot be justly regarded as the mother tongue of 
all the Slavonian dialects now extant; we shall therefore 
give its characteristics in speaking of the Slavonian languages 
in general. It continued to be employed for some time 
in the composition of sacred books, as well as chronicles 
among the Slavonian nations who adhered to the Greek 
church, and particularly the Russians, but we shall have 
an opportunity of mentioning it hereafter in speaking of 
the literature of those nations. 

General Characteristics of the Slavonian Languages. — 
The Slavonian languages are distinguished by the richness 
of their vocabulary, which consists not only in the great 
number of words, that is, a great quantity of synonymes, 
but also in the number of inflexions, both at the beginning 
and the end of words, which gives a facility of creating from 
one radical word an extraordinary number of derivatives. 
By the simple prefixing of the letters s, z, v, w, the verb 
P. C. No. 1372. 



acquires a different signification. The great facility with 
which the Slavonian languages receive new forms and addi 
tions is chiefly owing to their manifold declensions and their 
numerous tenses and participles, and they excel in that 
respect all the modern languages of Europe. The declen- 
sions, of which there is a great variety, are formed by the 
inflexion of the termination, and without any articles. The 
participles possess a great pliability by uniting in them* 
selves the advantage of verbs and adjectives, and denoting 
as verbal adjectives at once the quality of the thing 
and the determination of the time, thus saving the use 
of relatives, as who, which, and prepositions, as after, 
since. This circumstance gives them a great conciseness, 
which is increased by the absence of auxiliary verbs. An- 
other advantage of the Slavonian languages is their great 
facility of compounding words : it is possible to form from 
native roots all the scientific words which the languages of 
Western Europe have derived from the Greek and Latin. 
These languages contain not only diminutives to express 
small objects, and which are also used as terms of endear- 
ment, but likewise augmentatives, to express a thing of a 
larger size than usual. They have the patronymic which is 
formed by the addition of wich, answering to the Greek ides. 
There are also frequentative and inceptive verbs. The verbs 
are conjugated without the use of pronouns, which adds 
considerably to the conciseness of these languages, and the 
preterits of the third person singular and plural designate 
the sex by a variation in the last syllable. Many prepo- 
sitions and much circumlocution of different kinds are saved 
by the use of the instrumental case corresponding to the 
ablative. The Slavonian languages have the dual number. 
They have several preterit tenses and many future ones, 
&c. It may be easily concluded from what we have said of 
the Slavonian languages that they must possess great ex- 
pressiveness and energy, and that they are able to represent 
every object of imagination and of passion, as well as all the 
higher emotions of the poet and the orator, in a manner not 
inferior to any modern language, and superior to many ; and 
that they are eminently fit for the translation of the classics. 
We must also add, that the Slavonian languages possess 
every sound contained in other languages, except the Eng- 
lish th. 

Russian Language and Literature.— -The Russian lan- 
guage may be divided into three dialects. 1. The dialect of 
Great Russia, or Muscovy, which, since the time of Peter the 
Great, has been formed into the present literary language of 
Russia, and is subdivided into the minor dialects of Novgorod, 
Suzdal, and Rezan. The dialect of Great Russia is distin- 
guished from other Slavonian languages by the admixture 
of some words and sounds of a Finnish origin, as the popu- 
lation which speak this dialect partly came from some Finnish 
tribes that were absorbed by the Slavonians. It also contains 
many Oriental words, which were introduced under the Tar- 
tar dominion, but these words have generally their Slavonian 
synonymes. 2. The dialect of Little or Southern Russia is 
spoken by the population of the Ukraine, the antient Polish 
provinces of Volhynia and Podolia, as well as that of Gal- 
licia, or Austrian Poland. It differs from the dialect of 
Great Russia not only in many expressions, but also in 
many turns and grammatical forms, which often rather 
resemble those of the Polish language than the above-men- 
tioned dialect. It is perhaps the softest of all the Slavo- 
nian dialects ; it is full of picturesque expressions, and its 
diminutives, used as terms of endearment, have a peculiar 
sweetness. The national songs and ballads of the popula- 
tion who speak this dialect, are distinguished by great 
depth of feeling, and their music, although composed by 
simple peasants, is generally very beautiful. It was cul- 
tivated under the dominion of Poland, which continued for 
many centuries, and it may be regarded as a provincial dia- 
lect of that country. 3. The dialect of White Russia is 
now spoken by the population of the governments of Mohileff, 
Witepsk, and Smolensk, as well as some adjacent districts. 
It is less harmonious than the dialect of Little Russia. It 
is considered by philologists as being of high antiquity, and it 
was the official language of Lithuania till the latter part of 
the seventeenth century; the code of that country was 
originally composed in it. 

The present literary language of Russia participates in all 
the merits of the other Slavonian languages; and it has 
been enriched by its authors, who have introduced many 
new words, either from the Slavonian sacred tongue or 

Vol. XXH.-P 
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formed from its own roots. It is more harmonious than 
many other Slavonian languages, being richer in vowels, a 
peculiarity which is ascribed to the influence of the Finnish 
language, which is characterised by an extraordinary soft- 
ness. 

The history of the Russian language and literature may be 
divided into two great periods, one comprising the time before 
the reign of Peter the Great, and the other the period since 
his reign. The first period may be subdivided into three : 
the time from the introduction of the Christian religion in 
the tenth century, to the establishment of the dominion of 
the Tartars in the thirteenth ; 2, the time from the domi- 
nion of the Tartars, or from the middle of the thirteenth to 
the middle of the fifteenth century ; and the 3rd, from that 
time to the reign of Peter the Great, or the end of the 
seventeenth century. The written language of the first 
period is the Slavonian sacred tongue, into which the Scrip- 
tures were translated by Cyrillus and Methodius. Tne 
most remarkable author of that period is Nestor, a monk of 
the cavern convent at Kieff,* who was born in 1056, and who 
is the first chronicler of Russia and the father of Russian 
history. He was evidently a learned man. He knew 
Greek, and was acquainted with the Byzantine writers, from 
whom he translated and inserted into his chronicles several 
passages. He collected his information from tradition, and 
possibly from some now unknown records. He was much 
indebted to the narrative of his fellow monk Ian, who died 
in 1 1 06, at the age of ninety -one, and was consequently born 
one year after the death of Vladimir the Great, who died 
in 1015, and must have known many persons who were wit- 
nesses of the great event of the establishment of the Chris- 
tian religion in Russia by Vladimir in 988-9. Nestor also 
described many events which happened in his own time. 
His style is an imitation of that of the Bible, and he often 
makes the individuals who are the subjects of his history 
speak in the first person, as is the case in the historical 
books of the Old Testament. His Chronicle was continued 
after his death in 1116, by Abbot Sylvester, till 1123. 
Two other monks continued it till 1203. It has gone 
through many editions, and it has been often trans- 
lated. The best translation is the German, with a va- 
luable Commentary, by the learned historian Schlozer, 
Gottingen, 1802-4, in five volumes. After Nestor's Chro- 
nicle, the most remarkable literary monument of that 
period is the last will, or instructions to his children, of the 
grand-duke Vladimir, who was surnamed Monomachos, 
after his maternal grandfather the emperor Constantino 
Monomachos, and died in 1125. It contains precepts of 
Christian morality and of government ; and it gives us an 
insight into the state of learning of that period,which seems 
to have been more advanced among the higher classes in 
Russia than in Western Europe. He says, when recom- 
mending his children to seek for information, ' My father 
remaining at home, that is, not having travelled, spoke four 
languages, for which we are praised by foreigners.' These 
last words imply that the knowledge of foreign languages 
was common at that time in Russia, but it is impossible to 
know what those languages were. We may however sup- 
pose that Greek was studied by the clergy, who were con- 
tinually coming from Constantinople to Russia, and that 
the Scandinavian was cultivated by the higher classes, as the 
Russian princes, being sprung from a Norman stock, had at 
that time considerable intercourse with Sweden and Nor- 
way. Vladimir married, about 1070, Gida, daughter of 
Harold, the last Saxon king of England, who had retired to 
Sweden after the death of her father. 

Several theological works of this period still exist The 
most remarkable are two Epistles of Nicephorus, metropo- 
litan of Kieff. There is also a description of a Journey to 
Jerusalem a few years after its conquest by the first cru- 
saders, by a Russian abbot named Daniel. The only extant 
poetical production of that period is the poem of the 4 Expe- 
dition of Igor.' It is written in poetical prose, and describes 
an unfortunate expedition against the nomadic nation of the 
Polovtzi, or Comanea, by Igor, a petty prince of Novgorod 
Severrski, in 1 182. It contains much fine poetical imagery, 
and though written at a time when Christianity was com- 
pletely established, the author introduces into his poem the 
gods of the Slavonian mythology, which leads to the suppo- 
sition that the traditions of that mythology still lived in the 

• There are el Kieff extenaWe care* Sited with bodies of MiiiU,and known 
Wider the name of • pechers." or caverns, to which a cpoveut is attached. 
caiW after the name of the earevn. 



national poetry. It appears, from the apostrophe to the dif- 
ferent princes of Russia, to have been written immediately 
after the event had taken place which forms the subject of 
the poem. This precious monument of antient Russian 
literature was discovered, in 1796, by Count Moossin Push- 
kin. There have been several translations of it into the 
present Russian, as well as into Bohemian, Polish, and 
German. The code of laws given by the grand-duke 
Yaroslaf to Novgorod belongs to the same period, during 
which Russia enjoyed comparatively a high degree of civi- 
lization, owing to the influence of Byzantine literature, 
science, and art. Besides Vladimir Monomachos, many 
other princes and princesses are mentioned as having cul- 
tivated and encouraged learning, and libraries are spoken 
of as containing Greek and Latin manuscripts. 

The progress of this civilization was stopped by the in- 
vasion of the Tartars, who established a reign of ignorant 
barbarism in the north-eastern principalities of Russia, and 
separated them completely from the rest of Europe. The 
clergy still continued to maintain some intercourse with 
Constantinople, but the Greek empire was rapidly declining, 
and the few learned men whom it produced were averse to 
visit a country which was under the yoke of barbarians. 
The customs of the country were orientalized, as the inha- 
bitants adopted many things from their Tartar masters. 
The clergy, who were much favoured by the Tartars, did 
not take advantage of their position in order to cultivate 
learning or establish schools. They composed however 
several spiritual works, and some chronicles in tiie sacred 
Slavonian tongue. There are also extant soft stories 
translated from the Greek during that period ; as, for in 
stance, of Alexander the Great from Arrian, on the heroes 
of antiquity, the rich Indies, &c. The popular songs on 
historical subjects, particularly on the times of Vladimir the 
Great, are supposed to have been composed during the 
same period by the people, who solaced themselves during 
their oppression by the traditions of better times. There 
were however several authors in this period. Cyprian, 
metropolitan of Russia, who died in 1406, was a native of 
Servia, and brought with him to Moscow a great number of 
Slavonian manuscripts. He composed and translated se- 
veral spiritual works, and made a collection of Russian laws. 
Demetrius, probably a monk, translated, towards the end 
of the fourteenth century, from the Greek, the poem of 
George Pisides, metropolitan of Nicomedia (who lived in 
the seventh century), entitled the * Creation of the World. 1 
This translation was such an uncommon event, that the 
chronicles of the time mention it as such. The Diaconus 
Ignatius, who accompanied the metropolitan Pimen on his 
journey to Constantinople in 1389, left a detailed description 
of that journey. Sophronius, a clergyman of Rezan, 
towards the end of the fourteenth century, wrote a poetical 
description of the invasion and defeat of the Tartars, under 
Mamay, in 1380. A merchant of Tver, called Nikitin, 
went, about 1470, to the East Indies, and left a diary of his 
travels. It neither displays particular talent for observa- 
tion, nor does it contain much information, but it is inter- 
esting, as it shows the route which was then followed by 
the commerce from Europe to India. 

Third Period • from the Termination of the Tartar domi- 
nation to Peter the Great.— Boon after Muscovy had been 
liberated from the yoke of the Khans, it begun to have 
some intercourse with the west of Europe. The marriage 
of the grand-duke Ivan III. with the Greek princess Sophia 
Palreologus, who had resided at Rome, contributed greatly 
to the increase of that intercourse and the progress of civi- 
lization in Muscovy. Many Greeks who accompanied the 
princess Sophia brought valuable Greek manuscripts. The 
Venetian architect Fioravanti Aristoteles built several 
churches, the Kremlin, and some other palaces at Moscow. 
Foreign artists cast cannon and bells, and coined money. 
Under Ivan's son Vassili the intercourse with Europe in- 
creased, and embassies were sent and received from several 
states. Under Ivan Vassilevich the Terrible (1534-84) a 
civil and an ecclesiastical code were composed, commercial 
intercourse was opened with England, and a printing-press 
was established at Moscow. Boris Godoonoff [Godoonokf] 
was a great promoter of learning: he designed to establish 
at Moscow a university with foreign professors, but this pro- 
ject was defeated by the opposition of the patriarch, who 
feared that such an institution might be dangerous to the 
orthodoxy of his church. Boris patronised- Jearned fo- 
reigners* and paid an immense sum to the tutor of his son. 



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to whom he was giving a European education. A general 
map of the Muscovite dominions was also made oy his 
orders. The events which agitated Muscovy after the death 
of Godoonoff, put a stop for some time to all improvement, 
but when tranquillity was restored, after the accession of 
Michael Federovich (1613-45), the course of improvement 
was resumed. Many foreigners were taken into the service 
of the Czar, and Greek and Latin schools were established in 
the house of the Patriarch in 1643. Under Alexey Michae- 
lovich several manufactures were introduced, and a regular 
communication with western Europe was opened by the 
establishment of the German post, which carried letters 
twice a week from Moscow to Riga and Vilna, but there 
was no such accommodation for the interior. Several 
foreign books were translated ; of which the most remarkable 
is one on military science, printed at Moscow, in 1644. 
A German newspaper was regularly translated for the 
Czar, but his foreign office seems not to have profited much 
by the information, for the credentials of the embassy which 
was sent by the Czar, in 1662, to Madrid, were directed to 
Philip IV., who had died two years before. The number of 
foreign officers was increased, and some regular troops were 
formed after the European fashion; but the most remark- 
able event of that reign is the Ulojenie, or code of laws, 
which was formed by order of the Czar, and printed at 
Moscow in 1649. The acquisition of Kieff, which possessed 
an ecclesiastical academy, founded under the Polish do- 
minion [Russian Church], favoured the progress of learn- 
ing among the Russian clergy. Under Fedor Alexeyvich 
(1676-88) a Graeco- Latino Slavonian academy was founded 
at Moscow on the model of that of Kieff. The great map 
of Russia made under Godoonoff was revised and improved. 
During the regency of the princess Sophia (1682-89), Prince 
Galitzin, who was her principal minister, introduced many 
European refinements and luxuries into his house, and his 
example was imitated by other grandees. 

The Slavonian language continued to be used in all eccle- 
siastical compositions, as well as by the chroniclers, but the 
common dialect of Moscow began to be adopted in all 
official acts of the government. At the same time the dia- 
lect of White Russia, which was the official language of 
Lithuania, was penetrating to Moscow, and there are several 
diplomatic notes addressed by the grand-dukes to foreign 
princes, which contain an admixture of that dialect, and 
even many Polish words. In the sixteenth century, and at 
the beginning of the seventeenth, the works of St. Arabro- 
sius, Augustinus, Hieronymus, and Gregory, as well as the 

• History of the Twelve CcBsars,' by Suetonius, were trans- 
lated into Slavonian. Some tales written in a mixture of the 
Slavonian and the common dialect of Moscow belong to that 
period. Joseph, Hegumenos or abbot of a convent at Voloko- 
lamsk (died in 1516), became celebrated by his writings and 

fersonal exertions against the Jewish sect of RaskoTuichi. 
Russian Dissenters.] Part of his works were priuted 
in the collection of materials for Russian history, entitled 

• Antieut Russian Bibliotheca.' His contemporary Gen na- 
dius, archbishop of Novgorod, an equally zealous perse- 
cutor of the above-mentioned sect, wrote several pastoral 
exhortations on the same subject. Macarius, metropolitan 
of Moscow (died in 1564), is the author of the lives of several 
saints. The annals known under the name of ' Stepennaya 
Kniha,' that is, the graduated book, were composed under 
his superintendence, aud indeed the authorship has been 
ascribed to him. They are so called because they are 
divided into chapters, each of which contains the reign of 
one sovereign, and is called a grade. Maxim, a Greek monk 
of the convent of Mount Athos, and a man of great learn- 
ing, who had studied at Paris, Florence, and other places in 
Western Europe, came to Moscow by the desire of the 
Czar Vassili Ivanovich, in order to revise the corrupted text 
of the sacred books used in Muscovy [Russian Church], 
and to arrange the Greek manuscripts which were in the 
possession of the Czar. It is said that he was astonished at 
the value and rarity of some of those manuscripts. He 
made a complete catalogue of them, and presented to 
the Czar a list of those sacred works which had not yet 
been translated into the Slavonian tongue. The Czar com- 
missioned him to translate the commentaries on the Psalter, 
and gave him two translators and two copyists to assist him. 
After a labour of seventeen months, Maxim presented to the 
Czar his translation, which was received with much appro- 
bation by the metropolitan and all the clergy. He wished 
to return to his convent on Mount Athos, but he was per- 



suaded to remain at Moscow, in order to revise the text of 
the sacred books, which had been corrupted by ignorant 
copyists. He devoted nine years to that important labour, 
but the favour of the Czar and the reputation which he had 
acquired excited great jealousy, and created enemies, who 
accused him of falsely expounding the Scriptures. He was 
confined in a convent in 1525, where he died in 1536, and 
his pupils shared his fate. He was engaged till his death 
in the composition of theological, philosophical, and ethieal 
works; among others, he wrote in Slavonian a dissertation 
on the utility of grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy, which 
was an extraordinary performance at that time. 

A monk called George composed a Russian chronicle, 
which reaches to the year 1533. Two merchants, called 
Korobeinikoff and Grekof£ were sent in 1583 by the Czar 
Ivan Vassilevich to distribute alms in different holy places 
of the East for the soul of his son, whom the Czar had mur- 
dered in a fit of passion. They visited Constantinople, 
Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Mount Sinai, and some 
other places, and kept a diary of their journey, which has 
been printed. Prince Kurbski, descended from a branch 
of the Ruric, or reigning house of Muscovy, and related to 
the Czar Ivan Vassilevich the Terrible, was born in 1 529, 
and was one of his boyars and principal generals. He distin- 
guished himself at the capture of Kasan in 1553, and in 
several other campaigns; but in 1564 he was obliged to 
seek refuge from the tyranny of his monarch in Poland, 
where he was kindly received by king Sigismund Augus- 
tus, who granted him estates. In his exile he devoted him- 
self to literature and learnt Latin. He wrote the reign of 
the Czar Ivan Vassilevich, and the campaigns in which he 
himself had taken a part. This work is one of the most 
valuable contributions to the history of that period. He 
also wrote several letters to the Muscovite prince, upbraid- 
ing him for his tyranny, and proving by the Scriptures and 
the works of the antients that his conduct was very bad. 
Ivan Vassilevich answered all these letters, endeavouring to 
convince Kurbski, particularly by passages of Scripture, 
that it was he who was in the wrong, and that he had no 
right in any case to rebel against his sovereign. 

In the seventeenth century the following authors deserve 
notice : Abraham Palitzin, abbot of the celebrated convent 
of Troytza or Trinity, distinguished himself by his patriotism 
in the year 16-12, and left a description of the siege which 
the convent sustained against the Poles. Kubassov wrote 
a chronological universal history, beginning with the crea- 
tion of the world. Epiphanius Slavinetski, a native of 
Poland, after having studied at Kieff and other academies, 
adopted the monastic life in Kieff. He was called to Mos- 
cow in 1649, by a boyar of the name of Riishchef, in order to 
translate theological works from Greek into Slavonian, and 
he translated several of the works of St. John Chrysostomus, 
Gregory of Nazianzus, Hasilius the Great, and other fathers 
of the church, which were printed at Moscow in 1664-65. 
He also made a complete Greek-Slavono-Latin Dictionary 
in two volumes, and a Philological Lexicon, or a comparison 
of passages of the Greek fathers. He was commissioned 
in 1664 by the Patriarch and the Czar to make a new ver- 
sion of the Scriptures from the Greek into Slavonian, but 
he was prevented by death from accomplishing that im- 
portant work. Simeon of Polotsk, a native of that city in Po- 
land, studied in his native country and in some foreign uni- 
versities, and having become a monk, he went to Moscow in 
1667, where he was appointed by the Czar Alexey Michaelo- 
vich tutor to his son Fedor. He wrote many poems, which 
were much praised at the time, although they are no longer 
readable. He was also the first who introduced the practice 
of writing sermons for his congregation, which was already 
usual with the Greek clergy of Poland. It had hitherto 
been the custom in Muscovy only to read sermons selected 
from ecclesiastical authors and approved by the patriarch. 
Sylvester Medveyeff, a pupil of Simeon of Polotsk, and abbot 
of a convent at Moscow, wrote many polemical works ; but 
being suspected of a tendency to Romish doctrines, he was 
deprived of his clerical dignity, and confined in a convent; 
in 1691, being accused of participation in the revolt of the 
Strelitz, he was executed. He left several poems. Prince 
Shakhovski lived in the first part of the seventeenth century. 
Having fallen into disgrace with the Czar Michael Fedoro- 
vich, he was confined in a convent, where he composed 
epistles on religious subjects, of which the most remarkable 
is an Epistle on the orthodox faith to the highest Shah Ab- 
bas, king of Persia and Media, addressed \n the name of the 

P2 



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high archbishop and servant of God, the most holy Patri- 
arch Philaret Nikitch. In this epistle he expresses his 
thanks for a relic, a supposed fragment of the garment of 
Jesus Christ, sent by the Shah to the Czar, and exhorts him 
to embrace the Christian religion. 

The conquest of Siberia brought the court of Moscow in 
contact with China and some states of central Asia. An 
ambassador named Baykoff was sent to Pekin in 1654, and 
returned in 1658; he left a very curious description of his 
embassy, which has been translated into several foreign 
languages. A Cossack of Siberia named Petlin explored 
in 1620 the course of the river Oby, and wrote a description 
of his journey. 

The first attempts at dramatic representations appeared 
in Russia about the middle of the seventeenth century. 
They were introduced from Poland by the students of the 
ecclesiastical academy of Kieff, who were used to perform 

Slays on Scriptural subjects in Polish, Slavonian, and the 
ialect of Little Russia. They performed these plays dur- 
ing the vacation time in several towns of Russia, and they 
were finally introduced at Moscow by Simeon of Polotsk, 
whom we have mentioned. In 1676 German actors per- 
formed before the Czar Alexey plays taken from Scriptural 
history accompanied with ballets. The Princess Sophia, the 
eldest sister of Peter the Great, was very fond of theatrical 
amusements, and wrote several dramas, which she performed 
with her court. 

The Second Period of Russian Literature : from Peter 
the Great to the present time.— It is unnecessary to expa- 
tiate on the civilization which Peter the Great introduced 
into Russia. He established many primary schools in 
different parts of his dominions, and a military and naval 
school at St. Petersburg. He sent young Russians abroad 
to study the various sciences and arts ; he took into his 
service many foreigners of talent, collected books, cabinets 
of natural history, and got together philosophical instru- 
ments. A new alphabet, simplified from the old Slavonian, 
formed, as it is said, by himself, was introduced; but the 
language made no great progress from the state in which it 
had been during the preceding reign, and it was inundated 
with many foreign words introduced under Peter's reign, who 
showed perhaps too much predilection to everything foreign. 
Among the most remarkable authors of his time is Theo- 

Shan Prokopovich, archbishop of Novgorod, a native of 
lieff, but educated in Poland. He wrote many works on 
divinity, politics, and history, as well as sermons, orations, and 
some poetry. His works display considerable talent, not- 
withstanding their barbarous style. He also wrote in Latin, 
and his style in that language is much better than his Rus- 
sian. Stephen Javorski, metropolitan of Rezan, a native of 
Leopol in Poland, and Demetrius, metropolitan of Rostov, a 
native of the environs of Kieff, who was canonized after his 
death, wrote many works on theological subjects. Gabriel 
Bushinski, bishop of Rezan, translated some of the works 
of Puffendorf and other authors, relating to history and 
politics. Kopievich, a native of Lithuania, studied in 
Holland, and passed from the Greek persuasion to Pro- 
testantism. He became pastor at Amsterdam. Peter the 
Great, during his visit to that city having been acquainted 
with Kopievich, gave him a commission to compose school 
books and other useful works in the Russian language. 
Accordingly he wrote and translated many books on several 
literary and scientific subjects, which were printed at Am- 
sterdam. Prince Ch ilk off (died in 1718) wrote an abridged 
history of Russia, which was used in schools, but has since 
been superseded by other works. Great service was ren- 
dered to primary instruction by Ernest Gliick, a Lutheran 
clergyman of Livonia, who, being taken by the Russians, was 
employed by Peter the Great in establishing a school at 
Moscow for the children of burghers. He published many 
school-books, and among others, the 'Orbis Pictus* of 
Comenius. 

Peter's successor, Catherine I., founded the Academy of 
Sciences at St. Petersburg, which was projected by her pre- 
decessor. Its object was to prepare teachers for public 
schools, to publish useful works, and to collect all kinds of 
information about Russia. The imperial physician Blu- 
mentrost was appointed president; and many learned 
foreigners, as De Lille de la Croyere, Bernoulli, Bayer, and 
others, were nominated members. The academy established 
a high school for the formation of teachers, caused many 
scientific treatises to be written, aud promoted geographical 
discoveries* De Lille de la Croyere accompanied Behring on 



his expedition in the Pacific Ocean, and died from the hard- 
ships of the voyage. A great number of classical authors, 
Greek and Latin, were translated and published under the 
superintendence of the academy ; but these translations, 
being made in a language which was not yet formed, and 
published at a time when they could scarcely find any 
readers, did not contribute to the progress of literature, and 
they found few purchasers. The reign of the empress 
Anna was not favourable to the national literature. The 
court, which was governed by Biren, imitated everthing that 
was foreign, and showed the greatest contempt for all that 
was national. These circumstances had a very unfavour- 
able effect on the national language and literature, although 
Lomonossoff was preparing a salutary revolution towards 
the end of that reign. A favourable change took place 
under the empress Elizabeth, who was a great patroness of 
science and literature. The Academy of Sciences was en- 
larged by the addition of a section of arts, and its income 
increased in 1747, and in 1752 the University of Moscow 
was established on the proposition of Count ShoovalofF,* * 
distinguished patron of learning ; and it was by the exer- 
tions of the same nobleman that the Academy of Arts for 
painting, sculpture, and architecture was founded. Geo- 
graphical knowledge was also advanced by the discoveries 
which some Russian adventurers made in the Pacific. 

Among the principal authors of this period was Prince 
Antiochus Kantemir, son of the hospodar, or reigning 
prince of Moldavia, who removed to Russia with all his 
family during the expedition of Peter the Great into that 
principality. He was born at Constantinople in 1708, and 
was educated at Kharkoff and Moscow, under the Superin- 
tendence of a Greek clergyman, and also of his father, who 
was himself a learned man. Antiochus made such progress, 
that when he was only ten years old he wrote a Greek pane- 
gyric on St. Demetrius, which was read in a church. Ow- 
ing to his extraordinary talents and high rank he obtained 
rapid preferment. In 1731 he was nominated Russian 
minister at London, where he remained till 1738, in which 
year be was transferred in the same capacity to Paris, 
where he remained till his death in 1744. He wrote eight 
satires, which were published at St. Petersburg in 1762; 
but translated into French during the author's lifetime. His 
language and versification belong to the old school ; but in 
his satires he displays great power of observation, and such 
genuine wit, that they are still read with pleasure. He also left 
a translation of Horace's 'Epistles,' Fontenelle's dialogues 
on the ' Plurality of Worlds,' and a great many other trans- 
lations from the classics, as well as from French and Italian 
writers. Living in constant intercourse from 1731 to 1744 
with the first wits of London and Paris, Prince Kantemir's 
works contain ideas and opinions which belong more to 
those seats of European refinement than to Russia, and 
consequently he cannot be considered as truly national. 
Lomonossoff Trediakowski (Basil), born at Astrakhan in 
1703, studied at the university of Paris under Rollin, and 
travelled in many parts of Europe. In 1733 he was nomi- 
nated secretary of the academy of St. Petersburg ; and in 
1745 appointed by a ukase professor of eloquence: he died 
in 1769. Trediakowski possessed considerable learning, but 
more industry than talent He wrote several works on the 
principles of literary composition, and a great many poems; 
but his versification is cumbrous, and his language so little 
pleasing, that the empress Catherine II. enacted, in the 
humorous code which she made fa her own immediate 
society, that the transgressors of certain regulations should 
be condemned to read several pages of Trediakowski's poem 
'Telemachida,' which was a versified translation of Fenelon's 
'Telemachus.' He translated many foreign works, chiefly 
on history : as an instance of his indefatigable industry we 
may mention, that after having completed the trans- 
lation of Rollin's 'Antient History' in 26 volumes, the 
manuscript was destroyed by fire, upon which he again 
translated the 26 volumes, which were published at St. 
Petersburg (1744-67). Tatishcheff (Basil), born of an antient 
family in 1686, was one of those young men who were sent 
in 1709 for their education by Peter the Great to different 
parts of Europe. He acquired a good deal of scientific in- 
formation, and became thoroughly conversant with the 
German and Polish languages. On his return home he was 
employed in many offices of great importance. In 1724 he 
was sent on a secret mission to Sweden ; in 1 734 he was in- 

• Count 8hooT«k>ff ia known in French literature by hit * Epttre a Ninon** 
which was ascribed to Voltaire before the real authorial known. 



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rested with the supreme direction of the mines of Siberia ; 
and in 1740 he was appointed governor of Astrakhan. It 
was there that our countryman Jonas Han way, who speaks 
much of him, made his acquaintance. He died in 1 750. 
holding the rank of a privy councillor. During his travels in 
Russia he diligently collected all kinds of information 
relating to that country, and acquired a rich store of mate- 
rials for its history and geography. His principal work is a 
history of Russia, from the most antient times to the year 
1462. He spent thirty years on this work, which was writ- 
ten amidst his multifarious official avocations : it is, in fact, 
a comparative chronicle ; the author having procured several 
copies of different chronicles, compared them, and made a 
comment on them by extracts from various foreign authors 
which related to the same subject. The manuscript of this 
work was kept for some time in the archives. The empress 
Catherine II. ordered its publication, which was done under 
the care of Gerhard Miiller, in 1764-74. It is much to be re- 
gretted that the chronicles and other materials on which Ta- 
tishcheff founded his work were destroyed by fire. He occu- 
pied himself with the composition of a complete geography 
of Russia, and a map of Siberia was made by his exertions, 
and published by the Academy of Sciences, in 1745, in 20 
sheets. He also wrote an 'Historical and Political Lexicon 
of Russia,' which he completed to the letter L, and which was 
published in 1793. 

Stephen Krashennikoff, professor of botany to the Aca- 
demy of Sciences (1713-1755), became known all through 
Europe by his 'Description of Kamtchatka,' which was pub- 
lished a/ St. Petersburg in 1755. He was sent by the 
academy, with S teller, to examine this country, where he 
remained for many years, collecting the information which 
enabled him to produce a work of considerable merit, and 
which was translated into several languages. 

The creation of a national drama in Russia dates from 
this reign. This honour belongs to Alexander Soomaro- 
koff (1718-1777). He was educated partly in the house of 
his father, who was a general officer, and partly in the mili- 
tary school of St. Petersburg. The study of Corneille, 
Racine, and other French dramatic writers, awakened his 
talents, and he began to write tragedies about the year 
1740, which were performed by the pupils of the military 
school, in the presence of the empress Elizabeth, who in 
1756 nominated the author director of the court theatre. 
Soomarokoff wrote many tragedies, the best of which is 'The 
False Demetrius,' Which has been translated into French and 
English, and also several comedies and operas. He was 
also the author of various minor poems, and numerous 
essays and dissertations in prose, on various subjects. Soo- 
marokoff enjoyed during his lifetime, and some time after- 
wards, a great reputation, which has however declined, and 
his works are now little read. His dramatic productions 
are all imitations of the French school, and notwithstanding 
they display considerable talent, they are characterised by 
great affectation, and his heroes and heroines are never true 
to nature. His language also is now become obsolete. 

Dramatic art in Russia begins with Volkoff, the son of a 
merchant of Kostroma, who learned German, painting, and 
music at Moscow. He established, with some other young 
men, a little theatre at Yaroslav, where they performed the 
dramas of Demetrius, bishop of Rostov. At St. Petersburg 
he saw the performances at the Italian court theatre, and 
he diligently studied its organisation. Having thus im- 
proved his knowledge of the dramatic art, he returned to 
Yaroslav, where, with the assistance of some friends, he 
established a theatre, which contained a thousand spec- 
tators, and of which he was not only director and first per- 
former, but also machinist and painter. Several young 
men of talent, as Popoff Dmitresski and others, joined 
Volkoff, whose reputation reached the court at St. Peters- 
burg, where the plays of Soomarokoff were performed by 
the pupils of the military school He was invited to court 
in 1752, and in 1756 an imperial ukase established a Rus- 
sian theatre, of which Soomarokoff was appointed director, 
and Volkoff the first actor. He died in the prime of life, in 
1763, but the pupils whom be had formed greatly contri- 
buted to the improvement of the national drama, Periodi- 
cal literature also originated under the same reign. The first 
literary journal, which was entitled 'The Monthly Magazine 
for Utility and Amusement,' was edited by Gerhard Miiller, 
and all the Russian authors of that time were contributors. 
In 1759 appeared the ' Industrious Bee,' edited by Sooma- 
rokoff^ 



The reign of Catherine II. was favourable to the civilisa- 
tion of Russia in many respects. Ambitious of every kind 
of distinction, she courted the applause of Voltaire and other 
French philosophers of that school, and these dispensers of 
reputation extolled the liberal and enlightened sentiments 
of that princess, notwithstanding her share in the destruc- 
tion of Poland, and her continual invasions of the Turkish 
dominions, which were hailed by the same adulatory phi- 
losophers as so many steps towards the progress of tho 
civilization of mankind ; yet although the execution of Ca- 
therine's political schemes of aggrandizement was often, 
stained by great atrocities, Russia is much indebted to her 
for encouraging literature and learning. The military and 
naval schools were enlarged and improved. A mining 
school was established in 1772, and it is still one of the 
best educational institutions in Russia. The University 
of Moscow and the Academy of Arts were enriched and 
enlarged. Sevoral of the most distinguished members of 
the Academy of Sciences, as Pallas, Georgi, Richkoff, and 
others, were commissioned to undertake scientific travels in 
various parts of the Russian empire, and their researches 
contributed not only to extend the knowledge of that 
country, but also to the progress of science in general. A 
Russian Academy which bad for its object the improvement 
of the Russian language was established on the plan of the 
French Academy, and it published a dictionary of the Russian 
language, a grammar, and other useful works of a similar 
description. The Society of the Friends of National Litera- 
ture and History, established in connection with the uni- 
versity of Moscow, did great service. A commission for 
the organization of public schools was appointed, and it 
founded a seminary for teachers at St. Petersburg, one high 
school and twelve preparatory schools, and published under 
its superintendence many school-books. New schools, high 
as well as primary, were opened in several towns of the 
empire. Institutions for the education of the females of 
noble and burgher families were founded at St. Petersburg, 
where a number of pupils are maintained and educated free 
of expense, while others are admitted on the payment of a 
moderate sum. There were also established an agricultural 
society, a surgical school, and other useful institutions. 

The Russian language, which is chiefly indebted to Soo- 
marokoff for its improvement, was greatly enriched in this 
reign by the creation of new words from Slavonian roots,, 
which were substituted for other words of a foreign origin; 
many new scientific terms also were introduced. Its 
grammatical construction was better developed, the versi- 
fication was rendered more harmonious, and the style in 
general greatly improved by being purified from foreign 
expressions and idioms, which abound in the works of 
the authors belonging to the preceding period. Many- 
literary periodicals were started, and some of them were 
continued with considerable success. The censorship of 
the press was remarkably liberal, and it seems indeed that 
Catherine, intoxicated with the flatteries of the French, 
philosophers, entirely overlooked the tendency of their 
works, which were dangerous to such a government as hers- 
Many political works, such as those of Montesquieu, De- 
lolme, Hume, Robertson, and Rousseau's ' Contrat Social," 
were translated into Russian, and printed. This liberality- 
was also extended to many productions of an immoral and 
irreligious tendency, and several works of this description* 
by Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, and others, were published 
in Russia. The effect of such works, in such a state of 
society as that of Russia, could not be very salutary. 

Michael Kheraskoff ( 1733- 1807), curator or supreme direc- 
tor of the university of Moscow, wrote the ' Rossiad,' an epic 
poem in twelve cantos, which describes the conquest of Ka* 
zan ; and * Vladimir, or the establishment of the Christian re- 
ligion, ■ also an epic poem, in eighteen cantos. These two pro- 
ductions are considered bis best, although they are far from 
having any real claim to the name of epic. His other poems 
are, 'The Pilgrims,' in six cantos, a production which displays 
much entertaining variety, and is written in various metres ; 
•The Fruits of Science,' a didactic poem; ' The Universe ;'and 
4 The Battle of Chesme,' &c. Kheraskoff also wrote several 
novels, the subjects of which were taken from Greek and 
Roman history, and some dramas. The number of his pro- 
ductions, which is more than twenty, attests his great industry, 
and they show that he had considerable information ; but the 
same praise cannot be extended to his poetical and creative 
talents. Basilius Petroff (1736-1799) was the son of a clergy- 
man, and was educated in the ecclesiastical academy of 



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Moscow. He attracted the notice of Catherine II. by an 
ode on her coronation in 1763, and was appointed a trans- 
lator of the imperial cabinet, and reader to the empress. 
He afterwards visited England, where he resided for some 
time, and after having travelled in other countries, he re- 
turned to St. Petersburg, where he was appointed librarian 
to the empress. The delicate state of his health compelled 
him, however, to abandon a career in which he might have 
expected rapid preferment, and he retired in 1 780 into the 
country, where he devoted himself to literary pursuits and 
agriculture, visiting Moscow every winter, for the sake of 
the library. As one instance of his industry, we may men- 
tion that ne learned modem Greek at the age of sixty. A 
complete edition of his works, in three volumes, was pub- 
lished at St. Petersburg in 1811 : they consist of odes 
written on several solemn occasions, and epistles addressed 
to different persons. He also made a metrical version of 
the • iEneid,' which was published in 1781-86. PetrofFs 
poems are characterised by genuine animation and energy 
of thought, expressed in a concise and powerful manner, 
and he would have equalled Lomonossoff if his style had 
not been so rough ; though some of his odes are free from 
that reproach, and are written in flowing and harmonious 
verses. 

Hippolyte Bogdanovich (1743-1803) was born in the 
Ukraine, and educated in a school at St. Petersburg. In 
his fifteenth year, by frequenting the theatre and reading 
plays, he became so enamoured of the dramatic art, that he ad- 
dressed himself to Kherashoff,who at that time superintended 
the theatre of Moscow, and requested to be received as an 
actor. Kherashoff, who was struck with the talents of the 
boy, dissuaded him from this design, and taking him into 
his house, made him continue his studies at the university 
of Moscow, where he made rapid progress. He was after- 
wards employed in the foreign department, and was secre- 
tary of the Russian embassy at Dresden (1766-68). After 
his return to St. Petersburg, he continued in the civil 
service till 1795, when he settled in the country. Bogda- 
novich began to write poetry when he was seventeen, and 
when he was twenty he edited a literary periodical called 
the * Innocent Amusement:' he displayed considerable ta- 
lent in several minor poems, particularly by a very successful 
translation of Voltaire's € Ode on the Destruction of Lisbon.' 
His poetical fame was established by his * Dooshinka,' or 
•Little Soul,' an exceedingly successful translation of La 
Fontaine's * Psyche.' This poem, which not only equals,^ 
but in some respects surpasses the original, is still one of 
the most popular productions of Russian literature. 

Gabriel Derjavin (1 745- 181 6) was born at Kazan, and be- 
longed to a family of Tartar origin, as appears from his fre- 
quent allusions to such a descent. He was educated in the 
military school of the engineers, and served in the army till 
1779, when he passed into the civil service. He was gover- 
nor of Olonetz and then of Tambov (1784-1791), and after- 
wards successively secretary of state, president of the col- 
lege of commerce, treasurer of the empire, and finally mi- 
nister of justice. In 1 803 he left the public service, and 
lived till his death chiefly on his estate of Zvanka, in the 
government of Novgorod. Derjavin is undoubtedly the first 
Russian lyric poet, a distinction which he has earned by the 
boldness of his imagery, the harmonious flow of his versifica- 
tion, and the happy turns of his expressions. He created 
many new words, and restored several that were either obso- 
lete or considered as unsuitable to a higher style; but 
although these innovations proved very successful with Der- 
javin, they produced a contrary effect with his imitators. 
The faults of his style are frequent inequalities : a sublime 
passage is followed by lines of a very inferior description, 
and his imagination hurried him away to the neglect of the 
rules of art and good taste. Although he flattered the mo- 
narch in his poems, many of them contain very bold truths. 
The most remarkable productions of Derjavin arc his 'Ode 
to God/ which was translated into several languages ; ' To 
Felitza,' a name under which he addressed Catherine ; ' On 
the Death of Prince Meshcherski ;' * The Cataract ;' 'The 
Autumn,' &c. ; and a great number of Anacreontics. He 
wrote also several prose works, but none of them equal his 
poetical productions. Several of his poems have been 
translated into English by Dr. Bowring, in his ' Russian 
Anthology.' 

Basilius Kapnist was born in the Ukraine, of a distin- 
guished family of that province, where he possessed large 
estates. He received an excellent education, and wrote 



several compositions of considerable merit when he was 
very young. The Ukraine, which after its separation from 
Poland had submitted to Russia, on condition that she 
should preserve all her privileges, which constituted a kind 
of self-government under the protection of Russia, gradually 
lost those rights, and was finally converted by Catherine 
into a Russian province. On that occasion Kapnist wrote 
an elegy, entitled ' Slavery,' in which he paints in animated 
colours the calamities resulting from the loss of liberty. He 
wrote a great number of poems, but his reputation was es- 
tablished by his comedy entitled ' Yabedniki,' that is, the 
Chicaneries of Law. In 1823 Kapnist died, at a very ad- 
vanced age, on his estate in the government of Pultava. Kos- 
troff (died in 1796) translated the 'Iliad,' from the original 
Greek ; the * Golden Ass ' of Apuleius ; and the Poems of 
Ossian. He also made some other translations from the 
French. Bobroff (died in 1810) became chiefly known by 
his 'Khersonide, or a Summer Day in the Crimea,' which 
has been translated into English by Dr. Bowring. His 
poetic style, formed chiefly from a deep study of the best 
English authors, has much feeling and animation, but he is 
frequently obscure, and sometimes degenerates into bom- 
bast. Neledinski Meletzki is the author of songs and 
romances, which are characterised by much tenderness and 
feeling; they are set to music, and are very popular among 
the ladies of Russia. Barkoff (died in 1768) translated the 
' Epistles' of Horace, the ' Fables' of Phcedrus, and many 
other works. He became universally known by his witty 
poems, which however are disfigured by extreme licentious- 
ness. Prince Dolgoruki wrote epistles and other poems, in 
a popular style, on philosophical and moral subjecfs. His 
works have gone through several editions, the last of which 
is that of 1819. Chemnitzer was born at Moscow, of Ger- 
man parents, in 1744. He died in 1784, as Russian con- 
sul at Smyrna. He wrote fables, which, owing to their great 
simplicity and natural ease, have acquired a merited popu- 
larity, and continue to be read. Dramatic literature was 
cultivated chiefly by James Kniaj nin ( 1 7 42-9 1 ). His talents 
were formed under the direction and patronage of Sooma- 
rokoff, whose daughter he had married. Kniajnin wrote 
tragedies, comedies, and operas, besides odes, fables, and 
other minor poems. His principal productions are — * The 
Clemency of Titus,* « Dido, • Sophonisba,' • Roslaf,' « Vladi- 
mirk,' and 'Yaropolt,' &c. Some of them are original; 
others translations or imitations from foreign authors, par- 
ticularly from Metastasio. His comedies are — c The Boaster/ 
' The Odd Fellows,' &c. ; his operas, ' Misfortune from a 
Coach,' ' The Vender of Sbiten * (a national beverage), • The 
Miser,' &c. His style is purer and more elevated than that 
of Soomarokoff, but it is often constrained, and he offends 
by a continual attempt to be sublime, which frequently de- 
generates into bombast. Like Soomarokoff, he is also a 
servile imitator of the French dramatic school. Some of 
his comedies, and particularly 'The Boaster,' and 'The Odd 
Fellows,' are clever. They were however surpassed by those 
of Von Visin, who was born at Moscow in 1 745. He studied 
at the university of his native town, and travelled iu several 

Sarts of Europe. His comedy of ' Niedorosl,' that is, the 
linor, or the Spoiled Child, is an admirable picture of 
Russian manners in the eighteenth century, and although 
those manners are fast disappearing, it is still a very popular 
play. His other comedy of the same kind, entitled * The 
Brigadier,' is also a clever performance. Von Visin trans- 
lated into verse Voltaire's 'Alzire* and Bitaube's poem of 
1 Joseph.' He also wrote a poetical enistle, addressed to his 
servants, of a satirical description, which is very popular : 
it contains some ideas evidently borrowed from the French 
philosophy of his time, which the author is said to have 
afterwards much regretted, on account of the mischief which 
they might produce by their irreligious tendency. He also 
published many translations and original compositions, which 
are now forgotten. He died in 1792. 

The study of national history was much advanced d urine 
this period by the learned researches of foreigners as well 
as natives. The learned Schlozer, who came to Russia in 
1761, was nominated (1765) professor of history at the Aca- 
demy of St. Petersburg. He remained there till 1769, when 
he was appointed professor at Gottingen. During his resi- 
dence in Russia he learned the Russian language, and pub- 
lished some works relating to the history of tnat country. He 
continued his researches on that subject at Gottingen. John 
Stritter, born in 1740, at Stettin in Poxnerania, died in 1801, at 
Moscow. By order of t he Academy of Sciences, he collected 



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according to the plan of Schlozer, from the Byzantine au- 
thors, the accounts of the different nations which are con- 
nected with the history of Russia: they were published in 
Latin, under the title of' Memoriae Populorum olim ad Danu- 
binra, Pontum Euxinuru, Paludera Maeotidem, Caucasum, 
Mare Caspium, et inde magis ad Septentrionem lncolentium, 
& Scriptoribus Historia) Byzantiuso erutae et digest ee/ 4 vols, 
large 4to., St. Petersburg, 1771-80, at the expense of the 
Academy of Sciences. This valuable collection of historical 
materials was well received by the learned in Europe, and was 
made use of by Gibbon in his great work. An abridge- 
ment of it, made by the author himself, in Latin, was trans- 
lated into Russian by Svietoff, and published at St. Peters- 
burg (1770-75) in 4 vols. 8vo. Stritter also wrote in Russian 
a ' History of Russia,* which reached only to the year 1464, 
and was printed in 3 vols, at St. Petersburg (1800-3), and 
some historical dissertations also in Russian. Prince Mi- 
chael Shcherbatoff (born in 1733, died in 1790) from his 
youth evinced great zeal for the study of national history, 
and diligently collected materials relating to that subject. 
The empress Catherine commissioned him to arrange the 
archives of the cabinet of Peter the Great, and granted him 
free access to all the libraries and records of the state. He 
was thus enabled to prosecute his researches for a history of 
Russia, which appeared in 13 vols. (1770-92), but which 
reaches only to the reign of the Czar Michael Federovtch. 
It is written in a heavy style, without criticism, and is full of 
blunders. Many of his errors were pointed out in Boltin's 
remarks on Lubeos ' History of Russia,' which led to a very 
angry literary quarrel between Shcherbatoff and Boltin. 
He was also the author of the following works : ' On the 
Antient Gradation of Ranks in Russia, Moscow, 1784; 
and an ' Historical Account of the Origin of the Russian 
Princes who are descended from Rune.' He also edited 
many important historical documents, such as the * Diary 
of Peter the Great.' Boltin (1735-91) contributed by his 
critical writings to the elucidation of many obscure parts 
of antient Russian history, although his own writings were 
not free from error, as was proved by Shcherbatoff. He 
left in manuscript several historical and philological works, 
and a translation of the French Encyclopaedia to the letter 
K. Golikoff ( 1 735-180 1 ) was a merchant, but occupied him- 
self in his leisure hours with literature and history, and 
particularly with the history of Peter the Great. Being 
engaged with a cousin in the farming of the government 
revenue from the sale of ardent spirits, he was guilty of 
some irregularities, tor which he was condemned to be im- 
prisoned for life. He was however pardoned in consequence 
of an amnesty granted in 1 782, on the occasion of the in- 
stallation of the monument of Peter the Great. Golikoff 
went from his prison straight to the church to thank God 
for his deliverance, and then to the monument, before which 
he made a solemn vow to devote the remainder of his life to 
•the glory of the monarch to whom it was erected. He kept 
his vow, and diligently collected all that was written about 
Peter the Great in every language, and as he did not under- 
stand any foreign tongue, he got translations made at his 
own expense. He also visited all the towns where Peter 
had resided, and collected all the traditions relating to him. 
Catherine, being informed of his exertions, gave him free 
access to all the public records. The result of his labours 
was a work entitled ' Deeds of Peter the Great,' in 1 2 vols., 
Moscow, 1788-90; and a continuation of that work in 18 
vols., completed in 1 798, under the title of ' Supplement to 
the Deeds of Peter the Great.' He also wrote anecdotes of 
Peter the Great and the Lives of Lefort and Gordon. These 
works, although written without any criticism, contain very 
valuable materials for the history of Peter the Great. 
Nicholas Novikoff (1744-1818) has done perhaps more than 
any other individual in Russia for the diffusion of litera- 
ture. He edited several periodicals devoted to literature 
and education, and he collected numerous historical docu- 
ments, such as relations *f Russian ambassadors sent 
abroad, official instructions given to government agents, 
reports of governors of provinces, diaries of private persons, 
&c, which he published under the title of the 4 Antient 
Russian Bibliotheca,' St Petersburg, 10 vols., 1770-75 ; and 
its continuation in 9 vols., 1786-93. Novikoff established a 
society for publishing useful books at a cheap rate: he 
hired the printing-office of the university of Moscow, and 
introduced into it many improvements. He had foreign 
works translated into Russian, established booksellers' shops 
in provincial towns, and the first circulating library in 



Russia. These efforts to enlighten his countrymen awakened 
the suspicion of the government, which, being afraid of the 
French revolution, became much less liberal in its views 
than it had been before that event, and Novikotf, being ac- 
cused of promoting the principles of that revolution, was 
subjected to a severe persecution. His innocence was how- 
ever recognised under the emperor Paul, who generously 
rewarded Novikoff for his sufferings. Sergius Pleshcheyeff 
(1752-1802) was educated in England, and served in 
the Russian fleet during the campaign against the Turks 
in 1770 and the following years ; passed into the civil ser- 
vice, and rose to the rank of a privy-councillor. Pleshcheyeff 
wrote the first statistical account of Russia, which was pub- 
lished in 1790, and translated into several languages; and 
the * Diary of a Naval Expedition to Syria,' which was sent 
to assist, against the Turks, the celebrated Ali Bey, who had 
usurped the government of Egypt. Two French authors have 
written on the history of Russia, Levesque and Leclerc, both 
of whom resided in Russia and were conversant with the 
language, but their works belong rather to French than 
Russian literature. 

The mathematical sciences and natural philosophy were 
cultivated with considerable success by several members of 
the Academy of Sciences. Roomovski, born in 1734, of 
poor parents, learnt mathematics under Euler. He was 
sent to Selengbinsk (on the frontiers of China) to observe 
the passage of Venus over the sun's disk, and afterwards 
made a journey for a similar purpose to Kola in Lapland. 
He was appointed professor of astronomy to the Academy 
of Sciences, and successively honoured with other duties 
connected with public education. Finally he was created 
in 1803 curator or supreme director of the university of 
Kazan. He died in 1812. Roomovski was the first who 
wrote a mathematical school-book in Russian, which ap- 
peared in 1760; and he also published translations of 
Euler's letters on different philosophical subjects, and of 
the ' Annals' of Tacitus. John Lepechin ( 1 739-1802) studied 
at St. Petersburg and afterwards at Strasburg, where he 
took the degree of doctor of medicine. He undertook 
scientific journeys in several provinces of the Russian em- 
pire. His principal work is ' Diary of my Voyage in several 
Provinces of Russia,' St. Petersburg, 1771-80. He also 
wrote some minor works on subjects of medicine and rural 
economy. Nicholas Richkoff (died in 1780) published a 
1 Diary of Travels in different parts of Russia,' chiefly 
Asiatic, in the years 1768-71, 3 vols., St. Petersburg, 1772. 
Oseretzkovski published 'Travels on the Lakes of Ladoga 
and Onega,' and some other minor works. There were 
also many learned foreigners employed by the government 
in scientific travels in Russia. 

The eloquence of the pulpit was chiefly cultivated during 
this reign by Platon Lefshin, metropolitan of Moscow ( 1 737- 
1812). This learned prelate wrote many sermons, several 
theological works, and an abridged history of the Russian 
church. Athanasius, archbishop of Astrakhan, and John 
Lev and a, Archiyerey of Kieff, were distinguished as writers 
of sermons. The national theatre received a new impulse. 
It was rendered a public amusement to which every one 
had admission by paying, whilst formerly it had been ex- 
clusively reserved for the court and the upper classes, who 
received free admission to places, distributed according to 
their respective ranks. A great number of periodicals ap- 
peared during the same period. 

The reign of the emperor Paul was distinguished by the 
foundation of the university of Dorpat, and the agricultural 
school, the school for military orphans, the institute of the 
order of St. Catherine for the education of girls, and the plac- 
ing of all the female educational institutions under the su- 
perintendence of the empress Maria, under whose care they 
remained till her death, and acquired a high degree of 
prosperity. The emperor Alexander gave a great impulse 
to the literature, learning, and public education of his 
country. By his order a new ministry of public education 
was established in 1802, and intrusted with the supreme 
direction of all the educational institutions in Russia, with 
the exception of the ecclesiastical, military, naval, and min- 
ing schools. Immediately after its establishment this 
ministry formed a general plan of public education for Rus- 
sia, which was approved by the emperor. In consequence 
of that plan all the Russian dominions were divided into 
the six following educational districts, viz.: 1, Moscow; 
2, St. Petersburg ; 3, Vilna ; 4, Dorpat; 5, Kazan; 6, 
Kharkoff* each of these districts had a university, and con- 



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sequently two now ones, those of Kharkoff and Kazan, were 
established in 1804-5. The universities were intrusted with 
the organization and direction of all the schools in their 
respective districts. A gymnasium, or higher school pre- 
paratory for the university, was established in every govern- 
ment ; and a school preparatory to the gymnasium, in every 
circle, besides many primary or parochial schools. The 
instruction in the university of Dorpat and its department 
is given in German, which is the official language of the 
Baltic provinces comprehended in that department Polish 
was left to the university of Vilna and its department, which 
extended over all the provinces dismembered from Poland. 

Besides the schools established in consequence of the 
general plan of public education, many other important 
institutions of that kind were founded in several parts of 
Russia; such as the Lyceum atTzarskoye Selo, in 1811, 
which has produced several distinguished authors of the 
present day; the Lycee Richelieu, at Odessa, in 1817; the 
gymnasium of Yaroslaf, founded by Demidoff in 1805 ; the 
Lyceum of Krzemieniec in Volhynia ; and some commercial 
schools, &c. A great number of learned and literary 
societies were also established in the capitals and other 
towns of Russia. 

The Russian language, which had made great pro- 
gress in the last ten years of the eighteenth century, 
attained under this reign a high degree of perfection. Its 
prose was chiefly formed by the writings of Karamsin, who 
negan to replace the Latin and German construction into 
which the Russian authors had generally forced their na- 
tional language, by periods approaching more to the French. 
But although his style is far more easy and agreeable than 
that of his predecessors, it often contains foreign turns, and 
the style of the school of imitators which he created was 
corrupted by so many Gallicisms, that it frequently appeared 
to be French written with Russian words. A reaction was 
produced, chiefly by the work of Admiral Shishkoff, on the 
antient and modern Russian style, in which he violently 
attacked those absurd innovations ; but although there is 
much sound criticism in his observations, his zeal for the 

5urity of the national language is sometimes extravagant 
'his work, which caused a great sensation, created two 
opposite parties in Russian literature— that of Moscow, 
which consisted of Karam sin's imitators, and that of St. 
Petersburg, which adhered to the ideas of Sbishkoff, and the 
animated contest which has been carried on between 
them has greatly contributed to the improvement of 
the Russian style. The school of Karamsin became 
purified from its foreign idioms ; and even the style of its 
founder, in his great work the • History of Russia,' is far 
superior to his early productions. The labours of the Rus- 
sian Academy, which was re-organized in 1816, have also 
tended to improve the language, the rules of which are de- 
termined by the grammar of that Academy, published for 
the last time in 1802. The imperial manifestoes and 
other public documents of importance issued since the 
accession of the emperor Alexander are written in a very 
good style. 

John Dmitrieff (born in 1760) has done almost as 
much for Russian poetry as Karamsin did for prose. Dmi- 
trieff began at an early age to write poems, several of which 
were primed in the * Literary Journal of Moscow/ 1792 and 
1793. His works, consisting of odes, epistles, satires, tales, 
epigrams, &c, have gone through several editions; they 
are written with great ease and elegance, are full of genuine 
wit, fine feeling, and good sense expressed in a very happy 
manner. His life was spent in public service, and he was 
minister of justice under the emperor Alexander. 

Vladislaf Oseroff, a general officer (1770-1816), created by 
his tragedies a newssra in the dramatic literature of Russia, 
and threw into the shade all the dramatists who preceded 
him. Yet although his productions rise immeasurably above 
those of Soomarokoff and Kniajnin in artistic skill, anima- 
tion and truth, and situations of high tragical interest, his 
versification is far from being perfect; it wants ease and 
harmony, and the structure is too artificial. Oseroff is still 
the first tragic writer in Russia, and a contemporary writer 
said that tragedy was born and died in Russia with Oseroff: 
his chief productions are — • CBdipus in Athens,' ' Deme- 
trius Donskoy,' and • Polyxena.' 

John Kriloff (born in 1768), librarian of the Imperial 
library at St Petersburg, is the author of several success- 
ful comedies, but his literary reputation rests on his fables, 
which rival those of La Fontaine, and display all the • bon* 



hommie'of the French fabulist. They have passed through 
several editions, and a splendid edition, with a French 
and Italian translation, was published by Count Orion; 
at Paris, in 1825. 

Nicholas Gnedich (born in 1784) is the author of a very 
successful translation, in hexameter verse, of the * IliadV 
He also translated several tragedies from modern authors, 
of which Shakespere's 'King Lear 'is the most remark- 
able. 

Prince Peter Viazemski (born in 1792) occupies a distin- 
guished place among Russian authors by his epistles 
and satirical poems, which are written in elegant verse, 
and display much imagination and true feeling. The few 
literary essays which he wrote in prose are among the best 
in the Russian literature. Viazemski lived for some time 
at Warsaw as a Russian employe. He became intimate 
with the first literary persons of Poland, and in conjunction 
with several of them formed a plan for establishing a connec- 
tion between the Polish and Russian literature by means of 
reciprocal translations. Circumstances however prevented 
the execution of this project 

Prince Alexander Shakhovskoy(born in 1771) made me- 
trical versions of several tragedies from the French, and 
wrote, both in verse and prose, a great number of comedies 
and vaudevilles, many of which are very popular. 

Alexander Pushkin is undoubtedly the first poet o* 
Russia: his character has been given in another place. 
[Pushkin.] 

Pushkin was, on his mother's side, grandson of a black 
called Annibal, who was the son of a groom of Peter the 
Great, and rose in the Russian service to the rank of a 
lieutenant-general of engineers. Pushkin, who, with a 
white complexion, had the features of a negro, was proud of 
his African origin, and frequently made allusion to it in his 
poems. 

Basilius Jookowski (born in 1783) was educated at Mos- 
cow. He was employed in a department of the civil ser- 
vice, but in 1812 he entered the army as a volunteer. He 
was afterwards appointed professor of Russian literature at 
the university of Dorpat ; then nominated teacher of the 
Russian language to the grand-duchess, the present em- 
press ; poet-laureate, and finally tutor to the grand-duke 
Alexander, crown-prince of Russia, His poetical reputa- 
tion was established chiefly by a very successful imitation 
of the German ballad of Leonora,' by Burger. He trans- 
lated with equal success several poems from the German, 
French, and English, and among them Gray's ' Elegy in 
a Country Churchyard,' Schiller's 'Jeanne d'Arc,' and 
Byron's ' Prisoner of Chillon.' His original poem, the 
1 Sard in the Camp of the Russian Warriors,' which he 
wrote during the campaign of 1812, amidst the turmoil of 
warfare, presents an animated picture of the life of a camp, 
and contains some passages of wild and original poetry. 
Jookowski has also earned the reputation of being one of the 
best Russian prose writers by his tale called the ' Wood of 
Mary,' and his translation of ' Don Quixote.' As a translator 
Jookowski is unrivalled : he adapts his style to that of the 
original in such a manner that each' of his translations ap- 
pears to have been made by a different person. Notwith- 
standing the favours of the court, which had been poured 
upon him, Jookowski preserved great simplicity of man- 
ners, and that kindness of heart which induced bis friends, 
before he bad become the favourite of fortune, to inscribe 
under his portrait the following line of Gray — 

' He gave to misery all he hod— a tear,' 

taken from his own translation of the poem. 

Constantine Batiooshkoff, born at Vologda in 1 787, was edu- 
cated in a private school at St. Petersburg, and served in the 
army in 1806-9. The severe wounds which he had received in- 
duced him to leave the service after the peace with Sweden in 
1809 ; but he re-entered the army in 1812, and left it again 
in 1816. He was employed in 1818 at the Russian embassy 
at Naples. Soon afterwards fee was attacked by a fit of 
melancholy, which baffled all medical skill : he tried in vain 
to counterbalance the effects of the malady by study and 
literary occupation. When he returned to St. Petersburg, 
his friends endeavoured to surprise him, by singing one of 
his finest compositions, accompanied by the harp. This 
produced a powerful effect on Batiooshkoff, but the contrary 
of that which was expected ; for his mind, instead of re- 
covering, was completely destroyed. In 1836 he was still 
alive, but in a state of insanity. Batiooshkoff 's talent was 
formed chiefly by the literature of Italy, which he studied 



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and imitated from his early youth. His poetry is distin- 
guished by the great finish of his verses and their harmony, 
which sometimes remind one of the Italian language. 
No Russian author has shown so much delicacy, precision, 
and expressiveness of language as Batiooshkoff, both in 
poetry and in prose. His chief productions are: — 'The 
Dying Tasso,' an elegy, which may be considered the most 
classical production in the Russian language, by the depth 
and truth of feeling, and the eminent art of the composi- 
tion. All his poetical productions have an elegiac charac- 
ter. He did not compose much ; the best of his writings, 
besides that which we have mentioned, are the * Russian 
Captive,' and the • Phantom,' imitated from the French of 
Parny. His prose writings, on different literary subjects, 
are marked by talent and a moral tendency. 

John Kosloff. born in 1780, received a good education, 
and spent a great part of his life among the fashionable 
circles of Moscow and St. Petersburg: when about forty 
years of age a severe illness deprived him of the use of his 
legs, and his consequent retirement from the world directed 
his mind to literary occupations and developed his talents. 
Kosloffwas already thoroughly acquainted with the languages 
and literature of France and Italy, and he now devoted him- 
self to the study of English literature. He was doomed to a 
still severer trial by the loss of his sight. Yet this accumu- 
lation of misfortune broke not his spirit, but rather deve- 
loped his poetical genius. He learnt German, notwith- 
standing his blindness, in a very short time. His memory 
was so powerful that he retained all that he ever read ; and 
he translated Byron's ' Bride of Abydos' from memory. He 
composed and translated many small poems, which are cha- 
racterised by an extraordinary harmony of versification : the 
most remarkable are ' The Monk' and ' The Venetian Night.' 
Alexander Voyeykoft', born in 1773, translated Virgil, 
and several poems of De Lille, and wrote a descriptive poem 
entitled * Arts and Sciences,' as well as satires, epistles, and 
other minor poems. He is also known as one of the first 
literary critics in Russia. 

Dionysius Davidoff, a general oflicer of cavalry, who distin- 
guished himself in the partisan or guerilla warfare during 
the campaigns of 1812-14, is the author of many fine poems, 
which being generally written in the midst of the occupation 
of war, have something inimitably wild and original. Baron 
Delvig died very young, but left some beautiful songs, and 
the first attempt towards a history of the arts in Russia. 
Anna Bunin, born in 1774, in the government of Rezan, 
received a scanty education, but a natural love for literature 
overcame all the difficulties of her situation. She was 27 
years old when she came to St. Petersburg, where she be- 
gan diligently to study French, German, and English, as 
well as mathematics and Russian literature. She soon ex- 
pended her little means of subsistence; but her first poetical 
essays, entitled *The Inexperienced Muse,' were favourably 
received by the empress Elizabeth, the wife of Alexander, 
who granted her a small pension ; and the poems which she 
published subsequently obtained such success as to give her 
competence and reputation. She had the misfortune to be 
attacked by cancer, which resisted the skill of the best phy- 
sicians. Supported by the bounty of the emperor Alex- 
ander, she came in 1815 to England for medical advice, but 
without deriving any benefit from it. She returned, after a 
residence of two years in England, to St. Petersburg, where 
she continued to linger till death released her from her 
sufferings, which had lasted seventeen years. Although she 
was prevented by illness from actively pursuing her literary 
occupations, she translated twenty cf Blair's 'Sermons.' 

Among the remaining poets of the present period we may 
mention Panayeff, author of eclogues ; Krukofski, author of 
some tragedies ; Raich ; Katenin ; and Viskovatoff, the trans- 
lator of several foreign poems. We shall conclude with 
one who became celebrated by his talents, his daring spirit, 
and his tragical end. 

Riley eff acquired great celebrity in Russia and abroad 
as the chief promoter of the conspiracy against the present 
form of government in Russia, which ended in a fruitless 
attempt on the accession of the present emperor, in the be- 
ginning of the year 1826. Rileyeff was first known by 
translating from the Polish some of the historical ballads 
of Niemcewicz. and he also wrote similar compositions on 
subjects from Russian history. All these poems, like those 
of Niemcewicz are animated by a patriotic and liberal 
spirit. Rileyeff developed his political views chiefly in his 
tales ' Woynarowski* and ' Nalevavko.' The first is a his- 
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tory of a chief of the Ukraine, nephew of the celebrated 
Mazeppa, who while an exile in Siberia for his share in the 
attempt of his uncle to liberate, with the assistance of 
Charles XII., the Ukraine from the oppression of the Czar, 
relates his adventures to the German Miiller, who met with 
him during his travels in Siberia. The most daring opinions 
expressed in beautiful verses are put into the mouth of the 
hero of the tale, although they are accompanied with notes 
condemnatory of them, or explaining them to be harmless, 
in order, that permission to print them might be obtained 
from the censors, a stratagem which had the desired effect. 
The other poem ' Nalevayko' is the history of a hetman of the 
Ukraine, who was beheaded at Warsaw for a revolt against 
the Polish dominion. Only fragments of it appeared in the 
• Northern Star,' an annual edited by the author and Bes- 
tujeff. The most striking is the confession which Nalevayko 
makes to a priest before raising the standard of insurrec- 
tion, and the author has predicted his own fate, in an an- 
swer which Nalevayko gives to the priest, who represents to 
him the danger of his enterprise ? His answer is as follows, 
expressed in beautiful verse : * I know that peril awaits him 
who first rises against the oppressors of the people. Fate 
has already devoted me, but say when and where was free- 
dom attained without sacrifices? 1 know that I shall perish 
for my native land, and 1 bless with joy my destiny.' 

Rileyeff displayed during his imprisonment and trial, as 
well as at his execution, a firmness of character which in- 
spired his judges with respect; and he was, according to 
universal opinion, a victim to his sincere convictions. He 
was executed in July, 1826, with four other leaders in the 
conspiracy. 

Admiral ShishkofF, who was also president of the Russian 
Academy, and minister of public education, was distin- 
guished as a prose writer. Besides the dissertation on the 
old and new Russian style, which has been already men- 
tioned, he was the author of various literary works, and 
several relating to nautical science. 

Alexis Merslakoff, professor of literature at the university 
of Moscow, is undoubtedly the first literary critic in Russia. 
He has translated several works relating to the theory of 
literature, and has written original woiks on the same sub- 
ject. The most remarkable are his lectures on literature, 
which were delivered at Moscow. 

Alexander Vostokoff is the author of a Slavonian grammar, 
and a dissertation on that tongue, which have gained him the 
reputation of being the first Slavonian scholar in Europe. 

Nicholas Grech is the author of a course of Russian lite- 
rature, a Russian grammar, and a great number of minor 
compositions, which are inserted in the periodicals, • The 
Northern Bee,' and ' The Son of the Fatherland,' which he 
had edited : he is now one of the first critics in Russia. 

Thaddeus Bulgarin, born in 1789, of an antient family in 
Lithuania, was educated at the military school of St. Peters- 
burg. He served in the Russian guards during the French 
and Swedish wars; but in 1810 he left the Russian service, 
and having entered the Polish army of the grand-duchy of 
Warsaw, he joined the French armies in the campaigns of 
Spain, Germany, and France, till the peace of 1814. On 
his return to his native land, he published several composi- 
tions in the Polish language, but having gone to St. Peters- 
burg on account of some law business of his family, he was 
induced by some of his early friends to try his talents in 
the field of Russian literature. His first attempts were 
successful, and he established, in 1823, a periodical called 
the 'Northern Archives,' which contained essays, historical, 
geographical, and statistical, ahd continued many years with 
great success. He is best known by his novel * Veejighiru 
or the Russian Gil Bias,' which is a satire on Russian man- 
ners ; but his pictures, although cleverly drawn, are often 
overcharged : it has been translated into several languages, 
and into English. ' The False Demetrius,' an historical novel, 
contains many good pictures of the manners and customs of 
Russia and Poland at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, and several well-drawn characters; but there is 
perhaps too much of pure historical narration. Besides 
* Mazeppa,' an historical novel, he has published Memoirs of 
his campaigns in Spain, a large work on Russia, its geo- 
graphy, statistics, history, and literature, and many minor 
compositions. His works are characterised by great talent 
of observation, and much wit ; and his style is excellent. 

Alexander Bestujeflf thorn in 1795) was educated in a 
military school, and served as an officer in the life-guards. 
Being implicated in the conspiracy of Rileyeff, ho was de- 

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graded to the rank of a common soldier, and sent into the 
interior of Siberia. He was seen there by the German 
traveller Ermann, to whom he addressed, in French, an 
exceedingly clever letter, which contributed to obtain his 
pardon, and he was sent as an officer to the army of the 
Caucasus, where he was killed, in 1837, in a skirmish with 
the Circassians. Before his exile Bestujeff edited, with, 
RileyefF, the first Russian anuual. entitled the ' Northern 
Star,' in which he wrote a very clever sketch of contem- 
porary Russian literature, and several little novels. After 
he was pardoned, he wrote several novels under the name of 
Marlinski. In these works he displayed an uncommon 
talent in describing romantic scenes of a wild character, a 
power which was developed by the excitement of a con- 
stant warfare with the Caucasian mountaineers* in which he 
spent the last years of his life. His last work is ' Amaleth 
Beg,' a novel, containing the story of a Circassian chief; and 
animated sketches of Caucasian scenery. The best Russian 
novelist is undoubtedly Zagoskin, whose works belong to 
that branch of the novel to which Scott has given celebrity. 
His ' Youri Miloslavski, or Russia in 1612/ which baa been 
translated into English, contains an admirable picture of 
Russian manners in those troubled times, and some exceed- 
ingly well sketched characters. His * Roslavleff, or Russia 
in 1812/ is considered inferior to the other work: perhaps 
being obliged to describe scenes relating to a modern 
event of so much importance, he could not; free himself 
entirely from many personal considerations. The other 
novelists of Russia are Ooshakoff» Da hi, Prince Odoyevski, 
Baron Korf, and Masaalski, who also has written in Polish. 
The Russian literature is very rich in translations of foreign 
novels. 

The present literature of Russia is producing many his- 
torical works. Ustrialoff has wriUen, by order of the 
government, a history of Russia foe the use of schools. It 
is certainly an able production, but the fairness of its views 
may be doubled, as it is a kind of defence of the successive 
usurpations of Russia on Poland. Polevoy, a merchant of 
Moscow, published a history of Russia, in which he attacked 
many of the views that were adopted by Karamsin. Polevoy 
is well known as the successful editor of a literary periodical 
called the * Telegraph.' Polgodin has made some valuable 
researches into the period of the false Demetrius, the Annals 
of Plescov, &c. 

Berg (died in 1834) published a history of the reign of 
Michael Federovich (1832), of Alexey Michaelovich (1834), 
and of Fedor Alexey evich (1835). Several other special 
histories relating to Russia have been recently published. 
The campaigns against the French and the Turks have 
furnished materials for several works, among which there 
is one on the war of 1812-14, which was written by a female 
who had served in that war. Great attention is now paid in 
Russia to the collecting of materials relating to the national 
history. A systematic collection of various accounts of 
Russia, by Artzibashoff, is now publishing at Moscow. A 
similar work, under the title of the * Library of Foreign 
Authors who have written on Russia,' was begun, in 1837, at 
St. Petersburg, by Semenoff, who promises to furnish the 
translation of one hundred foreign works on Russia. Se- 
veral learned men have made successful researches in 
foreign countries relating to Russian history. Many works 
on the geography and statistics of Russia have lately 
been published. The most important of these are— the 
'Military Geography of Russia,' by Yasikoff, 1838; ' Con- 
tributions to the Knowledge of the Russian Empire and 
the adjacent Countries of Asia,' is a very interesting work, 
which was commenced by the Academy of Sciences in 1830, 
and two volumes have appeared. The work on the Cauca- 
sian provinces, by Chopin, 1840, gives many new details on 
those countries. Many travels in different parts of Russia, 
as well as abroad, have been recently published. 

The study of the Oriental languages is much encouraged 
in Russia. Besides the Oriental Institute at St. Peters- 
burg, where all the principal languages of the East are 
taught, and which possesses a splendid Oriental library, 
numismatic cabinet, and a printing establishment for 
Oriental publications, there are chairs of Arabic, Persian, 
and Turkish in all the Russian universities. The university 
of Cazan, being situated in a country partly inhabited by a 
Mohammedan population, and having a great intercourse 
with the East, is specially endowed with the means requisite 
lor Oriental studies. There are chairs of the Arabic,* Per- 

• A Korau w»i Vrittta la Arabic at St, Pfctonbuif about the year 1820. 



sian, Turkish, Chinese, Mongol, Armenian, and Tibetan lan- 
guages, as well as rich collections of Oriental books, manu- 
scripts, and coins. There is also a printng-press for 
Oriental works, whence the celebrated * History of the Tar- 
tars,' by Abulgazi Khan, and other important works, have 
issued. The same university has a stipend for fourteen 
scholars, who devote themselves exclusively to the study of 
Oriental languages. The ecclesiastical seminary of Ir- 
kutsk has a separate class for missionaries among the 
Mongolian tribes. Japanese is taught in the gymnasium of 
the same town, and a special school for the Chinese was 
established in 1 835, at Kiakhta. 

Joseph Senkowski, a Pole, having completed his educa- 
tion at the university of Vilna, studied the Oriental lan- 
guages at Constantinople and in Syria, where he resided for 
some time among the Maronite Christians. Senkowski is 
one of the most remarkable linguists of his time ; he pos- 
sesses not only a great knowledge of the languages of the 
East, but also a great familiarity with those of the West ; 
he has published several well written things in the Polish, 
(which is his native language), the Russian, and the French. 
He is now the chief editor of the ' Encyclopaedical Diction- 
ary,' to which he has contributed many valuable articles on 
Oriental subjects. His works display great learning, and a 
lively although somewhat satirical humour. Kowalewski, 
also a Pole, and a pupil of the university of Vilna, is now 
professor at Cazan. He is distinguished by his great know- 
ledge of the Mongol languages, which he studied for several 
years among the native populations. He published, in 
1838, very valuable extracts from the Mongol literature. 
The most eminent Chinese scholar of Russia is father 
Hyacinthus Bichoorin, who was for seven years a pupil 
of the Russian mission at Pekin, and subsequently for 
seven other years at the head of that mission. His prin- 
cipal works are — * Researches on Mongolia ;' a * His- 
tory of the Calmucks,' 1 834 ; and his ' Chinese Grain-. 
mar,' which is considered to be the best that exists, 
There are also several foreign Orientalists of great emi- 
nence employed in Russia. Many scientific works have 
been recently published, and an * Encyclopaedical Dic- 
tionary * has been commenced. This work seems to have 
been formed on too extensive a plan, as the fifteenth volume 
(thick 8vo., printed with small type in double columns) haa 
only reached the beginning of the letter D, the fifth in the 
Russian alphahet. It contains many well written articles, 
particularly on Slavonian and Oriental subjects. It con- 
tains the most minute details relating to Russia, but many 
of the geographical articles are too elaborate for a work 
intended to be popular. This work when completed will 
make about fifty volumes. The publication has been sus- 
pended, owing to the failure of the publisher. 

In 1839 there were fifty-three Russian newspapers and 
periodicals, many of which were devoted to literature and 
science in general, as well as some special branches, as, for 
instance, military art, agriculture, technology, mining, &c. 

The tendency of the present government is decidedly to 
destroy the provincial characteristics which are preserved 
in different parts of the Russian empire, and which had 
been respected under preceding reigns. We have in an- 
other place described the efforts of the Russian government 
to destroy the Polish language. [Polish Literature.] 

The German nationality of the Baltic provinces (Livonia. 
Esthonia, and Courland) had been scrupulously respected 
since their incorporation with Russia. All the official trans- 
actions were in German, and the public education, which 
was under the superintendence of the university of Dorpat, 
was conducted in the same language, whilst the Russian, 
was only taught like any other foreign language. These 
privileges are now beginning to be gradually under- 
mined by successive enactments respecting the public edu- 
cation in the Baltic provinces. Not only the acquisition of 
the Russian language has been imposed on all the pupils in 
the public schools, but no one can be admitted as a teacher 
in these schools who cannot show his ability in the Russian 
language ; and those teachers who are already employed are 
enjoined to acquire a competent knowledge of the Russian. 

An Imperial ukase has decreed that from the 10th of 
December, 1845, no academical degrees shall be conferred 
by the university of Dorpat on individuals who shall not be 
able to show in a strict examination a complete knowledge 
of the Russian language. These measures are evidently 
preparatory steps for replacing the German language by the 
Russian in thetpuulie schools of the Baltic provinces. 



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Many new regulations respecting the admission of pupils 
oelongmg to the different ranks of society have been lately 
introduced, and the admission of serfs to the higher schools 
is stictly prohibited unless they have been previously eman- 
cipated. 

Polish Language and Literature.— The Polish language 
is considered to be more flexible and euphonic than the 
other Slavonian dialects. In conciseness of expression it 
can scarcely be surpassed by any other language. The 
nouns have a declension of seven oases, ana the verb is 
equally well developed. The verb also has some delicate 
shades of distinction as to tenses and genders which do not 
exist in the Teutonic or Romanic languages. The juxta- 
position of numerous consonants gives the language an ap- 
pearance of harshness, but the consonants are softened in 
the pronunciation by melting them together. The Polish 
is the only Slavonian language which contains the nasal 
sounds like the French en t on, in, which ore represented 
by the letters a and e, undermarked with a '. The Polish 
language can imitate with great ease the beauties of classi- 
cal prose, but it has not the same facilities for poetry, as all 
the words have the accent on the penultimate syllable. It 
seems to have separated at au early period from the other 
Slavonian dialects, and owing to the predominance of 
Latin since the introduction of Christianity, its forms have 
been moulded into those of that language, although its 
original purity was not affected by the admixture of foreign 
words, except in the transient period of a corrupted taste. 
Of all the Slavonian dialects it comes nearest to the Bohe- 
mian language. 

Literature. — Learning was introduced into Poland by 
Christian missionaries, and particularly by Benedictine 
tnonks. During the middle ages there were parochial 
schools in Poland, and the statute of the archbishop of 
Gnezno, a.d. 1237, ordered that no German masters should 
teach Latin in these schools, unless they knew Polish. The 
earliest literary productions that have come down to us are 
chronicles; and the earliest known annalist is the biographer 
of St. Adalbert, who is mentioned by Martinus Gallus. Gall us 
wrote his chronicle between 11 10-1 1 15, and is supposed to 
have been a Frenchman who had settled in Poland. Mathias, 
bishop of Cracow (died in 1 166), wrote a chronicle, which was 
used in the composition of his Annals by Vincent Kadlu- 
bek, also a bishop of Cracow; who died in 1223. Boguchwnl, 
bishop of Posnauia (died in 1253), wrote the Annals of Poland 
to the year 1249, which were continued by Baszko Custos, of 
the same town, to the year 1273. There are several other an- 
nalists of the thirteenth and fourteenth century, but the most 
celebrated Polish author of that period is the well known 
Martinus Polonus, whose family name was Sirzempski ; he 
is the author of a chronicle of the popes and emperors. He 
was a Dominican monk, confessor to the pope, and was 
nominated archbishop of Gnezno, but died on his way to 
Poland, at Bologna, in 1279. All these chronicles were in 
Latin. The most an lien t monument of the Polish language 
is a hymn to the holy Virgin, attributed to Saint Adalbert 
(died in 1107). Dr. Bowring has given a translation of it 
in his specimens of the Polish poets. Some other songs and 
hymns belohg to the same epoch. Vitellio, a Pole, about 
1300, wrote a treatise on optics. At an early period the 
Poles resorted to the foreign universities, and chiefly to 
Paris and Padua. Casimir the Great laid the foundation 
of a university at Cracow in 1347, but it seems to have com- 
pletely fallen into decay during the reign of Louis of Hun- 
gary (1370-82). In 1400, Vladislav Jagellon founded, 
according to the last will of his queen Hedvige, a university 
at Cracow. This learned establishment, which was honoured 
with the name of the • daughter of the Sorbonne,' was at 
first engaged in teaching divinity and scholastic philosophy ; 
classical learning began to flourish there only in the latter 
part of the fifteenth century. Gregorius of Sanok, who 
afterwards died ir 1477, as archbishop of Leopol, first ex- 
plained the text of Virgil. He also boldly attacked the 
scholastical philosophy, which he called ' somnia vigilan- 
ttum.' John of Glogov (died in 1509), a professor and 
canon of Cracow*, became known through Europe by his 
works ,on different parts of the Aristotelian philoso- 

* For tome time it was customary to choose bishops from the professors of 
4h.» nnivmity of Cracow, a circumstance which made the Polish prelates 
renowned £.r their learning, and several of them distinguished themselves at 
the council ot Cuus<aoce (1414-1418) Zbigniev, bishop or Cracow (died in 
1453), was celebrated for his learning nud virtue by JEneas Sylvius Piccolo- 
laitti.afterwirds Pope Piua III. 



He also attempted to establish a system of phreno- 
logy. His work 'Qusestiones Librorum de Anima,' printed 
at Mets in Lorraine, 1501, contains the figure of a head 
with points indicating the seats of the various intellectual 
powers, ^e divides the brain into three compartments - 
the front, the middle, and the back; each of which is sup- 
posed to be the seat of different faculties, r.s apprehension, 
imagination, judgment, memory, &c. He admits however the 
existence of an immaterial intellect, or virtus divina, whilst 
the other faculties depend on material organs. A treatise 
by him, ' De Arte Memorativa,' was published at Cracow, 
1504. John 8tobniUki, who succeeded John of Glogov in 
the chair of philosophy, published several treatises on 
metaphysics, and natural and moral philosophy, as well as 
on geography. Brudzewski, professor of mathematics at 
Cracow, published several works on astronomy before the 
year 1 500, and had the honour of being the instructor of 
Copernicus. James of Kobylin, one of Brudzewski'* dis- 
ciples, wrote a work, celebrated in its time, entitled • Decla- 
ratio Astrological and Martin of Olkusz, who terminated his 
studies at Cracow, 1459, became afterwards physician and 
astrologer of Mathias Corvinus, king of Hungary, and 
assisted Regiomontanus in the composition of his 'Tabula? 
Directionum Planetarum.' 

King Casimir Jagellon (1446-1492) determined that every 
superior magistrate should be conversant with Latin and 
the sciences of that time. He intrusted the education of 
his children to Dlugosz, who may be considered as the first 
historian of Poland (1415-80). He was a man of great 
learning and superior talents, which is proved by the nume- 
rous diplomatic missions in which he was employed. He 
collected the antient chronicles, and formed of them a whole 
system of history, supplying their deficiencies from different 
public and private records. His work reaches to the year 
1480, in which he died, and it becomes much more detailed 
and displays better judgment towards the end than in the 
early part His Latin is not better than that which gene- 
rally prevailed at that period. As a proof of his industry 
we may mention that he learned Russian at an advanced 
age, in order to profit by the chronicles written in that 
language. He tells us with sincerity what he believes to be 
the truth, without sparing the clergy, and this is supposed 
to be cause why bis work was printed so late (1615) : it has 
been reprinted many times. After Dlugosz's death the 
education of the royal princes was continued by the Italian 
scholar Buonacorsi, better known under the name of Calli- 
machus Experiens, who published some works in his adopted 
country. 

Augustan JSra of Polish Literature. — The brilliant sera 
of Polish literature begins with the sixteenth century and 
extends to the early part of the seventeenth : it may be 
considered as commencing with the accession of Sigisround 
1., in 1508. It was during (his reign that the human mind 
received a new impulse from the Reformation, and the 
translation of the Bible tended in Poland, as well as else- 
where, to improve the national language. Poland was well 
prepared for this revolution by the Hussite doctrines which 
had circulated there widely during the preceding century. 
Sigismundl. was of a tolerant disposition, and his answer to 
Eckius, the antagonist of Luther, who had sent him the book 
of Henry VIII. against that reformer, • Permitte mihi ovium 
et hircorum rex esse,' shows his opinion on this then all- 
engrossing subject. By an ordinance in 1539 he established 
the liberty of the press, but this permission was only re- 
quired for the royal towns, as the privileges of the nobles 
prevented the king and the clergy from interfering with 
anything on their own estates. These privileges, which 
paralyzed the |>owerof the clergy, facilitated the diffusion of 
the Reformation, as every noble who had embraced its doc- 
trines gave the Roman Catholic church to a Protestant 
minister. Under the reign of his son and successor Sigis- 
mund Augustus, Protestantism made further progress, and 
the states, which assembled after bis death in 1573, acknow- 
ledged the perfect equality of all Christian confessions. 

The translation of the Scriptures into the vernacular lan- 
guages was the first general consequence of the Reforma- 
tion, and Poland was no exception to this universal rule. 
Not only did Protestants make great efforts to spread the 
Scriptures, but the Roman Catholics, in order to counter- 
balance the influence of the Protestant versions, published 
their own. The first translation of the Scriptures into Polish 
was the New Testament, bjt Seklucyan, a Lutheran version, 
published in 1552 at Kbnigsberg. It was followed by the 

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New Testament of Scharfenberger, a Roman Catholic ver- 
sion, Cracow, 1556 ; in 1561 appeared a Roman Catholic ver- 
sion of the whole Bible by John Leopolita, and in 1563 a 
Protestant version was published at Brest in Lithuania ; this 
last-mentioned Bible, being published at the expense of 
Prince Radziwill, is also known nnder the name of the 
4 Radziwill ian Bible.' In 1566 a Socinian version of the 
New Testament, by Falconius, appeared at Brest ; and in 
1572 a version of the whole Bible at Zaslav in Lithuania, 
by Budny, a Socinian ; this latter translation is considered 
exceedingly correct, but the notes which Budny added were 
of such a character that he was expelled by the Socinians 
from their congregation as an infidel. In 1577 there ap- 
peared at Rakow a New Testament, by Czechowicz, a So- 
cinian ; in 1599, at Cracow, the Bible, by Wujek, a Jesuit— 
this edition, which was accompanied by a copious commen- 
tary, is considered canonical. In 1606 appeared at Rakow 
a New Testament by Smalcius, a Socinian ; in 1617, at Cra- 
cow, the Bible, by Justus Rabe, a Jesuit; and in 1632, at 
Danzig, the Bible, by Paliurus, a Protestant. Thus Poland 
has eleven versions of the Bible and New Testament, which 
together have gone through more than forty editions. The 
chief productions of that period weie polemical writings, 
which, although they did not immediately promote the 
national literature, contributed greatly to the general diffu- 
sion of knowledge by obliging the authors of those writings to 
severe study in order to answer the attacks of their anta- 
gonists. 

Schools were also generally established by the Protest- 
ants ; but the most celebrated was that of Rakow, a Socinian 
academy, which was attended by students of different con- 
fessions, and had a reputation all through Europe. The 
principal theological authors of that period among the 
Roman Catholics are, Hosius, Novicampianus (Nowo- 
polski), Kuczborski, but particularly the Jesuit Skarga, 
the most eloquent preacher of that country, and the au- 
thor of several works against the Protestants, and Sawicki, 
also a Jesuit, who wrote under the assumed name of Cicho- 
vius. Among the Protestants, there were Turnowski, Gre- 
gory of Zarnowietz, Dambrowski, Volanus, and John Laski 
or Alasco, who was invited by Cranmer to assist at the Re- 
formation of the Anglican church. 

The national language, having received a new impulse 
from the translation of the Scriptures, began to be generally 
cultivated. The first compositions were spiritual hymns 
and polemical and religious works. Nicholas Rey (1515- 
1568), having become a zealous Protestant, published a 
translation of the Psalms, a Postilla or explanation of several 
parts of the Scriptures, and other works of a religious as 
well as purely literary character ; his style is now obsolete. 
John Kochanowski (1530-1584) received a superior educa- 
tion at Padua and Paris. On bis return to his native 
country he was much patronised by the king and the first 
grandees : be rejected all the brilliant offers of preferment 
both in the church and in civil employment, and settling 
on his paternal estate, devoted himself to literature. His 
poetry is still classical, and it breathes a particular sweet- 
ness.* He translated the Psalms, the * PhEenomena' of 
A rat us, the third book of the • Iliad,' and Vida's poem on 
Chess. Among his origiual productions several lyrical 
poems, but particularly his elegiac lines on the death of his 
young daughter, are beautiful. He wrote several occasional 
poems, satires, and the first drama in Polish, on the Greek 
model, with chorusses. The subject was the dismissal of the 
Greek ambassadors who came to claim Helena from the Tro- 
jans. He also wrote various fragments in prose, and four 
books of Latin elegies, as well as other poems in the same 
language, all of which are much admired. His brother An- 
drew Kochanowski translated the 'iEneid,* which was pub- 
lished in 1590 ; and Peter Kochanowski made a translation of 
the • Gierusalemme Liberata' of Tasso, and the « Orlando* of 
Ariosto. Szarzynski, a young man (died in 1581), who left 
somo sonnets, hymns, and a translation of a few Psalms, is 
only second to Kochanowski. Valentine Brzozowski, a Protes- 
tant clergyman, published (1554) the first Polish collection 
of sacred hymns set to music. Mathias Rybinski, also a 
Protestant clergyman, published a translation of the Psalms 
which was adopted by the Protestant congregations of Po- 
land. His son John Rybinski wrote some beautiful descrip- 
tive poems, one of which is 'Spring/ Zbylitowski was the 
author of the * Village,' a didactic poem on rural economy, 
besides ether productions chiefly of a satirical character. 
• Some of hit poetry ha* been translated into English by Dr. Bowring. 



Grochowski, Miaskowski, and Klonowicz, are renowned for 
the beauty of their verses. Szymonowicz or Sim on idea, 
who belonged to a burgher family of Leopol (1558), distin- 
guished himself not only by his beautiful Polish eclogues, 
but acquired a European reputation by his Latin poems. 
Justus Li psius called him the Catullus of Poland. From 
his youth he was known to the great Zamoysk ; , who at- 
tached him to his person, made him the tutor of his son, 
and liberally provided for his support. Pope Clement VIII., 
who had been nuncio in Poland, held him in great esteem, 
and conferred on him the honour of a laurel wreath. His 
earliest works have gone through several editions ; his 
Latin poems were collected and published at Warsaw in 
1772, by the papal nuncio in Poland, Angelo Durini, who 
bestows on him the appellation of the Latin Pindar. Zimo- 
rowicz (died in 1624, at the early age of 25) translated 
Moschus, and wrote several original idyls. We may 
add to the Bucolic poets of that time Gawinski and Chel- 
chowski. 

The Latin poets of that period, besides J. Kochanowski 
and Simon ides, are the following : — Krzycki, archbishop of 
Gnezno, and primate of Poland, distinguished himself in 
diplomacy; and when king Sigismund I. acknowledged as 
sovereign duke of Prussia, under the suzerainty of Poland, 
Albert of Brandenburg, the last grand-master of the Teutonic 
order, who had become a Protestant, Krzycki wrote a pam- 
phlet in defence of that transaction, which was the first 
legal recognition of the secularization of a Roman Catholic 
religious order by its conversion to Protestantism. It was 
therefore no wonder that the clergy said that his pamphlet 
was more politic than Catholic. Krzycki corresponded with 
many eminent scholars of his time, but particularly with 
Erasmus, who bestowed extraordinary praise on his accom- 
plishments, and particularly on his Latin poetry, which 
is compared by all competent judges with the best pro- 
ductions of antient Rome. Dantiscus, son of a burgher 
of Danzig, rose by his services to the episcopal dignity 
of Varmia, was employed principally on diplomatic mis- 
sions, and became such a favourite of Charles V. that 
he was the only foreign ambassador who accompanied him 
to Spain after the battle of Pavia, a.d. 1525. He died 
in 1548, at 83 years of age, and left several Latin poems 
which were much commended by contemporary scholars, 
and particularly by Erasmus. Janicki, the son of a pea- 
sant (1516-1543), was educated by the liberality of Krzycki, 
and gained a great reputation when only ten years old. 
He remained a long time at Padua, and in other parts 
of Italy, and when he was only twenty years old, Pope 
Clement VII. crowned him with a laurel wreath. His 
poems are compared by many Polish and foreign authors 
with those of Tibullus and Catullus: they were collected 
and published at Leipzig by Bohm, in 1755, with the fol- 
lowing title: 'Janitii Poloni Poetae Laureati Poemata,* 
&c. The best of them are of an elegiac character. The 
poems of Casimir Sarbiewski are well known to every lover 
of Latin literature, and he is universally admitted to be the 
first modern Latin poet The other Latin poets of that period 
are Malinski, Szamotalski, Marszewski, and Kobylinski. 

We must not omit mentioning a remarkable person, the 
particulars of whose life are unknown to us, but it appears 
that he lived for some time at Venice, and was a great 
friend of Aldus Manutius. His facility of making verses 
seems to have been extraordinary. He published a pro- 
gram in which he offered to answer on . Candlemas-day, 
1584, in the church of St. Paul at Venice, in verse, any 
question that was addressed to him on divinity or Aristote- 
lian philosophy. He published at Venice, in Latin, a lau- 
datory poem on Zamoyski, surnamed the Great, to which 
are appended six dithyrambs in the following languages : 
on Gideon, in Hebrew ; Epaminondas, in Greek; Fabius 
Maximus, in Latin; Gran Capi tan Hernando Gonzales de 
Cordoba, in Spanish; Marco Antonio Colonna, in Italian: 
and John Tarnowski, in Polish. 

The same period produced many eminent prose writers in 
the Latin as well as in the native language. The most deser- 
vedly celebrated of them is Andrew Modrzewski, who was 
born in 1506. He early embraced the opinions of the Re- 
formers, although he never publicly joined any of the Protest 
tant confessions which were established during his lifetime. 
In 1534 he went to Wittemberg, where he completed his 
studies under the direction of Melanchthon, whose friend 
ship he fully possessed. After having resided in several 
parts of Germany, he returned to his country, and having 



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become secretary to Sigismund Augustus, gained the unli- 
mited confidence of thai kins?. His most celebrated work is 
• De Republica Emendanda,' which was declared by John 
Justiniani, a celebrated professor of Padua, Peter Martyr, 
and some other eminent scholars, to be the best political 
work of that period. It has been translated into German, 
French, and Spanish; a Polish translation appeared in 
1577. The work is divided into 5 books: 1, De Moribus; 
2, DeLegibus; 3, DeBello; 4, De Ecclesia ; 5, De Schola. 
This last is decidedly of an anti-Roman Catholic tendency. 
It was published at Cracow in 1551, and at Basel in 1554- 
1559. 

Orzechowski (Orichovius), born in 1512, was a Roman 
Catholic priest, who, having married a wife, maintained an 
animated dispute with Rome about the lawfulness of the mar- 
riage of priests, and became celebrated over all Europe by the 
eloquent invectives with winch he attacked the papal power. 
He was afterwards reconciled to tbe church, and became 
as zealous an advocate of the papal authority as he had for- 
merly been its opponent Besides his polemical writings, 
he wrote several works of a political and historical character. 
His writings in Latin as well as Polish are distinguished by 
great beauty of style, but disgraced by extreme violence, 
which was however perhaps well calculated for producing a 
momentary effect. Being a zealous advocate for a war with 
the Turks, he supported his views by pamphlets; he wrote 
also Annals of Poland, but comprising only a short period. 
Tbe number of pamphlets which he published on several 
occasions is about 50: the most remarkable is entitled 
Chimsera,' which was directed against the opponents of 
Rome, in which he attempts to establish the temporal au- 
thority of the pope. 

Goslicki, bishop of Posnania (1537-1601), is the author 
of n valuable political treatise entitled ' De Optimo Senatore,* 
Venice, 1588. It was translated into English by Mr. Oldis- 
worth, and published under the title of the * Accomplished 
Senator,' in 1733, London. Adam Burski published, in 
Latin, at Zamosc, 1604, the philosophy of Cicero, entitled 
• Dialectica Ciceronis qua) dispersa in scriptis reliquit,' &c, 
a much esteemed work, which is attributed by many to the 
great general and statesman Zamoyski, who was an intimate 
friend and patron of Burski. Moscicki was the author of 
a treatise on logic, besides many theological works. Gorski 

Imbiished, in 1663, • Comraentarii Artis Dialectics ;' and 
eft in manuscript several works on history and politics. 
The Jesuit Smiglecki published a work on logic, which was 
long used not only in the schools of Poland, but also abroad; 
it has been often reprinted, and among other places at Ox- 
ford. Petryry published at Cracow, 1605-1618, a beautiful 
Polish translation of Aristotle's politics, ethics, &c. 

The principal historians of this period are Mathias of 
Mi echo w (died in 1523), who wrote 'Descriptio Sarmatia- 
rum Asian© et Europeans,' and ' Chronica Polonorum 
usque ad annum 1504 -' both these works had for some 
time great celebrity, being the first Polish histories which 
were printed, and they went through several editions in dif- 
ferent countries. In the first work he defended his country 
against the aspersions of iEneas Sylvius, who wrote against 
Poland out of spite for the loss of the rich bishopric of 
Varraia, which was refused to him by the king, although 
granted by the pope. Martin Kromer (1512-89) was the 
son of a peasant, but rose by his services, chiefly in the 
diplomatic line, to the dignity of a bishop. He was the 
author of a work, *De Origine et Rebus (rest is Polonorum 
Libri xxx,' Basil., 1555, which has been often reprinted ; and 
2, • Polonia, sive de Situ, Populis, Moribus, Magistratibus, 
et Republic*! Regni Polonia Libri Duo/ Basil., 1568, also 
often reprinted, and among others by tbe Elzevirs. It is 
an admirable geographical and statistical sketch of Poland. 
Herburt, an accomplished lawyer, wrote a history of Poland 
in Latin, Basil., 1521 ; it was reprinted several times, and a 
French translation of it appeared at Paris in 1573. Neuge- 
bauer (died in 1618), a native of Prussia, left two works? 
I, ' Historic Rerum Polonicarum Libri vii.,' Francofurti, 
1611: and a continuation of the same work, entitled ' Hist. 
Rer. Pol. concinnata et ad Sigismundum III. usque Libris x. 
deducta,' Hanoviso, 1618. In addition to an historical sketch, 
these works contain a political and physical description of Po- 
land ; they had considerable reputation abroad, although they 
are in fact nothing better than abridgments of Kromer and 
some other Polish historians, a fact which the author does 
not state. 
Count Alexander Guagnini was a native of Italy, but 



having long served in the army of Poland, he was natn 
ralised, and died in that country in 1614. He wrote 
* SarroatisB Europe© Descriptio,' Cracow, 1578, which has 
often been reprinted in the original text, and in Italian 
in Ramusio's collection, Venice, 1568. Guagnini was 
accused by Stryikowski, who had served under his orders, 
of having published his manuscript under his name. This 
accusation, made by a contemporary author, and not con- 
tradicted by Guagnini himself, appeared to be so well 
founded, that Mitzler, in his collection of Polish histo- 
rians, printed this work under the name of Stryikowski, 
without even mentioning that of Guagnini ; yet the critica* 
acuteness of the learned Lelewel has disproved the im- 
putation of this gross plagiarism against Guagnini, whose 
work is composed with much more method and order 
than that of Stryikowski. This last-named author pub- 
lished in Polish a 'Chronicle of Poland, Lithuania, and 
Russia/ Konigsberg, 1582, and Warsaw, 1766. It is de- 
ficient in methodical arrangement, and in historical criti 
cism, and is also disfigured by numerous absurd verses, for 
the author always describes the most important events in 
rhyme. Notwithstanding all these defects, it is a valuable 
work on account of the information which it contains, and 
which the author collected from traditions, manuscripts, and 
other sources no longer extant Stryikowski himself was a 
very remarkable character (born 1547). He was educated at 
the university of Cracow, and continued his studies in several 
universities of Italy and Germany; for some time he served in 
the army. Having accompanied a Polish embassy to Constan- 
tinople, he made a voyage in the Levant, and was taken by 
pirates, on which occasion he lost his manuscripts, and re- 
mained several years in captivity until his family paid his ran- 
som. On his return to Poland, he took orders, and died in 1600 
as archdeacon of Samogitia. The anecdotes and traits of his 
adventurous life, which he sometimes intermingles in his 
narrative, give a romantic interest to his work. Lucas 
Gomicki (1520-80), secretary to king S.Augustus, wrote 
in Pofish a history of his country from 1538 to 1572, which 
was published in 1637. He is also tbe author of the follow- 
ing works : — ' The Road to a perfect Liberty,' 1 590 ; and a 
4 Dialogue between a Pole and an Italian, on the Liberty, 
Laws, and Manners of Poland,' published 1616; 'The 
Polish Courtier, a free translation of the Libro del Cor- 
teggiano of Baltazar Castiglioni, adapted to the Polish court 
and manners of that time ;' a Treatise on Orthography, 
and several translations of classical authors. His style is a 
pattern of purity and elegance even in the Augustan age of 
Polish literature. 

Martin Bielski (1500-75) wrote, in Polish, a ' Universal 
History,' Cracow, 1550, which is characterised by the beauty 
of its style. He is also the author of a treatise on the art 
of war, and of several biographies of ancient philosophers. 
His son, Joachim Bielski, also wrote in Polish a chronicle 
of his country (Cracow, 1597), which in style is equal to 
the work of his father. Stanislaus Sarnicki published in 
1587, at Cracow, ' Annales Polonorum et Lithuanorum 
Libri vinV It contains some absurdities relating to the history 
of the fabulous times and the origin of nations, but the 
modern part is judiciously written. He was also the author 
of • Descriptio Veteris et Nov© Polonia?, ' Cracow, 1585. 
Reynhold Heydensteyn, a learned lawyer, wrote ' De bello 
Moscovitico quod Stephanus rex Pol on i© gessit, commen- 
tariorum Libri vi.,' Cracow, 1 584, which has often been re- 
printed. It is a very valuable contribution to the history 
of Poland, and has all the interest of historical memoirs, 
as the author was a witness of the events which he de- 
scribes. His son, John Heydensteyn, castellan of Danzig 
continued the work to the year 1603, from his father's manu 
scripts, * Rerum Polonicarum ab excessu Sigismundi Au- 
gusti, &c, Libri xii.,' Frankfurt, 1672. Solikowski, arch- 
bishop of Leopol (1526-1603), who took an important part in 
the affairs of nis country, was the author of 'Comment a ri us 
Brevts Rerum Polonicarum a Morte Sigismundi Augusti,' 
1579-1590, Danzig, 1647, a work not devoid of merit. Paul 
Piasecki, bishop of Przemysl (1583-1649), wrote a history of 
Europe, from 1572 till 1645, entitled •Chronic© Rerum 
Gestarum in Europe,' Cracow, 1645-48, a work distinguished 
by the soundness of its political views and great impartiality. 
The author's public career was guided by the principles 
which he advocated in his work, and his private character 
was in every respect worthy of praise, yet these very qualities, 
which give value to his work, brought upon him many bitter 
enemies, and the Jesuits attacked him violently for having 



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spoken freely of .heir pernicious influence in Poland, and 
having called the authors of the Gunpowder Plot in Eng- 
land * malefactors.' Braun, who wrote a critical work on 
Polish literature, gives the following judgment : ' This 
author (Piasecki) told the truth to his countrymen as well as 
to foreigners; he divulged the intrigues of the papal legate, 
Annibal of Capua; he discovered the perjury of another 
legate, Malaspina ; he said that the French league had 
nothing holy but its name; he inveighed against intole- 
rance in Bohemia and Hungary; he raised his eloquent 
voice in favour of liberty of conscience ; n to reproached the 
Jesuits with teaching regicide in the schools of France, and 
proved the justice of their expulsion from Venice, Bohemia, 
and England; he brought to light their intrigues at the 
court of Poland, and maintained that they were the cause 
of the wars with Sweden, Turkey, Muscovy,' &c. &c. 

Among the historians of that period we may mention 
Bzowski, the continuator of Baronius s * Ecclesiastical An- 
nals. 1 He was born of a distinguished family in 1567. Having 
entered the order of St Dominic, he was for some time pro- 
fessor of philosophy at Milan, and of divinity at Bologna. On 
his return to Poland he was made superior of the Domi- 
nican convent at Cracow. He went finally to Rome, where 
he engaged in his ' Ecclesiastical History,' and remained 
till his death in 1637. The continuation of Baronius, which 
contains the events from 1198 to 1572, is comprehended in 
twelve volumes, of which only nine were printed. The work 
is written with extraordinary research, but it raised much 
enmity agaiust the author by three circumstances. In the 
first place, by not having spoken with sufficient respect of 
John Scotus, surnamed * Doctor Subtilis,' he offended all the 
orders which fellow the rule of St. Francis; 2dly, having 
mentioned in a slighting manner a production of St. Hilde- 
garda, be excited the most violent hatred of the Jesuits; and 
3dly, the Elector of Bavaria was so angry with him for having 
written against the emperor Louis IV. of Bavaria, that he 
ordered his chancellor Hervart to write a refutation of 
Bzowski, who was ultimately compelled to retract what he 
had written about the emperor* Bzowski published also a 
great number of works in Latin, and a few in Polish. 
Bayle, who gives in his ' Historical Dictionary* a very ex- 
tensive article on him (under the name of Bzovius), states 
that it has been remarked of him that it would be no exag- 
geration to say that Bzowski wrote more works than other 
persons have read. Lasicki was the author of a history of 
the Bohemian brethren, and of a ' Treatise on the Samogi- 
tian or Lithuanian Mythology/ John Krasinski wrote a 
description of Poland, entitled 'J. Crassini Polonia,' &c, 
Bononi®, 1574: it was written for Henry of Valois (III. of 
France), when he was elected king of Poland, and contains 
a political description of that country. It is remarkable for 
the beauty of its style, and was attributed by Thuanus to the 
celebrated Sigonius, who was the tutor of Krasinski. This 
assertion was however proved to be erroneous; Sigonius 
only induced Krasinski to undertake the work. The cele- 
brated geographer Cluverius (1580-1623), born at Danzig, 
and partly educated at the court of Poland, belongs also to 
the authors of that country. We must add to the list of the 
Polish historians, Papi ocki, the author of a genealogical work 
on the noble families of Poland, published at Cracow, 1 578, 
with many wood-cuts. He also wrote a similar work on 
Bohemia and Moravia. 

Many of the works which have been enumerated were 
published in the collection of Pistorius, at Basil, 1582, in 3 
vols., folio entitled * Polonicae Historiae Corpus/ &c, and 
in the Elzevirian collection, * Rerum Publicarum,' entitled 
• Reipublioa, give Status Regni Polonies,' &c, Leyden, 
1626. 

The study of law was not neglected in Poland during 
this period of its intellectual elevation. A collection of laws 
was made, containing the code of Casimir the Great (1374), 
and all the enactments from that time, with the addition of 
Saxon or Magdeburg law, by which the towns of Poland 
were governed; this was the work of Raymundus Neapoli- 
tan us, and was published, by order of King Alexander I., by the 
Chancellor John Laski, in 1506, at Cracow. This valuable 
collection is the only one which obtained a legal sanction. 
Another collection was published by order of King Sigis- 
mund I., at Cracow, 1532; but it never obtained a legal 
sanction. 

James Przyluski was originally a Roman Catholic cler- 
gyman, but be embraced Protestantism, and became a public 
notary of the district of Cracow : be arranged the, laws of bis 



country according to the Roman method, ' secundum jus per- 
sonaram, rerum, et actionuro,' Cracow, 1553. This work, 
although undertaken by order of the king, never obtained 
a legal sanction, which was mainly owing to the great 
opposition of the Roman Catholic clergy, on account of 
the bitter invectives against that body in which Przyluski 
indulged in his ' Prototypon,' which he had published as a 
prospectus to his work. John Herburt, castellan of Sanok 
whom we have mentioned among the historians of bis 
country, published, in 1563. a collection of the laws of Po- 
land in Latin, arranged in alphabetical order. This collec- 
tion, although never formally sanctioned, was recognised in 
the courts, and has been reprinted several times. Collec- 
tions of laws in fhe national language were published at 
Cracow in 1560, 1578, and 1581. Stanislaus 8arnicki, al- 
ready mentioned as an historian, published in Polish a large 
work, divided into twelve books, on the laws of his country. 
But the most ample and best collection of the Polish laws, 
published during this period, is that of Januszowski, Cra- 
cow, 1600. 

The mathematical sciences and the different branches of 
natural philosophy were also cultivated with considerable 
success in Poland during this period. Besides Copernicus, 
the university of Cracow produced several eminent mathe- 
maticians. Martinus of Olkusz (not to be confounded with 
another mathematician of the same name) received his doc- 
tor's degree at Cracow* and became professor of astronomy in 
the university of that town. This university, being invited 
by Pope Leo X. to present a project for the reform of the 
calendar, commissioned Martin of Olkusz to perform this 
task, which he did in his treatise 'Nova Calendarii Romani 
Reformatio.' Leo X. signified to the university of Cracow 
his entiro approbation of this work ; but the reformation of 
the calendar was postponed by the important events which 
agitated Europe, and particularly the church, during Leo's 
pontificate, and it was not effected till 1583, under Grvgory 
XIII. The change was made however entirely according to 
the plan proposed by Martin of Olkusz. Although his 
name was not mentioned on that occasion, an autograph 
copy of the treatise of Martin of Olkusz has been preserved, 
and serves as the means of restoring the honour of the re- 
form of the calendar to the real author. He died in 1540. 

Stanislaus 6rzeb>ki (1526-72) wrote the first work on geo- 
metry in Polish, 1566. Peter Slowacki, professor of ma- 
thematics in the university of Cracow, assisted in the reform- 
ation of tho calendar at Rome ; and a letter of Pope Gre- 
gory XIII., giving great commendation to this mathema- 
tician, is still extant; he left almanacs. Broscius, a name 
Latinized from Brozek (1581-1652), canon of Cracow and 
rector of the university, was not only deeply versed in the 
mathematics, but was well acquainted with Greek, Latin, 
and Hebrew, metaphysics, divinity, medicine, and even mu- 
sic. Besides several works on different subjects, he wrote 
several mathematical treatises, and a defence of Aristotle 
and Euclid against Ramus. He was also the author of a 
severe work against the Jesuits. 

Sendzivoy or 8endivogius (1565-1645) acquired a certain 
reputation over all Europe by his alchemical vagaries. An- 
dreas Mirowski published* in 1596, a 'Theory of Winds;' 
Willichius, in 1523, a treatise • De Salinis Cracovianis ;' 
Simon of Lovicz wrote ' De Herbarum Virtutibus,' with 
figures, 1537; Stephen Falimierz wrote in Polish on differ- 
ent branches of natural history connected with medicine, 
1534 ; Hieronyraus Spiczyuski, alderman of Cracow, and 
physician to King Sigismund Augustus, wrote in Polish a 
work on animals, plants, and the birth of man, 1534— one part 
relating to plants, entitled 'Herbarium,' &c„ Was published 
with many additions by Siennik, in 1568; the ' Herbarium* 
of Martin of Urzendow appeared in 1595. But the most 
remarkable of all the botanical works of that period was that 
of Simon Sirenski, professor of medicine at Cracow, 'On the 
Nature and Use of Plants,' Cracow, 1614 : it was published 
at the expense of the Princess Anna Vasa, sister of King 
Sigismund III., who was a great lover of botany, and left an 
herbarium, which was collected and arranged with her own 
hands. The work contains all that was known at that lime, 
and is adorned with many woodcuts. Many authors sup- 
pose Zaluzianski, who wrote in the latter part of the 
sixteenth century bis ' Methodus Herbarum,' in which he 
establishes the sexual differences of plants, a discovery 
vhich was neglected till the time of Linnrous, to have been 
Pole, but it is more probable that he was a Bohemian. 
There were several works on rural economy, the breedtn 



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of cattle, keeping of fishponds, beet, &c* . the best is ' Hip- 
pica, * or a work on horses, by Monivid Dorohostayski, 
5 rand marshal of Lithuania, an accomplished nobleman, 
his work was published at Cracow t 1603, with many fine 
engravings. 

Works on medicine were published by Wed click i, Cypria- 
nus of Lovicz. Peter of Kobylin, and others ; but the roost 
distinguished physician of the period was Joseph Strut, (1510- 
1668), who became professor of medicine at Padua, wh