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THE 



PENNY CYCLOPAEDIA 



°* 7 7 " 



THE SOCIETY 



FOR THE 



DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOLUME XXIV. 
TAI-WAN TITLARKS. 



LONDON: 

CHARLES KNIGHT AND Co., 22, LUDGATE STREET. 

Mr 



Price Srm SUUh», * M cU*k. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



J5 



#^W«:v/ 



OOMMITTEfi. 

OneirwS /The Right Hon LORD BROUGHAM, P.R.S.. Member of the National Institute of Fi 
?* netf-OWnriMM-The Right Hon. EA*RL SPENCER. 

77«o«r*r-JOHN WOOD, Esq. 



William Alias. Esq., P.R. |^ R.A.8. 

Cspialn Beaufort, R.N., %,A. aud R.A.8. 

George Burrows, M.D. 

Professor <-arey. A.M. * 

Jol.u Conolly. M.D. — i 

William Coulaon. Rsq. 

Th« Rif hi Rer. the Bishcfpor St Da? id's, D.D. 

J.P. Usrle, Esq., P.llS' 

Sir Henry De la Beche, F.R.8. 

The Itight Hon. l«ord Penman. 

Samuel Duck worth, B#R|. 

The Itight Rer. the BMhop of Darbam, D.D. 

T. P. Kills. K«q.. A.M.. P. II. A. 8. 

Jnhn Rlllotson, M.D X.R.3. 

Thomas Paleoner. Re*|. 

John Forbes. M.D.. &R.S. 

Sir I I. ttoldamlri. i ,uU P.R. and R.A.8. 

PrancU Henry Gold-nat, Esq. 



U M.P. 



Mr. Sergeant Manning 

R. t. Murchisoo, Esq.. P.1.8L, V.GJ*. 

Hie Rlf ht Hon. Lord Nugent. 

W. 8. O'Brien. Be*. M.P. 

Professor Qusin. 

P. M. Roget, MJ>. See. R.8., P.R.A.8. 

R. W. Rotkman. Eaq.. A.M. 

Sir Martin Areher She*. P.R.*.. P.H.B. 

Sir George T. Staunton, Ban* M.P. 

John Taylor. Esq. F.K.H. 

Professor Thomaon. M.D. P. US. 

Thomas Vardon, Eaq. 

Jacob Weley. Eon.. HJ 



f .R.S., Pr. I net.. CI t. Knuj. 



J as. Walker. Eaq.. F.l 

H. Waymnuth, Ran. 

Thoa. Webster. Eaq.. A.M. 

Right Hon. Lord Wrotteeley. AJl^ F.l.A 

J. A. Yates, Keq. 



Alton, Stnfordikere— Rer. J. P. J one*. 
4«#;/afea— Rer. E. William*. 

Her. W. Johnson. 

— Miller, Km. 
Bmrmtaole. Bencraft. Rsq. 

William Orlhhle. Raq. 
B*(fa$t— Jas. L. Drummond, M.D. 
BimUghnm— Paul Moon James, Esq., Trea- 
surer 
BrMverf-- James Wllllamt, Eaq. 
Jtrisfef— J.N.Ssnders, Esq., F.O.S. 6'Aetrmen. 

J. Reynolds. Esq.. Treasurer. 

J. R. Estlln, Es<j., P.L.S., S ten tar p. 
Vmlenttn — James Young. Esq. 

C. H. Cameron. Esq. 
Cc amraiee--Roe.Looaard Jenyne, M.A..F.L.8. 

Rer. John Lodge, M.A. 

Rer. Prof. Sedgwick. M.A., P.R 8 & G.8. 
Vmntir hury — John Brent, Esq.. Alderman. 

William Masters. Esq. 
C«rft'f/e— Thomas Barnes, M.D* P.R.8.B. 
Carnarvon— R. A. Poole, Rsq. 

William Roberta, Eaq. 
CAmcst— Henry Potts, Esq. 
Uhiehetter—C. C. Dendy. Esq. 
(feAenaeatA— Rer. J. Whltrtdge. 
Corfu — John Crawford, Esq. 

' Plato Petri dee 
Cerenfry — C. Bray. Esq 
Ptmbigh— Thomas Reans, Esq. 
Deras— Joseph 8trutt. Esq. 

Edward Strut!, Esq.. M.P. 
Deoonport and Stonekoutt— John Cole, Esq. 

John Norman, Ksq. 

Lt.CoL C. Hamilton Smith, P.R.S. 
DerAam— The Very Rer. the Dean. 
\ 5. Traill, M.D. 



LOCAL OOMMXTTS1S. 

jrirvrta— Jociah Wedgwood, Esq. 
Bseter— J.Tyrrell, Esq. 

John Mllford. Esq. (Corner.) 
OfamoroeasAire-W. Williams, Esq., Abtr> 

pergwm. 
aiasfow—K. Flnlay. Esq. 

Alexander McGrigor, Esq 

James Couper, Esq. 

A. J. D. D'Orsey, Esq. 
fluently— V. C. Lukis, Eaq. 
Hitcham, Suffolk— Rer. Professor Hen slow, 

M.A.. F.L.S. St G.8. 
Ha//— Jas. Bowden, Rsq. 
Leeds- J. Marshall, Eaq. 
l.owet—1. W. Wool {gar, Esq. 

Henry Browne. Esq. 
!Ao*rpool J.oc. At. — J. Mutleneu^, Esq, 

Rer. Win. Shepherd, L.L.D. 
MaidtUme— Clement T. Smyth, Esq. 

John Case, Esq. 
Mnnchester Loc. Ai.-Q. W. Wood, Esq.. 
M.P.. CA. 

Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bt, Treasurer. 

Sir George Philips, Bart.. M.P. 

T. N. Winstanley. Esq, Hon. See. 
Merthyr TydvU-Slt J. J. Ooest BarL, M.P. 
Mine hinhamp ton— John G. Ball, Esq. 
NealA— John Rowland, Esq. 
A'ewetutte — Rer. W. Turner. 

T. Sopwltb. Esq.. P.G.S. 
Newport, hie of Wight— Ah. Clarke, Esq. 

T. Cooke. Jun.. Esq. 

R. G. Eirkpatrick, Esq. 
Newport Pogntll—J. Millar. Esq* 
NerwtcA— Richard Bacon, Eaq. 

Win. Forster, Esq. 
Onett, Ate*— Dr. CurbetL 



Or/erd-Ch.Daubeny.M D.P.R SPraCCWaa. 

Rer. Baden Powell. See. Pot. 

Re*. John Jordan, H.A. * 

PerfA, Hungar y — Count Stecnenyf. 
Plpmouth— H Woollcombe.Eea.. fl.l., On. 

Wa, Snow Harrla. Esq.. P.R.H. 

E. Moore. M.D . P.L.S.,8ecr«fare>. 

G. Wlghtwlck, Rsq. 
Presto**— Rt. Hon, Sir H. Brydgea, Bart. 

A. W. Darts, M.D. 
Hi/urn— Her. H.P.Hamlltoo,M.A.,F.R.*,O.S. 

Rer. P. Kwart. M.A 
ffe/Ata— The Rer. the Warden. 

Humphreys Jones, Eaq 
Rpde. I. of tUght-SW Rd. Slsftsc*. 9L 
SaKrawy-Rer. J. BarfU. 
SAeJLatt-J. H. Abraham. Esq. 
Shepten Mnllot—Q. P. Burroughs, Esq. 
SArewftury— R. A.SIaney. Raq. 
South Petkerton— John Nlrboletta, Raq. 
Stoekpori-B. Marsland, Eaq., Trees** ee. 

Henry Coppock, Esq, Seeretmrn. 
Kydaey, New &fFmtee—W. M. Manninf, ftUq). 
jS w na aa a hfattbew Moggridge, Esq. . 
TnoiMtocM— Rer. W. Rrans. 

John Rundle. Rsq, M.P. 
rrare— Henry Sewell S token, Eaq. 
TunMdge Wtlia—Th. Yeats. 
Vttoseter— Robert Blurton. Esq. 
PlrwasM. U. 8. — Proaaasnr Tanker. 
Wrc—fr—Ch**. ATaaUalga, M.D. 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
mvaeAam— Thomas Rdfwortb, Eaq. 

Major Sir William l.loyd. 
farmeolA C. E. Rumbold. Esq. 

Dawson Turner. Eaq. 
York— Rot. J. Kenrlck. MJk. 

John PbilUpa, Esq^ EJUS, F.G Jk\ 



THOMAS COATES, Eaq., Secretary, No. 69, Lincoln's In FMdtV 



Loaooa: Prbsted by Wiixtan Cuiwis and Bon, StamMd Stceti. 



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THE PENNY CYCLOPAEDIA 



OF 



THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF 
USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



T A I 

TAI-WAN (Taywan) is the Chinese name of an island 
which in Europe is known by the name of Formosa, and 
Hennosa, and, according to* the Dutchman Valentyn, is 
called by the aborigines Pekan or Paek-and. It lies be- 
tween 21° 58' and 25° 15' N. lat., and between 120° and 
122? E long., and extends from south by west to north by 
east about 210 miles. In width it varies much. From its 
most southern point, where *t is only about fotfr miles 
wide, it increases gradually, so that at 23° N. lat. it is 60 
miles wide, and at 24° N. lat. nearly 100 miles. Its 
northern portion decreases in width, but very slowly, for 
near its northern end it is still 60 miles wide. A rough 
aUculBtion gives the surface an extent of about 14,000 
square miles, which is about half the area of Ireland, and 
3000 square miles more than that of Sicily. 

The north-western point of Tai-wan is only about 80 

miles from the coast of the Chinese province ot Fukian, or 

Folrian ; but farther south the channel of Fokian, as the 

sea between Tai-wan and China is called, grows wider. In 

the parallel of Amoy, 24° 40' N. lat., it is 150 miles across, 

and still wider south of that parallel. This part of the 

China Sea contains several banks, and the soundings are 

also extremely irregular, especially in the vicinity of the 

Ponghu or Phenghu Islands, called also Pescadores, or 

Fisher Islands. The southern extremity of Tai-wan is 

frrided from the Bashee Islands, which are south-east of 

H, by the channel of Formosa, which is nearly 80 miles 

wide, and has also very irregular'soundings. 

The broad promontory which terminates the island on 

ft* wo^mmI forms the south-east and south-west cape, is 

i Willi, but at the distance of about two miles the 

country suddenly rises into mountains, which continue to 

ran in an unbroken chain northward nearly through the 

middle of the island to its northern extremity, terminating 

with high cliffs at the north-east cape. As it is certain 

that this range of mountains, which is called Ta Shan, or 

Great Mountain, is nearly the whole year round covered 

with snow, its elevation has been estimated by Humboldt 

it about 12,000 feet above the sea. The declivities of 

these mountains, with the exception of the crests of the 

noft elevated portion, are covered with fine trees and 

pasture-grounds, and thus the island, when seen from the 

lea, presents a very pleasing appearance, whence it was 

called Hennosa by the Europeans who advanced thus 

Ut into the Indian Sea. These mountains have never 

been visited by Europeans, but from the accounts of the 

Chinese geographers, which have been collected by Kla- 

proth, it appears that there is more than one volcano on 

this island. The Tshvkang (Red Mountain), south of the 

town of Fung-shan-hian, was once an active volcano, and 

there is still a lake of hot water on Shin Mountains. 

TW Phy-nan-my-shan, south-east of Fung-shan-hian, 

osita in the nignt-time a brilliant lustre. The Ho-shan 

(fa-Mountain), south-east of Tshu-lo-hian, is said to 

contain many wells from which flames issue. There are 

Me other mountains which exhibit traces of volcanic 

P. O, No. 1488. 



T A I 

action, and sulphur constitutes an important article of 
export. 

The mountains have a steep declivity on both sides, but 
on the west side they terminate at a considerable distance 
from the sea, so as to leave a wide tract between them 
and the shore. This tract has an undulating surface, and 
terminates on the sea in a low sandy beach. The ad- 
joining sea is full of sand-banks and snoals, and can only 
be approached in a few places by vessels drawing more 
than eight feet of water. On the east of the Ta-shan 
range the mountains seem to occupy nearly the whole 
space between the crest of the range and the sea, and 
high rocks line the shore. There are no soundings along 
this coast. This circumstance, united to the strong cur- 
rent which sets along this side from south to north, is 
probably the reason why this part of Tai-wan has never 
been visited by European vessels ; nor does it appear that 
Japanese or Chinese vessels have any intercourse with 
this part of the island. It is an unknown portion of the 
globe. 

Rivers are numerous on the west side, but as they ori- 
ginate in a very elevated region, from which they descend 
in continuous rapids and cataracts, they bring down a con- 
siderable quantity of earthy matter, which they deposit at 
their mouths, forming bars, which have so little water as 
to admit only small vessels : this however seems to be no 
great disadvantage, as there are numerous islands along 
the shore, between which junks of ordinary size (about 20O 
tons burden) find good anchorage. Some of the rivers 
however are said to be navigable for a considerable dis- 
tance inland, especially the Tan-shuy-khy, which falls into 
the Tan-shuy-kiang Bay, which lies in the narrow part of 
the channel of Fukian. The rivers also offer the great 
advantage of an abundant irrigation, though they are 
sometimes destructive to the crops by their inunda- 
tions. 

No portion of the ocean is subject to such violent gales 
as the sea surrounding Tai-wan on the west and east. 
Both monsoons, the north-eastern and the south-western, 
blow in the direction of the channel of Fukian, and as 
they are confined between two high mountain-ranges, the 
mountains of Fukian and of Tai-wan, their violence is 
much increased. At the change of the monsoons the 
most violent gales come on suddenly, and are accom- 
panied by typhons, whirlwinds, and waterspouts. Many 
Chinese vessels are annually lost at these seasons. The 
Japan Sea, which lies north of Tai-wan, is noted for 
its terrible tempests. In the vicinity of the island 
the north-eastern monsoon generally lasts nine months, 
as it continues to blow to the beginning of June. 
In other respects the climate of the island is very tem- 
perate, neither the heat nor the cold being excessive on 
the plains along the western coast. The island is subject 
to earthquakes, and they are sometimes very violent. In 
1782 the whole lower portion was laid waste, and the sea 
inundated the conntry to the base of the mountains for 

Vol. XXIV.— B 
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T A I 



T A L 



twelve hours. A great part of the capital was destroyed, 
and some hundreds of junks were lost. 

The soil of the lower tracts and the more gentle slopes 
of the mountains is very fertile, and produces abundance 
of corn, which is exported to the harbours of Fukian, of 
which the island is said to be the granary. It produces 
rice of excellent quality ; also wheat, millet, maize, and 
several kinds of vegetables, among which are truffles. The 
sugar-cane is extensively cultivated; and the sugar made in 
the island goes to China, as far as Peking. Orchards are 
carefully attended to. They produce oranges, pine-apples, 
guavas, cocoa-nuts, areca-nuts, jack-fruit, and] other fruits 
found in the East Indies; also peaches, apricots, figs, 
grapes, pomegranates, and chestnuts. Melons are also 
much grown. Only green tea is cultivated, and it is 
stated that it forms an article of export to China, where 
it is used as a medicine. The blossoms of the wild jas- 
mine are dried and exported to China, where they are 
used to give a scent to the tea. Other articles of export 
are camphor, pepper, aloes, and timber. Timber abounds 
in the large forests in the northern districts of the island. 
It is also stated that coffee, cotton, and silk are pro- 
duced to a small amount. 

The domestic animals are cattle, buffaloes, horses, asses, 
and goats, but sheep and hogs are rare. The horses are 
small, and the Chinese find them unfit for their cavalry. 
It is said that on the eastern unknown portion of the 
island there are many beasts of prey, as tigers, leopards, 
and wolves, but they are not found on the western side, 
where wild hogs, deer, monkeys, pheasants, and game are 
very abundant. Salt is made to a great extent, and, 
together with sulphur, forms a large article of export. 

The population consists of Chinese settlers and of abori- 
gines. The Chinese are only found on the west side of the 
island, where they first settled a hundred and eighty years 
ago (1662> Their number many years ago was stated to 
be about 500,000 individuals. They are mostly from 
Fukian, and have preserved the customs of their original 
country, and the spirit of industry and enterprise by which 
their countrymen are distinguished. A considerable num- 
ber of aborigines are settled among the Chinese, to whom 
trjev are subject, and are obliged to pay a tribute in corn 
ana money. The collectors of the tribute are Chinese, who 
are required to know the language of the aborigines for the 
purpose of explaining to them the orders of the court. It 
is said that the oppression to which the aborigines are sub- 
ject from these interpreters frequently causes them to rise 
in rebellion. These aborigines are of a slender make, and 
in complexion resemble the Malays, but they do not differ 
from the Chinese in features. Their language shows that 
they bel6ng to the widely spread race of the Malay 
nations ; and- it is said that they greatly resemble the 
Horaforas of the Moluccas. Then* religion resembles 
what is called Shamanism. The Butch took some steps to 
convert them to Christianity, but their sway on the island 
was .too limited and of too snort a duration to produce any 
lasting effect. Nothing is known of the aborigines who 
inhabit the east side of the island. They are not subject 
to the Chinese, and are said to be continually at war with 
them. Inhabiting a country covered with lolly mountains, 
they are said to subsist mostly on the produce of the chase 
ana by fishing. 

The Chinese portion of Tai-wan is divided into four dis- 
tricts, which, from south to north, are Fung-shan-hian, 
TaY-wan-hian, Tshul-lo-luan, and Thang-hua-hian. The 
capital, TaT-wan-fu, is a considerable place, and has a 
garrison of 10,000 troops. The wall was built in 1725. The 
streets are straight, and intersect one another at right 
angles : they are full of shops, which are abundantty pro- 
vided with all articles of Chinese industry. The largest 
building is that which was erected by the Dutch during 
their short sway in TaX-wan. There is still a small church 
built by the Dutch. It is stated that 1000 junks can anchor 
in the harbour; but as the single entrance, at spring-tides, 
has but from nine to ten feet of water, only vessels of 
moderate aize can enter it. There was formerly another 
entrance, which had a greater depth of water, and for the 
protection of which the Dutch nad built the fortress of 
Zelandia ; but it is said that this entrance has been filled 
up with sand. The commerce of Uiis place with China is 
considerable. Wu-teaou-lriang, which was visited by Lind- 
say in 1832. has a harbour, which was then crowded with 
junks and numerous coasting vessels which brought the pro- 



duce of the country, especially rice and sugar, to tins place. 
Tan-shuy-kiang, at the embouchure of the river Tsa-Uuiy- 
khy, is at the innermost recess of a fine bay, which m Urge 
enough for a numerous fleet, but has not been vurtM by 
Europeans. The best harbour is near the northern ev 
tremity of the island, and is called Ky-long-shai : the 
Dutch call it Quelong. It is capacious enough to contain 
30 laree vessels, and is the station of the Chinese navy at 
the island. An active commerce is carried on at this 
place. 

The commerce of the island is limited to that with the 
eastern provinces of China, especially Fukian, to wjurh it 
sends its agricultural produce, with sulphur and salt, and 
from which it imports tea, raw silk, woollen and cotton 
stuffs, and other manufactures. It is stated that the num- 
ber of junks that annually enter the ports amounts to 
more than 1000. The navigation of the channel of Fukian, 
though difficult on account of the gales and the rough tea, 
is rendered much less so by the situation of the Pongha 
Islands, which offer a safe refuge in time of danger. These 
rocky islands are thirty-six in number, most of them very 
small, and a few somewhat larger. The largest ha* an 
excellent harbour, in which vessels of between nine and 
ten feet draught may anchor in security. The Chinese 
have erected some fortifications on them," as they have oc- 
casionally been taken possession of by pint**, who fre- 
quently infest the adjacent coast of China. 

Opposite the southern extremity of the eastern coast of 
Tai-wan is the island of Botol Tabago-xima. It is elevated, 
and about ten miles in circumference. It is surrounded 
by a sea without soundings, and no navigator has ever 
landed on it. It is said to be very populous. 

It appears that the island of Tai-wan was known to the 
Chinese and Japanese at an early period, but they did not 
settle on it nor subject it to their sway. When tne Dutch 
appeared in these seas, following the track of the Portu- 
guese, thev found no Chinese settlement either on the 
Ponghu Isfands or on Tai-wan. They erected some fortifi- 
cation on the Ponghu Islands, and in 1634 they built the 
fortress of Zelandia at the entrance of the harbour of 
Tai wan-fu, where there was then a small town. Ihejr built 
also a small fortress at the harbour of Ky-krag-shai. The 
protection which was thus offered to emigrants induced a 
large number of families from Fukian to settle in the 
island, and the colony rose rapidly in importance. Mean- 
while China was laid waste by the wars which terminated 
in the overthrow of the Ming dynasty and the establish- 
mt"it of the present family on the throne. The adherents 
ol he former dynasty maintained their footing longest in 
the eastern and soutnern provinces, Chekiang, Fukian, and 
Quangtun, but being pressed by their enemies, they aban- 
doned the mainland, and continued the war on the sea. 
One of their chiefs, Tshing-tshing-kung, called by toe 
Europeans Koxinga, sailed, after the loss of a battle, to the 
Pongnu Islands, and occupied them. Hence he proceeded 
to Tai-wan, and finding only a very weak garrison in the 
Dutch fortress, he took it, after a siege of lour months, in 
1662. Thus the Dutch lost the island, after baring been 
in possession of it for twenty-eight years. T«hwy-cVhin^- 
kung, the new king of TaT-wan, favoured the settling of his 
countrymen, the inhabitants of Fukian, and thus the island 
in a short time was converted into a Chinese colony. He 
was also favourable to the English, who had, during his 
reign, a commercial establishment on the island* from 
which they carried on an active commerce with Amoy. 
The province of Fukian, which continued its opposition to 
the victorious Mantchoos longer than any other part of 
China, had been compelled to submit to their sway; and 
as Tshing-tshing-kung had died, and the throne of Tai-wan 
was occupied by a minor, a Chinese fleet in 1682 took 
possession of the Ponghu Islands. The Chinese were also 
preparing a descent on Tai-wan, when* in 1683, the council 
which governed in the name of the young prince thought 
it most prudent to surrender the island to the court of 
Peking without a war. 

(Pere du Mailla, Lettres idifiantes et curieuses, vol* 
xviii. ; Klaproth's Description de I Isle de Formate* «r» 
traite de livres Chinois, in Mbmoires relati/s d tAsie; La 
Perouse, Voyage auiour du Monde ; and Lindsay's Vofagt 
of the vessel Amherst along the coast of China, in Par" 
(iameniarv Reports, 1831.) 

TALAPOINS is the name given by the Portuguese, aad 
alter them by other European nations, to the BuddhM 



Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



f At 

£Gita» tir rather monks, of 8iam, and is supposed to be 
•ived from the fan which they always cany, usually 
toade of a leaf of the palmyra-tree, and hence, says Craw- 
ford (Jfmrrtal of Embassy to Siam, p. 358), denominated 
by the 8an9crit word Talpat. Tal is the common Indian 
flame for the palmyra ; and the oldfcr travellers give Ta- 
Japa as the Siamese word for a fan. In the Pali (or learned 
tongue) theTalapoins of Siam are said to be called Thayn- 
ka ; but in the common language of the country they are 
spoken of, as well as to, simply by the term Chau-cou, or 
Chau-ca, which signifies My lord (or literally lord of me), 
the first of the two forms being that commonly used, the 
ftther that employed to express extraordinary inferiority on 
the part of tne speaker. (La Loubere, Du Royaume de 
8hm % i. 407.) Mr. Crawfurd states that they are called 
Phra, which he says is a Pali word signifying Lord, ap- 
plied also to Gautama or Buddha, to the king, to the white 
elephant, to the idols of Buddha, &c. By the Burmese 
the Talapoins are said to be called Rahans. whence seems 
to come the name Raulihs, given to them dv the Moham- 
inedans ; as by the Chinese they are called Ho-changi ; in 
Tibet, Lama-seng or Lamas ; and in Japan, Bonzes. (Pre- 
totf, Hist aire Generate des Voyages, vi. 328 ; and Dr. Pr. 
Bwhanan, * On the Religion and Literature of the Bur- 
ma,' in Asiatic Researches, vol. vi.) In Ceylon the name 
for the ordinary priests is stated to be 'firounnanse ; but, 
as the novices are said to be styled Saman Eroo Ounnanse, 
ind certain inspectors, exercising a general superintend- 
ence over the temples, Naike Ounnanse arid MahanaTke 
Ounnanse, it would seem that the name for priests of all 
kinds is Ounnanse. ( Joinville, * On the Religion and Man- 
ners of the People of Ceylon,' m Astatic Researches, vol. 
vii.) 8*tnana, or Somona, according to Dr. Buchanan, is 
a title eiven in Burma both to the priests and to the images 
of Buddha; whence the Buddhists are often called Sama- 
nians. It is derived, he says, from the Sanscrit word Saman, 
agnirying gentleness or affability. 

Ample information on the subject of the Talapoins is 
£mn by La Lonbere, who visited Siam in 1687-8, in 
q^ fyofett wyfrchn the French king, in his work entitled 
'DuRovmme de Siam/ 2 vols. 12mo., Amsterdam, 1691, 
vol. i., chaps. 17, 18, 19, 21, pp. 341-368 and 381-426 ; 
and by Mr. Crawford, in his 4 Journal of an Embassy from 
the Governor-General of India to the Courts of Siam and 
Cochin China' (in 1821-22), 4to., London, 1828, pp. 350, 
&c. They are, as has been stated, a species of monks 
; in communities of from ten to some hundreds, and 
; their time in devotion, religious study, and me- 
ndln begging, or rather receiving almSj for they 
«e not permitted actually to solicit charity. Their monas- 
teries, in which each monk has his separate cell, are always 
sdjoiningto some temple ; but it does not appear that the 
TWtpoins officiate as priests or ministers^ of religion in our 
sense of the term. Neither are they considered as forming 
or belonging to the literary or learned class : the pursuit 
of toy secular study is looked upon as unseemly and pro- 
to*in* Talapoin; and in fact they are mostly very 
ffi urtmt T et the instruction of youth in the elements of 
Jp%#^« to be chiefly or exclusively in their hands. 
Every ftmese, we are told, becomes a Talapoin for some 
ume. • Every male in the kingdom,' says Mr. Crawfurd, 
* oust at one period or another of his life enter the priest- 
IWtod, for however short a time. Even the king will be a 
priest for two or three days, going about fbr alms like the 
fat, and the highest officers of the government continue 
m the priesthood for some months.' Usually, it may be 
■tarised, a man goes through the ceremony of getting 
nfinaelf made a talapoin without any intention of perma- 
nently forsaking the world ; but if he enters one of the sa- 
cred communities a second time, he cannot again withdraw 
from it. The Talapoins are said to be very numerous ; but 
they teem to consist for the greater part of mere tempo- 
ivt members of the order, and of persons who have thus 
entered H for the second time iri advanced life. Its ad- 
vantages, or temptations, are, a life of idleness, exemption 
fiom taxation and from the conscription, security of sub- 
licence and comfortable raiment, together with the cere- 
monious marks of respect with which a talapoin is every- 
"lere treated. All the monasteries are endowed by the 
pfernment, or by wealthy individuals, under whose protec- 
tion they are considered to be. La Loubere has given a 
*~~ " r of One ; arid another is described in Finlayson's 
t* «?he Mfctfon to Siam and Hud m 1821-22,* 



8 



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p. 110. In their dresses of yellow cotton or silk, which 
are of the same fashion with those* of the Buddhist priests 
in Ava and Ceylon, the Talapoins of Siam present a highly 
favourable Contrast to the rags and squalidity of the gene- 
ral population. On the other hand, a talapoin is not only 
separated from society by being condemned to celibacy, 
and is prohibited from possessing property, but is expected 
to observe very strictly several of the precepts of the 
riational religion whicli are very little attended to by any- 
body else, especially the prohibitions against the slaying 
of animals (although they will eat them when slain), steal- 
ing, adultery, lying, and drinking wine. There aire differ- 
ent orders of Talapoins, and La Loubere says there are 
also female Talapoins, whom he calls Talapouines ; but 
these, according to Crawford, are only a few old women 
who are allowed to live in the unoccupied cells of some of 
the monasteries. The national head of the Talapoins, 
styled the Son-krat, is appointed to that dignity by the 
king, and always resides in the royal palace. 

TALAVETIA DE LA HEYNA, or LA REAL, a 
large town of Spain, formerly in the province «f Toledo, 
but now, since the late division of the Spanish territory, 
the capital of the province of its name. It is situated on 
the right bank of the Tagus, at the end of an extensive 
and well cultivated plain, 38° 52' N. lat., 6° 39' W. long. 
It was called by the Romans Ebora Talabriga, as the in- 
scriptions and remains found in its territory snow. It has 
a fine Gothic Church, the foundation of the celebrated 
Rodri£o Ximenez, archbishop of Toledo, the author of a 
history of the Arabs and a Latin Chronicle of Spain, about 
the beginning of the thirteenth century. The town is 
badly built, and the streets are narrow and crooked. The 
population does not exceed 12,000, who are chiefly occu- 
pied in the manufacture of pottery and hardware, for 
which Talavera is famous all over Spain. A large silk 
manufactory, which belongs to the government, employs 
also many of the population. In Julv, 1809, Talavera was 
the scene of a battle between the British under Wellington 
(then General Wellesley) and the French commanded by 
Jourdan. The battle was long and obstinately contested, 
but it ended in the complete defeat of the French. The 
exhausted condition of the English troops, who were, 
without provisions, prevented them from following tip' 
their advantage and pursuing the enemy. There is an- 
other tdwn, in La Mancha, called Talavera laVieja,or 
4 the old/ 

TALC, a mineral which occurs crystallized and massive, 
and it is probable that some distinct species of minerals 
have been so called. Primary form of Che crystal a rhom 
boid, but usually occurs in the secondary form <pf hexa- 
gonal laminae, and sometimes in long prisms. Cleavage' 
distinct, perpendicular to the axis. It is easily separable 
into thin plates, which are flexible, but not elastic. It 
is easily scraped with a knife, and the powder is unc- 
tuous to the touch. Colour white, green, greyish, and 
blackish-green and red. Becomes negatively electrical by 
friction ; lustre pearly. Transparent ; translucent ; opaque. 
Specific gravity 2 '713. 

Crystallized talc is mostly white, or of a light green 
colour ; is met with in serpentine rocks in small quantity, 
with carbonate of lime, actinolite, steatite, and massive 
talc, &c. It is found in the mountains of Salzburg and 
the Tyrol : it occurs in many other parts of the world, as 
in Cornwall, in Kynan's Cove, where a bed of it underlies 
serpentine. It also occurs in Scotland, in Glen Tilt, 
Perthshire ; and in Saxony, Silesia, and Piedmont, &c. 

The massive varieties of talc are less flexible than the 
crystallized: they are principally of an apple-green colour,' 
and sometimes of a radiated structure. It is met with in 
considerable quantity in beds in micaceous schistus, gneiss, 
and serpentine. 

8ome of the varieties of talc are infusible ; others be 
come white, arid yield a small button of enamel with 
borax. 

Indurated talc is massive, of a greenish grey colour ; the 
structure is schistose and curved : it is of a shining and 
sometimes of a pearly lustre, and somewhat translucent. 
It is soft arid rather unctuous to the touch. Its specific 
gravity is 2 # 9. 

It occurs in primitive mountains in clay slate and ser- 
pentine, in several countries on the continent of Europe : 
in Britain, in Perthshire and Banffshire in Scotland, and 
in the Shetland Islands. 



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T A L 



According to Vauquelin, lamellar talc < 

Silica 62 

Magnesia . . . 27 
Alumina • • 1*8 
Oxide of iron • • • .3*2 
Water . . . . • 6 

8teatite, chlorite, and other magnesian minerals are 
nearly allied to mica, and they are by some nnneralogists 
considered as varieties of the same substance. 

TALEOALLA. Mr. O. R. Gray makes the Megapo- 
diiruB the third and last subfemily of his Palamedeid* 
(Palamkdka, Linn.). . 

The Megapodiinm comprise the following genera:— 
Talegalla, Less. (AUctura, Lath.; Talegallus, Less.; 
Nutnida, James ; Catheturus, 8w.) ; Megapodius, Quoy et 
Gaim. [MEOAPoonDJE ; Cracid*, vol. vin., p. 132] ; Jfa- 
sites f J . Gcoffr. ; Menura, Shaw (Parkinsomus, Bechst. ; 
Megapodhu t Vi*gh) [Manuka]; AlectheltOi Less, (nee 
Swains.) # [Cracida, vol. viii., p. 133J. 

We proceed in Uub article to noUce the genera Taie- 
galla, Leipoa, and Megapodius, the natural history of 
which, especially with regard to their habits and nidiftca- 
tion, has lately been satisfactorily made out. 

And first oi 

Talegalla. 

Generic Character*— Bi\\ very robust, very thick, one- 
third of the length of the head compressed above, with 
the upper mandible convex ; nostrils basal, lateral, oval- 
oblong, pierced in a large membrane ; lower mandible 
less high but wider than the upper, nearly straight below, 
with smooth edges, the branches widened at the base, and 
that width filled up by a feathered membrane ; cheeks 
entirely naked ; head and neck furnished with feathers 
with simple barbules. Wings rounded, moderate, the first 
quill very short, the second rather longer, the third longest 
of all, the fourth and filth diminishing in length after the 
third.' Tail rather long, rounded ; tarsi rather robust, mo- 
derately long, furnished with large scutella in front ; toes 
rather long, the middle longest, the external shortest ; the 
three front toes furnished at their origin with a membra- 
nous border, which is widest between the external and 
middle toes; claws convex, flattened below, slightly 
curved and moderately robust ; the hind-toe long, resting 
entirely on the ground, and furnished with an equally 
robust claw. (Lesson.) 



Head ud toot of Tblagmll*. . (Gould.) 

Example, Talegalla Lathami. 

Latham, in his General History of Birds (vol. i.), de- 
scribed and figured this bird under the name of the New 
Holland Vulture ; but, correcting his error, he, in the 
tenth volume, placed it among the Gallinaceous Birds, 
with the generic name of A lectur a ..which had been pre- 
viously employed to designate a group of Flycatchers. 

M. Lesson places the genus at the end of the Phasia- 
nidie. 

Mr. Swainson, in his Classification of Birds (vol. i., 
1836), treating of the Vulturidte, notices this species, 
under the name of the New Holland Vulture, as being so 
like a rasorial bird, that some authors have hesitated (not 
having seen a specimen) as to what order it really be- 
longed. * So completely indeed,* says he, * has nature dis- 
guised this rare and extraordinary vulture in the semblance 
of that type which it is to represent in its own family, 
that it has even been classed by one writer with the Me- 
tiura of the same Continent ; ana it must be confessed that 
if clear conceptions oi the difference between analogy and 



affinity are not entertained, such a classification baa mmm 
plausible reasons to recommend it. In fact, the feet of 
the two birds are formed nearly on the same principle : 
but, then, so are those of Ortnonyx, a little scanaoriei 
bird not much bigger than a robin. All three genera, in 
short, are remarkable for their large disproportio na bla' 
feet, long and slightly curved claws, and the equality of 
length, or nearly so, of the outer and the middle toe* It 
is by instances such as these that we perceive the fall ex- 
tent of those unnatural combinations which result from 
founding our notions of classification from one set of cha- 
racters, and forgetting to look at the full consequences of 
carrying those notions into extended operation. Nor is 
this the only peculiarity of the New Holland Vulture; 
for, unlike all others of its family, it possesses eighteen 
feathers in its tail. *An examination of the bill/ Mr. 
Swainson gives a cut of it, * which is decidedly raptorial, 
joined with many other considerations, shows tnat all 
these are but analogical relations to the Rasores, while the 
real affinities of the bird are in the circle of the Vulturid*? % 
of which it forms the rasorial type. A perfect specimen 
of this very rare vulture, now before us (procured by Mr. 
Allan Cunningham in the forests adjoining Van Diemen's 
Land), enables us to speak of its structure from personal 
examination.' In the synopsis to Mr. Swainsoris second 
volume (1837), we find it in the family Vulturidet, under 
the name of Catheturus (which cannot be retained), be- 
tween Neophron and Gypaetus, recorded as the rasorial 
type of the Vulturidee. And yet it is no bird of prey at 
all. Latham, in his tenth volume, and Lesson, were right 
in considering it a rasorial species. 

Mr. Gould, to whom we are indebted for a full and 
satisfactory account of the habits of this extraordinary 
bird, to which we shall presently advert, modestly says:— 
4 After all the facts that have been stated, I trust it will 
be evident that its natural situation is among the Ra*ore* % 
and that it forms one of a great family of birds peculiar to 
Australia and the Indian Islands, of which Megapodht* 
forms a part ; and in confirmation of this view 1 may add, 
that the sternum has the two deep emarginations so truly 
characteristic of the Gallinacete ; at all events it is in no 
way allied to the Vulturida*, and is nearly as far removed 
from Menura: It seems to us that Talegalla Lathami 
may be considered, in a degree, as the representative of 
the turkey in Australia. 

Description.— Adult male : whole of the upper surface, 
wings, and tail, blackish-brown ; the feathers of the under 
surface blackish-brown at the base, becoming sihrexy-grey 
at the tip ; skin of the head and neck deep pink-red. thinly 
sprinkled with short hair-like blackish-brown feathers; 
wattle bright yellow, tinged with red where it unites with 
the red of the neck; bill black; irides and feet brown* 

Female about a fourth less than the male in sis*, but 
so closely the same in colour as to render a separate de- 
scription unnecessary. She also possesses the wattle, but 
not to so great an extent (Gould.) 
Size about that of a turkey. 

Mr. Gould gives the following synonyms:— New Holland 
Vulture, Lath. ; genus Alectura, ibid. ; Alectura Lathami* 
J. E. Gray; New Holland Vulture, CathHums Auatraiis\ 
Sw.; Meteagris Lindesargii, Jameson; Brush Turkey of 
the colonists; Wcelah of the aborigines of the NamoL 

Habits, Nidiflcation, $c.— Mr. Gould describes TeUgalia 
Lathami, or the Wattled Talegalla, as a gregarious bird, 
generally moving about in small companies, much alter 
the manner of the Gallinacea*, and, like some species of 
that tribe, as very shy and distrustful. When it is dis- 
turbed, he states that it readily eludes pursuit by the 
facility with which it runs through the tangled brush. If 
hard pressed, or where rushed upon by their great enemy, 
the native dog, the whole company spring upon the lower- 
most bough of some neighbouring tree, ana, by a succes- 
sion of leaps from branch to branch, ascend to the top, 
and either perch there or fly off to another part of the 
brush. They resort also to the branches of trees as a 
shelter from the sun in the middle of the day, a habit 
which Mr. Gould notices as greatly tending to their de- 
struction ; for the sportsman is enabled to take a sure aim. 
and the birds, like the ruffed grouse of America, will 
allow a succession of shots to be fired till they are all 
brought down. 

But the most remarkable circumstance connected with 
the economy oi this bird is its nidiflcation, for it < 



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of our zoological systems may be traced to the same 
source. 

Leipoa. (Gould.) 

Generic Character. — Bill nearly as long as the head, 

slender, tumescent it the base, the edges undulated and 

incurved at the ba. e, the nostrils ample, oblong, covered 

with an operculum, ind placed in a central hollow. Head 




Head and Foot of Leipom. 

subcrested. Wings ample, rounded, concave : fifth pri- 
mary quill the longest ; the tertiaries nearly as long as the 
primaries. Tail rounded, tail-feathers fourteen. Tarsi 
moderate, robust, covered with scuta anteriorly, and pos- 
teriorly with scales which are, rounded and unequal. Toes 
rather short ; lateral toes nearlv eaual. (Gould.) 

Example, Leipoa o 

Description . — Hea 
and shoulders dark ; 
from the chin to the 
late feathers, which 
the centre ; Dack ar 
three distinct bands 
near the tip of each 
lated form, particuls 
primaries brown, the 
three zigzag lines n< 
light buff, the tips of 
tail blackish-brown, 1 
feet blackish-brown. 

In size this beaut 
thdmi, and it is more 
According to Mr. Gc 
of the lowland ; JV^ 
Western Australia ; i 
of Western Australia 

Habits, Food, Nidi, 
of Australia, gives 
Gilbert, from G. Moc 
strong, the aborigina 
intelligent natives c 
Leipoa is there descr 
a tree except when c 
will frequently run it 
taken. Food genen 
The note mournful, \ 

more inward tone. kg*s deposited in a mouna 01 sana, 
the formation of which is the work of both sexes. Accord- 
ing to the natives, the birds scratch up the sand for many 
yards around, forming a mound about three feet in height, 
the inside of which is constructed of alternate layers of 
dried leaves, grasses, &c, among which twelve egejs and 
upwards are deposited, and are covered up by the birds as 
they are laid ; or, as the natives express it, * the coun- 
tenances of the eggs are never visible.' Upon these eggs 
the bird never sits, but when she has laid out her lay, as 
the henwives say, the whole are covered up, when the 
mound of sand resembles an ants nest. The eggs, which 
are white, very slightly tinged with red, and about the 
size of a common fowl's eger, are hatched by the heat of 
the sun's rays, the vegetable lining retaining sufficient 
warmth during the night ; they are deposited in layers, no 
two eggs being suffered to lie without a division. The 
natives, who are very fond of the eifgs, rob these hillocks 
two or three times in a season ; and they judge of the 
number of eggs in a mound by the quantity of feathers 
King about. If the feathers be abundant, the hillock is 
full ; and then they immediately open and take the whole. 
The bird will then begin to lay again, again to be robbed, 
and will frequently lay a third time. Upon questioning 
one of the men attached to Mr. Moore's expedition, he 
gave to Mr. Gilbert a similar account of its habits and 
mode of incubating ; adding, that in all the mounds they 
opened, the/ found auto almost as numerous as in an ant- 



hill ; and that fn many instance* that pirt < 
surrounding the lower portion of the eggs had become so 
hard, that they were obliged to chip round them with a 
chisel to get tne eggs out ; the insides of the mound* i 
always hot. 

Captain Grey, of the 83rd regiment, who had jost i 
from his expedition to the north-west coast, informed Mr. 
Gould that he had never fallen in with the nests but in one 
description of country, viz. where the soil was drr and sandy 
and so thickly wooded with a species of dwarf Leptotper- 
mum, that if tne traveller strays from the native path*, it ie 
almost impossible for him to force his way through, fn 
these close scrubby woods small open glades occasionally 
occur, and there the Ngow-oo constructs its nest, — a large 
heap of sand, dead grass and boughs, at least nine feet in 
diameter and three feet in height ; Captain Grey had seen 
them even larger than this. Upon one occasion only he 
saw eggs in these nests : thev were placed some distance 
from each other, and buriea in the earth. Captain Grey 
states that he is not sure of the number, but the account 
given by the natives led him to believe that at times large 
numbers were found. 

Locality.— Western Australia. Mr. Moore saw a great 
many of them about sixty miles north of Perth ; but iu 
most favourite country aDDears to be the barren sandv 



r 

Cinuucici mi jMicgujJuut u« aim cm* ftvtwum vi «vjiipgw>t 

Duoerrevi is riven. It is there stated that it would seem 

D 
it 

K 

e 
v- 
t 




Head aod foot of Mrfapodiuft. (Gould.) 

Description.— Head and crest very deep cinnamon* 
brown ; Dack of the neck and all the under surface very 
dark grey ; back and wings cinnamon-brown ; upper and 
under tail-coverts dark chestnut-brown ; tail ulactish- 
brown ; irides generally dark brown, but in some ayci 
mens light reddish-brown ; bill reddish-brown, with yellow 

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tared and feet bright orange, the scales on the front 
of the tarsi from the fourth downwards, and the scales of 
the toes, dark reddish-brown. (Gould.) 
Size about that of a common fowl. 
This is the Ooregoorga of the aborigines of the Cobourg 
Peninsula ; the Jungle-fowl of the colonists of Port Essing- 
ton- 

Habit*, Food, Nidification, #c. — On Mr. Gilbert's arrival 
at Port £s*ington his attention was attracted to numerous 
great mounds of earth which were pointed out to him by 
some of the residents as being the tumuli of the abori- 
gines. The natives, on the other hand, assured him that 
they were formed by the Jungle-fowl for the purpose of 
hatching its eggs. But this last statement appeared so 
extraordinary, and so much' at variance with the general 
habits of birds, that no one in the settlement believed 
them, and the great size of the eggs brought in by them 
at the produce of this bird strengthened the doubt of the 
veracity of their information. Mr. Gilbert however, know- 
ing the habits of Leipoa t took with him an intelligent 
native, and proceeded about the middle of November to 
Knocker's Bay, a part of Port Essington harbour compara- 
tively but lit tie known, and where he had been informed 
a number of these birds were to be seen. He landed be- 
side a thicket, and had not advanced far from the shore 
when he came to a mound of sand and shells, with a slight 
mixture of black soil, the base resting on a sandy beach, 
only a few feet above high-water mark : it was enveloped 
in the large yellow-blossomed Hibiscus, was of a conical 
fois, twenty feet in circumference at the base, and about 
fire feet high. On asking the native what it was, he 
replied, * Oregoorga Ramoal ' (Jungle-fowl's house or 
nest). Mr. Gilbert scrambled up the sides of it, and found 
a young bird in a hole about two feet deep ; the nestling, 
apparently only a few days old, was lying on a few dry 
withered leaves. The native assured Mr. Gilbert that it 
would be of no use to look for eggs, as there were no traces 
of the old birds having lately been there. Mr. Gilbert 
took the utmo*t cat© of the vonug bird, placed it in a mo- 
derate-sized introduced a large portion 
of sand, and ndian corn, which it took 
rather Aee|] was wild and intractable, 
and it efltet the third day. While it 
remained in incessantly employed in 
teratching 1 heaps, and Mr. Gilbert 
remarks that toe rapidity with which it threw the 
sand from one end of the box to the other was quite sur- 
prising fox so young and small a bird, its size not being 
larger than that of a small quail. At night it was so rest- 
Jess that Mr. Gilbert was constantly kept awake by the 
noise it made in endeavouring to escape. In scratching 
up the sand the bird only employed one foot, and having 
grasped a handful as it were, threw the sand behind it 
with bat little apparent exertion, and without shifting its 
standing position on the other leg: this habit, Mr. Gilbert 
observes, seemed to be the result of an innate restless dis- 
pos&ea and a desire to use its powerful feet, and to have 
but little connection with its feeding ; for, although In- 
dian corn was mixed with the sand, Mr. Gilbert never 
detected the bird in picking any of it up while thus em- 



Gilbert continued to receive the eggs without any 
opportunity of aeeing them taken from the ground until the 
beginning of February, when, on again visiting Knocker's 
Bay, he saw two taken from a depth of six feet, in one of 
the largest mounds he had met with. In this instance the 
holes ran down in an oblique direction from the centre 
towards the outer slope of the hillock, so that although 
the eggs were six feet deep from the summit, they were 
only two or three feet from the side. ' The birds,* says 
! Mr. Gilbert in continuation, * are said to lay but a single 
eg£ m each hole, and after the egg is deposited the earth 
is immediately thrown down lightly until the hole is filled 
up fibe upper part of the mound is then smoothed and 
Bonded over. It is easily known when a Jungle-fowl has 
lata recently excavating, from the distinct impressions of 
feet on the top and sides of the mound, and the earth 
; so lightly thrown over, that with a slender stick the 
lidn or the hole is readily detected, the ease or diffi- 
r of thrusting the stick down indicating the length of 
! that may have elapsed since the bird's operations. 
tftr it ia easy enougn ; but to reach the eggs requires 
Btfle exertion and perseverance. The natives dig 



TAL 

them up with their hands alone, and only make sufficient 
room to admit their bodies, and to throw out the earth 
between their legs ; by grubbing with their fingers alone 
they are enabled to follow the direction of the hole with 
greater certainty, which will sometimes, at a depth of 
several feet, turn off abruptly at right angles, its direct 
course being obstructed by a clump of wood or some other 
impediment. Their patience is however often put to 
severe trials. In the present instance the native dug down 
six times in succession to a depth of at least six or seven 
feet without finding an egg, and at the last attempt came 
up in such a 6tate of exhaustion that he refused to try 
again ; but my interest was now too much excited to 
relinquish the opportunity of verifying the native's state- 
ments, and by the offer of an additional reward I induced 
him to try again : this seventh trial proved successful, and 
my gratification was complete when the native with equal 
pride and satisfaction held up an egg, and, after two or 
three more attempts, produced a second: thus proving 
how cautious Europeans should be of disregarding the 
narrations of these poor children of nature, because they 
happen to sound extraordinary or different from anything 
with which they were previously acquainted.' 

Upon another occasion Mr. Gfilbert and his native, after 
an hour's excessive labour, obtained an esg from the 
depth of about five feet. It was in a perpendicular posi- 
tion. The holes in this mound (which was fifteen feet 
high and sixty in circumference at the base, and, like the 
majority of those that he had seen, so enveloped in thickly 
foliaged trees as to preclude the possibility of the sun*s 
rays reaching any part of it) commenced at the outer edge 
of the summit and ran down obliquely towards the centre : 
their direction therefore, Mr. Gilbert observes, is not uni- 
form. The mound was quite warm to the hands. 

How the young effect their escape does not appear ; 
some natives told Mr. Gilbert that the nestlings effected 
their escape unaided ; but others said that the old birds at 
the proper time scratched down and released them. The 
natives say that only a single pair of birds are ever found 
at a mound at a time. Our space will not permit a more 
detailed account of these highly curious mounds ; but the 
reader should consult Mr. Gould's highly valuable work 
for other particulars : we can only spare room for Mr. 
Gilbert's description of the general habits of this interest- 
ing species. 

• The Jungle-fowl is almost exclusively confined to the 
dense thickets immediately adjacent to the sea-beach : it 
appears never to go far inland, except along the banks of 
creeks. It is always met with in pairs or quite nolitary, 
and feeds on the ground, its food consisting of roots which 
its powerful claws enable it to scratch up with the utmost 
facility, and also of seeds, berries, and insects, particularly 
the larger species of Coleoptera. It is at all times a very 
difficult bird to procure ; for although the rustling noise 
produced by its stiff pinions when flying away be fre- 
quently heard, the biro! itself is seldom to be seen. Its 
flight is heavy and unsustained in the extreme ; when first 
disturbed it invariably flies to a tree, and on alighting 
stretches out its head and neck in a straight line with its 
body, remaining in this position as stationary and motion- 
less as the branch upon which it is perched : if however • 
it becomes fairly alarmed, it takes a horizontal but labo- 
rious flight for about a hundred yards with its legs hang- 
ing down as if broken. I did not myself detect any note 
or cry, but from the natives description and imitation of 
it, it much resembles the clucking of the domestic fowl, 
ending with a scream like that of the peacock. I ob- 
served that the birds continued to lay from the latter part 
of August to March, when I left that part of the country ; 
and, according to the testimony of trie natives, there is 
only an interval of about four or five months, the driest 
and hottest part of the year, between their seasons of in- 
cubation. The composition of the mound appears to in- 
fluence the colouring of a thin epidermis with which the 
eggs are covered, and which readily chips off, showing 
the true shell to be white : those deposited in the black 
soil are always of a dark reddish-brown ; while those from 
the sandy hillocks near the beach are of a dirty yellowish 
white : they differ a good deal in size, but in form they 
all assimilate, both ends being equal : they are three 
inches and five lines long by two inches and three lines 
broad.' {Birds of Australia.) 

Mr. Gould has thus given the history of these three 



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nearly allied genera, forming, as he observes, part of a 
great family of birds whose range will be found to extend 
from the Philippines through the islands of the Indian 
Archipelago to Australia. Me gapodius Tumulus is, ac- 
cording to him, rather numerously spread over the whole 
of the Cobourg Peninsula on the north coast of the Aus- 
tralian continent, where the British settlement of Port 
Essington is now established ; and he thinks that future 
research will require us to assign to it a much wider 
range, probably over the whole extent of the north 
coast 



Megopoditt* Tumulus, Mound- raising Merapode, with nttt in the distance. 
(From Gould.) 

TALENT (rnXavroiO was the highest denomination of 
Greek weights and money, and was also commonly used 
by Greek writers as the translation of words signifying a 
certain weight in other languages. It is necessary to ob- 
serve that the talent is popeny only a denomination of 
weight. There was no coin of that name ; and when used 
in reference to money, it meant originally a talent-weight 
of gold or silver, and afterwards a certain quantity of cur- 
rent money, the weight of which (supposing the real and 
nominal value of the coin to be the same) amounted to a 
talent. 

I. The Hebrew Talent, or Kikkaji (133), contained 

T • 

3000 shekels, and, according to Mr. Hussey's computation, 
its weight was 93 lbs. 12ozs. avoirdupois, and its value as 
fi/ivr-money 396/. 5*. 1 Od. f Shekel.] The Hebrews had 
no gold money of their own. 

II. The Greek Talent. 

The following were the principal denominations of 
weight and money among the Greeks:— Spokfa &P*XP*i> 
uva, TaXavrov, of which the 6po\6c was the smallest. Their 
relative proportions are shown in the annexed table : — 
Obol 



6 



Drachma 



600 | 



100 



Mina 



36,000 



6000 



I 



60 



Talent. 



Besides this there was another standard, the chief weight 
of which was called the commercial mina(rj /§** jrJpropu^ , 
and contained 138 drachmae, ' according to the staadsrd 
weights in the silver mint ' (see a decree in Bockh, Corp. 
Inscrip., i. 123, $ 4) ; that is, not that a commcraaj mma 
contained 138 commercial drachmae, but that this «m* 
quite a different standard from that used for silver mont-v. 
its unit being to that of the latter in the ratio of 138 
: 100 ; while the relative proportions of the weights wm 
the same in both systems. The following table showtthc 
value of the Attic commercial standard :— 



Obol . 




• 


lb. OS. 

• • • • 


ST. 

15 29 


Drachma 


• 


• 


• • • • 


91-77 


Mina 


• 


. 


1 q 


99-69 


Talent 


• 


• 


75 5| 


14-69 



This system prevailed throughout Greece, but the actual 
values of the talent varied in different states. Most of ( 
these variations may be included under two chief standards, j 
namely, the Attic and the Aeginetan. 

1. The Attic Talent.— The value of the Attic talent 
before the time of Solon is a matter on which we possess 
hardly any historical information, though we may perhaps 
arrive at a very probable result. Looking then at the j 
system after Solon had remodelled the coinage [Solon], 
we find that the Attic silver money was celebrated for its 
purity ; and therefore from the coins of that period which 
still exist we may determine the value of the standard 
with tolerable certainty. Now the chief coin was the 
drachma of silver, the average weight of which, from the 
time of Solon to that of Alexander the Great, is found to 
be 66*5 grains. From this we get the following values in 
avoirdupois weight : — 

lb. os. gr. 

Obol 1108 

Drachma 66*5 

Mina. . . ..15 8375 

Talent . . 56 15J 100 32 

This was the standard always used for silver money, and 
was therefore called * the silver standard.' 



These weights were used for all commodities, except such 
as were expressly required by law to be sold by the sUvcj 
standard. 

This commercial standard is most probably, as Bock It 
has shown, the real antient Attic standard, as it exut^d 
before the time of Solon. The purpose of Solon's change 
was to lower the value of money, in order to reVievi 
debtors. The only direct information we have of the na- 
ture of the change is the statement of Plutarch, that 
• Solon made the mina of 100 drachmae, which bad for- 
merly contained 73,' which is probably a mistake madr 
by Plutarch, through not understanding the words ot 
Androtion, whose authority he follows. The true meaning 
seems undoubtedly to be, that out of the same quantity <tf 
silver which in the antient standard made 73 drachmae, 
Solon coined 100, or a mina ; that is, that he lowered the 
standard in the ratio of 100 : 73. Now the ratio of the 
commercial to the silver standard is 138 : 100 =r 100 : 72 g. 
Hence the commercial standard and the old Attic only 
differed by a small fraction. 

Still this ratio of 100 : 73 is a very singular one for Solon 
to have adopted. The most probable explanation is that 
8olon meant to lower the standard by a qu&rter, that U 
in the ratio of 100 : 75, and that the new coinage ( by an 
accident of not uncommon occurrence in minting; 'nu 
found, when actually made, to be a little too light, namely 
in the ratio of 72 J| : 100, or, in round numbers, 73 : IU 
to the old money, instead of 75 : 100 ; and that then, U 
preserve the purity of the Attic mint, this, its actual value 
was adopted as its nominal value. 

This view is strongly confirmed by a reference to an- 
other standard mentioned by Greek writers, namely, tht 
Kuboic talent* This talent was often reckoned as equal 
to the Attic (compare Herod., ill. 89, with Pollux, ix. 6. ; 
but it is also described with greater precision by Aelian 
( Far. Hist., i. 22), as having to the Attic the ratio ol 
72 : 70, which is the same as 75 : 72f). Now if we suj> 
pose that the intended value of Solon's talent had to it« 
real value the ratio of 75 : 72 g, we have this intended 
value equal (neglecting a very small fraction) to \h< 
EuboTc talent. Hence it is inferred that Solon, proposing 
to lower the Attic standard, and perceiving the advantage 
of assimilating it to that of the neighbouring island c 
Euboea, intended to adopt the latter for his new starxlanj 
but that in fact a slight difference was caused by accidenl 

The Romans reckoned both the Attic and EuboTc U 
lents as equal to 80 Roman pounds (compare P0I3 b. xxi 
14, with xxii. 26, and Liv. xxxvii. 45, with xxxviu. 38;. 

The Attic commercial standard underwent an alteratioi 
by the edict above referred to, which made 

its mina = 150 drachmae (silver) 

its 5 mime = 6 minae (commercial) 

its talent = 65 minae (commercial) 

In this new standard the five-minse weight was eqosd 1 

71b. 13$ ox. 1496 gre., and the talent to 851b*. 2|o 

70-7 grs. 

The Athenians took the greatest care of their stsvndsn 
of weight. The principal set were lodged in the Acr> 
polis, and there were other sets in the Prytaneum, 1 
Piraeus, and at Eleusis. 

The highest coin used by the Athenians was the tctn 
drachm, or piece of four drachmae ; the mina and tsUel 
were never coined, but were paid in drachmae, obeli, icj 
The following table shows the value of all the denoosam 
tions of Attic silver money, according to the ccmpctatio 
of Mr. Hussey :— 



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T A L 



9 



TAL 









s 


*. 


d. 


Jbrthingt. 


Chalcus (of copper) 


. 








•8125 


JObol . 


• • 


• 








1*625 


*Obol . 


• • 


• 








3-25 


Obol . 


• • 


. 






1 


25 


Diobolon 


• • 


• 






3 


1 


Triobolon 


• • 


, 






4 


35 


Tetrobolon 


. . 


. 






6 


2 


Drachma 


• • 


# 






9 


3 


Didrachm 


# m 


, 




1 


7 


2 


Tetrad rachm 


. , 


. 




3 


3 




Mina 


# # 


. 


4 


1 


3 




Talent . 


. . 


. 


243 


15 







2. The Aeginetan talent. It is a disputed question 
*hat was the ratio of the Aeginetan to the Attic talent. 
Pollux (ix. 76, 86) says that the Aeginetan talent con- 
tained 10,000 Attic drachmae, and the Aeginetan drachma 
10 Attic obols, which would give the ratio of 5 : 3 for that 
of the Aeginetan to the Attic talent. According to this 
statement, the Aeginetan drachma weighed 110 grains 
English. Now the existing coins give an average ot only 
96 grains ; and the question therefore is whether we are to 
follow Pollux or the coins. Mr. Hussey takes the latter 
course, explaining the statement of Pollux as referring to 
the debased drachma of later times, which was about 
equal to the Roman denarius. Bockh adheres to the state- 
ment of Pollux, explaining the lightness of the existing 
coins bv the well-known tendency of the antient mints to 
depart from the full value. He has supported his view by 
some very strong and ingenious arguments, and on the 
whole he appears to be right. 

There were other talents used by the Greeks and Romans, 
most of which seem to have been derived from one of these 
two standards, but the accounts of antient writers respect- 
ing them are very contradictory. Their values are dis- 
cussed at length by Bockh and Hussey. 

The most important variations of the Aeginetan stan- 
dard were those used in Macedonia, Corinth, and Sicily. 

The above talents were all reckoned in silver money. 
There was also a talent of gold, which was much smaller. 
It was used chiefly by the Greeks of Italy and Sicily, whence 
it was called the Sicilian talent as well as the gold talent. 
It was equal to 6 Attic drachmae, that is, about } oz. and 
71 grs. It was divided by the Italian Greeks into 24 
nummiy and afterwards into 12, each nummus containing 
2jlitrae. When Homer uses the word talent, we must 
always understand by it this small one of gold. In other 
classical writers the word generally means the Attic talent. 

(Bockh, Metrolog. tinier such. ; Hussey, Antient 
Wattes and Money; Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Jafouities, 1842.) 

TALE'S. At common law, when the number of jury- 
men in attendance was so small, or so much diminished 
by challenges that a full jury could not be had, a writ 
(then in Latin) issued to the sheriff, commanding him to 
mmmon such stales) other fit persons, &c. for the purpose 
of making up trie jury. The jurors so procured were called 
talesmen, from the Latin word used m the writ. By the 
statute 35 Hen. VIII., c. 6, the defect of jurors might, at 
the request of the plaintiff or defendant in an action, be 
Ripplied from such, other able persons of the said county 
then present, and these were ordinarily called, from the 
fords in the Latin writ, ' tales de circumstantibus.' Sub- 
«<juent statutes extended and regulated the application of 
tm§ statute. But the act now in force is 6 Geo. IV., c. 50 ; 
the 37th section, which contains the existing law on the 
subject, and is in the following words : — 'Where a full jury 
shall not appear before any court of assize or Nisi prius, 
or before any of the superior civil courts of the three 
cooanes palatine, or before any court of great sessions, or 
w bert, after appearance of a full jury, by challenge of any 
of the parties, the jury is likely to remain untaken for 
defimlt of jurors, every such court, upon request made for 
the king by any one thereto authorised or assigned by the 
court. or on request made by the. parties, plaintiff or defen- 
dant, demandant or tenant, or their respective attorneys, in 
wy action or suit, whether popular or private, shall com- 
mand the sheriff or other minister, to whom the making 
of the return shall belong, to name and appoint, as often 
ttneed shall require, so many of such other able men of 
the county then present as shall make up a full jury; and 
we aheriff or other minister aforesaid shall, at such com- 
mand of the court, return such men duly qualified as shall 
P.C. No. 1489. 



be present, or can be found to serve on such jury, and shall 
add and annex their names to the former panel, provided 
that where a special jury shall have been struck for the 
trial of any issue, the talesman shall be such as shall be 
empannelled upon the common jury panel to serve at the 
same court, if a sufficient number of such men can be 
found ; and the kine, by any one so authorised or assigned 
as aforesaid, and all and every the parties aforesaid, shall 
and may, in each of the cases aforesaid, have their respec- 
tive challenges to the jurors so added and annexed, and 
the court shall proceed to the trial of every such is&ue 
with those jurors who were before empannelled, together 
with the talesmen so newly added and annexed, as if all 
the said jurors had been returned upon the writ of precept 
awarded to try the issue.' (2 Williams's Saunders, 349 n. 
(1).) rJuRY.]_ 

TALIACOTIUS, GASPAR, TAGLIACOZIO, or TAG- 
LIACOZZI, was professor of anatomy and surgery at Bo- 
logna, where he died in 1553, at the age of 64 years. His 
name is now known chiefly through his reputation for re- 
storing lost noses; but during his life he was equally cele- 
brated for his knowledge of anatomy and his excellence as 
a lecturer. These last are indeed the only qualities for 
which he is praised in a tablet put up after his death in 
one of the nails of the school at Bologna. A statue 
erected in the amphitheatre formerly recorded his skill in 
operating by representing him with a nose in his hand. 

Some writers have spoken of the original Taliacotian 
operation as a mere fable, pretending that it never could 
have been followed by success. But several credible wit- 
nesses have recorded that they either saw Taliacotius 
operating, or saw patients to whom he had restored noses 
which very closely resembled those of natural formation. 
The truth is that the operation which Taliacotius really 
performed is not commonly known ; the generally-enter- 
tained notion of it being derived from the accounts of 
those who had some reason to misrepresent it. It will 
therefore be worth while to give a somewhat detailed ac- 
count of it. 

The work in which it is described was first published 
forty-four years after Tana^ing* death, with the title * De 
curtorum chirurgia per insitionem libri duo, Venetiis 
15S7, folio.' It is divided into two parts, of which the first 
is chiefly devoted to a disquisition upon the dignity of the 
nose, lips, and ears, and upon their offices and general 
construction, and the theory of the operation, which he 
considers to be exactly analogous to that of grafting upon 
trees. In the second book he describes the mode of ope- 
rating, dwelling first at great length upon the necessary 
number and character of the assistants, the kind of bed to 
be used, its position with regard to light, &c, and several 
other minor matters, on all which he speaks like one tho- 
roughly experienced in surgery. In the operation itself 
he used the following plan : — A part of the skin of the 
upper arm of the proper size, and bounded by two longi- 
tudinal parallel lines, being marked out over the middle of 
its fore part, was seized between the blades of a very 
broad pair of nippers. Each blade was about three inches 
broad, so that it might include the whole length of the 
portion of skin to be removed, and had a long slit near its 
edge through which a narrow knife could be passed. The 
portion of skin of which the new nose was to be formed 
being raised up by the assistant who held it in the nippers, 
Taliacotius with a long spear-shaped knife transfixed it 
through the slits in the blades of the nippers, and cut it 
through the whole length of the latter from above down- 
wards. Through the aperture thus made, which might be 
compared to a very broad incision for a seton, a band 
covered with appropriate medicines was passed, and by 
being drawn a little every day, the wound was kept open 
like a seton wound. When all the inflammation nad 
passed away, which was usually in about fourteen days, 
the flap of skin was cut through at its upper end, and thus 
a piece bounded by three sides of a parallelogram was 
raised from the arm, and remained attached to it by no- 
thing but its fourth side or lower end. In this state it was 
allowed to cicatrize all over, till it acquired the character 
of a loose process of skin. This being, after some days, 
completed, and the piece of skin having become firm and 
hard, it was deemed ready for engrafting. The head 
therefore being cleanly shaved, a dress and bandage of 
singular construction, intended for the maintenance of the 
arm in its due position, were carefully fitted on. Then 

VoL.XXIV.-C 



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these being laid aside, the Beat of the old nose was scarified 
in a triangular space till it had a smooth bleeding surface. 
A pattern of this surface, being taken on paper, was trans- 
ferred to the inner surface of the piece of skin on the arm, 
and a portion of the latter, of the same form and size, was 
in the same manner made raw. Sutures were placed in 
corresponding parts of the edges of both these wounds, 
and they were brought together, the arm being held up 
with its fore part towards the face, and the palm of the 
hand upon the head, by the dress and bandage already 
mentioned. The parts were thus retained in apposition 
for about twenty aays, at the end of which, the surfaces 
having united, the bandages were taken off, and the por- 
tion of skin which was now affixed to both the face and 
the arm was cut away from the latter. It almost directly 
became white and cold, but it did not slough, and gra- 
dually increased in vascularity and heat. In about four- 
teen days it was usually firm and secure in its place ; and 
as soon as this was evident, the skin was shaped into the 
resemblance of a nose by cutting it according to carefully- 
measured lines and by forming the nostrils in it. A tedious 
succession of operations were performed upon it before the 
repair was deemed complete ; but at length it is said that 
in general the restoration was truly admirable. Taliacotius 
himself however admits that it hid, even in the best cases, 
several defects. 

After this account, no one can reasonably doubt that 
Taliacotius's operation was very often successful. That it 
should be superseded by the Indian method, as it is called, 
iu which the skin for the new nose is taken from the fore- 
head, is due to the latter being a less tedious and less 
painful operation, rather than to its being more certain of 
success. The number of instances in which later attempts 
to imitate the Taliacotian operation have failed, are due to 
its having been performed not according to the original 
method, but according to some of the plans which Talia- 
cotius is erroneously supposed to have followed. 

The indecent joke which Butler has made popular in his 
4 Hudibras ' has little foundation. Taliacotius does indeed 
discuss the propriety of taking the skin for a new nose 
from the arm 01 another person ; and he concludes that 
for several reasons it would, if it were possible, be better 
to do so : but he says he cannot imagine how it would be 
possible to keep two persons fastened together for the 
necessary time and with the necessary tranquillity, and 
that he never heard of the plan bein^ attempted. The 
tale of the nose falling of when the original proprietor of 
the skin died, is founded on an absurd story which Van 
Helmont relates to prove at how great a distance sym- 
pathy can act. A gentleman at Brussels, he says, had a 
new nose made for him by Taliacotius from the arm of a 
Bolognese poiter ; and about thirteen months afterwards, 
as he was walking in Brussels, it suddenly became cold 
iind dropped off, at the very instant at which the porter 
died at Bologna. Similar stories are told by Campanella, 
Sir Kenelm Digby, and others ; but, as already shown, 
they are not even fair satires, for Taliacotius never at- 
tempted to transfer the skin of one man to the body of 
another. 

(Biambilla, Storm delle Scoperte fatte dag It Uomini 
fflttstri Italiani, vol. ii. ; Sprengel, Geschichte der Chi- 
ru/gir, Zweiter Theil, p. 195.) 
TALIESSIN. [Wkush Lanouaob.] 
TALIO'NIS, LEX, the -aw of retaliation; the notion of 
which is that of a punishment which shall be the same in 
kind and degree as the injury. This punishment was a part 
of the Mosaic Law : * breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth 
for tooth : as he hath caused a blemish in a man, so shall 
it be done to him again' {Levit., xxiv. 20). The name 
* talio ' occurs in the provisions of the Twelve Tables : it is 
not there defined what it means, but the signification of 
the term may be collected from other places. The word 
contains the same element as the word /a/w, 'such,' or 
•like.' 
TALIPAT or TALIPOT PALM. [Corypha.] 
TALISH. [Georgia.) 

TALISMAN an Arabic word, supposed to be derived 
from the Greek teletma (riXtvpa), is a figure cast in metal 
or cut in stone, and made with certain superstitious cere- 
monies, when two planets are in conjunction, or when a 
certain star is at its culminating point. A talisman thus 
prepared is supposed to exercise an influence over the 
bearer, preserving him from disease, rendering him invul- 



nerable in battle, and so forth. They were probably used 
originally to avert disease, for we find them mcobooed ia 
the history of medicine among all antient nations. Tha 
Egyptians made use of figures of sacred animals, cuch 
as the ibis and the scarabaeus, which they wore gee*- 
rally suspended from their necks. The Arabs and the 
Turks did the same, when they were idolaters ; but alter 
their conversion to Islam, they used sentence* from 
the Koran, taken chiefly from the surah, or chapter, to- 
titled * The Incantation.' These they wore inscribed on 
rolls of vellum or paper, enclosed in a silver box, and *u*- 
pended from their neck ; or else engraven upon a signet 
ring. Military men used similar sentences from the Koran 
on the hilt or blade of their swords ; on their shield*, hel- 
mets, and other pieces of armour; or woven into their 
garments. Christian nations even were not exempt from 
this superstition. In the middle ages, relics of mints, 
consecrated candles, and rods, rosaries, &c. were employed, 
and still are, in Spain and in some parts of Italy. Tha 
African negroes have their fetich, and the American In- 
dians their medicine. 

(Reinaud, Monument* Mussulmans du Cabinet du Due 
de Blacas, Paris, 1826.) 

TALLAGE is derived, according to Lord Coke, frotn the 
law Latin word tallagium or tailagium, which, as he «aya, 
* cometh of the French word toiler, to share or cot out a 
part, and metaphorically is taken when the king or «yr 
other hath a share or, part of the value of a man s goods 
or chattels, or a share or part of the annua) revenue of hk 
lands, or puts any charge or burthen upon another; so as 
tallagium is a general word, and doth include all sub- 
sidies, taxes, tenths, fifteenths, or other burthens or charge 
put or set upon any man/ It was generally however con- 
fined in its sense to taxes received by the king. The mont 
important statute on the subject is entitled r De Tallagio 
non concedendo,' which was passed in the 34th jrear of 
Edward III. to quiet the discontent then uni versa] 
throughout the kingdom. It had arisen among the com- 
mons in consequence of the king having taken a tallage 
of all cities, boroughs, and towns without the assent of 

{>arliament. He was embroiled also with the noble* and 
andowners, from having attempted, unsuccessfully how- 
ever, to compel all freeholders of land above the value of 
twenty pounds to contribute either men or money towards 
his wars in Flanders. The first chapter of the statute is 
the most important : * Nullum tallagium vel auxijiura per 
nos, vel haeredes nostros in regno nostro ponatur, wu 
levetur sine voluntate, et assensu archiepiscoporura, epis- 
coporum, comitum, baronura, militum, burgensium. et 
aliorum liberorum communium de regno nostro * ^ No 
tallage or aid may be set or levied by us or our heirs fn 
our kingdom without the good will and assent of the arch- 
bishops, bishops, counts, barons, knights, burgesses, and 
other free men of the commons of out kingdom"). 

These words, as Lord Coke says, are * plain without any 
scruple, absolute without any saving;' and, if there conw 
have been perfect reliance on their operation, must have 
been entirely satisfactory. But the same king had jrst 
violated almost the same engagements entered mto by 
himself only six years before. (25 Edward F.. c. 5, £ *, 
• Confirmationes Chartarum :' 2 Inst., 530.) [Sctwipy- J 

TALLEYRAND-PERIGORD, CHARLES MAURICE 
DE. This extraordinary man is, and must long, perharK far 
ever, continue a mystery. In the clogc of M. de Reinnard, 
pronounced by M. de Talleyrand, in the Acadfraie de* 
Sciences Morales et Politiques, only three months before 
his own death, he said : * A minister for foreign afrair* must 
possess the faculty of appearing open, at the same time 
that he remains impenetrable ; of being in reality reserved, 
although perfectly frank in his manners.' The precept *m 
his own portrait. His power of concealing his opinions, 
and Jus steady adherence to the principle of allowing 
attacks upon his character to dissipate by time for want A 
opposition, have had the effect of keeping his contempo 
ranes ignorant of lis real character. This taciturnity ttaa 
frequently occasioned his being subject to imputations 
which he did not deserve ; at times it has beyond a doubt 
acquired for him a reputation for ability greater than he 
deserved. It is believed that M. de Talleyrand has left 
memoirs of his life, or at least of the most important trans- 
actions in which he was engaged, but with strict injunc- 
tions that they shall not be published until thirty years 
shall have elapsed from the time of his death. If this D4 



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tme, even when the public shad have been put in posses- 
son of the contents of these papers, it will only have ac- 
quired another statement in addition to those previously in 
its possession, by the comparison of which it must have to 
guea at the truth. At present however, while these me- 
moirs continue a sealed book, and scarcely any of M. de 
Talleyrand's intimate friends have yet contributed their 
fagments of information, no resource is left to the biogra- 
pher but by collating his writings, his ostensible share in 
the politics of his age, and the incidental communications 
of himself or his acquaintances to estimate as near as he 
can what probabie foundation in reality there is for the 
accounts o( M. de Talleyrand, which have been compiled 
from what may be called public gossip. 

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord was bom on 
the 13th of February, 1754, the eldest of three brothers. 
His family was antient and distinguished; but he was 
neglected by his parents, and placed at nurse in one of the 
faubourgs of Paris. The effects of a fall when about 
a year old rendered him lame for life, and beine: on 
this account unfit for the military career, he was obliged 
to renounce his birthright in favour of his second 
brother, and enter the church. The contempt and aver- 
aon for him, which his parents did not attempt to con- 
ceal, impressed a gloomy and taciturn character on the 
boy. From the charge of his nurse he was transferred to 
the College d'Harcourt, and thence successively to the 
seminary of St. Sulpice and to the Sorbonne. In all of 
these institutions he maintained the character of a shy, 
wood, bookish lad. He showed in after-life a taste for 
literature, and such an extensive acquaintance with and 
appreciation of science as sits gracefully on the statesman ; 
and the taste and knowledge must have been acquired at 
au early age, for his turbulent career after he was fairly 
launched into busy life left little leisure for that purpose. 

By the time he had attained his twentieth year his re- 
putation for talent and his confirmed health appear to 
nave reconciled the vanity of his parents to the necessity 
of acknowledging him. They introduced him to the so- 
ciety of his equals in rank for the first time at the festivities 
with which the coronation of Louis XVI. was celebrated 
(1774), under the title of the Abbe de Perigord. His 
opinions and tastes, and his temperament, combined to 
render the clerical profession an object of detestation to 
him. but he could not escape from it. He availed himself 
to the full extent of the indulgence with which his age 
and country regarded the irregularities of the young and 
noble amone the priestly order; but the pride and re- 
serve with which twenty years of undeserved neglect had in- 
spired his confident ana strong character served him in part 
as a moral check. He was a strict observer of the appear- 
ances exacted by the conventional morality of society ; 
and this good taste exerted a powerful influence over his 
whole future career. Thrown back upon himself from the 
beginning, he had necessarily become an egoist ; vigorous 
both io mind and body, he had a healthy relish of pleasure, 
and be engaged with eagerness in the pursuits of pleasure ; 
but ttie enjoyments of the mere voluptuary were insuf- 
ficient for one of his intellectual character and fastidious 
tastes. 

In 1776 Voltaire visited Paris. M. de Talleyrand was 
"introduced to him, and the two interviews he had with him 
left such a deep i mpression that he was accustomed to talk 
of them with a lively pleasure till the close of his life. 
Voltaire and Fontenelle were M. de Talleyrand's favourite 
authors ; upon whom he formed his written and still more 
his conversational style. Conversational talent was in great 
demand at Paris when he entered the world, and both his 
fort of pleasure and his love of power prompted him to 
ca&Yate that which he possessed. That he did so with 
eminent success the concurrent views of the best judges of 
fofage declare. Excellence of this kind is like excellence 
in acting: it is impossible to convey an adequate impres- 
«bo of ft to posterity. The reporters of flashes of wit and 
fcfiotous turns of conversation uniformly communicate to 
tfcm something of their own inferiority, and vulgarise 
4*0? in the telling. Again, superior excellence in con- 
"on is an art ; the artist is and ought to be judged 
r his materials, but by the success with which he 
i*ra. Written bon mots are necessarily estimated by 

j originality, the quantity and quality of thought ex- 
Ptapji m them : they are judged as we judge the writings 
9 a poet : wherea* the person who introduces them with 



effect in conversation ought to be fudged as we judge th* 
actor, of whom we do not think less because he merely 
says what the poet has put into his mouth. 

The robust and healthy Epicurean who requires th« 
stimulus of intellectual in addition to physical pleasures, 
is almost inevitably driven to seek the former in the pur- 
suits of ambition. M. de Talleyrand was no exception to 
the general rule. And the Abbe de Perigord must have 
displayed, even when he was apparently, when perhaps 
he helieved himself to be, living only for pleasure, qualities 
which inspired a belief in his business capacity ; for in 
1780, while yet only in his twenty-sixth year, he was ap- 
pointed general agent of the clergy of France. He dis- 
charged the functions of this important office for eight 
years. The Gallic church was all along the most inde- 
pendent in its relations to the Papal chair of any church 
that remained in communion with Rome. It was also a 
powerful church viewed in its relations to the state, of 
which it formed an element. Its revenue derived from 
landed property was large, that derived from other sources 
perhaps stnl larger : it Had regular assemblies in which it 
legislated for itself, determined what contributions it 
ought to pay to the state, and in what proportions its 
members were to be assessed. Here was a wide field for 
cultivating experimentally a talent for administration. 
Nor was this all : the dignified clergy of France took an 
active part in secular politics. There is a passage in the 
eloge of M. de Reinhard already alluded to, which seems 
an echo of the impressions received by M. de Talleyrand 
in this period of his life : — * I will hazard the assertion 
that his (M.de Reinhard 's) first studies had been an excel- 
lent preparation for the diplomatic career. The study of 
theology in particular had endowed him with a power, 
and at the same time with a dexterity of ratiocination, 
which characterise all the documents which have pro- 
ceeded irom his pen. To guard myself against the charge 
of indulging in paradox, I must here enumerate the 
names of some of our most distinguished statesmen, all 
theologians, and all distinguished in history for the success 
with which they conducted the most important political 
transactions of their times.' And he follows up the 
remark with a very respectable list. The general agent 
of the clergy was their minister of state : and M. de Tal- 
leyrand, while he continued to fill the office, was a power- 
ful subject, and occupied a conspicuous place in the oyc 
of the public. In 1788 he was appointed bishop of Autun. 
The commencement of his political career, in the strict 
acceptation of the term, is synchronous with this* promo- 
tion. An article upon M. de Talleyrand in an early ■um- 
ber of the * Edinburgh Review* — the materials for wnich 
were furnished by Dumont, — asserts that he owed his 
advancement to the see of Autun to a 4 Discours sur les 
I^oteries,' which he pronounced in his capacity of agent 
for the clergy of France, in the Assembly of Notables which 
met at Versailles, in February, 1787. As bishop of Aulun 
he was a member of the Etats GeheYaux convoked in May, 
1789, which continued to sit as an Assemble Constituautc 
till it dissolved itself on the 30th of September, 1791. The 
interval from the meeting of the Notables till the dissolu- 
tion of the Assembly is an important one in any attempt 
to solve the problem of M. de Talleyrand's real character. 
Previously to the meeting of the States-General, M. de 
Talleyrand indicated the course he intended to pm-sue, in 
a discourse which he addressed to the assembled clergy of 
his diocese ; and in which he advocated the equality of all 
citizens in the eye of the law, and free discussion. When 
the three orders, by assenting to meet as one body, had 
enabled the Assembly to proceed to business, the pre- 
cise directions given by many of the bailliages to 
their deputies were found an impediment in the way 
of practical legislation : M. de Talleyrand moved that 
they should be entirely disregarded, and carried his 
motion. A constituent committee was appointed im- 
mediately after the capture of the Bastille, and he was 
the second person nominated a member of it. In this 
capacity he was called upon to take part in maturing 
measures which have had a lasting influence upon the 
progress of affairs in France : the first of these wis the 
re-distribution of the national territory into districts better 
adapted than the old provinces for the purposes of govern- 
ment ; the second was, the organization of a system of 
finance. In the financial discussions which took place in 
the committee and Assembly, M. de Talleyrand retained 

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hfe dislike of lotteries. He supported all or most of the 
various loans proposed by Necker ; and seconded Mira- 
bcau's exhortations to keep faith with the national credi- 
tor. He suggested practical measures with a view to this 
end, and among others the sale of church lands (he had 
previously supported the abolition of tithes), reserving 
however a competent provision for the priesthood, and 
even improving the condition of the poorer clergy. He 
also proposed to establish a ' caisse d'amortisaemcnt,' as 
an additional guarantee to the state's creditors. The task 
of making arrangements for levying the part of the revenue 
derived from taxes upon persons exercising professions, 
and upon -transfers of property, devolved upon M. de Tal- 
leyrand. Connected with his labours in preparing a new 
territorial division of France, and a new method of collect- 
ing the national revenue, was the motion which he made 
and carried in the Assembly, in August, 1790, to the effect 
that the king should be intreated to write to his Britannic 
majesty, to engage the parliament of England to concur 
with the National Assembly in fixing a natural unit of 
weights and measures ; that, under the auspices of the two 
nations an equal number of commissioners from the 
Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London 
might unite to determine the length of the pendulum in 
the latitude of 45°, or in any other latitude that might be 
thought preferable, and to deduce from thence an invariable 
standard of weights and measures. At the same time that he 
was taking part with his colleagues of the Constituent Com- 
mittee in these labours he was charged by them with the 
important task of preparing the report upon national edu- 
cation, which was read to the Assembly on the 10th, 1 1th, 
and 19th of September, 1791. The basis of the system 
advocated in this repoi+wasthe secularization of instruction : 
education was to be the gi ft of the state, not of the church ; 
the state was to provide instruction for those who proposed 
to enter the church, exactly as it was to provide instruction 
for those who proposed to enter any of the other learned 
professions. Equal stress was laid upon the establishment 
of elementary schools in ejvery canton ; and of a higher 
class of schools, for the benefit of those who were not 
destined to embrace a learned profession, in the chief town 
of every district. Two acts of M. de Talleyrand, which 
have been much commented upon, appear to be as it were 
necessary corollaries of the principles avowed in the legis- 
lative career we have been passing in review: — his ap- 
pearance as principal actor in the theatrical celebration of 
the anniversary ot the capture of the Bastille ; and his 
taking upon him the office of consecrating the national 
clergy. 

It is absolutely necessary that some estimate be formed 
of the conduct and character of M. de Talleyrand while a 
member of the first National Assembly, as a guide to an 
appreciation of his far more enigmatical subsequent 
career. M. de Talleyrand entered the Assembly with the 
reputation of a dexterous negociator, which he had 
acquired in his discharge of the office of agent to the 
clergy. He had then, and he retained in after-life, the 
character of a self-indulgent man, of a man with a large 
instinct of self-preservation, but also of a humane man. 
The disciple of Voltaire and Fontenelle could scarcely be 
a very zealous Christian, but M. de Talleyrand had always 
been a respecter of conventional morality : his was pre- 
cisely that kind of disposition and intellect that supports 
a church not from belief, but as a useful engine for pre- 
serving order in society. M. de Talleyrand, like all the 
literati of his day, had a theoretical belief in the equality of 
men ; at the same time that with regard to the privileges of 
the nobility, he was inclined to support them in the same 
way that he did the authority of the church— as a useful po- 
litical engine. But involuntarily and perhaps unconsciously 
M. de Talleyrand was a warmer partisan of the aristocracy 
than the clergy : he was noble by birth and attached by 
taste to the habits of a select society, whereas the ecclesias- 
tical character forced upon him against his will had some- 
thing repulsive to him. In short, M. de Talleyrand saw 
cleany the rottenness and the absurdity of many of the old 
institutions of his country : he was willing, desirous, that 
government should be organized and act in a manner to 
promote the general happiness ; but he had no faith in the 
capacity of men for seli-government; and he had been 
educated in a church, many of whose members were at 
that time obliged to reconcile their consciences to remain- 
ing in it by adopting the maxim that they were deceiving 



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men for their own good. M. de Talleyrand's idem, uad hm 
entertained it in common with a considerable number, wnsi 
that the Revolution might be guided, checked, and rendered 
useful by approximating the constitution of the French to 
that of the English government. He cared little for the 
creed of the church, but he wished to preserve the cbmrh, 
and to render it in France what the established chmes* 
was in England. Hence his care, even while laying 
hands on the property of the church for the exigencies oe* 
the state, to retain an adequate provision for the clergy . 
hence his anxiety to identify the clergy with the nation. 
His anxiety to establish a constitution modelled upon that 
of England was always avowed. His views the view* he 
adopted, it is not meant to attribute originality to them 
regarding territorial divisions and the organization of locaJ 
government, finance, and education, though overborne 
for a time in the storm of the Revolution, have revived ajMf 
been adopted by the Empire, the Restoration, and the pre 
sent dynasty. The recklessness as to the means by which 
he attained his ends which he displayed even at this 
period of his career is no evidence of insincerity, but 
merely of the want of faith in men, which the treatment 
he had experienced in early life, and his observation of 
the society he habitually mixed in, had instilled into him* 
It was his weakness through life to pride himself in the 
display of his power of refined mockery, regardless of the 
enemies it created : he gave vent to his spirit of raillery 
in actions as well as in words ; and thus lent a grotesque 
colouring to his coups d'etat, which rendered them more 
startling than if they had been as prosaic as those of other 
men. The world is perhaps less startled with the atrocntv 
of passion in a statesman, than with a laughing air whk-V 
shows his contempt for it. The most startling o r b>« 
devices is his solemn inauguration of the constitutional 
monarchy by the religious celebration of the 14th of July. 
But the love of theatrical presentation and the delusive 
belief that good may be effected by it is strong in every 
man at some period of his life. Talleyrand in all likelihood 
looked forward at that moment to being the founder and 
future primate of a church which should be to France 
what the Anglo-Episcopal has been to England. Th* 
means to which he was driven to have recourse in order 
to carry through the installation of the national bishops, 
undeceived him, and brought back his early disgust for the 
profession with redoubled force. He not long after resigned 
his bishopric of Autun, and at the same time renounced 
his ecclesiastical character. 

The history of M. de Talleyrand from the 'dissolution of 
the Constituent Assembly, in September, 1791, til) the 
overthrow of the monarchy, on the 10th of August. 1752. 
would be instructive were it merely as a demonstration of 
the folly of the self-denying ordinance with which that 
body terminated its career. Its members were declared 
ineligible to the next assembly, and also incapable of 
receiving any appointment from the crown until two yesn 
had elapsed from the date of its dissolution. The conse- 

3ence was, that M. de Talleyrand among others was ten- 
ered incapable of any legislative or ministerial office. It 
was at that time an object with all who desired that the 
Revolution should have fair play, to preserve peace with 
England, which, although still ostensibly neutral, wu 
every day presenting additional symptoms of alienation. 
The court party hated M. de Talleyrand for havimr, taken 

Eart frankly with the Revolution ; the republicans hated 
im for his advocacy of a limited monarchy ; all parties 
distrusted him on account of his eternal sneer ; hut all 
parties agreed that he was the only man whose talent 1 
fitted him for the delicate mission to England. And it 
was impossible to appoint him to it. He was dispatched 
however, in January, 1792, without any ostensible diplo- 
matic character, to sound the English ministry, and attempt 
to commence negotiations. His want of an official charac- 
ter allowed the queen to indulge her feelings of personal 
dislike to the ex-bishop of Autun by turning her back upon 
him when he was presented at St. James's; and this recep- 
tiou at once ensured his exclusion from general society, 
and rendered him powerless. After the accession of the 
Gironde to office, the attempt to ensure at least neutrality 
on the part of England was renewed : Chauvehn wna sent 
to England as nominal, and along with him Talleyrand as 
real ambassador. By this time however the French govern- 
ment had become as obnoxious to the general pubHe of 
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too strong to have been stemmed by Talleyrand, even 
though he had been in a condition to act directly and in 
person. He could do nothing, forced as he was to act by 
the instrumentality of a man too jealous and opiniative 
to conform honestly to the directions of one whose 
authority necessarily made him feel himself a mere puppet. 
Talleyrand's good faith at this period in labouring to pre- 
serve peace between England and France, as the only 
means of rendering a constitutional monarchy possible 
in the other country, and the steadiness with which he 
pursued his object, undaunted by the most gross personal 
insults, are satisfactorily established by the narrative of 
Ikroont 

Talleyrand was at Paris when the events of the 10th of 
August put an end to the monarchy ; and it required all 
t»* dexterity to enable him to obtain passports from Dan- 
toa, to enable him to quit Paris. He fled to England, 
and having saved little of his property The was obliged to 
tell his library there to procure himself the means 
of aipport. The English government, jealous of his pre- 
sence, after some time ordered him to leave the country 
io twenty-four hours ; and proscribed in France, he was 
obliged, with a dilapidated fortune, to seek refuge in Ame- 
rica, when he had almost attained his fortieth year. 

Mtidame de Stael has claimed, and apparently with a 
good title, the credit of instigating Chenier to demand the 
recall of \L de Talleyrand after the fall of Robespierre and 
the termination of the reign of terror. The National In- 
mtttte was founded about tikis time, and M. de Talleyrand 
tad io his absence been appointed a member of the class 
of moral and political science. At the first sitting of this 
Muetywhieh he attended he was elected secretary, an 
office which he held for six months. During this period 
he read two papers, afterwards published in the * Memoires 
de laClasse des Sciences Morales et Politiques de l'Institut 
National,' which are justly considered not only as the most 
tb)e and original of his published writings, but as those 
which are motit indisputably his own. The first of these 
i* entitled ' Eaeai sur les Avantages & retirer de Colonies 
Nouvelks dans les Circonstances presentes ;' the second, 
' Mtooire* sur Jes relations Commerciales des Etats-Unis 
aw rAjigJeterre.' The latter is, properly speaking, a 
supplement— perhaps rather a • piece justificative ' ap- 
pended tethe other. The great object of both is to point 
oat toe importance of colonies to a country like France, 
in which the revolutionary fervour, though beginning to 
burn dim, was still sufficiently powerful to prolong the reign 
of anarchy and suffering, unless measures were adopted to 
neufrahze it There can be no mistake as to the views 
being those of M. de Talleyrand himself. They are such 
u could only occur to a person entertaining the political 
opinions be had advocated in the Constituent Assembly, 
*ho having been exiled by the ' reign of terror ' which deci- 
mated \m country men, was living in a country where a suc- 
ta&fiil revolution had quietly and speedily subsided into a 
settled farm of government ; in a country where he felt that 
' *Q Englishman becomes at once a native, and a Frenchman 
remain* for ever a foreigner.' Not satisfied with pointing out 
io wfaat manner colonies might be rendered powerful assist- 
ants .in tranqoiUising France, the essayist entered deeply 
into the principles of colonization, explaining the advan- 
tage* to be derived, from colonies, and the law by which 
their economical advantages might be perpetuated even 
after their political relations with the mother-country had 
ceased In his treatment of his subject he evinces a clear 
and deep insight into the structure of society both in 
France and America, and just and extensive views in po- 
litical economy. 

It wasnot however so much the political talent displayed 
ia these essays* as M. de Talleyrand's skill in employing 
the reviving influence of the salons of Paris, that obtained 
him the appointment of foreign minister under the Di- 
'eetoty. Here again he was indebted to Madame de Stael, 
vhoasa4ed him through her influence with Barras. M. 
<te Talleyrand accepted office under this unprincipled go- 
v*nuBent with a perfect knowledge of its character and its 
*wkne»- Hi* conviction that a Frenchman could never 
Wat home in America prompted him to grasp at the first 
f IWanity of returning to lus native country : his shat- 
teiitoruine and taste for expensive luxunes rendered 
tBfWBaeiU necessary for him, and political business was 
ta Wf hicoativa employment for wnich he was qualified. 
Atrtfltitotiung in -his life to contradict the belief that he 



again engaged in politics with a desire to promote what 
was right and useful as far as he could ; but he engaged 
in them aware that he might be ordered to do what he 
disapproved of, and prepared to do it, under the plea that 
his functions were merely ministerial, and that the responsi- 
bility rested upon his employers. His position under the 
Directory was consequently an equivocal one. He was 
engaged, so long as he occupied it, in intrigues which had 
for their aim the maintenance of himself in office, even if 
his employers should be turned out ; and he was obliged 
to do their dirty work. The part which he took in the 
attempt to extort money, as a private gratification, from 
the American envoys who arrived in Paris in October, 
1797, was probably forced upon him by the directors : had 
it been his own project, it would have been conceived 
with more judgment, and the Americans would not have 
been driven to extremes, for he understood their national 
character. But allowing himself to be used in such a 
shabby business betrays a want of self-respect, or a vul- 
garity of sentiment, or both. He had his reward ; for 
when public indignation was excited by the statements of 
the American envoys, the minister of foreign affairs was 
sacrificed to the popular resentment. 

Having adopted a profession in which success could 
only be expected under a settled government, believing 
a monarchical government to be the only one which 
could give tranquillity to his country, and anxious 
with many others to run up a make-shift government out 
of the best materials that ofYered, he naturally attached 
himself to the growing power of Bonaparte. When the 
future emperor returned from Egypt, M. de Talleyrand 
had been six months in a private station ; though, had he 
still retained office, he might with equal readiness have 
conspired to overturn the Directory. Bourrienne is not 
the best of authorities, but the earlier volumes of the 
memoirs which pass under his name are less falsified than 
the later ; and an anecdote which he relates of Talleyrand's 
interview with the first consul, after being reappointed 
minister of foreign affairs, is so characteristic, tnat its 
truth is highly probable : — * M. de Talleyrand, appointed 
successor to M. de Reinhart at the same time that Cam- 
baceres and Lebrun succeeded Sieyes and Roger Ducas as 
consuls, was admitted to a private audience by the first 
consul. The speech which he addressed to Bonaparte 
was so gratifying to the person to whom it was addressed, 
and appeared so striking to myself, that the words have 
remained in my memory:— " Citizen Consul, you have 
confided to me the department of foreign affairs, and I 
will justify your confidence ; but I must work under no one 
but yourself. This is not mere arrogance on my part : in 
order that France be well governed, unity of action is re 
quired : you must be first consul, and the first consul must 
hold in his hand all the main-springs of the political 
machine — the ministries of the interior, of internal police, 
of foreign affairs, of war, and the marine. The ministers 
of these departments must transact business with you 
alone. The ministries of justice and finance have, without 
doubt, a powerful influence upon politics ; but it is more 
indirect. The second consul is an able jurist, and the third 
a master of finance : leave these departments to them ; it 
will amuse them; and you, general, having the entire 
management of the essential parts of government, may 
pursue without interruption your noble object, the regene- 
ration of France." These words accorded too closely with 
the sentiments of Bonaparte to be heard by him otherwise 
than with pleasure. He said to me, after M. de Talley- 
rand had taken his leave, " Do you know, Bourrienne, 
Talleyrand's advice is sound. He is a man of sense." He 
then added smilingly: — "Talleyrand is a dexterous fellow : 
he has seen through me. You know I wish to do what 
he advises ; and he is in the right. Lebrun is an honest 
man, but a mere book-maker ; Cambac6rcs is too much 
identified with the Revolution : my government must be 
something entirely new." ' 

Napoleon and Talleyrand may be said to have under- 
stood each other, and that in a sense not discreditable to 
either. The good sense of both was revolted by the blood- 
shed and theatrical sentiment, the blended ferocity and 
coxcombry of the Revolution ; both were practical states- 
men, men with a taste and talent for administration, not 
mere constitution-makers. Like most men of action, nei- 
ther of them coidd discern to the full extent the advantage 
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action to a considerable extent prescribed by a constitution ; 
but Talleyrand saw better than Napoleon that the laws 
which protect subjects by limiting the arbitrary will of the 
ruler, in turn protect him by teaching them legitimate 
methods of defending their rights. In another respect 
they resembled each other— neither was remarkably scru- 
pulous as to the means by which he attained his ends; 
though this laxity of moral sentiment was kept in check by 
the natural humanity of both. Their very points of differ- 
ence were calculated to cement their union. The observant 
self-centred mind of Talleyrand was lamed by its want of 
power to set others in motion : it is only through sympathy 
that the contagious love of action can be conveyed. The 
impassioned and imaginative soul of Napoleon was made 
to attach others to him and whirl them along with him ; 
and this power was often too strong for itself : Napoleon, 
though capable of reflection, was too often hurried away 
by his instinctive impulses. Each of these men felt that 
the other was a supplement to himself. Talleyrand really 
admired and appreciated Napoleon. If he flattered him, 
it was by the delicate method of confirming him in the 
opinions and intentions which met his approbation. He 
dared to tell the First Consul truths which others were afraid 
to utter; and he ventured to arrest at times the impetuosity 
of Napoleon, by postponing the fulfilment of his orders 
until he had time to cool. He opposed, as long as there 
was any prospect of success, the divorce from Josephine ; 
but his virtue gave way in the business of the Duke 
dEnghien, for even though we exculpate him from parti- 
cipation in the execution of that prince, to gratify his 
master he sanctioned the violation of a neutral territory. 
Tli is was however the only instance, in so far as Bona- 
parte is concerned, of his sacrificing the duty of a friend 
to flattery that can be brought home to him. Napoleon's 
frequent recurrence, in his conversations at St. Helena, to 
the subject of Talleyrand's defection, his attempts to solve 
the question at what time that minister 'began to betray 
him,' show his appreciation of the services he had re- 
ceived from him. 

For a time their alliance continued harmonious, and that 
was the time of Napoleon's success. The arrangement of 
the Concordat with the pope was the basis of the future 
empire, and that negotiation was accomplished by Talley- 
rand. The treaty of Luneville, secularising the ecclesias- 
tical principalities of Germany ; the treaty of Amiens, re- 
cognising on the part of England the conquests of France, 
and the new form given to the Continental states by the 
Revolution ; the convention of Lyon, which gave form to 
the Cisalpine republic; all bear the impress of the peculiar 
views of M. de Talleyrand. And the minister of foreign 
affairs was wily aware of his own consequence. In 1801, 
when obliged by the state of his health to use the waters 
of Bourbon TAj-chambaud, he wrote to Napoleon : — * 1 
regret being at a distance from you, for my devotion to 
your great plans contributes to their accomplishment.' 
After the battle of Ulra, Talleyrand addressed to the em- 
peror a plan for diminishing the power of Austria to interfere 
with the preponderance of France, by uniting Tyrol to the 
Helvetian republic, and erecting the Venetian territory 
into an independent republic Interposed between the 
kingdom of Italy and the Austrian territories. He pro- 
posed to reconcile Austria to this arrangement by ceding 
to it the whole of Wallachia, Moldavia, Bessarabia, and 
the northern part of Bulgaria. The advantages he antici- 
pated from this arrangement were that of removing Austria 
from interfering in the sphere of French influence without 
exasperating it, and that of raising in the East a power 
better able than Turkey to hold a balance with Russia. 
Napoleon paid no attention to the proposal. After the 
victory of Austerlitz, Talleyrand again pressed it upon his 
notice, but equally without effect. No change in the feel- 
ings of the emperor and his minister can positively be 
traced to this event ; but we see on the one hand a pertina- 
cious repetition of a favourite proposal, and on the other a 
silent and rather contemptuous rejection of it. We find at 
a much later period Napoleon complaining of the pertina- 
city with which Talleyrand was accustomed to repeat any 
advice which he considered important; and we find Tal- 
leyrand speaking of Napoleon as one who could not be 
served because he would not listen to advice. And we 
cannot but see in the difference of opinion just mentioned 
the commencement of that coolness which induced Talley- 
rand, on the 9th of August, 1807, \p resign the portfolio of 



foreign affair* and accept the nominal dignity of 

grand-elector of the empire in addition to the Utlos of 
grand-chamberlain and prince of Benevento, vhicb had 
previously been conferred upon him. An unprectdented 
career of victory had rendered Napoleon impatient at 
success ; the consciousness of important services had ren- 
dered Talleyrand impatient of neglect ; and the alienation 
thus originated was increased and confirmed by the riaiaV 
ing but vulgar soldiers, who formed such an influential 
part of the emperor's court, and their silly and vulvar 
wives, who could not pardon M. de Talleyrand Ins superior 
refinement, and who had all in turn smarted under his uuup- 
portable sarcasm. Napoleon in exile is said to have repre- 
sented the resignation of M. de Talleyrand as involnnta/y. 
and rendered necessary by his stock-jobbing propensitse*. 
It is not impossible that the minister may have speculate 
more deeply in the funds than was altogether proper ; bat 
had there been no other reason for his dismissal, Napoieoa 
could, and often did, wink at more flagrant pecuniary 
delinquencies. M. de Talleyrand, in his character ol graatf- 
chamberlain, did the honours of the imperial court at 
Erfurt ; and was on more than one occasion privmlelr con- 
sulted by the emperor, who one day said, * We oug&t not 
to have parted/ In 1809 however the ex-minister was to 
loud and unreserved in his condemnation of the Spanish 
expedition, that Napoleon, on his return from the Pentc- 
sula, deprived him of the office of chamberlain. The Uwt 
five years of the empire elicited many caustic eritkntctt 
from M. de Talleyrand, which were duly carried to the 
ears of the emperor, who retorted by sallies of abuse mmHi 
irritated the prince without rendering him less powerful. 
In 1812 M. de Talleyrand is said to have predicted the 
overthrow of the empire. In 1813 overtures were made to 
him with a view to his resuming the portfolio of foreign 
affairs, but without success. In 1814 he re-appeared on 
the stage of active life on his own account. 

In 1814, as vice-grand-elector of the empire, be was a 
member of the regency, but was prevented joining it ut 
Blois by the national guard refusing to allow him to ijuit 
Paris— not much against his will. When Pans capitu- 
lated, the emperor Alexander took nphis residence in the 
house of the prince of Benevento. The words attributed 
by the Memoirs of Bourrienne to Talleyrand, in has conver- 
sations with those in whose hands the fortune of wax had 
for the time placed the fortunes of France, are character- 
istic, true, and in keeping with his opinions and sob*** 
quent conduct : — * There is no other alternative but Na- 
poleon or Louis XVIII. After Napoleon there is no cot 
v hose personal qualities would ensure him the support of 
leu men. A principle is needed to give consistency to the 
new government, whatever it maybe: Louis XV III. re- 
pi outs a principle. Anything out Napoleon or Louis 
X \ HI. is an intrigue, and no intnerue can be strong enough 
to support him upon whom it might confer power/ Thit 
view lends consistency to the conduct of M. de Talleyrand 
at the close of Napoleon's career. Their alliance had 
long been dissolved ; they stood confronting each other as 
>eparate and independent powers. M. de Tallevrand had 
advocated a limited monarchy, until the old throne was 
violently broken up and overturned ; he had lent his aid 
to construct a new monarchy and a new aristocracy oat ot 
the fragments of old institutions which the Revolution had 
left ; he saw France again without a government, and. 
with his principles, he might have consistently taken ofire 
under any government, holding, as he did, the opinion 
that any government is better than none, and that any 
man may hold office under it provided he take care to «io 
as much good and as little harm as he can. But M. de 
Talleyrand did more : he exerted the influence he pos- 
sessed over Alexander to obtain the combination of con- 
stitutional forms with the recognition of legitimacy. Lcam 
XVIII. saved appearances by insisting upon being all o wed 
to trrant the charter spontaneously, but it was M. de Tal- 
leyrand's use of the remains of the revolutionary party 
that made him feel the necessity of this concession- Aa 
minister Talleyrand insisted upon its observance with a 
precision that rendered him as much an object of annoy- 
ance to the courtiers of the Restoration as ever the pedantic 
Clarendon was to the gay triflers who surrounded Charles n. 
When he set out for the congress of Vienna, in September, 
1814, the court of Fiance is said to have presented the 
aspect of a school at the commencement of the holidays* 
The powers who had refused to concede to Napoleoa a* 



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the head of a victorious army anything beyond the limits 
of France in 1792, gave more favourable terms to M. de 
Talleyrand, the representative of a nation upon which they 
had just forced a King. He baffled the emperor Alexander, 
who said angrily, * Talleyrand conducts himself as if he 
were minister of Louis XlW On the 5th of January, 1815, 
be signed, with Lord Castlereagh and Prince Metternich, 
a secret treaty, having previously obliged Prussia to remain 
contented with a third of Saxony, and Russia to cede a 
tart of the grand-duchy of Warsaw. The imbecility of the 
Bourbons, by inviting the descent of Napoleon at Frejus, 
ifua unsettled everything. M. de Talleyrand dictated 
the proclamation of Cambray, in wnich Louis XVIII. con- 
fessed the faults committed in 1814, and promised to make 
reparation. He suggested the more liberal interpretation 
of the charter, announced from the same place. He ob- 
tained an extension of the democratic principle in the 
constitution of the Chamber of Deputies, recommended 
the rendering the peerage hereditary, and induced the 
kin?, restored for a second time, to institute a cabinet 
council, of which he was nominated the first president. 

The constitutional monarchy, the object of his earlier 
\riihes, was now definitively established ; but the part he 
wu destined to perform in it was that of a leader of oppo- 
sition. In his note of the 21st of September, 1815, he pro- 
tested, as prime minister, against the new terms which the 
allies intended to impose upon France. He said they were 
such conditions as only conquest could warrant. 4 There 
can only be conquest where the war has been carried on 
atiinrt the possessor of the territory, that is, the sovereign ; 
poateakm and sovereignty being identical. But when war 
is coodocted against a usurper in behalf of the legitimate 
possessor, there can be no conquest ; there is only the re- 
corer/ of territory. But the high powers have viewed the 
enterprise of Bonaparte in the light of an act of usurpa- 
tion, and Louis XVIII. as the real sovereign of France : 
the? have acted in support of the king's rights, and ought 
to respect them. They contracted this engagement by 
their declaration of the 13th and their treatv of the 25th of 
March, to which they admitted Louis XV III. as an ally 
against the common enemy. If there can be no conquest 
from a friend, much more can there be none from an ally/ 
His argument was fruitless : Louis XVIII. bowed to the 
dictation of his powerful allies ; and M. de Talleyrand re- 
spited office two months before the conclusion of the treaty 
which narrowed the frontiers of France and amerced her 
in a heavy contribution. By this step M. de Talleyrand 
enabled himself to contribute essentially to strengthening 
the constitutional monarchy, to which, if he had any prin- 
ciple, he had through life preserved his attachment. Had 
he been a party to the treaty, he must have shared with the 
elder branch of the Bourbons the odium which attached to 
alV who had taken part in it ; and hence thrown the oppo- 
sition into the hands of the enemies of the constitution. 
% resigning office, he obtained a voice potential in the 
deliberations of the opposition ; and no English nobleman 
bom and bred to the profession could have discharged 
more adroitly the functions of an opposition leader. For 
fourteen years his salon was a place of resort for the 
leaders of the liberal party; in society he aided it by 
h» conversational talents; in the chamber of peers he 
lent it the weight of his name and experience. He de- 
fended the liberty of the press in opposition to the cen- 
***hip; he supported trial by jury in the case of offences 
°f the press ; and he protested against the interference 
°f France in the internal affairs of Spain in 1823. 
Br this line of conduct he was materially instru- 
mental in creating a liberal party within the pale of the 
constitution ; and to the existence of such a party was 
jwing in no small degree the result of the revolution of 
1K30, in which, though the dynasty was changed, the con- 
stitution survived in its- most important outlines. That 
OTQfotkm also placed Prince Talleyrand in a condition to 
■afiae what had been one of his most earnest wishes at 
4e outset of his political career— an alliance between 
Wee and England as constitutional governments. To 
UMpHsh this he had laboured strenuously in 1792; to 
M—jili ih this was one of the first objects he aimed at 
"pinpointed minister for foreign affairs under the con- 
*"%. he accomplished it as representative of Louis 



JaV& Talleyrand was appointed ambassador extra- 
mfjmj and minister plenipotentiary to the court of Great 



Britain on the 5th of September, 1830 ; and he held the 
appointment till the 7th of January, 1835, when he was 
succeeded by General Sebastiani. During these four years 
M. de Talleyrand, besides obtaining the recognition of the 
new order of things in France by the European powers, 

grocured a similar recognition of the independence or 
elgium, and concluded the quadruple alliance of Eng- 
land, France, Spain, and Portugal, for the purpose of ro 
establishing the peace of the Peninsula. 

After his return from the mission to England, M. de 
Talleyrand retired from public life. The only occasion on 
which he again emerged from domestic retirement was 
when he appeared at the Acade*mie des Sciences Morales 
et Politiques, to pronounce the 61oge of Count Reinhard, 
only three months before his own death. He died on tho 
20th of May, 1838, in the eighty-fourth year of his age. 

The object of this sketch has been to present, as far as 
the very imperfect materials which are attainable would 
permit, a view of this very extraordinary man undis- 
torted by any partisan feeling either with regard to his 
person or principles. It must be admitted in favour of M. 
de Talleyrand that he was warmly beloved by those who 
were his intimate friends, and by all who were at any time 
employed under him. It must also be allowed that when 
his life is contemplated as a whole, it bears the imprint of 
a unity of purpose animating his efforts throughout. Free- 
dom of thought and expression, the abolition of antiquated 
and oppressive feudal forms and the most objectionable 
powers of the church, the promotion of education, the 
establishment of a national religion, and a constitutional 
government compounded of popular representation and an 
hereditary sovereign and aristocracy — these were the ob- 
jects he proposed for attainment when he entered the 
arena of politics. He attempted to approach this ideal as 
far as circumstances would admit at all periods of his long 
career ; and he ended by being instrumental in establish- 
ing it. No act of cruelty has been substantiated against 
him ; and the only charges of base subserviency that ap- 
pear to be satisfactorily proved, are his participation in the 
attempt to extort a bribe from the American envoys, and 
in the violation of an independent territory in the seizure 
of the Due d'Enghien. His literary was subordinate to his 
political character. It is difficult to say how much of the 
writings published in his name were really his own. 
Latterly, we are informed upon good authority, he was in 
the habit of explaining his general views on a subject to, 
some one whom he employed to bring this communication 
into shape; and when the manuscript was presented to 
him, he modified and retouched it until it met his views, 
throwing in a good deal of that wit which gave zest to his 
conversation. The domestic life of M. de Talleyrand has 
not been alluded to ; for almost every statement regarding 
it is poisoned by the small wit of the coteries of Paris. 

The report upon education of 1791 ; a report to the first 
consul upon the best means of re-establishing the diplo- 
matic service of France ; the essays upon colonization, and 
the commercial relations of England and America ; and 
the Sloge of M. de Reinhard— may all be regarded as his 
own composition. The first is the most commonplace; 
the other .three are master-pieces in their different ways. 
They bespeak an elegant and accomplished mind, a 
shrewd insight into character and the structure of society, 
and a felicitous and graphic power of expression. The 
wit of M. de Talleyrand was the wit of intellect, not of 
temperament. It was often full of meaning ; always sug- 
gestive of thought ; most frequently caustic. His reserve, 
probably constitutional, but heigntened by the circum- 
stances of his early life, and cultivated upon principle, 
was impenetrable. In advanced life it seemed even to 
have affected his physical appearance. When at rest, but 
for his glittering eye, it would have been difficult to fee. 
certain that it was not a statue that was placed before you. 
When his sonorous voice broke upon the ear, it was like a 
possessing spirit speaking from a graven image. Even in 
comparatively early life, his power of banishing all ex- 
pression from his countenance, and the soft and heavy 
appearance of his features was remarked as contrasting 
startlingly with the manly energy indicated by his deep 
powerful voice. Mirabeau in the beginning, Napoleon 
at the close of the Revolution, threw him into the shade ; 
but he outlasted b^th. The secret of his power was 
patience and pertiiacity ; and his life has the appearance 
of being preternaturally lengthened out when we recollect 



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the immense number of widely removed characters and 
everts of which he was the contemporary. It may be said 
on the one hand that he accomplished nothing which time 
did not in a manner bring about ; but on the other it may 
be said, with equal plausibility, that scarcely any of the 
leading events whicn have occurred in France in his day 
would have taken the exact shape they assumed had not 
his hand interfered to give them somewhat of a bias or 
direction. Next to Napoleon, he certainly is the most 
extraordinary man the revolutionary period of France has 
% iven birth to. 

(Etudes et Portraits Politique*, par A. Mignet, Brux- 
elles, 1841, pp. 131-104 ; Ranport sur V Instruction Pub- 
liquefait au nom du Comite ae Constitution a VAssemblce 
Nationale, les 10, 11, et 19 Septembre, 1791, parM.de 
Talleyrand, Paris, 1791-4; Edinburgh Review, vols. vi. 
and vii. ; Memoircs par Etienne de Dumont ; Correspo?i- 
dence between i/ie Enroys of the American States and M. 
de Talleyrand, Minister for Foreign Affairs in France, 
London, 1798, 12mo. ; Considerations sur les yrincipaux 
f,vencm<;nts de la Revolution Franpaise, par Mme. la Ba- 
ronne de Stacl ; Dix Annies tTRvih par la mOnie ; M€- 
tnoires par A. L. F. de Bourrienne, Pans et Londres, 1831 ; 
Memorial de St. Ilelcne ; Memoires pour servir d VHis- 
toire de France sous Napoleon, par MM. les GG. Mon- 
tholon et Gourgaud ; Eioge de M. le Comte de Reinhard 
prononej a V Academic des Sciences Morales et Politique*, 
par M. le Prince de Talleyrand, dans la Seance du 3 
Mats, 1838, Paris, ia38.) 

T\LLIS, THOMAS, who is considered the patriarch of 
English cathedral music, was born at about the same 
period as the famous Italian ecclesiastical composer 
Palestrina, whose birth took place in the year 1529. 

It has been stated, but most probably erroneously, that 
Tallis was organist to Henry VIII. and his successors. 
He undoubtedly was a gentleman of the chapel to Edward 
VI. and Mary ; and under Elizabeth the place of organist 
was added to his other office. He seems to have devoted 
himself wholly to the duties of the church, for his name 
does not appear to anything in a secular form. His entire 
Service, including prayers, responses, Litany, and nearly 
all of a musical kind comprised in our liturgy, and in use 
in our cathedrals, appears in Dr. Boyce's Collection, to- 
gether with an anthem which has long been in high repute 
with the admirers of severe counterpoint. But for the 
smaller parts of his Service he was indebted to Peter 
Marbeck, organist of Windsor, who certainly is entitled to 
the credit of having added those solemn notes to the 
suffrages and responses which, under the name of Tallis, 
are still retained in our choirs, and listened to with reve- 
rential pleasure. [Marbeck.] 

In 1575 Tallis published, in conjunction with his pupil, 
Bird (or Byrde), Cantiones Sacrce, master-pieces of their 
kind; andthese are rendered the more remarkable from 



having been protected for twenty-one years by a patent 
from Queen Elizabeth, the first of the land that ever in* 
granted. One of these, * O sacrum conviviura,* was adaptnl 
by Dean Aldrich to the words * I call and cry,' and i* the 
above-mentioned anthem, which still continue* to be fre- 
quently performed in most of our cathedral*. Two xaore 
of his anthems are printed in Dr. Arnold's Collection. 

Tallis died "in 1585, and was buried in the parish church 
of Greenwich, in the chancel of which Strype, in his con- 
tinuation of Stowe's Survey, tells us he saw a bras* plate, 
on which was engraved, in old English letter, an epitaph, 
in four stanzas of four lines each, giving a brief hUtor) of 
this renowned composer. The plate was earned aw**, 
and most likely sold by weight, by some barbarian, when 
the church was repaired about a century ago. The verse* 
arc to be found in Hawkins, Burney, arid most other pub- 
lications relating to English church music. 
TALLOW. [Fat.] 

TALLOW, MINERAL or MOUNTAIN. [HATcmm*i/l 
TALLOW-TREE. [Stillingia.] 
TALLY. This word appears to be derived from th< 
French faille, or taillcr, each of which expresses the idrt 
of cutting or notching. 

The use of notched sticks or tallies may be traced to a 
very remote period, and there is reason to believe 'hit 
they were among the earliest means devised for keeping 
accounts. Some writers conceive that the Greek symbomni 
(<rv/i/3oXov) was in some cases a species of tally, which wai 
used between contracting parties ; being broken in two. 
and one-half given to each. In the * Pictorial Bib!*' 
(note on Ezek. xxxvii. 20), much curious information U 
brought together on the subject of writing or marlrine 
with notches upon sticks. The writer of that note refer* 
to the tablets of wood called axones, upon which th< 
Athenians inscribed the laws of Solon, and to the practice 
of the antient Britons, who, he says, ' used to cut their 
alphabet with a knife upon a stick, which, thus inscribed, 
was called Coclbren y Beirdd, "the billet of signs of the 
bards," or the Bardic alphabet.' * And not only.' he con- 
tinues, 'were the alphabets such, but compositions and 
memorials were registered in the same manner.* The** 
sticks, he adds, were commonly squared, but were sometimes 
three-sided ; each side, in either case, containing one line of 
writing. A cut which accompanies the note from which we 
quote, shows the manner of mounting several such inscribed 
sticks in a frame, so that they might be re».d conveniently. 
Another illustration, of later date, is the clog-almanac 
described by Dr. Plot, in 1686, as still common in Stafford- 
shire. Such calendars, which had the various days marked 
by notches of different forms and sizes, were sometimes 
made small enough to carry in the pocket, and sometimes 
larger, for hanging up in the house. Similar calendars 
are said to have been formerly used in Sweden. Perhaps 
the most curious of the illustrations collected in the nota 



d. d. 

l i * 



t. t. d. $. d. d. d. 

111116 6 



$. d. d. d. 
16 11* 



d. d. d. d. 

111****6 



<Ld. 
1 1 



f. d. 
1 1 



d.d. d. d.d.4. 

11** 1111** 



«*1. 



Saxon Reive- Pol* used in the lata of PoitUnd. 



Fig. 2. 



£^2 



Exchequer Tally. 



referred to is the Saxon Reive-Pole, which either is, or has 
been down to a recent period, us*d in the Isle of Portland 
for collecting the yearly rent paid to the king as lord 
of the manor. This rent, which amounts to 14/. 14*. 3d., 
is collected by the reive, or steward, every Michaelmas ; 
the sum which each person has to pay being scored upon 
a squared pole, a portion of which is represented in the 
subjoined cut, with figures to mark the amount indicated 
by eacn notch. l The black circle at the top,' obseives 
the work from which we quote, 'denotes the parish of 



Southwell, and that side of the pole contains the account 
of the tax paid by the parishioners ; each person's account 
being divided from that of his neighbour by the circular 
indentations between each. In the present instance the 
first pays 2±d„ the second 4*. 2d., the next one Ikrthmj:, 
and so on.' The other side of the pole which is repre- 
sented in the cut is appropriated to tne parish of Walcm, 
of which the cross within a circle is the distinctive mark. 
The tallies used in the Exchequer (one of which is 
represented by fig, 2) answered the purpose of receipts 



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u well as simple records of matters of account. They 
consisted of squared rods of hazel or other wood, upon 
one side of which was marked, by notches, the sum for 
which the tally was an acknowledgment; one kind of 
notch standing for 1000/., another for 100/., another for 
30/., and others for 20*., 1*., &c. On two other sides of 
the tally, opposite to each other, the amount of the sum, 
the name of the payer, and the date of the transaction, 
were written by an officer called the writer of the tallies ; 
and. after this was done, the stick was cleft longitudinally 
in such a manner that each piece retained one of the 
written sides, and one-half of every notch cut in the tally. 
One piece was then delivered to the person who had paid 
in the money, for which it was a receipt or acquittance, 
while the other was preserved in the Exchequer. Madox 
ohserves respecting tnese rude and primitive records, 4 The 
use of them was very antient ; coeval, for aught I know, 
with the Exchequer itself in England.' They were finally 
discontinued at tne remodelling of the Exchequer in 1834 ; 
and it is worthy of recollection that the fire by which the 
Houses of Parliament were destroyed was supposed to have 
originated in the over-heating of the flues in which the 
discarded tallies were being burnt. Clumsy as the con- 
trivance may appear, tallies were effectual in the preven- 
tion of forgery, since no ingenuity could produce a false 
tally which should perfectly correspond with the counter- 
tally preserved at tne Exchequer ; and no alteration of 
the sum expressed by the notches and the inscription 
could pass undetected when the two parts of the stick 
were fitted together. A correspondent of the • Gentle- 
man's Magazine' for November, 1834 (p. 480), states that 
forgeries were attempted immediately after the discontinu- 
ance of tally receipts. The officers of the Exchequer 
commonly called tellers (talliers), as well as several other 
functionaries, derived their name from the word tally. 

Many different kinds of tally are used in gardens and 
arboretums, to bear either numbers referring to a cata- 
logue, or the names of the plants near which they are 
placed. Loudon describes several sorts, of wood, metal, 
earthenware, brick, Sec., in his * Encyclopaedia of Garden- 
in?/ Wooden tallies are sometimes marked by notches 
instead of writing or painting ; particular forms or com- 
binations of notches being used to represent either Arabic 
numerals or the Roman letters commonly employed in 
numeration. Tallies formed of brick-earth, with a recess 
for containing a printed card, which is sheltered by a piece 
of glass, have been introduced of late years, and are par- 
ticularly recommended for use in arboretums. Instead of 
being stuck in the ground, like tallies of wood and metal, 
these brick tallies are formed with a broad base, which 
rests upon its surface. 

(Pictorial Bible, note on Ezek. xxxvii. 20; Madox's 
Btiory of the Exchequer, #c. A popular history of 
ta\u»u given in vol. xxiv. of the Mirror (pp. 325 and 
&l\ partly condensed from the Times newspaper.) 

TALMA, FRANQOIS JOSEPH, an eminent French 
tragedian, was born in Paris, January 15th, 1763. His 
father, who was a dentist, went to England shortly after 
the"birth of his son, and practised his profession for some 
)ears in London. At nine years of age young Talma re- 
turned to France, and was placed in a school at Chaillot, 
which was kept by Monsieur Lamarguiere, a great ad- 
mirer of the drama, who delighted to discover and 
encourage a similar taste in any of his pupils. A year 
after Talma had joined the school he was intrusted with a 
part in an old tragedy, called * Simois, Fils de Tamer- 
lane; which Monsieur Lamarguiere had selected for per- 
'ormance by his scholars ; and so deeply did the future 
tragedian enter into the feeling of the character, that he 
bunt into a flood of tears at the recital of the sorrows of 
Uie hero, whose brother he represented. At the age of 
twelve he wrote a little drama, in the composition of 
which he further developed his knowledge of the stage. 
He again visited London, and returned a second time to 
Bnk at the latter end of the year 1781, when he com- 
oeftced the study of logic in the College Mazarin. In 
TO he made a coup d'essai at the Theatre de Doyen, in 
tj* character of Seide, in the tragedy of ' Mahomet.' A 
«*eil of friends, appointed by himself, to judge of his 
ptAmance, pronounced it a failure : * He had not le feu 
«crl; Talma deferred to this unfavourable opinion, and 
quietly resumed the study of his father's profession ; but a 
few years afterwards the very same friends were called 
P. C., No. 1490. 



upon to reverse their judgment and confess their mistake. 
On the 21 st of November, 1787, he made his d<'but at the 
Theatre Fran^ais, and in 1789 created a great sensation by 
his performance of Charles IX. At the commencement gf 
the French Revolution he nearly fell a prey to a severe 
nervous disorder. On his recovery and the retirement of 
Larive, Talma became the principal tragic actor. He re- 
formed the costume of the stage, and first played the part 
of Titus in a Roman toga. During the reign of Napoleon 
he enjoyed the emperor's friendship ; and was no less 
honoured or esteemed by Louis XVIII. In 1825 he pub- 
lished some « Reflections ' on his favourite art ; and on the 
11th of June, 1826, appeared for the last time on the stage 
in the part of Charles VI. During his last illness the 
audiences of the Theatre Fra^ais every evening called for 
an official account of the state of his health previously to 
the commencement of the performances. He died on the 
19th of October following, and was buried in the cemetery 
of Pere la Chaise, in presence of an immense crowd. MM. 
Arnault, Jouy, and Lafour pronounced orations over his 
grave. The fheStre Francais remained closed for three 
evenings, and the Op6ra Comique and Odlon were also 
closed on the day of his funeral. The actors of the Brus- 
sels theatre (of which company he was an associate) wore 
mourning for him for forty days, and a variety of honours 
were paid to his memory at the principal theatres through- 
out France and the Netherlands. Talma is said to have 
created seventy-one characters, amongst the most popular 
of which were those of Orestes, CEdipus, Nero, Manlius, 
Csesar, Cinna, Augustus, Coriolanus, Hector, Macbeth, 
Hamlet, Othello, Leicester, Sylla, Regulus, Danville (in 
4 L'Ecole des Vieillards';, Leonidas, Charles VI., and Henry 
VIII. He has been accused, remarks one of his biogra 
phers, of having spoken the verse of tragedy as though it 
were prose ; but this avoidance of the jingle of rhyme was 
one of the greatest improvements which he introduced 
upon the French stage. In person he was about the 
middle height, square-built, and with a most expressive 
and noble countenance. His voice was exceedingly fine 
and powerful, his attitudes dignified and graceful. In 
private life he was distinguished for his manly frankness, 
his kind disposition, and unaffected manners. He spoke 
English perfectly, and was a great admirer of England 
and her institutions. He was the friend and guest of 
John Kemble, and was present in Covent Garden Theatre 
when that great actor took his leave of the stage. 

(Almanack des Spectacles ; 1827; Biographie Notwelle 
des Contemporains ; New Monthly Mag,; Personal Re- 
collections.) 

TALMUD. [Hebrew Language.] 

TALPA. [Talpid*.] 

TALPASOrREX, M. Lesson's name for a genus of So- 
recios, comprising the Shrew-mole. [Vol. xxii., p. 2G3.1 

TA'LPIDiE, the family of Moles. 

The genus Talpa of Linnaeus, as it stands in the 12th 
edition of the Systema Naturce, between the genera Di- 
delphis and Sorex, comprises two species only, Talpa 
Europcea, the Common Mole, and Talpa Asiatica. [Chry 
sochloris.] 

Cuvier places the Moles, confining them to the genus 
Talpa, between Sorex [SoRECiDiK] and Condylura. 

Mr. Swainson places the genus Talpa between Chryso- 
chloris and Centenes. [Tenrec.] 

Organization. 
Skeleton.— The cranium is elongated and pointed, and 




Skull of Mole. 

there is a peculiar bone for the support and working of 
the muzzle. The part which extends from the internal 

Vol. XXIV,— D 



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side ot the jaws terminates in three points, the one in the 
middle larger and more distant from the external edge 
than the other two The Tery short arm attached by 



means of a long bladebone, and sustained by a vigorous 
clavicle, carries an extremely wide hand, the palm of 
which is always turned outwards or backwards. No I 



BkalrtMofMoto. (D. BUlntilU.) TtonaehalbaM 

living fbrm has the compressed phalangeal bones seen in 
Glyptodon except the mole. The second phalanx of the an- 
terior digits or fingers of the mole is the only known living 
analogue of the similar bone in the hind-foot of Glyptodon. 
The sternum, like that of the birds and bats, has an ele- 
vation or crest affording room for the large pectoral mus- 
cles. The pelvis and hinder extremities are comparatively 
feeble. Tne bones of the pubis are not joined. 

This bony framework is set in motion by very powerful 
muscles. Those of the anterior extremities, the chest, 
and the neck are most vigorous, and in the cervical liga- 
ment a peculiar bone is even formed. The wide hand, 
which is the great instrument of action, and performs the 
offices of a pickaxe and shovel, is sharp-edged on its 
lower margin, and, when clothed with the integuments, the 
fingers are hardly distinguishable, but the terminating 
claws project long, strong, flat, and trenchant. 

Let us compare for a moment the bats with the moles 
with reference to their locomotion. Both are insecti- 
vorous, but how widely different in their conformation. 
The bat has to winnow its way through the air : the mole, 
like the bat, has to react against a given medium, a very 
different one, certainly ; and is endowed with a power of 
moving through that medium by means of a modification 
of the locomotive organs beautifully adapted to its den- 
sity. Instead of the lengthened bones of the forearm that 
so well assist the bat to make its way with outstretched 
wing through the air, all in this part of the organization of 
the mole is short and compact, to enable it to bore through 
the dense medium where it is to live and move and have 
its being. The development is all anterior : the fore part 
of the mole forms an elongated cone ; the posterior partis 
narrow and small, and the whole of its proportions are 
admirably fitted to assist it, so to speak, in flying through 
the earth. The long and almost round scapula, the ex- 
panded humerus, the enormous power, in short, of the an- 
terior extremities, and the great strength and compactness 
of the fingers, are all fitted for the digging duty they have 
to do. Add to this a soft short-cut velvety coat, to which no 
particle of soil ever adheres, and you have the perfection 
of organization for rapid progress through the ground. 

Nor is it void of interest to observe the niceties of adap- 
tation according to circumstances. The Chrysochloris 
( Talpa aurea of the older authors) is an inhabitant of 
Africa, and burrows in sand. This medium required a 
modification of organization different from that required 
to permeate the heavier soils, and we have it. Though 
some of the bones are strong, the general strength is less 
than in the common Mole. The pnncipal burrowing in- 
strument is the great double anterior toe (ring-finger), 
and there is an enormous development of the pisiform 
bone. 

In the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, in 
London, No. 282 G, of the Physiological Series, shows 
the anterior half of the body of a Mole {Talpa Europafa, 
Linn.\ in which the diaphragm and principal muscles of 
the right extremity are dissected and exposed, as illus- 
trative of one of the principal structures for burrowing. 

Nervous System and Senses. —{Touch.) — The muzzle of 
the mole is evidently a delicate organ of touch, and that 
sense is considerably developed in the large and broad 
fiands and feet. Neither is the tail without a considerable 
share of sensation, to give notice tc the animal of the 
approach of any attack from behind. 



and iwory carpal abre-thaped baoa it tan ahowv. 

Taste and Smell.— The gustatory and olfactory nerves, 
especially the latter, appear to be very sensitive. 

Sight.— Almost rudimentary. The little eye is so hidden 
in the fur, that its very existence was for a lone tunc 
denied. It appears to be designed for operating only as a 
warning to the animal on its emerging into the light ; ani 
indeed more acute vision would only have been an in- 
cumbrance. No. 1772 {Mum. Coll. Reg. Chir^ Pkj$. 
Series) is the anterior part of a mole {Talpa Europe*, 
Linn.\ showing the minute circular palpebral onficei 
defended by the short thick fur. 

Hearing. — But if the sight be imperfect, the sense of 
hearing is very highly developed, ana the tympanum very 
large, though there is no external ear, or rather, no pro- 
jecting concha. No. 1606, in the department of the 
museum of the Royal College of Surgeons above referrtd 
to, exhibits the anterior part of a mole {Talpa fiuropsri, 
Linn.), from which the hair has been removed, to show the 
external orifices of the ears and eyes, in both of which 
bristles are placed. No. 1009 is also the anterior part 
of the same animal with the fur left on, showing the 
entrance to the meatus audi tonus ex tenuis unprovided 
with a projecting concha, or external ear, which would 
be an impediment in the act of burrowing, and an unne- 
cessary appendage : the meatus is defended in this animal, 
which lives habitually in the soil, by the small ness of the 
external opening. John Hunter, in his Manuscript Cata- 
logue, introductory of this part of the series, observes that 
an external concha is not to be found in many animal* 
whose life is principally led underground, such as the 
mole ; and perhaps because the earth assists considerably 
in vibration. 

There is nothing that calls for any particular notice in the 
Digestive System of the Mole. The alimentary canal u 
short, simple, without a caecum. The voracity of*tUe 
mole corresponds with the activity and rapidity of its 
digestive powers. 

Generative and Urinary Systems.— No. 2505 of the 
Physiological 8eries in Mus. Coll. Reg. Chir. exhibits a 
mole with the abdomen laid open to show the testes as 
they appear in winter. They are lodged in large cremas- 
teric pouches in the perineal region, making no projec- 
tion externally. The right testis is drawn into tHc 
abdomen by the side of the bladder, and its posterior 
extremity may be seen attached to the inverted cremaster : 
the left testis has its anterior extremity projecting inu> 
the abdominal cavity. The prostatic glands, which con- 
sist of an aggregate of csecal tubes, are just visible behind 
the bladder. No. 2906 is a mole killed in February, sukI 
prepared to show the increased size of the testes, and tfc* 
commencing sexual development of the prostatic 
No. 2507 is a mole killed in the beginning of March, 
prepared to show a further increase of the testes and 
cessory prostatic glands : the latter have now advanced 
forwards on each side of the urinary bladder, so aa to 
encompass its neck : the led testis has been drawn betrk 
into the abdomen, and its attachment to the inverted cr« 
masteric pouch displayed. No. 2606. is a mole killed 
about the latter end of March, and dissected to show the 
complete development of the testes and prostatic gland*. 
The long penis and its two crura, surrounded by the enrc- 
tores muscles, are also shown. No. 2509 U a mole whioh 
was killed in autumn, prepared to show the collapse*! 
state of the testes, and the atrophied condition of the j 



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static glands ; but the testes in this case had not vet 
returned to the small size which they exhibit in winter. 
No. 2510 is a preparation showing a side view of the male 
organs of generation ; and No. 2511 exhibits the male 
organs of Chrysochloris capensis. (Cat., vol. iv.) 
'TTie increase and decrease of the testes in Birds and 
Faoos are well shown in preparations in the same noble 
museum ; the first in Nos. 2457 to 2462 (both inclusive), 
the second in Nos. 2412 and 2411. John Hunter, in his 
* Animal (Economy/ observes that these seasonal or peri- 
odica] changes are common to all animals which nave 
their seasons of copulation. ' In the buck,' says that great 
physiologist, * we find the testicles are reduced to a very 
HnaH size in winter ; and in the land-mouse, mole, &c. 
this diminution is still more remarkable. Animals, on the 
contrary, who are not in a state of nature, have no such 
change take place in their testicles ; and not being much 
affected by seasons, are consequently always in good con- 
dition, or in a state to which other animals that are left to 
themselves can only attain in the warmer season. There- 
fore in man, who is in the state we have last described, 
the testicles are nearly of the same size in winter as in 
summer; and nearly, though not exactly, the same thing 
may be observed in the horse, ram, &c., these animals 
having their seasons in a certain degree. The variation 
abort taken notice of is not confined to the testicles, but 
also extends to the parts which are connected with them : 
for m those animals that have their seasons for propagation 
the most distinctly marked, as the land-mouse, mole, &c., 
the vesiculse are hardly discernible in the winter ; but in 
the spring they are very large, varying in size in a manner 
similar to the testicle. It may however be alleged that 
the change in these bags might naturally be supposed to 
take place, even admitting them to be seminal reservoirs ; 
but what happens in the prostate gland, which has never 
been supposed to contain semen, will take off the force of 
this objection ; since in all animals which have such a 
gland, and which have their season for propagation, it 
undergoes a limited change. In the mole the prostate 
Eland is hardly discernible, but in the spring becomes very 
large, and is filled with mucus.' 

No. 2907 exhibits the posterior part of a mole (Talpa 
Bttropted), with the female generative and urinary organs 
exposed. The uterus is turned to the right side, princi- 
pally to display the course and attachments of the ovarian 
sad uterine ligaments. The ovarian ligament commences 
anterior and external to the kidney, and carries forward 
with it a Ibid of the peritoneum as it advances to the 
evsrtom. The uterine ligament, or ligamentum rotuh- 
dwn, is continued from the extremity of the cornu uteri, 
sad runs along the posterior edge of the preceding fold 
to the nart corresponding to the abdominal ring in the 
male, where it expands upon the fascia. The left ovary 
sod oviduct, the cornua and corpus uteri, are also ex- 
hibited. The ovary is tuberculate, and inclosed in an 
almost complete peritoneal capsule. The oviduct is 
attached to this capsule, and pursues a wavy course to the 
hora of the uterus. No. 2808 displays the female organs 
of a mole m situ, the ventral pane tea of the abdomen and 
chylopoietic viscera having been removed. The cornua 
Jrteri, cylindrical tubes, describe three abrupt curves before 
joining the corpus uteri, with which they form almost a 
rigtot tBgle. The body of the uterus is continued without 
toy constriction or interruption into the* vagina: the 
*nole canal is somewhat flattened, and is disposed in two 
or three vertical curves or folds before it leaves the abdo- 
"«. No. 2809 is also the posterior half of a mole, with 
the female organs similarly displayed, but minutely in- 
jected. The cornua uteri are divaricated, to display the 
extent of the broad ligaments. No. 2810 is a section of a 
look, in which the left ovary, oviduct, and uterine horn, and 
the left side of the uterus and vagina, have been removed, 
hot exposing the remainder of the generative apparatus 
J rite, and exhibiting its relative position to the urinary 
Madder, the rectum, and the pelvis. The contracted area 
J tJJ* nterine cavity, the absence of any os tine® dividing 
a from t he vagina, and the distinct muscular and internal 
•wbranous tunics of the flattened tortuous utero-vaginal 
2»iare clearly displayed. A bristle is inserted into the 
jW horn of the uterus, and another is passed through 
Jwcjftoris, which is perforated by the urethra. « Thus,' 
wsftnies Professor Owen, the author of the catalogue, 
«t urethra* vagina, and rectum open by distinct orifiws 



on the exterior of the body, and all three canals ne 
anterior to the pubic bones, and consequently outside the 
pelvis.' 

No. 1224 of the same series exhibits the kidney of a 
mole injected and longitudinally divided. The uninjected 
tubuli may be plainly seen extending through the cortical 
substance, as is shown in the injections of the kidney of 
the horse, Nos. 1209 to 1214, both inclusive. (Cat., vol. ii.) 

Generic Character.— Body stout and thick, furry; 
head elongated, pointed ; muzzle cartilaginous, strength 
ened by the snout-bone ; eyes very small ; no external 
ears ; anterior feet short and wide, with five united toes 
armed with trenchant nails proper for digging ; posterior 
feet with Ave toes also, but weak ; tail short. 

Dental Formula :— Incisors - ; canines —• ; molars 
7-7 
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Teeth of Mole, considerably enlarged. (V. Cut.) 

Example, Talpa Europtea, the common mole. 

This well-known animal, so familiar to all that it would 
be a needless waste of space to describe it, is La Taupe of 
the French, Talpa of the antient and modern Italians, 
Topo of the Spanish, Toupeira of the Portuguese, Maul- 
werf of the Germans, Mol of the Dutch, Mulvad and Surk 
of the Swedes, Muldvarp of the Danes ; Mole, Mole-warp, 
Moldwarp, and Want of the modern British ; and Gwaad 
and Twrch daear of the antient British. 

Habits, Food, Reproduction, #c.— * A subterraneous 
life,' says Pennant, speaking, of the mole, ' being allotted 
to it, the seeming defects of several of its parts vanish ; 
which, instead of appearing maimed or unfinished, ex- 
hibit a most striking proof of the fitness of their con- 
trivance. The breadth, strength, and shortness of the 
fore-feet, which are inclined sideways, answer the use as 
well as the form of hands, to scoop out the earth, to form 
its habitation, or to pursue its prey. Had they been 
longer, the falling in of the earth would have prevented 
the quick repetition of its strokes in working, or have im- 
peded its course : the oblique position of the fore-feet has 
also this advantage, that it flings all the loose soil behind 
the animal. 

1 The form of the body is not less admirably contrived for 
its way of life : the fore-part is thick and very muscular, 
giving great strength to the action of the fore-part, en- 
abling it to dig its way with great force and rapidity, either 
to pursue its prey or elude the search of the most active 
enemy. The form of its Jiind parts, which are small and 
taper, enables it to pass with great facility through the 
earth that the fore-feet had flung behind ; for had each 
part of the body been of equal thickness, its flight would 
have been impeded and its security precarious. 

• The skin is most excessively compact, and so tough as 
not to be cut but by a very sharp knife ; the hair is very 
short and close-set, and softer than the finest silk ; the 
usual colour is black, not but that there are instances of 
these animals being spotted, and a cream-coloured breed 
is sometimes found \n my lands near Downing. 



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' The smallness of the eyes (which gave occasion to the 
antients to deny it the sense of sight*) is to this animal a 
peculiar happiness ; a small decree of vision is sufficient for 
an animal ever destined to live underground ; had these 
organs been larger, they would have been perpetually liable 
to injuries by the eartn falling into them ; but nature, to 
prevent that inconvenience, hath not only made them 
very small, but also covered them very closely' with fur. 
Anatomists mention (besides these) a third very wonderful 
contrivance for their security, and inform us that each eye 
is furnished with a certain muscle, by which the animal 
has the power of withdrawing or exerting them, according 
to its exigencies. 

• To make amends for the dimness of its sight, the mole 
is amply recompensed by the great perfection of two 
other senses, those of hearing and of smelling: the first 
gives it notice of the most distant approach of danger ; 
the other, which is equally exquisite, directs it in the 
midst of darkness to its food : the nose also, being very 
long and slender, is well formed for thrusting into small 
holes in search of the worms and insects that inhabit 
them. These gifts may with reason be said to compensate 
the defect of sight, as they supply in this animal all its 
wants and all the purposes of that sense. 

• It is supposed that the verdant circles so often seen in 
grass-grounds, called by country-people fairy rings, are 
owing to the operations, of these animals, who, at certain 
seasons perform their burrowings by circumgyrations, 
which, loosening the soil, give the surface a greater fertility 
and rankness of grass than the other parts within or with- 
out the ring. 

• The mole breeds in the spring, and brings four or five 
young at a time : it makes its nest of moss, and that 
always under the largest hillock, a little below the surface 
of the ground. It is observed to be most active, and to 
cast up most earth, immediately before rain, and in the 
winter before a thaw, because at those times the worms 
and insects begin to be in motion and approach the sur- 
face: on the contrary, in very dry weather this animal 
seldom or never forms any hillocks, as it penetrates deep 
after its prey, which at such seasons retires far into the 
ground. During summer it runs in search of snails and 
worms in the night time among the grass, which makes it 
the prey of owls. The mole shows great art in skinning a 
worm, which it always does before it eats it ; stripping the 
skin from end to ena, and squeezing out the contents of 
the body/ 

Thus far Pennant : but the most diligent and instruc- 
tive historian of the mole is Henri Le Court, who, flying 
from the terrors that came in the train of the French 
revolution, buried himself in the country, and, from the 
attendant on a court, became the biographer of this hum- 
ble animal. The discoveries of this indefatigable observer 
have been laid before the public in the work of De Vaux 
(1803), and a summary of them by Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in 
the Court d'Histoire Nalurelle des Mammijeres. The 
latter visited Le Court for the purpose of testing his 
observations, and appears to have been charmed by the 
facility and ingenuity with which Le Court traced and 
demonstrated the subterrannean labours of this obscure 
worker in the dark. 

One of the experiments which Le Court made afforded 
ample proof of the rapidity with which the mole will 
travel along its passages. He watched his opportunity, 
and when the mole was out on its feed at one of the most 
distant points from its sanctuary or fortress, to which point 
the mole's high road leads, Le Court placed along the course 
of that road between the mole and the fortress several little 
camp-colours, so to speak, the staff of each being a straw 
and the flag a bit of paper, at certain distances, the straws 
penetrating down into the passage. Near the end of the 
subterraneous road he inserted a horn, the mouth-piece of 
which stood out of the ground. When all was ready, Le 
Court blew a blast loud enough to fright all the moles 
within hearing from their propriety, and tlie little gentle- 
man in velvet, whose presence at the spot he had well 
ascertained, was affected accordingly. Down went the 
little flags in succession with an astonishing celerity, as 
the horrified mole, rushing along towards his sanctuary, 
came in contact with the flag-straws; and such mettle had 
terror put into the animals heels, that Uie spectators 

• • Ant otmHt atfti fodcro cubilia Ul r «/ Virf . Otvrg. I., 183, 



affirmed that its swiftness was equal to the speed of a 
horse at a good round trot. 

This experiment was perfectly satisfactory u ti 'ii 
auditory and travelling powers of the mole ; but another 
made by Le Court equally proved that the amount of 
vision possessed by the animal is amply sufficient for iu 
wants, and that, with all the imperfections of this sense, 
its sight warns it of danger. Le Court took a spare water- 
pipe or gutter open at both ends. Into this pipe he intro- 
duced several moles, successively. Geoffroy St. Hilaire 
stood by to watch the result, at the farther end of the tube. 
As long as the spectators stood motionless, the introduced 
mole made the best of his way through the pipe and 
escaped ; but if they moved, or even raised a finger, the 
mole stopped and then retreated. Several repetition* of 
the experiment produced the same results. 

But we must describe the moles domain. The principal 
point is the habitation, or, as it has been termed, the for- 
tress, and is constructed under a considerable hillock 
raised in some secure place, often at the root of a tree. 
under a bank, or any shelter that offers protection. The 
fortress is domed by a cement, so to speak, of earth which 
has been beaten and compressed by the architect into a 
compact and solid state. Within, a circular gallery is 
formed at the base, and communicates with a smaller 
upper gallery by means of five passages, which are nearly 
at equal distances. Within the lower and under the 
upper of these galleries is the chamber or dormitory, which 
has access to the upper gallery by three similar pasaajres. 
From this habitation, we should here observe, the high 
road by which the proprietor reaches the opposite end of 
the encampment extends, and the various galleries or ex- 
cavations open into this road, which the mole is continu- 
ally carrying out and extending in its search for food, and 
which has been termed its hunting-ground. But to 
return to the chamber. From it another road extends, 
the direction of which is downward at first, and that Un 
several inches, when it again rises to open into the hmh 
road of the territory. Some eight or nine other passages 
open out from the external circular gallery, bat the ori- 
fices of these never come opposite to the passages which 
connect the external gallery with the internal and upper 
gallery. The extent of these passages is greater or less, 
according to circumstances, and they each return by so 
irregular and semicircular route, opening at various ins- 
tances from the habitation into the high road, which differs 
considerably from all the other passages and excavations, 
both in construction and with regard to the use to notch 
it is applied. From the habitation this road is earned out 
nearly in a straight line and forms the main passage of 
communication between the habitation, the different por- 
tions of the encampment, and the alleys leading to the 
hunting-ground which open into it on each side. In 
diameter it exceeds the body of a mole, but its size mill 
not admit of two moles passing each other. The walla, 
from the reiterated pressure of the moles sides against 
them, become smooth and compact, and its course i* 
remarkable for the comparative absence of mole-hills, 
which are frequent in connection with the alleys and 
quarries, as they have been termed, in constructing which 
the earth is removed out of the way to the surface. Some- 
times a mole will lay out a second or even a third road in 
order to the extension of its operations. Sometimes 
several individuals use one road in common, though they 
never trespass on each others hunting-grounds. In the 
event of common usage, if two moles should happen to 
meet, one must retreat into the nearest alley, unless both 
should be pugnacious, in which case, the weakest is often 
slain. In forming this tunnel, the moles instinct *uppl*e» 
the place of science, for he drives it at a greater or Urn 
depth, according to the quality of the soil, or concurrent 
circumstances. When there is nothing superincumbent 
threatening a disturbance of its security, it is often ex- 
cavated at a depth of some four or five inches ; but if it is 
carried under a road or a stream, a foot and a half of 
earth, sometimes more, is left above it. Thus does the 
little animal carry on the subterraneous works ncoesaanr 
for his support, travelling, and comfort ; and his tunnel* 
never fall in. 

The alleys opening out from the sides of the hich road 
have generally a somewhat downward inclination from 
their commencement towards their end. It has been ob- 
served that when, on opening one of these alleys, a pka- 



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tiful supply of food is found, the mole proceeds to work 
out branch alleys from its termination, up-heaving new 
mole-hills as it advances in quest of prey : should how- 
ever the soil be barren of the means of existence, the ani- 
mal commences another alley at a different part of the 
hi^h road. The quality and humidity of the soil, which 
regulate the abundance of earth-worms, determine the 
greater or less depth of the alleys. 




Habitation or fortress of Mole. 

Hie mam road being the highway of communication 
to its different hunting-grounds, it is necessarily passed 
through regularly in the course of the day, and it is in this 
road that the mole-catcher sets his traps or practices his 
devices to intercept the animal between its habitation and 
the alley where it is carrying on it% labours. Some mole- 
catchers will tell you that the hours when the moles move 
tre nine and four, and others that, near the coast, their 
movements are influenced by the tides ; to which state- 
ments the hearer is at liberty to give as much credence as 
he chooses. Besides the various traps which are set for them, 
there is^ or very lately was, a man who travelled the coun- 
try with a dog and destroyed them without any trap at all, 
by the following process : Taking his station at the pro- 
per time and place, attended by his do£, and armed with 
a apear or spud, he waits till the dog indicates the pre- 
sence of the mole, and then spears or spuds the animal 
out as it moves in its run. Pointers mil stop at moles as 
steadily as at game, when the latter are straying on the 
surface. 

Betides the excavations already noticed, the moles pur- 
ine another mode of hunting in light loose soils, newly 
*wu,when gentle rains have led the earth-worms towards 
the surface, along "which they follow the worms up, rapidly 
digging a shallow trench in the superficial layer of the 
*>u\ The female, when with young, is said to be princi- 
pally addicted to this easier method of subsistence. 

All the animal passions are strong in the mole, and it is 
a most voracious animal. It has been supposed that it 
*aa a vegetable as well as an animal feeder, and, as a 
proof of the former, the fragments of roots, &c, found in 
its stomach have been appealed to ; but there can be no 
doubt that these vegetable matters had been conveyed 
into the stomach with the earth-worms (their favourite 
food) and the larvas of insects. The structure of its teeth 
indicates that its food should be animal, and indeed mice, 
hards, frogs, and even birds have been known to fall 
victims to its voracity ; but it eschews toads even when 
pretsed by hunger, deterred probably by the acrid secre- 
tion of their skin. [Frogs, vol. x., p. 493.] All doubts 
a« to the carnivorous nature of the mole have however 
been removed by the experiments of M. Flourens, who 
foond that mole's restricted to carrots, turnips, various 
Winds of herbs, and vegetable substances which were 
abundantly supplied to them, died of hunger. The mole 
indeed appears to require much nourishment, and a short 
tot proves fatal to it. 

We must not omit to notice the provision of this ani- 
wal to secure a simply of water, for its voracity makes it 
s great drinker. If a pond or ditch be at hand in those 
**aw where many moles use the same common highway, 
* ran is always formed to the reservoir: when it is too 



distant, the animal sinks little wells in the shape of deep 
perpendicular shafts, which hold water. These welis have 
sometimes been seen brim-full. 

During the season of love, at which time bloody battles 
are fought between the males, the male pursues the female 
with ardour through numerous divaricating superficial 
runs wrought out with tneat rapidity, termed * coupling 
runs' and 'rutting angles' by our mole-catchers, and 
• traces d'amour ' by the French. The sexual attachment 
appears to be very strong in the moles. Le Court often 
found a female taken in nis trap, and a male lying dead 
close to her. The period of gestation is two months at 
least, and the young are generally produced in April, but 
have been found from that month to August. From four 
to five is the general number, though from three to six 
have been recorded, and in one case seven * in one nest. 
The nest is distinct, usually distant from the habitation, 
and not always crowned with a hillock ; but when a hil- 
lock exists, it is much larger than an ordinary mole-hill. 
It is constructed by enlarging and excavating the point 
where three or four passages intersect each other ; and 
the bed of the nest is formed of a mass of young grass, 
root-fibres, and herbage. In one case, Geoff roy St. Hi- 
laire and Le Court counted two hundred and four young 
wheat-blades. 

In the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in 
London, No. 3573 of the Physiological Series is the pos- 
terior half of a pregnant mole, with the uterus and three 
foetuses, each about half an inch in length, exposed in 
situ: the ovarium is contained in a thin and transparent 
peritoneal capsule, around which the oviduct may be ob- 
served passing in the form of an opaque, white, narrow 
band : tne uterine dilatation next the left ovarium remains 
open, and the foetus is exposed inclosed in its membranes ; 
the other uterine dilatations are left entire ; they resemble 
blind pouches developed from one side of the uterine 
tube. No. 3574 is the posterior extremity of the trunk of 
a pregnant mole, with the uterus and five foetuses dis- 
played in situ ; one of the dilated chambers of the left 
uterine horn is laid open, and the foetus is exposed with 
its membranes. The placenta is a spongy, vascular sub- 
stance, in the form of an oblong flat band, with its long 
axis parallel to that of the foetus. One of the uterine 
chambers, with the corresponding chorionic sac, is laid 
open in the rjght horn of the uterus, and the foetus is dis- 
placed. No. a575 presents the female organs of a preg- 
nant mole with four foetuses, each one inch and a quarter 
in length ; one of these is exposed in situ in the uterine 
sac, two others hang suspended by their membranes and 
the placentae from the parietes of the uterus : in the lower 
of these embryos the foetal placenta is partly separated 
from the maternal portion, showing the fine areolar struc- 
ture of the latter, which receives the foetal placentary 
filaments: the maternal placenta is minutely injected, but 
no portion of injection has passed into those foetal fila- 
ments which are here exposed ; the capacity of the cho- 
rion is very little larger than the foetus which it contains. 
In the embryo which has been displaced from the chorio- 
nic sac, the short umbilical cord, and the characteristic 
form of the short and strong fossorial anterior extremities, 
may be discerned : the external apertures of the eyes and 
ears are completely closed. The canal leading from the 
uterine horns to the external opening of the vagina is laid 
open, showing the absence of auy os tinea? dividing the 
uterus from the vagina : a bristle is passed into the ure- 
thra, which is continued through the clitoris. The author 
of the catalogue (Professor Owen) observes that the pecu- 
liar position of the vagina of the mole, on the outside of 
the pelvis, is well displayed in No. 2810, above noticed, 
and that by this modification the contracted pelvis offers 
no impediment to parturition. {Cat.) 

Heavy charges have been brought' against the mole by 
agriculturists and horticulturists, and the more grave ac- 
cusation of being ancillary to the destruction of dykes has 
been in some instances proved upon it. Mr. Bell, in his 
interesting History of British Quadrupeds \ sums up the 
evidence against it and in its favour thus : — * In order to 
arrive at a true solution of the question, it is necessary to 
divest our minds as well of the prepossessions of the natu- 
ralist as of the prejudices of the agriculturist; for we shall 
probably find, as in most other cases, that the truth lien 
between the two extremes. According to its accusers, 

* Loudon's ' Magazine of Nat. Hut./ vol viiL 



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there U no portion of its labours, no peculiarity of its 
habits, no function of its organization, that is not the 
means or the cause of ravage and devastation to our culti- 
vated grounds. The soil, say they, is rendered dry and 
sterile oy its subterranean roads; tne crops are killed by 
the exposure or the destruction of the roots; the plants 
themselves are overthrown by the construction of the 
mole-hills, or they perish from their roots beinp eaten, or 
they are dug up and scattered by the superficial furrows 
which the animal ploughs up either in search of food or 
in pursuit of its mate ; large quantities of young corn too 
are carried off by it to form its nest ; and, finally, its aban- 
doned fortress becomes the resort of the field-mouse and 
other noxious animals. Thus the field and the meadow, 
the garden and the plantation, are alike the scenes of its 
ravages ; and De Vaux calculates that the loss which it 
occasions to the spring corn alone may be calculated at 
one-eighth of the whole produce, Tlien, on the other 
hand, Qiese prejudiced judges allow nothing for the benefit 
which arises from the destruction of innumerable worms, 
and of insects both in the larva and perfect state : this ad- 
vantage is in fact denied by De Vaux, who declares that 
the mole feeds only on the most harmless of those ani- 
mals, the earth-worm, and that it refuses those which are 
injurious to mankind. Its more benevolent advocates, on 
the other hand, contend not only that the injury which 
it perpetrates is sjight, but that it is more than counter- 
balanced by the benefit which it produces by turning up 
and lightening the soil, and especially by its immense de- 
struction of earth-worms and many other noxious animals 
which inhabit the superficial layer of the ground, and oc- 
casion great injury to the roots of grass, corn, and many 
other plants. If we examine the real nature and degree 
of its injuries on the one side, and its utility on the other, 
we shall probably find that both parties are erroneous. 
The fact of its devastations cannot be denied, it is only 
in the degree and extent of them that the estimation is 
incorrect ; and whilst its utility in clearing the ground of 
worms and similar causes of injury must also be allowed, 
it can scarcely be sustained that tne lightening of the soil 
by the turning up of its hillocks is, at most, more than a 
very equivocal source of advantage.' 

Thus we see that • much may be said on both sides.* 
We have heard advocates for the mole declare that in 
great sheep-walks whence they have been rooted out, the 
whole character of the feed has been alterM, and the ex- 
terminators have been obliged to introduce them again, 
and we have heard such stories denied. Too much stress 
however may be laid on its services as a destroyer of the 
earth-worm ; for it may be well doubted whether it aids 
the agriculturist by the destruction of an animal that does 
so much for the soil. [Lumbricus, vol. xiv., p. 196.] 

Whatever may be the merits of the case, the persecution 
of these animals in cultivated countries amounts almost 
to a war of extermination. The numbers annually slaugh- 
tered are enormous. Mr. Bell states that Mr. Jackson, a 
very intelligent mole-catcher, who had followed the craft 
for thirty-five years, had destroyed from forty to fifty 
thousand. But all mole-exterminators must yield to Li 
Court, who, in no large district, took, in five months, six 
thousand of them. 

Moles are good swimmers, and their bite is very sharp : 
when their blood is up, their ferocity is great, and they 
keep their hold like a bull-dog. 

As to the question whether the species under consider- 
ation is the atpalax (dvrraXat) of Aristotle, who describes 
his animal as blind, see the article Murid.b, vol. xv., p. 516. 

Geographical Distribution, — The common mole is found 
throughout the greater part of the continent of Europe 
and its larger islands. In Greece it is said to be compara- 
tively rare. We are overrun with it in most parts of Eng- 
land and Wales, but it does not appear to have been found 
in the northern extremity of Scotland, though it is fre- 
quent enough in the south. There is no record of its 
having been seen in the Orkney Isles, Zetland, or Ireland. 

The Prince of Musignano has well figured, in bis ex- 
cellent work, Iconografia delta Fauna Italica, the species 
under consideration and the Talpa cccca, which may 
be the Atpalax of Aristotle. In this last species the 
middle incisive teeth are longer than the rest ; in the com- 
mon mole they are all equal, and De Vaux states that 
there is some difference, though not great, in the habits I 
and architecture of the two species, Mr. Bell suggests ] 



that as both species are inhabitants of Europe, the original 
trivial name Europaa should be dropped, and Brissoa 's 
name, vulgaris, be adopted for the common species. 

For Dr. Richardson's account of the true mole* brought 
from America, see the acticle 8oascu>A, vol. xxu., p. 30. 

Fossa Moi.bs. 

The fossil remains of the mole have been found in the 
bone-caverns ; as, for example, in the cave at Kostrit* ar»l 
at Paviland (see Buckland, Reliquiec Diluviafur). Tliey 
have also been found in the bone-caverns in Belgium 
(Schmerling). 

Bones of moles have been obtained from the brown 
clay of Norfolk : they were, we understand, first taken for 
the remains of lizards. 

The questions which arise upon this discovery are : — 

1st. Were they true fossils of that formation or sobse- 
quently introduced? and this their condition might de- 
termine. 

2nd. Are the fossil remains identical with the bones of 
the common mole ? 

An inspection of the remains themselves might convey 
a solution of both these questions, and we are informed 
that the fossils are, through the kindness of Professor 
Sedgwick, about to be sent up to Professor Owen. 

But throughout this inquiry it will be necessary to bear 
in mind that though this quadruped is a denizen of th* 
earth, performing all its functions, with little exception, 
below the surface, and though we might for that reason 
be led to expect the frequent occurrence of its remains to 
a fossil state, true fossil bones of the mole have not 
hitherto been described. The danger to be guarded 
against with regard to those specimens found in the newer 
and superficial strata is that a burrowing animal may have 
penetrated into those fossiliferous beds subsequently tc 
their formation and the deposit of their organized contents. 
We therefore look forward to Professor Owens opinion 
upon the condition oX these remains and their specific 
distinction with much interest. 

TALUS, or TALUT, probably from * taglio,' Italia cut, 
is a term used chiefly by writers on fortification, in speak- 
ing of a rampart or parapet, to signify a surface which w 
inclined to the horizon. Thus the upper surface of a para- 
pet is called the superior talus or slope ; and that surface 
of a rampart or parapet which is towards the country, or 
towards the town, is called the exterior, or the interior, 
talus of the work {fig. 2, Bastion). 

The superior talus of a parapet is usually formed in a 
plane which, if produced towards the country, would 
nearly meet the top of the counterscarp before it, in 
order that the defenders of the rampart may be able to 
fire into the covered way in the event of the latter being 
occupied by the enemy, their muskets being laid upon 
that slope. The exterior or the interior talus of any wori 
of earth usually forms, with the horizon, an angle of 45 
degrees ; such Being the inclination at which the* surmce 
of earth, of medium tenacity, will stand unsupported. 

TAMAN, a peninsula, or rather a delta-island, is formed 
by the main branch of the river Kuban, which empties 
itself into the Black Sea, and a small branch of the tame 
river, which flows into the Sea of Azof north of the old for- 
tress of Temruk. The western or large part of the island 
stretches between the sea of Azof on the north and the 
Black Sea on the south, and is bounded on the west by the 
Strait of Yenikale, the antient Bosporus Cimmerius, and 
the Bay of Taman. The island resembles the open claw* 
of a lobster, embracing the Bay of Taman. Its length is 
57 miles, and its greatest breadth 22 miles, but the real 
surface is far from corresponding to these dimensions, the 
middle of the island being occupied by the large Temruk- 
skoi Liman, or Lake of Temruk, and trie whole of the re- 
maining part being notched by creeks and bays in such 
a manner as to present rather the skeleton of an island 
than a real island. The south-western part of Taman, 
the antient peninsula of Corocondama (Pomp. Mela* 
i. 19; Strabo, p. 494. Casaub.) presents a solid 



traversed by several ranges of fulls from 150 to IflO 
feet high : tney run from west to east, and near the vil- 
lage of Sennava-Balka form a bifurcation. One branch 
runs between tne Kubanskoi Liman, or the lake formed by 
the Kuban before it reaches the sea, and the lake of Tem- 
ruk, and terminates in a slip of land which divides that 
lake into two unequal parts. The other branch, the direo- 



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lion of which is north-east, forms the isthmus between the 
lake of Temruk on the east, and the bay of Taman on the 
west, and terminates before it reaches the isthmus between 
the lake of Temruk and the Sea of Azof. The north- 
western part of Taman, or the peninsula between the Sea 
of Axof and the bay of Taman, is no less elevated above 
the sea, but although it is a continuation of the mainland, 
it is separated from the eastern hills by a flat sandy isth- 
mus, which seems to have been covered by the sea at a 
period not very remote from our own times. All these 
hills are mere masses of sand and pebbles cemented with 
clay. The higher part of them is barren, but the slopes, 
and the low grounds between them and the sea or the 
lakes, are covered with soil and fit for agriculture. They 
also make rich pasture-grounds. The isthmus between 
the Temrukskoi Liman and the bay of Taman, and princi- 
pally that between the lake of Temruk and the Kubanskoi 
Liman, have a very pleasant aspect, being covered with 
the neat farmhouses of the Cossacks ; and on the meadows 
there are numerous flocks of cattle, some of which are 
sent thither across the strait from the neighbouring coast 
of the Crimea, The eastern part of Taman is formed by 
two flat and narrow isthmuses, and a somewhat broader 
tract of lowland between the two branches of the 
Kuban. The whole of this country is marshy, partly 
covered with pastures and partly with a luxuriant ve- 
getation of rushes and reeds, which, in the neighbour- 
hood of Kalaus, as Dr. Clarke states, attain a height 
Of from sixteen to twenty feet. Everywhere there is 
a struggle between land and water ; gulfs become creeks 
and Jakes, creeks are changed into marshes, and as soon 
as these get a continental aspect, the waters again swal- 
low them up. In the rainy season, says Pallas, all this 
country is overflowed by the waters of the Kuban, and the 
higher part of Taman is separated from the continent by 
an immense lake which extends from one sea to the 
other ; but notwithstanding the apparently overwhelming 
power of the waters, the solid element makes constant 
progress. Thus M. Dureau de la Malle is correct when, 
in his * Geographic Physique de la Mer Noire.,' he says 
that all the Takes on the shore of the Sea of Azof, which are 
separated from the sea only by flat and narrow isthmuses, 
have once been bays and gulls, and that the barriers be- 
tween them and the open sea are a deposit formed by 
the astonishing masses of mud and sand carried into this 
tea by the Don and its tributary rivers. As to the whole 
eastern part of the island of Taman, it is also a mere re- 
eent production of the immense quantities of clay and 
mud which the Sea of Azof and the Kuban have depo- 
sited before the mouth of this river. The western and 
elevated part however in its whole geognostical structure 
belongs to the opposite continent of the Crimea, from 
whieh it has apparently been separated by the current of 
the Cimmerian Bosporus. Two characteristic peculiari- 
ties of this latter part are the Sewernaya Kossa, a long 
but very flat and narrow slip of land which stretches from 
the north-west extremity of the northern peninsula in a 
south-west direction to the middle of the moutli of the 
bay o( Taman ; and the cluster of small islands, the prin- 
cipal one of which was known to the Byzantines by 
the name of Atech, which extend from Point Yunaya 
north-west till they reach the centre of the strait. These 
islands will probably become a continuous land, and 
by joining the opposite Sewernaya Kossa, will separate 
toe whole bay of Taman from the Bosporus. Numerous 
tmsJl craters are situated on the ridge of the hills 
irotmd the Bay of Taman, as well as along the lake of 
Temrak. They present all the external appearances of 
volcanoes; though the matter which they throw out is 
not lava, but a thick mud of a deep black colour, which 
they discharge at irregular periods. The largest of these 
craters is situated on the southern extremity of the north- 
west peninsula, and a description of the most remarkable 
erapbon of it is given by Pallas in the work cited below. 
1ms traveller attributes these phenomena to the burning 
of an extensive layer of coals, upon which indeed the 
whole island of Taman seems to repose. The apparition 
sf ta bland, which, on the 5th of September, 1799, sud- 
dealy rote from the Sea of Azof, near the coast of Temruk, 
a phenomenon which was preceded and accompanied by 
a kind of earthquake, and: all the other symptoms of a 
volcanic eruption, was undoubtedly the effect of the same 
subterraneous cause. The new island however soon dis- 
ippeared in the tea. 



The Greeks knew this remarkable island under the name 
of Eion (H/wv), and founded several colonies in it. The 
most considerable of them were — Phanagoria, a famous 
commercial town, which contained a beautiful temple oC 
Aphrodite of Apaturon (Strabo, p. 495. Casaub.) ; Kepo», 
or Kepi, a colony of the Milesians ; Hermonassa, founded by 
the Ionians ; and Achilleion : some ruins and marbles are 
the only traces that remain of their antient splendour. The 
island belonged for a long period to the kingdom of Bos- 
porus, and was afterwards conquered by Pharnaces, the 
son of Mithridates. At the beginning of the middle 
ages it belonged to the dominions of the Goths, and 
afterwards of the Khazars, a Turkish people, renowned 
for their industry and commerce. It was then known 
under the name of Tamatarkha. In the tenth century a 
Russian prince founded there the petty kingdom of Tmu- 
tarakan ; the greater part of the inhabitants however were 
Tsherkessians and Turks, and, from the time of the in- 
vasion of the Mongols, the Tartars remained the only mas- 
ters of it. Numerous old tombs still attest their long 
residence on the island. They were at last driven out by 
the Russians, who repeopled the country with Cossacks in 
order to defend it against the invasions or the Tsherkessians 
beyond the Kuban. There are now only two towns : Tmti- 
tarakan, the Tamatarkha of the middle ages and the Pha- 
nasjoria of the Greeks ; and the present town of Phanagoria, 
which was built by the Russians on the shore of the bay 
of Taman, three miles east from Tmutarakan, on account 
of its harbour being deeper than that of the latter town. 

(Pallas, Bemerkungen aufeiner Reise in den Siidlichen 
Provinzen des Russischen Retches ; Dr. Clarke, Travels in 
Russia. The best map of the island of Taman is contained 
in the great Atlas of Russia published at St. Petersburg ; 
the map in Pallas's Bemerkungen is also good ; that of 
Dr. Clarke has some interest for lovers of antiquities, but 
is far from being geographically exact.) 

TAMAWDUA. £Ant-Eater, vol. ii., p. 65.] 

TAMARICA'CILE, a small natural order, belonging 
to the syncarpous group of polypetalous Exogens. The 
species are either shrubs or herbs, having straight rod- 
like branches, with alternate entire leaves, resembling 
scales; the flowers are in dense spikes or racemes. 
The calyx is 4-5-parted, persistent; the petals inserted 
into the calyx, both with imbricate Aestivation ; stamens 
hypogynous, distinct or united, equal in number with the 
petals or twice as many ; ovary superior, with a short style 
and 3 stigmas ; fruit a capsule, 3-valved, 1 -celled, witn 
numerous seeds, which are comose ; embryo stiaight with 
an inferior radicle. 




Tamarix germanica. a, catting, allowing the straight branches and scale-like 
lctiTes; ft, single flower; c, flower with calyx ana corolla removed bhowing 
monadelphoos stamens : 4, capsule with oomoae seeds escaping. 

This order is placed by De Candolle with those which 
have perigynous stamens, but there is no doubt now that 



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it has hypogynous stamens, although closely related to 
the perigynous order Ulecebracese. It has also affinities 
with Portulaceae, Lythraeea?, Onagraceas and lteaumuri- 
ficeae. 

The species are found only in the Old World ; the 
greatest number being met witn in the basin of the Medi- 
terranean. According to Ehrenberg, the order is bounded 
on the south by the 8th or 9th parallel of N. lat., and on 
the north by that of 50° and 55°, in Siberia, Germany, and 
England. 

The plants of this order arc innocuous, and all are more 
or less astringent; and their ashes after burning are 
remarkable for possessing a large quantity of sulphate of 
soda. Myricaria Germanica is recommended as a diuretic. 
[Tamarix.] 

TAMARINDS, Medical Properties of. Of the two 
varieties of the only species of this genus, the fruit is 
much larger in the East Indian than the West Indian. 
The shell being removed, there remains the flat square hard 
seeds, imbedded in a pulp, with membranous fibres running 
through it. In the East Indies the pulp is dried, either in 
the sun, and this is used for home consumption, or with 
salt added, and dried in copper ovens, which kind is sent 
to Europe. (Crawfurd's Indian Archipelago.) This sort, 
called natural tamarinds, is much darker and drier than 
the West Indian, which are called prepared tamarinds. 

The West Indian tamarinds reach maturity in June, 
July, and August, when they are collected, and the shell 
being removed, they are put into jars, either with layers of 
sugar put between them, or boiling syrup poured over 
them, which penetrates to the bottom. Prepared tama- 
rinds therefore contain much more saccharine matter than 
tfhe others. According to Vauquelin, prepared tamarinds 
contain per cent, citric acid 9*40, tartaric acid 1-55, malic 
acid 4)*45, bitartrate of potash 3*25, sugar 25, gum 47, 
vegetable jelly (pecten) 625, parenchyma 3435, water 
2755. This prepared pulp has a pleasant acid astringent 
taste, with a somewhat vinous odour. 

It presents an example of one of those natural combina- 
tions of gummy, saccharine, and acid principles which are 
of such great utility in hot climates. It is used not only in 
India, but in Africa, as a cooling article of food, and the 
travellers across the deserts carry it with them to quench 
Their thirst. In Nubia it is allowed to stand in the sun 
till a kind of fermentation takes place : it is then formed 
issto cakes, one of which dissolved in water forms a refresh- 
ing drink. In India a kind of sherbet is made with it, 
and by the addition of sugar it becomes a source whence 
vinegar is readily obtained. In the fevers and bilious 
complaints, and even dysenteries of these climates, it proves 
highly serviceable ; in small quantity it acts as an astringent, 
but in larger it proves laxative. Boiling water poured over 
tamarinds yields a drink which is very grateful in the in- 
flammatory complaints of our own country, particularly in 
the bilious fevers of autumn. An agreeable whey may be 
made with it, by boiling two ounces of tamarind-pulp with 
two pints of milk. Tamarinds are frequently given along 
with senna, but they are said to lessen its purgative pro- 
perty. They form an ingredient in the confectio sennae 
and confectio cassiae. 

In times of scarcity in India the seeds are eaten, being 
first toasted and then soaked for a few hours in water, 
when the dark skin comes easily off; they are then boiled 
or dried, am\ taste like common field-beans. 

TAMAKINDU'S, the name of a genus of plants belong- 
ing to the Rectembryous division of the natural order Legu- 
minosa?. It possesses the following characters : — calyx 
cleft, tubular at the base, the three upper lobes are reflexed, 
the two lower ones joined together, but usually indentate 
At the apex ; petals 3, alternate with the three upper lobes 
of the calyx, the middle one cucullate and the lateral ones 
ovate ; the stamens are 9 or 10 in number, two or three of 
which are longer than the others, united at the base, and 
bearing anthers, whilst the remainder are sterile; the fruit 
is a legume seated on a pedicel, 1 -celled, compressed, with 
from 3 to 6 seeds, and tne valves filled with pulp between 
the endocarp and epicarp, their inner and outer lining ; 
the seeds are ovato-quadrate in form, possessing cotyledons 
unequal at the base. 

There are only two species belonging to this genus, both 
of which are trees witn abruptly pinnate leaves, bearing 
many pairs of small leaflets and racemes of flowers. 

The Tatrarindui Indica, the East Indian Tamarind, was 
the earliest known species, for a knowledge of which, in 



Europe, we are indebted to the Arabians. Dr. F. Ham! • 
ton, in his commentary on the Hortws Malabaricu*, msam* 
on the specific designation of this plant, that it u * a i lie 
pleonasm,' the fact of its being Indian being referred to 
in the generic name Tamar- Indus, whence our *ifd 
Tamarind. The Indian Tamarind is distinguished by ru 
elongated legumes, which are six times or more longer 
than they are broad. It is a native of various district* in 
the East Indies and also of the tropical parts of Africa. 
It forms a handsome tree with spreading branches beannc 
leaves of a light colour and flowers with a straw-coloured 
calyx and yellow petals, streaked with red : the filament* 
of the stamens are purple and the anthers brown. The 
timber of this tree is very firm, hard, and heavy, and is 
applied to many useful purposes in building. 

The second species is the Tamarindus Occidental**,, the 
West Indian Tamarind, which is distinguished from the 
other by possessing short legumes not more than thrte 
times longer than they are broad. It is a native of South 
America and the West India Islands, forming also a large 
spreading tree, with yellowish flowers streaked with red 
and purplish stamens. 

These plants may be grown in this country, by aowin* 
the seeds, which can be easily obtained, in a not -bed, and 
when the young plants obtain a height of two or three 
inches, planting tnem out in separate pots. For the me- 
dical and dietetic properties of the tamarind aee Tama- 
rinds. 

TAMARIX, the name of a genus of plants, the type of the 
natural order Tamaricaceae. It has a 4- or 5-parteo calyx ; 
4 or 5 petals ; 4 or 5 stamens alternating with the petals, 
united at the base ; a tapering ovary with 3 stigmas ; erect 
tufted seeds, the tuft being composed of a number of hairs 
proceeding from the apex of the seed. The species hare 
generally paniculated spikes of small flowers of a red 
colour. 

T. gallica, the French tamarisk, is a glabrous glaucous 
shrub, with minute acute leaves clasping the stem, with 
slender lateral spikes of flowers, five times longer than 
broad. This species is a native of France, and alio along 
the Mediterranean : it is also a native of the coasts of 
Cornwall, Hampshire, and Sussex, in England. Ehren- 
berg has described a great number of varieties of this 
species, one of which, the T. g, mannifera, known by its 
glaucous powdery appearance, he says, produces "the 
manna of Mount Sinai. This manna however does not 
contain any crystal lizable mannite, but, according to Mit- 
scherlich, consists of nothing more than a mucilaginous 
sugar. This is one of the species of this genus remark- 
able for the large quantity of sulphate of soda which its 
ashes contain. 

T, Indiea, the Indian Tamarisk, is a glabrous greeni»h 
plant, with stiff twiggy branches; short ovate acute 
leaves with white edges ; elongated spikes of fiowera, with 
bracts shorter than the flowers and longer than the pedi- 
cels, and stamens longer than the corolla. This plant is a 
native of the East Indies. It is subject to the attacks of 
a cynips, which produce galls that possess astringent pro- 
perties, and, according to Dr. Royle, they are on tin* ac- 
count used in medicine by the native doctors of India. 
The same property also renders them valuable in dyeinjr. 
Other Indian species of the Tamarisk produce gall*, which 
are used for the same purposes as those of 7*. Indica. 

T. Africana, the African Tamarisk, is a glabrous glau- 
cous shrub, with lanceolate imbricated leaves, with dense. 
scaly, simple, sessile racemes, with ovate chaffy bracts, 
and a 3-valved capsule. This is a native of toe sands 
along the shores of the Mediterranean. It is found in 
Mauritiana, around the Bay of Naples, in Egypt, and in 
the Levant. It has very much the appearance of T. Crii/- 
/fca, but its flowers are larger, and bark darker. Like 7*. 
Gallica, its ashes yield a large quantity of sulphate of soda. 
The bark, as in most of the species, is slightly bitter and 
astringent, and has been usea in medicine as a tonic. 

T. OrientaliSy the Eastern Tamarisk, is a tree attaining 
a height of from 10 to 20 feet : it is glabrous all over, with 
minute, distant, sheathing, mucronate leaves, with alenoV 
lateral spikes of flowers, and a 4-valved capsule. This is 
a native of Arabia, Persia, and the East Indies, and is one 
of the largest and most elegant of the species of the Ta- 
marisk . One of the finest specimens of this tree existing 
is at Babylon. The T. Chinensis appears to be a variety oi 
this plant. 

Nearly all the species are elegant and delicate shrubs 



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deserving a prominent position in the shrubbery. The 
hardy species do not require much care in their cultiva- 
tion. They will grow in almost any soil or situation, and 
may be propagated by cuttings planted out in the open 
ground either in the spring or autumn, where they will 
readily strike root. Those requiring heat and protection 
thrive best in a soil composed of loam and peat, and may 
also be propagated by cuttings placed in sand under a 
hand-glass. 

TAMAT1A, Cuvier's name for the Puff-Birds. 

Mr. Swainson, in addition to his description in the 
Zoological Illustrations, speaking of these birds in his 
Clasjtijfcatiorti says, that they sit for hours together on a 
dead or withered branch, from which they dart upon such 
insects as come sufficiently near, and that the Hermit 
birds (Monassa, Vieill.) have similar habits. [Barbets, 
vol. iii., p. 434 ; Kingfishers, vol. xiii., p. 227.] 

TAMAULIPAS. [Mexican States.] 

TAMBOW, a province of Great Russia, is situated be- 
tween 51° 3& and 55° 20* N. lat., and between 39° 40' and 
43° 4CK E. long. The area is 24,200 square miles, and the 
population 1,600,000. It is bounded on the north by 
Nischnei-Novgorod, and for a very small distance on the 
north-west by Wladimir; on the south by Woronesh; on 
the west by Riasan, Tula, and Orel (by the two last for a 
very small distance) ; and on the east by Penza. 

'fhis government is a uniformly level country, without 
mountains, large rivers, or considerable lakes : on the 
north there are great forests and on the south extensive 
steppes. The soil in the northern half is sandy, marshy, 
and poor : in the southern part it mostly consists of loam 
or black mould, and is fertile and productive. The 
steppes produce excellent pasturage, and when they have 
been brought under cultivation, make good arable land : 
they are designated as steppes only because they are 
destitute of wood. The river Oka enters the government 
from Riasan, but passes only through one circle, where it is 
joined by the Moascha, a considerable stream of which the 
Zna is a tributary. The Oka runs northwards to join the 
Volga. Another great Russian river, the Don, passes 
through a small part of the government. In the forests 
on the north there -are marshes which might easily be 
drained. The mineral-waters at Lepetzk are celebrated 
and much frequented. The climate is temperate and 
healthy, but colder in winter than in Tula and Riasan, 
which "seems to be owing to the slope of the open plains 
being: towards the north. 

The northern part of Tambow has a poor soil, but 
the south is very fertile, and this province ought to be 
a corn country if a better system of cultivation were 
introduced. In the south the land does not require to 
lie fallow, and needs no manure, but acquires from the 
feeding of cattle sufficient strength to produce fresh crops, 
which generally yield from five to ten fold. In the north 
the land is indeed not manured, but after yielding five or six 
crops must be fallow for some years ; and then it produces 
from three to five fold. All kinds of corn usually grown in 
Russia are raised, wheat, rye, oats, millet, and buckwheat, 
Ptas and other pulse ; poppies, great quantities of hemp, 
bnt barley, flax, and hemp are cultivated only in some 
circles. Horticulture is in a very backward state, for though 
there are many gardens, only the most ordinary vege- 
tables are cultivated ; some hops are grown in the gar- 
dens, but there is little fruit, and that of the most ordi- 
nary kinds. Though the forests are so extensive, it is 
only in the northern circles that there is sufficient wood 
for "fuel and building. The crown forests supply timber for 
the navy: in their vicinity the inhabitants are for the 
most part carpenters, coopers, arid cartwrights, or em- 
ployed in making pitch, tar, lamp-black, and charcoal. 
The breeding of cattle is carried on to a very great extent 
in the fine pastures and meadows of the steppes. The 
rteppe from Tambow to Nova Khopertskaja-Krepost is 
covered with immense herds of oxen and horses. Oxen 
are used for draught, and great numbers are fattened for 
exportation. Sheep and swine are bred in great numbers, 
but the wool of tne sheep is coarse: of late years the 
towl has been improved by the importation of merinos. 
Domestic poultry suffices for the consumption of the in- 
habitants : there is little game, and fish is by no means 
plentiful. Among the wild animals are the marmot and 
the hamster. Great quantities of bees are kept. The mine- 
ral products are lime, freestone, iron, and some saltpetre. 
l\ C. f No. 1491. 



The manufactures of this government are unimportant : 
the peasantry barely make their own clothing : in some 
parts they manufacture wooden utensils, and agricultural 
implements, which they take to the fairs. A great advance 
has however been made within the last twenty-five years. 
The brandy-distilleries are numerous. The export trade 
in the products of the country is very considerable. The 
principal articles arc wheat (1,200,000 chetwerts, or 864,000 
English quarters), cattle, honey, tallow (400,000 poods, or 
about 500 English cwt.), butter, cheese, wool, hemp, 
iron, brandy, hides, coarse cloth, and wooden wares. Pro- 
perly speaking there is no great commercial town. Tam- 
bow, Selatma, and Morschansk alone have some com- 
merce with foreign countries. 

The great majority of the inhabitants are Russians. 
There are some thousands of converted Tartars and Mord- 
wins, and a few gypsies. These Tartars and Mordwins live 
in the same manner as the Russians, but retain their own 
dialect, and live apart from the Russians, and generally 
intermarry with their own people. The religion of the 
Mohammedan Tartars requires a different mode of life. 
Among these various nations the Tartars are the most 
civilised, have the most knowledge, and the purest morals, 
and enjoy the most prosperity. 

Education is at a low ebb. According to Schnitzler, 
only 1 out of 325 of the population receives any school 
instruction. The only printing-office belongs to the 
government. 

The Greek church is under, the bishop of Tambow and 
Schazk, who has in his diocese 739 parishes and 6 monas- 
teries. The Mohammedan Tartars have their mosques, 
imams, and teachers. 

Tambow, the capital of the government, is situated 
nearly in the centre of the province, on the river Zna, in 
52° 44' N. lat. and 41° 45' E. long. It is a large town, 
with 20,000 inhabitants, and was founded in 1630, as 
a bulwark against the Nogay Tartars. Scarcely any traces 
of the antient fortifications now remain. There is nothing 
remarkable in the town, which has however been much 
improved in its appearance since the beginning of this 
century. Almost all the houses are built of wood : tne 
principal buildings are the monastery of Our Lady of 
Casan, in which there are two churches ; seven stone and 
six wooden churches, the gymnasium, and the civil hospital. 
There is a military school, founded and endowed by the 
nobility in 1802, a seminary for priests, and a district 
school. The bishop resides in this city. The inhabitants 
manufacture shawls, kersey, sailcloth, cordage, and woollen 
cloth; and there is an Imperial alum and vitriol manu- 
factory. The inhabitants carry on some trade, but their 
chief occupation is agriculture. 

The following are the other chief towns. Jelatma, the 
most northerly town in the government, situated on the 
left bank of the Oka, carries on by means of that river a 
very great trade with Moscow : it has ten churches, eight 
of which are of stone: the inhabitants, 6000 in number, 
have some manufactures of woollen cloth, vitriol, and sul- 
phur. Koslow, situated on the Lesnoi Woronesh, has 
above 8000 inhabitants, who follow various trades and 
professions : near the town is the convent Troitzkoi, where 
a great annual fair is held. There are eight churches, of 
which five are of stone : the principal trade of the town 
is in oxen, salt meat, and hides. Lipetsk, on the Woro- 
nesh, near the north extremity of the government of that 
name, a town with 6500 inhabitants, is celebrated for its 
mineral-waters, which were first used in the reign of Peter 
the Great. Morschansk, a town of 6000 inhabitants, situ- 
ated on the Zna, has manufactures of linen, sail-cloth, 
cordage, and tallow, and a brisk trade in corn, cattle, and 
honey. (Hassel, Geography; Stein; Horschelman; Schu- 
bert; Schnitzler.) 

TAMBURFNI, PIETRO, born at Brescia, in 1737, 
studied in his native town, took holy orders, and was 
made professor of philosophy, and afterwards of theology, 
in the episcopal seminary of Brescia. After filling those 
chairs for twelve years, he was invited to Rome, where 
Clement XIV. (Ganganelli) made him director of the 
studies of the Irish College, in which situation he remained 
for six years. In 1778 he was recalled to Lombardy by 
the empress Maria Theresa, and appointed professor of 
theology in the university of Pavia, and at the same time 
director of the studies of the German Hungarian college 
in that city, and also censor of the press. In 1795 he was 



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made Professor Emeritus, with a pennon* In 1797, whan 
the French invaded Lombardy, Tamburini was obliged by 
the new government to resume active duties at Pavia, as 
professor of moral philosophy and of 'jus naturae,' an 
arduous tax in those times of confusion of ideas and of 
barefaced licentiousness. Tamburini boldly fulfilled his 
duties, and effected some good by proclaiming wholesome 
principles from his chair. Shortly afterwards his chair 
was suppressed, but he was appointed rector of the lyceum 
of his native town, Brescia. When Bonaparte assumed the 
government in France and North Italy, Tamburini was 
sent again to Pavia as professor of moral philosophy and of 
• ius naturae et gentium/ in which chair he continued for 
eighteen years, till some years alter the Restoration, when 
the emperor Francis made him again Professor Emeritus 
and praesul of the faculty of law and politics in the uni- 
versity of Pavia. Tamburini was also a knight of the 
order of the Iron Crown. He died at Pavia, in March, 
1827, at ninety years of age, a few days after the death 
of his brother professor, Volta. His remains were 
buried with the greatest honours, being followed to the 
grave by the whole of the professors and above six 
hundred students, with marks of sincere respect and deep 
regret. 

The work for which Tamburini is mostly known is 
' Idea della Santa Sede,' published anonymously at 
Pavia, in 1784. An extract from the author's preface will 
convey some idea of the nature of this work : * It very 
often happens that to the most common and hacknied 
expressions a vague and indeterminate meaning is attri- 
buted. A word was originally fixed upon to signify a 
certain thing. The idea of it was perhaps clear and pre- 
cise in its origin, but as in the course of time the ideas of 
men change, the word is still retained, though people 
attach to it different meanings. Hence obscurity and 
confusion and interminable disputes arise, and still the 
sound of the disputed word is kept up, without conveying 
any distinct idea of what it means. Numberless exam- 
ples mi tent be quoted of such an occurrence. For in- 
stance, in our own times everybody speaks of the Holy 
See, the Apostolic See, the chair of St. Peter, the Roman 
church, which are so many expressions signifying the 
same thing, and which in antient times expressed a simple 
and clear idea, but which now convey to the minds of 
people the most vague and indeterminate notions. Things 
the most disparate are identified ; people confound one 
subject with another, the see with the incumbent, the 
chair with the court of Rome, the court with the church ; 
and from this medley arises a confusion of ideas through 
which every decree that proceeds from Rome becomes in- 
vested with the most respectable authority of the chair of 
St. Peter, of the Apostolic See, of the church of Rome — a 
confusion followed by the most pernicious consequences 
not only to local churches, but also to the universal church, 
and to the Apostolic See itself. In order to support cer- 
tain decretals which emanated from Rome, some short- 
sighted theologians have attributed to the Roman Sec new 
prerogatives unknown to the earlier ages of the church, 
ami they have had recourse to a supposed infallibility. . . . 
Other men have contested these prerogatives, and in the 
warmth of the controversy the real claims of the Holy 
8ee have been overlooked and forgotten. . . . One party 
has maintained that, on the plea of infallibility, every de- 
cision emanating from Rome ought to be received with 
blind obedience, whilst the other party has imagined that 
by overthrowing the privilege of infallibility every au- 
thority ascribed to it can be boldly denied. . . . Both these 
extremes proceed from the want of just and exact notions 
on the nature, the character, and the properties of the 
Holy See. The present work is intended to establish these 
notions. A little French book fell into my hands, en- 
titled * Dissertation Canonique et Historique sur rAutorite" 
du Saint Siege, et les Decrets qu'on lui attribue." In the 
first part the author has well explained the idea of the 
Holy See and of the Congregations sitting at Rome ; and 
in the second part he has maintained the primacy of that 
see. 1 have adopted the most important principles of this 
little work, compressing or enlarging its various parts, and 
fitting the whole to the wants of our times and country. 
I have explained also the essential rights annexed to the 
primacy of the Roman see, and have given some general 
rules in order to calculate the value and merit of the 
Roman decretals, and to make our own conduct prac- 



tically harmonize with the obedience which we owe to tbe 

authority of the see of Rome.' 

At the appearance of Tamburini's work it was stigma- 
tized as Jansenistical, although the author has not gone 
perhaps so far as some of the French Jansenista, or as 
Bishop Ricci and his synod of Pistoia. [Jansz?tuts ; 
Pius VI.] The reasoning is closely argumentative, and 
supported by numerous references. Several refutation* of 
it were published at Rome and other towns of Italy. T7»e 
other works of Tamburini are— 1, • Introduzione alio Studio 
della Filosofia Morale,' Milan, 1797 ; 2, * Lezioni di Filo- 
sofia Morale e di Natural e e Social e Diritto,' 4 toU., 
Pavia,1806-12 ; 3, 4 Elementa Juris Naturae,' Milan, 1H15 ; 
4, * Cenni sulla Perfettibilita dell' Umana Famiglia/ Milan, 
1823 ; in which the author reftites the exaggerated notions 
of indefinite perfectibility and universal happiness in 
human societies. The philosophy of Tamburini is of the 
Eclectic kind. 

(Defendente Sacchi, Varietd Letterarie % vol. i. ; Mallei, 
Storia della Letteratura Italiana y b. vi., ch. 13 ; Antoiogpa 
di Firenze, Nos. 39, 76.) 
TAME, River. [Staffordshire.] 
TAMER, River. [Cornwall.] 
TAMERLANE. [Timur.] 

TA'MIAS. [Squirrels, vol. xxii., pp. 398, 399, Sec.] 
TAMMEAMA. [Sandwich Islands.] 
TAMPPCO. [Mexican States.] 
TAMUL. [Hindustan, p. 228.] 
TAMUS, the name of a genus of plants belonging to 
the natural order Dioscoreaceae. This genus is diorciou*. 
the stamens growing on one plant, and the pistil* on an- 
other. The flowers are alike in having a perianth, which 
is 6-parted, the calyx and corolla being undistingui*hable. 
In tne male flowers there are 6 stamens. In the female 
flowers the remains are seen of 6 abortive stamens ; the 
ovary is trilocular ; the style trifld, with 3 stigmas ; the 
fruit a berry. This genus is supposed to be the Lva Ta- 
minia of Pliny: hence its present name. 

Tamus communis, the common Black Briony, has un- 
divided cordate, acuminate leaves, and is a ver* 'ommoa 
plant in hedges and thickets throughout Eur- ff ^. It is a 
frequent plant in England. It has a Ion? twininjr stem, 
spreading in all directions, and reaching from branch to 
branch of hedges and thickets : its flowers are greenuh- 
white ; the fruit is of a red colour, and hangs in bunches 
from its trailing branches. The berries are likely to be 
plucked and eaten by children : they are not however 
poisonous, although the whole plant contains a bitter acrid 
principle, which renders it unwholesome. This aend 
principle is destroyed by heat ; and as the roots of this 
plant contain a great deal of starch or fecula, a whole- 
some and nutritious food may be obtained from them by 
washing and boiling. On the surface of the roots are 
found blackish tubercles, which contain a larger quan- 
tity of acrid principle than the rest of the plant, and the** 
should be removed previous to preparing the roots for 
eating. The young shoots of this plant taste, when 
boiled, like asparagus, and are eaten by the Moors with 
oil and salt. 

TAMWORTH, a municipal and parliamentary borough 
on the border of Staffordshire and Warwickshire : the 
municipal borough, which includes the greater part of the 
town, and the parish, which is far more extensive, having 
an area of 12.920 acres, are divided between the two coun- 
ties : the parish is partly in the northern and partly in the 
southern division of Offlow hundred in the county of 
Stafford, and partly in Hemlingford hundred in Warwick- 
shire. The church is in Staffordshire, on which account 
the town is commonly described as being in that county. 
Tamworth is 102 miles in a direct line north-west of the 
General Post-office, London, or 129 miles by the London 
and Birmingham Railway to Hampton in Arden, and 
from thence by the Birmingham and Derby Junction 
Railway. 

The town first comes into notice in the time of the 
Heptarchy : several of the Mercian kings appear, from tbe 
date of charters granted by them, to have had their resi- 
dence at Tamworth. In the Danish wars a fort was built 
here in the reign of Edward the Elder (a.o. 913 ■ by his 
sister Ethelfleda, lady of Mercia, who died at Tamworth, 
a.o. 920, and Mercia passed under the direct dominion of 
Edward, who received the submission of the Tamworth 
men, au>. 922. Shaw (Hist, of Staffordshire) ascribe* to 



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Ethelfteda the mound on which the present ruins of the 
castle stand, but the ruins themselves are of later date. 
An old ditch, yet visible, called * the king's dyke,' which 
surrounds the town on three sides, is supposed by Shaw to 
be of yet greater antiquity than the time of Edward. In 
the SaScon ' Chronicle' the town is called Tamaweorthige, 
Tameweorthige, Tamanweorthe, or Tamweorthe : in other 
antient writings the orthography is still further varied. 
The place is not described in * Domesday ;' but the ' bur- 
genses' (burgesses) of Tamworth, are mentioned in that 
record, in the notice of other places. 

After the Conquest, the castle and adjacent territory 
were granted to Robert Marmion, hereditary champion to 
the dukes of Normandy ; and afterwards, on the extinction 
of the male line of his family in the time of Edward I., 
passed to the family of Frevile. The castle now belongs 
to Marquis Townshend. Sir Walter Scott has enumerated 
•Tamworth tower and town' among the possessions of his 
fictitious Marmion: but the family had become extinct 
long before, as observed by Sir Walter in the Appendix to 
hispoem. 

The town stands on the north bank of the rivers Tame 
and Anker, just at their junction, and consists of several 
streets not very regularly laid out. The streets are paved, 
but had not been lighted when the Municipal Boundary 
Commissioners' Report was drawn up {Part. Papers for 
1837) ; the inhabitants were however about to assess 
themselves for the purpose. 'The church is a large and 
handsome edifice, with a fine tower, and a crypt under 
part of the church. Some portions are of decorated date, 
and some perpendicular, and both good: some of the 
windows have had very fine tracery. In the tower is a 
cunous double staircase, one from the inside and one from 
without, each communicating with a different set of floors 
in the tower.' (Rickman's Gothic Architecture.) The 
remains of the castle are on a mound close to the Tame : 
they are of various periods, and some modern buildings 
have been added to adapt the whole to the purposes of a 
modern residence : the castle commands a fine prospect. 
There are some Dissenting places of worship ; an alms- 
house, founded by Guy, the founder of Guy's Hospital in 
Southwark ; a town-hall, with a small ana inconvenient 
gaol beneath ; and two bridges, one over the Tame, the 
other over the Anker. 

The population of the municipal borough in 1831 was 
3537, that of the whole parish (containing several hamlets 
and townships) 7182. Some manufactures are carried on ; 
but the whole number of men employed in them in the 
parish was, in 1831, only 38. Some coals and brick-earth 
are dug in the neighbourhood, and bricks and tiles are 
made. The market is on Saturday : there are three char- 
tered fairs for cattle and merchandise, and several new 
fairs for cattle only ; some of them held at Fazeley in the 
parish. The Coventry Canal passes near the town. 

Tamworth was a borough by prescription ; but the 
town having declined and ceased to be regarded as a cor- 
poration, was incorporated anew by letters patent of 
Queen Elizabeth : the governing charter is one of Charles 
II. By the Municipal Reform Act the borough has four 
aldermen and twelve councillors, but is not to have a 
commission of the peace except on petition and grant. 
The criminal jurisdiction of the corporation had fallen 
into disuse before the passing of that act, as well as the 
court of record : quarter-sessipns were held, but for civil 
purposes only. 

Tamworth first sent members to parliament in the reign 
of Elizabeth : it still returns two members. The number 
of voters on the register in 1835-6 was 531 : in 1839^10, 
501. 

The living of Tamworth is a perpetual curacy, of the 
clear yearly value of 170/., with a glebe-house. Tnere are 
in the parish the perpetual curacies of Fazeley, Wiggin- 
ton, and Wilnecote, of the clear yearly value of 235/. 
(with a glebe-house), 92/. and 90/. respectively : the curate 
of Tamworth presents to Wigginton and Wilnecote. There 
are also in the parish two chapelries, Amington and 
Hopwas. 

There were in the borough, in 1833, three endowed and 
three unendowed day-schools, with 183 children, namely 
142 boys, 21 girls, and 20 children of sex not stated ; and 
three Sunday-schools, with 203 children, viz. 97 boys and 
106 girls. In the rest of the parish were one infant-school, 
partly supported by subscription, with 88 children, namely 



41 boys and 47 girls ; ten day-schools of all kinds, with 96 
boys, 80 girls, and 80 children of sex not stated, making 
256 children in all ; and three Sunday-schools, with 288 
children, namely 150 boys and 138 girls. (Shaw's Staf- 
fordshire ; Parliamentary Papers.) 

TANA-ELF. TTrondheim.] 

TANACETUM, a genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order Compositae, and the suborder Corymbiferae 
or Asteraceae. The involucre is imbricated and hemi- 
spherical. The receptacle is naked ; the flowers of the 
ray are 3-toothed, those of the disk 5-toothed, tubular, and 
hermaphrodite. The fruit, an achenium, is crowned with 
a membranous margin, or pappus. The flowers are 
yellow. 

The most common species is the Tanacetum vulgare % 
common Tansy. It has bipinnatifid leaves, with serrated 
sections or laciniae. This plant is abundant in Great 
Britain and throughout Europe, on the borders of fields 
and road-sides. It possesses in a high degree the bitter- 
ness of the whole order Composite, which, in the section 
Corymbiferae, is combined with a resinous principle. It 
is recommended and has been extensively used in medi- 
cine as an emmenagogue and anthelmintic. Although 
the flavour and smell of this plant are both at first dis- 
agreeable, a taste for it may be acquired, and it has been 
used in cookery for the purpose of flavouring puddings and 
sauces. The young shoots vield a green colouring-matter, 
and are used by the Finlanders for the purpose of dyeing 
their cloths ot that colour. It is said that if meat be 
rubbed with the fresh leaves, it will not be attacked by 
the flesh-fly. 

TA'NAGERS. The genus Tanagra of Linnaeus stands, 
in the 12th edition of the Systema Natura, between Etnbe- 
riza and Fringilla, in the order Passeres. 

Cuvier characterises the genus as having a conical bill, 
triangular at its base, slightly arched at its arete, and 
notched towards the end : wings and flight short. He ob- 
serves that they resemble our sparrows in their habits, and 
seek for seeds as well as berries and insects. The greater 
part, he remarks, force themselves upon the attention of the 
spectator of an ornithological collection by their vivid 
colours. He places the genus between the Drongos (Edo- 
lius, Cuv.) and the Thrushes (Tardus, Linn.), thus subdi- 
viding it: — 

1. The Euphonous or Bullfinch Tanagers (Euphones, 
ou Tangaras Bouvreutls). 

These have a short bill, presenting, when it is seen ver- 
tically, an enlargement on each side of its base : tail short 
in proportion. 

Examples, Tanagra violacea, Cayennensis, &c. 
2. The Grosbeak Tanagers. 

Bill conic, stout, convex, as wide as it is high ; the back 
of the upper mandible rounded. 

Examples, Tanagra magna, atra, &c. 

3. Tanagers, properly so called. 

Bill conic, shorter than the head, as wide as it is high, 
the upper mandible arched and rather pointed. 

Examples, Tanagra Talao, tricolor, &c. 

4. Oriole Tanagers (Tangaras Loriots). 

Bill conic, arched, pointed, notched at the end. 

Examples, Tanagra gularis, pileata, &c. 
5. Cardinal Tanagers. 

Bill conic, a little convex, with an obtuse projecting 
tootlj on the side. 

Examples, Tanagra cristata, brunnea, &c. 
6. Ramphocele Tanagers. 

Bill conic, with the branches of the lower mandible con- 
vex, backwards. 

Examples, Tanagra Jacapa, Brasilia, &c. 

The views of Mr. Vigors on the subject of this group 
will be found in the article FRiNOiLLiDiK. 

Mr. Swainson remarks that the Tanagrina, or Tanagers, 
form that group which is probably the most numerous, as 
it certainly is the most diversified of all those in the com- 
prehensive family oT the Fringillida. As the dentirostral 
division of that family, it is, he observes, typically distin- 
guished from all the others by the bill having a distinct 
and well-defined notch at the end of the upper mandible, 
the ridge or culmen of which is much more curved than 
the gonys; or, in other words, the culmen is more curved 
downwards than the gonys is upwards : this inequality, he 
further states, as in the genus Ploceus, very much takes off 
from that regular conic form of bill so highly characteristic 

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of the greater number of the finches ; so that the combina- 
tion of these two characters is, he thinks, perhaps the best 
distinction of the whole group. Another peculiarity, he 
adds, of these birds consists in their geographic range ; for 
the whole, as far as has hitherto been ascertained, are na- 
tives of the warmer parts of America, being most abundant 
in those regions nearest to the equmoctial line. * They 
are/ says Mr. Swainson in continuation, * in general small 
birds, the largest being intermediate between a sparrow 
and a thrush, while the majority do not exceed the size of 
a linnet ; some few are even smaller. It is quite evident, 
from the preat strength of bill possessed by some, and the 
notch which is conspicuous in all, that these birds feed 
upon seeds and creeping insects picked from the branches 
of trees, for very few of them are ever seen upon the 
ground. Their colours in general are bright ; and, in a 
large number, particularly rich and beautiful. The little 
birds forming the genus Aglaia* in fact, are ornamented 
with the most vivid hues or glossed with rich reflections of 
gold, rendering them inferior only to the Humming Birds. 
Some possess considerable vocal powers ; and the notes of 
the subgenus Euphonia* as its name implies, are said to be 
particularly musical. The impossibility however of pro- 
viding the Tanagers with their native sweet food has pre- 
vented them from ever being brought alive to the European 
menageries, to which their beauty would render them the 
greatest ornaments.' 

Mr. Swainson then dwells on the obscurity which at- 
tends the examination of this group, which he states to be 
one of the most difficult to be understood in the whole 
circle of ornithology. He points out, for instance, that the 
comparative strength of the bill is so variable in the same 
subgenus, that such variation, indicative of genera in other 
families, is in this no more than a discrimination of sections 
or species. Nothing, according to him, can illustrate this 
fact more than the affinity between Pitylus and Tardivola. 
Looking to the types of each, he observes, we should say 
that they did not belong even to the same subfamily; for 
the bill of the first is nearly as large as in the hawfinches 
{Coccothraustes* Hawfinch), while that of Tardivola is so 
comparatively slender that it seems more akin to the 
Larks than to the Tanagers; and yet, he remarks in con- 
tinuation, between these two extremes or types, he had, 
when he wrote, before him such a perfect series of gradu- 
ated forms, wherein not only the bill, but all the other 
subordinate characters of the two groups, progress in such 
a perpetual and almost imperceptible manner, that he was 
actually at a loss to know where Tardivola ends and Pitylus 
begins. The foregoing affinity being admitted, and it 
should be remembered that some of the best ornithological 
writers have placed it as a genus in a totally different 
family, Mr. Swainson next proceeds to inquire into the 
cause of so remarkable a variation in the bill of such closely- 
united species. He first states that nearly the whole of the 
seed-eating birds of Tropical America are composed of the 
Tanagers, which, in those regions, supply the place of the 
, other finches so abundant in all parts of Europe. The in- 
numerable small and hard fruits produced in tne American 
forests are, he observes, the appointed food of the Tanagers, 
the parrots living principally upon the larger nuts, and the 
bill of the former birds is constructed accordingly. After 
noticing the disparity of the bills in the finches, taking the 
common linnet and the hawfinch for example, he remarks 
how little reliance can be placed on such diversity in de- 
termining genera: but this, he observes, will not explain 
the great difference which often exists in the size and 
plumage of species which all writers agree in arranging 
within the limits of the same subgenus; and he takes the 
restricted genus Pitylus* Cuv., as an example. Some of 
the species of that genus arc green, some black, others 
grey ; and in size they vary from the dimensions of a spar- 
row" to those of a small thrush. 

The doubts which, in Mr. Swainson's opinion, hansj over 
the correctness of the views which he entertained with re- 
spect to the natural affinities of these birds, may, he says, 
be said to hinge almost entirely upon his not having been 
able to examine specimens of Fringilla Zena* which has 
certain peculiarities which lead him to expect that it forms 
the type of one of the principal divisions among the Tana- 
gers, or that it connects his genus Aglaia with Pipi/lo. 
On the first supposition, F. Zma would, according to Mr. 
Swiinson, constitute the passage fiom the true sparrows 
{Pyrgit a) to the subgenus Tanagta proper; while by the 



second, Pipillo would stand intermediate between A* I*** 
and Tanagra* and thus constitute the rasoria) genus of the 
whole subfamily; and this latter arrangement appear* to 
him to be the natural one. He considers that the two 
typical groups or genera are Tanagra and Ptutnisoma ; 
while those which he thinks aberrant are Nemosia* A g lata. 
and Pipillo. It was only between the two last of those 
that he had not as yet discovered any affinity sufficient ly 
strong to justify the belief that these five genera form a 
circle more or less complete ; the difficulty being how to 
connect Aglaia with Pipillo. He then taies a review of 
the genera, for which we must refer our readers to the work 
itself; and, in the Synopsis at the end of the volume, 
makes the Tanagrina?* which he places between the Coeco- 
thraustina* and the Fringillince* consist of the following 
genera and subgenera, all of which he characterizes : — 
Tanagriiue. 
Subfamily Character.— Bm eaually conic; the upper 
mandible more or less arched, and very distinctly notched. 
Feet formed for perching. Claws broad and fully curved- 
Genera. 
Tardivola, Tanagra (with the subgenera Pitylus* Ta- 
nagra* and Ramphopis). Phcenisoma (with the subgenera 
Phcenisoma* Tachyphonus* and Leucopygia). NemomL. 
Aglaia (with the subgenera Euphonic and TamagrellaX 
And Pipillo (with the subgenus Arremou). (Clastt/icaJion 
of Birds.) 

The Prince of Canino (Biids of Europe and North 
America) places the Tanagrinee between the FringiUtn* 
and the Emberizina;. Pyranga is the only genus recorded 
as belonging to the Tanagrinep. 

Mr. G. R. Gray makes the Tanagrinee the third sub- 
family of the Fringillidce* arranging it between the Cor- 
cothraustina* and Fringillina*. The following genera are 
enumerated by Mr. Gray as belonging to the third sub- 
family : — 

Emberizoides* Temm. ; Pipilo* Vieill. ; Emberwizm, 
Less. ; Arremon* Vieill. ; Cissopis* Vieill. ; Pitylns. Cuv. ; 
Tanagra* Linn. ; Saltator* Vieill. ; Spindalis, Jard. and 
Selby ; Ramphopsis* Vieill. ; Lamprote** Sw. ; Pyransta-* 
Vieill. ; Lanio* Vieill. ; Tachyphonus* Vieill. ; Nermwa* 
Vieill. ; Tanagrella* Sw. ; Euphonia* Desm. ; Calasptza* 
G. R. Gray ; Stephanophorus* Strickl. ; Cypsrtagra* Le*^ 
Mr. Gray, with his usual industry, gives the numerous 
synonyms of each genus. {List of the Genera of Birds % 
2nd edition, 1841.) 

We select NuttalPs description of the Scarlet Tanager, 
or Black-winged Summer Red-Bird* Tanagra rubra* Linn, 
(subgenus Pt/ranga). 

The male is scarlet-red, with the wings and notched tail 
black : the base of the plumage is ash, then white. The 
female, young, and male in autumn, are dull green, in- 
clining to yellow in the latter; yellow beneath ; wines and 
tail dusky. Length about six mches and a half; alar ex- 
tent ten inches and a half. 

4 This splendid and transient resident,* says XuthJJ, 
* accompanying fine weather in all his wanderings, arrives 
from his winter station in tropical America from the be- 
ginning to the middle of May, and extends his migrations 
probably to Nova Scotia as well as Canada. With the shy, 
unsocial, and suspicious habits of his gaudy fraternity, he 
takes up his abode in the deepest recesses of the forest, 
where, timidly flitting from observation, he darts from tree 
to tree like a flashing meteor. A gaudy sylph, conscious 
of his brilliance, and the exposure to which it subjects 
him, he seems to avoid remark, and is only solicitous to be 
known to his humble mate, and hid from all beside. He 
therefore rarely approaches the habitations of men, unless 
perhaps the skirts of the orchard, where he sometimes 
however builds his nest, and takes a taste of the early and 
inviting, though forbidden cherries.' 

' Among the thick foliage of the tree in which he seeks 
support and shelter, from the lofty branches, at times, we 
hear his almost, monotonous tship-icitec* tship-tdee* or 
tshukadce* tshtikadee* repeated at short intervals, and in a 
pensive under-tone, heightened by the solitude in which 
he delights to dwell. The same note is also uttered by 
the female when the retreat of herself and young is ap- 
proached ; and the male occasionally utters, in recognition 
to his mate, as they perambulate the branches, a low 
whispering % tait* in a tone of caution and tenderness. But 
besides these calls on the female, he has also, during the 
period of his incubation, and for a considerable time after. 



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t more musical strain, resembling somewhat, m the mellow- 
ness of its tones, the song of the fifing Baltimore. The 
syllables to which I have hearkened appear like Hshoove 
'wait 'wait, 'vehowit wait, and 'wait, 'vehowit vea wait, 
with other additions of harmony, for which no words are 
adequate. This pleasing and highly musical meandering 
ditty is delivered for hours, in a contemplative mood, in 
the same tree with his busy consort. If surprised, they 
flit together, but soon return to their favourite station in 
the spreading boughs of the shady oak or hickory. This 
song has some resemblance to that of the Red-eyed Vireo 
in its compass and strain, though much superior, the 'wait 
'wait being whistled very sweetly in several tones, and with 
emphasis ; so that, upon the whole, our Pyranga may be 
considered as duly entitled to various excellencies, being 
harmless to the farmer, brilliant in plumage, and harmo- 
nious in voice.' 

Nest, Food, $-c. — The same author describes the nest 
(which is built about the middle of May, on the horizontal 
branch of some shady forest-tree, commonly an oak, but 
lometimes in an orchard tree) as but slightly put together, 
and usually framed of broken rigid stalks of dry weeds or 
slender fir-twigs, loosely interlaced together, and partly 
tied with narrow strips of Indian hemp (Apocynum), some 
slender grass-leaves, and pea-vine runners (Amphicarpa), 
or other frail materials ; the interior being sometimes lined 
with the slender, wiry, brown stalks of the Canadian cistus 
{Helianthemum), or with slender pine-leaves ; the whole 
so thinly platted as to admit the light through the inter- 
stices. The three or four eggs are dull blue, spotted with 
two or three shades of brown or purple, most numerous 
towards the larger end. As soon as their single brood, 
which is fledged early in July, is reared, they leave for the 
iouth, generally about the middle or end of August. 

* The female,' says this interesting author in continuation, 
• shows great solicitude for the safety of her only brood ; 
and, on an approach to the nest, appears to be in great dis- 
tress and apprehension. When they are released from her 
more immediate protection, the male, at first cautious and 
distant, now attends and feeds them with activity, being 
altogether indifferent to that concealment which his gaudy 
dress seems to require from his natural enemies. So 
attached to his now interesting brood is the Scarlet Tana- 
ger, that he has been known, at all hazards, to follow for 
half a mile one of his young, submitting to feed it atten- 
tively through the bars of a cage, and, with a devotion 
which despair could not damp, roost by it in the branches 
of the same tree with its prison.' 

The food of this species consists mostly of winged 
insects, such as wasps, hornets, and wild bees, the smaller 
kind of beetles, and other Coleoptera. Seeds are supposed 
to be sometimes resorted to, and they are very fond of 
whortle and other berries. 

It is in August that the moult of the male, when * he 
exchanges his nuptial scarlet for the greenish-yellow livery 
of the female,' commences. {Manual of the Ornithology 
of the United Stales and of Ca?iada.) 

TANAGRI'N^. [Tanagers.] 

TA'NAIS. [Don.] 

TANARO. [Po.] 

TANCRED, of Hauteville in Normandy, was a feudal 
oaron who lived in the latter part of the tenth and begin- 
ning of the eleventh century. After doing military service 
for some years under Richard the Good, duke of Nor- 
mandy, he retired to his hereditary mansion, where he 
lived poor, and reared up a numerous family of twelve 
ions and three daughters. All his sons were remarkable 
for their comeliness, their great strength, and their courage. 
The eldest, Serlon, followed William the Bastard in his 
conquest of England, and the others went successively to 
seek their fortune in Apulia, where Rainulf, another Nor- 
man adventurer, had already obtained the countship of 
Aversa from Sergius, duke of Naples. William, one of 
Tancred's sons, called ' Fier a bras,' or strong of arm, became 
count of Apulia, and after his death, his brother Robert, 
called Wiskard, or • the wise,' became duke of Apulia and 
Calabria, and the founder of the Norman dynasty of Sicily. 
{Sicilies, Two, History of.] Their father Tancred died at 
1 'cry great age at Hauteville. Traces of the chateau of 
Tancred, according to old popular tradition, were still 
seea a few years since in a pretty valley near Hauteville, 
fouT miles north of the town of Marigny, in the arrondisse- 
ment of Coutances department of La Manchc. (Gaultier 



d'Arc, Histoire des Conquites des Normands en Italie, en 
Sic He, et en Grdce.) 

TANCRED, son of Eudes, a Norman baron, and of 
Emma, sister of Robert Wiskard, duke of Apulia, ac- 
cording to some (Gaultier d'Arc, Histoire des Covqucles 
des Normands en Italie, en Sicite, *$-c.), and nephew of 
Bohemund, son of Wiskard, and prince of Tarentum ac- 
cording to others (Giannone and the authorities he quotes), 
was serving with Bohemund under Roger, duke of Apulia, 
son and successor of Wiskard, at the siege of Amalfi, a.d. 
1090, when the report of the great crusade which was pre- 
paring for the East determined Bohemund, who was not 
on good terms with Duke Roger, to join the Crusaders. 
Tancred followed him with a vast number of men from 
Apulia and Calabria. The exploits, true or fabulous, of 
Tancred, in Syria and Palestine, have been immortalized 
by Tasso in his poem of * La Gerusalemme.' 

TANCRED, fang of Sicily. [Sicilies, Two, History of.) 

TANGENT. In the article Contact we have given the 
first notion on this subject, which we now resume in a 
somewhat more general manner, annexing the usual de- 
tails of formulae, but without proof. 

It is usual to apply the word tangent to the tangent 
straight line only, on which see Direction : generalizing 
the definition, it will be as follows:— Of all curves of a 
given species, or contained under one equation, that one 
(B) is trie tangent to a given curve (A) at a given point, 
which passes through that given point, and is nearest to 
the curve (A) : meaning that no curve of the given species 
can pass through the given point, so as to pass between 
(B) and (A), immediately after leaving the point at which 
the two latter intersect. 

To ascertain the degree of contact of two curves which 
meet in a point, proceed as follows. Let y = <f>x and 
y=tyx be the equations of the curves, and a the abscissa at 
the point of contact ; so that <f>a=z\l/a. At the point whose 
abscissa is a+h, the difference of the ordinates of the 
curves is, by Taylor's theorem, 

Wa-W h + (0"a-*"<O £ + (0'''a-*'"<O^+ 

as to which, generally speaking, it will be found that h 
can be taken so small that the series shall be convergent : 
if this be not so, the method of arresting the series given 
in Taylor's Theorem must be employed. Now of two 

series of the form AA w -f Bh™ -f . . , . the value of that in 
which m is the greater will diminish without limit as com- 
pared with the other, when h diminishes without limit. 
Consequently, every curve y=tyx, which has tf/a=<£'a, will 
approach, before the point of contact is attained, nearer to 
y-=z<f)X than any other in which yp'a is not =d>'a. Again, 
when <f} f a=\f/a, those cases of y=^J? in which t//"a=dy'a, 
will approach nearer to y=<f>x than any in which <f>"a is 
not =>J/'a ; and so on. Hence, to make y=yf/x have the 
closest possible contact with y=<f>x when x=a ; — give such 
values to the constants in y = ^x as will satisfy as many as 
possible of the equations </Ja=^«, <pa=Va, ^ra-rz^'a, &c. 
consecutively from the beginning. This is a brief sketch, 
which can be filled up from any elementary work ; and the 
following are the principal results : — 

1. When the string of equations is satisfied up to 

(f> a=$ " a, the contact is said to be of the nth order. 

2. In contact of the nth order, the deflection 0(a+A)— 

+(a+ k) diminishes with h , and vanishes in a finite ratio 
to it. 

3. Tn contact of an even order, the curves intersect at 
the point of contact ; in contact of an odd order, they do 
not intersect at that point. 

4. When curves have a contact of the *tth order, no 
curve, having with either a contact of an order inferior to 
the nth at the same point, can pass between the two. 

5. A straight line, generally speaking, can have only a 
contact of the first order with a curve ; and the equation 
to the tangent straight line of the curve y-=z<f>x, when 
x=a, is y— <£a=0'a(:r— a). But if it should happen that 

<f>"a=0, 0"'a=O,&c.,up to <£ a=0, then for that point 
the tangent has a contact of the wth order. Thus, at a 
point of contrary flexure the tangent has a contact of the 
second order, at least, with the curse. 

6. A circle, generally speaking, can be made to have a 
contact of the second order with a curve, and the equation 



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of the most tangent circle, or circle of Curvature, to the 
curve y-4>x y at the point x=a, is 

(l+0'q ) 

This circle cuts the curve, generally speaking : if not, as 
for example, at the vertices of an ellipse, it is evidence 
that the circle has a contact of some higher and odd order. 
The centre of the circle of curvature is a point on the 
normal, being that at which the normal touches the evo- 
lute. [Involute and Evolutb.] 

Not only is the term tangent most generally applied to 
the closest straight line only, but frequently only to that 
portion of the straight line which falls between the point 
of contact and the axis of x. Again, the normal is a 
straight line perpendicular to the tangent, drawn through 
the point of contact : but this term also is frequently ap- 
plied only to that portion which falls between the point of 
contact and the axis of x. It is with reference to this 
limitation that the terms subtangent and subnormal are to 
be understood : the first meaning the distance from the 
foot of the tangent to the foot of the ordinate ; the second 
that from the foot of the ordinate to that of the normal. 
The formula for the subtangent is 0a-f-<£'</ ; that for the 
subnormal fax^a. 

Let p be the angle made by the tangent with the axis 
of x ; usually the angle made by that part of the tangent 
which has positive ordinates with the positive side of the 
axis of x. Then /3, at the point whose abscissa is x, is de- 
termined by the equation 

tan =^ ; and subtangent = yjj-, subnormal = y~. 

If we take the more general mode of measurement pro- 
posed in Sign, this equation remains equally true. Now, 
keeping strictly to that mode, let /3 be the angle made by 
the tangent with the axis of a\ the angle made by the 
radius vector r with the axis of x y and /i that made by the 
tangent with the radius vector. It will be found, then, that 
in all cases 

a=/3-0 , tanprrr^. 

Unless the mode of attributing signs be carefully at- 
tended to, these last equations, though always considered 
as universally true, are not so in reality. 

We now come to the consideration of a surface. The 
mode of defining contact of a given order resembles that 
adopted with reference to a curve. Thus if z=<(> (x, y) 
and z=z+ (x, y) be the equations of two surfaces coincid- 
ing when a? = a, y = &, so that 0(a, 6) = ^(a, b\ then if 
the point be taken at which x=a+A, y=6+A, the con- 
tact of the two surfaces is of the nth order, when the 
deflection 

0(a+A, & + *)- + (<!+*, b+ k) 
being developed in powers of h and k by Taylor's Theo- 
rem, shows no terms lower than those of the form 
Ah u + Bh n ~ l k + . . . + Mk\ This is tantamount to the 
following : two surfaces have a contact of the wth order 
when any plane whatever drawn through the point of 
contact cuts the surfaces in two curves which have a con- 
tact of the wth or a higher order. 

Every surface has at every point a plane which has a 
complete contact of the first order. If z = tf> O, y\ and 
x, y, z be the co-ordinates of the point of contact, and 
& i?, I those of any point in the tangent plane, then the 
equation of the tangent plane is 

dz v dz 

But if the equation be given in the form <j> (x, y. z) = 
it is ' 

ddt dd> dd> 

S (E-x)+^(,- y ) + 7 g(C-*)=0. 

In the first case, the equations of the normal, a line 
drawn through the point of contact perpendicular to the 
tangent, are 



dz 



In the latter case, they are 



dz 



s «-*) = 0, f -y+- (C -, )=5a 



d$ "~ df ~ dfr. 

dx dy dz 

The tangent plane may 1. not cut the surface at alU a* 
in a sphere : 2. coincide with the surface throughout % 
whole line, as in the cone or cylinder : 9. cut the surface, 
as in the case of an hyperboloid made by revolution of an 
hyperbola about the minor axis (the figure of a common 
dice-box). The criterion of distinction between thete 
cases depends on the value of 

(Pz d*z / d*z V 
dx* ' dy>~ \dxfy) ' My U ' 
at the point of contact. Imagine a plane to pass through 
the normal, cutting the surface in the curve (C) and th* 
tangent plane in the straight line (L). Then, while the 
plane revolves about the normal, (L) is always tanirent t . 
(C). 

1. Let U be positive. Then (L) has never more than a 
contact of the first order with (C), the surface nowhf r* 
passes through the tangent plane, and we have onir 
such contact as is seen at any point of a sphere or 
ellipsoid. 

2. Let U=0. Then (L) has never more than a contact 
of the first order with (C), except when the plane u in 
one position, in which there is a contact of a higfcer 
order. If U=0 at the point of contact only, and be*iu 
to take value at all adjacent points, nothing more would 
appear than in the last case, except that in one particular 
direction from the point of contact, and in its opposite, the 
surface would seem to grow nearer to the tangent plane 
than in any others. But if U=0 at all points of this sur- 
face, this approach to the tangent plane in one particular 
direction becomes more marked : for the surface Lie* oq 
that plane in a straight line, that is to say, every tangent 
plane meets the surface in a straight line infinitely ex 
tended both ways ; and the plane is tangent to the surface 
at every point of that straight line. Such surfaces, name I v 
those in which U is always =0, are developable, or can be 
unrolled without any overlapping, rumpling, or tearing- 
Cones and cylinders are instances. Again, if U=0, not 
throughout the whole surface, but throughout one par- 
ticular line upon it, that line will be a plane curve, and 
its plane will be tangent to the surface at every point in 
which it meets the surface. 

3. Let U be negative. Then (L) has never more than 
a contact of the first order with (C), except in two dif- 
ferent positions, in both of which there is contact of a 
higher order. Draw lines marking out these two position* 
of (L), and consequently dividing the tangent plane into 
four parts, with four angles round the point of contact 
In one pair of the opposite angles, the surface he* on 
one side of the tangent plane, and in the other on the 
other. 

Again, as the plane which revolves round the normal 
takes its different positions, the curvature of the section 
(C) changes. The two positions of the revolving plane m 
which the curvatures are greatest and least (algebraicalh 
are at right angles to one another. We shaft not enter 
into the mathematical formulae connected with this «ib- 
ject, but shall only endeavour to give a popular illustra- 
tion of this remarkable point. 

Suppose an eggshell, unbroken, to be placed with 
either vertex uppermost. The descent will be equally 
rapid in all directions, or the curvature at the higTtett 
point of all the vertical sections will be the same. But 
suppose the shell to be so placed that some puint 
intermediate between the two vertices is uppermost. 
The descent will not then be equally rapid in ail di- 
rections, or the curvatures of the vertical sections wiil 
not be the same. The direction of most rapid descent 
will be at right angles to that of least rapid descent. The 
tangent plane has here a contact of the first of the three 
kinds above mentioned. If there be a contact of the 
second kind, all the circumstances are the same, except 
that the direction of least rapid descent gives, compara- 
tively speaking no descent at all at the first instant. If 
we take a cylinder, or other developable surface, and 



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make a tangent plane horizontal, there is absolutely no 
descent in one direction, or, by going along the tangent 
plane, we can remain entirely on the surface, in one cer- 
tain direction, as before observed. And the direction of 
most rapid descent is at right angles to this direction of 
no descent. 

To put a case of the third kind, suppose a saddle placed 
on a horse, and we take the lowest point of the seat. The 
tangent plane then cuts through the saddle horizontally. 
In some directions there is descent, in others ascent, with 
two directions in which there is, comparatively speaking, 
neither ascent nor descent. The direction of most rapid 
accent, which is from the lowest point of the seat directly 
toward* the head or tail of the animal, is at right angles 
to the direction of most rapid descent. Mathematically 
•^ peaking, the curvatures of the vertical sections are some- 
times positive, and sometimes negative, and the direction 
of the greatest negative (or algebraically least) curvature 
is at right angles to the direction of the greatest positive 
tor algebraically greatest) curvature. 

As to points connected with the apparent physical cha- 
racter of the tangent, which have been in various places 
referred to this article, it will be more convenient to con- 
lider them under the word Velocity. 

TANGHI'NIA, the name of a genus of plants belonging 
to the natural order Apocynacese. This name was given 
by Aubert du Petit Thouars to the plant wrrich produces 
the celebrated Tanghin poison of Madagascar. The genus 
possesses an infunmbuliform corolla, with a clavate tube, 
and 5-toothed throat : the anthers are subsessile ; the fruit 
is a drupe, with a fibrous ligneous putamen or stone, which 
contains one or two seeds. The specific name T. veneni- 
fera was given to the plant which yields the poison. It 
has dense leaves, with erect branches, and paniculated 
terminal flowers. At the time Du Petit Thouars described 
this plant, he stated that it was closely allied to theCerbera 
Manghas ; and since its cultivation by Mr. Telfair in the 
Mauritius, there can be no doubt of its belonging to the 
genus Cerbera, and the plant is now called C. Tanghin. 
In its native island this plant attains the size of a tree, and 
has a hard wood which may be used for many kinds of 
carpentry. But the part which yields the poison is the 
kernel of the fruit. Although this kernel is small, not 
much larger than an almond, Mr. Telfair says that it con- 
tains enough poison to kill twenty persons. Its great use 
in Madagascar was as a means of trial, the innocent being 
supposed able to resist its action, whilst the guilty suffered 
under its influence. Radama, the late king of Madagascar, 
was desirous of abolishing its use, but found great diffi- 
culty in doing so on account of the prejudices of the na- 
tives. Mr. Telfair witnessed a sad instance of its use. 
The king Radama was taken ill, and got well by the use 
of mercury ; but this medicine affected his mouth, so that 
the impression produced upon his ' skid/ or physician, was 
that the king had been poisoned. He therefore insisted 
that the Tanghin should oe administered to himself and 
all the servants of the household, in order to ascertain the 
guilty party. The king protested against the procedure, 
but in vain. The whole household were shut up during 
the night without food, and in the morning were brought 
out for trial. The presiding * skid,' or physician, then 
pounded the Tanghin bean to a pulp between two stones, 
and applied a small quantity to trie back of the tongue of 
each individual. The effects varied in different indivi- 
duals. In some it produced vomiting, and the poison be- 
ing ejected from the stomach, they recovered. In others 
convulsions were brought on with violent efforts at vomit- 
ing which soon destroyed life. (Botanical Magazine, fol. 
2068.) 

TANGIER. [Marocco.] 

TANGLE. [Ska-Wbkds.1 

TANGUT is the historical name of a country in Asia, 
which occupies the centre of the eastern, more extensive, 
md more elevated table-land of that continent [Asia, vol. 
i., p. 464], where a nation, which originally inhabited Tibet, 
tad was called Tang, founded an empire in the seventh 
century, which was very powerful for a long time, and was 
oterthrown by Genghis Khan in 1227. The country still 
?oes by the name of Tangut, though at present a part of 
it is incorporated in the Chinese province of Kansi, whilst 
soother is mostly in possession of two Mongol nations, 
the CHoth Tshoros and the Torbod Mongols. 

Tangut borders on China Proper on the north-west, ex- 
tending between 33° and 42° N. lat v and between 94° and 



107° E. long. To the south of it is Tibet ; to the west Chi- 
nese Turkistan, or the government of Thian-Shan Nanlu; 
and to the north Mongolia, of which also a portion is in- 
cluded within the lately erected province of Kansi. As the 
boundary-lines of the country are not politically deter- 
mined, it is not possible to give an estimate of the area. 

The southern portion of Tangut, or that which lies south 
of 38° N. lat., is one of the most mountainous tracts on the 
globe, and extends over the upper course of the river 
Hoang-ho and the basin of the lake of Khookhoo-nor. 
Along its southern border there is a very elevated range, 
which divides the upper courses of the rivers Hoang-ho 
and Yan-tse-kiang, and is called the Bayan Khara range. 
[Bayan Khara Mountains.] Another elevated range 
traverses the country in the same direction from east to 
west near 38° N. lat. This range rises at a short distance 
from the banks of the Hoang-ho north of the town of Lan- 
tcheou, and in its eastern part is called Kilian Shan ; but 
farther west it takes the name of Nan Shan (or Southern 
Chain). It rises to a great elevation, especially towards the 
west, where many of their summits are covered with snow and 
united by extensive glaciers. This mountain-chain is sup- 
posed to be connected with the Kuenluen range near 92° E. 
long. These two ranges above mentioned occupy a great 
portion of the country between 33° and 38° N. lat, and nearly 
the whole of the remainder of the country is filled up by a 
third range, which connects these two ranges, and extends 
from south-east to north-west, being on the north united to 
the Nan Shan, and on the south to the Bayan Khara Moun- 
tians. This chain bears the name of Siue Shan, or Snowy 
range, on account of the numerous summits which rise 
above the snow-line. The river Hoang-ho breaks through 
this range, but the huge rocky masses compel the river to 
make a great bend towards the west between 34° and 36° 
N. lat., and the circuit which the river makes shows the 
immense extent of these masses of rock. In this part of 
its course the river is said to be hemmed in by lofty moun- 
tains, so that no communication can be established along 
the banks. Its course above this bend is very imper- 
fectly known, and the fabulous accounts of its sources show 
that they have never been visited even by Chinese geo- 
graphers. The river enters a wide valley by a narrow 
gorge formed by two very elevated mountains a little 
above the town of Ho-cheou (36° N. lat. and 102° E. 
long.'). At the opening of this gorge is a fortress, called 
Tsy-shy-kuan. 

Tangut is separated from China Proper by a fourth 
range, the mountains of Sifan, which run south and north, 
being connected at their southern extremity with the 
Bayan Khara Mountains and the Siue Shan by an exten- 
sive mountain-knot, which is in the country formerly called 
Sifan, whence the chain has obtained its name. Though 
this range is less elevated than the Siue Shan, it rises in 
several places above the snow-line, and occupies a con- 
siderable width. It is supposed to terminate near the 
banks of the Hoang-ho, a few miles south of 38° N. lat. 
Opposite to it and on the northern banks of the river rises 
another chain, which may be considered as the continua- 
tion of the mountains of Sifan ; but this range, which con- 
tinues along the western bank of the river as far north as 
42° N. lat., rises only to a moderate elevation, and is 
stated to occupy in many places only three or four miles 
in width : it is called Holang Shan, and slopes on the 
west down into the steppe of the Oloth Tshoros. This 
range is distinguished from all the other ranges of Tangut 
by being thickly wooded on its eastern declivity. 

Only a small portion of the countries enclosed by these 
mountain masses is fit for cultivation. It does not appear 
that there is any cultivation in the upper valley of the 
Hoang-ho above the fortress of Tsy-shy-kuan. Below that 
place and as far as Lan-tcheou, the valley is wider, and 
narrow tracts along the banks of the river are cultivated 
and fertile. This part of the valley is compared with that 
of the Adige in Tyrol. Farther down, and as far as the 
neighbourhood of Ning-hia, a town built on the western 
banks of the Hoang-ho, at the eastern declivity of the Ho- 
lang Shan (38° 3# N. lat.), the valley has not been visited 
by Europeans. At this place the river runs in a wide valley 
which has been rendered fertile by numerous canals, which 
are fed by the waters of the river, and in which rice is ex- 
tensively cultivated. There are also numerous plantations 
of fruit-trees. The soil contains much saltpetre. The town 
of Ning-hia, the antient capital of Tangut, is of consider- 
able extent, being fifteen li (equal to five miles) in cir- 



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cuit. It has some very good manufactures of carpets and 
paper, and a considerable commerce with the nomadic 
tribes who wander about in the country west of the Holang 
Shan. Below the town of Ning-hia the valley of the 
Hoang-ho grows wider, as the range of the Holang-shan re- 
tires farther west, but its fertility decreases. About eighteen 
miles from Ning-hia the canals cease and no rice is cul- 
tiTated. Other grain is still grown about 30 miles farther 
north, where the country gradually changes into a sandy, 
arid desert, interspersed with hills, swampy tracts, and 
pastures. 

The lateral valley of Si-ning-tcheou opens to the Hoang- 
ho from the west above the town of Lan-tchcou between 
the Kilian Shan and the most elevated portion of theSiue 
Shan. The valley is not extensive, but appears to be fer- 
tile : it contains the town of Si-ning-tcheou, which is not 
quite as large as Ning-hia, but a much more commercial 
place, as the road which connects northern China with 
Hlassa in Tibet passes through it. This road leads from 
Si-ning-tcheou westward over a chain to the lake of 
Khookhoo-nor, which is of great but unknown extent. It 
is an alpine lake enclosed by high mountains, and has no 
outlet. The remainder of the road lies partly over nu- 
merous large mountain-masses, furrowed only. by narrow 
glens and ravines, and partly over rocky and sandy table- 
lands, and the whole is described as a desert, in which only 
a small number of nomadic mountaineers are met with, and 
where the traveller for forty days' journey finds no other 
accommodation than the tents of the poor mountaineers. 
In spite of the difficulties, the road, as it appears, is much 
travelled, and the bazars of Si-ning-tcheou are well pro- 
vided with provisions and articles of luxury. Even coffee 
and dates may be got there. This town is also the depot 
of the Turkish rhubarb, which grows, as it appears, only on 
the more elevated parts of the Siue Shan and Kilian 
Shan, and is sent from Si-ning-tcheou to all parts of the 
world. Before the commerce between China and Siberia 
was established, this article was brought to Europe through 
Turkistan, Persia, and Turkey, and therefore is still called 
Turkey rhubarb, though at present it comes through 
Kiachta and Russia. When the Jesuits, who had been sent 
to these countries by the emperor Kang-hi, were at Si- 
ning-tcheou, they were astonished at seeing the quantity 
of rhubarb which, during the months of October and No- 
vember, was daily brought from the adjacent mountains 
to the town. 

The northern part of Tangut, with the exception of the 
valley of the Hoang-ho, is occupied by a wide desert plain, 
which constitutes a portion of the Gfobi. [Gobi, vol. xi., 
p. 286.] The steep declivities of the Kilian and Nan Shan 
nowever do not come close to the desert, but are separated 
from it by a hilly tract from 30 to 50 miles wide, which 
contains some extensive tracts fit for cultivation, and 
in which some large towns have been built, as the great 
commercial route which connects China with the coun- 
tries of Western Asia runs longitudinally through this 
hilly tract, and is confined to it by the extensive sandy 
desert on the north, and the still less practicable mountain- 
desert which bounds it on the south. According to our 
best information, the ranges of the Kilian Shan, and espe- 
cially of the Nan Shan, are covered with eternal snow, and 
one would imagine that they give origin to rivers which 
bring down a great volume of water, but that is not the 
case. The volume of water is very moderate : a part of it 
is consumed in irrigating the adjacent fields, and the re- 
mainder is absorbed by the sandy soil, as soon as it reaches 
the plain, alter having left the hilly tract. This evidently 
shows that the watershed of the mountains must be at a 
very moderate distance from the Gobi. The surface of 
the hilly tract consists of an alternation of high lands and 
of depressions, running from the mountains northward to 
the border of the desert. The high lands are of considera- 
ble extent, their upper surface broken and rocky, and only 
occasionally covered with a thin layer of earth unfit for the 
growth of trees. In general the rocks are bare. The de- 

gressions between these high grounds are less extensive, 
ut exhibit a considerable degree of fertility where they 
are irrigated. Even in those parts which are beyond the 
reach of irrigation, they are chiefly cultivated. To protect 
this hilly region, and the great commercial road which 
runs through it, against the nomadic tribes of the Gobi, the 
Chinese have continued the Great Wall along its northern 
border westward to 98° E. long., and along the wall are 
built the fortresses which protect the line and the towns 



through which the road runs. The road leaves the raDcr 
of the Hoang-ho at the town of Lan-tcheou [Chi* a, voL 
vii., p. 80], the capital of Kansi, and runs in a north-north- 
west direction over a stony and hilly country to the tcrnn 
of Liang-tcheou, a considerable place, of which however 
nothing is reported, except that the district in which it 2s 
situated is fertile, and contains a great number of village*. 
From Liang-tcheou the road runs north-west to Kan-tcheoo- 
foo, a large and well-built town, which has many m arm far- 
tures of woollen stuffs and felts, which articles are in zpvmt 
demand among the nomadic tribes of the Oloth T«hc«ea> 
who inhabit the contiguous part of the Gobi, and bans; to 
the place their wool, horses, cattle, and sheep. It receive* 
also large quantities of rhubarb from the Kilian Statu 
From Kan-tcheou-foo the road continues in a north-we* 
direction to So-tcheou, a large and well fortified town, 
with numerous bazars, well provided with pro visions and 
manufactured articles. The town is divided into two sec- 
tions, one of which is occupied by the Chinese, and the 
other by the foreign merchants from Bokhara and Turkic- 
tan. The latter is divided from the former by a separate 
wall, the gates of which are shut at night : in other re- 
spects foreigners do not experience any different treat- 
ment from natives. As So-tcheou is the last ianre 
place through which the caravans pass before they enter 
the desert between Tangut and Thian-shan-nahr : the 
commerce is very great, especially in provisions. About 
50 or 60 miles west of So-tcheou is the most western rate 
of the Great Wall, called Kia-yu-kooan, or the gate ot the 
You-stone (jasper), through which the caravans peas to 
enter the desert of Han-hai, which must be traversed in 
order to reach Hami in Thian-Shan-Nanlu. The last-men- 
tioned town is 960 li, or 320 miles, from the gate of Kia- 
yu-kooan, and that is the width of the Gobi at this place, 
which is considered the narrowest part of it. 

The towns hitherto noticed He along the great caravaa- 
road, but farther west the Chinese geographers mention 
other places of importance. The largest, as it seems* is 
Ngan-si-foo, a town of the first rank, and the capital of the 
whole district. North-west of it, and on the border of the 
desert, is the town of Yu-men-kiang, which is built near 
a pass between high hills, through which a road leads 
northward to Hami, of which we have no information. 
South-west of Ngan-si-foot are the towns of Toong-hooaag- 
kiang, And Sha-tcheou. The last-mentioned place, whose 
name means Sandtown, seems to be the last inhabited place 
towards the west. It has not been visited by Europeans* 
except by Marco Polo, who describes it as rather a large 
place : he says that the inhabitants live on the produce of 
their fields and orchards, and have little commerce. From 
his account, and that of a Chinese traveller, it is evident 
that two roads run north-west and west from this place. 
Marco Polo reached it after traversing the desert of Lop, 
by a thirty days' journey, having departed from the town 
of Lop, which is on the banks of the lake of the same 
name. The intermediate tract was mostly covered with 
sand, but in some places the soil consisted of bare and 
broken rocks. A Chinese traveller departing from Sha- 
tcheou, and taking the western route, seems to have tra- 
versed a still worse country, until he reached the town o€ 
Knot an. [Thian-Shan-Nanlu.] 

That portion of the Gobi which lies north of the Great 
Wall contains many tracts which are covered with grassy 
and supply pasture to the Oloth Tshoros, but others hare 
a sandy or stony soil, and are quite barren. In some 
places there are extensive swamps, especially where the 
rivers are lost, which descend from the Kilian 8$i*n, amoojr, 
which the Etzina probably runs more than 200 miles, Bui 
the Han Hai, or that portion which lies between the ^ate 
of Kia-yu-kooan and Hami, is nearly uninhabited, as water 
is rarely met with, and the grassy tracts are still leas 6*- 
quent. The sand with which the surface is covered is very 
fine, and frequently ^raised into the air by strong wind*. 

Our information respecting the climate of Tangut is 
very scanty. The cold in winter is intense, and lasts for 
several months. The Jesuits found the Hoang-ho near 
40* N. lat., at the end of November, covered with thick 
ice, so that the caravan was able to pass over it, thoujrfc 
the river was more than 300 yards wide. At Ning-hia a 
heavy fall of snow was experienced in the middle of AtuiL 
In summer the heat U great, but much less than in the 
low countries of China; the climate is considered as 
extremely healthy. 

We are no better aojuainted with the productions of 



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Tangut. Every land of grain is grown in the few tracts 
whose soil is fit for cultivation, and rice is raised where 
irrigation is practicable. The nomadic nations have nu- 
merous herds of camels, horses, and cattle, and large flocks 
of sheep and goats. In the mountain-region is found the 
yak or mountain-cow, whose tail gives the chowry. It is 
used for riding as a saddle-horse. In the desert are nu- 
merous wild animals, such as wild hogs, deer, the argali, 
and hares. It is also said that in the woods of the HoFang 
Shan there are wild horses. Wild cattle are found on the 
declivity of the Kilian Shan. No mines are worked. In 
the desert some extensive tracts are covered with agates, 
cornelians, and other precious stones, which are collected 
by the nomadic tribes and sent to China. 

The inhabitants of Tangut are a very mixed race. 
Mongol tribes inhabit the' Gobi, and occupy also the 
mountain-ranges north of Lake Khookoo-nor, but the 
mountaineers who are in possession of the mountain- 
region south of Lake Khookoo-nor, derive their origin 
from Tibet. It is even supposed that in this part there 
may still exist small tribes of the Miotse and Yuet-shi, who 
tre considered as the aborigines of this region, but have 
been nearly exterminated by the wars with their neigh- 
bours the Mongols and the inhabitants of Tibet. It is not 
known if that Turkish nation which is called Sobko, and 
which inhabits the western part of the Kuen-luen moun- 
tains [TiBBr], extends over the western districts of Tangut. 
The agricultural population is mostly composed of Chinese 
and their descendants, among whom a small number of 
families of Turkish origin are settled. But in the towns 
the number of Turkish settlers seems to be considerable. 
They are Mohammedans, and there are mosques in the 
larger towns of Tangut, especially in those which lie 
along the caravan road. All the other inhabitants are 
Buddhists. In the time of Marco Polo there were also 
Nestorian Christians in the towns, but they have disap- 
peared. 

The Chinese emperors subjected the country of Tangut 
probably during the dynasty of Han, shortly before^the 
birth of Christ, and maintained their authority over this 
and the countries farther west to the eighth century, in 
spite of their long protracted wars with the Hiongnu, a 
Turkish nation which then was in possession of the desert 
north of Tangut. In the middle of the seventh century 
they extended their dominion even over Western Turkistan 
to the eastern banks of the Caspian Sea. But in the eighth 
century Tangut was occupied by a nation of Tibetan 
origin, which founded in these parts the empire of Thufan ; 
and though it was overthrown by the Chinese, and some 
Turkish tribes, their allies, in the ninth century, the 
Tibetans erected in the following century the empire of 
Tangut or Hia, which maintained its power till it was de- 
stroyed by Genghis Khan, in 1227, and by its overthrow 
the conqueror opened to his countrymen the road to China, 
of which they took possession a few years afterwards. With 
the downfall of the dynasty of the Mongols (1341), the best 
part of Tangut remained under the sway of the emperors 
of the dynasty of Ming, though the Mongols after their 
retreat from China haa occupied the northern and more 
desert portion of it, where they maintained their indepen- 
dence to the end of the seventeenth century. In the wars 
of the Galdan of the 016th [Song aria, vol. xxii., p. 245], 
a tribe of the Oloth Mongols expelled the Khalkas from 
the country west of the Hoang-ho, and took possession of 
it But alter the defeat of the Goldan, they submitted to 
the Chinese emperor in 1690, and since that time the 
whole of Tangut has been annexed to China. The Chinese 
government is very assiduous in promoting agriculture in 
Tangut, and in increasing the agricultural and commercial 
population, this being considered the most efficacious mode 
of restraining the nomadic tribes which inhabit the northern 
and southern districts of Tangut. To give to its measures 
greater stability and to forward their extension, it has con- 
verted the greater part of Tangut, with some of the ad- 
jacent countries, into a province of China Proper, under 
the name of Kansi. (Du Halde's History of China; 
Hitters Erdkunde von Asien, vol. i.) 

TANJORE, a district in Southern Hindustan, was formerly 
a small independent kingdom or principality, and though 
flow under British superintendence, is still governed by its 
raja. The district is included in the province of the Car- 
natic and presidency of Madras : it is hounded on the east 
by the Bay of Bengal, and extends from Point Calymere, 
P. C. f No. 1492. 



10° 18' N. lat, to the mouth of the Coleroon, 11° 25' N. 
lat. To the north and west it is bounded by the Coleroon 
and the district of Trichinopoli ; and to the south and west 
by the sea and the territory of the Polygars. 

The river Cavery, near Trichinopoli, separates into two 
branches, of which the northern is called the Coleroon, 
and falls into the sea a little to the north of Devicotta ; 
the southern branch retains its name of Caveiy. These 
two streams however, after flowing about twenty miles at 
some distance, again approach each other, and are only 

Srevented by a narrow neck of land from re-uniting and 
ischarging the whole river by the channel of the Coleroon. 
To prevent this junction large mounds have been formed, 
and are kept in repair at a considerable expense. The 
Cavery, thus separated from the Coleroon, flows through 
the flat territory of Tanjore, and divides into a number of 
smaller streams, which are conducted into reservoirs and 
canals for the purpose of irrigation : by this means nearly 
the whole district, which would otherwise be a sandy 
desert, is rendered one of the most fertile in Hindustan. 
From Devicotta to the salt swamp near Point Calymere, 
and from the Bay of Bengal to the city of Tanjore, the 
whole country, with its rich covering of alluvial soil, has 
the appearance of a garden : from Tanjore to Trichinopoli 
it is like a desert. 

The principal product of the district is rice, of which two 
crops are obtained annually ; the next in importance is in- 
digo : both are exported to Madras in considerable quan- 
tities, besides cocoa-nuts, grain, paddy, and lamp-oil. 

The district of Tanjore has never been in the actual oc- 
cupation of the Mohammedans. Its Hindu religious 
structures are therefore uninjured, and in no part of Hin- 
dustan are they so numerous, so large, and so imposing. 
There is hardly a village without its brick pagoda and 
lofty gateway. Almost all the principal offices are in the 
hands of the Brahmins, and they are also the chief land- 
holders. 

Besides the capital, Tanjore, the principal towns are the 
following :— Carncal, 10° 55' N. lat., 79° 55' E. long. Com- 
booconam, 11° N. lat., 79° 25' E. long., is the antient capi- 
tal of the rajas of Tanjore : there are remains which indi- 
cate its former splendour, and its pagodas and tanks are 
still very fine : it is chiefly inhabited by Brahmins. Devi- 
cotta (Devicata, the fort of the goddess), 11° 20' N. lat., 
79* 55' E. long. Nagore, 10° 49' N. lat., 79° 55' E. long., 
a sea-port with a considerable export and import trade. 
Negapatam. Tranquebar. The villages are numerous, 
and the population dense. 

The antient sovereigns of Tanjore were the Chola 
dynasty, who probably gave to the whole district the name 
Chola Mandafa (corrupted into Coromandel), the former 
term in Sanscrit signifying an orbit or circle, and thence 
a region or tract of country. The kingdom of Tanjore 
was wrested from its original Hindu sovereigns by the 
Mahratta chief Eccojee, the brother of Sevajee, in 1675. 
It has ever since been retained by the Mahratta race ; so 
that, though the language of the inhabitants is Tamul, the 
language of the court is Mahratta. In 1771 a dispute 
broke out between Mohammed Ali, the nabob of the Car- 
natic, and Tuljajee, the raja of Tanjore, with respect to the 
keeping in repair the mounds which prevent the stream of 
the Cavery from falling into the Coleroon. The mounds 
are in the territory of Trichinopoli, and the nabob, as 
sovereign of that territory, claimed the right of repairing, 
and consequently of neglecting to repair, by which a por- 
tion of the nabob's territory might have been fertilized, and 
nearly the whole of Tanjore rendered a desert. The raja 
had been compelled to pay tribute to the nabob, but had 
never been subject to him, and appealed to the British to 
protect him in his right to repair, which had always been 
exercised by the rajas of Tanjore, and for which, he con- 
tended, he paid his tribute. The British however took tho 
part of the nabob. On the 20th of August, 1773, the siege 
of the city of Tanjore was commenced, and a passage 
twelve feet wide having been completed across the wet 
ditch which surrounds the walls of the forts, on the ICth of 
September, when the sun was in the meridian and the 
raja's troops were taking repose, the British unexpectedly 
made the assault, and carried the fortress, with hardly any 
resistance, the raja and his family being taken prisoners, 
The raja was then made subject to the nabob ; but in con* 
sequence of the disapprobation which these proceedings 
met with in England, on the 11th of April, 1776, the re- 

Vol. XXIV.— F 



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iteration of the raja to his former independence was pro- 
claimed by the British. In 1790 the territory of Tanjore 
was subjected by treaty to British authority. The raja 
retains the forts of Tanjore, which are garrisoned by hira, 
subject however to the condition of placing them in the 
hands of the British in case of war in the province. He 
has a clear allowance of a lac of rupees annually, and one- 
fifth of the surplus revenue of the territory, after payment 
of the civil ana military establishments, which amounts to 
at least a lac more. He also retains his palaces, and also 
a tributs paid to him by Tranquebar. 

The present raja is Sewajee, the son of Sarbojee, who 
was adopted by the previous raja Tuljajec, or Julia Maha, 
and who was intrusted by him at his death to the mis- 
sionary Schwarz. Of the circumstances under which the 
sovereign power was ultimately obtained by Sarbojee from 
Ameer Sing, the half-brother oC Tuljajee, an account is 
given in the article Schwarz. 

(Hamilton's East India Gazetteer; Malcolms Travels 
in Hindustan and China in 1836-7; Mill's History of 
British India, by H. H. Wilson.) 

TANJORE, the capital of the district of Tanjore, in 10° 
47' N. lat. and 7 l J° 13' E. long., is about 40 miles east from 
Trichinopoli, and about 57 miles west from the Bay of 
Bengal, airect distances. The city is situated not far from 
the south bank of the Cavery, and is five or six miles in 
circumference, including the suburbs. It is a place of 
great strength, being defended by two forts, which are 
connected, and both are surrounded by walls> built of lar^e 
stones, and by broad and deep wet ditches. The city is in 
a flourishing state : it is regularly built, and is said to con- 
tain a larger proportion of good houses than any other 
town in Southern Hindustan. The population is probably 
not less than 70,000 or 80,000. The palace of the raja, 
where he resides, is in the larger fort : in one of the halls 
of audience is a colossal statue of Sarbojee, by Flaxman, 
which was executed by commission from Sarbojee himself. 
The pagodas of Tanjore are very large, with paved yards 
and extensive gardens : one of the largest in Hindustan is 
situated in the smaller fort : it contains a bull finely sculp- 
tured in black granite. The Protestant Mission church 
was built at the expense of the missionary Schwarz : it is a 
spacious and handsome structure, and has been thoroughly 
repaired by the present raja. Schwarz was buried behind 
the pulpit ; the spot is marked by a slab, on which is an 
inscription in English poetry, ascribed to the raja Sarbojee. 
Service is performed in the church on Sundays both in 
Tamul and in English. The Protestant communicants be- 
longing to the Tanjore mission amount to about 7o0, and 
there are also between 400 and 500 Roman Catholic con- 
verts, under priests who are chiefly Jesuits from Goa. 

(Hamilton's East India Gazetteer; Malcolm's Travels in 
Hindustan and China.) 

TANK, a reservoir for water or other fluids. The name 
is sometimes applied to large open receptacles, or ponds, 
formed by excavating the ground and disposing the re- 
moved earth in the form of banks to retain the water; but 
the tanks which will here be especially treated of are the 
smaller covered reservoirs used to collect and retain water 
and liquid manure for domestic and agricultural pur- 
poses. Respecting the construction of ponds it will be 
sufficient to refer to Embankment, vol. ix., p. 373, for the 
method of forming the retaining banks, and to Canal, 
vol. vi., p. 219, for a description of the process of puddling 
with clay, which is always necessary in forming a reser- 
voir in a porous soil, unless the more expensive method 
of paving or lining with chalk, bricks, stone, or timber, 
be resorted to. See also Sluice, vol. xxii., p. 142, for a 
notice of the means used to regulate the drawing off of 
water from ponds, and to prevent accident from their be- 
coming over-filled. 

In high mountainous pastures, tanks are indispensable 
to supply both men and cattle with water; and they 
ought to be very carefully constructed of such materials 
as are at hand. In the pastures of 4he Jura, between 
France and Switzerland, the tanks are usually made of 
wood, in the following manner : a square excavation is 
made in the ground, which, if necessary, is lined with a 
coating of clay or impervious earth to prevent the escape 
of the water ; fir-trees, deprived of their bark, ars then 
laid close together and fastened with wooden pins, so as 
to form the floor, and the sides are lined in a similar man- 
ner. The tank is covered with a roof of the same mate- 



rials ; but this, instead of rising from the sidea to a poiat 

or ridge, according to the form usually adopted in nxram^ 
is made in the shape of an inverted hollow pyramid* *> 
that it acts as a funnel to conduct all the rain-water wiuci: 
falls upon it into the tank, at the same time that it kerpe 
the tank cool, and prevents evaporation. Such tanks arc 
usually placed at a small distance from the habitation and 
cowhouse, if there be one ; and the water from their rocft 
is conducted, in spouts made of small trees sawn is two 
and roughly hollowed out, to the funnelled roof of tl>e 
tank. They are usually of a cubical form, from 15 to &) 
feet square ; but if a larger size be required, an obloojr, 
shape is preferred, the depth and width seldom exceedicr 
20 feet. After being once filled, these tanks seldom fail 
to afford an abundant supply of water, although, in sum- 
mer, tlurty or forty head of cattle may have to be supplied 
exclusively from them. 

The importance of collecting rain-water for domestic 
purposes, especially in districts where springs are defi- 
cient or lie at a great depth, has been much overlooked in 
this country. Waistell, in the work referred to at the end 
of this article, urges the importance of placing spouu 
round all the buildings of a farm to collect the rain-water 
which falls upon them into a tank or tanks ; observing 
that, besides the value of the supply of water thu* ob- 
tained, the buildings will be benefited by the walls anJ 
foundations being kept drier than when the water from the 
roof is suffered to fall upon them. He states that the 
quantity of water that falls annually upon every hundred 
superficial feet or square of building (in Great Britain u 
about 1400 imperial gallons; and this statement appr*™ 
to be fully borne out by the observations recorded in the 
article Rain, vol. xix., p. 270. If therefore the external 
surfaces of roofs were adapted to the collection of the 
rain-water which falls upon them, and means were pro- 
vided for conveying it to covered tanks, in which it might 
be preserved from evaporation, and kept free from anj ad- 
mixture of impurities, almost every house might be rra- 
dily. and cheaply supplied with a quantity of wholesome 
water sufficient for the ordinary wants of its inhabitant*. 
The extensive roots of churches and other public build- 
ings might be employed in like way to collect water for 
the supply of ponds or tanks for public use. In some 
cases even the drainage of lands might also be made 
available, as the water may be submitted to any required 
process of filtration before it is allowed to enter the tank. 

Tanks or cisterns to hold water for domestic purposes 
may be conveniently situated beneath the surface of the 
ground, so that, being paved over, they occupy no > *- 
arable space. They are formed of stone slabs grooved 
into each other and set in cement; of Welsh slate; of 
large paving-tiles bedded in cement ; of brick-work ; of 
plates of cast-iron ; or of thick wooden planks, protected 
by charring and pitching, or lined with sheet-lead. The 
brick tanks descriDed by Waistell are circular, the sides 
being built like a well, with bottoms of an inverted dome- 
shape, of very slight convexity. The top is also dome- 
shaped, and has an opening in the centre large enough to 
receive a man, in order that the tank may be thoroujrhiy 
cleaned out when necessary. This opening, which may 
be upon the surface of the ground, or a little above it, 
should be covered with an oak flap pierced with a number 
of holes, or with an iron grating. The depth and width 
of the tank should, it is stated, be nearly equal. If neces- 
sary, a smaller brick chamber may be constructed alone- 
side of the tank, in which the water may be filtered 
through gravel, sand, charcoal, &c. before entering it. It 
is recommended to make the opening by which water 
enters the tank near the top. Brick tanks of this descrip- 
tion may be rendered water-tight by laying the innei 
course of bricks in cement, and plastering the whole of 
the inside with the same to the thickness of about three- 
quarters of an inch. To enable them without injury to 
bear the great weight of water when nearly full, the earth 
should be rammed closely round the brickwork, ami it 
should be allowed to settle thoroughly before any preat 
quantity of water is admitted. Loudon describes another 
kind of brick tank, contrived by Mr. Mallet to save ex- 
pense in construction, by adopting a figure of maximum 
capacity and minimum surface. Mallet proposes, when 
the tank is large, to adopt the spherical form; and when 
of less than the or six feet in diameter, that of a short 
vertical cylinder with hemispherical ends. By puddling 



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with clay roundabout the tank, the necessity for the use 
of Roman cement is avoided. 

In the forty-ninth volume of the 'Transactions' of the 
Society of Arts (part ii., p. 12), is a communication from 
Mrs. Da vies Gilbert respecting a cheap method of con- 
structing tanks for receiving water from the roofs of cot- 
tages, which has been successfully practised at Eastbourn, 
ia Sussex. A reservoir having been dug seven feet deep 
and about the same wide, the bottom was covered with 
flints laid in liquid mortar composed of one measure of 
*rey chalk lime (made of chalk marl) well beaten up with 
three measures of clean sea-sand. The side walls were 
built of the same materials, leaving a small space at the 
back of the wall, which space was filled up with the same 
sort of grout or liquid mortar. The tank was then roofed 
over with a dome, formed, without any centering, of 
smaller flints well bedded in mortar. A hole was left in 
the centre, and covered with a hood, within which was 
hung a pulley with a rope and bucket for drawing water 
from the tank. This account was published in 1833, and 
in 1837 an article appeared in tine 'Labourers' Friend 
Magazine,' in which it is stated that such tanks had been 
found very useful during three dry summers. One, less 
than seven feet deep and wide, had supplied two labourers' 
families during that time, while most of the springs in the 
neighbourhood were dry. This paper describes a brick 
tank with sloping sides, the diameter at the base being 
smaller than at the top, and with a dome-shaped top 
formed by making each row of bricks project one-third 
beyond that immediately below it, and balanciag the 
weight by filling up the back with earth as the work pro- 
ceeds. One of the flint tanks, constructed as above de- 
scribed, at the Eastbourn workhouse, is twenty-three feet 
deep and eleven feet wide. Only ninety bushels of lime 
were allowed for its construction, including two coats of 
piaster, and the work was executed at ten shillings per 
hundred square feet. 

In the article last quoted from, it is observed that a 
current of air has been supposed to promote the purity of 
the water preserved in tanks. If so, it may be easily pro- 
vided for. Where the prevailing winds do not blow soot 
and ieaves upon the roof, the water is found to remain 
pood, even for drinking, without clearing out the rubbish 
more than once a year. 

In addition to tanks for water, every farm-yard should 
have one to collect the liquid portion of the manure, 
which is washed by the rain through the refuse litter, and 
al*o the urine of the stalled cattle. Though not yet gene- 
rally adopted in England, in France, Germany, and espe- 
cially in Belgium, such tanks are considered as necessary 
to a farm as any of its most common buildings. They are 
usually constructed of an oblong shape, of brick well 
cemented, with one or more divisions, and capable of con- 
taining at least ten times as manyhogsheads as there are 
heads of cattle on the farm. They are vaulted over, 
having a small aperture, in which a pump is placed, suffi- 
cient to allow a man occasionally to clear out the sedi- 
ment, when the liquid has been pumped up. The best 
shape to contain a large quantity in the smallest space 
would be like those before described ; but they cannot 
conveniently be made sufficiently large, and a cubical form, 
or rather that of several cubes in succession, is prefened. 
A tank for a farm of 200 acres of arable land should be 15 
feet wide, 15 deep, and 45 long, giving 3 cubes of 15 feet, 
or a cavity capable of containing upwards of 10,000 cubic 
feet of liquid. In this tank the urine is diluted with water 
to prevent too rapid decomposition, and also to retain 
the ammonia which is formed ; for which purpose gypsum 
and sulphate of copper are sometimes put into the tanks. 

If the soil be not sandy, clay will answer instead of mor- 
tar to connect the brickwork, and a plastering of lime or 
cement will be sufficient to keep out the worms : but in 
very porous soils the bottom and sides must be puddled, 
to ieep in the liquid ; and it may be advantageous to 
build the walls in cement altogether. The liquid from 
the yards and stables is carried into the tank by a main 
drain constructed of brick or stone, and which receives a 
number of smaller drains from every part of the yards 
and cattle-sheds. Thus the litter in the yard is always 
dry, and none of the richness of the manure is lost by 
evaporation. 

Sometimes the tank is vaulted like a cellar under the 
cow-house and stables, which are washed out twice every 



day, and all the dung and water are swept into a cess-pool 
communicating with the tank. Thus a very diluted, but 
rich liquid soon fills the first division of the tank : a sluice 
is then shut, and the next washings run into a second 
division, and when that is full, into a third. In the mean- 
time the contents of the first tank have undergone a 
certain fermentation, by which the caustic ammonia first 
evolved has become mild and impregnates the water. 
It is then in a fit state to be carried on the land in 
tubs or water-carts. When properly diluted, it accele- 
rates vegetation in a surprising degree ; but if put on 
fresh, it burns the grass or any vegetable it touches, be- 
cause the ammonia is in a caustic state. If a cow drop 
her urine in a field in a hot summer's day, all the grass it 
has touched becomes yellow and is burned up : but if the 
same happen in rainy weather, the spot soon becomes 
very green, and the grass luxuriant ; because, in this case, 
the urine is amply diluted and its caustic nature corrected. 
Those who live near gas-works may collect the ammonia- 
cal gas-water in a tank, and, by the addition of sulphuric 
acid in very small quantities, they may produce a very 
fertilising liquid, which will stimulate vegetation, and be 
a very good manure. 

The necessary concomitant of a tank, whether for water 
or manure, is a water-cart, that is, a large cask put upon 
wheels to bring water from some distance. When there 
are no means of bringing water in pipes, a water-cart is 
quite indispensable. It is simply a cask placed on the 
frame of a cart, with a plug-hole in the end or lower part, 
from which the water may be let out by a cock, or drop 
on a flat board or into a bucket with holes, so as to spread 
it about. The plug-hole is shut by a valve inside, which 
can be opened by means of a string, the pressure of the 
hquid keeping it close to the plug-hole. 

Many of the artificial manures, of which a number have 
been lately proposed, would make excellent liquids by 
merely mixing them up with water in a tank, and allow- 
ing a certain degree of fermentation to take place. Thus 
nothing is lost, and all volatile substances are taken u ) by 
the water. *The soluble portions are dissolved and" the 
earthy matters diffused, so as to be more equally spread 
over the land. If it be true that the ammonia found in 
some plants is chiefly derived from the very small portion 
discovered in rain water, it follows that a scarcely percep 
tible impregnation with this salt may have most powerful 
effects on vegetation. 

When a farm-yard is situated on a hill, and there are 
fields or pastures on a lower level, at no great distance 
from it, tne liquid from the tank may be conducted by 
channels lined with clay, having small sluices to direct 
the streams to any particular field. It may thus be made 
to irrigate temporarily a considerable surface, which it will 
greatly enrich. It may be led into the common furrows 
between the lands or stitches in ploughed land, and allowed 
to soak in them, and then it can be spread with the earth 
of the furrow, by means of broad shovels, over the growing 
crops, and will greatly invigorate them. This species of 
irrigation is common in Lombardy, where much ingenuity 
is shown in the manner in which water is made to flow in 
small rivulets between the rows of growing vegetables. 
The water here is supplied by streams, but the same method 
would distribute the tank-liquor with great effect. A very 
small quantity of this liquor, allowed to flow into the main 
feeder of a water-meadow, will soon prove how great effects 
are produced by impregnations which are scarcely percep- 
tible by chemical analysis. 

Small as the experience has hitherto been in this coun- 
try of the advantages of liquid^manure tanks, it has suffi- 
ciently proved their use to induce every man who con- 
structs a farm-yard and erects buildings to take in the 
tank as an essential part of his plan ; and even if it only 
collected the refuse fluids which are allowed to run off in 
common sewers from most houses, it would soon repay the 
cost of its construction, while it rendere4 the ditches in the 
neighbourhood less subject to noxious emanations from 
the corrupted matter which now flows into them. The 
passage of air into or out of a manure-tank, and the con- 
sequent exhalation of noxious vapours, may be prevented 
by the use of air-traps, similar in principle to those de- 
scribed under Sewers, vol. xxi., p. 319, at the points 
where the drains enter it. 

The use of metallic cisterns or tanks, in lieu of wooden 
casks, for containing a supply of fresh water for long 

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voyages, is one of the great improvements effected of late 
yean* in naval economy. The nineteenth volume of the 

• Transactions* of the Society of Arts contains an account 
of experiments on this subject, by General Samuel Ben- 
tham, in 1796 and the following years, the success of which 
induced the Society, in 1801, to present to him their gold 
medal. Large earthen jars have been tried for this pur- 
pose ; but, wnile they keep the water very pure, they are 
not so convenient for general use as metallic tanks, which 
may be fitted to the shape of the vessel, so as to avoid any 
loss of room. 

(Waistell's Designs for Agricultural Buildings; Lou- 
don's Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, and ViUa Archi- 
tecture ; Transactions of the Society of Arts, vols. xix. and 
xlix. ; Labourers' Friend Magazine, 1837, p. 131.) 

TANNAHILL, ROBERT, born at Paisley, in Scotland, 
on the 3rd of June, 1774, was the son of poor parents, by 
whom he was brought up to the occupation of a weaver, 
which he pursued in his native town and at Glasgow 
throughout the short period of his life. The earliest pre- 
dilection of TannahiU was for poetry, and his taste was 
formed by the constant study of Allan Ramsay, Fergusson, 
and Burns. He failed to attain the spirit of these masters 
of Scottish song ; but his pieces generally excel theirs in 
grace and sweetness. A specimen of this sweetness is 
found in his famous song, * Gloomy winter's now awa :' 

• Tow'ring o'er the Newton woods, 
Livrocks fan the maw- white clouds; 
Siller siwghs, wi' tlowuic buds. 

Adorn the banks sao brierie, O. 
Hound the sylvan fairy nooks 
Feath'ry breckans fringe the rocks, 
'Neath the brae the burnie jouks, 
« Ilka thing is checrie, O.' 

• Jessy, the flower of Dumblane,' is his best-known effort. 
The ' Song of the battle of Vittoria' has the merit of re- 
deeming from the degradation of worthless words one of 
the finest airs of Scottish minstrelsy, and restoring it from 
a whistled jig to the solemn tone of a triumphal song. 

His songs were commonly inspired by the immediate 
occasion ; were the unlaboured fruit of his imagination or 
feelings. Besides the charm of harmony and of a perfect 
mastery of his language, which is almost exclusively 
Saxon, they derive not a little of their effect from the vein 
of desponding melancholy which runs through them. This 
melancholy was in some degree constitutional in Tanna- 
hiU, but it was aggravated by the neglect of the world, 
and a hopelessness of ever raising himself above circum- 
stances so unfavourable to genius as those in which for- 
tune had thrown him. A kindred spirit, the Ettrick Shep- 
herd, made a long pilgrimage to visit him at Paisley. 
After a night spent in the most delightful interchange of 
feeling, Mr. Hog^ took his departure. * Farewell, we shall 
never meet again,' were the words emphatically pro- 
nounced on this occasion by TannahiU, and their meaning 
was shortly afterwards explained. He committed suicide 
by drowning himself, in his thirty-sixth year. His remains 
are interred at Paisley. 

TannahiU's songs were published in Paisley, in his life- 
time, in a small volume. They are in every modern col- 
lection of Scottish melodies, and are occasionally printed 
(under TannahiU's name) with selections from Burns. For 
his life, see Chambers's Scottish Biography. 

TANNER, THOMAS, was the eldest son of the Rev. 
Thomas Tanner, vicar of Market Lavington, Wiltshire, 
where he was born, 25th January, 1674. In November, 
1C89, he was entered a student of Queen's College, Oxford ; 
but after having taken his degree of B.A., he removed in 
January, 1604, to All Souls, and he was elected a feliow 
of that society, 2nd Nov., 1696. So early as 1693, when 
he was only nineteen, he had published proposals for 
printing all the works of the antiquary John Leland, from 
the original manuscripts ; but this design, which was after- 
wards partially executed by Hearne, did not receive such 
encouragement as to induce him to proceed with it. The 
reputation he had very early acquired for his knowledge 
of English antiquities may appear from the fact that An- 
thony a Wood, at his death in 1695, left his papers to 
Tanner's care. That same year Tanner published at Lon- 
don his first work, an 8vo. volume, entitled 'Notitia Mo- 
nastica, or a Short Account of the Religious Houses in 
England and Wales.* Having taken orders, he was soon 
after appointed by Dr. Moore, bishop of Norwich, one of 
his chaplains; and having, in 1701, married Rose, the 



eldest daughter of that prelate, he received various prefer* 
ments from his father-in-law ; the chancellorship of Nor* 
wich about the time of his marriage ; the office of com* 
missary for the archdeaconry of Norfolk in 1703 ; thai a£ 
commissary for the archdeaconry of Sudbury in 1707 ; mad, 
in 1713, a prebend in the cathedral of Ely, to which dio- 
cese Moore had been by this time removed. Meton nil* 
Tanner's wife had died, at the age of twenty-five, in 1706. 
In the same year he was presented by a friend to the 
rectory of Thorp, near Norwich ; and he then married 
Frances, daughter of Jacob Preston, Esq., of London, whom 
however he lost in 1718. His next publication, a new edition 
of Wood's ' Athenae Oxonienses,' enlarged by the addition 
of 500 new lives from Wood's manuscripts, appeared at 
London, in 2 vols, fol., in 1721. In December that year 
Tanner, who had taken his degree of D.D. in 1710, was 
appointed by Dr. Green, bishop of Norwich, to the Arch- 
deaconry of Norfolk ; and in 1723 he resigned his prebend 
at Ely, and was appointed canon of Christ's Church, Ox- 
ford. He was consecrated to the bishopric of St. Ajnph, 
in January, 1732; and in May, 1733, he married Mrs 
Elizabeth Stcottow of Thorp, receiving with her a fortune 
of 15,000/. ; but he did not long enjoy these accessions of 
wealth and honour, his death taking place at Oxford on 
the 14th of December, 1735. By his second wife he left 
one son Thomas, who died rector of Hadley and Monk*' 
Ely in Suffolk, and prebendary of Canterbury, in 1700. 
His widow married Robert Bntiffe, Esq., M.F., and sur- 
vived to 1771. A new edition of the * Notitia Monastic*.* 
with large additions (in part by the editor), waa published 
in a folio volume at London, in 1744, by the bishop's 
brother, the Rev. John Tanner, vicar of Lowestoft in 
Suffolk; and a third edition, considerably improved, by 
the Rev. James Nasmith, appeared at Cambridge, in the 
same form, in 1787. The greater part of this last im- 
pression having been consumed in a fire which happened 
in Mr. Nichols's printing-house, on the night of Monday. 
the 8th of February, 1808, the book is very scarce. But 
Tanner's literary reputation rests principally on his creai 
biographical and bibliographical work, entitled 4 Biblio 
theca Britannico-Hibernica, sive de Scriptoribua qui in 
Anglia, Scotia, et Hibernia, ad Saeculi xvii. initium flo- 
ruerunt, literarum ordine, ;uxta familiarum nomina, dk- 
nositis, ComJnentarius, , which had been the labour of his 
leisure for forty years, and which was published, in folio, 
at London, in 1748, under the care of the Rev. Dr. David 
Wilkins. It is a work of extensive research and great 
general accuracy. Bishop Tanner had made large collec- 
tions of charters, grants, deeds, and other instruments re- 
lating to the national antiquities, which he bequeathed to 
the Bodleian Library. Some letters from him are published 
in Dr. Bliss's collection of * Letters written by Eminent 
Persons,' &c, 2 vols. 8vo. f Lon., 1813. {BiograpAia Bn- 
tanntca.) 

TANNIC ACID, or TANNIN, a peculiar vegetable 
acid existing in every part of the bark of each species of 
quercus, but especially in the bark : it is found however 
in the greatest quantity in the gall-nut. The name of this 
substance is derived from its property of combining with 
the skins of animals, or in tanning, by which they are 
rendered impervious to water, and prevented from pu- 
trefying. r ^ 

To prepare tannic acid, galls are to be reduced to coarse 
powder, and digested in a percolator in sether which has 
been previously mixed and shaken with water: in the 
lower part of the vessel two strata of liquid appear, the 
heavier of which is a strong solution or tannic acid, by 
evaporating which, and by subsequent purification, the 

acid is obtained possessing the following properties : It is 

a colourless or slightly yellowish mass, which does not 
crystallize, but resembles dried gum. It is readily soluble 
in water ; the solution has an astringent but not a bitter 
taste ; it reddens vegetable blues, and decomposes alka- 
line carbonates with effervescence; weak alcohol dissolves 
it, but aether only slightly : when the aqueous solution is 
exposed to the air, especially if the temperature be high, 
oxygen gas is absorbed, and an equal volume of carbonic 
acid gas evolved, while the tannic acid is converted into 
gallic and elagic acids. Tannic acid precipitates gelatin 
from solution ; the compound has been called tannogetattu^ 
and when the acid is in excess a viscid elastic "~— is 
formed, which contains about half its weight of tannic 
acid; when the liquid from which the gelatin is pre* 



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eipitated is heated to ebullition, the tannOgelatin is re- 
dissolved ; tannic acid also precipitates albumen and 
itarch. 
When dried at 212° tannic acid consists of 

Eighteen equivalents of carbon . . 108 
Five equivalents of hydrogen . . 5 
Nine equivalents of oxygen . . 72 

Equivalent . 185 

With Three equivalents of water . 27 

When exposed to a temperature of 240°, the water is 
expelled. 

Tannic acid combines with the alkalis to form salts, 
which are called tannates, and it precipitates most me- 
tallic oxides from solution. The salts of protoxide of iron 
suffer no change when a solution of tannic acid is added 
to them ; but by exposure to the air a deep bluish-black 
precipitate is formed. Tannate of peroxide of iron, formed 
by the action of the acid on a persalt of the metal, is the 
basis of writing-ink, and is a black pulverulent precipitate. 

TANNIN, ARTIFICIAL. It has been shown by Mr. 
Hatchett, that when powdered charcoal has been digested 
for a considerable time in dilute nitric acid, it is dissolved, 
and a reddish-coloured liquid is obtained, which by care- 
ful evaporation yields a brown glossy substance, amount- 
ing to about 120 parts from every 100 of charcoal em- 
ployed. 

The properties of this substance are that its taste is 
astringent and bitter, is soluble in water and in alcohol, 
and forms with a solution of gelatin an insoluble precipi- 
tate, consisting, according to Mr. Hatchett, of 36 of tannin 
and &t of gelatin in 100 parts. Sulphuric acid and hydro- 
chloric acid, when added to a solution of artificial tannin, 
occasion J>rown-coloured precipitates, which are soluble in 
hot water ; the alkalis combine with this tannin, and it 
forms a precipitate of difficult solubility when added to 
lime, barytes, or strontia water, and also with most metallic 
solutions. These precipitates are of a brown colour ; un- 
like natural tannin, the artificial resists the action of nitric 
acid. 

When camphor and various resins, as shell-lac, benzoin, 
and dragon s blood are digested in sulphuric acid till it 
becomes black, a variety of artificial tannin is procured ; 
when the blackened acid is poured into water, a black 
powder is deposited, which, by digestion in alcohol, fur- 
nishes a brown matter soluble in water, and forming an 
insoluble compound with gelatin. 

Although in certain respects the above artificial sub- 
stance agrees with tannic acid, yet the late discoveries as 
to the real nature of this principle tend to the opinion 
that the natural compound is essentially different from the 
artificial. 

TANNIN, PURE, or TANNIC ACID, Medical Pro- 
perties of. This substance in combination with extractive 
nas been long known under the name of tannin, and re- 
cognized as the active principle in almost all astringent 
vegetables. [Astringents.] As many of these are 
powerful in restraining excessive discharges, whether 
bloody or otherwise, it was conjectured that the pure 
principle would be yet more efficacious than when in a 
state of combination. Accordingly it has been adminis- 
tered in some passive haemorrhages, chiefly from the 
uterus and the bronchial tubes. To effect any good it re- 
quires to be given for several days in small doses. It is 
with difficulty absorbed into the circulation, being with 
great reluctance taken up by the lacteals, and producing 
^ery great constipation, from its direct astringent action 
over the intestinal canal, with which it is brought into 
contact. Tannic acid has been recommended in cases of 
incurable organic diseases affecting the uterus, accom- 
panied with wasting discharges. These it may for a time 
moderate, but the constipation induced never fails ulti- 
mately to aggravate the disease and discomfort of the 
patient. There is little therefore to induce practitioners 
to employ it. 

TANNING is the process of converting the skins of 
animals into leather, by effecting a chemical combination 
between the gelatin of which they principally consist, 
and the astringent vegetable principle called tannin. 
[Bark, vol. iii., p. 456 ; Leather, vol. xiii., p. 379 ; 
and the preceding chemical articles on Tannin.] The 
object of the tanning process is to produce such a che- 
mical change in skins as may render them, as observed by 



Dr. Ure, unalterable by the external agents which tend to* 
decompose them in their natural state ; and, in connection 
with the subsequent operations of dressing, or currying, to 
bring them into a state of pliability and impermeability to 
water which may adapt them for the many useful pur- 
poses to which leather is applied. Similar effects are 
produced by forcing oil or grease into the pores of the 
skin, or by preparation with alum ; processes which may 
be briefly noticed in connection with the more immediate 
subject of this article. 

The preparation of skins by tanning or other analogous 
processes has been practised from the earliest times ; and, 
although it has engaged the attention of several scientific 
men, and has been the subject of many curious experi- 
ments, it has received less modification from recent im- 
provements in chemical science than many other manu- 
facturing processes. Several plans which have been sug- 
gested witn a view to expediting the process, which, on 
the old system, is a very tedious one, have been found to- 
deteriorate the quality of the leather, and have therefore 
been wholly or partially abandoned ; and others, which 
appear to be more successful, are as yet adopted by a few 
manufacturers only. One of the probable causes of this 
comparatively slow progress of improvement in the leather 
manufacture is suggested in an interesting article on 
' Tanning,' in the seventh edition of the * Encyclopaedia 
Britannica,' the author of which observes that, owing to- 
the slow turning of money in consequence of the length 
of time occupied in tanning the heavier kinds of skins or 
hides, the tanner * must have capital enough to pay for 
twelve months' hides, bark, &c, labour, and contingent 
expenses, besides keeping a stock of leather ; and, when 
his capital has been turned at the end of twelve or more 
months, it must pay him, in one single profit, the interest, 
&c. of twelve months.' * This,' he proceeds to say, ' hay 
confined the trade to a few wealthy individuals, who look 
upon tanning as an investment for capital rather than as a 
business which might be improved by science ; and, being' 
in comfortable circumstances, they are not driven to per- 
sonal exertion .and close application, which woula be 
required of less wealthy tradesmen.' 'It is,' he adds, 
'from these circumstances, that tanning has been more 
stationary than any other manufacture, and that the few 
improvements which have been made in it have not been, 
made by tanners.' 

The larger and heavier skins operated upon by the tan*- 
ner, as those of bulls, buffaloes, oxen, and cows, are tech- 
nically distinguished as hides; while the name skins is 
applied to those of smaller animals, as calves, sheep, and' 
goats. The process necessary to convert hides into the* 
thick hard leather used for the soles of boots and shoes, 
and for similar purposes, will be first noticed. The hides- 
are brought to tlie tanner either in a fresh state, when 
from animals recently slaughtered, or, when imported 
from other countries, dried or salted, and sometimes both, 
for the sake of preserving them from decomposition. In 
the former case the horns are removed, and the hide is : 
scraped to cleanse it from any small portions of flesh or - 
fatty matter which may adhere to the cutis ; but in the- 
latter it is necessary to soften the hides, and bring them 
as nearly as possible to the fresh state, by steeping them 
in water, and repeated rubbing or beating. After this 
the hair is removed ; sometimes by steeping the hides for 
several days in a solution of lime and water, which has* 
the effect of loosening the hair and epidermis, or outer 
skin ; and sometimes by suspending them in a close 
chamber called a smoke-house, heated a little above the 
ordinary temperature of the atmosphere by means of a 
smouldering fire ; in which case the epidermis becomes- 
loosened by incipient putrefaction. In either case, when 
the hair and epidermis, or cuticle, are sufficiently loosened, 
they are removed by scraping with a curved knife, the 
hide being laid upon a convex bench, or • beam.' The- 
hides are prepared for the actual tanning, or immersion in 
a solution of bark, by steeping them for a few days in a 
pit containing a sour solution of rye or barley flour, or in. 
a very weak menstruum consisting of one part of sulphuric 
acid mixed with from five hundred to a thousand parts of 
water. By this process, which is called ' raising,' the pores- 
of the hides are distended and rendered more susceptible 
of the action of the tan, and the substance of the skin is. 
apparently increased ; but^ as the process does not add to- 
the gelatin of the skin, a hide which is much thickened by 



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the raising process loses its substance when condensed by 
the shoemakers hammer. 

Different tanners vary much in the details of the above- 
described preparatory processes, as well as in those which 
follow, ana which constitute the actual tanning, or con- 
version of the prepared ' pelt' into leather. Oak bark is 
the substance most commonly used to supply the astrin- 
gent principle, and it is crushed or ground to a coarse 
powder in a bark-mill. The comparative efficiency of this 
and other vegetable substances used for the same purpose 
is stated under Bark, vol. iii., p. 457. In the old method 
of tanning, which is not yet entirely abandoned, the hides 
and powdered bark were laid in alternate layers in the 
tan-pit, *hich was then filled with water to the brim. 
After some months the pit was emptied and re-filled with 
fresh bark and water, and this process was repeated when- 
ever the strength of the bark was exhausted. In this way 
the time required for impregnating the hides varied, ac- 
cording to their thickness and other circumstances, from 
one to four years. The process has been greatly expe- 
dited by the improvements introduced in consequence of 
the experiments of M. Seguin, a French chemist, which 
are detailed in Nicholsons 'Journal,' vol. i., p. 271 
(quarto series, published in the year 1797% of tanning 
with concentrated solutions of bark, formed by pass- 
ing \vater through a mass of powdered bark, until, by 
successive infiltrations, it is completely deprived of its 
soluble tanning principle. Seguin expected that, by the 
use of very strong solutions, hides and skins might be 
tanned in as many days as, under the old system, they 
would require months ; but these expectations have been 
very imperfectly realised in practice, although the new 
system, which has been very extensively adopted, has 
been productive of an important saving of time. With- 
out entering into a minute investigation of the objections 
to the use of concentrated tanning infusions, it may be 
sufficient to state that, as observed by the late Sir Hum- 
phry Davy, in Ids valuable paper on theoperation of astrin- 
gent vegetables in tanning, published in the ' Philosophi- 
cal Transactions ' for 1803, experience shows that skins 
which are quickly tanned, by the use of strong solutions, 
produce leather of less durable quality than that which is 
slowly formed. Dr. Ure, in reference to this important 
point, says (Did. of Arts, &c., p. 1226) : — ' The older tan- 
ners, who prided themselves on producing a substantial 
article, were so much impressed with the advantages of 
slowly impregnating skin with astringent matter, that 
they employed no concentrated infusion (ooze) in their 
pits, but stratified the skins with abundance of ground 
bark, and covered them with soft water, knowing that its 
active principles are very soluble, and that, by being 
gradually extracted, they would penetrate uniformly the 
whole of the animal fibres, instead of acting cluefly upon 
the surface, and making brittle leather, as the strong in- 
fusions never fail to do.' In illustration of these remarks, 
he states that lOOlbs. of skin, quickly tanned in a strong 
infusion of bark, will produce 1371bs. of leather, while the 
same weight of skin, slowly tanned in a weak solution, 
produce only 117^1bs. ; the additional 194lbs. in the for- 
mer case tending to swell the tanner's bill, although it 
deteriorates the leather, and causes it to contain less of 
the textile animal solid. Leather so highly charged with 
tannin is, moreover, so spongy as to allow moisture to 
pass readily through its pores ; but the saving of time 
and increase of product are strong temptations to the 
tanner to adopt the system of tanning with concentrated 
infusions. 

The variations of practice among different tanners ex- 
tend to the substance used as an astringent, as well as to 
the manner of applying it. Ground oak-bark, which was 
formerly the only, material in common use, and is still the 
most general, produces good leather of a light-fawn 
colour. Valonia, of which considerable quantities are 
imported for the use of tanners, produces leather of great 
solidity and weight, the colour of which is inclined to 
grey, and which, according to the * Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica,' is more impervious to water than that made with 
oak-bark. Valonia consists of the acorns of the Quercus 
A£gilov$ [Quercus, vol. xix., p. 214], and is brought 
from the Levant and the Morea. Catechu, or terra ja- 
ponica, the inspissated extract of the Acacia Catechu 
[Catechu, vol. vi., p. 367], produces leather of a dark 
reddish fawn colour, which is light, spongy, and very 



pervious to water. Another substance which has 
used of late years is a kmd of bean-pod called divi-dm. 
These substances may be used either individually or is 
various combinations. In the methods of preparing Ua- 
ning solutions there is also considerable variety. Soma 
tanners use cold water for the purpose, and others hot 
water or steam ; others again, instead of pure water, em- 
ploy ooze, or tanning liquid, which has been exhausted by 
use. A further point of difference is found in the strengtn 
of the solutions used, which vary exceedingly. When 
the impregnation of the hides with tannin is effected by 
laying them flat in the tan-pits, they are frequently tak«n 
out to renew the solution ; and the skins which have lain 
near the top of one pit are laid near the bottom of the 
next, so as to equalize the amount of hydrostatic presses. 
Sometimes the tanning is facilitated Dy suspending the 
skins vertically in the liquid, by whicn means they are 
penetrated quickly; but the plan requires coruddtrrmble 
room ; and, unless the skins are frequently moved, it occa- 
sions injurious folds in the leather. Another plan, which 
answers well for small light skins, that require but a. short 
time for tanning, is to sew up the skin into the form of 
a bajr, to fill it with tan-liquor, and then immerse it in 
the pit. The great space required is the principal objec- 
tion to this plan. In whichever of the above way* the 
tanning is effected, the hide is subjected to the actitin 
of solutions increasing progressively in strength, until it 
is so perfectly penetrated, that when cut through it pre- 
sents a uniform brown colour ; any appearance of a light 
streak in the middle of its thickness being an indication of 
imperfect tanning. When the process is complete, the 
hides are hung up in a shed, and allowed to dry slowly , 
and, while they are drying, they are compressed by beat- 
ing or rubbing, or by passing them between roller*, to 
give them firmness and density. A yellow deposit i» 
now found upon the surface of the leather, to which 
the name of 'bloom' or 'pitching' is technical]/ given; 
and, although this deposit is subsequently removed by 
the shoemaker in the operation of buffing, and forms a 
useless addition to the weight and cost of the leather, 
the prejudice of purchasers requires that it be left on 
the surface by the tanner. According to the explana- 
tion of the ' Encyclopaedia Britannicav this bloom con- 
sists of the finer portion of the gelatin from the interior 
of the skin, dissolved by the exhausted ooze which re- 
mains upon the surface by capillary attraction; and the 
waste and deterioration occasioned by its formation should 
be prevented by the careful removal, by pressure, of the 
exhausted ooze. 

Although, owing to the many differences in the practice 
of tanning, no definite time can be stated for the various 
operations mentioned above, it may be observed that the 
usual period required for tanning such hides as are used 
for the soles of men's boots is from six to twelve months, 
and that from fifteen to eighteen months are required in 
preparing those of the thickest kinds, which are termed 
'butts' or 'backs.' It remains, before noticing the 
processes of preparing the thinner kinds of leather, 
to advert to some of the methods which have been 
contrived for effecting a greater saving of time than 
could be accomplished by any of those previously, men- 
tioned. 

Several schemes have been devised for forcing a tanning 
solution through the pores of the hide by mechanical pres- 
sure. Mr. Francis Spilsbury obtained a patent in 1823 lor 
effecting this object in the following manner : — The hide*. 
after being freed from hair, cleansed, and otherwise pre- 
pared in the usual manner, were to be carefully examined a* 
to soundness, any accidental hole being then sewed up, ao 
as to make the skin water-tight. Three frames were to be 
provided of similar shape, and of such a form and size thai 
when laid upon each other, with two hides placed between 
them, the frames might be screwed together by bolts pass- 
ing through projecting ears, so that the whole should Cora 
a fiat water-tight chamber, circumscribed by the middle 
frame. This apparatus being then placed in a vertical 
position, tan-liquor was introduced into the chamber or 
cavity between the hides through a pipe inserted in the 
centre frame ; the air being allowed to escape by another 
pipe, which should be closed as soon as the chamber be- 
came filled with the liquid. The tan-liquor being tap- 
plied from an elevated cistern, any required degree of 
hydrostatic pressure might be produced in the *^frt?rr 4 



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the effect of which was to distend or swell out the sides, 
ind to force the liquid through the pores of the skins, 
it making its appearance on the outer sides like drops of 
dew or perspiration. When the leather appeared to be 
sufficiently tanned, the liquor was drawn off by a stop- 
cock, the frames were unscrewed, and the compressed 
edges of the hide were cut off. Spilsbury's process was 
toon abandoned ; the reason of its failure being, accord- 
ing to the author before quoted, in the • Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica,' that a large excess of tannin dissolves gelatin ; so 
that tannate of gelatin was found on the outer sides of the 
dins in the form of long masses of slime, while the leather 
bad lost much in weight, was very porous, and unequally 
tanned, in consequence of the tan-liquor penetrating most 
readily the thinnest or weakest parts of the hide. The 
error of the principle of this method not being generally 
understood, several similar plans were subsequently con- 
trived by different persons ; but these, or most of them, 
have been found unsuccessful. Of these, allusion may be 
made to the process patented by Mr. Drake, which con- 
sisted in sewing two skins together (after they had re- 
ceived a slight tanning in the ordinary way), so as to form 
a water-tight bag, which was filled with tan-liquor. The 
bag thus formed was compressed between two vertical 
gndiron-like frames or racks, by which it was prevented 
from bulging at the sides, and the liquor was confined to a 
thin verticalstratum. As in the last process, the aqueous 
portion of the tan-liquor percolated through the hides ; 
and this penetration of the leather was facilitated by 
heating the room so as to promote evaporation from the 
exterior surfaces of the bags or skins. To prevent the 
bare of the racks or frames from producing permanent in- 
dentations in the leather, it is necessary to shift the bags 
a little occasionally during the process. In another some- 
what similar plan, contrived by Mr. Cox, the hides were 
to be sewed up in the form of bags, and supported by a 
casing of canvas ; and in the process of Mr. Chaplin, the 
bags were laid in an inclined position, and turned periodi- 
cally to equalize the action of the tan. With every pre- 
caution however, it is difficult to tan a hide equally by any 
such process; and the objection urged against Spilsbury's 
plan applies to all the modifications of it. In another 
plan, which has been tried under several forms, the tan- 
ning liquid is applied to both sides of the hides, which are 
placed m an air-tight vessel, and is forced into their pores 
Dy hydrostatic pressure, the air being previously pumped 
out. The operation may be repeated as often as necessary, 
with infusions gradually increasing in strength ; air being 
allowed to fill the pores of the hide between each immer- 
sion. Another plan which may be alluded to here is that 
of an American tanner, Osmond Cagswell, described by 
Hebert {Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopedia, vol. ii., 
p. to), from the • Journal ' of the Franklin Institute. It 
consists in laying the hides upon a quantity of sawdust, 
contained in shallow boxes, of which any required number 
mar be arranged in a suitable framework, about twelve 
inches above one another. The hides are not laid flat, but 
have their edges a little raised, so that their upper surfaces 
form shallow troughs capable of holding a layer of the 
tanning solution, which must be replenished from time to 
time as it filters through the hide and the sawdust, or 
other soft porous substance upon which it is laid. The 
spent liquor runs off from the bottom of the box or trough, 
which is somewhat inclined for that purpose, into a vessel 
or channel provided for it. ' The improvement consists/ 
according to the specification quoted by Hebert, ' in ap- 
plying a solution 01 oak or other bark to hides or skins m 
«nch manner as that when the glutinous (gelatinous) par- 
ticles of the hide have absorbed and become mixed with 
the tanning or astringent principle, the other part of the 
solution (i. e. the water) may pass off, and leave the hide 
free to receive more of the solution ; and so on till it is 
tanned.' The operation was performed, it is stated, in a 
▼ery short time ; but as the outer parts or edges of the 
hides were not perfectly tanned by it, it was necessary to 
immerse them in vats in the usual manner for three 
or four weeks, to complete the process. If the principle 
were found to be advantageous, this, which forms a 
great defect in Mr. Cagswell's scheme, might be readily 
avoided. 

Still more recent than any of the above-mentioned plans 
» that patented by Messrs. Herepath and Cox, of Bristol ; 
which, as far as present experience can show, appears to 



effect the desired object very completely. Their process 
which was patented November 16, 1837, is founded upon 
the principle of washing a sponge, by alternately allowing 
it to imbibe water, and then forcibly expressing it. In the 
old system of tanning, the hide may be compared to a 
sponge, which, after being saturated in a weak solution, is 
removed to a stronger, without the fluid contained m its 
pores being squeezed out ; while in the new plan the weak 
infusion, or ooze, is forced out of the pores of the hide be- 
fore it is subjected to a stronger, so that the fresh ooze 
may be able to act more efficiently. This is effected by 
connecting a number of hides together by strings, so as to 
form a continuous belt, and passing them between rollers 
turned by steam or other power, while they are being re- 
moved from one solution to another. In order to produce 
a tolerably uniform belt or continuous sheet of hides, they 
are either placed alternately head to head and tail to tail ; 
or, if laid across the belt, with the heads and tails towards 
each side alternately. In one of the arrangements de- 
scribed in the specification, the hides are united into an 
endless band, and are always passed between the rollers 
(of which a pair is erected over each pit) in one direction ; 
but in another plan the ends of the belt are not connected 
together, and the motion of the rollers is reversed when 
necessary, so that the belt of hides may be delivered into 
the tan-liquor alternately on each side of the apparatus. 
The latter arrangement is that described in the recently 
published article in the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' from 
which the following details are derived. The lower roller 
is about thirty inches in diameter, and is covered with 
horsehair cloth ; and the upper roller, which is pressed 
against the lower one with any determinate degree of force 
by means of weighted levers, is only about eighteen inches 
in diameter, and is covered with woollen cloth. By this 
process a strong hide may, it is stated, be tanned through 
m from one to two months, and calf-skins and kips (tne 
hides of young cattle) in from twenty to thirty days. 
Double the usual quantity of work is performed ; one-half 
of the capital required in the common process is rendered 
unnecessary ; the saving on bark, labour, and general cost 
of manufacture is about l{d. per lb. ; and the increase in 
the weight of butt leather, as compared with that made in 
the usual way, is as 34 lbs. to 28 lbs. The very thick hides, 
known as * butts,' when prepared by the patent process, 
are sent to market within four months from the time of 
their delivery in the tanner's yard ; and the profits arising 
from quick returns, great weight of leather produced, and 
reduced cost of production, are stated to be eight times as 
great as upon the old plan, the prices of hides, bark, and 
leather being the same. It should be further observed that 
the leather made in this way is more elastic and imper- 
vious to water than any other. 

Although the general principles involved in the prepa- 
ration of all kinds of leather are the same, and some of 
the processes above described are performed with little 
variation upon the skins of smaller animals as well as upon 
the thick hides of various kinds of oxen, the precise course 
of operations requires many modifications which cannot 
be here described. Of the preparation of several of the 
lighter and more ornamental kinds of leather, a familiar 
account is given in No. 652 of the • Penny Magazine,' 
which is devoted to a sketch of the processes followed at 
one of the great leather-manufactories of Bermondsey. 
We have hitherto alluded chiefly to the preparation of the 
thick hides used for sole-leather, among which several 
varieties may be found, each distinguished by a different 
technical name, by which its thickness, quality, or mode 
of preparation is known ; but the thinnest and weakest 
hides, as well as the skins of calves and other animals, are 
also prepared for use as upper-leathers, in which case it is 
necessary to reduce their thickness by shaving or paring 
them down upon the flesh or inner side, before they are 
subjected to the action of the tanning infusions. Such 
hides or skins also require, after leaving the hands of the 
tanner, to be rubbed, softened, and dressed by the currier, 
in order to bring them to the necessary degree of flexibility 
and smoothness. The currier also has recourse to shaving 
or paring with a peculiarly formed knife, to bring the skin 
to the requisite tenuity ; and it is his office to blacken 
the surface, which, for common shoe-leather, is done on 
the flesh side, although for some purposes leather is 
blackened upon the outer or grain side. Horse-hides, 
which are comparatively weak and thin, are sometimes 



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dressed in the latter way, under the "name of cordovan 
hides, from the circumstance of such leather having been 
formerly made at Cordova in Spain. Calf-skins supply 
the quality of leather most generally preferred for the 
upper part of boots and shoes. 

Of the thin skins prepared for ornamental purposes, 
many are tanned with a substance called sumach, prepared 
from a plant of the same name. [Rhus, vol. xix., p. 484.] 
At the establishment above referred to, which is commonly 
known as the Neckinger Mills, sumach leather is extensively 
prepared; the most important kind being that called 

* Morocco,' which is made from goat -skins. In the routine 
of operations described in the paper from which we quote, 
the processes of cleansing the skins from fleshy impurities, 
and removing the hair, &c, present no material variation 
from those before described. During these processes, the 
lime employed to assist in the depilation enters the pores 
of the skin so completely, that it would impede the action 
of the tanning liquid if allowed to remain. It is there- 
fore removed by immersion in an alkaline solution, which 
opens the pores in a way resembling the process of 

• raising,' described in a previous column. The tanning 
is then performed by sewing up each skin into the form of 
a bag, with the grain or hair-side outwards, and nearly 
"filling it with a strong solution of sumach in water. The 
bag is then fully distended by blowing into it, and the 
Aperture is tied up ; after which it is thrown into a large 
shallow vessel filled with hot water containing a little 
sumach. The distended bags float in this vessel, and are 
occasionally moved about with a wooden instrument, 
until the solution which they contain has thoroughly pene- 
trated their substance. Owing to the thinness of the 
skins and the heat to which they are exposed, this opera-, 
tion is performed in a few hours. The process is expe- 
dited by taking the bags out of the solution and piling 
them upon a perforated bench or rack at the side of the 
tub, so that their own weight may force the confined 
liquid through the pores. When the tanning is completed, 
the bags are opened to remove the sediment of the su- 
mach ; the skins are washed, rubbed on a board, and dried ; 
after which they are ready for dyeing and finishing with a 
ridged instrument, which imparts to the surface that pe- 
culiar grain by which morocco leather is distinguished. 
An inferior kind of leather, known as * imitation morocco/ 
is prepared in a similar manner from sheep-skins. The 
wool js removed from these skins by the fellmonger; 
after which they are subjected to great pressure in a hy- 
drostatic press, in order to remove the oleaginous or greasy 
matter which they contain in a much larger quantity than 
goat-skins. Surprising as it may appear, these, as well as 
larger and thicker skins, are often divided or split by a 
machine into two thicknesses, each of which may be made 
into leather suitable for some of the purposes to which it 
is applied, as the covering or lining of books, work-boxes, 
hats, &c. 

Tawing is the name applied to the process by which 
the skins of sheep, lambs, and kids are converted into soft 
leather by the action of alum. Of this kind of leather 
gloves are usually made. Skins intended for tawing pass 
through a series of operations resembling those by which 
skins are prepared for tanning, but they are then subjected 
to a solution of alum and salt, to which, for the superior 
kinds of leather, flour and yolks of eggs are added, instead 
of a vegetable astringent solution. Sometimes the skins 
are put into a kind of barrel with the solution, and then 
the whole is made to rotate lapidly, by which the skins are 
ouickly penetrated ; and in other cases the impregnation 
is effected in an open tub, the skins being worked in the 
pasty liquid with the hands, or trampled upon by the 
naked feet of a man, until the emulsion is thoroughly in- 
corporated with them. They subsequently require a good 
deal of stretching and rubbing over a kind of blunt-edged 
knife, and some other finishing operations, to give them 
the requisite smoothness and suppleness. Many of the 
gloves sold as kid are really made of lamb-skins, of which 
considerable numbers are imported from the shores of the 
Mediterranean. These are brought with the wool on; 
and, as it would be injured by the action of lime, it is 
loosened by inducing fermentation or incipient putrefac- 
tion in subterranean vaults or cellars ; an operation which 
requires great nicety, since the pelt would be injured by 
allowing the fermentation to proceed too far. After the 
wool has beeu removed, and the skins have been scraped 



to free them from a slimy substance which erode* from 
the pores, the pelts are immersed in lime-water for a few 
days, to remove the grease which yet remains in then. 
The subsequent operations of removing the lime, Umax. 
&c, are similar to those required for other skins. 1b 
tawing sheep-skins with the wool on, for housing* and 
similar articles, the wool side is carefully folded tuwinii, 
to protect it from the tawing liquid or paste, which » 
then applied to the flesh side only. Other skins are occa- 
sionally converted into leather without removing the 
wool or hair. 

The only other kind of leather to be here noticed is that 
in which oil or grease is forced into the pores of the skin, 
to take the place of the animal matter, wluch would tend 
to its decomposition by putrefaction. This kind of leather 
takes its name from a fine soft leather prepared from lbs 
skin of the chamois goat ; and the process bV which it u 
made is called shamoying or shammyingr. ouch leather 
was formerly very much used as an article of dothhig. 
especially by soldiers; and it is still applied to several 
useful purposes, for which its peculiar softness and plm- 
bility renders it valuable. Wash-leather may be cited as 
a common example of this kind of preparation. The skint 
of deer, goats, sheep, &c. are dressed in this way; sad 
much shamoyed leather is made from the inferior or least 
regular portion of split skins, in cases where the grain side 
has been taken off carefully of a uniform thickness for pre- 
paration in a different way. In general, when whole skim 
are shamoyed, the grain surface is removed by scraputr or 
rubbing with pumice-stone. After the usual prepanboo 
with lime-water, and subsequent washing in a sour lnfmien 
of bran or some similar liquor, to remove the lime and 
open the pores, the skins are made as dry as possible by 
wringing or pressing them, and, in the process practised 
at the Neckinger Mills, are then expoaea to the action of 
fulling-stocks, which consist of heavy wooden hammers, 
faced with copper, and set in motion by connection with a 
revolving shaft. A wheel revolves near the head of emch 
hammer, of which two are mounted together in one frame- 
work ; and this wheel is made, during its revolution, alter- 
nately to raise the hammer about a foot, and to let it fall 
into a trough fitted to receive its head. The leather, or 
rather a roll of the skins which are to be made into lather, 
is placed in this trough, and beaten by the hammers uatil 
it is perfectly dry. Cod-oil is then poured upon the skim, 
and forced into their pores by the action of the hammers 
or stocks ; the form of the trough being such that the skins 
gradually turn themselves over and over during the opera- 
tion, to render the beating uniform. When the oil is tbe- 
roughly beaten in, the skins arc hung up to dry, after 
which they are returned to the trough to receive a fresh 
supply of oil and a repetition of the beating. This is 
repeated eight or nine times, until two or three gallons of 
oil have been imbibed by one hundred skins ; and when 
they are sufficiently impregnated with it, they are placed 
in large tubs, or hung up in close heated chambers, in 
which they undergo a Kind of fermentation, by which the 

Sores are distended, and the action of the od upon the 
bres is completed ; and finally they are immersed in a 
weak solution of potash, which removes whatever excess of 
oil may have remained in the leather, forming with it a 
saponaceous mixture. They are then hung up in the open 
air to dry. 

(Dr. Ure's Dictionary of Arts, &c., art 'Leather;* fit- 
cyclopcedia Britannica, seventh edit* art. •Tanning;' 
ftebert's Engineer's and Mechanic's Encyclopedia^ art. 
* Leather ;' Penny Magazine t No. 652.) 

TANSIO.LO, LUIGI, born of a noble family at Nolav, 
in the kingdom of Naples, about the year 1510, wrote in 
his youth a licentious poem, entitled 4 II VendemmiaioreV 
or • the Vintager,' wherein he deals largely in the obscene 
jokes and scurrilities in which the peasantry of his country 
indulge during the vintage season, something after the 
manner of the antient Saturnalia. This poem, which the 
author did not intend for the press, was published by some 
friend through an abuse of confidence. In order to make 
amends, Tansillo wrote a pious poem, entitled ' Le Lagrizne 
di San Pietro,' of which a part only was published before 
his death. A more complete edition of it was published 
in 1G06. Malherbe made a translation, or rather wrote an 
imitation of it, entitled * Les Larmes de St Pierre, imitirs 
du Tansillc, au Roi Henri III.,' 1587. Tansillo redded 
chiefly at Naples, at the court of the Spanish viceroy 



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Son Pedro de Toledo and his son Don Garcia. He accom- 
panied the viceroy in an expedition against the Barbary 
powers. He died about 1584. He wrote also a georgicai 
poem, entitled * II Podere,' and another didactic poem, 
entitled • La Balia,' besides sonnets, canzoni, and other 
lyric poems, in which he has displayed great poetical 
powers. He has been compared by some with Petrarca. 
A complete edition of Tansillo's works was published at 
Venice in 1738, in 4to. (Tiraboschi, Storia della Lettera- 
tura Italiana; Corniani, Secoli della Letter at ur a It aliana.) 

TANSY. Hanacotum.] 

TANTATJDiE, a family of Wading Birds. [Gralla- 

TORES.] 

The genus Tantalus of Linnaeus stands between the 
genera Ardea and Scolopax, in the twehth edition of the 
Syxtema Naturte. 

Cuvier places the genus Tantalus between the Open- 
beaks (Hians, Lacep. ; Anastomus, 111.) and the Spoonbills 
(Platalea. Linn.). He characterizes the genus as having 
the feet, the nostrils, and the bill of a stork ; but the back 
of the bill is, he observes, rounded, and its point curved 
downwards and slightly notched on each side : a portion of 
the head, and sometimes of the neck, is, he adds, de- 
nuded of feathers. He notices the following species: the 
American Tantalus, Tantalus loculator, Linn. ; the Afri- 
can Tantalus, Tantalus Ibis, Linn.; and the Ceylonese 
Ibis, Tantalus leucocephalus, the largest of all. 

Of Tantalus Ibis, ne remarks that it is white slightly 
clouded with purple on the wings, with a yellow beak, and 
the skin of the face naked and red, adding that it was for 
a long time regarded by naturalists as the bird so much 
revered by the antient Egyptians under the name of Ibis, 
but that recent researches nad proved that the Ibis is a 
much smaller species, of which he intends to treat there- 
after. This species, he states, is not commonly found in 
Sypt, but that it had been brought from Senegal. Tan- 
us he arranges in the family Cultirostres. 

Ibis,C\iy., finds a place in the Re gne Animal, as the se- 
cond genus of Cuvier's Longirostres, between Scolopax 
and Numenius, Cuv. 



Ibb religion, Cuv.— Adult. 

Cuvier states that he has separated the Ibises from the 
Tantali of Gmelin, because their bill, arched like that of 
the Tantali, is nevertheless much more feeble, and with- 
out any notch at the point, whilst the nostrils, pierced to- 
wtrds the back Of its base, are each prolonged into a furrow 
which continues to the tip. The Dill, he adds, is rather 
thick, and nearly square at its base : there is always, he 
farther remarks, some part of the head, or even of the 
neck, denuded of feathers. The external toes are notably 
ptlmated at their base, and the hind toe is sufficiently long 
to touch the earth. Some of the species, he observes, have 
P. C, No. 1493. 



the legs short and reticulated : these are the most robust 

and have the largest bill. 

Of this genus Cuvier notices the following species : — 
VIbis sacrc {Ibis religiosa, Cuv. ; Abou-Hannes, Bruce, 

pi. 35 ; Tantalus jEthiopicus, Lath.). For the adult of 

this species he refers to Ossemens Fossiles, torn, i., pi. 1 




was reared in the temples of antient Egypt, witn venera- 
tion which approached to worship ; and it was embalmed 
after its death, as some said, because it devoured the ser- 
pents which would otherwise have become dangerous to 
the country:— according to others, because there was a 
resemblance between its plumage and some of the phases 
of the moon : finally, according to other some, because its 
advent announced the rising of the Nile. For a long time 
it was thought that this Ibis of the Egyptians was the Tan- 
talus of Africa : we now know that it belongs to the genus 
of which we are treating. It is as large as a hen, with 
white plumage, except the end of the wing-feathers, which 
is black ; the last coverts have their barbs elongated, loose, 
black, with violet reflections, and thus covering the end 
of the wings and tail. The bill and the feet are black, as 
well as all the naked part of the head and neck : this part 
is covered in youth, at least on its upper surface, with 
small blackish feathers. The species is found throughout 
the extent of Africa.' [Abou-Hannes.] 

The other species noticed by Cuvier are — VIbis rouge 
(Scolopax ruber, Linn. ; Tantalus ruber, Gm.) and VIbis 
vert, vulg. Courtis vert (Scolopax falcinellus, Linn.). 
(Re gne Animal.) 

The following is the description of VIbis vert (Ibis fal- 
cinellus) : — Purpled chestnut, with deep green mantle. 
The young with tne head and neck sprinkled with whitish. 
Locality, South of Europe and North of Africa. (Rdgne 
Animal.) 

This, Cuvier observes, is to all appearance the species 
which the antients called the Black Ibis. [Abou-Hannes, 
vol. i., p. 38.] 

Ths views of Mr. Vigors with regard to the position of 
Tantalus will be found in the article Herons, vol. xii., 
p. 165. 

Mr. Swainson states that the Tantalidce, or Ibises, are 
large and very singular birds, living almost entirely on the 
swampy banks of rivers and fresh waters, rarely, if ever 
frequenting open shores, like the more typical waders. 
He observes that their habits and structure seem com- 
pounded of those belonging to the Herons on one side 
and to the Rails [Rallid^e] on the other: their flight and 
size, he says, remind us of the former, while their long toes 
and insectivorous nature are more in unison with the latter. 
He traces their analogy to the Tenuirostres in the metallic 
colours of their plumage and in their having their heads 
frequently bare of feathers, as in the AmpeltdUe and other 
tenuirostral types. The majority, he remarks, live in tro- 
pical latitudes. 

In the Synopsis the following characters of the family 
(which is placed between the Ardeidce and Rjallidee) are 
given m— 

TantalicUe. 

Family Character.— Size large. Bill hard, considerably 
lengthened, cylindrical, and curved from the base. Face 
and head more or less naked. Hinder toe on the same 
plane as the others. Plumage metallic. 
Genera. 

Anastomus, 111. Open beak. Bill straight, hard, heavy, 
solid, compressed, marked with longitudinal wrinkles. 
Upper mandible very straight ; the base thickened at the 
top and as high as the crown ; the tip notched ; the mar- 
gin dentated : under mandible greatly curved upwards, 
and only touching the upper at the base and at the tip. 

Example, Anastomus lamelligerus. 

Tantalus, Linn. Bill nearly as thick at the base as the 
head ; cylindrical and attenuated towards the tips, which 
are slender and slightly bent: margins entire. Upper 
mandible notched. Nostrils naked, vertical, basal, oval- 
oblong. Toes connected at the base. 

Example, Tantalus loculator. 

Ibis, Antiq. Bill much more slender ; cylindrical, and 
arched from the base. Nostrils basal, lateral. Wings 
broad, ample : the second and third quills longest. 

Example, Ibis ruber. 



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Aramus, Vieill. Bill lengthened, slightly curved to- 
wards the point, which is entire and inflexed. Under 
mandible curved from about the middle and angulated. 
Furrow of the nostrils long. Nostrils lateral, remote from 
the base, longitudinal. Feet long. Hallux elevated. An- 
terior toes divided at their base. Wines moderate ; the 
two first quills shorter than the third, which is the longest. 
America. 

Example, Aramus scolopacius. (Classification of 
Birds.) 

The Prince of Canino places the Tantalida between the 
Psophidce and ScolopacicUe, and arranges under the former 
the genera Tantalus and Ibis. (Birds of Europe and 
North America.) 

Mr. G. R. Gray makes the Tantalina the fifth and last 
subfamily of the Ardeida, placing it next to the Ciconina, 
and arranging under it the following genera : — 

Tantalus, Linn. Ibis, Moehr. Geronticus, Wagl. Cer- 

cibis, Wagl. Theristicus, Wagl. Phimosus, Wagl. Har- 

piprion, Wagl. Falcinellus, (Ray) Bechst. Aramus, Vieill. 

Mr. Gray gives the synonyms of all these genera. (List 

\ he (Jenera oj Brds, 2nd edit.) 

We proceed to illustrate the Ibises of America by Nut- 
tail's description of the Scarlet Ibis, Ibis rubra of vieillot, 
Tantalus ruber of Linnaeus* Red Curlew of Catesby. 

This species is 23 inches in length and 37 in alar ex- 
tent. Bill 5 inches long, thick, and of a somewhat square 
form at the base, gradually bent downwards and sharply 
ridged ; black, except near the base, where it inclines to 
«ed. Iris dark -hazel. The face naked, slightly wrinkled, 
pale -red. Chin bare, wrinkled also. Plumage rich, glow- 
; ? scarlet, except about three inches of the extremities of 
ie four outer quill-feathers, which are deep steel-blue. 
Let:* pale red ; the three anterior toes united by a mera- 
)).ane as far as the first joint. (Nuttall.) 

• This brilliant and exclusively American species, in- 
habit* chiefly,' says Nuttall, ' within the tropics, abound- 
i ig iu the West India and Bahama Islands, and south of 
the equator, at least as far as Brazil. They migrate in the 
course of the summer (about July and August) into 
Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina ; but retire 
into Mexico, or the Caribbean Islands, at the approach of 
cool weather. They generally associate in numbers, fre- 
quenting the borders of the sea, and the banks and aestu- 
aries of neighbouring rivers, feeding on small fry, shell- 
fish, Crustacea, worms, and insects, which they collect at 
the ebbing of the tide. They are said to be in the habit 
of perching on trees in companies ; but they lay their eggs, 
which are greenish, on the ground, amidst the tall grass 
of the marshes, on a slight nest of leaves. When just 
hatched, the young are black, soon changing to grey, but 
are nearly white before they are able to ny ; by degrees 
they attain their red plumage, which is not complete until 
the third year. The young and old associate in distinct 
bands, in the countries where they abound, they are 
sometimes domesticated, and accompany the poultry. 
The Ibis shows great courage in attacking the fowls, and 
will even defend itself from the insidious attacks of the 
cat. It is generally esteemed as good food ; and its rich 
and gaudy plumage is used by the Brazilians for Various 
ornaments.' (Manual of the Ornithology of the United 
States and of Canada.) 
TANTALITE. [Columbiuii.] 
TANTALUM. rCoLUMBiuM.] 
TA1MTALUS. (Ornithology.) [Tantalidji.] 
TANYSI'PTERA. [Kingfishers, vol. xiii., p. 232.] 
TAORMI'NA. [Mbssina; Tauromrnium.] 
TAOS. [Mexican States.] 
TAP ROOT. [Root.] 
TAPAJOS. {Brazil.] 
TAPE WORM. [Entozoa.] 

TAPESTRY (French, Taoisserie; Italian, Tappezzeria). 
This name is most commonly applied to the textile fabrics, 
usually composed of wool or silk, and sometimes enriched 
with gold and silver, woven or embroidered with figures, 
landscapes, or ornamental devices, and used as a lining or 
covering for the walls of apartments. It is derived from 
the French 'tapis,' which is from the Latin •tapetum,' 
•tapes,' Mapete.' The Latin word is the same as the 
Greek * tapes' or * tapis' (ravin, rajric). The Latin and 
Greek words signified a carpet or covering for a bed or 
couch. The French • tapis,' though generally applied to 
carpets, is Abo used to express other figured cloths used 



as coverings, such as the coverings of tables; whence, 
most probably, we have the common expression * on the 
tapis,' as applied to subjects under discussion or consi- 
deration. Of the use of the word tapestiy in this mors 
extended sense, there is an instance in Shakspere s * Co- 
medy of Errors,' act iv., sc. 1, where Antipholu* of Ephe* 
sus sends to Adriana, informing her that 

' in tbe Cmk 
Thai's covered o'er with Terkiah tafectry, 
There to a pone of doeatt,' fte, 

Johnson, who cites this passage, gives also one from 
Dryden, in which tapestry is used in the sense of carpet: 



•The 



are with golden Uenie epfad. 
' entapeetry 



And hor«es* boob, for earth, on «lke 

In this more general sense the term is used by M. 
Achille Jubinal, in his recently published work, entitled 
* Recherches sur l'Usage et I'Ongine des Tapisserie*/ m 
which he extends his inquiry to worked or figured clotl* 
(tapisseries a ymaiges) used for many other purposes thsa 
the covering of wails. To this work we are indebted for 
much of the following information respecting the history 
of tapestry. 

The early history of the art of producing figured fabrics 
by the loom may be more conveniently treated of under 
Weaving than in this place ; and it may be sufficient here 
to observe, that although the loom was employed from the 
earliest times by the Greeks and Romans for the produc- 
tion of ordinary tissues, its application to the weaving of 
ornamented or figured fabric swas chiefly Oriental, u a 
probable also that many of the early tapestries were em- 
broidered by hand or worked with the needle. This 
kind of work, of which the Bayeux tapestry is a cele- 
brated example, was continued long after the practice of 
weaving tapestry in the loom had become common. Tbe 
ornamented curtains of the Jewish tabernacle, described 
in the twenty-sixth, thirty-fifth, and thirty-sixth chapter* 
of Exodus, are generally considered to have been embroi- 
dered by the needle. Jubinal supposes that they were 
worked with a needle in thread of silk, gold, or wool, in 
such a manner as to imitate the brilliancy of the plumage 
of birds ; but he conceives that the vail of the Horj of 
Holies, which is described in the English translation of the 
Bible as of * cunning work' (Exodus, xxvi. 31 ; and xxxri. 
35), and which was ornamented with cherubim, was pro- 
duced by the skill of the weaver, * that is to say, executed 
by the shuttle with woofs of various colours, and in woven 
stuff.' 

The Jews are supposed to have derived their skill in 
embroidery and other ornamental work of similar cha- 
racter from the Egyptians, who produced figured cloths 
both by the needle and the loom, and practised the art of 
introducing gold thread or wire into such work. Wilkin- 
son observes (Manners and Customs of the Antient Egyp- 
tians, vol. Hi., p. 128), ' Many of the Egyptian stuffs pre- 
sented various patterns worked in colours by tbe loom, 
independent of those produced by tbe dyeing or printing 
process, and so richly composed that they vied with cloth* 
embroidered by the needle.' Jubinal quotes several aa~ 
tient authors who refer to figured tissues as made and 
used by the Egyptians and other nations of antiquity. 
Tapestry was used by the Babylonians to represent the 
mysteries of religion, and to perpetuate historical fact*. 
Philostratus, in his Life of Apollonius of Trana, mentions 
Babylonian tapestry ornamented with silver and gold. 
The Greeks practised the art of embroidering figures upon 
cloth, and attributed its invention to Minerva. Homer 
alludes, in several passages of the * Iliad' and * Odyssey." 
to embroidered stuns of the character designated fcy Ju- 
binal ' tapisseries a ymaiges,' among which he comprises 
even some articles of dress. Without attempting to pursue 
the investigation of this subject minutely, a general idem 
of the character of these ornamental tissues may be giTen 
by a reference to the article 4 Peplum ' in the * Dictionary 
of Greek and Roman Antiquities/ edited by Dr. Smith ; tbe 
author of the article ' Peplum' observes, that of all the pro- 
ductions of the loom, shawls were those upon which the 
greatest skill and labour were employed ; and that the sub* 
jects represented upon them were so various and U*teft*V» 
that poets delighted to describe them. He adds that * Euri- 
pides describes one which represented the sun. moon, suad 
stars ; and which, with various others containing hunting* 



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pieces and a {Treat variety of subjects, belonged to the 
temple of -Apollo at Delphi, and was used to form a mag- 
nificent tent for the purpose of an entertainment (/oh, 
1141-1162) ; for it is to be observed that stores of shawls 
were not only kept by wealthy individuals (Homer, Odyssey, 
it., 104-108), but often constituted a very important part 
of the treasures of a temple (Euripides, Ion, 329, 300), 
having been presented to the 'divinity on numerous occa- 
lions by suppliants and devotees. (Homer, Iliad, vi., 
271^30* ; Virgil, Mneid, i., 480, Ciris, 21-35.)' 

Several substances appear to have been used by the 
antients as materials for the ornamental fabrics alluded 
to. Jubinal states that flax, wool, and byssus [Byssus, 
vol. vi., p. 81] entered into their composition; and 
that the richest colours, embroidery, precious stones, and 
rold, were used in them. It is not very clear in what 
form and manner gold was applied in many cases. In 
the third verse of the thirty-ninth chapter of Exodus, 
Moses speaks of beating gold into thin plates, and then 
cutting it into wires, to work it into the ephod with cun- 
ning work ; and Wilkinson states that probably the gold 
thread used in Egyptian embroidery was formed in like 
manner, and rounded by the hammer. Beckmann (His- 
tory of Inventions, vol. ii., p. 212, &c.) enters minutely 
into this question, and states that he had not met with a 
single passage in antient authors where mention is made 
of nie<al being wire-drawn ; yet Jubinal thinks that gold 
wis perhaps sometimes used in antient tapestry in the 
form of fine drawn wires, flattened and wound round 
threads in a manner resembling modern gold thread. He 
further supposes that gold was sometimes introduced sub- 
sequently to the weaving of the tissue, by loosening its 
texture, and inserting the gold between the threads. 

Scanty as are the notices of tapestry in antient writers, 
our information respecting it during the middle ages is 
not much fuller. Jubinal observes that we find females 
engaged in working tapestry with the needle from the 
earliest epochs of the French monarchy. Gregory of 
Tours, writing towards the close of the sixth century, in 
his description of the rejoicings which followed the pro- 
fession of Christianity by Clovis and his people, speaks of 
the streets being shaded with painted cloths or curtains 
(pelts depictis), and the churches being adorned with 
hangings; and again, in describing the consecration of 
the church of St. Denis, he mentions tapestries embroi- 
dered with gold and garnished with pearls. The fabrica- 
tion of tapestry-hangings by the loom appears to have 
been introduced into France, at the earliest, about the 
ninth century, until which time the needle had been used 
exclusively in their production ; and, long after that 
period, the two processes were practised concurrently. 
At this time we often find embroidered cloths enumerated 
among the decorations of churches. Jubinal quotes Fa- 
ther Labbe for the statement that many tapestries were 
made for the church of Auxerre prior to the year 840 ; 
*nd he relates that, about 985, there existed in the abbey 
cf St. Florent, at Saumur, a great manufactory of stuffs, 
especially tapestries, which were woven by the inmates. 
From contemporary notices, it is evident that there was a 
celebrated manufacture of tapestry at Poitiers as early as 
1025. Nor was the manufacture of tapestry confined to 
France at this period. The inhabitants ot the north of 
Europe also practised it, and English embroidery was 
much admired and highly prized on the Continent. In 
the East also, where the art had been cultivated from the 
earliest antiquity, fine embroidery was nroduced in the 
eleventh century. Much of the early 6riental tapestry 
*at adorned with grotesque figures; and, long after it 
became usual to depict natural figures and scenery upon 
tapestry, such devices wece often used in ornamental 
borders. 

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the use of tapes- 
try extended greatly. It passed from churches and monas- 
tics, in which it had been used for curtains, palls, altar- 
cloths, vestments, &c, to the residences of the nobility. 
Respecting this change, Jubinal observes:—* If, in the 
lolitude of the cloister, the monks had, as we have seen, 
practised the weaving of wool and silk for the sake of oc- 
cupation, ladies and their followers, shut up in their castles 
dunni? the long evenings of winter, the tedium of which 
was interrupted only by the perusal of works of piety or 
ehivalry, embroidered with their needles the glonous 
actions of our forefathers. The high walls of these cold 



rooms, built of stone, spoke far more effectually to the 
hearts and imaginations of those who lived under their 
protecting shelter, when they were covered with interesting 
histories, with important instruction, or with glorious re- 
membrances of the past, than when nothing appeared to 
veil their nakedness/ The use of tapestry in this way was 
one of the luxuries introduced from the East in conse- 
quence of the increased intercourse occasioned by the 
crusades. The crusaders brought accounts of the Oriental 
practice of covering walls with prepared and ornamented 
skins, chiefly those of goats and sheep. These, which 
were probably at first used of their natural size and shape, 
were, at a later period, cut into rectangular pieces, about 
two feet high, and rather less in width, and united by 
sewing into very solid and handsome hangings, which 
were well adapted to resist damp. Such hangings, or 
leather tapestry, were manufactured much at Venice and 
Cordova, and were sometimes either gUt all over, or orna- 
mented with gilt devices, in which case they bore the 
name of (Tor pasanS. The Oriental origin of the more 
ordinary kind of tapestry is indicated by the name Sara- 
zins or Sarazinois, which was frequently applied in France 
to the early manufacturers. 

Numerous allusions to the use of tapestry in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries, collected from contempo- 
rary documents, are given by Jubinal. It. was then not 
only used to cover the nakedness of interior walls, but 
was also employed, on great occasions, as for instance 
on the public entries of princes, to decorate streets, and 
to impart a joyful appearance to towns and public places. 
It formed part of the decorations of festal nails, and was 
employed to ornament the galleries and other erections 
required at tournaments. Rich embroidery was also much 
employed in the decorations of the horses and men who 
formed the actors in those chivalric amusements ; and the 
brilliant, though often grotesque devices of heraldry, which 
formed so important a part of the display upon such occa- 
sions, afforded extensive employment to the workers of 
tapestry and other ornamented tissues. 

The art of making tapestry, for which the Flemings had 
been celebrated from tne twelfth century, made consider- 
able progress in Flanders in the fourteenth century, and 
attained its highest perfection there in the fifteenth. 
Guicciardini has ascribed the invention of tapestry to 
Flanders ; but, if received at all, this statement must be 
supposed to refer merely to such as is produced by the 
loom. It is certain however that Europe is much indebted 
to the Flemings for the revival and improvement of tapes- 
try, and for the production of many of the finest speci- 
mens yet existing. The countess of Wilton, whose inte- 
resting volume on • The Art of Neddlework ' contains 
much information upon the subject of tapestry, is probably 
correct in assuming that the weaving of tapestry-hangings 
was not practised until they had become, from custom, a 
thing of necessity. ' Unintermitting and arduous,' she 
observes, • had been the stitchery practised in the creation 
of these coveted luxuries, long, very long, before the loom 
was taught to give relief to the busy finger.* Tapestry 
manufactories were early established at Brussels, Antwerp, 
Oudenarde, Lisle, Toumay, Bruges, and Valenciennes; 
but that of Arras* was more celebrated than any other, 
and its productions were so highly prized, that the name 
arras became a common expression for the finest tapestry 
generally, whether made in that place or elsewhere. The 
hangings of Arras, as well as those of other manufactories 
in France, were, says Jubinal, for the most part executed 
in wool. Hemp and cotton were also used in them, but 
no silk or gold thread. ITie fabrication of tapestries 
formed of these substances was carried on chiefly at Flo 
rence and at Venice. The recollection of this difference 
is important in discovering where old tapestries were made, 
and Jubinal refers to instances of the difference in some 
of those engraved in his great work on this description of 
monuments. Writing of the period under consideration, 
he observes that the devices (ymaiges) of the tapestry 
were very various. We have seen that they sometimes 
represented scenes from antient history, from the fabulous 
stories of heroes, and from modern historical events; 
but the imagination of the tapestry-designers did not stop 

* Tapestry of Arras, repfeeenting the battle* of Alexander the Great, formed 
pert of the present tent by the king of France, in 12*96, to the sultan BajaseX 
to induce him to ransom some captives taken at the battle of Nicopolis. (Mm- 
pherson. Annals of Comment, vol. L» p. 6U8.) 

G2 



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there. The hanging* of the fourteenth century often re- 
presented hunts, fantastical animals, or the occupations 
peculiar to the different seasons of the year ; and romantic 
and chivalric poems afforded a rich store of subjects for 
illustration. Jubinal quotes inventories of tapestries, 
receipts, &c., of the fourteenth century, in which tapestries 
of the above and of several other varieties are mentioned. 
The account given of those belonging to Charles V. of 
France is particularly curious. It is taken from an in- 
ventory preserved in the Bibliotbique du Roi, which, 
besides tapestries ornamented with figures, mentions he- 
raldic tapestries (tapisscries darmoirie), and tappiz velus, 
or hairy or shaggy tapestry. The fifteenth century affords 
many similar documents, though Jubinal does not give 
them so fully. He gives however very long extracts from 
a MS. in the Bibliotheque du Rot respecting some old 
tapestries, from which it is evident that the names tapis 
Sarrazinois and tapis de Turquie* were often applied to 
hangings fabricated in the West, they being probably 
made in imitation of Oriental work, fe this epoch tapes- 
try was often alluded to by poets, and to it is attributed 
the fabrication of most of the tapestries ty which the term 
• tapisseries historiees ' has been applied. 
The sixteenth century, which was an age of general im- 

Srovement in France, gave a new impulse to the produc- 
on of tapestry. Francis I. founded the manufactures 
of Fontainebleau, in which threads of gold and silver were 
skilfully introduced into the work. It was, we are in- 
formed, with this new impulse that the practice was 
commeneed of weaving tapestry in a single piece, instead 
of composing it, as before, of several smaller pieces 
joined together. This prince brought Priraaticcio from 
Italy [Primaticcjo, Francesco, vol. xix., p. 1], and, 
among other works of art, commissioned him to make 
designs for several tapestries, which were woven at Fon- 
tainebleau. Francis spared no pains in the encourage- 
ment of this department of the fine arts. He engaged 
Flemish workmen, whom he supplied with silk, wool, 
and other materials, and paid liberally for their labour ; 
and documents exist to prove that ne also patronized 
the tapestry-makers of Paris. Henry II., the son and 
successor of Francis, continued to encourage the manu- 
factory at Fontainebleau, and established a manufacture 
of tapestry on the premises of the HGpital de la Trinite", 
which attained its highest celebrity in the reign of Henry 
IV., and produced many fine tapestries. In 1504 Du 
Bourg, the most eminent artist connected with this esta- 
blishment, made there the celebrated tapestries of St. 
Meri, which were in existence until a recent period ; and 
these pleased Henry IV. so much, that he determined to 
re-establish the manufacture of tapestry at Paris, where 
it had been interrupted by the disorders of the preceding 
reigns. This he did in 1597, bringing Italian workers in 
gold and silk to assist in the work. 

The narrative of M. Jubinal, from which most of the 
preceding facts are taken, does not extend later than the 
close of the sixteenth century ; but, to continue the history 
of the tapestry manufacture in France without interrup- 
tion, we may turn to the volume recently published by 
the Countess of Wilton. A few years after the events last 
mentioned, as appears from his * Memoirs,' the Due de 
8ully, Henry s minister, was actively engaged in promoting 
this branch of industry. In 160a were laid the founda- 
tions of new edifices for the tapestry-weavers, in the horse- 
market at Paris; and at that time, or a little later, 
Flemish workmen were engaged to superintend the manu- 
facture. The establishment languished, if it did not 
become quite extinct, after the death of Henry IV. ; but 
when the royal palaces, especially the Louvre and the 
Tuileries, were receiving their rich decorations, in the 
reign of Louis XIV., his minister Colbert revived it. and 
from that time the celebrated royal tapestry-manufactory 
of the Gobelins dates its origin. This was established in 
premises which had been erected by celebrated dyers 

• Indescrihfag. in » «uhs*nitient page, a iera*rki%l>le Persian tapestry of the 
sitteen h eenturv, em' eUshra with cmM« a ma le*! devices whlrh U now In the 
■ n f w on of the Manpil e «te l*i*o\, nt Mt, Jnhinal o»i«ervei th«t the finest 
fVrsuui Upe*trle* -re the pr»<iiu-r of Khora«nn, e*i«*riullr of the tn*n of 
XmtA. Thev, ».e niVU, nt'' wh .1 Wr r.»mmouljr r-ill Turkish taprstries not 
bemose >hev come imra iheOtt mun empire, hxx* 'ecauie, before t'e discovery 
of the p*«~»-' v * row ♦* th»* i'tye «>r <»oo • • <■»!*. Turkey forme*! the otih way nf 
Communication with P r*ii» I he establishment o the ro\*l t.ipetln nmnuV.tc- 
tori*** iu France put nn end to t e imi*>rt*ti->n or fcreixn tapestry : but ihf art 
of working U U stated to be continued successfully in the Eu.t, even to onr osm 
4*T. 



named Gobelin [Gobelin, vol. xL, p. 295J» but whrti 
were purchased by Louis XIV. in or about tne year 1866, 
and adapted to the tapestry-manufacture, under the name 
of Hotel Royal des Gobelins. Foreign artists and work- 
men were engaged, laws were drawn up for the protection 
and government of the manufactory, and everything was 
done to render it, what it has ever since remained, the 
finest establishment of the kind in the world. 'The quan- 
tity of the finest and noblest works that have been pro- 
duced by it/ observes the work above referred to, * and 
the number of the best workmen bred up therein, are 
incredible ; and the present flourishing condition of the 
arts and manufactures of France is, in great measure, 
owing thereto.' The production of tapestry at the Gobe- 
lins is said to have attained the highest perfection in the 
time of the minister Colbert and his successor M. de 
Louvois. Le Brun, when chief director of the establish- 
ment, made many designs for working after; and M. de 
Louvois caused tapestry to be made from some of the 
finest designs of Raphael, Julio Romano, and other 
Italian painters. A further account of this celebrated 
manufacture is given in the elegant volume which has 
just appeared under the title of ' The Hand-book of 
Needlework,' the authoress of which writes under her 
maiden name. Miss Lambert. She states that the raatra 
facture declined greatly at the Revolution, but was revved 
under the government of Napoleon, and has ever since 
been carried on successfully, tnough by no means to the 
same extent as formerly. About 1802 ninety persons 
were employed in it, chiefly in preparing tapestry for the 
palace of St. Cloud. ' The pieces executed/acrortfing to 
the work last named, ' are generally historical subjects, 
and it occasionally requires the labour of from two to six 
years to finish a single piece of tapestry.* 'The produc- 
tions of this manufactory/ says the same authority, • which 
is entirely supported by the government, are chiefly des- 
tined for the royal palaces, or for presents made by the 
king; but some few pieces, not designed as such, are 
allowed to be sold.' Wool is the only material now used, 
it being found to retain its colours better than any other; 
and in connection with the weaving establishment is one 
for dyeing wools, under the direction of able chemists, in 
which many colours are dyed for this purpose exclusively. 
From a passage in Evelyn* * Diary* (Oct. 4, 1683), in which 
he speaks with admiration of some new French tapestry 
he nad seen in the apartments of the duchess of Ports- 
mouth, it appears that the productions of this manufactory 
were known in England at that time. 

The preceding historical notices respecting tapestry 
refer almost exclusively to France, but we must retrace our 
steps to take a brief review of the use and manufacture of 
this kind of fabric in England. Respecting the Anglo- 
Saxon period, it is observed in the •Pictorial History of 
England ' (vol i., p. 323) :— * The dwellings of the higher 
classes appear to have been completely and sometimes 
splendidly furnished : their walls were hung with aft 
richly embroidered with gold or colours. The needle-work 
for which the English ladies were so famous was herein 
displayed to great advantage. Ingulphus mentions some 
hangings ornamented with golden birds in needle- work, 
and a veil or curtain on which was represented in embroi- 
dery the destruction of Troy. In the Anglo-Saxon poem 
of Beowulf we read that, in 4 the great wine-chamber * — 

* Tliere shone rsriejrassd with gold 
TJie web oo the wall*. 
Msuy wonders to tlie sight 
Of each of the warriors 
That would gmn on it became *fcj|bU.* 

c The Saxon term for a curtain or hanenng was tcannfl ; 
and, in the will of Wynfloeda, we find "the bequest of a 
long hmll wahrift and a short one. The same lady also 
bequeaths three coverings for benches or settles iserV- 
hr<cgh: The Bayeux Tapestry (vol. iv., p. 68) is per- 
haps the most antient piece of needlework in existence. 
It was probably owing to the expense of such hangings, 
when of large size, and the very long time requiird for 
their production, that the less comfortable device of 
painting the walls of chambers was extensively adopted 
in the early Norman period. Of this time the work before 
quoted observes (vol. i., p. 635) :— 'The hangings of 
needle-work and embroidery which adorned the walb of 
the Anirlo-Saxon palaces, seem to have been partially su- 
perseded in the course of this period by the fashion of 



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painting on the walls themselves, or the wainscot of the 
chamber, fhe same historical or fabulous subjects which 
had hitherto been displayed in threads of colours and 
i>o]d7 Many instances might be enumerated of this kind 
of decoration, but it is sufficient to refer to the directions 
siven by Henry III. early in his reign, for the painting of 
his wainscoted chamber in Winchester castle with the 
same pictures with which it had been previously adorned ; 
a circumstance presumed by Walpole to indicate the very 
early existence of historical painting in England. The 
practice alluded to appears to have extended considerably 
during the reigns of Henry III. and his immediate succes- 
sor*; and, according to the same authority (vol. i., p. 
864), the paintings were, in several instances, directed to 
be made in imitation of needle-work tapestries. Lady Wil- 
ton states that tapestry of needle-work, like the Bayeux 
tapestry of Matilda, which 'had been used solely for the 
decoration of altars, or the embellishment of other portions 
of sacred edifices, on occasions of festival or the per- 
formance of solemn rites, had been of much more general 
application amongst the luxurious inhabitants of the 
South, and was introduced into England as furniture hang- 
ing by Eleanor of Castile.' That tapestry was not origi- 
nally introduced by that queen will be seen by the facts 
stated above ; and we know not whether there is any 
further authority for the statement than the mention, by 
Matthew Paris, of her having used tapestry for covering 
floors, the word being apparently used in the sense of carpet. 
(Pic*. Hist, of England, vol. 1., p. 8G5, note.) Chaucer 
mentions a * tapiser,' in company with a ' webbe' and a 
•dyeV among his Canterbury pilgrims; from which cir- 
cumstance it may be presumed that the business was not 
a very uncommon one towards the close of the fourteenth 
century. In the fifteenth century the use of tapestry 
greatly extended iu England ; but then, and for long after, 
the principal supply appears to have been from the Con- 
tinent. In the sixteenth century a kind of hanging was 
introduced which holds a place intermediate between 
painted walls and woven or embroidered tapestry. Shak- 
spere alludes to tbe?e hangings under the name of 
4 painted cloths.** 

The appearance of the rich tapestry common m the 
Efoabethan period is admirably described by Spenser, in 
his * Faerie Queene,* book iii., canto ix., in the account of. 
the tapestry seen by Britomart in the apartments of the 
house of Busirane, in the following lines :— 

• For round about the walls yclothed were 
With goodly avrraa of peat majesty, 
Woven with gold and silke so close and nere, 
Tbaf th» rieh tnetall lurked privily, 
At fritting to be hid from envious eye ; 
Yet here, and there, and everywhere, unwares 
It t}*wd iteelfe. at d shone unwillingly ; 
Like a awcolourd snake, whose hidden snares 
Through the grewne) gras his long brightbcrulsht back declare*. 

The poet described what he was in the habit of seeing, 
and sufficient remains yet exist to attest the accuracy of 
hk description ; although in most cases the brilliancy of 
the metallic threads and the beauty of the colours are 
greatly impaired, and in some instances the gold and silver 
threads have been artfully withdrawn, their intrinsic value 
proving too strong a temptation for cupidity, to resist. 

The Introduction of tapestry-weaving into England is 
usually attributed to a gentleman named Sheldon, late in 
the reign of Henry VIII. Lady Wilton mentions indeed 
an intimation by Walpole of its origin as early as the 
time of Edward III. ; but if any attempt was made to in- 
troduce the art at that time, it does not appear to have 
produced any important result. According to her * Art 
of Needlework,' Sheldon allowed an artist, named Robert 
Hicks, to use hia manor-house at Burcheston, in Warwick- 
shire, for the practice of the art ; and mentioned him in 
his will, which was dated 1570, as ' the only auter and 
beginner of tapistry and arras within this realme.' At 
Burcheston were worked in tapestry, on a large scale, 
maps of Oxfordshire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, and 
Gloucestershire, some fragments of which were, it is 
•tated, in Wal pole's collection at Strawberry Hill. Little 
more is known of this establishment. James I. endea- 
voured to revive the manufacture of tapestry by encourag- 
ing and assisting in the, formation of an establishment at 

• In Malone'a edition (1821) many references to this kind of substitute for 
•own or embroidered Upestry. bv var'ous authors, are given. See note* on 

As j*m like H: act iii . a. 9 (vol. vi., pp. 434-6). and • Henry I V./ Part 2, 
sst »., s. t (*»t **it.. p. M). From the latter passage it would appear that 
fca fcnglnpfcUadcd to were sometimes painted in water-colours. 



Mortlake, about 1619, under the management of Sir 
Francis Crane. James I. gave 2000/. towards the forma- 
tion of this establishment, which appears to have been 
originally supplied with designs from abroad, but subse- 
quently by an artist named Francis Cleyne, or Klein, a 
native of Rostock, in the duchy of Mecklenburg, who was 
engaged for the purpose. This undertaking was a favorite 
hobby both with James and his successor, who regarded 
Cleyne so favourably that he bestowed upon him, in 1625, 
an annuity of 100/. (Rymer's Fcedera* vol. xviii., p. 112), 
which he enjoyed until the civil war. In the same year 
Charles I. granted 2000/. a year for ten years to Sir Francis 
Crane, in lieu of an annual payment of 1000/. which he 
had previously covenanted to pay for that term, as the 
grant recites, 'towards the furtherance, upholding, and 
maintenance of the worke of tapestries, latelie brought 
into this our kingdome by the said Sir Francis Crane, and 
now by him and his workmen practised and put in use at 
Mortlake, in our countie of Surrey ;' and of a further sum 
of 6000/. due to the establishment for three suits of gold 
tapestries, (ifadera* vol. xviii., p. 60.) After the death 
of Sh* Francis Crane, his brother, Sir Richard, sold the 
premises to the king, and during the civil war they were 
seized as royal property. After the Restoration, Charles II. 
endeavoured to revive the manufacture, and employed 
Verrio to make designs for it, but the attempt was unsuc- 
cessful. Lady Wilton however conceives that, although 
languishing, the work was not altogether extinct, • for,' 
Bhe observes, • in Mr. Evelyn's very scarce tract entitled 
" Mundus Muliebris," printed in 1690, some of this manu- 
facture is amongst the articles to be furnished by a gallant 
to his mistress.' During its period of prosperity, this 
manufacture produced the most superb hangings, after 
the designs of celebrated painters, with which the palaces 
of Windsor Castle, Hampton Court, Whitehall, St. James's, 
Nonsuch, Greenwich, &c., and many of the mansions of 
the nobility, were adorned. Five, at least, of the cartoons 
of Raphael, which appear to have been bought by 
Charles I. for that purpose, were worked in tapestry at 
Mortlake. These celebrated works were designed for the 
purpose of being copied in tapestry, and were originally 
worked in Flanders. [Cartoon, vol. vi., p. 330. J An 
act of parliament was passed in 1663 to encourage the 
linen and tapestry manufactures of England, and to re- 
strain the great importation of foreign linen and tapestry. 

The use of the word * hangings,' as applied to tapestry 
as well as to other kinds of lining for rooms, perhaps suf. 
ficiently indicates the manner in which such decorations 
were formerly put up. 'The tapestries,' observes the 
Countess of Wilton, ' whether wrought or woven, did not 
remain on the walls as do the hangings of modern days : 
it was the primitive office of grooms of the chamber to 
hang up the tapestry, which, in a royal progress, was sent 
forward with the purveyor and grooms of the chamber.* 
She relates a curious anecdote in illustration of this prac- 
tice. Henry IV. of France, wishing to do honour to the 
pope's legate, the cardinal of Florence, when visiting St. 
Germain-en-Laye, sent orders to hang up the finest tapes- 
try; but, bv an awkward blunder, the suit selected for 
the cardinal's chamber was embellished with satirical em- 
blems of the pope and the Roman court. The mistake 
was discovered by the Due de Sully, on whose authority 
the anecdote is given, and another suit was substituted for 
that with the offensive devices. In a subsequent chapter, 
on ' The days of good Queen Bess,' after showing the uni- 
versality of tapestry and similar decorations in the houses 
of the nobility and gentry of England, it is stated that 
tapestry was at that time suspended upon frames, which 
were probably, in many cases, at a considerable distance 
from the walls, as we frequently read of persons conceal- 
ing themselves, like Falstaff {Merry Wives of Windsor* 
act iii., scene 3), ' behind the arras.' 

The interest attached to antient tapestries as historical 
monuments, as well as in the character of works of art, is 
of no mean order. The most important work on this de- 
partment of archfieolo^y is that of l\f- Jubinal, the author 
of the historical treatise emoted in the former part of this 
article, entitled ' Les Ancierines Tapisseries Historiees,' in 
which are given minute descriptions, illustrated by many 
large folio plates, of the most remarkable tapestries made 
from the eleventh to the sixteenth century, and preserved 
to the present time. Such monuments, as he observes in his 
I preface, sometimes represent to us, with a charming and 



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faithful naivete, grave historical events, and sometimes 
scenes of gaiety. * There they show us a siege or a tourna- 
ment ; here, a least ; a little farther, a chace ; and always, 
whether chace, banquet, tournament, or siege, all is, as 
Montaigne would have said, pourtrayed to the life ; they 
all retrace to us most literally the mode of life of our 
fathers, showing us their residences, their churches, their 
dresses, their arms, and even (thanks to their explanatory 
legends) their language at different epochs. Further than 
this, if we refer to the inventory of Charles V., made in 
1379, we find that all the French literature of the fruitful 
ages preceding the era of that wise monarch had been bv 
his orders. translated into wool.' At a later period, al- 
though the beauty of tapestry was increased by improve- 
ments in the arts of weaving and dyeing, and by the adop- 
tion of superior designs, much of its peculiarly interesting 
character was lost. Jubinal, in the smaller work frequently 
quoted in the earlier part of this article, regrets tne dis- 
appearance of the Gothic labels, which contained quaint 
descriptions of the subjects represented ; of the peculiar 
architecture of the middle ages (architecture d ogives), 
and of the furniture and dresses of our forefathers ; and 
he conceives that their place is but ill supplied by the 
imitation, * clever in the great masters, but detestable in 
their disciples,' of Greek and Roman forms, of which he 
refers to * celebrated and grievous examples in the com- 

Sositions of Rubens reproduced by the manufactory of 
le Gobelins ; in the tapestries of Beauvais, and in those 
of Aubusson.' 

In the primitive method of working tapestry with the 
needle, the wool was usually applied to a kind of canvas, 
and the effect produced was coarse and very defective ; 
but some finer kinds of tapestry were embroidered upon a 
silken fabric. The process of weaving by the loom, after 
the manner known as the haute lisse, or high warp, was 

Practised in the tapestries of Flanders (and, according to 
ubinal, in those of England also), as early as the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries; the only essential dif- 
ference between these and the productions of modern 
times being that previously noticed, the comparative size 
of the pieces woven in the loom. The weaving of tapestry, 
both by the • haute lisse' and the * basse lisse,' appears to 
be of Oriental invention ; and the difference between the 
two methods may be briefly described. In the * haute 
lisse' the loom, or rather, the frame with the warp-threads, 
is placed in a perpendicular position, and the weaver 
works standing ; while in the * basse lisse' the frame with 
the warp is laid horizontally, and the weaver works in a 
sitting position. In weaving with the * basse lisse,' which, 
Miss Lambert observes, is now relinquished, the painting 
to be copied is laid beneath the threads of the warp, which 
are stretched in a manner resembling that of common 
weaving, the pattern being supported by a number of 
transverse threads stretched beneath it. The weaver, 
sitting before the loom, and leaning over the beam, care- 
fully separates the threads of the warp with his fingers, so 
that he may see his pattern between them. He then 
takes in his other hand a kind of shuttle, called a flute, 
charged with silk or wool of the colour required, and 
passes it between the threads, after separating them in 
the usual way by means of treddles worked by the feet. 
[Weaving.] The thread of woof or shoot thusinserted is 
finally driven close up to the finished portion of the work 
by means of a reed or comb formed of box-wood or ivory, 
the teeth of which are inserted between the threads of the 
warp. In this process the face of the tapestry is down- 
wards, so that the weaver cannot examine his work until 
the piece is completed and removed from the loom. The 
frame of the 'haute lisse' loom consists of two upright 
side-pieces, with large rollers placed horizontally between 
them. The threads of the warp, which usually consist of 
twisted wool, are wound round the upper roller,, and the 
finished web is coiled round the lower one. The cartoon, 
or design to be copied, is placed perpendicularly behind 
the back or wrong side of the warp, and then the principal 
outlines of the pattern are drawn upon the front of the 
war]), the thread;* of which are sufficiently open to allow 
the artist to see the design between them. The cartoon is 
then removed so far back from the warp that the weaver 
may place himself between them with hi« back towards 
the former, so that he must turf, round whenever he 
wishes to look at it. Attached tc the upright side-pieces 
of the frame are contrivances for separating the threads of 



the warp, so as to allow the JlQte, or broach, which < 
the woof, to pass between them. Like the weaver with 
the • basse lisse,' the operator works, as rt were. Un- 
fold; but by walking round to the front of the loom he 
may see the progress of his work, and may adjust trv 
threads, which have not been forced into their right por- 
tion by the reed or comb, with a large needle, called sr 
aiguille d presser. The process of working with the 
* haute lisse is much slower than the other, and i* indeed, 
says Jubinal, almost as slow as that of working with the 
needle. Lady Wilton, in describing the production* of th* 
Hotel Royal des Gobelins, observes that 'Not the lt*»i 
interesting part of the process was that performed by the 
rentrayeurs, or fine-drawers, who so unite the breadth* of 
the tapestry into one picture, that no seam is discernible, 
but the whole appears like one design.' Now, however. 
the pieces are woven so wide that joining is very seldom 
resorted to, even for the largest pieces. 

(Jubinal, Recherche* surr Usage et I Origin* d*s 7<i- 
pisseries d Personnages, dites Hutorice* ; The Art of 
Needlework* edited by the Right Honourable the Count » 
of Wilton ; The Handbook of Needlework, by Mim Lam- 
bert ; &c.) 

TAPHOZOTJS. [Chkipoptxra, vol. vii., p. 24.] 

TAPIO'CA, a farinaceous substance, prepared in South 
America from two species of Janipha, or the bitter sod 
sweet Cassada or Manioc plants, which two were l&rur 
regarded as one species, and comprehended under the 
name of Jatropha Manihot, till Pohl distinguished them, 
calling the bitter Manihot utilissima, and the *w«t 
Manihot Aipi (Pohl, PI. Brasil., ic. i. 32 t 24 . The 
chief distinction between them is that a ' tough ligneou* 
fibre or cord runs through the heart of the **ect 
Cassava root, of which the latter is destitute/ Though 
the bitter contains a highly acrid and poisonous juice, 
from which the sweet is exempt, yet the bitter i* cul- 
tivated almost to the entire exclusion of the other, 
which is probably owing to the greater facility with uhich 
it can be ground or rasped into flour, owing to the ab- 
sence of the ligneous centre. The poisonous principle of 
the bitter manioc is thought to be of the nature of hydro- 
cyanic acid. (Guibourt, Hist, des Drogues, torn. ii., p- 455, 
3ierae ed.) It is easily dissipated or decomposed by beat 
or fermentation; hence the flour becomes perfectly whole- 
some in the process of baking the cassava bread. [Cassava, 
vol. vi., p. 344.] The juice, alter expression, may be in- 
spissated by long boiling, or formed into a soup, with fir*h 
and rpices, called cassarepo. By means of molnm-cj it 
can be fermented and converted into intoxicating drink. 

The fecula, or flour, after the juice has been carefully 
expressed, having been washed, and dried in the air with- 
out heat, is termed mouchaco in Brazil, moussacht in the 
Antilles, and cypipa in Cayenne. This constituted the 
Brazilian arrow-root of English commerce. When this 
fecula is prepared b varying on hot plates, it become* 
granular, and is called tapioca. It occurs in irregular 
lumps or grains, and is partially soluble in cold water. 
The granules, diffused through water, and examined by 
the microscope, are of great uniformity of size, and *m*ii*r 
than those or arrow-root from the Marantas. Tapioca u 
very nutritious and easy of digestion, being free from aJ 
stimulating qualities. It is therefore very nece*&ary to 
distinguish it from an artificial tapioca made with gun 
and potato starch, which is in larger granule*, whiter, 
more easily broken, and more soluble in cold water *k*» 
the genuine. 

TAPIR, Tapirus, the name of a genus of pachyder- 
matous quadrupeds. 

Linnaus does not notice the Tapir in the I2lh vrms 
last) edition of the Systema Nature : but Gruel m uuatea 
it as the Hippopotamus (terrestris) pedibus poVacu tn- 
sulcis. (St/st. Aut. x. i., p. 74. n. 2.) 

Gmelin introduces it under the title Tapir, between 
Hippopotamus and Sirs. 

Cuvier arranges the genus as the last of his Peek** 
dermes Ordinaires, making it immediately succeed the 
extinct Palceotheria and Lophiodons. The genus vtm 
well known to the older zoologist* who wrote on the 
natural products of America, as we shall hereafter ace. 

Organization. 

Skeleton. When viewed in profile, the pyramid*) etc 
vation of the skull of the Tapir, calling to mind v hat is tv 



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be seen in the hog, strikes the observer forcibly. But the 
pyramid of the Tapir differs from that of the hog in having 
only three faces ; and also in this, that its anterior line is 
formed by the meeting* of the lateral faces, and it is only 
towards the front that it is dilated into a triangle, which is 
due to the frontal bones : these are early united and directed 
& little backwards. At the middle of the base of this tri- 
angle, to which the bones of the nose are articulated, is a 
point which penetrates between them ; and from the two 
sides above the orbits descends a deep furrow produced 
by the structure of the upper border of the orbit, and 
which approaches towards the suborbital hole : it serves 
for the insertion of the muscles of the proboscis. The 
orbit descends lower than the mid-height of the head, is 
very wide, and has the postorbital apophyses but little 
marked. 

That part of the cranium which is in the temporal fossa 
is convex. The occiput is a small demi-oval extremely 
concave plate, because the occipital crest projects con- 
siderably backwards in a parabolic shape. The occipital 
bone ascends on the cranium. The frontal bones descend 
largely in the temple, and are there articulated with the 
lachrymal, the palatine, the two sphenoids, and the tem- 
poral bone. The parietals are square, very large, occu- 
pying a great portion of the sagittal crest, and united also 
early between them. The nasal bones are no less striking 
than the form of the cranium. They are very short, arti- 
culated to the frontals by their base, and to those of the 
jaws by a descending apophysis ; but they are free and 
projecting, forming a kind of triangular penthouse above 
the cavity of the nostrils. This structure, which reminds 
the observer of that of the elephant, indicates the pre- 
sence of a moveable proboscis. The aperture of the 
osseous nostrils thus becomes extremely long, nearly hori- 
zontal, and bordered in great part by the maxillary bones, 
Much advance well beyond the bones of the nose, to form 
the projecting part of the muzzle , they carry the inter- 
maxillary bones which (a remarkable thing, observes Cu- 
uen were anchylosed together in the individual examined 
by him, although it was very young, and consequently 
formed but a single bone, and Cuvier remarked the same 
conformation in other crania. It was only in a nascent 
tapir, when no tooth had come forth, that he found the 
suture which separates the maxillaries from each other. 
These same intermaxillaries form a ceiling under the 
orbit. The lower border of the orbit and the half of the 
arch are due to the os males \ or jugal bone ; the rest to the 
temporal bone. The zygomatic arch is curved downwards 
at its anterior portion, and upwards at its posterior por- 
tion : it projects moderately outwards. The os unguis, or 
lachrymal bone, touches the malar bone, and advances a 
little on the cheek, and moderately in the orbit. There 
are two lachrymal bones in the very border of the orbit, 
separated by an apophysis, the upper of which is the 
largest. The suborbital hole is oval, rather large, and at 
a utf Je distance in front of the suture, which unites the 
junl and the lachrymal to the maxillary bone. The 
incisive hole is elliptical and very long, in great part, 
in the maxillary. The posterior nasal fossae notch the 
palate towards the fifth molar. The suture which sepa- 
rates the palatine from the maxillary bone corresponds 
with the third. The palatine bones contribute much to 
the pterygoid alce y and the sphenoid very little : these 
''b are short and truncate, with a small hook which 
^presents the internal pterygoid wing, and which remains 
for a considerable time a detached bone. The sphenoid 
bone does not reach the parietal in the temporal fossa, 
but remains separated from it by the squamose portion. 
The palatine bone there forms a long and narrow tract, 
which proceeds forward for the length of the upper border 
of the maxillary bone up to the suborbital canal. Behind 
the glenoid cavity of the temporal bone, which is very 
Urge, is a semicircular lamina, descending vertically and 
directing itself forwards and inwards : it interrupts the la- 
teral and posterior motion of the lower jaw. Between this 
tamna and the mastoid apophysis is a rather narrow notch 
*here the meatus auditonus intemus is found. The mas- 
toid apophysis descends as low as this lamina. It reaches 
the temporal bone by its anterior tubercle, and the occi- 
pital by its point. The hole analogous to the sphenopala- 
tine is in the middle of the orbital tract of the palatine bone. 
The analogue of the pterygopalatine bone is below it, on 
the suture of the palatine with the maxillary boue. The 



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optic foramen is small, and placed on the suture of the 
frontal and of the anterior sphenoid bones. The spheno- 
orbital and round foramina are only separated from each 
other by a delicate lamina. There is a rather large vidian 
canal. The oval hole is confounded with the anterior and 
posterior apertures, so that a great portion of the petrous 
bone is separated from the sphenoid and basilary by a space. 
The tympanic bone does not appear to be ever anchylosed 
with the neighbouring bones, and falls easily, as in the 
hedgehog, the opossum, &c. 

The lower jaw exhibits a striking width at its ascending 
ramus, and presents a rounded contour backwards at its 
posterior angle. Its coronoid apophysis elevates itself in 
the form of a pointed falx above the condyle, which is 
transverse and large. The two jaws are a little concave 
laterally at the vacant interval of the teeth, and are very 
much narrowed there ; their edge is trenchant. 



Skull of American Tapir. 

Bones of the Neck and Trunk. -The lateral apophyses 
of the atlas are wide, but little extended outwards : the 
spinous process of the axis is an elevated crest; the trans- 
verse processes are small and irregular; the odontoid is 
large and obtuse ; the transverse processes of the three 
succeeding vertebrae descend obliquely, are a little widened 
at the end and cut nearly square ; their spinous processes 
are very small. The fifth cervical vertebra has a small 
apophysis on its transverse process, which, for the rest, 
resembles that of the preceding vertebra, but is rather 
longer : its spinous process is also rather longer ; still more 
is that of the seventh vertebra, the transverse process of 
which is very small— in short, a simple tubercle. The arti- 
cular facets of the cervical vertebrae rise obliquely from 
within outwards, so that the articular facet of one vertebra 
is below that which responds to the preceding vertebra. 
The bodies of the vertebrae are convex forward and con- 
cave behind, an organization which is more or less re- 
peated in the rest of the spine. The number of dorsal 
vertebrae amounts to twenty ; the spinous apophysis of the 
second is the longest. They decrease and incline back- 
wards to the eleventh, from which they become straight, 
square, and nearly equal. Their articular apophyses are 
so fitted that those of one vertebra are in advance and 
above those which correspond with it in the vertebra below. 
Cuvier found twenty pairs of ribs in one individual, nine- 
teen in another, eight of which are true, all slender and 
rounded for the greatest part of their length. The breast- 
bone is composed of five bones : its anterior portion is 
compressed, and projects in the form of a ploughshare. 
There are four lumbar vertebrae, the transverse apophyses 
of which are rather large. Those of the" last, which are 
rather shorter and oblique, are articulated with the first 
sacral vertebra. These transverse apophyses have on their 
base the same elevated crests as the dorsals have for arti- 
culation with the ribs. 

The o» sacrum of the adult consists of seven vertebrae, 
the spinous apophyses of which are distinct and inclined 
backwards ; tne five last of these apophyses are short and 
terminate by a widened disk. The tail has seven ver- 
tebrae. 

Bones of the Ertremi ties.— The blade-bone has a strong 
semicircular notch towards the lower part of its anterior 
border; the rest of this border is round as well as the 
upper border : the posterior border makes an angle up- 
wards and then descends a little concave. There is neither 
acromion nor coracoid process, if a hook-like process be 
excepted. The spine of the bone terminates at the lower 
third of it , its greatest projection is at its middle ; the 
articular surface is oval and higher than it is long. This 



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blade-bone, says Cuvier, emphatically, and not more em- 
phatically than truly, cannot be confounded with that of 
any other animal. 

The head of the humerus is powerful, behind the axis 
of the bone. Its large tuberosity is bilobated by a rounded 
notch ; its bicipital canal is simple and not wide ; the 
ridge is little marked ; the condyles do not project much. 
The radial articular face is divided by a projecting rib 
into an entire pulley on the internal side, and the half of 



one on the external side ; both the one and the other < 
respond to projections of the radius, so that this last 
no rotation. It is even probable, observes Cuvier, 1 
with age it is anchylosed to the ulna, which remain* through- 
out its length on the external edge of the arm. The upper 
head of the radius is nearly rectangular ; its body, rounded 
in front, is flattened behind. The body of the ulna u 
triangular. One of its crests follows the external crest U 
the radius. 



Owlcton of American Tapir. 



The carpus of the Tapir bears a near resemblance to 
that of the Rhinoceros, especially in having, like it, a 
single small bone articulated with the wedge-shaped and 
unciform bones, in lieu of the trapezoid and thumb ; but 
this bone is articulated with the metatarsal bone of the 
index, which is not the case in the rlunoceros. The other 
bones of the wrist are nearly of the same form, excepting 
that their width is less in proportion to their height, a 
condition which is true even with regard to the unciform 
bone, although it has to carry two complete metacarpals, 
whilst in the rhinoceros it only carries one and the vestige 
of another. The pisiform bone is also longer in propor- 
tion in the Tapir. The metacarpal of the middle finger 
is longest and straightest ; those of the index and ring- 
finger are curved nearly symmetrically one with reference 
to the other, as in the rhinoceros. But the Tapir has 
also one small, short, and rather irregular metacarpal. 
The three first fingers are those which touch the earth, 
and their ungual phalanges resemble those of the rhino- 
ceros ; the little finger does not touch the ground. The 
first phalanges are longer than they are wide, but the con- 
trary is the case with regard to the second. 

Tne widened part of the ossa ilii is very broad trans- 
versely, and a little concave outwards. The external 
edge of this bone is larger than the internal one ; the an- 
terior border is largely concave, and the two spines are, as 
it were, truncated ; its neck is narrow, with reference to 
its length ; the oval holes are longer than they are wide, 
and the posterior extremity of the ischium terminates in a 
point very distant from its correspondent. The anterior 
passage of the pelvis is as long as it is wide, and nearly 
circular. 

The femur has its great trochanter pointed, forming a 
projection backwards, and giving off a rib which descends 
along the external border. Besides the two ordinary 
trochanters, there is a third, which is flattened and re- 
curved in front. In these points its resemblance to that 
of the horse is perceptible, but it differs much in having 
the two borders of tne rotular pulley nearly equal. The 
fibula is curved outwards, which separates it a little from 
the tibia : this last has its upper head rather marked, but 
the tuberosity which terminates this end above is obtuse 
and curved but little. Its lower head is wider than it is 
long, is oblique, and its antoro-posterior diameter on the 



internal side is wider, and this border more projecting than 
that of the fibular side. 

The tarsus of the Tapir is still better modelled than Ha 
carpus after that of the rhinoceros, of which it seems to 
be only a repetition : only the os calcis is much more 
elongated and more compressed ; but its facets are the 
same. The neck of the astragalus is longer and touches 
the cuboid bone by a narrower facet. There is no Testis* 
of a hind toe, but the little finger is represented by an 
elongated bone, bent at the end, articulated to the sca- 
phoid, to the small cuneiform and the external metatarsal 
bones. The posterior tubercle of the cuboid bone is less 
projecting and less hooked tlian in the rhinoceros. (Osm- 
mens Fossiles.) 

Cuvier, in his osteologies! comparison of the Indian 
Tapir with the American form, observes that a glance at 
the profile of their respective crania is sufficient to impress 
upon the observer then* specific differences. The forehead 
of the Indian Tapir is, he observes, so convex, that it riies 
higher than the occiput : it elevates in its rise the na*al 
bones, which much prolongs the ascending part of the 
jaws and the descending portion of the frontal hones alone, 
the external aperture of the bony nostrils, thua giving 
much wider room for the comparatively large proboscis. 
and adding length to the furrows where the muscles are 
inserted. This organization, he observes, explains why 
the Indian Tapir has a more powerful and extensible tronx 
than that of America. There is even, he adds, in the In- 
dian species, on the base of the nasal bones at their junc- 
tion with the frontal bones, and on each side, a deep fossa 
which does not exist in the other species. This elevatioa 
of the forehead is accompanied by a depression of the 
occipital crest, which, far from forming a pyramid, as xa 
the American species, rather descends backwards. The 
aperture of the bony nostrils, so enlarged by the prolong-*- 
tion of the maxillary bones, terminates below and forwards 
by more elevated intermaxillaries, which are for the rest an- 
cnylosed together in early youth as in the American Tapir. 

The interval between the canine and the first molar is 
less in proportion in the Indian Tapir, whose dentition ts 
otherwise tne same with that of the American species. 

The zygomatic apophysis of the Indian species is a little 
higher backward and less forward : its mastcid apophyut 
is more transversally turned. 



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The occipital surface of the skull offers a difference cor- 
responding to that of the profile, inasmuch as it is less 
hij$i, hut it is also much wider in proportion ; and from 
this width results another difference in the upper surface 
of the cranium, namely, that the sagittal crest, instead of 
remaining throughout its length linear and narrow, 
widens much backwards, and even remains rather wide at 
the point where it is most narrowed by the approximation 
of the two temporal fossae. The triangle which these two 
fosse leave in front upon the frontal bones is also wider 
ami its surface more convex. The triangle formed by the 
true bones of the nose is wider at its base. For the rest, 
the composition of the cranium, the connexion of its 
bones, its sutures, its foramina, entirely resemble, as well 
as the teeth, those of the American species. 

Cuvier then remarks that the rest of the skeleton of the 
two species does not offer such appreciable differences. 
The blade-bone of the Indian species is rather the wider ; 
bat the notch towards the lower part is smaller and 
rounder. The anterior hook of the great tuberosity of the 
humerus is more projecting ; the unciform bone of the 
carpus is narrower ; the last phalanges of the middle an- 
terior toe are wider and more rounded, and the same may 
be said of the middle toe of the hind feet ; the great tro- 
chanter of the femur is larger ; the neck of the astragalus 
is ihorter : but all these differences, Cuvier observes, are 
of to little importance, that, without those of the crania, 
they would hardly justify the conclusion of specific dis- 
tinction. (Ossemens Fossiles.) 

Mr. Yarrell, in the 4th vol. of the Zoological Journal, 
gives an account of the post-mortem appearances in an 
American Tapir brought to this country by Lieut. Maw, 
R.N., which survived its arrival in the gardens of the 
Zoological Society in the Regent's Park only a few 
hours. 

When dead, the animal, which was said to be about 

twelve months old, measured from the nose to the root of 

the tail 48 inches, and its girth was 35 inches. The in- 
g 

cisor teem jr were very much used ; the edges coming into 

close contact when the molars are in action. The canines 

7—- T were small in the upper jaw, and removed a short 

distance from the lateral incisor, for the admission of the 

4—4 
larger canines of the lower jaw ; the molars were = — r- 

o — O 

Of those in the lower jaw, the first had three lobes, with 
five points; the second and third two lobes, with four 
points. Of the four upper molars, the first had two outer 
and one inner point ; the other three had each two lobes 
with four points : all the parallel points or tubercles were 
connected transversely by a slight triangular ridge ; and 
each of these triangular ridges, with their connected tu- 
bercles, shut into, similarly shaped cavities in the teeth 
oppcffd to theoi, throughout tne whole length of their 
continuous surfaces. The second, third, and fourth upper 
molars had each a small additional but less elevated 
point on the external anterior angle, increasing somewhat 
in sue from the second tooth Dackwards. On cutting 
through the bones of the palate in order to the complete 
removal of the brain, Mr. Yarrell found the crown of 
another molar tooth on each side, posterior to, and some- 
what within the line of range of, the last exposed molar. 
This tooth had a fifth tubercle of increased magnitude. 

The cartilage of the septum narium was thick and strong, 
«nd the central ridge of the skull very much elevated. 
The ligament urn nucha? was composed of three strong 
cord-IIie portions, two of which, passing in a parallel 
direction from the elongated spinous process of the first 
vertebra, were inserted together upon the extreme supe- 
rior posterior angle of the central ridge of the cranium, 
supporting the whole length of the elevated crest and 
n»ane. Tne third portion of this strong ligament passed 
between the other two, and was inserted into the more 
devatad portion of the elongated spinous process of the 
deodta. 

Tne anterior portion of the sternum was keel-like and 
rounded in shape, and projected forwards. There were 
t*enty riba on each side and four lumbar vertebras. The 
fcachaal cartilages were firm : the rings however were in- 
c omplete throughout. One large and one small lobe 
ljnned the right lung; one large and two small ones the 

p. a, i*o. 14k 



left : they were inflamed. The pericardium, which waa 
loaded with fat, was of unusual thickness ; but the heart 
presented nothing remarkable : the coats of the arteries 
were particularly thick and firm. 

The oesophagus was narrow : the stomach presented a 
single cavity, rather small, measuring, when moderately 
distended with air, 8 inches only from right to left, and 
15J inches in circumference : the parietes were thickened 
about the pylorus, but the internal surface was not ex- 
amined, the organ having been preserved entire : it con- 
tained a loose mass of tow, hair, string, and shreds of 
cloth. 

The spleen was narrow, thin, and 12 inches long. 

The liver was divided into four lobes :— two, one large 
and one small, on the right side ; and two, large and equal, 
on the left ; the lower of these last was divided and 
notched on the edge. There waB no gall-bladder. 

The small intestines, uniform in size throughout their 
length, measured 21 feet, and were inflamed. 

The caecum was capacious compared with the stomach, 
measuring 14 inches in the line of its long axis, and 24 
inches in girth at the largest part, and had two deep and 
several smaller circular indentations externally, and 
marked with one strong longitudinal band on each sur- 
face ; tapering somewhat to a point at its closed extremity, 
but without any appendix vermiformis. The colon, at two 
feet from its commencement, doubled suddenly upon itself, 
and formed a fold 16 inches long, the inner surfaces of 
which were closely connected. The large intestines mea- 
sured seven feet in length. 

The sexual organs (the animal was a female) presented 
about the uterus, its cornua, and the ovaria, a degree of 
vascularity which rendered it probable that the period of 
life was approaching when breeding would have com- 
menced. 

Mr. Yarrell refers to Sir Everard Home's paper in Phil. 
Trans. (1821), in which Sir Everard points out the dif- 
ferences existing in the skulls of the Sumatran and Ame- 
rican Tapirs, and has described a part of the viscera of the 
former. In the Sumatran Tapir trie stomach is large, the 
intestinal canal very long, and the caecum small ; in the 
American Tapir the stomach is small, the intestines of 
moderate length, and the caecum large. 

Mr. Yarrell adds, that, of the species described, 

The length of the Sumatran Tapir is eight feet ; and the 
whole length of its intestinal canal is 89 feet 6 inches. 
Proportion as 11 to 1. 

Tne length of the American Tapir is four feet ; and the 
whole length of its intestinal canal 28 feet. Proportion, 
as 7 to 1. 

In the Physiological Series, preserved in the Museum of 
the Royal College of Surgeons in London, No. 754, is the 
anus of an American Tapir, in which, as in the ordinary 
mammalia, the intestinal canal has a distinct external 
orifice, situated behind, and not, as in the osseous fishes, in 
front of the genito-urinary outlet. Professor Owen, the 
author of the Catalogue, remarks that this example of the 
mammiferous type of anus is preserved on account of the 
peculiar jaggea appearance and abrupt termination of the 
common integument at the verge of the anus. 

No. 1217 of the same series is a section of the kidney of 
a Tapir {Tapir Americanus), with the arteries injected, and 
the pelvis laid open to show the terminations of the tubuli 
urimferi, as in the horse. No. 1286 is the suprarenal gland 
of an American Tapir laid open, showing the central dark- 
coloured substance very distinctly. No. 2778 exhibits part 
of the vagina, with the urethro-sexual canal, vulva, and 
clitoris of the American Tapir, in which the clitoris pro- 
jects within the anterior margin of the vulva : it is a snort 
pyramidal body with two small lateral lobes. The urethro- 
sexual canal is separated from the vagina by a broad 
transverse semilunar fold, beneath which is the wide aper- 
ture of the urethra. No. 2527 B, is the distal extremity of 
the penis of the Sumatran Tapir. The upper and lateral 
parts of the base of the glans present three rounded pro- 
cesses, beyond which the extremity of the glans is con- 
tinued forwards, and terminates in a large truncate slightly 
convex surface, in the middle of which is situated the 
orifice of the urethra. 

Generic Character. — Molars presenting on their crown 
before they are worn, two transverse and rectilineal tuber- 
cles (collines). Nose terminated in a small moveable pro - 
boscis, but not terminated with an organ of touch like that 

Vol. XXIV.— H 



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of the elephant ; neck rather long ; ikin rather thiok, and 
6overed with hair, looking as if it had been close shorn ; 
two inguinal mammae. Anterior feet with four toes ; pos- 
terior feet with three toes. 

6 1 — 1 7—7 

Dental formula:— incisors «; canines r^ ; mokrs a— ^ 

=42. 




Teeth of Samatrmn Tapir 

Geographical Distribution. — Asia and America. M. 
Lesson observes that it was for a long time believed that 
this genus was peculiar to America ; but that the rich and 
beautiful discoveries of MM. Diard and Duvaucel have 
proved that it is also proper to Asia : of which observation 
more will presently be said. 

Asiatic Tapir. 

Up to the year 1816 it appears to have been thought 
that the Tapir form was confined to America, and the 
species known in collections as the American Tapir seems 
to have been regarded as the only example of the genus. 
M. Lesson, who so sweepingly claims the discovery of the 
Asiatic species for French naturalists, is not the only zoo- 
logist of that country who puts forth such pretensions. 
Mr. Bennett has thus corrected those pretensions : — 

* Some vague notices had reached Sir Stamford Raffles 
of the existence of a similar animal in Sumatra and the 
Malayan Peninsula ; but to Major Farquhar belongs the 
credit of having first procured a specimen and submitted 
its description to the world at large. The history of this 
transaction affords too striking an illustration of tne injus- 
tice of certain among the French zoologists to tfce merits 
of our countrymen to be passed over without observation. 
" The knowledge of this animal in France," says M. Des- 
niarest, in his ' Mammalogie,' carefully shielding himself 
under an equivocal form of expression, •• is due to M. 
Diard/* But M. Lesson goes farther ; and echoing, as usual, 
the dicta of his predecessor with a slight addition of his 
own, speaks of the Indian tapir as a species " discovered by 
M. Diard." Again, in the • bictionnaire des Sciences Na- 
ture! les,' M. Desraarest, forgetful of his former caution, 
heightens the farce still more by asserting that its *• dis- 
covery in the forests of Sumatra and the Peninsula of Ma- 
lacca is due to MM. Duvaucel and Diard." In none of 
these works is the least indication given that the animal 
in question, had previously been even seen by an English- 



man ; much lets is the fact suffered to transpire tfc* , 
before M. Diard had " discovered " it, not in the 
Sumatra or the Malayan Peninsula, but in the 



of the Governor-general of British India at Barrackpcit, i 
full description, together with a figure of the antmsl a&4 
of its skull, had been laid before the Asiatic Sobety W 
Major Farquhar, for publication in their ' RcwimW 
This latter circumstance, it is true, was not mentioned fe 
M. Frederick Cuyier when he figured the tapir of ltalam 
in his splendid work, from a drawing made by M. Burt 
in the Barrackpore menagerie, or by that gentleman hn*» 
self in the published part of his accompanying Wtkr; 
but there seems to have been no intention on their put* 
wilfully to mislead their readers. That M. Diard at lea* 
could not have been actuated by any such dears b &I)y 
proved by several passages in the note appended by am 
to Major Farquhar's original description, in whwe at 
speaks of the gallant officer as " the excellent natural* 
who has enriched zoology* with so important a discover) ;' 
and attributes the " honour" to him " alone.* Baron Omar 
too, in the recent edition of his ' Regne Animal,' aimtjj 
rejects the unmerited distinction in favor of his teas 
and friend ; and candidly quotes, as the first doom* 
our, in this instance, more fortunate countryman.* kfm 
this, we trust that we bhall hear no more of tne " dtfcovtn* 
of the Indian tapir by MM. Diard and DuvaoceJ, slo 
have too many real claims on the consideration of ns> 
logists to require to be tricked out in the borrowed pknw 
with which it has hitherto been the fashion among e» 
neighbours to invest them.' ( The Garden* and Mtwjw* 
of the Zoological Society delineated, vol. i.) 

Dr. Horsfield states that the first intelfcgenoe of tk 
existence of this interesting animal in Sumatra na* gna 
to the government of Fort Marlborough at Beneoekn. m 
the year 1772, by Mr. Whalfeldt, who was emplojd n 
making a survey of the coast. In the month of April is 
that year, it is, according to Dr. Horsfield, noticed is tat 
records, that Mr. Whalfeldt laid before the gorennent 
his observations on the places southward of Cawoor, where 
he met with the tapir at the mouth of one of the men. 
He considered it to be the hippopotamus, and dooibed 
it by that name ; but the drawing which accompanied ft* 9 
report identifies it, says the Doctor, with the tapir. IV. 
Horsfield adds that this mistake in the name maVreadilT 
be explained, when it is recollected that in tne tetfh 
edition of the 4 Systema Naturae* of Linnaeus the tapir ■ 
placed as a species of hippopotamus, while in the twelfth 
edition no mention is made of that animal. 

* The learned author of the * History of 8umatia/ Wfl. 
Ham Marsden, Esq.,' continues Dr. Horsfield, * was st tkat 
time secretary to the government at Bencoolen ; sad 1st 
public owes to his zeal in collecting every valuable infer 
mation relating to that island the first notice of ths exig- 
ence of this animal, which is by the Malaya in user 
places denominated Kuda-ayer, literally hippo-potamta. 
After the first discovery, in 1772, the tapir was not observed 
for a considerable period. From the same catalojp* of 
Sir T. S. Raffles which has furnished ihe description, it 
appears that in the year 1805 a living specimen wa» aent 
to Sir George Leith, when lieutenant-governor of Penaaf 
It was afterwards observed by Major Farquhar in Iks vi- 
cinity of Malacca. A drawing and description of it wat 
communicated by him to the Asiatic Society in 18H and 
a living subject was afterwards sent to the menagerie at 
Barrackpore from Bencoolen. At this place a drawn* 
was made by M. Diard in the year 1818, which, accom- 
panied by an extract from the description of Major Far- 
quhar, was communicated to his friends in Paris, where, 
in March, 1819, M. Fred. Cuvier published it in Kb lanje 
lithographic work on the mammalia of the menagerie- ■ 
Paris/ 

* In the month of September, 1820, the first epeenatn oj 
the Malayan tapir was received in Englan d ft ™ Jj 
Thomas Stamford Raffles, with the general lootogicaleoK 
lection of mammalia and birds, the descriptive ^■Jy* 
of which, being contained in the 13th vol. of the •am"* 
actions of the Linnean Society,' has been already reserr* 
to. This specimen of tapir was accompanied by a com- 
plete skeleton, and the thoracic and abdominal ***** 
preserved in spirits of wine.' Dr. Horsfield then reto » 
the use made t>y Sir Everard Home of these 
the paper above alluded to. 

•Otataffkha 



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A Hring specimen Of this specie was lately brought to 
this country, and publicly exhibited in the garden of the 
Zoological Society of London, where it died more than a 
year ago. 

Description of Taptrus Malay anus— Tapirus Indicus of 
the French zoologists ; Le Maiba, F. Cuv., Mamm. : - * The 
Malay Tapir resembles in form the American, and has a 
amilar flexible proboscis, which is six or eight inches in 
length. Its general appearance is heavy and massive, 
amewh&t resembling the hog. The eyes are small ; the 
can roundish, and bordered with white. The skin is thick 
and firm, thinly covered with short hair. There is no mane 
oo the neck, as in the American species. The tail is very 
short, and almost destitute of hair. The legs are short and 
HOttt; the fore-feet furnished with four toes, the hind-feet 
with three. In the upper jaw there are seven molars on 
each tide, one email canine inserted exactly on the suture 
of the incisor bone, and in front six incisors, the two outer 
of which are elongated into tusks. In the under jaw there 
are but six molars ; the canines are large ; and the number 
of the incisors, the outer of which are the smallest, is the 
same as in the upper jaw. The general colour is glossy 
black* with the exception of the back, rump, and sides t)f 
the belly, which are white, and separated by a defined line 
(ram the parts that are black.' 

8och ts the description of 8ir Stamford Raffles, for the 
accuracy of which we can vouch, having compared it with 
the lrvirtg animal in the garden of the Zoological Society. 
Major Farouhar describes a young Tapir of this species 
whida he nad alive in his house thus :— « It appears that 



until the age of four months it is black, and beautifully 
marked with spots and stripes of a fawn colour above and 
white below. After that period it began to change colour, 
the spots disappeared, ana at the age of six months it had 
become of the usual colour of the adult.' (See post* 
American Tapirs.) 

Marsden, as we have already seen, notices the animal as 
the Hippopotamus ; coodo-at/cr. In Sumatra, according 
to Sir Stamford Raffles, it is known by different names in 
different parts of the country : thus by the people of Limun 
it is called Saladang; by those of the interior of Manna, 
Gindol; in the interior of Bencoolen, Babi Alu; and at 
Malacca, Tcnnu. 

Habits.— The habits of this species in a state of nature 
are probably similar to those of the American TapirB. In 
captivity, Major Farnuhar describes it as of a mild and 
gentle disposition. • It became as tame and familiar as a 
dog ; fed indiscriminately on all kinds of vegetables, and 
was very fond of attending at table to receive bread, cakes, 
or the like.* Sir Stamford Raffles adds that the living 
specimen sent from Bencoolen to Bengal was young, and 
became very tractable. It was allowed to roam occa- 
sionally in the park at Barrackpore, and the man who had 
charge or it informed Sir Stamford that it frequently en- 
tered the ponds, and appeared to walk along the bottom 
Under water, and not to make any attempt to swim. Sir 
Stamford also states that the flesh is eaten by the natives 
of 8umatra. 

The individual exhibited in the Regent's Park was very 
mild and gentle. 



Tapir Malayanus. 



American Tapirs. 
John de taet (1633), speaking of the'province of Vera- 
paz, says that among the living auadrupeds which are 
there found the greatest is that which the barbarians call 
Beori, and the Spaniards Danta, an animal not unlike a 
calC but with shorter legs and articulated after the manner 
of an elephant's ; the anterior feet have, he states, five 
toes or hoofs, the posterior only four. The head he de- 
scribes as oblong, the forehead rather narrow, the eyes 
satO in proportion 1o the bulk, and the proboscis as being 
asahn long and pendulous above the mouth. When the 
aoUnal is angry, he states that it erects itself, and grinning 
shows its teetrj, which are like those of hogs. The ears 
he describes as acute, the neck contracted, the tail short 
and with few hairs, the skin very thick, so that it may 
witn difficulty be grasped by the hand or perforated by 
iron. It feeds, he says, on grass and sylvan herbage. The 



natives, he adds, eat its flesh, and relate that they are 
taught venesection by this animal, for when it finds itself 
overloaded with blood, by rubbing against rocks it opens 
the veins of the legs and lets blood. There can be no 
doubt that the animal here meant is one of the American 
Tapirs. 

Marcgrave gives a very rude figure, not however to be 
mistaken for anything but a Tapir, under the name of 
Tapierete, Anta of the Spaniards, describing it and its 
habits with considerable general accuracy ; but Mr. Bennett 
observes that he speaks of the teeth as consisting of ten 
incisors and ten molars in each jaw, an error which Mr. 
Bennett remarks held its ground for nearly two centuries, 
and having passed successively through the writings of 
Ray, frisson, Buffon, Gnielin, and Bluraenbach, was first 
corrected by Geoffrey St. Hilaire. 

Towards the close of last century the fabulous clouds 

H2 T 

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that had gathered about the history of this animal began 
to clear away before the lights of observation. Buffon had 
noticed the only AmericanTapir then known, as the largest 
animal of the New World ; but this can hardly be said of 
it when the Elk and the Wapiti are remembered. Geoffroy 
St. Hilaire and Baron Cuvier first accurately defined its 
loological characters; and Sonnini and D'Azara gave a 
correct account of its habits. Button's figure, alter a 
drawing by La Condamine, was the first at all approach- 
ing to accuracy. A living individual was afterwards 
brought to France, but died before its arrival at Paris, and 
furnished a still better design, published with further in- 
formation, derived chiefly from Sonnini, and M. Bajon's 
memoir on the anatomy of the species, in the Supplement 
to Buffon, vol. vi. : but still some of the errors were re- 
tained ; nor was the account of two other individuals living 
in the menagerie belonging to the Prince of Orange, by 
Allamand, complete. 

Lieut. Maw, in his Journal of a Passage from the 
Pacific to the Atlantic (1829), speaks of the Tapir as com- 
mon in the woods and rivers about Egas, there called Anta> 
and which is the same animal with the Sachywaka, Dante, 
or Gran Bestia of Peru, of which they had heard much 
both before and since embarking. Two kinds were de- 
scribed to them, one having the tips of its ears white, and 
which is the largest: when young it was stated to be 
striped and spotted like a deer, the spots disappearing as 
it grows older, till it becomes entirely of a dusky bay 
colour. Here we have a clear intimation of the knowledge 
of two species by those inhabiting the spot. 

The form of the species best known has since been ren- 
dered familiar to Englishmen by the exhibition of living 
specimens in the gardens of the Zoological Society of Lon- 
don in the Regent's Park. 

But this is not the only American Tapir ; for M. Roulin, 
about thirteen years since, laid before the French Academy 
a description and figures of a new species inhabiting the 
mountainous parts of the same districts, the plains of which 
are frequented by the other ; and his account is given in 
the Annates des Sciences Naturelles : from this it would 
appear that the American Tapir of the mountains is more 
nearly allied to the Asiatic species than the American 
Tapir of the plains. 

We take as our example the species first known, Tapir 
Antericanus, Gmel. 

Description. General colour throughout deep brown 
approaching to black. Sides of the lower lip, band on the 
under and middle part of the chin, upper edges of the 
ears, and naked line at the junction of the hoofs pure 
white. Scanty hair of the body very short, closely ad- 

Sressed to the surface ; hardly distinguishable at a short 
istance. The skin beneath it is of great density, being, 
according to M. Roulin, not less than seven lines thick on 
the back, and eight or nine lines on the cheek, and so 
tough that Sonnini frequently shot at a female which was 
crossing the river with her young, without disturbing her 
or making her turn out of her course, though he saw the 
impression of a ball which he had fired on the animal's 
cheek. There is a thick rounded crest on the back of the 
neck, extending from the forehead as low as the level of 
the eyes to the shoulders, and bristled with a not thick 
mane of stiff blackish hairs. Mr. Bennett remarks that it 
is peculiar to the present species, but is not found, accord- 
ing to M. Roulin, in the female at Cayenne : although 
D'Azara states that the female is equally furnished with it 
in Paraguay. In the female brought by Lieut. Maw from 
Para, and formerly in the menagerie of the Zoological 
Society of London, it was very conspicuous. Head very 
long ; muzzle prolonged and covered above with hair of 
the same colour as that of the body, but naked and flesh- 
coloured at its extremity (which is flattened) and under- 
neath. Eyes very small, of a dull lead colour. 

The colour of the individual dissected by Mr. Yarrell 
was rusty reddish-brown, with indications of lighter spots 
and horizontal lines on the ribs, flanks, and thighs. * These 
fawn-coloured spots and stripes,' says Mr. Yarrell, ' are 
common to both species of Tapir * (the Sumatran and the 
American species then known are meant) ' while young ; 
that of Sumatra not exhibiting till it is six months old 
any appearance of the well-defined black and white colour 
which afterwards distinguishes the adult animal.' (Zool. 
Journ. f vol. iv.) 

Mr. Bennett, too, remarks that the young is of a much 



lighter brown than the adult, with numerous snail wfcst* 

spots on the cheeks, a whitish muzzle, and six or eight 
complete narrow bands of white passing along each mde 
of tne body from the shoulders to the haunches. * Re- 
gular rows,' says Mr. Bennett, in continuation, » of mail 
white spots, placed at equal distances from each 
alternate with these bands. The upper parts of the 1 
are marked in a similar manner ; their inner side*, a* wall 
as the under surface of the body, are white ; and their ex- 
tremities of the ground-colour of the whole body, with & 
few fainter spots scattered over them. Before the cud of 
the first year of their age this livery becomes comntateiy 
lost : it is partially visible in the young specimen in the 
Society's museum, but not at all in the living individual 
at the Gardens (1830). Similar markings occur in the 
young of the Sumatran species, and also, we may o~ 
in that of the Hojj in its native state. The aduh 

of the present species has generally a considerable i 

of whitish hairs intermingled with the brown, which gives 
her somewhat of a grizzled appearance.' (Gardens amd 
Menagerie of the Zoological Society delineated.) 

Locality. South America. 'Few animals of eqval 
size,' says the author last quoted, 'have so extensive a 
range as the American Tapir. It is found in every part of 
South America to the east of the Andes, from the Straits 
of Magellan* to the Isthmus of Darien ; but appears to bt 
most common within the tropics. M. Roulin dweUa anon 
it as a singular fact that although it occurs aa far ma 4& 
south of the equator, it ceases suddenly at about 8° north* 
in a situation where it is extremely abundant, and where no 
adequate cause has yet been assigned to bar its further pro- 
gress, no large rivers nor lofty mountains intervening nor 
any change in the character of the vegetation of the 
country being manifest. The left bank of the Atrato wsmr 
its mouth, and the part of Darien inhabited by the Inoe- 
pendent Indians, may be considered as its northern Wadu 
its highest range, in the province of Maraquita at least. 
appears to be from 3000 to 3C00 feet above the leveJ of 
the sea, while the new species discovered by M. Roahn m 
only met with at a much greater elevation.' 

Habits, Chace, $c. The inmost recesses of deep forests 
are the chosen haunts of this species, which is not gregari- 
ous, and flies from the proximity of man. It is lor the 
most part nocturnal in its habits, sleeping or retnarnine; 
quiet during the day, and at night seeking its food, which. 
in its natural state, consists of shoots of trees, buds, wild 
fruits, &c. If we are to believe D'Azara, and he was an 
accurate observer, it is very fond of the barTero, or nitroo* 
earth of Paraguay. It is however a most indiscriminale 
swallower of everything filthy or clean, nutritious or other- 
wise, as the farrago found in the stomach of the individual 
dissected by Mr. Yarrell showed. Pieces of wood, clay, 
pebbles, and bones are not unfreauently taken out of the 
stomachs of those which are killed in the woods ; and one 
kept by D'Azara gnawed a silver snuff-box to pieces and 
swallowed the contents. 

It is a powerful animal, and everything in the under- 
wood of the forest gives way to its rush. It is in the habit 
of making runs or roads through the brushwood, and these 
beaten tracks are usually selected by travellers in p»— Try 
through the forests. 

Quiet and peaceable in its demeanour, it is hunted tct 
the sake of its tough hide and its flesh, which, though not 
liked by the European (for it is coarse and dry), is reushed 
by the unsophisticated palate of the Indian. 

The lasso is not often employed in its capture, not onJj 
from its haunts being generally unfavourable to that mode 
of hunting, but because its determined rush and strength 
will at a single effort snap the line which is strong enough 
to arrest the career of a bull. The hunters will sometimes 
lie in wait with their dogs near a Tapir's road as evexxtn* 
approaches, and so get between him and the water to 
which he usually directs his course for the purpose of 
bathing and wallowing at the commencement of has a 
tumal career. He makes a good fight and inflicts 
wounds upon the dogs with his teeth, especially if he 
can reach the water, where he stands at bay, breast 
deep and defies the fiercest of them ; for as they are com- 
pelled to swim to the attack, the Tapir bides his time, and 
seizing them by the backs of their necks as they soeecs- 
sively come within his reach, shakes them off, not without 
biting a piece out. 

* Apparently not *i prwe&L 



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But it would seem that the most common method of 
catching them is by imitating their sharp but not very 
shrill whistle, and tnus bringing them within shot of the 
Indian's poisoned arrow. 

Lieut. Maw, who, as we have above seen, brought a 
young animal of this species to England, speaks of it as 
feeding upon herbs and the branches of trees, and going 
much into the water, walking along or rather perhaps 
across the bottoms of rivers. * It possesses/ says Lieut. 
Maw, * great strength, particularly in the fore part of the 
body ; but is harmless, except when attacked. It is said 
to pass directly through the thickets without following 
any previous track.* We were told that when the Tapir 
is attacked by a Tiger' (Felis Onpa) [Leopard, vol. xiii., p. 
436], * the Tiger generally springs upon the Tapir's back, 
when the latter rushes into the woods and endeavours to 
kill the assailant by dashing him against some large tree. 
Although strongly and apparently heavily made, the Tapir 
is said to be fleet' (Journal of a Passage, &c.) 

This species is mild in captivity and easily domesticated. 
Sonnini states that several tame Tapirs are permitted to go 
at liberty through the streets of Cayenne, and to wander 
into the woods, whence they return in the evening to the 
house where they are kept and fed. He adds that they are 
capable of attachment to their owner, and expresses his 
opinion that care and attention might convert its Qualities 
of strength, docility, and patience to account as a beast of 
burthen. 



American Tapir. 

Fossil Tapirs. 

Dr. Buckland, in his Reliquies Diluviante, notices the 
remains of Tapir in company with those of rhinoceros, 
elephant, horse, ox, deer, hyaena, bear, tiger, fox, wolf, 
mastodon, hog, and beaver, in the Val d Arno, on the 
authority of IVfr. Pentland ; and in his interesting and in- 
structive first plate illustrative of his Bridgewater Treatise 
figures a Tapir in little among the mammalia of the first 
period of the Tertiary series (Eocene of Lyell). In the 
Epplesheim sand (Miocene of Lyell), Professor Kaup 
found two species larger than those now living. 

It should oe borne in mind that the second or Miocene 
system of tertiary deposits contains a mixture of the ex- 
tinct genera of lacustrine mammalia of the first or Eocene 
series, with the earliest forms of existing genera. M. 
Desnoyers first noticed this in the Faluns of Touraine, 
where the remains of Palceotherium, Anthracotherinm, 
and Lophiodrm were found mixed with the bones of the 
tapir, mastodon, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, and horse. 
These remains were fractured and rolled, and sometimes 
covered with flustra, and must, Dr. Buckland observes, 
have been derived from carcasses drifted into an sestuary 
or sea. 

Von Meyer records the following species : Tapir 
Avernensis, Croiz. and Job., from the diluvium, Puy-de- 
EWme, Cussac ; Tapir Mastodontoides . Harlan, from Ken- 
tucky, with a justifiable query, whether it is a Tapir at 
all ;♦ and Tapir Priscus, Kaup, from the Epplesheim sand. 
He also alludes to other remains noticed in the works of 
Fischer, Clift, and Eichwald. (Diluvium, Irawadi.) 

Dr. Lund, in his ' View of the Fauna of Brazil,' states that 
a« had in vain looked for either remains or foot-prints of 
the living Tapir ; whence he concludes, that it does not 
take refuge in caves : but he says that he is in possession 
of fossil bones which evidently belong to the genus, 

• But wee abont. ,«*_.. 

+ FiofeaioTOwcn belier«lhiii©-callad , r*pirtol» tbeyosf «i Mastok* 



though they are too imperfect to determine their relation 
to the recent animal. 

TAPPING, or Paracentesis (in Surgery), is the operation 
usually employed for the removal of fluid from any of the 
serous cavities of the body in which it has collected in a 
dangerous quantity. It is accomplished by means*of an 
instrument called a trocar, and a tube, or canula, in which 
it exactly fits. The trocar is of steel, cylindrical through 
the chief part of its length, and terminated by a three- 
sided pyramid which ends in a very sharp point. The 
canula being placed upon its shaft, the trocar is thrust 
into the cavity containing the fluid, and beinjsj then with- 
drawn through the canula, the latter is retained in the 
aperture till all the fluid is discharged. The diseases for 
which tapping is chiefly performed are ascites, hydro- 
thorax, hydrocele, and, occasionally, hydrocephalus, and 
effusions of fluid in the pericardium. 

TAPTY. [Hindustan, p. 211.] 

TAPUH. TSooloo Archipelago.] 

TAR, a well-known empyreumatic product. 

The properties of tar are, that it is a viscid brown semi- 
fluid mass, which long preserves its softness. If it be 
mixed with water, it acquires a yellow colour and the 
taste of tar, with slightly acid properties ; this solution is 
well known by the name of tar-water, and has been used 
in medicine. Tar is soluble in alcohol, in aether, and in 
the fixed and volatile oils. 

If tar be distilled with water, there passes oyer a brown 
liquid which consists of much empvreumatic oil and some 
oil of turpentine ; this product is called oil of tar ; by redis- 
tillation with water it becomes colourless ; the substance 
remaining in the still is pitch ; so that, in fact, tar is a 
mixture of oil and pitch. 

Within a few years, tar has been subjected to a minute 
examination by Reichenbach, who has obtained from it a 
variety of substances possessing very diiferent properties ; 
the most important of these is creasote. [Creasotk.] 

After what has been stated of the many different com- 
pound substances of which tar is constituted, no exact 
analysis could of course be stated ; its chief constituent 
is carbon, combined with hydrogen and oxygen, and a 
small portion of azote. 

TAR (French, Goudron ; German, Theer ; Italian, Ca- 
trame ; Spanish, Alquitran; Polish, SmolaGesta; Russian, 
Degot, Smola shitkaia ; Swedish, Tjara\ is obtained from 
wood or coal by distillation in close vessels, or in piles from 
which the air is excluded. Pitch (French, Poix ; German, 
Peek; Italian, Pcce; Spanish, Pez ; Russian, Smola gus- 
taja) is commonly obtained by the inspissation of tar, or 
by boiling it until all the volatile matters are driven off. 
lor the chemical properties of tar, see the preceding 
article. 

Tar is extensively manufactured from the roots and 
branches of pines and firs in Norway, Sweden, Germany, 
Russia, North America, and other countries in which those 
trees abound ; but that made in the north of Europe is 
considered far superior to what is produced in the United 
States. The process usually followed is described in Dr. 
E. D. Clarke's * Travels in Scandinavia,' and is, he states, 
similar to that which, according to Theophrastus and 
Dioscorides, was practised by the antient Greeks. He 
observes indeed that 4 there is not the smallest difference 
between a tar-work in the forests of Westro-Bothnia and 
those of antient Greece.' After describing the noble forests 
which cover the soil down even to the water s edge, about 
the inlets of the Gulf of Bothnia, Dr. Clarke says, • From 
the most southern parts of Westro-Bothnia to the northern 
extremity of the Grulf, the inhabitants are occupied in the 
manufacture of tar, proofs of which are visible in the whole 

extent of the coast The situation most favourable to 

the process is in a forest near to a marsh or bog ; because 
the roots of the fir, from which tar is principally extracted, 
are always most productive in such places. A conical 
cavity is then made in the ground (generally in the side of 
a bank or sloping hill), and the roots of the fir, together 
with logs and bUlets of the same, being neatly trussed in a 
stack of the same conical shape, are let into this cavity. 
The whole is then covered witn turf, to prevent the vola- 
tile parts from bejng dissipated, which, by means of a 
heavy wooden mallet, and a wooden stamper worked sepa- 
rately by two men, is beaten down and rendered as firm as 
possible above the wood. The stack of billets is then 
kindled, and a slow combustion of the fir takes place, 



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without flame, as in making charcoal. Daring this com- 
bustion the tar exudes ; and a cast-iron pan being at the 
bottom of the funnel, with a spout which projects through 
the side of the bank, barrels are placed beneath this spout 
to collect the fluid as it comes away. As fast as the bar- 
rels are filled, they are bunged and made ready for ex- 
portation.' • From this description,' he adds, « it will be 
evident that the mode of obtaining tar is by a kind of dis- 
tillation per dcscensum ; the turpentine, melted bv the 
fire, mixing with the sap and juices of the fir, while the 
wood itself, becoming charred, is converted into charcoal.' 
The process of tar-making in Sweden, north of the Both- 
nian vJulf, has been more recently described in Laing's 
4 Tour in Sweden,' in which work it is stated that fir-trees 
which are stunted in growth, or from their situation un- 
suitable for the saw-mill, are prepared for this purpose by 
peeling off the bark to the height of one or two fathoms 
up the stem. This is done by degrees, so that the tree 
may not decay and dry up at once, but may remain for 
five or six years in a vegetative state, — alive, but not 

Sowing, llie sap, thus checked in its circulation, makes 
e wood richer in tar, so that, when cut down, the tree is 
almost entirely converted into the substance from which 
tar is distilled. The roots, rotten stubs, and scorched 
trunks of trees felled in clearing land, are all applied to 
the purpose of producing tar. It is stated, in the last- 
mentioned work, that the state of the weather during the 
process of burning or distilling greatly affects the amount 
of produce. The labour required to convey the tar from 
the forests to the rivers is often very great ; and not un- 
fVequently the barrels are committed to the stream in 
order to pass rapids or falls. 

In some parts of France and Switzerland tar is extracted 
in a kind of oven or kiln, built of stone or brick, in the 
form of an egg, with its smaller end downwards. These 
kilns are sometimes as much as ten feet deep and six feet 
in diameter; and they are provided with a gun-barrel or 
tube at the lower end to conduct the tar, as it is made, to 
vessels placed to receive it. The wood is cut into billets, 
and freed from its bark; and the kiln is filled with bundles 
of billets, chips being inserted to fill up the interstices. A 
layer of chips is also placed at the top of the kiln, which, 
when charged, is covered over with flat stones, so arranged 
as to form a kind of vaulted chimney. Fire is applied to 
the diy chips at the top, through an opening left in the 
centre, and, as soon as the pile is fairly lighted, the chim- 
ney is closed in with a large stone, and wet earth is heaped 
upon the top of the kiln until the escape of smoke is effec- 
tually prevented. It is however necessary occasionally to 
refresh the fire by the admission of a little air through 
holes in the sides of the kiln. The average product of tar 
is stated to be from ten to twelve per cent, of the weight 
of the charge ; but the red wood and the knots furnish 
about one-iourth of their weight of tar. By this plan 
the wood is charred more eoually, and the tar is of 
superior quality. A considerable quantity of lamp-black 
collects upon the stones which form the roof and chimney 
of the kiln, and this is removed after each operation. Pro- 
bably a still better plan would be to distil the wood in 
close retorts, similar to those used in the manufacture of 
coal-gas ; but any such apparatus is unsuitable for the wild 
forest districts in which tar is principally made. 

The great importance of tar and pitch as naval stores 
enabled the Tar Company of Sweden, in 1703, to put Eng- 
land to considerable inconvenience, by refusing to supply 
those articles excepting at their own price, in such quan- 
tities as they might choose, and in Swedish shipping. This 
circumstance induced parliament to offer bounties for the 
importation of these and other naval stores from the 
British colonies in North America, a measure which pro- 
duced highly beneficial results. It was computed at that 
period that the annual consumption of foreign tar and 
pitch in Great Britain and Ireland was about 1000 lasts, 
and that of other European countries about 5000 lasts, of 
which four-fifths was tar ; and it was stated that besides 
Sweden, which afforded the chief supply, considerable 

auantities were made in Norway and in Russia. Probably 
tiis estimate was much too small ; for Anderson states 
that in 1/30 the quantity of tar annually shipped from 
Archangel in Russia was computed to be 40,000 lasts. 
The American war of independence, by interrupting the 
trade between England and North America, revived the 
former difficulty respecting the supply of tar, and led to 



the establishment of the manufacture of tar from pttcotl ; 
an object which had been previously attempted. Bechrr 
a foreign chemist, who Uvea about the time of Charle* II- 
is supposed to have been the first to propose the mmlrin* oi 
coal-tar ; and it was made for many years in the buhopnc 
H)f Liege, and in other parts of Germany ; the coal being dis- 
tilled in a kind of still formed of cast-iron. No. 228 of th* 
4 Philosophical Transactions' (vol. xix., p. 544), which was 
published in May, 1697, contains an * Account of the 
making (of) pitch, tar, and oil out of a blacki*h stooe a 
Shropshire, communicated by Mr. Martin Ele, the inventor 
of it. The mineral used is described as a blackish porous 
rock, lying over the strata of coal, in Broseley, Bentlj, 
Pitchford, &c. ; and the bituminous part was separated by 
breaking the rock to powder, and boiling it with water. 
About the year 1779, in consequence, as before stated, cf 
the American war, some lamp-black manufacturers at 
Bristol turned their attention to the manufacture of tar 
from pit-coal ; and in 1781, Lord Dundonald, a nobleman 
distinguished for his scientific pursuits, obtained a mtrct 
for improvements upon the process previously followed. 
Mr. Pitt, of Pendeford, near Wolverhampton, in a lettet 
addressed to the Society of Arts, in 1790, on the subject of 
converting the smoke of steam-engine furnaces into tar, 
alludes to three establishments at Bradley, Tipton, and 
Dudley Wood, erected by Lord Dundonald and the genUr- 
men associated with him ; and states that the business was 
then carried on with success. * These tar-works,' says Mr. 
Pitt, ' are erected in the vicinity of large iron and coal 
works: the iron-masters furnish the tar-works with imw 
coal gratis* and receive in return the cokes produced 
by such coal ; and the proprietors of the tar- works hare 
the smoke only for their labour and interest of cajitfcL 
(Transaction* of the Society of Arts t vol. ix., p. 132.) 1W 
process adopted at these works is fully detailed by Mr- 
Pitt. The manufacture of coal-tar has not proved so im- 
portant as was at one time anticipated, although ftr i 



purposes it is deemed superior to that made from wood. 
The author of the article 'Navy,' in the Supplement to th* 
Encyclopaedia Britannica t considers tar from tea-coal to 
be an important resource in case of England being com- 
pelled to revert to her own resources for naval stores ; 
and observes that for painting or tarring wood-work 
of every kind, it is said to stand exposure to the weather 
better than the common tar. He also refers to the pitch- 
lake of Trinidad [Trinidad J as a source whence an almost 
inexhaustible supply of mineral pitch and tar mi*ht be 
obtained. Tar is produced in large quantities in the ma- 
nufacture of coal-^as ; but in some districts its value a 
considered so trifling that it is mixed with the fuel by 
which the retorts are heated. It is usually separated from 
the gas by condensation ; but the introduction of a quan- 
tity of brushwood into the condenser, so as to form a me- 
chanical interruption to the passage cf the gas, is found 
greatly to assist the operation. 

The import duty upon tar has been for some years post 
12f. per last,* if from British possessions, and 15*. if from 
foreign countries; but under the new tariff of Sir Robert 
Peel (1842), it is respectively (kt. and 2s. &/. per last. Tfce 
quantity imported in the five years from 1835 to 1833. wu 
60,622 lasts, or about 12,124 lasts per annum ; of which 
56,106 lasts, or 11,621 lasts annually, were entered for 
home consumption. During this period the duty amounted 
to 44,023/., or upon an average 8804/. per annum. Of the 
above quantity Russia furnished about 50,155 lasts ; the 
United States, 6446 lasts ; Sweden, 2207 lasts ; Denmark, 
1300 lasts ; and Norway, 348 lasts ; the remainder beuig 
made up of small quantities from Germany, Prussia, &c. 

Pitch is extensively manufactured in Great Britain, jrt 
the quantity imported in 1829 is stated, by M*Cul)och, to 
have been about 10,752 cwt. The duty is 10rf. per cwt^ 
if from foreign countries, and 9d. if from British poaves- 
sions ; or, under the new tariff, (kt. and Id. per cut, re- 
spectively. 

(Dr. E. D. Clarke a Travels in Scandinavian sec. i., pp. 
251, 252; Laing's Tour in Sweden in 1838, p. 176; Ms*e- 
pherson's Annals of Commerce ; M'Culloch s 



of Commerce.) 
TARA. [Siberia.) 
TARABLOUS. [Syria.] 
TARAI. [Hindustan, p. 217.) 



Lhciionarp 



• Altai It twtlra faarrete, and aach baival ia» tij tin Cuataaj II jaw Mate 
ant, to contain not mora than thirty -one gallon* and a halt 



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TARAKAf is the name of a large island, which has 
long figured on our maps under the name of Saghalien or 
8egna)ian, and has at different times been supposed to be 
called Tchoka, Karafto, and Sandan. This island extends 
from south of 46° to 54° 20' N. lat., more than 600 miles in 
length, but the width is various. Towards the southern 
extremity, north of the Bay of Aniva, it is nearly 100 miles 
wide, but it soon contracts to about 25 miles, which is 
about its average width as far north as the Bay of Patience, 
where it suddenly expands to 120 miles, Cape Patience 
running far out into the Pacific. From this point (49° N. 
lat) northward the island again £rows narrower, but very 
gradually, so that at 51° N. Tat. it is still nearly 80 miles 
wide. Farther north its average width does not exceed 
80 miles. The area of the island probably exceeds 30,000 
iquare miles, which is not much more than that of Scot- 
land, if we include the islands. 

Tarakai extends along the eastern coast of Asia between 
142° and 145° E. long., and is separated from the continent 
bjr a itrait, which is called the Gulf of Tartary, because 
the country of the Mautchoos for a long time was known 
by the name of Tartary. This gulf or strait is 200 miles 
mde at its most southern extremity, but it grows nar- 
rower as we advance farther north, until near 51° 30' N. 
lat. it is less than 40 miles wide. So far this sea has been 
navigated, but at that point a shoal extends across the 
jrulf, on which there is only water for boats. That portion 
of the gulf which lies between 51° 30' and 52° 30' N. lat. 
is not known. Krusenstern thinks that this part of the 
uland of Tarakai is united to the continent of Asia by an 
isthmus, but La Pe rouse expressly states that dried fish is 
tarried from the western shores of the island to the river 
Amur in boats, which could not be done if the isthmus of 
Krusenstern existed. It may appear strange that these two 
navigators have not been able to decide this point, as one 
bailed up from the south to 51° 30', and the other from the 
north to nearly 53° N. lat., but they found the sea always 
covered with thick fogs, and hardly ever could se« a few 
miles before them, and the water shoaled so suddenly and 
constantly that they did not think it advisable to proceed 
farther. If an isthmus exists, it must be near 52r 30' N. 
lat., where a Jow sandy cape certainly stretches so far to 
the east as to approach very near the western shores of the 
island. North of this narrow and shallow part, the gulf 
presents a circular basin, about 50 miles wide, which re- 
ceives the waters of the river Amur, and is therefore called 
by Krusenstern the Li man of the Amur. This basin is 
united with the sea of Okhotzk by a strait, which in the 
narrowest part is about ten miles wide. It does not ap- 
pear that there is any current in this gulf, which is 
in favour of the opinion of Krusenstern. The southern 
extremity of Taiaka'i is divided from the island of Yeso by 
the Strait of La Perouse, which, between Cape Crillon on 
Tarakai and between Cape Soja on Yeso, is nardly thirty 
miles wide, and in which the tides run with great velocity. 
LarVrouse, who visited the Gulf of Tartary in June, found 
that southern winds were blowing nearly uninterruptedly ; 
but Broughton, who was there in September, experienced 
eastern and north-eastern winds. 

Though the coast of the island is of great extent and 
much indented, it does not appear that there are many 
good harbours. Along the western shores only open roacf- 
tteads have been found. At the southern extremity of 
the island, between Cape Crillon and Cape Aniva, is a 
wide open bay, the Bay of Aniva, which is enclosed by two 
projecting tongues of land, and extends 50 miles from 
south to north. There is good anchorage at its most 
northern extremity. The projecting headland, which 
occurs near 40 9 N. lat., on the eastern side of Tarakai, and 
terminates with Cape Patience, encloses the Bay of Pa- 
tience, which is very extensive, but open and exposed to 
eastern and southern winds. At the most northern ex- 
tremity of the island is the Northern Bay, between the 
eape of that name and Cape Mary. It is not very large, 
aad offers in several places jsjood anchorage and shelter. 

The island is naturally divided into three tracts : the 
mountainous, which occupies the southern portion ; the 
level, in the middle ; and the hilly tract, which extends 
over the northern districts. The mountain-region is the 
largest, and comprehends more than one-half of the island, 
terminating on the north at Cape Delisle de la Croyere 
'near 51* N. lat.). A chain of mountains begins at Cape 
CriBon, and continues in an uninterrupted line northward 



to an elevated summit called Peak Bernizel, where it 
seems to be united to another and lower chain, which 
traverses the eastern peninsula, and incloses the Bay of 
Aniva on the east. Cape Aniva is formed by a high 
isolated hill, which is connected by a low isthmus with 
the chain of lulls which lies farther north, and joins the 
principal range at Peak Bernizel. Farther north occur 
other summits, as Peak Lamanon, Peak Mongez, and Mount 
Tiara : the two last mentioned are north of 50° N. lat. 
None of these summits have been measured, but their 
elevation probably does not exceed 5000 feet above the 
sea-level. Along the western coast the mountains in some 
places come close up to the water's edge, but a narrow level 
tract generally separates them from the shore, and this 
tract is covered with high trees, while the delivities of the 
mountains are mostly bare, probably owing to the rapidity 
of their slope. Extensive flats occur at Aniva Bay and the 
Bay of Patience. The low country which skirts the shore 
on the eastern side of the mountains appears to be more 
extensive and less interrupted than that along the western 
shores. On the eastern side the shore in some places is 
level and low, and in others elevated. The country ex- 
tending from 51° to 53° N. lat. is so low that the shores are 
not visible at the distance of five or six miles, and it is 
sandy and overgrown with bushes. The interior is in gene- 
ral level, partly sandy and partly swampy, and a great part 
of it is covered with short pushes or small trees. A num- 
ber of low sand-hills are dispersed over the country, which 
are destitute of trees, and appear like islands in a sea of 
verdure. The hilly tract occupies the most northern part 
of the island, or that which extends from 53° N. lat. to 
Cape Elizabeth. The coast is in general high and steep, 
being generally composed of perpendicular white clifts. 
There are only a few tracts in which the coast sinks down 
to the level of the sea ; and here the villages are built. 
The interior consists of a succession of hi^h hills covered 
with full-grown trees to the very summits ; the valleys 
which intervene between them are partly wooded and 
partly covered with a fine close turf. This part of Tarakai 
seems to possess a considerable degree of fertility. 

Climate.— As European navigators have only occasion-; 
ally visited this island, and have only stayed there a few 
days, or at the utmost a couple x>f weeks, our information 
respecting the climate is extremely deficient. VVe only 
know that even at the beginning of June the higher sum- 
mits of the mountains have still some snow on them, which 
indicates that the country must be much colder than Great 
Britain, which is nearly at the same distance from the 
pole : otherwise the summer months seem to be temperate, 
but the continual fogs which enclose the island nearly all 
the year round are more dense than those that occur on 
the coasts of Nova Scotia. 

Productions.— No kind of grain is cultivated, not even 
round the settlements of the Japanese, nor are orchards or 
kitchen-gardens mentioned. The inhabitants however de- 
rive profit from the spontaneous products of the soil : they 
dry tlie roots of a species of lily for winter food, and collect 
great quantities of garlic and, angelica, which are found 
on the skirts of the woods. The forests consist of oak, 
maple, birch, and medlar, but chiefly of fir. Large tracts 
are covered with juniper-trees. Gooseberries, raspberries, 
and strawberries abound, and also wild celery and water- 
cresses. It does not appear that wild animals are nu- 
merous : only martens and bears are mentioned, and even 
these do not seem to be common. The sea supplies the 
inhabitants with the means of subsistence. Salmon is 
perhaps nowhere so abundant as in the Gulf of Tartary. 
The account of La Perouse in this respect seems hardly 
credible. Dried and smoked salmon, together with the 
skins of salmon, are prepared for the foreign market, and 
constitute the principal articles of export. Herrings, 
which are very abundant, are likewise cured and exported. 
Cod occurs, but it does not seem to be taken to such an 
amount as to form an article of export. Whales are nu- 
merous in the Strait of La Perouse and along the eastern 
coast, and train-oil in bladders is an article of export. In 
the same parts seals, fur-seals (Phoca ur$ina\ sea-lions 
(Phoca jubata\ and sea-otters (Lutra tnqrina) are very 
frequent. No mines are worked. 

The inhabitants are aborigines, among whom a few Japa- 
nese have settled on the Bay of Aniva, and a few Mantchoos 
on the Northern Bay. In the Japanese settlements are a 
few Japanese officers, but no Chinese authorities have l?eeu 



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leen, nor is this island enumerated among the possessions 
of the Chinese. The aborigines call themselves Ainos (*>. 
men), and are at present known under that name as a nation. 
This nation extends northward to the peninsula of Kamt- 
chatka, of which it occupies the most southern extremity 
near Cape Lopatka, and it inhabits the Kurile Islands, the 
Japanese island of Yeso, TarakaT, and the coast of the 
continent of Asia from the mouth of the Amur river south- 
ward to the very boundary-line of Corea. They never cul- 
tivate the soil, nor apply themselves to hunting wild 
animals, and they keep no domestic animals except dogs, 
which they use in winter for drawing their sledges, like 
the inhabitants of Kamtchatka. La Perouse found them 
somewhat shorter in stature than Europeans, rarely ex- 
ceeding five feet six inches, and some hardly five feet. 
Their countenances are benevolent and friendly ; they have 
tolerably larsre eyes, thick lips, rather high cheek-bones, 
and a somewhat broad and compressed nose. Their cheeks 
and chins are covered with long, thick, black beards : there 
are many individuals whose body is covered with hair, 
as occasionally is the case in Europe. The only kind of 
manufacture among them is a kind of cloth made of the 
bark of willow-trees, which are very common in the island, 
and do not seem to differ from the European species. They 
use in this manufacture a machine. The other articles of 
cloth they obtain by barter from the Japanese and Mant- 
choos. They show also some skill in the erection of their 
huts and the building of their boats. Their huts are of 
wood, covered with the white bark of birch, and have a 
roof of wood thatched with dry straw. La Perouse com- 
pares them with the cottages of the peasants of Prance. 
Their boats are of large size and strongly built. Some of 
their costumes are evidently adopted from the Chinese, as 
the practice of letting their nails grow to a considerable 
length, and their mode of saluting by prostration. Like 
them, they sit on mats, and cat with little sticks. Their 
language does not resemble either that of the Japanese, 
Chinese, or Mantchoos. The Mantchoos visit the northern 
and western coast to barter dried and smoked salmon, and 
dried herrings, for some nankeens, tobacco, and utensils. 
The Japanese visit the southern and eastern districts, 
where they obtain train-oil, herrings and salmon, and a 
few furs, and give in return lacquered wooden eating and 
drinking vessels, tobacco and tobacco-pipes, kitchen uten- 
sils, rice, coarse cotton-cloth, and some minor articles. 

(La P6 rouse's Voyage round the World; Brought on's 
Voyage of Discovery in the Northern Part of the Pacific; 
Krusenstern, Voyage round the World; and Krusenstern's 
Recueil de M&moires explicatifs, $c. ; Langsdorf 's Voyages 
and Travels in various Parts of the World.) 
TARANTA'SIA, or TARANTAISE. [Savoy.] 
TARANTISMUS is tho name given to a peculiar 
nervous affection which was long supposed to be the con- 
sequnce of the bite of the Tarantula Spider. It seems to 
have occurred frequently in the kingdom of Naples during 
the sixteenth century, and to have been nearly similar in 
its characters to the disease which was originally called 
St. Vitus's dance [Chorea], and to that which has occa- 
sionally prevailed in parts of Scotland, and has been called 
the * leaping ague.* 

The patients, nearly all of whom were women, soon 
after being bitten (as it was supposed) used to fall into a 
profound stunor, from which nothing roused them but the 
sound of sucn music as pleased them, on hearing which 
they had an irresistible desire to dance. So long as the 
music continued, and was in tune and sufficiently lively, 
they would go on jumping and dancing till tney fell 
exhausted; and, all the time, some used to shriek, some 
to laugh and sing, some to weep. When, after a short rest, 
they had recovered from their fatigue, they would again 
begin to dance with as much vigour as before, unless the 
music were played slowly or confusedly, when they would 
stop and grow anxious and melancholy, or even, if the 
music were not soon made agreeable to them, would fall 
into a dangerous state of stupor. The disease used to last 
about four days, and seemea to be cured by the profuse 
perspirations brought on by the active exercise ; but it 
often returned at the same time in the following year, or 
even for a succession of years, and on every occasion 
required the same treament. 

Since it has been found that the bite of the Tarantula 
can produce no such strange effects as these, many have 
suspected that the disease ascribed to it never really 



existed, but was feigned for the purpose of exdtiag pity 
or for the pleasure of dancing. There is good rea»o* to 
believe that in most instances it was merely counterfeited : 
but there can be no doubt that such a disease had o umi d 
and had given occasion to the practice of the fraud. 
Besides its similarity to diseases whose reality is generally 
admitted, such as the St. Vitus'* dance and the leaptajr- 
ague, cases have occasionally been met with to recent 
times which closely resemble it, and in which there covld 
be no just suspicion of fraud. Such a case is described 
by Mr. K. Wood, in the seventh volume of the * Medico- 
Chirurgical Transactions;' another is recorded by Mr. 
Crichton, in the 31st volume of the * Edinburgh Medical 
and Surgical Journal ;' and in the ' Cyclopaedia of Prac- 
tical Medicine/ art. ' Chorea,* several cases of anaJogoos 
affections are related. All these however occurred sinc^J 
That the Tarantismus and the St. Vitus'* dance should have 
assumed the characters of epidemics may be ascribed to 
their propagating themselves, as all convulsive affection 
are apt to do among nervous and superstitious persona, 
by the propensity to imitation, the effects of which are still 
frequently seen in the production of hysteria, chorea, and 
other similar diseases. 

TATIANTO, a town of Apulia, in the kingdom of 
Naples, in the administrative province of Lecce, or Terra 
d'Otranto. It is an archbishop's see, and the head towm 
of a district : it contains 18,000 inhabitants. It o ccu p i es 
only a small part of the site of the antient Tarentun. 
being confined to the island- or peninsula at the cnUau ce 
of the inner harbqur or Mare piccolo, on which formerly 
stood the fortress or acropolis of Tarentum. There a** 
few remains of the antient town. Modern Tarento i* ili 
built : it is fortified and has a castle, several churches mM 
convents. It carries on some trade by sea in small craft* 
It has also some manufactures of linen and of * praam 
marina,' the name of a land of mussel or shell-fish, the 
silky filaments of which are woven into gloves and other 
articles. A part of the population is employed in fistnnqr/. 
Excellent oysters are found on the coast. The inner port 
is nearly filled up, but the outer or large port is accessible 
to vessels of good size, and is protected by two sdands 
which are situated at the mouth. Taranto has the advan- 
tage of being the only safe harbour in that part of the 
eastern coast of Italy which extends from Messina to Gape 
Leucas. The large gulf which lies between the coast of 
Calabria and the Iapygpan peninsula is called the gulf of 
Taranto. Much wool is grown in the neighbourhood of 
Taranto. Two lagoons, one of them of considerable extent, 
which lie south-east of the town, and which comiDintieaic 
with the sea, yield a great quantity of salt by evaporation. 
The district of Taranto contains above 87.000 inhabitant*. 
rOTRANTo, Terra di.] (Neigebaur ; Serristori ; ACaa <fc 
Rivera, Considerazioni suite due Sicilie; Petroni, Cem- 
simento dei Reali Dominj.) 

Antient Tarentum, the Taras (Tapat) of the Greeks. «rs» 
one of the principal, or rather the principal Greek dry oo the 
east coast of Italy. It is said to have been a town of the 
Messapians, to which were joined some Cretan colonists from 
the neighbouring town of Uria. About 694 b.c, according 
to the story, Phalantus, one of the Parthenis?, or illegiti- 
mate sons of the Spartan women born during the abseoc* 
of their husbands in the first Messenian war, having left 
his country with a number of others of the same condition, 
arrived on the coast of Iapygia, took Tarentum, and ex- 
pelled the original inhabitants. He organized the nrw 
colony, and remained at the head of it until he was ex- 
pelled by an insurrection, and withdrew to Brundtmmn, 
where he died. (Justin, iii. 4.) A war between the T»- 
ren tines and the Iapygians ensued, in which the people of 
Rhegium assisted the Tarentines, but they were deiesUid 
by the Iapygians, who destroyed a great number of tho 
Tarentines. (Diodorus, xi.) Tarentum however recovered 
from its losses, and it flourished by commerce, acquired 
a considerable extent of territory, and became the nao»t 
powerful city of Magna Grecia. Heraclea was a colooy 
of Tarentum. Herodotus (.iii. 136) mentions Amtophihde* 
as king of Tarentum in the time of Darius Hystaspe*. 
The government however underwent several changes* aoU 
Strabo (vi. 103) speaks of Tarentum as being at one time 
a democracy. Archytas, a native of Tarentum, is said to 
have made a body of laws for the Tarentines. [ Abchytaj.] 
About 338 n.c. the Tarentines, being engaged in war 
with their neighbours the Lucanians, applied to Sparta 



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for assistance. Archidamus, the son of Agesilaus, was 
sent to them, and he was killed in fighting on their side. 
Some years after, being hard pressed by the Lucanians 
and firuttii, the Tarentines applied to Alexander, king of 
Epirus, and uncle to Alexander the Great. He came to 
Italy with troops, obtained considerable advantages, but 
was at last surprised and killed by the Bruttii, near Pan- 
doaa, B.C. 323. (Justin, xii. 2 ; Livy, viii. 24.). The Ta- 
rentines had by this time degenerated ; like most of the 
Greeks on the Italian coast, they had become luxurious 
tnd effeminate. JEhaxi ( Far. Hist., xii. 30) speaks of their 
habit of drinking early in the morning, and their appear- 
ing intoxicated in the forum. 

In the year 282 B.C. the Romans, after having conquered 
the Samnitea, made war upon the Lucanians. The Taren- 
tines, who saw with jealousy the encroachments of Rome, 
unexpectedly attacked a Roman fleet, commanded by 
the Proconsul L. Valerius, which was sailing near their 
coast, and killed a great many of the crew. The Roman 
senate sent commissioners to demand reparation for the 
outrage, but the Tarentines treated them with insult. 
Aroused however to a sense of their danger, they applied 
to Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, for assistance, and sent vessels 
to convey him over with his troops, b.c. 281. Pyrrhus 
toon found that the Tarentines were too effeminate to 

S>e him much support, and he was obliged to assume a 
ctatoria] power in order to enforce something like order 
and obedience among them. Chiefly with his own troops, 
be carried on the war against Rome for several years, but 
was at last defeated by the consul M. Curius Dentatus, and 
obliged to re-embark for Epirus ; leaving however a garri- 
son in Tarentum, b.c 275. [Pyrrhus.] The Tarentines 
haviog shortly after quarrelled with the Epirote garrison, 
applied to the Carthaginians for assistance to drive away 
the Epirotes. The Romans having had notice of this 
negotiation through Milo, the Epirote commander, sent 
the consul L. Papirius Cursor, who took Tarentum, and 
allowed the Epirote garrison to return home. It appears 
however from Iiyy (Epitome, xv. 1) that the Tarentines, 
though treated with severity, were placed in the condition 
of allies of Rome, which they continued to be till after 
the battle of Cannae, when Hannibal, who occupied Cam- 
pania and Apulia, began to carry on secret intelligence 
with some of the Tarentine chief citizens, who were dis- 
satisfied with their forced Roman alliance. 

In the year 212 b.c. the hostages of the Tarentines ran 
away from Rome, but being pursued and overtaken near 
Tenacina, they were brought back, and after being beaten 
with rods were thrown down the Tarpeian rock. This 
cruel punishment irritated the people of Tarentum, an 
agreement waa made with Hannibal, and his troops were 
admitted irito the city by night. The Roman garrison 
stationed in the citadel was besieged by sea and by land. 
The example of Tarentum was followed by Metapontum 
and Thnnum. The Roman garrison in the citadel of 
Tarentum defended it most gallantly, although they suf- 
fered greatly from want of provisions. An attempt which 
was made to introduce supplies by vessels from Sicily was • 
defeated by the Tarentine squadron under Democrates, 
with the loss of several Roman ships. In 209 b.c. the 
consul Q. Fabius Maximus retook Tarentum bv surprise, 
and through the treachery of the garrison left by Hanni- 
oal, which consisted of Bruttian auxiliaries. The Taren- 
tines made only a slight defence. Nico, Democrates, and 
Philomenua, the leaders of the" party which was hostile to 
Rome, fell during the assault. A great booty was made 
by the Romans, said to be nearly equal to that made at 
the taking of Syracuse. But the consul Fabius abstained 
from taking the statues of the gods, saying he would leave 
to the Tarentines their angry deities. (Lavy, xxv. 7, 11 ; 
xxvi. 39 ; and xxvii. 15, 16.) 

From that time Tarentum remained in subjection to 
Rome; and although it greatly declined in wealth and 
importance, it was still a considerable place in the time of 
Augustus. Horace calls it 4 molle Tarentum' (Sa/ir., ii. 
*;. and 4 imbelle Tarentum ' (Epist., i. 7). The Greek 
linguage and manners were retained by the inhabitants 
even alter the fall of the Western Empire. Tarentum was 
ooe of the chief strongholds retained by the Byzantine em- 
perors in Southern Italy. About a.d. 774, Romualdus, the 
Longobard duke of Beneventum, took Tarentum from the 
Byzantines. The Saracens landed at Tarentum about a.d. 
&Q. The town was afterwards several times taken and re- 
P. C,, No. 1495. 



taken and sacked, and it was during this period thai the old 
town on the mainland was abandoned, and the inhabitants 
retired to the island as being more fitted to their reduced 
numbers, and also better capable of defence. At the break- 
ing up of the ^ongobard state of Beneventum, Tarentum 
was for a time a separate principality, like Capua and Sa- 
lernum. In the eleventh century it was taken by the Nor- 
mans with the rest of Apulia, and Robert Guiscard made 
his son Bohemund prince of Tarentum. Under the Suabian 
dynasty, Frederic II. gave the principality of Tarentum to 
his illegitimate son Manfred. Charles II. of Anjou gave it 
to his younger son Philip, whose descendants acted a con- 
siderable part in the civil wars of the kingdom of Naples 
under Joanna I. Tarentum came afterwards into the 
possession of the powerful family of the Orsini, upon whose 
extinction it reverted to the crown. 

(Giannone ; Giovani, De Antiquitate et varia Tarenti- 
norum Fortuna ; D' Aquino, Delicice Tarentinee LibrilV. % 
Naples, 1771.) 

TARARE. [Rh6nb.] 

TARASCON, a town in France, in the department of 
Bouches du Rhdne, 452 miles south-south-east of Paris, by 
Auxerre, Lyon, Valence, Le Pont St. Esprit, and Beaucaire ; 
and 48 miles west-north-west of Aix, the capital of the 
department. 

Tarascon is mentioned by Strabo, who writes the name 
Tapaffttitv, and by Ptolemy, who writes it Ta/>ovac£y ; but it 
appears to have been of little importance in antient times. 
Under the counts of Provence, to whom in the middle 
ages it was subject, it was of more consequence from its 
frontier position. It had a castle at least as early as a.d. 
1251 ; of which the present castle occupies the site. This 
latter was built, according to Millin, by Louis II. of Anjou, 
count of Provence (a.d. 1384-1417); but according to 
other authorities Charles II. le Boiteux (a.d. 1285-1309) 
commenced the structure and Louis finished it. It is popu- 
larly called * Chfiteau du Roi Rene' (' King Rene's Castle'), 
but it was undoubtedly erected before his accession. 

The town is on the left bank of the Rhdne, immediately 
opposite Beaucaire, on a rocky site sufficiently elevated 
above the bed of the river to secure it from inundation. 
The communication with Beaucaire was antiently by a 
stone bridge ; a mass of stone-work, the remains of this 
bridge, lately existed, and probably still exists, in the middle 
of the river, between the two towns ; the rest of the bridge 
had been swept away by the stream. In later times the 
communication was by two bridges of boats, extending 
one from each bank to this fragment of the old bridge. 
Within the last few years a suspension bridge of iron-bars 
has been constructed. 

Tarascon is surrounded by an old ruined wall flanked 
with towers, and is entered by three gates. Some of the 
streets are straight and tolerably wide. The castle is a pic- 
turesque Gothic building of freestone in pretty good pre- 
servation : from the platform on the top of the castle there 
is an extensive view along the valley of the Rhdne. Sainte 
Marthe (Martha) is the principal church in the town ; in 
the crypt is a monument with a marble statue apparently 
sculptured early in the 16th century, and shown as the 
monument of Sainte Marthe. In the same church is the 
uncouth figure of a monster called the Tarasque, which, 
according to the legend, fed on human flesh and haunted 
the banks of the Rhdne between Aries and Tarascon, and 
was overcome by Sainte Marthe. This figure is paraded 
through the city on Whit-Monday amidst the shouts of 
the idlers of the place, whose riotous behaviour frequently 
leads to serious accidents : it also makes part of the pro- 
cession on the festival of Sainte Marthe. These customs, 
which had been disused after the Revolution, were renewed 
under the empire of Napoleon, if not before. There are 
a town-hall, a court-house, a commercial court {Tribunal 
de Commerce)* two hospitals, a theatre, barracks, and 
abattoirs, or public slaughter-houses ; these are most of 
them, if not ail, modern buildings. 

The population of the commune, in 1831, was 9225 for 
the town, or 10,967 for the whole commune. The neigh- 
bourhood of the town is very fertile, and a considerable 
trade is carried on in corn, wine, and oil ; the townsmen 
are engaged in throwing silk and spinning cotton-yarn, 
and in manufacturing hussars' and grenadiers' caps, nata, 
brandy, vinegar, and starch; there are tan-yards and 
cooperages. There are three fairs in the year. The in- 
dustry of the inhabitants and their lively temperament 

Vol. XXIV.— I 



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impart to the place an air of life and activity which con- 
trasts remarkably with the ordinary dulness of Beaucaire. 
Tarascon has a communal college or high school and 
a public library of 2000 rols. : it was the birth-place of 
Leon MAnard,the antiquary. The town was for a long 
time after the Revolution the seat of a subprefecture, 
or capital of an arrondissement ; but about the time of 
the first restoration of the Bourbons, the subprefecture 
was removed to Aries. 

( Vaysse de Villiers, Itineraire Descriptif de Ut France ; 
Millin, Voyage dans les Departemens du Midi de Id 
France ; Dictionnaire Gibgraphiqve Vntversel.) 

There is another town in France called Tarascon, in the 
department of Aridge, and on the river Arlege above Foix : 
it is from its position sometimes distinguished asTarascon- 
sur-Ariege. D'Anville is disposed to identify it with the 
Tarusconienses of Pliny (Hist. Nat., lib, iii., c. 5, 6), which 
others would fix at Tarascon on the Rh6ne. Tarascon- 
sur-Ariege is a small place, a mart of the ironstone dug 
in the adjacent Pyrenees. The population is probably 
about 1500. 
TARA'XACUM. [LbontodotU 
TARAZO'NA, a considerable district of Aragon in 
Spain, bordering on the north and east on the province of 
Navarre ; on the south on the province of Sona ; and on 
the west on the Corregimiento de Borja. The capital, 
Tarazona, the antient Turiaso, is situated at the fbot of a 
lofty mountain-range called the Moncayo, on the banks of 
the river Queiles, in 41° 55' N. lat., 2° 4' W. long. Tara- 
zona is the see of a bishop, whd is suffragan of Saragossa. 
The town is badly built, and the streets narrow and 
crooked. With the exception of the cathedral, a fine 
Gothic pile erected in the thirteenth century, there is no 
other building worth notice. Minano (Diccionario Geo- 
grajico, vol. viii.,p. 392) estimates the papulation of TWa- 
zona at 10,000 inhabitants, in 1827. "ihe neighbourhood 
is well cultivated, and yields abundant crops of all sorts* of. 
grain. There is also a small town in La Mancha called 
Tarazona. 

TARBES, a town in France, capital of the department 
or Hautes Pyrenees, or High Pyrenees : about 400 miles 
from Paris, in a direct line south-south-west ; 453 miles 
by the shortest road through Orleans, Chflteauroux, Limo- 
ges, Pe"rigueux, Agen, and Auch : or 533 miles by Limo- 
ges, Cahors, Montauban, Toulouse, and Auch, which is the 
route given by Reichard in his Itinei-aire. It is in 43° 13' 
N. lat. and 0° 5' E. long. 

Tarbes is mentioned in the c Notitia Provinciarum et 
Civitatum Galliae,' where it is called Turba : it was the 
chief town of the Bigerrones, Bigerri, or Begerri, a nation 
which has given name to the district of Bigorre. In the 
town or adjacent to it was a fortress, called, in the * Notitia,' 
Castrum Bigorra^ the site of which is now occupied by 
the cathedral. In the middle ages, Tarbes was the capita] 
of the county of Bigorre ; it suffered from the ravages or 
the Saracens and the Normans, and was held for a time 
by the English. There was some sharp fighting near the 
town, in the campaign of the Duke of Wellington, a.d. 1814. 
Tarbes is situated in a fertile plain, nearly 1000 feet 
above the level of the sea, watered by the Adour (on the 
lefl bank of which the town stands) and by the Lechez, 
and bounded on the south by the Pyrenees. The town is 
walled ; the streets are well laid out, broad, paved, and 
watered by little brooks or streams, which contribute both 
to coolness and cleanliness. There are two public places 
or squares, that of Maubourget, which is planted with 
trees, and that of Marcadieu, remarkable for its size ; be- 
side these two places, there is an agreeable promenade, 
called Le Prado, outside the walls. The houses in the 
town are generally of two or three stories, well built, of 
brick, some of marble, and roofed with slates. They have 
for the most part good gardens. The principal public 
buildings are the cathedral ; the prefect's office, formerly 
the residence of the bishop, which from its elevated situa- 
tion commands a pleasant prospect; and a handsome 
theatre of quite modern erection. The old castle of the 
counts of Bigorre is used as a prison. Tarbes has five 
faubourgs, or suburbs, on the five roads which lead from 
it in different directions: the suburbs are tnat of Rabas- 
tens on the east, on the right bank of the Adour. which 
separates it from the town; that of Vic on the north ; that 
of Bagneies on the south: all on the roads leading respec- 
tively to those places; tnat of Sainte Anne on Die west, 



on the road to Pan ; and that of Sainte Catbenat on tbm 
south-west, on the road to Lourdes and Angelica. 

The population of the, commune, in 1826, was 8712; in 
1831, 9706 ; in 1836, 12,630. There are copper-mills and 
manufactories for copper utensils, paper-nulls, and tan- 
yards ; the town is the general mart for the supply of tfct 
department ; there is a considerable market every fortnijrht 
for agricultural produce of every kind and for cattle, noct 
frequented by the Spaniards, who make large purchases of 
live stock. There is a marble-quarry near the town. 

Tarbes has a subordinate court of justice and a commer- 
cial court, some fiscal and other government oftres ; a 
communal hijjh school with a library, and school btritdinet 
of good architecture ; a free school of drawing and arvhi- 
tecture ; an hospital ; a society of agriculture ; and a form- 
ment stud, for which there are two large range* of stables 
and a handsome riding-school, just outside the town. 

The arrondissement of Tarbes has an area of 905 square 
miles, and comprehends 197 communes : the pojMilaftoa, 
in 1831, was 104,022; in 1838, 110,542; and is dr**Vd 
into eleven cantons, or districts, each under a justice sf 
the peace. The bishopric of Tarbes dates from the sum 
century, and how comprehends the department: the 
bishop is a suffragan of the archbishop of Auch. 

(Millin, Voyage dans les Dip. du Midi de Us From*; 
Malte Brun, Giographie UniverseUe ; Dieticm nmr* Geo- 
graphique Universe!.) 

TARDI'GRADA, Cuvier's name for the first family ef 
the Edentata, comprising, of Hving genera, the 8fe*ha 
only. [At ; Unau.J The Tardigrada form the eighth 
order in Wiper's method, and comprise the Sloths and 
Prochilus; but the latter cannot be said to have any 
claim to such a collocation. [Bear, vol. iv., pp. 90, 9lJ] 
TARDI'VOLA, Mr. Swainson's name for a genus of 
the subfamily TAXAGitrN*, and thus characterised by 
him : — 

Bill lengthened, conic, somewhat slender ; the aides not 
gibbous ; the commissure slightly or not at all stnumfed. 
Wings very short ; the first quill shorter than the lour 
next, which are equal and longest. Tail lengthened, ca- 
rt eat ed or graduated. Feet large. Tarsus and toes lone;. 
Outer toe rather shorter than the inner. Claws slender. 
slightly curved. 
Example, Tardivola sphenura. [Tanagem.] 
TARE. We hardly know whether all the words fern 
trety doff', suttie, gross, net, are still used in commerce ; 
they all hold their places in works of arithmetic. Tarw 
is said to be the allowance for the weight of the box or 
bag in which goods are packed ; tret, an allowance of 
41b. in ltMlb. for waste ; doff, an allowance of 21b. » 
3cwt., that the weight may hold good when, soM by re- 
tail ; the gross weight, that of the goods and packsure afl 
together ; the suttie Weight, that which remains when 
tare only is allowed ; the net weight, that which remains 
when all allowances are made. We shall merely state 
what we know of these words. 

Tare (written tarn in some of our older arithmetical 
works) is made from the Italian tarare, to abate. In that 
language tara is a technical term implying abatement ctf 
any kind, not for weight of package only. We br&r*v 
cloffio have been the English word which original It Wood 
for the allowance for package: in our older anthmc- 
ticians, tare and clofTc generally go together, and tV 
latter seems to be for the package, the former for other 
abatements. CfoJT or dough is defined in an old dic- 
tionary as that wherein any thing is put for carriage ab. 
Humphrey Baker (1562) sneaks only of tare and ckrffr ; 
Masterson (1592\of tara, cloffe, and tret but the first two 
terms are used together. We cannot find cfofF used in the 
sense given to it oy our modern books of arithmetic until 
about the end of the seventeenth century. 

Tret seems to be from the Italian trttare, to crumble. 
Stevinus, in his Latin treatise on book -keeping, nses r»- 
tertrimentum in the sense of deduction from the quantity 
charged for. Gross weight needs no explanation ; the 
Italian form neito was formerly used for net weight. It 
being well known that these terms generally come to na 
from the Italian, we must suppose suttie to be from #a*- 
tile, which is used in the sense of fine and valuable, and 
b applied to the finer part, as separated from the coarser. 
One of our old writers (Masterson, * Arirhmetike,* 156c* 
uses suttie weight in a manner which makes tta msajrtna 
we see the origin of the hundred weight being a bup oac* 



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and twelve pounds. Without any explanation, as if it ware 
matter of notoriety, he contrasts guttle and averdupoU 
weight, the former having 100 pounds to the hundred- 
weight, the latter 112. In the rougher sort of goods, at 
the same period, the tare was (as appears by the tables 
they give) very often 12 pounds in 112: perhaps then the 
hundredweight of 112 pounds was only an allowance for 
the weight of the box, barrel, or other package. 

TAR&S are a most important green crop in the improved 
systems of agriculture, especially on heavy soils, where 
uSev thrive best. When sown in autumn, with a small 
sprinkling of wheat or rye, they cover the ground in spring, 
and supply abundance of fodder in summer. A good crop 
of tares is fully equal in value, if not superior, to one of 
red clover : it comes off the ground in sufficient time to 
five the land a hasty summer tillage, which is so useful 
in destroying weeds, and to allow turnips to be sown in 
the same season. They smother annual weeds if the crop 
is plentiful, which should always be secured by an abun- 
dant manuring: thus they are a good substitute for a 
summer fallow in heavy soils, and amply repay the labour 
ted manure bestowed upon them. 

There are many species and varieties of tares ; but that 
which is found the best adapted for agricultural purposes 
is the common tare ( Vicia sativa), of which there are two 
principal varieties, very slightly differing in appearance, 
one or which is hardy, and will stand the severest winters : 
the other is more tender, and is therefore only sown in 
sprine; but it has the advantage of vegetating more 
rapidly, so that spring tares sown in March will be fit to 
cut within a fortnight or three weeks after those which 
were sown in autumn. By sowing them at regular inter- 
vals from September to May, a succession of green tares 
in perfection, that is, in bloom, or when the pods are 
formed, may be cut for several months, from May to Oc- 
tober. A prudent farmer arranges his crops so that he 
shall have artificial green food for his horses and cattle at 
least six months in the year, by having tares fit to cut 
between the first and second cut of clover. When there 
are more tares than is absolutely required for this purpose, 
and the weather permits, they make excellent hay ; or, if 
the weather is not favourable, they are cut and given to 
sheep, which are folded on the portion already cut. It 
is an advantage to have portable racks tor this purpose, 
that the fodder may not be trod under foot and wasted ; 
or the tares may be placed between hurdles, tied two and 
two, which form extemporaneous racks. It is prudent to 
raise sufficient seed for another year ; but a crop of seed- 
tares raised for sale is seldom profitable, as they greatly 
exhaust the soil: and the price varies so much in dif- 
ferent seasons, that it becomes too much of a specula- 
tion for a fanner. The difficulty in distinguishing the seed 
of the winter tare from the spring variety is so great, that 
it should either be raised at home, or only purchased from 
neighbours, or from the most respectable seedsmen. It 
is a common practice with dealers to mix the seeds of the 
winter tares, after the time of sowing is past, with spring 
tares, wbiph are ii) request at a later period. The incon- 
venience of this is, that they do not vegetate equally, and 
consequently the winter tare is not in bloom when the 
spring tare is fit for the scythe. Foreign tares, which are 
imported in large quantities, are often the growth of 
southern climates, and will not stand the winter ; or they 
hare been raised from seed sown in spring, so as to be 
really spring tares. The difference is probably more owing 
to babit than to any real botanical distinction between 
them. When spring tares are sown in autumn instead of 
winter tares, they may occasionally stand the frost, if not 
very severe; but, in general, they rot on the ground 
and never recover ; whereas the real hardy winter tares, 
whose vegetation is slower, seem insensible to the severest 
frosts. 

la the early part of summer green rye and tares, mixed, 
lie sold at a great price in large towns, for horses which 
have worked hard and been highly fed in winter. They 
act as a gentle laxative, and cool the blood : near London, 
itere every produce is forced with an abundance of 
Bjanure, tares are >*>ften fit to cut early in May, and the 
taad is immediately ploughed and planted with potatoes, 
or sown with mangel wurzel or ruta baga, which come 
off in September or October, in time for wheat-sowing. 
Ihof twP very profitable crops are raised during the time 
that title land, according to the old system, would have 



been (allow ; and at the same time it is left as clean, by 
careful hoeing, as the best fallow would have made it. 

There are a great many species of tares or vetches, for 
the terms are synonymous, many of which have been pro- 
posed to be introduced into general cultivation ; but none 
seem, on the whole, to be so well adapted to our climate 
as the common tare : some have biennial and some pe- 
rennial roots. The Vicia biennis has a strong stem and 
large leaves, and grows four or five feet high ; but it is not 
so succulent as the common sort. It might, perhaps, by 
cultivation and early cutting, become a useful early fodder, 
and it may be worth while to make some experiments 
with it. There are several species of tares which grow 
wild in bushes and hedges; but they have never been 
cultivated in the fields, perhaps from tne difficulty in col- 
lecting the seeds, which shed as soon as they are ripe. Of 
these, the Vicia craca appears most deserving of attention. 
It bears its blue flower on stems or spikes longer than the 
leaves, which are downy. It is very common in France 
among wheat ; and, although a decrded weed there, it is 
not much dreaded by the peasants, as it improves the 
fodder greatly. It has the appearance of great luxuriance 
in its growth, where it meets with a proper support. If 
it were mixed with some plants with a strong stem, such 
as the Bokhara clover (Melitotus arborea altissima), which 
itself affords much fodder, it might probably be cultivated 
to great advantage. 

In the south of France there is a white perennial vetch 
or tare, called Vicia pisiformis> which is cultivated for its 
white seeds, of which soups are made, as with the pea and 
lentil. It grows in very light soils ; and, although indi- 
genous to a southern climate, it is said not to be impatient 
of frost. It has been called by some the Canadian lentil, 
or the white tare. 

We shall only notice one more of the wild tares, whicfy 
is an annual; it is called the yeljow tare {Vicia lutea). 
It grows in stony soils and amongpushes, is very branching, 
and rises from one to two feet nigh. From some experi- 
ments made by the Agricultural Society of Versailles 
several years ago, it would appear that this tare might be 
cultivated with great advantage, and is evei* superior to 
the common sort, because it can be cut two or three times 
during the summer, and affords a very good pasture in 
winter, which does not stop its vegetation : it will even 
bloom in a mild winter. Although short, it is so thick upon 
the ground, that its first cut is as heavy as that of the com- 
mon tare, which is seldom worth cutting a second time. 

Tares should be sown on land which is well pul- 
verised. If after wheat, the stubble should be ploughed 
in with a deep furrow after a powerful scantier has 
gone over the land several times to loosen it: five or 
six cart-loads of good farm-yard dung should be ploughed 
in. The tares should be drilled or dibbled, and the sur- 
face well harrowed. The intervals should be hoed early 
in spring : this will accelerate the growth, and insure a 
complete covering of the ground. As soon as the tares 
show the flower, they may be cut daily till the pods are 
fully formed ; alter this, any which remain uncut should 
be made into hay or given to sheep ; for if the seeds are 
allowed to swell, the ground will be much exhausted. 
Another piece should be ready to cut by this time, and 
thus there may be a succession of tares and broad clover 
from May to November. Tares may be sown as late as 
August, on a barley or rye stubble, for sheep-feed early in 
winter, or to be ploughed in to rot in the ground where 
beans or peas are intended to be sown early in spring : 
this is perhaps the cheapest mode of manuring the land, 
the only expense being the seed ; for the tillage is ne- 
cessary at all events. In light soils, tares and buckwheat 
sown together immediately after barley or rye harvest, will 
produce a considerable crop of vegetable matter, which 
may b$ ploughed in in November. In favourable seasons, 
wheat may be sown immediately after, without fearing the 
effect of two white crops following each other ; for the 
tares and buckwheat intervening, Dy their shade, and the 
two ploughings of the ground, one when they are sown, 
and the second when thev are ploughed in, will entirely 
destroy all weeds, and give to the soil that improvement 
which will enable it to bear as good a crop of wheat as it 
would have done had it been sown the year after on a 
clover ley. Clover, which could not be sown with the 
barley, iron the foul state of the land, may be sown among 
the wheat in the next spring, when it is hoed for the 

12 



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second time. This is held out as a hint to show how an 
Accidental interruption in a rotation may be remedied 
without any loss of crop or great deviation. As no rule 
is without exception, so no rotation can always be strictly 
adhered to ; and those crops which admit of being sown 
at different times of the year are of the greatest use as sub- 
stitutes for others which could not be conveniently sown 
without materially altering the succession of crops. In 
the common course of cultivation of heavy soils, where 
occasional fallows are necessary to clean the land, one- 
half of the land which requires fallowing may be sown 
with tares ; and thus the clean unproductive summer fal- 
low will only return at every second rotation. If the 
tares have been manured, or if they are fed off with sheep 
folded upon the land, the wheat or other crop which is 
sown after them will be as good as on a clean fallow, or 
after a good crop of clover. This alone would make tares 
a valuable crop ; and they may be compared in their effect 
on heavy lands to turnips on lighter soils. 

The seeds of the tare are occasionally ground into meal 
and made into bread. It is a very poor food ; and when 
there is more seed than can be profitably disposed of, it 
may be given to pip : but poultry, especially pigeons, 
are very fond of it. When given to horses, the seeds of 
tares are found very heating ; and although they produce 
a fine glossy coat, they are not to be recommended for 
this purpose. 

TARENTUM. [Taranto.j 

TARGUMS, or CHALDEE PARAPHRASES OF 
THE OLD TESTAMENT. During the Babylonish cap- 
tivity, the language of the Jews was affected oy the Chal- 
dee dialect spoken at Babylon, to such an extent, that 
npon their return they could not understand the pure 
Hebrew of their sacred books ; and therefore, when Ezra 
and the Levites read the law to the people, they found 
themselves obliged to add an explanation of it, undoubt- 
edly in Chaldee. (Nehem., viii. 8.) [Hebrew Language ; 
Aramaean Language. 1 In course of time such expla- 
nations were committed to writing, and from their being 
not simple versions, but explanatory paraphrases, they 
were called by the Chaldee word Targum (QfUn/1), which 
signifies ' an explanation.' 

There are ten Targums extant:— 1. The Targum of 
Onkelos, on the Pentateuch, is the most antient. Onkelos 
is supposed to have lived at Babylon. The Babylonish 
Talmud makes him a contemporary of Gamaliel, at the 
very beginning of the Christian aera. No critics place 
him lower than the second century. His language ap- 
proaches nearer than that of the other Targums to the 
pure Chaldee of the books of Daniel and Ezra. He fol- 
lows the Hebrew text so closely, that his work is less a 
paraphrase than a version, and he is free from the fables 
whicnprevailed among the later Jews. 

2. Tne Targum of Jonathan Ben Uzziel, on the 
Prophets, is by many ascribed to an author contemporary 
with Onkelos, or even a little older, namely, Jonathan the 
son of Uzziel, a disciple of the elder Hi 11 el. The men- 
tion of his name in the Talmuds proves him to have lived 
earlier than the fourth and fifth centuries. But Jahn 
points out certain internal marks, from which he con- 
cludes that this Targum was compiled, towards the end 
of the third century after Christ, from other paraphrases, 
some of which at least were considerably older. The 
Jews make Jonathan contemporary with the prophets 
Malachi, Zechariah, and Haggai, and relate marvellous 
stories respecting the composition of his Talmud. 

This Targum is more paraphrastic than that of Onkelos; 
its dialect is not so pure ; the version is not so accurate, 
and indeed varies in accuracy in different parts; but it is 
free from the fabulous stories of the later Talmuds. It 
comprises the Prophets, in the Jewish sense of the word, 
namely, the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, 
Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the twelve minor Prophets. 

3. The Targum of the pseudo-Jonathan, on the Penta- 
teuch, is so called from its naving been erroneously ascribed 
to Jonathan Ben Uzziel. In purity of dialect, in its gene- 
ral style, and in its mode of exposition, it is far inferior to 
the Targum of Jonathan. It abounds in silly fables, and 
displays great ignorance of Hebrew on the part of its author. 
From internal evidence, such as its mention of the Turks 
and Lombards, it is evident that it could not have been 
written earlier than the seventh, or perhaps the eighth, 
century. 



4. The Jerusalem Targum, on the Pentateuch, of which 
however it omits large portions, and sometimes explains 
only single words, is evidently later than that of th« 
pseudo-Jonathan, which it generally follows closely, occa- 
sionally departing from it for the worse. Its dialect is 
very impure, abounding in Greek, Latin, and Persian wank. 
The other Targums scarcely deserve a separate notice. 
An account of them, and lists of the editions and Latin 
versions of the Targums, will be found in the works quoted 
at the end of this article. Taken together, the Targum* 
form a paraphrase of the whole of the Old Testament, ex- 
cept the books of Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, which 
called the less for such an exposition, as they are to a great 
extent written in Chaldee. 

(Prideaux's Connection, pt. ii., bk. viii.; the * Intro- 
ductions' of Home and Jahn.) 

TARIFF A, a small sea-port town situated in the nar- 
rowest part of the Strait of Gibraltar, on a point of land 
projecting into the sea; in 36° 3* N. lat and 5 s 36f 
W. long. The Arabs called it Jezirah Tarif (the Uand 
of Tarif), because a Berber, named Tarif Ibn Malek 
Al-ma'feri, who was the lieutenant of Musa Ibn Nosaerr, 
landed on the little island facing the port with a small 
force, two years before the final conquest of Spain bjr the 
Arabs. [Moors.] Tarifa is now a dependency of (Ssdia. 
which has been made of late the capital of a province of 
the same name. In 1296 it was besieged by the African 
under Abu Yusuf, but it was stoutly defended by Don 
Alonso Perez de Guzman 'el Bueno,' the progenitor of 
the dukes of Medina Sidonia, who would not surrender that 
fortress to them, notwithstanding they threatened to be- 
head his only son, which they did before his eyes. In 
1340 a great battle was fought near Tarifa, between Al- 
phonso XI. of Castile and Abu-1-hasan, sultan of Fez and 
Marocco, when the former was victorious. 

TARIFF, a table of duties to be paid on goods imported 
or exported. The principle of a tariff depends npon the 
commercial policy of the Dody by which it is framed, mad 
the details are constantly fluctuating with the change of 
interests and the wants of the community, or in pursuance 
of commercial treaties with other states. The British tariff 
has undergone six important alterations within the last 
sixty years, namely in 1787, in 1809, 1819, 1825, 1833. and 
1842. The act embodying the tariff of 1833 is the 3 & 4 
Wm. IV., c. 56. Its character has been described in the 
Report of a Committee of the House of Commons in 1840. 
on the Import Duties, as presenting * neither congruity nor 
unity of purpose : no general principles seem to have been 
applied. The tariff often aims at incompatible ends: 
the duties are sometimes meant to be both prodnctare ot 
revenue and for protective objects, which are frequently 
inconsistent with each other. Hence they sometimes 
operate to the complete exclusion of foreign produce, and 
in so far no revenue can of course be received ; and some- 
times, when the duty is inordinately high, the amount of 
revenue becomes in consequence trifling. An attempt U 
made to protect a great variety of particular^ interests at 
the expense of the revenue and of the commercial inter- 
course with other countries.* The schedules to the act 
3 & 4 Wm. IV., c. 56, contain a list of 1150 article*, to 
each of which a specific duty is affixed. The uoenunse- 
rated articles are admitted at an ad valorem duty of 5 
and of 20 per cent, the rate having previously been 2D 
and 50 per cent. In 1838-9, seventeen articles produced 
94£ per cent, of the total customs' duties, ana the re- 
mainder only 5$ per cent., including twenty-nine, winch 
? reduced 3£ per cent. The following table of the tariff of 
833, showing the duties received in 1838-9, is an inaljsas 
of one prepared by the inspector-general of imports for the 
parliamentary committee to which allusion 
made:— N©.©n 

1. Articles producing on an average ) 

less than 24/. . ) 

2. Ditto less than 240/. . 

3. Ditto less than 713/. . 

4. Ditto less than 2,290/. . 

5. Ditto less than 22,180/. 

6. Ditto less than 183,864/. 

7. Ditto less than 2,063,885 

8. Articles on which no duty hat ) 

been received . ) 



349 8460 

132 31.63 

45 S2J0BB 

107 M4^S3 

63 1397334 

10 1.83&A) 

9 18£7S£7i 

147 La < 555 

~882 22,lOj095 



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The new tariff, which is on the point of becoming law, 
contains very numerous alterations. Cattle and fresh meat 1 
are admitted, for the first time, on payment of duty; 
and the reduction of duty on salt-meat is considerable. 
Time will be required to show the result of the various 
changes which it contains. The heads of the tariff are 
comprised under nineteen heads, and the articles enume- 
rated are as many as those in the tariff of 1833. 

TARIK. rRoDKRic.l 

TARLTON, RICHARD, a comic actor of great cele- 
brity in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was born in the 
hundred of Condover, in Shropshire. The date of his birth 
is not known. He died in 1588, and was buried (Septem- 
ber 3) at St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, London. 

Tarlton was especially distinguished for his performance 
of the clowns of the old English drama, in which he is 
spoken of as having been unrivalled, and seems besides to 
have been one of those clowns who spoke 4 more than 
was set down for them :' he was famous for his extempore 
wit, which indeed must have been an important addition 
to the dull and vulgar speeches generally assigned to the 
clowns before Shakspere's time— he interlarded with his 
wit the lean and hungry prose. Dr. Cave, * De Political 
Oxford, 4to. f 1588, says (we translate Cave's Latin), * We 
English have our Tarlton, in whose voice and countenance 
dwells every kind of comic expression, and whose eccen- 
tric brain is filled with humorous and witty conceptions.' 

Stow mentions that Tarlton was one of the twelve actors 
whom Queen Elizabeth, in 1583, constituted grooms of 
the chamber at Barn Elms : he seems indeed to have been 
one of her especial favourites ; for Fuller says, that * when 
Queen Elizabeth was serious (I dare not say sullen), and 
out of good humour, he could undumpish her at his plea- 
sure. Her highest favourites would, in some cases, go to 
Tarlton before they would go to the queen, and he was 
their usher to prepare their advantageous access to her.' 

One of Tarlton's last performances was in ' The Famous 
Victories of Henry V. ;' this was in 1588, at the Bull in 
Bishop*gate Street, to which theatre he seems to have 
been generally attached. Of this play, which is a much 
earlier one than Shakspere's • Henry V.,' a full account is 
given in the introductory notice to ' Henry VI., Parts I. 
and II.,' in Knight's * Pictorial Shakspere.' It is one of 
the • Six Old Plays,' printed by Nichols in 1779. 

Tarlton is known to have written at least one play, 'The 
Seven Deadly Sins,' which, though never printed, and now 
lost, was much admired. Gabriel Hervey, in his ' Four 
Letters and certaine Sonnets especially touching Robert 
Greene and other Parties by him abused,' 4to., 1792, 
speaks of a work written by Thomas Nashe, * right for- 
mally conveyed according to the stile and tenour of Tarl- 
ton'* president, his famous playe of * The Seven Deadly 
Smnes,* which he designates as a * most deadly but most 
hvehr playe.' 

There is a portrait of Tarlton, in his clown's dress, with 
his pipe and tabor, in the Harl. MS. 3885 ; and a similar 
portrait of him (probably the one is a copy of the other) 
in the title-page of a pamphlet called ' Tarlton's Jests,' 
4to., 1611. A copy of the former portrait is given in 
Knight's fc Shakspere,* at the end of * Twelfth Night.' The 
peculiar flatness of his nose is said to have been occasioned 
oy an injury which that feature received in parting some 
dogs and bears. 

(Baker's Biographia Dramatics by Reed and Jones.) 

TARN, a river in France, belonging to the system of 
the Garonne. It rises near Mount Lozere, one of the C6- 
vennes, in the department of Lozere, and flows flrst west to 
Sainte Enimie in the same department, 27 miles, and then 
south-west 27 miles toMilhau, in the department of Avey- 
ron ; from thenee west-south-west 88 miles, by Alby and 
GailJac, department of Tarn, to St. Sulpice ; and from 
thence 48 miles north-west and west by Montauban (de- 
partment of Tarn and Garonne) into the Garonne, below 
Koissac. The navigation is marked in Brum's man of 
France as commencing at Gaillac, and has a length of 
tbout 60 mile** other authorities make the navigation 
commence at Alby, and this statement agrees with the 
tfficial accounts, which assign to the river a navigation 
of 90 miles. It has several tributaries, but none of them 
are navigable. [France; Garonne; Tarn (depart- 
ment) ; Tarn kt Garonne.] 

TARN, a department in the south of France, bounded 



on the north and north-east by that of Aveyron, on the 
south-east by that of Herault, on the south by that of Aude, 
on the south-west and west by that of Haute* Garonne, and 
on the north-west by that of Tarn and Garonne. The form 
approximates to that of a parallelogram, having its sides 
respectively facing the north-east, south-east, south-west, 
and north-west. The extreme length from north-west to 
south-east, from the neighbourhood of Penne on the 
Aveyron *to the border of the department of H6rault, near 
St. Pons, is 65 miles ; the extreme breadth, from the neigh- 
bourhood of Valence to that of Puy-Laurens, is 46 miles. 
The area is estimated at 2222 square miles, which is some- 
what under the average area of the French departments, 
and rather greater than the conjoint areas of the two 
English counties Surrey and Sussex. The population, in 
1826, was 327,655; in 1831, 335,844; and in 1836,346,614, 
showing an increase in five years of 10,770 persons, or above 
3 per cent., and giving 156 inhabitants to a square mile. 
In amount and density of population it is below the average 
of the French departments, and is very far below the 
county of Surrey alone in amount, and in density of popu- 
lation below both Surrey and Sussex. Alby, the capital, 
is on the Tarn, 339 miles in a straight line nearly due south 
of Paris, or 482 miles through Orleans, Chfiteauroux, 
Limoges, Cahors, Montauban, and Toulouse ; a very cir- 
cuitous route, but the only one laid down in Reichard's 
Road-book. 

The department is very mountainous in the south-east 
part, where it comprehends a portion of the Cevennes. A 
range of hills branching off from this chain, and running 
nearly parallel to it, crosses the north-west part of the de- 
partment, skirting the valley of the Tarn ; and there are 
some other ranges of less elevation and importance. The 
peak of the Cevennes, which overlooks the town of Soreze, 
in the south of the department, has an elevation of 1760 
feet. The eastern side of the department, bounded by a 
line drawn southward or south by east from the juncHon of 
the Viaur and the Aveyron, is chiefly occupied by the 
granitic or other primary or by the earlier secondary forma- 
tions : west of this boundary-line the tertiary formations 
prevail ; only on the banks of the Cerou and the Aveyron 
in the northern part, and about Puy-Laurens in the southern 
part of the department, the secondary formations, which lie 
between the cretaceous group and the new red-sandstone 
group, crop out from beneath the tertiary rocks. The 
mineral productions are of ,no great importance. There 
was, in 1834, only one coal mine worked ; it gave employ- 
ment to 273* workmen within the mines and 42 others, 
making a total of 315 : the quantity of coal produced was 
19,933 tons, and the total value 13,152/., or 13*. 9rf. per 
ton on the average. The quantity produced in 1835 was 
18,420 tons. There were, in 1834, two iron-works with 
three forges for the manufacture of wrought-iron : the ore 
was converted directly into malleable iron, and charcoal 
was the only fuel employed. Lead and copper ore are 
said to be found, but no mines are now worked. There 
are marble-quarries, plaster-pits, and pits for porcelain and 
potters' clay. 

The department belongs entirely to the basin of the 
Garonne. The Tarn, one of the principal feeders of that 
river, touches the border of the department just above the 
junction of the little river Ranee, and flows along the 
border till that stream (which belongs altogether to the 
department of Aveyron) ioins it ; it then quits the border 
and flows westward to Alby and then south-west to the 
junction of the Agout, shortly after which it quits the de- 
partment to enter that of Haute Garonne : the navigation 
commences at Gaillac, or, according to some authorities, 
at Alby. Just above Alby the Tarn has a fall, or rather a 
series of falls, over the steep face of a limestone rock, in 
which it has worn a number of channels, which so divide 
the stream, that when the water is low it may be crossed 
by leaping from one prominence to another: this fall is 
called Saut du Sabot or Saut du Tarn. The tributaries of 
the Tarn which belong to this department are the Aveyron, 
the Tescou, and the Agout. The Aveyron has only a small 
part of its course in this department, and another small 
pait along the border ; its affluent the Viaur has part of 
its course along the border; but the Cerou and the Verre, 
two other affluents of the Aveyron, belong to this depart- 
ment almost entirely. The Agout rises in the department 
of Herault, but belongs almost entirely to this department 



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is do its affluents, the Viau (which receives the Vcbre), 
the Gijou (which receives the Gijas and the Bcrlou), the 
Taure" (which receives the Larn and the Larnette), the Sor, 
the Bagas, and the Adou. None of the tributaries of the 
Tarn or their affluents are navigable, though some of them 
are of considerable length, the Aveyron being above 120 
miles, the Viaur 60, the Agout 75, and the Adou 45 ; the 
others are smaller. 

There are in the department five Routes Royales, or go- 
vernment roads, which had, January 1, 1837, an aggregate 
length of 207 miles, of which 116 miles were in good re- 
pair, 85 miles out of repair, and 6 miles unfinished. None 
of these roads are of the first class: the principal are those 
which lead from Alby south-west, by Gaillac, Lisle, and 
Rabastens, to Toulouse ; south, by Realmont and Castres, 
across the Cevennes into Langueaoc ; east by Villefranche 
to La Cavalerie, on the high road from Paris to Montpellier ; 
and north-east by Carmeaux to Rodez, in the department 
of Aveyron. Roads branch from the Alby and Toulouse 
road at Gaillac, and lead, one west to Montauban and Bor- 
deaux, one north by Cahusac and Cordes to Aurillac, in 
the department of Cantal. Another road leads from Cas- 
tres by Lavaur to Toulouse. The departmental roads had 
at the same time an aggregate length of 485 miles, of 
which 296 were in repair and 189 out of repair. The vicinal 
roads had an estimated aggregate length of 7500 miles in 
•round numbers. 

The area of the department is equal to rather more than 
1,400,000 acres ; considerably more than one-half of this is 
under the plough. The soil, except in the mountainous 
parts, is generally fertile ; but agriculture is in a very 
Dae k ward state ; manures are neglected, and the system of 
rotation is very faulty. These deficiencies are chiefly ob- 
servable in the arrondissements of Alby and Gaillac, which 
comprehend the beautiful valley of the Tarn ; in the ar- 
rondissements of Castres and Lavaur, in the south of 
the department, improvements have been more readily 
adopted. The produce in grain, comprehending wheat, 
barfey, oats, rye, maize, and buckwheat, is sufficient to 
supply the consumption of the department and to leave a 
little for exportation. Pulse, flax, hemp, woad, aniseed, 
coriander, and saffron are also raised ; the growth of woad 
is of long establishment and considerable importance. The 
meadow and grass lands maybe estimated at about 100,000 
acres, and the heaths, commons, and other open pastures 
at 150,000 acres. The valleys and the slopes of tne hills 
afford good pasturage, and the breeding of cattle is one of 
the principal sources of the wealth of the department. 
Sheep ana pigs are numerous, and the veal is in high 
repute. The breed of horses is improving. The vineyards 
occupy nearly 80,000 acres ; the cultivation of the vine is 
very sjulfully and carefully managed. The red wines of 
Cunac, Caisaguet, St. Juery, St. Amarans, and Gaillac are 
of the first class ; those of Meilhart, La Roque, Florentin, 
La Grave, Tecon, and Rabastens are of the second class : 
Gaillac produces some white wines. The average produce 
of the vintage is estimated at above 430,000 hectolitres, 
valued at 5,500,000 francs. The orchards and gardens 
occupy about 6000 acres. The olive is not cultivated to 
any extent. 

The woodlands occupy 200,000 acres; the oak, the 
beech, the ash, the maple, the chestnut, the walnut, the 
mulberry, and the wild cherry-tree are common. 

Bees are numerous, but the breeding of the silkworm is 
not carried on to the extent of which it is capable. The wild 
boar, the roebuck, the wolf, the fox, the badger, the pole- 
cat, and the hedgehog are found; and small game is 
tolerably abundant. 

The department is divided into four arrondissements, as 
(bllows :— 



Name. 

Alby . 

Cast res f 

Gaillac 
Lavaur 



Aw* In 

Suuare 
Position. Miles. 

Sft3 

J861 

406 
312 



N.E. 

8. 

and E. 

N.W. 

s.w. 



1831 

80,954 



Population. 



183S. 
84,929 



131,154 136,188 



71.323 
52,413 



724XH 
53,496 



Com- Can- 

munes. ton*. 

96 8 

95 

79 
57 



14 

8 
5 



2,222 335,844 &t6,614 327 35 

In the arrondissement of Alby are— Alby, or Albi on the 
Tarn ; population, in 1831, 9049 for the town, or 11,665 for 



the whole commune; in 1836, 11,801 for the comasm 
[Alby] ; Castelnau and Lescure, on the Tarn ; Hfalc^t 
(pop. 2100 for the town, or 2660 for the whole commit 
on the Adou, and Villefranche and Denat on a tributin J 
that river; Valence, Carmeaux, Monesties, and Sall^ <g 
the Cerou, or its tributaries ; Villeneuve, on the Wt, 
and Pampellonne, on the Viaur. Castelnau, dutingWnj 
as Castel nau-de-Bonnafoux, is built on a blope rising free 
the north bank of the Tarn, just below Alby, and u cu&- 
manded by an old castle. Lescure was antieutly fortiW; 
it is a little above Alby. Realmont has a Protect 
church, and is a tolerably well-built town : there art *.n* 
linen manufactories and a bleach-green ; serge and cuI'a 
and worsted hose are also made : eight fairs are he 1 .*! j 
the town. Villefranche has nine considerable cauVfurv 
Valence is regularly laid out with straight street*, ui & 
well-wooded district, from which a considerable autntitj 
of timber is sent to Alby, Gaillac, and Bordeaux : the to»a 
has five large fairs, chiefly for cattle. Leather and g*i» 
are made at Carmeaux ; and considerable trade b carnal 
on at Monesties in linen, thread, and cattle. Moo«ub 
has thirteen fairs, Sal lea two, and Villeneuve v tlisUD?ubh«l 
as Villeneuve-sur-Verre) five. Parapellone, or Paope- 
lonne, is surrounded by the remains of its fortifications, ai 
has two gates. There are two principal street*, and t»o 
large places or squares. Considerable business U done u 
horsecloths, which are manufactured ; and there ate u 
yearly fairs. 

In the arrondissement of Castres are— Castres, on the 
Agout, population, in 1831, 12,032 for the town, or 16,41$ 
for the whole commune ; in 1836, 17,002 for tne «hu> 
commune [Castres] ; Brassac, Fort-de-Ferriires, Roque- 
courbe, Burlats, and Vielmeur, all on the Agout ; Aoja 
Hautpoul, Mazamet (pop. 3896 for the town, or 7099 for 
the whole commune), and La Brugiere, on the Tarn* or rti 
tributaries ; La Caune (pop. 1650 for the town, or 368 1 tor 
the whole commune), on tne Gigas; Vabres, ootnetycu; 
Mondragon, on the Adou ; La Bessonie* and Lsutac be- 
tween the Adou and the Agout ; and Dourgne and Sail* 
(pop. 1574 for the town, or 2817 for the whole commune), 
in tne southern corner of the department. Brassac d»oa- 
guished as Bin- ac-de-Belfourtes, is the centre of a con- 
siderable manufacture of dimity and other cotton rooi. 
carried on in the village of Brassac-Castelnau (which ■ 
included in the commune of the town), and other villajm 
around. Fort de Ferrieres takes its name from an anUcot 
fort, once used as a state prison, now as a manuiktorj d 
cotton goods. Roquecourbe, situated in a fertile dutnft 
has a Protestant church, and is the seat of a woudtiab* 
manufacture of woollen stockings ; it has four yearly Cu* 
Vielmeur, or Vielraur, has a manufacture of cotton )ira 
and of knitted stockings ; it has five lairs. Ancles hi* 
manufactures of woollen and cotton yarn, and woollen and 
cotton goods. Hautpoul has an antient castle, fonneiii 
the capital of the barony of Hautpoulois : it was stormed 
a.d. 1212, by Simon de Mont fort. Mazamet is a bu»T 
town ; it has a number of manufactories for woollen gw» 
of various sorts, some dye-houses, and several papex-mil^; 
it has four fairs for cattle, wool, and manufactured pix^ 
Flannels, blankets, and other woollens are manufactured « 
La Brugiere, distinguished as La Brugi&e-Dulac ; bosierj tod 
dimity at La Caune ; and calicoes, dimities, and other cat- 
ton goods, and flannel at Vabres, distinguished as Vat***- 
des-8en£gats. Vabres has a Protestant church : four fa* 
are held in the year. Mondragon, now of little imports/**, 
was formerly of considerable note : it has six yearly uun ' 
a number of pigs are sold here. Lautrec is on » *»*B 
eminence, and nas the ruins of an antient castle; it ns#tei 
yearly fairs. The neighbourhood produces good wine and 
melons. Lautrec was formerly a viscounty : it was bell 
in the time of Francois I., by Odon de Foix* a general ^ 
considerable distinction in the Italian wars of that to 
Donrgne has some manufactures of coarse woollens, thnw 
cattle-fairs, and in the environs some important quarru* « 
white and gray marble. 8or£ze had formerly a Bet*e- 
die-tine abbey, where twelve young persons of noble famirr. 
but without fortune, received a gratuitous educaboc : it 
has now a college or high school, one of the roost im- 
portant in the south of France. Cotton yarn, wooflen asn 
cotton hosiery, and leather are made : and there are tss 
yeariy fairs. Sore^ze was fortified by the Huguenots in tV 
religious wan of the sixteenth century, but the ma]* 111 



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^rcre destroyed in the reign of Louis XIV. At La Ro- 

qttetle, near Castres, are two remarkable natural curiosities : 
\e Rocher treinblant, a mass of stone, comprehending 
about 360 cubic feet, and resting on a very narrow base, so 
g* to rock or vibrate sensibly when pushed, like the Logan 
or Logging Stone, in Cornwall ; and the grotto which bears 
the name of St. Dominic, from having served as a retreat 
to that celebrated ecclesiastic. 

In the ammdissement of Gaillac are— Gaillac (population 
in 1831, 5552 for the town, or 7725 for the whole com- 
mune; h 1836, 8199 for* the commune), on the Tarn; 
Lille (pop. 1726 for the town, or 5065 for the whole com- 
mune) and Rabastens (pop. 3417 for the town, or 6966 for 
the whole commune), on the same river; Penne, on the 
A^eyron; Cordes(pop. 2239 for the town, or 2602 for the 
commune), on the Cerou ; Cestayrols, Cahuzac, Castelnau 
de Moatmirail, and Puiceley, on or near the Verre ; SaJ- 
vaignae, near the Teacou ; and Cadalen, between the Tarn 
and the Adou. Gaillac is on the, right or north bank of the 
Tarn ; it is an old town without any striking public build- 
ing; there are an hospital and a small theatre. East of 
the t<wn is a suburb, well laid out and pleasantly situated. 
There are brandy distilleries and cooperages, and one or 
two tan-yards, dye-houses, and yards for building boats and 
olher river-craft. Trade is carried on in corn, wine, and 
vegetables: there are seven yearly fairs. Lisle (otherwise 
Llle d'Alby), on the right bank of the Tarn, is a small 
town, with a place or square regularly laid out and adorned 
with a fountain. Considerable trade is carried on in corn 
and wine, and there are seven yearly fairs for cattle, linen 
eloth, and woo). Rabastens, in a fertHe plain on the right 
bank of the Tarn, is an ill laid out and ill-built town. 
There is a pleasant suburb, and adjacent to it an agree- 
able promenade. Some blankets are manufactured, and 
some trade carried on in corn, wine, and fruit : there are 
ax yearly fairs. Rabastens has the ruins of an antient 
castle, which was taken by Simon de Montfort in the reli- 
gious wart of the thirteenth century, and by the English 
in the ware of the fourteenth century. Cordes is on an 
elevated site on the left bank of the Cerou : it has a hand- 
some place or iquare, and the ruins of an antient castle : 
linen and leather are manufactured ; there is a consider- 
able weekly market for corn and fruit, and there are six 
yearly ftiri. Castelnau de Montmirail was antiently a 
place of strength : it is in a district fertile in corn and 
iruit. Coarse marble is quarried in the neighbourhood. 
Puiceley is on a height on the ripht bank of the Verre, not 
far from Castelnau de Montmirail ; the chief business of 
the town is the manufacture of caskB, joiners' and other 
*ood work, and cheeses of great delicacy : there are four 
yearly fairs. Abundance of wood is obtained in the ad- 
jacent forest of Greane. Salvaignac, or Salvagnac, is 
pleasant)? situated on an eminence not far from the left 
bank of the Tescou : it has some iron-forges, and consider- 
ate tnde is carried on in cattle : there are six yearly faira. 
Some trade in cattle is carried on at Cadalen. 

In the ammdissement of Lavaur are — Lavaur or Laveur, 
near the Agout (population in 1831, 4422 \>r the town, or 
7179 for the whole commune ; in 1836, 7205 for the com- 
tpwe) , Giroussens and St. 8ulpice, on or near the same 
jwer; Pay-Laorens (population 1799 for the town, or 6160 
wr the whole commune), near the head of the Giron, an 
unimportant feeder of the Garonne ; and Graulhet (popu- 
lation 2*58 for the town, or 5097 for the whole commune) 
J*d Briatexte, on or near the Adou. Lavaur is on the left 
j*nk of the Agout, which is here crossed by a modern 
tod?* of bold construction. The town was defended by 
**lk and protected by a castle in the eleventh century. 
In the ieNgiou6#ware which signalised the early part of the 
thirteenth eentury, it was one of the strongholds of the 
Aibr^enses, from whom it was taken, a.d. 1211, by Simon 
k Montfort, who committed the most fearful cruelties. 
Joe place is divided into the old town and the new town, 
tot i* altogether ill built. The chief branch of industry is 
tfk-throwine. The raw silks of Haut Or Upper Languedoc 
•ft brought here : and when thrown are sent to Nfmes and 
won. Some silk-stuffs for the upholsterers, and silk- 
stockings are made ; and there are dye-houses and tan- 
y*flk: there are three yearly fairs. Lavaur has a high 
x^ool, a small public library, an agricultural societ) , and 
* subordinate court of justice. Giroussens was formerly a 
pkee of strength, and the object of contest in the English 
**> of the fourteenth century. It stands on the right 



bank of the Agout : the townsmen manufacture brown 
pottery, but their ware is less in request than formerly. 
There is one yearly cattle-fair. • Puy-Laurens is on a small 
eminence commanding the surrounding fertile plain. It 
was one of the strongholds of the Huguenots in the reli- 
gious wars of the sixteenth century : but the fortifications 
were rased in the reign of Louis XIII. The town appears 
to have been after this still occupied by the Protestants, who 
had here an Academy of Sciences, which was suppressed 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Silk-tnrowing 
is carried on, and there is considerable trade with Spain in 
horses and mules : there are five well-attended yearly 
fairs. Graulhet, on the left bank of the Adou, has a con- 
siderable manufacture of hats and woollen stuffs, and a 
number of tan-yards. Considerable trade in horses is car- 
ried on, and there are five cattle-fairs. The district round 
the town is fertile : millstones are dug. 

The population, when not otherwise described, is from 
the census of 1831. 

That part of France ,which now constitutes this depart- 
ment was chiefly comprehended, in the earliest historical 
period, in the territory of the Ruteni. The southern por- 
tions were comprehended in the territory of the Umbranici, 
and the south-western in that of the Tolosates. That part 
of the territory of the Ruteni which was comprehended in 
the department is considered by D'Anville to have been 
occupied by the Ruteni Provinciales, distinguished by 
CaeBar by that epithet from the other Ruteni, as being 
within the limits of the Roman province at the time of his* 
command in Gaul. The Umbranici and Tolosates were 
also within the province. The Ruteni were defeated by 
Fabius Maximus, b.c. 121. and it was probably at this time 
that part of them (the Ruteni Provinciales) became sub- 
ject to Rome. The independent Ruteni took an active 
part in the general revolt of the Gauls under Vercinge- 
torix, near the close of Caesar's command, and were sent 
by Vercingetorix to ravage the lands of the Volcae Areco- 
mici, who were Roman provincials. They were subdued 
by Caesar. All these nations appear to have belonged to 
the great Celtic stock. Under the Romans the Ruteni 
(including the Ruteni Provinciales) appear to have been 
comprehended in the province of Aquitania Prima; the 
Umbranici and Tolosates, in Narbonensis Prima. The 
town of the Albienses (Civitas Albiensium) of the 'Notitia* 
was probably Alby : the Albigi of the anonymous Geo- 
grapher of Ravenna was probably the same place. No other 
Roman town can be identified with any locality within the 
department. The river Tarn is noticed by Ausonius (Mo- 
setlce Description 465) and Sidonius Apollinaris {Carmen^ 
xxiv. 45) under the name of Tarnis ; the former bestows 
on it the epithet ' aurifer,' ' the gold-bearing ;' the second 
calls it ' citus,' the ' swift.' 

In the middle ages, and down to the period of the Revo- 
lution, the larger portion of this department was known as 
the territory of L'Albigeois ; the arrondissement of Lavaur, 
and the adjacent parts, formed the district of Le Baa 
(Lower) Lauraguais : both these were comprehended in Le 
Haut (Upper) Languedoc. Alby was the chief town of 
L'Albigeois ; Lavaur of Bas Lauraguais. 

Upon the downfal of the Roman Empire this part of 
France passed into the hands of the Visigoths, and subse- 
quently of the Franks under Clovis. The district of L'Albi- 
geois was part of the great duchy of Guienne in the time 
of the later kings of the Merovingian dynasty. It was sub- 
sequently held in succession by the counts of Toulouse, 
the viscounts of Be'aers, and the counts of Carcassonne : 
and was, in the early part of the thirteenth century, the 
scene of the fearful cruelties perpetrated in the crusade 
against the Albigeois or Albigenses, a sect deriving their 
name from' the district, and persecuted by the Romish 
church as heretical. JAlbigbnses.] In the sequel of this 
crusade the district of L'Albigeois was annexed to the 
crown. The district of Lauraguais was successively held 
by the counts of Carcassonne and Barcelona ; one of these 
latter, having became king of Aragon, ceded Le Lau- 
raguais to the Viscount of Beziers, who again ceded it to 
St. Louis, king of France. It was alienated by Louis XI, 
who gave it to the counts of Auvergnej but was reunited 
to the crown by Henri IV. 

TARN ET GARONNE, a department in the south of 
France, situated between 43° 47' and 44° 23' N. lat., and 
0° 40' and 2° 0' E. long. It is bounded on the north by 
the department of Lot, on the north-east by that of Avey- 



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ton, on the east and south-east by that of Tar**, on the 
south by that of Haute Garonne, on the south-west by that 
of Gers, and on the north-west by that of Lot et Garonne. 
Its form is irregular ; the greatest length is from north- 
east to south-west, from the border of the department of 
Aveyron near Parisot, to the bank of the little river Larax,, 
near Lavit-de-Lomagne, 64 miles ; the greatest breadth at 
right angles to the length, is from the border of the de- 
partment of Lot et Garonne, near Montaigut, to the border of 
the department of Haute Garonne, nearGrrizaUes, 44 miles. 
The area of the department is estimated at 1421 square miles, 
which is not so much as two-thirds of the average area of 
the French departments, and is rather less than the area of 
the English county of Sussex. The population, in 1826, 
was 241,586 ; in 1831, 242,509 ; and in 1836, 242,184, 
showing a very trifling increase (598 persons, less than 
0*25 per cent.) in the ten years from 1826 to 1836 ; and in 
the latter half of the term a positive decrease. The num- 
ber of inhabitants to a square mile, in 1836, was 170, 
which is rather above the average density of the population 
of France ; but the department is inferior in amount of 
population to most other departments; and both in 
amount and density of population to the English county 
with which we have pompared it. Montauban, the capital, 
is 335 miles in a direct line south by west of Paris, or 408 
miles by the road through Paris, Orleans, Chfiteauroux, 
Limoges, and Cahors. 

This department was not one of those formed at the first 
* establishment of the departmental division of France by 
the National Assembly, a.d. 1790 ; but was created by a 
senatus-consultum under the reign of Napoleon, a.d. 1808. 
It was formed from the arrondissement of Montauban, 
taken from the department of Lot ; the arrondissement of 
Castel 8arrasin, taken from the department of Haute 
Garonne ; the cantons of Auvillard, Montaigut, and Valence, 
taken from the arrondissement of Agen, in the department 
of Lot et Garonne ; the canton of Lavit-de-Lomagne, taken 
from the arrondissement of Lectoure, in the department of 
Gers ; and the canton of St. Antonin, taken from the ar- 
rondissement of Villefranche, in the department of Avey- 
ron. The department thus formed was divided into three 
new arrondissements, Montauban, Moissac, and Castel 
Sarrasin. 

The department has no mountains and scarcely any 
hills; slight undulations alone vary its surface. The 
greater part is occupied by the tertiary formations of the 
basin of the Gironde : the part north-east of St. Antonin, 
on the Aveyron, and Puy-la-Roque, is occupied by the 
secondary formations which intervene between the chalk 
and the red marl or new red sandstone. Some of our 
authorities enumerate coal among the productions of the 
department ; but this is hardly consistent with its geologi- 
cal character, nor were any coal-mines wrought in 1834 
and 1835, of which the official returns are before us. Some 
iron is obtained ; and there was, in 1834, one iron-work, 
with two furnaces for making pig-iron, and five forges for 
making wrought-iron. Charcoal was the fuel almost ex- 
clusively employed. Marble and good freestone are 
quarried in tne north-east parts of the department ; and 
limestone, marl, and potters'-clay are dug in several 
places. 

The department belongs altogether to the basin of the 
Garonne. The Garonne itself enters it on the south side, 
a little below Grenade, and flows north-west by Verdun 
and Le-Mas-Garnier, to the junction of the Tarn : it then 
flows a few miles west by Auvillard ; and turning again 
north-west, and passing Valence, quits the department. 
It has about 40 miles of its course (49 miles, according to 
the official account) in this department, navigable through- 
out. The Tarn enters the department on the south-east : 
it flows first north-west by Montauban to the neighbour- 
hood of La FYancaise ; and then, in a winding channel, 
westward into the Garonne, which it joins on the right 
bank : its whole course in this department may be esti- 
mated at 36 miles (40 according to the official account! 
navigable throughout. These are the only navigable 
rivers. Of smaller streams, the Garonne receives on the 
left bank the Lambon, the Gimone, and the Serre, above 
the junction of the Tarn ; and the Larax, or Rats, below 
the junction of that river. The Barguelone (formed by 
the junction of the Grande Barguelone and the Petite Bar- 

Sielone) and the 8a6ne (which receives the Seune) join 
e Garonne on the right bank, below the junction of the 



Tarn, and beyond the limits of the department, i*% 
however a considerable part of their course belong*. TW 
Aveyron, a considerable feeder of the Tarn, which it joiosoa 
the right bank, between Montauban and La Francsue, km 
the lower part of its course in this department or aloe* u» 
boundary. The Tarn receives also the Tescou of whub 
the Tescounet is a feeder) and the Lemboulat (of mhuk 
the Latt<* is* a feeder), both on the right bank. The Ay**- 
ron receives the Seye, the Bonnette, and the Lcrc, on ti» 
right bank; and the Verre and the Tause on the U4 
bank. 

The department had, 1 Jan., 1837. seven Routes RoraW^ 
or government roads, with an aggregate length of 130 
miles, viz. 150 miles in good repair .and 8 miles unfiniih*; 
the aggregate length of the departmental roads st ti* 
same time was 234 miles, viz. 156 miles in good r?t*v 
and 78 miles unfinished : the bye-roads and lanes had in 
aggregate length of above 4200 miles. The principal rosi 
is that from Paris to Montauban and Toulouse : tt ecfen 
the department on the north side, at the villa?* of U 
Madeleine, and runs southward by Caussade and lt£ahij> 
to Montauban ; and from thence, still southward, by Grv 
zalles, a little beyond which it quits the department b 
Toulouse. A road from Montauban runs west-north-vat. 
parallel to the course first of the Tarn, afterward of tht 
Garonne, by La Francaise, Moissac, and Valence, to Bor- 
deaux : another road runs south-west, by Montech sat* 
Beaumont-de-Lomagne, to Auch ; and a third, east-MuuV 
east, to Gaillac and Alby, in the adjacent department of 
Tarn. A road which enters the department on the noruV 
east runs by Caylus and Septfons, and, uniting with the road 
from Paris to Toulouse at Caussade, forms the comnrum- 
cation between Rod ex and Montauban. A road runnro* 
from Moissac along the valley of the Garonne, by Cartel 
Sarrasin, St. Porquier, Scatalen, and Fignan, to Urizaliet, 
forms the shortest communication between Bordeaux ud 
Toulouse. 

The climate is generally mild, but subject to variation*, 
which occasion frequent attacks of catarrh and mernnatiwii. 
The mean temperature in winter is from 36* to 39 s of Fah- 
renheit, that of spring and autumn from 59* to G4\ and 
that of summer from 81° to 86°. Rains are frequent u 
spring : the summer heat increases gradually towards tht 
end of July, when it is very great : autumn is the pies- 
santest season of the year : winter, though sometime* icy 
cold y is generally dry. Snow rarely falls. 

The area of the department may be estimated at about 
910,000 acres in round numbers, of which about 575jDD0 
acres, or above six-tenths, are under the plough. Tht toil 
is various ; in some parts stiff and clayey, in others hfht 
and sandy ; so sandy in some places as to be incapable of 
cultivation. The greater part however is very fertile: the 
plains and alluvial tracts which line the bancs of ths Gs- 
ronne, the Tarn, and the Aveyron, are among the ricbet 
in France ; but those along the banks of the Garonne a* 
liable to be injured by tne inundations of that rim. 
The farms are generally separated by quick-hedges, tad 
adorned with clumps of the wild quince-tree. The nx* 
important article of agricultural produce is wheat, whica 
is of excellent quality. It is ground into flour, especiaflr 
at Montauban ; and large quantities are exported to Ame- 
rica. Barley, oats, rye, maize, pulse, potatoes, vegetibie* 
of excellent quality, rape, flax, and hemp, are also culti- 
vated to a considerable extent. 

The meadows have an extent of about 43,000 or 4UD0 
acres, the heaths and open pastures of more than 4 LCD* 
acres. The number of horned cattle and sheep b not ty 
any means so considerable as it might be : the breed d 
sheep has been however gradually improving, and t)* 
wool is of good quality. Horses, fitted for the light ca- 
valry, are reared ; and a considerable number of mules an 
bred for the Spanish market. The breeding of twin* i* 
on the increase. Poultry, especially ducks and geese, art 
numerous : they are salted in considerable quantity ; sol 
their livers, which sometimes weigh two pounds, are Bt4c 
into the pies for which this part of France, Toulouse e*j*- 
cially, is so famous. The quills also form an important 
article of trade. 

The vine is extensively cultivated on tht slopes aoi 
more elevated plains, where the soil is commonly of s 
whitish colour, of mingled clay and fine sand, little adapted 
for the growth of corn, but suited to the vine, wtu*£ 
succeeds admirably in the district between the Tarn and 



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tbt Garonne. The vineyards hare an extent of about 
9O000 teres. A large part of their produce is made into 
brandy for exportation. The wine is of fair quality, but 
not first-rate ; and in general of a deep colour, which it 
low* by age. 

The orchards and gardens occupy about 4500 acres : the 
wahrat and chestnut trees are of great size : the white 
mulberry is cultivated in order to rear the silk-worm, 
which is an object of attention, though not so extensively 
u it misrht be made. The woods occupy about 110,000 
acres. Game and fresh-water fish are abundant : great 

Santities of the lamprey and the shad are taken in the 
wnne in the spring. 

The department is divided into three arrondissements, 
13 follows :— 



Situ*- Are.\ in Population in Can- Com- 

Nam* Hon. Sq. miles. 1831. 1836. tons, munea. 

Montauban E. 619 107,853 106,799 11 62 

Moissac N.W. 341 62,489 62,735 6 49 

C ^ W "]S.W. 461 72,167 72,650 7 80 



1421 242,509 242,184 24 191 

In the arrondissement of Montauban are — Montauban, 
on the Tarn (population, in 1831, 18,255 for the town, or 
2.460 for the whole commune ; in 1836, 23,865 for the 
commune) [Montauban] ; La Francaise (pop. 3686), near 
the Tarn; varen, St. Antonin (pop. 2861 for the town, or 
&#2forthe whole commune), Montricoux, Bioull6, Negre- 
oeli*e, and Realville (pop. 3030), on or near the Aveyron ; 
Bruniquel, on the Verre ; Parisot, on the Seye ; Caylus 
pop. 1518 for the town, or 5319 for the whole commune), 
on the Bonnette ; Puy-la-Roque, Septfons, Caussade (pop. 
2+11 for the town, or 4479 for the wnole commune), on or 
new the Lere or its affluents ; Montpezat and Molieres, 
on or near the Lemboulas ; Mirabel, between' the Lerc and 
foe Lemboulas; and Montclar, on the Tescounet. La 
Francaise has a manufacture of pottery from the fine clay 
which is dug in the neighbourhood . St. Antonin is on 
the right bank of the Aveyron, at the junction of the Bon- 
nette. There are manufactures of serge and other woollen 
ituffc, and there are tan-yards and paper-mills: con- 
siderable trade is carried on in leather and dried plums. 
Montricoux has twelve yearly fairs : marble is quarried 
oear the town. NegTepelisse was formerly inhabited 
chiefly by the Huguenots ; and when Louis XIII. besieged 
Montauban (a.d. 1621), he put a garrison into this town ; 
but the inhabitants rose upon the garrison, and put them 
to the sword, in consequence of which the town was taken 
wd burnt by the royal army. Cotton goods are woven, 
*nd trade is carried on in corn, wine, and nemp : there are 
ten yearly fairs. At Realville considerable trade is carried 
on in com and flour : there are five yearly fairs. Bruni- 
quel has an iron-work. Cavlus has eleven yearly fairs, and 
8 trade in com. Caussade has some manufactures of linen 
and woollen ; and the townsmen carry on trade in corn, 
flour, saflron, and truffles : there are eight yearly fairs. 

In the arrondissement of Moissac are — Moissac, on the 
nsht bank of the Tarn (population, in 1831, 5950 for the 
town, or 10,165 for the whole commune ; in 1836, 10,618 
for the commune) [Moissac]; Auvillard or Auvillar (po- 
pulation 1963 for the town, or 2302 for the whole com- 
mune., on the Garonne ; Valence (population 1994 for the 
town, or 2875 for the whole commune), between the Ga- 
ffio* and the Barguelone ; Lauzerte (population 1753 for 
tte town, or 3685 for the whole commune) and Miramont, 
nn the Petite Barguelone ; Monjoy or Montjoye and Castel- 
Sacrat. on or near the Sadne ; lie Bourg-du-Visa, on a 
cwll feeder of the Saone ; Montaigut or Montaigu (popu- 
lation 3000 for the town, or 4172 for the whole commune) 
■ad Roqnecor, on the Seune ; and Dunes, near the western 
»®ler of the department. At Auvillard or Auvillar 
tatnebrnes written Auvillards) are manufactures of earthen- 
**rc and worsted hose : there are four yearly fairs. The 
•wsnbourhood is productive in wine. Valence (distin- 
?°*hed as Valence d'Agen) has four yearly fairs : the 
{°*iamen tan leather and prepare quills for writing. 
k^erte is in a picturesque situation on a rocky eminence, 
*t the junction of the Lendou with the Petite Barguelone: 
U has eleven fairs, where much business is done in corn, 
^-ne, and cattle. Montaigu has some manufactures of 
JooQen stuffs and leather, and five yearly fairs. Dunes 
w nineteen yearly fairs for cattle, corn, and linen cloth. 
P. C, No. 1496. 



In the arrondissement of Castel-Sarrasin are — Castel- 
Sarrasin, near the right bank of the Garonne (population, 
in 1831, 3346 for the town, or 7092 for the whole com- 
mune ; in 1836, 7408 for the commune) ; Verdun (popu* 
lation 1809 for the town, or 4234 for the whole com- 
mune), Le Mas-Gamier, and St. Nicolas-de-la-Grave, on 
the Garonne ; St. Porquier, Scatalen, Montech, Fignan 
or Finnan (population 1600 for the town, or 1730 fot 
the whole commune), and Grizalles or Grizolles (popular 
tion 1724 for the town, or 2091 for the whole commune), 
between the Tarn and the Garonne; Bouillac, near the 
Lambon; Beaumont de Lomagne (population 3126 for the 
town, or 4130 for the whole commune), on the Gimone ; 
and Lavit de Lomagne, near the Serre. Castel-Sarrasin 
suffered much in the religious wars, and the quantity of 
bones and of arms dug up in the neighbourhood bears tes* 
timony to the frequency or severity of the conflicts it has 
witnessed. The town is agreeably situated in a fertile 
plain about a mile from the Garonne, and is well built. 
The old walls and ditches have been destroyed, and re- 
placed by agreeable promenades. The townsmen manu- 
facture serge and other woollen stuffs, hats, and leather : 
there are three yearly fairs. There are one or two subor- 
dinate government offices. Verdun, distinguished from 
other places of the same name as Verdun-sur-Garonne, is 
on the left bank of the river : it has much declined from its 
former importance, but has still some woollen manufactures 
and three yearly fairs. St. Nicolas-de-la-Grave is known 
for the excellent melons grown in the surrounding district : 
there are four yearly fairs. St. Porquier is known for the 
extensive cultivation of tobacco and saffron in the neigh- 
bourhood : it has three yearly fairs. Grizalles or Grizolles 
is in a fertile plain, a short distance from the right bank of 
the Garonne : the townsmen manufacture a considerable 
quantity of cutlery, especially excellent scissars : there are 
three yearly fairs for cattle and horses. At Beaumont-de- 
Lomagne coarse cloth and other woollens, hats, and leather 
are manufactured, and trade is carried on in corn : there 
are seven fairs in the year. 

The population, when not otherwise described, is that of 
the commune, and from the census of 1831. 

This part of France, at the earliest historical period, was 
occupied by the Cadurci, a Celtic people, who were north 
of the Garumna (now the Garonne), the Tarnis (now the 
Tarn), and the river now known as the Tescou ; by the 
Tolosates, also Celts, who inhabited the part south of these 
rivers ; and by the Lactorates (of the Aquitanian stock), 
in whose territories that small portion of the department 
which lies south of the Garcnne and west of the Larax or 
Rats was included. Perhaps some small portions of the 
north-western border may have belonged to the Nitiobriges, 
a Celtic people, and some portions of the eastern border 
to the Ruteni, who were also Celts : but these portions, if 
there were any, must have been very small. The Tasconi 
of Pliny, who appear to have left their name to the little 
rivers Tescou and Tescounet, on the banks of which they 
dwelt, were probably either a subdivision of the Tolo- 
sates, or a small tribe subject to them. In the Roman 
division of Gaul the Tolosates, with the Tasconi, were in- 
cluded in the province of Narbonensis Prima ; the Cadurci 
and the Ruteni in that of Aquitania Prima ; and the Nitio- 
briges and Lactorates in Novempopulana. 

Only two places mentioned by Roman authorities are 
supposed to have been in this department. Cosa, men- 
tioned in the Theodosian or Peutinger Table, was probably 
on the bank of the Aveyron, near Realville ; and the Fines 
of the same authority may be placed on the Tescou, near 
the junction of the Tescounet. 

In the middle ages, the north-western parts, about Mon- 
taigut, Castel-Sagrat, and Valence, as far south as the 
Garonne, were included in L'Agenois ; the northern and 
north-eastern parts, as far south as the Tarn, in the dis- 
trict of Le Bas Quercy, except just about Parisot and St. 
Antonin, which belonged to La Basse Marche in Rouergue ; 
L'Agenois, Quercy, and Rouergue were all subdivisions of 
Guienne. South of the Garonne the whole was included in 
Gascogne or Gascony ; the part west of the Larax being 
comprehended in Le Condomois, a district of Gascogne 
Proper ; and the part eastward of the Larax in Lomagne 
and Riviere-Verdun, two districts in Bas (Lower) otherwise 
Noir (Black) Armagnac. The districts between the Garonne 
and the Tarn belonged to the district of Le Toulousain, 
or the county of Toulouse, properly so called, in Languedoc* 

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These territories, upon the overthrow of the Roman em- 
pire, passed into the hands of the Visigoths, from whom 
they were afterwards wrested by the Franks. The county 
of Toulouse was annexed to the crown in the reign of 
Philippe III. le Hardi ; the county of Armagnac first by 
Louis Xl. and finally by Henri IV., and Rouergue finally 
by Francois I. Le Quercy and L'Agenois were for a long 
time part of the English possessions in France. The Eng- 
lish were finally driven out in the middle of the fifteenth 
century. 

TARNOPOL is a circle in the eastern part of Austrian 
Galicia, bordering on the Russian government of Podolia. 
The area is about 1400 square miles, and the population 
212,500, of whom about 13,000 are Jews. The surface 
of the country is an undulating plain broken only by a few 
hills. The forests are very extensive, and the soil in ge- 
neral extremely fertile : it produces corn, flax, hemp, to- 
bacco, garden vegetables, and fruits. * The fine meadows,' 
says Hassel, * would enable the inhabitants to breed great 
numbers of cattle, but it is only the breeding of horses 
that is more considerable than in the rest of Galicia ; they 
are of the true Polish race. In 1817 there were 36,273 
horses, 9412 oxen, 2C,339 cows, and 59,282 sheep/ Ac- 
cording to the very detailed statistical tables for 1830 
(published in 1834, which are the latest that we have seen), 
tnere were 41,223 horses, 11,156 oxen, 26,065 cows, and 
81,283 sheep. There is no large river in the circle ; the 
Podhorze forms the eastern boundary towards Russia, and 
the interior is watered by the Sered, the Tryna, the Guila, 
and other small streams. 

TARNOPOL, the capital of the above circle, is a consi- 
derable town, with 10,500 inhabitants, of whom nearly half 
are Jews. It is situated on the river Sered, which there 
passes through a lake. There are in the town a Roman 
Catholic and a Greek church, three synagogues, a Jesuits' 
college, a gymnasium, and a philosophical seminary. In 
the year 1820, 50 of the Jesuits expelled from Russia were 
allowed to settle in a Dominican convent at Tamopol. 
The sum of 300 florins a year was assigned to each, with 
a moderate sum for the establishment of the gymnasium, 
it being intended that they be solely employed in the edu- 
cation of youth in and out of the town. The inhabitants 
have a pretty considerable trade, but have not made much 
progress in manufactures. The principal establishments 
are tanneries. As in most Polish towns, the houses are of 
wood, and the streets unpaved, where filth of all kinds is 
suffered to accumulate. 

(Hassel ; Stein ; Cannabich; Mission from the Church 
of Scotland to the Jews, 1842.) 

TARNOW, a circle of Austrian Galicia, is bounded on 
the north by the Vistula, which separates it from Poland, 
on the east by Rzeszow, on the south by Jaslo, on the 
south-east by Sanok, and on the west by Bochnia. The 
area is 2000 square miles, and the population at present 
must be at least 240,000 ; since, according to the statisti- 
cal tables for 1830, it was 238,453, of whom 14,608 were 
Jews. The country is an extensive plain, with here and 
there an inconsiderable eminence. The soil is on the whole 
not very fertile, in many parts sandy, and ill-cultivated. 
The rivers are, the Vistula on the north, the Dunajec on the 
west, and the Wisloka, which flows through the middle of 
the circle. Though the chief occupation of the inhabitants 
is agriculture, its operations are performed in a very slovenly 
manner, and the breeding of cattle is bv no means in pro- 
portion to the extent of the country : the forests however 
are very profitable, and there is no other circle in Galicia 
where the people make so many wooden wares of various 
kinds, pipe-staves, &c. There are no manufactories, pro- 
perly speaking, except in the chief town and its neigh- 
bourhood, but the country-people manufacture a great 
quantity cf linen. 

Tarnow, the capita] of the circle, is pleasantly situated 
on an eminence near the river Biala, over which there is a 
handsome wooden bridge of one arch of 180 feet span, 
which is entirely covered over. The population of the 
town, without the suburb, is 2250, of whom 1650 are Jews; 
with the suburb the population is 4800. The houses are 
for the most part well built of brick, two stories high. This 
town is the see of a Roman Catholic bishop, and the seat 
of the tribunal of the circle. It has a cathedral, a Fran- 
ciscan convent, a synagogue, a gymnasium, a Jewish in- 
firmary, a military hospital, erected in 1835, and several 
•chods. The inhabitants manufacture linen, damask, 



wooden-ware, and cabinet-work. They nave mint tin. 
neries, and carry on a brisk trade. The cathedral cooto* 
the monuments of the princes Janusz von Ostro*, u>j ,( 
the counts of Tarnow-Tarnoswsky : two of them are town® 
to 70 feet high, and reach to the roof of the cbarch. TV- 
two monuments are very highly spoken of as works of ir. 

TARPEIAN ROCK. [Rome.] 

TARPORLKY. [Cheshire.] 

TARQUI'NII (Taptfwia, or TapcotuVoi), an arrtient lo*t 
of Etruria, on the southern bank of the river Marti, *tort 
empties itself into the sea a few miles below. Accentor ♦ 
Strabo (v. 2, p. 355, ed. Tauchniti), the town wat f^N'-j 
by Tarcon, one of the companions of Tvrrhenus fRtrrAi- u 
Byzant., s. v. Tapicwia; Virgil, Mn^ viii. 505; Sir.* H 
licus, viii. 473) ; and, according to others, it wa§ » c ■ n 
of Thessalians and Spinambrians. In the reign of Am', 
Marcius, Demaratusof Corinth is said to have come »rh 4 
band of his countrymen to Etruria, and to litvc t>- 
favourably received by the Tarquinienses; and [he w -• 
describes him as the father of L. Tarquinius Priscufc. [Tu- 
quinius.1 Whatever may be thought of this tradrVx • 
seems clear that Etruria and Tarquinii in piutin !u n 
perienced at an early period considerable infltitrnv ft c 
Greece. Tarquinii appears to have become in a short ♦ie- 
a great anil powerful city ? as is clear from the wan w) (^ 
it carried on with Rome, and from the important n'c^i 
which have recently been discovered; ana there bit** 1 * 
doubt that it formed one of the twelve republics of f>r.-% 
consisting of the city and an extensive territory aror-vi i» 
After the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbxs fruro Roat *i 
b.c. 509, the Tarquinienses were the most forward i- tit 
cause, and unsuccessfully endeavoured to restore ram N 
force of arms. (Liv., ii. 6, &c.) About the vear b c xi. 
the Tarquinienses again made war upon the Roman*, ?*i 
ravaged their territory, but they were defeated by A IV.*-' 
mius and L. Julius. This however did not deter them t-» a 
renewing their hostilities against Rome, and from marine 
inroads upon her territory. It was on such an occasoo, in the 
year b.c. 358, that a war broke out between the two <*tt*j 
which lasted for several years. The Romans in thtir in\ 
campaign, under the consul C. Fabius, were unsucce«r V 
and the Tarquinienses made 307 Roman soldiers priwn 
all of whom were sacrificed to the gods. Rome for «r*' 
time carried on the war on the defensive, while her tr** 
mies acquired new allies, and invaded the Roman terri'rrj 
as far as the Salinas, at the mouth of the Tiber. At hi 
however, in 356 b.c, they were defeated by the dicU-x 
Marcius Rutilus,and the year after they were compel l»' 
C. Sulpicius to lay down their arms. Tne Romans ncw\»-ii 
cruel revenge for the outrage which had been come*/*-' 
upon their prisoners. The common Tarquinienses wh<- 
into the hands of the Romans were all massacred, bit 3> 
nobles were sent to Rome, where they were beaten to d'^N 
in the forum. (Liv., vii. 12-19.) Shortly after the Tin-. < 
nienses sued for a truce, which was granted for forty *e"'i 
Tarquinii, like the rest of the Etruscan towns, was hrr vi 
forth neutral in the wars of Rome with other nation*. v*j 
remained in almost perfect independence of Rome. Sh * i 
after the expiration of the truce the Tarquinienses ob f sn* 
a peace of the same duration. At a later period Taq*:.- i 
became a Roman Municipiura (Cicero, pro Ca*ci*„ A 

The site of the antient Tarquinii is clearly discernif V d 
the ruins still extant on the hill of Tarchino, nrir ~< 
modern town of Corneto. The place has in modern trH 
acquired a peculiar interest through the numerous ww | 
art which have been discovered in the tombs and c»'« 
combs. The first of these were opened in 1699, and ^<i 
was found in them was described oyBuonarotti. N-w *J\ 
covenes have frequently been made there since thai tr-< 
the most important are the paintings with which the w * 
of the catacombs are decorated; but besides these. thri 
and temples with inscriptions, mosaics and vases, and 
works of art, are found there. Respecting these disecwf n 
see Wilcox and Morton, Account of some tubtrrr^:* 
Apartments tcith Etruscan Inscriptions and Patntr 
<$*c, in the Philosophical Transactions for 1763, ve 1 v. 
127; Von Stackelberg, Ael teste Dcnkmaler dtr .VnVrrj 
oder IVandgemalde aus den Hypogden von Tbrrpti^l 
1827, with numerous plates. 

TARQU7NIUS. According to early Roman msion l> 
family of the Tarquinii gave two kings and one cotuq } ' 
Rome. Its origin was traced to the town of Tartruir.ti 5 
Etruria, and thence to Greece. Modem investigate* 



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however have shown that the Tarquinii did not come from 
Etruria, but must originally have belonged to Latium, and 
that from the earliest times there existed at Rome a gens 
Tarquinia. (Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, i.* p. 373, &c.) We sub- 
join a list of those members of the house of the Tarquins 
*bo play a prominent part in the early history of Rome. 

Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. The old story concerning 
his birth and his arrival in Rome ran thus : — During the 
tyranny of Cypselus at Corinth, Demaratus, a wealthy 
merchant who belonged to the noble family of the Bac- 
chi&k was obliged by the tyrant to quit his native city. 
He sailed to Etruria, which he had often visited before on 
ha mercantile voyages, and took up his residence at Tar- 
quinii. Here he married a woman of noble rank, who 
bore him two sons, Lucumo and Aruns. (Dionys., iii. 46 ; 
Liv., i. 34 ; Polyb., vi. 2.) As an aspiring foreigner could 
never hope to satisfy his ambition in Etruria, Lucumo, 
after the death of his father and brother, resolved to 
emigrate with his wife Tanaquil and a numerous band of 
fhenck to Rome, where several strangers had already ob- 
tained the highest honours. He was confirmed in his 
expectations by a miraculous occurrence which happened 
ju*i when he was approaching the city, and by the inter- 
pretation of it by his wife, who was well skilled in augury. 
At Rome Lucumo was favourably received by King Ancus 
Marcius, and lands were assigned to him. To omit nothing 
on his part which might characterize him as a complete . 
Rjman, he adopted the name of Lucius Tarquinius, to 
vhich subsequently the name Priscus was added to distin- 
piiih him from other members of his house. His wealth 
and prudence induced King Ancus to allow Tarquin to 
lake Dart in all the affairs of state, and in his will he made 
him tne guardian of his children, who were yet under age. 
[Ancus Makcius.] Tarquin himself aspired to become 
ting of Rome. Accordingly, on the death of Ancus, he sent 
the young princes out hunting, and during their absence 
he held the comitia for electing a successor to Ancus, and 
succeeded in persuading the people to elect him, to the 
exclusion of the sons of Ancus, 616 B.C. 

This is the common story of the descent of the fifth king 
of Rome, of the manner in which he came to Rome, and 
was raised to the throne. How much there may be his- 
torical in the tradition cannot be ascertained. Thus 
much however appears certain, that the arrival of Deraa- 
latus in Etruria cannot have been contemporaneous with 
the tyranny of Cypselus, and that, as stated above, Tar- 
quinius was not a foreigner, but belonged to a Latin gens 
Tarquinia. (Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, i., p. 373, &c.) 

L. Tarquinius Priscus distinguished himself during his 
rci<n no less in war than in the peaceful administration 
of the state. His first war was against the Latins, from 
whom he took great spoil. With equal success he car- 
ried on war with the Sabines, whom he defeated in two 
great battles, and from whom he took the town of Colla- 
tia with its territory. After this he again made war on 
the Latins, and after he had subdued them and made 
himself piaster of many of their towns, he concluded a 
J*ace with them. During the intervals between these 
vrare he introduced various improvements into the consti- 
tution of the state, which are mentioned in the articles 
&>hb, p. 104, and Senatus, and which were intended 
to organize the body of the plebeians, and perhaps to 
piate them on an equality with the patricians. But he 
could only partially carry his schemes into effect, as he was 
thwarted by the augur Attus Navius, who probably acted 
« the instigation of the patricians. After his first Latin 
war. Tarquin built the Circus Maximus for the exhibition 
of the public spectacles, and is said to have been the 
founder of the Roman or great games (Ludi Magni or 
Ilumani). He also assigned the ground round the forum 
to private individuals, that they might there build porticoes 
*nd places for transacting business ; and lastly he is said 
to have formed the plan of enclosing the city by a stone 
**ll» which he was prevented from accomplishing by the 
wftreak of the Sabine war. After the second war against 
«e Latins, he recurred to his plan, and is said to have made 
•fhialpr^parations for building the wall ; but the comple- 
te* of it was reserved for his successor Servius Tulnus. 
Joe greatest work at Rome, which owes its origin to Tar- 
^ and which has survived all the vicissitudes of the 
Qtv.are the gigantic sewers (cloacae) in the lower districts 
ofKome, [Cloaca.] 

The sons of Ancus Marcius, who had been deprived of 



the throne by their guardian Tarquin, never forgot the 
injury, and when they discovered that it was his and Tana- 
anil's intention to secure the succession to Servius Tullius, 
they formed the design of murdering Tarquin. [Servius 
Tullius.] For this purpose they hired two sturdy shep- 
herds, who went to the king's palace, and there con- 
ducted themselves as if they were engaged in a violent 
quarrel. At last the king himself appeared to settle their 
dispute, but while he was lis'ening to one of them, the 
other split the king's head with an axe. Thus died L. 
Tarquinius Priscus, after a reign of thirty-eight years, in 
b.c. 578. The queen kept his death secret until the suc- 
cession was secured to Servius Tullius. The assassins were 
seized, and the sons of Ancus fled to Suessa Pometia. 
(Livy, i. 34-42 ; Dionysius, iii. 46-73.) Tarquinius Priscus 
left two sons, Lucius and Aruns Tarquinius. 

During the reign of this king Rome appears as a power- 
ful state in comparison with what it is said to have been be- 
fore him. According to the historians this greatness was 
not the result of his reign, but is supposed to have existed 
before it, and to have enabled him to do what he did, so 
that this increase of the power and dominion of Rome 
must have taken place previous to his reign, although we 
do not know how it was effected. Some traditions men- 
tioned (Tacitus, AnnaLy iv. 65) that under Tarquinius 
Priscus an Etruscan of the name of Caeles Vibenna came 
with a colony to Rome and settled on the Caelian hill, 
which derived its name from him. 

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh and last king 
of Rome, was the son of Tarquinius Priscus, and brother of 
Aruns. Tullia, a daughter of Servius Tullius, was married 
to the gentle Aruns, and her sister to L. Tarquinius. In con- 
cert with Lucius, Tullia murdered her own husband Aruns 
and her sister, and then married L. Tarquinius. Lucius 
placed himself at the head of a conspiracy, and murdered 
his own father-in-law, the aged Servius Tullius. Tarqui- 
nius, who received the surname of the Haughty or the 
Tyrant (Superbus), succeeded his father-in-law as king of 
Some, 584 b.c, without either being elected by the peo- 
ple or confirmed by the senate. 

There is no doubt that the hatred of the very name of 
king which prevailed at Rome during the republic, has 
greatly contributed to exaggerate the cruelty and tyranny 
of the last king, and thus to corrupt his history. But not- 
withstanding ail this, it is clear that Tarauin by his talents, 
both as a general and a statesman, quickly raised Rome to 
a degree of power which it had never possessed before. 
The first act attributed to him after his accession is the 
death of all the senators who had supported the reforms of 
Servius Tullius, and in order to render his own person 
safe, he formed an armed body-guard which always accora- 

Eanied him. He in fact undid all that Servius had done : 
e took on himself the administration of justice, put per- 
sons to death or sent them into exile according to nis own 
pleasure, and kept the whole internal and external adminis- 
tration in his own hands, without either consulting the 
people or the senate. In order that the senate might sink 
into insignificance, he never filled up the vacancies which 
so frequently occurred through his executions, banish- 
ments, or through the natural death of senators. To 
secure himself still more, he formed a close connection 
with the Latins, to one of whom, Octavius Mamilius of 
Tusculum, he gave his own daughter in marriage. The 
influence which he thus gained among the Latins was 
most visible in their assemblies on the AJban Mount by the 
temple of Jupiter Latiaris, in which Rome also had a 
vote. Tarquinius, by cunning and fraud, or, according to 
others, by force of arms, subdued the towns of Latium and 

E laced Rome at the head of the league (Livy, i. 50, &c. ; 
►ionysius, iv. 45, &c. ; Cicero, De Re Publ., li. 24), which 
was now also joined by the Hermcans and the Volscian 
towns of Ecetra and Antium. The wealthy town of Suessa 
Pometia was besieged and taken, perhaps because it had 
refused to join the league. The Latin town of Gabii ex 
perienced a similar fate. Sextus, the king's youngest son, 
went thither under the pretext of being a deserter, and 
contrived to put himself at the head of the Gabian army. 
After having put to death or sent into exile the most dis- 
tinguished citizens of Gabii by the advice of his lather, he 
treacherously surrendered the town to him. The whole 
account of the war with Gabii bears the character of a 
fable, and resembles in many respects other fabulous stories 
of early Grecian history. The treaty which was formed 

XL m 



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with Gabii afler its surrender, was engraved on a wooden 
shield, and preserved in the temple of Jupiter Fidius to 
the time of Dionysius of Halicaraassus. Tarquin founded 
in the conquered territory of the Volscians the two colo- 
nies of Signia and Circeii, by which he extended and 
strengthened the power of Rome. 

Tarcmin is said to have been fond of splendour and 
magnificence. He built the capitol, with the threefold 
temple of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, and adorned it 
with brazen statues of the gods and of the early kings. 
(Livy, i. 53 ; Dionysius, iv. 59 ; Pliny, Hist. Nat., xxxui. 
4 ; xxxiv. 13.) Here he also deposited the oracular books 
which he had purchased from a Sibyl. [Sibyl J After 
the establishment of the colonies of Signia and Circeii, a 
fearful omen was seen, which seemed to bode ruin to his 
family ; and in order to ascertain its import he sent his two 
sons, Sextus and Aruns, accompanied by his nephew, L. 
Junius Brutus, to Delphi. To the question as to which of 
the three ambassadors was to reijp at Rome, the Pythia 
answered : he who should first kiss his mother. Brutus, 
who had always assumed the appearance of an idiot, un- 
derstood the oracle, and on landing in Italy, fell down and 
kissed the earth, the mother of all. Tarquin's coffers were 
now exhausted by the great works that he had undertaken, 
and he was tempted to make himself master of Ardea, a 
wealthy town of the Rutuli . As however he did not succeed 
in his first attack, he laid siege to the town. While this 
was iroing on, a dispute arose between the sons of Tarquin 
and their cousin, C. Tarquinius Collatinus, respecting the 
virtue of their wives. This led to the violation of the 
chaste Lucretia, the wife of Collatinus, who lived at Colla- 
tia, by Sextus, the king's eldest son. As the highest pride 
of a Roman woman at this time was her virtue, Lucretia 
sent for her husband, father, and Brutus, and killed herself 
in their presence, after having cursed the family of the 
kine, and implored her friends to avenge the injury which 
she had suffered. Brutus immediately marched with an 
armed force from Collatia to Rome, and roused the people 
to avenge the indignity and throw off the yoke of their 
tyrant. The citizens were easily persuaded; they deprived 
tne king, who was yet in the camp of Ardea, of his im- 
perium, and banished him with his wife and children 
lrom Rome, 510 b.c. Afler these occurrences Tarquin 
hastened to Rome, but finding the gates of the city shut 
upon him, and learning that he was declared an exile, he 
retired to Caere, whither he was followed by his son Aruns. 
His other son Sextus sought a refuge at Gabii, but the 
citizens, remembering his former treachery, put him to 
death. The simple fact of the banishment ot King Tar- 
quin, which was commemorated at Rome every year by 
a festival called 'The King's Flight' (Regifugium or Fu- 
galia), is beyond all doubt historical ; but what is described 
as its immediate cause, and its accompanying circumstances, 
may be poetical inventions. 

Tarquin however did not give up the hope of recovering 
what he had lost. He first sent ambassadors to Rome to 
demand the surrender of his moveable property. During 
their stay in the city the ambassadors formed a conspiracy, 
in whichyoung patricians chiefly are said to have joined 
them. The conspirators were discovered and put to death, 
and the moveable property of the royal family was given 
up to the people, in order to render reconciliation im- 
possible. The king is said to have found favour and 
protection with the inhabitants of Caere and Tarquinii, 
and with the Veientines, and to have led the united forces 
of these people against the Romans, who however defeated 
their enemies near the forest of Arsia. Brutus fell in this 
battle in single combat with Aruns. Tarquin now sought 
and found assistance at CI usium, which was then governed 
by the mighty Lar Porsenna. [Porsrnna.J During the 
war of this chieftain with Rome Tarquin is entirely lost 
sight of in the narrative of the historians ; but after its 
conclusion we find him supported by the Latins, and 
waging a fresh war against Rome under the Latin dictator 
Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum. The battle near lake 
Regillus (496 B.C.), in which the king lost his only surviving 
son, decided the whole contest. The account ol the detail 
of this battle is as fabulous as any part of the early history 
of Rome, and formed, as Niebunr supposes, the conclud- 
ing part of the 4 Lay of the Tarquins.* The aged king, now 
deprived of all his hopes, retired to Cumae, which was 
then governed by the tyrant Aristodemus, where he died 
the year following, 495 b,c. 



(Iivy, ii. 19, &c. ; Dionysius, vi. 2, &c. ; NiebiuV. HtM±+ 
of Rome, i., p. 555, &c.) 

Lucius Tarquinius Coixattnus, the son of Egmm 
and the husband of Lucretia. After the banishment cf 
the king he was elected consul together with L. Juni *m 
Brutus. But the people beginning to suspect that he 
might perhaps be tempted to follow the example of tu» 
kinsman, and endanger the freedom of the young re pub be, 
he was compelled to abdicate, and to submit to toe mea- 
tence of exile, which was now pronounced upon the trhvLr 
family of the Tarquinii. (Livy, i. 57, 60 ; ii. 2.) 

TARRAGONA, a province of Spain, bord eri or on U* 
north on Catalonia, on the south on Valencia, ana on the 
west on Aragon. The capital, Tarragona, is situated <w 
the coast of the Mediterranean, on the declivity of a mooo- 
tain rising to 760 feet above the level of the sea, and o**r 
the mouth of the river Francoli, 41° 7' N. lat. and 1* ir 
£. long. Tarragona, the Roman Tarraco, is one of tr* 
most antic nt cities of Spain; as it is supposed to have bevs 
founded by the Phoenicians. During the second Pcu 
War it became a Roman colony (Prin., Hist. Ao/. t iii. 3 . 
and, subsequently under Augustus, the capital of FL>- 

fjania Citenor, or Tarraconensis, which comprised Ci-\»- 
onia, Aragon, Navarre, Biscay, the Asturias, Galici*. a 
portion of Leon, and the Balearic Islands. Tarraco hu al*j 
the chief city of one of the seven conventus, or divLoooa U 
the province for purposes of administration, and t hiefly k* 
justice. In a.d. 407 it was taken by Euric, king ol :hr 
Goths, and levelled with the earth. The Arabs reduced n 
in 710, like most cities on that coast, and it remained ^ 
their hands until Raymond IV., count of Barcelona, ti>A 
it from them, about the close of the eleventh centi^^. 
The city being found in a very ruinous and dilapidated 
state, Don Bernardo, archbishop of Toledo, undertook to 
rebuild it on condition that the pope would ab*olw L:m 
of an oath he had taken, and not fulfilled, of repairing to 
the Holy Land. The absolution having been graoteti, the 
archbishop of Toledo destined the greatest portion of itn: 
revenues of his see to the rebuilding of Tarragona. Duru*^ 
the War of Succession, the English took possession of tiie 
city, which they intended to keep and began to fortify. 
Some of the outworks and redoubts thrown up by them « 
still visible. In 1810 the French, under Marshal Sucbri, 
laid siege to it, and took it by storm on the 29th of Jir»*, 
1811, after a siege of several months. The conduct of tLe 
French commander on this occasion is greatly to blame ; 
he not only justified, but even encouraged, the perpetra- 
tion of all kinds of atrocities, on the ground that he wuh* J 
bv one dreadful example to terrify the people and prc\cc: 
all further resistance. An attempt to retake the city, xnatie 
in June, 1813, by the allied forces under General Sir John 
Murray, failed completely ; for at the approach of Such*:, 
who was advancing from Valencia, that officer raided tl -. 
siege and re-embarked his troops with such precipitatiLC. 
that he left all his artillery and stores behind. 

Tarragona is tolerably well built, and the Roman j\ - 
mams render it interesting. Besides the circus, which n 
now almost entirely built upon, it has a very fine axnjAi- 
theatre, in a good state of preservation, and a large Rom*n 
building, probably a temple, which the inhabitants call • th* 
palace of Augustus/ The remains of a splendid aigueduc*, 
which once supplied Tarragona with water, which was 
brought from a distance of 16 miles, afford likewise 
a proof of the importance of the city under the Roman*. 
About three miles east of the city there is a very- fi.o* 
mausoleum, which the vulgar call * El Sepulcro de K* 
Scipiones' (the tomb of the Scipios), from a belief that 
Cnams and Publius Scipio are buried under it. Of tLr 
Moorish domination there remain no other traces than a 
large building close to the sea, which is believed to have 
been their arsenal. The cathedral is by far the most inte- 
resting building in the city, and is well deserving of ntte ra- 
tion for its vast dimensions and the elegance and purity ?? 
its Gothic architecture. It was erected^ in the year 1 1 IT. 
but has since been greatly added to. The chapel of Santa 
Thecla, which is entirely built of rich marbles and jasper** 
is one of the richest and most tastefully decorated in the 
church. The great altarpiece too is much admired fru- 
its exquisite carvings, executed by a native artist in 143&. 
Tarragona is the see of an archbishop, who once distort rd 
with that of Toledo the primacy of Spain. During the 
Moorish domination, several provincial and genera) coon. 
cils were held there. At the first, which took place im 8 ha, 



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it was ordained that the Sabbath should commence on 
Saturday night. The immediate neighbourhood of Tarra- 
gona k well cultivated, and yields com, wine, oil, and 
hemp, in great abundance. T*he principal manufactures 
are cloth, coarse cotton-goods, hats, and cutlery, which are 
exported to all parts of Spain, and to the island of Cuba. 
TARSHISH (ththn) is * place mentioned in the Old 

Testament, particularly in connection with the commerce 
of the Hebrews and Phoenicians. In Gen., x. 4, the 
name occurs among the sons of Javan, who are supposed 
to have peopled the southern parts of Europe. (Compare 
Ps. Ixxii. 10; Isaiah, Ixvi. 19.) In other passages it is 
mentioned as sending to Tyre silver, iron, tin, and lead 
'Ezekiel, xxvii. 12 ; Jerem., x. 9) ; and from Isaiah, xxiii. 
10, some have inferred that it was subject to the Phoe- 
nicians. The prophet Jonah, attempting to avoid his 
mission to Nineveh, fled from Joppa m a ship bound to 
Tarshish. (Jonah, i. 3 ; iv. 2.) In several passages of the 
ffible * ships of Tarshish ' are spoken of, especially in con- 
nection with Tyre ; and it is pretty generally agreed that 
that phrase only describes a species of large ship, such as 
those used in the trade with Tarshish, just as we speak of 
' Inctianien.' 

From a comparison ot the above passages, the majority 
of critics have concluded that Tarshish must be sought for 
m the western part of the Mediterranean, or even outside 
the Straits ; and it has been generally identified with the 
Phoenician emporium of Tartessus in Spain, a place which 
would undoubtadly furnish the products said to have been 
brought from Tarshish. The Phoenician name 4 Tarshish* 
would easily become the Greek Taprif<r<r<$c ; in fact the 
Aramaean pronunciation of * Tarshish' would be 'Tarthesh.' 
We have abundant proofs that the Phoenicians had esta- 
blished an extensive commercial intercourse with Spain 
at a very early period. 

Bat there is a considerable difficulty about the position 
of this Tartessus. The antient geographers place it, some 
at the mouth of the river Baetis (Guadalquivir), the most 
antient name of which river they state to nave been also 
Tarteasus ; while others identify it with the city of Calpe, 
or Carteia, near Mount Calpe, the rock of Gibraltar. 
(Herod., iv. 152; Strabo, p. 140, 148-151 ; Mela, iii. 6; 
PKn. t iii. 1; Pausan., vi. 19; Steph. Byzant., v. TaprTjaodc.) 

The best way to explain and reconcile these statements 
with each other, and with the biblical accounts respecting 
Ifenhish, seems to be by taking the latter as the name not 
of a single place, but of the whole country in the neigh- 
bourhood of Gibraltar. In this district there may have 
been more than one city bearing a name like Tartessus. 
'Hie name survives in various forms in the names of the 
rock Calpe, of the neighbouring city Calpe, Carpe, or 
Carteia (Tor it is written in all these ways), and of the 
people Carpetani. This statement will be more clearly 
understood after a reference to the articles on the letters 
C, P, and T. In confirmation of this view, Strabo states 
that the country in the neighbourhood of Calpe was called 
Tartessis. 

Respecting the difficulty arising from the conjoint men- 
tion of Tarshish and Ophir in the book of Chronicles, see 
Oram. 

TA f RSTUS, Stores name for a genus of Quadrumana. 

Generic Character. — Head rounded ; muzzle short ; 
ejes very large ; posterior limbs very much elongated, 
with the tarsus thrice as long as the metatarsus. Tail 
long. 

t* i ,* i • • 4 .1-1 , 6-6 

Dental formula : — incisors-; canines j—r; molars g—r; 

= 34. 

Example, Tarsi us Bancanus. 

Description. — Dr. Horsfield remarks, that although the 
Tamus from Banca agjrees in the essential points with the 
other species of this singular genus which have hitherto 
b«en discovered, it has no intermediate front teeth, and 
the exterior tooth on each side is, compared with the 
other species, very minute. Counting (with Desmarest) 
one canine tooth on each side, above and beneath, it has, 
■J* Dr. Horsfield, only five grinders in each jaw. 

'The head,' continues Dr. Horsfield, *in proportion to 
the size of the body, is large ; the arch of the forehead 
rises high, and the occiput is regularly spheroidal. The 
proximity of disposition and excessive size of the eyes is 
equally characteristic in this as in other species. The 



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Teeth of Tarsius, much larger than the nat. aixe. f F. Cur;T 



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Front Tiew of the teeth of Tardus Bancanus. (Horsf.) 

rostrum, or extremity of the face, is short and obtuse ? 
the nose is slightly rounded, almost flat above ; and the 
nostrils, as usual in this genus, are pierced laterally. The 
ears, which from their erect position and their projection, 
beyond the cranium give a peculiar distinctive character 
and appearance to the other species, in our animal are 
disposed horizontally, and instead of rising up towards 
the crown of the head, incline backwards and extend but 
little from its sides; the lobes, as usual, are very thin,, 
membranous, semitransparent, thinly beset with delicate 
hairs ; several tufts of longer hairs arise from the base, 
where the interior membranaceous lobules are discovered,, 
but in our specimen too much contracted to admit of a 
detailed description. The neck is very short, and the an- 
terior extremities have the same proportion to the body as 
in the other species. The hands are externally covered 
with a very soft down ; internally they are naked, and 
provided with several rather prominent protuberances, 
which, according to the opinion of Mr. Fiscner, are calcu- 
lated to assist the animal in climbing. The fingers are* 
deeply divided and very delicate ; those of the hands have 
the same proportion, one to the other, as they have in. 
man ; on the feet they are more lengthened and slender ; : 
the third finger is longer than the middle finger, and the- 
thumb is proportionally short. In all the third phalanx is- 
somewhat thickened, and surrounded by a projecting* 
orbicular border, which, in the thumb particularly, con- 
stitutes a delicate ball, supporting the nail. The nails of 
all the fingers of the hand, as well as of the thumb and 
the third and fourth finger of the feet, are triangular, and . 
represent a delicate compressed scale : on the index and 
middle finger of the feet they are erect, sharp, compressed,. 
slightly curved, and not inaptly compared by Mr. Fischer 
to the thorns of a rose-bush, constituting one of the essen- 
tial characters of this genus. The body is handsomely 
formed, and, as in the other species, somewhat contracted 
towards the pelvis; the lower extremities also have in 
general a similar character, but the tarsus has less of the.' 
extravagant length which is common to the other Tarsiu 



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The tail has nearly the length of the body and head taken 
together ; it is somewhat thicker at the base, nearly naked 
two-thirds of its length, but covered towards the extre- 
mity with a soft down, which forms, near the tip, a very 
obscure tuft. The fur is remarkably soft to the touch ; it 
is composed of a thick and very delicate wool, which en- 
velopes the body, head, and extremities, forming a coat of 
an unequal surface, from which irregular straggling hairs 
project ; at the root of the tail, and at the hands of both 
extremities, it terminates abruptly in the form of a ring. 
The general colour is brown, inclining to grey ; on the 
breast, abdomen, and interior of the extremities it is grey, 
inclining to whitish : a rufous tint is sparingly dispersed 
over the upper parts, which shows itself most on the head 
and extremities : the naked parts of the tail near the root 
are considerably darker than the extremity.' {Zoological 
Researches in Jura,) 

Locality. — Dr. Horefield obtained this animal in Banca, 
near Jeboos, one of the mining districts, where, he says, 
it inhabits the extensive forests in the vicinity. 




Taniiit Bancinuj. (Han&) 

M. F. Cuvier remarks that the dentition of the Tarsier 
approximates the animal more to the Galeopitheci, and 
even to the bats, than to the Quadrumana. The bones of 
this genus are well represented in the excellent Ostco- 
graphie of M. de Blainville. 

TARSUS, now TEHSOOS, a town on the Cydnus, situ- 
ated in Itshili, a division of Caraman, and formerly one of 
1he chief towns of Cilicia. It is about twelve miles distant 
from the sea, and is in 37° N. lat. and 34° 50 7 E. Ion*. The 
traditions about its origin are various. It has been sup- 
posed to be the Tarshish of Scripture, but neither Bochart 
nor Vincent {Commerce of the Ancients) countenances tliis 
conjecture. Stephanus Byzantinus (v. To^xric) says it 
was founded by Surdanapaius (see the inscription on the 
tomb of that monarch, Strabo, 672, ed. Casaub.). Arumia- 
nus, 1. xiv., c. 28, and Solinus, Polyhist., c. xli., assert 
that Perseus was the founder (Lucan, iii. 225\ and the 
name Tarsus has been derived from the fable that 
his horse Pegasus lost a hoof (Tapo6c) there. (Dionys. 
lVrieeet., 808, et scq., and for other fanciful derivations 
see Stephanus Byz.) Strabo relates that it was a settle- 
ment made by those who accompanied Triptolemus from 
Ai jtos in his quest of Io (p. 750, ed. Casaub.). The first 
historical notice of Tarsus alter this is in Xenophon, Anab. y 
i. 2^, who describes Tarsus as a great and flourishing city 
when it was taken and plundered by the younger Cyrus, 
who afterwards concluded a treaty with Syennesis, king of 
Cilicia, who had his palace there. 

We learn from Curtius (iii. 4), that Alexander the Great 



I arrived at Tarsus just in time to save it from being borot 
J by the Persians. In later times the inhabitants joined tU 
party of Julius Caesar, in honour of whom they took •>« 
name Juliopolis ; they were in consequence severely j/„. 
nished by Cassius, and rewarded afterwards by Antorn, 
who made Tarsus a free city. (Dion, 47, 342, 3tt, u\ 
Hamb., 1750.) Tarsus enjoyed the favour of Auero; * 
whose tutor Athenodorus, a Stoic, was a native of rha 
place, and persuaded the emperor to release his country- 
men from all taxation. (Lucian, Afacrob., 21, Lehmsr.a. 
1839.) Athenodorus, returning to his native place io few 
old age, expelled a troublesome faction, at tne bead of 
which was Boethus, an unprincipled demagogue, and re- 
modelled the constitution. (Sec Strabo, p. 674. who gn» 
some curious details.) He was succeeded in his gov fo- 
ment by Nestor, an Academician. 

Tarsus continued to flourish under the emperor*, nndtr 
whom it assumed the several titles— Hadrian*, Comae* 
diana, Antoninopolis, Macriniana, Alexandrians, Alexia- 
drinopolis, and Anally, in the time of Valerian, Hadna*A 
Sevenana, Antoniniana. (Eckhel, Doct. Vet. % UI„ 'Tu- 
bus.') The Tarsians, according to Strabo, excelled a 
auickness of repartee and every kind of ready wit ; tot 
their schools of philosophy were not less celebrated Ua» 
those of Athens and Alexandria. The chief among the 
Stoics were the two Athenodori ; among the Academi- 
cians, Nestor. Athenseus (v., 215, ed. Casaub.) speabtf 
Lysias, an Epicurean, who was tyrant of Tarsus at *ocq< 
time. The coins of this city inform us of its relation *rth 
Cilicia and the adjacent provinces. Tbe inscripUom 
KOINOS KIAIKIA2, on a decastyle temple; KOINOX Tu* 
TPIQN EITAPXIQN, referring to the games common to tin 
three provinces of Isauria, Caria, and Lycaonia, are to U 
found in Mionnet, Recucil des Mcdaillc* % iii. That it *** 
a metropolis appears lrom an inscription on a coin, *&• 
TPonOAEQS TYXH, and from the testimony of Strabo; 
and Appian's statement that it was a free city is confrmtd 
by the title EAEVOEPA. St. Paul was a native of thk place. 
{Acts, xvi. 37 ; and xxii. 25-28.^ Other interettiBf trpr» 
and inscriptions occur on the coins of Tarsus. On tko* 
of Septimius Sevems there is 2EBHPEIA OAYXOU Efll- 
NEIKIA, recording his victory over Pescennius Niger m 
Cilicia. Jupiter Nicephorus, Apollo, Hercules engaged is 
several of his labours, Perseus with the harps, are freqi** 1 
types, and confirm the testimony of Dion Chmatsn 
(Orat., 33, 20), who mentions these among the chief dti tin 
of the place. 

The figure of Triptolemus, the reputed founder, aba 
occurs ; and the name BOH0OY, referring perhaps to U* 
demagogue of that name. The imperial series extend* «* 
low as Gallienus, and contains some silver coins, a prwei 
of the great wealth and importance of Tarsus. In tfat 
Synecdemus of Hierocles, Tarsus is placed in the Pronoos 
Cilieiae Prima, and styled Metropolis ; Constantine Por- 
phyrogennetus (Hb. ii., Them. 13) places it in theTnesu 
of Seleuceia, and adds, that it was an important outpost for 
the Arabs. It had been seized by them during the esrtr 
times of their empire, and had been strongly forUied by 
Harun al Rashid, whose son and successor A) alamos, 
was buried there, a.d. 833. It was recovered by Nieepbo- 
rus Phocas, the successor of Constantine Porphyrotfr*- 
netus, after a great resistance. (Leo Diacon., iv. 3, &c/ Ebo 
Haukal, an Oriental geographer, who wrote in the teeth 
century, thus describes it: — 'Tarsous is a considerate 
town, with a double wall of stone. The inhabitants sn 
\ aliant men, horsemen, and fond of warlike achieremeat*. 
It is a strong and pleasant place. From it to the border* 
of Roum arc many hills ana mountains of difficult atcent. 
They say that in Tarsous there are above a thousand bor»e- 
men ; and in all the chief cities of Islam, such as Seutaa 
and Kirman, and Pars, and Khuzistan, and Irak, and Hru, 
and Eg} ut, there are inns, or public places, appointed u* 
the people of this town.* (Ouseley's Translation, p. 46. 

Tarsus was^tterwards retaken by the Arabs, but it was 
wrested from thein by the Crusaders, under the comnuul 
of Tancred, the nephew of Boemond, who resigned fc» 
conquebt to Baldw in, afterwards count of Edessa. yGtabert 
de Nogent, lliatoire de Ui Premiere Croitade* iii. h**; 
Guizot, Man. relat. d I 'Hist, de France ; ix.) William o( 
Tyre describes it at this time as a metropolis of CSlicia, 
with suffragan towns, and a population of Greeks sod 
Armenians, much oppressed by the Arabs. Albert d'Aix. 
says tha 4 . it was populous, and well fortified. 1& *** 



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twelfth century Benjamin of Tudela speaks of it as the 
limit of the Greek empire (i. 58, Asher's translat.) ; and in 
the thirteenth, during the caliphate of Mostazem, the Arabs 
attempted to recover Tarsus, but tailed. (Abulpharagius, 
i. 160, ed. Pococke, Oxon., 1G73.) It was finally taken 
it Mohammed II., in 1458. (Von Hammer's Geschichte 
Se* (kmanischen Retches, ii. 35.) 

Very few remains of the antient city of Tarsus exist : at 
the north-west end of the antient town is part of an old 
piteway, and near it a very largje mound, apparently arti- 
ficial, with a flat top, from which is an extensive view 
of the adjacent plain : on an eminence to the south-west 
ire the ruins of a spacious circular edifice, probably the 
gymnasium. Lucas, who visited it in 1704, only noticed 
one inscription, which he gives (i. 271-2, Amster., 1714). 
For the probable situation of the tomb of Julian, see 
Rennel, Western Asia, 88, &c. On a rock three or four 
leagues from Tarsus is a fortress, called the Castle of 
Giants. Kazalu, the port of Tarsus, is now about twelve 
miles distant, and is closed up by a sand-bar. (Beaufort's 
Survey qf Caramania y 276.) The population of Tarsus is 
about 6000, chiefly Greeks and Armenian Christians, 
foveraed by a Moosellim : its site is unhealthy. For 
farther information, see Michaud and Poujoulat's Corre- 
ymdene* d'Orient* vii., 146. 

TARTA'GLIA, NICHOLAS, a learned Italian mathe- 
matician, who was born at Brescia about the beginning of 
the axteenth eentury. When he was six years of age his 
father, who followed the humble occupation of a messen- 
ger, or carrier, died, leaving him in indigent circumstances, 
trid without education. Even his family name is unknown, 
wd that which he bore (designating one who stammers) 
was given him in derision by his young companions in 
consequence of an impediment in his speech arising: from 
a wound which he received on his lips from a soldier, 
when the French army under Gaston de Foix relieved 
Brescia in 1512. 

No account has been transmitted of the means by which 
TartagUa obtained a knowledge of the rudiments of science, 
and it is probable that he owed but little to a preceptor. 
His own exertions, aided only by a mind endowed with 
the power of readily comprehending the processes of ma- 
thematical investigation, enabled him at length to attain 
the highest ramk among the geometers of his time. Having 
nased several years as a teacher at Verona and Vicenza, 
r»e was appointed professor of mathematics at Brescia, and 
in 1534 he removed to Venice, where he held the like 
po-4 till his death, which took place in 1557. 

Tartaglia wrote on military engineering and on natural 
philosophy, but it is on his talents as an algebraist that his 
fame principally rests. In that age it was the custom for 
mathematicians to send difficult propositions to each other 
for solution, as trials of skill ; and in the work entitled 
'Qiieati ed Inventioni Diverse,' which Tartaglia published 
in 1546, there are contained some interesting accounts of 
the circumstances connected with the algebraic questions 
which he had received and answered. Among these are 
hi* investigations relating to equations of the third degree ; 
and the solutions of two cases, in which both the second 
and third powers of the unknown quantity are involved, 
arc ihown to have been discovered in 1530, on the occa- 
sion of a question proposed by a person who kept a school 
** Brescia : Tartaglia states also that, in the year 1535, he 
found out the solutions of two equations, in which the first 
and third powers of the unknown quantity enter without 
the second, while preparing himself for a public contest 
*ithAntonia Maria Fiore, who then resided at Venice, 
*nd who had challenged him to a competition, in which 
each was to solve as many as he could of thirty questions 
!° b* Proposed by the other. It is added that Tartaglia, 
lfl two hours, answered all those of his opponent without 
recet\-in^r one solution from the latter in return. 

In 1539, Cardan, who had been informed of the disco- 
*m« of Tartaglia, applied to the latter for the solution of 
J*rtiin questions which he proposed, in the hope of ob- 
toft'ng Ironi him a knowledge of the processes which he 
pBployed in obtaining the roots of equations of the kind 
M mentioned. The application was made at first through 
^Moeue,r, and afterwards by letter ; but Tartaglia, who, 
"? *W possession of his secret, enjoyed great advantages 
<**rthe other mathematicians of the time in resolving the 
Suctions which were proposed to him, declined making 
mjr communication by wnich his method might become 



publicly known. Though disappointed in these attempts, 
Cardan soon afterwards succeeded, by a promise of intro* 
during him to an Italian nobleman, who had the reputa- 
tion of being a great patron of learned men, in inducing 
Tartaglia to make a visit to himself at Milan : the latter, 
while there, yielded to the entreaties of his host, and hav- 
ing exacted a promise of inviolable secrecy, gave him a 
key to the rule which he had discovered. Cardan imme- 
diately found jiimself embarrassed with what is called the 

irreducible case, in which the expression ^Q*— *?P" P** 

reducible Case], entering into the value of the unknown 
quantity under the sign of the square root, is negative, 
and he applied to Tartaglia on the subject: the latter 
however declined giving a direct answer to his inquiry, 
being himself unable to conquer the difficulty ; in fact the 
solution of the equation in this case is even now usually 
obtained by the aid of trigonometrical functions. 

In the work of Tartaglia above mentioned there is an 
account given of a dialogue which took place in 1541 be- 
tween himself and a Mr. Richard Wentworth, who then 
resided at Venice, and to whom it appears that Tartaglia 
had given lessons in mathematics. On being pressed by 
that gentleman to give him the rules for the solution of 
equations containing the second and third powers of the 
unknown quantity, the Italian mathematician declined 
doing so, on the plea that he was about to compose a work 
on arithmetic and algebra, in which the rides, he said, 
were to appear. 

In 1545 Cardan published his work entitled * Ars Magna,' 
and, in direct violation of his solemn promise, gave in it the 
rule for the solution of the cubic equation containing the 
first and third powers of the unknown quantity. He does 
not assert that ne is the discoverer of the rule, but observes 
that it was first found out about 30 years previously by 
Scipio Ferreus, of Bologna; and adds that it had since 
that time been independently discovered by Tartaglia. The 
publication of this work produced, as might be expected, 
the most animated remonstrances from the man who thus 
felt himself seriously injured and aggrieved : Tartaglia how- 
ever revenged himself in no other way than by sending 
challenges to Cardan and his disciple LewisFerrari.tohold 
with him a disputation on mathematical subjects, by whioh 
the public might be judges of their several merits. The 
discussion actually took j>lace in 1549, in the church of Santa 
Maria, in Milan, between Tartaglia and Ferrari; but during 
the sitting, on the former pointing out an error which had 
been committed by Cardan in the solution of a problem, 
the people, who appear to have taken the side of their 
townsman, excited a tumult, and the assembly broke up 
without coming to a decision. Tartaglia has received no 
more justice from posterity than he experienced from his 
cotemporaries, and the formula for the value of the un- 
known quantity in such equations is still designated Car- 
dan's rule. It must be admitted however that Cardan was 
the first who published its demonstration. 

The works of Tartaglia, all of which were published at 
Venice, ace — *Nuova Scienza ; cioe* Invenzione nuovamente 
trovata, utile per ciascuno speculativo Matematico Bom- 
bardiero,' &c, 1537 : this is a treatise on the theory and 
practice of gunnery, and it was translated into English in 
1588. 'Euclidc, diligentemente rassettato,'&c, 1543: this 
is said to be the first Italian translation of Euclid. ' Archi- 
medes Opera emendata,' Sec., 1543. 'Quesiti ed Invenzioni 
Diverse,' 1550 : this is the work above mentioned, and it is 
dedicated to Henry VIII. of England : it contains the an- 
swers to questions which had been proposed to Tartaglia 
concerning mechanics and hydrostatics; and to one. of the 
books there is a supplement concerning the art. of fortify- 
ing places. * La Travagliata Invenzione, ossia, Regola per 
soflevare ogni affbndata Nave,' &c, 1551 ; 4 Ragionamenti 
sopra la Travagliata Invenzione,' 1551; * General Trattato 
de'Numeri e Misure,' 1556-1560 ; * Trattato di Aritmetica/ 
1556; 4 Descrizione dell' Artifiziosa Macchina fatta per ca- 
vare il Galeone,' 1560 ; * Archiraedis de Insidcntibus Aquae 
Libri duo,' 1565; 'Jordani Opusculum de Ponderositate,* 
1565. A collection of his principal works was published 
in 1606. 

TARTAN. [Weaving.] 

TARTAR. [Potassium.] 

TARTARIC ACID. This acid was first obtained in a 
separate state by Scheele; it exists in several vegetable 



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products, but principally in bi-tartrate of potash, which 
is usually called cream of tartar, a salt which is deposited 
from wine. 

The tartaric acid of this salt is obtained first by convert- 
ing the excess of it, one half of it, into tartrate of lime by 
the addition of chalk, and the other half into the same salt 
by means of chloride of calcium ; the resulting tartrate of 
lime is decomposed by sulphuric acid, by which sulphate 
of lime is precipitated, and the solution of tartaric acid thus 
obtained by single elective affinity and .decomposition 
is evaporated, and crystals of the acid are deposited on 
cooling. 

The properties of tartaric acid are, that it is colourless, 
inodorous, and very sour to the taste ; it occurs in crystals 
of a considerable size, the primary form of which is an 
oblique rhombic prism ; it suffers no change by exposure 
to the air ; water at G0° dissolves about one fifth of its 
weight, and at 212° twice its weight ; the solution acts 
strongly on vegetable blue colours, turning them red, and 
it becomes mouldy and decomposes when long kept ; 
alcohol dissolves it, but more sparingly than water. The 
crystals, when heated a little above the boiling-point of 
water, melt into a liquid, which boils at 250°, leaving on 
coolimj a semi-transparent mass, which is rather deliques- 
cent ; if it be more strongly heated in a retort, tartaric acid 
is decomposed, and converted into pyrotartaric acid, ac- 
companied with some other products. When very strongly 
heated in the air, a coaly mass is procured, which is even- 
tually dissipated. Sulphuric acid acts upon and decom- 
poses tartaric acid, with the production of acetic acid ; by 
means of nitric acid it also suffers decomposition, and a 
portion of its carbon, by acquiring oxygen from the de- 
composed nitric acid, is converted into oxalic acid. 

Solution of tartaric acid acts with facility upon those 
metals which decompose water, as iron and zinc ; it com- 
bines readily with alkalis, earths, and metallic oxides ; and 
these salts are called tartrates. For an account of the 
more important of these we refer to the respective bases. 
Tartaric acid has a remarkable disposition to form double 
salts, one of the most distinct and remarkable of which 
is the tartrate of potash and soda, which has long been 
employed in medicine under the name of Rochelle Salts. 

Tartaric acid free from water, in which state it may be 
obtained by exposure to a heat of 302° in an oil-bath for 
some time, consists of 

Two equivalents of hydrogen 2 or 3' 

Four equivalents of carbon . 24 „ 36*4 
Five equivalents of oxygen . 40 „ 60*6 

Equivalent . . 66 100' 
It is insoluble in cold water. 

In the crystallized state it consists of — 

One equivalent of anhydrous acid 66 or 88 
One equivalent of water . 9 „ 12 

Equivalent . . 75 100 

By the action of heat, so as partially to decompose it, 
tartaric acid is converted into tartrelic acid and tartralic 
acid, which are not of sufficient importance to require 
description. 

Tartaric acid is largely employed as a discharge in 
calico-printing, and for making what are called sodaic 
powders, which are extemporaneous imitations of soda- 
water. 

TARTARIC ACID is entirely confined to the vegetable 
kingdom, and is found free or uncombined in tamarinds, in 
the unripe £T«ape, and in pepper; and in combination in 
tamarinds, ripe ernpes, crooseberries, mulberries, squill, dan- 
delion, chenopodiura vulvaria, in various species of pines, 
and as tartrate of lime in the fruit of the Rhus typhina. 
For medical pui pocs it should be remarkably pure, when 
it is without odour, but makes a powerful acid impression 
on the organs of taste. In small (loses, properly diluted, it 
acts as a refrigerant, and is of much value in fevers, par- 
ticularly mucous, and in biliary remittents. It excites the 
appetite of persons in whom the stomach is in a healthy 
condition ; and those who, by long indulgence in stimu- 
lating food and drinks, experience loss of appetite, painful 
digestion, constipation, with a yellow and altered coun- 
tenance, and diminished muscularpower, find in tartaric 
acid a remedy of singular power. For this state of system 
a few crystals should be dissolved in two small tumblers, 
and drank in the morning fasting, an hour intervening be- 



tween the tumblers. A few grains are sufficient for eiti 
tumbler, as when made too strong it excites tmUboMU- 
lowed by purging. Occasionally it disturbs the nemwt 
system in a distressing way, so that patieoU reft** to 
continue its use. This plan has in many instances re- 
claimed individuals addicted to habitual intoxication u> 
which they have recourse to relieve a painful fecbi^ ^ 
sinking and craving of the stomach, which is effecha.]} 
removed by the acid draught. This is also useful site en 
attack of delirium tremens. 

Tartaric acid enters the circulation, and diffuse* nVJ| 
through the whole body, and may be recognised in fh, 
urine, generally in combination, often with lime. Tartmc 
acid is much used to decompose alkaline carbonate*, ln <i 
form effervescing draughts, the employment of which re- 
quires caution. [Antacids.] 

TARTARS, or, more correctly, TAT ARS (Khaan a&l 
Kiptshak). The name Tatars once designated s $mt 
number of different nations in Middle Asia and Buien 
Europe, which, according to general opinion, were of om 
common origin. Careful research however into their hi*- 
tory, language, and ethnographical relations, has ihtwn 
that the name of Tatars never designated any partkoltf 
race, although it was at first restricted to certain tnb^ 
among which there was no difference of race. It hit ho» - 
ever gradually become a collective name, under which vt 
comprehended different nations of Mongol, Turkish, tstf 
even Finnish origpn* The numerous errors and the raetfn- 
cable confusion in the earlier historians who have writtei 
on this subject can only be cleared up by going back to 
the historical origin of the name of Tatars. 

As early as the beginning of the ninth century, the 
Chinese knew a people called Tata, who lived to the a* 
and south-east of the lake of Baikal, towards the upper 
part of the river Amur. They were also called Tilool, 
the Chinese pronunciation of Tutar, and they are prokaMr 
identical with the Taidjod of the Mongol historian btrnnr- 
Setsen. I n the middle of the tenth century the Titan*** 
divided into three tribes, the White, the Wild, and the Wick 
or Water Tatars, the last of which lived about the tout** 
of the Amur, and were subject to the White,until Itwarty 
( Vessugay), the father of Genghis Khan, a prince of the 
Water Tatars, subdued the White Tatars, in the middle of 
the twelfth century. He then united the Wild and ill the 
other tribes of his race ; and his son Genghis Khan pi" t» 
these warlike nations, the general name of which teem* t* 
have been Bede, the name of Kake-Mongols, that i*» the 
Blue Bold, or the Celestial Mongols. A particulsr cir- 
cumstance made the change of their name agreeable to 
his subjects. The word Tatar signifies in the Mooffl 
language * a tributary people,' and, in consequence, could 
not be agreeable to nations which had not only cetsrd 
to be tributary, but boasted of the noble title of Mongol*. 
(Sanang Setsen, History of the Eastern Mongols, ed. J. J. 
Schmidt, p. 71, and notes 21 and 22; Pallas, Saamtmnt 
Histonsc/ier Nachrichten iiber die Mongolistkm Whet* 
scha/ten, vol. ii., p. 429 ; Schmidt, Forschungm m Gc- 
biete der V'olker Mittel Asiem, p. 59.) 

When Genghis Khan sent his son Tushi Khan toconqotf 
the west, all the Turkish nations which were scattered ov* 
Middle Asia, from the sources of the Amur to theOwpiw- 
were subjugated, and thus became Tatars, that is, tribuU.7 
subjects of the Mongol empire. Eastern Europe, inha- 
bited by other Turks and numerous nations of the Fiam** 
race, shared their fate ; the tributary inhabit snU wm 
obliged to fight under a Mongol chief; and the nsim 
of Mongols and Tatars were not only confounded, but thf 
latter soon gained the ascendency, because it designs^ 
the great majority of Mongol subjects. In 1223, »h*a 
the Mongols made their first invasion of Russia, thev wen 
generally called Tatars ; and when Batu, the grand** « 
Genghis Khan, after having laid waste Russia and Potani 
appeared on the frontier of Germany, the emperor Frede- 
ric II. summoned the princes to rise against the Tum- 
The battle of Wahlstatt, or Liegnitz, was fought 00 the 
9th of April, 1241, in which the Mongols, although they 
defeated a feeble army of Poles and Germans, were * 
struck with the heroic resistance of the Teutonic kiujM*, 
that they did not advance any farther. TUh battle ws* fof 
some time generally called the Tatar Battle : seven Sil* 
sian nobles who survived that day had and have still Tiur 
cap in their armorial bearings; and another Germs* 
knight, whose descendants are still living, had hi* m»* | 



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changed in commemoration of the day ; but his new name 
otj not Mongol, but Tader. A further proof of the great 
numerical preponderance of the tributary nations over the 
true Mongols is, that an army of 660,000 men, with which 
B*tu occupied Russia and the Ural country, contained 
only 180,000 Mongols ; while 500,000 belonged to the 
subdued Turkish, Finnish, and Slavonic nations. (Ham- 
mer, Gnchichte der Goldnen Horde in Kiptshak, p. 114, 
115,141; Karamsin, iii., p. 275.) 

These well-known facts, which might easily be aug- 
mented, are sufficient to prove that the name of Tatars 
m first known in Europe in its etymological signification ; 
that it got a political signification, and was applied to 
nations which were not of Mongol origin ; and that it had 
lost all precise ethnographical signification even before it 
retched the West. Tatars became a general name for any 
nomadic and barbarous hordes which invaded Europe 
from Western Asia, and thus it appears why in Sweden 
thegipsies were once known under the name of Tattars, and 
wty ra the duchy of Holstein they are still called either 
tythe name of Zikhainers or by that of Tatars. (Benzelius, 
mime Commentariorwn Moysis Armeni, Stockholm, 
172Mto.,p.89.) 

The iacorrect orthography Tartars occurs as early as the 
appearance of the Mongols in Europe, and was probably 
introduced by superstitious monks and writers, who, struck 
with the seeming analogy between Tatar and Tartarus,^e- 
lined them to have come from the infernal regions. This 
at least k more probable than the opinion that the name 
Tartars was introduced by Saint Louis, who, in a letter to 
hi* queen Blanche, about the approaching danger of the 
Tatars, speaks of them in the following terms: — ' This di- 
nne consolation will always exalt our souls, that in the 
present danger of the Tartars either we shall push them 
back into the Tartarus whence they are come, or they will 
bring us all into heaven.' (Klaproth, Asia Polyslotta, 
p. 302.) These words rather prove that in King Louis's 
time the name and its origin were known. 

h* the empire of Genghis Khan had lasted longer, the 
name of Mongols would certainly have prevailed over that 
of the tributary nations, in the same way as that of the 
Frank* supplanted the names of the Gauls, the Romans, 
the Goths, and the Burgundians. But the name of Mongols 
disappeared in Europe, and was no longer heard of except 
fo the remote deserts of eastern Asia. The old name of Tatars" 
nowerer lasted as a designation of the different inhabitants 
of the empire of Kiptshak, which was founded by the de- 
fendants of Genghis Khan on the frontiers of Asia and 
Europe. There the princes only and part of the nobles 
*ere Mongols, and they were sometimes called so by those 
foreigners who were able to perceive the ethnographical 
differences among the inhabitants of Kiptshak (Treaties 
hefteen Venice and the Golden Horde, cited below), but 
the remaning population -was composed of Turkish and 
Rnnwlj tribes, of which the former were the more numerous. 
TheHnaiang, who were under the dominion of the Mongols 
wabovetwo centuries, knew the Finnish tribes by the name 
w Tshudea, and their application of the name of Tatars ex- 
ooweJy to the Turks of Kiptshak gave rise to the present 
aerification of the name. The other nations of Europe 
*ere less able to make such distinctions. Thus, for in- 
•tajWi Olearius, the secretary to the duke of Holstein's 
rabwsy to Persia, says, in his « Travels,' that Momma 
(Mtrom on the Oka) was 4 the first town of Tartary on the 
Jjfiom Moscow, and that at Wasiligrod, at the entiance 
n the Sura into the Wolga, began the country of those 
Tatars who are called Tsheremisses. 1 But Murom is situ- 
ated jog it the entrance of the country of the Mordwins, 
toe of the oldest Finnish tribes known to history, and the 
jWtereniiiKs are likewise of Finnish origin. Nevertheless 
^Hrias calls them Tatars. He observes however that 
J^jjjan^uage had a particular character, and resembled 
Jjljjer the Turkish nor the Tatar language, an observation 
Jjaprotes that Tatar has here two meanings : it first 
■■^oate* the inhabitants of the conquered territory of 
•Wjak (Tartary), and then in a narrower sense the 
««i inhabitants of that country. 

• £j]!? ,ent '*** name of Tatar ** 8tiJ1 £* ven t0 the Turlcish 

™«tttattU of southern and eastern Russia, and as their 
wisjo iawell known, there is no more reason for dropping 
Jjyw for that of Turks, than there is for refusing 
we French their name, and calling them Gauls. It 
11 atrertheless an important fact that the Tatars call 
P.O,No. 1497, 



themselves Turks, and feel highly offended by being called 
Tatars, a name which in their idiom signifies * robbers.* 
This fact refutes the hypothesis of Klaproth, who believes 
that the subjects of the Mongol empire adopted the name 
of Tatars as a title of honour, on account of its being the 
antient name of the chief tribe of the ruling nation. 
Klaproth's opinion becomes also entirely untenable if put 
in connexion with a fact stated by Sherefeddin and Arab- 
shah, who tell us that Timur, who, as a descendant of 
Genghis Khan, undoubtedly belonged to the Mongol race, 
in a letter to Bayazid, calls himself a Turk, upbraiding 
this sultan of the Osmanlis with being a vulgar Turko- 
man. Can we believe that the subdued nations should 
have distinguished themselves by an ignoble name of 
their masters, while these, at the same time, made a boast 
of that of their Turkish subjects ! It must be repeated 
that the tributary nations were called Tatars by the Mon- 
gols and by foreigners, and disliked the name on account 
of its meaning ; and that the ethnographical signification 
of it was supplanted by the general and glorious name 
of Mongols. [Turks.] 

This account of the origin and the gradual diffusion of 
the name Tatar is more or less different from those given 
by Klaproth, Abel Remusat, and Schmidt, but it is founded 
entirely on facts the knowledge of which we owe to these 
authors, and especially to Julius von Klaproth. Besides 
the above-cited works, the reader may consult Schmidt, ir 
Hammer, Fundgruben des Orients, vol. vi., heft 3; Klap 
roth, Beleuchtung U nd Widerlegung der Forschungen 
des Herrn Schmidt; Abel Remusat, Recherches sur les 
Langues {jTartares ; Abulghasi Bayadurkhan, Histoire Gb- 
ncalogiqiie des Tartars, Ley den, 1726, 8vo. ; Ahmedis 
Arabsiadae, Vita et Res gestae Timuri, ed. Manger, ii., 
cap. 19 ; Sherefeddin AH, Hist, de Timour Bey, trad, par 
Petis de la Croix, 1. v., c. 14.) 

The above-mentioned Turkish nations were known in 
history long before they were called Tatars. Part of them 
founded the empire of Khazaria, between the Dniepr and 
the Yaik. 

The Khazars, the Ghysser or Ghazar of Moses of Kho- 
rene, inhabited in the time of this Armenian author, in the 
fifth century a.d., the country north of the Caspian Sea ; 
and in the sixth century they penetrated into the coun- 
tries north of the Kuban and the Black Sea, where they 
founded a powerful empire. Among the Byzantine his- 
torians, Theophanes is trie first who mentions them. As 
early as a.d. 625 they allied themselves with the emperor 
Heraclius, and in conjunction with him attacked Anushir- 
wan, the king of Persia, and from that time were in con- 
tinual political intercourse with the Byzantine emperors; 
who were always anxious to maintain peaceful relations 
with this people. Contemporary historians state that the 
Khazars consisted of two principal races : one of them 
was little, ugly, with black hair, and probably of Finnish 
origin; the other was tall and handsome, and spoke 
a lurkish dialect : many other races however were mixed 
up with them, so that Leo Diaconus justly calls them a 
' colluvies gentium.' 

(Ouseley, Oriental Geography of Ebn Hauhal, pp. 185- 
190 ; Frahn, Veteres Memoriae Chazarorum ex Ion Tosz- 
lano, §c. ; Memoir es de VAcadimie de St. Petersbourg, 
vol.viii. ; Theophanes, iii. 28; vi. 9.) 

Their kings were called Chagan, or more correctly Kha- 
ghan, which was the name of the old Mongol kings a thou- 
sand years before the appearance of the Khazars. In the 
time of the emperor Constantinus Porphyrogenitus the Kha- 
zaiian empire extended in the south to the Black Sea, and 
contained the northern part of the Crimea, which preserved 
the name of Khazaria until the thirteenth century, and the 
island Of Taman, then inhabited by Goths ; on the Caucasian 
isthmus it was separated from the Alans by the present river 
of Manytsh. The western coast of the Caspian Sea belonged 
to it as far as Derbent in the present country of Daghestan, 
where they Were contiguous to the Arabs. The eastern 
boundaries of it were probably the river of Yaik or Ural. 
On the north it extended even beyond Kasan, and on the 
west it was bounded by the Dniepr. In the eighth cen- 
tury the Khazars made tne Russians of Kiew for some time 
tributary, as well as the Sewerians, the Radiwitshes, the 
Viatitshes, and other Slavonic nations. Constantinus Por- 
phyrogenitus recommends his son to maintain an alliance 
with the mighty Khazars, but he severely blames his pre- 
decessor Leo, who had assumed the imperial dignity 

Vol. XXSV.-L 
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against the will of the patriarch, and who had crowned 
his disobedience against the ecclesiastical authority by 
marrying the daughter of the Khaghan. • For/ adds this his- 
torian, 4 tne Khazars, far from being orthodox Christians, are 
no Christians at all, but improus heathens ; and Leo was 
punished for his crime by a carbuncle in his face, of which 
ne died young, after severe sufferings.' * Christianity in- 
deed, altnough §ome feeble traces of it appear in Khazaria 
as early as 740, was not adopted by the majority of the 
Khazars. On the contrary, their kin^s were Jews, and 
many Jews had founded ^reat families in that country. 

However strange this circumstance may appear, it is an 
undoubted fact. According to Frahn, one of the best 
writers on the Khazars, the religion of Mosea was pro- 
pagated among this people by the Jews, who were ex- 
pelled from the Bvzantine empire at the end of the eight!} 
century. The princes, states Ibn Haukal, were obliged to 
be Jews, but the nine ministers of the Khaghan might be 
Jews, Christians, Mohammedans, or heathens, a fact from 
which we must conclude that there was great toleration in 
Khazaria. In the subsequent centuries we meet with 
some Christian princes, such as Georges Tzuda, in 1016, 
but the Khaghan Cosro (Khosrew), who reigned about 
1140, was a Jew who had been converted to the religion 
of Moses by the rabbi Isaak Sangarus, as is stated by the 
rabbi Jehudah, in his work cited below, which is dedicated 
to that king. 

(Ibn Haukal; Massudi, in Silvestre de Sacy, Chrest. 
Atabe; Herbelot, Bibliothhque Orientate, sub voce 'Khozar ;' 
Frfihn ; Lehrberg, Untersuchungen zur alteren Geschichte 
Russlands ; Karamsin and Bulgarin, Hist, of Russia ; 
Muller, Der Ugrische Volksstamm ; Joh. Buxtorflus, fil., 
Liber Cosri, Basileae, lGGO,4to. This last book was ori- 
ginally written in Arabic, by Jehudah Levita, and was 
translated into Hebrew by Jehudah Abn Tybbon, both 
Spanish rabbis.) 

The Khazars were very different from those barbarous 
Monggl tribes which afterwards invaded Europe. Although 
many of them led a nomadic life, they were generally 
settled in villages and towns, which they embellished with 
magnificent buildings erected by Arabian and Byzantine 
architects, and the ruins of which still attest their former 
splendour. Ignorant historians have asserted that neither 
navigation nor commerce flourished among them, but 
there are numerous facts which prove the contrary. In 
the first place, the number of Jews and the toleration that 
existed in Khazaria may be considered as certain indica- 
tions of the flourishing state of its commerce. The Khazars 
were renowned for their fine carpets, which were princi- 
pally manufactured in their capital, Itel, the present 
Astrakhan, which was also called Bil6ndsher and Nihjje, 
Semend, with the surname of Serai Banu, or * the palace of 
the lady,' now Tarku, Old Kasan, and Sarkel, a fortress on 
the Don, were also commercial towns. Honey, skins, 
leather, furs, fish, salt, copper of the Ural, were the goods 
they exchanged in the southern countries for silk, wines, 
Spices, jewellery, which they carried to the inhabitants of 
tne north. Gold and silver vessels, which were fabricated 
in India in antient times, have been found in our own days at 
Perm on the Kama, in the north-eastern corner of Russia. 
The Wol^a with its tributary rivers and the Dwina were the 
commercial roads by which they communicated with the 
kingdom of Perm, the Biarmia of the old Scandinavian 
and Anglo-Saxon writers, and with the Norwegians, who, 
after having doubled North Cape, anchored in the mouth 
of the Dwina. This route ceased to be used when the 
Tatars of Kiptshak stopped all intercourse across eastern 
Russia, and was not re-opened before the end of the 
sixteenth century, when Jenkinson, an Englishman, dis- 
covered it again. Another road followed the Dniepr as 
far as Orkha, and, reaching the Duna in the west and the 
Wolkhow in the north, brought them into communication 
with the Baltic, and with Julin, the famous city of the 
Wendes. The Arabs took a considerable part in this 
commerce, and their presence in these northern regions is 
attested not only by their geographers, such as Ibn Foszlan, 
Massudi, Shemseddin, and Yakut, but also by numerous 
Kufic coins which have been found in Scandinavia, and in 

* ConstanUnu* eoufou«d» two of hit prpdeceuote. The emperor FUvlut 
CooflUntiaua, a %rv it heretic, married lire*, the daughter or tne KUju<hnii, 
•ttd died In 775 ; their too Hatiu* Loo, mruamod Chuzarut, on urc<mm «>( Ui* 
«t«t«rnal origin, wu a rtill greater heretic, and died in 7§0. of carbuncle* in 
Mi bee In his thirtieth year. (Baoduriut. (km. h cap. 1*. Dt A4mh. Imp. ; 
Dtt Gu*e, Hue. Bytimf. P. F&mitia* ec Summato, p. 124-126.) 



the vast country between the Baltic and the Blark i&! \* 
Caspian seas. In short, in the period from the •eteaOj U 
the eleventh century, the Khazars and the Arabs fcU# J 
certain commercial routes in Russia, the natuial hlia» 
tages of which were so obvious, that the emperor Coa*J 
tinus Porphyrogenitua, overlooking entirely the Uteri ^i 
tween the upper part of the Dniepr and the source* J 
the Lovat, believed that the Russians of Neroogifda, tit 
present Novgorod on the Wolkhow, sailed *ith tW»i«g 
directly to Kiew on the Dniepr. {De Adm. Imp., caf u 
The present canal system of Russia, which is pnito^i 
regarded as the realization of an idea of Peter U» Grri 
and field-marshal Miinnich, is founded on thattyrtia J 
commercial intercourse which had been carried into dFttj 
by the Khazars a thousand years before. 

The power of the Khazars in Europe was broken by tlj 
Russians in 1016, who made their Khaghan George* Tzw 
a prisoner; but in Asia it continued for two centime 
longer, until it gradually sank under the repeated ttttc* 
of the Pechenegues, the Uzes, the Bulgars, the Kumta* 
the Yasses, and their very name had disappeared, wbn 
in the beginning of the thirteenth century, eastern Eurap 
was overwhelmed by the greatest of all conqucron, Ga 
ghis Khan. (Constantinus Porphyrogenitus, J)e Admtvu 
trando Imperio ; Nestor ; Frahn ; Lehrberg ; Aana Ja 
Acad. Petropolitanae, vol. iii., p. 46 ; Mimatm dt tim 
dtmie de St, Ptterebourg, vol. i. v p. 527; vol. m. 
p. 297 ; vol. iii., p. 73 ; vol. viii., p. 577 ; Hullmano, O 
schichte des Ryzantinischen Handels ; Moderacb, Dhmf 
tion Economiuue du Gouvernement de Perm ; Dexnftm 
of Perm, in Hermann, Statist ische Annalen ; ttut<sy i 
the Commerce of Russia, in Storch, Gemalde de* AW 
schen Reiches, vol. iv. ; Krestinin, Geschichte dn &xk 
Archangel ; Lelewel, Numismatique, sect * Poland ;' Hj» 
way, Historical Account of the British Trade ertr tk 
Caspian Sea; Hakluyt, Navigation, with regard to Jca 
kinson and Chancellor.) 

Tatars of the Golden Horde, or of Kiptshakj—W La 
Genghis Khan was carrying his arms into uuua amK'twn 
Batu, his grandson, invaded the west as far as the trotU^ 
of Germany, conquered the easternmost part of Lu-.y 
which was inhabited by Slavonic, lurki&li, and Finale 1 
nations, and compelled the princes of Russia to bctu» 
his vassals. One of Genghis Khan's last acts {125 •* 
to bestow upon Batu the dignity of a Khan or tuctvyfl 
the western conquests, which formed one of the kur,ia 
afterwards five, uluses, or under-kingdoius, into a Inch *h 
Mongol empire was divided. The new \iceroj eJ"** t« 
his vast dominions the name of Kaptshak, more torrc*^ 
Kiptshak, or 4 the hollow tree,' which was the name o»' 
warlike Turkish people who lived in the flat coiir.in U 
tween the Wolga and the Don, the name of which « 
Deshti Kintshak, or 4 the steppe of the hollow tree.* T- 
narrower signification of this name, which ruU bclonr.t 
a distiict near the mouth of the Terek, ruuat therefo.'j a 
be confounded with its larger meaning as that of an t* 
pire the frontiers of which varied according to thsnuntsi 
success of its inhabitants. A second name of Bsta 
kingdom was that of the Golden Horde, or rather, of ti 
Golden Caran, ordu, the camp, haviug been confou=*k 
with orda, tne horde. In his golden tent, which ^"i 
Great Serai on the Akhtuha, a branch of Die lower pi\ i 
the Wolga, Batu received the Russiau princes who ant ^ 
vassals; Saython, king of Armenia; and Piano Carnixun 
Ruysbrock (Rubriquis), the ambassadors of Saint Ltf 
king of France, who, while fighting againat the U*£** 
medans in Egypt as enemies of Clmst, courted the fn*d 
ship of heathen Tatars as useful in his schemes up*" 
Germany. Batu founded the town of Great Stm, b 
capital ; SeraT, called afterwards Baghji-Serai. i- W 
Crimea ; and New Kasan at a short distance fros LI 
Kasan. He died in 1255. 

Atler the short reign of 3ertak and Ulaghji, th« t^ 
and the youngest sons of Batu, the throne was occupa 
by their paternal uncle Berke, who seized Uic gp^erna* 
in spite of the right of the second and the third *>&• { 
his late brother. Berke was the first khan of Kiy^" 
who was converted to the Mohammedan relkrioo* *<** h 
showed himself so zealous that he ordered aJI por***»' 
be put to death who refused to follow tlie Ktwia- *■ 
happened before 1258, and thus the Itdatn took nx<c 
the banks of the Wolga and in the snowy desert* of Stfr 
ria. Iu 1260 Berke sent Noghai, his greatest c*pu£ 



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ipmst Halaku, the Mongol governor of Persia, who 
aimed at independence, but was defeated on the 19th of 
January, 1263, in a bloody battle on the banks of the 
Terek, and had a considerable part of his army drowned in 
retreating across the frozen river. It was in the same year 
that Marco Polo came to the Golden Camp, where he 
stayed for a whole year. Berke, who is generally repre- 
sented as a prince of great merit, and whose influence in 
Asia Minor was sensibly felt by the Byzantine emperors, 
tied in 1266. and was succeeded by Mengku Timur, a 
padson of Batu. This prince ceded to the Genoese 
Jaffa in the Crimea, a town which was then one of the 
put markets where the Tatars used to sell the immense 
cumber of prisoners that they made in Russia and Poland, 
u slaves to the southern nations, and especially to the 
Saltans of Egypt, who there recruited the body of the 
fttamhiks. He sent commissioners into all the subject 
Ruttian towns, who sold as slaves all who did not pay the 
heavy poll-tax imposed upon them by the Tatars. This 
proceeding caused such great mischief to the com- 
merce of Old Novgorod, that the Germans of Lubeck 
ami other Hanseatic towns, in order to save their stores, 
gut ambassadors with rich presents to Mengku Timur, 
*feo reached the Golden Camp in 1269. Mengku Timur 
Khan died about 1283. His successors, Tuday Mengku 
aid Talabugha, ravaged Hungary and Poland, threatened 
Germanr, and kept up diplomatic relations with France. 
(Abel Semusat, Mimoires de I Acad, des Inecript. et B. L., 
rol. vii.) 

The following khan was Toktay, whose reign is im- 
portant in many respects. Under him, paper, money, an 
old invention, afterwards imitated in Persia, was introduced 
mto Kiotshak under the name of Jaw, many years before 
toy such thing was known in Europe. (J. von Klaproth, 
Origin qf Paper Money ; Von Hammer, p. 222.) Toktay 
owed his elevation to the throne to NoghaV, above men- 
tioned, a powerful under-khan of the southern Turks of 
Kiptshak, who belonged to the house of Genghis Khan, and 
iho was married to Euphrosyna, a natural daughter of the 
rmperor Michael Palaeologus. The power and the in- 
bence of tfoghai* were so great, that he would perhaps 
have made himself master of Kiptshak, if jealousy had not 
arisen among his sons and led to a civil war, in which 
Toktay took an active part. After a struggle of seven 
fears, Noghai was defeated, and died of a wound in 1295, 
Rit he lot his name to his tribes, who from that time 
to the present clay have been, and are still known 
ander the name of Tatars Noghais, or Nogay Tartars. 
toktay Khan, who died in the year 1313, abandoned 
the Islam and adored idols and the stars, but he never 
fowed himself intolerant to other believers. He was 
married to a natural daughter of his ally the emperor 
Andronicus, who followed the policy of some other By- 
ttntioe emperors, who gave their legitimate princesses to 
Christian princes, while they abandoned their natural 
tagntea to Turks and Tatars, who did not set much 
jkie on the difference between legitimate and illegitimate 

ftbeg, the successor of Toktay, a boy thirteen years of 
fo found the Russian princes disobedient : they delayed 
» take the oath of vassalage until the young khan pe- 
Joptorify ordered the first of them, Michael, grand-duke 
■ Moscow, to appear in the Golden Camp. Michael im- 
■tfatsly went, justified himself, and was dismissed with- 
*f punishment, but Usbeg seized him some years later, 
**t after having punished him for some months, or- 
wed him to be put to death. This happened (in 1319) 
Jecisely a year after the pope had written a letter to 
W*g» io which he thanked him for the kind protection 
P ne had granted to his Christian subjects. (Mo- 
«m, HitL Tatar. Eccles., Append., p. 130.) In 1327, 
h Itanaa garrison of Twer having been surprised and 
■Mp pieces by the Russian inhabitants, who were ex- 
EJJto tbi* act of national vengeance by their prince 
WnuV Wassiliewics, Usbeg Khan invaded the coun- 
JjVaWhtered the inhabitants, expelled Alexander, and 
■fad John Jaroalawicz, prince of Riasan, to be exe- 
pW- Alexander also and his two sons were beheaded in 
P^ * ad their death was preceded or followed by the 
Jjgjtioaof six princes more, among whom was Juri Dani- 
£**, errand-duke of Moscow. Many common people 
•■M oeir fate, and Cor forty yean after this bloody re- 
*°8*» peace was never again disturbed in Russia by any 



rebellion against the authority of the Tatars. By a treaty oi 
the 7th August, 1333, the first which was made hetween the 
Tatars and European states, Usbeg granted considerable 
commercial advantages to the Venetians of Azof or Tana. 
(The treaty is contained in Hammer, Geschichte dee Osma* 
nischen Retches, vol. iii., p. 665.) Usbeg's court was bril- 
liant. Although as a Mohammedan he had several wives, 
he was far from keeping them in that close confinement 
to which the women of the Oriental nations have always 
been subjected. Sitting on a silver throne under a golden 
canopy, and surrounded by his royal children and the 
nobles of his court, the gallant khan rose when one of his 
women entered the room, and stepping forwards, took the 
hand of the unveiled lady and led her to a seat by 
his side. (Hammer.) One of his daughters was mar- 
ried to Kusun, sultan of Egypt, a native of Kiptshak. 
Usbeg died in 1340, and his descendants became khans of 
some Turkish tribes to the east of the Caspian Sea, which 
are still known by the name of Usbecks. 

One of Usbeg's successors, Berdibeg (1359), murdered 
his old father, strangled his twelve brothers, and assumed 
the title of ' king of the just, the sublime support of the 
world and of religion.' He himself was murdered three 
years later, and with his death the house of Batu became 
extinct. The reign of all the following khans was short 
and bloody. Civil wars shook the empire, and Kiptshak 
was divided for some time into several khanats, the most 
powerful of which were those of Kasan, of Astrakhan, of the 
Crimea, and of the Yaik, each of which claimed the supre- 
macy. At last Mamay was successful in reuniting them 
for a short time. He made an alliance with JagheTlo, the 
grand-duke of Lithuania, for the purpose of subjugating 
the different Russian princes, who had become less depend- 
ent on Kiptshak in proportion as its strength was under- 
mined by war and rebellion. Dmitri, the grand-duke of 
Moscow, had just assembled his troops, when, on the 8th 
of September, 1380, he was attacked in the plain of Kuli- 
kow, by 700,000 (?) Tatars and Lithuanians. (Karamsin, 
v., p. 31 ; and all the other Russian historians.) The 
Tatars were defeated with dreadful slaughter ; 200,000 (?) of 
them were left on the field, and Mamay fled to Kafia in 
the Crimea, where he was treacherously murdered. For 
the first time during a hundred and forty years, a hope of 
national independence consoled the Russians. 

Toktamish Khan, the son of Urus Kkan, who was the 
founder of the dynasty of the White Horde, avenged the 
defeat of Kulikow. In 1382 he took Moscow by storm, 
burnt, the town, and ravaged Russia. He renewed the 
treaties with the Venetians and the Genoese, and Kiptshak 
was in a fair way to recover from all its calamities, when 
Timur, or Tamerlane, the conqueror of Asia, appeared on 
the banks of the YaVk. Toktamish was twice defeated 
by Timur, and in a third battle on the banks of the Kama, 
north of the mouth of the Bielaya, which happened on the 
18th of June, 1391, his whole army was slaughtered. The 
khan of Kiptshak, however, did not despair : he appeared 
in the field with a new army, and advanced to meet Timur . 
The encounter took place near the mouth of the Terek, on 
the 15th of April, 1395 ; but notwithstanding their heroic 
resistance, the Tatars were again defeated, and Timur's 
host overwhelmed Russia. Serai and Astrakhan were 
destroyed, Moscow was threatened, and saved by the in- 
terposition of the Holy Virgin, who appeared on the 
walls (26th of August, 1395), and Toktamish fled to 
Witold, grand-duke of Lithuania. Meanwhile Timur had 
left Kiptshak, and his beys, unable to maintain themselves 
in the hostile country, were driven out in 1399 by some ett- v 
terprising Tatar chiefs. One of them, Kostlogh Timur, 
became khan of Kasan, and the others maintained them- 
selves in the Crimea, on the Yaik, and at Great Serai, the 
khan of which assumed the, name of khan of the Golden 
Horde, without haviny much authority over the others. 
Encouraged by the divisions among their masters, the 
Russian princes paid their tribute very irregularly, and 
ceased to appear in the Golden Camp and to take the oath 
of vassalage. In 1450 Haji Ghiray was almost independ- 
ent in the Crimea. From 1462 there were constant wars 
between the khan of Kasan and Ivan Wassiliewicz, grand- 
duke of Moscow, who at last conquered the whole khanat, 
and took the capital, Kasan, in the autumn of 1468. 
During this time, Casimir, king of Poland, defeated the 
Southern Tatars, and when the Great Khan of Serai was 
bold enough to send ambassadors to Ivan to claim the 

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tribute which was due, the grand-duke refused it haughtily, 
cut off the noses of the ambassadors, and sent them back 
in this state to the Golden Camp. He then allied himself 
with Mengli, khan of the Crimea* and attacked the great 
khan, who was defeated, in 1480, at the Oka, and near Azof 
on the Don. This was the last war between Russia and 
the Golden Horde. Russia, free from the yoke of foreigners, 
was master of Kasan; Mengli became an independent 
khan in the Crimea, and Yaghmurji in Astrakhan. The 
khanat of Astrakhan was conquered by the Russians in 1544. 
The khanat of the Crimea, although it became a vassal 
state of Turkey, existed for three centuries, when it was 
conquered by Potemlrin, under Catherine the Great. Thus 
the powerful kingdom of Kiptshak, the creation of Genghis 
Khan, became a province of Russia. 

In this long struggle with the Tatars, the Russians were 
taught to bear chains, and to forge them for other nations. 
From 1240 to 1440, two hundred and fifty Russian princes 
went to the Golden Camp and humbly knelt before the 
majesty of a Tatar king ; twelve of them were beheaded. 
One hundred and thirty noble families of Russia and many 
of the common people are descended from the Tatars. 
Many words in tne Russian language, several legal cus- 
toms, various social usages, and articles of dress, several 
names of weights, measures, and coins, ceremonies at the 
emperor's court, the knout itself, are of Tatar origin. The 
influence of the Tatars upon the Russians has never been 
better characterized than by that bon-mot of Napoleon : 
* Scrub a Russian, and you will find a Tatar.' [Astrakhan ; 
Casan ; Crimea ; Turkey ; Turks.] 

(Hammer, Geschichte der Goldenen Horde in Kiptshak; 
Mohammed Riza, Asseb u's Scyidr (the Seven Planets) ; 
Histoire den Khans de la Crimie, traduite du Turk par 
Mirza-Kasem-Bey, 1832, in 4to.; Abulghazi ; D'Ouseon 
Krestinin, Geschichte der Kasanischen Zare, Petersburg, 
1791 ; Fischer, Sibirische Geschichte, Petersburg, 1768 ; 
Deguifpies, Histoire des Huns.) 

TA'RTARUS (T4pr«poc) was, according to the notions of 
the Greeks and Romans, a part of the lower world, and was 
inaccessible to the light of the sun and to the winds. 
Homer describes it as being as far below Hades as heaven 
is above the earth, and as being provided with brazen gates 
at its entrance. (Iliad, viii. 13, &c, 481.) He further re- 
gards it chiefly as the place in which the gods were pu- 
nished. Hesiou entertains on the whole the same idea, out 
he adds that Tartarus is surrounded by a brazen wall and 
triple night ; the roots of the earth and the sea bans: down 
into it. It is the prison of the Titans. (Hesiod, Theog., 
720, &c.) In later times Tartarus designated that part of 
the lower world in which the shades of the wicked were 
punished (Plato, De Re PubL, p. 616 ; Virgil, Mn., vi. 
543), and the ideas then formed of it were more awful 
than in earlier times. According to Virgil's description, 
which we may take as an example of the later ideas, the 
road into the lower world was divided at a certain point 
into two roads, the left of which led into Tartarus, which 
was surrounded by a triple wall and the fiery river Phlege- 
tlion, and was closed with an adamantine gate. At its 
outer side Tisiphone kept watch, and at the inner side the 
fifty-headed hydra. Rhadamanthys was the judge in Tar- 
tarus, and at his command the Furies scourged the shades 
of the wicked. Tartarus was twice as far below the earth 
as heaven above it. 

Tartarus was also the name of a small river in Gallia 
Transoadana, which is now called Tartaro. It was con- 
net ted with the Padus and Athesis by the Fossae Philis- 
tinae. 

. TARTARY, or more correctly TATARY. This name 
was in former times given by the European nations to the 
country of Kaptshak or Kiptshak [Tartars], or the three 
Khanats of Astrakhan, Kasan, and the Crimea [Astra- 
khan ; Casan ; Crmba], the last of which had the special 
name of little Tatary. [Turkey.] Great Tatary, on the 
contrary, designated the vast country between the Caspian 
8ea on the west, the desert of Gobi on the east, Siberia 
on the north, and Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet on the 
south. The greater part of it has now the more convenient 
name of Turiristan. [Turkistan.] The name of Tatary has 
entirely disappeared from geography, but it occurs fre- 
quently in the history of those regions. 

(Ritter, Asian.) 

TARTE8SUS. [Tarshish.1 

TARTI'NI, GIUSEPPE, • name celebrated in the annals 



of music, was born at Pis&no, on the coast of ktm, i 
1602, and educated at the university of Padua, for the ortv 
fession of jurisprudence ; but his love of music tnuapbri 
over his graver pursuit, and after some straggle*, an J 
several adventures of rather a romantic kind, — i 
which the fighting of many duels, the marrying 
dinars niece against her uncle's and his father's cc 
and his consequent flight to a monastery, where, to *»«>.! 
the effects of his eminency J s resentment, he reman*: 
during two years secreted, maybe thus slightly mentioned.— 
be became a professed violinist, and the founder ui \ 
school which in after-times boasted of a Nardint, a Pic 
nani, a Viotti, and a Baillot among its disciples, 

Tartini was also a composer, and his production* x. 
much extolled by a very competent judge, M. Baillot, t 
eminent French violinist and good critic : but he t* am 
generally known by his writings on the art, among wnv* 
his Trattoto di Musica seconaa la vera Scienza drW Am- 
monia ( 1754), a strictly scientific work, is still read, ani 
was freely and ably translated and explained in 177 L. b 
Edward stillingfleet, under the title of * Principles sc'l 
Powers of Harmony/ who cleared it of many of iht 
obscurities which D'Alembert justly complained of, as! 
by his additions and illustrations rendered it entertastuo; 
as well as instructive. This Treatise is partly founded 07 
the author's theory of a Third Sound, a subject which aa* 
so long engaged the attention of all writers on accosUo, 
and on wmch most of Tart mi's work is built, that we brrt 
give an explanation of it nearly in the words of the *bc\ 
named translator, or, rather, commentator. 

* Two sounds being given on musical instrument* thr 
admit of the tones being held out and strengthened a' 

gleasure, as violins, oboes, horns, &c., a third sound *n' 
e heard. On the violin let the intervals c a, c * a. 1 . 
bo, b|>o, be sounded with a strong bow, and the ilia , 
sounds, represented by the black notes in the subpjm* : 
example, will be heard : — 

Q Q_ 



m 



BB: 



3*= 



-e— *©— 



4 A similar result will occur if the same interval \ 
sounded by two players on the violin, distant from t%i 
other about 29 or 30 feet ; always using a strong bow, a*J 
holding out the notes. The auditor will hear the ttcri 
sound much better if stationed exactly between the t»j 
instruments. Two oboes will produce the mme <-6V~: 
placed at a much greater distance/ 

4 This discovery of the Grave Harmonics, as these Xhn : 
sounds are called, was made so nearly at the same time bt 
Tartini and Romieu, that both seem to have an undoubted 
claim to be considered as discoverers. M. Romieu w a 
member of the Royal Society of Sciences of MantpeUirr 
The memoir which he read before the society m entitled 
44 A New Discovery of Grave Harmonic Sound's, which ar; 
very sensibly produced from the union of Wind Instru- 
ments." ' 

Tartini died at Padua in 1770. To the Dictionnair* drt 
Musiciens we are indebted for what relates to his early hit 
which work also furnished M. Prony with matmafe it 
an interesting memoir in the Biographic Unirerm'U. Ie 
the Encyclopedic is an Hoge by M. Oinguen* on the roe- 
positions of Tartini, in which they are most indiscreet* 7 
compared with those of Corelli. 

TARTRATES. [Tartaric Acid.] 

TARUDANT. [Marocco.1 

TA8HKEND. JTuritotan.] 

TA8MAN, ABEL JANSSEN, one of the greatest na- 
vigators of the seventeenth century, whose fame has a*.* 
equalled his merits, owing to his countrymen, the Dutri: 
having neglected to make known the important s*rrk** 
which he rendered to geography. In the service oC thf 
Dutch East India Company he gave such proof o* ro* 
enterprise and ability as to induce Anthony Van Di«»rr, 
the most distinguished governor*genera) who had preadri 
over the affairs of that company, to comm i ss i on bins, in 
1642, to proceed on a voyage, the object of which ww to 
ascertain the extent of the Australian continent* oo th* 
western coast of which discoveries had been made by pre- 
vious Dutch navigators. 

On the 14th August, 1642, Tasman sailed from 



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iu command of two vessels, the Heemskirk and the 
Zeehaan, directing his course first towards the Isle of 
France, where he put in for provisions and water. From 
the Isle of France he set sail on the 3rd October, and pro- 
ceeded south to about 41° S. lat., afterwards to the south- 
east, to about 50° S. lat., and then due east. Having 
passed 127° £. long., he sailed to the north and east, and 
on the 24th November discovered, at 10 miles distance, a 
land to which he gave the name of Van Diemen. He 
did not remain here long, nor did he meet with any of the 
natives, but he continued on his voyage, sailing to the 
south-east, and doubled what he conceived to be the 
southern extremity of the Australian continent, or New 
Holland, but what in fact was the southern extremity of 
the island of Tasmania, or Van Diemen's Land. He made 
an unsuccessful attempt to anchor in a bay, to which he 
gave the name of the Bay of Tempests— 8torm Bay— on 
the south-eastern coast of Van Diemen's Land ; and then 
ran to the north, where he found secure anchorage in 
another bay, to which he gave the name of Frederik 
Hendrik Bay, 42? 5tf S. lat., K7° 57' E. long. On the shore 
be erected a standard, to which he attached the colours of 
the Dutch East India Company, and on the 5th set sail 
again. Unfavourable winds prevented his surveying, as he 
had intended, the north coast, and he therefore bore to 
the east, proposing to visit the Solomon's Islands, of which 
some account had been given by previous navigators. But 
cm the 13th, being in about 42° 10' S. lat. and 170° E. 
long., he found himself in view of a high and mountainous 
country, which he named Staaten Land— land of estates— 
now known as New Zealand. Tasman supposed this land 
to be part of the continent of Australia. He sailed alonff 
the coast towards the north-east, and on the 17th anchored 
at the entrance of what he concluded to be a peat bay. 
The natives from the shore approached in their canoes, 
but still remained at a distance, and refused to come on 
board either of Tasmans vessels, although every amicable 
demonstration was exhibited by the crews. Gathering con- 
fidence howevw, they afterwards came in large numbers, 
and a qujurel ensuing between them and the Dutch, three 
sailors were murdered. The bay in which this happened 
received the name of Mordenaa^s , Bay, or Murderers' Bay 
(40* 4ff 8. lat., 173° E. lon^.). Tasman did not revenge the 
death of hh men, but, availing himself of a favourable wind, 
set sail. Being followed however by two and twenty canoes 
with natives armed, he fired among them, killed one or 
two natives, and drove the rest on shore. He did not make 
any progress owing to the variableness of the weather, and 
was obliged to anchor again in a bay to the east of Mas- 
sacre or Murderers' Bay which yet preserves his name— 
Tasman a Bay (about 41° S. lat., 173° 30' E. long.). When 
enabled to resume the voyage, he continued his course 
along the coast, bearing northwards, until, on the 4th 
January, 1&3, he found himself in a situation in which the 
violence of the current bearing to the west, and the swell- 
ing of the waves, which bore to the north-west, led him to 
conclude that the sea in that part afforded a free passage. 
To the west he perceived a group of small islands which 
he named the Three Kings (in about 34° 3' S. lat., 172° 
V E* long.). . Those islands were inhabited, but the vio- 
lence of the waves prevented all intercourse with the 
natives. * Tasman now resolved to sail to the east, and 
afterwards to the north as far as 17° 8. lat., and then 
to the west towards the isles of Cocos (15° W S. lat., 
174° 10' W. long.), and of Hoorn (14° S. lat., 178° 20' 
YY. long-)* with a view of obtaining some fresh pro- 
visions at one of these islands. On the 6th January he 
saw an Uland to the south at three miles distance, but 
no name is given to it. On the 8th, being, as he represents, 
in 32*S. lat. and 174° E. long., the force of the waves which 
rolled from the south-east suggested to him that he 
ought not to look for land in that direction ; he there- 
toe changed his course to the north., and on the 19th 
<fiseovere<r an island which he called Pyllstaart (22° 22' 
8. la t , 176° W. long.). On the following day he saw 
two, other islands, and on the 21st approached the more 
fXBthecrn, which he named Amsterdam, the native name 
bcttg Tonga laboo (21° $& S. lat., 175° 2tf W. long.) ; 
the- other Middelburg, the native name being Eoa, the 
Ea*oo~wee of Cook (21° &i' S. lat, 175° W. loug.). 
The islanders brought various fruits in their canoes, and 
Tasman lias described them as uniting courage with 
While here he discovered some other isles, 



before one 6f which he anchored, naming it Rotterdam* 
the native name being Ana Moka t»r Annamooka, 20° 15' 
S. lat., 174° 31' W. long. Captain Cook, when he visited 
these islands about a hundred and fifty years afterwards, 
found the tradition of Tasman 's visit preserved among the 
natives. 

On the 1st of February Tasman discovered the if lands 
of Prince William, but his provisions being nearly 
exhausted, he could not stay to visit them. For 
several days subsequently the sky was so cloudy as 
to prevent his ascertaining the situation of his vessel, 
and when fine weather partially returned, he judged 
it best to sail towards 5° S. lat., and then to bear 
towards New Guinea, apprehending the return of un- 
favourable weather, in which he might be cast upon art 
unknown coast. By the 22nd of March he was in 5° 2 f S. 
lat, and having the advantage of clear weather and the 
east trade-winds, he soon came in sight of a cluster of 
islands which had been visited by two navigators, Schouten 
and Le Maire, and by them named Ontong Java. On 
the 29th he sailed past the Green Islands (4* 53' 8. 
lat., 154° 5C E. long.), and on the 30th the Isle of St. 
John (3° 50 / S. lat., 153° 5C E. long.). This island, he 
says, appeared to be well cultivated, to abound in flesh, 
fowl, nsn, and fruit, and to have a numerous population. 
Schouten having before sustained some injury from the 
natives, Tasman did not attempt to land. On the 1st of 
April he was in sight of what he supposed to be New 
Guinea, but in fact of New Britain, and shortly after he 
doubled the cape to which Spanish navigators had before 
given the name of Cabo Santa Maria— Cape St. George 
of Dampier (5° S. lat., 152° 15' E. long.). The orew were 
suddenly awoke on the night of the 12th by what resem- 
bled the shock of an earthquake : the situation of the 
vessel at the time, as Tasman states, being 3° 45' S. lat. 
They sounded, supposing that the ship had struck, but 
could find no bottom. Several shocks, each less violent, 
succeeded. On the 20th they were near to Brandande 
Yland, or Burning Island, which had been mentioned be- 
fore by Schouten : on the 27th they were in sight 
of another island, which he calls Jama, a little to 
the east of Moa (8° 21' S. lat, 127° 45' E. long.), 
where they obtained cocoa-nuts and other fruits. Tas- 
man has described the inhabitants as absolutely black, 
and speaking a copious language, in which the frequent 
repetition of the letter r is noticed. He anchored on the 
following day at the Isle of Moa, where he was detained 
for eight days by unfavourable weather. The Dutch car- 
ried on an interchange of knives for cocoa-nuts and Indian 
figs with the natives. On the 12th of May he coasted 
the island to which Schouten had before given his name 
(50 / S. lat., 136° 20' E. long.), and which is described as 
fertile and populous: the natives gave proof of their 
commerce with different Spanish vessels by the production 
of various articles which they had received in barter. 
Having now fulfilled his instructions, Tasman directed ru\s 
course back to Batavia, where he arrived on the 15th 
June. A map of his discoveries was sent to the Stadt 
House at Amsterdam. 

The success of this voyage induced Van Diemen to* 
commit to Tasman the command of a second expedition; 
the objects of which are set forth in the instructions given 
by the governor-general on the occasion. These instruc- 
tions are printed in the introduction to Flinders* Voyages. 
After quitting Point Turc, or False Cape, situated in 8° 
S. lat., on the south coast of New Guinea, he was to con- 
tinue eastward along the coast to 9° S. lat., carefully cross- 
ing the cove at that place, looking about the high islands 
or Speults River with the yachts for a harbour, despatch- 
ing the tender De Braak for two or three days into the 
cove, in order to discover whether within the great inlet 
there might not be found an entrance to the South Sea.** 
From this place he was to coast along the west coast of 
New Guinea (Carpentaria) to the farthest discoveries in 
17° S. lat., following the coast farther, as it might -tin 
westward or southward. It was feared that he would meet 
in those parts with the south-east trade-winds; from 

• The great inlet or cove where the passage woe to be sought, U the north 
west part or Torres Straits. It is evident that a suspicion was cutertained in 
164 4 of such a strait; tntt that the Dutch were ismoitmt of its having been 
passed. The * high UlatiuV are those which lie in 10" 8. hit. on the west tide of 
the straits. Speults river appears to be the opening between the Ptinoeof 
Wales Island >u»d Cape York ; tltrongh which Cook afterwards i***ed, and 
named Bsdarroat Strait. (FlindeW Vvgage, ' Introduction.') 



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which it would be difficult to keep the coast on board, 
if he stretched to the south-east; but notwithstanding he 
was by all means to endeavour to proceed, that it might 
be ascertained whether the land was divided from the 
great known South Continent or not. These instructions 
were signed in 1G44, 29th January, by the governor- 
general, and two vessels— the Zeehaan and the Braak— 
were placed at Tasman's disposal. But of the result* of 
this second voyage absolutely nothing is known with 
certainty ; nothing was ever published. • It seems to 
have been the general opinion,' says Flinders, * that Tas- 
man sailed round the Gulf of Carpentaria, and then 
westward along Arnhem, and the northern coast of Van 
Diemen's Land ; and the form of thoee coasts in Th6ve- 
not's charts of 1663, and in those of most succeeding 
geographers, even up to the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, is supposed to have resulted from this voyage. 
This opinion is strengthened by finding the names of 
Tasman, and of the governor-general, and of two of the 
council, who signed his instructions, applied to places at 
the head of the gulf; as is also that of Maria, the 
daughter of the governor, to whom Tasman is said to 
have been attached. In the notes also of Burgomaster 
Witsen, concerning the inhabitants of New Guinea and 
Hollandia Nova, as extracted by Mr. Dalrymple {Collec- 
tion of Voyages), Tasman is mentioned as among those 
from whom his information was drawn.' Of the private 
life of Tasman nothing is known, neither when nor where 
he was born or died. 

An account of Tasman's first voyage is given in the Collec- 
tion de Thcvcnottputie iv. ; in Harris's Navigantium atque 
Itinerantium Bibliotheca, 1744, fol. ; at the end of the 
Voyages de Correct, tome ii., Paris ; in Terra Austral is 
Cogmta, or Voyages to the Terra Australis during the 
Sixteenth* Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Centuries, by Cal- 
lander, Kdin., 1766. From these sources, and from the Bio- 
graphic Uniiwselle, tome 46, the substance of this article 
has been collected. Tasman is not even named in Chal- 
mers, nor in many other universal biographies in the 
English language. 

TASMA'NIA, more generally known by the name of 
Van Diemen's Land, is an bland and British colony situated 
in the southern hemisphere, south of Australia. It lies 
between 40 w 45* and 43° 45* 8. lat, and between 144° 45> 
and 148° 30' £. long. It is separated from Australia by 
Bass's Strait, which washes its northern shore. On the 
west of the island is the Indian Ocean, and on the east the 
Pacific. On the south it is washed by that portion of the 
ocean which connects the two first-named oceans, and ex- 
tends southward to the shores of the newly-discovered 
antarctic continent [South Polar Countri«s.1 From 
Cape Grim, its north-western extremity, it extends south* 
south-east to South Cape, a distance of about 230 miles, 
and this is its greatest length. Its greatest width occurs 
near 41° 20 7 S. lat., between Ordnance Point on the west 
and St. Helen's Point on the east, which are about 190 
miles distant from one another. According to a rough 
estimate, the surface is 24,000 square miles, or about 4000 
square miles less than the extent of Ireland. 

Coast-line and hlanils. — The western coast, beginning 
on the north at Cape Grim, and extending to South-West 
Cape, is about 240 miles long. It is less accessible than 
the other shores of the island, as in general it runs in a con- 
tinuous line, being only broken by large inlets at two places. 
The shores are steep, exposed to the prevailing south-western 
winds, to a strong swell and surf, and without anchorage and 
shelter. This coast is therefore rarely visited by vessels, and 
no settlements have been established on it, except at Mac- 
quarrie Harbour and Port Davey, where a few convicts 
arc kept to cut wood. The northern parts of this coast, 
and as far south as Macquarrie Harbour, are in general 
low, but south of Macquarrie Harbour they are high. 
South of Cape Grim, which consists of steep rocks of mo- 
derate elevation, the coast is formed by low black rocks, 
which towards West Point sink down to the level of the 
sea, and in this part there are a few shallow creeks. From 
West Point, which is formed by a short, low, and sandy 

{rejection, to the mouth of the river Arthur, the beach is 
ow and sandy, and behind it extends a swampy level tract, 
covered with tea-trees to the distance of three or four 
miles, where the country rises into low hills. At a lew 

{daces the low beach is interrupted by rocky cliffs. This 
ow coast continues to Ordnance Point, near which u 



Jacob's Harbour, which is accessible to boats. At Ordi- 
nance Point the coast rises to a moderate elev arson* bast 
it is frequently interrupted by low and sandy traat*. 
The shores are overgrown with low bushes. A bay of 
moderate extent occurs between the mouth of the Ave* 
Pedder and Sandy Cape, but it is shallow and uatltai 
That part of the coast which extends from Sandy Cape Xm 
Macquarrie Harbour is almost unknown, except that M 
chiefly consists of sandy low shores, without a beach, si 
the back of which there are hills, some of which atfmta » 
considerable elevation. Macquarrie Harbour is a ia* 
sheet of water, extending nearly 25 miles south-sooth eaat, 
and terminating with two fine basins, Birch*s Inlet aa4 
Kelly's Basin. It is on an average five miles wide, a«4 
affords good anchorage and complete shelter ; but near ha 
entrance is a bar, which has only nine feet of water. The 
harbour is surrounded by wooded bills. Cape 8orell, forming 
the western side of the entrance of Macquarrie Harboor.M 
a steep and rocky promontory, and farther south the coast- 
line is high and rocky, and here and there a few rock* pro- 
ject into the sea, but the small bays thus formed de aot 
afford shelter against the swell of the sea, and not t«M a 
safe landing-place. At the back of the beach therw are 
steep and lolly hills. Cape Hibbs is formed by a mooa- 
tain-mass projecting three or four miles into the at*. 
South of it the coast rises still higher, and between thai 
cape and Rocky Point two hills, which project about tw# 
miles from the shores, constitute a harbour, in which nail 
vessels may anchor, but it is open to the west. The high 
shores continue to Port Davey and to South- West Cape. 
Port Davey is the best harbour on this coast. At the en- 
trance it is about four miles wide, and it continues at that 
width about 6 miles inland, when it divides into two branches. 
That branch which runs northward is called Cocfcbnro, 
and is about two miles wide and six long : the southern, 
which runs eastward, does not much exceed a mile in 
width, but extends more than 10 miles inland, tarafof at 
its eastern extremity to the south. These two branch** 
have good anchorage, and afford safe shelter, being ear- 
rounded by high hills ; but the wide bay, of which thejr 
are branches, is open to the westerly winds and the sarin) 
of the sea : the anchorage however is good. 

The southern coast, between South-West Cape and 
Whale Head, is about 50 miles long, and runs in a aer* 
pentine line, forming several bays, of which a few have 
good anchorage, as Cox Bight, east of South-West Cape. 
and the nameless wide bay which lies west of Sooth Qape, 
and at whose innermost recess is a harbour about five oaues 
long and a mile wide, which has a good entrance, and 
affords anchorage and shelter, but it has not been regularly 
surveyed. This harbour is separated from the wide bay by 
a tongue of land of moderate elevation, on which the sea 
breaks with a heavy surf. The shores of this coast are m 
general rocky and high, and constitute the lower declivity 
of the mountain-masses which extend over this part of the 
country. Several small islands opposite this coast break 
the swell of the sea, and as most of them are elevated, they 
serve as beacons. 

The south-eastern coast extends from Whale Head, the 
most south-eastern promontory of Tasmania, to Cape Fre- 
derik Hendrik, about 60 miles in a straight line, but, 
measured along the shores, it is probabty double thai ex- 
tent. It contains a greater number of safe anchorages 
than nrobably any other country of the same extent oc 
the globe. There is hardly a mile along this coast-line 
which does not offer a safe refuge to vessels. This great 
advantage is owing partly to the size and form of 
the island of Bruni, which extends along the coast, 
and partly to two far-projecting promontories, called 
Ralph's Peninsula and Tasman's Peninsula. The island of 
Bruni extends about 30 miles nearly due south and 
north, but it varies greatly in width, as the isthmus of 
St. Aignan is only a lew hundred paces across, whilst the 
mountain tract south of it is more than eight mile* wide. 
It consists of three isolated tracts of high hills, connected 
by isthmuses : the most southern of these tracts hat the 
form of a hook, and is connected with the central moun- 
tain-tract by a low isthmus about a mile wide and tww 
miles long, which separates Taylor's Ray from Bad Bay. 
The central mountain-tract, constituting the main body of 
the island, is about 15 miles long from south to north, and 
more than eight miles wide in the broadest part. It is con- 
nected with the northern mountain-tract by the utharas at 



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St /Ugpaa, which is five miles long, and only a few hundred 

Km wide. It is low and sandy, and separates Isthmus 
on the west from Adventure Bay on the east The 
florthern mountain-tract is about 12 miles long, and so 
Arach indented on the western shore that its average width 
does not exceed three miles, though in some placets it is 
five miles across. The mountains of this island do not 
appear to exceed 1200 feet in elevation : they are covered 
with wood, and supply numerous streams. Along the 
western side of the island are five harbours, which, from 
•OUth to north, are called Great Cove or Taylor's Bay, 
little Cove, Isthmus Bay, Great Bay, and B nines Bay. 
Tney all have excellent anchorage and shelter, except 
Taylor's Bay, which is rather too large, and exposed to the 

ri of wind which come down from the mountains on 
mainland. On the eastern side of Bruni Island are 
three bays, Bad Bay, Adventure Bay, and Trumpeter Bay. 
Bid Ray is useless, being open to the southern winds, and 
fubject to a very heavy swell, which causes such a tre- 
mendous surf at the foot of the rocks which surround the 
basin, that landing is almost impossible. Adventure Bay 
s. - — - *- * u e east, but is so far protected by Tasman s 
.t the inconveniences of this harbour during 
are reduced to a difficult landing. Before 
i of the colony it was frequently visited by 
mpeter Bay is of moderate extent, 
hich divides Bruni Island from the mainland 
called D'Entrecasteaux Channel, or Storm 
and extends 45 miles in a straight line from 
) Pilot Strait, or the. narrow arm that divides 
the northern extremity of Bruni Island from Tasmania. Its 
southern entrance between Whale Head and Bruni Head is 
wide and open to the south and west ; but on the western 
shores there are two excel! ;nt harbours, Recherche Bay 
and Mussel Bay. North of Mussel Bay the channel begins, 
which is 30 miles long, and varies in width from one to 
•i»k+ mil*, in ft n it s extent it has excellent anchorage 
ith ; even opposite Isthmus Bay, where it 
40 feet deep. Being mostly surrounded 
ihelter it on all sides, it is, properly 
ense harbour, the only inconveniences of 
is subject to gusts of wind, and that the 
an earth somewhat too tenacious. On the 
the channel, besides several smaller har^ 
»re are three, or rather four, large and ex- 
erance Bay or Adarnson's Harbour ; Huon 
nsive {estuary of the river of that name, 
rly 20 miles inland, and has sufficient depth 
e vessels; Port Cygnet, or Swan Port, 
mouth of the Huon actuary ; and North- 
constitutes the most northern extremity 
ix Channel, and resembles the harbour 
Morth-West Bay is two miles wide at its 
tarrftoec and extends nearly six miles inland. The low 
and lefce] country surrounding this excellent basin is the 
most southern district of Tasmania in which cultivation 
has made any progress. The strait leading from it to 
the wide aestuary of the river Dervvent is only one mile 
wide, and is called Pilot Strait. 

East of Bruni Island, and between it and Tasman's 
Peninsula is Storm Bay, extending about fifteen miles 
frm south to north, and as much from west to east. 
Tfcfegti it has good anchorage-ground, and is almost en- 
tifeifiree from danger, it cannot be considered as a har- 
bour, being open towards the south, though protected on 
the three other sides by high hills. Storm Bay however 
leads to two extensive arms of the sea, tfhich opeu to the 
north of it, and are respectively called the aestuary of the 
Denrent and Frederick Henry Bay. These two arms of the 
sea are separated by Ralph's Peninsula, which extends 
about 20 miles from north to south ; and this distance may 
be considered as the length of the two arms of the sea, the 
~ lmk ~'"jy erf the Derwent advancing a few miles farther in- 
At the entrance of the aestuary is a small rockv 
; Inmpot, on which a lighthouse has been erected. 
V tjie ffistuary is Ralph's Bay, on the east. This bay 
fed bra low sandy spit of land which projects from ; 
ft* iteiX aide of Ralph's Peninsula, and surrounds the bay ! 
oa the south and west ; and by another spit of land which ! 
projects to the south. The entrance of Ralph's Bay is a I 
iHort channel, nearly' two miles wide, which leads to a j 
1 — n eight miles long and three wide, with excellent an- i 
"*e* and sheltered on all sides. Ralph's Peninsula 



consists of two mountainous tracts united by a low isthmus. 
This isthmus is only half a mile wide, and is the place 
where Ralph's Bay approaches nearest to Frederick Henry 
Bay. This last-mentioned bay, which has also the name of 
North Ba^r (Bai du Nord) is united to Storm Bay by a 
channel situated between Ralph's Pemnsula and Tasman's 
Peninsula, which is five miles long and five miles wide. 
The bay itself consists of three basins, North Bay, Pitt 
Water, and Norfolk Bay. North Bay, which occupies the 
centre, is a basin about eight miles long from south to north, 
and six from west to east. It has good anchorage, with 
sufficient depth of water, and is generally well sheltered. 
Along its northern shores there is a low and sandy tongue 
of land, with an opening at its eastern extremity, which 
leads to Pitt Water, an arm of the sea extending from 
east-south-east to west-north-west about eight miles, with 
an average width of two miles, which branches out into 
numerous small coves and inlets affording safe anchorage 
for small vessels, but the entrance has only sufficient depth 
for them. Norfolk Bav lies to the east of North Bay, with 
which it is connected by a channel about three miles wide. 
This bay is surrounded on three sides by Tasman's Penin- 
sula, and constitutes one of the finest harbours on the 
island: it lias excellent anchorage* with a convenient 
depth of water, and is sheltered by high hills. It is eight 
miles long, and the width varies from three to five miles. 
It is free from all danger, and branches out into numerous 
coves. 

Tasman's Peninsula extends about 25 miles from south 
to north : it consists of two larger peninsulas, of which the 
southern is properly called Tasman's, and the northern 
Forestier's Peninsula. Tasman's Peninsula surrounds Nor- 
folk Bay on the south and west : it extends west and east 
about 15 miles, with an average width of ei^ht miles. The 
surface of this tract is covered with mountains, which rise 
with a steep aseent from the water's edge, and are mostly 
composed of basalt columns, especially between Maingon 
Bay and Fortesque Bay. On the west side of the periin- 
sulai on the east shores of Storm Bay, is Wedge Bay, which 
has tolerably good anchorage. Maingon Bay, on tne south 
coast of the peninsula, is quite open, but on the north it leads 
into a safe harbour, Port Arthur, which runs more than six 
miles inland, and is more than a mile wide. The high rocky 
isthmus which divides its northern extremity from Norfolk 
Bay is only three miles wide. On the eastern shores of 
Tasman's Peninsula is Fortescpie Bay, which is large, and 
has excellent anchorage, but it is open to the east. Pirates 
Bay, farther north, is still more open : it is separated from 
Norfolk Bay by an isthmus called Eagle Hawk Neck, 
winch is only 600 feet wide and 700 feet long, .and which 
connects Tasman's Peninsula with Forestiers Peninsula. 
It is low and sandy. Forestier's Peninsula extends 10 
miles from south to north, with an average width of 
seven miles: it is a roundish mass of high rocky 
mountains, scantily covered with low trees, and it 
has a sterile soil. The high rocky masses along its 
eastern shores run in a continuous line. On the 
north side of the peninsula is Frederik Hendrik Har- 
bour, in which Tasmau anchored in 1642: it has good 
depth, but is open, and along the southern side it is fined 
with shoals and rocks. The isthmus which joins Forestier's 
Peninsula to the mainland of Tasmania is called East Bay 
Neck, and the northern portion of Norfolk Bay is also 
known by the name of East Bay : it is about two miles long, 
and half a mile wide hi the narrowest part : it is low and 
sandy. The bay which extends between this neck and the 
most northern portion of Forestier's Peninsula, and is called 
Blackman's Bav, is spacious and well sheltered, but beset 
with shoals and rocks, especially along the southern shores 
and its entrance, so as to admit only small vessels. 

The eastern coast of Tasmania extends from the northern 
extremity of Forestier's Peninsula to Cape Portland on 
Bass's Strait, more than 150 miles in a straight line. The 
southern part, or that south of 42° S. latf, resembles iu 
some degree the south-eastern coast : it contains many 
places of refuge for vessels, though in general they are 
much less numerous than on the south-east coast, and not 
quite so safe and commodious. The wide bay on the north 
of Forestier's Peninsula, from which a channel leads to 
Blackmail's Bay, lias a flat sandy shore, no which the sea 
breaks with a heavy surf, so as to render it inaccessible, but 
towards the north are several small coves for boats. Cape 
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Prosser's Bay the coast is high and rocky, except at Sand- 
spit, where it is low, and forms a shallow cove. Prosser's 
Bay is of good size, being three miles wide at its entrance, 
and extending; in two arms five miles inland. There are 
several shoals in it, but it has food anchorage, especially in 
the northern arm. Between Prosser's Bay and Cape Bailly 
the coast is high, rocky, and well wooded. At Cape Bailly 
begins Oyster Bay, the largest of the bays of Tasmania : it 
ta 18 miles long trom south to north, and 15 miles wide at 
the entrance, but it narrows gradually towards the north, 
being at its northern recess 10 miles across. It contains 
good anchoring-ground, and is tolerably safe, for though it 
is open towards the south, the island of Maria and several 
smaller islands in that direction break the swell of the sea. 
The surrounding country is hilly and well wooded. Near 
Cane Bailly is Little Swan Port, a moderately extensive 
basin with a shallow entrance. It admits only boats. The 
western shores of Oyster Bay are high and steep, and may 
be approached with safety. On the northern side of the 
bay is a tongue of land less than a mile wide. It consists 
of' low sand-hills, and terminates on the east at a nar- 
row and shallow channel, which leads northward to an arm 
of the sea, which winds through a low country for more 
than 10 miles. This arm of the sea is shallow, and called 
Moulting Lagoon. The eastern side of Oyster Bay is 
formed by Vanderlin's Peninsula and Schouten's Island. 
Vanderlin's Peninsula is nearly 12 miles long, and consists 
of two masses of rocky mountains, united by a low sandy 
neck, about one mile and a half long and one mile and a 
half wide, on which is a small fresh-water lake. To the 
west of this neck is Refuge Bay, and to the east Thouin Bay. 
The first is a safe harbour, but the second is open and 
rather shallow. Another low and sandy neck about three 
miles long and a mile wide connects Vanderlin's Peninsula 
with the main body of Tasmania. The mountains of the 
southern mass of Vanderlin's Peninsula are the highest in the 
peninsula. Schouten's Island is separated from that peninsula 
by Geographe Strait, which is nearly three miles long and 
about one mile and a half wide on an average : there is 
good anchorage in the strait. Schouten's Island has nearly 
the form of a square, and extends about four miles in every 
direction. On its southern side, in Faure Bay, there is 
anchoring-ground. The island consists of a mass of 
rock, descending on the east with a steep declivity to the 
water's edge, but on the west with a gentle welf-wooded 
slope. 

South of Oyster Bay is the island of Maria, which is 
about 12 miles long, and consists of two large masses of 
rocks connected by a neck of land. The northern mass 
extends 7 miles from east to west, and consists of elevated 
mountains, the highest part of which, called the Bishop 
and Clerk, is about 3500 feet above the sea-level. The 
declivity of the mountains towards the east is very steep 
and terminates on the beach; but the slope is gentle 
towards the west, where it leaves a broad level tract along 
the sea, which is sandy and scantily wooded. The low 
sandy neck south of it is only 300 paces across, and about 
two miles long. On the west of it is Oyster Bay, which is 
well sheltered and has good anchorage, but is shallow 
near the land ; and on the east of the neck is Reidle Bay, 
which is deeper, but has a rocky bottom, and is exposed to 
the easterly and southerly winds. The southern peninsula 
of Maria Island is one mass of rocks, rather well wooded, 
which descends towards the east in precipices and towards 
the west with a gentle slope. The strait which divides 
Maria Island from the mainland is about five miles wide on 
an average, and is nearly equal to D'Entrecasteaux Channel 
in the advantages which it affords to navigation, having 
good anchorage-ground, and being generally well protected 
against the winds and swell of the sea. North of Maria 
Island, towards the entrance of Oyster Bay, is a small 
island, White Rock, to which seals resort in great num- 
bers. 

The remainder of the eastern coast, beginning at Cape 
Tourville on the south, is as difficult of access as the 
western coast of Tasmania. In an extent of more than 
100 miles not one harbour occurs which can be entered 
by vessels of moderate size, and even small craft find only 
three or four places where they can anchor with safety. 
The coast between Cape Tourville and Eddystone Point is 
elevated and rocky, and always beaten by a heavy surf. 
Sou*h of Cape Lodi the hills are barren and generally 
destitute of trees. Farther north however they are still 



more elevated, but tolerably well wooded. Between Eddy* 

stone Point and Cape Portland the shores consist of a tow 
tract of considerable width : the soil is sandy and of indif- 
ferent fertility. The woods which cover it consist of short, 
crooked trees. This part of the coast is beset with shoaK 
and cannot be approached with safety. 

The northern coast of Tasmania extends from Cape 
Portland on the east to Cape Grim on the west, and is 
about 160 miles long in a straight line, but foUowin* the 
coast it measures more than 220 miles. North of this 
coast is Bass's Strait, at the eastern entrance of which 
is the gjroup of the Furneaux Islands, which consist of two 
larger islands, four of moderate size, and many smalWr 
islands. The larger, Great Island, extends 40 miles neartr 
due south and north, and is on an average nine miles k*u;. 
so that its surface may be estimated at 360 square mile*, 
or somewhat more than that of the Scotch island of Way. 
The interior of the island is mountainous, and the moun- 
tains advance on the west side close to the sea, but leave 
a tract of low ground along the eastern shore, which ■ 
sandy and in some parts swampy. South of Great Island 
is Cape Barren Island, which extends from east to we* 
about 20 miles, with an average width of about five mile*. 
It consists of several isolated masses of rocks connected by 
low grounds. These islands, as well as the smaller bland*, 
are generally mountainous and rather high ; they coo- 
tain many low tracts of considerable extent, but the toil is 
sandy, swampy, and in general of indifferent quality 
Trees are not abundant, and only of stunted growth. In* 
surface is chiefly covered with thick bushes, coarse wire- 
grass, and a kind of Chenopodium, the ashes of which 
may be used in the manufacture of soap. Fresh water is 
scarce. These islands are always surrounded by great 
numbers of seals, and are resorted to by many Tesseu 
from Sydney and other places. The strait which di- 
vides Furneaux Islands from Tasmania is called Banks's 
Strait. It is 10 miles wide, and contains no hidden 
dangers, but as the current sets through it with great 
rapidity from east to west, it is not much used : the vessels 
that sail to and from Sidney generally pass through Kent 
Strait, or the middle strait of the three which constitute 
the eastern entrance of Bass's Strait. This strait b 34 
miles wide between Great Island and Kent Group, and » 
general free from dangers. The western current whir* 
runs through it is moderate. 

The coast from Cape Portland on the east to Port Dal- 
rymple at the mouth of the river Tamar is low and sandy, 
with the exception of some sandy hills at and between 
East and West Double Sandy Points, and the hi^li cape of 
Stony Head, which consists of elevated rocky masses over- 
grown with grass. The shores are either entirely barren 
or covered with short bushes. In a few places tnere are 
swamps, and in others some flat and low rocks of small 
extent. The bays have in general sufficient depth of 
water and good anchorage-ground, but being wide and 
open, they do not afford security against winds and the 
swell of the sea. The largest is Kingarooma Bay, west of 
Cape Portland. 

Port Dal rymple is the best harbour on the northern 
shores, though it cannot be compared with the harbours 
on the soutn-eastem coast. Before its entrance on the 
west is the dangerous reef called Hebes Reef, and eveo is 
the sea-reach, which is two miles wide and six Ion*, there 
are some shoals. The navigation is tedious and diJBcal?. 
but the Tamar is deep enough for large vessels as (sr as 
Launceston, 30 miles from Port Dalrymple in a straight 
line. West of Port Dalrymple the coast is high, berne 
formed by elevated and wooded hills, the highest of wHch 
are called the Asbestos Hills. To the west of these hills is 
Port Sorell, which is rather spacious and has good ancNo?* 
age, but is difficult of access. Between. Port Sorell tod 
Port Frederick the shores are low, and about half a nulc 
from the sea is a narrow lagoon, which occupies more titan 
half of the space between the two harbours. Port Fre- 
derick, or the apstuary of the river Mersey* resembles IVet 
Sorell. From this harbour to Penguin Point, west of the 
mouth of Levcn river, the coast is generally rocky and high, 
but intersected by the mouths of several nvers, which how- 
ever do not admit even boats, except the Leven, which 
may be ascended by boats to the distance of six miles from 
the sea. From Penguin Point to Circular Head the co*4 
presents an alternation of high and low shores. The low 
shores are sandy or swampy, and generally covered with 



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thick btsnes, tad the high shores present in many places 
columns of basalt, the tops of which are covered with a 
layer of good soil, and overgrown with trees. There is no 
hirbour for ships on the coast, except at the mouth of 
Emu river, where small vessels find good anchorage in 
Emu Bay. Boats may enter Parish's Harbour, not far 
from Emu Bay to the west, and Pebbly Bay, west of 
Rocky Cape, a rather elevated rocky mass projecting into 
the sea. 

Circular Head is a tongue of land projecting into the sea 
to the distance of about seven miles from the mainland. 
It* northern portion is an undulating table-land resting on 
basalt columns, whose surface is covered with bushes and 
snail trees, and affords good pasture-ground. The highest 
put of it is 450 feet above the sea-level. This table-land 
» about five miles long from north to south, and somewhat 
more than two miles across in the widest part. It is united 
to the mainland by a low sandy isthmus nearly three miles 
long and about one mile wide. On each side of the isthmus 
is i tongue of land, which advances four or five miles into 
the sea, and forms two harbours, called East and West Bay, 
which have sufficient depth for small vessels. The advan- 
tages afforded by these two harbours, and the pasture- 
rnwnd on Circular Head, have induced the Van Diemen's 
Laod Company to fix their chief establishment here. The 
coast from Circular Head to Cape Grim is low and sandy. 
In some places there are swamps overgrown with tea-trees. 
It is lined by numerous shoals, and though there are several 
com at the embouchures of the rivers, none of them has 
sufficient depth of water for a boat. 

North of this coast-line, are the Hunter Islands, a group 
consisting of three larger and several smaller islands. 
Robbin Island, the nearest to the mainland, is divided 
from it by a narrow strait, Robbin Channel, which is full 
of shoals, but has good anchoring-ground near the eastern 
entrance. The island is about 7 miles long from east to 
wot, and 5 miles wide on an average. The eastern portion, 
embracing about two-thirds of the whole, is low, and has 
a sandy soil, covered with bushes and small trees : it has 
also pasture-ground. The western district is a rocky ridge, 
covered with heath. Three-Hummock Island is about 
the same size, but it is hilly, and chiefly covered with 
bushes, low trees, or grass. On its eastern side is a cove, 
with indifferent anchorage. West of Three-Hummock 
Island is Barren Island, which is the largest of the group, 
being 15 miles long, and on an average 4 miles wide. It 
is likewise rocky in its whole extent, but less elevated 
thaa Three-Hummock Island : in fertility it seems to re- 
semble it very much. On the western shores are numerous 
reek, which render the access to the island difficult and 
almost impossible. Towards the southern end of that 
coast however there is a cove, which is accessible to boats. 
The strait between Barren Island and Three-Hummock 
is called Peron Channel : it is well protected by the sur- 
rounding islands, and has good anchorage at several 
places, to that it may be considered the best harbour at 
the western entrance of Bass Strait. The basin, surrounded 
by the three large islands of this group, is called Boulanger 
&y. It is well protected, but very dangerous, being full 
of shoals and small low islands, especially towards the 
north-western district of Tasmania. 

Surface and Sb*7.— As the first European settlement on 
Tasmania was established only forty years ago, it can be 
so matter of surprise that the country is imperfectly ex- 
plored. Nearly one-half of the island is almost unknown, 
namely, nearly two-thirds of that portion which is south 
of 42?, and one-third of that which is north of that pa- 
rallel. 

The Unexplored Mountain-Region, south of 42°, oc- 
cupies the southern and western districts of the island, 
and reaches north-east to the banks of the river Derwent. 
This river, from its source in Lake St Clair to its mouth, 
ferrates the well-known part of the island from that 
which is entirely unknown except the coasts and the dis- 
torts ia the immediate vicinity of the river. These districts 
are occupied by an apparently continuous mountain-range, 
which extends along the river at a short distance from its 
banks, and in some places sends off branches which ad- 
vance close to the river. This range is sometimes called 
the Western Mountains by the settlers, but has not yet 
obtained any other name. It begins on the aestuary of the 
Dement, opposite the entrance of Ralph's Bay, with 
Mount Nelson, which is considered to be about 1000 feet 
P. C., No. 1498. 



above the sea. Hence it extends north-west to Mount 
Wellington, which is a lew miles west of Hobart Town, and 
rises, according to Darwin, 3100 feet above the sea. Far- 
ther on, the range, which occupies a width of perhaps 20 
miles, does not seem to contain many summits which rise 
much above the general level of the range, which level 
probably is never less than 2000 feet above the sea. The 
summits, which have been noticed, are— Mount Field (near 
42° 40>), which is estimated at 3000 feet ; and Wyld's Craig, 
or Peak of Teneriffe, about 4500 feet above the sea. The 
latter is covered with snow for nine months. It is stated that 
in several places plains of considerable extent occur on the 
top of the range ; but as the whole of it is covered with 
an impenetrable forest, it has hitherto been impossible to 
ascertain thiB fact. The mountains which surround Lake 
St. Clair, the source of the river Derwent, appear to be 
connected with this range, and to constitute its northern 
extremity. At the southern extremity of the range is a 
large peninsula, formed by D^Entrecasteaux Channel and 
the aestuary of the river Huon, the whole of which is 
covered with high hills, clothed with dense forests to their 
summits, and broken only in a few places by valleys, which 
exhibit a great degree of fertility, hut in which no settle- 
ments have yet been made. 

The remainder of this region is only known so far as it 
has been observed from the sea and a few places from the 
coast. The most striking feature of this district is a moun- 
tain-range which rises a few miles from the southern coast, 
and appears to extend, without interruption, from the 
eastern part of Port Davey, called Bathurst Harbour, to 
the vicinity of Port Refuge, at the entrance of D'Entre- 
casteaux Channel. Its lower parts are covered with thick 
forests, but the higher are without wood. Some parts of 
them appear white, which has suggested the opinion that 
they are always covered with snow ; but this fact is ques- 
tioned. The higher parts however are considered to rise to 
an elevation of 5000 feet above the sea-level. North of this 
range there are two elevated mountain-masses, a few miles 
south of 43° S. Int., which are called Harz Mountain and 
Arthur's Range. The latter is visible from Mount Wel- 
lington, though more than 50 miles distant. At the back 
of these masses, north of 43° S. lat, open plains are stated 
to extend from the banks of the river Huon to the moun- 
tains which line the western shores. A few open plains of 
moderate extent are also found near the banks of the 
Huon, where the river runs eastward ; but farther down 
the whole country is covered with impenetrable forests. 
From this river to 42° S. lat the country is entirely unknown. 
Several summits have been seen from considerable dis- 
tances. The most elevated appears to be Frenchman's Cap, 
east of Macquarrie Harbour, which is covered with snow 
nearly the whole year : its base is said to be surrounded by 
woodless, open, and grassy plains of considerable extent. 
The forests, which cover this region almost without inter- 
ruption, consist chiefly of different kinds of Eucalyptus, 
especially Eucalyptus globulus, and different kinds of 
pines, among which Tasmania and many tree-like ferns are 
frequently met with. 

The Valley of the Lower Derwent extends from Mount 
Nelson upwards to the confluence of the Derwent with the 
Ouse (near 42° 35' S. lat.), and is rather more than 50 
miles long, measured along the bends of the river. The 
Derwent runs close to the range of high mountains which 
extend along its western banks ; and the space between 
the banks of the river and the base of the steep rocky 
masses hardly ever exceeds a mile in width, and is fre- 
quently not half so much. The soil of this narrow and 
comparatively level tract is of great fertility, and a large 
part of it is under cultivation. On the east of the river 
the valley extends to the distance of about five miles, where 
it meets the higher hills that enclose the valleys which lie 
farther east and north. The surface of this part of the 
valley is level near the banks of the river, and subject to 
inundations ; but at a short distance from them the ground 
rises in gentle undulations, on which some low and isolated 
hills are met with. The soil of this tract appears to be 
generally of first-rate quality : it produces rich crops of 
wheat, and is well adapted to orohards. Cultivation is 
rapidly spreading over this tract 

A Hilly Region extends east of the Lower Valley of the 
Derwent. It extends eastward to the shores of the Pacific, 
and northward nearly to 42° 35' S. lat. The surface of this 
tract is a continuous succession of bill and dale. The tra* 

Vol. XXIV.— M 



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teller no sooner arrives at the bottom of one hill than he 
nas to ascend another, often three or four times in the 
space of a mile. In some places the land swells into greater 
heights, which have several miles of ascent. Except the 
valleys, which constitute the bottoms of the numerous 
rivers which traverse this region from north to south, and 
which are generally of moderate width, the level tracts, 
either marshes or plains, are comparatively few. The most 
elevated part of tnia region appears to be a ridge of high 
ground which begins on the north at Table Mountain, a 
summit standing near the south-eastern extremity of Lake 
Sorell, whose elevation is estimated at 3800 feet The 
ridge branching off from it towards the south is of moderate 
elevation, but considerable width, occupying the greater 
part of the tract between the rivers Clyde and Jordan. It 
terminates about five miles from the banks of the Dement 
in Mount Dromedary, the summit of which is 1800 feet 
above the sea-level. In general the hills sink lower as we 

Sroceed uouth, and the surface of Ralph's Peninsula, and of 
le country enclosing; Pitt's Water and North Bay, is only 
indurating. Cultivation in this region is almost exclusively 
limited to the bottoms of the rivers, where there is a 
strong soil, which produces plentiful crops of wheat and 
other grain. The declivity of the hills is sometimes too 
steep for cultivation, and they are generally covered with 
thick woods. Bui even where the declivities are gentle, 
which is moat frequeiiMv the case, the soil is too dry. 
These declivities, and also the upper parts of the hills, 
where small levels frequently occur, are overgrown with 
open forests without underwood, under the shade of which 
there is grass nearly all the year round. These hills afford 
excellent pasture for sheep and cattle. This description 
applies to the whole region, except that portion which is 
north of Norfolk Bay, and which appears not to have been 
explored. That part of it which lies along the Pacific 
consists only of rocky masses, frequently destitute of woods 
and bushes, and in other places overgrown with crooked 
and stunted trees. 

The Elevated Plaint are north of the Hilly Region, and 
extend from 42° 35* to about 41° W. They are separated 
from the Pacific by a higher tract, called Eastern Tier. 
This tract begins on the south near 42° 3d 7 , where it is about 
10 miles wide, and extends northward to the valley of the 
South Esk, to which it descends with a steep declivity. It 
increases in width as it proceeds farther north, and on the 
banks of the South Esk it is more than 80 miles from east 
to west. This region also is entirely unknown, and is a 
blank on our maps. We can find no information respect- 
ing its character and capabilities. The heights which 
extend along the sea are very scantily wooded, and do not 
present a promising aspect. The plains themselves are 
divided into the southern and northern plains by a some- 
what hilly and wooded tract, which crosses them in a dia- 
gonal direction from south-east to north-west, beginning 
on the Eastern Tier with the Blue Hills, south-east of Oat- 
lands, and passing east of that township to Table Mount, 
and the other heights surrounding Lake Sorell, and hence 
to the ranee of mountains called the Western Tier or 
Western Mountains, from the southern extremity of which 
it is divided by the upper valley of Lake River. Farther 
west the Western Tier constitutes the northern boundary of 
the southern plains. These southern plains are distinguished 
by many large lakes. The most western of these Takes is 
that of St. Clair, the source of the Derwent river. It is 
about ten miles long and three miles wide on an average, 
and differs from the lakes farther east in having more of 
the shape of an alpine lake and being surrounded by 
mountains. The country east of the lake St. Clair it not 
included in the plains, being very mountainous, and con- 
taining several high summits between the Derwent on the 
west and the Nive river on the east. Even to the east of 
the last-mentioned river that part of the country which lies 
near the Derwent is extremely uneven and hilly, but far- 
ther north the southern plains begin with the tract that 
surrounds Lake Echo. T»ik lake Is of a round form, but 
only three miles in diameter. The shape of this, hke 
all those farther east, shows thai they are not enclosed by 
mountains, but spread out in plains. North of Lake Echo 
is Great Lake, the source of the Shannon, one of the largest 
tributaries of the Derwent. It is said that this lake is 20 
miles long, 10 wide, and, owing to its numerous branches, 7ft 
miles in circuit ; but our maps give it hardly half these 
dimensions. East of Great Lake are the three Arthur 



lakes* the largest of which has a circuit of between 9D i 
30 miles. Lake Sorell, which is farther to the i 
is of a very irregular form, and hardly inferior in extent t* 
Great Lake. Smaller lakes are numerous, especially alocaj 
the wooded tract which separates the southern (ream the 
northern plains. There are fewer lakes in the northers 
plains, and they are all small, with the exception of the 
Western Lagoon, a cluster of lakes situated at the e — tin 
termination of the Wertern Tier, the largest of which amy 
be five miles long and half a mile wide. Hie woody tract 
separating the plains has a hilly surface, and is about eisjtA 
miles wide where it is crossed by the great road frusa 
Hobart Town to Launceston. In the plains there are sosaw 
short ridges of low hills, which rise above the i lansa ■ 
level with very long slopes, and are covered with open 
forests. At other places there are single hills, mostly of a 
conical form, hence called sugar-loaves: they arc ana* 
frequent in the district which approaches the lastern 1**;. 
In other respects the surface of the plains is either a dead 
level or slightly undulating. In their natural stale they 
are generally destitute of trees, but in a few spots, eatv- 
cially where the surface is undulating, trees occur m aaaii 
clumps. The climate is much colder than in the low txacfe 
near the coast, as the snow sometimes covers the jpowad 
for several weeks, and thus the soil imbibes sufidenft naan 
ture to maintain a vigorous growth of grass nearly all u* 
year round. The pastures thus produced constitute U* 
agricultural wealth of this region, as the soil is seldom nrh 
enough for the growth of grain. The pastures are na^ch 
better adapted for sheep than for cattle, and the chief pan 
of the wool exported from Tasmania is brought to the sea- 
ports from this region. Among these plains that called 
Salt-Pan Plain requires notice. It lies near the water- 
shed of the Derwent and Tamar, between the s o ureea of 
the Macquarrie river, which runs to the Tamar, and then 
of the Jordan, which falls into the Derwent In that paam 
are three ponds, or, rather, hollow depressions, which art 
filled with water during the rainy season, but dry up when 
the rains are over, and the soil is then so strongij uapreg- 
nated with salt that a considerable quantity is cottecW 
every season for domestic purposes. 

The region hitherto described is watered by anaay 
streams, most of which join the Derwent. This rrver 
originates, as already observed, in Lake St. Clair. It ; 
about 00 miles measured in a straight line, until H i 
tide-water, and its general course is south-east 
from the lake, it traverses for several miles a plain, and tfera 
enters a narrow valley bounded by mountains, in which a 
is joined from the north by the Nive, and from the sotxta 
by the Florentine river, the course of which two tribertane* 
is hardly known. It leaves the mountains above its junc- 
tion with the Dee, where it forms two cataract*, a maW 
from one another, of which the uppermost is 90 feet forfe- 
it then flows along the foot of the western mountaina with 
a rapid current and is not navigated, chiefly owing to th* 
numerous rocks along its banks, but also partly becaoae iu 
volume of water is subject to great changes. The last i 
rapids occur at New Norfolk, up to which place the tide- 
water comes. During the summer months the water of 
the river is brackish, and unfit for drinking at New N-os- 
folk ; but when it is swollen by rains, it is fresh to tfc# 
distance of two or three miles below the town. The me- 
is here a quarter of a mile wide, and begins to be nan- 
gable for snips. A few miles lower down the river aides* 
to three-quarters of a mile, which width is gradually re- 
created to two miles. Below Hobart Town it varies be- 
tween two and four miles, and is deep enough lor lam 
vessels, and free from shoals, which are rather mnnerc*^ 
above that town. The tide ascends 30 miles from Stom 
Bay. None of the tributaries which enter the Derwc-ar 
from the south, after it has emerged from the niovataaav ! 
are above the sue of a mountain-torrent ; but it rec ti — ! 
several rivers from the north which flow from 90 to 3* ' 
miles, as the Dee, the Ouse, the Clyde, and the Jordan. 
Some of them form cataracts and rapids, and none of tbesa 
are navigable. 

The nver Huon, which drains the greater part of the 
mountain-region west of the Derwent has a course of abowt 
80 miles ; but this river He* without the settled portio* ev 
the colony, and its course has only been explored withia a 
few yean. No account of it exists. It forms a wide a» 
tuary, like the Derwent which opens in DTntnraatia m 
Bay. Coal River drains the undulating country east * 



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the Dement, and falls into Pitt's Water : its course is 
ibout 2J miles. 

We pats to the description of the northern part of Tas- 
mania (north of 41° 50M. The watershed of the eastern 
districts of this country lies close to the Pacific, as the re- 
motest sources of the South Esk are only from four to five 
mile* from its shores. The Upper Valley of the South Esk 
lie* between two large mountain-masses, but the Lower 
Valley constitutes a part of the Basin of Lincoln. The 
Upper Valley extends from the sources of the river west- 
ward to the vicinity of Ben Lomond Rivulet, where an 
offset of the Ben Lomond comes close to the river, whilst 
from the south the most north-western branch of the East- 
cm Tier also approaches very near, so that there is a na- 
tural pass by which the Upper Valley of the South Esk is 
entered. Tnis valley extends about 35 miles from the 
forge, following the St. Paul's River, but nearly 50 miles 
along the Break-o'-Day River. The mountains which ex- 
tend along the shores of the Pacific, and connect the 
northern part of the Eastern Tier with the range of the 
Ben Lomond, have not been explored. When seen from 
the sea they constitute a high range, overtopped by several 
summits, among which is Tasman's Peak and Mount Cham- 
pupiy, south-west of Cape St. Helen's : the last mentioned, 
a conical summit, rises about 3000 feet above the sea. It 
baa not yet been ascertained where and how this maritime 
range is connected with Ben Lomond. Ben Lomond ap- 
pears to be the highest ground in this part of Tasmania, 
and is estimated to rise 4200 feet, or about 1200 feet higher 
than the mountain in Scotland whose name has been 
transferred to it The mountain-mass, of which it forms 
the most elevated portion, extends to a considerable dis- 
tance to the south-west, where, as already observed, it 
comes close to the banks of the South Esk, near the place 
where it is joined by Ben Lomond Rivulet, and it is pro- 
bable that it advances still farther to the north-east, in 
wluch direction this region has not been explored. It is 
however certain that the maritime range and that of Ben 
Lomond Join at an acute angle, leaving between them a 
depression of a basin-like shape, which may be called the 
Basin of FingaJ, from a township of that name situated 
near the place where the South Esk and the Break-o'-Day 
Hirer join. The existence of this basin has only been 
ascertained within the last ten years, and our information 
respecting it is scanty ; but as the settlements begin to be 
numerous, and as it has been divided into hundreds, we 
may presume that the soil of this tract is good. The 
Basin of Fingal extends from north to south about 15 
miles, sod about as much from east to west. Its southern 
districts are drained by the Break-o'-Day River, which 
rises in the maritime range, and, running eastward, meets 
below Fingal the South Esk, which originates in the Ben 
Lomond range, and waters the northern districts of the 
basin. A few miles below the confluence of these two 
branches, the South Esk, having a south-west course, en- 
ters a wide valley, about 10 miles long, and afterwards 
fetches a plain, where it is met by the St. Paul's River. 
The valley, through which the last-mentioned branch of 
the South Esk descends from its source in the maritime 
ftnge, is for a considerable part of- its course so wide, that 
it has obtained the name of St. Paul's Plains, which are 
described as an undulating country, in some parts over- 
grown with open forests, and in others without trees, but 
*ell watered, and producing rich pasture. Between the 
Valley of St. Paul's River and the Basin of Fingal is a moun- 
tain-mass, which is connected on the east with the mari- 
time range, and whose western extremity is marked by a 
dome-Uke summit, to which the name of St. Paula Dome 
Itas been given. It is considered to rise 2800 feet above 
the sea-level. After the confluence of the two principal 
branches, the South Esk turns westward, and flows along 
fc base of the Eastern Tier, so that between the river and 
tbt mountain south of it there is only a narrow strip, with 
sa trndslating or hilly surface, which however has a good 
*& North of the river the valley extends to the base of 
th* Ben Lomond range, a distance of Ave or six miles : the 
£teneaioj5 ground resembles in general the St. Pauls 
Plains, being better adapted for pasture than for agricul- 
}*w. and partly covered with thin forests. Thus the val- 
«y continues to the gorge above the mouth of Ben Lomond 
Rmuet, 

North of the Upper Valley of the South Esk extends 
u* Nofih-Eastern Mountain Region, the whole of which 



is probably occupied by mountains ; but the interior of it 
has not been explored, and only the outskirts of it are 
known. The country along the Bay of Fires, between 
Cape St. Helen's and Eddystone Point, is of considerable 
elevation, but partly well wooded and partly covered with 
a fine growth of grass. This tract is supposed to be fit for 
pastoral settlements. North of Eddystone Point the moun- 
tains are several miles from the shore : they have only 
been seen from a distance, and appear to constitute one 
continuous mass, broken in a few places by ravines, by 
which small rivers issue from them. There are no striking 
summits, except Mount Cameron, between Eddystone 
Point and Ringarooma Bay, but its elevation is not known. 
The mountains are generally wooded. The flat country 
between these mountains and the sea, from Eddystone Point 
to the mouth of the Tamar, is watered by numerous small 
streams, but the soil is generally dry and sandy, in some 
places overgrown with bushes or short, crooked trees, and 
in others covered with swamps, in which only tea-bushes 
are found. There are a few tracts which have a better 
soil, and might be cultivated, as on the banks of Piper's 
River. The best portion of this region is the valley of the 
North Esk, which opens to the west, and stretches east- 
ward into the mountains on the north of the Ben Lomond 
range. This valley however is narrow, and contains very 
few tracts adapted for agricultural purposes, and the num- 
ber of settlements is small, though the proximity of the 
town of Launceston affords a ready sale for their produce. 
A ridge of sterile but wooded hills runs along the southern 
side of the river, and continues to the banks of the South 
Esk, where that river, about a mile above Launceston, 
runs in a narrow valley for a mile, and at the point where 
it leaves that valley forms a cataract about 40 feet high. 

The gorge through which the South Esk flows above 
Launceston separates the valley of the Tamar, which lies 
north of it, from the Basin of Lincoln, which extends south 
of it. The Tamar is only a deep inlet of the sea, which 
begins at the town of Launceston, and where the two Esks 
fall into it. Its length to Port Dalryipple in a straight line 
is about 30 miles, but measured along its numerous bends 
it is 43 miles. The tides come up to Launceston, at which 
place the inlet is only 60 yards wide, yet vessels of 150 tons 
may ascend to the town. The width of the navigable chan- 
nel is 20 yards, nor does it widen for two miles below the town, 
and it is very narrow 10 or 12 miles farther, though the inlet 
itself widens to three-quarters of a mile. Ten or twelve 
miles below Launceston the inlet alternately expands to a 
breadth of three miles, and contracts to a mile, so as to appear 
tike several small lakes connected by short channels. In this 
part are several shoals and sand-banks, and they only dis- 
appear about 15 miles from the sea. It is a great obstacle to 
the navigation of the river that the wind always blows either 
directly up or down it, so that a vessel is often obliged to 
depend upon the tide, and it sometimes happens that a pas- 
sage from Port Dalryraple to Launceston occupies two or 
three weeks. The valley of the Tamar, measured between 
the summits on the two sides of the river, is about eight 
miles wide, but two or three of them are occupied bythe 
declivities, though these declivities are rather steep. Thus 
the cultivable ground, if the extent of the inlet itself is sub- 
tracted, varies between three and six miles. Near the town 
of Launceston, and to a distance of about 11 miles north of 
it, the country on both sides of the river possesses a con- 
siderable degree of fertility, and is well settled ; but farther 
down the eastern banks have a dry sandy or stony soil of very 
inferior quality, which is still uninhabited. On the left bank 
of the river the soil is much better, and there the settle- 
ments are numerous, though not so numerous as near Laun- 
ceston. 

The Basin of Lincoln, so called from the hundred of 
Lincoln, which occupies the centre of it, is the most fertile 
portion of Tasmania. It includes on the east the lower 
valley of the South Esk, extending to the western base of 
Ben Lomond, and on the west reaches the eastern base of 
the Western Tier. It is separated from the Northern 
Elevated Plains bythe hilly and woody tract called Epping 
Forest. On the north it is bounded by the ridge of hills 
south of Launceston, and the mountains which line the 
northern banks of the Mseander as far as the mouth of 
Quamby's Brook. It extends from south-east to north- 
west about 25 miles, and as much from north-east to south- 
west This gives an area of 600 square miles. This basin 
is watered by several large rivers, which unite, and ulti 
J M2 



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mately fall into the South Esk before it enters the above- 
mentioned gorge. These rivers are, from east to west — 
Elizabeth River, Macquarrie River, Lake River, Penny- 
royal River, and M&ander or Western River. The sur- 
face and the soil of the Basin are not uniform. East of the 
8outh Esk the higher country chiefly consists of plains, 
either destitute of wood or thinly wooded, and well adapted 
for sheep : the wide bottom of the rivers yields rich crops. 
The country between the South Esk and Lake River con- 
sists of wide valleys along the courses of the rivers, and 
narrow ridges of hills between them, which however in 
some places attain a considerable elevation above their 
bases. These hills are generally wooded, and though the 
soil on their declivities is good, they are at present only 
used as pasture-ground : the wide level tracts along the 
watercourses have a very fertile soil, most of which is under 
cultivation. The most level portion of the basin is that 
which is west of Lake River, for in this district the uplands 
do not rise much above the bottom of the valleys, extend 
with an undulating surface, and are seldom interrupted by 
high hills. Like the bottoms, they were formerly clothed 
with trees, except on the very margins of the rivers, but 
nearly the whole of the region has been cleared and con- 
verted into fields. The soil of the bottoms is very rich, but 
they are subject to inundations, which however are of short 
duration. From the Basin of Lincoln all the corn is brought 
to Launceston, which is exported from that place, and 
which is the principal support of the population in the 
country round Sydney, whenever Australia experiences a 
dearth. 

To the west of this basin is the Western Tier, or Western 
Mountains, which extend from the banks of the Lake River 
a few miles below the place where that river issues from 
the Arthur Lakes, in a west-north-west direction to the 
sources of the river Mersey, a distance of about 50 miles. 
The range lies between the southern plains and the Basin of 
Lincoln, but we have very little information respecting this 
region. A few summits have been noticed, as the Quam- 
by Bluff, near the north-western extremity of the Basin of 
Lincoln, which is stated to be 3500 feet high, and the Ex- 
treme Western Bluff, at the west end of the region. It 
appears that the upper part of the range constitutes a 
tolerable level, on which only a few peaks attain 500 feet, 
and which is covered with small lakes, grass, and an alpine 
vegetation. Some low rocky ridges which run across it 
are covered with crooked eucalyptus and bushes. The 
width of this elevated tract does not exceed a few miles, 
but its elevation must be considerable, which may be in- 
ferred from the circumstance that even in January, which 
corresponds to our July, a heavy fall of snow was experi- 
enced, which covered the ground some inches deep. The 
whole vegetation, especially the freauent occurrence of 
lichens and mosses, proves its great elevation, which pro- 
bably is not much less than 4000 feet above the sea-level. 
At its northern extremity the Western Tier is of con- 
siderable width, extending from Quamby's Bluff to Extreme 
Western Bluff, a distance of about 25 miles. At its 
northern declivity extends a depression or valley, from 
east to west, which may be called the Valley of the Mcean- 
der, as that river drains the greater part of it. Though a 
cart-road has been made through it, we are not acquainted 
with its extent from south to north, but we are informed 
that it extends westward to the vicinity of the Mersey 
where this river turns westward, being here divided from 
the vsjley of the last-mentioned river by a narrow offset 
of the Western Tier. This tract consists of level plains, 
which are generally without trees, but in several places 
there are small clumps of them, and they are occasion- 
ally intersected by narrow belts of forest, extending from 
the mountains to the banks of the rivers. Numerous 
rivers water this country, the soil of which is stated to be 
of good quality, and equally adapted to cultivation and the 
rearing of cattle. 

Proceeding westward from the banks of the Mersey, two 
high and steep mountain-ridges must be passed before 
that region is reached which is called the Surrey Hills, 
and which constitutes one of the most remarkable features 
of Tasmania. It occupies the country for about 20 miles 
on each side of 146° E. long, and an equal extent on both 
sides of 41° 30* S. lat., but properly speaking, its extent 
towards the south is not known, and it is even probable 
that it reaches the foot of the Eldon range, a chain of 
mountains which has been seen from a distance, and which 



probably is about 41 9 56* 8. lat. This region give* on»a 
to a great number of rivers, which run off in all directum t 
With the exception of a few rivulets originating near tU 
coast, all the rivers which fall into the sea west of HIT, 21 
E. long, and north of 42° S. lat. rise in the Surrey HHV 
they must therefore constitute the highest ground in tb» 
part of Tasmania. It is remarkable that the highest p*t 
of the region lies on its outer edges, for the region is sur- 
rounded on the east, and still more on the north and wet, 
by hills which rise considerably above the general kv«L 
have extremely steep declivities, and narrow level tract* ca 
their tops, but are otherwise covered with dense fore** fre- 
quently matted together by underwood. Among the sack 
summits are the St. Valentine's Peak, near the northr* 
edge, which is 3000 feet above the sea, and the Black BUf 
Mount, which is said to be 300 feet higher. The utf«r>w 
of the region is very different. Its surface is formed by s 
succession of low hills, which rise with so gentle a rfej* 
that it may be considered a plain, and it is intersected i«y 
small brooks, the sides of which are adorned with nam* 
belts of beautiful shrubs and trees. Whenever a hiD n»n 
to a higher elevation, its declivity consists of level ai d 
regular terraces, as if laid out by art, and the summit a 
crowned with stately peppermint-trees. There mrt wrnK * 
open plains of several square miles in extent without s 
tree. In general there are not more than ten tree* to tie 
acre. The hills are covered with a vigorous growth rf 
grass. The soil is a dark vegetable mould upon a nti 
brown loam. The substratum appears to be gravel, wmr* 
renders these hills perfectly dry, and fit for sheep-walk*, ice 
which purpose they now are used by the settlements wh*:a 
have been formed on them by the Van Diemen s Lana 
Company. This country extends north of St. VeJcntn*- » 
Peak on both sides of the Emu river, where it appears c*\m 
more park-like than farther south, being handsomcJT 
clumped with trees. This tract is called the Hamprfurt 
Hills. The elevation of the Surrey Hills above the sea- 
level renders the climate much colder than on the roart. 
Snow covers the ground for several weeks, which howeitr 
must be considered as an advantage in a country where 
the soil inclines to dryness. It has also the benefit U 
abundant rains during autumn (March and April). 

Between the valley of the Mseander and the Surrey Hi n « 
on the south, and Bass's Strait on the north, is tbe fail* 
region of Devonshire. The mountains which extend fava 
the gorge of the South Esk to the west of the Tamar nom- 
north-west, and terminate on the sea with Point Fiiaderw 
appear to constitute a continuous range of moderate the ra- 
tion. They are partly wooded and partly destitute of treex 
and in some places covered with a very scanty vegetafav 
of shrubs or grass. Farther west this region u very lick 
known, except that the spaces between the rivers are fiiW 
up with mountains and nigh hills, and that these heigh* 
come close to the shores of the sea. Few, if any, settle- 
ments have been formed on it. This region extends we** 
ward to the banks of the Emu River. 

West of the Emu River begins the Great PUin of Tas- 
mania : it occupies the north-western portion of the tslsaX 
extending along the northern coast from the Emu to C*ft 
Grim, and along the western coast to the Arthur Rher. 
The narrowest portion of this plain appears to be betwers 
the Emu and Detention Rivers, where its width doa§ art 
exceed 12 miles, and it terminates on the south at Ox 
Hampshire Hills. Farther west a continuous ranre of hxc* 
hills, called the Campbell Range, forms its bonndarr, 
and terminates near the source of the Detention River wua 
Dip Hill, a mountain of moderate elevation. The swim 
of this portion of the plain is strongly undulating, aari a 
many parts even hilly. Near the snores it is otc iaiuw 
with dense forests, which are made nearly impeoetrabir N 
the underwood, bushes, and ferns. But about three awic* 
or somewhat more from the sea the forests are intcrrnptac* 
by a succession of small plains covered with grass and ins- 
titute of trees. They have a light dry soil, are well watered 
by springs and streams, and surrounded by excellent tim- 
ber. The grass is coarse but plentiful : there are also sov 
tracts fit for cultivation. West of Detention River fee 
pjain grows wider. From Dip Hill, at the source of Vm 
river, Hellyer distinguished the high grounds at Caa* 
Grim and West Point, though they are of very mode- 
rate elevation. The plain, west of Detention Riter, ex- 
ceed 15 miles in width. This large tract however is %ery 
ill adapted for colonization. The surface n generally V*a* 



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and the water not being carried off, the country has been 
converted into an immense swamp. A portion of the swamp 
u overgrown by low tea-trees, and the remainder is covered 
with forests of eucalyptus and underwood. The higher 
grounds, which generally occur nearer the shores, have a 
sandy soil covered with heath or stunted trees. The only 
tract which seems to be applicable to useful purposes is 
along the sea from Cape Grim to the River Arthur : its 
width near the cape is several miles, but farther south it 
grows much narrower: the surface is hilly and partly stony. 
The soil has generally a tendency to sand, but it is thickly 
covered with kangaroo grass, and makes good pasture- 
ground for sheep, and in some places for cattle. Trees 
occur only at considerable distances from each other. It 
is probable that the plain continues south of Arthur River, 
but that it is of less extent there, as low hills have been 
seen at a short distance from the sea, which are dry and 
only covered with bushes, but behind them the hills rise 
much higher. These parts have never been visited. 

The Arthur, whose mouth is near 41° K? S. lat., is a 
nver of considerable size, and brings down a large volume 
of water. There is a bar across its mouth, on which the 
sea breaks with a heavy surf. Its middle course is not 
known, but it is supposed that the chief supply of its waters 
is derived from the Surrey Hills, and that two large rivers, 
which rise there, and are respectively called Hellyer River 
and Arthur River, unite in the country between the Surrey 
Hills and the western coast ; and that by their confluence 
the Arthur is formed. 

The other known rivers of the northern part of Tasmania 
are unimportant, with the exception of the Emu, which is 
navigable for boats for a few miles. With respect to the 
South Esk, which probably has a course of 100 miles, two 
of its principal branches, the Macquarrie and the Lake River, 
rise on the southern elevated plains, and the upper branches 
of these rivers interlock with rivers which flow southward 
to the Derwent. As other branches of the South Esk rise 
near the eastern coast, and others far to the west, it is pro- 
bable that the area of the country which is drained by it 
and the North Esk does not fall short of 4000 square miles. 
The Tamar certainly receives the drainage of a much larger 
extent of country than any other river of Tasmania. 

Climate.— As no meteorological observations have been 
published on the climate of Tasmania, we only know its 
peculiarities by comparisons which have been made be- 
tween it and that of England and Sydney. There is a con- 
siderable difference between the climate of Hobart Town 
on the southern, and of Launceston on the northern coast. 
The climate of Hobart Town seems to be greatly in- 
fluenced by the range of mountains west of the town and 
the vicinity of the open ocean. The vague statement of 
Breton, that the mean temperature in summer is 7(*\ and 
in winter between 40° and 48°, is apparently not derived 
from observations, and is not much to be relied on. The 
climate of Hobart Town is extremely changeable. Heat, 
cold, rain, and sunshine succeed each other with a rapidity 
which U rarely observed in any other part of the globe. The 
winter is not more constant* than the summer : the same 
alternations, with the addition of hail and snow, follow each 
other in quick succession ; but the snow never remains on 
the ground beyond a few hours, whilst at Launceston it falls 
in greater quantity, and covers the ground for many days 
together. This statement does not agree with another, ac- 
cording to which the average number of days on which rain 
actually falls does not exceed fifty or sixty in the year, and 
that, except on these days, the sky is clear, the sun brilliant, 
and the atmosphere dry, pure, and elastic. Hot winds 
sometimes occur, which occasionally raise the thermometer 
to 108°. They blow from north and north-west, and rarely 
last a lone time ; but during their prevalence vegetation is 
greatly injured. However warm the middle of the day may 
be, it is invariably attended by a morning and evening so 
cool as completely to brace the body, and to counteract any 
enervating effects of the climate. Thunder-storms are less 
frequent than in Australia, but violent grusts of wind some- 
times occur, which cause great destruction in the forests, 
and the coasts are visited by much boisterous weather. 
Along the western coast strong south-westerly winds pre- 
vail nearly all the year round, and render this tract almost 
inaccessible on account of the want of harbours. During 
some seasons of the year westerly gales continue for many 
weeks in Bass's Strait, so that vessels sailing from Sydney 
to the Atlantic find that they save time and labour by 



going round the island. The climate is very healthy : na 
epidemic or contagious diseases have been observed, and 
acute diseases are generally mild and of short duration, and 
yield more easily to the usual remedies than in any other 
country. 

Productions. — The mineral wealth of the island is not 
known. The existence of gold and silver rests on state- 
ments which cannot be relied on ; but that of copper ia 
certain, and this metal is rather abundant in some of the 
hills on the north coast. Iron-ore is abundant, but not 
yet turned to account. Some ore which was subjected to 
a trial yielded 80 per cent, of metal. There are also in- 
dications of lead, zinc, and manganese ; and those of coal 
have been found all across the island. Roofing-slate of 
good quality abounds in many parts : on the Arthur such 
extensive layers were discovered by Hellyer, that in hia 
opinion the whole globe might be supplied with them. 
Salt is obtained from the salt lakes of Salt-Pan Plain, and 
is also got from sea-water on Bruni Island, but not in 
sufficient quantity to supply the consumption. Salt ia 
imported from England. Excellent sandstone for building 
is found in all parts of the island, and marble is met with 
at various places. Basalt rocks are frequent along the 
coast and in many places in the interior. 

No tropical grams or plants are cultivated, but all grains 
cultivated in England succeed well. Wheat is of excel- 
lent quality, weighing generally from 62 to 64 pounds the 
bushel : considerable quantities are exported. Barley and 
oats will only thrive in a good soil. Vegetables of all 
kinds are most plentiful, even those of Southern Europe, 
the production of which requires in England much care 
and expense. The apple-orchards are of great extent, 
and the making of cider is attended to. Peaches, apricots, 
and nectarines grow very abundantly. Damsons, plums, 
cherries, pears, and quinces are also grown ; but the fruit 
is of inferior quality, for want of care. Grapes are of good 
quality, but no good wine has yet been made. Rasp- 
berries, gooseberries, and currents are abundant and of 
good quality : strawberries are also good. All these fruits 
have been introduced by the settlers. 

The domestic animals of Europe have been transplanted 
to Tasmania, and thrive very well. Sheep are most nu- 
merous. Wool and live stock are exported to a great 
extent. Black cattle are also numerous, and many head 
are annually exported ; and also some horses. Fowls are 
extremely numerous, but geese and ducks are not much 
kept. 

The spermaceti-whale is very abundant in Bass's Strait, 
and many of them are annually taken, but more by the 
inhabitants of Australia than by those of Tasmania. Black 
whales abound in all the seas round the island, and a very 
lucrative fishery is carried on along the southern coast. 
Whalebone and train-oil are important articles of export. 
A small quantity of spermaceti-oil is also exported. Seals 
are found on most of the smaller islands, and especially 
on the eastern coast: their skins constitute an article 
of export. Some of the animals of the forests are common 
to Australia and Tasmania. The native tiger (Hyaena 
opossum) and the native devil (Dasyurus ursinus) are pe- 
culiar to Tasmania, and perhaps also the wild cat. These 
are the only carnivorous animals in Tasmania, with the 
exception of some species of weasel. There are three or 
four species of kangaroos, two kinds of opossum, the ban- 
dicoot, the native porcupine or echidna, the wombat, the 
opossum-mouse, and the ornithorhynchus paradoxus. All 
the wild animals of Tasmania, with the exception of the 
native devil, are very easily tamed and domesticated. The 
birds are numerous : these are emus, black and white 
cockatoos, parrots, two kinds of magpies, the laughing 
jackass, hawks, eagles, the carrion crow, pelican, black 
swan, ducks, teal, widgeons, quails, snipes, and bronze- 
winged pigeons : the last-named are considered the most 
beautiful birds in the island. There are likewise several 
varieties of snakes, two or three of which are venomous ; 
also centipedes, scorpions, and large ante. Fish ate 
said to be more numerous than on the coast of Australia, 
but they have not been further noticed. The river-fish 
are small. . .... 

None of the forest-trees or shrubs yield an edible fruit. 
They are all evergreens, and have that sombre olive hue 
which prevails in Australia, without a single lively tint, 
except that of the native cherry, to break this monotony. 
The moat numerous are the eucalyptus, which attains an 



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immense mm. From one of its specie* a manna it ob- 
tained, which tastes like tome kind of sugar-plum : it forms 
concretions on the leaves and smaller branches ; but is 
found in such trifling quantities, that it would never repay 
the trouble of collecting it. The most useful tree is the 
stringy bark, which is used for building and fencing ; and 
the blue gum, of which most of the boats in the colony 
are built. The smaller trees are used for masts for small 
vessels. The peppermint, so called from the taste of the 
leaves, is a large tree, but of very little use. The Huon 
pine is the most beautiful wood in the island : it is very 
superior both in colour and substance to the Norway deal, 
but is scarce and difficult to be had. The Adventure pine, 
so called from the bay of that name, is a species of pine 
adapted for house-work and furniture ; but it is not com- 
mon. The black and silver wattle (mimosa) are used in 
house-work and furniture, but they are of diminutive size. 
The bark of the black wattle is exported to England in 
large quantities. The tea-tree is a shrub which grows in 
wet situations : an infusion of its leaves makes a pleasant 
beverage, and, with a little sugar, forms an excellent sub- 
stitute for tea. 

(Flinders's Voyage to Terra Australia; Rossel's Voyage 
dEntrecasteaux, &c. ; Evans's Geographical, Historical, 
and Topographical Description of Van Diemen's Land ; 
YVidowson's Present State of Agriculture, $c. f in Van 
Diemen's Land; Bischoff a Sketch of the History of Van 
Diemen's Land, $c. ; and Breton's Excursions in New 
South Wales, «$i.) 

History. —In 1803 Lieutenant Bowen, commissioned by 
the government of New South Wales, landed on the east 
bank of the Derwent, and formally took possession of Van 
fiiemen's Land as a place of settlement. In the following 
year Colonel Collins, the first lieutenant-governor, arrived, 
and established the seat of government on the west bank 
of the Derwent : he gave to the spot the name of Hobart 
Town, in compliment to Lord Hobart, then secretary of 
state for the colonies. Colonel Patterson arrived in the 
same year in the Tamar, and formed an establishment on 
its west bank. Colonel Davey succeeded to the govern- 
ment in 1813, and under his administration the ports of 
the colony were first opened to commerce, only transport 
vessels from New South Wales having previously been ad- 
mitted. Colonel Sorell was appointed lieutenant-governor 
in 1817* and in 1819 the immigration of free settlers from 
England commenced, the colony having been previously 
exclusively formed of criminals sent from New South 
Wales for crimes repeated there, and of the civil and mili- 
tary officers charged with their superintendence. Till the 
year 1824 the government was subject to that of New 
South Wales, and the chief civil and criminal questions 
' arising in Van Diemen's Land were decided in Sydney. 
The only courts in the island were those of police magis- 
trates, who had cognizance of petty crimes, and a court 
for the settlement of questions of value not exceeding 50/., 
in which a military officer presided. Great inconvenience 
and mischief resulted from this state of things. Civil 
cases were mostly settled by compromise ; and in criminal 
cases, the most dangerous offenders were allowed to 
escape. 

The most important steps in the progress of the colony 
were made between the years 1824 and 1836, during the 
administration of Colonel Arthur :— 

In 1824, the population was 12,643; in 1835 it was 40,283 
„ Number of vessels 

which arrived 33 ; „ 234 

„ Sailed outwards . 39; „ 225 

„ Acres in crop 34,033 ; „ 87,283 
„ Pounds of wool 

exported . 130,000; „ 1,942,800 
„ Number of manu- 
factories . 22; „ 133 
„ Banks . • 1; „ 6 
„ Revenue . £16,866; „ £106,639 
„ Expenditure . £32,126; „ £103,029 
„ Value of Imports £62,000; „ £583,ft46 
Exports £14,500; „ £320,679 

(Statistical Returns of Van Diemen's Land, compiled 
by the Colonial Secretary, Hobart Town, dated 10M Oct., 
1836.) 

Roads were formed and bridges constructed in different 
parts of the island; wholesome laws were introduced; the 



tone of public opinion was improved, and the fonts ot 
enterprise and industry were secured by an improved pobct 
system. 

That which chiefly contributed to the progress of the 
settlement was extraordinary encouragements held out ta 
emigrants. Grants of land were made to them propor- 
tioned in extent to the capital which the colonist was pre- 
pared to invest in stock and in agricultural improremessta. 
The labour of convicts was not only liberally provided, but 
the colonist was rewarded for employing it bv allowancei 
of rations for himself and the convicts in his employ for 
some time after his arrival ; and at a later period, wbea 
this remuneration, or, to speak more correctly, this addi- 
tional bonus, was withdrawn altogether, labour was ob- 
tained on the easy conditions of the settler providing 
clothes, food, and lodging to the convicts assigned to him. 
There were other advantages likewise incident to the penal 
purposes for which the colony was founded, which aa*uted 
its progress. The character and condition of the majority 
of the population required that a civil and military fare* 
should be established on the island, which, being main- 
tained by the British government, introduced so much 
capital annually. From the magnitude of their crime* or 
their dangerous character, it was not deemed safe to re- 
move from under the immediate coercion of govermarct 
a large number, amounting latterly to some thousand* 
of the convicts, and their punishment was made to 
consist of hard labour at works of public utility, such at 
the making and repairing of roads and bridges. Wtuk 
the expense of maintaining these convicts was defrayed by 
the British government, the settlers contracted to *"£P\* 
the various articles which made up that expense. They 
were thus in a twofold manner benefited: they had 
labourers employed for their advantage at the cost of s 
third party, and they were enabled to derive a profit from 
the payment of that labour. With such circumstances n 
its favour, with a healthy climate, and a soil of averse* 
capabilities, it was impossible that Tasmania should sot ad- 
vance. Its progress has accordingly been steady, scarcely 
subject to any of those variations to which young colonic* 
are exposed ;— to none indeed but such as may be strictly 
referred to that gambling spirit of speculation which th* 
occasional great profits of an imperfectly estabHahrd 
market are apt to engender. 

In 1831 the system of colonisation by free grants of land 
was abolished, and since then land has been sold by aoe» 
tion, first at the upset price of five shillings per acre ; sub- 
sequently at twelve shillings ; and latterly at twenty, hi 
which it remains. The system of assignment of convict 
labour is at present only partially in force, and it is in* 
tended to discontinue it. The colony has probably ad- 
vanced to that state in which the advantages (ad van tarn 
not without some drawbacks even in the best case) of com- 
pulsory labour have ceased, and in which the minute carr, 
the jpod will, the steady subordination of the s e rvant art 
requisite to the success of industrial operations. 

Trade and Commerce.— The staple article of production 
in Tasmania is wool, the amount of which exported in the 
year ending December, 1838, exceeded 2,490,990 lbs. {Par- 
liamentary Report on Wool and Woollen Manvfactmrt*. 
April 29, 1839.) The value of this wool in the Enghsh 
market has, according to the Statistical Report of the secre- 
tary to the government of Van Diemen's Land, quoted 
above, ranged from 1*. 6d. to 2r. 6rf. per lb. A consider- 
able trade has during the last five years been carried oo 
with the new colonies of Australia, South Australia, and 
Port Phillip, in sheep, the prices of which have varied in 
that time so much as from seven sliillings to sixty shUhixc* 
per head. 

Owing to the smallnessof the demand for grain, and the 
great outlay required in the clearing of land, agricultural 
operations have been slow in Tasmania. This has likewise 
been accounted for by the circumstance that few practical 
farmers emigrated to the colony. * The earlier settlen 
were chiefly artiians of intemperate habits, unacquainted 
with husbandry, and disinclined to attain a knowledge of rt 
Still (says the writer from whose account we quote, him- 
self for ten years a colonist of Van Diemen's Land) thtf 
obtained and located themselves on grants of land ; turned 
up the soil, and threw grain into it : and it being grateful. 
repaid their rude essays with bountiful harvests, this vas 
sufficient. When one piece of land was exhausted, another 
was broken up, and so on in constant succession. Freak 



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settler* continued to arrive, and obtained land too ; and as 
these were not agriculturists either, they had to copy their 

Eredecessors. Such was the progress ot agriculture in Van 
Yemen's Land ; and such is its condition at the present 
period (1838). The diversity of the climate in the different 
districts is still overlooked ; the seasons are scarcely ascer- 
tained, and the proper times for sowing remain doubtful, 
and are adopted irregularly.' {The Condition and Capa- 
bilities of Van Diernen's Land* by John Dixon, 1839.) 
Van Diernen's Land however produces not only a sufficient 
supply of grain for domestic consumption, but has con- 
tributed for several years to supply the deficiency in New 
South Wales ; and in the opinion of local writers there is a 
probability of its being the granary of the southern hemi- 
sphere. Oxen are generally used, instead of horses, in 
ploughing, and the implements of husbandry are those in 
use in England. 

Oil constitutes the second great article of export from 
Tasmania. Whales of the black species were at one time 
taken in great abundance in the bays on the coast of the 
island ; but we find that Mr. Dixon confirms the appre- 
hensions expressed by an earlier writer on the colony 
{'Jbservations on New South Wales and Van Diemen*s 
Land, by John Henderson, Calcutta, 1832) of their being 
driven away by an injudicious prosecution of the fishery at 
all seasons of the year. Sperm oil, as well as that of the 
black whale, is exported. The returns derived from this 
source are still considerable. 

Among the miscellaneous exports are bark, kangaroo 
skins, whale-bone, and potatoes (to Sydney) ; but the ag- 
gregate of the returns from these articles is trifling. 

There are about eight banking establishments, with 
branches in the chief towns. They are all joint-stock, the 
shareholders being responsible to the full extent of their 
property. They circulate notes of one pound and upwards. 
Bank interest at a recent date was ten per cent., and at the 
period at which this article is written it cannot be affirmed 
with confidence whether it is lowered. There are also 
several companies for the insurance of life and property. 

Divisions of the Island.— Originally Tasmania was 
divided into two counties, but it has since been subdivided 
into police districts, and more recently into thirty-six 
counties. We are not aware however that any map em- 
bracing the county divisions has been published, and in the 
following details we adhere to the divisions into districts. 
The district of Hobart Town is bounded on the east by the 
river Derwent, and on the south and west by the river Huon, 
on the north by New Norfolk and Richmond districts. It 
comprises an area of about 400 square miles, or 250,000 
acres, of which not more than about 4000 are yet in cul- 
tivation. Richmond is bounded on the south and east by 
the sea, on the north by Oatlands, and on the west by New 
Norfolk : iU towns are Richmond, Sorell, and Brighton ; 
besides which it includes several large agricultural esta- 
blishments : it contains about 1050 square miles, or 672,000 
acres, of which about 22,000 are estimated to be under cul- 
tivation. New Norfolk is bounded on three sides by Hobart, 
Clyde, and Richmond districts, and on the west and south- 
west by unlocated lands. The towns are New Norfolk and 
Hamilton, and it comprises about 1500 square miles, or 
9B.000 acres, a great portion of which is barren and rocky : 
about 0000 acres are in cultivation. Clyde is bounded on 
the west by unlocated lands, and on the other three sides 
by Norfolk Plains, Campbell Town, and Oatlands districts : 
it* only town is Bothwell. This district comprises 1700 
fequare miles, or 1,088,000 acres, about 5000 of which are in 
cultivation. Oatlands, bounded on the south by Richmond, 
east by Oyster Bay, west by the Clyde district, and north 
by Campbell Town, contains 900 square miles, or about 
576,000 acres. Oatlands and Jericho are its towns. Up- 
wards of 4000 acres are in cultivation. Campbell Town, 
bounded on the south by Oatlands, east by unlocated lanis 
extending to the sea, west by the Clyde and Norfolk Plains, 
and north by Launceston district, comprises about 1200 
square miles, or 850,000 acres. Its towns are Campbell 
Town and Ross. The land is rich and fertile, having 8000 
or 9000 acres in cultivation. Norfolk Plains are bounded on 
the south by the Clyde, east by Campbell Town and Laun- 
ceston districts, ana by the territories of the Van piemen's 
Land Company, and north by Bass's Straits. This district 
comprises 2250 square miles, or rather more than 1,500,000 
acres. Longford and Westbury are the townships. About 
8000 acres of land are supposed to be in cultivation* Laun- 



ceston district is bounded on the south by Campbell Town, 
on the west by Norfolk Plains districts, and on the north 
and east by the ocean. Besides the town of Launceston 
it has Perth and George Town. The district covers 3800 
square miles, or about 2,352,000 acres; not more than 
10,000 or 11,000 of which are in cultivation. Oyster Bay 
is bounded on the south by Richmond, west and north by 
Oatlands and Campbell Town districts, and east by the 
ocean. It contains about 900 square miles, or 576,000 
acres, of which between 2000 and 3000 are estimated to be 
in cultivation. (Martin's Van Diernen's Land; Hobart 
Town Annual.) 

The other divisions of the island are— the Van Diernen's 
Land Company's territories, comprising nearly half a mil- 
lion of acres on the north-west corner of the island, bounded 
on two sides by the sea, on the others by crown lands not 
yet located, and by the settled districts of the Norfolk 
Plains ; and Tasman's Peninsula. Of the purposes to which 
Tasman's Peninsula is applied, an account is given in the 
article Transportation. 

Towns. — Of the towns mentioned in the preceding out- 
line of the territorial divisions of Tasmania, only two or 
three are worthy of notice, the others being little more 
than villages or sites laid out for towns on which a few 
straggling houses are built. * Hobart Town is built upon 
an undulating surface, receding from a cove on the left of 
the Derwent. Seen from the water, it seems to run up 
before you on a variety of ascents, and to spread itsefr 
abroad upon the hills in the distance. Mount Wellington, 
a great mountain, which during nine months in the year 
is capped with snow, and which rises four thousand feet 
above the level of the sea, stands at the back, in darkness 
and sublimity, and overlooks the surrounding scenery. 
The town is laid out with judgment. There are about twenty 
streets, all wide, and dividing or intersecting one another 
at right angles. A narrow and shallow rivulet, which 
takes its rise from Mount Wellington, flows through the 
town, and affords the inhabitants their only supply of fresh 
water. All the streets are macadamized, and none are 
flagged. . . The houses bear no common aspect. Some 
are of brick, others of stone ; but all, instead of being 
slated, are roofed with shingles. As every proprietor has 
been guided by his own taste in the structure of his house* 
few are built alike or upon the same plan ; and as he was 
not restrained by the government to a settled line, they are 
often planted in a zigzag position. The town covers a 
great deal of ground, but little of it after all is built upon. 
A tree is seen sometimes standing in the midst of houses, 
and a house often in the midst of trees. Dwellings have 
been erected long before the streets were made, and the 
town being upon a very irregular surface, some of the 
buildings in consequence now occupy very awkward situa- 
tions. On one side of a street they are often elevated 
much above the level ; while, on the other they are sunk 
considerably beneath it. Shops are scattered all over 
Hobart Town ; but the business thoroughfare is confined 
to two streets. Some of the shops are showy and respect- 
able, even tasteful and elegant ; displaying an appearance 
equal to that of many in London. The householder is as 
particular in decorating the interior of his house as he 
would be were he in England, and hence his furniture is not 
inferior to that of those of his own rank in the mother coun- 
try.' (Dixon's Account.) In 1839 there were upwards of 
fifteen hundred houses in Hobart Town. Among the public 
buildings may be named three handsome Episcopalian 
churches, ana one Presbyterian, one superior edifice be* 
longing to the Wesleyans, besides several of inferior descrip- 
tion, the property of the same body, two Independent 
chapels, and a Roman Catholic church, by this time proba- 
bly completed. The Government House is an irregular struc- 
ture, made up of continual additions to an originally small 
building, and is shortly to give place to another house in- 
tended for the residence of the lieutenant-governor, of 
which the foundation has been laid. There are custom- 
houses, a handsome theatre, a court-house, and police- 
office, and an exchange has been set on foot. There are 
many benevolent and religious institutions and societies 
established, and two or three of a literary character. Seven 
papers are published, most of which are weekly, besides 
an official gazette and two gratuitous advertising sheets. 
The pc pulation of Hobart Town, including the convicts and 
military as well as the free inhabitants, in the town and 
its immediate precincts, is not less than ten thousand. The 



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fo lowMg rf turns exhibit the amount of the Hobart Town 

imports and exports, with the places from which received, 

anp lo which sent, for the year ending December, 1837 : — 

Imports. 

Great Britain .... £230,960 



New South Wales . 


• • 


95,865 


Mauritius . . 


• • 


8,147 


Calcutta 


. , 


4^97 


Canton . 


• 


1,541 


Manilla . • . 


• 


380 


Singapore 


• 


1,876 


Cape of Good Hope 


• 4 


3,620 


United States . 


• 


490 


Hamburg 




860 




£348,126 


Export 


f. 




Great Britain . 


• 


. £166,585 


New 8outh Wales . 


# 


53,980 


Swan River 




95 


8outh Australia • 


• 


11,414 


New Zealand . . 


• 


1,699 


Mauritius . . 


• 


858 


Calcutta • • 


• 


590 


Canton . . . 




15 


Valparaiso 


' 


60 



£235,266 
In a comparison of these returns it is pointed out by the 
editor of the * Van Diemen's Land Annual,' from which 
publication they are taken, that the apparent balance ex- 
hibited against Hobart Town is diminished when it is con- 
sidered that a great portion of this balance consists of pro- 
perty imported by individuals who have settled in the 
colony. We have not been able to procure authentic 
returns of a later date than those quoted ; but it may be 
concluded that the value both of the exports and imports 
of Hobart Town has greatly increased since. 

Launceston, the second town of the colony, is situated 
at the confluence of the North and South Esk, which there 
form the Tamar, flowing about forty-five miles, when it 
disembogues into the ocean at Bass's Straits. It is 124 miles 
from the capital of the colony. Launceston is situated in 
a marshy spot, and is neither in beauty nor in the promise 
of health to be compared to Hobart Town. The enterprise 
of its inhabitants, aided by the vicinity of the richest 
settlements in the island, is however great, and it is not 
improbable that this town will outstrip its southern com- 
petitor in commerce. The imports in the year 1837 were 
191,843/. in value ; the exports being 264,599/., upwards of 
twenty-nine thousand pounds above those of Hobart Town ; 
and in subsequent years it is believed that the difference 
is much greater in amount. Launceston contains many 
churches, the property of different religious denominations, 
and the private and public buildings are not destitute of 
architectural beauty. 

The highway between the northern and southern capitals 
of Tasmania is for the most part well laid out ; there are 
inns along this road at short distances from one another, 
the accommodation in which is not far from equalling the 
same on the roads of England. Passing from the highway 
into what were not long since unpeopled woods, the 
fashionable vehicle as well as the rustic waggon of the 
settler is to be seen driven along cross roads which are 
everywhere in process of formation ; and here and there, 
only partially obscured from a distance by the thick and 
sombre Australian foliage, are to be seen mansions almost 
baronial, superseding the rude shelter of the aborigine, and 
the hut, almost as rude, in which the colonist first lodged. 
Population.— In 1838 a census of the free inhabitants 
Of Van Diemen's Land was made with a reference to the 
religious denominations to which they belonged, which ex- 
hibited the following summary :— 

Church of England . . . 16,094 

Church of Scotland 

Church of Rome 

Wesleyans . 

Baptists . 

Independents • 

Quakers 

Jews # 




23,244 



The accuracy of this return, in so far as it referred to the 

relative numbers belonging to different religious denosai- 
nations, was generally questioned ; but the aggregate re- 
presentation of the amount of population, we believe, *•* 
admitted. No great increase by immigration has takra 
place since, and the new colony of Port Phillip has attracted 
many from Tasmania. The return of the number of male 
and female convicts for the same year gives :— 

Male convicts . 16,129 

Female convicts . . . 2,138 

An account of the convict system of Van Diemen's Land 

is reserved for the article Transportation ; but the fcl 

lowing returns are introduced here, as they bear upon the 

general social condition of the island :— 



'turn showing the Disposal of the Convicts in 1838. 


Sentence of transportation expired 


7W 


Free and conditional pardons 
Transported to New South Wales 


385 


23 


Transported to Port Arthur . « 


1306 


Absconded in 1837 . 


225 


Died 


167 


Executed 


4 


Confined in paols . . . 


89 


Sick in hospitals . . • , 


82 


Invalid establishments . 


126 


Employed in chain gangs . . 


B37 


Employed in public works . 
Artificers on loan to settlers 


2£83 


262 


Assigned to settlers . 

'Tickets of leave,' or conditionally free 


. 6*23 


3,960 


Constables and field police . 


335 


Missing ... 


39 




16.9W 


Female Convicts. 




Sentence of transportation expired 


163 


Conditional pardons 


52 


Died 


16 


Sent to New South Wales . 


1 


Total number remaining . . , 


. 2xm 



2318* 
State of Crime. — If Van Diemen's Land has greatly be- 
nefited in an economical sense by being a settlement for 
convicts, it has undoubtedly suffered from this cause in a 
moral sense. A paragraph will not suffice to give aa ac- 
curate idea of the general moral condition of the popu- 
lation. Referring therefore to the Transportation Apart 
of 1838, and to a volume entitled ' Australians,' by Oaptais 
Maconochie, R.N., K.H. (Parker, Strand, 1839), we shall 
introduce here only a few details and accompanying ex- 
planations taken from the last of these authorities. •Not- 
withstanding the strictness and vigilance of the police U 
this colony, notwithstanding the length of time dunn* 
which the prisoners have for the most part been subjected 
to its minute supervision, notwithstanding the decided 
tendency of the age to moral improvement, and notwith- 
standing the great influx of free settlers into the colocj 
within the last ten years and the high personal respec- 
tability of most of them, the proportion of crime and d»~ 
order to the entire population is not only very great, bat 
appears in many particulars even to be on the increase.' 
From No. 33 of the Statistical Papers drawn op by ti* 
colonial secretary, it appears that convictions for drunken- 
ness were, in 1821, as 3& to 100 of the whole population, 
and in 1832 as 9gi. Convictions under penal statutes U 
free persons in 1824 were as 5tt to 100, and in 1832 a* 
7^ ; and general misdemeanors by convicts in 1824 were 
as 114 to 100, and in 1832 as 43ft. After 1832 the re- 
turns are differently made, and the several heads of offeoce 
are multiplied ; yet, with few exceptions, the same geoerml 
fact is evident. Thus drunkenness among the convicts m 
1833-34-35 was as 4ft, 4&, 4£ respectively to UXL 
The tendency, as is well known, in English society, unless 
in peculiar circumstances, has been rather steadily, during 
the last ten or twelve years, towards sobriety. Felonies 
disposed of summarily were in like manner, in 1833-3Ktt» 
as 2ft, 4J8, 3tfl to 100 ; among free people, as 7* fife 
3ft to 100 ; and what are called various offences, not in- 
cluded under previous heads, as 1$, 3ft, 4£ to 100. Cap- 

9 We h»r« not introduced tfc* rotarus of cowrie** imvtaf few Bw 
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tain Ufaconochie quotes returns of the convictions before 
the supreme court and quarter-sessions, on which he re- 
marks : 1st, that the ratios throughout to the whole popu- 
lation are enormous, convictions in England being scarcely 
1 to 1000 inhabitants, and in Scotland only 1 to 1300, 
those for Van Diemen's Land being, in 1835, 1 to 105gf ; 
'Sid. the extreme vigilance of Van Diemen's Land police 
tends to prevent the commission of great crimes, while 
the latitude given to its summary jurisdiction makes it 
unnecessary to bring medium offences under the cogni- 
zance of the higher courts ; 3rd, the pecuniary prosperity 
of Van Diemeirs Land is advancing, which snows that 
dissipation, not distress, leads there to crime. Comparing 
the state of petty crime in the colony to that in London, 
it is found that in Van Diemen's Land, for drunkenness 
alone, the convictions among the free population are 
about 14 per cent. ; whereas in London, for every descrip- 
tion of petty offence, they are little more than 5 per cent. ; 
and Captain Maconochie remarks that the returns in Van 
Diemen's Land refer to a mixed population of agricul- 
turists as well as town residents, which makes the com- 
parison still more disadvantageous. As general charac- 
teristics, he mentions dissension, bitterness of feeling, 
improvidence, and a reliance upon authority, instead of 
moral influence, in the relations of master and servant. 
Re remarks also that there is a low standard of moral 
principle, a characteristic which, though not so obvious, 
a radically more detrimental than great occasional vices, 
and one which it is more difficult to correct. But as he 
frequently points out in his interesting work, and as there 
» a necessity of remarking here, in strictness a social cha- 
ncier can scarcely be predicated yet in reference to the 
population of Van Diemen's Land ; the colony is not old 
enough to have moulded the character of its inhabitants ; 
and, amid much that is painful in the aspect of society, 
there is also much of an opposite character — individual 
benevolence and public spirit. 

Government.— Van Diemen's Land is administered by a 
lieutenant-governor, who is assisted by two councils. The 
lieutenant-governor has the initiative of all laws. The 
councils are called the Executive and the Legislative. 
The former is composed of official members, and tne latter 
of official and non-official : all are appointed by the crown, 
and removable at the governor's pleasure, with the sanc- 
tion of the crown. If two-thirds of the legislative council 
are opposed to any act proposed, it cannot pass : the rea- 
son* of dissent are entered. Practically however this pro- 
vision is of no value, for half of the council are salaried 
officers of the local government. Laws passed by the 
council must, within seven days, be enrolled in the Su- 
preme Court ; and fourteen days from such enrolment, un- 
Je» the judges declare them to be repugnant to British 
bwor the charter, or letters patent of the colony, they 
come into operation. In case of objection being made, 
tne governor and council re-consider the act. Tne laws 
of England, so far as they can be applied, are recognised, 
and embodied in local enactments. 

The judicature consists of a supreme court, having two 
Judge*, of courts of quarter-sessions, and courts of requests, 
*hich last are sometimes called courts of conscience, and 
«*ye jurisdiction in matters to the extent of ten pounds. 
Criminal offences are tried in the Supreme Court by seven 
military officers as a jury ; civil cases, by a judge and two 
****8ors, magistrates of the colony appointed by the go- 
vernor, and who are open to challenge by the parties, the 
challenge being determined by the judge : if the assessors 
do not agree, tne judge has a casting vote. The Supreme 
Court may, on the application of either party in an action, 
wtnroon a jury to try it. This court declares insolvencies 
ud distributes effects: it likewise possesses equitable 
urf ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The total estimated ex- 
panses of the judicial establishment for the year 1839 was 
IMW. 7*. U 

In all the most populous districts of the island there are 
P°ke magistrates, who sit daily for the trial of petty 
offences: their decisions are subject to the approval of the 
Pernor, who is advised by the chief police magistrate. 
A large constabulary force is maintained, composed chiefly 
Jf convicts. The total police estimates of Van Diemen's 
^ for 1839 exceeded 26,000/. 

The ecclesiastical provision is of the most liberal cha- 
jctw. Three religious denominations, the Episcopalian, 
"^Tterian, and Roman Catholic, receive allowances 
P. C., No. 1499. 



from the state. They are equally provided for in propor- 
tion to the respective number of their bodies, and the 
clergy of each have the same political status. In the 
towns the subscription of two hundred adults (three chil- 
dren or persons under a specified age being considered equal 
to one adult) to a paper, intimating their connection with 
one of the denominations named, desiring to have a church 
erected for the use of such denomination, and the contri- 
bution of at least 300/. towards its erection, are the con- 
ditions on which the government erects such church and 
provide, for the maintenance of worship in it. In the 
rural districts the fulfilment of these conditions by eighty 
adults, residing within a radius of ten miles, is required. 
The sum expended by the government on the erection of 
a church is equal to that raised by private contribution. 
The stipend allowed to the clergy in the towns is 250/. 
annually, and to those in the rural districts 200/. A glebe 
and ten acres of land are also allowed, and in certain cases 
a further sum of money for the feed of a horse. The Wes- 
leyans have an annual grant of 400/. voted in their favour 
by the legislative council. 

The Church Act has stimulated the erection of churches 
in the colony, so that there is now no deficiency, com pa* 
ratively speaking, except in the districts in which there is 
a very limited population. The estimated expenses of the) 
ecclesiastical establishment for the year 1839 amounted to 
7055/. 14*. lid. ; but the Church Act had not, at the period 
at which that estimate was made, exerted so much in- 
fluence as it has since done, and at present it is certain 
that the ecclesiastical outlay is considerably above the 
sum stated. Numerous places of worship have been erected 
throughout the settled districts of the island by Protestant r 
denominations, not embraced in the government scheme 
of support. The government assists in the maintenance of 
Sabbath schools in connection with the different churches. 

Libera] provision is made for juvenile education, on the 
principles chiefly of the British and Foreign School Society ; 
and, besides a collegiate institution, founded and maintained 
by the government, one has been projected by the colo- 
nists, for which subscriptions have been raised. The site 
of the first is at New Norfolk ; the second is to be esta- 
blished at Campbell Town. These institutions are to be 
in the first instance superior grammar-schools ; and gra- 
dually, as professors can be obtained, and there is a de- 
mand for the higher branches of learning, they are to 
receive the character of colleges. 

In the estimates of the expenditure of Van Diemen's 
Land for the year 1839, a sum of 4000/. is put down for 
schools ; and an additional sum of 2751/. for the * Orphan 
Schools,' in which the offspring of convicts are educated 
and maintained. The expense of the collegiate institution 
is not included in the sum of 4000/. : its foundation had 
not been laid at the date of that estimate. 

The revenue of the colony is derived from duties on 
spirits — 10*. per gallon on brandy ; 7*. 6rf. on hollands or 
geneva, West India Rum, or British gin; 1#. 6d, per 
pound on tobacco : from licences — 25/. per annum for 
licence to sell spirits ; 3/. 3*. for auctioneer's, and 4/. 4*. 
for marriage licences: from the fees of public offices, 
fines, &c. It has increased progressively for many years. 
In 1826 it amounted to 34,655/. 0*. l|rf.; in 1830 it was 
62,018/. 7*. 8Jd. ; in 1835 it was 91,320/. 19*. 9\d. (Statis- 
tical Report of the Colonial Secretary.) With the addi- 
tion of tne revenue derived from the sale of land in these 
years, it amounted to 65,178/. 17*. OJd. in 1830; to 
106,640/. 8*. 2d. in 1835 ; in 1840, the revenue, it was 
estimated, would amount to 200,000/. Part of this revenue 
is appropriated to the immigration of labourers, and the 
rest to the civil, judicial, ecclesiastical, and miscellaneous 
expenses of the colony, which are not borne by the 
Bntish government. The expenditure of the year 1837 
amounted to 136,856/. 1*. 6a. ; for 1838 the estimated 
total was 124,143/. 14*. 4d. ; for 1839, 111,770/. (Ab- 
stract, dated July 5th, 1838, Colonial Secretary's Oflfce, 
Hobart Town.) 

Natives.— The aborigines of Van Diemen's Land so 
closely resemble in physical character those of Australia, 
as to leave no doubt of their origin being the same. T Aus- 
tralia.] M. Peron says that the Tasmanian has a large 
head, especially remarkable for the great length of the 
line from the chin to the sinciput, and that the head of 
the New Hollander is less bulky, and is compressed in the 
back part, while that of the Tasmanian is elongated in 
r Vol. XXIV.— N 

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the same direction. The great difference consists in the : 
hair, which is straight or curled in the New Hollander, and | 
woolly in the Tasmanian. (Papers on New South Wales, by 
Baron Field, Esq.) In language and customs the resem- 
blance is equally apparent. Tasman, in the brief account 
of his voyage, published in ' Harris's Collection of 
Voyages' (vol. i. ? p. 325), mentions his observing on the 
shores of Van Diemen's Land trees which had * a kind of 
steps cut in the bark, in order to climb up to the birds ' 
nests : these steps, he says, were the distance of five feet 
from each other, so that we must conclude, that either 
these people are of a prodigious size, or that they have 
some way of climbing trees that we are not used to.' 
"the difficulty here suggested by Tasman has been since 
resolved : 4 The natives of Australia climb trees by cutting 
notches in the bark, by means of a small stone hatchet, 
and with each hand alternately. By long acquired habit 
a native can support himself with his toes on very small 
notches, not only in climbing, but while he cuts other 
notches for his further ascent with one hand, the other 
arm embracing the tree.' (Major Mitchells Travels in 
Australia, vol. ii., p. 388.) In this singular custom the 
natives of Van Diemen's Land and of Eastern Australia 
agree. The coproboree dance [Swan River] is common 
to both, and the offensive weapons of both people are 
precisely the same. Major Mitchell expresses a decided 
opinion that the natives of both countries are derived 
from a common stock (Travels, vol. ii., p. 341), in which 
other travellers have concurred. The natives of Tas- 
mania, according to the accounts of early colonists, and 
of Cook and D'Entrecasteaux, appear to have been more 
intelligent and friendly than those of New Holland 
wh,en first approached. M. Labillardtere, the historian 
and naturalist of the expedition of Admiral D'Entre- 
casteaux, speaks of their music, their knowledge of plants, 
and their general acuteness, in terms by no means con- 
temptuous; while he highly praises trie humane and 
confiding disposition which they evinced towards their 
French visitors. Dr. Ross, the Editor of the 4 Van Diemen's 
Land Annual,' to whom we are indebted for the best 
records of the early history of the colony, after many 
years' opportunities of intercourse with the aborigines, thus 
refers to them : • During all the intercourse I have had 
with this interesting people, I not only found no want of 
sense or judgment among them, but, on the contrary, much 
to admire in them as thinking men, as endued not only 
with much ingenuity and penetration, but with the ten- 
derest sympathies of the heart, and all the nobler passions 
that elevate man in the scale of being.' 

Original harmlessness of character has not however pre- 
served the Tasmanians from the usual consequences of 
European contact— expatriation or extinction. The his- 
tory of the events which have nearly extinguished this 
race is briefly as follows : — Van Diemen's Land was colo- 
nized in the first instance by the most abandoned crimi- 
nals. These men had no wives ; no regular system of dis- 
cipline was adopted in reference to them, but they were 
dispersed in small bodies over the territory, while others, 
escaping from control, pursued a predatory life. The wives 
of the natives were seduced by criminals, which excited 
the animosity of the men, and during several years indis- 
criminate warfare subsisted between the aboriginal and 
the colonizing population. At length, in 1830, the local 
government systematically interfered, and the free and 
convict inhabitants of the colony were enrolled for the 
purpose of killing or capturing the aborigines. Very 
limited success attended this mode of proceeding after it 
had been in operation for a considerable period, when Mr. 
Robinson, an individual of remarkable courage and self- 
possession volunteered, with the assistance of some friendly 
natives, to bring the rest to terms of pacification. By fair 
promises to the natives he accomplished a victory which 
eould not be obtained by an expenditure of upwards of 
36,000/. (Fan Diemen's Land Annual for 1838) differently 
directed, and the natives put themselves in the power of 
the government. This triumph, obtained by moral in- 
fluence, and which might have been made subservient to 
the good of both races consistently with the aboiigiues re- 
maining on their native soil, was converted to their ruin. 
They were transported to an unfavourable spot (Flinders' 
Island, in Bass's Strait*), where a miserable remnant of 
about eijrhty individuals were all that survived in 183G of 
a population of three or four thousands, the estimated abori- 



ginal population of Van Diemen's Land when coloniiauoa 
began there. ( Van Diemen's Land Annual for 1838s pp. 
127-8.) The courage which faced the aborigines unarmed 
in a time of warfare, was no evidence that the indiTvio! 
who dared to do this possessed the qualities esteniial fa 
the successful treatment of an uncivilized race with tun 
to its improvement. However that courage was rewaxW 
by the appointment of Mr. Robinson to the office of 4 cni- 
lizing ' the Tasmanians at Flinders' Island. It would U 
tedious to detail the features of the * civilizing ' srtfas 
pursued there : it is sufficient to mention that every haU: 
and amusement peculiar to the aborigines hat been eu- 
couraged ; the cumbrous and uncongenial form* sod in- 
cidents of advanced civilization have been enforced m 
every-day life ; the native language has been a» much « 
possible suppressed : native names have been made »j 
yield to those of -the Ctesars, the Hannibala, and &c 
Scipios ; a disposition to indulge in the pleasures of th* 
chace has been recorded as a delinquency ; and thetaWI 
repetition of the Commandments and the Catechiun U il- 
leged as the evidence of religious progress* and a confuta- 
tion of all disbelief as to the capacity of uncivilized rvo 
to appreciate the doctrines of Cnri*tianity. (Report ijtb 
Commandant qf Flinders' Island; Parliamentary Patau 
1839.) 

An intelligent witness of the experiment carried oc s 
Flinders' Island has thus reported upon it: 'The esc 
mandant has an establishment of thirty-two convict* «: 
wait on the aborigines, and supply the deficiencies of tta 
own labour, and is rewarded by a great deal of re*kt 
writing, singing, rehearsal of the catechism, tailoring *&■ 
mission, attachment, decorum, tranquillity, everrtiuui, u 
a word, which gratifies superficial examination ; sol U 
persuades himself that he is eminently succeafal ittb 
them : but they have no free agency, and are mere childrw 
at school, and they cannot escape from their prison. lU/ 
cannot subsist at a distance from it, they mutt not L^u 
its rules, it must be a place of excessive ennui to them: m 
moral agents they are lower now than when tavagt*; ml; 
they die the faster, I fear, for much of this kindno*. TW 
commandant imputes the mortality among them to tl/ 
situation and climate, and wishes to transport then \o J« 
south coast of New Holland j but in six months I sm ptf- 
suaded they would be, on this plan, happy savage* in tix 
bush.' (MS. Letter.) 

TASSIE, JAMES, was born of humble parents^* 
about the vear 1735, in the neighbourhood of GJasgu*. iaA 
was brought up as a country stone-mason. Going U Gj* 
gow on a fair-day to enjoy himself with hi* cooipa^ »i 
he visited the collection of paintings exhibited b ti*i 
brothers Foulis, who were then endeavouring to e4ai '*& 
an academy for the fine arts in that city. [Form, *<& l «i 
p. 383.] Feeling a strong desire to become a p-^A| 
Tassie removed to Glasgow, and studied drawing in r f .%J»1 
academy, but continued to practise his business. t Th^ 
poor, he was frugal, industrious, and persevering; &\ 
hoping at least to become a statuary', if not a painter. Uj 
in 1763. went to Dublin, where he was emrioKJ » 
some time as a sculptor and modeller. There te ta**j 
acquainted with Dr. Quin, who was making expense^ 
in the beautiful art of imitating engraved gem* by c-u^ 
of coloured glass, or pastes, and who engaged Um N 
his confidential assistant. Having succeeded in tfrdi 
ing great improvements in the art by their joint l*t**i 
Tassie was encouraged by his patron to remove to L»* 
don, and to follow it as a profession. He accaxdi^l 
reached London in 1766 ; ana although, owing to hi* <$ 
fidence and modesty, he had to struggle with manvi* 
culties, he gradually emerged from obscurity, obtain 4 
comfortable competence, and established such a reputat:*! 
that the principal cabinets of Europe were thrown opraM 
him. Among his earliest patrons in the metropolis «H 
the Society of Arts, who, in 1767, awarded Mm the «■ «! 
ten guineas for imitations of antient onyx. In 1775 ^ 
who then resided in Compton Street,* Soho, pubWw 4 
catalogue of the antient and modern gems in his collects 
of which he sold pastes or sulphur impressions at «fl 
moderate prices. The collection then amounted to ow 
than three thousand articles; but it was subsequent 
much extended, and in 1791 appeared a new catalog 
containing fifteen thousand eight hundred articio, «* 
forming two quarto volumes. Tins work, which *J* 
confined to a dry description of the gems, but < """"""' 



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Brach useful information on that department of antient art, 
tras compiled by Mr. R. E. Raspe, who prefixed to the 
catalogue an introduction on the utility of such a collec- 
tion of works of art, and on the history of engraving upon 
hard stones, and the imitation of gems by artificial pastes. 
The work contains also a frontispiece and fifty-seven plates 
of gems, etched by David Allan. From Raspe's introduc- 
tion it appears that the demand for Tassie's pastes was en- 
couraged, in the first instance, by the jewellers, who 
introduced them into fashion by setting them in rings, 
teals, bracelets, and other trinkets. He was very careful of 
his reputation, and would not issue imperfect impressions ; 
but the celebrity of his casts induced other and less skilful 
modellers to sell their works under his name. About 1787 
or 1788 Tassie received an order from the empress of Rus- 
aa for a complete set of his gems, which he executed in 
the most satisfactory manner, in a beautiful white enamel 
composition, so hard as to strike fire with steel, and of 
wch a texture as to take a fine polish, and to show every 
touch of the artist with the greatest accuracy. Wherever 
it uras possible to do so, he coloured these in exact imita- 
tion of the originals ; and in other cases such colours were 
o**l as might display the work to advantage. Tassies 
business was continued by his nephew, William, on his 
premises in Leicester-square ; and he added to the collec- 
tion a series of casts of coins, from the museum of the late 
Dr. William Hunter, of which he made a set by order 
of the emperor Alexander, to add to the gems executed 
for the empress by hk uncle, who died in 1799. Besides 
the branch of art for which he is principally celebrated, 
Tassie displayed considerable talent in modelling small 
portraits m wax, from which he frequently made pastes. 
He was much respected in private life for his piety, sim- 
plicity, modesty, and benevolence. 

(Rasped Catalogue of Tassie's Gems, #c. ; Dr. Gleig's 
Supplement to the third edition of the Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica, 180U 

TAS8I8UDAN. [Bootan.] 

TAS80, BERNARDO, born at Bergamo in 1493, lost 
his lather when a boy, and was brought up under the care 
of hi* uncle Luigi Tasso, bishop of Recanati, who was 
firing at Bergamo. The bishop being murdered by 
robbers in 1520, Tasso left his native town, and lived 
for several years at Padua and Venice, and other towns 
of North Italy, where he displayed his talent for poetical 
composition. In 1525 he engaged himself as secretary to 
Guido Rangone, who was general of the Papal troops in 
North Italy. In 1529 he went to the court of Ferrara, 
*fcere he remained a short time. A volume of Italian 
ftrses which he published at Venice in 1531 made him 
known to Ferrante Sanseverino, prince of Salerno, one of 
fee principal Neapolitan barons, who kept a princely court 
•fter the feudal fashion of the times. The prince invited 
him to come to Naples, granted him a handsome allowance, 
*rb the liberty of withdrawing himself from time to time 
torn his court to apply to his poetical studies in rural 
retirement. Tasso accompanied the prince of Salerno in 
to* expedition which Charles V. undertook against Tunis, 
k 1534. He was afterwards sent to Spain, in 1537, on a 
political mission, and on his return he spent some time at 
Venice, where he became acquainted with the celebrated 
fuitia d'Aragona, the illegitimate daughter of a cardinal of 
to* royal house of Aragon, who was herself a poetess, and 
kd a very free life. Bernardo Tasso wrote verses in 
her praise. Having at last disentangled himself from this 
connection, he returned to Naples, where he soon after 
married a young lady of Sorrento called Porzia de Rossi, 
by whom he had a son, Torquato. In 1547 an insurrection 
broke out at Naples against the Spanish viceroy Don 
Pedro de Toledo, who, in concert with Pope Paul III., 
wished to establish the Inquisition in Naples after the 
Wtion of 8pain. The people elected a sort of council 
•Otoposed of nobles and citizens, under the name of * Union 
tor the service of God, the emperor, and the city,' to 
■rtminister temporarily the affairs of the country. This 
tody chose the prince of Sanseverino and the prince of 
8*ngro as its deputies to proceed to Germany and lay 
toeir grievances before Charles V. Bernardo Tasso, against 
toe opinion of others, advised the prince to accept this 
nusaon. Sanseverino found the emperor highly incensed 
gainst the Neapolitans, and fearing for himself, he went 
to France and entered the service of Henry II., for which 
to vaa declared a rebel by Charles V., and his property 



was confiscated. Bernardo Tasso followed his patron to 
Prance, where, after a time, he found himself in great 
pecuniary dish ess. He then returned to Italy, and went to 
the court of Guidobaldo, duke of Urbino, from whence he 
passed to that of the duke Gonzaga of Mantua, who made 
him governor of Ostiglia, in which place he died in 1569. 

Bernardo Tasso wrote a romantic poem in ottava rima, 
entitled ' Amadigi,' the subject of which is taken from a 
Spanish romance. [Amadts de Gaula.] The plot or 
plots of Tasso's poem are deficient in interest, but the 
style is good, and the poet excels in his descriptions and 
comparisons, but he indulges at times in licentious strains. 
After writing his poem, he detached one of the episodes 
and swelled it into a separate poem, entitled « Flondante, 
which was published after his death by his son. He also 
wrote five books of ' rime,' eclogues, hymns, odes, sonnets- 
and other lyrics, some of which are admired for their 
imagery and smoothness of versification. He introduced 
in the Italian language that species of poetry which is 
called * pescatoria * and * marinaresca/ being descriptive of 
the habits and occupations of fishermen and mariners. 
His letters have been published in three volumes. 

(Corniani, Secoli detla Letteratura Italiana ; Tiraboschi, 
Storia della Letleratura Italiana; Panizzi, Introductory 
Essay on the Romantic Narrative Poetry of the Italians, 
prefixed to his edition of * Bojardo.') 

TASSO, TORQUATO, son of Bernardo, was born at 
Sorrento, in 1544. At the age of ten he was sent for by 
his father, then an exile, and after some time spent witn 
him in several towns of north Italy, he went to the uni- 
versity of Padua to study law, for which however he had 
little inclination. At the age of eighteen he composed 
his first poem, ' Rinaldo,' in twelve cantos. The subject is 
romantic, and is taken from the old chivalric legends con- 
cerning Charlemagne and his wars with the Moors. Ber- 
nardo was at first angry with his son for neglecting his 
more serious studies, but at last he relented, and gave his 
consent to the publication of the poem, which Torquato 
dedicated to the Cardinal Luigi d'Este, brother of Alfonso 
II., duke of Ferrara. In 1566 the cardinal took him into 
his service as a gentleman attendant, and introduced him 
to his brother the duke, and to his two unmarried sisters 
Lucrezia and Eleonora. He was well received by all, and 
admitted into their familiar society. Tasso was young and 
amorous; he had been for some time passionately in love 
with Laura Peperara, a lady of Mantua, to whom he ad- 
dressed many sonnets and other verses after the manner 
of Petrarch, styling her his Laura. This lady, with whom 
he had probably become acquainted during a visit which 
he paid to his father at Mantua in 1564, came some years 
after to Ferrara as a lady of honour of the duchess, ana was 
married to Count Turcni of Ferrara. But in the mean 
time Tasso appears to have been struck with the personal 
attractions and mental accomplishments of the princess 
Eleonora, the duke's sister, and already in 1566 there is 
a sonnet by him, beginning ' Nel tuo petto real da voci 
sparte,' which is evidently addressed to a princess of a 
sovereign house. From that time he continued to write 
amatory verses evidently addressed to the same person, 
whom he styles his * donna/ or mistress. In some of them 
he mentions the name of Eleonora, but as there were 
several ladies of that name at different times at the court 
of Ferrara, this has given rise to various surmises about 
the person meant. At last Tasso avowed in several ways 
his love for the princess, though, from the then existing 
usages of society, it was impossible that he could ever 
have obtained her hand. Most of the sonnets and other 
lyrics, which are evidently intended for this object of his 
second love, are conceived in a respectful and somewhat 
melancholy strain, as if the writer felt the hopelessness of 
his passion. The disparity of rank was in those times an 
insurmountable obstacle to any legitimate result of such 
an attachment, and the house of Este was one of the 
proudest in Italy. Like Petrarch, Tasso seems to have 
obtained friendship only in return for his love. But there 
are some of Tasso's compositions written between 1567 and 
1570, in which he assumes the tone of a favoured lover. 
Such are the two sonnets ' Donna di me doppia vittoria 
aveste' and 4 Prima colla Delta voi mi vinceste,' the dia- 
logue between love and a lover, beginning * Tu ch' i piu 
chiusi affetti,' and the madrigal which begins * Soavissimo 
bacio.' From the context, although no name is men- 
tioned, they all evidently allude to the same object as the 

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other amatory verses addressed to his * donna.* There are 
also some autograph lines of Tasso discovered by Mai 
among the Falconieri MSS., and published by Betti at 
Rome (Giornale Arcadico* October, 1827). in which Eleo- 
nora is mentioned by name : 



♦ Quanta nri eh« d'Eta 
Pom* fodermi to Ubmtftle mora ? 
Ab. pletoM il doittn Unto ml di»! 
Addio cetm, addio Uurl, addio roaior?.* 

It would appear that these verses, having been abstracted 
from Taaso's papers by some enemy, and shown to Duke 
Alfonso, first roused his suspicions. 

Professor Rosini, in his able essay upon the 4 Love of 
Tasso and the Causes of his Imprisonment,' Pisa, 1832, 

Sroves, in opposition to the assertion of Serassi and others, 
lat Eleonora d'Este was the object of the above compo- 
sitions, as well as of all the others addressed to his ' donna.' 
It is the four compositions last alluded to that constitute 
the real guilt of Tasso : they boast in prurient language of 
favours received, which, according to the best circum- 
stantial evidence, were never granted, and wliich, if even 
granted, ought not to have been mentioned. And Tasso 
himself must have felt this, for when he set out for France 
at the beginning of 1571, to accompany Cardinal Luigi 
d'Este on a mission to Charles IX., he left his MSS. in 
charge of his friend Rondinelli, with directions to publish 
them in case he should die abroad, * except those which 
he had written to oblige some friend, and which must be 
buried with him.' 

This was a subterfuge to conceal the object of the above- 
mentioned compositions, and to make them appear as if 
written at the request of others, which in itself would have 
been no very creditable employment for a man of genius. 
However, before the end of the year 1571, Tasso took his 
leave of the cardinal in France. It would appear that 
while in that country, where he was introduced at the court 
of king Charles IX., and became acquainted with the 
French poet Ronsard, Tasso applied himself to study the 
points of controversy then debated between the Roman 
Catholic and the Reformed churches, and that his inves- 
tigations of those delicate matters displeased the cardinal, 
who spoke to him strongly on the subject. But Tasso had 
other and secret reasons for wishing to return to Italy. 
Having returned to Ferrara, he entered the service of Duke 
Alfonso himself, by whom he was most graciously treated. 

• The duke extolled his poetical talent ; he often listened to 
the recital of his verses (Tasso was then engaged about his 

• Gerusalemme,' which he intended to dedicate to the 
duke) ; he admitted him to his own table, and to his own 
familiar society ; and he refused him no favour that he 
chose to ask.' (Serassi, Vita del Tatso ; Rosini, Saggio 
sugli Amort di Tatto.) Such was the conduct of Duke 
Alfonso towards the poet, until he discovered, years after, 
his guilty compositions. Whilst Tasso was thus a favoured 

Kiest, rather than a dependant of Duke Alfonso, he wrote 
s pastoral drama, the 4 Aminta,' in which he portrays 
with exquifite skill the pangs and the delirium of love 
deemed hopeless for a long season, but in the end requited. 
The drama was performed at the court of duke Alfonso, 
and its fame soon spread about Italy. Lucrezia, Eleonora's 
sister, who had married Francesco Maria, duke of Urbino, 
wishing to hear the * Aminta,' invited Tasso to her court, 
where he remained several months. This was in 1573. 
While Tasso was absent from Ferrara, envy was busy at 
work against him to lower his credit with Duke Alfonso. At 
the same time Guarino, the poet, who was also at the 
court of Ferrara, strove to ingratiate himself with the prin- 
cess Eleonora, and this excited the jealousy of Tasso. It 
appears that Tasso had been in the habit of writing to the 
princess^ and sending her some of his poetical composi- 
tions ; but now he wrote none for several months. At last 
he wrote her a letter, dated September, 1573, which was 
first published by his biographer Serassi, in which, after 
apologizing for his long silence, he sends her a sonnet, 

• which,' he says, ' is not like those fine ones which I sup- 
pose your grace is now wont to hear very often,' alluding 
to those of his rival Guarino. And he goes on to say, that 
his sonnet is poor both in the conception and the style, as 
the author is poor of luck. This last expression cannot be 
understood as referring to his circumstances, for he was still 
in favour with both the courts of Ferrara and Urbino, and 
was receiving at the time presents from the duchess Lu- 
crezia of Urbino. But still he sends to the princess Eleonora 



the sonnet, * hoping that, whether good or bad, it will pro- 
duce the effect that he wishes.' This sonnet, which begiL* 
* Sdegno, debil guerricr, campion audace,' is that of a de- 
sponding lover who asks for mercy. Tasso concludes \m 
letter with the usual subterfuge, that * the sonnet is not 
written on his own accouut, but at the request of a poor 
lover, who having been for a time angry with his miatftas, 
is now no longer able to stand out, and surrenders himself 
and asks for mercy.' This and other passages of his anur- 
ous verses, referred to bv Professor Kosini in the abo%«- 
quoted essay, prove that the princess Eleonora had been 
long aware of lasso's passion, and felt flattered bv it, Ui 
probably looked upon it as a poetical feeling, for Which «fc* 
gave him her friendship. He himself acknowledges thi* id 
several places ; and yet this same man had already writttt, 
in the recess of his study, the guilty compositions wfa&ci 
have been mentioned above. 

Towards the end of 1573 Tasso returned to Penan. 
where he applied himself to finish his great epic poem • La 
Gerusaleaime.' The touching episode of Olindo and &*• 
fronia, in the second canto, was meant to portray bis en 
situation with regard to the princess Eleonora ; and in i 
sonnet which he wrote to that lady he evidently speaks d r 
the character of Sofronia as meant to represent herself. 

Parts of the * Gerusalennne' began to circulate about a 
MS., and the author was assailed by numerous pedantic 
critics. He thought that the duke and his sister foeoiusi 
did not take up his defence with sufficient zeal ; and thai 
slight sank deep into the poet's heart. Towards the end «J 
1576 a false friend,who was in the secret of liis love far Mm 
princess, disclosed some particulars of it to others. Taw© 
having heard of this, and meeting him in the court of the 
ducal palace, required him to deny what lie had said, aad 
upon the other's refusal, gave him a blow in the face. Th* 
led to a duel ; the treacherous friend came escorted by h*» 
relatives, who also drew their swords against the poet, b^: 
Tasso, who was a good swordsman, succeeded in parrying 
their blows, and came away in triumph. Nothing parti- 
cular happened after this until June of the following jf-sj, 
1577, when Tasso, on the evening of the 17th of Joe*, 
being in the apartments of the duchess of Urbino, in DuU 
Alfonso's palace at Ferrara, fell into a violent paaaon at 
some impertinence real or supposed of a domestic and fbrcu 
himself so far as to throw a knife after him. He «a» na- 
mediately arrested by order of duke Alfonso, and conlaoi 
to a room which looked on the court of the palace. It ap- 
pears that between these two incidents his own servasH 
had been tampered with in order to give up his cooceaW 
papers. Tasso got information of this, and looked out br 
a trusty servant from Urbino, and wrote on the subject u 
Guido Baldo, marquis del Monte, and liis letter is quoted 
by his biographer Serassi. He had also felt for some tin* 
scruples about matters of faith : he mentions in hit dis- 
course to Scipione Gonza^a, that he had doubts concern- 
ing many points of religion ; he had even applied to tit 
inquisitor of Bologna, who had granted him abaolotwc . 
but still he thought himself under the censure* of tt» 
church. All these things added to the anguish of b* 
mind. From the place of his imprisonment Taaso wroU s 
submissive letter to the duke, begging his pardon, and iU 
duke appearing to forgive him, released him after a firw 
days, and took him with him to his country-seat of B^ 
Riguardo about the end of June. What happened Xhtrc 
between the duke and Tasso is not ascertained, but ftuo 
some expressions of the poet it appears that he «a thtn 
closely and sternly examined by the duke, who had pro- 
bably by this time in his possession Taaso's papers, * in order 
to get from him an acknowledgment of what, if avownL 
would incense him against him/ (Taaso's Sonnet, begin- 
ning * Alma grande d'Alcide,' addressed to the deceased 
duke Hercules, father of Alfonso.) On the 11th of J^v 
the duke sent Tasso back to Ferrara under an escort, aad 
shut him up in the convent of St. Francis, his secretan 
having written to the monks that he was mad, and mu*t 
be treated as a madman. 

Tasso's love adventures, his real or pretended marines 
and the causes of his long imprisonment, made nxurs 
noise about Italy at the time; and they have been *o 
much discussed and commented upon since, that the? 
have acquired an historical importance, especially as thrt 
serve to illustrate the manners of the times! EKAe 
Alfonso has been much abused, and, we think, vith#i4 
discrimination, for his treatment of the poet There k a 



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mystery about the whole story resembling that which 
hangs over Ovid's banishment. Professor Kosini has col- 
lected with the greatest patience and care the discordant 
opinions, as well as the evidence resulting from Tasso 's 
own writings, published and unpublished, and from those 
of his contemporaries ; and the conclusion which he ar- 
rives at by the help of sound criticism is, that the Duke, 
having in his hands the loose compositions of Tasso 
already mentioned, which joined to nis other compo- 
sitions addressed to the same person, and his otner 
stiange sayings and doings, furnished full evidence that 
hi* sitter Eleonora was the person alluded to in them, 
was naturally enough incensed against the poet, and 
thought that the only reparation that he could make to 
her injured honour was to make it be supposed that Tasso 
was mad. This gives the clue to his subsequent treat- 
ment of the poet. He must also have been confident 
that his sister was guiltless, otherwise, as Rosini observes, 
he would have taken a different sort of vengeance, ac- 
cording to the manners of the age. From the convent of 
St. Francis, Tasso wrote to the duke, saying, « that the 
clemency of his highness had forgiven him his faults, and 
that thenceforth if he spoke to anyone, he should acknow- 
ledge to all that which he clearly knew, that he was 
under a sanitary treatment.' He adds, that he had re- 
solved, when the treatment was over, to turn monk ; and 
la a postscript he says, that he earnestly wishes that the 
Duke may know all the truth, that he may not think him 
more mad than he is. In a long letter which he after- 
wards wrote to the Duke of Urbino, he says, that * in 
order to please Duke Alfonso, he thought it no disgrace 
to imitate the example of Brutus and Solon.* Both those 
personages, according to Livy and Plutarch, feigned mad- 
ness. Receiving no answer from either Duke Alfonso or 
the Duke of Urbino, Tasso, about the 20th of July, ran 
away from the convent, quitted Ferrara, and made his 
way alone and mostly on foot to Naples, and thence to 
Sorrento, where his sister was married. Having by kind 
treatment recovered his health and his spirits, he went to 
Rome, where he applied through some agent of the Duke 
to be allowed to return to Ferrara. Duke Alfonso wrote 
in reply, that he was willing to receive Tasso again into 
his service, if he would allow himself to be treated by the 
physicians ; but that if he continued his subterfuges, and 
lo talk as be had done before, he would immediately turn 
him out of his territories, and never allow him to return. 
Tasso, upon this, returned to Ferrara in the spring of 1578, 
with the Cavaliere Gualengo. He was civilly but coldly 
received by the Duke, who gave him to understand that 
he ought now to try to compose himself and to lead a 
quiet life, and to avoid all excitement. He attempted to 
get an interview with the Princess Eleonora and the 
Duchess of Urbino, but was prevented. Tasso, tired of 
this manner of life, having lost the favour which he used 
to enjoy at court, ran away again from Ferrara in the 
wmmer of 1578, wandered to Mantua, Padua, and Venice, 
wdthen went to Urbino, where he wrote to the duke of Ur- 
bino, who appears to have been then on bad terms with his 
own wife and with the court of Ferrara, entreating him 
to make the truth known, and to contradict the reports 
maliciously * circulated of his madness,' saving that he had 
submitted to it in obedience to Duke Alfonso's wishes, 
hut that he could not consent any longer to lead an 
animal life, far from literature and from the Muses. He 
jrote in similar terms to his friend Scipione Gonzaga at 
Jtome, to his own sister at Sorrento, and to the Arciprete 
Lamberti, to whom he sent a sonnet, beginning * Falso £ 
il romor che suona.' In October, 1578, he left Urbino, 
*nd went to Piedmont under an assumed name ; but he 
*** soon known, and his fame as a poet secured him a 
flattering reception from Charles Emmanuel, Prince of 
Piedmont, who offered to take him into his service upon 
me same terms as the Duke of Ferrara. But poor Tasso 
had still his eyes and his heart fixed upon Ferrara, and in 
*pite of the advice of his friends at Turin, and, among 
others, of the Marquis Filippo d'Este, Alfonso's relative, 
he determined to go to Ferrara. He was encouraged to 
do so by letters from the Cardinal Albano, who it appears 
had been commissioned by the duke to induce him to 
£turn, promising him a kind reception. He arrived at 
Ferrara on the 2lst February, 1579, on the eve of the 
toival of Margarita Gonzaga, the new bride of Duke 
Alfonso. The court was Busy about the preparations 



to receive the duchess. The duke refused to see Tasso. 
the princesses also denied themselves, his old apartment* 
in the palace were closed to him, and the courtiers and 
court attendants treated him with rudeness and con- 
tempt. Tasso now became furious, and he uttered im- 
pertinent words against the duke and the whole house 
of Este, which being reported to Alfonso, he gave orders 
to arrest him and confine him in the hospital of St. Anna 
as a declared madman. 

Tasso remained a prisoner in the hospital full seven, 
years, till July, 1586. From some obscure passages of his. 
own letters he appears to have been treated very harshly 
at first by the attendants of the hospital. He wrote to the. 
duke, and to the princesses, but in vain. At last he grew 
more calm, and was treated with greater leniency. The- 
wretched hole which is shown at Ferrara as having been 
his prison is no longer believed by competent judges to 
be the identical place of his confinement. (Valery,, 
Voyages Littdraires en Italic, book vii., ch. 14.) Political 
party-feeling in our age has contributed to exaggerate the 
hardships of Tasso's confinement, as religious party-feeling 
has exaggerated the sufferings of Galileo in a similar con- 
dition. There was hardship no doubt in both instances, 
and the hardship in Tasso's case was aggravated by the 
state of his own sore and unsettled mind. When Cardinal 
Scipione Gonzaga visited Tasso at St. Anna, in the spring 
of 1580, he was lodged in a large and commodious apart- 
ment, where he could write and correct his compositions. 
In November of the same year he was visited oy Mon- 
taigne, who speaks of him as a man whose reason was 
overcome by the vivacity of his imagination. In July, 
1581, the Lady Marfisa d'Este obtained leave of Alfonso to 
take Tasso with her for a few days to her country-house, 
where he had a philosophical discussion with her and 
her two ladies of honour, Tarquinia Molza, a learned 
woman, and Ginevra Marzia, upon the nature of love. 
From the recollection of this conversation, Tasso after- 
wards composed his dialogue, which he entitled 'La 
Molza, ovvero dell' Amore.' In September, 1582, Tasso 
received at St. Anna the visit of Aldo the younger, who 
brought him copies of some of the finest editions which had 
come out of his press, and they spent two days together in 
speaking of their respective studies. Tasso in the mean- 
time was busy writing, or correcting his various poetical 
compositions which were printed at Venice, but very inac- 
curately, to his great annoyance. He wrote in his con- 
finement several philosophical discourses or treatises, such 
as * II Gonzaga, ossia del Piacere Onesto,' * II Padre di Famig- 
lia,' the discourse * Delia Virtu Eroica e della Caiita,' the 
dialogue * Della NobilU,' and others. In his discourse to 
Gonzaga he says that it was wished that he should become 
insane, and that the cause, or at least one of the causes, o£ 
this persecution was some lascivious verses of his. 

In 1583 Tasso grew seriously ill, he complained of hfs 
head, of his digestion, of singing in his ears, and other 
symptoms of a like nature. He consulted his friend Mer- 
curiale, a physician of Padua, but Tasso was not a very 
docile patient ; he wished for none but pleasant medica- 
ments, and he would not submit to a total abstinence from 
wine. One of his vagaries was that he had a familiar 
spirit who appeared to him to comfort him. In 1584 he 
was allowed to be out at large during the Carnival season, 
and he wrote a curious dialogue on that circumstance en- 
titled * II Gianluca, o della Maschere.' He enjoyed the 
society of Tarquinia Molza, of Count Girolamo Pepoli» 
and other nobfemen and ladies of the court of Ferrara* 
He wrote about that time the dialogues ( I1 Beltramo, 
ovvero della Cortesia ;' • II Malpiglio, ovvero della Corte ;* 
4 D Ghirlinsone, owero delP Epitafiio;' «La Cavalletta* 
ovvero della Poesia Toscana ;* and * II Rangone, ovvero 
della Pace,' which last, addressed to Bianca Capello, grand- 
duchess of Tuscany, is dated from his apartments of St % 
Anna, ' Dalle sue stanze in St. Anna.' He was now tolera- 
bly composed and reconciled, and could hardly be called 
a prisoner. In one of his autograph letters, written to the 
Marquis Buoncompagni, in April, 1585, and which is in 
the library of Ferrara, there is a passage copied by Valety 
in which he says that 'the duke does not keep me in 
prison, but in the hospital of St. Anna, where priests and 
monks can visit me at their pleasure, and no one prevents 
them from doing me good.' In several of his unpublished 
letters he gives directions about some articles for his ward- 
robe or his table, and shows a refined taste in both. But 



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in that same year, 1585, a fresh source of vexations opened 
upon him. His great epic poem, 4 La Gerusalemme 
Liberata,' had been published complete at Parma in 1581, 
and afterwards at Mantua in 1584. A host of critics fell 
upon it, and by their strictures strove to obscure all the 
merits of the poem. At the head of them stood Salviati, 
of the Crusca Academy. Tasso's language, his poetical 
style, his imagery, the plot of his poem, nis episodes, every- 
thing was made a subject of censure. Tasso, already 
weakened by mental and bodily suffering, felt these attacks 
bitterly. He however took up his pen and wrote in a 
measured and dignified tone a defence of his poem. He 
was at the same time writing letters to all his friends to 
obtain his final liberty from the duke. He wrote to the 
city of Bergamo, to tne duke of Mantua, to the grand- 
duke of Tuscany, to the pope, to the emperor, who all 
employed their good offices on his behalf with Duke Al- 
fonso, who hesitated a long time before he consented to 
his release. At last Vincenzo Gonzaga, son of the duke of 
Mantua, obtained, in July, 1586, permission for Tasso to 
accompany him to Mantua. His reception at that court 
wus like a triumph. In order to make some return for the 
kindness which he experienced from the house of Gon- 
zaga, he completed his tragedy of • Torrisraondo,' which he 
dedicated to nis liberator Vincenzo, on his accession to the 
ducal throne of Mantua in 1587. The subject of the 4 Tor- 
rismondo* is a supposed Scandinavian legend. Some of 
the descriptions have been admired. After some time 
spent at Mantua and in his paternal town of Bergamo, 
Tasso, depressed by a settled melancholy, took leave of 
Duke Vincenzo, and repaired to Rome in the latter part of 
1587, and thence to Naples in the following year. The 
poet appeared delighted with the beauties of his native 
country. At Naples he began a lawsuit to recover his 

Saternal property, which had been seized when his father 
•ernardo became an exile. The Neapolitan courts of law 
have been at all times proverbially known for their dilato- 
riness, and justice was wretchedly administered under the 
Spanish viceregal administration. Tasso made little pro- 
gress in his suit. But he found a sincere friend in the 
Marauis Gio. Batista Manso, who took him in the autumn 
to his estate of Bisaccio, where they spent the time in 
sporting, listening to the rustic improvvisatori, and con- 
versing in the evening upon various topics, especially 
about Tasso's pretended familiar. It was at the request of 
Manso's mother that Tasso undertook his ' Sette Giornate 
del Mondo Creato,' which is a poetical paraphrase of the 
narrative of the creation of the world in the first two 
chapters of Genesis. In 1589, Tasso, always restless, re- 
paired to Rome ; but finding himself in great pecuniary 
distress, he accepted an invitation of the grand-uuke Fer- 
diuand de' Medici to go to Florence in the spring of 1590, 
where he was received with great honour by the court and 
other persons of distinction, as if to make amends for the 
annoyance given to him by Salviati and his compeers. 

Towards the end of the same year however he went to 
Rome, and in 1591 he returned to Naples, and then 
applied himself to re-write his epic poem, under the title 
of ♦ Gerusalemme Conauistata,' in order to satisfy the critics. 
However the first version of his poem is in the hands of all, 
whilst few ever read his * Gerusalemme Conquistata.' Tasso 
intended to end his days at Naples ; but in 1592, Cardinal 
Aldobrandini having been made pope by the name of Cle- 
ment VIII., his nephew, Cinzio Aldobrandini, afterwards 
cardinal, who was well acquainted with Tasso, invited him 
in the most pressing manner to Rome, where he came about 
middle of that year. He was stopped several days at 
Mola di Gacta, the road being blockea up by the bands of 
the famous robber chief Marco Sciarra, who was scouring 
the country with perfect impunity. Sciarra, who was a 
man of birth and education, having heard that Tasso was 
detained at Mola, sent him a message to entreat him to 
proceed on his journey, assuring him of perfect safety 
from his men, and offering him an escort, whicn 
however Tasso declined ; upon which Sciarra with- 
drew his men from the mountains of Itri, so as to leave 
the passage open for Tasso. Having arrived safely at 
Rome, he completed his * Gerusalemme Conquistata,* 
which he dedicated to Cardinal Cinzio Aldobrandini. In 
the summer of 1594 he returned to Naples, and lodged 
fiifet in the Benedictine monastery of San Severino, and 
afterwards went to a country-seat of his friend Manso. 
Meantime Cardinal Cinzio, out of affection and gratitude 



towards Tasso, prevailed on Pope Clement to eras* the 
poet the honour of being solemnly crowned with the lasuti- 
crown in the Capitol, as Petrarch and others had been. 
This being agreed upon, Cardinal Cinzio hastened to an- 
nounce the news to Tasso, urging him to repair to Rom 
as soon as possible. Tasso did not seem at all efcaed: 
he observed to Manso that he thought it more glori- 
ous to deserve honours than to receive them. He how- 
ever assented, and took an affectionate leave of trie kind 
friend Manso, with a foreboding that it would be tbt 
last. He spent the Christmas festivities at the nionasti ry 
of Monte Casino, and arrived at Rome in the beginning of 
1595. He was met outside of the gates by many centl*- 
men and attendants of the Papa) court, by whom ne was 
led in a kind of triumph to the Vatican palace, wbsee be 
was introduced to the pope, who told him that be bad 
4 awarded him the laurel-crown, in order that it nrifbt b* 
as much honoured by him, as in former times it had 
served to honour others.' Tasso was lodged in the ftpd 
palace, and treated with the greatest regard. While the 
day of the coronation was anxiously expected, Cardinal 
Cinzio fell ill ; and Lent coming on, the pageant was post- 
poned, and then Tasso himself fell seriously ill. He felt 
from the first a conviction that this illness would be bis 
last ; and wishing to compose himself in retirement Car km 
last moments, he expressed a wish to be taken to the mo- 
nastery of St. Onofrio, on Mount Janiculum. Having bees 
carried thither in one of Cardinal Cinzio's carriages, b* 
said to the prior and his monks who came to receire tea 
at the gate, 4 I am come to die amongst you.' He wis 
led into a comfortable apartment, where he devoUd hu 
remaining days entirely to religious practices, and seemed 
totally weaned from worldly feelings and cares. When 
the pope's physician announced to him his apnrooctnsf 
death, he embraced him, thanking him for the happy 
tidings. To Cardinal Cinzio, who came to take leave of 
him, ne expressed his gratitude for all his kindness ; sod m 
the cardinal and those present could not refrain from tean, 
he said to them, • You think that you are leaving me. but 
I shall go before you.* He expired on the 25th of Apnl, 
1595, after fifteen days' illness, being fifty-one year* of ace. 
He was buried, according to his desire, in tne cbmrch erf 
St. Onofrio, with a plain slab over his tomb, upon whi-a 
the monks engraved the simple inscription, * Torqusto 
Tassi ossa hie jacent.* 

The lasting fame of Tasso as a great poet rests upon his 
• Gerusalemme Liberata,' or * II Goffredo,* as it is some- 
times called, one of the few great epic poems of whirs 
the world can boast. The action is complete : it relates 
the events of the great crusade, and ends with the ostea- 
sible object of that expedition, the deliverance of Jerusa- 
lem from the hands of the Moslems. The beauties, as 
well as the faults of the composition, have been the them 
of many disquisitions. Among foreign critics, Blair, Vol- 
taire, D'Alembert, La Harpe, and Chateaubriand t»rt 
been loud in its praise. The poem has a peculiarity that 
distinguishes it from most other epics : it is essentially % 
Christian poem; and breathes throughout the feeJtztpk 
the faith, and the hopes of a Christian. Tasso, as be sap 
in his invocation, 

' OMum.wcbeaJmduchlaUari 
Nan ciroonrtj U fnmto la f3iwna, 
Ma mi n«t CMo intra I bead coil 
Hal 4i iUIU immortal! auraa Goroa*.'.-<c U *• SJ 

had drawn his inspiration from a sacred source, aod has 
thus afforded a refutation to those who pretend that tbt 
Christian religion is not so favourable to poetical imagery 
as the splendid fictions of mythology. A melancholy 
tinge pervades the poem ; but it is a melancholy lighted 
up by cheering and constant hope. With the sinan* ex- 
ception of the episode of the gardens of Armida, lbs 
language of the ' Gerusalemme ' is eminently chaste* sod 
the morality of its sentiments is pure and elevated, whseb 
renders it fit for the perusal of youth. Among its btsutWi 
of detail we will only instance the episode of Obndo seat 
Sofronia, in the 2nd canto : the council of the * t w j n'*~ 
in the 4th ; the flight of Erminia, and her meeting with 
the old shepherd on the banks of the Jordan, in the 7th ; 
the introduction of the Turk Solyman into the besieged 
city, in the 10th ; the death of dorinda, in the 12Xh ; tad 
the last fight of Argante with Tancred, in the 19th caato. 
The other poems of Tasso have been mentioned in the 
course of this article. His lyrical compositions are very 



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numerous, and. many of them exquisite both in language 
aad awifiment Besides those which are upon amorous 
•objects, some refer to contemporary events, or are in 
praise of contemporary princes ; others are upon religious 
■objects ; and others refer to his own misfortunes. The 
whose of Taiso'B poetical works have been published in 
one iarjge 8vo. vol. of nearly 1000 pages, in double columns, 
at Venice, 1633. Prefixed to it is the biography of the 
author, by his friend the Marquis Manso. 

Tasao*s prose works consist of dialogues and disserta- 
tions, some of which have been already noticed ; of a 
treatise upon epic poetry, dedicated to Cardinal Pietro 
Udobrsnainl ; discourses upon the poetical art, dedicated 
to Seipione Qontaga ; and of numerous letters, some of 
which have remained unpublished till lately, ' Lettere 
Inedtte,' Pisa, 1827. Professor Rosini has edited a new 
edition of all the works of Tasso, begun at Pisa in 1820. 

Tasso'a ' Gerusalemme Iiberata ' has been translated 
into most European languages. There are English transla- 
tions by Fairfax, Hoole, Broadhead, Hunt, and Wiffen. It 
has also been paraphrased into several Italian dialects, 
Milanese, Neapolitan, Calabrian, &c The Life of Tasso 
has been written by Manso, Serassi, and others, and has 
bees commented upon by Tiraboschi, Muratori, Zeno, 
Maffisi, and other Italian philologists. 

TA8SCKN1, ALESSA'NDRO, born of a noble family at 
Modena, in 1565, was educated first in his native town, and 
afterwards at Bologna and Ferrara, where he studied the 
law. In 1597 he went to Rome, when he entered the service 
of Cardinal Ascanio Colonna, whom he accompanied to 
Spain in the year 1600. In 1603 the cardinal, having been 
made viceroy of Aragon, sent Tassoni to Rome to take 
charge of the administration of his property in Italy. 
During Ms stay in Spain Tassoni had opportunities of observ- 
ing the internal state of that kingdom, which, after alarm- 
ing ail Europe in the preceding century by its ambition 
and the extent of its conquests, was now fast sinking into 
decay under the weak reign of Philip III. At Rome he 
wrote his * Considerazioni sopra il Petrarca,' published in 
1609, in which he commented very severely upon numer- 
ous faults, real or supposed, which he pointed out in the 
writings of that generally admired poet. Endowed with 
an inquisitive but somewhat captious mind, Tassoni aimed 
in his writings at opposing received opinions, and he em- 
ployed sarcasm and ridicule for the purpose. Aromatari 
of Assist took up the defence of Petrarch in his ' Risposte' 
to Tassoni's considerations, and this led to a controversy in 
the usual bitter style of Italian literary polemics. In 1612 
Tsssoni published his * Penmen Diversi' in ten books, being 
t collection of remarks on various subjects of science and 
literature which he had been in the habit for years of 
entering in his memorandum-book. Among other subjects 
he attacked the Physics of Aristotle, although he does not 
seem to have had himself very correct notions of physical 
phenomena. This work led to another controversy between 
Tassoni and several of his contemporaries. Meantime the 
Cardinal Colonna had died, and Tassoni, being now without 
employment, applied to Charles Emmanuel I., duke of 
8avoy, who promised him the post of secretary to his son, 
the cardinal of Savoy. But partly through court intrigues, 
and partly on account of Tassoni's known aversion to the 
court of opsin, with which the Duke of Saxony wished to 
be on pood terms, he was kept waiting for years before 
he could take possession of his office at the court of the 
cardinal, who was then residing at Rome. Certain com- 
pesrtious entitled « Filippiche,' in which the court of Spain 
was severely handled, as well as another pamphlet entitled 
' Bsaqui e aella Monarchia di Spagna,' which appeared 
during that period, were generally attributed to Tassoni. 
Tifmoojehi thinks that the first two of the • Filippiche' are 
Tassoms, but that the other five are by another pen. 
Copies of this work are very scarce. In 1623 Tassoni left 
the cardinal of Savoy in disgust, and retired to a country- 



in the suburb of Transtevere, where he employed 
himself in study and rural occupations. About this time 
be had ms portrait taken with the rind of a fig in his hand 
sad the following distich written underneath : — 

* Dettera cor Scum quart* mea gtntet inanena ? , 
LoBgt operis aercn hae full : auladtdit.' 

In 1628 Cardinal Ludovisi, nephew of Pope Gregory 
XV., took Tassoni into his service, and gave him apart- 
ments in his own palace, with a handsome stipend. After 
Use eerdinsTs death, in 1632, Tassoni repaired to Modena, 



when he was made councillor to his sovereign" Duke 
Francis I. of Este, for the remainder of his life. He died 
at Modena in 1635. 

Besides the works already mentioned, Tassoni made an 
abridgment in Italian of the ' Annals' of Baronius, and 
some ' Annotazioni,' or corrections and additions to the 
Italian vocabulary of La Crusca. But the work for which 
he is best known is his mock-heroic poem, * La Secchia 
Rapita,* or the « Rape of a Bucket.' He is considered as 
having first introduced this kind of composition in the 
Italian language, as he had finished, though not published 
in print, his poem years before his contemporary Brac- 
ciolini published, in 1618, his ' Scherno degli Dei/ in which 
he turns into ridicule the gods of the antient mythology. 
Tassoni's poem was published in a printed form in 1622, 
but MS. copies had oeen in circulation long before. The 
subject is taken from the annals of his country under the 
year 1249, when a war having broken out between the two 
neighbouring cities of Modena and Bologna, the Modenese 
carried off in triumph a wooden bucket lrom within one of 
the gates of Bologna, which bucket is still seen suspended 
by a chain in the cathedral of Modena. The ' Secchia 
Kapita ' has been generally admired by Italian as well as 
foreign critics. Voltaire speaks of it disparagingly, although 
he has borrowed from it (ValSry, Voyages Littcraires) % 
but Perrault and other French critics have done Tassoni 
full justice. The humour of the poem is peculiarly Italian, 
and the admixture of the serious and heroic with the bur* 
lesque is happily combined. Some of the descriptive pas- 
sages are exquisitely soil and true to nature, such as the song 
in canto viii. which begins : * Dormiva Endimion tra 
l'erbe e i fi ori,' and the beautiful episode in canto x. of 
the voyage of Venus from the mouth of the Arno to 
Naples for the purpose of engaging Manfred, son of Fre- 
deric IL, to assist the Guibelines of North Italy. The 
'Secchia Rapita' has gone through numerous editions: 
that of Barotti, Modena, 1744, is most splendid. Gironi 
has collected various judgments and comments upon this 
poem in Ins biography of Tassoni. Muratori has also 
written the Life of Tassoni. 

(Tiraboschi, Storia delta Letter atur a Italiana ; Corniam, 
Secoli delta Letter atur a Italiana ; Zeno, Note at Fonta* 
rini.) 

TASTE. The organs of this special sense are certain 
parts within the cavity of the mouth, obviously so disposed 
as to take early cognizance of matters about to be swal- 
lowed, and to act as sentinels for the remainder of the ali- 
mentary canal, at the entrance of which they are situated. 
Their special endowment, aided by an exquisite develop- 
ment oi common sensibility, enables them to give timely 
notice of any acrid, caustic, or nauseous quality, of any 
undue temperature, of any inconvenient hardness, irregu- 
larity, size, or sharpness in the material submitted to them, 
and thus to protect the stomach against the intrusion of 
many hurtful agents. These organs moreover establish 
for our appetites a scale of liking and disliking : they 
superadd a discriminative pleasure to the enforced assua- 
ging of hunger : they modify that merely quantitative inges- 
tion, which is an absolute and daily need of the organism, 
with a qualitative choice, and so give a motive to those 
variations in diet which experience proves to be beneficial 
or necessary. 

Common language (as in the word * palatable') seems to 
attribute the sense exclusively to a part, which is by no 
means the only or chief seat ot it. In order to give a more 
correct notion of its extent, we shall first briefly sketch the 
arrangement of the membrane which lines the cavity of 
the mouth. It is a continuation (a tubular folding in, as it 
were, through the aperture of the lips) of the general in- 
tegument, the skin ; and although somewhat changed in its 
grosser characters, it yet preserves, under the name of mucous 
membrane, a close resemblance to the parent tissue. It 
lines the inside of the cheeks, invests the alveoli, or gums, 
giving to these parts their polished smoothness of surface, 
is reflected from the lower alveolar arches to the tongue, 
from the upper alveolar arches to the palate, and from 
both these organs prolonged backward into the throat. 
In its palatine portion, the membrane covers the horizontal 
processes of the upper jaw, which divide the cavity of the 
mouth from that ot the nose, and, while spread on tins 
solid frame-work, is said to belong to the hard palate ; and 
it likewise extends backward, beyond the limits of this 
bony partition, to form a pendulous flap, called^ the soil 



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palate ; which, with the nipple-like uvula, that hangs from 
its extreme edge, may readily be seen when the mouth is 
opened. In extending to the tongue, the membrane is so 
arranged as to leave the tip and sides of that orpin promi- 
nent and free ; and is remarkably developed into a vast 
number of minute eminences called papilfa, which cover 
the borders and surface of the tongue, are largely supplied 
with nerves and blood-vessels, and variously concerned in 
the functions of the part. [Tonouh ; Palate.] 

Very careful experiments on the sense of taste have been 
made by MM. Guyot and Admyrauld (Mtmoire sur le 
Siege du Gout chez VHomme, Pans, 1830), from which the 
following results are obtained : — A small portion of the 
soft palate, just above the base of the uvula, the remotest 
part of the back of the tongue, where it corresponds to the 
isthmus of the palate, and the entire circumference of the 
tongue, are so endowed ; while the internal surface of the 
cheeks, the hard palate, the gum, the remaining parts of 
the soft palate and of the tongue are entirely destitute. 
Thus, those parts of the tongue with which, in sipping or 
in masticating, the food would have contact (its borders, 
and, most eminently, its tip), are gustative ; and the pro- 
perty is shared, though in a less degree, by the lingual and 
palatine surfaces of the isthmus through which the food 
enters the sphere of involuntary actions. 

The nerve, specially endowed with the sense of taste, is 
a branch of the third part of the fifth cerebral nerve, called, 
from its function, gustatory ; but it seems possible to some 
physiologists that the glosso-pharyngeal nerve shares this 
property. The gustatory nerve is distributed to the papil- 
lary surface of the tongue, especially along its borders and 
tip : the lingual part of the glosso-pharyngeal nerve is 
restricted in its distribution to the posterior part of the 
tongue, where it supplies the mucous surface exclu- 
sively. 

For the sensation of taste, moisture must be present ; all 
are familiar with a temporary impairment ot the sense, 
under the influence of unusual dryness of the surface of its 
organs ; the parched tongue of fever is notoriously indiffer- 
ent to all savours. Matters are only capable of being 
tasted when they exist in a fluid form : an insoluble body 
is insipid ; a solid body provokes an immediate flow of 
saliva, and its sapid qualities are perceived in proportion 
only as it dissolves : certain gases are alleged to excite sen- 
sations of taste ; but it is only by such as are soluble in the 
saliva (sulphurous acid, for instance), and only in proportion 
as they are dissolved that these impressions are produced. 

* •• The sensation of taste undoubtedly admits of an im- 
mense variety of modifications wluch no language can ex- 
press. If a man were to examine five hundred different 
wines, he would hardly find two of them that had precisely 
the same taste : the same thing holds in cheese, and in 
many other things. Yet of five hundred different tastes in 
cheese or wine, we can hardly describe twenty, so as to give 
a distinct notion of them to one who had not tasted them." ' 
The vague, or not-to-be-described, nature of gustatory 
impressions, as here expressed by Dr. Reid, receives some 
additional obscurity from the circumstance that taste and 
smell are often simultaneously affected in a manner which 
renders it difficult to abstract either. Various substances, 
after exciting the sense of touch on the fauces, and that of 
taste on the tongue, are capable of producing a third im- 
pression, which is popularly referred to the palate, but is 
really felt upon the sentient membrane of the nostrils : the 
fume of certain kinds of food ascends into the cavities of 
the nose, and produces this third and distinct sensation : in 
administering medicine to children, it is well known that 
the greater part of what is disagreeable in its flavour may 
be avoided by closing the nostrils when the draught is 
swallowed ; and by repeating this experiment upon various 
articles of food, it is easy to ascertain how much of their 
flavour depends upon one sense, and how much is appre- 
ciated by the other.' Mr. Mayo, from whom this para- 
graph is quoted, goes on to classify the impressions pro- 
duced by substances taken into the fauces? — 

1. Where sensations of touch alone are produced, as by 
rock-crystal, sapphire, or ice. 

2. Where, in addition to being felt upon the tongue, the 
substance excites Mentation in the nostril*, as for instance 
tin and other odorous metals. 

3. Where, besides being felt upon the tongue, it produces 
sensations of taste, as, for instance, sugar and salt. 

4. Where the substance is felt on the tongue and ttsted 



by it, and in addition excites a sense of flavour to tht net* 
trils, as, for instance, bread, manna, and otner substiam. 
{Outlines of Physiology, p. 314.) 

Flavour, then (in distinction from taste), can in correct- 
ness be attributed only to bodies possessed of some arms* 
or volatility ; and, by alternately smelling and tasting oca. 
and by contrasting their impression with that produced by 
a simply sapid substance (mustard and salt can iUortntc 
the two cases), it will be noticed that flavour is bat ta 
odour, which, from its affecting a comparatively Qtnr*f» 
tised part of the olfactory apparatus, is at fleet unperiectly 
and obscurely recognised. 

Such are the chief relations of the sense of taste in oka. 
and in the animals which most nearly resemble ham m 
structure. As the sense is a provision for the securitr of 
the digestive organs, we may on sound physiologKtl 
grounds anticipate its existence, under a more or lesi m> 
dified form, in every animal possessing a digestive estirr. 
No special organ for its exercise (with very doubtful exrep- 
tions) can be traced in the invertebrata ; nor can we m- 
sume to infer in them the presence of taste, otherwise thu 
as an obscure sense determining their choice or rejedxa 
of food : to this extent it undoubtedly exists in them, era 
to the bottom of the scale — to the infusory animalcules, is 
which Ehrenberg has witnessed its exercise. Among \ht 
invertebrata, mollusks possess the most highly develop^ 
alimentary organs, aud it seems probable that in them the 
guiding sense of those organs has a corresponding develop- 
ment. 

Through the subregnum of vertebrata it acauirei ta 
advancing maturement : in the lower classes, ashes sad 
reptiles, the organs are present, but seem rather to betag 
to the movements of prehension and of deglutition, thtt 
t6 the sense of taste : in birds too the organs are littjr 
developed, and the sense seemingly imperfect: thrw6 
the class of mammalia it is gradually augmented in salt- 
ness ; but although in certain orders of them, or in par- 
ticular individuals, the sense appears sharp and the spot- 
tite fastidious, it is probably in man alone that the oipm 
and their function are completely matured. 

TASTE, according to the definition of Sir Joshui Rff- 
nolds, * is that act of the mind by which we like or dsAk*, 
whatever be the subject.' (Discourses before the Raid 
Society ; Discourse vii.) 

Taste is frequently spoken of as a gift, as something in- 
dependent of rules, a kind of instinct, bestowed not 
liberally in degree upon some men than upon other*. It 
has been treated by some writers as the result of caprice or 
fashion, as having no uniform or permanent principle* for 
the ground of its decisions. Others have resolved it ioto 
different complex elements, whose joint development a 
determined by certain principles of beauty or subhimty o 
things external. 

Lord Bacon has been quoted as apparently eanctknis; 
the idea of taste being a kind of gift or instinct * A nss 
cannot tell,' he says, * whether Apellea or Albert Dorrt 
were more the trifler ; whereof one would make s per*** 
age of geometrical proportions ; the other by taking the 
best parts out of divers faces to make one excellent. The 
painter must do it by a kind of felicity, and not by ml*. 
Sir Joshua Reynolds has overthrown this position is «* 
sentence : * Every object which pleases must $ive n» jdf* 
sure upon some certain principles.* These principle* in 
unquestionably so intelligible that they may be embo4« 
in the form of words, and may be drawn out into rules- 
Burke, towards the end of his essay on Taste (introdndorj 
to the Sublime and Beautiful), has likewise adverted t* 
this position, which will come under notice again is tht 
course of this article. 

The hypothesis which refers our emotion of taste to Jhi 
influence of fashion, or temporary and varying causes, » 
been maintained in the Inquiry into the Princhlf*4 
Taste, by Mr. Payne Knight. According to Mr. Kttkfc. 
there is scarcely any subject upon which men dHftr nw* 
than concerning the objects of their pleasures and *■"*' 
ments ; and this difference subsists not only among !&&• 
viduals, but among ages and nations ; almost every J*"*}" 
tion accusing that which preceded it of bad taste in boiW* 
ing, furniture, and dress ; and almost every nation hsrinj 
its own peculiar modes and ideas of excellence in the* 
matters, to which it pertinaciously adheres, until one p*> 
ticular people has acquired such an ascendency in power*" 
reputation as to set what is called the fashion, when tim 



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fashion U indiscriminately adopted upon the blind prin- 
ciple of imitation, and without any consideration ot the 
differences of climate, constitution, or habits of life, and 
every one who presumes to deviate from it is thought an 
•dd mortal, a humorist void of all just feeling, taste, or 
elegance. The fashion continues in the full exercise of its 
tyranny for a few years or months, when another, perhaps 
still more whimsical and unmeaning, starts into being and 
deposes it ; all are then instantly astonished that they could 
ever have been pleased even for a moment with anything 
so tasteless, barbarous, and absurd. The revolutions in dress 
only, not to mention those in building, furnishing, garden- 
ing, &c., which have taken place within the last two cen- 
turies afford ample illustration * Let no one imagine,' 

says Mr. Knight, * that he solves the question by saying 
that there have been errors in taste, as there have been in 
religion and philosophy ; for the cases are totally different : 
religion and philosophy being matter of belief, reason, and 
opinion ; but taste being a matter of feeling, so that what- 
ever was really and considerately thought to be ornamental 
mast have been previously felt to be so; and though 
opinions may by argument or demonstration be proved to 
be wrong, how shall an individual pretend to prove the 
feelings of a whole age or nation wrong, when the onlv 
just criterion he can apply to ascertain the rectitude of his 
own is their congruity with those of the generality of his 
tpeeies.' (c.i., p. 1.) 

This argument is founded on an exaggeration of a fact 
in reference to the philosophy of taste admitted by those 
who contend that taste is determined by some definite and 
invariable principles: the fact may be described under 
the general head of the influence of association on our 
emotions of this order. Mr. Dugald Stewart has observed 
on the exaggeration in question, that the association of 
ideas can never account for the origin of a new notion, or 
of a pleasure essentially different from all the others which 
we know. It may indeed enable us to conceive how a 
thing indifferent in itself may become a source of pleasure 
by being connected in the mind with something else which 
is naturally agreeable ; but it presupposes in every in- 
stance the existence of those notions and those feelings 
which it is its province to combine : insomuch that it will 
be found wherever association produces a change in our 
judgments in matters of taste, it does so by cooperating 
with some natural principle of the mind, and implies the 
existence of certain original sources of pleasure and un- 
easiness. This suggests a distinction in the circumstances 
which please in the objects of taste, between those which 
please in consequence of casual associations and those 
which are fitted to please by nature. The perfection of 
taste in reference to tne last depends upon the degree in 
which the mind is free from casual associations; in re- 
ference to the first it depends upon the facility with which 
such associations are formed. (Elements of the Philosophy 
of the Human Mind, c. v., p. ii., p. 364, 4to.) 

The different modes in which association operates have 
been illustrated with much elegance, and their true place 
in the philosophy of taste distinguished, by Mr. Alison : 
' Fashion,' he remarks, * may be considered in general as 
the custom of the great. It is the dress, the furniture, the 
Stnguage, the manners of the great world, which constitute 
what is called the fashion in each of these articles, and 
which the rest of mankiud are in such haste to adopt after 
their example. Whatever the real beauty or propriety of 
these articles may be, it is not in this light mat we con- 
sider them. They are the signs of that elegance and taste 
and splendour which is so liberally attributed to elevated 
rank : they are associated with the consequence which such 
situations bestow ; and they establish a kind of distinction 
between this envied station and those humble and mor- 
tifying conditions of life to which no man is willing to 
belong. It is in the light therefore of this connection only 
that we are disposed to consider them ; and they accord- 
ingly affect us with the same emotion of delight which we 
receive from the consideration of taste or elegance in more 
permanent instances.' (Essays on Taste, Essay i.) 

Association then can only modify, it cannot wholly ac- 
count for our emotion of taste, and it cannot even modify 
except by operating in a manner which implies certain ori- 
ginal sources of pleasure and uneasiness in the objects of 
our emotion. In some cases association heightens the 
agreeable or disagreeable effect of objects ; in others all 
the delight or disgust which we experience can be resolved 
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into the influence of association. The distincticn implies 
the fact insisted on. What constitutes the distinction, or 
where are we to find its explanation ? We may with pro 
priety employ our reason in reducing particular phenomena 
to general principles ; but we must in the end arrive at 
principles of which there is no other account to be given 
than that such is the will of the author of our nature. We 
cannot explain why such forms please or displease ; we 
must stop short at the discovery of the respects in which 
they please or displease. (Stewart.) 

Sir Joshua Reynolds has referred the idea of beauty to 
some * central form' in the objects of our perception. 'All 
the objects which are exhibited to our view t>y nature, 
upon close examination, will be found,' he says, * to have 
their blemishes and defects. The most beautiful forms 
have something about them like weakness, minuteness, or 
imperfection : but it is not every eye that perceives these 
blemishes ; it must be an eye long used to the contempla- 
tion and comparison of these forms ; and which, by a long 
habit of observing what any set of objects of the same 
kind have in common, has acquired the power of discern- 
ing what each wants in particular. This long laborious 
comparison should be the first study of the painter who 
aims at the greatest style. By this means he acquires a 
just idea of beautiful forms ; he corrects nature by nerself, 
her imperfect state by her more perfect. His eye being 
enabled to distinguish the accidental deficiencies, excres- 
cences, and deformities of things from their general figures, 
he makes out an abstract idea of their forms more perfect 
than any one original ; and, what may seem a paradox, he 
learns to design naturally by drawing his figures unlike to 
any one object. (Discourse III.) He observes in ex- 
planation in another part of the same discourse : * To the 
principle I have laid down, that the idea of beauty in each 
species of beings is an invariable one, it may be objected, 
tfiat in every particular species there are various central 
forms which are separate and distinct from each other, and 
yet are undeniably beautiful ; that in the human figure, 
for instance, the beauty of Hercules is one ; of the Gla- 
diator another ; of Apollo another ; which makes so many 
different ideas of beauty. It is true indeed that these 
figures are each perfect in their kind, though of different 
characters and proportions ; but still none of them is the 
representation of an individual, but of a class : and as 
there is one general form which, as I have said, belongs to 
the human kind at large, so in each of these classes there 
is one common idea and central form, which is the abstract 
of the various individual forms belonging to that class. 
Thus, though the forms of childhood and age differ ex- 
ceedingly, there is a common form in childhood and a 
common form in age, which is the more perfect as it is 
more remote from all peculiarities. But .... though the 
most perfect forms of each of the general divisions of the 
human figure are ideal, and superior to any individual 
form of that class, yet the highest perfection of the human 
figure is not to be found in any one of them. It is not in 
the Hercules, nor in the Gladiator, nor in the Apollo, but 
in that form which is taken from all, and which partakes 
equally of the activity of the Gladiator, of the delicacy of 
the Apollo, and of the muscular strength of the Hercules. 
For perfect beauty in any species must combine all the 
characters which are beautiful in that species. It cannot 
consist in any one to the exclusion of the rest ; no one 
therefore must be predominant, that no one may be de- 
ficient. . . . There is likewise a kind of symmetry or pro- 
portion which may properly be said to belong to de- 
formity. A figure lean or corpulent, tall or short, though 
deviating from beauty, may still have a certain union of 
the various parts, which may contribute to make them on 
the whole not unpleasing.' 

This theory (the principle of which extends to other 
objects of taste besides those contemplated by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds) reconciles the apparent inconsistency, insisted 
on by Mr. PaynejKnight and by other writers of the same 
school, between the decisions of taste in one country and 
in another, as tending to show that the standard of taste is 
wholly arbitrary. The ideal beauty of the African is the 
result of the process which has been described applied to 
the coloured inhabitants of Africa, as the ideal beauty of 
the European is the result of the same process applied 
to the inhabitants of Europe. To institute a compari- 
son between the beauty of the European and that of the 
African, and to conclude that taste has no invariable 

Vol. XXIV.— O 
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principle; as its foundation, from the opposite decision* on 
such a comparison, involves the same description of error 
as it would be to arrive at the same conclusion from the 
opposite decisions in a comparison between the beauty of 
two distinct species of animals, the one biped and the other 
quadruped. There is a * central form ' of beauty proper 
(6 the different races of mankind ; to the two sexes of the 
different races ; to different ages ; and so on in reference 
to inferior animals and objects of inanimate nature. We 
trespass beyond the province of mere taste when we com- 
pare objects in respect to which the principles of beauty 
are altogether distinct. 

Much obscurity has arisen in discussions on the subject 
of taste from the twofold sense in which the word taste 
has been employed, as expressive of an emotion, and of 
something objective in which there exists an aptitude to 
produce emotion. The term taste strictly applies to the 
emotion only ; the theory of the different causes by which 
the emotion U produced belongs to the subject of beauty. 
We have been obliged to refer to the theory of beauty in 
the preceding part of this article in establishing the reality 
of certain principles determining our emotions of taste : in 
what follows we shall confine ourselves to the explanation 
of taste in its restricted or proper sense. 

When any object either of sublimity or beauty is pre- 
sented to the mind, we are conscious ot a train of thought 
being immediately awakened analogous to the character 
or expression of the original object. The landscapes of 
Claude, the music of Handel, the poetry of Milton* 
excite feeble emotions in our minds when our attention is 
confined to the qualities they present to our senses, or 
when it is to such qualities of their composition that we 
turn our regard. It is then only we feel the sublimity or 
beauty of their productions, when our imaginations are 
kindled by their power, when we lose ourselves amid the 
number of images that pass before our minds, or when we 
waken at last from the play of fancy as from the charm of 
a romantic dream. (Alison, c. i., sect. 1.) 

The trains of thought which are thus suggested are dis- 
tinguished in the nature of the ideas or conceptions which 
compose them, and in the nature or law of their succession. 
In the case of those trains of thought which are suggested 
by objects either of sublimity or heauty, they are in all 
cases composed of ideas capable of exciting some affection 
or emotion. Mr. Alison has supposed that not only the 
whole succession is accompanied with that peculiar emo- 
tion which we call the emotion of beauty or sublimity, 
but that every individual idea of such a succession is in 
itself productive of some simple emotion or other. But to 
this it has been objected, and we think truly, that such a 
train of images passing before the mind, and images accom- 
panied with lively emotion, could scarcely fail to be 
remembered by us ; or, at least, if they are not remem- 
bered by us, there is no reason, d priori, to suppose the 
existence of them. (Brown, Lectures on the Philosophy 
of the Human Mind, lecture lvii.) 

There is this distinction between the emotions of taste 
and all our different emotions of simple pleasure, that in 
the case of these last emotions no additional train of 
tliought is necessary. The pleasurable feeling follows im- 
mediately the presence of the object or quality, and has 
no dependence upon anything for its perfection but the 
sound state of the sense by which it is received. The 
emotions of envy, pity, benevolence, gratitude, utility, 



propriety, novelty, &c. might undoubtedly be felt, although 
we nad no such power of mind as that by which we fal- 
low out a' train of ideas, and certainly are felt in a thousand 



cases when this faculty is unemployed. In the case of 
the emotion of taste, on. the other hand, it seems evident 
that this process of mind is necessary, and that unless it 
is produced these emotions are unielt. Whatever may 
be the nature of that simple emotion which any object 
is fitted to excite, whether thai of gaiety, tranquility, 
melancholy, &c., if it produce not a train of kindred 
1 bought in our minds, we are conscious only of that 
simple emotion. Whenever, on the contrary, the train 
of thought which has been mentioned is produced, we 
are conscious of a higher and more pleasing emotion; 
and which, though it is impossible to describe in lan- 
guage, we yet distinguish by the name of the emotion 
of ta&te. The emotions of taste may therefore be con- 
sidered as distinguished from the emotions of simple plea- 
sure, by their being dependent upon the exercise oi our 



imagination ; and though founded in all case* upon waile 
emotion, as yet further requiring the employment <rf ths 
faculty for their existence s Essay i., concluMon, u a* 
Alison); or, rather than *h* employment (a word «Wh 
seems to intimate a deliberate intended act in the jav 
cess of imagination), as Dr. Brown would say, tht opera- 
tion of the common laws of suggestion in the mode to vfoca 
we apply the word imagination. 

The suggestion of trains of kindred or hirmonsag 
images which has been pointed out as distinguishiax tin 
emotion of taste, accounts for the more enlarged nucepQ- 
bility in some than in others of this emotion. The mm 
our ideas are increased or our conceptions extended upas 
any subject, the greater the number of association* n 
connect with it, the stronger is the emotion of wbtuotfy 
or beauty we receive from it. 4 What is it* ism s\l 
Alison) ' that constitutes that emotion of sublime dtligfc, 
which every man of common sensibility feels upon tht 
first prospect of Rome ? It is not the scene of aVrtroeuos 
which is before him. It is not the Tiber, diminished ■ 
his imagination to a paltry stream, and stagnating sad 
the ruins of that magnificence which it once adorned. 
It is not the triumph of superstition over the wreck d 
human greatness, and its monuments erected upon the 
very spot where the first honours of humanity have beet 

r'nea. It is antient Rome which fills his imajmHea, 
is the country of Caesar, and Cicero, and Virgu, whs* 
is before him. It is the mistress of the wodd which hi 
sees, and who seems to him to rise again from her Una* 
to give laws to the universe. All that the kboua of fan 
youth or the studies of his maturer age have acquosi 
with regard to the history of this great people, open it 
once before his imagination, and present him with t fttM 
of high and solemn imagery, which can never bt t> 
hausted.' 

* The beauty of a theory or of a relic of anbo/ntT ■ 
unintelligible to a peasant. The charms of the cooitry 
are altogether lost upon a citizen who has pawed 1m 
life in town/ It is on the principle in question tat 
Burke remarks that the excellence and force of i eon* 
position must always be imperfectly estimated fro©* 
effect on the minds of any, except we know the tenner ad 
character of those minds. (Introdstction to the mskm 
and Beautiful.) 

The rules by which taste is determined vary with fhi 
objects to which its decisions refer ; but in respect to ill 
this general principle holds, that a composition is to hi 
judged by its fitness to produce the end designed by it 
If to please, to instruct, to move, to create laughter, hi to 
design, its merits are to be determined by its aptitude to 
produce any of these effects. If its objects be to plet* 
kc. only a particular people or class, it is to be eotiisrtri 
under the given circumstances. If its object bt to gin 
pleasure or instruction to all ages and condiuoo* ot 
society, it is to be estimated by its correspondence w*i 
those universal principles of human nature which it coo* 
templates. That composition is the highest which woTtk 
last description. (Hume's Essay on the Standard qf Tbsst.) 

The reader who may desire to see this subject further db> 
cussed is referred to the article Beauty ; to Mr. AheWi 
Essays; to Brown's Lectures on the Philosophy o/ <** 
Human Mina\ lecture lvii. ; Hume's Essay on the StaasW 
of Taste. 

TATARS. [Tamaes.] 

TATE, NAHUM, was born in Dublin in the year le*i 
His lather was Dr. Faithful Tate, a clergyman m Irehni 
He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, whence hi 
removed to London. On the death of Shadwell in 16tt 
the interest of Tate's friends procured htm the situshoa of 
poet-laureate, which he held till his death. He **•»•* 
have been an improvident man, and somewhat addicted 
to intemperance. In the latter part of his life he resew 
in the precincts of the Mint, in Southwark, where he toei 
August 12, 1715. The Mint was then considered a pri- 
vileged place, where debtors were not liable to 
This supposed privilege however was put down by i 
9 Geo. I. 

Tate wrote * Memorials for the Learned, collected oat el 
eminent Authors in History,' 8vo., 1686 ; * Chsracten « 
Virtue and Vice described and attempted in Versa. &«■ 
a Treatise of Joseph Hall, Bishop of Kxon,' Lood M \m\\ 
• Miscellanea Sacra, or Poems on Divine and Moral w» 
jecta/ LoncL, 1666; 8ro. ; • Panacea, a Poen oo ft* 



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lend., IfOO; besides Birth-Da? Odes, and an Elegy on 
the death of Queen Mary. He was -also the author of 
about ten dramatic pieces, tragedy, comedy, and opera, 
including an alteration of Shakspere's * Lear,' which kept 
the stage many years, but has for some time been super- 
seded by the original. 

Tate is chiefly known now by his metrical version of 
the Psalms, which he executed in conjunction with Dr. 
Nicholas Brady [Brady], and which is now commonly 
annexed to the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of 
England. This version, though not of high merit, has 
deservedly taken the place of the former version by Stern- 
hold and Hopkins. [Sternhold.] The first publication 
was an • Essay of a New Version of the Psalms of David, 
consisting of the first Twenty, by N. Brady and N. Tate,' 
Lond., 1695, 8vo. ; this was followed by * A New Version 
of the Psalms of David, fitted to the Tunes used in the 
Churches, by N. Tate and N. Brady,' Lond., 1698, with a 
* Supplement of Church Hymns,' Lond., 1700, 8vo. 

(Baker's Biographia Dramatica, by Reed and Jones ; 
Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica.) 

TATLA/NUS, of Assyria, was a pupil of Justin Martyr, 
after whose death he wrote an apology for Christianity, 
nnder the title of * A Discourse to the Heathen ' (Aoyoc 
rpAc'EXXjfvac). I Q this work he gives some account of 
his own life. He was brought up in heathenism, the dif- 
ferent forms of which became known to him by his many 
travels ; and all those forms appeared to him unsatisfactory. 
He then turned his attention to the Old Testament, on 
which he thought he saw the impress of truth. Arriving 
tt Rome, where he practised as a rhetorician, he met with 
Justin Martyr, by wnom he was converted to Christianity. 

After the death of Justin he embraced some heretical 
opinions, the germs of which may be seen in his *Dis- 
eourse to the Heathen.' The chief of his heresies were the 
Marcionite doctrines of the two principles of good and evil, 
and of the evil of matter [MarcionitbsI, and the Valen- 
(inian doctrine concerning Aeons. His followers were how- 
ever chiefly remarkable for the practical application they 
made of their Marcionite opinions by lives of the strictest 
asceticism. They lived in celibacy, refused all luxuries, and 
abstained from the use of wine even at the Lord's Supper. 
Hence they were called Encratites (lyrpanrai), Apotac- 
tites (Aflror&cruroi), and Hydroparastatae (ytipoirapaararai). 
B«it it must be observed tnat these terms were often ap- 
plied to all ascetics. The Tatianists were Encratites, but 
all called Encratites were not Tatianists. The date of 
Taiian*! heresy is placed by Eusebius in the year a.d. 172. 

Of his lost worlcs the chief were a treatise on * Perfec- 
tion alter the Pattern of the Saviour ' (iri p« row icard. rbv 
tvrfya KaraoTUTfiov), and a ' Harmony of the Four Gospels ' 
{trmjyiXtov hid. ntrtraputv). The latter work is particularly 
noticed by Theodoret, who found 200 copies of it in the 
Syrian churches, which Jie took away from the people on 
account of the heresies contained in the book. For this 
reason, chiefly, Neander supposes that the Harmony of 
Tatian was not simply compiled from the narratives of the 
four Evangelists, but contained also many things out of 
the Apocryphal Gospels. Some writers, among whom is 
Lardner, think that Tatian's * Harmony ' is still extant in an 
Arabic MS. in the Vatican Library. 

His * Apology ' is usually printed with the works of Justin 
Martyr. There are separate editions of it by Gesner, 
Zurich, 1M6, fol. ; and by Worth, Oxon., 1700, 8vo. 

(Eusebius, Hist. Ecc., iv. 29 ; Hieronymus, De Fir. II- 
lust^ c. 29; Clemens Alexand., Strom., iii. 12; Lardner's 
Credibility, pt. ii., c. xiii., &c. ; xxxvi.,sec. 2; Neandcr's 
Gctch. der Christ. Relig. 1md Kirche, i., p. 7C2, and 
p. 1131.) • 

TATIUS, ACHILLES. [Achilles Tatius.] 

T ATTA . [Hindustan, xh., 221.] 

TATTERSHALL. [Lincolnshire^ 

TATTOOING is the name usually given to the custom, 
common among many uncivilized tribes, of marking the 
dan by punctures or incisions, and introducing into them 
coloured fluids, so as to produce an indelible stain. Tt is 
mentioned in Captain Cook's account of the South Sea 
islanders under the name tattowing; and, with trifling dif- 
ference in the orthography, the same name is applied by 
English writers to similar practices among other people. 
The word 4 tattoo' appears to be formed by a reduplication 
of & Polynesian verb « ta,' meaning to strike, and therefore to 
aQude to the method of performing the operation, and, if 



this supposition be correct, it has a eurious lesemblance to 
the English word tattoo, meaning a particular beat of the 
drum. 

From a passage in the book of Leviticus, chap, xix., 
v. 28, in which the Israelites are forbidden to mate any 
cuttings in their flesh for the dead, or to print any marks 
upon their bodies, it has been supposed that some custom 
resembling tattooing was practised in the time of Moses. 
A note upon this passage in the ' Pictorial Bible' states, 
that although tattooing seems to have been commonly re- 
garded in England rather as a custom of savage islanders 
than anything more, it is also an Oriental custom, and that 
too among people whose proximity to the Hebrews affords 
a reason for the prohibition contained in the text referred 
to. * The Bedouin Arabs, and those inhabitants of towns 
who are in any way allied to them,' observes the author of 
this note, * are scarcely less fond of such decorations than 
any islanders of the Pacific Ocean. This is particularly 
the case among the females, who, in general, have then 
legs and arms, their front from the neck to the waist, and 
even their chins, lips, and other prominent parts of the 
face marked with blue stains in the form of flowers, 
circles, bands, stars, and various fanciful figures. They 
have no figures of living objects, such being forbidden by 
their religion ; neither do they associate any superstitions 
with them, so far as we are able to ascertain. They pro- 
bably did both before the Mohammedan aera, as their de- 
scendants in the island of Malta do at present. The men 
there generally go about without their jackets, and with 
their sleeves tucked up above their elbows, and we scarcely 
recollect ever to have seen an arm, thus bare, which was not 
covered with religious emblems and figures of the Virgin, 
or of some saint under whose immediate protection the 
person thus marked conceived himself to be/ * Thus also,' 
proceeds the author, ' persons who visit the holy sepulchre 
and other sacred places in Palestine have commonly a 
mark impressed on the arm in testimony of their merito- 
rious pilgrimage.* The works of antient writers contain 
many notices of the practice of tattooing, as practised 
by several barbarous races. As to the Britons, Csesar 
merely describes their custom of staining their bodies with 
vitrum, or woad ; but * 8olinus represents the process as a 
laborious and painful one, but permanent in its effect ; and 
speaks of the painting as consisting chiefly of the figures 
of animals, that grew with the growth of the body. He- 
rodian says they punctured their bodies with the figures 
of all sorts of animals. Isidore is still more explicit ; for, 
in speaking of the Picts, whose name he derives from their 
coloured skins, he tells us that the painting was done by 
squeezing out the juice of certain herbs upon the body, 
and puncturing the figures with a needle.' (Pictorial 
History of England, vol. i., p. 129.) Caesar supposed 
that this practice was adopted for the purpose of terrifying 
their enemies ; but probably this kind of skin-painting 
was the national dress, and if so, it may have existed in 
its highest state of perfection at a period anterior to the 
Roman invasion. Tattooing may also have been practised 
by our ancestors as a means of distinction, as well as from 
the love of ornanient. Thus Herodotus, who describes the 
habits of the Thracians, says that to be tattooed or marked 
(Itrrix&zi) was an emblem of rank, and the want of it indi- 
cated meanness of descent (v. 6). Tne extended use of 
clothing at a later period rendered such ornaments super- 
fluous, and led to the decline and subsequent abandonment 
of the practice. ' It is therefore,' says the * Pictorial His- 
tory of England,' * that we hear no more of this tattooing 
in the south (of Britain) after it was subdued and civilised 
into a Roman province, though it still continued among 
the rude tribes of the north, where it lingered until rt 
was banished thence also by the full attire of civilization.' 
In a subsequent part of the same volume (p. 329) it is 
stated that the custom of tattooing, or punctnring the 
skin, was practised by the Anglo-Saxons as well as by the 
Britons, and that a law Was passed against it in the year 
785. It was nevertheless continued during the whole 
of the Anglo-Saxonperiod, and is among the English 
vices reprobated by William of Malmesbury after the Nor- 
man conquest. Several other antient notices on the sub- 
ject are collected by Lafitau, in his • Moeurs des Sauvages 
Amcriquaines,' which work is cited in the volume on the 
• New Zealanders' in the * Library ol Entertaining Know- 
ledge,' where much information respecting iattooing is 

given. „ 

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In modern times the custom of tattooing has been found 
& mcst of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, and among 
many of the aboriginal tribes of Africa and America, as well 
as, on a limited scale, as before stated, in the East. Much 
curious information on the various kinds of tattooing is col- 
lected in the volume on the * New Zealanders,' previously 
cited. From this work we condense the following account 
of the process of tattooing, as performed in New Zealand 
upon an English sailor, named John Rutherford, who was 
captured by the natives in 1816, and resided among them 
for nearly ten years, and upon some companions who were 
taken with him : — The natives having seated themselves 
on the ground in a ring, the Englishmen were placed in 
the middle, stripped of their clothes, laid down on their 
backs, and held by five or six men each, while two others 
commenced the operation of tattooing. Having taken a 
piece of charcoal, and rubbed it upon a stone with a little 
water, so as to produce a thick liquid, they dipped into it 
an instrument made of bone, with a sharp edge like a 
chisel, and shaped in the fashion of a garden-hoe. They 
then applied the instrument to the skin, and struck it twice 
or thrice with a piece of wood, thereby making it cut into 
the flesh as a knife would have done, and causing a great 
deal of blood to flow, which they kept wiping off with the 
Bide of the hand, in order to see whether the impression 
was made sufficiently clear. If not, they applied the 
cutting-instrument again to the same place- Various 
instruments were however employed in the course of the 
operation, one sort being made of a shark's tooth, and 
another having a serrated edge ; and they were used of 
different sizes, to suit the different parts of the work. 
Rutherford states that the pain was most acute, and that, 
although the operators were very quick and dexterous, he 
was four hours under their hands ; and he was completely 
blinded for a time by the operation. In three days the 
swelling occasioned by it had greatly subsided, and he 
began to recover his sight ; but six weeks elapsed before 
he was completely well. Rutherford's account agrees 
with those of other observers, excepting in the circum- 
stance of the whole operation being performed at once, 
while both Captain Cruise and Mr. Marsden state that it 
required several months, and sometimes several years, to 
complete the tattooing of a chief, owing to the necessity 
of allowing one part of the face or body to heal before 
commencing the decoration of another part ; but, besides 
the probability that this might apply only to the more 
intricate patterns, or to cases in which the tattooing ex- 
tended over a larger portion of the person than in the case 
of Rutherford, it is possible that the natives may have 
designed to put his powers of endurance to a severer test 
than would be required of a native. Captain Cruise states 
that the New Zealanders occasionally renew their tattooing, 
as the lines grow faint by lapse of time ; and from various 
accounts it would appear that the tincture introduced into 
the wound (on the edge of the cutting-instrument) is some- 
times obtained from the juice of a tree ; and that, before 
the cutting is commenced, the intended figure is traced 
upon the skin with a burnt stick, or a piece of red earth. 
Tne age for performing the operation appears to vary from 
eight or ten years up to about twenty ; and the females 
are not required to submit to anything beyond a slight 
tattooing of the face. Those among whom Rutherford 
Jived had the inside of their lips tattooed,* as well' as 
having marks on the chin, forehead, and sides of the nose 
and mouth ; while the men were commonly tattooed on 
the face, hips, and body, and some as low as the knee. 
The most complicated patterns are found upon chiefs of 
the highest order ; and their peculiar devices, or, as they 
are called, amocos, form distinctions which, in some cases, 
take the place of the sign-manual of the individuals to 
wnom they belong. An instance is related in the ' Mis- 
sionary Register* for 1816, in which a chief in the Bay of 
Islands, on making a grant or conveyance of a piece of 
land to some missionaries, had a drawing of the tattooing 
of his face affixed in lieu of a signature ; while an attesting 
witness added, in like manner, a copy of the pattern on 
one of his cheeks. Of the character of these patterns a 
better idea will be conveyed by the annexed bust of 
Shungie, copied from an engraving in the 'Missionary 

* According to the oanatireof the vovage or II.M.S. Blonde to the Sandwich 
lelands, the ladies of Hawaii (the Owhyhee of Captain Cook) follow the ain- 

Rlar practirt of tattooing the tip* of their tongue*, in memory of their departed 
end*. 



Register* for 1816, than by the most lengthened description. 
After it is inserted a copy of a drawing, executed byTopnj 
Cupa, a New Zealand chief, without the aid of s glim, 4 
his own amoco, or tattooed pattern. This intereatiojc la- 
dividual also drew from memory, while in Enjrjaad. tfc* 
amocos of his brother and of his eldest son ; and torn nt 
the force of association in his mind, that, on finishing the 
latter, he held it up, gazed at H with a murmur of sikt. 
tionate delight, kissed it repeatedly, and finally bust j* 
tears. 




Head of Strangle, from a carving by llmtrif 




Tattooing on the face of Tupai Cap*, from a drawing by 

The process of tattooing as practised, or rather » * 
was formerly practised, in other islands of the South Sa 
was less painful than that followed in New Zealand: to 
according to the account of Captain Cook, in *ome <*** 
the punctures could hardly be said to draw blood. The itr 
struments used were edged %with small teeth, somml** 
resembling those of a fine comb ; and, as in the ca* * f 
New Zealand, the colouring tincture was introducoi * 
the same operation as that by which the skin wat pic- 
tured ; the substance employed in some, places bejftf * 
kind of lamp-black. On the brown skins of the csiii<* 
the marks made with this substance appear black ; but <« 
the skin of a European they are of a fine blue colccr* 
Lafitau speaks of powdered charcoal as the colounrx- 
matter commonly used by the American Indisw; *» 
states that it was introduced by a process subsequent ts 
that of cutting or puncturing tne skin. This insertion w 
the colour appears to have oeen the most painful psrt « 
the operation of tattooing as practised among thee 

• Rntherford ttatea that the tattooiog on the iaaMe of Om lift * ** 
Zealand women appear* of a blue colour. t 



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In addition to the other reasons which have been al- 
luded to for the general adoption of the practice of 
tattooing among savage tribes, it is likely that it may 
be regarded as an important part of the initiation of a 
warrior, of whose passive courage it is a severe test. 
* Thus,' observes the author of the 'New Zealanders,' 'in 
the account which Rochefort, in his * History of the An- 
tilles ' (p. 108), gives of the initiation of a warrior among 
the people of those islands, it is stated that the father of 
the young man, after a very rude flagellation of his son, 
used to proceed to scarify (as he expresses it) his whole 
body with the tooth of the animal called the acouti ; and 
then, in order to heal the gashes thus made, he rubbed 
into them an infusion of pimento, which occasioned an 
agonizing pain to the poor patient ; but it was indispens- 
able that he should endure the whole, adds our author, 
without the least contortion of countenance or other evi- 
dence of suffering.' 

(Pictorial Bible, note on Levit. xix., 28 ; Pictorial His- 
fory of England, vol. i., pp. 129 and 329; New Zea- 
landers* * Lib. of Ent. Knowledge,' chapters vi. and xiv.) 

TAUBMANN, FRIEDRICH, was born at Wonsees, 
near Baireuth, on the 16th of May, 1565, where his father 
was a shoemaker. His father died very early; and his 
mother married a tailor, who wished to bring up his step- 
son Friedrich to his own business ; but as the boy showed 
little inclination, he was sent, in 1577* to school at Culm- 
bach, where he was obliged to gain his livelihood by sing- 
ing and begging. In 1582 he went to the gymnasium of 
Heilbronn, vrnere his Latin verses and the wit displayed 
in them were so much admired, that he was crowned by 
Paul Melissus as poet-laureate. Ten years later he went 
to the University of Wittenberg, where he distinguished 
himself, and, in 1595, was appointed professor of poetry 
and eloquence, to which afterwards the honour of court- 
poet was added. He died at Wittenberg, on the 24th of 
March, 1613. 

Taubmann was conscientious in the discharge of his 
official duties, and he was a witty and humorous man. 
During his lifetime he had the reputation of being the 
greatest wit of the age, and persons of the highest rank 
nought his society. From all that can be learned about 
him, it is clear that he did not, like many others in similar 
positions, forget his own dignity as a man : he never acted 
as a buffoon or flatterer, but always manifested a straight- 
forward and upright character. In his time philology 
was sinking very rapidly in Saxony, all attention being 
abforbed by theological controversies and sophistries, and 
Taubmann was one of the very few who, both in earnest 
and in jest, impressed upon his contemporaries the ne- 
cessity of resuming a thorough study of trie antient lan- 
fuages as the only means of raising theological studies to 
their proper position. This he did more especially in his 
work, *■ Dissertatio de Lingua Latina,' the last edition of 
which appeared at Wittenberg, 1614. With the same 
view he exerted himself in his lectures, and in his editions 
of Plautus (Wittenberg, 1621, 4to.) and of Virgil (Witten- 
berg 1618, 4to.), in which he made his countrymen ac- 
quainted with the labours of foreign scholars. His poetical 
works, though very popular in his time, have no great 
merit. They appeared in several collections, under the 
titles of * Columbae Poeticae,' ' Melodaesia,' * Schedias- 
mata Poetica,' and others. After Taubmann's death, the 
name of Taubmanniana was applied to all kinds of witty 
savings and anecdotes. 

(Erasmi Schmidii Oratio in Taubmanni Memoriam, 
Wittenberg, 1613, 8vo. ; Taubmanniana, oder Fr. Taub- 
mann s Leben, Anecdoten, witzige Einfdlle und Sitten- 
tpriirke, von Simon von Gyrene, Leipzig, 1797, 8vo. ; Fr. 
Brandt, Leben und Tod Frid. Taubmanni, Copenhagen, 
*1675, 870. : the best work however is by Ebert, Leben und 
Verdienste Fr. Taubmanna, Eisenberg, 1814, 8vo.) 

TAULER, or THAULER, JOHANN, the most cele- 
brated German divine of the fourteenth century. He was 
born in 1294, as some writers say, at Cologne, but accord- 
ing to others at Strassburg. Respecting his life very little 
i* known. He entered the order of the Dominicans at an 
early age, and was held in the highest esteem on account 
of hi* knowledge of philosophy and mystic theology, as 
well as for his pious and unblemished conduct, although 
he fearlessly attacked the vices and follies of his fellow- 
monks. The latter part of his life he spent in the convent 
of the Dominicans at Strassburg, where he died on the 



16th of June, 1361, as is attested by his tomb-stone, which 
still exists in that city. 

Tauler was a man of extraordinary piety and devotion, a 
zealous teacher, and a great promoter of mystic theology in 
Germany, which must regard him not only as the founder 
of that school of divinity, but at the same time as one of 
the greatest men that have ever sprung from it. His ser- 
mons, as well as his other religious and ascetic works, show 
a glowing imagination and deep feeling: they are less 
addressed to the understanding than to the heart. But 
although this leaning and his love of the mysterious fre- 
quently led him to religious sentimentality and absurdities, 
yet he never sinks down to the level of some modern mys- 
tic divines. Tauler was deeply read in scholastic philoso- 
phy, and although in his sermons he endeavours to steer 
clear of it, yet they are not quite free from sophistic sub- 
tleties, and there are passages which must have puzzled more 
than enlightened his audience. In his love of truth, and 
the earnestness with which he devoted himself to the instruc- 
tion of the people, he was a worthy predecessor of Luther 
Tauler's influence upon the German language and litera- 
ture has acquired for him as distinguished a place in the 
history of German literature as that which he occupies 
among divines. In his time German prose scarcely existed, 
and the standard of sermon-writing was very low. The 
creation of a prose literature belongs almost exclusively 
to him : his style seldom aims at oratorical beauty, his 
sentences are short and abrupt, but always full of mean- 
ing. His language, which is the dialect of the Upper 
Rhine, is as pure as can be expected. It appears tnat 
Tauler did not himself write his sermons, but they were 
taken down as they were preached, by many of his hearers. 
We must therefore suppose that in the editions which 
were published shortly after his death, the form has been 
somewhat altered by the editors. The first edition of his 
sermons appeared at Leipzig, 1498, in 4to., under the fol- 
lowing title : ' Sermon des grossgelarten in gnaden erleuch- 
tetenDoctorisJohannisTauleri predigerr ordens, weisende 
auff den nehesten waren wegk, yn geiste czu wandem 
durch uberschwebenden syn, unvoracht von geistes ynnige 
vorwandelt T deutsch manchen menschen zu selikeit.* 
This edition was followed by another at Augsburg, 1508, 
fol., and a more complete one at Basel, 1521, fol. A 
translation of these sermons into the dialect of Lower 
Germany was published at Halberstadt, in 1523, fol., and 
another into High German by P. J. Spener, at Numberg, 
1688, 4to. A new edition in modern High German was 
published at Frankfurt-on-the-Main, in 3 vols. 8vo., 1825, 
&c. The most interesting among his other religious 
works is that on the imitation of the life of Christy ' Nach- 
folgungdesarmen Lebens Christi,' which was first printed 
at Frankfurt in 1621. The most recent edition is that by 
Schlosser, Frankf., 1833. A collection of all the treatises 
of Tauler was commenced in 1823, at Luzern, by N. Cas- 
seder, but only two volumes have appeared. 

Most of the works of Tauler were translated into Latin 
by Laurentius Surius, Cologne, 1548, fol. : this collection 
has been reprinted at Macerata and Paris. There are 
also one Italian and three Dutch translations : the best of 
the Dutch translations is that of Antwerp, 1685, fol. 

A list of the works of Tauler, together with the whole 
literature on the subject, is given in Jorden's Lexicon 
Deutscher Dichter und Prosaisten, vol. v., p. 1-9. 

TAUNTON, an antient town in the south-western part 
of Somersetshire, situated in a fertile vale called Taunton 
Dean, and distant 141 miles from London, 44 from Bristol, 
and 33 from Exeter. Roman coins and other antiquities 
have been found, from which it has been inferred that 
there was a Roman station here. Taunton was certainly 
a place of considerable importance in the Anglo-Saxon 
period ; and in the eighth century a castle was built here 
by Ina, king of the West Saxons, in which he held his first 
great council. The building was destroyed by his queen 
in expelling one of the kings of the South Saxons. An 
other castle was built after the Conquest by one of the 
bishops of Winchester, to whom the town and manor were 
granted ; and the present remains are believed to be those 
of a still more recent edifice. Perkin Warbeck held pos- 
session of the castle and town for a short time ; and in the 
civil wars the town sustained a long siege under Colonel 
(afterwards Admiral) Blake, against 10,000 royalist troops, 
until relieved by Fairfax. 

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wel pared, and lighted with gas ; and the houses of brick, j 
of respectable appearance. Apart from the main tho- ' 
roughfares are some very poor streets, which, before the ! 
enlargement of the borough, were inhabited by persons 
desirous of profiting by the parliamentary franchise. The , 
woollen manufacture was established at Taunton in the 
fourteenth century, but has long since decayed; and at 
present the silk manufacture is carried on, though not to 
any great extent. The river Tone flows on the north- 
western side of the town, and is crossed by a stone bridge 
of two arches ; but the river is only partially navigable, and 
in 1811 a canal was projected between Taunton and Bridge- 
water, a distance of 12 J miles. This canal is of great impor- 
tance to the prosperity of the town and district, bv enabling 
it to export agricultural and other produce to Bristol and 
other places, from which it receives groceries, coal, and 
other commodities in return : there is a branch from this 
canal to Chard. In July, 1842, the railway from Bristol to 
Exeter was opened as far as Taunton, so that there is now 
a railway communication with the metropolis. The 
markets, held twice a week, are very abundantly supplied 
with fish, fruit, and every kind of provisions. The market- 
house stands in a spacious open area called the Parade, and 
is a brick building of considerable size ; the upper part 
comprises the guildhall and an assembly-room, and the 
lower part consists of an arcade on each side, in one of 
which the corn-market is held. On market-days the Pa- 
rade, which is enclosed by iron posts and chains, is occu- 
pied by butchers' stalls. On the west side of the Parade 
there is a handsome building of the Ionic order, erected in 
1821, the upper part of which is appropriated as a library, 
museum, and reading-room ; and underneath, and in the 
rear, are the markets for fish, poultry, dairy produce, &c. 
The Taunton and Somerset Institution, established in 1823, 
contains a good though not extensive library, and a large 

Eublic reading and news room. The theatre is a small neat 
uilding. Two weekly newspapers are published at Taun- 
ton. There are three churches. The church of St. Mary 
Magdalen is a spacious and very handsome edifice in the 
florid Gothic style. The quadrangular tower at the west 
end, 153 feet high, is much enriched, and is a work of 
great beauty. The value of the living, which is a vicarage, 
js not given in the Reports of the Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioners. St. James's church is a plain edifice, with an an- 
tient square tower formerly belonging to the conventual 
church of the priory. The living is a perpetual curncy, of 
the annual value ot 255/. Trinity church was consecrated 
lSth June, 1842. It is in the Gothic style, built of white 
lias stone, with dressings of Bath stone, and contains sittings 
for above one thousand persons. It stands on elevated 
ground, about half a mile from the parish church, in a poor 
and populous part of the town. There are two chapels be- 
longing to the Wesleyan Methodists, one erected in 1778 
under the direction of Wesley. The Roman Catholics, 
Independents, Baptists, Quakers, and Unitarians have 
chapels. The free foammar-school was founded by Fox, 
bishop of Winchester, in 1522. The premises are situated 
within the castle-sate, and consist ot a large and antient 
school-room, and under the same roof is the dwelling- 
house of the master. The endowment is worth about 3(3/. 
a year. The number of infant, Sunday, and daily schools 
at Taunton was stated in 1833 to be very inadequate, and 
a large number of poor children were at that time receiving 
po education. There are various almshouses and other 
charities* all of which are noticed in the Report of the 
Charity Commissioners * vol. v., p. 484-542). Trie Taunton 
and Somerset hospital was opened in 1812; and there are 
other medical charities. 

Charles I. granted the burgesses a charter of incor- 
poration. In the reign of Charles II. they were de- 
prived of this charter, in consequence of the town having 
displayed so much zeal for the parliament, but it was re- 
stored, and in 1792 became forfeited by the corporate 
body having neglected to fill up vacancies. The town 
then came under the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, 
tnd is still without a municipal government. The bailiffs 
and constables, as the principal officers of the town, take a 
prominent part in all public proceedings. Taunton has 
returned members to parliament since 1295 (23 Henry I.). 
Before the Reform Act the right of election was in the 
pot wallers who had been six months resident and were 
not in the receipt of charitable relief. The town having 
outgrown tttt antient limits of the borough, which was 



wholly within the parish of St. Mary Magdalen, a or* 
boundary was adopted, so as to comprise part* of th* fal- 
lowing parishes: — St. Mary Magdalen on the esat fr. 
James's on the north, Bishop's Hull on the we*, sad 
Wilton on the south. By this extension the poputaka «t 
the borough was increased from 5580 to 12,148, actortac 
to t he census of 1831 . In 1826 the number of elector* pUWiJ 
was 739; in 1840 the number on the register amotntfrd t* 
1010, including 216 of the old potwallers. Two mcraUn 
are returned to parliament. The Lent amazes and uV 
Michaelmas quarter-sessions are held at Taunton. TW 
is a court for debts under forty shillings, the jurbdirtioo c( 
which extends over the hundred. There is no prim, « 
cept a lock-up or place of temporary confinement. TV- 
county courts and offices are within an irregular (juadnttfi' 
consisting of the remains of the castle. 

(Toulmin's Hist, qf Taunton, 1791 ; a new emtio* ^ 
Savage, 1822.) 

TAUNUS. rGKRMANY.l 

TAURELLIUS, L. [Torklli.1 

TAUTilCA CHERSONE'SUS was the antient nam <rf 
the peninsula which juts out southwards from Ecropro 
Sarmatia, between the Pontus Euxinus (Black 8t» uJ 
the Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azof) : it is now call«d iu 
Crimea. It is called Chersonesus Trachea by Hero*** 
who compares it to the promontory of Sunium (tr.tt> 
Its form, size, and physical features are deKnbri 
under Crimea. The isthmus which connects it uri 
the mainland was called Taphros or Taphrae <w 
T6<ppai) y and there appears to have been a tow* of tW 
same name upon the isthmus.* (Strata, rii., p. 3», 
Pliny, iv. 26 ; Mela, ii. 1.) On the west of this nthw 
was the Sinus Carcinites (K&irpc 6 Kapcmrfflt no* tk 
Gulf of Perekop ; and on the east the shallow wates Una 
as now, called the Putrid Sea or Lake (« Z«*y4 A**, 
Palus Putris). The south-western point of the pspiwiw 
was the promontory Parthenion (r& nap$iv%ov% wktca b 
either the modern Cape Chersonese, or another praaaafonr 
farther south, in the neighbourhood of the town of fomta 
Gheorghi. The southern promontory was catt«d Cnv 
Metopon (KptoS pkrutovy, and either the south-eaten « 
the eastern point of the island was called Coral (r» JUpi 
durpov). On the east the peninsula is divided fna th« 
coast of Asia by the Cimmerian Bosporus (4 Imf** 
Bo<riropoc), now the Strait of Kertch or Yenikale. On tfe 
south-western side of the peninsula is a small ptaHW* 
terminated by Cape Khersonese, and enclosed oo ibr 
north by the Gulf of Achtiar, the antient Porta* Kfca* 
(KrfvoDf), and on the south by the Gulf of Balakkva, nV 
antient Portus Symbolorum (£t>p/3<»Xa*v Xi^vU On tin 
peninsula, at the distance of 100 stadia from the promon- 
tory Parthenion (Strabo), stood the city of Chenwnwii 
Xtfp6vij<roQ) or Cherrone (Mela), the full name of *tod> 
was Chersonesus Heracleotica. It was a colony of H«v 
clea in Pontus. The peninsula itself was called the Sea/* 
Chersonesus, and the Chersonesus Taurica was sonrnsm 
called the Great Chersonesus, to distinguish it from rt» 
part of itself. The other important towns were, on tte 
isthmus, Taphros (^ To^poc), now Perekop ; on tht *«* 
coast Eupatoria (E6*-aro ( M<i), now Eupatoria or ksik* 
built by Mithridates Eupator; on the east coast Pro- 
dosia (ij Qtotoffia, or 17 &tvto<xia\ now Keia or rVosVm 
a colony of the Milesians ; at the eastern end of tbewlmA 
on the Bosporus, Panticapaeum or Bosporus ( Uoyt v* i — . 
now Kertch. There were several towns in the interior. «t 
which the only one worth mentioning is Cimmerkm. r -"» 
Eski-Krim, that is, Old Krim. 

The earliest inhabitants of the peninsula appear to h><t 
been the Cimmerians, some of whom remained in H rta 
the great body of the nation had been driven (torn tbrir 
seats round the Palus Maeotis by the Scythians. (Hr^- 
iv. 1, 11, 12.) Clear traces of this people remain in the 
names of Cimmcrion, the Cimmerian Bosporus, the Om- 
merian Chersonesus (as the peninsula was sometnftA 
called), and in its modern names of Crimea and Cam- 
Tartary. In the earliest notices of the Chersonesus. bj 
Greek writers, we find the mountainous region <* tf* 
south and south-east inhabited by a piratical people, caM 

• Thb name wm probably derhwl from a dileh which la t»rj a*tir«i i-w* 
ran acroM th« Uthmut, and which Appear* to hatv tato fcrtjAnl «-** •**> 
This ditch tnu« not be confound*! with that OMStioord by Hcrodutas (h W\ 
which appear* to have bceu in the prninaula iUrlf. and at tht — * m f*t ■ 
H. {Htebubt, rtrwitcMt* StAriftm, i.,p.lS7; Mb**, notr on *» f»«F * 
Htfodotut, *▼. 3.; 



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the Tnuii from whom the Chersonesus was called Taurica, 
aid whose name remains in that of the modern Russian 
province of Taurida, in which the Crimea is included. 
Who these Tauri were is a question of some difficulty. 
Strabo (p. 308) calls them a Scythian people, but Hero- 
dotus (iv. 99) clearly distinguishes the Tauri from the 
Scythians, as being a different nation. The inhabitants of 
the whole or a part of the peninsula are not unfrequently 
called Seythotauri or Tauroscythae. Judging from this 
mixed name, from the testimony of Herodotus to the two 
tacts that the Tauri were a different people from the 
Scythians, and that the Scythians did not drive out all the 
Cimmerians from the peninsula, and, lastly, from several 
analogous cases,* it seems most probable that the Tauri 
were a remnant of the old Cimmerian inhabitants, who had 
maintained themselves in the mountains against the 
Scythian invaders. The name ' Tauri * is supposed to be 
derived from an old root * Tau,' meaning a mountain. 
The Tauri were reputed by the Greeks to be inhospi- 
table and cruel to strangers: they were said to offer 
human acrifices, especially of shipwrecked mariners, to a 
nnjin goddess, whom, according to Herodotus, the Tauri 
themselves identified with Iphigeneia, the daughter of 
Agamemnon, and whose temple stood on the promontory 
ofParthenion. (Herodot, iv. 103: Strabo, p. 308; Mela, 
ii. 1; Diod. Sic, iv. 44.) This legend enters into the 
composition of the * Iphigeneia in Tauris ' of Euripides, 
aud is several times referred to by the Roman poets. 

From about the sixth century before Christ downwards, 
serenl Greek colonies were planted on the Chersonese, 
tod these were gradually formed into two states, that of 
Chenonesus, comprehending the smaller peninsula on the 
south-west, and the kingdom of Bosporus on the south- 
rat. These two states were united under Mithridates. 
[Bosroaus.) 

Further information respecting the geography and his- 
tory of the peninsula and of the adjoining delta of the 
Kuban is gyen under Crimea and Taman. 

TAUKrDA, one of the governments of South Russia, 
sometimes called the government of Simferopol, situ- 
ated on the Black Sea, consists of— 1st, the Crimea or 
Tauric Peninsula ; 2nd, the Nogay Steppe, with the island 
of Taman [Taman] ; 3rd, the country of the Tscherno- 
morek Cossacks. It is bounded on the north-west by 
Kbenon, on the north-east by the country of the Don 
Cofflacks, on the east by Caucasia, on the south-east by the 
Kuban, and on the south by the Black Sea. The Crimea 
and all its principal towns are described under the respec- 
tive heads. [Baktschisarai ; Crimea ; Kaffa ; Skuas- 
topol; Simferopol.] The area of the whole is 35,000 
square miles, with 520,000 inhabitants of many different 
nations, Tartars, Cossacks, Russians, Jews, Gypsies, Ger- 
mans, and other foreign colonists, &c. It lies between 
44* # and 47° SO' N. lat, and between 31° 25' and 40° 25' 
E-long. The Nogay Steppe includes the whole of the ex- 
tensive country from the Dnieper and its limans to the 
Buda. It is a dry elevated steppe on a basis of granite. 
The country has precisely the character of a Russian 
•teDpe : the soil is dry, poor, in part sandy, and saltish, 
without wood ; but there are here and there extensive hol- 
'owi with rich black mould, which produce the finest grass. 
The climate is extremely mild, and differs little from 
that of the peninsula. The winter, though short, is severe. 
The only rivers are those which form the boundaries : the 
Dnieper on the north-west, the Konski Wodi on the north, 
and the Buda on the east. On the south-east is the Sea 
of Azof, and on the west the Black Sea. 

The land of the Tschernomorsk Cossacks including the 
J^&nd or peninsula of Taman, is bounded on the north 
ty the country of the Don Cossacks, on the east by 
Caucasa, on the south by the river Kuban, and on the 
w «t brthe Sea of Azof, and is separated irom the Crimea 
*ty bj the strait of Yenikale, which connects the Sea of 
Anf with the Euxine. The coast is sandy, flat, and forms 
*»»* considerable bays or inlets, called by the Russians 
Juntas, the most considerable of which is the Besugakoi, 
D **rty in the middle of the country. It is an immense 
P l *»u, with a few hills in the south, belonging to the Cau- 

__ fo rennpie, in our own ialaud (he very nne thing has happened to a 
^"••hom wme think (on account of their name) to be «i branch of thi» 
73 < 2*«*» fcmUy. the Cvmry. who, in the mountain* of Wale*, meem- 
I * U J BMetBd the Saion and Norman invaders. 



casian system, consisting in general of very fertile lowlands, 
which are well adapted for agriculture, but are for the most 
part used as pasture for cattle : the remainder consists of a 
poor saline soil ; and there are some small lakes with salt 
water: the climate is very mild. The principal rivers are 
the Kuban, on the south, which separates it from Circassia. 
and discharges itself on the south of Taman by a very broad 
liman, and the Iega,on the north frontier next the country 
of the Don Cossacks, which is joined by several small 
streams, and empties itself by a considerable liman into 
the Sea of Azof. The small streams in the interior fal. 
into the Sea of Azof, one of which, the Besuga, forms at 
its mouth the liman Besugakoi. 

The countries forming the government of Taurida were 
inhabited in antient times bv the Scythians and by Greek 
colonists. Since the time of Herodotus, in the filth cen- 
tury B.c, they have been successively conquered and 
ravaged by many different nations. They have been 
subject to the kings of the Bosporus, the Romans, the 
Sarmatians, then to the Greek emperors, and at the end 
of the twelfth century partly to the Genoese ; they were 
conquered in the thirteenth century by the Tartars, and at 
the end of the fifteenth by the Turks. Mohammed II. 
made himself master of Taurida* in 1475, and expelled the 
Genoese and the Venetians, the former of whom possessed 
Kaffa and Kherson, and the latter had the colony of Tana. 
Subsequently to 1698 the Russian armies repeatedly pene- 
trated into the Crimea, the inhabitants of whicn often 
made predatory incursions into the neighbouring countries. 
It was not however till 1771 that the country was really 
conquered by Dolgorucky, and the Porte compelled, in 
1774, at the peace of Kutschuk-Kainardji, to recognise the 
Crimea as an independent country, to be governed by a 
khan chosen by the nation, and to recognise the sultan as 
their head in religious matters only. The khan Sahen 
Ghierai, whose election had been supported by the Rus- 
sians, being pressed by the Turkish party, was at length 
induced to seek refuge in St. Petersburg. Russia now de- 
clared the Crimea to be her property, and the Porte, to 
avoid a new war, ceded it wholly to Russia, in January,, 
1784. The khan received a pension from Russia, and in 
the sequel retired to Turkey, but in 1787 was beheaded in 
the Isle of Rhodes by the sultan's order. Sultan Fajli 
Ghierai is his lineal descendant, who lives (or at least did 
live some years ago) in Simferopol, is a Christian, and 
is married to a Scotchwoman. The Crimea and the pro- 
vinces dependent on it were formed into a government in 
1784, by the name of Taurida, and incorporated with the 
Russian empire. The empress Catherine II. added to the 
imperial titles that of Czar of the Tauric Chersonese, and 
conferred on Prince Potemkin, who had been instru- 
mental in bringing about, not without violence, the sub- 
mission of the Tartar inhabitants, the surname of the Tau- 
rian. The Porte indeed appointed a new khan in 1786. 
and demanded that the Crimea should be replaced on the 
footing stipulated in the last peace ; but it was obliged fo 
cede it for ever to Russia in the peace of 1792. Tauridc 
was at first a province of the government of Ekaterinoslav ; 
in 1797 it was incorporated with the government of New 
Russia ; and in 1802 it was made a distinct government by 
the emperor Alexander. 

Among the numerous authorities that might be quoted, 
besides those already cited under the heads of the 
Crimea, Odessa, &c, we may mention Muraview Apostol, 
Reise durch Taurien> 1820; Eichwald, Alte Geographie 
des Kaspischen Meeres des Kaukasus, und des siidlichen 
Russlands, 1838 ; and for the NogayTartars, Daniel Schlatter, 
of St. Gallen, Bruckstucke aus eigenen Reisen nach dent 
sudltchen Russland in den Jahren 1822-1828. 

TAURINE, a peculiar crystaJlizable substance con- 
tained in the bile- Its properties are, that it has the 
form of a six-sided prism terminated by pyramids of fouv 
or six faces ; the crystals are gritty between the teeth, and 
have a sharpish taste, which is neither sweet nor saline : 
they undergo no alteration by exposure to the air even 
at 212°, and have neither an acid nor an alkaline reaction* 
When heated in the naked fire, this substance become* 
brown, fuses into a thick liquid, swells up, exhales a 
sweetish empyreumatic odour resembling that of burn- 
ing indigo, and leaves a charcoal, which is readily burnt : 
when submitted to dry distillation, it yields much thicl» 
brown oil, and a little yellow acidulous water, which holda 



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til ammoniacal salt in solution, and reddens a solution of 
perchloride of iron ; one part requires 15J parts of water at 
54* for solution; it is much more soluble in boiling 
water, and the excess crystallizes on cooling ; it is but 
little soluble even in boiling alcohol of sp. gr. 835, 
and is nearly insoluble in absolute alcohol. Concen- 
trated sulphuric acid dissolves and forms a light brown 
solution with taurine ; nitric acid readily dissolves it, and 
when the acid is evaporated, it is left unaltered. 

TAUUIS. [Tabriz.] 

TAUROMEWUM, now TAORMI'NA, a town in 
the northern part of the east coast of Sicily. The antient 
name, Tauromenium (Taupofiiviov), like that of the river 
Tauromenius (the modern Alcantara), at the mouth of 
which the town was situated, was derived from Mount 
Taurus, on which the town was built. Diodorus Siculus 
gives two apparently contradictory accounts of its foun- 
dation, though both agree in the main point, that Tauro- 
menium was founded by the inhabitants of the antient 
town of Naxos, which lay a few miles south of Taurome- 
nium. In one passage (xiv. 59) he states that dur- 
ing the war of Dionysius the Tyrant with Himilco, the 
latter induced the Siculi, who had previously received 
from Dionysius the town of Naxos and its territory, to 
occupy Mount Taurus, and to fortify themselves there ; 
and after the termination of the war in favour of the Car- 
thaginians, the Siculi, about 392 B.C., formed a permanent 
settlement on Mount Taurus, which they called Tauro- 
menium. The other account (Diodor. Sic, xvi. 7) places 
the building of the town somewhat later, inasmuch as it 
states that it was founded by Andromachus, the father of 
Timaeus the historian, in conjunction with the inhabitants 
of the destroyed town of Naxos ; but in this account An- 
dromachus himself is called Wauromenian, which implies 
the previous existence of Tauromenium. Consequently 
Diodorus can only have meant to say that Andromachus 
assigned to the homeless Naxians habitations in the already 
existing town of Tauromenium, and that he agreed witli 
them in the name of Tauromenium being preserved. 
(Wesseling ad Diodor. Sic, vol. vi. t p. 552, ed. Bipont.) 
Strabo (vi., p. 27, ed. Tauchnitz) calls Tauromenium a- 
colony of the Zanclaeans of Hybla. Soon after its founda- 
tion the new town appears to have become very wealthy 
and powerful. Agatnocles, the tyrant of Syracuse, put 
to death a great number of the inhabitants who had op- 
posed his usurpation. (Diodor. Sic, xix. 102.) In the 
time of Pyrrhus the town was governed by a tyrant, Tyn- 
darion, who supported the king on his landing in Sicily. 
After the subjugation of Sicily by the Romans, Taurome- 
nium became a ' civitas foederata ;' and being thus under 
the immediate protection of Rome, it enjoyed a long 
peace, during which its prosperity increased. (Cicero, 
in Verrem, ii., 66.) In the time of Verres the town con- 
tained many statues of this propraetor, all of which, after 
his departure, were destroyed, except the pedestal of one 
which stood in the market-place, which was left standing 
to mark the disgrace of the Roman governor. In the war 
of Caesar with Pompey, Tauromenium was in the possession 
of the Pompeian party ; but when Caesar made himself 
master of it, he expelled the inhabitants, and established 
a Roman colony there. (Appian, De Bella Cirili, v. 103, 
105, 109 ; Pliny, Hi*t. Nat., lii. 14 ; Velleiifl Paterc, ii., 
79.) 

Taormina at present contains about 6000 inhabitants : 
its situation on a steep rock on the sea-coast is magnificent. 
It contains considerable ruins of antient buildings, espe- 
cially a theatre of gigantic dimensions, the seats of which 
are cut in the rock, which projects into the sea. This 
theatre and the aqueduct, or, as it is generally called, a 
naumachia, of which there are remains, were not con- 
structed till the time of the empire. On the hills which 
rise above Taormina there are ruins of several castles, and 
among them one is very remarkable, which is called Mola, 
and was built in the ninth century of*our sera by the 
Saracens, who took the town by storm after a long and 
brave resistance by the inhabitants. 

The principal deity worshipped by the antient Tauro- 
menians was Apollo, which confirms the statement that 
the town was a settlement of the Naxians, among whom 
Apollo was the national divinity. An Apollo, with a 
wreath of laurel round his head, occurs on many coins 
found at Tauromenium, with the inscription APXArRTA, 



or APXAPETA2 ; and the reverse shows a tripod. 1 
probably indicates that Naxos was founded under tt* 
sanction of the Delphic god. Other coins show the hmmd 
of Dionysius or of Athena. There is one coin, one ss<W W 
which represents a Iwad of Jupiter, and the other sm 
eagle with the thunderbolts. Hie name of the Umt 
is expressed on the coins by Tavpo, Tavpp, Tm^nn. 
or Tavpofiivirav. (Eckhel, Voctrma Xum., L. put i„ 
p. 247, &c. ; Mionnet, i., p. 324, &c. ; Supplem-, i„ p. +> 
i*c) 

TAURUS, MOUNT (J Tavpog), in the opinion of \l* 
later Greek geographers, was a great chain of mounts^ 
which extended nearly due east and west from the «h«A-r» 
of the jEgean to those of the supposed Eastern Qeeaa. 
and divided Asia into two parts, Alia within the Tann* 
(tvrbc rov Tavpov), and Asia without the Taurus Kirn* r*» 
Tampon). Tneir notions respecting this chain were bj mo 
means accurate, and indeed only a small part of iir»« 
really bore the name. 

The chain of Taurus, properly so called, commnm a. 
the south-western point of Asia Minor, and proceed^ 
eastward parallel and near to the Mediterranesux. U en- 
closes between itself and the coast the narrow »trip ** 
land which formed Pamphylia and Cilicia. At the m»r 
Pvramus the chain divides into two, that of Aminu 
which proceeds to the east, dividing Syria from Aus 
Minor [Amanus], and the continuation of Tauru*, mluck 
runs north-east, along the south-east side of Cappadtxn. 
across the Euphrates into the northern part of Armcmt. 
where it joins Mount Masius. This chain now bean ti* 
name of Enamas, Ramadan, and Gourin. 

In Cappadocia the Taurus throws off a great brazci 
which was called the Anti-Taurus (A 'Amravpocw sai 
which passes through the middle of Cappadocia. north- 
east to the sources of the Halys, and thence ea>t to the 
Euphrates. Its modern name is Alidagh. At Stlatfe 
(Siwas) this chain joins that of the Paryadres (Ch&h*»)u . 
which extends north-east as far as the mountains of Aram. 
In modern geography the whole chain from the ssstk- 
west of Asia Minor to Ararat bears the name of Taarat* 
The name itself is probably merely a form of a root wiaca 
occurs in several Oriental languages, meaning mountain. 

(Rennell's Geography of Herodotus, i. 228, &c ; Se tt- 
litz's Alte Geographic) [Anatolia.] 

TAURUS (the Bull), the second constellation of tW 
Zodiac. Its position in the heavens, surrounded by Ants 
Eridanus, Orion, and Perseus, is easily obtained by tW 
manner in which its bright star Aldkbaaax is connected 
with the belt of Orion. In all speculations upon the «xp* 
of the zodiac, Taurus must be an important object of con- 
sideration, since, at the earliest date which prudent spe- 
culation can consider it advisable to begin from, Aldc-bam 
must have been at no great distance from the \<nxl 
equinox. Referring this point however to the article to 
the zodiac, we shall merely notice tliat the Greeks, *» 
usual, attribute but a paltry mythological origin to tt* 
striking constellation ; the fables of Europa and Io beis* 
the only ones alluded to in statements of its mythologies} 
meaning. 

The figure is only a part of a bull, the head, shoulders. 
and fore legs. Aldebaran and the Hyades form the fore- 
head and eye, and the Pleiades are in the shoulder. But 
Aratus must have drawn the figure differently, for be p«i r * 
the Pleiades in the knees. 

The Hyades form a group, of which five (some of th* 
antients said seven) are distinctly visible to the naked e*e. 
o, 0, y, £, and f of the constellation : there are many more" it. 
the cluster. These stars are arranged in the form of a V. 
a and i being the extremes, and y at the angular r>nat. 
The star a is Aldebaran. The name seems to be dcnTni 
from Cm/, to rain. The Latin* called them tucuLr ;UttW 
pigs, no doubt meaning Aldebaran for the sow, and the 
others for her offspring), a name which Cicero and other* 
state to have arisen from supposing the Greek word to bar* 
been from foe (pigs), and not from foiv. We think bowe*<r 
it may be possible that they were right in their idea of the 
Greek word: the large star and the cluster of small onr* 
might very easily suggest the notion of a sow and her 
litter. 

The Pleiades are so close a group of start that it b very 
difficult to say how many are seen by the naked eyc. 
•They are called seven,' says Higinus, * but no ooe can see 



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more than six :' and six seems to be the number generally 
fiable, though there are many more in the cluster. These 
stare are 17, 19, 20, 23, 25, and 26 of Flamsteed. There is 
accordingly a supposition that some one star, once visible, 
has now changed its magnitude, or disappeared altogether. 



TAURUS PONIATOWSKI, a constellation formed by 
'he Abbe Poczobut, a Polish astronomer \ bom in 1728: we 
do not know the year of his death ; but Lalande mentions 
hu having resumed his observations at Wilna in 1802), in 

* 3 Turn of Flomstred has its only existence in a mistaken entrv ; and 
*. ' " fl. 100, and 138 the mine. 

** * Hcrschpl nyt this star is lost; and M. Lalande says that it is not 
-* - *n*L hi* however still in its place. Probably it is a variable star,* 

... - » v» 23 Aurig» (>). 

P. C, No. 1501. 



honour of the reigning king of Poland, and adopted in the 
French (Fortin's) edition of Flamsteed's maps (or rather 
added to the plates). Poczobut, in 1778, proposed this 
constellation to the French and other academies, by whom 
it was received. Bode conjectures that a resemblance of 
certain very small stars in it to the figure of the Hyades 
was the reason for the first word of the name. It is situated 
between Aquila and Ophiuchus, and the Astronomical 
Society's Catalogue mentions one star of it, of the sixth 
magnitude, being 2070 of that catalogue, and (328) of 

TAUSAN, TAUSSEN, or TAGESEN, JOHN, the first 
Danish theologian who made his countrymen acquainted 
with the principles of the Lutheran reformation. He was 
born in 1494, at Birkinde, a village in the island of Fu'nen. 
After he had received his early education in the convent 
of Antworskow, he wished to continue his studies at some 
university, and the abbot of the convent fixed upon Co- 
logne. Here he became accidentally acquainted with 
some of the earliest works of Luther, which excited in 
him such a desire to study under the reformer, that he 
defied the opposition of his superiors, and went to Witten* 
berg. After having spent some time here he went to 
Rostock, where he took his degree of M.A., and thence 
proceeded to Copenhagen, to undertake the office of 
teacher in one of the public schools, 1521 . This sphere 
of action however did not satisfy him : his wish was to 
proclaim the new doctrines, which he thought he could do 
more effectually if he withdrew to his former convent of 
Antworskow. Here he gained great reputation as a 
preacher, and at first endeavoured privately to make hi§ 
brother monks acquainted with the reformed doctrines ; 
but in 1524, on the occasion of the abbot being absent, 
Tausan delivered a sermon, which produced such an effect 
on his hearers, that most of the monks declared themselves 
ready to abandon their old belief. The excitement and 
disturbance arising from such proceedings led to Tausan 
being transferred to another convent at Wiborg, where 
however he persevered in his exertions, and again gained 
a considerable number of followers. King Frederic I. of 
Denmark, who was favourably disposed towards the doc- 
trines of the German reformers, and wished to favour 
Tausan, sent him, in 1526, a letter of protection, gave him 
the title of court preacher, and assigned to him a church 
at Wiborg, where he might preach without molestation. 
The bishop of this place opposed him in everything ; but 
his attempts were fruitless, as Tausan was supported by 
the sympathy of the people. The disputes between the 
two religious parties now became more vehement every 
day ; and at last the king, in order to save Tausan, invited 
him, in 1529, to Copenhagen, where he was appointed 
preacher to the church of St. Nicolas. The reformation 
in Denmark, the seeds of which had thus been sown, made 
gradual and steady progress ; and itt icder to settle the 

Question permanently, the king issued a command that 
eputies of the Roman Catholics and Protestants should 
appear on the 8th of September, 1530, before the assembly 
of the states, and explain their creeds and points of dispute. 
Tausan and the principal men of his party were present, 
and it was finally settled that the Protestants should 
preach and propagate their doctrines. The tranquillity 
thus restored was interrupted by the king's death in 
1533, when the Roman Catholic party, and more espe- 
cially the bishop of Roeskilde, again began to trouble 
Tausan, who was on the point of being driven out of his 
country. For a time he absented himself from Copen- 
hagen ; but Protestantism in the meanwhile made such 
progress, that the opposition to it in a short time either 
ceased or became very weak. In 1537, in which year 
John Bugenhagen was sent by Luther to Denmark to assist 
ifl arranging the ecclesiastical affairs of the country, Tausan 
was appointed preacher and lecturer on theology at Roes- 
kilde ; and four years later he was made bishop of Ripen, 
an office which he held until his death, on the 9th oi No- 
vember, 1561. 

Tausan wrote a considerable number of theological 
works in Danish: some of them are controversial, others 
exegetical, and a third class consists of tianslations of 
portions of the Scripture and of original hymns. His works, 
as well as the history of his life, show that h? was a simple 
and straightforward man ; but in talent he was far infenoi 
to the great reformers who were his contempoiaries. 

(L. Holberff, P&nnemyrchische, Nonrpgiscke Stwtl* 

Vol. XXIV.-P 

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tmd Retchs-Hutoric, p. 128, &c. ; compare Jocher, All- 
gem. Gvlehrlen Isxic.) i\\, p. 1030, &c.) 

TAUTOCHHON. [Timk of Descent.] 

TAUTOLITE, a mineral which occurs crytallized. 
Primary form a right rhombic prism. Fracture conchoi- 
dal, tmeven. Hardness 6*5 to 7- Very brittle. Colour 
velvet black : streak grey. Lustre vitreous. Opaque. 
Specific gravity 3*865. 

Before the blow-pipe on charcoal, melts into a blackish 
scoria, which is attracted by the magnet : with borax it 
forms a clear green glass. 

It does not appear to have been accurately analyzed, 
but is stated to fee probably silicate of protoxide of iron, 
and silicate of magnesia. It is found in the volcanic rocks 
of the Lake of Laach, near Bonn, on the Rhine. 

TAVERNIER, JEAN BAPT1STE, BARON D'AU- 
BONNE, the son of an Antwerp engraver who had settled 
at Paris and dealt in maps, was born in 1G05. Me was 
a traveller from his boyhpod. The sight of the maps with 
which he was surrounded and the conversation of the 
geographers who frequented his father's shop inspired 
him with a passion for seeing foreign countries, which 
he soon contrived to gratify, it does not veiy clearly ap- 
pear by what means or in what capacity. 

Between 1620 and the close of 1630 he visited most of 
the countries of Europe : this may be considered as his 
apprenticeship to the profession of a traveller. Between 
1630 and 16611 he made six journeys to the East : this was 
the portion of his life devoted to productive toil. The 
story of the remainder of his life, from 1670 to 1680, im- 
presses us with the idea of an elastic and untired spirit, 
which, stimulated in part by his dilapidated fortune, but 
still more by an incapacity of repose, sunk in an attempt 
to re-enter that world of active exertion in which hisplace 
had been occupied by younger men. To appreciate Taver- 
nier, it is necessary to examine his character as it dis- 
played itself in each of these three periods. 

He appears to have left his paternal home before he 
had completed his fifteenth year ; for he tells us that after 
visiting England, Antwerp, Amsterdam, Frank fort-on-the- 
Main, Augsburg, and Niirnberg, he was induced, by what 
he heard at the last-mentioned place of the mustering of 
armies in Bohemia, to repair to the theatre of war. About 
6 day's journey from Nurnberg, he met Colonel Brener, 
son of the governor of Vienna, who took him into his ser- 
vice. Tavemier was present at the battle of Prague, 
8th November, 1620. Some years later, he followed his 
master to Vienna, and was presented by him to his uncle, 
the governor of Raab, at that time viceroy of Hungary, 
who received the young Frenchman into his family in the 
capacity of a page. With this nobleman Tavernier re- 
mained four years and a half, and ultimately obtained his 
dismissal with a view to entering the service of the Prince 
of Mantna. .Something appears to have made him change 
this determination, for after a brief stay in Mantua he left 
it, about Christmas, 1629 ; and after making a short tour in 
Italy, and visiting his friends at Paris, returned to Ger- 
many. Durinjr the summer of 1629 he made an excur- 
sion into Poland ; on his return from which he attached him- 
self for a short time to the family of Colonel Butler, * who 
afterwards killed WaHenstein.' Hearing a report that the 
son of the emperor Ferdinand II. (afterwards emperor him- 
self, with the title Ferdinand III.) was to be crowned king 
of the Romans in Regensburg, Tavernier who had been 
present at that prince's election as kin^ of Hungary (1625) 
and his coronation as king of Bohemia (1627), wished to 
be present at this third solemnity also, and with this view 
threw up his appointment (whatever it was) in Butler's 
household. 

Tavernier has nowhere explicitly stated what were his 
rank and occupations while he led this unsettled hfe. No 
expression escapes him to intimate that he at any time 
found himself at a loss for money. The appointment of 
page in the family of a nobleman holding the high office 
of viceroy of Hungary was generally the first step to the 
command of a troop. Yet there is a vagueness in the 
language of Tavernier while speaking of this part of his 
history, which leads us to suspect that his station was more 
of a menial character. His lively and enterprising disposi- 
tion seems however to have made him a general favourite, 
and his power of expressing himself- not very elegantly, 
if we are to judge from his French, yet intelligibly— in 
t***ral European languages, rendered him an eligible at- 



tendant His position was most probably that of cm* C ( 
the ready-handed, quick-witted, not over-*cnipulcrj< e. 
tendants, with whom men of high rank in that ajjefo^u; 
it necessary to surround themselves. From hint* drorprf 
in different parts of his travels, it is highly probable 'J* 
he had picked up some money in the war* ; he had t- 
quired some knowledge of the military art; he lieir «)£<, 
ming of watch-making and jewellery ; and, abote al!, k 
had learned to shift for himself. Beyond sxicha^ntn 
acquaintance with maps and geography as he had picte 
up in his father's shop, he posses&ed no literary or «5«v 
fie attainments ; and his tastes and habits were uW if % 
young rufflers of his age. A naturally frank and fcnrj 
though somewhat boisterous temper had done mud * 
neutralize the worst impressions of the lax school in *kc 
he had been educated. 

After such preliminary training, and with a chararti: 
thus far developed, Tavernier commenced his trauk . 
the East. He nad already been turning hi* eye* in tk 
direction, and making interest to be received into tS- 
suite of a new ambassador the emperor was about to &• 
spatch to the grand seignior, when the confidential «r 
of Richelieu, Father Joseph, who had known him at fta 
proposed that he should accompany two voungFrtvj 
noblemen who were travelling to Palestine dy the ti? t( 
Constantinople. Tavernier closed with the ofer, tr>± » 
company with his employers reached that city damn la- 
winter of 1630-31. A recent biographer baa stated f i*J 
he began his first journey in 1636 : tne origin of the c - 
take is as apparent as that it is a mistake. TaTtrmentn 
* after the ceremony of the coronation Was tiifhed,' arf 
Ferdinand III. was not crowned king of the Ronast *- 
December, 1636. Tavernier gives no dates in the aewc 
of his first journey ; but we know that he emharW t 
Marseille for his second in September, 1638 ; and *r it 
know that he arrived at Rome ofl his return from ha ** 
voyage on the day of Easter. He was detained eletit 
months at Constantinople waiting for a carataa. eJ 
seven weeks by a severe attack of sickness at Aleppo. • 
if we assume he set out from Regensburg ifi Dtceal* 
1636, we have only three months left for the orrc; 
journey from Regensburg to Dresden, Vienna, Cbtttfo- 
tinople, Enrroum, Tabriz, Ispahan, Bagdad, Alepp: * 
Scanderoon, and the voyage from Scanaeroou to Kt» 
It is impossible that Taverrrier's first journey cecld i*i 
been subsequent to Ferdinand's coronation as lam c( tk 
Romans, out a strong effort w as made by that pr.^rj 
father to have him crowned at the close of the diet » 
at Regensburg in 1630 ; and Tavernier, writing troa 
mory forty years later, may have imagined that tlw **& 
vities he witnessed at that time w ere ra honour 4 » 
coronation which was expected to take place, but d*J 
Two passages in his Travels seem to place it bejK* 1 * 
doubt that the visit to Regensburg which led to hh U 
journey took place in 1630. In his first volume <}.&*• 
the Paris edition ot 1676) the expression ocei:rv-*i 
1632 on the road from Ispahan to Bagdat/ He och » 
veiled that road once, ana that was on his return fc>« *J 
fii>t expedition into Persia. It would be unsafe :* 
upon the evidence of a figure in a book not very crr<c| 
printed ; but in the account of his first journey toUf*** 
he mentions having seen at Tocat the virir. who «»fH 
cuted a few days later, after being obliged to rk* m 
siege of Bagdad. This can only refer to Khcarew ?■» 
executed there about the end of April, 1632. 

This date being ascertained, the chronology of tfc * 
suing forty years of Tavernier's life may be gieaerJ M 
his travels with tolerable accuracy, fie beran h» I 
journey to the East from Regensburg, in December. I« 
penetrated by way of Constantinople and Tabri* to I 
nan, and returned by Bagdad and Aleppo to Eoror* " 
in the summer of 1633. From this date till th- 
mencement of his second voyage his hiajftrv wocii it 
complete blank, had he not told in a p*~^-«* £* 
was appointed comptroller in the *• 
d'Orleans, who gave him leave 
journeys to the East. On the 13th ^. j» 
embarked at Marseille in a Dutch vessel, *~ 

Scanderoon, proceeded by way of Aleppo ax* 
Desert west of the Euphrates to Basra. The 
barked in a vessel sailinsr to Ormux, and h 
Bushire, proceeded through Shirai to Ispahan. A 
stay in that capital, he travelled by Shiraa and 



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GombroQO, where he embarked for Surat He visited 
Agra on this occasion ; but here again we are at a loss for 
ihtes to enable us to trace his routes. We only know 
that he parsed through Burhampore on his return from 
Agra to Surat in 1C41 ; that he visited Goa and returned to 
Su/at by land about the end of that year ; and that he was 
;it Ahmedabad, either going to or returning from Agra, in 
ml That he had revisited Ispahan in the interval is not 
improbable, since he says that * for six journeys which I 
have made between Paris and Ispahan, I have made twice 
sb manv from Ispahan to Agra and other parts of the 
Great Mogul's dominions.' He was at Ispahan towards the 
dose of the year 1642 ; and probably soon ailer returned 
to France. On his third voyage he took with liim the 
b. other already alluded to, and left Paris on the Gth of 
December, 1643. This time, after visiting Ispahan as 
usaal, he embarked at Gombroon for India. In January, 
IW5, he left Surat on an excursion to the diamond-mines 
ntarGolconda. In January, 1048, he made a voyage by sea 
to Goa; and in April of the same year he embarked at 
Mingvela for Batavia ; whence he returned to Europe in 
the Dutch fleet in 1&49. Tavernier's fourth journey occu- 
pied liim from the 18th of June, 1651, when he set out 
from Paris, till 1656. On this occasion he proceeded from 
Persia to Masulipatan, in May, 1652; he revisited the 
diamond-mines near Golconda in 1653, and in 1054 he tra- 
velled from Ormuz to Kerman. and after spending three 
month* there, took the route or Yezd to Ispahan, and re- 
turned to Europe by Smyrna. His fifth journey was begun 
in February, 1656. He was at Agra in J659, but we are 
at a loss for other dates in this journey. The sixth and 
last expedition that Tavernier made to the East was begun 
in November, 1663, and was terminated in 1669. The 
most important novelty of this journey was his tour 
through the province of Bengal as far as Dacca, which 
Kcupied him from November, 1665, till July or August, 
U366. He was at Ispahan in July, 1667, and on his return 
o Europe visited Constantinople for the second time. 
The very unsatisfactory arrangement adopted in the 
narrative of Tavernier's journeys has rendered it advisable 

txtiut from it the preceding incomplete chronology of 
hem. His fir4 publication was an account of the in- 
erior of the seraglio at Constantinople (Nouvelle Relation 
& CInt'crieur du Serrail), published at Paris, in a thin 4to 
rolurae, in 1G75. This was followed by an account of his 
ravels [Six Fotfases en Turquie, en Perse, et aux Indes), 
l*o at Paris, in two quarto volumes, in 1676. A third 
olume was added in 1679, containing an account of 
apan and the origin of the persecution of the Christians 
» these islands ; an account of the proceedings of the 
buties from the king and the French company of the 
noies both in Persia and India ; observations on the com- 
»erce of the East Indies; account of the kingdom of 
bnquin ,* account of the conduct of the Dutch in Asia. 
j preparing the account of the Seraglio and the two first 
illumes of his Travels, Tavernier employed Chappuzeau, a 
all and unintelligent writer : the memoirs contained in 
je third volume were prepared by Lachapelle, secretary 

» the president Lamaignon. The account of the seraglio, 
id the contents of the third volume of the travels, are 
inly memoirs compiled from the information of others, 
^ partly more full expositions of topics touched upon in 
* narrative. It is to the first two volumes of Tavernier's 
Nels that we must look for such information of the 
motries he visited, the time he spent in them, and the 
iTentures he encountered, as is necessary to enable us to 
Ermine what he witnessed himself, what he learned 
)m the report qf others, how far his informants were 
>rthy of belief, and how far he was qualified to under- 
Hid their communications. But the arrangement of 
p* two volumes is the very worst that could be con- 
ned for supplying satisfactory information upon these 
ids. The first volume professes to give an account of 

1 various routes by which the Parisian traveller can 
«h Constantinople, Ispahan, and the Persian Gulf. It 
inan^ed as a routier / the result of all Tavernier's ob- 
lations upon each line of road is given at once, and it 
wily from incidental remarks that we learn when and in 
at direction he travelled it. His remarks upon the 
ftoms, government, and commerce of the different coun- 
» are thrown into intercalary chapters. A similar ar- 
gement is adopted in his second volume, which con- 
to the fruits of nis observations in the south of India, in 



the region between Surat and Delhi, in Bengal, and in the 
Dutch possessions in tfre Eastern Archipelago. The work 
is neither a systematic account of the geography and sta- 
tistics of the countries in which Tavernier travelled, nor is 
it a personal narrative of the traveller. It js an ill. 
digested and unsatisfactory attempt to combine both. 

Yet are the four volumes we have mentioned full of 
available matter, both for the historian and the geogra- 
pher. The former will find in it the fruits of the iorty 
years' experience and observation of a European merchant 
in Turkey, Persia, India, and the Indian Archipelago, in 
the seventeenth century. Tavernier did not possess either 
the intellect or the education of Thevenot and Bernier, 
but his opportunities of observation were more varied and 
protracted. He was a part of that commercial enterprise 
arid rivalry of which they were only spectators. He is 
himself a specimen of the kind of adventurers who at tjiat 
time managed the commerce of Europe with the Easj. 
His unconscious revelations of his own character may be* 
relied upon, and the naivete with which they are made 
encourages us to believe what he tells us of others. H^ 
statements have pot passed unchallenged : they wounded 
the national pride of the Dutch too sore to be left without 
a reply, and the partisan feelings of the Protestant literati 
of Europe induced them to embrace the cause of Holland, 
in opposition to the proiigi of Louis XIV. Even the 
Catholic literati took little interest in a writer who frankly 
confessed that he saw nothing interesting or valuable in 
the plain of Troy or the ruins of Persepolis. And yet 
notwithstanding the violent attacks of the Dctch and Cal- 
vinist writers, the silence of others, and even of himself 
(for Tavernier did not engage in a controversy), not one 
material assertion he made has been disproved. Unfriendly 
criticism has been confined to the remark that many of 
his statements regarding the putch are trivial, and betray 
a littleness of mind: this may be, but they are npf the leas 
characteristic for that reason. Tavernier's accounts of the 
principal objects of Oriental commerce in his day, of the 
leading markets and routes of trade, of the money of the 
different countries, and the state of the exchanges, are 
more full and intelligible than those we find in any other 
cotemporary writer. His success in trade nffords a gua- 
rantee of the correctness of the opinions he states. We 
have collated his routes, whenever this was possible, with 
those of recent travellers, and have found them in general 
so accurate, that they may be relied upon for the purpose* 
of comparative geography, and in one or two instances as 
affording information regarding tracts which have not 
been visited since his time. Tavernier's notices of file 
route from Casvin to India by Candahar, and of the pro- 
vinces to the north of Erivan, leave a favourable impres- 
sion of his talent for exti<tcting information from the 
native authorities. He ha* been accused of plagiarise, 
principally because of the striking coincidence between his 
account of the Quebrcs of Kerman, published in 1G76, am} 
that which Louis Moreri published in 1671 from the papers 
of Father Gabriel de Chinon. It deserves to be noticed 
that Moreri's publication is lucidly arranged and neatly 
expressed, while the account contained in Tavernier^ 
travels is confused and miserable in point of diction. Ha4 
it been taken from Moreri.it is scarcely possible that the Jit- 
ter could have been so wretchedly composed. Add to this 
that the information found in the papers of Father Gabriel 
is not said to have been the fruit of personal observation; 
that Tavernier resided three months among the Guebre* 
at Kirman, and had frequent dealings with them in India 
and elsewhere; that he and Father Qabriel repeatedly 
met in Persia ; and it must be allowed that the priest u 
quite as likely to have derive^ his information from the 
merchant as otherwise. In judging of' the statements 
made by Tavernier, the school in which he was trained, 
and his personal character as it appears from his pwn 
story, must always be kept in view. He had no knowledge 
of or taste for science and literature, for art, or antiquarian 
research. He acted upon impulse, and his instincts vfere 
love of travelling, and desire to acquire money for the 
sake of spending it in feasting and' persona} display. £ 
diamond was a more interesting object to him than the 
mysterious remains of Tchelminar. He had no very n|e# 
or refined sense of honour, but he was frank and veracious, 
and little inclined to deck himself with stolen feathers of 
literature ; possibly because he could not appreciate theif 
value. 



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In this review we have been obliged to anticipate that 
part of the history of the third penod of Tavermer's life, 
which relates to what may be called his literary labours. 
We are thus enabled to abridge the sequel of our narra- 
tive. On Tavernier's return from his sixth journey he was 
presented with lettres de noblesse, by Louis XIV., and pur- 
chased about the same time the barony of Aubonne in the 
Pais de Vaud. When his travels were published, they 
were, as has been intimated above, fiercely attacked ; in 

5 articular, most virulently by Jurieu, in his « Esprit 
e M. Arnauld' (December, 1684) ; more temperately and 
with a greater parade of evidence by Henrick vanQuellen- 
burgh, in * Vindiciae BatavicaV (Amsterdam, 1684). Taver- 
nier made no reply. Bayle has given a characteristic 
account of his conduct relative to the publication of Jurieu, 
which was rather a libel than a criticism. ' He made a 
noise in the taverns and streets, he threatened and even 
named the day and hour when he would apply to the Wal- 
loon consistory of Rotterdam to demand execution of the 
canonical laws against the minister who had dishonoured 
him : but his threatenings came to nothing, he retired very 
peaceably, and never commenced any persecution at all.' 
The misconduct of a nephew, to whom he had intrusted 
the management of his affairs in the Levant, obliged him 
to sell, some time previous to 1688, his hotel in Paris and 
his estate of Aubonne. He retired first into Switzerland, 
and subsequently to Berlin, where he was nominated by 
the elector of Brandenburg director of a projected East 
India Company. From the time of his first journey he had 
regretted being prevented from carrying into execution a 
design which he then entertained of returning from Persia 
through the Russian dominions. His new appointment 
afforded him an excuse and opportunity for making that 
journey, and he set out to travel to the East Indies across 
Russia in 1688. He was taken ill at Moscow, and died 
there in the month of July, 1689. The equivocal conclu- 
■ion of Boileau's inscription on Tavernier's portrait contains 
a fair enough estimate of his character : — 

* En toot lieux n ▼©rtu fut ton plus »6r atraui; 
Et bien ou'en oo« climate de retour aujourd'nui 

Ko foule a do* yeux il preaeut© 
Let plus rare* treaow que le aoleil rafanto ; 
II na rien rapporte de at can que luL' 



que 1 

{Le% six Voyage* de Jean Baptisle Tavernier, Ecuyer 
Baron d y Aubonne, en Turquie, en Perse, et aux Indes, a 
Paris, 1676-9, 4to. ; L Esprit de M. Arnauld, tirS des ccrits 
de lui et de ses disciples,' Deventer, 1684, 12mo. ; Henrick 
van Quellenburgh s Vindicice Bataviece, oft? Re/utatie 
van het Tractaet van J. B. Tavernier, Chevalier, Baron 
d Aubonne, Amsterdam, 1684, 4to. ; Bayle, v. * Tavernier ;' 
Biographic Universale, v. * Tavernier, Jean Baptiste,' 
par Weiss.) 

TAVISTOCK, a parliamentary borough and market- 
town, on the south-western border of Devonshire, 207 miles 
from London, 34 from Exeter, and 11 from Plymouth. The 
parish extends between the western extremity of Dartmoor 
and the river Tamar, and, according to a survey made in 
1781, comprises 13,987 acres, or nearly 22 square miles ; 
but it is probable that this survey included lands within the 
boundary of the borough which are not in the parish : in 
the census of 1831 the area of the parish is stated to be 
11,660 acres. The surface of the parish is diversified by 
hills from 300 to 600 feet in height, which rise in continued 
succession and are separated by valleys often deep and nar- 
row, the general direction of which is from north-east to 
south-west. The higher ground towards Dartmoor is of 
granitic formation, and the neighbourhood of the town con- 
sists of schistose rock. The town is situated nearly in the 
centre of the parish, on the north-west bank of the Tavy, 
which here flows rapidly through a narrow valley, from 
which the ground rises steeply on both sides to the height 
of several hundred feet. The river is crossed by two bridges 
within the town. A narrow valley, or gully, from the north, 
is also covered by houses. The climate is variable, and the 
average quantity of rain falling in the year is 45 inches. 

In 961 an abbey was founded at Tavistock, which was 
burnt by the Danes, and afterwards rebuilt on a larger 
scale. Henry I. (1100-1135) granted to the abbot a 
weekly market and a fair. In 1513 the thirty-fifth abbot 
was called to the House of Peers, but in 1531) his succes- 
sor surrendered to the kin?, when the revenue of the 
abbey was estimated at 902/. A printing-press was esta- 
blished in the abbey soon after the introduction of the art 



into England. Fragments of the abbey still remain bu 
are chiefly incorporated with other buildings: and uv rt . 
fectory is used as an assembly-room. John, Lord Ru**H 
ancestor of the Duke of Bedford, obtained a mat of ibe 
abbey lands. An antient lazar-house once stood on tht c< 
of the workhouse. The parish church is a spacious eddlte, 
with a tower at the west end supported on arches. TU 
interior consists of four aisles and a chancel, and canta* 
some good monuments. The living is a>icarftgr,>ak*<i 
at 302/. per annum. The Independents, Umitntn*, 
Quakers, and Wesleyan Methodists have places of vonfejjL. 
The date of the foundation of the grammar-school it tu 
known, but in 1649 Sir John Glanville left an endowrwu 
for the education of one boy, which yields about 4/. fw 
annum'; and the Duke of Bedford, in whom the school-etoe 
is vested, allows the master the use of a house rem-fcx 
besides other advantages, and 20/. a-year for the educatxn 
of eight boys. There is a Lancasterian school chiefly sup- 
ported by subscription, which m 1833 was attended Li 
135 boys and 88 guis. At the same period seventeen otter 
schools were attended by 203 boyi and 224 girls: iu: 
there were five Sunday-schools, in which 381 boy* tcJ 
333 girls were instructed. There are two almshouses o > 
for four poor widows, who each receive 2/. a-yeir; uA 
another lor fifteen persons, nominated by the Duke c( 
Bedford, who receive 3/. a-year each. A sum of 15/. a 
applicable to the apprenticing of poor children. 

Tavistock returned! two members to parliament pn*Tin;i 
to the passing of the Reform Act, a privilege which it tat 
enjoyed since 1295 (23 Hen. I.). The right of electiir. 
was in the resident freeholders. The Tavy formal tfc* 
boundary of the borough on one side, and on the other ;'j 
limits were defined by an artificial line. Under ik 
Reform Act the borough was made co-extensive with the 
limits of the parish, the manor of Cudliptown excepted 
and it still returns two members. The number of wten 
on the register, in 1840, was 347. Tavistock i* wi 
incorporated. The portreeve, who is elected annually * 
the court-leet of the lord of the manor, is the chief pi-: 
officer, and makes the return of the elections. Tunfcri 
is one of the polling-places for the county. 

The parish registers of Tavistock from 1617 to 1836 hitt 
been made the subject of a more careful and elsbonci 
examination than those of any other place in Enyaot 
This task was undertaken by Efr. Barham, and the tm?* 
are given in a series of tables which are printed in j*t 
ix. of the * Tables' published by the Board of Trade; u. 
an abstract of them is given m vol. iv., part I, of the 
• Journal of the London Statistical Society.' The pop* 
tion of the parish, in 1781, was 3117; in 1811,4723: a 
1821, 5483; in 1831, 5602. The increase between Ml 
and 1821 is attributed to the extension of mining ope* 
tions in the neighbourhood. There are some small naau- 
facturing establishments. Tavistock is one of the foa 
stannary towns in the county. In 1817 a canal ** 
opened, which, after a course of 5 miles, 2 of which ik 
under a tunnel, enters the Tamar at Morwell Hamqwj. 
The head of the canal is connected with the qusy hj * 
inclined plane 240 feet high. This canal conned* in* 
stock with Plymouth. Sir Francis Drake was a nsine c 
Tavistock. 
TAWI-TAWI. [8ooloo Archipelago.] 
TAX, TAXATION. A tax is a portion of the prod-* 
and labour of a country placed at the disposal of the r> 
vernment. 

Taxation is the general charging and levying of P& 
cular taxes Dy the government upon the community. 
Objects of Taxation. 
In a free state it is assumed that all taxation b nece*" 
for the public good ; if it is not necessary, the reason u< 
it no longer exists. The amount of expenditure will xsi 
great measure be determined by the magnitude of a *& 
and by the number and importance of its political rr> 
tions ; yet the prudence with which its affairs are wAmm- 
tered will affect the demands of the government upon tl* 
people, nearly as much as its necessities. The ripen*** 
a private person must be regulated by his income ; bet b 
a state, the expenditure that is needed is the meaiare d 
the public income that must be obtained to meet it A 
civilized community requires not only protection ***= 
foreign enemies ana the means of internal securitv, bot t 
needs various institutions of civil government cowfocru u 
its welfare, and which its wealth enables it to maintaa 



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without an injurious pressure upon its resources. It is the 
business of a government to provide these, when proved to 
be necessary, in the best manner and at the least expense 
consistent with their efficiency. 

The able and laborious committee of the House of Com- 
mons upon public income and expenditure in 1828 * une- 
quivocally declared their full assent to the principle, that no 
government is justified in taking even the smallest sum of 
money from the people, unless a case can be clearly esta- 
blished to show that it will be productive of some essential 
advantage to them, and of one that cannot be obtained by 
i smaller sacrifice/ The committee truly added to the 
statement of this just principle, that 'nothing requires 
more wisdom and prudence than to fix the public expen- 
diture at such an amount that the real wants of the people 
thall not be made to give way to any imaginary wants of 
the state : the latter arise from so many sources, that it is 
frequently very difficult to prevent the operation of an 
undue influence/ (Second Report, p. 4.) One of the first 
duties of representatives of the people is to watch with 
jealousy the expenditure of the public money. Every tax 
should be viewed as the purchase-money paid for equi- 
valent advantages given in return. This principle assumes 
the necessity of moderation in levying taxes, and will 
scarcely be denied by any one when stated in that form ; 
jet it is not uncommon to hear it argued that so long as 
taxes are spent in the country, the amount is not of conse- 
quence, as the money is returned through various channels 
to the people from whom it was derived. The principle 
we have just laid down at once exposes the fallacy of tnis 
doctrine, by reducing it to a simple question between 
debtor and creditor. For example, by paying a million of 
money every year, the people obtain the services of an 
army : this we will suppose to be an equivalent, and we 
will further assume that the food and clothing of the force 
are purchased, and that the entire pay of the men is spent, 
within the country. The whole ot the money will thus be 
returned : but how ? Not as a free gift, not as the repay- 
ment of a loan, but in the purchase of articles equal in 
value to the whole sum. The only benefit obtained by this 
return of the million is clearly nothing more than the 
ordinary profits of trade ; for the community has already 
provided the money, and then out of its own capital and 
industry it produces what is equal to it in value, and this 
it teik to the state, receiving as payment the very sum it 
had itself contributed as a tax. 

in whatever manner taxes may be expended, they must 
be regarded as injurious to the community. ' Every new 
tax,' says Mr. Ricardo, * becomes a new charge on produc- 
tion, and raises the natural price. A portion of the labour 
of the country which was before at the disposal of the con- 
tributor to the tax is placed at the disposal of the state, 
and cannot therefore be employed productively.' (Political 
Economy, chap, xii., p. 206.) 

General Principles of Taxation. 

Having settled that taxation should be generally and in 
amount as light as possible, it must be determined upon 
what principles and in what manner taxes may best be 
levied. No other branch of legislation is perhaps so im- 
portant as the wise application of just principles in the 
matter of taxation. Trie wealth, happiness, and even the 
morals of the people are dependent upon the financial 
policv of their government. 

Adam Smith lays down four general maxims, which we 
shall briefly cite not only as being perfectly true in them- 
selves and most valuable, but as proceeding from an autho- 
rity so high that not to notice them might be accounted 
an omission. 

1. 'The subjects of every state ought to contribute to- 
wards (he support of the government as nearly as possible 
to proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in pro- 
portion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under 
U* protection of the state.' 

' It* The tax which each individual is bound to pay 
w&ht to be certain, and not arbitrary. The time of pay- 
ment, the manner of payment, the quantity to be paid, 
ought all to be clear and plain to the contributor, and to 
everv other person.' 

ffl. • Every tax ought to be levied at the time or in the 
nanner most likely to be convenient for the contributor 
topjyit.' 

IV. » Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take 



out and keep out of the pockets of the people as little as 
possible over and above what it brings into the public 
treasury of the state.' 

In discussing the merits of particular taxes and classes of 
taxes, we shall have to consider with some minuteness the ap- 
plication of Adam Smith's first maxim. Its justice requires 
no enforcement or illustration, although unhappily the ob- 
ject is most difficult of attainment. The second maxim is of 
great importance, and the necessity of adhering to it must 
be universally acknowledged. Uncertainty gives rise to 
frauds and extortion on the part of the tax-gatherer, and to 
ill-will and suspicion on that of the contributor, while it 
offers a most injurious impediment to all the operations of 
trade. Notwithstanding the many evils of uncertainty, it 
is by no means an uncommon fault even in modern sys- 
tems of taxation. We would pass over the practices oi 
Eastern despotisms, where uncertainty and caprice prevaL 
instead of fixed rules, but that the vices of their taxation 
are so exaggerated as to show the evils of a departure 
from just principles in the broadest light. All taxation is 
forbidden by the Koran, and although the prohibition has 
been evaded and broken through by the liirkish govern 
raent in particular instances, it has always been an ob- 
struction to any general system of imposts. In the absence 
of regular taxes, partial and irregular exactions are resorted 
to for supplying the wants of the sultan. Plunder becomes 
the business of every governor of a province, and thus the 
Koran, instead of defending Moslems from tax-gatherers, 

S'ves them up to public robbers. * No man is secure in 
s property for an instant ; all are compelled carefully to 
conceal their . possessions, lest they should lose tneir 
liberty or possibly their lives and their property too. In- 
dustry is thus not merely cramped, but almost prevented 
or extirpated, by men being deprived of all confidence in 
their enjoyment of its rewards. The country, fertile in its 
resources of all kinds, is left waste, or only cultivated as 
far as the absolute necessities of providing sustenance 
may require. The nearer you approach the seat of govern- 
ment, this is more the case ; and the neighbourhood of the 
capita], which in other countries is naturally the scene of 
extended labour, thick population, and great cultivation, 
is in Turkey marked by barrenness and neglect. Constan- 
tinople can only be approached on the land side by tra- 
velling through extensive wastes without either man or 
beast or tillage.' (Political Philosophy, ch. 3.) 

In Persia the same uncertain and oppressive mode of 
exacting money for the use of the sovereign is resorted to. 
and is followed by similar results. 

Under the more constitutional governments of Europe* 
the people do not indeed suffer from violent exactions* 
but industry, production, and commerce are too often re- 
strained by irregular and ill-defined taxes. Spain unhap- 
pily affords many examples of misgovernment, and the 
injurious character of its taxation is shown in reference to 
this as well as other principles. To select one instance of 
uncertainty : ' Every landowner is liable to have his pro- 
perty taken in execution for government taxes, if he is not 
prepared to pay a half-year or more in advance, according 
to the difficulties of the Exchequer ; consequently he is 
often compelled to make great sacrifices in order to meet 
such exigencies.' (Madrid in 1835, vol. ii., p. 107.) 

Perhaps there is no better example of the evils of uncer- 
tainty than that of the Stade duties levied by the king of 
Hanover upon all ships passing up the Elbe from the sea, 
and upon their cargoes. The tariff taxes 2368 articles of 
commerce, and lays several duties upon the same articles, 
so that the whole number of duties is 6688. * There are 
35 different duties upon iron; 32 duties upon yarn or 
twist; 18 duties upon sugar; 42 upon leather; 36 upon 
oil ; 126 upon wooa, and so on with respect to other im- 
portant articles of trade.' The tariff also • resorts to all 
modes and devices of taxation, by weight, by measure, by 
number, by value ; and what is worse, it vests in the cus- 
tom-house officers the sole discretion of determining by 
what standard they will charge the duty. The collector 
imposes that kind of duty which will produce the most 
money in the particular case. The consequence of this to 
the merchant is most serious. He cannot calculate or in- 
form himself beforehand how much his goods will have to 
pay at Brunshausen.' (Edinburgh Review, No. cl., p. 
361 ; Hutfs Stade Duties.) There are also arbitrary fines 
for trivial informalities in the ship's papers, and which are 
said to rest practically with the subordinate officers, who 



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likewise harass the merchants with a multitude of petty 
exactions for their own advantage. 8uch a system, it need 
scarcely be said, is most discouraging and injurious to 
commerce. British merchants have been loud in their 
complaints, and the governments of this country and of 
Hanover have recently engaged in negotiations, which, it 
may be hoped, will settle these obnoxious duties upon 
more sound and equitable principles. 

To levy a tax • at the time and in the manner most 
likely to "be convenient for the contributor to pay it ' is 
always a wise policy on the part of the state. The time 
or manner of payment may often be more vexatious than 
the amount of the tax itself, and thus have the evil effects 
of high taxation, while it produces no revenue to the state. 
Suppose, for example, that a merchant imports goods and 
is required to pay a duty upon them immediately and 
before he has found a market for them :— he must either 
advance the money himself or borrow it from others, and 
in either case he will be obliged to charge the purchaser 
of the goods with the interest ; or he must sell the goods 
at once, not on account of any commercial occasion for 
the sale, but in order to avoid prepayment of the tax. If 
he pays the tax and holds the goods the consumer will 
have to repay not only the tax but the interest ; and if 
he parts with them at a loss or inconvenience, trade is in- 
jured, and the general wealth and consequent productive- 
ness of taxation proportionately diminished. Jo prevent 
these evils the bonding or warehousing Bystem was esta- 
blished, which affords the most liberal convenience to the 
merchant and a general facility to the trade of a coun- 
try. Certain warehouses are appointed under the charge 
of officers of the customs, in which goods maybe deposited 
without being chargeable with duty until they are cleared 
for consumption, and thus the tax is only paid just when 
the article is wanted, and when it is least inconvenient to 
pay it. [Warehousing System.] 

Similar accommodation is granted on their own premises 
to the manufacturers of articles liable to excise duties. At 
present the customs bonding- warehouses are confined to 
the ports. An extension of them to inland towns would 
be sound in principle, very convenient to trade, and un- 
attended by any serious risk to the revenue or difficulty of 
management and supervision. 

The evils resulting from inconvenient modes of assessing 
and collecting taxes have been very seriously felt in this 
country under the operation of the excise laws. When 
any manufacture is subject to excise duties, the officers of 
the revenue have cognizance of every part of the process, 
inspect and control the premises ana machinery of the 
manufacturer, and often even prescribe the mode of con- 
ducting and the times of commencing and completing 
each process ; while the observance of numberless minute 
regulations is enforced by severe penalties. The manu- 
facturer is put to great inconvenience and expense, and 
his ingenuity and resources are constantly interfered with 
in such a manner as to impede inventions and improve- 
ment, and to diminish his profits. Some manufactures 
have been entirely destroyed by oppressive regulations. 
The making of lenses of telescopes was at one time a 
flourishing trade. England had the supply of the whole 
of Europe, but within the last few years the manufacture 
has been transferred to France and Italy, entirely in con- 
sequence of the prohibition of the excise laws against 
conducting the necessary series of preliminary experi- 
ments. (Digest of Reports of Commissioners of Excise 
Inquiry, p. 13.) Trades less unfortunate than that just 
referred to are nevertheless very severe sufferers. A Lon- 
don distiller stated to the Commissioners of Excise Inquiry, 
that assuming that the duties on spirits distilled by him 
should be fully secured to the revenue, • it would be 
well worth his while to pa^ 3000/. a year for the privilege 
of exemption from excise interference.' (Ibid., p. 15.) 

Any injury done to trade is injurious to the state by 
diminishing the national wealth and the employment of 
labour. It has the same effect also upon the revenue as 
excessive taxation. The high price of the article limits 
the consumption and consequently the revenue arising from 
it. The injurious effects of the excise restrictions • must 
be felt in an accumulated degree by the public who are 
the consumers, against whom the tax operates by the ad- 
dition tuadc to the price of the commodity, not only by 
its direct amount, but by the necessity of compensating 
the manufacturer for his advance of capital in defraying 



it, and a,so by the increased cost of production.* (/&*£, 
p. 15.) In the case of a heavy tax, which also rflminiAit 
consumption, the state, at least, derives some beacftt : 
but in the case of onerous restrictions and in pmm% 
ments to trade caused by the mode of collecting a tax. 
the state gains nothing whatever, and the manulactimff 
and the consumer are seriously injured, without an equfvfr- 
lent to any party. If the consumer must suffer, it »r)aa]4. 
at least, be for the benefit of the revenue, for then fca* 
contributions may be diminished in some other directlam- 
Great attention has been paid, of late years, to the im- 
provement of the excise regulations, especially by Gmt 
Commissioners of Inquiry, under the able direction of 9s 
Henry Parnel). Various restrictions have been removal 
and it is to be hoped that the excise revenue may be Cammm 
capable of being collected without inflicting greater in- 
juries upon trade than other branches of taxation. 

The net produce of a tax is all that the state is interests! 
in, and therefore any violation of the fourth maxim of Admm 
Smith is liable to the same objections as those already staAet 
in reference to the third. Such violation inenca— the 



amount of the tax directly, as the former was shovm to 
increase it indirectly, without any advantage to the sU**> 
Facility of collection is a great recommendation to mm 
tax, and, on the contrary, a disproportion between lb* ce« 
of collecting and the amount ultimately secured is * E9*4 
ground for removing a tax, though founded, in 
respects, upon just principles. On this account i* 
well as for the general convenience of trade, it ia 
of serious attention, whether the customs dutiea upc * 
great number of articles of import should not be i ^ 

repealed. Although great alterations have recently^ L 

made in our tariff, the number of articles repiaiiM Am 
same. In 1839 there were 349 distinct articles, end* pro- 
ducing less than 100/. a year, and in the aggregate oafc 
8050/. There are also 132 articles producing from VOOL 



to 500/. each, and altogether 31,629/., while 46 
produced 981 per cent, of the whole customs rrrem. 
{Import Duties Report, 1840, p. 4.) It is obvious tnmi tfct 
examination of every description of merchandise mmd 
package, and the assessment of nearly 1200 different rata 
of duty, must greatly increase the establishment i e *jgiiuJ 
for collecting tnis branch of the revenue. The cost of eel 
lecting the duties upon the larger and more prododm 
articles of import could bear but a small proportion to fht 
amount of the tax. 

The following table may be interesting as showing Ham 
rate at which the whole revenue is collected in the United 
Kingdom : — 

Table showing the Cost of Collecting the Revenue o/ tmm 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland far 1km 
Fears, from 1832 to 1841 inclusive (compiled f 
Annual Finance Accounts). 









for «Viah mm 




Oro« Receipt of Revenue. 


Charge* of CoUcotka. 








n * wU ^ 




£ s. d. 


£ S. d. 


£ *- £ 


1832 


49,571,459 17 8 


3,064,702 13 11 


6 3 71 


1833 


52,571,116 14 11 


3,500,693 4 4 


6 15 il 


1834 


52,753,216 17 11 


3,582,635 4 4 


6 15 fll 


1835 


52,589,992 4 6 


3,560,238 18 11 


6 15 m 


1836 


54,973,677 6 


3,493,641 17 1 


6 7 3 


1837 


52,287,737 14 


3,430,679 6 5 


6 11 t 


1838 


52,979,236 13 10 


3,4&),940 12 4 


6 10 1 


1839 


53.^45,498 14 7 


3,483,533 4 9 


6 10 7 


1840 


52,916,049 8 3 


3,549,009 15 5 


6 14 1« 


1841 


53,596,250 14 4 


3,582,639 ^ 11 


6 13 0| 



There is little variation from year to year on the wr w 

charges of collection, but there is a considerable d bytq pqp^ 
tion in the cost of collecting different branches of tfce 
revenue. In 1841 the excise cost 61. 7s. $d. per ce0t.n1 
the collection ; the assessed taxes 4/. 2s. 9d. ; and the »- 
venue arising from stamp only 2/. 3s. 4d. 

The French revenne is collected at a much greater coat. 
For some years past the average revenue of that commtn 
has been 1,020,000,000 francs, or 404)00,000/., and the ex- 
penses of managing and collecting that sum have amouoted 
to 150,000,000 francs, or 6,000,000/., being no lest Una 15 
per cent. (Commercial Tariffs, Part IV., Franc*, l&tfl pu 
11.) It is very probable that many items may be included m 



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the French calculation of the expanses of eoUeetion which 
are not stated in the English accounts ; but making liberal 
allowance on that account, a great disproportion remains 
between the cost of collecting the revenue in the two 
countries. It may perhaps be fairly estimated that the 
revenue of France costs twice as much in the collection as 
that of England. The expensed of collecting a revenue 
may be hi^h without any reference to the mode of taxation. 
An excellent tax may be collected in a bad manner, either 
by having nuhierous idle and highly paid officers, or by 
cumbrous regulations and checks, which may cost the 
pwernflient much and protect the revenue very little. Of 
these tw6 causes of expense it is difficult to pronounce 
which is most injurious to a country. The former will 
generally be found to form part of a general system of ill- 
regulated expenditure : the latter may arise from unwise 
precautions for the security of the reveriue. In France the 
prodigious number of official persons is notorious, and in 
diet fact we must seek for the main cause of the enormous 
cost of collecting the revenue. 

Different Classes of Tax*es. 
In selecting one or more classes of taxes for raising the 
revenue of a state, the principles already discussed should 
be adhered to as far as possible j but these do not point 
out any particular mode o* taxation as preferable to others. 
Whatever mode of raising the necessary funds may be 
foutfd to press most equally upon different members of the 
comomtuty* to be least liable to objections of uncertainty, 
or inconvenience in the mode or times of uayment, or to 
be attended with the least expense, is fairly open to (he 
choice of a statesman; unless objections of some of her 
nature can be proved to outweigh these recommenda- 



The two peai divisions under which most taxes may be 
re direct and indirect. 



I. Direct Taxes. 
All taxes might to be paid from* the iflceirie of the com- 
munity: To derive revenue from capital is to act the part 
of a spendthrift j and such a practice; a* m private life, 
rhtist be condemned. If the taxes of aity Country should 
become so disproportioned to its income, that in order to 
pay wm continual inroads mtist be made upon its capital, 
its resources would fall, employment of labouY Would de- 
crease, and the revenue must neeessarity be reduced bf 
the general impoverishment of the tax-payers. Such a 
system Could not long continue as regards all capital, but 
it rmiy affect particular branches of Capital, or all capital 
m certain conditions. In whatever degree it is permitted 
to operate it is injurious. A tax iipori legacies is avow- 
edly a direct deduction from capital ; and ort that account 
objectionable, although it is profitable to the treasury and 
very easily collected. Iri this country legacies left to 
strangers are charged with a stamp duty of 10 per cent., 
and even when left to relatives the scale of duties is suf- 
ficiently high to cause a serious diminution of the capital. 
A further duty is charged on proving a will, called pro- 
bate-duty, which is perhaps more frequently paid out of 
capital than income. The same observations will, of 
comae, apply to duties charged upon succession to the per- 
■oeal property of intestates. 

With these exceptions it has been the object of the 
British legislature to derive all taxes from income, either 
by direct assessment or by means of the voluntary expen- 
diture of the people upon taxed commodities. 

Direct taxes upon the land have been universally re- 
sorted to by all nations. Such taxes are obvious, and re- 
quire but little refinement to devise; and in countries 
without Commerce, land is the only source from which a 
revenue can be derived. In most of the Eastern mo- 
nareWes the greater part of the revenue has usually been 
riked by heavy taxes upon the soil. The tangible nature 
dfland and of its produce offers great temptations to immo- 
oettte taxation. In Spain, at the present time, the taxes 
tijxm the soil are most oppressive and injurious. ' The tax 
imposed on corn-fields is so heavy, that farmers in general 
<rai it more to their interest hot to till their lands at all, 
than to run the risk of losing their Costs and eharges, and 
tfcdr labour to boot, by the exorbitancy of the intendiente's 
detaand which they would have to meet. They have 
adopted the plan therefore of sowing no more wheat than 
it necessary for the sustenance of their own families. It is 
quite dear indeed to all who are conversant with the state 



of agriculture in Spain, that unles* a complete change 
takes place in the system of taxation, so as greatly to re* 
duce the burthens upon the land, there will not only be a 
stagnation in rural industry, but eventually the Country 
will cease to produce a sufficient quantity for its Own con- 
sumption of that superiv^ wheat on which Spaniards pride 
themselves, and which was formerly and might still be 
grown in sufficient quantities to Supply all the markets in 
Europe.' (Madrid in 1885, vol. ii., p. 109.) 

The land-tax in England is one of considerable an- 
tiquity. We find that under the Saxon kirigs a tax of this 
description was in use. When the invasions of the Danes 
became frequent, it was customary to purchase their for- 
bearance by large sums of money ; and as the ordinary 
revenues of the crown were not sufficient, a tax was im- 
posed on every hide of land in the kingdom. This tax 
seems to have been firsl "tnposed a.d. 991, and was called 
Danegeld, or Danish tax or tribute. (Safari Chronicle, 
by Ingram, p. 168.) It was originally one shilling for 
each hide of land; but afterwards rose so high as seven : it 
then fell to four shillings,* at which rate it remained tOl it 
was abolished about seventy years after the Norman con- 
quest. (Henry, Hist., vol. ih\, p. 368.) A revenue still con- 
tinued to be derived under different names from assessments 
upon all persons holding lands, which however became 
merged in the general subsidies introduced iri the reigns df 
Richard II. and Henry IV. During the troubles iri the 
rei^ri of Charles I. and the Common wealth, the practice of 
laying weekly and monthly assessments of specific sums upon 
the several counties was resorted to • and was found sd pro- 
fitable, that after the Restoration the antient mode of grant- 
ing subsidies was renewed on two occasions only. (Report of 
House of Cotnmohs oh Land T&w ds affecting Calhdlics, 
1828.) In 1692 a- new valuation of estates was made, and 
eertairi payments were apportioned t6 each county and 
hundred or other division. These payments have varied 
in amount from Is. in the pound to 4*. ou the assessed 
annual value, according to the annual Land Tax Acts, but 
whatever may hate been the variations in the rate levied, 
the valuation has been the same; and the proportion 
chargeable to each district has continued the same as it 
was in the time Of king William III., as regulated by the 
Act of 1692. That assessment is said 1 not to have been 
accurate even at that time, and of course improved cul- 
tivation! and the application of capital during the last 140 
years have completely changed the relative value of dif- 
ferent portions of the soil. On account of the generally 
increased productiveness of land, the tax bears upon the 
whole but a trifling proportion to the rent, yet its inequality 
is very £reat. For instance, in Bedfordshire it amounts to 
2s. Id. in the pound ; in Surrey, to Is. Id. ; in Durham, to 
3±d. ; in L«mcashire, to 2d. ; and in Scotland, to 2frf. 
(Appendix to Third Report on Agricultural Distress, 
1836, p. 645.) Adam Smith imagined that this tax was 
borne entirely by the landlords, but this opinion has been 
proved to be erroneous by modern political economists, who 
nold that the tax increases the price of the produce of the 
land, and is therefore paid by the consumers. Of that we 
entertain no doubt ; but we are unable to agree with Mr. 
Ricardo, that the English land-tax is not objectionable as 
regards Adam Smith's first principle, viz. on the ground of 
inequality. (Political Economy, chap, xii.) He assumes 
that inferior land would not be cultivated until the price of 
produce had become so high as to remunerate the grower 
after payment of the tax ; and that the owners of the soil 
therefore would not suffer, but only the consumer. But 
land is often cultivated for pleasure, for scientific experi- 
ment, and for speculative purposes, while in this country 
the exclusion of foreign supply at a time when population 
was rapidly increasing has forced inferior soils into cul- 
tivation. Then admitting that the consumer pays the tax, 
the owners of land appear to us to be in the same relation 
to each other as merchants would be who should be 
eharged unequal rates of duty upon articles in which they 
deal. In that case the consumer would ultimately pay the 
tax, but no one will deny that the seller who pays the 
highest tax in the first instance meets his competitor at a 
disadvantage in the market. He must wait for very high 
prices, or must sell at lower profits. Such is actually 
the case where articles imported from different countries 
bear unequal rates of duty ; and such, we apprehend, 
must be tne case where the land is unequally 
according to Hs value. [Land-Tax.] 



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A tax upon the gross rent of land would fall upon the 
landlord, and would be in fact a tax upon his annual in- 
come, and as such would fall with undue severity upon 
him, unless other, classes of the community should be liable 
to a proportionate deduction from their respective incomes 
for the benefit of the state. This brings us to consider the 
expediency of a general tax upon all incomes. 

As the object of taxation should be to obtain from each 
individual in a state a contribution to the expenses of 
government in proportion to his means ; and as, in what- 
ever form the tax may be levied, the contribution should 
be paid in every case from income, and not from capital, 
the simplest and most equitable mode of taxation would 
appear to be that which, after assessing the annual income 
of each person arising from all sources, should take from 
him, directly, a certain proportion of his income as his 
share of the general contribution. Such a tax, equitably 
levied, would appear to agree in theory with all the four 
maxims of Adam Smith ; but practically, every tax upon 
income must abound in inequalities, in uncertainty, and 
in great personal hardships and inconvenience. 

In order to make such a tax fall equally upon all, in the 
first place, the assessment must be equal. But how is this 
to be effected ? By the voluntary statement of each per- 
son, or by investigation and proof? If by the former 
means, the equality of the tax would depend upon the 
honesty of parties placed under a temptation to be dis- 
honest : the least scrupulous part of the community would 
be taxed lightly, and the conscientious would bear the 
main burthen of the tax. If by the latter means, viz., by 
investigation and proof, the dishonest still have an advan- 
tage over the conscientious : because income arising from 
some sources, being capable of direct assessment, cannot 
be concealed ; while other descriptions of income are often 
known only to the possessor, upon whose declaration alone, 
in such cases, reliance must be placed. 

But supposing that either by declaration or by proof, or 
by both combined, the actual income of each individual 
could be ascertained, the mere income of persons is a most 
fallacious test of their means or ability to bear taxation. 
One man has a fee-simple estate in land, or money in the 
funds, producing an income of 1000/. a year, which will 
descend to his children after his death ; another, by a 
laborious and uncertain profession, also obtains an annual 
income of 1000/., dependent not only upon his life, but upon 
his health and a thousand accidents. The annual incomes 
of these two men are the same, but their circumstances 
are most dissimilar. Before the latter could be placed in 
the same position as the former, he must have an income 
large enough to enable him to insure his life for a sum of 
which the interest would be 1000/. a year, and still have 
1000/. left to spend annually, after the payment of the 
premium. But even then, if he should lose his health, his 
present income would fail him, he would not be able to 
continue the insurance, and his position therefore would 
still be more precarious than that of the proprietor of land 
or funded property. Yet these two men, with means so 
unequal, would be assessed alike, and charged with equal 
contributions. But suppose that, instead of insuring his 
life, the professional man should save half his income 
every year, he would still be charged upon the whole, and 
thus his capital as well as his income would be taxed. 

The case of annuitants also may be instanced as one, 
amongst numerous others, of peculiar inequality. One 
person invests his money in permanent securities, and 
retains his capital, but derives a small income, and there- 
fore contributes a proportionally small rate of tax : another 
Kurchases an annuity, and parts with his capital ; but as 
is income is much larger than that of the capitalist, he 
pays a higher tax. At first sight this may appear a just 
arrangement ; but in fact not only the income of the annui- 
tant is taxed, but also his capital ; for that which is taxed 
as his income is derived partly from the interest of his pur- 
chase-money, and partly from an annual repayment of a 
portion of his principal. 

These and many other evident cases of inequality can 
scarcely be questioned ; but it is alleged that other taxes 
press with as much inequality upon different classes of 
persons, and that no attempts are made to equalize their 
pressure, as the causes exist in the circumstances of the 
people, and not in the nature of the taxes. (Pitts 
Speeches, vol. hi., p. 9.) It is said that the assessed taxes 
affect the professional man to the same extent as the man 



of property. .There is however this essential diffmnes 
between taxes upon income and taxes upon expendUttr* : 
the former are compulsory, the latter are voluntary* sad 
paid or avoided at the option of each individual. If a ma 
be saving money, an income-tax seizes upon his aecruag 
capital : a tax upon expenditure is levied upon that parte* 
of his income only which he thinks it prudent to speod. 

To smooth in some degree the inequalities of an 
tax, 1st, the annual premiums on polioies of ii 
should not be reckoned as income in the ass 
being clearly capital, and the payments being no foacrr 
optional, as the insurance could not be discontinue* 
without loss ; this provision was made by Mr. Pitt in 17W: 
2ndly, incomes arising from realized property should be 
taxed at a higher rate than the profits of trades sad 
professions : 3rdly, annuitants should be rated on sacs 
terms as to avoid the assessment of any portion of tbor 
capital as part of their income : 4thly, all persons shout 
be liable to the tax, whatever may be the amount of tf*x 
incomes. 

In addition to the unequal pressure of an income-tii, , 
which cannot be altogether corrected by any expedw-ax , 
there is much uncertainty in the assessment of coUa< 
classes of persons. The vicissitudes of trade, bad 6ekA^^ 
or deferred payments, render the incomes of commercial 
and professional men very uncertain ; and nominal income 
therefore, which afterwards cannot be realized, may bt i 
charged with the tax. 

But the last and strongest of the objections to u - 
income-tax is the inquisitorial nature of the investijrauos 
into the affairs of all men, which is necessary to secorv 4 
statement of their incomes. This objection indeed « < 
treated lightly by some ; but by the mass of the cootn* < 
butors 'it is considered, beyond all question, as the roovt 
inconvenient and unseasonable quality of an incoroe-uu 
Even if the exposure of a man's affairs could do boa oc 1 
possible injury, yet as an offence to his feelings, or on \ 
caprice, it is a hardship which is not involved in the psj- 
ment of other taxes. How many persons are anxwas t» 
conceal the amount of their wealth? It may be faoiah; 
but they certainly must have strong motives for cooceai- 
ing that which most others are proud of displaying. Thn 
who cannot sympathise with the feelings of an honest msa 
who conceals the extent of his poverty, and, by self-den* 
and hard economy, is still enabled to bear up again** si- 
vereity ? It is in vain to deny, what all men feel, that tbt 
appearance of poverty does degrade a man in the eyes 4 
others ; and the feelings of goodmen ought to be respected. 
But apart from matters of feeling, injury of a real cmntut 
is also inflicted upon individuals by an exposure of the* 
means and sources of income. Mercantile men, fro© tte 
dread of competition, take pains to conceal from oiiwry 
especially if in the same business, the application of U» 
capital, the rate of profit realized, their connection*, aad 
their credit, all of which must be disclosed, p erh aps ta 
their serious injury, when there is an investigation 
profits. 

For these reasons, the mode of collecting the 
tax certainly cannot be approved of as being * most ht*-.y 
to be convenient to the contributor.' Its general unpoow 
larity when in operation is the best proof of its banz«kp 
and inconvenience. Upon the whole, a tax upon incosnr m 
so difficult to adjust equitably to the means of indtvidusJs, 
and the mode of collection is necessarily liable to swa 
strong objection, that, if resorted to at all, it should be re- 
served for extraordinary occasions of state necessity cr 
danger, when ordinary sources of revenue cannot safely b* 
relied on. 

The English assessed taxes have as few objection* ia 
principle as most modes of direct taxation. With sa 
equitable assessment and special exemptions in cerbna 
cases, they are capable of being made to bear a tol«*bry 
just proportion to the incomes of the individuals p**snr 
them. They share, however, in the genera] unpopuis-nrr 
of all direct taxes, and it cannot be denied that they cArs 
press unequally upon particular persons. The number c£ 
windows in a house is a very imperfect criterion erf its 
annual value, and in our opinion the house-tax which h*» 
been removed was far preferable, inprinciplr, to the win- 
dow-duty, which is still retained. The inequalities in th* 
assessments were undeniable ; but tlicse might hate beta 
corrected by careful valuation. Under ordinary ttfnia- 
stances, a tax upon houses will fall upon the ocozfsiex. 



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vbo is intended to pay it ; but if a very heavy tax were 
imposed, it would discourage the occupation of houses, 
levari the demand for them, and thereby diminish the 
rent of the landlord, or, in other words, transfer the ac- 
tual payment to him. (Adam Smith, book 5, chap ii. ; 
Ricardo's Political Economy, chap, xiv.) Such a tax 
would be attended with very bad consequences ; it would 
compel many persons to live in inferior houses or in lodg- 
ing, and thus diminish their comforts and deteriorate 
their habits of life ; and by reducing the demand for 
how** it would limit the employment of capital and 
labour in building. The direct taxes upon horses, car- 
nj^es, hair-powder, armorial bearings &c, being paid 
roiuntarily by the rich to gratify their own taste for 
luxury or display, are not likely to meet with many ob- 
jeftors. The use of such articles generally indicates the 
wale of income enjoyed by the contributor, and the tax is 
J oo li^ht to discourage expenditure or to make any sensi- 
ble deduction from his means. 

A very fair principle of levying a direct tax is exhibited 
by thf assessment of property in every parish in England 
ind Wales to the poor rates. Local knowledge renders 
i perfectly correct valuation possible, and every person 
Bwiin? or occupying land, nouses, or other property 
within the parish, is assessed so much in the pound upon 
the annual value thereof, to raise the necessary funds for 
the support of the poor. 

The various modes of direct taxation are too numerous 
to enter upon, especially as many of them involve the 
di*cu«ion of principles of political economy which would 
carry us far beyond our limits. For arguments and illus- 
trations concerning the incidence of tithes, of taxes upon 
profits, upon wages, and. other descriptions of direct im- 
posts, we refer to the able works of Adam Smith, Ricardo, 
M-Culloch, and other eminent writers upon political 
economy. 

II. Indirect Taxes. 

In preferring one tax to another, a statesman may be in- 
hienced by political considerations as well as by strict 
riews of financial expediency, and nothing is more likely 
o determine his choice than the probability of a cheerful 
tumescence on the part of the people. All taxes are dis- 
iked, and the more directly and distinctly they are re- 
quired to be paid, the more hateful they become. On 
jik a* well as on other grounds, ' indirect taxes,' or taxes 
ipon the consumption of various articles of merchandize, 
tt*e been in high favour with most governments. * Taxes 
ipon merchandize,' says Montesquieu, ' are felt the least 
>v the people, because no formal demand is made upon 
hem. They can be so wisely contrived, that the people 
tall scarcely know that they pay them. For this end it 

* of freat consemierice that the seller shall pay the tax. 
9fe knows well that he does not pay it for himself; and 
be buyer, who pays it in the end, confounds it with 
he price.' (Esprit dee Lois, livre xiii., chap, vii.) This 
tfect of indirect taxes is apt to be undervalued by writers 
»n political economy ; but it is undoubtedly a gr»at merit 
n any system of taxation (which is but a part of general 
pyernment) that it should be popular and not give rise 
o jarring and discontent. A tax that is positively injurious 
o the very parties who pay it without thought, is, cer- 
*mly not to be defended merely on the ground that no 
»mplaint8 are made of it ; but it may be safely admitted 
fc a principle, that of two taxes equally good in other re- 
acts, that is the best which is most acceptable to the 
*ople. The very facility, however, with which indirect 
ixc« may be levied, makes it necessary to consider the 
ncidenteand effects of them with peculiar caution. The 
talesman has no warning, as in the case of direct taxes, 
hat evils are caused by an impost which is productive 
fe'l which every one seems willing to pay. When any 
**neh of industry is visibly declining, and its failure can 

* traced to no other cause than the discouraging pressure 
>f*tax, the necessity of relief is felt at once ; but if trade 
ud manufactures are flourishing, and the country ad- 
janeing in prosperity, it is difficult to detect the latent in- 
luence of taxes in restraining that progress, which but 
w them would have been greater ; and still more diffi- 
ult to imagine the new sources of wealth which might 
we been laid open if such taxes had not existed, or had 
wen less heavy, or had been collected at different times 

* ia different ways. 

P. C, No. 1502. 



The government is directly interested in the increase of 
national wealth, and taxes upon commodities should be 
allowed to interfere with4t as little as possible. On this 
account duties upon raw materials are very objectionable. 
They increase the price of such materials, and thus limit the 
power of the manufacturer to purchase them, and to em- 
ploy labour in increasing their value, and in adding to the 
production and capita) of the country. They discourage 
Foreign commerce and the employment of shipping ; for as 
the power of buying is restrained, so also is that of selling, 
and the interchange of merchandize between different 
countries is checked. Moreover, by increasing the price 
of the exported manufactures, they limit the demand for 
them abroad and subject them to dangerous competition. 

Similar objections may be urged against taxes upon 
domestic manufactures, since by increasing the price 
they diminish consumption, and consequently discourage 
the manufactures, which if left to themselves would have 
given employment to more capital and labour, and would 
nave added greatly to the amount of national wealth and 
prosperity. The object of a government should always 
be to collect its revenue from the results of the successful 
employment of capital and industry, and not to press 
upon any intermediate stage of production. 

Adopting this view of the objects of taxation, the Bri- 
tish legislature has of late years very wisely repealed or 
reduced various duties upon raw materials and upon 
manufactures. Of the former we may instance the cus- 
toms* duties on barilla ; on raw, waste, or thrown silk ; on 
cotton-wool and sheep's wool, unwrought-iron, hemp, and 
flax ; which have been from time to time very much re- 
duced. Of the latter, the taxes on printed goods, on 
candles, and on tiles, have been altogether removed ; and 
those on plate and flint glass, on malt, and on soap, have 
been partially remitted. There are still many similar 
taxes which need revision. Of these perhaps the most 
injurious are the heavy duties upon foreign timber, which 
we shall show other reasons for condemning, in treating of 
protective duties ; but in this place they must be particularly 
censured, as offering a serious obstruction to ship-build- 
ing (one of the most important branches of national in- 
dustry in a maritime country), and to the construction of 
buildings for the convenience of trade and manufactures. 
The amended tariff of 1842, which for many reasons is a 
most important change in the financial policy of this 
country, nas reduced the duty on colonial timber to a rate 
perhaps unnecessarily low ; that on foreign timber, though 
much reduced, is still too high. 

One of the chief recommendations of indirect taxes is> 
that, when placed upon the proper description of articles* 
the payment of them by the consumer is optional. If 
charged upon what may be strictly called the necessaries 
of life, their payment becomes compulsory, and falls with 
unequal weight upon labour. Competition generally 
reduces a large proportion of the working classes to a 
state which allows them but little if anything beyond 
necessaries; consequently a duty upon these, as it will 
have no effect in diminishing the competition of labour 
and in raising wages, must reduce the comforts and stint 
the subsistence of labouring men. 

That class of articles commonly called luxuries, of 
which the consumption is optional, is a very fair subject 
of taxation. In principle there is no objection to such 
taxes : they do not interfere with industry or production, 
but are paid out of the incomes of the contributors, and 
paid willingly, and for the most part without undue pres- 
sure upon their means. But in laying on taxes upon par- 
ticular articles of tin's description care must be taken to 
proportion the charge to the value of the article. Exces- 
sive duties fail in the very object they have in view, by 
rendering the revenue less productive than moderate 
duties ; while the causes of their failure are injurious ti 
the wealth of the country by discouraging consumption, 
and to its morals by offering an inducement to smuggling. 
It is only by experience that the precise point can be 
found at which the revenue is most productive, consistently 
with an unchecked consumption and an absence of smug- 
gling; but it may be assumed as certain that whenever a 
tax adds very greatly to the price of an article of general 
consumption, it puts it out of the reach of many who 
are anxious to purchase it, and tempts smugglers, by the 
chance of a large profit, to evade the payment of the duty. 
On the contrary, when a duty is moderate, it adds so litUe 

Yol.XXIV.--Q 



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to the price of an article, that it will scarcely affect its 
consumption ; and the profit arising from evasion of the 
duty is so small as not to cover the risk and penalties of 
detection, In proof of these tacts there has been ample 
experience in the taxation of this country, and a few in- 
stances may serve as instructive illustrations. 

In 1823 the excise duties upon Scotch and Irish spirits 
were reduced from 5*. (id. to '2*. per gallon, and the im- 
mediate effect produced upon the apparent consumption 
and upon the revenue will appear by the following state- 
ment for the two years preceding and following the re- 
duction. 

Quantities of spirits made in Ireland and Scotland 
which paid duty for home consumption, stating the rate of 
duty paid, and the net revenue : — 







Ireland. 






Gallons. 


Rate of Duty. 


Net Rnvrone. 


1821 


2,649,170 


)(5j. Gd. per Irish \ ( 
) { gafion ) { 


£912,288 


1822 


2,328307 


797,518 






( 2s. per English i 




1823 


3,348,505 


< Wine Gallon from > 
( 10th October J 


634,460 


182* 


0,690315 


Ditto 


771,690 


1825 


9,262,744 


Ditto 
Scotland. 


1,0^1,191 




Gallons. 


Rate of Puty. 


Not Revenue. 


1821 


2,229,435 


/ 5*. Qd. per English \ 
\ Wine Gallon j 


£727,650 


1822 


2,079,556 


Ditto 


691,136 


1823 


2,232,728 


2s. from 10th October 


536,6f>4 


\HU 


4,350,301 


Ditto 


520,624 



1825 5,981,550 



Ditto 



682,^48 



In 1826 6d. was added to the duty, and again in 1830 a 
similar addition was made, the effect of which is shown by 
a continuation of the statement :— 







Ireland. 






Gallons. 


Rate of Duty. 


Net Revenue. 


1826 


6,837,408 


) 


f £964,509 


1827 


8,260,919 


1 2s. \0d. per Im- 


I 1,122,096 


1828 


94)37,903 


[ perial gallon 


] 1,395,721 


1829 


9,212,223 


J 


I 1,305,004 


1830 


9,004,539 


2s. 10</.,3*.,&3$.4</. 


1,409,128 


1831 


8,710,672 


3*. 4d. 


1,451,580 


1832 


8,657,756 


Ditto 


1,442,845 


1833 


8,168,596 


Ditto 

8COTLAND. 


1,360,769 




Gallons. 


Rate of Duty. 


Net Revenue 


1826 


3388,788 


( 2s. \0d. per Ira- 
\ perial gallon 
Ditto 


j £563,263 
672,441 


1827 


4,752,199 


1828 


5,716,180 


Ditto 


809,559 


1829 


5,777,280 


Ditto 


818,448 


1830 


6,007,631 


2s. 10rf.,av.,&3*.4</. 


939,258 


1831 


5,700,689 


3s. Ad. 


950,041 


1832 


5,407,097 


Ditto 


901,182 


1833 


5,988,556 


Ditto 


998,051 



These tablet show the effects of taxation in encourag- 
ing or repressing smuggling, rather than its influence upon 
consumption. Taking the case of Ireland, it would be 
impossible to believe that the actual drinking of spirits 
could have been increased more than threefold in a few 
years, even if there had been no evidence of illicit distilla- 
tion ; but before the reduction of duty in 1823, an enor- 
mous amount of smuggling bad been detected, and there 
were other means of estimating the extent of frauds prac- 
tised upon the revenue. For instance, in 1811, the duty 
had been only 2*. (id. a gallon, and in that year no less 
than 6,500,361 gallons had paid duty; while, in 1822, 
when the duty was 5*. 6d., only 2328397 gallons were 
brought to charge. The revenue commissioners, on whose 
recommendation the duty was reduced in 1823, then esti- 
mated the annual consumption of spirits in Ireland at ten 
millions of gallons, and the illicit supply at about seven 
millions. (Fifth Report of Revenue Commissioners, pp. 
8, 19.) 

In 1827 the duties on spirits made in England were re- 
duced from 12f. 6d. to 7*. a gallon. The average con- | 
sumption for three years to 1827 "ft* 3,677,457 gallons, 
and the revenue 2,281,526/. In 1829 (onlv two years alter [ 



the reduction) the consumption was 7.700,766 gaJU> . .- 
the revenue 2,695,268/., or 413,742/. more than the L; 
duty had produced. (Parnell's Financial Rfform, 4J, ^ 
p. 44.) 

It has been a common opinion that spina should act - 
treated merely as a source of revenue; but thai Un, 
injurious to the morals of the people, the conuunpt^ < 
them should be repressed by heavy duties. It ha* a* iu-s 
ingly been the object of this and of other govrrcac* 
to limit the consumption of spirits, and at the Mae \a 
to raise a large revenue from it. The object u ua^ 
tionably a good one if it could be secured : but the rrv.i 
of numerous experiments has proved that taxation tU_, 
be conducted with reference to the immediate ob*«t-*.ii 
obtaining a revenue in the best manner ; and that (;• * 
teresU of a country are promoted by following o^*i s m 
principles of taxation, rather than by seeking uxbtrtT 
and by a violation of those principles, to accompluJi ot;> \ 
winch, if attainable, can only be attained by other mix*. 
The signal failure of a measure in the last centur) for ... 
couraging the drinking of spirits is a strung cxtm^t i 
the futility of attempting to force a change m \bt iu-rt 
of the people by a tax. In 1736 a tax of 2U#.»r»l.i 
was imposed upon all spirits, with very heavy ptouua 
for evasion of the duty. The tax was extremely unpo^.jt 
and was evaded to such an extent, that in two)tXii 
less than 12,000 persons were convicted of offence* k~4 
the law. Indeed the measure proved altogether *o ».0i.i 
and so impracticable, that it was abandoned tiV o 
years of vexatious and unprofitable trial. 

High duties upon foreign articles imported into arc *.i 
are liable to all the objections which have been «U.'nl a 
applying to immoderate taxes upon consumption, and t.<J 
are chargeable with another,— they diminish imperii* 
and thereby restrict commercial intercourse sod ts* k 
mand for and exportation of domestic produce or maw* 
tures. 

The number of gallons of brandy and genera impc^ 
and retained for consumption, on an average of four j«l 
to 1807* was 1,820,000. The duty was then l4f.tra.cJ 
and the revenue 1370,000/. In 1814 the doty wa* m« 
18*. Ilk/., and on an average for the four succcedicf jra 
the number of gallons entered for home consumption H 
742XKK), and the revenue 825,000/. Thus a loss of 6tfja^ 
a year was sustained by the revenue, the legitimate tai 
in brandy discouraged, and a rich premium of errd u 4 
smuggler. The present duty is 11.2s. 6d.% gallon, ix I 
the year ended 5th January, 1842, only 1,180£41 »*•* 
were entered for home consumption, the gross m« < * 
which was 1347,461/., or 23,000/. less than in 1**7. * 
withstanding the great increase of wealth and pop -^4 
since that time. That French brandy b srauctw '* 
this country in large quantities is notorious; and «hri4 
consider that the duty is estimated at 400 or WO p« «* 
on its original price abroad, the inducement torva** il 
so great, that we cannot be surprised if all the rifilaort i 
our customs establishment is rendered ineffectual, la^ 
so regular and certain is the smuggling trade, thai ft i 
made the subject of insurance, like other commercui rrifl 
and it is even said at premiums of from 10 to 15 pe«^ 
which bear no proportion to the profits, if the apectil*a* 
be successful. 

The success of moderate duties upon article* of «•, 
sumption, in encouraging the use of them, placraf u«i 
within the reach of a larger number of persons, and *i *M 
same time augmenting the revenue, was never brfH 
shown than in the article of coffee. In l«M the dot? •! 
British plantation coffee was 1#., upon East India U ** 
and upon foreign coffee 2s. Gd. per lb. In lB25tbo««M 
were reduced one-half, and the consequence lias been «*J 
derably more than a threefold increase in the coss-^J 
tion, while the revenue has been more than doubles' ■ 
the three years preceding the reduction, the coos««j<* 
and revenue were as follows:— 



1822 
1823 
1824 



Quantities cleared 
for Ocmramptioo. 

7,669,351 It*. 

8,454.920 

8,262,943 



*ft1 

1*3*7342 
428,613 
420.9* 



In the three years following the reduction, t he <* 
sumption greatly increased, but not sufficiently to ufj"^ 
the revenue: 



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Quantities cleared 

for Consumption. Net Revenue. 

1826 . 13,203,323 lbs. £330,570 

1827 . 15,50(3376 399,060 

1828 . 17,127,633 440,£±5 
But the consumption has since been rapidly increasing, 

tnd in the last two years the consumption and revenue 
thus appear :— 

Quantities cleared 

for CouMjiraption. Net Revenue. 

1840 . 28,708,033 lbs. £921,550 
lail . 28,420,980 887,721 

The slight falling off in the last year may be accounted 
for by the general depression of trade, and perhaps in some 
measure also by the addition of 5 per cent, to the customs 
duties, which was then in operation. 

I;i 1835 coffee, the produce of British possessions in 
India, was admitted at the same duty as plantation coffee, 
m. (mJ. per lb., and the effect of the reduction, in encou- 
tKiujj the growth of the plant in India and the consump- 
tion of the berry in this country, has already been very 
great, and perhaps the coffee trade of the Easi may as yet 
be considered in its infancy. In 1834, the year before the 
iwiucuon, 8,875,961 lbs. were imported from the East 
India Company's territories and Ceylon ; and in 1840, 
16,885,698 lbs., or nearly double. The new customs tariff 
effects a further reduction of duty. That on foreign coffee 
i* for the future to be &d. a lb., and on coffee the pro- 
duce of British possessions only 4rf. An increased con- 
Rimption will doubtless be the effect of this measure, and 
ullnutely the revenue will be improved. 

Thus reductions of existing duties are proved by these 
examples to increase the revenue ; but whether the effect 
of tbera be immediate or deferred must depend upon a 
wnety of circumstances. If the reduction puts an end to 
extensive smuggling, the revenue will derive immediate 
fc*:iefit, as both the demand and the supply of the article 
ilrtady exist, and the reduced tax, without affecting pro- 
duction or consumption, acts as a police regulation, and 
it once protects the revenue from fraud. But where there 
is little ot uo smuggling, and the revenue can only be in- 
srtaotfd by means of additional consumption, the effect of 
tduccd duties may be deferred and even remote. The 
Mtide may have to be produced ; capital, skill, labour, and 
tme may be required to provide it in sufficient quantities 
If meet the growing demands of the consumer ; and even 
$oaJ<j the supply become abundant, the habits and tastes 
tf a people cannot be changed on a sudden. The high 
pwtf of an article may have placed it out of their reach, 
)oJ in the meanwhile they may have become attached to 
t favourite substitute, or may be slow to spend their money 
jpon a commodity which they have learned to do without. 
lese and other causes may defer for a considerable time 
pen aa increase of consumption as would make up for the 
pduced rate of tax, especially when the reduction has 
*eo so great as to require an extraordinary addition to the 
pevious amount of consumption, before the sacrifice made 
I the revenue can be redeemed. But where the article 
P which it is proposed to reduce a tax is already in uni- 
p*d request, and the supply immediate and abundant, 
&d where the tax is so heavy as to restrain consumption, 
& present loss need be apprehended from a remission of 
in of the tax, and a very speedy increase of revenue may 
t expected. Sugar is an article of this description, ft 
to become a necessary of life as well as a favourite 
Ewry. There are scarcely any limits to the supply that 
>a/d oe raised, and the present duties add materially to 
te price and check consumption. As a proof of the sud- 
umeas with which the consumption of foreign sugar 
teht be expected to increase if tlie excessive duly were 
duced, we may refer to the effects of equalizing the 
tie* on East and West India sugars in 1836. In that 
** the duty on East India sugar was reduced from 32*. 
MwL to 24*. In 1835 the quantity imported had been 
v.376 cwts. ; and in 1837, one year only after the change, 

* import had increased to 302,945 cwts. ; in 1838, to 
FilOO cwts. ; and in 1839, to 587,142 cwts. As the tax 

* diminished only by one-fourth, and the consumption 

* immediately more than doubled, the revenue at once 
ined considerably by the reduction of duty. 
A recent financial experiment will serve to show how 
tk aa increased revenue can be depended upon as the 
idt of an augmentation of taxes upon articles of con- 
mplura. In 1840 an addition of 5 per cent, was made 



to all the duties of customs and excise, and a proportionate 
increase of revenue was anticipated, but not realized. The 
net produce of the customs and excise in the year ending 
January 5th, 1840, amounted to 37,911,506/. The esti 
mated produce for the year ending January 5th, 1842, was 
39,807,081/., 1,895,575/. being expected from the addi- 
tional 5 per cent. The actual increase however was only 
206,715/., or little more than one-half per cent., instead of 
the 5 per cent, which had been expected. This result 
was undoubtedly in part caused by a general stagnation of 
trade, and by the consequent distress which prevailed in 
that year, but we notice -it because the principle of an in- 
discriminate augmentation of existing taxes, without refer- 
ence to their present amount, character, and circumstanced 
is very unwise. We have said that experience alone can 
show the precise rate of a particular tax which will not 
affect consumption and will at the same time discourage 
smuggling. It must be presumed that existing rates have 
been fixed in order to secure these results, and that they 
are justified by experience. To add to them therefore, not 
because they are insufficient for their immediate object, 
but because a general addition to the revenue is needed, 
is to neglect experience and to disturb the proper rela- 
tions between the amount of tax and the value of parti- 
cular articles. During the last century it was a common 
financial course to add a general per centage of increase 
upon all the customs duties whenever the revenue was 
found lu be insufficient for immediate purposes. To this 
unwise policy must be attributed many of the strange 
anomalies which up to this time have existed in the British 
tariff. Any recurrence to so unscientific a mode of taxa- 
tion should be avoided. The tax upon each article ought 
to be adjusted by itself upon sound principles, and then 
should not be changed merely to save the tremble or to avoid 
the unpopularity of selecting particular articles for in- 
creased taxation or of inventing new burthens. 

Protective, Discriminating, and Prohibitory Duties. 
The legitimate object of taxation is that of obtaining a 
revenue in the least injurious manner for the benefit of 
the community ; but this object has constantly been over- 
looked for the sake of ends not fairly to be accomplished 
by taxation. It is natural for a legislature to endeavour 
by every means in its power to encourage agriculture, 
trade, and manufactures ; and it would be culpable to 
neglect any proper means of encouragement, wnich are 
not only beneficial to particular interests, but add to the 
general prosperity. Unfortunately however the zeal of 
most legislatures upon this point has been misdnected. 
They have seized upon taxation as the instrument of pro 
tection and encouragement ; and, using it as such, have 
injured the great mass of their own countrymen, and ulti- 
mately have failed in promoting the very interests they 
had intended to serve. All that we can hope in this and 
other European countries is a gradual adoption of sound 
principles, and the correction, at some distant period, of 
the mistakes which have been acted upon for centuries; 
but it is to be hoped that in the new countries of the 
world, where systems of revenue are not yet established, 
or are growing up with the progress of society, none of 
the errors of the Old World will be suffered to have a 
beginning. If once the system of protection has existed, 
severe injuries and even injustice are inflicted whenever 
an attempt is made to undo the mischief which has been 
done. Reason and experience unite in teaching the im- 
policy of protective taxes ; and, in our own country, it is 
now so generally acknowledged, that nothing but the ex- 
treme difficulty of withdrawing the protection which has 
been given obstructs legislation upon sound principles. 

The object of a protective duty is to raise artificially 
the price of the produce or manufactures of one country 
as compared with the produce or manufactures of another. 
A heavy tax easily effects this object, and thus prevents 
competition on the part of that country whose commodities 
are taxed, and establishes a monopoly in the supply of those 
commodities in favour of the parties for whose benefit the 
tax was improved. The revenue, the avowed object of a 
tax, so far from being improved, is here actually sacrificed 
by the exclusion of merchandise, which at moderate duties 
would fill the coffers of the state. The state clearly is a 
loser ; the foreigner, whose goods are denied a marltet, is 
a loser. Who then gains by these losses ? Not the con- 
sumer ; for the more abundant the supply, the better and 

Q2 
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TAX 



116 



TAX 



cneaper will he find the market ; but the seller, who is 
enabled to obtain a high price for his wares because he 
has a monopoly in the sale of them, is the only party who 
gains. The community atlargc suffer doubly: first, by having 
to buy dear instead of cheap goods, or by being: denied 
the use of them altogether ; and secondly, by being obliged 
to pay other taxes which would not have been required, 
if tne very articles which would have made \neir purchases 
cheaper had been charged with a moderate impost. Even 
the sellers, for whom all these sacrifices are made, do not 
derive the benefit which might be expected. In the 
goods which they sell themselves, indeed, they are gainers ; 
but in purchasing of other monopolists they lose by an 
artificially high price, like the rest of the community. It 
constantly happens, too, that although the prices at which 
they sell are nigh, their profits are reduced, by the com- 
petition of others selling the same articles, to the general 
level of profits throughout the country. When this is the 
case, all parties, without exception, are losers — the state, 
the community, and the monopolists. The general injury 
done to trade by the protective system is too extensive a 
question to enter upon, but it is well illustrated in the 
* Report of the Committee of the House of Commons upon 
Import Duties' in 1840. 

Protection may be accomplished by actual prohibition 
of the import of particular articles, by exorbitant duties 
which amount to prohibition, or by such duties only as 

five the home producer an advantage. Duties may also 
incriminate between the produce of different countiies, 
and give the preference to some, to the injury and ex- 
clusion of others. 

In this country all these modes of protection have been 
resorted to. For the protection of agriculture, foreign 
cattle, sheep, swine, beef, mutton, pork, and other pro- 
visions have been entirely prohibited. High duties have 
been placed upon the importation of corn on a sliding- 
scale, so devised as to exclude it entirely, except in times 
of scarcity; and more moderate duties "are payable upon 
various articles of agricultural produce. The prohibitions 
however have recently been removed, and moderate import 
duties substituted. The corn-laws, though the sliding- 
scale is still adhered to, have been eonsideiably modified, 
and, it is hoped, will hereafter admit a larger amount of 
foreign giain, and enrich the revenue. The principle of a 
sliding-scale, -ve would here observe, apart from its ge- 
neral policy, is fery injurious to the revenue. When the 
high part of the scale is in operation, it acts as a piohibi- 
tion ; and when the lower duties only are payable, they 
are comparatively unproductive. The loss sustained by 
the consumer on account of the protective duties on corn 
has been variously estimated at from 12,000,000/. to 
50,000,000/. a year ; and yet it is well known that money 
invested in the purchase of land produces a very low rate 
of interest, not exceeding 3 per cent., and that persons 
engaged in agriculture, tor whom the protection is main- 
tained, have been continually complaining to parliament 
of their distiess. 

Upon various aiticles of manufacture there have been 
piolubitory and highly protective duties. In 1825 the 
former were removed ; and the latter have, in the present 
scs»ion of parliament ( 1H42\ been so modified as to £>e very 
lair taxes for the purposes of revenue. 

Duties are called discriminating when they are not 
levied equally upon the produce or manufactures of dif- 
feient countries. The object of them is to give an advan- 
tnov to the country on who»e commodities the tax is 
lightest, as compared with others. To obtain such a pre- 
ference has been the object of various negotiations and 
commercial treaties between different states, as it opens 
extensive markets to the industry of the favoured nation. 
By the present commercial policy of England, the principle 
of discrimination may be said to be confined to the pro- 
tection of our colonies against the competition of foreign 
countries. As regards each other, all foreign countiies 
enjoy equal commercial advantages in their intercourse 
with England. Our colonial policy is so wide a question, 
involving political and commercial considerations of high 
importance, that we can only touch upon it. It may be 
contended that colonies should form an integral part of 
the mother country, and that the commercial intercourse 
betw»«en the several parts of the British empire ought to 
oe viewed as a vast coasting-trade. If this principle were 
acted upon, it would certainly present a grand fiscal union 
worthy of admiration ; but the existing system does not 



partake in any degree of the character of a 
trade. To put it upon such a footing, the dulir 
colonial produce imported into the United Kingdom ** 1 
be little more than nominal, and we should rely upon 
ductive imposts upon foreign produce for our r*\* 
Our practice is the reverse of tllis. Where our taxe: 
criminate, we derive our revenue from the colonial 
duce ; and we either exclude foreign produce altofftth 
limit its introduction so much as to prevent it £rom 
t ributing materially to the revenue. The object o 
duties upon the foreign produce, which would enter 
competition with the colonies, is not revenue, but * 
sion, for the sake of creating a monopoly in fa> our c 
latter. This system we have already condemned, 
when established for the protection ot trade and ag 
ture in the mother country ; and upon fiscal ground 
equally indefensible when applied to the colonic* 
quite as injurious to the community. There are two 
articles of consumption, viz., sugar and timber, 
which the discriminating duties deserve especial n 
Sugar imported from the colonies pays a duty of 34 
cwt. ; from foreign countries 63*. The disproporr 
so great, that foreign sugar is comparati\ ely i-ic 
from the consumption of our people, who are forr 
rely upon the colonies for the supply of that imi» 
article. The population of the country has rapid 
creased, and with it the demand for most articles oi 
sumption. It is painful to see the supply of wij 
forcibly restrained by our commercial policy that ih 
sumption has not increased for ten years. In 
3,78 1,01 lewts. were retained for home consumption 
in 1&40 only 3,594,832 cwts. So inadequate hx\ 
colonies alone been to supply o