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Acbmst, Swltajc, description of the 

grand mosque of, 419. 
Alcantara, in Spain* account of, 836. 
Alhambra. historical and descriptive 

nccount of the, 355. 
Alum spring at Hackmll, description 

of, 133. 
America, observations on, 319. 
Am*"ean Indians, South, huts of the, 

Antimony, description of, 387- 
Apes, why cannot they talk ? 867- 
Apologues of different countries, on the 

resemblance between, 886. 
Arabs, Kedouio, character and habits 

of, 498; robberies .of, 497. 
Arms and supporters, English regal, 

Arsenic, description of. 416. 
Artesian wells, account of, 131. 
Arts applicable to manufactures, ad' 

vantages of instruction in, 491,500.' 
Autumn, close of, a naturalist's ob- 

asrvatfene on, 455. 

Bamboo, uses to which it it applied, 

Barry the painter, anecdote of* 119. 
Bathine and Swimming, observations 

on, 354. 
Basaar. dealings in a, 438. 
Bear and Beee. fable of the, 399. 
Beggee Jan. biography of, 70. - 
Bees in Russia and Portugal, on the 

management of, 199. 
Bidpai'e Fablea, transmission of to 

Persia. 390. 
Billings. William, biographical notice 

of. 114 
Bismuth, description of. 887. 
Bison, American, character ot and 

mode of hunting, 887. 
'Boldre church and school, account of, 

Bread-seals, mode of making, 103. 
British Mosenm, reading-room ot 

description oC 487. 
Bullfinch, memory of the, 99. 
Butter, different methods of making, 

Camvhos-tbsx, aooonnt of; 486. 
Camevals, Italian, some recollections 

of. 97. 
Carracci, Annibale, notiee concerning, 


Championship of England, account of, 

Cbepetow Castle, notiee of, 348. 

Chesterfield Church and its crooked 
spire, 111. 

China, account of the cities ot\ 997, 
817; great wall of, 889; canals of, 
366; bridges of, 896; roads and 
triumphal arches of, 494. a 

Cider, aceoent of, and profess of 
mAking, 971. 

Chromium, description ot 416. 

Coach-making in Africa, 196. 

Cobalt, description of, 415. 

Cod-fishing in Labrador 67. • 

Collieries, modes of working and com- 
mercial importance of r 190, 161. 

Cologne, cathedral, fcc at, aeooost of, 

Copper, description ntoV 19* 

Corean repasts- 107. 

Cormorant-Ashing in China, 76. 

Currency, observations on, by Starch, 

DATs-talk, descriptive account of 
the, 473. 

Deaf and Dumb pupils at the Exeter 
Institution, answers of. 91. 

Deaths of eminent persons of modern 
times, 4 18. 

Derbv, silk-throwing machinery at, 
115"; history and description of the 
town of, 476. 

Devil's Bridge, South 'Wales, descrip- 
tion of. 31& 

Diana, goddess, observations on, 4. 

Dieppe, historical and descriptive ac- 
count df, 936.. 

Distances, expediency of measuring 
from a common esatre in London, 

Docks, wild, account of, and methods 
of catching, 49; method of catching 
in the Fens of Lincolnshire, 60. 

Durham Cathedral, bishop's throne in, 
de*eribed. and memoir of Bishop 
* Hatfield, 306. 

Xaols, descriptive account of, 153; 

narrative* r elat ing to the great 

Eagle, 9*,8. 
Karl of Eldon, less of the, by nro, 

Eating, sndent, anecdotes of, 994. 

Education and crime, on the relation 

between, 906. 999. 
Elgin Cathedral, description ot 96. 
Elk, fossil, of Ireland, account of, 

England, as described by an Eastern 

Traveller 70 years ago. 375, 499. 
Englishman's valuation of his life, 99. 
Erpingham Gateway, description of, 

and biographical notice of Sir T. 

Erpingham. 169. 
Errors and superstitions arising from 

false associations, 371. 
Evora, Roman temple at, 917; Roman 

aqueduct and castellum at, 933. 
Exchanges, Storch's theory of, 44. 
Expenses, regulation of, 868. 

Fabixs, observations on, 969. 

Famine in London in the reign of 
Edward II.. 119. 

Farnham Castle, historical and de- 
scriptive account of, 445. 

Florence Cathedral, description of, 180. 

Fountains, observations on, 946. 

Gax.ix.xk ot DtranAM Catwxdhal, 
origintand description of, 976. 

Gardens, private, on the admission of 
the public to, 307. 

Garnet's straw, account of the 
posture of, 944. 

Glasgow, historical and descriptive ac- 
count of, 377, 495; social habits at, 
in the last century, 489; origin of 
the manufactures of, 91; 8t. Kilda- 
man's visit to, 448. 

Gloiwaej** A— ei snot n o n of maJdng, 

Gold-fish, account ot 69. * 

Gold, description ot 110, 149. 160, 17* 
Golhng. waterfall ot in the Tyrol. 348. 
Goodrich Castle, description ot 340. 
Gout, treatment of the, 967. 
Grouse of Europe, natural history of. 

H aluYs CoiftT, observations on, 360. 
Hands, right and left, observations on, 

Heidelberg Castle, and memoir of the 

Sseen of Bohemia, 19f . 
m-wind. in Cumberland, descrip- 
tion of. 307. 

HofWr, Andrew, memoir of, 969. 

Hogarth and his Works: the Election, 
plate i. 19; plate 11. 99; Gin Lane, 
89 ; Election, plate lit 113; plate iv. 
45; Country Inn Yard, 179; March 
to Fincbley, 193; Oratorio, 909; 
Calais Gate. 913; Laughing Au- 
dience. 916. 

Honey, old method of taking from the 
hive, 64. 

Hops, historical notice ot and mode of 
cultivating, 458. 

Horse and the Laden Ass, fable of the. 

Hot springs at St. Michael's Island, 
184. * 

Hongoomont, historical and descrip- 
tive account ot 999. .... 

Humming-bird*, natural history ot 

Hyrax, or Daman, description ot 353. 

i to, 319. 

iMraovxMSirr, oppositi 

Indian doctor's bill. 91. 

Indians of North America, account of, 

Ink, mode of rendering fluid, 59. 

Inns of Court, historical and descrip- 
tive account of the, 950. 

Intellectual pleasures, advantages of 
cultivating, 184. 

Intemperance, effects of legislative* 
restrictions on. 93 1 . 

Italy, South, recollections of Easter 
holidays in, 155, 175. | 

Jfjmson's Ten Rules of Life, 98. 
Jordaens, the Four Evangelists by, 17. 
J angle-fowl, natural history of, 186. 

Kxwilworth Castlx, historical and 

descriptive account ot 990. 
Kermaushah, a day at, narrative of, 

Kief, description of the catacombs of, 

Kildare and its cathedral, account of, 

Kingston, Jamaica, aooonnt of, 373. 
Knowledge, value of a, little, 170. 
Kyrle, ' The Man of Ross,' character 

of, 347. 

Laoo Maooioxx, description of, 441, 

Lammergeyer, or boa r ded vulture, 

description ot 481. 

Lancaster, town and castle of, de- 
scription of, 401. 

La Trappe, monks of, account of, 68. 

Lead, description of, 74, 94. 

Life-boat, description of. 109. 

Lighthouse at the North Foreland, 
description of. 365. 

Little things, observations on. 469. 

Lombe, John, and the silk-throwing 
machinery at Derby, 115. 

Louis XI„ particulars of, from Co- 
mince. 107. 

Lyons, schools of art at, 315. 

Lynx, natural history of the, 941. 

Maoaxtxk, analysis of an old one, 

Mahganese, description of, 415. 
Manis, natural history of, 105. 
Maple-tree, process of extracting sugar 

from, 137. 
Marly, Machine de, description ot 

Marmoset-monkey, or eulsuti, natural 

history ef, 489. 
Maximilian I., mausoleum of, at Inn- 

epmek, 958. 

Meran, valley of the, in the Tyrol, 

description of. 973. 
Mercia, laws of, 487. 
Mercury, description of, 979, 311. 
Mesopotamia, adventures in, 984, 301. 
Mineral Kingdom : copper, 5, 18 ; tin, 

33, 65. 59; lead. 74, 94; gold. 110, 

149, 160. 179; silver, 905, 938, 261; 

mercury, 979, 811; P^aSl"-* 

«{■»», yafa antimony and biamnth, 

887; manganese, cobalt, arsenic, 

and chromium, 415. 416. 
Mines of Cornwall and Wales, notes 

of a journey to, 351. 
Monomania in hones, curious facts 

relating to, 319. 
Monte C&vallo, piazza of, and statues 

in, 808. 
Moore, Sir John, character of, 443. 
Municipal corporations, origin and 

progress of, 509, 505. 
Muscular strength, as affected by diet, 


NAnrrOMMAirr, extracts from, 19L 

Neapolitan Castles (Cast el lo Nuovo 
and Castle of Sanf Elmo), descrip- 
tion of, 369. 

Newark Castle, historical notice of, 

New England States, character of, 

Normandy, observations on the cos- 
tume of, 433; descriptive account 

Norwich Cathedral, history and de- 
scription of, 199. 

OAK-BAXx-roiLiiro, account ot 36. 
Oilplant of China, account of, 486. 
Old Travellers » Busbequius, 7, 14, 97. 

Orange-trees, account of. 177- 
Orang-outang at the Siurey Zoological 

Gardens, description ot 968. 
Ornithorhynchus Paradox us, or Water 

Mole, description of, 325. 
Ossetinians of the Caucasian moun- 
tains, account of, 51. 
Onistlti, or marmoset-monkey, natural 

history ot 489. 
Owl, white or barn, character and 

habits of. 409. 
Oxford, historical and descriptive 

account of, part ii,, 41. 

Pahoha Tawtra, account of the, 358. 

Paper-making in Tibet, 267. 

Pegge's ' Anecdotes of the English 
j Language,' extracts from, 19, 189. 

Platina, description of. 330. 
j Poor in foreign countries, state of, 394. 

Poor student's literary ways and 
means. 918, 997. 

Pope's Tree at Binfleld, 65. 

Porpoise and other cetaoea, descrip- 
tion of, 316. 

Poultry, on the hatching of, 104, 

Proas, Indian, description of, 904. 

Prudhoe Castle, historical and de- 
scriptive account of, 990. 

Ptarmigan, descriptive account of, 399. 

Ralxioh. Sir Waxtsx, birth-place of, 
52 ; conclusion of his ' History of 
the World/ 478. 

Rembrandt, biographical notice of, 

Rome, Forum at, account of the, 419. 

Rooks, anecdote of, 8. 

Royal George, loss of, notice concern- 
ing woman saved at, 103. 

Russia, female education in, 30; de- 
scriptive account of fires in, 146; 

marriage ceremouiee In, 202 ; burials 
in, 943; popular prints in, 443 ; his- 
torical and descriptive account of the 
capitals of. 465. 

Russian serf, condition of, 156. 

Russian villages, description of, 293. 

Saadi, the ' Rose Garden' of, account 

of, and extracts from, 460. 
Sable, natural history of, mode of hunt* 

ing, and traffic in furs, 29. 
Salt, common, account of, 66. 
Salt-mines of Salzbourg, description 

of. 138. 
Sandwich Islands, minstrelsy in, 59. 
Sapphire Grot, in the Island of Capri, 

description of, 459. 
Sarepta, description of the town of, 11. 
Scotch, domestic manners of in the 

16th centurv, 195. 
Sea Terms, 459. 
Seal, natural history ot 9 : seal-hunt* 

ing, 100. 
Shaddock-tree, account of, 991. 
Shagreen, notice concerning. 91. 
Shell-slug, description of, 152. 
Shepherd's dog, anecdote of, 3. 
Shinty, game of, 33. 
Sieges, ancient, narratives of. 303. 
Silk-trade of France, observations on, 

Silver, description of, 905, 938. 961. 
Sinai, Mount, descriptive account ot 

433; account of convent of St. Ca- 
therine nt. 449. 
ttJoUi, natural history of the, 2. 
Bono, Birmingham, account of, 345. 
Southwell, Robert, biographical notice 

of, and extracts from bis »orks, 95, 

Spirits, drinking ot and Temperance 

Societies, 82. 
Spring, observations of a naturalist 

during, 79. 
Smnrrel, character and habits of the, 

Stage-coaches in England, history ot 

8team-boat explosions in the United 

States, 72. 
Steel instruments, process of temper* 

ing. 411. 
Stomach, of tho reducing powers of 

the. 159. 
Swot d fish, descriptive account of the. 

Txa, on the consumption of, and i 
of cultivating and preparing in 
CWiuwA45. f r~ a 

Teagle, description of the. 283. 

Teneriffe, account of the island of. and 
narrstivo of a journey to the top of 
the Peak, 269. * 

Time, as represented in almanacs, ex- 
planation of, 118. 

Tin, description of, 33, 55, 58. 

Tlppoo's Tiger, description of, 319. 

Tobacco-smoking, illustrations of, 349. 

Torquay, Devonshire, closer iptiun of, 

Travelling, Englbh, in the 17th cen- 
tury, 186; in the 18lh and 19th 
centuries, 198. 

Turkish sohool, description of, 159. 

Tutbury, minstrels' court and bull*, 
running at, 15. 

Tynemouth Priorv, history and de- 
scription of. 140'. 

Tyrol, account or the. 258; castl«« »- 
the, and habits of the Tyrole*>, 

Umbrxllas in the East, particulars 

relating to, 479. 
United States, college-life in the, 40. 

Yak DrxMEN's Land, wild dogs In, 

Vatican, the. description ot 406. 

Vulgar errors, 329. 

Vultures, character and habits ot 861. 

Walxs, wedding-biddings in, 3. 
Warkworth Hermitage, description ot 

Washington, Chamber of Represents* 
lives at, doseri ption of, 397. 

Watt, James, inscription on his monu- 
ment. 267. 

Wliichnor Bacon, acconnt of the cere- 
mony of. 31. 

Wine, on the use cf nnd on legislates* 
regulations with respect to, 2C*h 

Wolf and the Lamb, fable of the, 264. 

Worcester City and Cathedral, his- 
torical and descriptive account of. 

Wye, descriptive 
scenery ol the, 837. 

Zac, description ot 86?. 

acconnt of tho 

Digitized by 




• Goddess Diana, 4. 
a Greenland Seal-hunting, 9. 

4. The Feast, from Hogarth** ' Elec- 

tion.' 13. 

5. Poor Evangelists, by Jotdaens, 


6. Sable-hunting in America, 84. 

7. Elgin Cathedral, 25. 

8. The Canvas*, from Hogarth's 

• Election.' 99. 

9. Game of Shinty, 33. 

10. Peeling the Bark from the Oak, 


11. Interior of Christ Church Hall, 

Oxford. 41. 
It. Magdalen Bridge and the Tower 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, 

13. New University Printing Office, 

Oxford. 48. 

14. Method of capturing Wild Docks 

in the Fens of Lincolnshire. 49. 

15. Birth-place of Sir Walter Raleigh, 


16. Egyptian Room in the British 

Museum, 57. 

17. Method of capturing Wild Dueks 

in the Pens of Lincolnshire, 60. 

18. Pone's Tree at Binfleld, Berks, 

19. Porter of a Convent of La Trappo, 

in France, 68. 
90* A Monk of La Trappe at his 

devotions, 69. 
91. Silence, after the Picture by Anni- 

bale Carracci. 73. 
99. Cormorant-fishing in China, 76- 

93. Gin Lane. 81. 

94. Beer Street, 88. 

95. WarkwortavHermitage, 89. 

96. Boldre Church, Hampshire. 99. 
Rev. William Gilpin's School at 

Boldre, 93. 
Carneval at Rome, 97. 
Seal-hunting in Scotland. Plate L, 

Seal-hunting in Scotland, Plate 

IU 101. 
Long and short-tafled Mania, 105. 



39. Pre] 


to launch the LUe- 

88. Life-boat in a Storm, 109. 

84. The Polling ( * Election/ Plato 

III.), 113. 

85. Sir Thomas Lombe's SQk-mfll at 

Derby. 116. 

86. Time-Figs. 1. 9, 3. 4, 5, 6, 7. Br- 


87. South Hetton Colliery, 19L 

88. Mouth of a Coal-pit, 194. 



Pit-bottom, 195. 

Preparing to Blast, and gathering 
the Coal. 197. 

Pitmen forming a M Bord." Drags- 
man and Foal, and forming a 
- Judd," 197. 

Screening Coals, 128. 

Cathedral or Norwich, 199. 

Alum Spring at Hackfall, York- 
shire, 133. 

Humming-birds extracting the 
Nectar and catching Insects, 
136. ' - 


__r-mAj>lo Tree, 137- 
Tynemoutfi crnr, with «fc* i.i, 

house. Priory, and Barrack, 

Church of Tynemouth Priory, 141. 

Chairing the Members (* Election,' 
Plate IV.). 144. 

to 6a English Regal Arms, 14 
Figures, 148 to 150. 

Shell slug, with interior and ex- 
terior of its shell, 152. 

Eagle's Nest, 153. 

Castle of Heidelberg, 157. 

View on the Tyne, showing the 
mode of Shipping Coal, 161. 

Inclined Plane on the Railway 
from South H«tton t^ Beahoun 
Harbour, with Trains of Wag- 
gons, 164. 

Seaham Hurbour, showing tho ter- 
mination of South Hetton Rail- 
way, 165. 

Seaham - Harbour Coal - Staith, 
mode of Loading by the Spout, 

Erpingham Gateway, Norwich 
Cathedral, 169. 

Hogarth's Country Inn Yard. 173. 

Senile Orange Tree, 177. 

Florence Cathedral, 181. 

Jungle FowL 185. 

Jacob's Blessing, by Rembrandt, 

March to Finchley, 193. 

Interior of Newark Castle, 197. 

Shaddock TneJMr - - - 

Indian Proa*, 904. 

The Oratorio. 909. 

Calais Gate. 913. 

Laughing Audience, 916. 

Temple of Diana at Evora, 917. 

Prudhoe Castle, Northumberland, 

Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus, 995. 

Ruins of the Chateau of Hougou- 
mont, at Waterloo, 999. 

Roman Aqueduct and Castellum 
at Evora, 933. 

















Dieppe Harbour, 937. 

Lynxes. 94 L 

Garnet's Straw, 945. 

Fountain of the Prince of Pales- 
tine, by Bernini, 94a 

Middle Temple Hall, 949. 

Statue of Lord Erskine, by West- 
maoott, 956. 

Innspruck, the capital of the 
Tyrol, 958. 

A Tyrolese Peasant, 960. 

The Wolf and the Lamb, 964. 

Ruins of the Cathedral of Kil- 
dare. 965. 

Female, Orang-outang at the 
Surrey Gardens, soa. 

Valley of Meran— Vine* Trellis 
over the Road— Tyrolean Pea- 
sants, 273. 

Bede's Tomb, Galilee, Durham, 

Cologne Cathedral, 981. 

The Teagle. 984. 

The Horse and the Laden Ass, 

View of Kenilworth Castle from 
the Gate-house, 989. 

Great Hall. Kenilworth, 993. 

North Gate of Pekin, 297. 

iiotn* and skull q( the Fossil 
Elk of Ireland. 300. 

Moose- Deer Horns. 300. 

Battering - ram combined with 
tower, 303. 

Moveable Towers, 303. 

Bishop's Throne, Durham Ca- 
thedral, 305. 

Piazxa of Monte Cavallo at Rome, 

Devil's Bridge, South Wales, 313. 

Porpoise, 316. 

Skeleton of the Porpoise, 317. 

Tippoo's Tiger. 320. 

Capercailzie, or Cock - of - the- 

Worcester Cathedral and City, 

120. Ptarmigan, 329. 

121. Bridge and Town of Alcantara, 


122. Col 

123. Goodrich Castle, 340. 

124. Coracle. 341. 

125. Chepstow Castle. 344. 

126. Soho, Birmingham, 345. 

127. Waterfall of Golling, 348. 

128. The Hyrax. 353. 

129. Hall of Justice, Alhambra, Gra- 

nada, 356. 

130. Course of Halley's Comet among 

the Fixed Stars, 360. 

181. Egyptian Vultures, 86L 

132. North Foreland Lighthouse, 865. 

133. Castello Nuovo and Castle at 

Sanf Elmo. Naples, 869. 

134. Harbour Street, Kingston. Ja- 

maica, 378. 

135. Glasgow, with StoekwaU Bridge, 
♦ 3777 

136. Trongate Street, Glasgow. 881. 

137. View or Castel-Val, 885. 

138. Bison Americanos, a Bull, 888. 

139. Bison A mericanus. Female, 888. 

140. The Bear and the Bees, 399. 

141. The common Ground Squirrel, 893. 
149. Chinese Bridge, 397. 

143. Chamber, of Representatives at 

Washington, 4W. 

144. Lancaster, 401. 

145. One of Raffaelle»s Galleries in 

the Vatican. 408. 

146. White or Barn Owl. 409. 
147- The Forum at Rome, 419. 

148. South American Indian Hut, 417. 

149. Interior of the Grand Mosque of 

Sultan Achmet, Constantino- 
ple, 420. 

150. Glasgow CaihedraL 495. 

151. Hunterian Museum, Glasgow. 


152. Monument of John Knox at 

Glasgow, 432. 

153. Ascent of Mount Sinai, 433. 

154. Sword Fish. 436. 

155. Tusk of a Sword-Fish, 437. 

166. View on the Lago Maggiore. 441. 

157. Ruins of Farnham Castle, 444. 

158. Mounts Sinai and Horeb with the 

Convent of St. Catherine, 449. 

159. Hop-Garden at Farnham, 452. 

160. Hop-Queen. 453. 

161. Farmer of Normandy, 457. 

162. The Dog and the Shadow, 460. 

163. The Kremlin and the Mosk- 

ffeetskoi Bridge, Moscow, 465. 

164. The Bourse, St. Petersburg. 469. 

165. Wild Date Palm on the Sinai 

Mountains, 473. 

166. Town Hall, Derby. 477. 
167* The Lammergeyer, 481. 

168. Norman Fruit- Woman, 484. 

169. Norman Peasant, 485. 

170. Marmoset Monkeys, 489. 
m.£kia Vessels of the Arabs, 499. 
172. 'Bedouin Arabs, 493. 

178. Bedouin Robbers. 497. 

174. Arms, &c. of the Bedouin Arabs, 


175. Guildhall, Chichester, 504. 

176. Carter's Passage, and Old Town 

Hall at Oxford, 505. 

177. Town HalL Liverpool, 508, 

Digitized by 



or THK 

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

___^_____________ •■-.■. . » 

177J » PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. [January 3, 1835. 

*—«• -»——————-—- __________ ___________ , ■....., i -nriiwTTriiiii. i _ ami 


▼ Ufr- AT. MM 

Digitized by V^jjOOQIG* 


Thc ttmmam name of the animal represented in our 
wocd-crt it as tittle descriptive of its character as many 
of the statements and opinions regarding its functions 
and conditio* are exaggerated or untrue. The name 
and the statements arose. from the supposition of an 
analogy between it and other quadrupeds, which does 
not in feet exist ; and from observations made upon 
its habits under drcomstanees totally opposed "to the 
aaani fetation of the peculiar qualities which necessarily 
revolt from the peculiarities of its formation. Into the 
anatomical details of that formation wt cannot here 
minutely enter. They may be found at length under 
the word ' Ai * in the * Penny Cyclopedia. 

The sloth, In its wild condition, spends its whole life 
on the trees, and never leaves them but through force 
or accident ; and what Is more extraordinary, it lives 
not upon the branches, like the squirrel and the monkey, 
but vnder them. Suspended from the branches it 
moves, and rests, and sleeps So much of its ana- 
tomical structure as illustrates this peculiarity it is 
necessary to state. The arm and fore-arm of the sloth, 
taken together, art nearly twice the length of the hind- 
legs ;' and they are, both by their form and the manner 
in Wjfaich they are joined to the body, quite incapacitated 
from acting in a perpendicular direction, or in support- 
ing it upon the earth, as the bodies of other quadrupeds 
are supported by their legs. Hence, if the animal be 
placed on the floor, its belly touches the ground. The 
wrist and' ankle are joined to the fore-arm and leg in 
an oblique direction ; so that the palm, or sole, instead 
of being directed downwards, towards the surface of the 
ground, as in other animals, is turned inward towards 
the body in such a manner that it is impossible for the 
sloth to place the sole of its foot flat down upon a level 
surface. It is compelled, under such circumstances, to 
rest upon the external edge of the foot. 

The form and articulation of the posterior extremities 
is almost equally remarkable with the anterior. The 
formation of the pelvis alone is of such a nature as 
ito render it impossible for sloths to walk after the 
manner of ordinary quadrupeds; and the mode in 
which the limbs are joined to the pelvis seems as if 
expressly arranged for the purpose of altogether 
depriving the animal of the ordinary use of its legs. 
The effect of this conformation is, that the sloth 
must remain quite stationary when placed on a polished 
surface ; but as the open ground is generally rough, 
with small protuberances, such as stones, roots of grass, 
Ac, he extends his arms in all directions in search of 
something to lay hold of; and when he has succeeded, he 
pulls himself forward, and is thus enabled to trail himself 
along, but in the exceedingly awkward and tardy manner 
which has procured him the name of the " sloth." Mr. 
Waterton informs us that he kept a sloth in his room, 
for several months, and often took him out of the {louse 
in order to have an opportunity of observing his motions. 
If the ground were rough, he would pull himself for- 
ward, in the manner just described, at a pretty good 
pace ; and he invariably directed his course towards the 
nearest tree. But if he was placed upon a smooth and 
well-trodden part of the road, he appeared to be in 
much distress. Within doors, the favourite station of 
this sloth was on the back of a chair ; and, after getting 
all his legs in a line on the topmost part of it, he would 
hang there for hours together, and often with a low 
and plaintive cry would seem to invite the notice of his - 

It should be observed that the sloth does not suspend 
himself head downward like the vampire, — but, when 
asleep, he supports himself from a branch parallel to 
the earth. He first seizes the branch with one arm, 
and then with the other ; after which he brings up both 
his legs, one by one, to the same branch ; so that all the 
four limbs are in a line. He rests in perfect security in 

pAirom 4 

(his position, to which his whole structure is adapted. 
In this attitude the sloth has the power of using the 
fore paw as a hand in conveying fbodJto his mouth, 
which he does with great address, retaining meantime 
a firm hold of the branch with the other three paws. 
In all his operations the enormous claws with which 
the sloth is provided are of indispensable service. 
They are so sharp and crooked that they readily seize, 
upon the smallest inequalities in the bark of the trees 
and branches among which the animal habitually re- 
sides, and, united to the great muscular strength and 
rigid formation of the extremities, furnish very powerful 
weapons of defence. 

All our readers are aware of the story that the sloth 
entirely confines himself to one tree, until he has com- 
pletely stripped it of its leaves. But as, in the remote 
tropical forests which the animal inhabits, the trees 
touch each other in the greatest profusion, there is 
manifestly no reason why it should do this, since even 
the indolence with which it is so unjustly reproached 
would, in many cases, be more indulged by removing 
rather to an adjoining tree than to another part of thai 
in which it actually is. Mr. Waterton says, — " During 
the many years I have ranged the forests, I have never 
seen a tree in such a state of nudity ; indeed, I would 
hazard a conjecture, that, by the time the animal had 
finished the last of the old leaves, there would be a new 
crop on the part of the tree he had stripped first, ready 
for him to begin again, so quick is the process of vege- 
tation in these countries." The same entertaining 
writer thus describes the travels of the sloth. M 1 here 
is a saying among the Indians, that when the wind 
blows the sloth begins to travel. In calm weather he 
remains tranquil, probably not liking to cling to the 
brittle extremity of the branches, lest they should break 
with him in passing from one tree to another; but as 
soon as the wind rises, the branches of the neighbouring 
trees become interwoven, and then the sloth seizes hold 
of them and pursues his journey in safety. There is 
seldom an entire day of calm in these forests. The 
trade wind generally sets in about ten o'clock in the 
morning . The sloth then travels at a good round pace ; 
and were you to see him pass from tree to tree, as I 
have done, you would never think of calling him a 
sloth." In foot, the animal is distinguished among the 
Europeans settled in America by the name of Ai, from 
a plaintive feeble cry, resembling that word, which it 
emits while in motion. . 

The sloth brings forth and suckles its young like 
ordinary quadrupeds. The young sloth, from the mo- 
ment of its birth, clings to the body of its parent until 
it gains sufficient size and strength to shift for itself. 
Only a single young one is produced at a birth. Sloths 
are exceedingly tenacious of life. They have been seen 
to move their legs, and exhibit other symptoms of viva- 
city, a full half hour after having been deprived of the 
heart and other viscera. Waterton states that he saw 
the heart of one beat for half an hour after it was taken 
out of the body; and adds, that the wourali poison 
seems to be the only thing that will kill it quickly. An 
arrow dipped in it will kill a sloth in about ten minutes. 
It is a scarce and solitary animal, found only in the 
most gloomy and retired tropical forests of South 
America. Its flesh is much relished by the Indipns, 
who are therefore in continual pursuit of it. 

The common sloth has a short round head, furnished 
with coarse shaggy hair, disposed on the crown in 
verging rays, like that of the human species. The face 
is of a yellowish colour, covered with very short hair, 
whilst that of the body and extremities is universally 
long and shaggy. The eyes are encircled by a brown 
ring. The hair of the body is varied with irregular 
patches of dark and light brown or silvery white. 
, Between the shoulders there is an oval patch of short 

Digitized by 




orange-coloured hair, of a finer quality than that which 
is found on other parts, of the body, and divided in the 
centre by a longitudinal black stripe : the throat and 
breast are frequently of a light straw colour. The 
texture of the hair is very peculiar, and has a nearer 
resemblance to dry hay, or grass shrivelled and withered 
by the sun, than to the hair of ordinary quadrupeds. 
It is coarse and flattened at the extremity, but near the 
root it is as small as the finest spider's web ; and its 
dry and withered appearance forms the animal's prin- 
cipal security against its pursuers, as it renders it 
exceedingly difficult to be detected while at rest among 
the branches, covered with bark and moss of the same 
colour. It is only when in motion that it can be readily 
distinguished from the branch beneath which it hangs 
suspended. In other respects, different individuals of 
the species differ considerably from one another in the 
shades and disposition of their colours, and in the 
intensity of the mark between the shoulders ; some are 
even altogether destitute of this last mark, others are 
of a uniform ash-colour over the whole »body, and there 
are others slill which have the hair of the head parted 
in the centre and hanging down upon each side. It is 
not, however, exactly determined whether these con- 
stitute distinct species, or are merely varieties of the 
common sloth. The known species have nothing more 
than the rudiment of a tail. Their dental system is 
exceedingly simple: they have no incisor teeth, but 
canines and molars only; the former diminutive, and 
very similar to the latter. The molar teeth are eight in 
the upper jaw and six in the lower;— four and three 
on either side respectively. It is very remarkable also 
that sloths, although their necks are so short, have nine 
vertebra, whereas most other quadrupeds, even those 
with the longest necks, have but seven. Thus it will 
be seen that, altogether, there is scarcely a member of 
the animal kingdom more remarkably constituted, or 
more deserving of being carefully studied. 


Some correspondents have favoured us with printed 
copies of the papers used as invitations to weddings among 
the lower classes in Wales, in some parts of which it is 
customary for the persons invited to make donations of 
money or of such articles as may be useful to the newly- 
married pair, expecting similar assistance when a wedding 
takes place in their own family. This primitive custom is 
curious and interesting, and doubtless tends to the promo- 
tion of a neighbourly and social feeling among the people 
where it prevails; we are not, however, prepared to admit 
the actual utility of a practice which must often have the . 
effect of facilitating the marriage of young people before 
they are in a condition to provide for the wants of their 
household. We subjoin copies of the different forms of 
invitation which have been sent to us : — 

">fay fth, 1830. 

" As we, Benjamin Jones arid Mary Coslett, intend to enter 
the matrimonial state on Friday, the 28th instant, the young 
woman intends to make a Bidding on the occasion at her 
father's house, called Lliw-forge, in the parish of Llandilo- 
taPy-bont, iu the county of Glamorgan, where your agree- 
able company is humbly solicited ; and whatever donation 
you may be pleased to bestow on her then will be thankfully 
received, and cheerfully repaid by her father and mother 
whenever called for on a similar occasion." 

At some distance below, in smaller print, is added :-*• 
" N.B. The young woman, and her father and mother, 
Thomas and Esther Coslett, and her brother, Thomas Cos- 
lett, desire that all gifts of the above nature due to them be 
returned to the young woman on the above day, and will be 
thankful for all favours granted." 

The form, second in date, only differs from the preceding 
in going rather in the name of the young man and bis 
parents than in that of the young woman. The third we 
give entire, with the exception of the postscript, which is 
similar to the above, except that it is equally addressed to 
the friends of both parties ; and adds a request that ail the 

debts of this nature due to a deceased uncle of the young 
man may be paid on this occasion. 

" Caermarthenshlre, February 1, 1834. 
" Drab Fri*wp,— We take this convenience to inform 
you that we confederate to suoh a design as to enter under 
the sanotion of matrimony on the 19th of February imft. 
And as we feel our hearts inclining to regard the ancient 
custom of our ancestors, «*/ Hiliogaeih Gomer, we intend 
tq make a wedding-feast the same day, at the respective 
habitation of our parent ; we hereby most humbly invite 
your pleasing and most comfortable fellowship at either of 
which places ; and whatever kindness your charitable hearts 
should then grant will be accepted with congratulation and 
most lovely acknowledgment, carefully recorded and re- 
turned. With preparedness and joy, whenever a similar occa- 
sion overtakes you, by your affectionate servants, 

David Joshua. 

Mart Williams." 

The customary form is that which is first given : the last 
seems a rather ambitious departure from the established 

Anecdote qf a Shepherds Dog,— We often read of the 
sagacity of the shepherd's dog, but the scenerof its manifes- 
tations is usually placed far away in the highlands of Soot- 
land or Wales. Yet a person who notices the proceedings 
of the dogs employed to assist the drovers in conveying a 
flock to London, or through its streets, might collect a large 
number of curious facts in illustration of its character. A 
correspondent informs us that, a short time since, a flock of 
about 200 sheep was advancing towards town by one of the 
northern roads. As it passed through the village of Totten- 
ham, about a dozen of the same species were seen approach- 
ing in the opposite direction ; and the drivers of this small 
detachment became, as usual in such cases, anxious lest any 
of their diminutive number should desert to the stronger 
party ; to prevent which they gathered their few sheep to one 
side of the road, and surrounded them, as it were, with a 
wall of men, until the larger Hock should have passed. One 
of them, however, battled all attempts to prevent his escape, 
and, forcing his way between the legs of the men who sur- 
rounded him, sprang into the midst of the other flock, in 
which be appeared, to the unpractised eye, completely lost. 
A vigorous pursuit immediately commenced, and the drivers, 
rflnning to and fro, made every effort to recover the fugitive, 
until they were obliged, from mere exhaustion, to give over 
the endeavour. The head driver of the larger flock, who 
had looked on apparently enjoying the transaction, then 
gave the word tq ins dog, who dashed forward and brought 
the affair to a very speedy cpnclusion. He singled out the 
runaway without the least hesitation, and seizing him by 
the loose skin of the neck, bore him to the ground, and held 
him fast until the drivers came up and fully secured him. 
The larger flock now passed on, and a bystander expressing 
his pleasure at the sagacity of the dog, the driver put the 
animal into vigorous employment ; and he was seen now 
urging on the main body, — now restraining stragglers, — 
now at his master's feet,— and now, again, circling the flock,' 
and barking with all his might After this display had 
continued for some time' it was interrupted by an outcry 
from behind, and the stray sheep was seen renewing his 
attempt at an escape. In this he again succeeded, although 
his pursuers were now aided by a number of bystanders ; 
and the poor animal, no doubt thinking the coast clear, 
came bounding onward in eager haste. As before, however, 
his triumph was but of short duration. The dog, having 
again waited for the signal, encountered him in his career, 
and mastering him as before, delivered hinua second and 
last time ta his rightful owners ! 

Necessary Caution in Conversation. — If we did but 
reflect, it would be easy to observe that the too great desire 
of outrshininff and defiling ethers renders conversation dis- 
agreeable.^ We are willing at any rate to give a great idea 
4 of our merit ; this desire puts us upon a flow of talk, with- 
out giving others the leisure or opportunity to exert their 
small talents, and so they depart soured and provoked 
against those that have thus kept them in amusement.— 
Palmer's Aphorisms. 

Digitized by 



(January S, 

[Statue of the 

Diana, the daughter of Jupiter alid Latona, received 
a worship among the Greeks nearly as extensive as 
that of her twin-brother, Apollo. She was the goddess 
of the woods and of the chace on earth, and also known 
as Luna in heaven and He<!ate in hell. She was most 
recognized in the former character, in which she is fre- 
quently represented in ancient statues, — as running 
with her vest shortened and girt around her, and yet 

Goddess Diana.] 

flying back with the wind. She generally appears as 
tall of stature ; and, in correspondence with the tastes 
assigned her, her countenance exhibits a somewhat 
manly expression combined with its feminine characte- 
ristics. Her legs are always bare, well-shaped, and 
strong ; and her feet are sometimes naked, but oftener 
adorned with some sort of buskin or sandal. She gene- 
rally has a quiver on her shoulder, and sometimes a 

. Digitized by 




javelin, but more frequently a bow in her hand ; and a 
dog is usually by her side or at her feet. The statues 
of Diana were, in ancient times, frequently placed in 
the woods, representing her as hunting, bathing, or 
reposing after fatigue. When, under other circum- 
stances, Diana was represented as the intelligence that 
presides over the moon, she usually appeared in a car 
drawn by deer, but more commonly by white horses, 
with a lunar crown, or crescent, on her forehead. 

** Diana," says Winckelmann, " has the figure and 
air of a virgin mere than any of the other superior 
goddesses. Gifted With all the attractions of her sex, 
she seems not to be aware of her beauty ; yet her looks 
are not cast down like those of Pallas ; her bright and 
cheerful eyes are directed toward the" object of her 
delight — the chase. Her hair is gathered on all sides 
of her head, and forms behind, on her neck, a knot in 
the style used by virgins. Her shape is more light and 
slender than that of either Juno or Pallas. She has 
generally but a slight garment, which merely descends 
to her knees ; and is the only goddess sometimes seen 
with the bosom uncovered." 

This celebrated antiquary's description of Diana very 
nearly corresponds with the statue represented in our 
wood-cut. She is dressed in a short, plaited, and sleeve- 
less tunic, which is confined by a sort of map tie passed 
over her left shoulder, and folded round her waist. The 
left hand is employed in holding back a fawn, while the 
right is raised to take an arrow from the quiver which is 
upon her shoulder. The legs are naked, but her feet are 
furnished with rich sandals. She seems in the act of pro- 
tecting the hind which she holds with her left hand, while 
her looks are turned in apparent severity and anger in a 
direction opposite to that in which the animal is going. 
This hind is concluded to be the fabulous one of Mount 
Coryneum, with its brazen feet and antlers of gold, which 
was consecrated to Diana by the nymph Taygete, the 
daughter of Atlas. Hercules, when in subjection to 
Eurystheus, received orders to bring this animal alive 
to MycensB. This was the fourth of his famous labours. 
He pursued the hind through many countries, and 
at last .overtook it in Arcadia, at the passage of the 
river Ladon. But his labour was in vain, for Diana 
descended from Mount Artemisius, and rescued the 
consecrated prey, menacing the demi-god himself with 
her weapons. This is very probably the incident which 
the sculptor intended to represent in this admirable 
statue, which is not unworthy of a comparison with the 
more famous Apollo Belvedere, a wood-cut of which 
has been given iu No. 45 of the 'Penny Magazine.' 
It is certainly the finestf of the statues of Diana 
which have come down to us from ancient times. 
It is of Parian marble, and remains in a very good 
state of preservation. The height of the statue is 
six feet, six inches, and two-thirds. It has been in 
France since the reign of Henry IV. ; but when and 
how it was brought is not known. It was engraved by 
CI. Mellan in 1669, by Baquoy in the ' Mustfe Francais,' 
and by Heine in the small edition published by 
Filhol. Our wood-cut is copied from the engraving of 

We cannot better conclude this article than by the 
following fine hymn to Diana, from Ben Jonson's 

* Cynthia's Revels.' 

* Queen and Huntress, chaste and fair, 

Now the sun is laid tu sleep, 
Seated in thy silver chair, 
^ State in wonted manner keep : 
Hesperus entreats thy light, 
Goddess excellently bright. 

Earth, let not thy envious shade 

.Dare itself to interpose ; 
Cynthia's shining orb was made 
Heaven to dear, when day did close. 
Bless ns then with wished sight, 
Goddess excellently bright. 

Lay thy bow of pearl apart, 

And thy crystal shining quiver ; 
Give unto the flying hart 

Space to breathe, how short soever : 
Thou that mak'gt a day of night, 
Goddess excellently bright 

_ # 


Copper, — {continued.) 

Smelting of the Ore. — The ores are only brought b^ 
the miner into the state which makes them lit for the 
first process they undergo in extracting the pure metal 
from them — the state in which they are sold to the 
smelter. The ore, when brought to the surface, is 
^separated into different heaps according to its richness, 
and then the lumps of pure ore are broken into frag- 
ments, about the size of a hazel-nut, and fhat which is 
mixed with other substances is broken still smaller and 
thrown into sieves, which are shaken under the surface 
of water, whereby the lighter impurities are washed 
away and the heavier ore remains. This operation of 
preparing the ore for the furnace js however modified 
in many different ways, according to the nature of 
the ore. 

The ore so prepared is sold to the copper companies, 
by whom it is smelted. Nearly all the copper ores in 
the United Kingdom are purchased at present by ten 
private mercantile establishments. A list is published 
annually at Redruth, in Cornwall, of the produce of the 
mines, and of the amount purchased by each of these 
companies ; and in the year ending the 30th of June 
last, their purchases amounted to 1,031,722/. The 
magnitude of some of these concerns is considerable, 
for we find four of the purchasers standing thus: — 

Williams, Foster, and Co £154,491 ' 

Vivian and Sons 153,333 

Pascoe Orenfell and Sons 152,049 

Daniell, Nevill, and Co 131,433 

The ores are conveyed from Cornwall to Wales to be 
smelted, on account of the abundant supply and cheap- 
ness of coal there ; and thus, not only is the least bulky 
material carried to the more bulky, but the vessels which 
take the ore come back loaded with coal for the steam- 
engines of the mines. The principal smelting works 
are situated on the cbastr «tf Glamorganshire, from 
Swansea to Neath, and chiefly near these towns. 

The component parts of the copper ores, when 
brought to the smelting works, are copper, iron, and 
sulphur, and from sixty to. seventy per cent, of earthy 
matter; besides these, there are often admixtures of tin 
and arsenic. The average produce in pure copper may 
be stated at about eight per cent. The processes in 
a copper smelting work are simple, consisting of alter- 
nate calcinations and fusions. Two kinds of furnaces 
are used, of different constructions, the one for calcining, 
the other for melting. The various qualities of ore 
received from the mines are mixed and smelted toge- 
ther, for it is found that ore of one quality acts as a flux 
for that of another quality. The processes are conducted 
in the following order : — 

1. The ores are calcined. 

2. The calcined ore is melted. 

3. The metallic mixture from process' 2 is calcined. 

4. The calcined coarse metal from process 3 melted. 

5. The purer metal from process 4 calcined. 

6. The metal calcined in process* 5 melted. 

7. The copper from process 6 roasted. 

8. Coarse or blistered copper refined. 

In the calcining processes the volatile matter, viz., the 
sulphur, is expelled, and the iron is oxidized, the general 
fusibility of the mass being thereby increased. In the 
melting processes the metallic oxides and earthy matters 
being specifically lighter, float on the surface, and are 
skimmed off as slags. 

Digitized by VjjOOQLC 


[Januw f, 

The charge of the calcining furnace, in process 1, is 
from three to three and a half tons of ore, and the cal- 
cining lasts twelve hours, the mass being frequently 
stirred to expose fresh surfaces. In the 2nd process the 
melted matter is let out at a hole opened in the side of 
the furnace into an adjoining pit filled with water, 
when it becomes granulated, that is, cools in the form 
of coarse grains, which are collected in a pan at the 
bottom of the cistern. In this state it contains about 
one-third part of copper, the rest being iron and sul- 
phur. The granulated metal is subjected to calcina- 
"" tions and fusions, alternately, as above described, until 
it comes to the 7th process, or roasting. The ore has 
now been advanced so far towards refining as to contain 
from eighty to ninety per cent, of pure metal. It has 
been run off from process 6 in bars, which are piled up 
in another furnace, and exposed to the action of 
strongly heated air, the temperature being gradually 
raised to the melting point, and thus the expulsion of 
the volatile impurities is completed. This operation 
lasts from twelve to twenty-four hours, and towards the 
eno\ of it the metal is fused, and runs off into moulds 
formed in beds of sand. These bars, when cooled, are 
found to be covered with black blisters, and this is what 
is called blistered copper, which is subjected to the last 
process, or 'the refining. In this the bars are put into 
the refining furnace, and gradually melted ; the surface 
of the metal is covered with charcoal ; and a pole, com- 
monly of birch-wood, is then held in the liquid metal, 
which causes considerable ebullrtion, owing to the evo- 
lution Of gaseous matter; and this operation of poling 
is continued until the refiner ascertains, by various 
trials, that the copper is in the proper state of purity 
and malleability. When he is satisfied of this, the 
melted copper is taken out in iron ladles, coated with 
clay, and poured into moulds, forming cakes twelve 
inches by eighteen, the form required by the manufac- 
turer for ordinary purposes. When the copper is to be 
used for making brass, the metal is poured from the 
ladle into another ladle pierced in the bottom with 
holes, and supported over a cistern of water, when the 
copper consolidates in coarse grains like shot. At 
many smelting- houses there are rolling-mills* where the 
cakes of copper are manufactured into sheets and 
sheathing for ships. 

There are copper- mines in other parts of the 
United Kingdom besides Cornwall ; but their aggre- 
gate produce is less than one-fifth of that of Cornwall 
alone. Those near Tavistock, in Devonshire, on the 
borders of Cornwall, have yielded, in the last twenty 
years, from 300 to 550 tons of pure copper annually. 
But the most remarkable of all the copper-mines out of 
Cornwall is, or rather was, that called the " Parys 
Mine," near Amlwch, in the northern part of the island 
of Anglesea. Mr. Hawkins, in his * Essay on the 
Copper Mines of Europe and Asia,' says, in speaking 
of the Parys Mine, that, " the annate of mining ex- 
hibit no instance of a mine so productive as this has 
been, accompanied with so little expense in working. 
The labour consisted in quarrying an immense mass of 
ore, which rose > to the surface of the ground on the 
summit of a hill of moderate elevation." There is 
reason to suppose that the ore here was partially worked 
by the Romans, and in the reign of Elizabeth a grant 
was made of the mines to certain patentees ; but it is 
evident that they had not discovered the great body of 
ore, for they were almost neglected for a century and a 
half. It was in 1768 that the vast treasure was dis- 
covered, which added immense wealth to the family of 
the Marquis of Anglesea, and raised to vast opulence 
the family of the Rev. Mr. Hughes, who at the time of 
the discovery lived upon a small curacy in the eastern 
corner of Anglesea, but, fortunately, was part proprietor 
of this golden mountain. " The quantity of copper," 
says Mr, Hawkins, " which this single mine poured 

into the market for twelve years in succession! fronv 
1773 to 1785, made such an impression as Jo lower the 
price of that metal throughout Europe, and to threaten 
the ruin of all the poorer. mines of the kingdom. " 
About the year 1785 the annual produce of the mine 
amounted to 3000 tons of copper, and in that year the 
aggregate produce of all the mines of Cornwall was 
not more than 4434 tons. Ten years afterwards, how- 
ever, it had fallen off more than a third; and in 1817 
it did not yield more than 850 tons. Shortly after- 
wards, by the able management of Mr. Vivian, the 
produce was raised to more than 600 tons ; and in 1826 
was as much as 758. It has since again declined; for 
in 1832 it did not yield more than 575 tons. The 
Parys Mountain is composed of primary slate, and the 
ore is the same mixture of sulphur, copper, and iron ' 
which prevails in Cornwall. The great mass of it 
occurred at the summit of the mountain, and was in 
one place forty fathoms in width : it has been traced on 
a small scale to the distance of five miles. 

Another mine, which was formerly of some import- 
ance, is that of Ecton, in Staffordshire, near Mixon a 
few miles eastward pf the town of Leek. The ore is a 
copper pyrites, or combination with sulphur, and occurs- 
in the limestone which constitutes subordinate beds in 
the prolongation of the millstone-grit and shale-forma- 
tion of Derbyshire. (N, Diagram I, in No. 51.) Plot, 
in his ' Natural History of Staffordshire,' published in 
1 686, says that it had then been left off as not worth 
working, copper coming cheaper from Sweden ; but at 
a subsequent period the working was resumed, and with 
great success, for the mine produce^ at one time as 
much as twelve tons of pure copper per week. Its 
richest period was about 1780, after which it gradually 
declined ; in 1820 the produce was 236 tons, and theo 
there was a sudden failure, when they had recourse to 
the sides of the vein and other poorer ores formerly 
nelgected. In 1822 the produce was only 38 tons. 

Some trifling deposits of copper-ore have been 
worked, from time to time, in Caernarvonshire, Lanca- 
shire; Westmoreland, Cumberland, and the Isle of Man. 
A vein was discovered, about fifteen years ago, in slate- 
rocks very similar to those of Cornwall, near Gate- 
house of Fleet, in the shire of Kirkcudbright ; but the 
produce has hitherto been inconsiderable. The ores 
from this last mine, and from the others in the north of 
England, are sent to Swansea to be smelted. Copper 
was obtained a few years since in Mainland, one of the 
Shetland Islands, in a bed of limestone ; a steam- 
engine was erected, and the produce for some time was 
not inconsiderable. 

' Some years ago copper-mines were worked at Crone- 
bane and Tigrony, in the County of Wicklow, but the 
produce was never considerable : in the twelve years 
ending 1811 the average did not amount to more than 
eighty-seven tons of copper annually. The ore occurs 
in primary slate. Copper-ore has also been worked 
to a limited extent in Ross Island, on the Lake of 

The total produce of pure metal from all the copper- 
mines of the United Kingdom, in the year 1833, was as 
follows : 

In Cornwall/ ....... 11,185 

Swansea Sales, the ore being brought 1 , 1 , Q 

from Ireland, Wales, &c . . J I|]58 
Devonshire ........ 307 

Anglesea ........ 575 

Cumberland and other places, smelted! ,on 

in Staffordsliire and Lancashire . f 


The copper exported from the United Kingdom in 
the year ending January 5, 1834, was rather more 
than 7811 tons. 

Digitized by 





It was not until the 7th of December that the Pasha of 
Buda was well enough to give audience to the emperor's 
envoy. Although Busbequiua had " sweetened him 
beforehand with some presents," he did not find the 
Pasha in an amiable or conceding humour. When he 
complained, according to his Instructions received at 
Vienna, of the insolence and ravages of the Turkish 
troops, and demanded restitution of what they had 
seized in a time of truce, the Pasha, In spite- of his 
promise to the emperor that he would make that resti- 
tution, if he would only send an ambassador to Buda, 
now shifted his ground, justifying his conduct in a 
happy style of eastern diplomacy. " Like a cunning 
gamester," says Busbequius, " he made as many com- 
plaints of the injuries and losses the Turks in Hungary 
had sustained by out soldiers ; and as for his promise 
to restore the places his troops had wrongfully taken 
from the emperor in a time of peace, he eluded it by 
sheltering himself under this dilemma; either I made a 
2)romtse or I did not; if I made no promise, then you 
can demand nothing of me : if I did ?nake a promise, I 
presume, Sir, you are a person of too much understand- 
ing to fancy that I can or will perform it ; for I am 
sent hither by my master, the sultan, to enlarge, not 
to diminish, the bounds of his empire ; so that I must 
by no means make his condition worse than it was. It 
is my master's business, not mine. What you have to 
say on this head, pray propound to him when you reach 
Constantinople. To be short, Sir, you know I am but 
recently recovered from sickness, and therefore am 
not in a fit state to maintain any further discourse." 

" When this coarse, compliment was put upon me," 
continues Busbequius, " I thought it high time to be 
gone ; neither could I get anything else from him, 
except a short truce, till the Grand Signior's mind should 
be known." The route pursued by our old traveller 
from Buda to Constantinople, was an exceedingly 
interesting one.' He embarked with his attendants, 
horses, coaches, &c, in some large boats that had been 
prepared for him, and began to descend the river 
Danube. This mode of conveyance was both quicker 
and safer than going by land, where he would have been 
exposed to the attacks of the marauding bands, called 
by the Hungarians, Hayducs, who in those troubled 
times made no distinction between Christians ari*d 
Turks, but plundered both alike, whenever they could. 
The vessel that carried Busbequius was towed along 
by a smaller one, in which there were twenty-four oars. 
The boatmen rowed night and day, excepting only a 
few short hours the poor souls borrowed for sleeping 
and eating. 

During this passage our traveller was astonished, and 
made somewhat uncomfortable, by the temerity and 
heedlessness of these Turks, who rowed, or sailed on 
before a high wind, in the mistiest weather and darkest 
nights, without taking any precaution. The river, 
moreover, was rapid, frequently obstructed by islets, 
banks, and the trunks and roots of great trees. One 
night as he was sleeping-, his boat struck with a terrible 
crash. " This noise," he says, " awoke me ; leaping 
out of my bed, I advised the mariners to be more 
cautious ; but they lifted up their voices, giving me no 
other answer than God will hdp ; and so I might ' go 
to bed again if J would." 

On his way down the Danube he saw Tolna, a large 
handsome Hungarian town, which he says he cannot 
forbear mentioning, because the inhabitants were very 
courteous, aud their white wine excellent. From the 
plentiful supplies he took with him, and his frequent 
mention of the juice of the grape, we may suppose our 
friend Busbequius was no enemy to the rosy god. But, 
to be sure, the weather was very cold at the time, and 
he had few other comforts on his journey. He passed 
the mouths of the Drave and the Teiss, or Tibiscus, the 

most beautiful and magnificent of all the tributary 
streams that swell the waters of the Danube. Of the 
celebrated city of Belgrade, he says that it is well situated 
in the extreme angle of a promontory, at the confluence 
of the Save and the Danube ; that then it was fortified 
with a double wall and many towers, besides having a 
very strong castle on a height, and that it was inhabited 
by people of various nations, as Turks, Greeks, Jews, 
Hungarians, Dalmatians, and others. After speaking 
of the two unsuccessful sieges laid to Belgrade by 
Amurath and by Mahomet II., who took Constanti- 
nople, he describes its final capture in 1520 by Solyman 
the Great, which misfortune he properly attributes to 
the imprudence of Louis, the young king of Hungary, 
and to the marl factions of the Hungarian nobles, who, 
devoid of patriotism as of common sense, could not 
cease their quarrels even at the presence of a powerful 
and insidious enemy. The following reflections of our 
traveller will show the dread entertained of the Turks 
in some of the most potent monarchies of Europe. 

" Belgrade taken, and this door being once opened, 
an Iliad of miseries broke in upon yoor Hungary, of 
which she is sadly sensible to this day ; for this pass 
being gained, there followed the slaughter of King 
Louis, the taking of Buda, the enslaving of Transyl- 
vania, and a flourishing kingdom hereby brought under 
the yoke; not without a terror struck into the surround- 
ing nations lest they also should partake , of the same 
calamities. By this example Christian princes may 
take warning, never to think, their frontier towns and 
castles strong enough, nor sufficiently provided against 
so potent an enemy as the Turks. For the truth is, 
the Turks are herejn not unlike to great rivers, whose 
swelling waves, if they break down any part of the 
bank or jetty that keeps them back, spread far and 
near; so the Mussulmans, v but far more perniciously, 
having once broken through the obstacles that stopped 
them, make a vast spoil wherever they come." 

The Turks retained possession of Buda, the capital, 
and of a great part of Hungary, for a century and a 
half. From this central position in Europe they pre- 
pared their several attacks on Vienna, which they fondly 
thought was destined to become the capital of a western 
Mohammedan empire. In 1691, three years after 
Vienna had been saved from the last attack of the 
Turks by the brave Polish army commanded by King 
Sobieski, the Imperialists, under Prince Eugene, took 
B.uda and the other fortresses, and cleared Hungary 
and Transylvania of the Mohammedans, who were 
driven, for good, across the Danube. But, to return 
to our traveller, — having arrived at Semandria, a town 
or castle that had formerly belonged to the despots of 
Servia, he travelled thence by land, on the left side of. 
the Danube, in the direction of Nissa. On his road the 
Turks showed him the distant snow-covered mountains 
of Transylvania, and pointed out with their fingers the 
spot where the ruins of the Roman Emperor Trajan's 
Bridge were situated. After crossing the river Ma pave, 
he came to tUown of the Servians, named Jagodua, when 
he introduces the following curious description of the 
funeral rites and marriage ceremony which were still 
observed in that country and by a Christian people. 

" The dead body was placed in a church, with the 
face uncovered ; near it were laid victuals, as bread, 
meat, and a flagon of wiue. The wife and daughter of 
the deceased stood by in their best apparel;— the 
daughter's hat was made of peacocks' feathers. The 
last gift the wife bestowed on her dead husband was a 
purple bonnet, such as noble virgins used to wear in 
that country. Then we heard their funeral plaints, 
mourning and lamentations, wherein they asked the 
dead corpse how they had deserved so ill at his hands? 
In what they had been wanting in their duty and kind- 
ness to him that he should die and leave them in so 
lonely and disconsolate a condition ? and similar absur- 

Digitized by 



[January 3* 183&. 

dities. The priests who Administered in this service 
were of the Greek church. In the church-yard we saw, 
erected on poles or long staves, several figures of stags, 
hinds, and such swift creatures, cut in wood. > When I 
asked them the reason of this strange custom, they told 
us that their husbands or fathers did thereby intimate 
the celerity and diligence of their wives or daughters in 
managing their household affairs when alive. More- 
over, by some graves there hung long tresses of hair, 
which women or maidens had placed in testimony of 
their grief for the loss of their relations. " We were 
also informed, that it was the custom in Servia, after 
friends on both sides had agreed about the marriage of 
a young couple, for the bridegroom to snatch away the 
bride, as if by force, for they do not consider it be- 
coming that a young maiden should go Willingly away 
with her husband." 

These curious observances were remnants of Pagan 
superstitions which, of one kind or another, adhered 
to most of the people of Europe long after they had 
embraced Christianity. Among the Greeks and the 
Romans they mainly kept the shape and character of 
classical mythology, under which faith their ancestors 
had been brought up ; and among other nations and 
races of men they were mouldedin- the beliefs that had 
been anciently current among them. The Servians 
were part of the great Slave or Sclavonian race, whose 
physical traits, language, manners, and customs are to 
be traced at this day from the extremities of Russia to 
Dal mat ia and the shores of the Adriatic, only a few 
leagues' from Italy. Dut the funeral ceremonies of the 
Servians, as described by Busbequius, may still be 
detected as existing, either wholly or in part, over a* 
much wider tract than this. They are found to prevail 
throughout the vast regions of Siberia, in Kamschatka, 
and in the Kurile and Aleutian Isles, that almost con- 
nect Asia with America. They have been traced from 
the confines of the Russian empire, across central Asia, 
nearly, to the frontiers of China and India. In the 
wilds of Tartary the custom of sticking figures of 
anitnals upon poles, near the graves, in honour of the 
deceased, has been repeatedly described, from leather 
Rubruquis in the thirteenth century down to our own 
times. Everybody acquainted with the wakes of the 
Irish peasantry is aware of the reproaches the mourners 
shower, on the deceased for having left them, and of 
their questioning the inanimate body why he has died. 
And again, in certain parts of Lombardy, in the north 
of Italy, the peasants on similar occasions use the fol- 
lowing rude and simple rhymes : — 
" Barriabft, perche sei morto ? 

II pan' e vin* f S raai manca ? 

L' insalata c'i nell orto. 
^ Barnaba, perche sei morto 1" 

(Barnaby, why did you die ? Did you ever want for 
bread and wine ? There is plenty of salad in the 
garden. O Barnaby ! why did you die ?) Did these 
Italians receive these superstitions from the old Lom- 
bards who occupied the north of Italy during the 
seventh and eighth centuries, and who were notorious 
for their predilection to Pagan customs, although - they 
were - Arian Christians ? or did they learn them from 
any of the other northern conquerors of Italy ? or did 
they borrow them from the Sclavonians on the opposite 
side of the Adriatic ? We know not : yet we may pretty 
safely conclude that these singular observances, whether 
found in Ireland, Italy, Dal mat ia, Servia, or Tartary, 
are remnants of an ancient religion and customs that 
once prevailed over a large part of the globe* 

Departing from the Servian town of Jagodna, Bus- 
bequius went on to a small river, called Nissus by the 
inhabitants, and this he kept on his right hand almost 
all the way until he reached the town of Nissa. In 
previous parts of the journey, and near the Danube, he 
Lad picked up old Roman coins, which he thought 

denoted the spots where the legions of Upper Mcesia 
had once been encamped ; but a little beyond Nissa, 
near the bank of the little river, he saw the remains of 
an ancient Roman road, and a small marble pillar witji 
a Latin inscription. The pillar was still erect, but the 
letters of the inscription were defaced and illegible. 

" As for the town of Nissa,*' he says, " for that 
country it is a decent one, and full of inhabitants." 
Here he was lodged in a public khan or caravansaray, 
his description of which closely agrees with one we 
have given in No. 166 of the * Penny Magazine/ One 
grievous disturbance which he was subjected to was 
this : — The victorious Turks who escorted him on his 
journey were wholly unacquainted with watches, and 
apt to rouse him in the middle of the night, thinking 
day was approaching, and it was time to make ready 
for the day's march. In this way, he says, after having 
been called, and having packed up all his things,— his 
bed, chairs, boxes, &c, — he was obliged to have every- 
thing unpacked again With no small trouble, or else to 
endure a great part of the coldness of the night in the 
open air. To prevent this serious inconvenience he 
desired the Turks not to wake him for the future, but 
to tell him over night at what time they wished to start 
in the morning, and he would be sure to be ready, as 
he had certain machines with hinv that would not fail 
to acquaint him with the precise hour. The Turks 
were glad to hear this, as it would save themselves 
much trouble and inconvenience. At first, however, 
they could not understand how any machine could do 
all this. "So in the morning betimes," says our tra- 
veller, " they came and awoke ray valet, desiring him 
to go to me and see what my watches said : he did so, 
and returned answer to them as well as he could, that 
it was such an hour, or very near sun-rising, according 
as he found it. When they had thus tried him once or 
twice, and found that he hit the time right, they trusted 
me for the future, and marvellously admired the struc- 
ture of our watches that could so faithfully declare the 
time : so that ever after we slept out our sleep without 
any disturbances from the Turks." 

[To be continued.] 

Anecdote of Rooks.— (From a Correspondent at Lewes). 
In a garden bordering on the outskirts of the town of Lewes 
is a walnut-tree, which, for the last five years, has been 
"nearly stripped of its fruit by the common rooks. They 
begin their depredations just as the fruit is ripe, and carry 
it off with such expedition that the tree is seldom worth the 
trouble of thrashing. I have been amused for* hours to- 
gether by observing their proceedings. They come one 
after another so quickly that I counted, one morning, fifty 
in twenty minutes, each taking one ; and sometimes I have 
seen them carry away a whole bunch. Some of them are 
quite adepts. They fly towards the tree, and, when within 
ten yards, stop, and seem to float in the air for about a 
second, as if surveying the tree to discover what nuts are 
easiest of access ; they then dart at the tree, and seldom 
miss their object, but if they do miss it, they find some diffi- 
culty in recovering their balance. Others, which I suppose 
are the young ones of the existing year's brood, settle on 
the tree and knock a great many down before they can get 
one firmly enough in their beak to fly away with. The old 
ones will sometimes attack the young end oblige them to 
let their booty fall; when, such is their quickness and 
certainty of aim, they will sometimes csrtch the walnut 
before it reaches the ground. They invariably fly intoan 
adjoining field, where they break open the walnuts with 
their beak, and as soon as finished return for more, unless 
the report of a gun should frighten them. They have, to 
my recollection, been at this tree, year after year, for the 
last five years : there are other walnut-trees situated in the 
town, but they have not yet had the boldness to attack 


Printed by William Clows*, Dak* Bttm, Imbtfr. 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[January 10, 1885. 





In the natural history of seals there is very much that 
yet remains to be elucidated. This need not surprise 
us when we consider the ignorance which exists con- 
cerning mammalia much more within our reach than 
these marine animals. We have not, indeed, as Cuvier 
remarks, the means, except by deduction and analogy, 
of ascertaining the habits of these half amphibious 
animals, white procuring their sustenance at the bottom 
of the sea; nor have we often the oppprtunity of 
watching them, in an efficient manner, in their favourite 
haunts, the isolated sterile rock, or the most retired and 
' deserted strand. We are, however, acquainted with 
the physical structure of the animal, and possess some 
knowledge of its character and habits. 

The family of Phoca includes a considerable variety 
Vol. IV. 

of species, the distinguishing characteristics of which it 
is not necessary to enumerate. We shall state the 
circumstances of structure and habit in which they all 
agree, unless otherwise mentioned. The form of the 
body of the seal bears a general resemblance to that of 
a fish. The short limbs are chiefly enveloped in the 
common integument, the part which appears externally 
serving the purpose of a fin or paddle. The hind feet 
are placed at the extremity of the body in the same 
direction with it, serving the purpose of a caudal fin ; 
the fore feet also are adapted to swimming ; and the 
toes in both the fore and hind feet are furnished with 
claws; and united by a membrane. Neither the thighs 
nor legs of either the fore or hind extremities are 
visible, which gives an appearance of extreme shortness 


Digitized by 




[JxHVkXl It, 

to the limbs* iThii evasions the animals to erawl on 
land with great awkwardness and seeming difficulty ; 
but they move, easily and gracefully in the water, fey 
means of their fbre-fcft thty Can lay hold of objects 
with sufficient firmness to drag themselves up shores, 
and even on shoals of ice, however slippery they may 
be. Even on land they move with more quickness 
than their appearance would lead one to expect ; so 
that it frequently happens that when they have been 
dangerously wounded, hunters are unable to overtake 
them before they get to the water's edge and throw 
themselves in. 

The tail is very short, and id placed between the hind 
feet. Some of the species are furnished with external 
ears, while others have only small auditory orifices. 
The eyes are large and prominent; and the nostrils 
open or close at the will of the animal. The upper 
lip is provided with strong whiskers, and the body is 
usually covered with hair. The internal structure of 
seals is similar to that of land quadrupeds, and atmo- 
spheric respiration is therefore indispensable to their 
existence, though they are capable of remaining under 
water a long time. In the arctic regions seals are 
sometimes found under the ice at the distance of many 
miles from open water ; and they then form circular 
breathing holes, even though the ice should be several 
feet thick. These openings are kept clear; but the 
surface Is allowed to freeze over partially, so as to con- 
ceal them effectually, except from very experienced 
eyes. Cuvier remarks that the nostrils of the seal are 
seldom opened except when it is desirous of expelling 
the air from its lungs, or introducing fresh air. They 
then assume a circular form. Respiration in the 
seal is extremely unequal, and often performed after 
long intervals. There are generally from eight to 
ten seconds between each inspiration, and the operation 
is sometimes suspended for half a minute without 
apparent inconvenience. It would seem that the nostrils 
are habitually closed;* and that the act of opening them 
is attended with some effort. The quantity of air, 
however, that enters the lungs must be considerable, 
to judge from the motion of the sides, and , the air 
expelled at each respiration. The quantity of the air 
seems to compensate for the paucity of the inspirations ; 
for few animals* have more natural heat or a greater 
quantity of blood than the seal. 

The dental system varies considerably in the different 
species, and would seem to indicate a corresponding 
diversity in their habits ; but the form of the teeth and 
jaws shows them to be mostly carnivorous, and their 
food appears to consist generally of fish, crabs, and 
sea-birds, which they are able to surprise while swim- 
ming. The mastication, at least in the common seal, 
goes no farther than to reduce the prey to such dimen- 
sions as may render it barely capable of passing the 
larynx and oesophagus. To produce this effect they 
generally confine- themselves to pressing the prey 
between their teeth, not so as to divide it in pieces, 
but merely to contract it in size. Sometimes they 
will tear their prey with their claws ; but they are more 
frequently observed to swallow it entire, even when 
apparently too large for their mouths. Thus they are 
frequently compelled to raise their heads to facilitate 
the operation of deglutition, so that the weight of the 
aliments may contribute to make them slide into the 
oesophagus and stomach, and favour the efforts of the 
muscles. Nature has faeilitated this operation, not 
only by providing the animal with the means of dis- 
tending excessively all the parts through which the 
aliment must pass, but has also supplied them abund- 
antly with a viscous saliva, which Alls the mouth to 
such a degree, that during deglutition it escapes in 
long threads ; and this is also observed to take place 
even when the seal only percervet* its prey. 

The females produce two or three young, generally 
in the winter season ; continue to feed them for about 
a fortnight in the place where they were brought forth ; 
and suckle them nearly In an upright position, resting 
on their hind legs. When the cubs have acquired 
sufficient strength to contend with the waves, the 
mother conducts them to the water, and teaches them 
to swim about in search of food. The attachment of 
seals to others of the same specks, and especially to 
their own -offspring, is highly interesting.. When in 
danger, the safety of her cubs is the chief object of 
attention with the mother, and even when badly wounded 
she is often known to succeed m carrying them off to 
sea in her mouth. The male parent, particularly o 
the ursine seal, seems to take scarcely less delight in 
the young than the mother. While basking in the sun 
upon the shore, he eyes them with the greatest com- 
placency, and expresses his satisfaction by licking and 
kissing them as they sport and tumble about, and 
engage in sham fights before him. Seals are many 
years in attaining their full growth, and Buffon is in- 
clined to believe that the duration of their lives often 
extends beyond a century. 

All the species of seal live in herds, or families, more 
or less numerous, along the shores of the sea, and are 
fond of sunning themselves, and of sleeping upon the 
beaches, rocks, or ice- banks. When they do this in 
situations in which they are apprehensive of danger, 
instinct, or perhaps we should say experience, has 
taught them to take the precaution to post a sentinel 
to give an alarm when he observes any thing to excite 
apprehension : besides which, the common, seal, while 
thus reposing, raises its head^at frequent intervals, and 
looks around to observe that all is safe within its range 
of vision. In situations where they rarely experience 
disturbance, they sleep very profoundly and are easily 
surprised. In Iceland, and perhaps elsewhere, ttfe seal 
has also a useful friend in the great sea-gull. In that 
country, the sportsmen, who are usually well acquainted 
with the haunts of the seal, raise up little bulwarks to 
conceal their approach, or wait fbr them behind a rock ; 
the gull, however, understands these approaches, and 
frequently baffles all the precautions of the hunter by 
flying over his head and screaming close to the seal. If 
the latter does not take the alarm, the bird strikes him 
on the head, and as soon as he slips into the water seems 
perfectly conscious that he is no longer in dauger*. 

Fights sometimes occur between the different species, 
between different herds of the same species, and be- 
tween some species and the bears. But seals arc 
generally of a pacific disposition : they avoid man 
when it is in their power to do so; but, when they 
have no other resource, defend themselves with a great 
deal of courage. They. are in general very tenacious 
of life, and survive wounds which would kill most 
animals ; but they are, on the other hand, much more 
easily despatched by blows on the head than most 
other quadrupeds. The size of the animal varies ex- 
ceedingly in the different species. The full-grown 
bottle-nose seal measures from eleven to eighteen feet 
in N length, and from seven to eleven in circumference; 
the length of the morse is from fifteen to eighteen feet, 
and that of the common seal is only from four to six 
feet. The flesh of some species is held in considerable 
estimation, while that of others is scarcely eatable, even 
by sailors long confined to salt food. 

Few quadrupeds are more extensively diffused, in 
the different species, than the seals. They in general 
seem to prefer cold climates, but there is scarcely any 
sea on the shores of which they are not found. The 
appearance of the common seal is quite familiar on the 
northern and western shores of Scotland. Though 
properly a marine animal, the seal is found in fresh- 
* Quarterly Revwtr, ?oi. rll, 1812. 

Digitfzed by 





water Una, as those of Baikal, Ladoga, and Onega ; 
but in such situations it is of an unusually small sioe, 
but so fat as to appear almost a shapeless mass. Seals, 
indeed, become in general very fat. Their oil, as well 
as their skins, are important objects of commerce. The 
oil is pure, and adapted to all the purposes for which 
whale oil is used ; and the skins are extensively em- 
ployed by trunk-makers, saddlers, hatters, and others. 
Expeditions are fitted out from Europe and the United 
States for the sole purpose of catching seals. The 
Americans, in particular, annually visit the South Seas 
in search of these quadrupeds. A u sealing " voyage, 
with them, sometimes lasts three or more years, and 
the crews are exposed to very great hardships : they 
are often left in detachments upon small desert islands 
for months, for the purpose of hunting the animals to 
greater advantage ; and years have sometimes elapsed 
before they have been able to obtain a release. 

The seals are still more important to the natives of 
the barbarous countries on whose shores they are most 
abundantly found than to Europeans. The following 
account of the uses of the animal to the Aleutian 
islanders, from LangsdorfFa. Voyage round the World, 
is very generally applicable in such circumstances. 
" The animal forms such an essential article to the 
subsistence of the Aleutians in a variety of ways, that it 
may be truly said they would not know how to live 
% without it. Of its skin they make clothes, carpets, 
thongs, shoes, and many household utensils ; nay, their 
canoes are made of a wooden skeleton with the skin of 
the sea-dog (the common seal) stretched over it. The 
flesh is eaten, and of the fat an oil is made, which, 
besides being used as an article of nourishment, serves 
to warm and light their huts. The oesophagus is used 
for making breeches and boots, and the large blown-up 
paunch serves as a vessel for storing up liquors of all 
kinds. Of the entrails are made garments to defend 
them against rain, and they also serve instead of glass 
to admit light into their habitations : the bristles of the 
beard are used, like ostrich feathers in Europe, as 
ornaments for the head ; there is, consequently, no part 
of the animal that is not turned to some use." 

The hunting of seals is consequently prosecuted with 
great eagerness, and in various modes, by the Green- 
landers, Finlanders and others. The mode generally 
used by the former people is exhibited in our engraving. 
The Kamtschatkadales connect strong ideas of honour 
and glory with the hunting of the Maned seal. In the 
chase^of a single animal they will expose themselves to 
the greatest dangers, wandering over the waves for 
days together without any other guide than precarious 
glimpses of the sun and moon ; and he who kills the 
greatest number, either by blows of a long stick or with 
poiscmed arrows, is regarded as the most heroic. As 
the adventurous sportsmen deem it disgraceful to leave 
any part of their game behind them, they sometimes 
overload their limber and crazy boats, and, disdaining 
to save their lives by relinquishing any portion of their 
highly-prized acquisitions, proudly perish with them in 
the waves. 


[From ft Oorraspondtnt] 

There are towns which the gazetteers dismiss in three 
or four lines, and the names of which are printed in 
small letters in the map, if they find a place there at all. 
Yet some of them are, from peculiar circumstances, 
invested with such interest, that their images are dis- 
tinctly pictured on the travellers mind, and their re- 
membrance more frequently recurs than many of much 
loftier pretensions. Sarepta is one of these places ; and 
though seldom described in books of reference, it occupies 
a place of considerable prominence among our own 
recollections of a journey performed, in the year 1829, 

from St Peienburgh to the southern Ifoitof the JMmian 

Sarepta is a small town in that empire, situated 
about twenty -four miles below the town of Tzaritein, on 
the river Sarpa, near the point of its junction with the 
great river Wolga. It is therefore situated so near the 
line which separates Europe from Asia, that it seems 
not at all agreed which division of the globe it is in. The 
circumstances that invest Sarepta with the interest to 
which we have alluded, are those which render it an 
oasis, both moral and physical, in the wilderness and 
solitary place where it stands. Let the reader imagine 
a spot marked out in the midst of the naked desert, and 
planted and made fruitful by the hand of man ; in this 
spot stands a town, from which the traveller may 
proceed in any given direction for thousands of miles 
without finding another in the least resembling it. 
Instead of cottages built with the trunks of trees, and 
arranged in one long street, as is customary in the small 
towns and large villages of Russia, the town is laid out 
in several short and wide streets, all of which meet in a 
fine large square, in the midst of which there is a foun- 
tain ; and the houses, some of which are large and all 
commodious, are built of brick and stone; the front 
too is usually covered with plaster washed with lime 
or yellow ochre, while before each house, as is common 
in England, but rare in Russia, there is a little 
railed garden for choice flowers. The streets are also 
lined and the square ornamented with fine tall poplars ; 
and every thing concurs to give to the traveller such a 
feeling of the moral beauty of neatness and order as it 
is scarcely possible he can ever again realize, because 
so strong and beau ti fill a contrast to all that a most 
extensive region exhibits can hardly elsewhere be found. 
This is Sarepta. It seemed to us, when we first saw 
it, as if the little tbwn, with its gardens, vineyards, and 
cultivated lands, had been suddenly uprooted from the 
very thick of European civilization iu England or 
Germany, and planted, unaltered, far away in the 
" waste howling wilderness." 

The primitive and quiet people (Moravians) of 
German parentage who inhabit the town perfectly 
harmonize, in appearance anjd character, with the cir- 
cumstances of the place, and the impression they con- 
vey. In the day-time so few people appear abroad that 
the town seems to be almost deserted ; but those who 
do appear then, and towards evening, when they walk 
abroad or sit at their doors, are uniformly clean and 
neat, though homely in their appearance. Fashion is 
never heard of there, and probably 'many long years 
have passed away since the cut of their clothes received 
the slightest modification. Intoxication is not known 
among them, and the outbreakings of improper passions 
are seldom witnessed ; and in their traffics they are the 
only people for thousands of miles around them who 
do not name, as a first price, a sum beyond that 
which affords a reasonable profit We were not at 
first aware of this ; and as common and costly expe- 
rience had taught us the necessity of bating the first 
prices named, we were about to do so in purchasing 
some cutlery at Sarepta, when we were quietly, but 
decidedly, informed that prices were always fixed with 
a full consideration of what was due both to the seller 
aud the buyer, and that no alteration was then ever made. 
We "were informed that the population of the place 
amounted to 400, and had never exceeded 500. From 
the comparative solitude 6f the streets, the traveller 
would hesitate to think the number of people nearly so 
large as even this, unless the Sunday afforded him an 
opportunity of observing almost the entire population 
proceeding towards their neat and spacious chapel, the 
women in their plain linen dresses, with whimsical but 
not unbecoming little white caps ; and the men in their 
holiday clothes, with red-edged books under their arma 
- * C 2 

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Until an opportunity is thus afforded of counting the 
number of the hands subject to the operation of a prin- 
ciple which regards idleness as a crime, and perhaps 
until their operations are well inspected, no idea can 
be formed of the activity which reigns in this little 
colony. In this remote and quiet place there is a 
great deal of business going on, without any bustle or 
stir to denote its presence. The manufactures of this 
little town are held in high esteem throughout the 
Russian empire for solid and superior fabric, and may 
be found as " strongly recommended " articles in the 
shops of Moscow and St. Petersburgh. There are mills, 
distilleries, tanneries, Ac. ; and while all the handicraft 
trades are practised, there are important manufac- 
tures carried on of silk, _ cotton, and linen hose, 
candles, soap, snuff; and they manufacture a peculiar 
cap of coloured cotton, which is much in demand 
among the wives of the Don Cossacks. The spot 
inhabited by these industrious and worthy Hernhutters 
is little favoured by nature ; nevertheless, the care and 
skill of man, and the force of industry, have invested 
the stubborn soil with cultivated fields, rich meadows, 
vineyards, orchards, and beautiful gardens. These 
furnish, besides grain, most species of fruits and le- 
gumes; tobacco also is cultivated, which, together with 
the little wine and more brandy, made from the pro- 
duce of their vineyards, furnish objects of advantageous 
traffic. From their raisins they also extract a syrup 
which is employed for the same uses as sugar. Besides 
their own manufactures and produce, articles from 
remote countries may be found in their warehouses. 
But no other than genuine articles — none pretending 
to be what they are not — could be seen there. Tims, 
English cutlery of the best sort could be obtained at a 
price which, considering the distance, strikes one as 
remarkably low; but none of the common hardware 
made in Russia after English patterns, and stamped 
with English names, could be seen in the town, either 
as used by the inhabitants themselves or sold by them 
to others. 

Such is Sarepta — beautiful and dignified in all the 
simple beauties and dignities of civilization ; ami with 
little of the crime and evil within its walls which too 
frequently disgrace the dwellings of civilized men. 
But a walk of ten minutes from the centre of Sarepta 
conducts the traveller into the desert where the soil 
crackles beneath his feet, and from the well-built and 
comfortable houses of European civilization to the 
dark tents of the Kalmucks and strange features of a 
different and barbarous race of men. It is not in lan- 
guage to express the effect produced on the mind of a 
stranger by the close approximation of human beings 
and forms of society so completely different ; and this 
effect is the stronger from the fact that a person travel- 
ling towards Astrakhan encounters the encampments 
of the Kalmucks for the first time in the neighbourhood 
of Sarepta; the force of the contrast is therefore. not 
weakened by any previous familiarity with this remark- 
able people and (heir modes of life. One of the three 
great hordes into which they are divided frequent the 
neighbourhood of Sarepta during the summer months, 
and had not all removed when we arrived at the town. 

Our limits only allow us to state the history of 
Sarepta very briefly. The desire of the Moravians to 
render themselves useful to the Kalmucks being known, 
the Empress Catherine, in 1764, issued an edict in their 
favour, and signified a wish that they should form a 
settlement on the banks of the Wolga. The " brethren " 
gladly accepted the proposal, and the year following 
five of their number proceeded from Germany to 
St. Petersburgh, and from thence to the banks of the 
Wolga, where they began, with the assistance of some 
Russians, to erect the necessary buildings, to cultivate 
the ground, and to work at their trades. The arrival of 

new parties of u brethren " and " sisters " in subsequent 
years, not only increased the number of inhabitants, 
but in a short time rendered it a very flourishing place, 
and an addition was in after years made to its prosperity 
by the discovery of a mineral spring about five miles 
from the town. The settlement was temporarily broken 
up in 1774, in consequence of the revolt of the Cossacks 
of the Oural ; and, not many years since, a part of the 
town was destroyed by fire, from the effects of which 
calamity it had not' recovered at the period of our visit. 
The Kalmucks in their neighbourhood have behaved 
with great civility, respect, and kindness, from the 
beginning ; and at a very early period their khans issued 
an edict for regulating the conduct of their subjects 
with respect tq the land belonging to the settlement. 
The settlers have failed in their attempts to extend the 
benefits of religious instruction to the Kalmucks, and 
the object has now for several years been relinquished. 

The Election. — Platb I. 

Dots the picture before us altogether represent a past 
state of society ? We fear not. A great change in our 
laws has swept away many of the constituencies who were 
most open to the evil influences of electioneering riot 
and corruption ; but are there not many still among us 
who look upon the solemn trust of an elector lightly 
and selfishly, — who seek in its exercise for some grati- 
fication of their vanity, or their sensuality, or their 
avarice? As long as this social ignorance exists, 
Hogarth's prints of c the Election ' will have more than 
historical truth. They will be bitter satires, in which 
every venal elector may find a record of his own crimes 
and follies. 

Hogarth's Election prints are four in number: — 1, 
The Feast ; 2, the Canvass ; 3, The Polling ; 4, The 
Chairing. They were published separately the first 
appearing in 1755, and the last in 1758. The " treat- 
ing," which was jn Hogarth's time so extensively 
employed for the debasement of electors, has been 
greatly curtailed by statute and by custom. But the 
evil practice still exists; and men who are about to 
discharge a duty which requires a sound exercise of the 
judgment, are, in some places, kept in a state of riotous 
excess, which utterly disqualifies them for making a 
wise and honest choice of a representative. We are 
improved, no doubt, since Hogarth's time ; and there 
are many amongst us who apply themselves to the dis- 
charge of the elective trust with the high spirit and 
conscientious prudence which show their sense of the 
obligation by which they are bound to their country 
to make a fit choice of one who is to protect the dearest 
interests of the community. But there are others, we 
apprehend, who would still sell " their birthright for a, 
mess of pottage." May they learn better. 

4 The Election Feast ' is, in many respects, one of 
the most wonderful of Hogarth's performances. The 
inexhaustible variety of character, and the distinctness 
with which the whole scene is brought out by the action 
and expression of the severalgroups and individuals, are 
apparent to the most superficial observation. To a 
person acquainted with the principles of art, the skill 
with which the scene is managed appears as perfect in 
its kind as the#otnposition of any of the great pictures 
of the historical painters : let lis endeavour to give a, 
key to this remarkable work. 

The candidate is at the top of the table, on the left 
of the picture. Au old woman, such as the " fat woman 
of Brentford," in Shakspeare's * Merry Wives' is op- 
pressing him with her caresses. An elector is knocking 
their heads together, in the spirit of impudent familiarity 
which election license engenders. In the foreground, 
near the candidate, is a dealer in haberdashery, who has 

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brought his ribands and gloves to bribe the electors' 
wives ; lie is paid- by a promissory note, which he does 
not appear much to relish. The man in the wig, on 
the left of the candidate 1 , is a person of some rank, who 
is writhing under the coarse jokes of the fellows at his 
side. The gluttonous clergyman next this group, who 
is suffering from the heated room and the chafing-dish 
near him, over which he is warming his venison, is a 
character which of course is extinct. The practical 
jesters who are amusing themselves and their com- 
panions — the one by comparing chins with the fiddler, 
the other by making up the back of his hand to re- 
present his neighbour's rueful face — belong to every 

whose temptation is to be found in the rags of his little 
boy — the attorney knocked off his chair by a brickbat 
which has come through the window — and the man on 
the floor having gin poured upon his broken head — are 
fair examples of election occurrences, wherever men 
have not learnt to forego greediness, venality, and mob 
violence. These things will perhaps always exist where 
there is popular ignorance. The flags of the rival 
candidates in Hogarth's print show the materials with 
which prejudice and passion work. On one is written 
" Give us our eleven days ; M — in allusion to the altera- 
tion of style, which was an unpopular measure ; — on 
another, carried by the mob without, appears " No 



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From Nisee Buabequius travelled on to Bophia, which 
was once the capital of the kings of Bulgaria, apd then 
of the despots of Servia, until they were conquered by 
the Turks. He found it " a town large enough, and 
well inhabited both by citizens and strangers." 

From Sophia, or St. Sophia, as it is frequently called, 
he continued his journey for several days " through the 
pleasant and not unfruitful valleys of Bulgaria.'/ All 
the time he was in that country the only sort of bread 
he could get were cakes baked under ashes upon the 
hearth. " The women and maidens," he says, " do 
sell them, (or they have no bakers in those parts ; and 
when they see any travellers coming that are likely to 
pay for what they eat, immediately they knead a little 
.dough with water, without any leaven, and lay it upon 
tiles, under the ashes, and so bring out their cakes 
piping hot, and sell them for a very trifling matter : 
other victuals being also very cheap there." 

He was much struck with the garments and head- 
dress of the Bulgarian women. Of the first he says, 
" They commonly wear nothing save a wide long smock 
or shift, made of linen thread, but as coarse as our 
sack -cloths. And yet 'these coarse garments are worked 
by them with several stripes of fanciful needle-work in 
colours, and with this loose parti-coloured habit they 
mightily please themselves ; so that when they saw our 
shirts, made of the finest linen, they much wondered at 
our modesty that we should "be content to wear them 
unseen under our clothes, and without having various 
works of divers colours upon them." 

Of the second he says, " But that which I most 
admired in them were the towers they wore on their 
heads. 'They were made of straw. The figure of these 
hats differs from that of the hats women wear in our 
country, for ours hang down on the shoulders, and the 
lowest part of the hat is the broadest, and thence it 
rises, as it were, into a pyramid at top ; but theirs is 
narrowest below, and thence rises up like the shape of 
a huge spinning-top to a great height above the head ; 
and also the crown, or that part of the hat that looks 
upwards toward the sky, is both very capacious and 
very open, so that it seems made to take in rain, as 
oi'rs are to shelter us against it. But in the space 
which lies between the upper and Jower part of the hat, 
they hang pieces of coin, little pictures or images, small 
parcels of painted glass, or whatever else is resplendent, 
though never so mean ; and all these things are ac- 
counted very ornamental among them. These hats 
make them look taller and more majestic than they 
really are ; but they are easily blown off their heads by 
a gust of wind, and do, indeed, by any slight motion, 
fall of themselves." 

After these descriptions of their toilette, he indulges 
in the following quaint style of reflection :— 

" When they appeared to us in this dress, methought 
they resembled Clytemnestra, or some Hecuba or other, 
in the flourishing time of Troy. The sight suggested to 
me some pious meditatious, viz., how frail and changeable 
a thing that which is called * nobility of birth ' is : for 
when I asked of some of those lasses, they that seemed 
the handsomest among them, concerning their stock 
and lineage, they told me they were descended from the 
chief nobles of that country ; and some of them were 
of a royal progeny, though now it was their fate to 
marry herdsmen or shepherds; for nobility is very little 
esteemed in the dominions held by the Turks." 

The Bulgarians, like the Servians, are of the great 
Sclavonian family. They speak a dialect of the Slave or 
SclavoniJh language, differing little from those spoken 
in Russia, Poland, Servia, Bohemia, Dalmatia, &c. In 
the last Russian war against Turkey, the Muscovite 
troops could converse with these inoffensive peasants 
without much difficulty. " It is thought," says Busbe- 
quias, " that the Bulgarians had their origin in Scythia, 

near the river Volga, and thai theyehafiged Cbefr habi- 
tations, and came into these parts of Europe, when 
other nations or hordes, either compelled by force or 
prompted by choice, changed theirs; and that they 
were called Bulgarians, t. *» Volgarians, from the river 
Volga, aforesaid." 

Several modern travellers who have visited Bulgaria 
have been struck with the resemblance its rude villages 
and pastoral settlements bear to the description* we 
have of Scythian or Tartar towns. 

" After their migration from the Volga," continues 
Busbequius, " they flied their habitations upon those 
parts of Mount H »m us that lie between Sophia and 
Philippopolis, which country is naturally very strong. 
There, for a long time, they baffled all Jhe power of 
the Greciau emperors, and killed Baldwin the elder, 
Earl of Flanders, then Emperor of Constantinople, 
after they had taken him in a hot skirmish. Yet for 
all this they were nof able to resist the powerful Turks, 
but were overcome and miserably enslaved by them." 
They are now, next to the Armenians, the most peace- 
ful subjects in the sultan's dominions ; though, during' 
the late war, they are said to have shown a decided 
partiality to their co-religionists the Russians, who, 
moreover, spring from the same great race as them- 
selves. In their native mountains the Bulgarians are 
nearly all shepherds or herdsmen. They are fond of 
dancing and music. Their favourite instrument is the 
bag-pipe, which, as we have said on a former occasion, 
when describing it among the shepherds of the Abruzzi 
in Italy, is found in nearly all the mountainous coun- 
tries of the world. Every spring a certain number of 
these poor fellows goto Constantinople, to attend ttje 
sultan's numerous stud that are then sent out to grass 
in the *• Valley of the Sweet Waters,"— a beautiful 
place at the end of the Golden Horn, or port. In con- 
sideration of this service they are exempted from the 
kharatch, or poll-tax, paid by the ray ah subjects in 
Turkey, and enjoy a few trifling privileges. Rude as 
their skill is, it covers their expenses on the road. They 
generally contrive to reach the capital a week or two 
before the sultan's horses are confided to their care. 
They spend their time profitably in playing and danciug 
in the streets and coffee-houses of Constantinople, 
where the Turks reward them with paras*; and 
even afterwards, when with the horses at the " Sweet 
Waters," they have opportunities of employing their 
talents ; for that spot is crowded on every holiday with 
Turks, Greeks, Armenians, Jews, and Franks. Their 
bag-pipes are generally accompanied by small tabors. 
Their dancing is grotesque in the extreme. About the 
middle of June, when the steeds are returned to their 
stalls in the seraglio, the Bulgarians set off for their 
mountain-homes, and again pay for their lodging and 
food on the way with tunes and dances. They are 
simple, but strange, and almost wild in their appear- 
ance ; they are generally short, but robust ; have light 
grey eyes, high cheek-bones, and sharp hard features, 
being not unlike some of our own highland tribes. They 
wear sheepskin jackets and sheepskin caps, with the 
woolly side turned outwards, and sandals on their* feet, 
of equally primitive manufacture. If these poor fellows 
carry home but the value of a few shillings in money, 
they have made a good campaign, and are accounted 

But, to return to Busbequius, Travelling across the 
mountains of the Haemus chain, which may be better 
known to our readers under its modern name — the 
Balkan — he came to the woody and rocky defile called 
by the Turks " Carpi-derbe^,'' or the Gate of the 
Narrow Passage. Having gone safely 4 h rough this 
mountain-pass, which descends towards the plains of 
Thrace, he presently reached the classic river Hebrus, 

* Very small Turkish Coins, maay of which go to make an 
English farthing. 

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that has its source in the neighbouring mount Rho- 
dopc, that towered within sight, Ci all covered over with 
deep snow.'' This was the scene of the fabled catas- 
trophe of Orpheus, whose dissevered head (in my- 
thology) floated down the stream of the Hebrus to 
the yEgean Sea, murmuring as it went the name of 
his much-loved mistress— " Eurydice ! " " Eurydice ! " 
But the Austrian ambassador was not so poetical on 
the occasion as the English ambassador's wife — the 
fair and witty Lady Mary Montague, who, nearly two 
centuries after, travelled over much of the same ground 
that Busheqdius took in his route. 

Shortly after coming: in sight of the river flebrus 
Busbequius arrived at Philippopolis. The plain before 
that city was full of round hills of earth, or tumuli, like 
those that exist and are so celebrated in the plains of 
Troy. The Turks told him theip nation had raised these 
tumuli as monuments of great battles, and to cover the 
graves of such as had nobly fallen in them. The Turks 
no doubt raised some of them, but many existed in an- 
cient times. Herodotus mentions the erection of some 
of them, in this particular country, by the army of Darius, 
whilst on its march against the Scythians. They are 
found not merely in the plain of Philippopolis, but all 
through Thrace. On the , other side of the Balkan 
mountains they are seen scattered here and there all 
the way to the Danube; from the other side of 
the Danube they extend all along the shores of the 
Black Sea to the Crimea, whence, as we have men- 
tioned in the Travels of Rubruquis, they are to be 
traced through the Tartar deserts. Another branch of 
them runs across the plains of Poland and Russia ; but, 
at one time or another, the practice of raising them 
seems to have been common in most Asiatic and Euro- 
pean countries. It is quite certain that they are not all 
tombs. Even in comparatively recent times Turkish 
armies have been known to throw up many (and one or 
two larger than the largest in the plains of Troy) for 
the purpose of displaying on their summit the Sandjak, 
or standard of Mahomet; and it is very probable 
that their Scythian or Tartarian ancestors had a some- 
what similar custom. 

From Philippopolis Busbequius continue^ his journey 
to Adrianople, whence he proceeded by Selivria and 
Tchurli to Constantinople. As he travelled along the 
shores of the Sea of Marmora, or the Propontis, he was 
delighted with the prospect of that narrow calm in- 
land sea. " And it was very pleasant to us," he says, 
" to behold the smooth waters, and to gather shells on 
the shore; yea, to behold shoals of dolphins sporting 
in the water, which, with the warrnth of the air, was 
delightful. It can hardly be imagined how mild the 
weather is in these parts ! There is, as I may call it, 
a Thracian breeze with an incredible sweetness of air." 


Among the many facetious institutions of the celebrated 
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of King 
Edward IV., may be mentioned the Minstrel's Court,- 
and its accompaniment, the bull-running, at Tutbury, 
in Staffordshire. Of his reasons for instituting such 
whimsicalities we cannot pretend to form any judgment, 
but that they had existence for a long succession of 
years, and in fact till nearly the end of the last century, 
is a fact not to be disputed. 

To enter into the history of minstrels or minstrelsy, 
would (however interesting in itself) be here unneces- 
sary. The order appears to have been a privileged one, 
and its members were always assured 01 a hearty wel- 
come wherever they chose to confer the honour of a 
visit. This at least was the case hi the early period of , 

their institution ; for, like bards of still older time9, 
thev possessed all the legendary lore of the country, 
and repeated their histories and rhymes for the gratifi- 
cation of their patron, at every feast and every time of 
public entertainment. 

To encourage these itinerant musicians, and to assist 
them in the improvement of the science of music, may 
perhaps have been one cause of the mirth-loving duke 
forming all those in his own neighbourhood into a cor- 
poration, subject to the government of a chief under 
the title of " King ut the Minstrkls." The instru- 
ment for fnvesting him with this authority is thus 
translated from the original Norman French, dated in 
the fourth year of Richard II. 

"John, by the Grace of God, King of Castile and 
Leon, Duke of Lancaster, to all who shall see or hear 
these our letters greeting. Know ye that we have 
ordained, constituted, and assigned to our well-beloved 
the King of the Minstrels, in our honour of Tutbury, 
who is, or for the time shall be, to apprehend and arrest 
all the minstrels in our said. honour and franchises that 
refuse to do the service and attendance which appertains 
to them to do, from ancient times at Tutbury aforesaid, 
yearly on the days of the. Assumption of our Lady, 
giving and granting to the said King of the Minstrels 
for the time being, full power and commandment to 
make them reasonably to justify, and to constrain them 
to perform, their services and attendance, in manner as 
belongeth to them, and has been here used and of 
ancient times accustomed." 

By this instrument, however, it appears that the 
Duke of Lancaster before that time considered these 
minstrels as his vassals, and expected certain services 
and attendance from them, which, in all probability, 
being irregularly paid, rendered some rules or regula- 
tions absolutely necessary. He then, in addition to the 
power given to the King, very soon afterwards esta- 
blished fhe Minstrel's Court, where all plaints and con- 
troversies among the minstrels might be heard and 
determined. " It was held," says Sir Oswald Mosley 
in his ' History of Tutbury,' " before the steward of 
the honour, on the morrow after the Assumption ; and 
the jury, who consisted of musicians, elected four stew- 
ards, one of whom was to be king for the ensuing year. 
These officers, when elected, had full power and autho- 
rity to levy and distrain for all such fines and amerce- 
ments as were inflicted by the jury of the said court 
upon any minstrels for the infraction of such orders as 
were then made for the government of that society ; and 
the amount of such fines was returned at every audit 
by the stewards, one moiety of which went to the Duke 
of Lancaster, and the other to the stewards for their 

The court thus established continued for many years, 
and orders were annually issued for the better govern- 
ment of a body always too much inclined to become 
refractory. As a specimen of what these orders were, 
the following, of the date of Charles I., is extracted 
from the original manuscript in the office of the duchy. 

" Orders made and set forth by the Honourable 
Edward Lord Newburgh, Chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster, and the Counsel of his Majesty's Court of 
the Duchy Chamber, in the fifth year of the reign of 
King Charles the First, for the better ordering and 
governing his Majesty's Court, called the Minstrel's 
Court, yearly holden at Tutbury, on the morrow after 
the Feast of the Assumption of our Lady, and of the 
musicians' and minstrels within the counties of Stafford 
and Derby, who owe suit to the same court." 

44 That no person shall use or exercise the art and 
science of music within the said counties, as a common 
musician or minstrel, for benefit and gnins y except he 
have served and been brought up m the same art and 
science, by the space of seven years, and be allowed 

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[January 10, !$&&. 

and admitted so to do at the said court by the jury 
theieof, and by the consent of the steward of the said 
court for the time being, on pain of forfeiting, for every 
month that he shall so offend, three shillings and four- 
pence. And that no such musician or minstrel shall take 
into his service to teach ami instruct any one in the said % 
art aud science, for any shorter time than for the space of 
seven years, under the pain of forfeiting, for every such 
offence, forty shillings. And that all the musicians and 
minstrels above-mentioned shall appear yearly at the 
court called the Minstrel's Court, on pain of forfeiting, 
for every default, according to old custom, three shil- 
lings and foiirpence." 

Thus it appears that the intention of this court was 
principally to encourage the study aud 'practice of 
music, and that this was continually enforced in their 
annual orders. The end, however, which such a study 
sought to attain could not be that of softening the 
manners of mankind, or of fostering the feelings .of 
humanity in the inhabitants of Tutbury and its neigh- 
bourhood ; for we find coeval with this court, and in a 
great measure forming "part and parcel" of it, the 
establishment of that barbarous and disgraceful exhibi- 
tion known by the name of the " Tutbury Bull-run- 
ning," a ceremony. compared to which a common bull- 
baiting is a merciful amusement. . . 

John of Gaunt married for his second wife Constance 
of Castile, eldest daughter and heiress of Don Pedro, 
king' of Castile and Leon. This lady chose Tutbury 
for her general residence, and those -authors wfio wish 
to find an excuse for the institution of so truly bar- 
barous a custom attribute its origin to a wish on the 
part of the duke to divert his queen by a popular 
exhibition resembling in some measure the bull-fights 
of her native country. Of this custom Sir Oswald 
Mosley thus speaks, after taking the leading, part of 
his account from Dr. Plott's c History of Staffordshire :' 

This custom (the bull-running) was thus celebrated 
on the Feast of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary. 
"AH the minstrels within the honour came early on 
that day to the house of the bailiff of the manor of 
Tutbury, and from thence to the parish church in pro- 
cession, the " king of the minstrels " for the year past 
walking between the steward and the bailiff of the 
manor, attended by the four stewards of the king 
of the minstrels, each with a white wand in his 
hand, and the. rest of the company following in ranks 
of two and two together, with the music playing 
before themi After service was ended, they pro- 
ceeded in the same order from the church to the castle- 
hall, where the said steward and bailiff took their 
seats, placing the king of the minstrels between them, 
whose duty it is to cause every minstrel dwelling within 
the honour who, makes default to be presented and 
amerced. . The court of the minstrels is then opened in 
the usual way, and proclamation made that every 
minstrel dwelling within the honour of Tutbury, in any 
of the counties of Stafford, Derby, Nottingham, Lan- 
caster, or Warwick, should draw near and give his 
attendance ; and that if any man would be assigned of 
suit or plea, he should come in and be heard. Then all 
th$ musicians being called over by a court-roll, two 
juries are empanelled, one for Staffordshire and one for 
the other counties, whose names being delivered to the 
steward and called over, and appearing to be full juries, 
the foreman of each is sworn, and then the rest of them, 
in the manner usual in other courts. The steward then 
proceeds to charge them, first commending to their 
considerations the antiquity and excellence of all music, 
both on wind and stringed instruments; and the 
effect it has upon the passions, proving the same by 
various examples ; how the use of it has always been 
allowed in praising and glorifying God, and skill in it 
esteemed so highly that it has always been ranked 

amongst the liberal arts, and admired in all civilized 
states ; exhorting them, upon this account, to be very 
careful to make choice of such men to be officers 
amongst them as fear God, are of good life and con- 
versation, and have knowledge and skill in the practice 
of this art. When the charge is ended, the jurors pro- 
ceed to the election of the officers for the next year, the 
king being chosen out of the four stewards, two of 
them out of Staffordshire and two of them out v of 
Derbyshire, three being chosen by the jurors, and the 
fourth by him who keeps the court and the deputy 
Steward or clerk. The jurors then depart out of the 
court ; and the steward with his assistants, and the 
king of the minstrels, in the mean time partake of a 
.banquet, during which the other musicians play upon 
their several instruments; but as soon as the jurors 
return, they present, in the first place, the new king 
whom they have chosen ; upon which the old king, 
rising from his seat, delivers to him his wand of office, 
and then drinks a cup of wine to his health and pros- 
perity ; in like manner the old stewards salute the 
new, and resign their offices to their successors. The 
election being thus concluded, the court rises, and ail 
repair to another large room within the castle, where a 
plentiful dinner is prepared for them ; after which the 
minstrels went anciently to the priory gate, but, after 
the dissolution, to a barn near the town, in expecta- 
tion of the bull being turned loose for them. This 
bull was formerly found by the prior of Tutbury, 
but afterwards by the Duke of Devonshire, who 
enjoys' the priory lands. His horns were sawed off, 
his ears cropped, his tail cut off to the stump, all his 
body smeared over with soap, and his nostrils blown 
full of pounded pepper. Whilst this inhuman prepa- 
ration is in progress, the steward makes proclamation 
that all manner of persons should give way to the bull, 
no person coming nearer unto him than forty feet, ex- 
cept the minstrels, but that all should attend to their 
own safety, every oue at his peril. Thus enraged to 
the utmost, the poor animal is then f turned out, to be 
taken by the minstrels and none else within the county 
of Stafford, between the time of his being turned out 
and the setting of the sun on the same day. If the 
bull escapes, he remains the property of the person who 
gave it; but if any of the minstrels can take and lay 
hold of him, so as to cut off a small portion of hair, 
and bring the same to the market-cross' in proof of 
their having taken him, the bull is then brought to the 
bailiff's house, where a collar and rope are fastened to 
him, by which he is brought to the bull-ring in the 
High Street, and there baited wkh dogs : after which 
the minstrels had him for their own| and mjght aeil, 
kill, and divide him among themselves, as they thought 

Such an institution as this can only be considered as 
disgraceful to the founder, and as stamping with the 
indelible mark of barbarity that country which would 
tolerate its exercise. Yet, revolting as it is, it continued 
to be celebrated from about 1377 to 1778, when a tra- 
gical event, the death of a bull persecutor, gave the 
Duke of Devonshire immediate occasion for abolishing 
the practice altogether. The histdry presents, alto- 
gether, one of those singular contractions which are 
often exhibited in the progress of a people towards 
civilization. The union of the refinement of the Min- 
strel's Court with the barbarity of bull-running, marks 
a state of knowledge and taste amongst a few, existing 
in the midst of gross general ignorance. 

V The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useftd Knowledge it at 
59, Lincoln* Ian Fields^ 


Printed by William Clowis, Duke Street, Lambeth, 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[January 17, 1835. 


[ Jordaens' * Four Eraagelisti.'] 

Our wood-cut id from a picture by Jordaens, of whom 
we had lately occasion to speak when presenting our 
readers with an engraving after his picture of a twelfth- 
day festival. The present picture is supposed to re- 
present the four evangelists assembled for the purpose 
Vol, IV, 

of conferring^ on the subjects of their writings. Ther* 
are, however, several circumstances which have led 
some writers to doubt whether this was really the subject 
that the painter intended to portray, or whether the 
evangelists are at all the personages represented. In the 


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[Januaxy 17, 

first place, no such meeting as that of which the paint- 
ing would convey the idea i9 recorded to have taken 
place, and it is altogether improbable that it ever did — 
at least ibr such a purpose. The « Gospels ' appear to 
have been written at different times and in different 
places* and were not all addressed, in the first instance* 
♦o persons of the same language and modes of thought ; 
they contain, besjcjes, internal evidence that such a 
co-operation as is supposed could not have taken 
piece. It is also objected that, if the four Evangelists 
be intended, the Apostle John is represented as a very 
young man, although, at any time when such an inter- 
view might have been possible, he could not have been 
less than forty years of age. The costume, also, of the 
figures is another circumstance against this supposition. 
But notwithstanding these anachronisms and violations 
of historical truth and probability, of which there are 
far more objectionable instances than this among the 
Dutch painters, we have little doubt that the common 
opinion correctly states the design of this painting. 

The reader will not fail to notice the fine expression 
of the heads in this picture, and the efficient manage- 
ment of the light and shade, of which our wood-cut will 
give an idea ; while the harmony of the colours in the 
original has always been mentioned with much praise. 

The dimensions of the painting are three feet nine 
inches high, by three feet three inches in breadth. 


Tuts metal is met with in several countries of the Con- 
tinent of Europe. The oldest copper-mine known was 
that of Rammelsberg, near Goslar, in Saxony, which 
was worked in the tenth century. There are- several 
copper-mines in the Harts mountains,' and in Bohemia ; 
but the supply of this metal in Germany is derived chiefly 
from the mines at Mansfeld in Thuringia. The ore 
is found in a bituminous marly stone, which forms a 
subordinate stratum, that is, one of the several series 
of strata which constitute the New Red Sandstone 
Formation (K in diagram I. No. 51) ; and it is called 
by the German miners Kupferschieftr, which means 
copper-slate. The mines were opened at the beginning 
of the thirteenth century, and during the three following 
centuries these and a few others of minor consideration 
ift Germany, and the mines in Sweden, supplied the 
wants of all Europe. They are still worked, but the 
produce does not exceed 430 tons of copper annually. 
At the end of the seventeenth century copper-mines 
were worked in Hungary and Transylvania, and they 
continue to the present time to yield a considerable 
quantity. There are copper-mines in France, at St. 
Bel and Chessy in the Lyonnois, and in a few other 
places ; but the whole produce of copper in France in 
the year 1832, according to a statement in the ' Annales 
des Mines, 1 was only 274,000 kilogrammes, or about 
270 tons of pure copper. 

Swedish copper has been long celebrated : v the most 
famous mine is that of Fahlun, close to the town of the 
same name, about 130 miles north-west of Stockholm. 
How long a time has elapsed since it was* first worked 
is unknown, but it began to enter into competition 
with the mine of Rammelsberg, in Saxony, in the 
twelfth century. It was visited by Dr. Clark in 1799, 
and by Dr. Thomson in 1812, both of whom have given 
a minute description of it. The ore forms veins in 
primary mica slate, and is a mixture of copper pyrites 
and iron pyrites, but is extremely poor ; for according 
to Dr. Thomson, it does not yield more than one and a 
half per cent, of pure copper, a quantity so small as 
one would have thought would not have repaid the 
expense of working. About the year 1661, which was 
the time of its greatest prosperity, it yielded 2500 tons 

of copper annually; but *t the time Dr. Clark visited 
is, it had fallen to from 400 to 500 tons. The mass 
of copper ore appears tp have been in the form of an 
enormous cone with -its point or apex downwards, and 
the excavation, which is funnel-shaped, is like the crater 
of a volcano. The sides of this crater being variously 
coloured by exhalations of sulphureous vapours frem the 
mine, and by the action of the air on the minerals com- 
posing it, together with the volumes of smoke issuing 
from it, increase the resemblance, and, at the time of 
Dr. Clark's visit, it was not unlike "the Solfatara in the 
neighbourhood of Vesuvius. The crater was principally 
caused by an accidental falling in of the ground. The 
base of the conical mass of ore lying nearest the surface 
was first worked ; the galleries for extracting the ore 
were necessarily extensive, and the props for the sup- 
port of the roofs of the different larger excavations or 
chambers, as the miners call them, consisting often of 
valuable ore, were left as slender and as few in num- 
ber as possible. This, however, had been pushed too 
Tar, for they proved insufficient to support the super- 
incumbent weight, and in the year 1666 the whole of 
the upper part of the mine fell in, leaving an open 
crater-shaped cavity 240 feet deep. From the bottom 
of this cavity various openings lead to the different 
galleries, most of which are very lofty, and to different 
places of further descent, of which some are 1200 feet 
from the surface. The smoke and vapours were caused 
by a considerable part of the mine, being on fire. This 
was occasioned a few months previous to Dr. Clark's 
Visit by some miners, who were attempting to steal ore, 
and being disturbed they left their torches behind them ; 
these set fire to the timbers, which communicated to 
the pyrites, and it was found impossible to subdue the 
combustion, which rolled forth volumes of sulphureous 
vapours td such an extent, that , this part of the mine 
was shut off from the rest. In the deepest recesses of 
the mine there were stables for horses, in which these - 
animals were kept in total darkness for months together, 
without ever seeing the light of the sun. " We found 
them," says Dr. Clark, " quietly enjoying their fodder 
at the depth of 1 60 fathoms from their natural pastures, 
and they seemed to be in as good condition and as 
cheerful, though literally buried alive, as any of those 
which were kept above-ground, and some of them were 
fat and sleek." Speaking of the country adjoining these 
mines, he says, " What with the fumes from the mines, the 
smelting furnaces, and works for boiling the solutions of 
the sulphates- of copper and iron, the whole atmosphere 
in and around Fahlun was of the most noxious kind, 
and intolerable to a stranger ; yet it does not appear to 
affect the inhabitants, for they live to an advanced age. 
One might almost fancy that the people, from their 
copper -coloured countenances, had become to a certain 
degree themselves cupreous ; for they may be considered 
as actually eating, drinking, and breathing copper. 
They have .copper above, below, and on every side of 
them, and smoking heaps of pyrites impregnate every 
gale with their suffocating vapours, as if the curses 
denounced against the disobedient Israelites had here 
been made the means of industry, and the instruments 
of wealth and happiness. * The heaven that is over 
thy head shall be brass, and the earth that is under thee 
shall be iron. The Lord shall make the rain of thy 
land powdered dust.' " 

Besides the Fahlun mine there are copper-mines in 
East Gothland, and in several parts of Norway ; but 
their produce is inconsiderable. The Russian empire 
possesses copper- mines of some importance in Siberia, 
on the eastern side of the Oural mountains,. and also 
around Orenburg at the southern extremity of that chain. 
The ores are met with not only in primary slate, but in 
sandstones and clays of secondary formation, and often 
consist of the green and blue oxides of the metal, 

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Pallas describes a very rich mine in the lesser Altai 
chain or mountains. Ville fosse estimates the total 
produce of the Russian copper-mines at something less 
thau 4000 tons annually. 

Armenia produces a large amount of copper, and as 
the ores are extremely rich\ the produce of the mines 
would be very great if a sufficient supply of fuel could 
be obtained to smelt them, and if the resources of mo- 
dern science were applied in the working of them, 
They ape situated in a mountainous district a few days' 
journey to the south-west of the -port of Trebizond on 
the southern shore of the Black Sea. Pysonnel states 
' the produce of these mines, in the year 1762, to have 
been above 6o00 tons, and they are said to be extremely 
productive at the present time. Mr. Hawkins informs 
us that they are scattered oyer the whole country which 
lies between Tocat and the Euphrates, and even extend 
beyond that river, along the chain of Anti-Taurus, a 
very considerable copper-mine being worked at the 
close of the last century near Argana, on the great 
road to Diarbekir. The produce of this mine is limited 
by the scarcity of fuel, which is fetched in the shape 
of charcoal from a distance of nearly one hundred miles. 
The copper Which is here smelted under such apparent 
disadvantages is manufactured at Mosul, and in that 
state is floated down the Tigris to Bagdad and to Bus- 
sora. A great portion likewise of the Armenian copper 
has been manufactured for centuries at Erzerurh, and 
transported down the .Euphrates to the same great com- 
mercial cities, as well as by the usual land route into 
Persia ; the consumption of this metal in the fabrication 
of copper utensils, which are of immemorial usage, 
being very great in every part of Asia. It is therefore 
to the country which is contiguous to these copper- 
mines, and more particularly to Armenia, that we must 
apply the passage of Ezekiel (xxvii. 13), as in the 
words of Michaelis, — " Tubal and Meschech traded 
with thee, and gave thee, in exchange for thy wares, 
slaves and utensils of copper.'' 

Copper-miqes are worked in Mexico, Chili, and Brazil, 
from which countries the produce is imported into Spain. 
Copper ore has lately been brought from Chili and 
Brazil to be smelted at Swansea. ' There are mines of 
this metal also in China and Japan, from whence it 
is brought to the islands of the Indian Archipelago. 
It has been wrought to a small extent in the island of 
Sumatra, and more recently in Borneo. 

Uses of Copper. — Besides the well-known application 
of this metal in its pure state y to an infinite variety of 
purposes, it is employed, in combination with other sub- 
stances, in a great diversity of ways in the arts. Its 
most extensive uses in this way are, when alloyed with 
other metals, especially zinc, to form brass, in the pro- 
portion oT three parts of copper to ope of zinc ; and 
tinsel, pinchbeck, and Dutch gold, are also compounds 
of copper and zinc hi different proportions. When com- 
bined with from one to five per cent, of tin it becomes 
harder, and this is the usual composition of the very 
ancient copper tools and weapons, before iron and steel 
eame into common use : the instruments used by the 
surgeons of antiquity were made of this alloy. With a 
larger proportion of tin and a little zinc it forms bronze 
and bell metal, and also the metal of which brass 
cannons are iriade. When alloyed with nearly half its 
weight of tin, and with a small admixture of arsenic, 
brass, and silver, it forms an. extremely hard compound 
capable of receiving a high polish, which is used for the 
reflectors of telescopes. In our gold coins thirty-eight 
grains of pure copper are added to every ounce of pure 
gold, the effect of which is to make the goljj harder, 
and therefore less liable to wear. This is whs* is 
called standard gold, and in larger proportion it forms 
the gold commonly used in jewellery. Standard silver 
contains one- twelfth part of .copper, and it has also 

the effect of rendering the silver harder and move 

Blue vitriol, or Roman vitriol, is a compound of 
oxide of copper and sulphuric aeid, or vitriolic acid, as 
it used to be called. Verdigris is a compound of oxide 
of copper with acetous acid, or vinegar, and the "blue, 
paint called verditer is a combination of oxide of copper, 
carbonic acid, water, and lime. 


There is a curious work, by Dr. Samuel Pegge, pub- 
lished about thirty years ago, consisting of a defence of 
the dialect of London and its environs. The author 
shows that the great majority of what are called 
" cockney isms " are not, as is commonly supposed, 
corruptions of the language, but were formerly in use 
among good writers, and have been retained by the 
Londoners after the literary and ; the refined had given 
them up. 

Thus regiment, used in the sense of regimen, is a 
good old English word; and there are books extant, 
as Mr. Pegge observes, with the titles of ' The Regi- t 
ment of Health, 1 'The Regiment against the Pesti- 
lence,* &c. We often, in London, hear contrdry for 
cbntrary ; yet though we should not recommend any of 
our readers to adopt the first method of pronouncing 
this word, it may be defended by the authority of Shak- 
speare, who says, — 

" And themselvA banding in contrary parts.'* 

« Henry IV. Part I.» Act iii. Se. U [ 

In Milton, too, we find — 

" And with contrary blast proclaims most deeds." 

/ ' Samson Agonist**/ line 97}. 

The author observes that an-otomy is used for a skele- 
ton, the an in anatomy having been mistaken for the 
article an. Perhaps this may be so, 4?ut in our old 
writers, 'an anatomy* is continually used to mean a. 
skeleton. But passing over these lesser offences, Mr. 
Pegge comes to the consideration of the more grievous 
offences " with which- the Londoners are so heavily 
accused by the beau-monde and the scholastic part of 
mankind. And first of the double negative. A cock- 
ney, for example, will say, * J don't know nothing 
about it.' 

" This is a luxuriance of no modern date among the 
Cockneys ; but it is not of their own manufacture, for 
there is evidence enough in the history of our language, 
drawn from the old school, to show that this mode of 
speech— this accumulation of negatives — is no new* 
fangled tautology. One negative is now accepted by 
us and reputed as good as a thousand. The present 
Cockneys think otherwise ; and so did the ancestors of 
us all. Taking the language of France for a moment 
as a model, a Frenchman answers your question ne- 
gatively by — ' Je ne sais pa& ;' and the Londoner, in 
the same phraseology, says — * I don't know nothing 
about it.' Now, if the abundant use of negatives be 
esteemed an elegance in the French language, the 
Cockney will say — Why not in English? And the 
more the better. I cannot help recounting a case in 
point, where a cluster of negatives is said to have been 
disgorged by a citizen, who, having mislaid his hat at a 
tavern, inquired with much vociferation — ' If nobody 
had seen nothing of never a hat no-wheres ?' But, to 
be more serious. Here are but three out of four that 
are redundant : I will now then produce the same super- 
abundance, not indeed from an act of the whole legist 
lative body of the kingdom, though from regal authority. 
In a proclamation of King Henry V. for the apprehen- 
sion of Sir John Oldcastle, on account of his con- 
tumacious behaviour in not accepting the terms before 
tendered to him, are these words : — ' Be it knowne as 


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[January IT 

Sire John Oldcastell refuse, nor wtH not receave, .nor 
sue to have none of the graces,' Ac. 

"Though we now exclude the double negative, yet we 
find it very common among writers at different former 
periods, where the use of it was carried as for as the ear 
could possibly bear. An instance or two shall suffice. 
Thus Chaucer : 

" So lowly, ne so traily you serrs, 
JW will none of 'hum, a» 1.*' 

< Trail, and Cits.' lib. v. 
So also Shakspeare : 

* " a wMdea day of joy, 

That thou expvct'it not, nor I look'd not for.' 
' Romeo and Juliet,' Act if., 8c. 1. 

Examples occur so frequently in Shakspeare that' it 
would be troublesome to recount them. * No, nor I 
think 1 never shall,' is an expression used by Roger 
Ascham. (' Toxophilus,' Bennett's Edit., p. 123.) He 
was a Yorkshireman, and there I have myself heard 
this similar language : — * No, I shall not do no such 
thing.'"— pp. ^9, 81. 

The author then gives numerous other instances of 
bad English which may be defended' by the best authori- 
ties : — thus, worser is found in Shakspeare, lesser in 
Addison, and most basest in Sir Thomas More. One of 
the most curious of these embalmings of old words in 
modern vulgarisms consists in the use of ax for ask : 
for " Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby, in 
a letter to her son, Henry VII., concludes with 1 — * As 
herty blessings as y can are of God.' In the next 
reign, Dr. John Clerk writes to Cardinal Wolsey, and 
tells him that — * The king axed after your Grace's 
welfare.' " 

Dr. Skinner, who died in 1667, mentions in his 
* Etymologicon ' that ask is pronounced by many 
persons axe, and does not censure it as a vulgarism. 
The fact is, that the modern word has been formed 
from the ancient one simply by what grammarians call 
a " metathesis," or transposition of letters ; for or, or 
aks becomes ask by the k and s changing places. 
Mr. Pegge thinks that, in the same way, tax and task 
are the same word, and supports this opinion by some 
very pertinent quotations from old writers. Thus, Holin- 
shed says — " There was a new and strange subsidie, or 
taske, granted to be levied for the. king> use ; " and, 
in Shakspeare, Hotspur reproaches Henry IV. with 

" taiA'd the whole ttate." , 

< Henry IV., Part 1/ Act iv., Sc 3. 

Our author has some interesting observations, by way 
of commentary, on an expression which, he says, is very 
common among Cockneys. " Pray, Miss, who learns 
you to play upon the musick ? " We shall pass over 
what he says on learns used for teaches, as many readers 
are probably familiar with the fact that, two centuries 
since* learn was employed in this sense by the most 
eminent writers. Mr. Pegge explains the latter part of 
the phrase in the following manner. He thinks that 
" the musick " stands for " the musicks ; " and says 
that, when semitones were introduced, the natural and 
artificial keys became, as it were, two instruments, and, 
when spoken of together, were styled " the musicks." 
Thus, when the Cockneys talk of " the musick," they 
have merely dropped the final «, just as, formerly, 
the organ was called the organs, or a pair of organs. 
In the * Diary ' of Mr. Alleyne, the founder of Dulwich 
College, is an article where he says that, in the year 
1618, he paid 8/. for a pair of organs. Mr. Pegge 
goes on to say— " I do not know how it has happened, 
Sir, but the letter a seems to have been peculiarly 
unfortunate, and from its sibilance has given offence in 
various languages. In French pronunciation it is 
totally sunk as a final letter ; and the number of any 
word is to be governed by the article, the verb, or the 

context. In the middle of words it is quiescent nina 
times out of ten, though, to the eye, it has the compli- 
ment of being frequently represented by a circumflex. 
Mr. Pasquier, who died a. d. 1615, at the age of 
eighty-seven, tells us that, in the French word honest 
(now pronounced honnlste), the letter s was sounded 
when he was a young man ; but he lived to hear the 
t, with its preceding vowel, sunk into a long e, to the 
total abolition of the letter a. "—p. 148. 

If a few more esses could be extirpated from our own 
language, we should be no great losers, but the spirit 
of our language is rather to add to them. Such names 
as Matthews, Mills, &c., show the tendency of the 
Saxon s to obtrude itself every where ; and we are quite 
sure that our excellent author must have been annoyed 
a thousand times by hearing his name converted into 
Pegge*- The French method of hushing this hissing 
letter is curious enough. The later Attic dialect fre- 
quently substituted a t for it, thus tessares (signifying 
four) was changed into tettares. The sensibility of 
Attic ears seems to have been extreme. Euripides 
having written a line in his ' Medea ' containing six 
sigmas (esses), this unfortunate verse beeame the sub- 
ject of everlastiug gibes and parodies : thus one of the 
comic poets says, — " I have saved thee from the sigmas 
of Euripides." # 

Shall us? This gross blunder is to be found in 
Shakspeare. In the ' Winter's Tale,' (Act i., Scene 2,) 
Hermione says, — " Shall u? attend you ? " 

In discussing the terms a-dry, a-hungry, &c, Mr. 
Pegge leans to the opinion of Bishop Lowth, who 
believes the a in such cases to be merely the word on 
" a little disguised by familiar use and quick pronun- 
ciation." In this section our author tells an entertain- 
ing anecdote :»— u Such was the ridiculous attachment 
to long and high-sounding names and titles in Spain, 
that when an epidemical sickness raged in London in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the Spanish Ambassador 
(who I suppose enjoyed a sesquipedal name) was con- 
signed, for safety, to the charge of Sir John Cults, at 
his seat in Cambridgeshire. The Don, upon the occa- 
sion, expressed some dissatisfaction, feeling himself 
disparaged at being placed with a person whose name 
was so short. An amnesty, however, was soon granted 
by the Spaniard ; for my author says, * that what the 
knight lacked in length of name, he made up in the 
largeness of his entertainment.' " — Fuller's * Worthies,' 
p. 176. Cambridgeshire. 

We must content ourselves with two more Cockney- 

A few while. " Stay a few while," a Londoner 
says, " and I will go with you." On this expression 
our author observes, that while was once the respectable 
Saxon substantive hwile, denoting an indefinite interval 
of time, and therefore the phrase ought to be "a few 
whiles." He remarks, that " similar ellipses with re- , 
gard to the consonant *, at the termination of words, 
occur frequently (though in a different situation) in 
various parts of the north of England ; as in Derbyshire 
for example, the common people seldom fail to omit 
the sign of the genitive case, and instead of Mr. John- 
son's horse, or Mr. Thompson's cow, will say Mr. John- 
son horse, and Mr. Thompson cow. Do not the French 
take the same liberty by dropping the sign in the geni- 
tive case, as in Mappe-Monde, Maison-Diev, Chapeau- 
Bras, Ac; and again in law language, Ventre sa 
Mere ? " He afterwards says, " I cannot help ob- 
serving one application of the word few, peculiar to 
the northern, counties, for which' there seems to be no 
justifiable reason ; ' for, when speaking of broth, the 
common people always say — • Will you have a few 
broth ? ' and in commending the broth, will add—' They 
are very good.' This is also an appropriation so rigidly 
confined to broth, that they do not say * a few a/e, ~ ~ 

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• a few punchy— nor ' a few milk,' — * a few furmentyj 
— nor a few of any other liquid. I would rather sup- 
pose that they hereby mean elliptically a few spoonsful 
ef broth; for broth cannot be considered as one of those 
hermaphroditical words which are both singular and 
plural, such as sheep and deer, because we never hear 
of ' a broth ' in an independent and abstracted sense." 
—p. 221. 

Gone dead. " Dr. Johnson was aware of the present 
vulgar use of the word * gone ' among the Cockneys, 
when he jocularly tells Mrs. Thrale, in one of his letters 

from Lichfield, * that Brill, Miss - % s old dog, is 

gone deaf/ "—Letter CXIV. 

These anecdotes, besides the philological instruction 
to be derived from them, may serve to show how great 
has been the progress of knowledge within the present 
century ; for many of the blunders which Mr. Pegge 
attributes to respectable citizens would now be scouted 
by every one who made the smallest pretensions to 


If any of our readers were to endeavour to devise for 
themselves some process by which. they would commu- 
nicate any abstract ideas to those who have been deaf, 
and therefore dumb, from birth or early infancy, they 
would soon perceive by what difficulties such an 
attempt is surrounded; and, unless they had some 
previous knowledge of the process actually employed, 
they would be disposed to consider success in such an 
undertaking perfectly hopeless. But it is one most 
interesting circumstance of the state to which civili- 
zation has brought us, that no man is, or need be, left 
utterly desolate by any physical deprivation to which our 
nature is exposed. The blind can read, and the deaf 
* and dumb can acquire and express ideas the most 
abstract and the most complex. It is not our present 
intention to enter into the details of the process by 
which this is effected ; but we are enabled to commu- 
nicate some of the results obtained by the process 
actually employed. 

At the Exeter Institution it is customary for the 
masters to ask their pupils the meanings of words; 
and their answers are written down upon slates which 
are kept hanging up in the school-room for one day 
subsequently ; during which the scholars have access 
to them, and often transcribe their own answers and 
those of the other students. From a book so kept by 
one of these scholars, the following extracts have been 
made, consisting of such answers as appear most origi- 
nal or striking. It will be seen that many of the 
answers are remarkable in themselves ; and we have 
retained some which may not appear so at first, but 
which will be felt interesting, as indicating the degree 
of success with which an abstract idea had been Con- 
veyed to the pupil, and of the manner in which his 
mind entertained it. The several answers will be found 
to indicate the various degrees of progress which the 
pupils had made, and the measurer of -aptitude they 
respectively possessed. 

What is Revenge t — Revenge is murder in the heart : it 
is cruel without necessity.— Revenge is when a boy will not 
give me some cakes : I will fix it in my mind, and I will 
not give him cakes. God hates revenge. — Revenge has a 
bad heart.— Revenge is hatred with cruelty : if my master 
is displeased with me, and I keep it in memory and hurt 
his dog, it is revenge. 

What is Anger t — Anger is great displeasure. Masters 
are angry with careless servants, because they break pretty 
plates, cups, and saucers. — Anger has troubled thoughts. 
— Anger has a red face and fierce eyes. — Anger is a bad 
feeling of the heart.— Anger has violent thoughts ; anger 
will not reason ; anger is quick and impatient ; anger is 

rage : a man's cook spoiled his dinner, and he was angry 
and teld his servant to go away from his kitchen. 

What is Despair f — Despair is the expectation of a 
certain evil : the sailors despair When the ship breaks and 
the large waves fall on them. — Despair has no hope. De- 
spair has a pale face : the great murderer despairs when 
the judge says he must be hanged. — Despair is fear without 
hope.— Despair is darkness in the mind. — Despair does not 
love play.— Despair is idle. — Despair is wildness in the 
mind.— Despair has no pretty home. 

What is Hop6 t — Hope is desire joined with betie£ — 
Hope is a mental looking towards a happy state with a 
desire to attain it.— Hope is the soul's sunshine ; its sup- 
port and comfort under toil and hardship.— Hope is the 
staff of life ; it cheers us in affliction, and supports us in 
our journey through life. If we meet with disappointment 
we look for better days, and if we are poor and needy, hope 
tells us to pursue industry and improvement, and we shall 
obtain sufficient to support us in this world. 

What is the Soul t— The soul is the conscious being 
within me which directs my actions, and restrains or in- , 
clines me to whatever I do.— The soul is that active prin- 
ciple within me which remembers, distinguishes, and 
reasons. — The soul is the life of my body : when my soul 
leaves my body, my body will die. It cannot be caught 
nor seen. God can see it, and God talks to my soul : it is 
not deaf, it is not dumb, it hears God, and it will sing to 
God when I go to heaven. 

What is Eternity f— Eternity is duration without be- 
ginning and without end. 

What is the Difference between Immortality and Eter- 
nity f— That immortality extends only to endless life in 
future, and eternity embraces duration without beginning or 

What was vour condition before Instruction /—I was 
ignorant, and knew not right from wrong. I was unac- 
quainted with language and every other accomplishment. 
I had no idea of a Supreme Being or of a hereafter.— My 

S resent condition is that of a rational being : I know my 
uty to God and man : I know the reward of virtue and 
the punishment of vice. My former condition was un- 
happy, lonely, and miserable : I could not reason : I did 
not know anything of religion. 

What is Knowledge t — Knowledge is the subject of 
thoughts, memory, Judgment, and understanding. — Know- 
ledge is science. Things that are seen and lectured upon 
expand the mind. When Mr. Bingham told me that 
God created all things, that he was invisible, but could see 
in the dark us well as in the light, I thought he was joking. 
He showed me an old watch, and took it to pieces, and 
pointed out the course of its moving by the fusee being 
wound up, which tightened the spring. He then took a 
blade of grass, a leaf of a tree, an insect, &c., and showed 
me there was no spring, but several fibres, which contained 
sap and nourished the leaf. After showing and explaining 
many other things, he asked me if man could make a blade 
of grass, &c. And I said, No. He then told me that God 
made all things ; and I perceived by my mind that roan's 
power and capacity was nothing compared with God's. 

What is Science? — Science is knowledge obtained by 
what is made visible to the mind. — Science is knowledge 
founded on demonstration or certainty. 

What is Art 9— Art is whatever is accomplished or pro- 
duced by the skill of man, as distinguished from natural 
causes. — Art is produced by the invention of man : it is the 
skill of the mind and the power of the body. 

What was the state of your mind before receiving In- 
structiont — My mind, previous to instruction, was like a 
dark room filled with many good and beautiful things ; but 
for wain of a light they were hid.— My mind was Tike ore 
that requires the strong heat of a furnace to separate it 
from the dross. — The state of my mind was like the earth 
without the sun. 

What is the difference between Reason and Judgment t — 
Reason is the torch of the mind, and judgment is the guide. 

What is Economy f — Economy means taking care of 
money; that is, not spending it upon trifles, or things 
which are of no use ; and also in taking care of my clothes ; 
— and also in trying to make the money I have last a long 
time.— Economy means keeping money, and never buying 
any pretty thing that is not useful If I do not keep 
my clothes clean and if I do not brush them, I am not 

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[January 17, 

What it Virtu* t— Virtue is pure motive* and doings: 
it is good because it comes from Godr*-Virtue is like an 

' Who i$ God t— God. is the life and preserver of all things. 
The sun rises and sets and gives us light and heat, because 
he is in the sun, and he commands it. The wind comes, 
and he is in the wind ; the rain comes, and he is in the 
rain. He is the judge of the world : he will punish the 
wicked, but he will give life and happiness to the good.— 
God is our Almighty Father : he made this large world, 
and the trees, beasts, and mankind. We worship him 
because he can give us all good things ; and we love him. — 
God is the incomprehensible being that is above us, and 
around us, and that sees us always. He lias no fault. He 
will never decay. He sends us health, and food, and cover- 
ing for oar bodies; he sends us wisdom and joy for our 
souls. I see that God is most good and merciful.— God is a 
most holy being, and. he is omnipotent He sees the past, 
the now, and the future. He cannot mistake/ He does 
not doubt. 

What is Memory t—1 came from Dawlish : lean draw in 
my mind its houses, the sea-shoie, my mother's house. 
I can see the town of Dawlish in my mind : this is 
memory.— Memory is the portrait-gallery of the past. I 
can look upon my school-fellows and my home ; I can re- 
member when I was a little boy ; but 1 cannot see these 
things with the eyes of my body : they are in my memory. — 
Memory is a mental cabinet, that receives my ideas and 
holds my thoughts.— Memory is like a drawing-master: it 
shows me the forms of my parents ; memory paints in my 
mind what I wish to keep Ions. — Memory is the conscious- 
- ness of what is gone, or was done yesterday, or some time 

What u an Idea 9 — An idea is a figure in the mind. — An 
idea is an image seen by the mind. 

What is Friendship f — Friendship is love without its 
fickleness, and produces affection without distrust. It has 
respect to the good qualities of the mind and heart, and 
is not formed upon common or extrinsic circumstances. — 
Friendship is progressive kindness of the heart between 
persons of excellence. 

Whaiis Contentment t — Contentment!* enjoyment with- 
out anxiety, and satisfaction without desire. It does not 
look with envy at the greatness of another, nor seek to en- 
large possessions by ambition or meanness.— Contentment 
is an even state of mind that asks for no more than what it 

What is Gentleness t — Gentleness is the disposition of 
virtue. It is mild and soft, and does not oppose others 
from a desire to differ or quarrel. It is complying, but not 
mean : it bows to the will of others, but does not approve 
their errors. — Gentleness is an innate goodness of heart, 
that feels willing to oblige others. — Gentleness is a natural 
inclination of the mind to be kind to all. A gentle disposi- 
tion will bear patiently all the ill-will of another person with- 
out being put out of temper. 

At the time when party spirit and active hostilities were 
raging in Belgium at the close of the fifteenth century, 
certain soldiers of the Spanish army happened to be taken 
prisoners by the Dutch ; and by way of martial retaliation 
for a similar act of cruelty practised upon some Dutch pri- 
soners by the Spaniards, all of them were ordered to be 
hanged. Humanity, however, suggested that it was unne- 
cessary to put the whole party to death ; and of the twenty- 
four who were taken, eight only were eventually destined 
for the halter. For the purpose of ascertaining who were 
to be the sufferers, twenty -four lots were made, eight of 
which had the fijrure of a gibbet described upon them, and 
the remaining sixteen were in blank. The whole twenty- 
four lots being then shaken together and cast promiscuously 
into a helmet, each prisoner was ordered to draw out one ; 
those who drew a blank lot were immediately discharged, 
but those who drew the fatal symbol were hanged on the 
spot The conduct of those who were compelled to set their 
lives upon so desperate a cast, varied according to the nerve 
and temperament of each ; but terror and lamentations pre- 
vailed. The most ♦conspicuous object was a Spaniard, who 
could scarcely be urged to the helmet, and whose tears and 
exclamations excited .both ridicule and compassion. Among 
the captives was an Englishman, who seemed wholly u Q - I 

moved at his danger, and quietly looked on until his turn 
arrived ; and when called upon by the Dutch officer, walked 
up to the helmet with the utmost unconcern, and without 
faltering or changing a feature, drew forth his lot,— which 
was a blank. Thus favoured by fortune, and himself free 
from danger, he told the trembling Spaniard, who still held 
his hand in the helmet dreading to draw forth his fate, that 
for ten crowns of gold he was ready to draw his ldt for hira, 
and stand to the consequence. The Spaniard joyfully agreed, 
and the Englishman, having received the money, coolly 
requested the Dutch officer to allow him to fulfil his part of 
the contract by drawing the Spaniard's lot ; and permission 
being given, be drew again, and again was fortunate. ** A 
strange caprice of fortune,' 1 says the 'historian, •• which 
could thus favour a man whose cheap estimate of his life 
made, him unworthy, not only of this double escape, but 
even of a single 'lucky cast ! " 

This story is taken from a description of England in the 
reign of James I., contained in a satirical Latin work written 
by a Scotchman named John Barclay, under the assumed 
denomination of Euphormio Lusinius. 

Memory of the Bullfinch.— Tame Bullfinches have been 
known (6ays Buffon) to escape from the aviary, and live at 
liberty in the woods for a whole year, then to recollect 
the voice of the person who had reared them, and return to 
her, never more to leave her. Others have been known, 
which, when forced to leave their first master, have died of 
grief. These birds remember very well, and often too well, 
any one who has injured them. One of them having been 
thrown down with its page, by some of the lowest order of 
people, did not seem at first much disturbed by it, but 
afterwards it would fall into convulsions as soon as it saw 
any shabbily dressed person, and it died in one of these fits 
eight months after its first accident. — Bechstein's Cos* 
Birds. ** 


This animal, which is so much valued for its fur, 
belongs to the same genus with the 'common marten, 
which it greatly resembles in form, and it is nearly of the 
same size. They are of that class of animals which are 
called vermiform, on account of the great length of 
their bodies and shortness of their legs, which enables 
theirr to pass through very small apertures. The head 
of the sable is small and oval, with short round ears and 
long whiskers. The feet are large, each having five 
toes furnished with white claws, which are short, 
hooked, and very hard pointed. This animal is dis- 
tinguished from others of the same genus by having 
the fur extended to the extremities of the toes, and 
even under them. The tail is somewhat bushy : it 
is rive inches long, but with the hair it measures; 
eight inches. The body is nearly of equal diameter 
throughout ; and, in proper season, is thickly covered 
with hair, the colour of which is black at top and cine- 
rous at the bottom: the throat is cinerous, sometimes 
white, yellow, or spotted, and the' edges of the ears are 
yellowish. Sometimes the hair has a tawny cast, for in 
spring, after shedding the coat, the colour varies. The 
length of the animal is about eighteen inches exclusive 
of the tail. 1 

The chief residence of the sable is in Asia, beginning 
at the Uralian chain, and becoming more and more j 
plentiful in the progress eastward, and 'more valuable ' 
in the advance to the north. None are found to the i 
north-east of the Anadir, nor in any parts destitute of I 
trees. They prefer vast forests, especially those of fir i 
in which the furs of greatest beauty are found. Theyl 
are frequent in Kamtschatka, and are met with in the 
Kurile Isles. Their proper limit extends from 50° to j 
58° north latitude.* 

The sable lives in holes in the earth, or beneath thej 
roots of trees; sometimes, like the marten, forming 
nests in the trees, and skipping with great agility from 
one to another. It is very lively, and much in motion 

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lBttj ' 


during the night, but gem 

goes abroad to. seek its p 

weather be clear and fine 

to sleep. It is very cour 

destroy animals of larger 

squirrels, and hares, form 

in winter it is said to fee* 

t ridges ; it will also eat : 

service-tree, and it is, inc 

berries form the principal 

autumn. During this teas 

their vegetable diet causin 

they rub off their fur agai 

unsuccessful in its own re; 

fore pressed by hunger, the i 

and wolves, as the jackal < 

the overplus of their meals* 

The females, towards th< 

ginning of April, produce 

which they suckle about fo 

that the sable is capable of 

S teller relates an instance o 

in the palace of the Archbis 

to wander about the city an 

The fur of this animal 

the best skins, although r 

broad, are said to average tl 

and the general price vari 

merchant of London, in a 

Macculloch's • Commercial 

of the great fluctuations of \ 

of the fur trade, says, — " A 

rank very high (though, lik 

in value), may be specific 

the- black and silver fox. T 

comparatively very scarce, a 

The darkest furs are the n 

and quality of the furs are i 

in different climates, but 

different seasons. It is fn 

that the fur is darkest, and : 

the descriptions given of 

generally apply to the state 

The . finer descriptions 

without the bellies, which 

than the rest of the body; 

the bellies are suffered to 

sable-skins are sold in pairs 

paired they bring a better 

equal goodness, as the Ru 

facing caps, cloaks, tippets, 

sables are seldom sold sep 

rare, and are not objects o 

only as curiosities : some are 

in the spring on the snow. 

are sold in pairs, are abpu 

are, like the skins, tied toget 

The price of one of these pai 

pounds* sterling. Tails are \ 

very best skins must have tl 

are often cropped": a hundre 


The hair of the same skins c 
The longer hair is silky, and 
is woolly. The more a skin 
less of the latter, the colou 
good, the more precious it ii 
scarcely any other than the 
various other circumstance: 
furriers pay attention to tl 
being equal, always prefer tl 
that have the best gloss, to 
upon the animal being a i 
being always the smallest. 

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purifetr 17* leSfc 

mark the trees as they advance that they may know 
their way back ; and when arrived in the hunting quar- 
ters, they form huts of trees, and bank up the snow 
around them. Near these they lay their traps ; then Jhey 
advance farther, and lay more traps; still building -new 
huts in every quarter, and returning successively to 
every old one, to visit the traps, and take out the game, 
and skin it, which none but the chief of the party must 
do. The traps are a sort of pit-falls, with a loose board 
placed over it, baited with fish or flesh. When the 
sables become scarce, the hunt era trace them in the 
new-fallen snow to their retreats, placing their nets at 
the entrance, and sometimes have to remain waiting 
two or three days on the watch for the appearance of 
the animal. Another way of" taking the sable is by 
placing a piece of timber from tree to tree horizontally ; 
near one end of this a bait is placed. Over this piece 
of wood another is suspended obliquely, one end slightly 

of the skin. When a hunter finds the traclj of a sable 
in the snow, lie follows it perhaps for two or three days, 
till the poor animal, quite tired, takes refuge in some 
small tree, — for it can climb like a cat; the hunter 
then spreads his net around the tree, and makes a fire : 
the sable, unable to endure the smoke, immediately 
descends, and is caught in the net. I have been told 
by some of these hunters that, when pinched with 
hunger in some of these long chaces, they take two 
thin boards, one of which they apply to the pit of the 
stomach, and the other to the back, opposite to it ; the 
extremities of these boards are tied with cords, which 
are drawn tighter by degrees, and prevent their feeling 
the cravings of hunger. 1 ' 

When the season is concluded, the hunters re- 
assemble, — report to their leader the number of sables 
each has taken, — make complaints of offenders against 
their regulations, — punish delinquents, and divide the 








Vn» osm 

of fee Society fertile DiffMbn of Ueefkd Knowledge le at 69. liaeolft't lam 

Flirted VyViiAUM Ctowie, Duke fltneft, Laabeft. 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

* " i — . m ■ 

JgQ ] PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY. [January 84, 1885. 





Vol. IV. B 

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[&NtfAlY ilj 

EloIn Cathedral h Coristdetecl to be one* of the most 
magnificent- ruins in Great Britain. It is situated at 
the east end of the burgh, which is commonly called 
the Collegp'of flfflti, WKl U within tWdnty or thirty 
yards of the river Lossie. In the commencement of 
the. thirteenth century, Pope Honorius, in consequence 
of a request Which had been previously hiade to him to 
that effect, instructed Bishop Andrew Moray to build 
a cathedral at Spynie, a place about a mile and a 
half northward from the site of Elgin Cathedral. 
The bishop was not pleased With the situation of 
Spynie for a cathedral ; he consequently petitioned 
his Holiness to be allowed to build it at Elgin, urging, 
as the principal reason why he preferred the latter 
situation, that the distance of Spynie from Elgin, 
where all provisions fof that part of the country were 
to be had, would, if the cathedral were built there, 
have the effect of diverting the canons from their sacred 
functions* in consequence of the inconvenience they 
would be put to, and the time that would be lost in 
getting their provisions. The pope complied with the 
bishop's request, and by his bull, dated the 4th of 
April* 12 24 j granted full power to erect a cathedral at 
the east end N of Elgin, which should be declared the 
Cathedral Church of the diocese of Moray in all time 
coming. The foundation stone of the original building 
(for, as will be afterwards seen, it was destroyed and 
rebuilt) was laid on the 17th of July in the same year 
by the* bishop. 

About 1 60 years after the foundation, the building 
was completely destroyed. It was burned to the 
ground by a personage well known both in the page of 
history and in the traditionary legends of Scotland. 
The circumstances under which its destruction took place 
were as follow. During the time of Bishop Alexander 
Barr, Lord Badenoch (son of Robert the Second of 
Scotland), better known by the name of " The Wolf 
of Badencd!,* in consequence of the character which, 
by his ferocious conduct and prowling habits, he had 
earned for himself, was excommunicated by the Church 
in consequence of his having seized on the bishop's 
lands in Hadenoch, and his expressed determination to 
keep forcible possession of them. Determined to revenge 
himself on those of his enemies at whose instance this 
ecclesiastical punishment had been inflicted on him, he, 
in the summer of 1390* burned the whole town of 
Forres*, together with the manse and the choir of the 
■church. In the course of next month he likewise 
burned to ashes the town of Elgin, the Church of St. 
Giles, the hospital of Maison Dieu, the Cathedral 
Church, and eighteen houses of the canons and chap- 
lains in the College, then, as how, forming the suburbs 
of Elgin. 

The Wolf of Badenoch, however, was not suffered 
to commit these extensive depredations on civil and 
ecclesiastical property with impunity. Proceedings 
were forthwith instituted against him, and he was 
obliged to make suitable reparation ; which having 
done, and having at the same time publicly expressed 
his penitence, he received absolution at the hands of 
WaKer Trail, Bishop of St. Andrews, in Blackfriars 
Church at Perth. 

The rebuilding of ihe Cathedral Church was com- 
meficed with ell possible expedition, under the super- 
intendence of Bishop Barr, — every parish in the diocese 
paying a subsidy, and all the canons contributing for 
the purpose. In consequence, however, of the com- 
motions of the times, a considerable time elapsed before 
the building was completed. But in order that it 
might be protracted as little as possible, the Chapter 
met, in 1414, on the death of Bishop Innes, and bound 

* Forre* ii in the lAfte coiiaty as Elgin, and it twelve miles 
distant from it It now contain* a population ef nearly 4000 poult* 
and was probably extensively inhabited at the period in question* 

themselves by" a Solemn oath, that whoever should oe 
elected bishop should appropriate one-third of his 
revenue for the purpose of advancing the building of 
the cathedral. How fon& it took U) complete it is not 
known, but it is supposed to have bee it about twenty years. 

The style of the building, like that of all other great 
edifices of the period, was what is called the florid 
Gothic, without the admixture of any ©thef style in 
any part of the structure. The cathedral stood due 
east and west, and was built in the form of a cross. 
The length of the building was 264 feet^ the breadth 
35- feet, and the length of the transept 114 feet. 
There were five great towers, two of which were at the 
west end*, one in the middle, and two at the east end. 
The two west towers, in so far as the stone-work is 
concerned, are still entire, and measure 84 feet each in 
height. What the height of the spires of these towers 
was cannot now be ascertained. It is conjectured by 
some of those authors who have written about Elgin, 
that they were of wood, and that they must conse- 
quently have fallen down long since. The centre 
tower must have been the grandest ; for, including the 
spire, it measured 198 feet in height, and lasted long 
after the others had been reduced to the state in which 
they now stand. The two towers at the east end are 
still entire as far as relates to the stone work, but they 
were not nearly so large as the others. The grand 
entry, which was a very rich specimen of architecture, 
was between the two towers at the west-end. The Rev. 
Mr. Shaw, in a communication to his friend Mr. Pen- 
nant, the tourist, thus describes it : — " This gate is a 
concave arch, 24 feet broad in base, and 24 in height, 
and terminating in a sharp angle. On each side of the 
valves in the sweep of the arch are 8 round aud 8 
fluted pilasters 6b feet high, adorned with a chapiter 
from which arise 16 pilasters, which meet in the key of 
the arch. Each valve of the door was 5 feet broad 
and 10 feet high. To yield light to this large building, 
besides the great windows in the porticoes, and a row 
of windows in the walj above* each 6 feet high, there 
was above the gate a window of an acute-angled arch 
19 feet broad in base and 27 in height; and in the 
east end between the turrets, a row of five parallel 
windows, each 2 feet broad and 10 high. Above these, 
five more, each 7 feet high, and over these was a cir- 
cular window near 10 feet diameter. The grand gate, 
the windows, the pillars, the projecting table, pedestals, 
and cordons, are adorned with foliage, grapes, and 
other carvings." 

On the north side of the choir stands the Chapter 
House, better known by the name of " The Apprentice 
Isle," in which the bishop's privy council' met for their 
deliberations. It communicates with the choir by 
means of a vaulted vestry. It is altogether a singular 
piece of. architecture. The form is that of an exact 
octagon. The height is 34 feel, and the diagonal 
breadth within the walls is 37 feet. It resembles a 
cube arched and vaulted at the top, while the whole 
arched roof is supported by a single pillar in the centre 
of the house. " Arched pillars, " says Mr. Shaw, 
" from every angle terminate in the grand pillar, which 
is 9 feet in circumference, crusted over with 16 pilasters, 
and 24 feet high. These are adorned with a chapiter, 
from which arise round pillars that spread along the 
roof and join at top, and round the chapiter are en- 
graven the arms of several bishops. There is a large 
window in each of seven sides, the eighth side commu- 
nicating, as was said, with the choir ; and in the north 
wall are five stalls, cut in niches, for the bishop's mi- 
nisters of state, namely, the dean, the chanter, the arch- 
deacon, the chancellor, and treasurer, — the dean's stall 
being raiseU a step higher than the other tour.'' 

An opinion used to be generally entertained, and 
still prevails among the less informed classes of the 

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<»mmunUy, that the present ruinous state of the Etgir. 
Cathedral is tq be asorihed to the blind and bigoted 
fury of the reformers in the days of John Knox. No- 
thing could be farther from the fact. In Keith's 
4 History of the Bishops of Scotland' there is inserted 
an act of the Privy Council, dated Edinburgh, Feb. 14, 
1 567-8, in which it is expressly enjoined on the Earl 
of Huntley, and his deputies the Sheriffs of Elgin and 
Forres, and the Bishops of Aberdeen and Moray, &c, 
" that they defend and assist Alexander Clark and 
William Birnie, and their servants, in taking down and 
selling the lead which covered the Cathedrals of Aber- 
deen and Elgin." From the same unquestionable 
authority we learn that the Earl of Murray, then 
Regent of Scotland, was greatly in want of money to 
enable him, by means of military force, to put down 
the rebellion which existed at that time in several parts 
of the kingdom; and that it was for the purpose of 
attempting to replenish his exhausted coffers, that the 
lead was taken off the roofs of these cathedrals and 
disposed of by sale. Agreeable to the mandate of the 
Regent, the Elgin and Aberdeen Cathedrals' were un- 
rooted, and the lead was shipped at the latter place for 
Holland ; but scarcely had the vessel left the harbour 
than she sunk, and was, with her crew and cargo, 
wholly lost. The foundering of the vessel was attri- 
buted by popular superstition to the circumstance of 
the captain being a Roman Catholic. The Elgin 
Cathedral thus uncovered was never repaired, owing, 
no doubt, to the progress which the doctrines of the 
Reformation had by this time made; and being thus 
exposed to the elements, the wooden part of the great 
tower gradually gave way, and on Easter Sunday 
morning, 1711, it entirely fell to the ground with a 
tremeudous crash. Fortunately, though a great many 
persons had been on the spot a few minutes previously, 
there were none at the moment of its falling. 

The diocese of Moray, of which this splendid building 
was the cathedral church, was one of very great extent. 
It comprised {he counties of Elgin, or Moray, and 
Nairn, and the greatest part of the counties of Banff 
and Inverness, and had no fewer than fifty-six pastoral 
charges belonging to it. The last bishop of the dio- 
cese was Patrick Hepburn, well known iu Scottish 
history as the ecclesiastic who was fined for receiving 
into his house the intercommuned Earl of Bothwell, 
one of the husbands of the unfortunate Mary Queen 
of Scots 

The Cathedral is surrounded by a burying-ground, 
one of the largest churchyards perhaps in Great 
Britain : in it are interred the remains of many 
distinguished persons, including several of the kings 
of Scotland. The churchyard 4 is enclosed by a stone 
wall. What with the number of the graves, the 
beauty and variety of the sculptured memorials of 
departed worth and greatness, and the grandeur of 
the dilapidated cathedral, — a building which is indeed 
pre-eminentTy magnificent even in ruins, — the scene is 
calculated to make a strong impressiQn on the spec- 

In order, as far as possible, to prevent the Cathe- 
dral from undergoing further dilapidation, the barons 
of Exchequer some years since granted a sum of 
900/. to keep it in repair. An ascent to the top of 
the two largest steeples, by means of interior stairs, 
which could not formerly be ascended, was then ren- 
dered easy ; by which means the visitor can command 
one of the most extensive and richest prospects in Scot- 
land. In the course of the repairs which w.ere made 
in this place some years ago, a great number of curi- 
ously-sculptured stones were discovered, and being 
taken out of the rubbish* in which they had lain for a 
century or two, were deposited in the Chapter House, 
where they are now exhibited. 

About eight or nine years since, the, JtfrsfW wbo^ad 
for thirty or fortv years been the keeper pf the chu*eru 
yard and cathedral died, and John Shanks was ap- 
pointed his successor. This man's veneration for the 
cathedral, and his enthusiasm for its antiquities, ait- 
altogether boundless, He soon furnished a most striking 
proof of this, Before he had been two years installed 
in the office, he cleared away from the area of the 
building, by his own unaided exertions, 2832 cubic 
yards of rubbish. The entrance to the cathedral and 
the area of the building have been, by his good taste 
and indefatigable labours, very greatly beautified. 
John's taste, zeal, and labours are really extraordinary, 
when it is considered that he is upwards of seventy 
years of age. He is a great favourite with the visitors, 
from the extent of his information respecting every- 
thing connected with the building, and his extreme, 
readiness to communicate information to strangers. 
Not long since the inhabitants of Elgin presented 
him with a handsome . silver snuff-box, with a suitable 
inscription, in testimony of their sense of what he has 
done to beautify the ground part of the cathedral. 

The preceding view of Elgin Cathedral is adapted 
from a series of engravings of that ruin, from drawings 
taken on the spot by Mr. Clark of London, which were 
published some 5 ears since by Messrs. Forsyth ajid 
Young, of Elgin. 

Our traveller arrived at Constantinople on the 20th of 
January, 1555, when he found that the grand signior was 
not there, nor in Europe, but at the head of his army 
in Asia Minor. A courier was despatched to the sultan, 
and soon returned to Constantinople with Orders that 
the imperial envoy should go to him in Asia, Solyjnan 
being then at Amasia, a city of the ancient Cappadocia. 
This journey was long, and at that time considered 
a novel one ; " for," "says Busbequius, " though the 
journey from Vienna to Constantinople hath been 
performed by many, yet this from Constantinople to 
Amasia hath, as yet, been undertaken by no Christian 
tnat J know of." He accordingly marked down the 
several stages he performed, and the names and situa- 
tions of the cities, towns, and other places he passed 
through, which, at that period, was rendering some 
service to geography. 

On the first day he merely crossed the Bosphorus to 
Scutari, which may be called the Asiatic suburb of 
Constantinople, the beautiful strait that divides it from 
that capital being more like a river than an arm of the 
sea, and innumerable caiks, or boats, keeping up a 
constant communication between the two places*. The 
next day he continued his journey from Scutari across 
fragrant plains, where he saw " a vast number of land- 
tortoises stalking over the fields without any fear at 
all." (These sluggish, inoffensive animals, of which we. 
Will give some account on a future occasion, abound in 
all this part of Asia, but no where, perhaps, to such an 
extent as in the plains of Troy. In their outward struc- 
ture they bear a perfect resemblance to the sea- turtle, 
to which, however, they are very inferior in size, being 
seldom found to exceed twelve inches in length. h\ 
the spring season of the year, after a shower, the ground 
is often seen literally covered with them.) This second 
day's journey extended no farther than to Kartaly, a 
small town on the shore of the Propontis, or Sea of 
Marmora, opposite the Princes' Islands, and not above 
twelve miles from Scutari. On the third day he reached 
Gabisce, a town of Bithynia, " which some think was 
anciently called Libyssa, and is famous for the sepulchre 

* In No. 24 of the ' Penny Majjazine/ vol. i., the reader may 
find a view and a plan of Constantinople that vfil] nia,ke tV>is still 
more intelligible. 

E 2 

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[Januuly 24, 

of Hannibal, who was there interred." • * • • • 
•* From thence," our traveller continues, " there is a 
most pleasant prospect over the Sea of Marmora, and 
up the Bay of Nicomedia ; here also grow cypress-trees 
of a wonderful bulk and tallness." Going on at 
the same slow rate, he arrived, on the fourth day, at 
Nicomedia, anciently a splendid city, but then, as now, 
little more than a heap of ruins. This city is ad- 
vantageously situated at the head of a deep narrow bay, 
or gulf, of the same name, the shores of which are 
even more beautiful and romantic than those of the 
Bosphorus above Constantinople. Some of the largest 
and most exquisite medallions that were ever struck by 
the ancient Greeks were found .near this now desolate 

From Nicomedia, Busbequius crossed a lower ridge 
of Mount Olympus ; and, passing through a village 
called Rasockly, reached Nice, the ancient Nicaea, but 
at so late an hour that the first watch was set. " When 
not far from Nice," he says, " I heard a mighty noise, 
as if it had been of men that jeered and mocked us. I 
asked what was the matter? — whether any of the 
mariners rowing on the Lake Ascanius (which was not 
far off) did deride us for travelling at that unusual 
time of night ?" The Turks with him answered 
" No ! " — that it was only the noise of the jackals, that 
were abroad in packs, and howling as usual. The cry 
of these animals by night does indeed produce a singular 
effect on the ear of the stranger. At times, their chorus 
sounds like the screaming and howling of an angry 
mob; — at others, like the whining and weeping of a 
multitude of infants; — and, occasionally, it may be 
compared to the harmony that would be produced were 
the mistress of a dame's school to whip soundly all the 
little urchins under her charge at once. 

The house in which he was lodged at Nice was . 
believed by Busbequius to be the identical building 
where tbe celebrated Council of *Jice was held. " As 
for the town itself," he says, " it is finely situated on 
the bank of the Lake Ascanius." The ancient walls, 
which are almost entire, the majestic gates and towers, 
are represented as being in much the same state that 
Colonel Lea Re and other modern travellers have found 
them in. Busbequius saw many ancient inscriptions, and 
mentions the ruins of baths erected by the Roman Em- 
peror Antoninus. He adds—" Whilst some Turks were 
digging in these ruins, to get out stones and marbles to 
build houses at Constantinople, they found the statue 
of a warrior in his armour, curiously wrought, and 
almost entire ; but they quickly battered it with their 
hammers, even in our view ; and when we showed our- 
selves displeased at their rude violence, they paid us 
with scoffing, saying, ' How I would you have us bow 
down to worship this statue^ as you Christians use with 
your graven images? 1 " 

• In this sentence our old traveller has indicated the 
origin of the evil and destruction that have fallen so 
heavily on works of ancient art wherever the Turks 
have obtained dominion. Like the ancient Jews, they 
are strictly prohibited by their prophet from making 
the likeness of any living thing, but more particularly 
from carving or delineating the human form divine ; 
and the more fanatic among them have always considered 
it a serving of the Lord to demolish, or at least deface, 
all such works as chanced to fall in their way. A 
Phidias or a Praxiteles found no more favour in their 
eyes than a common stone-cutter. Where they could 
not conveniently do more, they- knocked off the noses, 
and broke away the hands and feet, from the ancient 
statues and relievos. By this our readers will under- 
stand how so many of the ancient Greek works in the 
British Museum are so mutilated and defaced. Bus- 
bequius, who had a fine feeling for art, deplores this 
circumstance, and is transported with anger at the 

barbarity of the Turks. Leaving Nice, and 
through a long narrow pass of Mount Olympus, ne at 
length came to a plain open country, and to a town 
called " Chiausada," where he saw the fine breed of 
Angora goats, and the broad-tailed sheep, whose tails 
were so heavy and large that the shepherds were 
ofttimes " forced to lay them upon a piece of plank, * 
running on two little wheels, that so they might draw 
them after them, not being otherwise able to trail 
them along." Fearing that so singular a fact, which 
is now known to most people, might subject his veracity 
to suspicion, our old traveller adds, u Perhaps you will 
think I tell you a romance ; but, take it on my word, 
it is a certain truth. 1 ' He also mentions, at the same 
place, " some sorts of birds unknown in Europe ;" and 
says he Saw, " amongst the rest, a kind of duck, which 
gives a sound like trumpeters, or such as blow the 
cornet : — the noise they make is almost Hke the sound 
of a post-boy's horn. It is a bird which, though it 
hath nothing wherewith to defend itself, yet is very 
strong and daring. The Turks are verily persuaded 
that the devils are afraid of these birds." 

It is not easy to say what these birds really were. 
The writer of these short notices, in another part of Asia 
Minor, saw, in the court-yard of a khan at Kirkagatch, 
a considerable town, situated on the river Caicus, not far 
from Pergamus, a creature in some respects answering 
to Busbequius' s description. In its form it bore a re- 
semblance to the duck, having a short neck, but being 
in its body much larger and more clumsy than our 
largest geese. Its head was, in proportion, still larger, 
and its bill or beak tremendously long and thick. The 
bill and part of the head were of a livid blue colour, — 
the eye red and fiery. In the wings and body were 
some bright scarlet and some yellow plumage, but the 
predominating^ colours were blues, greens, and greys. 
These hues were as brilliant as those of the most gaudy 
parrots, but the Ugliness and fierce expression of the 
head were truly diabolical. On the upper part of the 
bill (which was hooked at the extremity) there was an 
aperture about an inch in length. When approached, 
nothing could well exceed the 'fierceness of the bird. 
After making a half-hissing, half-whistling noise, it 
produced, much to the astonishment of the observer, a 
long and sonorous note, which was indeed " almost like 
the sound of a postboy's horn. ,, The shyness and 
fierceness of the bird prevented any closer examination, 
and the writer never saw another of the same kind. 
One of the Turks said they were excessively rare, and 
called them " the fowls of Satan." 

Desire of Knowledge.— -Boswell relates the following 
anecdote of a boy who rowed him and his friend Dr. John- 
son down the Thames. They were conversing upon the use 
of learning, and the former observed :— " • This boy rows us 
as well without learning as if he could sing the song of 
Orpheus to the Argonauts, who were the first sailors/ He 
then called to the boy : — « What would you give, my lad, to 
know about the Argonauts?' •Sir/ said the boy, *I 
would give what I have/ Johnson was mueh pleased with 
his answer, and we gave him a double fare. Dr. Johnsou 
then turning to me, * Sir/ said he, ' a desire of knowledge 
is the natural feeling of mankind ; and every human being 
whose mind is not debauched will be willing to give all that 
he has to get knowledge/ %% —Bo*weW* Life of Johnson. 

Mr. Jefferson s Ten Rules of Life.— The following rules 
for practical life were given by Mr. Jefferson, in a letter of 
advice to his namesake, Thomas Jefferson Smith, in 1825. 

1. Never pat off till to-morrow what you can do to-day. 

5. Never trouble other* for what you can do yoarself. 

3. Never spend your moaey before yon hare it 

4. Never bay what yea do not want became it it cheap. 
5 Pride costs as more than hunger, thirst, and cold. 

6. We never repent of having eaten tos* little. 

7. Nothing is troublesome that ire do willingly. 

8. How much pain have thort ev&s cost as which never happened! 

9. Take things always by their smooth handle. 

10. When angry, count ten before you speak) if very angry, eomnt a hundred; 

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The Election.— Plate II. 

One of the commentators on Hogarth lias declared 
that he prefers the principal group of the plate before 
us — that of the freeholder between the agents of the 
rival candidates — to the celebrated picture, by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, of Garrick between Tragedy and 
Comedy. The sturdy yeoman is plied on each side by 
a p*\rtisan of either of the factions who are canvassing 
in a country town : each offers him a ticket for a dinner, 
and each pours money into his " itching palm." It is 
perfectly clear from the leer of his eye which candidate 

will have him; — he will sell himself to the highest 
bidder. This, to our minds, is tragedy as well as 
comedy; — the beginning is fun, the end misery and 
shame. When a man to whom a public trust is com- 
mitted violates the conditions of that trust, and sells his 
conscience, it is evident that his morality must be fear- 
fully low, and that he is a victim of the most debasing 
selfishness. We fear that such things still exist ; although 
the progress of the people in the knowledge of their 
real interests and duties may hare greatly abated the 

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influence of direct corruption. If jt were not so, poli- 
tical power vested in the mass of the community would 
be a curse instead of a blessing, 

The otb*r part* of this picture are in Hag anh's hap- 
piest manner The smirking canvasser purchasing 
ribands and gewgaws for the ladies in the balcony 
of the inn, that he may win votes through their favour- 
able report ; — the cobbler and the barber disputing upon 
politics, and tracing out plans of battles and sieges 
over their pipe and pot ; — the landlady counting her 
gains; — the jolly voters feeding in right earnest at the 
inn-window $— the mob attacking the inn of the ob- 
noxious candidate, and the fellow sawing down the sign 
upon which he is astride, unconscious that he shall fall 
with it, — these are strokes of humour and delineation 
of character which can never be obsolete. 

There is no criterion by which the real condition of a 
people can with more certainty be estimated than by 
the position which the females occupy among them ; 
nor can their true position be better understood than 
by considering the amount and quality of the- acquire- 
ments which they have the opportunity of obtaining. 

The young females in the superior ranks of society in 
Russia receive education from private teachers, in board- 
ing-school?, or in a sort of college, which is, we believe, 
peculiar to that country. In each of these different 
modes, besides the common elements of education, such 
as reading, writing, arithmetic, and a proper knowledge 
of the native language, it is professed to teach German, 
French, music, drawing, embroidery, and dancing. 
This list is somewhat extended in the " colleges;" but 
in all cases the French language and dancing are tHe 
accomplishments which are the most valued by the pupils 
and their friends, and on the attainment of which the 
most zealous application is bestowed. With regard to 
French in particular, we believe it is perfectly safe to 
say that there are no towns in Europe, out of France 
and Belgium, in which that language is so much and 
so well spoken by both sexes as in St. Petersburgh and 

Having mentioned the female colleges in Russia as 
somewhat peculiar, it seems desirable that we should 
describe one of those in St. Petersburgh. The best 
account of them with which we are acquainted is that 
given by Dr. Granville in his * St. Petersburgh.' We 
shall therefore furnish, from this source, an account of 
the college called the " Communauttf des pemoiselles 

The desire which was strongly felt about forty years 
since for the proper education of females in the superior 
ranks of society, led to the establishment of two colleges 
in St. Petersburgh ; one of which was the one we have 
just mentioned, and the other that of St. Catherine. 
The former is contained in two spacious buildings, in a 
pleasant and airy situation near the river. These build- 
ings are perfectly distinct, and were erected at different 
periods; but they are under the saipe superintendence, 
and are connected by means of a covered corridor. 
The institution itself consists of x two parts: one, jn 
which about 400 young ladies of noble families are 
educated; and another which serves for the instruction 
of an equal number pf the daughters of respectable 
citizens. Thp young ladies are admitted by ballot ; but 
the empress, who is the especial patroness of the institu- 
tion, exercises the power of introducing pupils without 
this ceremony. The pupils of noble family pay the 
yearly sum of 50/., and the others 27/., for which all 
their wants ace provided for in boarding, clothing, and 
education. The age at which pupils shall be admitted 
is not fixed ; Dr. Granville observed several that were 
not more than eight pr nine years of age, and a few J 

that were even younger. The girls of noble family 
remain in the institution nine years, but others only six. 
During all this period, they are not allowed to quit the 
house, except when any of their near relations happen 
to be very seriously ill, and require their presence. 
Parents, however, are admitted to see their children on 
Sundays, under certain regulations and restrictions ; 
and two or three times a-year a ball is given, in the 
institution, to the parents and friends of the pupils, 
who are then allowed to do the honours of the ftouse. 
Although the pupils are confined during so long a 
period to the precincts of the establishment, they are 
amply furnished with the means of exercise. For their 
use in summer, there are large gardens on the banks of 
the Neva, and extensive covered corridors, properly 
warmed, for exercise in winter. Each class has also its 
" Half of Recreation," where, among othe»-diversions, 
gymnastics haye recently been introduced, and musical 
instruments are provided to increase their means of 
rational enjoyment. 

Besides the branches of instruction already enume- 
rated, the pupils are taught something of Russian 
history and literature, something of geometry, and 
something of those branches of natural and philosophical 
science which are considered most suitable to their sex. 
The professors are generally selected from the most able 
teachers that are to be found in the capital : none of, 
them are resident on the premises, but they give a 
regular attendance at certain appointed times. There 
is one lady who exercises a general superintendence 
over all the concerns of the establishment ; and there is 
another, with the title of " Inspectress," who gives a 
more detailed attention to the conduct and proceedings 
of the pupils. These ladies have many subordinate 
assistants, teachers, and governesses, beside^ a great 
number of female servants to attend the young ladies. 
In the course of the period of instruction, some atten- 
tion is given to those qualifications which relate to the 
knowledge of domestic affairs, and the management of 
a household. At stated periods, needlework is taught 
and practised by all the pupils ; and the eldest of them 
are obliged to attend to their own toilette unassisted. 
It is also one of the duties of the Inspectress to see that 
some of the more advanced pupils are made acquainted 
with the business of housekeeping, management of 
servants, and arrangement of the household for the 
whole establishment. Improper conduct is punished 
by change of dress, and other circumstances of humilia- 

The pupils in the superior part of the institution are 
divided into three classes, and those of the other into 
two. The classes are distinguished by dresses of differ- 
ent colours — white, blue, and brown. Each class has 
three subdivisions, through which the pupil is expected 
to pass in the course of three years. Examinations 
take place at stated periods to ascertain the proficiency 
of the pupils ; and a general public one is held every 
three years before a numerous assembly, consisting of 
the Empress, and other members of the* imperial family, 
the officers of state, the foreign ambassadors, and the 
dignitaries of the church. On this occasion such of the 
ypung ladies as have completed their education exhibit 
proofs of their various accomplishments ; and when 
they quit the institution, the most worthy receive a 
decoration in gold, which is worn throughout life, and 
is an acknowledged mark of distinction in society. 

The classes are held in large and lofty rooms, which 
are excellently ventilated, and well warmed in winter. 
The pupils sit on raised benches, with a long narrow 
form before them, and the professor, with his books and 
a black board for the demonstration of his lecture, is 
placed on a raised platform at the opposite end of the 
apartment. An admirable degree of cleanliness is pre- 
served in these rooms, as well as in the wide and well- 


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aired dormitories, ahd in every part of the house. 
During the hours of lecture an, inspectress is always 
present ; and an assistant teacher or governess attends 
the young ladies on all occasions, whether of study or 
recreation, or in the dormitories. Part of the general 
building is occupied by a sort of infirmary, consisting of 
several rooms, in which the patients are kept, attended 
by the professional men belonging to the establishment. 
Dr. Granville says they could not be more kindly 
nursed and treated at their own houses. He also de- 
scribes the food of the pupils as nourishing and abund- 
ant. He was present at their dinner. The dining- 
hall — a superb saloon with a double colonnade of 
fluted Ionic columns — was filled with young ladies 
ranged on each side of several long rows of tables, 
served as in the private houses of the wealthy. On a 
signal being given, the short hymn of grace was sung 
by a particular division of one of the classes, and re- 
sponded by the whole society in chorus, in a very 
impressive manner. 

Without pausing to remark on the defects or advan- 
tages of such institutions as that which has been ' 
desjribed, we may proceed to mention some facts 
relating to the education of people in the humbler 
ranks of society. It is necessary first to remind our 
readers that the bulk of the Russian population con- 
sists of persons who are what, for want of a more dis- 
tinctive term, we may call " slaves " to the nobles, or 
great proprietors of land. Their offspring are in the 
same condition. With the view of carrying into effect 
such measures as might seem practicable for extending 
the benefits of useful instruction to the female children 
of this important part of the popdlation, a lady, who 
was a member of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, 
proceeded to St. Petersburgh many years since — we 
think ten years. The late Emperor Alexander, and the 
Empress mother entered fully into her views, and 
rendered her every assistance in carrying them into 
effect. She was enabled to establish a school, in 
which a considerable number of girls were brought up 
and instructed. When she had proceeded so far with 
the school as to show the good effect it was capable of 
producing, the emperor and the other patrons of the 
undertaking became desirous that the benefits of the 
system should be extended ; and for that purpose some 
girls were placed in the institution, With the intention 
of rendering them competent ultimately to impart 
similar instruction to the female children in different 
parts of the country. How the plan now operates we 
have no means of knowing; but with the lady men- 
tioned, who is still at St. Petersburgh, the writer had 
much conversation on the subject of education in 
Russia, in the year 1829, and a few of her statements 
he will give, in her own words, from her written com- 
munications : — 

" Except' in the case of a very limited number of 
enlightened owners, the education of the bond-children 
is entirely neglected. When instruction is given to the 
children of the lower classes, the routine of education is 
nearly the same as among those of the higher classes. 
The school on which I am engaged is the only one in 
which a domestic education is given, and where the 
girls are limited to the study of their own language. 
The difficulties which have arisen have been confined 
to the discontent and opposition of parents, who, 
though so poor as not to be able to teed and clothe 
their children, could not endure that they should be 
taught no French or dancing, or that they should be 
employed in household work. From this cause many 
have been taken away, and there has been much mis- 
representation. The directors were always convinced 
of the necessity of such a mode of education, and there- 
fore stood firm friends to the school, or it would long 
ago have been closed. Now the parents are more 

reasonable and confiding, so th*t We hx9t compara- 
tively few difficulties. 

" It is the desire of our excellent patron, Prince 
Alexander Galitzin, that the children may be kept as 
much as possible apart from communications with their 
own people, and they never visit the abode of their 
parents unless under very peculiar* circumstances. 
Twenty-two are placed in the house by order of the 
emperor ; these are generally Complete orphans, or the 
children of* abandoned parents. They are kept in the 
establishment until sixteen years ef age, wh<m they are 
put to service, or as teachers in private schools. None 
who have left regularly, and at sixteen, catt be said to 
have turned out otherwise than well, except one girl ; 
they either earn a comfortable support by service, or 
work at home for their parent*. Children are fre- 
quently sent here by their barons to be trained to 
active habits : there are now twenty of this kind in the 
school. Several have left, and have given satisfaction 
to their owners." 

The Writer was often among these children, both In 
their hours of study and relaxation, and was much/ 
delighted to observe the uniformly neat, cheerful, and 
healthy appearance they presented. Their manner was 
very pleasing and becoming ; and they appeared to 
regard their kind instructress with the greatest attach- 
ment. He could not but feel deeply interested when 
he considered the important influence which the " bond- 
children r then before him might exercise, in raising the 
condition and character of the peasantry, by furnishing, 
in different parts of the vast Russian Empire, examples 
of minds improved by knowledge, and of domestic 
habits and attainments formed on a much higher 
standard than had been previously known in that 
country. It is right to add, that the lady mentioned 
spoke highly of the general aptitude of her pupils. 

WftlCttNOfc BACON. 

O* the regular mail-road from Sheffield to Birmingham, 
half-way betwixt Burton-on-Trent and the city of Lich- 
field, stands, on the left hand, a very well-built and 
commodious inn, bearing- the sign of a largte flitch of 
bacon, with the motto "Win it and Wear it." It 
forms part of the village of Whichnor, the small church 
of which is seen to the right hand, apparently in the 
open field, at the distance of about a mile ; and but 
for the few trees around it, and the small glimpse of 
the Trent, which runs near it, would be passed almost 
unnoticed. Whichnor possesses no peculiar object to 
interest the traveller except the loner bridge, or rather 
succession of bridges, over the river Trent, which here, 
as in many other parts of its course, is in the habit of 
frequently overflowing the low lands in its neighbour- 
hood to a very great extent, and the sign, or " Flkeh 
of Bacon," before mentioned. The latter is a memento 
of a singular tenure, like that at Dunmow, of which the 
following is the history and ceremony. 

The manor of Whichnor with that of Sirescete were 
granted by William I. to one of his Norman followers, 
of the name of De Somerville, by the tenure of a 
knight's fee and three* fourths ; and, Uke other military 
services, the rendering of aids and reliefs to the 
superior lord of the fee, which superior lord was the 
possessor of the Honour of Tutbury. Sir Philip de 
Somerville, a descendant from the original possessor, 
was a great friend and favourite of his superior lord, 
John of Qaunt * ; and his companionable qualities made 
him a frequent and welcome visitor to Tutbury Castle. ' 
The Duke of Lancaster, who was very remarkable for 

* la speaking ef Jojin of Grant in the account of the Min- 
strel's Court and Tutbury Bull- Running* in No. 1/8, p 15, he 
was inadvertently stated to be the fourth son of Jfidward IV., 
instead of the third son of Edwatd HI. 

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pANtJARY 24 

singular, and, in many cases, jocular institutions, wish 
ing to free his companion from the liability of being 
called upon for his aid at times inconvenient to himself, 
established the following commutation for the moiety 
of his claims ; that is, in all probability, for the manor 
of Whichnor. 

" That he," Sir Philip de Somerville, " should find, 
maintain, and sustain one bacon-flyke, hanging in his 
hall at Whichnor, ready arrayed at all times of the year 
but in Lent, to be given to every man or woman 
married, after the day and year of their marriage be 
passed ; and to be given to every maYi of religion, arch- 
bishop, bishop, prior, or other religious ; and to every 
priest after the year and day of their profession finished, 
or of their dignity received, in form following : — When- 
soever " that any such before-named will come for to 
enquire for the bacon in their own person, or by any 
other, for them, they shall come to the bailiff, or to the 
porter of the lordship of Whichnor, and shall say to 
them in the manner as ensueth ; — ' Bailiff, or Porter, 
I do you to know, that I come for myself, (or, if he be 
come for another, showing for whom he demands,) to 
demand one bacon-flyke hanging in the hall of the 
Lord of Whichnor, after the form thereunto belong- 
ing.' " 

Application being thus made, the bailiff or porter 
shall appoint a time for the applicant to come again, 
bringing with him two of his neighbours. " In the 
mean time the said bailiff shall take with him twain of 
the freeholders of the lordship of Whichnor, and they 
then shall go to the manor of Rudlow belonging to 
Robert Knyghtley, and then shall summon the afore- 
said Knyghtley, or his bailiff, commanding him to be 
ready at Whichnor the day appointed, at prime of day, 
with his carriage, that is to say, a horse and a saddle, 
a sack and a pryke (basket), for to convey and carry 
the said bacon, and come a journey out of the county 
of Stafford at his cost. And thus the said bailiff shall, 
with the said freeholders, summon all the tenants of 
the said manor to be ready at the day appointed at 
Whichnor, for to do and perform the services which 
they owe to the baron. And at the day assigned all 
such as owe services to the baron shall be ready at the 
gate of the manor of Whichnor, from the rising of the 
sun to noon, attending and awaiting for the coming of 
him that fetcheth the bacon. ' And when he is come 
there shall be delivered to him and his fellows chaplets, 
and to all those who shall be there to do their services 
due to the baron. And they shall lead the said de- 
mandant, with trumpets and tabour, and other manner 
of minstselsy, to the hall door, where he shall find the 
Lord of Whichnor or his steward, ready to deliver the 
bacon in this manner. 

" He shall inquire of him who demandeth the bacon, 
if he has bijught twain of his neighbours with him, 
and he must answer, * They be here ready.' And then 
the steward shall cause these two neighbours to swear, 
if the said demandant be a wedded man, and if, since 
his marriage, one year and one day be passed, and if 
• he be a freeman, or a villain. And if his neighbours 
make oath that he hath for him all these three points 
rehearsed, then shall the bacon be taken down, and 
brought to the hall-door, and shall there be laid upon 
half a quarter of wheat, and upon one other of rye. 
And he that demandeth the bacon shall kneel upon his 
knee, and shall hold his right hand upon a book, which 
book shall be laid above the bacon and the corn, and 
shall make oath in this manner : — % 

" * Hear ye, Sir Philip de Somervile, Lord of Which- 
noore, mayntener and gyver of this baconne, that I, A., 
sithe I wedded B. my wyfe, and sythe I hadd hyr in 
my kepyng,.and at my wylle, by a yere and a day after 
our marryage, I w'od not have chaunged for none other 
farer ne fowler, rycher he pourer, ne for none other 

descended of greater lyneage, slepyng ne wukyng 
noo tyme. And yf the said B. were sole, and I ^. n 
I wolde take hyr to be my wyfe, before all the wymen 
in the worlde, of what condicions soever they be, good 
or evyue ; so help me God, and hys sayntis, and thys 
fleshe, and all fleshes.' 

" And his neighbours shall make oath that they trust 
verily he hath said truly. And if it be found by his 
neighbours before-named, that he be a freeman, there 
shall be delivered to him half a quarter of wheat, and a 
cheese ; and if he be a villain, he shall have half a 
quarter of rye without cheese. And then shall Knyghtley, 
the Lord of Rudlow, be called, for to carry all these 
things before rehearsed; and the said corn shall be 
laid upon horse, and the bacon above it ; and he to 
whom the bacon appertaineth shall ascend upon his 
horse, and shall take the cheese before him, if he have 
a horse; and if he have none, the Lord of Whichnor 
shall cause him to have one, and a saddle, until such 
time as he has passed his lordship ; and so shall they 
depart the manor of Whichnor, with the corn and the 
bacon before him that hath won it, with trumpets, 
tabrets, and other manner of minstrelsy; and all the 
free tenants of Whichnor shall conduct him past the 
lordship of Whichnor ; and then all shall return, except 
him to whom appertaineth to make the carriage and 
journey out of the county of Stafford, at the costs of 
his Lord of Whichnor. And if the said Robert Knyghtley 
do not cause the bacon and corn to be conveyed as i» 
rehearsed, the Lord of Whichnor shall cause it to be 
carried, and shall distrain the said Robert Knightley, 
for his default, for one hundred shillings, in his manor 
of Rudlow; and shall keep the distress so taken irre- 

Sir Oswald Mosley (from whose recently-published 
* History of Tutbury' part of the foregoing account 
has been extracted) observes, — " The merry Sir Philip 
continued to treat his bacon with due respect, for we 
find him granting to Hugh, son of Walter de Newbold, 
and Agnes his wife, by deed in the 16th of Edward I., 
several small pieces of land in Dunstall, upon condition 
that, they should render to him and his heirs annually 
eight hens at Christmas, and one chaplet or nosegay of 
white and red roses, to decorate the bacon at Whichnor 
every year, on the feast of St. John the Baptist ; they 
were also under an obligation to dress the said bacon, 
with flowers prepared for them, ten times a year, viz., 
to begin on Easter Eve, and continue the same monthly 
until the feast of St. Michael, and upon the Vigil of 
All Saints and Christmas Eve they were to decorate 
the same with ivy." 

The manor of Whichnor no longer remains in the 
family of the Somervilles ; it has had various possessors ; 
and the hall in which the flitch originally hung has. 
been long since destroyed. Lei and says, that " Which- 
nor was the site of a very ancient mansion which was 
then in ruins, and that the spot on which it stood was 
subject to inundations from the Trent. Traces of 
this mansion are still visible in the meadows at a small 
distance south-west of the church. The moat is square, 
encompassing an acre of ground.'' A new building, 
however, has been erected, and bears the name of the 
lodge ; in the hall of which a piece of wood in the form 
of a flitch of bacon hangs near the chimney, as a re- 
membrance of the obsolete tenure. 

%• The Office of the S jciety for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge it at 
69, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


Printed by William Clowss, Dake Street, Lambeth. 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[January 11,1835. 


[Game of Shinty.] 

In the Highlands of Scotland it is customary for per- 
sons to amuse themselves, in the winter season, with a 
game which they call " shinty." This sport has a 
considerable resemblance to that which is denominated 
" hurling " in England, and which Strutt describes 
under that name. The shinty is played with a small 
hard ball, which is generally made of wood, and each 
player is furnished with a curved stick somewhat re- 
sembling that which is used by golf players. The 
object of each party of players is to send the ball 
beyond a given boundary on either side ; and the skill 
of the game consists in striking the ball to the greatest 
distance towards the adversaries' boundary, or in 
manoeuvring to keep it in advance of the opposing 

side. Large parties assemble during the Christmas 
holidays, one parish sometimes making a match against 
another. In the struggles between the contending 
players many hard blows arc given, and frequently a 
shin is broken, or by a rarer chance some more serious 
accident may occur. The writer witnessed a match, in 
which one of the players, having gained possession of 
the ball, contrived 4 o run a mile with it in his hand, 
pursued by both his own and the adverse party until 
he reached -the appointed limit, when his victory was 
admitted. Many of the Highland farmers join with 
eagerness in the sport, and the laird frequently encou- 
rages by his presence this amusement of his labourers 
and tenants. 


The appearance of this metal is familiar to every one 
from its extensive use for domestic purposes. When in 
a pure state, and recently melted, it has a bright shining 
surface, like silver, which, however, soon becomes tar- 
nished by exposure to the air. Its specific gravity is 
nearly eight times that of an equal bulk of water, so 
that it is a little lighter than iron. It has very little 
tenacity, and cannot be drawn out into wire ; but it is 
very malleable, being capable of being beaten out into 
leaves thinner than writing-paper. It is the most 
fusible of all the metals, except mercury, and melts at 
Vol. IV. 

a very low heat, viz., 442°, which is little more than 
twice the heat of boiling water. None of the metals 
used extensively in common life are so sparingly dis- 
seminated over the globe, and the chief supply of it is 
nearly confined to two places, viz., Great Britain and 
the Indian Archipelago. 

Tin is never found native^ that is, in the pure state ; 
and there is only one species of ore, if we except one 
variety which is known only as a rare specimen in the 
cabinets of mineralogists. The ore from which we 
obtain the metal is an oxide, containing 75+ parts of 


Digitized by 




[January 8T t 

tin, and 214- parts of oxygen, in 100 parts of the ore. 
It is very frequently found in beautiful crystals, which 
are sometimes transparent, but generally of a dark- 
brown colour, with a brilliant shining surface. It is 
one of the oldest of the metals, as regards its geological 
position; for it is found in the primary rocks, and, 
indeed, has never been met with in any of later age* 
It traverses granite and primary slate in slender veins, 
and these veins are- among the oldest which have been 
formed in the crust of the globe ; for they are often 
crossed, but never themselves cross other veins. In 
Cornwall these veins are found in the granite and slate, 
and in the porphyry or elvan; and the ore is also 
found in layers interposed between, and parallel to, the 
* strata of slate, in which last case it is said to occur in 
floors. These layers, however, are not continuous over 
a large extent, but are insulated, and within narrow 
limits. They are evidently formed, in many cases, by 
the union of several small veins ; but sometimes tin- 
floors occur together, lying one above the other, and 
parallel to the strata in which they are, as it were, inter- 
stratified, as if they had been contemporaneous deposits 
with the slate. This, however, may be a deceptive 
appearance ; for there are other instances of substances 
seemingly in regular alternations of strata with sedi- 
mentary deposits, which more extended observation 
proved to have originated from subsequent injections 
from below, between layers of pre-existing rocks. Tin- 
floors are also found in the granite and elvan ; and 
these are not rocks which have originated from deposi- 
tion at the surface, but are, in the opinion of the most 
experienced geologists, undoubtedly of igneous origin 
in the interior of the earth. 

There are two systems of tin-veins in Cornwall, both 
running nearly east and west ; but the oldest dip to the 
north, while the newer, which traverse the former, dip 
to the south. Their width is various, from a few lines 
to several feet, and in their length there is the same 
diversity : some have been traced as much as two miles. 
The same vein is continually changing its dimensions 
in point of width. Those which are found in the slate 
are usually much more, productive of metal than those 
which traverse the granite ; and they very commonly 
are met with at the junction of these two descriptions 
of rocks, and usually pass from the one into the other 
without any change taking place in the nature and 
contents of the vein, although there arc not unfrequent 
exceptions to this. Quartz is the most common sub- 
stance of the vein, and the ore is disseminated through 
it ; but the vein-stone often consists of other minerals. 
In most of the veins of Cornwall, tin is found nearer 
the surface, than copper. Besides the veins now found 
traversing the rocks, another abundant supply of tin in 
Cornwall is from what are called the " stream works." 
In the lower parts of many valleys there are accumula- 
tions of gravel, sand, and other alluvium, and in these 
vast quantities of rolled pebbles and sand, composed of 
a very pure tin-ore, are met with. That ore is dug up, 
and such mines are called " stream -works," because 
streams of water are employed to wash the gravel and 
sand, and so separate the ore from the other substances 
with which it is mixed. One of the most extensive of 
these is that called " Happy Union," in the valley of 
Pentuan and parish of St. Au3tell, where, for many 
ages, a vast quantity of tin has been obtained. The 
valley is from 300 to 600 feet wide, and contains an 
accumulation of gravel, sand, and clay, to the depth of 
60 feet, in many places. The gravel consists of frag- 
ments of granite, similar to that of the adjoining hills, 
all considerably rounded by attrition, together with 
fragments of slate, which have not been much water- 
worn. The tin-ore lies, for the most part, in the lowest 
bed of this alluvial deposit, and in the form of coarse 
■and, and of pebbles of all sizes, up to ten lbs. weight. 

The sand is the most valuable, because the larger pieces 
have often copper, or iron, or some vein-stone attached 
to them. No animal remains have been found in the 
lower part of the deposit, but roots of oak-trees have ; 
and in the upper beds, wood, nuts, leaves, and shells, to- 
gether with the bones and horns of deer and oxen, are 
not of unfrequent occurrence : the shells are of identical 
species with those now living in the adjacent seas. At 
a depth of twenty feet from the surfiace, a piece of wood 
fashioned by art was once met with. Similar alluvial 
deposits are met with in other parts of Cornwall. It is 
a very interesting subject of inquiry from whaj sources 
these collections of water-worn fragments have origi- 
nated; that they belong to the rocks of the country is 
evident, but it is not of sufficient extent to lead us to 
suppose that the wearing of the fragments has been 
occasioned by a long transport It would seem as if 
the surface of the land had been covered for a time with 
water in violent agitation, and that it was swept off in 
a direction from the north to the south ; for the greatest 
number of these stream-works are in the valleys opening 
to the sea on the south and south-east, and there are 
few in those valleys of which the lower terminations are 
to the north and north-west. The occurrence of tin-ore 
in veins near the surface which at greater depths afford 
the ores of other metals to the entire exclusion of tin, 
is at present by no means uncommon ; and they appear 
to have existed even to a greater extent in former times, 
otherwise fragments of other ores would have been 
more commonly met with in the stream-works, even 
although we take into account that tin-ore is much less 
liable to decomposition than the usual ores of copper 
and iron in Cornwall are. These tin-veins at the sur- 
face must have been torn up along with the other 
surface rocks, and the fragments abraded and rounded, 
and afterwards gradually deposited in beds in the lower 
country. There are deposits of stream tin-ore of dif- 
ferent ages, for in none of the lowest have any organic 
remains been found ; but they have been met with in 
the superior parts, and some of these accumulations are 
of comparatively recent date, for at Treloy, brooches, 
rings, and coins of rude workmanship, were found in a 
bed of tin-ore of small thickness. Thus it is evident 
that the stream-works cannot be ascribed to the action 
of one great torrent or deluge, but that water must 
have swept over the land at repeated and distant 
intervals of time. 

The principal tin-mines of Cornwall are in the south- 
west part of the county in the parish of St. Just, where 
the country consists principally of granite ; but there are 
several productive mines in the slate in other places. In 
our description of the copper-mines we have mentioned 
that several are worked under the bed of the sea : there 
are also some of the tin-mines in similar situations. One 
was opened actually in the sea some years ago. It was 
called Wherry Mine, and was situated near the shore, a 
little to the west of Penzance, where a rock of elvan; 
which had been found to contain slender veins of ore, 
was uncovered at low water. An adventurous miner 
set to work, although the rock was covered several feet 
deep at every tide, so that -he could only proceed during 
a part of the day. Every time the men returned to 
their work they had to empty out the water in the ex- 
cavation they had formed ; but after they had advanced 
some way an inclosure, or kind of coffer-dam, like what 
is used in building the piers of bridges was constructed, 
which rose above the high-water level, and, by machinery 
connected with a steam-engine at 200 yards distance 
on the shore, the work was proceeded with. The mine 
produced a considerable quantity of ore for several 
years, when unfortunately a large vessel, which had 
drifted from her moorings, struck against the coffer- 
dam, overturned it, and the whole works were in an 
instant filled with water. The most important stream 

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works, are in the neighbourhood of St. Austell and 
St. Just, and the most productive are those of Pentuan 
above referred to. 

' The early history of the working of the Cornish tin- 
mines has occupied the attention of many writers, and in 
a volume of the Transactions of the Cornwall Geological 
Society there is an interesting essay on the subject by 
Mr. Hawkins, from which we have derived several of 
the following particulars. The earliest notice of tin is 
in the Book of Numbers, xxxi. 22. The Hebrew 
word, which, in the Septuagint, or ancient Greek trans- 
lation, is rendered in that place by Cassileros, artd, in 
the Vulgate, or ancient Latin translation, by Stannum % 
is Ofcret; butin Ezekiel, xxii. 18, 20, the same words 
are used to translate the Hebrew BediL That the Cos- 
siteros of the Greeks and the Stannum of the Romans 
were pure tin is doubtful ; — it is more probable that they 
were a mixed metal, but containing tin. Now whence 
did the Midianites derive their tin? None is known to 
exist nearer their country than in Spain. The prophet 
Ezekiel, xxvii. mentions Bedil as an article of Phoe- 
nician commerce. That people had a colony at Gades 
in Spain, the modern Cadiz, and may have derived 
the tin from that country. According to Heeren, 
Gades must have been founded 1100 years before 
Christ, and there is reason to believe that the Phoeni- 
cians, both through the medium of that colony and 
directly, had intercourse with Britain about a century 
after that time, and that they got their tin from thence. 
Pryce conjectures that the celebrated Tyrian purple 
dye was produced by tin. Herodotus speaks of the 
Cassiterides, or Tin Islands, but does not say where they 
were situated: they have usually been considered to 
mean the Scilly Islands, and adjoining coast of Corn- 
wall, for there are traces of old tin-mines in these 
islands, which are of the same geological structure as 
that of the tin district of the main land ; and Borlase 
says that, to those who are on the Scilly Islands, Corn- 
wall appears like an island. This product of Cornwall 
was a staple article of Phoenician commerce for many 
centuries, and was conveyed by them to the eastern 
shores of the Mediterranean, from whence, according to 
Arrian and Pliny, it was transported as far as India. 
^According to Diodorus, a commercial intercourse sub- 
sisted between Cornwall and the southern provinces of 
the Roman empire. That the Romans worked tin- 
mines in Cornwall is extremely probable, for there are 
well-authenticated instances of the discovery of Roman 
coins in old tin-mines and stream-works ; and a block 
of tin of a singular form, with an inscription in Roman 
letters upon it, was found in the parish of Veryan. 
Wooden tools of different kinds, and of antique form, 
have been found in the stream-works, but no such tools 
have ever been found in the copper-mines. 

With regard to the tin trade of Cornwall in the 
middle ages, Mr. Hawkins remarks, that there appears 
to have been at all times a steady demand for it in the 
markets of the East, from the invariable usage in those 
countries of tinning the jnside of their kitchen utensils, 
which are made of copper; that a great increase of 
demand took place in the eighth century, when bells 
for churches came into general use in western Europe, 
for they were then cast of a great size. The mines 
were very N productive in tjie thirteenth century, for 
Richard Earl of Cornwall at that time possessed im- 
mense wealth, which he derived from his mines. To- 
wards the end of the fifteenth century, the introduction 
of brass guns for field artillery created a new demand ; 
as did the invention of pewter in Italy, where it had 
come into common use in the early part of the sixteenth i 

In our next Section we shall describe the manner of 
smelting the ore, and the chief foreign localities from I 
which this metal is obtained. I 


Prom Chiansada Busbequius went on to Karali, ttas- 
dengri, and Mazotthoy, crossing, near the latter place, 
the river Sangar (Sangarius), " which,'* he says, " runs 
into the Pontus, or Black Sea, out of Phrygian Prom 
the Sangarius he proceeded by four other places, of no 
name or importance ; and on the ninth day after his 
' departure from Constantinople, and not before, he 
i arrived at the ancient city of Ancyra, called by the 
| Turks Angur, and by us Angora. He says, " I saw 
nothing remarkable in all these villages we went 
1 through, save that sometimes among the Turkish 
! tomb-stones we discovered some pillars, or ancient 
pieces of curious marble, whereon* were many remains 
of Latin or Greek inscriptions, but so defaced that they 
could not be read ; which disappointment I very much 
resented ; for my great delight was, as soon as I came 
to my lodging at night, to inquire after old inscriptions, 
! together with Latin and Greek coins, and sometimes 
I for rare kinds of plants." , 

| Further on, he says, he found abundance of old 
coins all up and down this country, and saw that the 
Turks were in the habit of defacing them, and using 
them for weights, and of melting down the copper ones 
to furnish materials for pots and pans. " There was a 
brazier in one city," he continues, " who grieved me 
very much ; for, demanding of him whether he had any 
ancient coins to sell, he answered me that a few days 
ago he had a room full of them, but had melted them 
down to make brass kettles, as thinking them of little 
value, and fit for no other use. When I heartl this story, , 
it troubled me much to lose so many choice monu- 
ments of antiquity ; but I paid him back by telling 
him, that I would have given him 100 guineas for 
them; so that my revenge was suited to his injury; 
for I sent him away as sorrowful for the loss of so great 
gain, as he did me for losing the coins." 

Of Ancyra, or Angora, he says, " It is a city of 
Galatia, sometime the seat of the Gauls, called by Pliny 
the Tectosages ; nor was it unknown to Strabo, though, 
perhaps, the present town stands but on part of the old 
town, called in the canons Anguira. Here we saw a 
stately superscription, and a sampler of those tables 
whereon the achievements of the Emperor Augustus 
were summarily comprehended. I caused as much of 
it as we could read to be copied * * * * but the 
lower part of it was so battered with clubs and hatchets 
that it could not be read at all ; which loss cannot be 
sufficiently lamented by all lovers of learning; and so 
much the more, because the commons of Asia dedicated 
the city to Augustus. Here, also, we were witnesses 
of the dyeing of that cloth made of goats* wool, and 
how they camlet it, or give it its water colour." 

From Angora our old traveller proceeded to the 
village of Balykhissar, and, two stages from that village, 
reached the river Halys, which has been rendered 
famous in story by the defeat of Crcesus, the wealthy 
king of Lydia, by Cyrus the Persian. After crossing 
the Halys, which, like the Sangarius, falls into the Black 
Sea, Busbequius travelled on to Tecke-Thioi, where 
the Turks had a stately monastery for their monks, or 
dervishes. These dervishes told him many wonderful 
stories about a sort of Mahommedan St. George, called 
Chederles, who rescued a virgin by slaughtering a huge 
and terrific dragon ; and, after doing many other deeds, 
became immortal (he and his horse) by drinking the 
water of a certain river which " lies somewhere hid in 
a great cloud, or mist of darkness, so that it has never 
been seen since ! " Our traveller gives an amusing 
and what is still a true account of the popular ana- 
chronisms, and jumbling of history and character, 
among the Turks. * ^ 

" TheV do pay that Chederles was one of the friends 

P 2 

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[Janvuly 31, 

and companions of Alexander the Great. But the 
truth is, the Turks keep no just account either of times 
or places, hut make a confused hodge-podge of all 
history. They scruple not to say, * That Job was 
master of the horse to Solomon, and that Alexander the 
Great was general of King Solomon's armyt' " 

On the second day after crossing the Halys, and the 
thirtieth after his departure from Constantinople, Bus- 
bequius reached Amasia, the end of his journey. He 
had travelled very slowly ; and the Turks had purposely 
delayed him several days on the road, in order that he 
and a Persian ambassador, who was also going to sue 
for peace, should arrive about the same time at the 
warlike sultan's head-quarters. A few hours after his 
arrival at Amasia, he was introduced to the great 
Solyman, who received him with a sour and frowning 
countenance. He says — 

" The sultan sate upon a low throne, not above a 
foot 'from the ground ; but it was all covered over with 
rich tapestry, and with cushions exquisitely wrought. 
His bow and arrows lay by his side : he himself, as I 
said, looked sternly upon us; and yet there was a 
certain majesty, mixed with severity, in his countenance. 
Each of us, as we entered the room, was led up towards 
him by some of the bedchamber officers, who held us 
tight by the arm * * ' * and afterwards having 
made as if we kissed his hand, we were led backward 
to the opposite side of the room; for the Turks count 
it an unmannerly thing to turn any of their back parts 
upon their prince. There I had liberty to declare our 
imperial master's wishes ; but they suited not with his 
lofty imperious spirit ; so that he, as disdaining them, 
said nothing but Gitisel ! Guiscl ! i. e., 4 Well ! ' 4 Well ! ' 
and so we were dismissed to our lodgings.'* 

The following sketch, by a contemporary, (which is 
given by Busbequius a few pages farther on,) of one of 
the greatest monarchs that was ever girded with the 
imperial scimitar of the Ottomaus, is valuable and 

" If you ask me," he says, " what manner of man 
Solyman then was, I will tell you. He was an ancient 
man ; his countenance and the mien of his body were 
very majestic, well becoming the dignity he bore : he 
was frugal and temperate, even from his youth. * * 
But he was too uxorious and over-indulgent to his 
wife (the celebrated Roxalana), which made him give 
way to the foul murder of Mustafa, his own son by 
another woman ; yet that crime was vulgarly imputed 
to an ascendant she had gained over him by reason 
of her love-enchantments and love-potions * * * * 
He is a very strict observer of the Mohammedan 
religion, and is as desirous to propagate that as to 
enlarge the bounds of his empire. 

" He is now sixty years of age : and, for a man of 
his years, he enjoys a moderate proportion of health; 
and yet his countenance doth discover that he carries 
about with him some hidden disease, — it was thought a 
gangrene, or ulcer, in the thigh ; yet at solemn audiences 
of ambassadors, he hath wherewith to paint his cheeks , 
that he may appear sound and healthy to them.' 1 

Alas! for ambition and grandeur ; — a concealed and 
loathsome disease and painted cheeks at wriukled 
three-score ! 


Bark is the outward covering of plants and trees, one 
of its functions being to protect the inner structure 
from the effect of sudden changes of temperature. On 
this account, the bark of the pine-trees which are found 
in the most inclement regions of North America is 
often from a foot to fifteen inches in thickness. Another 
of its uses is to couvcy to the roots those juices which 
are elaborated in the foliage. In a young plant the 

bark is covered with a smooth thin skin ; but the ex- 
pansion of the wood in a few years causes the bark 
to assume a rough appearance, the continued growth 
rending it in a perpendicular direction, as may generally 
be seen in all aged trees. In the birch- tree, owing to 
the peculiarity of the bark, stripes of it are continually 
peeling off, being no longer adapted for their intended 

Corks are formed from the dead bark of the cork- 
tree, which is taken off at certain seasons of the year, 
being separated without difficulty from the portions of 
more recent growth. The vigour of a tree is said to 
be improved by being barked once every eight or ten years 
after it is fifteen years old ; some which have regularly 
submitted to this operation living for 1 50 years. 

A description of oak growing in North America 
produces the Quercitron bark, which forms so important 
an article as a yellow dye. The medicinal value of the 
Peruvian^ bark has been known about two centuries, 
but it was not until fifty years after its introduction in 
Europe that its qualities were duly appreciated. The 
original cinchona of Peru, which is of a pale colour, 
is becoming scarce. When dry it is scarcely odorous, 
but becomes so when used as an infusion. The two 
other descriptions are the red bark and the yellow 
bark. The fruit is less bitter than that of the cinchona, 
but its astringent qualities are greater. The nearer the 
second approaches the colour of an orange the better 
is its quality : it is comparatively worthless when it 
assumes a hue between red and yellow. It is bitter to 
the taste, but its properties are not astringent. 

The bark of a tree always contains a greater pro- 
portion of the principle of a plant than any other organ. 
Oak-bark possesses a chemical property which is used 
in converting hides into leather. The astringent quality 
which effects this is called tannin. Heath, gall-nuts, 
birch-tree bark, myrtle leaves, leaves of wild laurel, and 
willow-bark, have been used as substitutes for oak bark, 
and even -oak saw-dust. Sir Humphry Davy ascer- 
tained the relative value to the tanner of various sub- 
stances in which tannin resides. He showed that 
3£ lbs. of oak-bark are equal to 2J lbs. of galls, to 
3 lbs. of sumach, to 7£ lbs. of the bark of the Leicester 
willow, to 18 lbs. of elm-bark, and to 21 lbs. of common 
willow-bark. The following table is the result of 
another series of experiments which Sir H. Davy made. 
It shows the quantity of tannin he obtained from 
480 lbs. of the bark of middle-sized trees of the species 
enumerated, gathered in the spring, when this property 
exists in the greatest ^abundance. 


Spanish Chestnut . . 
Leicester Willow (large) 


Common Willow (large) 



Hone Chestnut . • 
Sycamore .... 

. '29 

. 21 

. 33 

. 13 

• 11 

. 16 

% 10 

. 9 

. 11 

Lombard Poplar . . .15 

Birch 8 

Hazel 14 

Blackthorn 16 

Coppice Oak . . . .32 
Inner rind of Oak -bark . 72 
Oak cut in Autumn . . 21 
Larch cut in Autotnn . • 8 

Before being used in tanning, the bark is ground 
into coarse particles, and a layer is put upon each skin 
in the tan-pit. Without bark or tannin the skins would 
dissolve into glue, but the astringency which it possesses 
occasions a process exactly the reverse, and forms the 
substance called leather. The use of bark in hot-houses 
is getting out of favour with scientific gardeners. 

It would be difficult to form a correct opinion as to 
the quantity of bark used for tanning in this country 
in a single year. Our foreign supplies of oak-bark are 
derived from the Netherlands, Germany, and some of 
the Mediterranean ports, and amount to about 40,000 
tons annually; the duty being 8c/. pei cwt. on that 
imported from foreign countries, and Id. if coming 
from British possessions. 

Digitized by 





The importations of cork amount to about 44,000 
lbs., which arrWe chiefly from Portugal ; the duty is 
8*. per cwt. Our own cork-cutters are protected 
from foreign competition by a duty of 7s. per lb. on 
manufactured corks. In 1832 the importation of 
Peruvian bark amounted to 356,998 lbs. ; in 1833 to 
253,767 lbs. (duty Id. par lb.) ; but after retaining 
49,525 lbs. for domestic consumption, the remainder was 
exported to foreign countries. 

The plate represents a party of women engaged in 

peeling the bark from an oak-tree. To the intelligent 
inhabitant of the country the cutting down of an aged 
tree is a somewhat painful occurrence. It has pro- 
bably been the admiration of the neighbourhood for 
many generations ; and the removal of an object which 
his forefathers as well as himself had regarded with 
interest and pleasure, harshly severs many of the asso- 
ciations which almost visibly connected the past with 
the present. The conviction, however, that what has 
been beautiful in its natural, state will be eminently 

Digitized by 



[Jawaiy 81, 

useful in its employment by man, at once reconciles the 
reflecting mind to the circumstance. The oak formed 
into a stately ship is better than the oak rotting- in 
forests which human art has never felled. 

Trees are sometimes left standing until they are so 
completely undermined by age, that it is a measure of 
safety to cut them down to prevent their falling ort the 
cattle which resort around them for shelter* For the 
purpose of. obtaining timber for commercial uses, 
the proper time for felling an oak or any other tree is 
at the season of its maturity, when it ceases to iriake 
any further increase to its diameter. The farmer, then, 
either cuts the roots at about three feet from the stem, 
and secures a chopping-block for the butcher, or severs 
the trunk at the level of the earth, and leaves the root 
tagrow shoots for fuel. The tree being felled, is next 
divested of its branches, which are sorted into fence- 
wood, faggots, &c, and the trunk and arms preserved 
as entire as possible for the builder. But before the 

bourhood of the great rivers, between the shores of 
Lake firie and the Qulf of Mexico. It is not an idle, 
speculation to assume that the people by whom they 
were constructed possessed some knowledge of the 
Useful af ts, and Consequently were more civilized than 
the subsequent inhabitants of the country ; but some 
have inferred that the existence of great cities at some 
remote period is indicated by these remains of anti- 
quity. Nothing else is now left of this race, and no 
record can inform us of the circumstances which led to 
their social decline. 

It has been computed that not fewer than 2,000,000 
of the Indian tribes inhabited the immense territory 
extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean when 
the first English, settlements were formed in North 
America. Above 11,000 existed in the district now 
comprised in the state of Maine. Some of the tribes 
were powerful, both by their Warlike qualities and their 
political talents. The Mohawks and four other tribes 

trunk is deprived of its larger branches, the whole are j formed a confederation, whose power extended from 
""' ' " " * the Canadian Lakes to Virginia. The Cherokees not 

only occupied 36,000,000 of acres as their hunting 
grounds, but defended the same by their arms. The 
whole of the vast territory of North America was 
divided among a variety of tribes all distinguished 
both as warriors and hunters. There was everything 
indeed to be found in this quarter which could attract 
a people to whom the exertion of continued labour was 
irksome. The woods produced an abundant supply 
of wild-fruits; the plains brought forth herbs and 
vegetables ; and deer, morse, bears, turkeys, pigeons, 
quails, and partridges, everywhere abounded. The 
beaver and a variety of animals furnishing valuable 
skins were almost as numerous as the game in a, 
modern preserve, and the bays, creeks, rivers, and 
lakes, furnished plentiful supplies offish and wild-fowl. 
Here, where but little exertion was required to supply 

stripped of the bark. This operation is performed in 
the following manner : — a number of women called 
" barkers " are each furnished with light short-handled 
mallets made of hard wood, about eight or nine inches 
long, three inches square at the face, and the other end 
sharpened like a wedge, in order the more easily to 
make an incision in the bark, which is done all along 
the side of the tree which happens to be uppermost, in 
a straight line ; and as two barkers generally work 
together, it is proper that whilst one is employed in 
making an incision with the' mallet, the ottyer, being 
furnished with a pointed instrument called the " barking- 
bill, ' cuts the bark across the tree in lengths of from 
two feet six inches to three feet, and then, by forcing 
a shovel-shaped instrument called a " peeling-iron'* 
between the bark and the wood, easily separates the 
former, and peels it from the timber in entire pieces. 

The larger branches are afterwards stripped in a similar \ the few natural wants of life, the native tribes miVht 
manner. This business being chiefly done in the early have increased in numbers and happiness, and, if it 
spring season, the vast trunks are left in the situations , w *re consistent with that stage of society, have con- 

in which they first fell till the gathering of the crops 
in autumn permits their removal. During this time 
they get blanched to almost perfect whiteness, and in 
the midst of the summer verdure have a very singular 
but picturesque appearance 

tained in reality those attractions which it is vainly 
supposed to exhibit in contrast to the struggles of a 
more civilized career. But the condition of °the wikl 
hunter, under circumstances as favourable as any under 
which it could have been placed, contained within 

feet square by fifteen feet in height, and sold to the 

The bark, when peeled, is carefully dried for two or itself no progressive principle ; and when industry and 
three Weeks, and then piled in stacks of about eight the application of the useful arts had given the first 

8et tlers prosperity, ease, and comforts, the savage tribes, 
not being drawn within the extending stream of civili- 
zation, gradually dwindled in their power and numbers, 
till it has become a question whether in a few years any 
traces will remain of their existence. Thatcher, an 
American writer, remarks:—" The time will come but 
too soon, we fear, when the history of the Indians will 
be the history of a people of which no living specimen 
shall exist upon the earth : too soon will the places 
that now know them know them never again. Their 
council-fires will have gone out upon the green hills 
ofahe south. Their canoes shall plough no more the 
bosom of the northern lakes. Even the prairies and 
mountains of the far west will cease to be their refuge 
frorh the rushing march of civilization. Their forests 
will be felled ; their game will disappear : and then,— 
if indeed no portion of them can be rescued by bene- 
volence from the grave of heathenism,— if no blessed 
ray of the knowledge of man, or the- saving tf uth of 

Heaven, shall lighten the gloom of the wilderness, 

then will the last Indian stand upon the verge of the 
Pacific seas, and his sun will have gone down for ev 
To civilized men of all countries the 

Tub spirit of investigation has hitherto done but little 
towards laying down any satisfactory data as to the 
origin of the aborigines of North America. The relics 
pertaining to them, which are at times discovered, are 
few and simple, consisting chiefly of hatchets of a rude 
form, knives of stone, mortars for bruising maize, 
arrow-heads, and similar articles. But these afford no 
grounds on which to trace their history. They are the 
same as had been long in use before the discovery of 
America, and had undergone no change at the time 
when the u pilgrim fathers " landed at Plymouth and laid 
the foundation of a new world. It is true that there 
are traces- of a people who lived at a period antecedent 
to that of the Indian tribes with which Europeans have 
become acquainted, but their history is still further lost 
in mystery. Their tumuli are to be found in many 
parts of North America, and from the age of the trees 
which have grown over these remains, it is calculated 
that at least a thousand years must have elapsed since 

interests of 

ih*ir«k« a * ~j J C" ", .""' T " a i 9sn=x * ol "^ humanity are too dear to permit them to regard the 

«?^"^™ n A?« a ^ h0W ,0n ? th ** ha * Piously | extinction of a race possessing, or which once possessed! 

existed it is 

enni M « impossible even to form a well-grounded a national existence and not a few irrand and noble 

conjecture. The tumuli are. generally in the neigh- | virtues, without strong feelings of sympathy. The nar- 

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ratives of Hunter and Tanner, the writiugs of Cha- 
teaubriand, Campbell's * Gertrude of Wyoming/ the 
novels of Cooper, and other works, have strongly inte- 
rested men in the fate of the North American Indians, 
and made us familiar with their skill as hunters, their 
indomitable courage as warriors, and their simple vir- 
tues as men. If the poet and the novelist have been 
touched with their many claims on their fellow-men, 
the statesman and the Christian will surely regard 
their condition with still higher interest. 

In the United States' territory the number of In- 
dians existing at present amounts to about 313,000. 
In Vermont, New Hampshire, and several other States, 
none are left. In Maine, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, and Virginia together, there are less than 
2,500. The policy of the United States towards the 
Indians has been praiseworthy, so far as the central 
government is concerned. Many years ago, the Che- 
rokees, wishing to remain on the land of their fathers 
with a view to their national preservation, the govern- 
ment at Washington entered into a treaty with them, by 
which boundaries were fixed and friendly relations 
established between the parties. These boundaries were 
guaranteed by the United States, but five out of the ten 
millions of acres of which their territory consisted were 
claimed by the States of Georgia and Carolina, under a 
protest made at the time, in which they contended that 
this treaty was an exercise of power not conferred upon 
the central authority of the country by the articles of 
confederation. In 1827, Georgia, by an act of her own 
legislature, asserted her right of taking possession of 
the Cherokee country by force. She declared that the 
Indians were tenants at her will, — that she wanted their 
lands, and would have them. In 1831 and 1832, 
Georgia extended her jurisdiction over the Cherokee 
territory, and, by the agency of laws enacted by her 
separate legislature, prohibited the preachers of the 
American Board of Missions from residing in the 
Cherokee district, imprisoned some of the natives, and 
threatened the whole tribe with banishment. Three of 
the missionaries were tried by the courts of Georgia for 
refusing to acknowledge the jurisdiction of that State; 
and the atrocious sentence was inflicted upon them of 
confinement for four years in the Georgian Penitentiary. 

Efforts were made to avert the fate of a people whose 
rights as a nation had been recognized by many 
separate treaties which the United States' government 
had formed with them. The central government acted 
as mediator between its federative State and the Che- 
rokees, and offered the latter ^n extensive territory 
west of the Arkansas, to be secured to them by patent, 
and to be for ever beyond the boundaries of any State. 
To this the Cherokees objected, and the question of 
their removal was carried in the* Senate of the United 
States by a majority of 7 out of 47 votes, and, in the 
House of Representatives, by a majority of 5 out of 
199 votes. 

When the state of Georgia held out its threats of 
despoiling the Cherokees of their property in the soil, 
their population was 13,563. In eighteen years ending 
in 1825, the rate at which the population had increased 
varied but little from the common rate of increase 
amongst the whites of the United States. In 1S32, the 
Cherokees amounted to 15,060, including 12U0 African 
slaves. Above 150 white men and 73 white women 
had intermarried with them,and resided amongst them. 
Agriculture and many useful arts had made considerable 
progress. They possessed 80,000 domestic animals, 
including horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, 8000 ploughs, 
2,500 spinning-wheels, 62 blacksmiths' shops ; in fact, 
they. had within themselves all the materials for obtain- 
ing abundance and prosperity. A well-organized go- 
vernment watched over the interests of the community. 
The executive was composed of a chief and assistant, 

with three counsellors, all elected by the legislature, 
which consisted of a national committee and a national 
council, the former containing sixteen members, and 
the latter twenty-four, the members of each body being 
chosen for two years. All males above eighteen years 
of age, except those of African origin, possessed the 
privilege of voting. Each of the two bodies had a 
pegative on the other, and together were styled the 
" General Council of the Cherokee Nation." The 
executive counsellors were chosen annually, ^Tbe courts 
of judicature consisted of a supreme court, and of 
circuit and inferior courts. There was also a treasury, 
but we are not .aware in what manner its cofFers were 
filled. The dress of the Cherokees was substantially 
the same as that of their white neighbours. They 
raised not only sufficient food to supply their own 
wants, but many of them had a surplus of corn for 
sale ; and they had ceased to depend upon game as a 
means of subsistence. Their dwellings were neat and 
comfortable; the simplest were log-cabins, and seldom 
without a proper floor, but many consisted of two 
stories, and some dwellings were of wood, or brick 
neatly painted, and both commodious and handsome. 

Nor was the intellectual and moral state of the 
Cherokees less cheering than their physical condition. 
Polygamy was declining among them, and their women 
were assuming the position for which they were de- 
signed. Eighteen schools had been established. At 
the commencement of 1831, about 200 Cherokees, ex- 
clusive of females, had attained an English education, 
which enabled them to transact or carry on any ordinary 
business ; 500 children were learning English, and a 
majority of the population, between the period of child- 
hood and middle life, could read their native language. 
The government possessed a press, at which the Gospel 
of St. Matthew, and a collection of hymns had been 
printed in Cherokee. A newspaper was also published 
in the same language. A native named Guess had 
invented the characters. 

This was an important point in the history of the 
Indians. Their common mode of communication had 
previously consisted of a system of hieroglyphics in- 
scribed on a piece of bark, or on a large tree with the 
bark taken off for the purpose. A war-party by this 
means could at once make known its success, and com- 
municate many minute points connected with their 
expedition. In like manner a party of hunters would 
describe a chase. 

Charlevoix, an old French writer, remarked that the 
Indians were so acute that even on the hardest ground 
they would discover if a person had recently passed, 
and would distinguish the footsteps of men from those 
of women, and even of what nation the parties were. 
An anecdote is related of an Indian hunter who, having 
discovered that some venison which he had hung up in 
Jus hut to dry had been stolen, set off through the 
woods in pursuit of the thief. He had not proceeded 
far before he met with some persons of whom he 
inquired if they had .seen a little old white man with a 
short gun, accompanied by a small dog with a little 
tail, as a man of that description had stolen his venison? 
They happened to have seen such a person ; and the 
Indian, on being asked how he could describe a man 
whom ha had never seen, replied^ "The thief I know is 
a little man, by his having made a pile of stones to 
stand upon in order to reach the venison ; that he is an 
old man I know by his short steps, which I have traced 
oyer the dead leaves in the woods; and that he is a 
whita man I know by his turning out. his toes when he 
walks, which an Indian never does. His gun I know 
to be 9kort y by the mark the muzzle made in rubbing 
the bark of the tree on which it leaned ; that his dog is 
small I know by his tracks j and that he has a short tail 
I discovered by the mark it made in the dust where ho 

Digitized by 




[Javuaw 31, 1815. 

was sitting at the time hk master was taking down the 

It is almost astonishing that, as the faculties of ob- 
serration were so active as is here described, the Indian 
system of picture-writing or hieroglyphics had not be- 
come more perfect and made nearer approaches to the 
characters which Guess invented. But the truth is, it 
fulfilled all the objects which were called for in that 
state of existence. When, however, the necessities of 
civil life called forth fresh habits and states of feeling, 
then it failed to supply the symbols which their new 
condition required. The invention of characters be- 
came necessary. Both the invention and the inventor 
are thus described in the c Cherokee Phoenix :' — 
" Mr. Guess is, in appearance and habits, a full Che- 
rokee, though his grandfather, on his father's side, was 
a white man. He has no knowledge of any language 
but the Cherokee. He was led to the subject of writ- 
ing the Cherokee language by the conversation of 
some young men, who said that the whites could put a 
talk upon paper, and send it to any distance and it 
would be understood. In attempting to invent a Che- 
rokee character, he at first could think of no way but 
that of giving each word a particular sign. He pur- 
sued this plan for about a year, and made several 
thousand characters. He then became convinced that 
this was not the right mode, and, after trying several 
other methods, at length conceived the idea of dividing 
the words into parts. He now soon found that the 
same characters would apply in different words, so that 
their number would be comparatively small. After 
putting down and learning all the syllables that he 
could think of, he would listen to speeches and the 
conversation of strangers, and whenever a word oc- 
curred which had a part or syllable in it that was not 
on his list, he would bear it in mind till he made a 
character for it. In this way he soon discovered all 
the syllables in the language. In forming his cha- 
racters he made some use of the English letters, as he 
found them in a spelling-book in his possession." After 
commencing the last-mentioned plan, he is said to have 
completed his system in about a month, having reduced 
all the sounds in the language to eighty-five characters. 
Mr. Guess was advanced in life when he entered upon 
this work. 

We have not space in the present Number to show 
what is the policy of the British Government towards 
the Indians in our North American possessions ; but 
we shall again recur to the subject, and shall then give 
some account of their moral condition, and the pros- 
pects which there appear to be of their future civilization. 


The following graphic sketch of college life in the United 
States is abridged from an American work*, which has, we 
believe, been re-published in this country. 

I must say a word Or two with regard to the ordinary 
routine of daily life at college. Very early in the morning 
the observer may see lights at a few of the windows of the 
buildings inhabited by the students. They mark the rooms 
occupied by the more industrious or more resolute, who rise 
and devote an hour or two to their books by lamp-light in 
the winter mornings. About day, the bell awakens the 
multitude of sleepers in all the rooms, and in a short time 
they are to be seen issuing from the various doors with 
sleepy looks, and with books under their arms, and some 
adjusting their hurried dress. The first who come down go 
slowly, others with quicker and quicker step as the tolling 
of the bell proceeds ; and the last few stragglers run with 
all speed to secure their places before the beU ceases to toll. 
When the last stroke is sounded, it usually finds one or two 
too late, who stop suddenly and return slowly to their rooms. 
While the morning religious service is performed by the 

• Abbot's ' Corner Stone,' 

president, or one of the professors, the students exhibit the 
appearance of respectful attention, except that four or five, 
appointed for the purpose in different parts of the chapel, 
are looking carefully around to observe what persons are 
absent A few, also, conceal under their cloaks, or behind 
a pillar or partition between the pews, the book which con- 
tains their morning lesson ; and endeavour to make up, as 
well as the faint but increasing light will enable them, for 
the time wasted in idleness or dissipation the evening before. 
When prayers are over, the several classes repair imme- 
diately to the rooms assigned respectively to them, and recite 
the first lesson of the day. During the short period which 
elapses between the recitation and the breakfast-bell, college 
is a busy scene. Fires are kindling in every room. Groups 
are standing in every corner, or hovering round the newly- 
made fires; — parties are running up and down the stairs, 
two steps at a time, with the ardour and activity ef youth : 
— and now and then a fresh crowd is seen issuing from the 
door of some one of the buildings where a class has finished 
its recitations, and comes forth to disperse to their rooms 
followed by their instructor, who walks away to his house in 
the village. The breakfast-bell brings out the whole throng 
again, and gathers them around the long tables in the 
Commons' Hall, or else scatters them among the private 
families in the neighbourhood. 

An hour after breakfast the bell rings to mark the com- 
mencement of study hours ; when the students are required 
by the college laws to repair to their respective rooms,— each 
of which answers the threefold purpose of parlour, bed-room, 
and study — to prepare for their recitation at eleven o'clock. 
They, however, who choose to evade this htw can do it 
without much danger of detection. The great majority 
comply ; but some go into their neighbours' rooms to re- 
ceive assistance in their studies, some lay by the dull text 
book and read a tale, a play, or game ; and others, farther 
gone in the road of idleness or dissipation, steal secretly 
from college and ramble in the woods, or skate upon the 
ice, or find some rendezvous of dissipation in the village, 
evading their tasks like truant boys. The afternoon is 
spent like the forenoon, and the last recitation of the 
winter's day is jqst before the sun goes down. An 
hour is allotted to it,, and then follow evening prayers, 
at the close of which the students issue from the' chapel 
and walk in long procession to supper. The remainder of 
the account describes the manner in which the various stu- 
dents pass their evenings ; which of course varies with the 
dispositions of the students, as the appropriation of this time 
is regulated by no prescribed rule, although it is assumed that 
part of it at least will be applied to preparation for the reci- 
tations of the ensuing morning. There is nothing peculiar 
in the occupations of the well disposed ; but some of the 
employments or amusements of those whose minds are 
least disciplined, cannot but seem strange to us. Some 
assemble for mirth or dissipation, or prowl round the entries 
and halls to perpetrate petty mischief, breaking the windows 
of some hapless Freshman*— or burning nauseous drugs at 
the keyhole of his door,— -6r rolling logs down stairs, and 
running instantly into a neighbouring room so as to escape 
detection,— or watching at an upper window to pour water 
unobserved upon some fellow-student passing in or out 
below,— or plugging up the keyhole of the chnpel-door to 
prevent access to it for morning prayers, — or gaining 
access to the bell by false keys, and cutting the rope, with 
a variety of other pranks of a similar description. After be- 
coming tired of this, they assemble in the room of some 
dissolute companion, and there prepare themselves a supper 
with food they have plundered from a neighbouring poultry- 
yard, and utensils obtained in some similar mode. Ardent 
spirits sometimes make them noisy ;— and a college officer, 
at half-past nine, breaks in upon them, and exposure and 
punishment are the consequences. Similar dispositions to 
mischief and dissipation doubtless exist to a large extent in 
our own colleges, but they are somewhat differently exhi- 
bited ; and in such cases it is only the mode of exhibition 
which can be called characteristic. 

V Tht Offlee of the Society for the Diffusion of Utefol Knowledge It at 
* 59, Lincoln's Ian Field*. 


Printed by William Glowii, Duke Street, LembMb, 

Digitized by 


monWv &uppltmmt of 



Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 


Beeember 31, 1834, to January 31, 1835. 


The University of Oxford, as a corporate body, has 
been legally known, since the reign of Elizabeth, by the 
style of " The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the 
University of Oxford." Of the general government it 
is not necessary to say much, as it would not Jiave more 
than a local interest. The principal officers are : — the 
Chancellory an office at present held by the Duke of 
Wellington ;— the High Steward (Lord Eldon) ;— the 
Vice- Chancellory who usually holds the office ibr four 
years, and appoints four Pro-Vice-Chancellors, who 
are changed annually ; — two Proctors, a Public Orator, 
and numerous Professors and Lecturers. 

Bach separate college and hall has also a president 
of its own, variously, in different colleges, called Master, 
Rector, Principal, President, Provo6t or Warden. They 
are elected for life, and invested with full powers for 
the efficient government of their respective societies. 
They may be married men, which is not the case with 
the fellows of the several colleges, who cease to be siich 
if they marry. Fellows and scholars in a college are 
wholly, or in part, supported from the revenues of the 
colleges with which they are connected ; and the Uni- 
versity, taken collectively, thus supports about one 
thousand of the members on its books. The fellows, 
with the master, have a proprietary interest in the col- 
lege, and, except at Wad ham College, they hold their 
fellowships for life, unless they receive some equivalent 

Vol. IV. 

preferment, or contract a marriage. The value of fellow- 
ships varies greatly in different colleges ; some afford a 
sufficient provision, while others only yield a small 
assistance. Scholars are simply students, who receive a 
certain annual sum for a given number of years — gene- 
rally four years : the halls have no fellowships. These 
scholarships and fellowships are, in effect, premiums 
placed at the disposal of a college to enable it to 
reward and encourage eminent acquirements ; but the 
efficacy of this encouragement is somewhat impaired by 
the donors having, in many instances, restricted the fel- 
lowships to the natives of particular counties, or even 
parishes, or to those educated at particular schools, 
whence it often happens that not the most meritorious 
of all the students, but only the most meritorious of a 
limited number, can be properly encouraged. 

We now proceed to furnish a necessarily brief account 
of each college and hall of which the University of 
Oxford is composed. 

Merlon College. — The priority of foundation is dis- 
puted between this and University College ; but there 
is no room to doubt that this is the oldest in 
point of legal establishment. It was founded about 
the year 1264, by William de Merton, Lord Chancellor, 
and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, for the maintenance 
of twenty scholars and three chaplains. The buildings 
were commenced in 1260, and finjahfd in the year above- 

Digitized by 



[January 31 t 

mentioned, two y*ars after which the first officers were 
appointed. The number of students has varied very' 
much with the revenues of the college ; at present the 
society consists of a warden, twenty-four fellows, fourteen 
post- masters, two chaplains, and two clerks, besides other 
students. The warden is chosep from among the fellows, 
, who present three of their number to the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, who appoints one of them to the office. 
The natives of ten dioceses are ineligible for fellowships 
in this college. 

Merton College is situated in John-street, to the east 
of Corpus Christi. Its buildings are arranged round 
three courts or quadrangles. The outer court to the 
street was rebuilt in the year 1589, with the exception 
of the tower and gate-house, which were constructed in 
the early part of the fourteenth .century. This court 
contains the warden's lodgings, some parts of which 
are said to be coeval with the original edifice. A 
flight of steps in this court conducts to the hall, 
which is only remarkable for the fact that Queen 
Elizabeth and her Privy Council were feasted there 
in 1 592. The most striking object in this court is the 
east window of the chapel, which is a gothic structure, 
rebuilt about the beginning of the fifteenth century. 
Its painted windows and other decorations have suf- 
fered much at different times from the zeal or wanton- 
ness of the rabble ; but altogether it is still one of the 
richest specimens of gothic workmanship remaining to 
us. The chapel contains monuments to Sir Thomas 
Bodley and Sir Henry Saville. The first court opens 
by a noble arch into a large inner or garden court, 
which was completed at the expense of the college in 
1610. It is in that mixed style of architecture which 
was fashionable at that period, the south gate of the 
quadrangle being surmounted by a specimen of the 
four principal orders. The inner court is of ancient, 
date, and is supposed to have been entirely built about 
the same time with the library, which forms its south 
and west sides. This library was founded in 1876 by 
the Bishop of Chichester, and is the oldest structure 
distinctly appropriated to the purposes of a library in 
the kingdom. Merton, therefore, affords the example 
not only of the first regular college, but the first 
library in this country. The visitors in the reign of 
Edward VI. took away and sold or destroyed a great 
number of valuable manuscripts and printed books 
belonging to this library ; but when it was restored by 
Sir Thomas Bpdley, many of those which had fallen 
into the hands of private individuals were recovered. 

University College. — This college is popularly con- 
sidered entitled to claim King Alfred for its founder. 
But as we have already stated the apparent amount of 
this monarch's patronage of the schools at Oxford, it is 
now only necessary to state that University College, 
as such, resulted from the bequest of William of Dur- 
ham, Rector of Wearmouth, who diedin 1249, leaving 
a sum of money to provide a permanent endowment 
for natives of his own county. At first the funds 
were appropriated to the support of a limited number 
of individuals selected from the different schools : they 
remained subject to their respective schools until 1280, 
when they were formed into an independent society 
under certain limitations, and twelve years afterwards 
their privileges were confirmed and enlarged by statute. 
This college, in its progress, has been much favoured 
by different benefactors, one of the most considerable of 
whom in modern times was Dr. Radcliffe, who, besides 
rendering munificent assistance towards improving the 
college buildings, instituted and endowed two travelling 
fellowships for students in medicine. Each fellow 
receives 300/. a year for ten years, the first five of 
which he is required to spend abroad. The foundation 
, consists of a master, twelve fellows, eighteen scholars, 
with some exhibitioners, besfdes other students. There 
is in the chapela fine monument by Flaxman, to the 1 

' memory of Sir W. Jones, the distinguished Orientalist. 
The college principally consists of two quadrangular 
courts. The west court was built at various times 
between the years 1634 and 1675 ; it is one hundred 
feet square, and has the chapel and hall on the south 
side. The other court, which was chiefly erected by 
Dr. Radcliffe, has only three sides, the fourth opening 
to the garden of the master, whose apartments are 
in this court. Above the gateway of this court, on 
the outside, is a statue of Queen Mary II., and 
another within of Dr. Radcliffe : the gateway of the 
other court lias a statue of Queen Anne without, 
and one of James II. within. The two quadrangles 
form a grand front towards the High Street, of 
about 260 feet in length, with a tower over each gate- 
way at equal distances from the extremities. The 
library of this college contains a valuable collection of 
manuscripts and printed books. The Common Room 
contains Wilton's fine bnst of King Alfred, from a 
model by Rysbrack ; and portraits of Henry IV. and 
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, burnt in wood, by 
Dr. Griffiths ; the altar-piece in the chapel is a copy, 
similarly executed, of Carlo Dolce's Salvator.Mundi. 

Balliol College. — Sir John Balliol, of Barnard Castle 
in the county of Durham, the father of John Balliol, 
King of Scotland, commenced the foundation of this 
college about the year 1263, intending it to maintain 
sixteen poor scholars of Oxford. He did not live to 
carry/ his intentions fully into effect, but they were 
completed by his widow Dervorgille, who settled the 
scholars in a messuage, which she purchased and pre- 
pared for them on the site of the present college, and 
endowed the establishment with lands in Northumber- 
land. At first, however, the allowance for each scholar 
amounted but to 8d. a week, or 27/. 9s. Ad. a year for 
the whole number. This seems to have been inade- 
quate even in those times ; but benefactors soon arose, 
and their united contributions raised the establishment 
to a considerable degree of opulence. It at present 
consists of a master, twelve fellows, and fourteen scholars, 
besides other students. There are also a considerable . 
number of exhibitions, ten of which are for natives of 
Scotland. This college alone enjoys the privilege of 
electing its own visitor. 

The buildings of this college were erected at various 
times, and are chiefly arranged around a quadrangle, 
which is 120 feet long, and 80 broad in the interior. 
The street-front presents much irregularity of structure. 
Over the entrance, in the centre, is a fine square em- 
battled tower, with an oriel window in front, on each 
side of which is abighly enriched and canopied niche. 
This gateway is also decorated with the arms of Balliol : 
the buildings to the east and west of the tower were 
constructed at the beginning of the last century, and 
do not at all harmonise with the older portions of the 
college. The same dissimilarity is exhibited within the 
court, the northern side of which contains the chapel 
and library. The library was formerly considered one 
of the best in the University ; and, previously to the 
Reformation, was particularly rich in manuscripts. The 
collection of printed books is still valuable and extensive, 
but is exceeded by those of many other colleges. 

Exeter College. — This college was founded, in the 
year 1314, by Walter Stapjedon, Bishop of Exeter, 
Lord Treasurer of England, and Secretary of State to 
Edward II., for^ rector and twelve fellows, all of whom 
were to be elected from his own diocese. It was origi- 
nally called Stapledon Hall; but Edward Stafford, 
also Bishop of Exeter, who added two fellowships in 
1404, obtained leave to alter the name to that which it 
at present bears. The foundation has since been much 
extended, and at present consists of a rector, twenty- 
five fellows, and nineteen scholars and exhibitioners. 
The members on the books in 1834 were 302, of whom 
123 were members of Convocation. 

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The buOdiiijp of this college encompass a single ) oblong 300 feet long and 220 broad. The whole of 

quadrangle of 185 feet on each side. The principal 
front facing the street is 220 feet in length, and is 
divided by a gate of rustic work surmounted by a tower 
with Ionic pilasters, supporting a semi-circular pedi- 
ment, in the area of which are the arms of the founder 
on a shield surrounded with festoons. More uniformity 
prevails in the architecture of this college than in any 
of those already noticed, and its appearance on the 
whole is simple and pleasing. The chapel, which occu- 
pies a considerable portion of one side of the quad- 
rangle, and Was completed in 1624, is a neat and solid 
edifice in the later pointed style, and possesses the 
peculiarity of having two aisles. The present hall was 
built a few years previously, and the library, then the 
only remaining part of the original building, was taken 
down and rebuilt in a plain but neat- style in 1778. 

Oriel College. — This college was founded about the. 
year 1326 by Adam de Brome, almoner of Edward II. 
This king is commonly considered the founder, for 
which there seems no other reason than that Brome 
surrendered it to his master in the hope of procuring 
his powerful favour and protection for the infant esta- 
blishment, in which expectation he was not disap- 
pointed, though it appears that the king's patronage 
was limited to favours which involved no cost to himself 
The original foundation was for a provost and ten 
fellows; but the society at present comprehends a 
provost, eighteen fellows, and fifteen exhibitioners. 
The members on the books of this college in 1834 were 
300, of whotn 153 were members of Convocation. The 
members were originally placed in a tenement purchased 
by Brome, where St. Mary's Hall now stands ; but they 
were soon removed from thence to a messuage called £<a 
Oriole or Oriel, given them by Edward HI., in the con- 
tinuation of whose reign additions were made to complete 
the quadrangle, the whole of which was enlarged and 
rebuilt in the earty part of the seventeenth century, 
and now exhibits considerable uniformity of style and 
construction. The front towards the street is divided 
by a square tower which rises pver the entrance, and is 
ornamented with a bay or oriel window, probably to 
give significance to the name the college bears. The 
hall faces the gateway, and is approached by a flight 
of steps under a portico, surmounted by statues of 
Edward II. and Edward III. in niches, with the virgin 
and child in another niche immediately above. The 
library is the only part of the buildings of recent erec- 
tion. It was built from the designs of Wyatt, and 
executed under his direction. 

Queen's College. — This college was founded in 1340 
by Robert Egglesfield, confessor to Philjppa, queen of 
Edward III. It was called after her " Queen's Col- 
lege," which seems to imply that she had some share 
in the foundation; at any rate she soon took it under 
her protection, and exerted herself to promote its wel- 
fare. The founder, who was a native of Cumberland, 
was particularly anxious for the promotion of education 
in the border counties, where* to use his own expres- 
sion, "an unusual scarcity of literature prevailed;" 
the original establishment therefore was for a master 
and twelve fellows to be chosen from the counties of 
Cumberland and Westmoreland. In its progress this 
college has been particularly patronized by the queens 
of England, after the example of Philippa, and through 
their contributions, and those of other benefactors, it 
now supports a provost, twenty- four fellows, two chap- 
lains, eight taberders (so called from a taberdum or 
short <rown which they formerly wore), twenty scholars, 
two clerks; and four exhibitioners. The members on 
the books, in 1834, were 353, of whom 175 were mem- 
bers of Convocation. 

This magnificent college, which is situated opposite 
University College, in High-street, consists of two, 
courts, divided by the hall and chapel, and forming an I 

the. buildings, with, the exception of the library, were 
erected during the last century, in the Grecian style of 
architecture. The principal front, towards the street, 
has in the centre a large gateway, over which is a statue 
of Qr>een Caroline, the consort of George II., under a 
cupola, supported by pillars, the construction of which 
js by some considered rather too heavy for the place it 
occupies. This gateway leads into the first court, which . 
was executed by Hawkesmoor, from a design either by 
Sir Christopher Wren or Dr. Lancaster, and bears, in 
general, a strong resemblance to the Luxembourg 
palace in Paris. It is surrounded by a cloister, except 
on the north side, which is occupied by the chapel and 
hall, and finely finished in the Doric style. In the 
centre, over a portico leading, to the north court, is a 
handsome cupola, supported by eight Ionic columns. 
The library is in the other court, and was built in 1694 ; 
its principal room is one of the largest in the University, 
being 120 feet in length, and of corresponding breadth. 
Among its curiosities, it contains a very ancient portrait 
on glass pf Henry V., who received his education at 
this college, and another of Cardinal Beaufort. 

New College, — This college owes its establishment to 
William de Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, and Lord 
High Chancellor, in the reign of Edward III,, one of* 
the most illustrious characters of the age in which he 
lived. He originally established the society about the 
year 1373, and placed the members in hired halls 
until the buildings of the college were completed in 
1386, when they removed to the new premises. In the 
same year, Wykeham began his collegiate establishment 
at Winchester, which was intended, and still continues, 
to serve as a nursery to this at Oxford. The original 
foundation was so ample that, with some subsequent 
additions, it has becojne one of the wealthiest societies 
in Oxford. It now consists of a warden, seventy 
fellows and scholars, with priests, clerks, and choristers, 
for the service of the chapel. The fellows and scholars 
are annually elected from the college at Winchester ; 
the founder's kindred become actual fellows on their 
first admission, the others are scholars on probation 
till the expiration of two years. We perceive from the 
list that 27 of the 70 claim kindred with William ri> 
Wykeham. In its original charter, this college is called 
the " College of St. Mary of Winchester," but having 
popularly received the name of " New College " at the 
time of its erection, it has retained that appellation to 
the present time. The members on the books of this 
college were 162 in 1834, of whom 69 are members of 
Convocation, -* 

New College is separated from Queen's College by a 
narrow lane on the south. The buildings are extensive 
and diversified. The original plan consisted of a spa- 
cious quadrangle, including the chapel, hall, and library, 
with a small quadrangle adjoining called the Cloisters. 
The other buildings, which form the garden court, conr 
stitute an addition to the original design, and were 
built in 1684, either in imitation of the palace at Ver- 
sailles, or of the king's house at Winchester. The .ap- 
proach to the great quadrangle is by a portal with a 
tower above, one of the ornamented niches of which 
still retains the sculptured effigy of the founder. The 
chapel and hall, on the north side of the court, present 
as fine an elevation as any in the University. The - 
former, which is perhaps, taken singly, ihe most 
3plendid building in the University, is remarkably 
beautiful and chaste in the interior decorations, and 
its windows afford a magnificent display of painted 
glass in "four different styles of execution. The great 
west window exceeds all the others both m design and 
colouring, and probably is not surpassed by any similar 
work in N this country. It was executed by Jervais, 
from- finished cartoons by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and is 
divided into two parts, the higher representing the 

Q 9 

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[Jfttiunr 81 9 

[Magdalen Bridge and the Tower of Magdalen College, from an original Drawing by W. A. Delamotte.] 

Nativity, and the lower figures emblematical of the 
Christian and cardinal virtues. Among the curiosities 
preserved in this chapel is the superb and costly crosier 
of the founder. It is about seven feet high, of silver, 
gilt and enamelled, on which, instead of the holy 
lamb usually placed in the circle of crosiers, is a figure 
of Wykeham himself, in a kneeling posture. 

Lincoln College was founded about the year 1479, by 
Richard Fleming, bishop of Lincoln, for a rector and 
seven fellows. This original foundation has been much 
extended by subsequent benefactions, so that the 
society now consists of a rector, twelve fellows, eight 
scholars, twelve exhibitioners, and a bible- clerk. It 
has 132 members on its books, of whom 74 are mem- 

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fcers <A Convocation. Tha Reverend John Wesley 
was a fellow of this college, within the walls of which 
the foundation of Methodism was laid. The principal 
buildings of the college compose two quadrangular 
courts ; the first, which was begun soon after the death 
of the founder by Rotherham, his successor in the see 
of Lincoln, st\11 retains much of the character of an- 
cient collegiate structures. It contains the hall, the 
library, the rector's apartments, the common rooms, 
and some apartments for scholars, all of low elevation, 
and arranged with great simplicity. The other qua- 
drangle was erected about the year 1612, with the 
exception of six sets of rooms, which were added in 
1759. The principal ornament of this court is the' 
chapel, which is a well proportioned and elegant 
Gothic edifice, built in J 631 at the expense of the then 
Bishop of Lincoln, Dr. Williams, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of York. 

All Souls' CoHege was founded in the year 1437, by 
Henry Chicheley, Archbishop of Canterbury, who pre- 
vailed on King Henry VI. to assume the title of co- 
founder. yTykeham's College, of which Chicheley had 
been a fellow, appears to have been the model he kept 
in view in this establishment j which is called in the 
charter a The College of the Souls of all faithful people 
deceased, of Oxford." It was originally intended for 
a warden, forty fellows, two chaplains, and a clerk. 
There are now four bible-clerks ; but in other respects 
the original numbers are preserved. There were 99 
members on the books in 1834, of whom 67 were 
members of Convocation. 

The buildings of this college form two large qua- 
drangles, one of which was erected by the founder, 
and, although now much modernized, preserves many 
of its original features. Two niches over the principal 
entrance contain large statues of Henry VI. and 
Chicheley. The other quadrangle, which is of com- 
paratively modern erection, exhibits, especially when 
viewed- from the west entrance, one of the most at- 
tractive scenes which Oxford can boast. The style is 
of the jmixed Gothic. The chapel and hall are on the 
south side of this court, and the library on the north. 
The library, wlu'ch was begun in 1716 and completed 
in 1756, contains perhaps the largest room appro- 
priated to the purpose in England, it being 198 feet in 
length and 32J in breadth. Dr. Young, the author 
of the * Night Thoughts,' laid the foundation of this 
structure, which owes its erection to the muuificence 
of Colonel Codrington, who bequeathed 10,000/. for 
the purpose, besides leaving to the society books then 
valued at 6000/. 

Magdalen College was founded by William of Wayn- 
flete, Bishop of Winchester, in the year 1457, for a 
president, forty fellows, thirty scholars, called demies, a 
divinity lecturer, with chaplains, clerks, and choristers for 
the service of the chapel. The members of the college 
still remain the same as art the time of the foundation, 
with the addition only of gentlemen commoners, for 
no commoners' are admitted. The members on the 
books of this college in 1834 were 158, of whom 115 
were members of Convocation. 

Magdalen College is bound by its statutes to entertain 
the kings of England and their sons when at Oxford, 
whence its hall has often been the scene of royal and 
princely festivities. Magdalen College is situated at 
the east entrance to Oxford, and forms a noble object 
as the traveller crosses the bridge over the Cherwell. 
This bridge and the tower are shown at page 44. The 
buildings, as designed by the founder, compose two 
quadrangular courts, one of small and another of large 
dimensions. The entrance to the first is through a 
modern Doric portal that does not harmonize well 
with the rest of the structure. In front of this court 
is the original entrance, now disused, to the larger 
quadrangle, under a venerable Gothic tower, which 

is adorned with statues of the founder, of Henry VI., 
and of St. John the Baptist and Mary Magdalen, in 
canopied niches of exquisite workmanship. The other 
court is nearly as the founder left it, the south cloister 
being the only portion that has been added since his 
death. This court contains the chapel, hall, and 
library, with apartments for residence. Round the 
whole of this court is ranged a series of hieroglyphic 
figures, which have occasioned a good deal of specula- 
tion among topographers. Besides the two courts 
there is a tower, and several other ranges of buildings 
belonging to the college, which have been erected at 
different periods, and were not included in the founder's 
design. The tower, which attracts notice by the beauty 
of its proportions, was finished in 1498 : it-is said to 
have been designed by Cardinal Wolsey, a report which 
seems to have originated in the fact that he was bur- 
sar of the college at the time. Addison was a fellow 
of this college, and a walk is still shown which he is 
said to have been in the habit of frequenting. 

Brazen Nose College was founded in the year 1509 
by William Smyth, Bishop of Lincoln, in conjunction 
with his friend Sir Richard Sutton, knight. It was 
originally intended for a principal and twelve fellows ; 
but eight other fellowships and several scholarships have 
since been added by other benefactors. The number 
of members on the books of this college in 1834 was 
412, of whom 234 were members of Couyocation. With 
regard to its ludicrous name, it is said to have arisen 
from the circumstance that the founders erected their 
house on the site of two ancient hostels or halls, one of 
which was called Brazen Nose Hall, from some students 
who were removed to it from a seminary in the tem- 
porary University of Stamford, which was so denomi- 
nated on account of an iron ring fixed in a nose of 
brass, and serving as a knocker to the gate. The 
buildings of this college constitute the west-side of 
Radcliffe Square, the front towards which is an extensive 
range with a square battlemented tower in the centre, 
ornamented in the Gothic style, of which it is a purer 
specimen than any other part of the building offers. 
It was originally twice the height of the other parts of 
the front, but an attic having been added in the time 
of James I., the tower now seems disproportionately low. * 
With the exception of this attic, the front probably 
appears in nearly its original state. The buildings of 
the college are arranged in the interior around a large 
court and a small one ; the large court, which contains 
the hall and chambers, is ancient, with the exception of 
the attic. The small court contains the library - and 
chapel erected in the seventeenth century, as some say 
from plans furnished by Sir Christopher Wren, who 
was then a young man at college. The architecture is 
of the mixed kind ; arched windows and battlements' 
being opposed by Corinthian pilasters and capitals. 

Corpus Chrisli College was founded in 1516 by 
Stephen Fox, Bishop of Winchester, Lord Privy Seal,* 
for a president, twenty fellows, twenty scholars, and two 
chaplains. The members on the books in 1834 were 
127, of whom 82 were members of Convocation. This 
college is situated near the back gate of Christ 
Church, on the south side of Oriel College. The prin- 
cipal buildings of the college are 'comprised in a 
spacious quadrangle, which is entered by a gateway, 
under a lofty square tower in the centre of the principal 
front. It contains the chapel, hail, and library; the 
last has a statue of the founder in his pontifical robes, 
and it is particularly rich in printed books and manu- 
scripts ; among the former of which are some of the 
finest and rarest of the early classics. 

Christ Church College is the largest and most mag- 
nificent foundation at Oxford, and owes its origin to" 
Cardinal Wolsey, who in 1524 and 1525 obtained a 
bull from the pope, authorizing him to suppress twenty- 
two .inferior priories and nunneries, and apply their 

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Monthly §w£»ment of 

[JAM04W 81, 

mrtpiM m svpperi of to intended college. The 
priginsl ptafl of this foundation provided for one 
hundred and WP-J pt rsong, who wore to apply them- 
•elvef to the study of the sciences at large, as well 
as to polite literature. The cardinal settled on this 
society a clear annual revenue of 2QQ01. ; and com- 
menced the present building for the use of the mem- 
bers, under the name of Cardinal's College. After 
his disgrace and death, the king, who had in the first 
instance seized its revenues and arrested its progress, 
was induced to patronise the institution ; and re-endowed 
it for the support of a dean and twelve canons, under 
the name or " King Henry the Eighth's College." The 
establishment afterwards underwent other alterations, 
which gave it the character of a cathedral establish- 
ment ; and its chapel was made the cathedral ehurch 
of the bishopric of Oxford, which it still remains, 
although still maintaining its character as a college 
qhapel. At present the foundation consists of a dean, 
8 canons, 101 fellows, called " students "at this college, 
-and eight chaplains. The members on the books of 
the college are 974, of whom 47& are members of Con- 

To give our readers an idea of the buildings of this 
extensive and splendid establishment would much ex- 
ceed our limits. The cathedral has already been 
noticed : the buildings altogether occupy two large and 
two small quadrangles. 'The great west quadrangle 
was chiefly the work of Wolsey, and is an interesting 
in* lication of what he intended the whole to have been 
if he had lived to complete his design. It is entered hy 
the gateway of the principal front, which extends 382 
feet, having in the centre a stately tower begun by 
Wolsey, but only completed in 1681 by Sir Christopher 
Wren. The hall and kitchen are on the south side of 
this quadrangle ; — the hall is one of the finest in the 
kingdom, measuring 115 feet by 40, and 50 feet in 
height : its roof is of elaborately carved oak, and the 
sides, of panelled wainscot, are decorated with an 
extensive collection of portraits, some of which are 
curious. Of this hall a fepresentation is given in page 
41. The parliamentary visitors sat in this hall, in 
1648, to eject such members of the University as 
refused to submit to their authority. The other large 
quadrangle, termed " Peckwater Court," was erected at 
the commencement of the last century, and has the 
library on its south side. This noble building, which 
was commenced in 1716, but not completed until 1761, 
is 1 4 1 feet long in front, and on the basement story 
contains, besides a portion of the books, a collection 
of pictures, — not pf the first order of excellence, — be- 
queathed to the college by General Guise in 1765. 
The library is very rich in manuscripts, prints, and 

Trinity College was originally founded and endowed 
by Edward III., Richard II., and the priors and 
bishops of Durham. As it was under the patronage of 
the latter, it obtained the name of Durham College, 
though dedicated from the beginning to the Holy 
Trinity, St. Mary, and St. Cuthbert. Being classed 
with religious houses at the Reformation, it was sup- 
pressed; and Sir Thomas Pope,' having purchased the , 
site and buildings, began and endowed a new founda- 
tion, in 1554, for a president, twelve fellows, and twelve 
scholars. To this four exhibitions have since been added, 
— one for a superannuated Winchester scholar; butj 
generally, the original foundation was so ample that 
few benefactors have thought the college required their 
assistance. The members on the books, in 1834, were 
256, of whom 107 were members of Convocation. The 
buildings of this college are disposed in two courts ; 
the first, besides apartments for the president and 
some of the fellows and scholars, contains the chapel, 
hall, and library. The other court, which is wholly 
occupied by the lodgings pf the students, was planned 

by Sir Christopher Ww* Uti is MM to b* out. of tb* 
first specimens of modem architecture that appeared in 
the University. . 

St. John 1 $ College was founded in 1557 fry Sir 
Thomas White, alderman and lord maypr of London, 
who appropriated pail of the wealth accumulated by. 
industry and success in mercantile pursuits to the 
establishment of this college for a president and fitly 
fellows and scholars. AU the fellows except thirteen are 
elected from the Merchant Tailors' School in London, 
of which corporation Sir Thomas was a member. 
The members now on the books of this college are 218, 
of whom 1 18 are members of Convocation. The build- 
ings of this college have been erected at different 
periods: they are chiefly arranged in two quadrangles, 
one of which still retains part of the tenements of St. 
Bernard's college, the site of which it occupies. In 
this division are the hall and chapel, with apartments 
for the president and the fellows and scholars. The 
principal entrance is under a square tower* adorned with 
a statue of St. .Bernard, placed in a richly-canopied 
niche. On the east side is a passage leading to the 
other quadrangle, which was erected at the sole expense 
of Archbishop Laud from the designs of Inigo Jones, 
The east and west sides of it are built on a cloister sup- 
ported by eight pillars, over which are busts represent- 
ing the four cardinal virtues, the three Christian graces, 
and religion. In the centre of each cloister there is a 
spacious gateway of the Doric order, surmounted by a 
semicircular pediment of the Ionic and Corinthian 
orders, and having a statue on either side between 
the columns. These statues represent Charles I. and 
his Queen, and were designed and cast in brass by 
Fanelli of Florence. The library, which is in this 
quadrangle, is one of the largest and best furnished 
in the University, and contains a valuable collection of 
books, manuscripts, and antiquarian curiosities. The 
gardens also of this college, though small, are much 

Jesus College was founded by Hugh ap Rice, or 
Price, D.C.L., who observing that his countrymen, the 
natives of Wales, were much neglected in college 
endowments, petitioned Queen Elizabeth to found a 
college more particularly for their benefit. She accord- 
ingly granted a charter, dated in 1571, which de- 
clared the present name of the college, stated that the 
society was to consist of a principal, eight fellows, and 
eight scholars, and authorized Dr. Price to spend his 
money on the establishment. This was the first col- 
lege founded by a Protestant ; but the queen seems to 
have rendered no other practical assistance than by 
giving a quantity of timber from the royal forests to 
aid the building. The institution has since been 
assisted by other benefactors, and it now consists of a 
principal, 19 fellows, and 18 scholars, besides exhibi- 
tioners. The number of the members on the books in 
1834 was 157, of whom 57 were members of Convoca- 

The buildings are contained in two quadrangles, the 
largest of which, entered from the street, contains the 
chapel on the north side, and the hall on the east ; the 
other sides are occupied by apartments three stories 
high. The front towards the street was inbuilt in 1756, 
and has a heavy and uninteresting appearance. The 
inner quadrangle was built about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, and contains, on its west side, the 
library, which has a good collection of books, and some 
curiosities, among which is a silver bowl, weighing 
278 ounces, and capable of holding ten gallons ; a 
metal watch, given by Charles I. ; and a huge stirrup, 
said to have been used by Queen Elizabeth. 

Wadham College was founded, in 1613, by Nicholas 
and Dorothy Wadham, for a warden, fifteen fellows, 
and an equal number of scholars, with two chaplains, 
and two clerks. It is peculiar to this college that the 

Digitized by 





fellows are obliged to resign oft the completion of eigh- 
teen years from their becoming regent masters, if they 
have not been fortunate enough to have previously 
obtained preferment. The number of members now on 
the books is 235, of whom 78 are members of Convo- 

The buildings of Wadham College are all compre- 
hended in one large quadrangle* The hall is one 
of the finest rooms in Oxford, and the library and 
chapel both do credit td the liberality of the founder. 
In the middle of the eastern side of the quadrangle is 
a portico, in four compartments, decorated with statues, 
in canopied niches, of the (bunder and foundress, and 
of James I. The entrance to the college is by a 
gateway under a central tower. The building cost 
10,816/. la. 8ct, to which was added somewhat more 
than 500/. for plate and the furniture of the kitchen. 
The whole of this was paid by Dorothy Wadham, who 
survived her husband, and devoted herself to fulfilling 
his benevolent intentions. 

Pembroke College, originally Broadgate Hall, was 
converted into a college by the joint munificence of 
Thomas Tesdale and Richard Wtghtwick ; for although 
in the charter, dated in 16*24, King James I. is called 
the founder, and the Earl of Pembroke, then Chancellor 
of the University, the godfather, yet it does not appear 
that either of these personages assisted the foundation 
otherwise than by their patronage. It was intended 
for a master, ten fellows, and ten scholars; but the 
fellows have since been increased to fourteen, and the 
scholars and exhibitioners to twenty-one. The number 
of members now on the books is 189, of whom 97 are 
members of Convocation. Dr. Samuel Johnson entered 
as a Commoner in 1*728; his apartment is that upon 
the second floor, over the gateway. The college forms 
two small courts, comprehending some portions of the 
old Broadgate Hall. The principal court, which was 
erected at different periods during the seventeenth 
century, is uniform and simple in its architecture. 
The front, which was only completed in 1694, is an 
unadorned elevation, with a low tower over the entrance 
in the centre. The chapel is a small but elegant build- 
ing of the Ionic order, and is richly ornamented within. 

JVorcenUr College was founded in 1714, under the 
will of Sir Thomas Cooke, Bart., who died iu 1702, 
leaving 10,000/. either to found a new college or to 
enlarge one already existing. The trustees hesitated 
many years which plan to adopt, but the money having 
in the mean time accumulated to 1 5,000/., they deter- 
mined to found the present establishment for a provost, 
six fellows, and six scholars, to be chosen* from certain 
schools in the county df Worcester. Fifteen other fel- 
lowships and ten scholarships . have since been added. 
The members on the books in 1834 were 218, of whom 
92 were members of Convocation. The college is situ- 
ated on the western side of the city upon an eminence 
near the river Isis. The buildings form a court, the 
south side of which is still occupied by a range of old 
apartments, old Gloucester Hall having been merged 
in this establishment, but its other divisiqns are all of 
modern erection, and comprise a chapel, hall, library, 
and the usual apartments. The architecture of these 
parts, though simple, possesses considerable grandeur. 
The library is supported by a cloister in the front 
towards the court, and is chieffy remarkable for a valu- 
able collection of architectural books and manuscripts. 

H alls, -=- Besides the colleges there are live halls at 
Oxford, which offer a very near approximation to the 
establishments which existed previously to the period 
when the plan of endowed colleges came into operation. 
Thus they are not endowed with estates, but are simply 
houses under the government of a principal for the 
education and residence of students. As it regards 
discipline and privileges, they are, however, on the 

same footing with the other societies As tlcf ktve 
no funds but such as proceed from tuition and the rent 
of the chambers, their prosperity depends ufion their 
efficiency and the reputation of the principals and in- 

St. Alban'i Hall, which is the most Ancient of the 
existing halls, is situated on the east side of Alert on 
College. The name is derived from Robert de Saucto 
Albano, a burgess of Oxford in the reign of King John. 
In the time of Henry VI. it was united to Nunne Hall ; 
and Henry VIII. granted both the halls conjoined, in 
the name of Alban Hall, to his physician, from Whom 
it passed to different proprietors, and is now the 
property of the warden and fellows of Merton College. 
The members on the books are 88, of whom 9 are 
members of Convocation. The buildings form a qua- 
drangle, plain in its architecture, but commodious in its 
inte/nal arrangements. 

Edmund Hall is said to be so calledfrom St. Ed- 
mund, Archbishop of Canterbury in the reign of 
Henry III., who was canonized by Pope Innocent IV. 
At the dissolution it belonged to Ouseney Priory, and 
soon after came into the possession of Queen's College, 
and was renewed as a place of study, under the auspices 
of that institution, to which it still continues attached. 
During the two last centuries the buildings have been 
much extended, chiefly by the liberality of its own 
members, and those of Queen's College. The library, 
which was begun in 1680, has been enriched by several 
collections of books and manuscripts. The number of 
members on the books in 1834 was 92, of whom 45 
were members of Convocation. 

New Inn Hall is in a very low state, though appa- 
rently in a reviving condition. Up to a recent period 
it had not had any students for *nany years ; but it 
has lately been restored to the purposes of academical 
instruction by the present principal, who has erected 
at his own expense a handsome building, with suitable 
offices, for the reception of students. It has now 28 
members in its books, of whom one is a member of Con- 
vocation. This hall was at one time famous for students 
in civil and canon law, and produced many eminent 
characters in that faculty. In 1642 it was occupied as 
a mint by Charles I., who here melted down the plate 
presented to him by the University. 

8l. Mary's Hall was anciently conveyed to the 
rectors of St. Mary's Church for a parsonage house, 
and remained thus appropriated until 1325, when 
Edward IL gave it, with the adfowson of the church, 
to the society of Oriel College, who, in 1333, converted 
it into an academical hall under its present name. The 
members on the books in 1834 were 41, of whom 20 
were members of Convocation. The' buildings are 
arranged in the form of a quadrangle, containing a 
hall, chapel, and apartments for the principal and 
students, all of which have either been rebuilt or much 
improved within the last century. 

St. Mary Magdalen Hall is the most considerable 
of the whole number. The original building was 
founded as a grammar school in 1480, by William 
Waynflete, the founder of Magdalen College. It was 
first called Grammar Hall, but received its present 
name on being enlarged and placed on the same footing 
with the other halls. This hall appears to have been 
generally in a flourishing condition, and at one time is 
said to have had nearly 300 students, though it is diffi- 
cult to conceive how so many could have been accom- 
modated within its walls.' Some exhibitions have been 
established for the benefit and encouragement of the 
students : the members on the books were 173 in 1834, 
of whom 53 were members of Convocation. The old 
hall having become insufficient for the accommodation 
of the members, the society obtained an Act of Parlia- 
ment in 1816, authorizing them to take possession of 

Digitized by 




[Jamvakv 81, 18M. 



Hertford College, formerly Hart Hall, in New Col- 
lege Lane, which had become extinct as a collegiate 
establishment. Accordingly the principal and other 
members of Magdalen Hall removed thither in 18*2, 
after the necessary improvements and preparations 
had been completed. 

It may be proper to conclude this account by stating 
that the sum of all the numbers we have given of the 
members of the several colleges and halls, in 1834, is 
5290, of whom 2519 are members of Convocation. 

The new printing-office, of which the above is a repre- 
sentation, has been already alluded to in vol. iii. p. 423. 

L * # * The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Usefal Knowledge U at 59. Lincoln's Inn Field*. 

Printed by William Clowes, Dnke Street, Lambeth. 

Digitized by 



op TM 

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[February 7, 1896 


[Method of Capturing Wild Ducka in tht» F«ii& of Lmcoiu*iy*e. j 

The wild duck or mallard is nearly two feet in length, 
two feet ten inches in extent of wing, and weighs from 
ttro and a half to three pounds. The bill is of a greenish 
yellow colour ; the head and upper .part of the neck 
are of a glossy changeable green, terminated in the 
middle of the neck by a white collar with which it is 
nearly encircled. The scapulars are white, barred or 
rather undulated with minute lines of brown ; the back 
is brown, and the rump black, glossed with green. On 
the wing coverts two transverse white streaks edged 
with black enclose a broad stripe of a lucid violet-green 
colour. The lower part of the neck and breast is of 
a chestnut colour ; the belly is pale grey, crossed with 
numerous transverse dusky lines. The tail consists of 
twenty feathers and is pointed in shape; the four 
middle are of a greenish black colour and curve upward 
in a remarkable manner ; the others as usual of a grey 
brown, margined with white. Legs orange. 

The female is very plain. The bill is shorter and 
smaller than that of the male ; and the ground colour 
•of the plumage is pale reddish brown, speckled with 
black. The violet-green stripe on the wings is 'as 
in those of the male ; but none of the tail feathers are 
curved. The young male birds, previously to their 
first moult, resemble rather the female than the male 
parent. In a domestic state some individuals appear 

Vol. IV. 

in nearly the same plumage as the wild ones; others 
vary greatly from them as well as from each other, and 
are marked with nearly every colour ; but all the males, 
or drakes, still retain the curled feathers of the tail. 
The tame duck is, however, of a more dull and less 
elegant form and appearance than the wild, domesti- 
cation having deprived it of its lofty gait, long tapering 
neck, and sprightly eyes. 

Wild ducks inhabit Europe, Asia, and America, in 
summer frequenting the lakes and marshes of the north, 
and in autumn migrating southward in large bodies, 
and spreading themselves over the lakes and marshes 
of more temperate latitudes. Considerable numbers of 
them return northward in spring ; but many straggling 
pairs, as well as former colonists, stay in this country 
to rear their young, which become natives, and remain 
throughout the year in the marshy tracts of the British * 
isles. Large flocks visit Egypt in November after the 
inundation of the Nile. In an opposite direction of the 
globe, the lakes in the Orkneys form one of their gneat 
resorts in winter; and when the lakes happen to be 
frozen, they betake themselves to the shores of the 
islands. In these districts they may be seen in great 
multitudes, and on the report of a gun they rise like 
clouds. They are also known to abound on the lake of 
Zirknitz in Carniola, where they are often swallowed 


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[PEBtUARt 7, 

entire by the huge pikes which frequent that remark- 
able piece of water. On the approach of a storm they 
issue from the caverns in the rocks, and fly about 1 the 
country, where they are soon captured by the peasant* ; 
many of them are killed with clubs at the very openings 
of the cavities, being dazzled by the light of day. In 
England (hey abound most in the fens of Lincolnshire, 
, where prodigious numbers are annually taken in the 
decoys. Particular spots in the fens are let to the 
fowlers at a rent of from 5/. to 30/. a-year ; and Pen- 
nant mentions a season in which 31,200 birds were 
captured in a single season in ten stations near Wain- 
fleet, adding, that " the numbers taken in the decoys 
make them so cheap on the spot, that the decoy- men 
would be glad to contract to deliver the Boston 
for yearB at lOd. the couple." 

Wild ducks are naturally very shy birds, and fly at a 
considerable height in the air, in the form of a wedge or 
triangle. Before- they alight on any spot, they describe 
several turns, as if to reconnoitre it, and then 
descend with great precaution. They generally keep 
at a distance Trom the shore when they swim ; and when 
tht greater part of them sleep upon the water, with 
their heads under their wings, some of the party are 
always awake to watch over the common safety, and to 
apprize the sleepers of the approach of danger. The 
extreme wariness of these birds renders much patience 
and ingenuity necessary on the part of the fowler. 
They rise -vertically from the water with loud cries ; and 
in the night-time their flight over head may be known 
by the hissing noise which they make. They are more 
active by night than by day ; indeed those that are 
seen by day have in general been roused either by a 
sportsman or by isome bir^L of prey. 

Wild ducks breed only once in the year, the pairing- 
time commencing about the end of February or 
beginning of March, and lasting three weeks, during 
which period each couple lives apart, concealed among 
the reeds and bushes during the greater part of the day. " 
The female generally selects a thick tuft of bushes, 
insulated in a pool or lake, for her breeding station, and 
binds, cuts, and arranges the bushes in the form of a 
nest ; sometime* she makes her nest on heaths at some 
distance from the water, scraping together a heap of 
the nearest vegetables for the purpose : — a rick of straw 
in the fields occasionally serves her purpose. Latham 
says, that she has even been known to lay her eggs in 
a high tree, in the deserted nest of a magpie or crow; 
and he records an instance of one that was found at 
Etchingham, in Sussex, sitting upon nine eggs, in an 
oak, at the height of twenty-five feet from the ground, 
the eggs being supported' by some small twigs placed 
crosswise. The female, during the incubation, usually 
plucks the down from her breast to line her nest, in 
which she frequently deposits sixteen eggs, which she 
generally covers when she leaves the nest for the purpose 
of feeding. Whenever' she returns to it, she alights 4t 
some distance, and approaches it by winding paths ;. 
but when she has resumed her seat she is not easily 
induced to quit it. The male keeps watch near the 
nest, or accompanies and protects his mate in her tem- 
porary excursions in quest of food. All the young are 
hatched in one day, and on the following the mother 
leads them to the water ; or if the nest be high, or at a 
distance from water, both parents convey them, one 
by one, in their bills or between their legs, and they 
are no sooner consigned to the water than they begin 
to* swim about with the greatest ease, and to feed on 
insects. The mother-bird is a most attentive and 
watchful parent until her young progeny are able to 
fly : this is in about three months after their birth, and 
in three months more they attain to their full size and 

The flesh of the wild duck is more delicate and juicy, 

and of a finer flavour, than that of the domestic, ft. is 
almost every where in high estimation as an article of 
food, and heuce the ingenuity of man, in all the coun- 
tries which it frequents, has been employed in devising 
stratagems for the capture of this most cautious and 
wily bird. We shall now proceed to furnish our readers 
with an account of some of the more remarkable of 
these stratagems, particularly of those which our wood- 
cuts are intended to illustrate. Some of the methods 
of capturing the wild ducks in America, as described by 
Wilson in his ' American Ornithology,' are among the 
most singular resorted to in any country, and claim to 
be noticed in this place. 

In some ponds frequented by these birds, five or six 
wooden figures, cut and painted so as to represent ducks, 
and sunk, by pieces of lead nailed to their bottoms so as to 
float at the usual depth on the surface, are anchored in a 
favourable position for being raked from a concealment 
of brushwood, &c., on shore. The appearance of these 
decoys usually attracts passing flocks, which alight and 
are shot down. Sometimes eight or ten of these painted 
ducks are fixed in a frame in various swimming pos- 
tures, and secured to the bow of the runner's skiff, 
projecting before it in such a manner that the weight 
of the frame sinks the figures to their proper depth ; 
the skiff is then dressed with sedge or coarse grass, in 
an artful manner, as low as the water's edge; and 
under cover of this, which appears like a eovey of ducks 
swimming by a small island, the gunner floats down 
sometimes to the very skirts of a whole congregated 
multitude, and pours in a destructive and repeated fire 
of shot among them. In winter, when detached pieces 
of ice are occasionally floating in the river, some of the 
fowlers on the Delaware paint their ivbole skiff or canoe 
white, and laying themselves flat at the bottom, with 
their hand over the side silently managing a small 
paddle, direct it imperceptibly into or near a flock, 
before the ducks have distinguished it from a floating 
mass of ice, and generally do great execution amongst 
them. A whole flock has sometimes been thus surprised 
asleep with their heads under their wings. On land, 
another stratagem is sometimes practised with great 
success : — a large tight hogshead is sunk in the flat 
marsh or mud, near the place where ducks are ac- 
customed to feed at low water, and where, otherwise, 
there is no shelter. The edges and top are artfully 
concealed with tufts of long coarse grass and reeds, or 
sedge. From within this the fowler, unseen and un- 
suspected, watches" the collecting party, and, when a 
sufficient number offers, sweeps them down with great 

Among the methods resorted to in different countries 
for the capture of wild ducks, one is so remarkable as to 
require particular notice. On the river Ganges in 
India, at Ceylon, and in China, a man wades into the 
water up to his chin, and, having his head covered with 
an empty calabash, approaches the place where the 
ducks are, and they, not regarding an object so com- 
monly seen upon the water, suffer the man to mingle 
freely with the flock, when he has nothing to do but 
pull them under water by the legs, one by one, until he 
is satisfied, and then returns to the shore as unsuspected 
by the remainder as when he first came among them. 
For this purpose the earthen vessels used by ' the 
Gentoos, called kutcharee pots, which are thrown away 
as defiled after having been once used for cooking rice, 
are often employed instead of calabashes ; and some 
authors state that hollow wooden vessels, with holes to 
see through, are sometimes used for the same purpose. 

Our wood-cut exhibits the method of capturing wild 
ducks in the fens of Lincolnshire, a particular descrip- 
tion of which, with another engraving, will be given in 
the next Number. 

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Thr passage of the mountains of Caucasus is considered 
gn undertaking of some peril, not only oh account of 
the natural difficulties pf the road, but from the fierce 
and barbarous tribes of people by wham they are 
inhabited. Travellers, therefore, when they arrive in 
the neighbourhood, do not proceed on their way in 
detached parties, but wait for the post, which crosses 
the mountains once a- week under a strong escort. They 
commonly wait at the neat little town of Mozdok, on 
the river Terek, and within sight of the highest summits 
of the Caucasus. In exploring the neighbourhood of 
this town, the attention of the stranger will be drawn 
towards a small village of low houses formed of wattles 
covered with clay, while the outhouses appear to be 
plastered with cow -dung. They v have all flat roofs, 
which serve for winnowing corn. In this village he 
will find himself among a people such as he has not 
hitherto Been. They are generally short and somewhat 
corpulent ; and the dress of the men consists of a top- 
coat which reaches to their knees, and pantaloons of 
coarse woollen stuff, and commonly of a light brown 
colour. They wear on their heads a sheep-skin cap, 
which fits close, and is almost entirely flat. The 
women wear their hair in one long plait down their 
backs : they have generally a coarse handkerchief round 
their heads, and their trousers descend nearly to the 
ankles, but their feet are bare. Their upper dress con- 
sists of a sort of bed-gown with long close sleeves ; and 
sometimes, when out of doors, they envelop themselves 
in a sort of sheet, but do not always keep it drawn over 
their faces. These people are Ossetinians, belonging to 
a tribe of the same name, whose proper seat ' is in the 
most elevated habitable parts of the Caucasian moun- 
tains, . forming not the lea3t considerable of several 
remarkable tribes that inhabit different portions of that 
extensive range. The remainder of our account will 
apply to this people as they are found in their native 

The Ossetinians are somewhat indistinctly divided 
into three sections by the character of their religious 
profession : some are Christians, others Moslems, and 
others Pagans. The distinction between them is not 
very definite, since both Christians and Mohammedans 
retain many Pagan feelings and practices, and there is 
a strong tendency among them to fall back upon flieir 
primitive idolatry. In fact, little more than a few 
imperfect rites and forms denote the difference of 
religious profession ; but it is remarkable that they all 
equally assume to themselves individually a particular 
protecting Spirit, to whom they apply in calamity and 
danger, , and of whom they solicit assistance in the 
settlement of domestic feuds, in the prosecution of war- 
fares and marauding excursions, and even in the 
plunder of caravans and travellers. Those of the tribe 
whose villages are seen by the traveller as he crosses the 
mountains by the- principal road, which follows the 
course of the river Terek on the north and of the 
Aragui on the south, belong almost exclusively to the 
Christian and Moslem portions of the tribe, principally 
the former. They are considered the most civilized 
portion, not only of their own tribe but of all the tribes 
who inhabit these mountains, which, if it be true, may 
iu a great degree be owing to their great intercourse 
with the Russians, who have some small towns in their • 
neighbourhood, and have established military stations 
through the territory, which was once theirs, and which 
is, in fact, still theirs, except immediately on the line 
of the road which the intruders have formed. 

The i villages, of the Ossetinians are highly interesting 
and picturesque objects, as seen, from the distance, in 
the valleys, in the ravines of the mountains, and some- 
times in apparently inaccessible situations upon steep 
declivities, and on the summits of tall cliffs. The huts 

are usually collected around the remains of some old 
atone tower, which in former times served to protect 
the passes from the inroads of hostile tribes. When 
more nearly examined, however, these villages are found 
to be composed of very mean and low flat-roofed huts, 
built of mud upon a foundation of stone. The light 
is admitted by the door and through a circular hole in 
the roof. This hole serves also as a chimney for the 
discharge of smoke. In the higher portions of their 
territory, however, they are not much annoyed by 
smoke, as fuel is very scarce, and a miserable fire com- 
posed of dry dung and a very fittle wood is a great 
indulgence. But, notwithstanding the mean huts 
in which they live, in those parts where the pass is 
narrowest and can be defended with the best effect, old 
castles and towers are found of considerable strength, and 
sometimes of very superior workmanship, erected gene- 
rally on immense masses of rock or promontories, over- 
hung sometimes by the gigantic cliffs of the parent 
mountain. Some of these were forts for the defence of 
the pass, and some were, and are still, used for the resi- 
dence of the Ossetinian mirzas or chiefs. 

The people chiefly appear to the stranger as engaged 
in pastoral or agricultural pursuits ; and perhaps there 
is nothing in all the journey through the mountains 
which tends to excite more surprise than the situations 
in which these pursuits are sometimes conducted. Thus 
shepherds may be^seen pasturing their flocks on steep 
unfenced slopes, below which there are abrupt preci- 
pices of three, four, and six hundred feet. The pro- 
cesses of agriculture, such as ploughing, &c, are exe- 
cuted in similar situations. In some places hay-ricks 
may be seen upon the steep sides of the mountains 
more than 1500 feet above the valley of the Terek, and 
where it would seem impossible that any human being 
could maintain a footing. A considerable part of the 
hay is brought down on the backs of asses ; and from 
such places as are inaccessible even to those animals 
it is let down on a kind of sledge with ropes, as soon as 
the snows of winter begin to cover the mountains. The 
plough is drawn by four yoke of oxen, and is nearly 
twice the size of a common English plough, the fore 
part resting on two large wheels. To manage this 
unwieldy implement four persons are required : one 
holds the plough, two guide the oxen, and the fourth 
walks beside the ploughman to clear away the grass 
that may collect on the coulter. The following is the 
way in which they manage to plough the steep sides 
of the hills. The wheels of the plough are then of very 
different diameters, — perhaps that of the one is three 
feet, and of the other only ten inches ; the axletree 
being of such extent as to allow the smaller wheel, in 
the upper part of the acclivity, to keep pace with the 
large one, which runs in the rut below. The pole is 
fixed not midway in the axle, but nearer to the large 
wheel than to the other. These contrivances, though 
rude and badly brought out, are in principle well cal- 
culated to answer the intended purpose. 

Nevertheless, although the Ossetinians are consider- 
ably restrained by the presence of the Russian military 
stations among them, they are by no means the sort of 
people which such pacific employments would seem to 
denote. They are, in fact, a daring, intractable, and 
high-spirited race of men ; and their true character 
seems to be strikingly illustrated by the fact, that no 
man among them ever appears without a loaded gun 
slung over his shoulder, or at least a dagger in his 
girdle, and generally both. Even the shepherds as 
they watch their flocks are thus armed; and so 
are the ploughmen, except the one who guides the 
plough, and even he has it so placed on the plough 
us to reach it with ease. The dagger is a curious 
weapon > it is broad near the handle, and tapers to 
the point, being altogether about eighteen inches 

H 2 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 


[February 7, 

m length. In using this weapon the assailant stoops 
down and endeavours to thrust it into the abdomen of 
his opponent. 

This warlike appearance is not assumed merely for 
ostentation, as among the Persians and Turks. It is 
in part a result of a principle which operates strongly 
among the Ossetinians , and other mountaineers of the 
Caucasus, and which renders revenge not a passion, as 
it is generally seen among ourselves, but a deliberate 
and solemn duty, involving the consequence that every 
man goes armed, either to defend himself against the 
avenger who seeks his life, or to be ready to take any 
opportunity that offers against another whose life he 
seeks. Dr. Henderson mentions a striking instance of 
this in his ' Biblical Researches and Travels in Russia ;' 
and although the statement refers to another tribe of 
the Caucasus (the Ingush), the quotation is perfectly 
applicable, the practice being precisely similar among 
the Ossetinians. 

" Tlie most trivial circumstance is often sufficient 
to produce quarrels, which seldom terminate without 
murder. Adhering tenaciously to the Oriental law of 
* blood for blood,' they never rest satisfied without 
avenging the death of their relatives^, and the principle 
h followed out in their generations till it effects the 
death of the murderer or one of his descendants, on 
whom he is supposed to have entailed his guilt. The 
missionaries were acquainted with a young man, of an 
amiable disposition, who was worn down almost to a 
skeleton by the constant dread in which he lived of 
having avenged upon him a murder committed by his 
father before he was bom. He can reckon up more 
than 100 persons who consider themselves bound to 
take away his lif whenever a favourable opportunity 
shall present itself. There is scarcely a house in 

which there is not one implicated in something of this 
nature." # 

Another cause for the belligerent appearance of the 
Ossetinians is that propensity to plunder which they 
share with the other tribes in these mountains. In 
their case, however, this propensity is considerably 
checked by the Russian military stations established in 
their territory, and by the manner in which merchants 
and travellers are conducted across the mountains. 
Nevertheless, they watch with vigilance for opportunities 
of surprising the unguarded or unwary, and in the rob- 
beries which they commit on such occasions murders 
are sometimes committed; but it is more usually their 
endeavour to carry off" as prisoners persous whose 
appearance warrants the hope that a good ransom may 
be expected. Instances have occurred in which Russian 
officers of rank have been thus seized, and only liberated 
on the payment of ihe required ransom. The Osse- 
tinians sometimes resort to such measures in retaliation 
fbr what they consider unjustifiable conduct of the 
Russian authorities towards them. They have retreats 
among the mountains so difficult of access, that such 
proceedings can only be effectively stopped by measures 
of extreme precaution. The boldness with which such 
aggressions are committed almost within sight of the 
military stations is amazing. The individuals of the 
party with which the writer crossed the mountains 
were on all occasions anxiously cautioned against ven- 
turing out of the view of the sentinels. On one occa- 
sion, in the deep and narrow pass of Dariel, the writer 
saw a soldier posted high up, on a projection of the 
perpendicular cliff's, and was informed that he was sta- 
tioned there in consequence of a gentleman having been 
shot only a few days before near this spot* which was 
only a short distance above the military station of Lars. 


[Birth-Place of Sir Walter Raleigh.] 

Hayks' Farm, in Devonshire, situated in the parish of 
East Budleigh, fourteen miles east of Exeter, and near 
the spot where the river Otter discharges itself into the 

British Channel, is celebrated as the birth-place of Sir 
Walter Raleigh. The interior of the dwelling, which 
new constitutes a comfortable furm-houoe, has been 

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much altered at various times. The exact room in 
which Sir Walter was bora is not known ; although one 
is shown as such by the present tenant. 

This sequestered place is no longer interesting on 
any other account. The house, which is built like 
many old farm-houses in this part of England, in the 
form of the letter E, excepting the outer doors and the 
wooden frieze below the eaves of the roof, characteristic 
of the architecture of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, has few marks of antiquity about it; and the 
only article of ancient furniture which remains is a table 
with some rude carving on its sides and legs. 

Walter Raleigh, Esq., the father of Sir Walter, had 
the remainder of an eighty-years' lease of Hayes' Farm, 
and resided there during his last marriage with Ca- 
therine, daughter of Sir Philip Champernoun of Mod- 
bury, by whom he had Sir Walter, who was born in 1552. 
The accounts given by Wood, Polwhele, Lysons, and 
other topograpliers, of this interesting place, are all 
meagre : some never visited the spot, and others appear 
to have examined it but slightly. They content them- 
selves by mentioning the simple well - authenticated 
fact of its being the place of Raleigh's birth, and of the 
indelible attachment he retained for this humble resi- 
dence of his youth in the midst of his prosperity. His 
letter to Mr. Duke, on the occasion of his offering to 
purchase Hayes, is too interesting to be omitted in this 
sketch : — 

" Mr. Duke, — I wrote to Mr. Prideaux to move you 
for the purchase of Hayes, a farme sometime in my 
father's possession. I will most willingly give what- 
ever in your conscience you deeme it worth : and if at 
any time you shall have occasion to use me, you shall 
find me a thankfull friend to you and yours. I am 
resolved, if I cannot entreat you, to build at Colleton, 
but for the natural disposition I have to that place, 
being borne in that house, I had rather seate myself 
there than any where els* I take my leave, readie to 
countervail all your courtesies to the utter of my power. 

" Court, y 9 xxvi of July, 1584* 

This letter, which did not obtain that result so 
anxiously desired by Sir Walter, was some time since 
to be seen at Otter ton House, but probably is no longer 
in existence. 

Hayes belongs at present to Lord Rolle, having 
been purchased by him with other estates of the puke 

In East Budleigh church, the oaken j>ew, stilf at- 
tached to Hayes' farm, is pointed out, which was occu- 
pied by the Raleigh family. The exterior of it is 
embellished by ancient carved work, among which aic 
t!*e arms of Wymoud Raleigh, grandfather of Sir 
Walter, quartering those of Jane his wile, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Grenville, knt. On an adjoining pannel 
is the date " 1534." 

The parish register, which is still in a good state of 
preservation, commences only in 1555, three years after 
that of the birth of Sir Walter. 


{.Concluded ftom Na 181.] 

The policy which guided this country at one period, in 
our relations with the Indian tribes, was exclusively 
directed to the means of securing their alliance in the 
wars in which we, were engaged with the French in 
Canada, about the middle of the last century, and during 
the contest of the Anglo-American colonies for their 
independence at a somewhat later period. Within the 
last few years a better spirit has been infused into our 
system, nobler objects have been kept in view, and 
some attention has been paid to the moral wants of 
the native population. Many curious particulars 
relating to our connexion with these tribes, are given 

in a Refc>ort presented to Parliament in the course of 
last Session. 9 

Previous to the year 1816, not less than 150,000/. a 
year were paid as the price of the services rendered to 
this country by the Indians. A government depart- 
ment had been created, called the " Indian department," 
whose functions entirely cousisted in maintaining the 
relations of Great Britain with the different tribes on 
an amicable footing. This was chiefly accomplished by 
annual presents to the chiefs and to ail the members of 
a tribe, and was considered as a sort of retaining fee of 
the nature of half-pay. Annual payments were also 
made to those tribes whose lands had been ceded to the 
Crown. ^ 

In 1627, the Earl of Ripon (then Lord G ode rich) 
took means for ascertaining the precise expense of 
the " Indian department. " Great reductions have 
since been effected, and the value of presents does not 
now amount to 20,000/. a-year. The expenses of the 
department are also reduced to about 3,500/. It con- 
sists of^ one chief superintendent and one secretary ; six 
superintendents and an assistant; eight interpreters, five 
missionaries, and one schoolmaster. 

In 1830, among the Indians in the provinces of Upper 
and Lower Canada, presents were distributed to the*, 
following claimants, some of whom came 1600 miles to 
receive tbese pledges of our friendship. There were 84 
chiefs and 94 warriors, who had been wounded in action ; 
184 wives or widows of chiefs or warriors; 321 chiefs; 
4948 warriors; 5910 wives of warriors; 1400 boys, 
aged from one to four; 1 101 from five to nine; 1226 
from ten to fifteen ; 1502 girls, from one to four years 
of age; Toil from five to nine; 898 from ten to 
fourteen .—Total 18,709. 

The distribution of articles of personal comfort and 
utility consisted of 20,000 blankets, 2625 yards of 
cloth, 22,986 yards of printed calico, 3064 yards of 
Irish linen, 21,435 yards of Scotch sheeting, 83,268 
yards of gartering or binding. The blanket is an 
inestimable article to the Indian as a covering in severe 
weather both by night and day. Sometimes it is made 
up into a coat with a coloured edging. In articles of 
distinction and personal magnificence we find 30 pairs 
of silver gorgets, the rarest, and consequently highest, 
mark of honour which can be conferred on an Indian. 
Individuals of somewhat inferior pretensions receive ^ 
silver arm-bands, of which 46 were distributed, or 
perhaps a silver medal, there being 42 in the list of 
presents. The females, we should suppose, are not less 
gratified with their presents thaft the other sex. Their 
influence is secured by 5398 pairs of silver u ear-bobs " 
and 7186 silver brooches. To complete their toilet there 
are 93 dozen looking-glasses, 9162 horn, ivory, and 
box-combs, 702 silk handkerchiefs, 5324 yards of 
ribbon, and 2387 ounces of vermilion. The gradual 
progress of the habits of civilized life is indicated by 
the following articles: — 176 chiefs' laced hats andl72 
plain , hats, and 606 pairs of shoes. We are glad to 
perceive such as the following : — 18,248 sewing-needles, 
6021 ounces of sewing-thread, 803 pairs of scissors, 
and 124 dozen buttons ; there are but 50 thimbles. 
Frying-pans have been discontinued, but there is a 
supply of 870 brass and 803 tin kettles. Of articles 
which are to be used either in the chase or in war, there 
are 12,978 butchers' knives, 16,743 lbs. of powder, 
43,397 lbs. of shot, 22,598 flints, 5447 gun-worms, 
607 chiefs' guns, 310 rifles, 679 common guns, 216 
gun-locks, 450 tomahawks with pipe-handles, and 
flags. There is also a. supply of fishing-hooks and 
lines, thread and rope for nets, beaver- traps, and 5449 
fire-steels. Above 11,000 lbs. of tobacco are issued, 
but the supply of pipes has been discontinued, in 
consequence of the immense quantities which used to 
be broken in their conveyance to the different sutioua 

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[Februaw 7, 

The butcher'* knife, a few pounds of powder and shot, 
and some gun-flints, with a good blanket, constitute 
the common present, but the chiefs and those who have 
been wounded are more highly rewarded. 

It was proposed that money should be giren in lieu 
of presents, but to use the strong expression of Lord 
Dalhousie, who was governor at the time when such a 
plan was contemplated, his Majesty's Government 
" would be loaded by the execrations of the country," 
if such a measure were adopted. The Indians would 
have soon felt its fatal effects in the increased intem- 
perance which it would have induced, and they would 
have been flung back still farther from the state of 
civilization to which they have begun to perceive it was 
their interest to cling as a means of preserving their 
national existence. This view of the nature of their 
position could not fail to be forced on them. The 
% advances of agriculture were gradually destroying the 
value of their hunting-grounds on the one hand, and on 
the other, if they should be driven for subsistence towards 
those of more westerly tribes^ their intrusion would not 
only , be regarded with jealousy, but would occasion 
bloodshed and murder. The British Government surely 
and humanely, therefore, does everything in its power 
to induce the Indians to settle and to pursue agricultural 
employments. In a conference which two deputies of 
the Iroquois nation had with Sir George Murray, at 
the period when he was Secretary for the Colonies in 
1830, he pointed out 'to them how much it would be 
for the advantage of the Indian nations generally, that 
they should depart gradually from their old habits of 
life. In an official memorandum of this interview, Sir 
George is stated to have held the following language 
to the Iroquois : — " He represented to them that the 
white population, by the habits of cultivation, were 
spreading everywhere over the country like a flood of 
water; and unless the Indians would confornvthem- 
selves to those habits of life, and would bring up their 
children to occupy farms, and cultivate the ground in 
the same manner with the white people, that they would 
be gradually swept away by this flood, and would be 
altogether lost ; but by accepting grants of land, and 
cultivating farms, they would gradually increase their 
numbers and their wealth, and retain their situation in 
a country in which they were so well entitled to have a 
share, and in which he had a very sincere desire to see 
them prosperous and happy." 

Considerable tracts of land have been allotted to 
Indians who are disposed to settle, but their previous 
habits* are a strong obstacle to the application of regular 
industry ; and their notions of hospitality, which com- 
pel them to share their all with any wandering Indians 
that join them, is a great discouragement to the increase 
of industrious and settled habits. 

The preservation -of wild animals, especially of the 
larger class, is incompatible with the due cultivation of 
the land. The situation of the Indians is merefore 
surrounded with difficulties, and would be desperate if 
no indications existed of their desire to overcome them. 
But we are glad to state that proofs abound both of 
their wish to settle themselves on the land and to re- 
ceive instruction. A portion of the Mohawks who 
separated from their tribe many years ago, have become 
tolerable farmers, and some of them have assumed the 
dress of Europeans. The Chippewas, who amount to 
about 500 souls, have expressed a strong desire to^ be 
admitted to Christianity, and to adopt the habits of 
civilized life. v The Mississiquas, who were lately noto 
lious for their drunkenness and disorderly habits, are 
now settled in a village consisting of twenty log-huts, 
eighteen feet by twenty-four, each having an upper 
story. The school is attended by thirty-one boys, who 
spell and read English fluently. They have two en- 
closures of about seven acres of wheat and a field on 

the banks of the river containing about thirty-five acres 
of Indian corn in a promising state of cultivation. A 
small plot is attached to each of their dwellings for 
potatoes and garden produce. , The expense of erecting 
these log-houses was about 250/. They hare since 
added some of their own construction similar to those 
first erected. About 2000 of the Mohawks and the 
Six Nations have retained 260,000 acres of good land 
in Upper Canada. Their knowledge of farming is 
stated to be exceedingly limited, being chiefly confined 
to the cultivation of Indian corn, beans, and potatoes; 
but some of them, of more industrious habits, raise 
most kinds of English grain. The following state- 
ment of their possessions has been compiled with care 
and attention : — dwelling-houses, 416; computed 
number of acres of land in cultivation, 6872 ; horses, 
738; cows, 869 ; oxen, 613; sheep, 192; swine, 1630. 
In 1826 the government settled 200 Indians on Credit 
River, and built twenty huts for them. They have 
since built seven more for themselves. They have a 
meeting-house, which is also used as a school-house 
for the boys ; there is another school- room for the girls, 
and a house for the resident missionary. They are 
generally anxious that their children should learn some 
traa"e, and particularly that a blacksmith should be 
settled among them who might instruct their children 
in his art, as they now incur a heavy expense by sending 
their farming implements to different forges. A change 
of a cheering nature has also taken place in their tastes. 
Those trinkets and gaudy-coloured clothes which they 
formerly admired so much are now held in light esti- 
mation ; and they would prefer receiving twine, rope, 
and lead sufficient to make a couple of nets, which 
would supply them with fish. The women are in 
general industrious, and can earn a considerable sum 
by making baskets. 

In consequence of these and other gratifying indi- 
cations, it has been proposed to furnish them with 
agricultural implements in lieu of the ordinary presents. 
This would doubtless greatly contribute to the improve- 
ment of their condition, and enhance the value of civi- 
lization in their eyes; but the scale on which exertions 
of this nature should be carried on ought to be com- 
prehensive, and have reference also to their moral ad- 
vancement. They already thirst for instruction, and 
one of the Potagunnser Indians, being assembled with 
the whole of his tribe, expressed in the following terms 
their desire to receive the rudiments of knowledge. 
Addressing the chief member of the Indian department, 
he said : — " Father, we have observed with some degree 
of jealousy the establishment of a place at Michilr- 
mackinac, at which (missionary school) the children of 
our great father (Indians) are taught the means of 
living the same way the whites do, where they also 
learn to mark their thoughts on paper, and to think the 
?iews from books (to read and write) as you do; we 
have heard too, my father, something which gives us 
hopes that our great father will give us the means to live 
as the white people do. 

"Father, our young men who carried your papers 
to York last winter, tell us, that our brethren about 
that place, who, like ourselves, were great drunkard? 
and bad people, are now become sober and industrious 
The Great Spirit favours them because they know how 
to ask his blessing. I am sure if our fathers at York 
and Quebec were acquainted with the misery and hard- 
ships we undergo, they would teach us how to }>e 
beloved of the Great Spirit (to become civilized), and 
we would be more happy. 

* f Father, our great father at Xork has given our 
brethren the means to cut up the ground (plough), and 
has taught them to cultivate the land. How they are 
favoured ! We wish he would favour us in the same way. 

" Father, we might send our children to Mackinac 

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to get sense (be instructed), but we we not big knives 
(Americans), therefore we wish you would deliver this 
our parole to our father ai'York with your own, hands, 
and tell him our wants. Tou have been a long time 
with us, and know our misery. Tell him we went such a 
house and good people as they have at Michilimackinac 
to teach us to read and write and to work ; we have 
arms as well as the whites, but we do not know how to 
use them. Our hearts are dark, we want them made 
white (become Christians). How we should laugh to 
see our daughters milking cows .and making dresses 
for us, and to see the young men beating iron and 
making shoes for each other ! 

" Father, tell our father that we squeeze him hard 
by the hand and trust that he will assist us ; tell him 
we want some hoes and spades to dig with ; don't leave 
our father until you get him" to say yes.'' 

The Indians disposed to abandon their habits of 
savage life and to become settlers, should be located in 
villages at no great distance from other settlements, by 
whose example they might profit. In his first steps iu 
civilization the Indian is like a child, and persons 
should be attached to their settlements capable of 
instructing them in the principles of agriculture, 
and they should not be permitted to dispose of the 
lands marked out for them. The probable expense of 
settling 700 families in seven settlements would be 
22,784/. for five years. This would include seven 
school-houses (to serve also in the first instance as 
cjiurches), at a cost of 100/. each; seven houses for 
schoolmasters, at 60/. each ; and the salaries of seven 
schoolmasters at 46/. each per annum, for f\\e succes- 
sive years. It would also be desirable to maintain a 
few pairs of oxen in each settlement to lend to such 
Indians as may be disposed to use them in ploughing 
their land. In fine, in order to turn to the best account 
the disposition to settle which now very generally per- 
vades the Indian tribes, Sir James Kempt, then holding 
an official situation in the Panadas, proposed thrt they 
should be apprized, through the medium of their grand 
councils, of the conditions on which they might obtain 
land ; and that an intimation should be made to them 
that at the expiration of a certain period the encourage- 
ment offered to Indian settlers would be withdrawn. 
Sir James recommends that not less than 100 acres 
should be granted to each family, a proportion, con- 
sidering the climate and other circumstances, which 
will not exceed the wants of the Indian settler ; and 
that a final title should be conferred only on certain 
conditions having been fulfilled, viz., — that two acres 
of land shall have been cultivated within the first 
year, three more within the second, and at the end of 
the third year that eight acres shall have been cleared 
and^cultivated. The location of the Indians in country 
lots would be found much more advantageous in. pro- 
ducing habits of temperance and industry than by 
assembling them in villages. The establishment of 
carpenters, blacksmiths, and other artisans in the Indian 
settlements should be encouraged by the government, 
in order that the latter might learn to repair their agri- 
cultural instruments and construct their own houses. 
Without the assistance of the government, indeed, it is 
impossible to produce any extensive or effective results 
on the Indian character and modes of life. Another 
powerful means of creating a change would be by 
educating a portion of Indian children with those of 
the white inhabitants at the common English schools 
of the country, who might afterwards act as school- 
masters. A few might be educated in a superior 
manner as missionaries. The religion of the Indians 
of Lower Canada n the Roman Catholic. In Upper 
Canada there are but few of this persuasion, and the 
missionaries are rapidly converting the heathen part of 
them to Christianity, 

Although we cannot point out an Indian community 
in Canada exhibiting so many of the characteristics of 
civilization as the Cherokee nation, yet the remarkable 
desire which is experienced by many of the Canadian 
tribes to give up their wandering life is a symptom 
which, if turned to good account, is capable of pro- 
ducing equally happy results. 


Tin — (continued). 
Separation of the metal from the ores. — The ores found 
in veins and that of the stream works are subjected to 
different processes of smelting, for they produce metal 
very different in point of purity. That obtained from 
mine tin is always of inferior quality, owing to the 
mixture of other metals, and which it is probable could 
not by any mode be got rid of; it is known in commerce 
by the name of common or block tin, and the quantity 
produced forms a large proportion of the whole that is 
brought to market. Stream tin produces a superior 
metal, known by the name of grain tin, which is prin- 
cipally used by the dyers, and for the finer purposes. 
The first operation after the mine tin is brought to the 
surface, is to break it into pieces the size of a man's 
fist, and tQ reject such portions as do not contain more 
ore than will repay the cost of dressing, the first great 
operation in the smelting process. As the ore is some- 
times so scattered through the vein stone as to be 
scarcely perceptible to the eye, the workman from time 
to time reduces a small quantity to an impalpable 
powder; and, by repeatedly immersing it in water and 
shaking it on a shovel, the heavier metallic particles 
separate from the lighter impurities, and in that way 
the quality of the ore is ascertained. The ore, roughly 
broken, is ^aken to the stamping mill, which consists of 
several heavy upright wooden beams, shod with iron, 
and raised successively by wheels set in motion either 
by a steam-engine or water-wheel ; and the ore passing 
beneath these beams in succession, as it becomes smaller 
and smaller, and through sieves of various bores under 
the surface of water, is at last brought to the state of 
coarse powder. This powder is now subjected to a 
great variety of washings and sittings, in all of which 
the purpose is to take advantage of the high specific 
gravity of the ore, and so to separate it mechanically 
from the lighter stony substances with which it is 
united in the vein. All these operations are conducted 
with more than ordinary care, for as the ore contains so 
large a proportion of valuable metal, it is important to 
guard against waste. But being sometimes mixed with 
other metallic ores which, from their specific gravity 
approaching so near that of the tin, cannot be removed 
by any process of washing, and these being for the^ 
most part decomposable by heat, the pounded ore is 
roasted in furnaces with a moderate and regular fire; 
after which it is again washed, and the tin ore, which is 
unalterable by that low heat, is obtained in a greater 
degree of _ purity. It is now in a state to yield from 
fifty to seventy-five per cent, of metal, and it is then 
sold to the smelter, who determines its value by assay- 
ing a sample carefully taken from the whole quantity. 
The smelting- furnaces hold from twelve to sixteen 
hundred- weight of ore, and this is mixed with certain 
proportions of coal and slaked lime. The ore is an 
oxide of tin : the carbon of the coal unites with the 
oxygen, and thus the metal is set free, the lime acting 
as a flux to assist the melting. The heat employed is a 
very strong one, and such as to bring the whole mass 
into fusion, and is continued for seven or eight hours. 
The liquid tin is run off into an iron kettle from a hole 
in the bottom of the furnace, leaving the slag or im- 
purities behind. The tin is ladled into moulds, to form 
plates of a moderate size, to be refined by an after process. 

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[February 7, 1£8fc 

The impurities still adhering art generally iron, copper, 
or arsenic, and these are separated by fresh meltings and 
exposure to heated air ; and then the pure tin is cast 
into granite moulds capable of containing somewhat 
more than three cwt. each. These are called, blocks, 
and are sent, according to the. provisions of the stannary 
laws, to be stamped (or coined, as it is termed) by the 
Duchy officers, and it then comes to market under the 
name of block tin. The stream tin ore, after being 
dressed by poundings and washings, is carried to a blast 
furnace, where, being mixed with wood-charcoal, it is 
subjected to a very powerful heat urged by bellows 
moved by an engine. The melted tin is received in an 
iron kettle, under which there is a gentle fire, and it is 
kept in agitation by plunging pieces of charcoal — which 
have been soaked in Water — into it, and which by means 
of ail iron tool are kept at the bottom of the kettle.: 
the water in the. charcoal is rapidly converted into 
vapour, and so the agitation is kept up, and any 
impurities in the tin are thrown up to the surface and 
skimmed off; and then the metal, which is peculiarly 
brilliant in appearance, is removed by ladles into moulds 
to form blocks. This is grain tin. 

The Stannaries (so called from siannum, Latin for 
tin) are courts in Devonshire and Cornwall for the 
administration of justice among the tinners. They are 
of very ancient date, and were instituted, according to 
Blackstone, " that the tinners might not be drawn 
from their business, which is highly profitable to the 
public, by attending their law-suits in other courts." 
The privileges of the tinners are confirmed by a charter 
of Edward I. There is a volume containing a collec- 
tion of the "Laws of the Stannaries," which gives ah 
account of" the Convocation or Parliament of Tinners," 
held by James Earl Waldegrave, Lord Warden of the 
Stannaries, by virtue of a commission from King 
George. IT., as Lord Duke of Cornwall, in the year 
1752 ; and upon that occasion, it is said, there were pre- 
sent twenty-four " Stannators returned for the four stan- 
naries." These laws enter into great detail, and regulate 
all the proceedings in the working of the mines, in the 
smelting-houses, and in the buying and selling of the 

The amount of tin coined in Cornwall and Devon in 
the year ending the 30th June last was 4180 tons, con- 
sisting of 23,586 blocks of common tin and 1490 blocks 
of grain tin. The average produce for the last six 
years has been about 4250 tons. The quantity of 
British tin exported generally exceeds 2200 tons, of 
which nearly one half goes to France alone, about a 
fourth to Italy and the Levant, about an eighth to 
Germany and Holland, the same amount to Russia and 
other parts of the Baltic, and about 120 tons to Spain 
and Portugal. 

The only part of Europe besides Great Britain in 
which tin is now obtained in any quantity is Germany. 
There are mines in Bohemia, Saxony and Silesia, and 
the produce is sufficient to supply a large proportion of 
the demand for this metal in that part of Europe. 
There are some mines of high antiquity in Spain, in 
Gallieia, but we have no information respecting their 
present state. It was not known to exist in any part 
of France till the year 1809, when it was discovered 
not far from Limoges, in the department of Haute 
Vienne; and, in the year 1817, it was accidentally found 
in the south of Brittany, not far from the mouth of the 
river Loire. A marine officer, who had long been 
detained as a prisoner of war in England, and had been 
quartered in Cornwall in the neighbourhood of the tin- 
mines, returned to his native town of Piriac, a small 
sea-port of the department of the Lower Loire. Going 
out sea- fishing one day, and wanting some weights for 
his lines, he picked up a pebble on the shore, which 
appearing to him unusually heavy, he took it home to 

compare with a piece of Cornish stream tin which he 
had brought from the place of his captivity, and found 
it to be the same substance. He gave notice of his 
discovery in the proper quarter, and M. Dufrenoy, now 
a distinguished French geologist, then a young aspirant 
of the School of Mines, was sent with another to inves- 
tigate the matter, and the report they made shows a 
remarkable uniformity of structure between that part 
of Brittany and the tin district of Cornwall on the 
opposite side of the Channel. The country between 
the mouth of the Loire and Piriac is composed of gra- 
nite and slate, and it is at the junction of these rocks 
that the tin ore is chiefly found. They met with veins 
traversing the rocks, and a considerable quantity of 
stream tin both in the form of pebbles and of sand ; 
and their impression was, that this stream tin was pro- 
duced by the wearing of the rocks containing the veins 
by the action of the waves ; the same action going on 
now, as in Cornwall in remote ages. The continued 
large importations of tin from England into France 
shows that this discovery has not as yet been attended 
with any great results. 

By far the largest quantity of tin that has yet been 
found in any part of the world is, after Cornwall, in the 
Indian Archipelago. It has been met with as well on 
the continent as in the islands, from about 8° north to 
5° south latitude, and from 98° to 107° of east longi- 
tude. It is found in Siam, and in numerous parts of 
the Malayan peninsula, and in the islets on its coast, 
and in the island of Borneo ; but the richest mines are 
in the island of Bancs, which lies off the south-eastern 
part of Sumatra. The discovery was accidental, in the 
year 1740, when some stream tin was smelted in a fire 
that had been made on the ground. The ore is wholly 
of this description, and occurs, as in Cornwall, in alluvial 
deposits; it is seldom followed below 30 or 40 feet 
deep, and the beds of ore frequently lie within three or 
four feet of the surface. The mines are exclusively 
worked by Chinese under the authority of the govern- 
ment, and they deliver the metal at a fixed rate. The 
smelting is conducted by a very simple and rude pro- 
cess, and yields from 50 to 70 per cent, of pure metal; 
where it yields less than 30 per cent, it is not thought 
worth working. In thirty years after the discovery the 
mines yielded no less than 3870 tons, and in the most 
prosperous times they are said to have produced about 
3500 tons annually, but latterly not more than half 
that quantity. The mines are in the northern and 
western parts of the island, but a large portion of it 
yet remains to be explored, and in the opinion of Sir 
Stamford Raffles, there seems no reason to apprehend 
any deficiency in the ore for centuries. Mr. Crawford 
thinks that the falling off is Tiore to be ascribed to a 
want of skill in the art of mining than to any deficiency 
of the ore. The higher mountains of Bahca are of 
granite, and the stream tin is found in gravel composed 
of granite and other primary rocks. Sir S. Raffles is 
of opinion that the tin ore found in the Malayan pe- 
ninsula, and islands, including that of Banca, has been 
originally washed down from the great central moun- 
tains of the continent which terminate the Eastern 
peninsula. The principal demand for Banca and 
Malay tin is in China, which is probably not less than 
1000 tons in the year, and Bengal takes off about half 
that quantity, the remainder going to America and 
Europe. The Banca tin bears a higher price in China 
than the British, which is to be expected, for it is the 
purer, grain tin ; and the British, which comes in com- 
petition with it, is probably the common block tin. 

%• The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in at 
59 Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


Printed by William Clowes, Duke Street, Lambeth. 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

JQ^ -] PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. [February 14, 1885. 

■ ■— — — — — —^— ^- i . . i . i . .. .. ■—— — — —^^^— — . , ., .■!> 





Vol. IV. 

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This- room, which is situated parallel to that which 
contains the Elgin marbles, and is about one-third of 
its sjze, has been lately erected, from the designs of 
Mr. Smirke, for the reception of the massive Egyptian 
antiquities which were formerly, deposited in an un- 
plastered barmlike apartment. In such erections, we 
always feel a desire that, so far as is compatible 
with their uses as show-rooms, care should be taken 
to give to the apartment a distinct architectural cha- 
racter, corresponding with that of the class of objects 
which it is destined to receive. So we would that the 
Egyptiau Room should have a character distinctly 
Egyptian. We do not mean that its columns, walls, 
and eeiling should display ornaments such as occur in 
an Egyptian building, — for the imitation would have 
been misplaced and revolting in the midst of the true 
productions of Egyptian art ; — but we mean that the 
apartment should have something of that heavy and 
massive character which^ distinguishes the architecture 
of ancient Egypt, and which so well agrees with the 
gigantic and passionless forms by which its sculpture is 
distinguished. The present room does not gratify this 
taste so much as we should have desired, although it 
is plain that, in the peculiar construction of the room, 
it has not been wholly kept out of view. The reader 
will receive a better notion of the room from the en- 
graving than from any verbal description. The fluted 
columns at the entrance, and the pilasters which line 
the apartment, are in very good taste ; and the latter, 
which are peculiar to this room, must have been designed 
•with a distinct reference to Egyptian architecture, which 
required many pillars to support the roof. They form re- 
cesses, about three feet deep, in which the smaller anti- 
quities are deposited, and where sculptured tablets and 
paintings are ranged on shelves against the wall . All the 
other apartments in which sculptured antiquities are de- 
posited are lighted from the top, for the convenience of the 
artists who frequent them for the purposes of study ; but 
in the present instance the architect has availed himself 
of the circumstance that the Egyptian antiquities are not 
in any way studied as models to throw the light through 
the side walls by common oblong windows, one of 
which is between every two pilasters. Merely in point 
of taste and effect, the light thus admitted is, however, 
too glaring and abundant. ' " A dim religious light " 
would be most suitable to the objects around* But we 
must admit that, for the purposes of an exhibition-room, 
and for the use of the many who go to see minutely 
and fully, it is well as it is. We decidedly feel, however, 
that the room is much too small for what it already 
contains, without calculating on what may require 
admission to it hereafter. Those great masses of figured 
rock require a certaiu extent of clear space around 
them, without which they seem as crowded as the 
plaster figures on the head-board of an Italian vender : 
such space they cannot obtain in this room ; and we 
perceive, indeed, that some Egyptian figures which 
ought to have been there have not been able on any 
terms to obtain admission. Nevertheless, so far as the 
limited extent allowed, the antiquities appear to have 
been arranged with considerable taste, and are displayed 
to the best advantage. The larger sculptures have 
been mounted on pedestals corresponding to their pro- 

It is evident that the removal of immense blocks of 
stone, such as some of these sculptures are, and the 
placing them upon pedestals, must have been a work of 
great labour and some peril. This was performed by 
artillerymen from Woolwich, under the direction of 
officers of engineers ; and, upon the whole, was accom- 
plished without any very serious accident to those 
engaged in it, and without damage to the figures. 


. Tin — {continued). 

Uses of Tin. — The principal consumption of this 
metal is in the preparation of tin-plate, which is not 
solid tin, but iron coated with tin. Thrs is a very 
important branch of manufacture, both for home con- 
sumption and for export. Although tin has been so 
long a staple article of England, this manufacture was 
unknown here until about the year 1665, when it was 
brought' into this country from the tin-works in the 
Erzgebirge, a range of metalliferous mountains which 
separate Saxony from Bohemia, by an enterprising 
Englishman of the name of Yarranton, who went lo 
Germany on purpose. He k met With considerable 
obstacles in introducing it, and it was not carried on 
to any extent for neairly half a century afterwards, 
The manufacture was first established on a large scale 
at Pont-y-Pool, in Monmouthshire, probably on account 
of the vicinity of the iron-works in the Forest of Dean, 
the iron there being, from its purity, particularly adapted 
for tin-plate. This stealing of the process from the 
Germans was, however, only a return for a benefit of a 
similar nature they had received from England, for it 
was a Cornish miner who first discovered the tin-ore of 
the Erzgebirge; and in gratitude, a monument was 
erected to his memory on the spot. The process of 
making tin-plate may be thus briefly described. Eng- 
lish bar-iron of the finest quality is used ; (t is. rolled 
into plates of different degrees of thickness, and cut 
into plates of various dimensions for the different kinds 
of tin-plate commonly Used. The iron-plates are first 
cleansed by immersion in diluted muriatic acid ; — then 
scaled by exposure to a strong heat, when scales of 
oxide of iron fall off; — rolled a second time, immersed 
in diluted sulphuric acid, and then well rubbed with 
hemp and sand. The object of these processes is lo 
obtain a smooth, uniform, and purely metallic surface, 
— that is, without any oxide adhering to it, by which 
the particles of iron and tin may be brought into more 
direct contact, and so adhere more strongly. Au iroit- 
pot is nearly filled with equal parts of block and grain 
tin, and when this is melted, a quantity of tallow is 
added, sufficient to cover the fluid metal to the depth of 
four inches. This is done to prevent the oxidation of 
the tin. The prepared iron-plates are dipped into the 
melted tin, and a eoatijig of it firmly adheres to the 
iron; and after some farther manipulations, to render 
the tinned surface as entire and uniform as possible, the 
process is completed. 

Vessels for cooking and other purposes, which are 
made of iron' or copper, being liable to be acted upon 
by the air, water, acids, fat, and other substances, must 
be tinned; and this is done by first rubbing the cleafl 
surfaces of the vessel with sal-ammoniac, heating them, 
pouring in melted tin, and revolving them, so that the 
tin may come in contact with every part of the iron or 
copper. Pins, which are made of brass wire, are 
whitened by being boiled in a solution in which tin is 
dissolved by the acid of cream of tartar. Pewter, when 
of the best quality, is composed of 10^ parts of tin, S of 
antimony, 4 of copper, and I of bismuth; but the com- 
mou sorts contain a large proportion of lead. Bell 
metal is a compound of copper and tin ; and the solder 
used by plumbers and glaxiers is composed of three 
parts of lead and one of tin. The silvering of looking- 
glasses is a mixture of tin and mercury. When beaten 
into thin leaves it is called tin-foil, — a substance ex- 
tensively used in the arts. These are the principal 
purposes for which metallic tin is employed. Com- 
bined with oxygen it forms a white powder called putty, 
which is used for prlishing metals and glass, and fs the 
basis of the finest white enamel. This must not be 
confounded with glaziers 1 putty, which is a mixture 

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of chalk and linseed oiL A solution of tin in nitro- 
muriatic acid is extensively used in dyeing as a mordant, 
being one of those substances which, having an affinity 
both for the cloth and for the dye, fixes the colour: it 
is an essential ingredient in producing the finest scarlet 
and crimson in woollen cloths, A compound of sulphur 
and tin yields beautiful golden-coloured scales, very 
soft and glossy to the touch, readily rubbed between 
the fingers, and when the colour is brought out by a 
little friction, having a fine golden. metallic lustre : this 
is what is called Mosaic gotd, and it is extensively used 
for bronzing, and by japanners for gilding ornaments 
on tea-trays and other wares ; — so that here, as in other 
things, " it is not all gold that glitters." 

GOLD FISH (Cyprihub Auratus). 

[From a Correspondent.] 

Thess beautiful fish are of the carp genus, and are natives 
of China. The rivers of that country, according to Du 
Halde, abound with them, and when preserved in vases 
they form a considerable amusement to the Chinese ladies. 
These fish, though naturally very tender, have long been 
naturalized in Britain, where they also breed freely. They 
were first introduced into this country about the year 1691, 
but were not generally known till 1728, when a great number 
were presented to Sir Matthew Dekker, and have gradually 
been distributed to most parts of the country. They breed 
in ponds and small portions of water, but are not to be found 
in any of our rivers. A flow of water, even through a 
pond, is almost sure of destroying them, the water, by such 
a change, proving too cold for them : but in stagnant water, 
and even in fetid ditches, they appear to do well. Their 
spawning time in England varies according to the season, 
being seldom earlier than May, or later than July, and, 
under very favourable circumstances, they will spawn even 
more than once in the year. The approach qf this season is 
known, as with other fish, by their following each other 
with very tjtrickened motion, so much so, that they will 
sometimes jump out of the water, or thrust themselves 
into weeds so near the bank as to allow themselves to be 
taken by the hand. The milters, or male fish, are not dis- 
tinguishable from the spawners, or females, by any difference 
of colour, as many have supposed, but are known by the dorsal 
fin, which in the male fish is short, and ends abruptly ; but in 
the female it is long, extending almost to the tail, and is of 
a fan-like shape. The actual time of spawning may be 
perceived by an unusual stillness in the fish, and by their 
keeping in deep water, even in the hottest weather, contrary 
to their usual practice, which is, to remain basking in the 
sun at the very surface, and with their backs frequently 
out of the water. The increase of these fish, when first 
put into a pond, will bo very considerable, but after a time, 
unless the young fry are removed, there is little or no 
increase ; this arises, no doubt, from theircating the spawn 
before it has life. In the Chinese rivers the spawn is carefully 
collected, and exposed for sale, and a great number of barks 
may be seen on the great river Yangtse-kiang, which go 
thither to purchase it. When the spawn becomes alive, the 
fish are of a very dark colour, many of them nearly black, 
and others of a dark slate colour. The former of these produce 
the red or gold fish, and the latter the white or silver fish. 
The time at which this change takes place is very various. In 
some it happens at the end of the first year, but in others 
not till the second or third year, or even perhaps later. Our 
observations do not enable us to give any general rule on 
this subject. Although these fish are extremely tender, yet 
they are seldom affected by our coldest winters, and teem 
in tiie spring to have been not at all altered by the winter 
months. The heat, however, of the hand, is sufficient to 
deprive them of life, and is probably one reason why they 
seldom live long when confined in glasses. Persons who 
are desirous of keeping them should change the water very 
frequently, and remove the fish by a small landing-net. It 
is also of advantage to keep them during the night in a 
pail or tub of water, and remove them into the more con- 
fined place in the morning. The best time of the year to 
take them from the pond is during the month of April, or 
before they become heavy with spawn ; for in a state of 
confinement tljey seldom or never survive the spawning 
season. They never Bpawn in a transparent vessel. The 

colours also of these elegant and\ beautiful fish vary con- 
siderably at different seasons ; but we have always noticed ' 
that the colours are the most brilliant about the time they 
spawn. When Icept in pondi they may be made very 
familiar. By occasionally feeding them with bread they 
become tame, and will generally begin to congregate on 
hearing the sound of the human voice. It is not at all 
unusuol for them to be brought together at the sound of a 
whistle, or other shrill noise. But if any attempt is made 
to catch them, either by hook or net, they become extremely 
shy, and it is not until after a considerable time that they 
again become familiar. 

Pride of a Cow. — A correspondent informs us that.^hile 
on a visit at the country-house of a lady, it one day happened 
that they were passing the cow-house' just at the time when 
the dairy-maid was driving home the cows to be milked. 
They all passed in quietly enough, with the exception of one, 
which stood lowing at the door, and resisted every effort of 
the dairy-maid to induce her to enter. When the maid was 
interrogated as to the cause of this obstinacy, she attributed 
it to pride ; and, "when surprise was expressed at this, she 
explained that, whenever any other of the cows happened to 
get in before her, this particular cow would seem quite 
affronted, and would not enter at all unless the others were 
turned out again, and she had an opportunity of walking in 
before them. This statement having excited curiosity, and 
a wish to ascertain its accuracy, the maid was desired to re- 
double her exertions to induce the cow to enter ; on which 
she chased the animal through every corner of the yard, but 
without success, until she at last desisted from want of breath, 
declaring that there was no other remedy than to turn out 
the other cows. She was then permitted to make the experi- 
ment ; and no sooner were the others driven out than in 
walked the gratified cow, with a stately air, her more humbler 
minded companions following meekly in her train 

Fluid Ink.— All ink may be rendered fluid by putting 
into the inkstand a small quantity — that is, a piece not 
bigger than a pin's head — of prepared Ox-galls, which 
may be purchased at any artist's colour-shop. 

General Jackson's Snuff-box,— We have been furnished 
with an extract of a letter from Washington, the writer of 
which, in describing an interview with the President of the 
United States, relates that the latter showed him a porcelain 
snuff-box, which he had just then received as a present from 
England. It contained a paper, Btating that it was offered 
as a grateful memorial from a British soldier of the kind 
treatment he had received while a prisoner of General 
Jackson. The old soldier stated that he was now employed 
in a manufactory of porcelain in Staffordshire, and begged 
that the General would receive the box as a humble mbute 
of his gratitude. 

Minstrelsy in the Sandwich Islands. — In one of our 
country excursions we, were entertained with a specimen of 
the minstrelsy of the islanders, which might have suggested 
ideas of the ancient bards in our own islands, though in 
point of simplicity the instrument far surpassed that of our 
ancestors. It was, formed of two gourds, one considerably larger 
than the other, into the neck of which that of the smaller 
one was tightly driven. Doubling his legs under him, the 
minstrel seatedf himself on a mat* before us, and, taking the 
instrument in his left hand, secured it to his wrist by a strong 
string purposely attached : he began, in recitative, to sing 
the exploits of the celebrated Tamaahmah during his many 
wars. There was but littlo display either of vocal or instru- 
mental music, but his gesticulations were admirably suited 
to' the scenes he wished to depict, — the rage of hattle, — the 
meeting of friends, — the endearments of affection, — and 
even the sea sickuess experienced in his passage from one 
island to another. The gourd was violently or gently beaten 
as became the moment, arid in wielding it the minstrel ex- 
hibited some grace and great muscular action. The narra- 
tive lasted about half an hour, after which the bard was 
duly honoured with an ample " largess " from the officers, 
much to his satisfaction.— MS, Journal of a Voyage round 

the World. 

I 2 

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In an account of the various methods ein ployed in 
capturing wild ducks, we must not overlook the system 
of " hut-shooting " pursued in France, which is de- 
scribed by Colonel Hawker, from whose book* the 
following account of it is derived, as the only method 
•* by which a very bad shot with a very bad gun may 
kill ducks while as warm and dry as if by his fire-side." 
There are few places where a lover of comfort can 
skoot more at his ease than at the lakes of Peronne in 
Picardy. The water, being part of the Somme, is not 
quite stagnant, and is, in every part, about four or five 
feet deep, surrounded and intersected by numerous 
islands and walls of rushes. The waters are here 
rented by different " huttiers" (hut-shooters), who get 
their livelihood principally by supplying the markets of 
Paris and other towns with wild-fowl, which they shoot, 
instead of taking them with decoys, as in this country. 
Though the French in some places are very expert at 
catching birds, — particularly on that vast ^tract of sand 
between Crotoi and St. Valery, where the*whole mouth 
of the Somme may be seen spread with nets and sur- 
rounded by lines of horse-hair (nooses), — yet shooting 
from the hut is the favourite and most general method 
of capturing wild-fowl in France. The common way of 
making a hut is to cut down a large square in the 
reeds, about eight. feet by four; and after a foundation 
of wood, stone, or brick has been laid, six piles are 
driven in on each side, on which are placed hoops pre- 
cisely like those of a tilted waggon. The sides are then 
built up with turf or whatever else is most convenient, 
and the roof is thatched over. In front there must be 
three or four port-holes to fire through, and, at the 
back, a small door at which the fowler enters. This 

* Instruction* to young Sportsmen in all (hat relates to Guns 
and Shooting. Fifth Edition, 1826. 

hut being built amidst high reeds, and afterwards 
strewed over with them, is completely undistinguish- 
able, although as commodious inside as a large covered 
waggon. Hither the "nuttier" of Peronne repairs 
regularly every night, — wet or dry, — and takes a great- 
coat (if he has one)* with a piece of brown bread and 
a sour apple for his supper. In front of his hut are 
fastened, to piles at each end, three separate ropes 
about twenty yards long. On the een\re rope he ties 
four drakes, and four ducks to the one -on each flank, 
making in all twelve decoy birds. The birds thus 
separated will, in general, be calling to each other, and, 
if so, a wild one will seldom pass without coming down 
to them. As the decoy birds are (to use a military 
term) dressed in line, whatever bird the fowler sees out 
of the ranks he knows must be a wild one : and as the 
lake in moderate weatfier is like a mirror, the night is 
seldom so dark but that he can see to shoot at the very 
short distance which his miserable gun and powder will 
allow. The ki/ttifrx never permit shooting from n boat, 
or at birds on the wing, through the fear of disturbing 
the pond. One of the principal of them informed 
Colonel Hawker that his, plan was to take his night's 
rest, and leave the birds till a little before daylight, 
when they would be all doubled together, and when a 
shot would do much less mischief to the decoy than if 
fired before the birds had fed and slept. 

But all the methods we have described, which more 
or less involve much watching and fatigue, are vastly 
inferior to the decoys used in England, particularly in 
the fens of Lincolnshire,— a circumstantial account of 
which is giveii/py Bewick, and illustrated by our wood- 

In the lakes- to which the wild ducks resort, their 
most favourite haunts are observed. Then, in the most 

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sequester*! part of this haunt, a ditch is cut, which is 
about four yards across at the entrance, and decreases 
gradually in width from the entrance to the farther 
end, which is not more than two feet wide. The ditch 
is of a circular form, but does not bend much for the 
first ten yards. The banks of the lake on each side of 
this ditch (or " pipe," as it is called) are kept clear from 
reeds, coarse herbage, &c, in order that the fowl may get 
on them to sit and dress themselves. Along the ditch 
poles are driven into the ground, close to jts edge, on 
each side, and the tops are bent over across the ditch and 
tied together. These poles, thus bent, form at the en- 
trance of the ditch or pipe an arch, the top of which is 
ten feet distant from the surface of the water. This 
arch is made to decrease in height as the pipe decreases 
in width, so that the remote end is not more than 
eighteen inches in height. The poles are placed about 
six feet from each other, and connected by poles laid 
lengthwise across the arch and tied together. Oyer 
the whole is thrown a net, which is made fust to a 
reed-fence at the entrance and nine or ten yards up the 
ditch, and afterwards strongly pegged to the ground. 
At the end of the pipe farthest from the entrance is 
fixed a " tunnel-net," as it is called, about four yards 
in length, of a round fonrv, and kept open by a number 
of hoops,, about eighteen inches in diameter, placed* at 
a small distance from each other to keep it distended. 
Supposing the circular bend of the pipe to be to the right 
when one stands with his back to the lake, then on the 
left hand Hide a number of. reed-fences are constructed, 
called " shootings/' for the purpose of screening the j 
" decoy-man " from observation, and in such a manner , 
that the fowl in the decoy may not be alarmed while he | 
is driving those that are in the pipe. These shootings, j 
which are ten in number, are about four yards in length, I 
and about six feet high. From the end of the last' 
shooting a person cannot see the lake, owing to the bend 
of the pipes, and there is then no further occasion for , 
shelter. Were it not for these shootings, the fowl that . 
remain about the mouth of the pipe would be alarmed ! 
if the person driving the fowl already under the net 
should be exposed, and would become so shy as entirely 
to forsake the place. The first thing the decoy- man 
does when he approaches the pipe is to take a piece of 
lighted turf, or peat, and hold it near his mouth, to 
prevent the birds from smelling him. He is attended 
by a dog, trained for the purpose of rendering him 
assistance. He walks very silently about half-way up 
the shootings, where a small piece of wood is thrust 
through the reed- fence, which makes an aperture just 
large enough to enable him to see if any fowl are in; if 
not, he walks forward to see if any are about the en- 
trance of the pipe. If there are, he stops and makes a 
motion to his dog, and gives him a piece of cheese, or 
something else, to eat ; and, having received this, the 
animal goes directly to a hole through the reed-fence, 
and the birds immediately fly off the bank into the 
water. The dog returns along the bank between the 
reed-fences, and comes out to his master at another 
hole. The man then gives him something to reward 
and encourage him, and the animal repeats his round 
until the birds aire attracted by his motions, and follow 
him into the mouth of the pipe. This operation is 
called u working" them. The man now retreats farther 
back, working the dog at different holes uutil the ducks 
are sufficiently under the net. He then commands his 
dog to lie down behind the fence, and going himself 
forward to the end of the pipe next the lake, he takes 
off hie hat and gives it a wave between the shooting. 
All the birds that are under the net can then see him ; 
but none that are in the Jake can. The former fly for- 
ward, and the man then runs to the next shooting and 
waves his hat, and so on, driving them along until they 
come to the tunnel-net, into which they creep. When 

they are all in, the man gives the net a twist, so a* to 
prevent them from getting back. He then takes the 
net off from the end of the pipe, and taking out, one by 
one, the ducks that are in it, dislocates their necks. 
This is the scene represented in the cut at the head 
of this article, in the preceding page. The net is after- 
wards hung on again for the repetition of the process; 
and in this manner five or six dozen have sometimes 
been taken at one drift. When the wind blows directly in 
or out of the pipes the fowl seldom work well, especially 
when it blows into the pipe. The reason of this is, that 
the ducks always prefer swimming against the wind, 
otherwise the wind blowing from behind catches and 
ruffles their feathers. If many pipes are made in the 
same lake, they are so constructed as to suit different 
winds, and are worked accordingly. The better to 
entice the fowl into the pipe, hemp-seed is occasionally 
strewn on the water. The season allowed by Act of 
Parliament for taking ducks' in this way is from the 
latter end of October until February. 

Willughby states that formerly before the young 
ducks 'took flight, or while the old ones were in moult 
and unable to fly, they were driven by men in boats 
furnished with long poles, with which they splashed the 
water, between long nets stretched vertically across the 
pools in the shape of two sides of a triangle, into lesser 
nets placed at the point, and in this way he says that 
4001) were taken at one drive in Deeping Feu ; 
and Latham has recorded an instance in which 2646 
were taken in two days near Spalding, in Lincolnshire ; 
but these practices being considered injurious, were 
prohibited by statute in the reign of George II. 

Tame ducks are also used for the purpose of leading 
the way into the pipe. Hence the term " decoy-ducks." 
These birds are fed on the pond, and made quite tame, 
and come to the keeper's whistle, to eat the hemp- 
seed which he strews on the pond. They generally 
lead the way into the pipe when whistled to. As they 
are used to the sight of the keeper, they do not rush 
forward with the wild ones into the net, but return 
back again safe into the pond ; or if auy of them* 
should be driven forward, they are easily, by their 
colour, distinguished from the wild ones. 

Although our account more particularly relates to 
the bird in its wild state, if. will not be improper to 
mention that the rearing of ducks is made an object of 
great importance in China. The. greater part of them 
are hatched by artificial warmth ; the egg^ being laid 
in boxes of sand, are placed on a brick hearth, to which 
a proper degree of heat is given during the time re- 
quired for hatching. The duakliugs are* fed with craw- 
fish and crabs, boiled and cut small, and afterwards 
mixed with boiled ripe ; and in about a fortnight they 
are able to shift for themselves. The Chinese then 
provide them with an old step mother, who leads them 
where they are to find provender, being first put on 
board a " sampane " or boat, which is destined for 
their habitation, and from which the whole flock, often 
3U0 or 400 in number, go out to feed,. and return at 
command. This method is used nine months out of 
the twelve, for in the colder months it docs not succeed ; 
and is so far from a novelty that it may be seen every- 
where, more especially about the time of cutting the 
rice, when the masters of the duck-boats row up and 
down the rivers, according to the opportunity of pro- 
curing food, which during that season is found in plenty, 
at the ebb of the tide, on the rice plantations, which are 
overflowed at high water. It is curious to see how the 
ducks obey theirmaster ; for some thousands belonging 
to different boats will feed at large on the same spot, 
and on a signal given, follow the leader to their re- 
spective boats, without a stranger being found among 

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[FcmtuuT 14^ 

Having obtained a six-months' truce, and taken his 
leave of the great Sofyman, our traveller left Amasia, 
of which important city he says : — " It is in a manner 
the chief city of Cappadocia, where the, Turkish go- 
vernor of that province usually has his residence. * * 
Strabo, the Greek geographer, writes that he was born 
here. It lies on the side of two opposite hills, the river 
Iris, dividing the city in the midst, running between 
them, so that from each part you may look down upon 
the river as from the seats or stairs of an amphitheatre ; 
and one side of it is conspicuous and open to the view 
of the other. It is so compassed with hills that there 
is but one way to it, either for coach or jwraggon." 
[Fifteen centuries before Busbequius's visit, Strabo wrote 
a description of Amasia, or Amaseia, his native place, 
which is still preserved to us.] Our traveller continues, — 

" Upon a high hill that, hangs over and commands 
Amasia, there is a strong castle wherein the Turks 
have a continued garrison. * * * In this hill there 
are some ancient monuments which, perhaps, .were the 
sepulchres of the ancient Cappadocian kings." Strabo 
mentions the tombs of the kings within the fortifications 
or walls ; and Busbequius's " strong castle," which since 
his time has become a ruin, was probably the fortress 
alluded to by the ancient geographer, as situated on a 
lofty rock that was precipitous all round. v 

" As for the houses and streets of Amasia, there is 
little or no beauty in them. Their houses are *built of 
loam, as they are in Spain, level at top without any 
ascending reof, and what covering they have Js also of 
loam or clay. The Turks have some old piece of a 
pillar, cylinder, or roller, which they roll up and down 
to stop any chink or crevice made either by rain or 
wind. The inhabitants, in former times, used to lie 
down to sleep in the open air on the house-tops. As 
for rains, they are 4iot great nor frequent in these parts; 
but if at any time a shower falls, the loamy droppings 
from the eaves do wofully dirty the clothes of those that 
pass under them. I saw here a certain young noble 
person, living not far from me, at his dinner after the 
old Roman fashion, lying on a bed." 

It was in the month of June when Busbequius began 
bis homeward journey, and the heat was so excessive 
that he was soon thrown into a fever. In spite of his 
illness, however, he contrived to travel much quicker 
than he had done ingoing to Amasia; and he arrived 
at Constantinople on the 24th of June. He says, very 
good-humouredly, " You must needs think that I had 
a troublesome journey of it, having such a companion 
with me as a quotidian ague all the way, so that when 
I came thither I was almost nothing but skin and bone ; 
yet, lean as I was, when I came to rest, and, by the 
advice of Quackelben my physician, using warm baths, 
I quickly recovered. One thing I particularly re- 
marked in the method of my cure, that, when, I came 
out of the warm-bath, he would sprinkle me over with 
cold water, which, though it were troublesome and un- 
pleasant to me at the moment, yet I found that it did 
me much good,* 1 

We beg attention to the words marked in Italics, 
as we have, more than once, seen the same mode of 
treatment successful in cases of malaria fever— about 
the worst kind of fever and ague. Sulphate of quinine 
is a surer remedy, and a medicine that no traveller 
ought to be without. In the same disorder, which is 
generated by the miasmata from stagnant water, and 
the decomposition of vegetable matter, we have seen the 
Greeks of Asia Minor employ, with success, pills made 
of the spider's web, rolled up. The distinguished 
author of Anastasius, when in that country, not satisfied 
with the web, occasionally swallowed the spider itself. 
It is well for travellers and sailors to know these things, 
as they are but too liable to be attacked by these fevers 

in places where there are no jhyeiciaas, or medical 
advice, or medicines of any kind at hand. 

In modern times we have been accustomed to hear 
talk of no other kind of slavery than that of the poor 
negroes, and have lost sight of the days when Euro- 
peans and Christians were dragged by thousands to the 
slave-markets of Constantinople, and sold like beasts. 
Let us listen to our old traveller. 

" I stayed about fourteen days at Constantinople to 
refresh myself, and then I entered on my journey back 
again to Vienna: but I was entertained with an in- 
auspicious omen, — even a very sad spectacle ; for, just 
as I was gone out of the gates of Constantinople I met 
\vhole waggon-loads of boys and girls, which were 
brought out of Hungary to be sold at Constantinople, 
no merchandise being more frequent among the Turks 
than this. For, as when we leave Antwerp we meet 
with all kinds of goods and merchantable commodities 
importing into the town, so here, every now and then, 
there passed by us abundance of poor miserable Chris- 
tian slaves, which were going to be sold in the markets 
to a perpetual bondage. There was no distinction of 
age ; old and young were driven in herds, or troops, or 
else were tied in a lon^g chain, as we are wont to tail 
horses when we carry them to fairs. When I beheld 
this woful sight, I could not forbear weeping and, be- 
moaning the unhappy state of poor Christendom." 

On the second day of his journey, Busbequius per- 
ceived that a person in his retinue was lying sick in a 
sort of coach, with one of his legs bare and in pain. 
Approaching nearer, he saw fo his horror a plague-ulcer 
upon that leg. 

" We were sore troubled," he says, " at this sight, 
as fearing that infectious disease would surely spread 
further; but the poor man lived till we came to 
Adrianople, and there departed this life. Upon his 
death another mischief did succeed : as soon as the 
breath was out of his body, the Hungarians with me 
ran in greedily to the prey, — one caught up his stock- 
ings, another his doublet, a third his shirt, a fourth his 
other linen; thus casting themselves, and us too, into 
a great deal of danger. Nor was there any way in the 
world to hinder them. It is true my physician, like au 
honest man, ran in amongst them, and entreated them, 
for God's sake, to throw away the things, because they 
would infect us all ; but they were deaf to his advice. ' 

The very day after they had left Adrianople the four 
Hungarians were, or fancied they were, attacked by the 
plague, complaining to the doctor of a pain in their 
heads, with a sad dejection of their spirits, and a listless- 
ness both of body and mind. The doctor said they were 
well served, but prescribed for them. As, however, 
they all four recovered after taking a dose composed of 
the decoction of a plant which smelt like garlic, and 
which Busbequius calls scordium, " mixed up with some 
Lemnian earth and diascordiura," we may reasonably 
suppose that they had not caught the fatal infection at 

Travelling on, in all the heat of the dog-days, through 
Servia and the country of the Rascians, which were 
" almost parched and withered with drought," he at 
last re-entered the fertile territories of Hungary, where, 
notwithstanding the heat, " the grass was so tall, that a 
coach that went before could hardly be seen by another 
that came after ; which is a great argument of the good- 
ness of the soil." At the town of Essek, which was 
almost inclosed by muddy marshes, he was again at- 
tached by his fever and ague. Ill as he was, he, how- 
ever, crossed the river Drave, and went on to another 
Hungarian town called Lasque, " where," he says, 
" being wearied with the heat of my journey and my 
ague, I laid me down to rest." * * " And here," he 
continues, " the chiefest of the place came to bid me 
welcome, and presented me with large Hungarian 

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melons, pears, and plums of several sorts, besides choice 
wine, and other provisions, all of them very good ; the 
noted country of Campania in Italy hardly producing 

After resting a day or two he travelled on to Mohatz, 
noted for a great victory obtained there by the Turks 
over Lewis, King of Hungary, not long before. Our 
traveller adds, " Not far from that town I saw a river 
whose waters were deep, and its banks very steep : here 
that unhappy prince leaped in with his horse, and was 
drowned,' being for his fall as much to be lamented, as 
condemned for his imprudence in venturing, with a 
small and newly-raised army of his countrymen, to cop6 
with the more numerous, veteran, and well-disciplined 
forces of Sultan Solyman." 

From Mohatz Busbequius travelled on by Tulna to 
Felduar, after which he re-crossed the Danube, and 
arrived at Buda on the 4th of August, having lost 
many of his horses by the way, " that were choked 
with eating new barley and drinking over-cold water." 
He had, besides, a very narrow escape from the Hey- 
duks or robbers that then infested all Hungary. 

It pleased the obstinate and arrogant Pasha of Buda 
to make the ambassador wait three days before he would 
grant him an audience, and when he admitted him he 
showered down reproaches on him and on the Christians, 
and made use of some threatening expressions of 

" It may be," says Busbequius, " he thought that 
the sight of his host of Janizaries and troops he had 
gathered round me, would terrify me ; but he was 
mistaken. I answered him roundly, that the Hun- 
garians might rather find fault with the Turks. * * * 
And so, after a warm altercation, I was dismissed, being 
in very bad plight, for my ague-fit was strong upon me 
all that day. ' 

The day after this uncourteous audience he continued 
his journey with an escort of Turkish cavalry. At a 
certain stage of this day's inarch, he sent two* Turkish 
soldiers a-head to prepare the ferry-boats that were to 
carry him and his retinue across the Danube again. 
The adventure that follows is best told in the author's 
own words : — 

" When these two Turks were gone an hour's march 
before us, they espied four horsemen standing under a 
tree, a little from the highway side. They judged them 
by their dresses to be Turks, and therefore turned aside 
to accost them ; and as they drew near they asked them, 
'What news?' The strangers answered them not a 
word, but made at them with their drawn swords, and 
one of them gave one of the Turks such a blow athwart 
the face, that he made the greater part of his nose to 
hang down over his chin, and then catching at the 
Turk's good steed, which he held by the bridle, he left 
his own sorry beast, and mounting the Turk's horse, 
set spurs and away. The two I'urks came presently 
back to us, especially he with the maimed face, and 
with a woful lamentation bid us prepare for battle, for 
we were waylaid. I, to encourage my men, leaped 
immediately on horseback ; but we came too late, 
when the scuffle was over; for they had more mind to 
preserve the prey they had got, than to fight; and 
thereupon fled speedily to Javarin, an Hungarian 
garrison of the' Christians to which they did belong : 
the Turksj iudeed, showed them to us as they were 
scouring oyer the neighbouring hills that led to Javarin." 

After this adventure he reached the town of Gran 
without any accident. The next day, when the Turkish 
escort was to leave him, he being now on Christian 
ground, the fellow who had been wounded presented 
himself u with his nose sewed together, through which 
he made a lamentable moan," and begged Busbequius 
would have pity on his condition. The ambassador 
said he would give him two ducats, which were enough 

for Ms cure. The Turk Would have ha4 more, but hfe 
superior officer told him two ducats were quite enough 
for a slit nose, and that his misfortune was not to be 
charged upon the ambassador. 

" Being thus dismissed," continues Busbequius, 4i I 
came the same /day to Commora, where, I expecfed my 
ague-fit ; but when the Usual period of it drew near, I 
found it had left me — as if a fever got in Turkey durst 
not accompany me in the Christian territories. Where- 
upon I gave God thanks, who had freed me of my 
ague, and had also brought me safe to the end of my 
long and dangerous journeys." 

He was, however, so much reduced, and looked so ill, 
that when he arrived at Vienna, two days after, the 
people about the court thought the Turks taunt have 

fiven him a poisonous dose, and his friend the Arch- 
uke Ferdinand did not know him again. It appears 
that he was kindly received by the Emperor, and that 
his travels, which were considered extraordinary at that 
time, made a great noise in the society of the Austrian 
capital. He says, with sufficient self-complacence, — 

" There are many persons here who refused to 
accompany me to Constantinople, either through fear 
or I know not what other motive, who wish they had 
given any money to go along with me, now that they 
see me returned in safety. But what saith he in 
Plautus? If you will cat the kenrel, you must take 
the pains to crack the nut. He is wrong who hopes to 
reap part of the fruit without taking part of the pains." 
Busbequius had scarcely recovered from the fatigues 
of his first embassy to Turkey, when he was appointed 
to a second , the Emperor Ferdinand, who was anxious 
to conclude a permanent peace with Sultan Solyman, 
not being able to find any other well-qualified person 
that would undertake thej journey, and face the proud 
fierce sovereign of the Turks. 

This time also he set out in the depth of winter; — 
and this winter (of the year 155o) was a very cold, rainy, 
and tempestuous one. He travelled by the route he had 
already performed to Constantinople, where he found 
the great Solyman, and so little encouragement to press 
the negotiation with which he was charged by the Em- 
peror, that the Turkish pashas told him if he did so, 
two of his companions would most assuredly be cast 
into a dungeon in the Seven Towers, and he himself, 
after having his nose and ears cut off, would be sent 
back to his master. Our old traveller, however, was not 
a man to be bullied or frightened from his duty : — he 
remained steadily at his post ; he persevered ; lie most 
thoroughly learned the character and conduct of Xbe 
oddly-constituted Turkish cabinet ; and, after residing 
for nearly seven years at Constantinople, succeeded in 
obtaining a very advantageous treaty of peace. During 
all this time, the labours of his difficult mission, and the 
minute attention he paid to the politics of the East, did 
not wholly absorb him. He was too good an economist 
of his time, and too fond of letters, arts, and natural 
history, not to find moments and hours for their cultiva- 
tion. He got together and wrote down much curious 
information about both the public and domestic history 
of the great Solyman; — he collected ancient inscrip- 
tions and coins ; — he sought out and purchased ancient 
Greek manuscripts ; and he paid great Lttention to 
rare plants, and the nature of animals, such as camels, 
camelopards, hyaenas, jackals, lynxes, and others that 
were then but little known in western Europe. He 
took with him to Constantinople, and maintained at 
his own charge, a painter, who made drawings of 
such objects as could not be preserved or transported. 
He penetrated with a sagacious and sure eye into 
the real condition of the Ottoman empire, and 
showed the true* means by which the Christian powers 
might attack it, dr, at least, defend themselves with 
success. He was not only a man of exalted tastes and 

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tFEBRUAEY 14, Ittfr 

intellect, but of a most generous mind. Besides other 
liberal acts, while at Constantinople, he relieved at his 
own expense and credit a number of Spanish prisoners 
that had been taken by the Turks in a naval engage- 

When he returned with honour from his second 
embassy he was inclined to retire to a private and 
literary life; but his character, talents, and manners 
had attracted the attention of princes, and he was drawn 
more than ever into courts. He was appointed tutor, 
or governor, to the sons of Maximilian II. ; and when 
that emperor's daughter, Elizabeth, was married to 
Charles IX., King of France, he was charged with the 
commission of conducting her to Paris. There that 
Queen made him steward of her household ; and when 
she retired from France, on the death of her husband, 
she left him at Paris as her ambassador, or agent. He 
also was ambassador at the same court for the Emperor 
Rodolph down to the year 1592. In the autumn of 
that year, having obtained permission to make a journey 
to Flanders and visit his patrimonial estates, he left 
Paris, and took the route through Normandy. He was 
in the seventieth year of his age : and now we come to 
the- melancholy conclusion of a long, and honourable, 
and most useful life. A* the period we speak of, France 
was distracted by the civil war of the League. On 
arriving at the village of Oailli, about three leagues 
from the city of Rouen, the venerable Busbequius, the 
general benefactor of Christianity, was stopped, robbed, 
and ill-treated by a party of the insurgents. As a man 
experienced in all such matters, he had prudently pro- 
cured passports, not only from the King of France, but 
from the chiefs of the League faction ; and when the 
latter were presented, and the lawless men heard him 
speak and explain the inviolable rights of his character 
as ambassador, they set him at liberty, and restored the 
mass of his baggage. But the good old man would not 
continue a journey that had been thus brutally inter- 
rupted. He caused himself to be carried to the house 
of a friend at St. Germain, close to Rouen, where, in a 
few days, a violent fever carried him off. He died on 
the tfSth of October, 1592. His body was buried in a 
church on the spot; — his heart was carried (whither he 
had wished to go) to his native district to be placed in 
his father's tomb. 

His admirable account of his ' Travels' is written in 
Latin, and in the form of letters to a friend. The 
Latinity has been much admired by scholars. Several 
translations have appeared in various modern languages. 
In these short articles we have quoted from a good old 
English version which seems to have been first pub- 
lished about luO years ago. Three or four editions of 
it appeared during the last century, but the book is now 
uut of print, and little known, except to literary men. 
The latter half of it is especially rich in quaint anecdote 
and happy descriptions. The whole of it forms a better 
book of travels m Turkey than any single work that has 
been written since the days of old Busbequius. 

Ancient Services of Tenants*— In the Harleian collection 
at the Britjsh Museum there is an ancient survey of the* 
manor of Barking, in which the services due from the inferior 
tenants to the abbess and convent are stated at large. One 
of them was, among other services, to gather a full measure 
of nuts, called a pybot, four of which would make a bushel : 
to go a long journey on foot once a year to Colchester, 
Chelmsford, Sly, or the like distances, on the business of 
the convent, carrying a pack ; and other shorter journeys, 
such as to Brentford, fee., maintaining himself upon the 
road. He was to pay a fine for the marriage of his daughter, 
if she married beyond the limits of his manor, otherwise to 
make his peace with the abbess as he could. It appears 
also that he could not sell his ox, fed by himself, without 
the permission of the abbess. Some of the tenants were 
obliged to watch and guard thieves in the abbess's prison. 
There is no reason to suppose that there was any 'singularity 
at the timo in these stipulations, some of which strikingly 
manifest the degraded condition of the inferior tenantry in 
this country at a former period. 

How to ensure success. — The surest way not to fail is to 
determine to succeed. — Sheridan. 

Sku?l qf Queen Matilda. — M. Berzelius, of Stockholm, 
sent, in 1820, to the Academy of Sciences at Paris, the 
skull of Descartes, who died in Sweden in the year 1650. 
Cuvier, to whom the present of the learned Swede was in 
the first instance consigned, remarked on the occasion, that 
skulls and other bones might be preserved in leaden chests 
for 700 years and upwards. In confirmation of this opinion 
he cited the instance of the skull and bones of the Queen. 
Mdttlda (who died in tho year 1 183), which had been found 
in good preservation in the tomb in her Abhaye-aux-Dames 
at Caen — Magasin Universei. 


A Correspondent, who apprehends that many of our 
readers are unacquainted with the manner in which bees 
are usually deprived of their honey, sends us a description 
of the process, which ho hopes will soon be superseded by 
the more humane and efficient method of Mr. Nutt, which 
we have described in No. 113, page II of the third volume. 

When the time for taking the honey arrives, which is at 
the end of August or the beginning of September, on some 
evening after die bees have retired into the hive, a small 
hole is dug in the ground near to the stand or bench on 
which the hive rests. This hole is filled with pieces of 
cotton or linen previously dipped in melted butter; and 
when all is ready, these are set on fire, and the hive is gently 
lifted off the stand and placed upon the hole. The escape 
of the bees is prevented by the earth which is dug out of 
the hole being heaped around the bottom of the hive ; and 
thus the poor insects perish amidst the sweets for which 
they have toiled all the summer, and by the hands of those 
who have afforded them a house in which to lay up their 
stores. The cruelty and treachery of this measure could 
only be excused by that necessity for it which has now been 
superseded- That our readers may have an idea of the 
number of these industrious little beings deprived of life for 
the sake of a few pounds of honey, it may be stated that a 
single hive is supposed generally to contain 16,000 bees; 
but let us say 10,000, —then, as each hive affords about six- 
teen pounds of honey, 400,000 bees must be killed in order 
to obtain, from forty* hives, G40 lbs. of honey. When the 
honey has been expressed from the honey-comb, the comb 
is boiled in water, which is afterwards strained through a 
fine sieve, and that which remains in the sieve is the substance 
called " bees'-wax," so much used for polishing furniture, 

If the season proves unfavourable for the gathering of 
honey the bees are not destroyed, as that would be an un- 
profitable sacrifice of insect-dife, but they arc reserved for 
another season, and fed during the winter with brown coarse 
su^ar, moistened with ale. A wet summer is very unfavour- 
able to the collection of honey ; and in a fine summer it 
often happens that tbc bees are deprived of their honey by 
wasps and wild bees. Our correspondent has known 
instances in which a hive of bees, in a very prosperous con- 
dition, have been deprived of a\l their honey, and a great 
number of the bees destroyed, by wasps. A wasp will 
conquer five or six bees at once by means of its sharp 
incisors, with which it cuts large pieces out of their wings, 
and thus prevents thera from flying; and being unable to reach 
the hive, which is raised some distance above the ground, 
and from which the wasps always thrust them, they perish 
during the night. 

%• The Office of tho Society for the Diffusion of Cseftd Knowledge i« at 
59, Lincoln' i Inn Fields. 


Printed by William Clowbs, Duke Street, Lambeth. 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[February 21, 183&. 


[Pope's Tree, at Binfield, Berks, j 

Thb village of Binfield, in Berkshire, situated about 
seven miles west of Windsor, and within the precinct of 
the forest, is remarkable from having been the residence 
of Alexander Pope, during his early years. The father 
of the poet, having accumulated a considerable fortune 
by business in London, retired to this place during 
the infancy of his son, and here purchased a house and 

Speaking of this house, which, although probably 
much altered from its original state, is still standing, 
Pope calls it 

" my paternal cell. 

A little house, with trees a-row, 

And, like its master, very tow." 

About half-a-roile from the house, an interesting 
memorial of the poet still remains, or at least did so 
a few years since, when the writer last visited the spot. 
There is here a fine grove of beeches, pleasantly situated 

Vol. IV. 

on the gentle slope of a hill, which commands an agree- 
able though not extensive view of the surrounding 
country. This grove was a favourite resort of Pope's, 
who is said to have composed many of his earlier pieces 
sitting under the shade of one of the. trees, below which 
a seat was then placed. The recollection of this circum- 
stance was preserved by Lady Gower, an admirer of 
the poet, who caused the words " Here Pope sung" 
to be cut in large letters in the bark, at some height 
from the ground ; and as this inscription, at the time 
we mention, was distinctly legible, it was no doubt, at 
one period, occasionally renewed. 

About twelve years ago, when first seen by the writer 
the tree was standing in a sound state, and apparently 
little injured by time, although the "bark, to the height 
of seven or eight feet, was nearly covered with the 
names of visiters, many of which, with the dates, were 
cut deeply into it. 

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k This interesting relic of the poet (if still in existence) 
will not, however, endure much longer. When the 
writer last saw it, a year or two after his first visit, it 
presented a add appearance of dilapidation, the upper 
part of the tree having been entirely broken off by a 
violent storm which haa happened a short time previous, 
and lying prostrate on the ground, stripped of its 
branches, as shown in the annexed drawing, which was 
made at the time. 

It is somewhat remarkable that none of the neigh- 
bouring trees were injured by the storm, which thus 
destroyed the object which, for near a century, had 
consecrated the spot. 


We propose to give a brief account of this great ne- 
cessary of life, salt, without entering into any purely 
chemical disquisitions upon its nature and properties. 

Common salt is found in a solid state as " rock-salt," 
or is obtained by evaporating sea or salt-spring water. 
The evaporating process is conducted either by exposing 
the liquid to the atmosphere, or by boiling it over a fire. 
In countries where the rays of the sun possess sufficient 
heat to occasion rapid evaporation, salt ef the finest 
quality is obtained without the assistance of artificial 
heat. The sea- water is enclosed in salt-pans, or shallow 
pits lined with clay : as the evaporation advances, and 
the salt is deposited, the brine is pumped off till a crust 
of salt. about three inches thick remains. When this 
crust becomes hard it is broken up, and deposited in 
heaps in a place protected from rain. A fluid called 
the bittern, containing a number of the earthy bitter 
salt3, continues for a long time to drain from the heaps : 
the salt indeed is not considered perfectly good till 
after three years 7 draining. The result of this process 
is the " bay salt/' so much in request for preserving 
animal food. The "bittern" is sometimes preserved 
for the purpose of obtaining from it the sulphate of 
magnesia, and other substances containing magnesia. 
Glauber's salts are made from it. 

In countries where the sun's heat is too weak to 
effect the evaporation with sufficient rapidity, and where, 
at the same time, fuel is cheap, the other process of 
boiling the liquor is adopted. The boiling is repeated 
four or even seven times, the boiler being each time 
replenished with fresh mine. When the liquor is 
sufficiently evaporated, the salt is left in crystals at the 
bottom of the pan. From a pan of 1300 gallons from 
15 to 20 bushels of salt are obtained every day. In 
this process the draining which the salt requires after 
being removed from the boiler seldom takes more than 
four days. Not only brine mast be subjected to the 
process of evaporation, but even rock-salt, if impure, 
must be dissolved in water, and again consolidated by 

It is supposed that brine-springs are formed hy a 
stream of water flowing through a stratum of rock-salt. 
It \% stated that charcoal is very generally found in 
strata above brine-springs. Such springs are very 
numerous in America, and are extensively used in the 
manufacture of salt. They appear also to be gene- 
rally of greater strength than the springs of Europe. 
Yet some of those in England are remarkably strong. 
Though the strongest brines can yield little more than 
one-fourth of their weight in salt, the springs of Cheshire 
afford 22 per cent., in one remarkable case 25 per cent., 
and in another even 26 per cent. In Switzerland, from 
13 to 14 per cent, is the usual strength of the salt- 
brine springs, and the average is only 11 per cent, in 

Dr. Reusselaer conjectures that rock-salt is composed 
of deposits from salt-lakes, or seas, which have now 
ceased to exist. - Some of the salt strata are consider- 

ably aTiove the present level of the ocean. In the 
Tyrol they are 5000 feet, and in Peru 10,000 feet, 
above the level of the sea. In England, on the contrary, 
strata are found 420 feet beloid that level. The Zout 
pans in Africa are deposits of salt in crystals, which 
Dr. Reusselaer concludes to have been wafted from the 
coast, where a great evaporation of the sea-water is 
produced by the action of the sun ; and this opinion is 
authorized by that saltness of the air between the coast 
and the interior which travellers have remarked. 

Salt-rocks and strata are found in all parts of the 
globe. Dr. Reusselaer states that they extend across 
America from the Alleghany Mountains to the Pacific, 
and are found in California. In Mexico the Pennon 
Blanco are salt-rocks which are worked, and annually 
produce 1,786,000 bushels of salt. In England the 
great depositories of rock-salt are in Cheshire, where 
are also the brine-springs mentioned before. In 1819 
six distinct strata of very fine rock-salt were discovered at 
Vic, in the department of Meurthe, in France ; but no 
use appears to have been made of the discovery. Spain 
has a singular mountain of salt near Cardona in 
Catalortia. It is a mass of solid salt, between 400 and 
500 feet high, and nearly three miles in circumference. 
The salt is of various colours, but generally white, 
transparent as crystal, and remains a considerable time 
insoluble in water. The inhabitants make it into 
vases, urns, candlesticks, and other toys and utensils. 
At La Mancha there is a smaller but similar mass of 
salt ; and near the Ebro. is a chain of hills, consisting 
of salt, sulphate of lime, and limestone. In Germany 
there are masses of rock-salt in Uppef Austria, Styria, 
Bavaria, Wurtemburg, and the Tyrol. In Hungary and 
Poland there is an immense deposit of rock-salt on 
both sides the Carpathian Mountains. It is also found 
near Ockna in Moldavia, in Transylvania, and in 
Calabria. In Caramania, in Asiatic Turkey, it is said 
to be used for building. The Isle of Ormuz, in the 
Persian Gulf, is a solid mass of fossil salt. In Caubul 
a road is cut through a mass of rock-salt that rises in a 
cliff more than 100 feet above the river. In Africa 
rock-salt is very abundant: on both sides, the Atlas 
Mountains it occurs in great quantities, and is found in 
Tunis and Algiers. In Abyssinia there is an immense 
plain of salt, four days' journey in extent. 

The uses of salt are very various in manufactures. 
It enters into the composition of sal-ammoniac, — of 
glass, — of oxymuriate of lime, — of corrosive sublimate, 
— of Glauber's and Epsom salts, and of the painter's 
patent yellow ; and it is used in bleaching, — in glazing 
earthenware, — in assaying metals, — -in case-hardening; 
steel, and in rendering iron malleable. But the qualities 
of salt which render it indispensable to man ar^e its uses 
as mixed with his food. With, every bushel of flour 
about one pound of salt is used in making bread ; thus, 
it may be presumed that, in bread alone, every adult 
consumes about two ounces of salt weekly. Salt is 
antiseptic (counteracts putrefaction) ; and hence meats 
and fish are preserved by salting. In using salt for 
this purpose, it should be free from the muriate of 
magnesia, which attracts moisture. The importance of 
salt for the support of life is evident, whan we consider 
how much fish and flesh are thus preserved, to be 
removed from places where they could not be used fresh, 
to be distributed and consumed gradually through a 
whole country. In countries where salt is scarce, the 
want is severely felt. In the States of La Plata, in South 
America, the sheep and cattle, where they discover a 
pit of salt-clay, rush together to feed upon it ; and, in 
the struggle, many are trodden to death. In Upper 
Canada the cattle have plenty of wild pasture to browse 
on in the woods ; but once in a fortnight they return to 
the farm of their own accord in order to obtain a little 
salt; and when they have eaten it, mixed with their. 

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fodder, they return again to the woods. Salt is now 
extensively used in England, and in all Europe, for 
fattening cattle. In Spain they attribute the fineness 
of their wool to the quantities of salt given to the sheep. 
In England, 1000 sheep consume at the rate of a ton 
of salt annually. About 1,000,000 tons annually are 
given to animals in this country. It is also much in 
use as a manure for the soil. The proportion of half-a- 
peck of salt to an area of soil equal to forty yards long 
by one broad has been found to succeed. About twenty 
years since, Lord R. Manners applied salt in solution 
to the irrigation of herbage: one ounce of salt to a 
gallon of water was used with success: a stronger 
solution, — of two ounces to a gallon of water, — was 
found to destroy the blades of grass ; but in the next 
season an abundant crop of herbage came up.. Dr. 
Holland recommends from eight tp sixteen bushels of 
salt per acre. A mixture of salt and. soot is a good 
manure ; it is, indeed, the best compound, as manure, 
into whieh salt enters as an ingredient. Corn is steeped 
in salt to prevent smut : in orchards irrigation with a 
salt solution is recommended ; and, spread on the sur- 
face of the soil, it destroys slugs and snails in gardens ; 
but it will also destroy vegetation if dropped on the 
leaves of young growing plants. The use of salt as a 
manure is not confined to Europe : all the land on the 
coast is regularly treated with sea-water in China and 
Hindostan. It is to ferruginous sandy soils that salt is 
understood to be particularly adapted as a manure. 

The following account of cod-fishing is abridged from 
a somewhat diffuse but interesting article on the sub- 
ject, by the celebrated ornithologist of America, Mr. 

- Though the coast of Labrador is . visited by Euro- 
pean as well as American fishermen, the business is 
most extensively carried on by the traders of the latter 
country, and especially by the citizens of Boston and 
other eastern sea-ports on the American coast. The 
vessels' employed leave their respective ports from the 
beginning of May to that of June, that is, as soon as 
the spring has dissolved the ice, which during the winter 
had blocked up the Gulf. A vessel of one hundred 

' tons is provided with a crew of twelve men, each being 
furnished with appropriate clothing, such as waterproof 
oiled jackets, trousers, boots, &c. The owner supplies 
linesL hooks, nets, and every requisite for fishing; and 
the hold is stored with casks, some containing salt for 

. curing the fish, others intended for receiving the oil 
that may be collected. For eVery two men there is 
allotted a " Hampton boat," which, when not used, is 
lashed on deck, or hung in stays. . The baits employed 
at first are mussels salted for the purpose, — but as Soon 
as the shoals of capelings reach the coast, these are 
substituted, and not unfrequently the flesh of sea- fowl. 
At three in the morning the crew are prepared for 
their day's labour, and ready to betake themselves to 
their boats, each of which 'has two oars and lug-sails. 
They, all depart at once, and either by rowing or sailing 
reach the banks to which the fish are known to resort. 
The little squadron drop their anchors at short distances 
from each other, in a depth of from ten to twenty feet ; 
and the business of fishing is immediately commenced. 
Each man has two lines, and each stands in one end of 
the boat, the middle of which is boarded off to hold the 
fish. The baited lines have' been drppped into the 
water, one on each side of the boat, their leads have 
reached the bottom, a fish has taken the hook, and, 
after giving the line a slight jerk, the fisherman hauls 
up his prize with a continued pull, throws the fish 
athwart a small round bar of iron placed near his back, 
which forces open the mouth, while the weight of the 

body, however small the fish may be, tears out the hook, . 
The bait is still good, and over her side the line goes 
again to catch ■ another fish, while that on the left is 
now drawn up, and the same course pursued. In this 
manner, a fisher busily plying at each end, the operation 
is continued until the boat is so laden that her gunwale 
is brought within a few inches of the surface, when 
they return to the_ vessel in harbour, seldom more than 
eignt miles from the banks. Arrived at the vessel, each 
man, piercing the fish with an iron spike at the end of 
a pole, throws' it from the boat to the deck, counting 
aloud the number thus discharged: the boat, being 
thus unladen, returns again to the fishing station. 
During the morning, while the fishers have been at 
their work, the captain, four men, and the cook, have 
erected " long tables fore and aft the main-hatchway," 
and also taken to the shore most of the salt-barrels, 
while they have placed the large empty casks in a row to 
receive the livers, from which the oil is to be extracted. 
The hold of the vessel is quite clear, except that a heap 
of salt is deposited in a corner for use. After dinner 
the process commences, the men using long sharp 
knives. One begins by removing the head from every 
fish, which is effected in a moment by a deep gash of 
the knife and a peculiar pull ; he then slits open the 
belly, and passes the fish to the next man, who removes 
the entrails and the liver, the entrails with the head 
being thrown overboard ; the liver is dropped into a 
cask. A third now receives the fish, dexterously sepa- 
rates with his knife the vertebra? from the flesh, throws 
the bone into the sea and the fish into the hold, where 
it is received by three men who complete this part of 
the process by salting and packing it. In this way six 
men get through their work so as to be ready for the 
return of the boat in the ^evening with a fresh cargo, 
which is disposed of like the former. At three in the 
morning they again prepare for another day's labour, 
and thus continue their toil until the vessel be duly 
laden. It often happens that there are not less than 
100 vessels in the harbour, each of which sends out 
three boats to the fishing bank. Now each boat pro- 
cures, on an average, 2000 fish per day, so that the 
total taken by these vessels during the week will 
amount to 600,000. 

The fish already procured and salted are from time 
to time taken ashore (at the New Harbour) by part of 
the crew, who are the worst hands at fishing, the others 
continuing at their lines. " There, on the bare rocks, 
or on elevated scaffolds of considerable extent, the 
salted cod. are laid side by side to dry in the sun. 
They are turned several times a day, and in the inter- 
vals the men bear a hand on board at clearing and 
stowing away the daily produce of the fishing banks. 
Towards evening they return to the drying grounds 
and put up the fish in piles resembling so many hay* 
stacks, disposing those towards the top in such a man- 
ner that the rain cannot injure them, and placing a 
heavy stone on the summit to prevent their being 
thrown down should it blow hard in the night.'' * 

Such then is the mode of taking the cod till the 
arrival of the countless myriads of capelings, which 
migrate to the shallows in July in order to deposit 
their spawn. " The cods follows them as the blood- 
hound follows his prey, and their compact masses lite- 
rally line the shores." * * * " The fishermen now 
adopt another method : they have brought with them 
long and deep seines, one end of which is fastened by 
means of line to the shore; the other is, in the usual 
manner, drawn out in a broad sweep to enclose as great 
a space as possible, and hauled on shore by means of a 
capstan. Some of the men in boats support the corked 
part of the net, and beat the water to frighten the 
fishes within towards the land ; while others, armed 
with poles, enter the water, hook the fishes, and fling 

K 2 

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them on the beach, the net being gradually drawn 
closer as the number of fishes diminishes. M The 
number of cod secured at a single haul amounts to 
many thousands, while a net made by securing a hand- 
kerchief at the four corners may be filled with cape- 
lings at each sweep in the .shallows among the rocks. 
The seining of cod-fish appears to be a most injurious 
way of procuring them ; for the meshes of the nets are 
necessarily so small as to imprison thousands of young 
fish, which are perfectly useless, and which, instead of 

being returned to the water, as good policy would dic- 
tate, are left on the shore to feed ravens, kites, and 
beasts of prey. 

It is not in every case that the cargo of the vessel is 
dried on shore, — in many instances the fish are merely 
salted, and carried in this state to different ports, where 
the owner disposes of them to agents from distant 
places. The business is very lucrative ; and instances 
are known of men who by industry have in the course 
of ten years acquired a comfortable independence. 


[The Porter of a Convent 

When the Reformation occurred, monastic institutions 
were no longer strictly identified with social interests, 
but many vigorous attempts were made to arrest their 
decline, and, if possible, to restore their former influence. 
Among others who struggled to promote this object, 
the Abbe' de Ranee" was one of the most strenuous. In 
1636, being then only ten years old, the Abbey of La 
Trappe had been conferred upon him as a sinecure 
benefice. In 1664, after a life of dissipation, he 
suddenly directed the whole powers of his mind to the 
accomplishment of a rigid reform of his monastery. 
The rules which he laid down for this purpose were 
remarkable for their austerity. Each member was 
called upon daily to devote eleven hours to prayer, and 
the remaining part to labour and silent meditation. 
Their diet was of the simplest description, and consisted 
chiefly of fruit and pulse ; flesh, wine and butter were 
prohibited. De Ranee himself, although often labour- 
ing under bodily weakness from the pscetic life which 
he led, never allowed the energy of his spirit to be 
daunted ; and he died at last on a bed of straw and 
ashes, at the age of seventy-four. So great was the 

of La Trappe, in France.] 

admiration excited by his superior devotion and mortifi- 
cations that a new order sprang up called the " Order 
of La Trappe," the members of which endeavoured to 
imitate his life. A female community of this order was 
formed by Louisa, Princess de Conde. 

The Abbey of La Trappe is situated thirty -four 
leagues north-west of Paris, in a valley of Norma#dy. 
It was founded in 1140, and derived its name from its 
impervious situation. It was not approached by any 
regular path; and, being placed- in the gloomiest 
recesses of a deep wood, its access was difficult, and 
almost impossible, to a stranger. The conduct of the 
monks in the sixteenth century procured them the ap- 
pellation of the " Bandits of La Trappe," and we may 
therefore readily suppose that all the energy and per- 
severance of De Ranee were required to effect their 
reformation. At the Revolution the Trappists were 
compelled to leave France; but at the Restoration 
their religious houses were restored to them, and they 
now possess several establishments in that country. 
There exists, also, a female convent, in which the 
poverty, the mortifications, and labours of the order 

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[A Monk of La Trappe at his Devotions.] 

are strictly enjoined and practised. In their convents 
no sound of social intercourse is heard beyond the salu- 
tation, " Memento mori ! " (Remember death.) No news 
from the busy world reaches the inmates. Death and 
works of penitence alone occupy their thoughts ; and 
each day, we believe, they are accustomed to scoop out 
a portion of their last narrow resting-place 

A traveller, who visited, a few years ago, one of the 
establishments of the order in France, in the depart- 
ment of the Landes, has written an interesting description 
of its appearance, and the habits of the brotherhood. 
The " Landes " is the name given to a vast uncultivated 
wilderness in the south of France, on the confines of 
which the convent was situated. For some miles before 
reaching it, the way passed through a sort of composite 
country, made up of woods and thickets, enlivened here 
and there by small green glades, where springs, or 
splashes of rain-water, had coaxed up the scanty vegeta- 
tion ; or where some more vigorous pine-tree, peering 
above its neighbours, had bereft them of their fair 
portion of light and air, and thus created a space in 
which it reigned pre-eminently picturesque, with many 
a naked and sapless branch contrasted with the masses 
of its dusky foliage. Emerging from thence, the eye 
rested on the boundless horizon of Les Landes; on 
which, like gigantic cranes, or herons, in the distance, 
shepherds were seen, in Ihe costume of the country, 
stalking about on elevated stilts. At length, on a small 
piece of common ground, appeared a low wall, sur- 
rounding a comfortless, dilapidated-looking structure, 
comprising the convent and out-buildings. Universal 
stillness reigned around, interrupted only by the tink- 
ling of the porter's bell, announcing to the inmates the 
approach of strangers. No bustling footsteps, no 
hum of voices, betokened an immediate answer to 
the summons ; but in process of time the visiters espied, 

through a chink in the door-way, a figure descending 
a flight of steps, and approaching slowly, with his head 
bent towards the earth, across a spacious court, half 
overgrown with weeds and rank grass. At length the 
key grated in the lock, and the gates, turning upon 
their hinges with a corresponding solemnity, admitted 
the party, before whom the figure they had seen pro- 
strated himself: after which, on requesting an audience 
with his Superior, he bowed consent, and slowly waving 
an arm terminating in a bundle of emaciated and bony 
fingers, silently led the way. As mass was being per- 
formed, the visiters were directed to a small chapel, in 
which the whole community was assembled, consisting 
of about half-a-dozen monks in dark-brown robes and 
cowls, a few noviciates in white woollen vestments, 
and three in black who were temporary boarders on a 
penitentiary visit. The walls of the chapel were simply 
whitewashed, and. the wood-work was unpainted;— it 
was almost a caricature of simplicity. The Superior 
was kneeling at an altar, nearly as primitive as the rest 
of the structure, and for a time there appeared no pro- 
spect of coming in contact with him. All and every- 
thing was noiseless and motionless,— lips spake not, 
eyes looked not, hands stirred not ; when Io ! in an in- 
stant^ the dead silence was broken by a torrent of words, 
streaming forth from the Superior's mouth with a gar- 
rulous rapidity, equally monotonous and unintelligi- 
ble, and as if the tongue had no other object in its 
vibrations than to make the most of its brief moments 
of liberty. Of the nature, language, or meanirfg of 
this burst of articulation, no idea could be^brmed ; and 
they waited patiently till, having run itself -down 
like the rattle of an alarum clock, it stopped. Silence 
again ensued for a short time", when the service ceased, 
and the noiseless congregation by degrees dropped onv 
While waiting for an opportunity of introducing them-*. 

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[February 21, 

selves to the chief, oar travellers followed two or three 
of the brothers into a small room, and ventured upon 
a few questions, to which no answers were given, 
though they were evidently disconcerted, and each eyed 
and pointed to the other as a hint that the individual 
thus designated should be the spokesman. Not un- 
willing to press for an unnecessary infringement of the 
rules, they retired, and fortunately met another whose 
scruples were not so insuperable, but his speech was 
so measured and vague, that it might have admitted a 
doubt whether he was in actual possession*of either his 
wits or words. Having apologised for the intrusion, 
the threadbare state of his raiment, and certain other 
causes which rendered a windward position with respect 
to his person preferable to what sailors would denomi- 
nate " hugging him under hjs lee," led to a question 
or two relative to change of linen and cleanliness : — 
" Apparently you are not accustomed to change your 
dress ? " " Never, never, 5 ' was the answer in a drawl- 
ing, sepulchral tone. " Apparently, also, you never 
wash yourselves ? " " Never, never," he said again ; 
and certainly, as far as externals went, there was 
symptomatic evidence of his speaking the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, though the 
- party were subsequently assured by the superior that 
an under-garment (which or what garment could not* 
be ascertained) was changed once a week, and that 
washing was not a prohibited luxury. 

The superior himself was a Spaniard by birth, and, 
judging from his countenance and' manner, a second 
Loyola in character. He was enthusiastic of course, 
but shrewd and intelligent, and full of energy, and it 
was evident he had within him wherewithal to play 
a conspicuous part in the scene of life had he been 
brought up under more favourable circumstances. 

From a copy of the rules which the travellers saw, it 
appeared that the hour of rising both in winter and sum- 
mer was half-past one o'clock, and, on certain specified 
days, at midnight; to which is added the incomparable 
luxury of sitting bolt upright for several successive 
hours on a hard-bottomed bench. The diet consisted 
of roots and vegetables, rice, and a few similar articles, 
but never either of fish or eggs, and cheese and milk 
only on rare occasions. Three hours' daily labour was 
required of each member. The vow of obedience is so 
strictly enforced, that in no case is it even permitted to 
an innocent party to exculpate himself from any fault 
with which he may be unjustly charged. If indisposed, 
and required to taEe medicine, the sick man must at 
once swallow the draught which is presented to him, 
as the exhibition of a preference for any particular 
medicament is considered a mark of sensual indulgence^ 
and in point of .sinfulness ranked with the desire to 
partake of meat, to vary .the accustomed regimen of 
the order, or the hour at which it is usual to serve up 
their repasts. Notwithstanding the apparent absence 
of temptation which there must be in such a place, there 
is, nevertheless, a rule prohibiting any admission into 
the kitchen. The comforts of the fireside may be en- 
joyed under some restrictions and prohibitions. Shoes 
or slippers, however, must not be taken off for Che 
purpose of quickening the circulation in a pair of frozen 
extremities, and the fire is to be kept at a respectful 
distance. All social ties must be dissolved on entering 
the convent-wails, friendship being termed u a pagan 
virtue ;" and in relation to social intercourse it is 
observed, — one of the greatest obstacles to the judicious 
employment of time is the habit of paying and receiving 
visits; and the rule which prohibits the brethren 
visiting each other in their respective cells is lauded as 
a peculiar specimen of wisdom. ,The intellectual grati- 
fications, which it might be imagined would be liberally 
encouraged, are not less circumscribed than the sphere 
m of their bodily enjoyments. The library was of the 

most meagre description ; but yet no book eould be 
obtained from it but with the sanction of the superior, 
whose liberality in this respect was not very freelv 
exercised. The rules observe that nothing is more 
pernicious than the perusal of Works which are not 
inspired by the Holy Ghost, and that one of the 
deplorable abuses of the age is the practice of making 
use of profane works in the education of youth. The 
only visible approach to utility in connexion with the 
establishment was a school, in whieh a few little chil- 
dren were taught the use of their mother-tongue * by 
one of the order. 

The following appropriate reflections conclude the ac- 
count from which we have borrowed the foregoing details : 
" My heart sickened as I turned away from the convent- 
gate, and pondered on the melancholy mummery and 
strange unsuitable garb in which religion, the greatest 
boon of God to man* is so often arrayed ! and by those, 
too, whose duty and profession it more peculiarly is to 
invest it wkh attractive rather than repellant qualities! 
And yet I parted from these mouks with mingled feel- 
ings of regret and respect for men who, with such pal- 
pable sincerity, sacrificed so much of the present to the 
future ; with all their faults I could not but respect 
them still*." 

The subject of one of Jhe engravings is the porter 
of a convent of the order in France, and that of the 
other a monk of La Trappe at his devotions. They 
were both taken by an English artist during a tour in 

There are sonie men the history of whose lives furnishes 
a degree of interest and instruction much beyond that 
which the merely personal details they contain could 
afford ; and this proceeds from the incidental illustration 
which such narratives supply of the character and 
habits of a whole people. Of this class is the life of 
Beggee Jan, — a man who raised himself to supreme 
power among the Usbegs of Bokhara, and rendered 
himself the most powerful prince between Persia and 
the Indus. It is under the impression that the mea- 
sures, taken by this remarkable' man for the purpose of 
obtaining power, and of consolidating that power when 
acquired, include an instructive view of the people with 
whom he had to deal, that we have prepared the fol- 
lowing narrative chiefly from the more extended account 
furnished by Sir John Malcolm in his * History of 

About fifty years since an almost supreme authority 
was exercised over the Usbegs of Bokhara by the Ameer 
Daniel, who had possessed himself of the person of the 
nominal prince. ' When this Ameer died he divided his 
wealth among his family, but declared his eldest son, 
Beggee Jan, to be his heir. This person had, how- 
ever, for some time previously to the death of his 
father, clothed himself in the patched garment of a 
religious mendicant, and shut himself up in a mosque, 
that he might enjoy his devout meditations undisturbed. 
When his portion of the inheritance was brought to 
him, he refused to receive it, but directed it to be dis- 
tributed among those who had suffered from the ex- 
tortions of his father. He then clothed himself in the 
coarse dress of a supplicant for mercy, and hanging a 
sword around his neck, went through the streets of 
Bokhara, imploring, with tears in his eyes, the blessings 
and forgiveness of the inhabitants for his late father, 
for whose sins he begged that his own life might be 
taken in expiation. Beggee Jan was before this known 
to the learned as one deeply versed in theology, and as 
the writer of some esteemed treatises: but he had not, 
uritil this time, appeared before the people, who were 
* 'Loudon Magaiirie,' 1828. 

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much struck" by his apparent humility and sanctity, 
and crowded around him as if he had been a prophet, 
joining with him in prayers for blessings upon the 
Ameer Daniel. Beggee Jan then returned to his 
retirement, and secluded himself from all but a few 
chosen disciples. 

Having professed himself one of those devotees who 
seek or have attained a state of mental blessedness and 
abstraction which leads them to despise all human 
pleasure and ambition, it was requisite that he should 
not easily be persuaded to assume that power which the 
people entreated him to undertake. They were wearied 
out by the contests among his relations for the power 
which he seemed to scorn, and crowds assembled daily 
about the mosque where he resided, and followed him 
wherever he went. It is said there were at that time 
several thousands of gambling and drinking-houses in 
Bokhara, and the first proof which Beggee Jan gave 
of his authority with the people was to destroy all these 
houses ; and so generally was he reverenced, that even 
those who were ruined by the measure are said to have 
assisted in carrying it into effect. 

Beggee Jan's own family suffered so much in the 
conflict for power, that its surviving members at last 
joined in the general request that he would assume the 
government. But he continued to refuse, until, upon 
occasion of a serious commotion in the capital,Jn which 
about a thousand lives were lost,' the nominal king and all 
the nobles went to the mosque where he resided, compelled 
him to attend them to the tomb of hjs father, and at 
that sacred spot solemnly invoked him to save his 
country. Apparently overcome by their entreaties, he, 
promised to give his counsel in the management of 
public affairs ; but he continued to abstain from active 
interference, until a neighbouring chief, presuming 
upon the apparent weakness of the government, ven- 
tured to invade Bokhara. This so excited the indig- 
nation of Beggee Jan, that he accepted the title of 
Regent, and marched at the head of a large army against 
the invader, whom he compelled to retreat from the 
territories of Bokhara, and to abandon some of those 
countries, the possession of which he had at a former 
time usurped. From that time Beggee Jan became 
the actual ruler of the Usbegs, although he never bore 
any other title than that of Regent, and continued to 
pay a nominal obedience to Abdool Ghazee Khan, the 
nominal king. 

It may seem strange that Beggee Jan should have 
chosen this process of acquiring the power which he 
might probably have taken, without much difficulty, as 
the heir of his father. But he knew that merely as the 
head of a tribe he should, in a station to which he 
could have no distinct claim, be exposed to the jealousy 
and opposition of other chiefs ; whilst, as a religious 
mendicant, compelled by his countrymen to assume 
regal power, he should have no rival to fear, and would 
be able to establish his authority on a permanent basis. 
Therefore in his subsequent life he never lost sight of 
that character in which he had won " golden opinions " 
from his countrymen. In his regulations for the 
management of public affairs, he gave to each institu- 
tion a shape consonant to his apparent situation ; and 
In his private character the temptations which surround 
a throne had ho power to divert him from the practice 
of that austerity and self-denial which had sanctified 
his cell. His perseverance in this conduct disarmed 
his enemies and attached his friends ; and ultimately 
he came to be regarded with such reverence, bordering 
on adoration, that he found little difficulty in establish- 
ing a fabric of power — by the consolidation of the Us- 
beg tribes, and by victories and successful negociatiohs — 
which even Persia contemplated with great and just 

We will now proceed to state some of the more 

peculiar traits of the domestic government of this 
remarkable man, and furnish some details of his habits 
in private life. 

Beggee J&n abolished the splendid court at which 
the nobles of Bokhara had been accustomed to attend, 
and in its place established what may be called a hall 
of justice, in which he sat as president, assisted by forty 
mollahs, or learned men. All who had complaints to 
make came to this hall ; but the prosecutor was never 
allowed to speak unless the accused were present. No 
person,. whatever might be his rank, dared neglect a 
summons to attend this court, before which even a slave 
might cite his master. Beggee Jan was accustomed to 
listen very patiently to the statements of both parties, 
and in all cases not criminal he sent them away with 
the advice to endeavour to settle the matter amicably 
between themselves. If they did so, the cause termi- 
nated ; but if not, he took notes, at their re-appearance, 
of the evidence produced ; and these were given, toge- 
ther with his. opinion on the case, to the mollahs, who 
were directed to prepare a decision according to the ' 
holy law. The parties, even after this, had a week 
allowed them to accommodate their difference ; but if 
they failed to do so, sentence was then passed, and 
became irrevocable. Criminal justice was administered 
according to the Koran. Daring robbers were 
punished with death ; petty thieves by the loss t)f 
their right hands ; drunkards were publicly whipped. 
Tobacco having come into use since the time of 
Mahomet, the Koran says nothing about it ; but 
smoking is rather discountenanced by severe reli- 
gionists, and Beggee Jftn forbade it under severe 
penalties. From all classes in the city of Bokhara the 
strictest attention to the forms of religion was required : 
police officers were continually employed in driving 
the inhabitants to the mosques to hear the stated 
prayers ; and they were authorized to use their whips to 
awaken the devotion of the negligent. These officers 
had also authority to interrogate the persons they met 
as to their knowledge of the proper prayers, and to inflict 
summary punishment on such as were found wanting. 
Of these proceedings we cannot form a proper estimate 
without recollecting that an attention, to the stated 
prayers is an essential duty of daily life, the observance 
of which is made imperative upon a Moslem by the 
Koran, the directions of which have the force of public 
laws in every Mohammedan country 

The nominal monarch, Abdool Ghazee Khan, and his 
family, were supported from the produce of the royal 
estates. But Beggee Jan drew daily from the same 
fund from which he paid his soldiers, for the support of 
himself, his cook, his servant,.and his tutor, the sum of 
one tungdh (about five pence) for each, being the 
amount of the stipend" allowed to the poorest student. 
The wife of Beggee J&n, who was one of the royal 
family, was allowed only three tungdhs. This princess 
had a fortune of her own, which placed her above the 
necessity of receiving this pittance; but she took if 
nevertheless, in order to please her husband, who often 
told her that it was too much. " That which is actually 
necessary," he used to say to her, " is alone lawful ;" 
and when she remonstrated, he was wont to add, — 
" Learn, lady, to be content with little, that thy God 
may be content with thee." Nevertheless the joy which 
he felt at the birth of a son induced him to abate the 
rigour of his domestic regulations. A sum of npt less 
than 5/. was allotted for the support of the mother and 
infant ; and an equal amount was given for the support 
of two other sons the moment they were born. Gra- 
dually Beggee Jftn showed his intention to educate his 
children in the enjoyment of the luxuries which, as for 
himself, he appeared to despise. He allowed his 
family to reside in a palace ; while he himself occupied 
an Unfurnished room, or rather cell, into which per- l 

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[February 21, 1835. 

sons of all classes were admitted at all hours. He 
usually wore a coarse and filthy dress, and had every 
appearance of a common beggar. This dress he seldom 
changed except when he went to see his family, and 
then the skin of a deer was thrown loose over his 
shoulders. Nevertheless the 1 same policy which led 
him to condemn himself to every privation made him 
desire to be surrounded with splendour; and there 
could hardly be a greater contrast than that between 
the mean and disgusting appearance of this extraor- 
• dinary man, in all that appertained to him personally, 
and the display of magnificence and 'wealth made by 
his nobles and principal officers. 

An ambassador from a neighbouring chief wrote an 
account of his mission to the court of Beggee Jan. 
From the long extract from this journal which Is given 
by Sir John Malcolm, we select a few particulars 
describing the personal appearance and habits of the 
remarkable man who forms the subject of this article. 

" After riding a short distance, we came to a one- 
pole tent, which I judged, from its size and tattered 
appearance, to belong to some cooks, or water-carriers. 
An old man was seated on the grass so near it as to 
be protected from the sun by its shade. 'Here all dis- 
mounted and advanced towards the old man, who was 
clothed in green, but very dirty. When near him, they 
stood with their hands crossed, in a respectful posture, 
and made their salutation. He returned that of each 
person, and desired us to sit down' opposite to him. ,, 
* . * "While we were conversing, a great number 
of nobles came in ; and I could not help observing the 
extraordinary richness and splendour of their arms and 
dresses. Beggee Jan returned the salute of each of 
them in a kind and affable manner, and bade them be 
seated : but the shade of his small tent did not protect 
one-half of them from the rays of the sun. Soon after 
their arrival, their chief fell_ into a deep reverie ; and, 
till evening prayers were announced, he appeared wholly 
absorbed in religious contemplation. At the time of 
prayer, all arose and retired." 

On a following day, the same person had an op- 
portunity of seeing. Beggee Jan at dinner. He says — 
" His cook, a diminutive person, with weak eyes, came 
into the tent. ' What do you think of dinner?' said 
Beggee Jan : ' it will soon be time for prayer.' The 
little cook immediately brought a large black pot, and, 
making a fire-place with stones, put four or five kinds 
of graip, and a little dried meat, into it. He then 
nearly filled it with water ; and, having kindled a fire, 
left it to boil while he prepared the dishes : these were 
wooden platters, of the same kind as are used by the 
lowest orders. He put down three, and poured out 
the mess. Beggee Jan watched him; and the cook 
evidently understood, from his looks, when more or less 
was to be put into a dish. After all was ready, he 
spread a dirty cloth, and laid down a piece of stale 
barley-bread (Allah knows in what year of the Hejirah 
it was baked !), which Beggee Jan put into a cup of 
water to moisten. The first dish was given to the ruler 
of the Usbegs, the second was placed between Ishan 
Nukeeb and me, and the cook took the third to himself, 
sitting down to eat it opposite his master. As I had 
dined, I merely tasted what was placed before me. It 
was very nauseous, the meat in it being almost putrid : 
yet several nobles who came in ate the whole of our un- 
finished share, and with an apparent relish which could 
only have been derived from the pleasure they had in 
partaking of the same fare with their holy leader. 
After dinner, I obtained leave to depart." 

A few years after this Beggee Jan died, and his 
eldest son, Hyder Turrah, ascended the throne of 
Bokhara; and assumed, as his father had always 
intended, not oifiy the dignity, but the name of a] 


In the American Almanac for 1 835 there is an article 
on this subject which presents us with some important 
information, and from which we take the substance of 
what follows. 

We are all familiar with the numerous and occasion- 
ally distressing reports which, from time to time, hare 
appeared in the newspapers relative to steam-boat 
accidents on the American rivers. The subject has 
attracted the attention of the American legislature. 
Two reports were presented to Congress in the years 
1832-33. From these documents it appears that 
rumour has magnified the number of those disastrous 
accidents, and the nature of their results. " The whole 
number of explosions in the United States is ascertained 
to be 52, number of killed 256 ; number of wounded 
104." Mr. Redfield of New York, agent of the Steam- 
boat Navigation Company, supplies a list of all the 
steam-boat explosions, giving the name of the vessel, 
the year in which each accident occurred, the place where 
ii occurred, and, as far as can be ascertained, the num- 
ber of killed and wounded. He says, " In making 
an approximate estimate of the whole number of lives 
which have been lost in the United States by these 
accidents, I should fix it at 300. Although this is a 
melancholy detail of casualties, yet it seems less for- 
midable when placed in comparison with the ordinary 
causes of mortality, and especially when contrasted with 
the insatiate demands of intemperance and ambition. 
It is believed that it will appear small when compared 
with the whole amount of injury and loss which has 
been sustained by travelling in stages and other kinds 
of carriages. More lives have probably been lost from 
sloops and packets on the waters of this State (New 
York) since the introduction of steam-boats* than by all 
the accidents in the latter, though the number of 
passengers exposed has been much smaller." 

Compare this with the rapid increase of steam-boat 
navigation :— " The amount of steam-boat business m 
this country has been increased immensely since 1824 ; 
and perhaps the average of the preceding by fifty or a 
hundredfold. In the spring of 1824, but one steam- 
boat ran in the waters of the Connecticut, and but two 
from New York eastward, and with a small number of 
passengers compared with what they now carry.. Now 
we have sixteen or twenty in full activity in that direc- 
tion. One boat on the Hudson, built in 1825, has 
carried near 200,000 passengers ; and we have sixteen 
or eighteen boats plying on the Hudson, while south- 
ward from this city (New York) the change has been 
equally great." 

And this is only a section of the United States : now 
numerous steam-vessels are rushing up and down the 
majestic Mississippi, branching off into the Ohio, the 
Arkansas, the Missouri, and carrying a stream, an ever- 
flowing stream, of population into wilds, which, very 
lately, knew no other lord than the red Indian of the 

But though, in the words of the American Congress 
Committee, " no legislation is competent to annihilate 
those causes" which produce the rather numerous 
explosions of steam-boat boilers, yet legislation, dis- 
creetly applied, may do something ; and where it cannot 
directly reach the evil, it may still, by directing public 
attention to it, effect its removal through the force of 
public opinion. The inquiries of Congress will there- 
fore probably tend to the accomplishment of so desirable 
an object. 

•«• The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge it at 
59, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


Printed Ly William Clowks, Dnke Street, Lambeth, 

Digitized by 



of THI 

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[February 28, 1835 


[From a Print by Sir Robert Strange, after the Picture by Annibole Curracci.] 

" Art thou a thing o£ mortal birth, 
Whose happy home is on our earth ? 
Does human blood with life erabue 
Those wandering veins of heavenly blue 
That stray along thy forehead fair, 
Lost 'raid a gleam of golden hair ? 
Oh ! can that light and airy breath 
Steal from a being doomed to death ? 
Those features to the grave be sent, 
In sleep thus mutely eloquent ? 
Or art thou, what thy form would seem, 
The phantom of a blessed dream ? 

Qh ! that my spirit's eye could see 
Whence burst those gleams of ecstasy ! 
That light of dreaming soul appears 
To play from thoughts above thy years. 
Thou sinil'st as if thy soul were soaring 
To heaven, and heaven's God adoring ; 
And who can tell what visions high 
May bless an infant's sleeping eye P*' 

The above Hues, descriptive of an infant's sleep, by 
Professor Wilson, are not inappropriately introduced in 
this place, the repose of a child being exhibited with 
so much truth and effect, and forming so prominent a 
circumstance in the painting under consideration. The j 
same lines form the Introduction to the description of [ 
this picture in the great national work the ' Musee 
Vol. IV. 

Francois.' The picture, which is called ' Silence,' 
scarcely needs an explanation, its story being told with 
so much simplicity as to be at once understood. St. 
John, being desirous of the company of the infant Jesus, 
i3 about to awake him, but is checked by the inter- 
position of the mother, who, with her finger on her 
lip, enjoins him not to disturb his repose. The prin- 
cipal figure, as well in the intention of the artist as in 
the perfection of its art, is undoubtedly that of thfc 
sleeping child. It is difficult to conceive how the most 
engagiug of spectacles — the soft and happy slumber of 
a child — could be more correctly represented. The 
whole frame is abandoned to the listlessness of repose, 
while the features .exhibit such an expression of quiet 
enjoyment as results from those flitting impressions 
which probably supply the place of connected dreams 
to a sleeping child. The inquiring expression in the 
countenance of the elder boy and the quiet tenderness 
of the Virgin are also beautifully depicted, although not 
remarkable in an equal degree with the attitude and 
expression of the principal figure. 

The Bolognese School of Painting was formed at Bo- 
logna, in Italy, during the sixteenth century, by the three 
Carracci — Ludovico, and his two cousins, Agostino and 
Annibale, who were brothers. Annibale had previously 
followed the calling of his father, who was a tailor ; ami 

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[FSBRtfAIT 28, 

he is considered the most celebrated member of this school. 
Ludovico's powers of invention were perhaps greater, 
and Agostino's merits as a teacher more considerable, but 
undoubtedly Annibale possessed the highest genius. 
The peculiar merit of each of the three may perhaps be 
better understood by stating that Lndovico reminds us of 
Titian, Agostino of TJntoret, and Annibale of Corregio. 
Annibale possessed, in an extraordinary degree, the 
facility of sketching to the life whatever came in his 
way. Having once been robbed, he proceeded to a 
magistrate, and, instead of giving a verbal description 
of the thieves, he produced a faithful sketch of their 
persons, thus showing that a moment of so much 
excitement had not deprived him of the extraordinary 
power which he possessed t*f retaining in his mind the 
impression of objects. He was of a somewhat careless 
disposition, but not a man to be offended with impunity. 
Being provoked on one occasion to fight a duel, he 
gaily replied, — " As for me I only fight with my pencil. 
Behold my arms." And at another time, when up- 
braided by his brother for the little care which he 
exercised in selecting his associates, he merely occupied 
himself with making a sketch of his father and mother, 
with needle and scissors in hand; and, at the close of 
his brother's lecture, showed it to him for the purpose 
of reminding him that they had both been brought up 
in a tailor's work-room. Annibale Carracci was oc- 
cupied above eight years at the Farnese Gallery, for 
which the cardinal by whom he was employed only paid 
him 500 gold crowns. This was so mean a reward for his 
talents and labour that he would have returned them 
had he not been persuaded to the. contrary. He was, 
however, so much affected with the ingratitude shown 
towards him, that it occasioned anJllness, of which he 
died not Jong after, in his forty-ninth year. He was 
interred by the side of Raphael,- in the church of the 
"Pantheon, at Rome. 

The principles of the Bolognese school were a close 
observation of nature combined with an imitation of 
the best masters. The rules particularly insisted upon 
by Annibale were, that a perfect picture should not 
consist of more than three groups, and not more than 
twelve figures. An air of repose, grace, and dignity 
were the qualities which he aimed at infusing into his 
compositions. Subordinate figures he skilfully threw 
into the shade, in order, that the eye might rest on the 
principal characters and the more animated portion of 
the picture. 



The appearance of this substance in its metallic state is 
familiar to every one. It is one of the most useful of 
mineral substances, and forms one of the most valuable 
products of the mines of Great Britain. Its specific 
gravity is considerable,' being more than eleven times 
the weight of an equal bulk of water. N It is malleable, 
and with ease may be reduced into very thin plates ; 
but it is liable to crack under thehammer. It is so far 
ductile as to be capable of being drawn into wire -rj-|- 
part of an inch in thickness, but its tenacity is very low ; 
for a wire of that diameter breaks with a weight a little 
exceeding eighteen pounds. As it possesses no elasticity, 
it is incapable of compression, and differs in that respect 
from all the other ductile metals, which diminish in 
volume, and, consequently, increase in density, under 
the hammer; but lead has the same specific gravity 
when it is simply melted as when it is beat or rolled 
out into plates. It is the least sonorous of all the 
metajs. It is easily fusible, melting at 612°, or a heat 
less than three times that of boiling water; but not*o 
easily as tin, which .melts at the temperature of 442°. 
When first melted, or when cut, it has a brilliant lustre ; 

"but this shining surface, however, is soon tarnished by 
attracting oxygen and carbonic acid from the air : but 
this coating of carbonated oxide, once acquired, protects 
it from farther change. Water has op action upon it ; 
and hence its usefulness for cisterns and pipes. When 
exposed to the continued action of a stream of hot air, 
it rapidly acquires oxygen, and is converted into 4 
substance which is called u litharge." 

Lead has been sometimes found in the pure, or 
native, state ; but very rarely, and always in small 
quantity. It is one of the metals which is found in 
the greatest variety of combinations : but there is only 
one kind of ore which is very abundant ; the rest are 
chiefly known as objects of interest to the mineralogist ; 
— many of them afford very beautiful specimens for the 
cabinet. The common ore is a combination of eighty* 
six parts of lead and fourteen of sulphur, and is called 
usually by the name of Galena, or sulphuret of lead. 
It very often contains silver, and in sufficient quantity 
to pay the expense of a process for separating it/ That 
of the north of England contains from 2 to 24 ounces 
of silver to the ton, and the average quantity is 11^ 
ounces. The galena of the mine Huel Pool, in Corn 
wall, yielded 60 ounces; "of Guarneck Mine, near 
Truro, 70 ounces ; and a mine near Beeralstone, in 
Devonshire, yielded galena so rich as to give 135 ounces 
of silver to the ton. A great proprietor of lead-mines 
in the north of England had a splendid service of 
plate made of the silver so separated from the lead -ore. 
' In geological position, lead is most abundantly met 
with in the lower strata of the secondary sedimentary 
deposits, especially in the carboniferous limestone. 
(O, in Diagram No. 1, f Penny Magazine ' No. 51.) 
It is found also in considerable quantity in the strata 
below these,, in the grauwacke, clay-slate, mica-rslate, 
and even in gneiss, which is the lowest of the stratified 
rocks. (Q and R of Diagram No. 1.) It is found also, but 
more rarely, in the un stratified rocks, both in granite 
and in trap ; but in all the instances that have been 
mentioned, the granite and trap have always beaa 
associated with stratified rocks containing lead-ore. It 
is occasionally found in the coal-measures (M), but not 
hitherto in any of the strata above the coal. Galena, 
next to pyrites, or sulphuret of iron, is the most common 
of the metallic ores, and it is found in almost every 
country of the globe ; but there are large tracts without 
any deposits of it in sufficient abundance to be worked. 

England produces annually nearly three times as 
much lead as all the other countries of Europe put to- 
gether. The chief mines are in the north of England, 
in Derbyshire, North Wales, and Devonshire, on the 
borders of Cornwall. The great seat of the north 
of England mines is in that high district, around 
the mountain of Cross Fell, where the counties of 
Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, the 
North Riding of Yorkshire, and Durham, meet, as it 
were, in a central point, and from which they radiate. 
The mines first become of importance on Mnggleswick, 
Moor, on the borders of Northumberland and Durham, 
about twenty-seven miles from' the east coast of Sunder- 
land, and at Blanchland, on the river Derwent, a, little 
to the west of Muggleswick ; and they continue to the 
summit of Cross Fell. Aldstone IVfoor, in Cumberland, 
and Dufton, in Westmoreland, are important places in 
this district ; and there are mines in Weardale, Tees- 
dale, Allendale, and Askendale. Mr* Forster reckons 
that, in this part of England, there are no less than 
175 lead-mines, which either have been or are now 
worked. The prevailing rock is the carboniferous lime- 
stone, — that great deposit which lies immediately under 
the coal-strata in most parts of England. It is associated 
with strata of sandstone and slate; and there are about 
twenty different beds of limestone which the miners 
distinguish by distinct names. The series of strata at 

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L 2 

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[February 28, 

The Cormorant belongs to a genus of aquatic birds, 
of which there are about fifteen varieties. The 
distinctive characteristic of the order consists in the 
peculiar formation of the foot. The outer toe is the 
ongest, and edged externally by a small membrane ; 
the webbing membrane is broad, full, and entire ; the 
hind toe is half as long as the middle, and all are pro- 
vided with broad curved claws, but not sharp, and the 
middle toe is serrated so as to retain with security the 
slippery prey on which this bird feeds. The cormorant 
is an excellent swimmer and diver, and also flies well, 
and the voracity for which it is proverbially famed calls 

into constant activity the peculiar faculties with which 
nature has enabled it to satisfy its craving appetite. 
'As soon as the cormorant perceives its prey it darts 
upon it with destructive rapidity, and soon retains it 
in security by means of the saw-like indentations of its 
middle toe. Wilh the aid of the other foot the fish is ' 
brought to the surface of the water, and then tossed 
upwards by an adroit motion so as to be seized by the 
head. By this means it is swallowed without the fins 
offering any resistance. The throat of the cormorant 
is susceptible of considerable expansion, should any 
obstacle occur in taking its prey. Cormorants are 

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fond of society, and, except in the pairing season, they 
are generally found in flocks, and often in company 
with other water-fowl, which are unmolested except 
when the greediness of the cormorant tempts it to 
snatch from them their prey. Owing to its activity 
and success in fishing, the services of the cormorant 
have been made use of in another element in the same 
manner as the, falcon. Faber has described the manner 
in which these operations were carried on. He says, — 
" When they carry them out of the rooms where they 
are kept to the fish- pools, they hoodwink them, that 
they may not be frightened by the way. When they 
are come to the rivers, they take off their hoods, and 
having tied a leather thong round the lower part of 
their necks, that they may not swallow down the fish 
they catch, they throw them into the river. They 
preseutly dive under water ; and there, for a long time, 
with wonderful swiftness, pursue the fish ; and when 
they have caught them, rise to the top of the water, 
and pressing the fish lightly with their bills, swallow 
them ; till each bird hath, after this manner, devoured 
five or six fishes. Then their keepers call them to the 
. fist, to which they readily fly ; and, one after another, 
vomit up all their fish, a little bruised with the first 
nip given in catching them. When they have done 
fishing, setting the birds on some high place, they 
loose the string from their necks, leaving the passage 
to the stomach free and open ; and, for their reward, 
they throw them part of their prey ; to each one or two 
fishes, which they will catch most dexterously, as they 
are falling in the air." 

The practice described by Faber had long been extinct 
in England, but it is in use in China at the present day. 
The Chinese cormorant is of a blackish brown on the 
upper part of its body, the lower parts are whitish, 
spotted with brown, and the throat is whiter The 
plate represents the manner in which the fishing is 

. managed on the lakes and canals of China, and the 
process is explained in the following, extract from 
Le Comte, an old French writer : — " To this end 
cormorants are educated as men rear up spaniels or 
hawks; and one man can easily manage a hundred. 
The fisher carries them out into the lake, perched on 
the gunwale of his boat, where they continue tranquil, 
and expecting his orders with patience. When arrived 
at the proper place, at the first signal given each flies 
a different way, to fulfil the task assigned it It is very 
pleasant, on th«s occasion, to behold with what sagacity 
they portion out the lake or the canal where they are 
upon duty. They hunt about, they plunge, they rise a 
hundred times to the surface, until they have at last 
found their prey. They then seize it with their beak 

, by the middle, and carry it without fail to, their master. 
When the fishis too large, they then give each other 
mutual assistance : one seizes it by the head, the other 
by the tail, and in this mauner carry it to the boat 
together. There the boat-man stretches out one of his 
long oars, on which they perch, and being delivered of 
their burden, they then fly off to pursue their sport. 
When they are wearied he lets them rest for a while ; 
but they are never fed till their work is over. In this 
manner they supply a very plentiful table ; but still 
their natural gluttony cannot be reclaimed even by 
education. They have always, while they fish, the 
same string fastened round their thioats, to prevent 
them from devouring their prey, as otherwise they 
would at once satiate themselves, and discontinue the 
pursuit tH* moment they had filled their bellies." 


[Kroiu a Cor^pondent.] 

.On the 24th of August, 1834, 1 embarked on board 
the ship Earl of Etdon, of London, 600 tons, Captain 

Theaker, at Bombay, with a view of returning to my 
native land on furlough. She was one of the finest and 
strongest ships in the trade ; and any insurance might 
have been had on the chances of her successfully resist- 
ing the winds and waves. 'She was laden with cotton : 
and, as the number of passengers was small, the space 
between decks was quite filled up with cotton-bales, 
screwed so compactly and tightly as to render it a 
matter of more difficulty to take them out than it had 
been to put them in. The number of individuals on 
board were forty-five, including three ladies and an 
infant, and the captain and his crew. It unfortunately 
happened that the cotton had been brought on board 
in a damp state. It had probably been wetted by 
heavy rains as it was brought down front the gulf, and 
had not been dried at the warehouse previously to being 
screwed.* This operation is performed by a very power- 
ful compression; and it seems not unlikely that the 
fire damp may be generated within, in the same manner 
as in a hay-stack when it has been stacked damp. 

On the 26th of September, after a series of baffling 
winds and calms, and heavy rain with squalls of wind, 
we got into 7° 27' south latitude ; and the trade-Wind 
appeared to have fairly caught hold of our saili. We 
began now to anticipate our arrival at the Cape. * On 
the morning of the 27th I rose early (about half- past 
five) and went on deck. I found one of my fellow- 
passengers there ; and we perceived a steam apparently 
arising from the fore-hatchways. I mentioned at the 

time to H-i that I thought it might be caused by 

fire-damp; and, if not immediately checked, might 
become fire. The captain came on deck, and L asked 
him what it was; he answered steam; and that it 
was common enough in cotton-lpaded ships when the 
hatches were opened. I said nothing ; but the smoke 
becoming more dense, and beginning to assume a dif- 
ferent colour, I began to think that all' was not right ; 
and also that he had some idea of the kind, as I saw the 
carpenter cutting holes in the deck jost above the place 
whence the smoke appeared to come. 

I went down to dress ; and, about half-past six, the 
captain knocked at my door, and told me that part of 
the cotton was on fire, and he wished to see all the 
gentlemen-passengers on deck. We accordingly as- 
sembled, and he then stated the case - to be this : — 
that some part of the cargo appeared to have spon- 
taneously ignited,' and that he purposed removing the 
bales until they should discover the ignited ones, and 
have them thrown overboard, as well as those which 
appeared to be in the same damaged condition ; and 
that it being necessary, in his opinion, to do this, he 
deemed it his duty to lay the case before us. We of 
course submitted everything to his judgment ; and he 
ordered the hands to breakfast as quick as possible, 
and to work to discover the source of the fire. 

After breakfast, he said there did not appear to be 
any immediate danger, and that he hoped we might 
be able to avert it altogether. However, about eight 
o'clock, the smoke became much thicker, and began 
to roll through the after-hatchway, the draught havin^ 
been admitted forward in order to enable the men to 
work. Several bales were removed, but the heat began 
to be intolerable below, and the smoke rolled out in 
suffocating volumes ; and, before nine o'clock, we dis- 
covered that part of the deck had caught fire, which 
obliged the men to discontinue their labours. The 
captain then ordered the hatches to be battered down, 
with a view to keep the fire from bursting out ; and to 
hoist out all the boats, and stock them in case of ne- 
cessity. This was done ; and, about half-past one, the 
three ladies, two sick passengers, au infaut, and a 
female servant, were put into the longboat, with 216 
gallons of water, 20 gallons of brandy, and biscuit for 
a month's consumption; together with such pots of 

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jam and preserved meats as we could get at, and the 
Gay's provision of fresti and salted meat. It was now 
about two o'clock : the hatches were then opened, and 
aft hands get to work to endeavour to extinguith the 
fire. The main hatchway being lifted„and a tarpaulin g 
removed, there was a sail underneath which was so hot 
that the men could hardly remove it. When they did, 
the heat and smoke came up worse than ever ; and it 
feeing now known, from inspection, that the fire was 
underneath that part, orders were given to hoist out 
the uppermost bales in order to get at those that were 
turning underneath. ' But when the men laid hold of 
the lashings to introduce a crane-hook they were found 
io have "been burnt through beneath, and came away 
in their hands. The case now appeared bad indeed. 
However, we cut a bale open, and tried to remove it 
Dy handfuls ; but the smoke and heat became so over- 
powering that no man could stand over it ; and water, 
In the quantities we dared to use it, only seemed to in- 
crease it ; for had the captain ventured to pump water 
into the ship sufficient to extinguish the fire, the bales 
would have swelled so much as to burst open the deck, 
or have increased so much in weight as to sink the 
ship, so that either way destruction would have been 
the issue. 

tJnder these circumstances, perceiving the case to be 
utterly hopeless, the captain called us together on the 
poop, and asked if any one could propose any expedient 
likely to avail in extinguishing the fire and saving the 
ship? as in that case, said he, we will stick by her 
whilst a hope remains. It was unanimously agreed 
that all had been done that could be done : the men 
were all perfectly sober, and had been most arduous in 
their exertions; but one and all seemed coolly and 
positively decided that the case was hopeless. The 
heat was increasing so much that it became dangerous 
to leave the poop ; the captain therefore requested the 
gentlemen to get into the boats ; next he embarked his 
men, and at three o'clock he himself left the ship, the 
iast man who did so, just as the flames were bursting 
through the quarter-deck. We then put off the two 
boats, towing the longboat. The progress of the 
ship had been previously stopped by backing her yards ; 
arid when we were about a mile from her, she was in 
one blaze, and her masts began to fall in. Between 
eight and nine all her masts had fallen in, and she had 
burnt to the water's edge ; suddenly there was a bright 
flash, ^followed by a dull and heavy explosion, the fire 
having reached the powder. For a few seconds the 
splinters and flaming fragments glittered in the air, 
and then all was darkness, for the waters had closed 
over the Earl of Eldon. 

Sad was the prospect now before us ! There were in 
the longboat the captain and twenty-five persons, 
including an infant four months old ; the size of the 
boat 23 feet long by 7^ broad ; in each of the others 
ten individuals, iuctuding the officer in charge. One 
Of the boats had some bags of biscuit, but the chief 
provision was in the longboat. We were, by rough 
Calculation, above 1000 miles from Rodrigue,' and 450 
frorti Diego Garcias, die largest of the Chagos Islands ; 
but to get there we must have passed through the 
squally latitudes we had -just left, and been subject to 
variable winds and heavy weather or calms, neither of 
which Wfe were prepared to resist. Seeing, then, that our 
Stock Of food was sufficient, we determined on trying 
fbr Rodrigiie, and having humbly committed ourselves 
to the guidance of that Providence, in whom alone we 
had hope, we accomplished rigging the boats, and got 
under sail. On the 3rd day of our boat-navigation the 
weather began to threaten a change, but as We were in 
the trade We did not apprehepd foul or contrary winds. 
In the coiit-se of the night it blew fresh with rain ; we 
were totally Without shelter, and the sea dashing its 


[Februakv- 28, 

spray over us, drenched us, and spoilt a great part of 
our biscuit, though we hftftiiff 'M not dfe&feY this 
tftitft we had almost ceased to Warn ft. The weather 
gtew worse*, and one of otrr small boats, lit which 
were Mr< Simpson, the second mate, with nifle other*, 
was split by the sea. She came alongside, and We put 
the carpenter into her, who made what repairs he could, 
but With little hope that they Would answer. We then 
{jroeeeded to fasten a spray-cloth of canvass along otrr 
weather gunwale, having lashed a bamboo four fe^t 
tip the mast, and fixed it on the intersection of two 
stancheons, at the sahre height above the stern, the 
spray-cloth was firmly fashed along so as to .form a 
kind of pent-hou.*e roof. Had it not been for this imper- 
fect defence, we must have been swamped ; and even as it 
was, we still shipped seas to so great an extent that four 
men were obliged to be kept constantly employed in baling 
to keep her dear of water. Towards evening it blew 
hard, with a tremendous sea, and not thinking the other 
damaged boat safe, we took in the creW, and abandoned 
her. We were now thirtv-six persons, stowed as thick 
as we could be, and obliged to throw over all super- 
fluities; and we had not more than eight inches of 
clear gunwale out of the water. Wet, gloomy, and 
miserable, the night passed away ; at last the day broke, 
and though the weather was still very bad, I again felt 
hope, which had never entirely forsaken me, that we 
should still weather the storm. During the last night 
the sea had broken right over us more than once ; one 
tremendous sea came roaring down, and while I held 
my breath with horror, it brake right over our stern, 
wetted the poor ladies to their throats, and carried 
away the steersman's hat. The captain then tried out 
in a tone calculated to inspire us with confidence 
(which he afterwards told rrie his heart did riot re-echo) 
— " that's nothing; it's all right ; bale away, my boys :" 
he never expected us to live out the night, but harassed 
as he was both in mind and body, he gallantly stood 
up, and never, by word or deed, betrayed a feeling that 
might tend to sink our hopes. He stood on the bench 
that livelong night, nor did he ever attempt to sleep 
for nearly forty-eight hours. 

After the change of the moon the weather began to 
moderate, and we enjoyed a comparative degree of 
comfort. We had three small meals of biscuit, and 
some little jam, &c, and three half-pints of water per 
day, with brandy if we liked it. The men had one 
gill of spirits allowed them daily. Thus we had enough 
for necessity; and I incline to attribute to our having 
no more the good state of bodily health we enjoyed. 
We had plenty of cigars, and whenever we could strike 
a light we contrived to smoke, and I never found 
tobacco so great a luxury* as then. The ladies were * 
most deserving com passion, and praise, for though they 
could not move, and any little alteration in their dress 
could only be made by spreading a curtain before them, 
they never uttered one single word like repining or 

On the thirteenth evening we began to look out fbr 
Rodrigue ; the captain told us not to be too sanguine, 
as his chronometer was not to be depended on after the 
rough treatment it had met with. The night fell, and 
I went forward to sleep; but, about twelve, I was 
wakened by the cry that land was right a-head. I 
looked and saw a strong loom of land through the 
mist. The captain had the boat brought to for an 
hour, then made sail and ran towards it, and, at half- 
past two, it appeared still more strongly. We then lay 
to until day-light. I attempted to compos^ir*7««»ii* f 
sleep, but my feelings were too strong and, after some 
useless attempts, I sat down a*** smoked with a sen- 
sation I had long been a stranger to. 

With the first light of dawn Rodrigue appeared 
right a-head, distant about six miles; and, by eight 

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THE PENNY MAGAZINE. % t^RttA** 28, 183b. 

fia Hippo/ait.) 

rockiitui) arrives; and 
the weather be fine. 

la tibihUrix). 

ives ; and the hedge- 
Phagmittt); and the 

i to appear 




hitethroat arrive in the 

[vead to the northern 

id garden-warbler ar- 

Ihe spotted flycatcher, 

>. Thi* is one of th* 


the green woodpecker 

for this I killed an 
te. She had four 
nails, like herself; 
[n size and % other 
on black bear, but 
5ept the skin of the 

but not so highly 
be old one was very 
f ; two of the young 
tree: I had but just 
nree men, attracted 
heae men were very 
id them, and gave 
lome. Next day I 
ree, when I became 
n I had from A-ke- 
ut killing the bear, 
he tree, and put the 
>re I could kill him. 
tarted, at the same 

the latter running 
, and two of them 
hem must only be 
the root of the tree, 
e old she-bear come 
caught up the cub 
lg it with her paws, 
ling it as a woman 
oment, smelled the 
ceiving it was dead, 
s me, gna*hin£ her 
ad stood as high as 
lad scarce reloaded 
m she came within 
to feel the necessity 
t, and which 1 very 
rging my gun, to 
t again.— Tanner* 9 

UWul Knowledge u at 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

187.3 January 31 to February 2S 9 183S. 

* ■ , 


|G» La**.] 

Voi^rr. * n 

Digitized by V^jOOQlC 

,9* MONTHLY SUPPLEMENT OP V [February 28, 

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with which the punter had hit off the manners of the 
day ; while to u$ they have the grave historical value of 
materials which afford us an insight we could not other- 
wise obtain into the condition, habits, and pursuits of 
the people in a past age. Putting before ourselves the 
picture of ' Gin Lane ' under this view, who is not 
constrained to ask, — " In what were the days of* our 
fathers better than our own ?" None can lament more 
deeply than ourselves the scale on which habits of in- 
temperance are exhibited in this country, and the faci- 
lities which are afforded for the indulgence' of such 
habits. We have never, however, subscribed to the jus- 
tice of the outcry against the increased intemperance of 
the age beyond all former ages. Our wood-cut may be 
accepted as one proof to the contrary ; if only as show- 
ing that the intemperance of the people was as much a 
subject of satire and complaint eighty years ago as it is 
at present. Compared with the amount of the popula- 
tion, the quantity of intoxicating liquors consumed now 
is much less than in the time of Hogarth ; and the 
number of places for the sale of such liquors has equally 
decreased. There are two other points also which are 
of great importance in this comparison. The number 
of habitual drunkards has actually diminished, as consi- 
dered with a view to the increase of the population ; 
and the habitual drunkards are now more exclusively 
in the very lowest class of society than at any former 
period. On referring to the evidence taken before the 
Select Committee for Inquiry into Drunkenness, we find 
our impressions on these points substantiated by the 
statements of those witnesses who appear to possess the 
largest amount of practical knowledge on the subject. 
We could quote much interesting information illustra- 
tive of the view we have taken ; but what will suit our 
immediate purpose of commenting upon Hogarth's 
print, is to avail ourselves of the speech of Lord Chol- 
mondeley, as given in the * Parliamentary History,' 
vol. xii. p. 1213, to furnish a short account of the various 
liquor acts previously to 1743, in connexion with the 
evidence of Mr. Francis Place before the Committee, 
with reference to the legislative measures taken about 
the epoch of -Hogarth's picture, with a view of placing 
a, check on the evil of drunkenness. 

Lord Cholmondeley, after dwelling on the inemcacy 
of direct legislation on the subject and affirming that 
spirits would certainly be obtained from abroad, if the 
manufacture were prohibited at home, proceeds to state 
that the consumption of French brandy was very large 
during the reign of Charles II., and excited some discon- 
tent, it being thought that the nation lost by not distil- 
ling at home. Charles granted to a company the privi- 
lege of distilling brandy from wine and malt. After the 
Revolution of 1668, when French commerce was prohi- 
bited, any one was left free to set up a distillery, 
provided ten days' notice was given to the Excise. 

This measure much increased the consumption of 
home-made spirits ; and the farmers in particular were 
sensibly benefited by it. The act, which was at first 
made for five years, was continued for one year longer 
and then expired. \\\ aihact passed the very next year, 
8th and 9th of William PH., a clause was inserted, by 
which any person might, on giving ten days' notice to 
the Commissioners of Excise, carry on the busiuess of a 

The trade being thus free, many persons of London 
and Westminster entered upon it with zeal ; and it was 
prosecuted with success, although strong efforts were 
made by the Vintners' Company to retain it in their 
own hands. In the Mutiny 'Act, passed the first year 
of George I. ? the houses of distillers, who did not allow 
of tippling in their houses, were expressly excepted from 
being burdened with the quartering of soldiers. At a still 
later period, the legislature continued to indicate their 
defire of encouraging the British distillery. In the 

12th of George I. it was enacted that, if air? merchant- 
importer should refuse to pay the duties for wines, as 
being damaged, corrupt, or unmerchantable, which, by 
a former act, were in that case to be staved and de- 
stroyed, the Commissioners of the Customs might cause 
such wines to be put into warehouses, and publicly sold 
in order to be distilled into brandy, or made into vinegar. 

Under these repeated favours and encouragements 
the British distillery flourished, and increased to a 
great degree; so that the home manufacture not 
only greatly lessened the importation of foreign 
spirits, but great quantities were exported yearly to 
to Africa and other places. In the mean time an evil 
imperceptibly arose from what in all other trades is an 
advantage: our distillers became so expert in their 
business, and sold their manufactures so cheap, that our 
poor began to drink it extravagantly, and to commit 
frequent debauches in it, to the destruction of their 
health, their morals, and their industry . s This evil 
became at last so great that it gave a violent turn to the 
temper of the legislature ; and nothing could satisfy it 
but a total prohibition of all compound spirits, which 
were the most palatable, and, consequently, most used, 
as well as abused, by our poor. This occasioned the 
law of the 2nd of George 11^ by which a duty of 5*. 
per gallon, over and above all other duties, was laid on 
all compound spirits ; and every retailer of such spirits 
was obliged to have a licence, and to pay 20/. yearly for 
the same. This was really a total prohibition of any 
man's retailing such spirits in an open and fair manner ; 
but many continued to do it privately, and the law was 
evaded by making and retailing a simple sort of spirit, 
in derision called " Parliament Brandy," so that the 
debauching in spirituous liquors continued as general 
among the poor as ever. The law was therefore in- 
effectual : the farmers complained, -and the legislature 
again took another violent turn. In the '6th year of 
George II*s reign the preceding act was repealed, 
u without making any regulation for preventing the 
excessive use of such liquors/* This, says Lord Chol- 
mondeley, of course produced a very bad effect : the 
poor being restored to their liberty of getting drunk as 
usual, like men set free from a gaol they made a moat 
extravagant use of that liberty ; and this revived in the 
legislature a temper more violent than ever against the 
use of any sort of spirituous liquors. An act was 
passed in the 9th year of George II. by which the 
retailing of spirituous liquors of any kind was in effect 
absolutely prohibited. 

" The impossibility of executing this law," said Lord 
Cholmondeley, " was foretold, both within doors and 
without ; but so furious was our zeal, that no heed.wes 
given to such prophecies. What was the consequence ? 
No man could — no man would — observe the law ; and 
it gave such a turn to the spirit of the people, that no 
man could with safety venture to become an informer. 
Even the very commencement of .the law exposed us 
to the danger of a rebellion: an insurrection of the 
populace was threatened — nay, the government had in- 
formation of its being actually designed, and very wisely 
ordered the troops to be ordered out and paraded in the se- 
veral places where the mob was likely to assemble, which, 
perhaps, prevented a great deal of blopdshed; and the 
law began to be executed without any forcible opposition. 
As there were multitudes of offenders, there was pre- 
sently a multitude of informations ; but as soon as any 
man was known to be an informer he was assaulted and 
pelted by the mob wherever they could meet with him. 
A noble peer was obliged to open his gates to one of 
these unfortunate creatures, in order to protect him 
from the mob, who were in full cry, and would probably 
have torn him in pieces if they could have laid hold of 
him, for they had before actually murdered one of these 


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LFBBfttJAKY 98 ' 

It appeared also that even magistrates endangered 
their safety by the exhibition of zeal in the execution of 
this law; and between intimidation and the expenses 
of prosecuting, it became a dead letter: the people, 
according to the statements of the noble speaker, be- 
came more than ever addicted to the excessive use of 
ardent spirits. 

In the evidence of Mr. Place, to which We have 
alluded, it is shown that within the period embraced in 
the preceding statement, that is in the year 1736, a re- 
port was made at Hicks's Hall by eighi, justices, who 
were appointed to make inquiry into the subject, that 
within Westminster, Holborn, the Tower, and Finsbury 
divisions, exclusive of London and Southwark, there 
were* 7044 houses and shops in which spirituous liquors 
were sold. They believed this short of the true number, 
and computed that there were not less than 20,000 such 
houses within the bills of mortality. It was considered, 
at the same time, as a low estimate, that there were 
20,000 pther such shops in England alone. At a 
period about ten years subsequent, and therefore more | 
nearly approaching to the date of our picture, a report, 
probably more authentic, made by the magistrates to a 
Committee of Parliament, states positively that there 
were 12,000 gin-sellers in the metropolis, exclusive of 
the city and Southwark ; and the Bishop of Salisbury, 
in his speech, says that there were 7044 licensed for 
spirits, and 3007 alehouses ; and that boards were put 
up inscribed with " You may here get drunk ior one 
penny ; dead drunk foi twopence ; and have clean straw 
for nothing*." The report last adduced confirms the 
preceding statement, that there were 20,000 houses and 
shops for drinking within the bills of mortality. On 
authority, at least equally certain, the Population Re- 
turns tor 1831, we find that the number of public- 
houses and gin-shops within the largest extent of the 
metropolis, did not exceed 5000, — an amazing difference, 
which allowing for the greater extent of these establish- 
ments in the present time, would hardly allow us to 
imagine that the people are more addicted to intem- 
perance now than they were ninety years since. 

We shall not arrive at any better conclusion in behalf 
of the* habits of the people in Hogarth's days, as com- 
, pared with our own, if we simply consider the quantities 
consumed at the respective periods. It appeared, from 
the investigations of a Committee of the House ot Com- 
mons, that, in 1742, 19,000,000 gallons of spirits were 
made from malt, and 800,000 gallons from foreign ma- 
terials, in England and Wales. It does not appear that 
any of this quantity was exported. Now we find that 
the British and Foreign spirits retained in this country 
.for home comsumption, in 1833, amounted to no more 
than 26,770,000 gallons ; whereas, if to the account for 
1742 we add about 3,000,000 gallons of foreign spirits, 
and consider that the population has doubled since that 
period, not less than 46,000,000 gallons would be re- 
quired if the people were not more temperate in 1833 
than in 1742. 

The low price at which gin could be obtained at the 
earlier period was, doubtless, a principal cause of its ex- 
tensive use. The prices of gin were thus stated by Lord 
Carteret: gallon, 2s. to 2*. Sd. ; quart, 6d. to 8d. ; and 
so down to a farthing's worth. 

The state of the population of London at the present 
time, with regard to open drunkenness, Is by no means 
satisfactory, although, compared with the numbers of 
the inhabitants, it cannot be called very large. In 
1831, there were taken up in the metropolis, in a state 
of drunkenness, and brought before the magistrates, 
5420 males and 2146 females: in 1332, 18^3 males 
and 2041 females ; and in 1833, 7535 males and 385S 
females. The number discharged, when sober, by the 
Superintendents of Police was, for the same years, as 
% * This is the inscription on Hogarth's gin-cellar. 

follows :— 1831, 14,328 males, 9,459 females ; in 1832; 
15,411 males and 10,291 females; and in 1833, 
10,733 males and 7,754 females. The total numbers 
taken up in a state of intoxication were, therefore, for 
1831, 31,353; 1832, 32,636; and for 1833, 29,830. 
This is a formidable statement, but the amount is not 
so frightful when it is analysed. It is 81 per day, 
which in a population of 1,776,500 souls, a twenty-fifth 
part of whom are soldiers, sailors, and wayfarers, is one 
in about 22,000. It might be^supposed, from the great 
publicity of gin-shops, that they are everywhere in- 
creasing. This is not the case. By an Act of Parlia- 
ment, passed a few years since, security- was given to the 
traders in liquors to carry on their business without 
interruption, as long as they adhered to certain regula- 
tions. They have been therefore enabled to attract the 
passengers by displays of finery which did not formerly 
exist. We do not think the evil is greater for this 

We believe, then, that the progress of education, aad 
of good morals, which are the result of education, have 
diminished the amount of intoxication since the days of 
Hogarth. . But at the same time we cannot doubt that 
the individual cases of crime and suffering produced by 
indulgence in ardent spirits especially are as horrible 
as any represented in Hogarth's 'Gin Lane/ The 
evidence given before the Parliamentary Committee is 
conclusive on this point, though it certainly does not 
show that the aggregate amount of this vice has in- 
creased. We shall select one most striking instance of 
these individual horrors. 

Mr. Broughton, one of the magistrates of Worship- 
street Police-office, detailed before the late Committee 
the following particulars as to the degraded condition in 
which he found a family, who might have been highly 
respectable, and surrounded with comforts and luxuries, 
but for the vice of intoxication. This family consisted 
of a man and his wife, and four children. Mr. 
Broughton says : — " There was no bed in their room, 
but a few old rags in the corner into which they were 
huddled. I found that the woman, two years before, 
had borne a most respectable character ; the man was 
a mechanic, and could earn, certainly, two guineas a 
week. With the property which had been left to him- 
self and hrs wife he might have been in possession of 
an income of 200/. a year." Their eldest son was an 
intelligent lad of ten years old, and from him Mr. 
Broughton obtained additional information as to the 
helpless state of misery into which the family had fallen. 
" I found," he says, " that the woman regularly rose 
from the rags on which she slept : the father, the wife, 
and the baby, slept together on one batch of rags, and 
the others huddled up in a corner, without any rags at 
all ; and the father and mother went immediately into 
the gin-shop, and the same gin-shop. I had the keeper 
of the gin-shop before me ; it was kept by a woman, 
and she certainly seemed ashamed of it. And the boy 
described his mother as getting up and going into the 
gin-shop ; and the biggest* boy then went out into the 
market, and tried to get a few pence by holding horses, 
leaving the other children to wander about, and pick 
up cabbage-leaves, and «so on, to eat ? they never were 
washed ; they never were carried to a churcty : and the 
whole of this was brought on, by drinking. The man 
shook like an aspen leaf, and the woman was reduced 
to the greatest state of misery and wretchedness ; she 
had scarcely a rag on. I believe she had not undressed 
herself for many months ; and they had, become addicted 
to these habits; and then, when his money was all ex- 
hausted, the man went to work; but there was no 
money expended on the education of the children, and 
they had never been washed. They were like a dog 
and whelps ; they all lay down together and got up 
together ; the children sent out, and those children 

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could be nothing, if left to themselves, but thieves ; 
and that was brought on by habitual spirit-drinking, 
first taking possession of the mother, and then the 
husband got into the practice ; and there was no break- 
fast ever had, and no tea : there was not one of the 
comforts or conveniences of civilized life." Nothing in 
' Gin Lane ' could be worse than this. 

One of the means which the good sense and benevo- 
lent feelings of some real benefactors of their race have 
devised for the repression and final removal of the 
miseries which drunkenness produces, has been the 
formation of Temperance Societies. 

These praiseworthy institutions commenced in the 
United States. Before the influence of Temperance 
Societies had been attended by the successful results 
which have since followed their introduction in the 
United States, the consumption of ardent spirits an- 
nually for 12,000,000 inhabitants, was estimated at 
45,000,000 gallons. The expense to the consumers 
was not less than 35,000,000 dollars. The propor- 
tion of persons dying directly and notoriously of 
drunkenness and long-continued habits of intempe- 
rance was one in twenty-four, or 10,000 in the course 
of every year. The amount expended in ardent spirits 
would, if invested in the best manner, have called 
forth ten times the amount of productive labour that 
it did when thus misused. No tax can be more op- 

Sressive or ruinous than this, levied by a tyrannical 
abit. So grievously did the Americans suffer from it, 
that they organised an opposition to this destructive 
system, which is, perhaps, one of the most remarkable 
examples of national energy on record. The American 
Temperance Society was formed in February, 1S26. 
In 1830 it had 1605 minor societies, acting in concert 
with the parent establishment. The basis on which 
they were established was entire abstinence from ardent 
spirits. Within four years after the formation of the 
first society, 160,000 had become members of the 
various auxiliaries, and their influence was in operation 
amongst every class of the community. Societies were 
formed by females, by the young, by mechanics, by 
apprentices, by people of colour, in churches, and by 
soldiers and sailors. The effect of this great combi- 
nation soon diminished the numbers of distillers and 
of dealers in ardent spirits. In four years 667 dealers 
had withdrawn from trade. In one year after the 
establishment of a Temperance Society in the State of 
New York, thirty-five distilleries had discontinued their 

In Sandy Hill, New York, where twenty licences had 
been previously granted, two only 7 were required. In 
some places the retail trade had entirely ceased. The 
importations of foreign distilled spirits, which in 1827 
amounted to 4,847,258 gallons, for the year ending Sep- 
tember, 1829, had diminished to 2,515,878 gallons, a 
diminution of nearly one-half, although Temperance 
Societies had not acquired the power which they have 
since done in checking the use of spirits. At the same 
time the consumption ' of domestic spirits was every- 
where less. In 1826, 114,277 gallons were brought 
into Fredericksburgh by water; in the year ending 
July, 1830, 52,621 gallons. From August 1 to Decem- 
ber 1, 1828, the quantity of whiskey that passed Utica 
on the canal was 1,053,305 gallons ; during the same 
months in 1829, only 345,159 gallons. A great in- 
crease had taken place in these corresponding periods of 
the quantity of wheat and flour passing along. the canal. 
In 1828, 2,714,204 gallons were inspected in the west 
district of the States; in 1829, 1,822,400 gallons. The 
consumption of the whole population had diminished 
one-third. An amount of 7,800,000 dollars was saved 
in the consumption of this pernicious article. At 
this early period of the existence of Temperance So- 

cieties, 700 cases were mentioned of the reformation of 
habitual drinkers. 

Four years later, i. e. about seven years after the for- 
mation of the first society, the effects which had been 
produced in the States were still more important. Five 
thousand Branch Societies had been formed, more than 
twenty of which epbraced a whole State as their sphere 
of action ; and they included among their members men 
of the first rank and character in America. The whole 
number of members amounted to a million. The sixth 
Annual Report of the General Society stated that 2000 
persons had discontinued the business of distilling; 
more than 6006 had given up the retail trade ; and 5000 
drunkards had left off their habits of intoxication, and 
become sober men. Seven hundred vessels, visiting 
every clime, made long voyages without supplies of 
spirits being given to their crews ; the result of which 
was proved to be beneficial to the men, who enjoyed 
improved health, and advantageous to the community 
generally, as the risk from accident being diminished, 
the premium paid on insuring vessels which took no 
ardent spirits was less than the ordinary rate. The same 
improvement was also said to be visible in the character, 
and habits, and mental and bodily constitution of the 
inhabitants of many villages, manufacturing establish- 
ments, and the whole mass of the population generally. 

The example of America has been communicated to 
this country. Temperance Societies have been very 
generally formed here, upon the same principle of entire 
abstinence from spirits. The success of these societies 
has not been so great here as in the United States — 
perhaps because the evil to be arrested was not so 
general. The number of members belonging to Tem- 
perance Societies in England and Wales, according to 
the • British and Foreign Temperance Herald ' for 
February, 1835, is 106,945. .The Society is making 
considerable exertions to increase this number; and, 
from a document in the same publication, we perceive 
that 2326 adhered to the temperance plan in the month 
of January. In Lancashire there are 29,198 members ; 
Yorkshire 12,045; Cornwall 10,575; Middlesex 7,158; 
Gloucestershire 4,170; Somersetshire, 3,628; Durham 
3,308; Cumberland 3,047; Devonshire 2,359; Cheshire 
2,341; Warwickshire N 2050; Surrey 2,039. None of 
the remaining twenty-eight counties contain 2000 
members ; and Wales possesses only ,1864. 

But temperance societies, however valuable they may 
be as examples of what may be effected by a prudent 
abstinence from a pernicious indulgence, are not likely, 
in this country, to be the main cause of the establish- 
ment of universal habits of sobriety. That good will be 
effected by the general progress of education; which will 
lead all men to cultivate intellectual pleasures instead 
of those which are merely sensual. Education, and the 
refinement which it produces, lias already rooted out 
the vice of drunkenness among the higher classes. By 
the same means must the work of improvement be 
effected among other orders of society. There is, how- 
ever, a peculiar difficulty in directing education *to this 
end amongst those addicted to habits of intemperate 
drinking. With them, the craving appetite for drink is 
paramount in^its demands. The education of children 
cannot go on, because the resources for education are 
swallowed up by the selfish and slavish habit oft intoxica- 
tion. Faculties, which might be reared up into useful- 
ness and become an honour to society,- must run to 
weeds and rank n ess, and prove utterly unprofitable to 
their possessor, and a bane to the community, because 
a father must first indulge in degrading gratifica- 
tions. The consequence is well pointed out by Mr. 
Collins, of Glasgow*, that " children who have drunken 
parents are generally worthless and profligate; the 
incessant action of evil example being constantly before 
* Evidence before the Committee on Inquiry into Drunkennesi. 

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[Fbb&ua&y 88, 

them, counteracts the effects of education which we 
gratuitously furnish to th^m." 

Such is the hopeless misery into which drunkenness 
plunges families and generations. On the other hand, 
it is gratifying to observe that education is actively at 
work in improving the general character of the great 
mass of the people. For the last thirty years they 
have been steadily making progress. This fact is sup- 
ported by a number of highly-respectable men, some 
of whom were examined last year before the Committee 
on Drunkenness. Mr. Francis Place, who is thoroughly 
acquainted with the past and present condition of the 
working men of London, shows that their amelioration 
in this respect is beyond a doubt. In his evidence before 
the Committee, Mr. Place sayB : — " I can remember 
the time when in almost every printing-office there was 
a bottle of rum, and the workmen served themselves 
with it, and kept a score against themselves. I re- 
member when almost every tailor's shop in London 
had a bottle of gin, and the man who kept the score 
for the publican was paid by having a glass out of a 
certain quantity. I know that now there is no such 
thing, and that there has not for many years been a 
rum-bottle in a printer's office, nor a gin-bottle in a 
tailor's shop. I know that at one time it was the com- 
mon practice for journeymen of different descriptions, 
as they went to their work before six o'clock in the 
morning, to drink purl and gin ; it was the common 
practice for every workman to have a pennyworth of 
hot purl and a half-pennyworth of gin before work, 
and this inevitably muddled them. There is no such 
thing now." Mr. Place is of opinion that the drunken 
part of the community has separated Very much from 
the orderly portion, just as is the case with thieves and 
honest men. Again, in his evidence, Mr. Place says : 
— " Thirty or forty years ago almost every journeyman 
and workman got drunk when he had the means ; they 
were not to be compared with the men of the present 
day. I can give you a reference to large manufacturers 
about London who would satisfy you of their tempe- 
rance as compared with former times. If you look to 
the Report of the Committee on Combinations, in 1824, 
you will find thenames of Mr. Galloway, Mr. Donkin, 
Mr. Bramah, Mr. Maudsley, and Mr. Hague, engineers, 
employing large numbers of men, and of Mr. Richard 
Taylor, of the city of London, printer, who at that time 
gave evidence of the general improvement of the work- 
ing people, and the increase of temperance among them. 
These respectable men, with a number of others, would 
now come before you, and show that there has been a 
steady improvement in soberness in all those large busi- 
* nesses since 1824." 

In the evidence of Mr. John Vousley, publican, 
Bermondsey, given before the Sale of Beer Committee 
in 1830, we see the improved habits of the people 
in regard to the use of ardent spirits accounted for. 
This individual carried on a large trade among tanners 
and fell-mongers, — men whose employments are wet and 
cold. He says, — " Only a few years ago there was not 
anything like what are called coffee-shops. I used to 
make a good deal of purl — I do not make any now — 
people's tastes are altered— they frequent coffee-shops." 
But why do people now take coffee instead of gin and 
purl, anjl by what process are people's tastes altered ? 
Simply because they have been informed, and clearly 
understand, that health and comfort are secured by 
one mode, and that the practice of the other is not so 
serviceable to the body, and that it leads to habits fatal 
to their character and respectability. The great body 
of the working-classes are now in possession of elements 
of enjoyment superior to those in which they were 
formerly wont to indulge, and the range of their ex- 
perience and observation places more cleaily before 
them the advantages of sobriety and regularity. As 

Mr, Place supplies interesting evidence of the direct 

manner in which education and a love of information 
may be supposed frequently to operate, we give it here 
as an encouraging illustration of the advantage of 
directing the mind to the acquisition of useful know- 
ledge. The Committee having observed that news was 
the chief ingredient by which curiosity might be 
awakened, Mr. Place said, — " I would not say that 
entirely. I think the * Penny Magazine ' is an exciting 
publication. I know that if you teach ignorant men, 
especially young men, something of geography, and 
something of natural history, you give them a taste for 
reading which hardly ever leaves them. I can give 
you an instance, — a striking one, — which may stand 
for the character of a large class as to the efficacy of a 
little learning. I was going up Constitution Hill one 
Sunday in the spring, when the moon was up, just 
before church-time ; I overheard three lads ; they ap- 
peared to be what are termed serve-boys, plasterers' 
labourers ; the middle one was a lad of seventeen or 
eighteen ; the other two were about fifteen or sixteen. 
I heard the eldest lad say, • There is the moon J ' 
* Yes,' says another. ' The moon is round, do you not 
see ?' said the largest boy. ' Yes,' said the other, 
' That is a part of the solar system.* ' What is that ? ' 
asked his companion. ' Oh, do you not know what it is ?' 
The lad then explained to them the solar system, 
beginning with the sun in the centre, and describing 
the planets, their size, distances, motions, &c. When 
I got a little farther, some vagabonds wer«s being 
turned out of a gin-shop, among them was a lad about 
the same age as the eldest of the three boys ; he was 
three parts drunk, and began to spar in the street, 
offering obstruction, to draw the passers by to his 
folly. The inference which everybody must draw who 
had witnessed the fact is, that that lad who was teach'' 
ing the solar system could not have come out of a 
gin-shop three parts drunk, so early on a Sunday 
morning, and have made the same disgraceful exhi- 
bition." , 

The companion print to Hogarth's ' Gin Lane,' is 
given in the last page of this number. * Beer Street,' 
in our opinion, is as just a satire upon one species of in- 
temperance as * Gin Lane ' is upon another. Mr. Mac- 
irish, in his ' Anatomy of Drunkenness,' takes this view 
of the matter. He says, — " No one has ever given the 
respective characters of the malt liquor and ardent- 
spirit drunkard with greater truth than Hogarth in his 
' Beer Alley ' and c Gin Lane.' The first is represented 
as plump, rubicund, and bloated ; the second as pale, 
tottering, and emaciated, and dashed over with the 
aspect of blank despair.'' The " plump, rubicund, and 
bloated '' figures in * Beer Street ' are as surely indica- 
tive of intemperance and consequent disease as the " pale, 
tottering, and emaciated" wretches of ' Gin Lane/ Mr. * 
Macnish gives the following description of the effects 
of beer drunkenness : — 

" Persons addicted to malt liquors increase enor- 
mously in bulk. They become loaded with fat : their 
chin gets double or triple, the eye prominent, and the 
whole face bloated and stupid. Their circulation is. 
clogged, while the pulse feels like a cord, and is full 
and labouring, but not quick. During sleep, the 
breathing is stertorous. Everything indicates an excess 
of blood ; and when a pound or two is taken away, im- 
mense relief is obtained. The blood, in such cases, is 
more dark and sizy than in the others. In seven cases 
out of ten, malt-liquor drunkards die of apoplexy or 
palsy. If they escape this hazard, swelled liver or dropsy 
carries them off. The abdomen seldom loses its promi- 
nency, but the lower extremities get ultimately emaciated. 
Profuse bleedings frequently ensue from the nose, and 
save life, by emptying the blood-vessels of the brain. 

" The drunkenness in question is peculiarly of 

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[February 28* 183?. 

with mankind. I dare not promise that a friend's 
honour, or his cause, would be safe in my keeping if I 
were put to the expense of any manly resolution in 
defending it. So much the springs of moral action are 
deadened within me. 

My favourite occupations in times past now cease to 
entertain. I can do nothing readily. Application, for 
ever so short a time, kills me. This poor abstract of 
my condition was' penned at long intervals, with scarcely 
any attempt at connexion of thought, which is now 
difficult to me. 

i*he noble passages which formerly delighted me in 

history, or poetic fiction, now only draw a few weak 
tears allied to dotage. My broken and dispirited 
nature seems to sink before anything great and admi- 

I perpetually catch myself in tears, for any cause or 
none. It is inexpressible how much this infirmity adds 
to sense of shame, and a general feeling of deteriora- 

These are some of the* instances concerning which I 
may say with truth that it was not always so with me. 

Shall I lift up the veil of my weakness any further? 
or is this disclosure sufficient ? " 

[Beer Street.} 

V'Al'Oflci of the Society for the Dlffuttoo of Uieftd Knowledge !• at 59, Lincoln'* Inn Field*, 


Priated by W»ixiam Clowes, Duke Street, l*mboUu 

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or THI 

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

]88.] PUBLISHED EVERT SATURDAY. [March 1, 1835. 

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" Jt UtLB lowly hermitage k Wat 
Downe in a dale, hard by a forest's side, 
Far from resort of people that did pas 
In traveill to and froe : a litle wyde 
There was an holy chapett edify da, 
Wherein the hennite dewly wont to say 
His holy things each morne and eventyde : 
Thereby a chnstall streame did gently play 
Which from a sacred fountaine welted forth alway." 

Spemer'* < Faery QmecneS Book I., Canto 1. 

Warkworth Hermitage, situated upon, ike north bank 
<tf the Coquet, about half a mile west of the celebrated 
castle of the same name, the baronial residence of the 
great Earls of Northumberland, was founded at an 
uncertain date, for a single hermit. The provision for 
him was of the most liberal kind, as may be seen from 
the tenor of the patent by which the sixth Earl of Nor- 
thumberland grajUe^L Uie hermitage to the last hermit, 
in Ikf reigm of flkflpy VIII. This curious document is 
given at lengthen the appendix to Dr. Percy's ballad, 
4 The Hermit of Warkworth.' The following is an 
extract : — 

tt I have geven and graunted, and by these presentes 
do gyve and graunt unto the said Sir George Lancastre, 
myn armytage belded in a rocke of stone within my 
parke of Warkworthe, in the county of Northumbreland, 
in the honour of the blessed Trynete. With a yerly 
stipende of twenty merks by yer, from the feest of Seint 
Michell Sharehaungell, last past affore the date herof, 
yerly durying the naturall lyve of the said Sir George. 
And also I, the sain Erie, have geven and graunted to 
the said Sir George Lancastre the occupation of one 
little gresground of myn nygh adjoining the said 
armytage, onely to his owne use and profit, wynter and 
somer durynge the saidterme ; the garden and orteyarde 
belonging to the said armytage ; the gate* and pasture 
of twelf kye and a bull, with their calves suking ; and 
two horses going and beying within my said parke 
wynter and somer ; one draught of fysshe every Sondaire 
in the yere to be drawn for nenst [opposite] the said 
armytage ; and twenty lods of fyrewode to be taken of 
mv wodds called Shilbotell Wode, duryng the said 

By this it would seem that the hermit of Warkworth 
was not at all stinted in the good things of this life. 

The dissolution of monastic establishments took place 
in the lifetime of this Sir George Lancaster, but as the 
hermitage of Warkworth was never endowed in mort- 
main, its munificent allowance reverted to the Percy 
family ; the hermit himself, however, was not permitted 
to suffer ; for although the salary was reduced to ten 
marks, compensations were allowed him for the rest, 
and his other rights, under the above grant, were not 

Persons who now visit the hermitage cross the river 
in a boat. A narrow walk on the brink of the river 
then leads to the door of the hermitage : this walk is 
confined by perpendicular walls on either hand to a 
width of four feet. From the summit of the cliffs is a 
grove of oaks, and at their base issues a spring of the 
purest water, from which the hermitage was formerly 
supplied. The steps, vestibule, and chief apartments 
of the hermitage are hewn out of a free-stone rock, 
the outdde face of which is about twenty feet high, 
embowered with stately trees which grow on the top 
of the precipice and from the fissures of the cliffs. 
One lower and outward apartment is of masonry, 
built up against the side of the rock ; it is about 
eighteen feet square, and appears to have been the 
kitchen or principal dwelling, as it has a range or fire- 
place six feet wide. On the south side of this apart- 
ment, opposite the entrance, ia a door-way leading to 
an outward seat formed in the rock, and opening upon 

♦ Going, from the verb * to gae.* 

the walk oft the river's brink. On this side of the 
room are two windows which bear the marks of iron- 
grating, and also a closet. From holes cut in the rock, 
it seems as if timbers had been . fixed in it for the 
flooring of an upper chamber. This structure is built 
of ashler-work, and seems to- be of much more modern 
date than the cells formed in the rock. 

Passing from this outward building by the entrance, 
the visiter ascends, by seventeen steps, to a little vesti- 
bule, above the inner door-way of which appear some 
letters, bun£ the remains of a Scripture text, in Latin, 
which or* Swn version gives as — ** My tears have 
been my food day and night." This leads to the 
chapel, which, with its sacristy, forms the most inter- 
esting portion of the remains. The chapel is about 
eighteen feet long, and seven and-a-half feet in height 
and breadth. It is built with great neatness, in columns, 
groins, and arches, in the old Gothic style. It is 
lighted by a window in two compartments, i* the 
cell of which lies a figure oft a lady, whose feet rest 
against an animal, (most likely a dog as an emblem 
of fidelity) as is common in similar monuments. By 
length of time, and the weather beating through the 
window, the monument has been much injured. In a 
niche cut in the wall at the foot of this monument is the 
figure of a hermit, or, as Percy says, " a warrier," on 
his knees, resting his head on his right hand, and his 
left hand placed in his bosom. The altar is the breadth 
of the chapel, and the ascent to it is by two steps. 
From this chapel there is an entrance to the sacristy by 
a neat door-case, over which is sculptured a shield, 
with the representation of the crucifixion, and of 
several instruments of torture. At its east end this 
apartment has an altar like that in the chapel. It is 
lighted from the chapel by a window divided by two 
mullions, the summit of each division being ornamented 
with work formed of sections of circles, — as seen in 
cathedrals of the tenth century. This apartment is nine 
paces in length by five feet wide. A small closet is cui 
in its side wall to the north, from which a door-way 
leads to an open gallery which has a prospect up the 
river ; but, by the falling in of the rock above, this part 
has been much damaged. 

From these cells, a winding stair, cut in the rock, 
leads to its summit, where the hermit is supposed to 
have had a house and garden, although it appears 
evident that the original hermitage consisted of no more 
than the apartments hewn in the rock. 

The figures which we have described as in the chapel 
suggested to Dr. Percy the outlines of his ' Hermit of 
Warkworth,' published in 1771, from which we extract 
the following description of the hermitage. 

" And now, attended by their host, 

The hermitage they viewed ; J; 

Deep hewn within a craggy cliff, W 

And overhung with wood. 

And near a flight of shapeless steps, 

All cut with nicest nkill j 
And piercing thro* a stony arch, 

Ran winding up the hill. 
There, deck'd with many a flower and herb, 

H» little garden stands ; 
With fruitful trees in shudy rows, ^ *• r 

All planted by his hauds. ( V 

Then scoop'd within the solid rock, "" 

The sacred vault he shows ; 
The chief a chapel neatly arched, 

On branching columns rose. 

Kach proper ornament was there 

That could a chapel grace ; 
The lattioe tor confession frara'd, 

And holy -water vase. 

O'er either door a sacred text 

Invites to godly fear, 
And in a little 'scutcheon hung 

The cross* and crown, and speaft 

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Up *o the altar* f ample breadth 

Two easy steps asceud, 
And near a glimmering solemn Kent 

Two well-wrought windows lend. 

Beside the altar rose a tomb 

All in the living ittone, 
On which a young and beauteous maid 

In goodly sculpture shone. 

A kneeliug angel Curly carved 

Lean'd hov'ring o'er her breast ; 
A weeping warrior at her feet, 

And near to these her crest." 

The allusion in the last stanza is to some much 
defaced sculpture on the pillar which divi4*the window, 
and which has been supposed, apparently without suf- 
ficient evidence, to have originally represented a hover- 
ing* cherub. 

Our wood-cut is from an original drawing made in 

On this subject a correspondent sends us the following 
interesting information, which he has taken from Ure's 
4 History of Rutherglen and East Kilbride.' 

Towards the middle of the last century, two young 
men of the name of Wilson, the one from Flakefield*, 
and the other from its neighbourhood, repaired to the 
city of Glasgow, and there commenced business. The 
sameness of name having, however, occasioned frequent 
mistakes in the way of trade, the one was distinguished 
from the other by the cognomen " Flakefield," — the 
place of his birth. His real surname soon became 
obsolete ; and the name of Flakefield, in place of 
Wilson, descended to his posterity. 

To this man's son the now flourishing city of 
Glasgow is in a great measure indebted for her rise 
to opulence and grandeur. Flakefield put one of his 
sons to the weaving- trade. The youth, after learning 
the business, enlisted, about the year 1671, in the regi- 
ment of the Cameronians, but was afterwards draughted 
into the Scottish Guards. During the course of the 
war, Flake field's regiment being ordered to the Con- 
tinent, he there procured a blue-and-white-chequered 
handkerchief which had been woven in Germany, and 
which greatly struck his fancy. He thought that, were 
he fortunate enough to return to his native city, he 

- would attempt a manufacture of the same kind. With 
the greatest care the soldier-weaver preserved a frag- 
ment of the cloth ; and, being disbanded in the year 

. 1700, he returned to Glasgow with the fixed determina- 
tion of accomplishing his praiseworthy design. 

A few spindles of yarn, — the white ill-bleached, the 
blue not very dark — were all that poor William Flake- 
field could collect at the time, or, indeed, that could 

.jtfien be found in Glasgow. His first web was eom- 

TPosed of about two dozen handkerchiefs. When the 
half was woven, he cut out the cloth and took it to the 
merchants, who at that time traded in salmon, Scotch 
plaiding, hollands, and other thick linen. They were 
delighted with the novelty of the blue and white stripes, 
but especially with the delicate texture of the cloth, 
which was thin set in comparison with the hollands. 
The adventurer asked no more for his web than the 
cost-price of the materials, and the ordinary wages for 
nis work. This was willingly paid him ; and he went 
home rejoicing that his attempt had not proved un- 
successful. This dozen of handkerchiefs— the first of 
the kind ever woven in Britain — were disposed of in a 
few hours,. Fresh demands were daily made on the 
gratified weaver; and the remaining half of his little 
web was bespoken before it was woven. More yarn 
was, as speedily as possible, procured, and several looms 
were immediately filled with handkerchiefs of the same 
pattern. The demands increased in proportion to the 
* A smairplace in the parish of East Kilbride. 

• quantity of cloth that was manufactured. Some Eng- 
lish merchants, who resorted to Glasgow for thick linens, 
Were highly pleased with the new manufacture, and 
carried a lew of the handkerchiefs to England for a trial. 
They met with universal approbation : the number of 
looms continued to increase ; so that, in a few years, 
Glasgow became famous for that branch of the linen- 
trade. A variety of patterns and colours were soon in- 
troduced. The weavers in Paisley and the neighbouring 
towns engaged in the business ; and the trade was at 
length carried on to a great extent. 

Our readers will see from the above from what a 
small beginning this very usefel and lucrative branch 
of business took its rise, and which was also the means 
of introducing others still more extensive. But though 
Flakefield laid the first foundation of the prosperity of 
Glasgow, it appears that, like too many of the bene- 
factors of mankind, he reaped neither emolument from 
his labour nor gratitude from his townsmen ; — since we 
find that, in old age, he occupied the humble station of 
town-drummer to the city which his enterprise has 
raised to the rank of one of the first manufacturing and 
commercial cities of the British Empire. 

Indian Doctors Bill, — A curious trial came on in April, 
last year, in the Court of Requests, Calcutta, for a native doc- 
tor's bill, charged at 3 1 4 rupees. There were fourteen items, 
consisting mostly of gold leaf, pearls, and other precious 
things, dissolved, or said to be dissolved, and made into 
pills. One of them professed to consist of the navels of 
goats and monkeys, brought from the Persian Gulf, and 
mingled with musk. One hundred rupees had been paid 
in advance, and the commissioner thinking it enough, the 
case was dismissed. This trial exhibits a fair picture of 
what sometimes occurred in Burope before the healing art 
assumed the character of a science. 

Editorial Announcement,— The * Hobart Town Courier 
of September 26th, 1834, contains the following intimation 
to its subscribers, which will be regarded in this country as 
somewhat curious and characteristic : — " We take the liberty 
of reminding our friends and subscribers that the present 
number concludes the quarter, and to entreat, especially 
from those who are already in arrear, the favour of an early 
settlement. Those of our friends who might find it con- 
venient to oblige us with a small quantity of wool in lieu of 
money, as payment of our little accounts, are respectfully 
informed, that the same will be thankfully received at the 
market price, either at the Printing-office, Collins' Street, or 
in Launceston, at the stores of Mr. Main, our agent at that 

Shagreen. — Shagreen is supposed by some persons, from 
its scaly appearance, to be the skin of some fish. It is, 
however, a species of leather, or rather skin, and the process 
by which it is manufactured is very curious. Astrakhan is 
the seat of the manufacture. The material is the strong 
skin that covers the crupper of the ass or the horse. The 
skin is first soaked in water for some days till the hair is 
loose enough to be scraped off; after which it is cut and 
scraped till it becomes scarcely thicker than a hog's bladder. . 
It is then, while soft and wet, fastened to a frame, the flesh 
side undermost, and the upper or grain side is strewed 
over with the hard round seeds of a species of chenopodium ; 
a felt is then laid over it, and the seeds are trodden deeply 
into the soft yielding skin. The frames are then placed in 
the shade till the skin becomes dry, and the seeds may then 
be shaken out of their holes. Next the skins are rasped till 
the sides of the holes are worn down almost to a level with 
their bottoms. It is then soaked, first in water, and after- 
wards in an alkaline lye ; and as it becomes soft, those parts 
of the skin which were merely depressed by the seeds being 
forced down upon them, rise above the parts which had 
been rasped, presenting a granular pustular surface. The 
skin is then stained superficially of a green colour by 
copper filings and sal ammoniac, and is afterwards allowed 
to dry. Lastly, the grains or warts are rubbed down to a 
level with the rest of the surface, which thus presents the 
appearance of white dots on, a green fcrdund ; and when 
polished is verv beautiful as well as durable. — Transactions 
of the Society' of Arts. 

N 2 

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[M/.R«"ii 7, 


[Boldre Church, Hampshire.] 

The village of Boldre, on the borders of the New 
Forest, in Hampshire, contains nothing in itself pecu- 
liarly deserving of notice ; but the traveller who visits 
the pleasant town of Lymington, from which Boldre is 
about two miles distant, may be induced to stroll to- 
wards the village-church on learning that it was for 
above twenty years the scene of the pastoral labours of 
the late Rev. William Gilpin, a man who deserves to 
be held in remembrance by every person of taste, and 
especially by every lover of the picturesque, as an ex- 
cellent critic in art, and an artist himself of no incon- 
siderable pretensions. 

Mr. Gilpin was born in 1724 at Carlisle. Sawrey 
Gilpin, R.A., an eminent animal painter, was a younger 
brother of Mr. Gilpin. Mr. Gilpin being destined for 
the church, was educated at Queen's College, Oxford, 
and took the degree of M.A. in 1748. He kept a 
grammar-school at Che am, in Surrey, many years after 
entering into orders ; and was at length appointed 
to a prebend in the cathedral of Salisbury ; shortly 
afterwards, being .presented to the living of Boldre by 
his former pupil, William Mitford, Esq., author of the 
' History of Greece,' he relinquished his school in favour 
of his youngest son, and removed to the parsonage, at 
Vicar's Hill, in 1788. 

In 1753 Mr. Gilpin published a life of his venerable 
ancestor, Barnard Gilpin, which was followed by lives 
of Latimer (1755)^Wifikliffe, Hubs, Jerome of Prague, 

Zisca (1765), and Archbishop Cranmer (1784). To 
these works were subsequently added others of a mis- 
cellaneous character, exhibiting both erudition and 
a great share of Christian benevolence, and which 
in their day deservedly enjoyed a considerable degree 
of popularity. Mr. Gilpin is, however, more generally 
known at the present time as an artist, and by his works 
on the principles of art. In the spirited and faithfutyr 
execution of his compositions, he illustrated the rules 
which he so ably laid down for the guidance of others. 
His publications in this department, are ' Observations 
on Picturesque Beauty/ 8vo. ; * A Tour of the Lakes/ 
8vo. 2 vols. ; ' Remarks on Forest Scenery,' 8vo. 2 vols. 
(a new edition of this work, edited by Sir Thomas Dick 
Lauder, has recently been published in Edinburgh) ; 
* Essay on Prints,' 8vo. ; ' Observations on the River 
Wye,' 8vo. ; ' Remarks on the Western parts of Eng- 
land/ 8vo. 

It is peculiarly gratifying to view the character of 
Mr. Gilpin as a parish-priest. His varied attainments 
were made subservient to plans which more particularly 
contemplated the improvementof his poorer parishioners. 
He applied the profits which he derived from his pen 
and pencil to found two parish-schools, a view of which 
are given in the accompanying sketch. The school- 
houses adjoin each other, and are situated in an angle 
formed by the junction of two roads, one of which leads 
to Pilley, and thence to Boldre Church, and the other 

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[The Rev. William Gilpin's School, at Boldre.] 

to Vicar's Hill and Lymington. In these schools 
twenty boys and as many girls,' ** taken as far as can 
be out of the day-labouring part of the parish" of 
Boldre, are clothed and educated according to the 
directions of the founder ; the boys being taught 
" reading, writing, and the first four rules of arithmetic ;" 
and the girls " to read, knit or spin, sew, or mend their 

own clothes." 

Mr. Gilpin grves the following history of the founda- 
tion of these schools :~ 4i As* this little institution," he 
says, " appeared so. far to answer its intention, I was 
desirous of making it. permanent ; but not choosing to 
leave it as a burden to mychfldren, I projected a scheme 
for raising a fund to support it after my death. I 
brought to sale, therefore, on the 6th of May, 1802, 
several drawings and little picturesque MSS. which 
had been the occupation of my leisure for two or three 
years. The public was pleased to encourage the sale, 
and it raised about 1200/., which being funded in the 
3 per cents., added to another little stock in the same 
fund, produced about 84/. a year. It appears," con- 
tinues Mr. Gilpin, in the document from which we 
quote, " that with the occasional expenses of books, 
paper, ink, quills, and other little necessaries, the fund 
is not quite sufficient for the institution of the Boldre 
school. I had a wish also to give something to Bro- 
ken hurst, which is an appendant parish on Boldre, 
where they have a little school already established, but 
on a very narrow foundation. Under these circum- 
stances, I have directed a sale to take place after my 
death of a few drawings which at my leisure I have 
been making. This is the last effort of my eyes, and 
I am willing to hope they may still be of some little 
use." The " few drawings," so modestly alluded to, 
consisted chiefly of books containing from twenty to 
sixty drawings. They were sold shortly after his death 
by Christie, and produced about 1500/. One book, 
which is now in the possession of a gentleman of Boldre, 
sold for eighty guineas. 

Beloved and reverenced by all who knew him, but 
moTe especially by his humbler parishioners, Mr. Gilpin 
lived to the venerable age of eighty. As a parish- 
priest he was unremitting in his attention to those com- 
mitted to his charge. So scrupulously exact was he 
in the performance of his duties, that either himself or 
his curate visited every family who were attendants at 
the churches of Boldre and Brokenhurst, at least once 
in every week. Hence he had but little leisure for less 
important engagements ; and we are assured that a 
great portion of his drawings were executed by candle- 
light. We are told that he " reproved the vicious with 
authority, but mildness ; encouraged the worthy with a 
judicious generosity ; instructed the ignorant with the 
most patient condescension ; visited and relieved the 
sick; comforted the unhappy; and afforded advice and 
assistance to all who stood in need of them." He died 
April 4th, 1504, and was buried in Boldre churchyard, 
haviug chosen, as Mr. Strutt tells us, " for his resting- 
place this sweet sequestered spot, amidst the scenes he 
so much loved, and has so well described." 

A plain tomb marks the grave, in which were depo- 
sited the remains of Mr. Gilpin and his wife (who died 
July 1 4th, 1807, at the age of eighty-two), on which is 
inscribed the following simple memorial written by 
himself: — " In a quiet mansion, beneath this stone, 
secured from the afflictions, and still more dangerous 
enjoyments of life, lie the remains of William Gilpin, 
some time vicar of this parish ; together with the remains 
of Margaret his wife. After living above fifty years in 
happy union they hope to be raised in God's due time 
(through the atonement of a blessed Redeemer for their 
repented transgressions), to a state of joyful immor- 
tality. Here it will be a new joy to see several of their 
good neighbours, who now lie scattered in these sacred 
precincts around them." 

The view from Boldre churchyard is exceedingly 
interesting; that towards the north extending over an 
area of thirty or forty square miles of forest scenery, of 

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[March 7, 

AliV TTVIDIIIg VI !». «*Vl-llllilWr» 111 VJICOl 1J1IKUII utiles 

from a remote period. The mines of Derbyshire, it is 
supposed, were wrought in the time of the Romans ; 
the proofs of which are derived from blocks or bars of 
lead which have been found with Roman inscriptions 
upon them. A bar of this kind was discovered on 
Cromford Moor in the year 1777, and the interpreta- 
tion of the inscription which lias been given is the fol- 

j.v^w>' iiiv jyi i»,\, »» %+.j »•'». v»., *»i.«. «...^ ■uiiuiiiii^ j\.«m av ■«?«■ 

to 19/. ; and it kept falling till 1832, when it was down to 
13/. 10s. From that extreme depression it has partially 
recovered, the present market price being about 18/. 
per ton. This extraordinary fall was occasioned by a 
sudden increase of supply from the lead-mines of Spain. 
These mines are situated in Andalusia, partly in a range 
of mountains to the north of Jaen, near Linares, but 

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chiefly m another range which lies between Jaen and 
the city of Granada, and on the southern slope of 
them. We know little about these mines beyond their 
locality, for the geology of Spain is as yet very im- 
perfectly understood. Bowles, who wrote in the year 
1776, describes the mines to the north of Jaen, to have 
been worked by the Moors, and says that the mountains 
are pierced by shafts in all directions ; that there are 
two great veins which pass through a granitic rock, 
which vary considerably in richness; and that at one time 
one of the mines produced in a year more than all the 
lead-mines of Saxony together had done in twelve years* 
But it is the mines in the mountains of Granada from 
which the recent great supply has been obtained. The 
ore lies near the surface, and is therefore obtained with- 
out much exercise of skill, or expense of labour and 
machinery. Mr. Witham says, that " the metalliferous 
limestone of the south of Spain is so rich in galena as 
to furnish, eveh in the present imperfect state of mining 
in that country, about 20,000 tons of lead annually.' 7 
France has some lead-mines in Britany, Languedoc, 
Alsace, and other parts of her territory, but imports 
the greater part of her consumption, and chiefly from 
Spain; England having sent only 70 tons to* France 
out of the 13,898 exported in 1832. There are many 
lead-mines in Saxony, Bohemia, Silesia, and other parts 
of Germany. Although the exports to the United 
States from this country are so considerable, they are 
not without ores of that metal in their own country. 
The mines are situated in Pennsylvania, Massachusets, 
and on the Fever and Missouri rivers in the Western 
States ; the richest being in the latter country. The 
total produce in 1829 exceeded 6000 tons. 

* We have now treated of Iron, Copper, Tin, and Lead, 
as the metals most largely consumed in the ordinary 
wants of domestic life, and as the principal metallic 
productions of Great Britain: and it is not a little re- 
markable that a territory so small as England should 
so abound in them as not only to supply her own wants, 
in the full extension of her manufacturing industry, but 
that she should also be the chief mart to which other 
nations resort for these indispensable commodities. We 
shall next proceed to treat of the precious metals ; 
those productions of the Mineral Kingdom which have 
had so wonderful an influence on the fate of nations 
and on the progress of civilization throughout the 


Thr days are happily come when persons of all parties 
and opinions join in lamenting the crimes and excesses 
of that time when men whose sentiments were different 
on religious topics thought it just— thought it, perhaps, 
a duty — to coerce the consciences of their fellow-men 
even to the death. In the early history of the Refor- 
mation, it seems that all parties equally admitted, as a 
principle, that it was just to coerce and punish capitally 
persons holding an erroneous belief; and we accord- 
ingly find that the Protestants, no less than the 
Catholics, kindled the brands and administered the 
tortures of religious persecution, when the power fell 
into their hands. It is far more in sorrow than in 
anger that we would speak of these things. We 
have no right to be angry with men who act on 
what they believe to be a principle of duty ; but we 
have -a right bitterly to lament that there should ever 
have been a time when men thought it a duty to visit 
with criminal punishments persons who had been led 
by education or circumstances to entertain a class of 
opinions different from their own, and to turn a deaf 
ear to the voice of justice and human pity, which doubt- 
less whispered the truth to their own hearts. 

Among the many victims of this spirit, we find the 
name of Robert Southwell, an English writer of the 
sixteenth century, of very considerable merit, but with 
whose name, in that character, the large majority of our 
readers will now perhaps become acquainted for the 
first time. 

Old Fuller's notice of Southwell, under the head of 
" Suffolk," is brief and characteristic: — " Robert 
Southwell was born in this county, as PiLseusaffirmeth, 
who although often mistaken in his locality, may be 
believed herein, as professing himself familiarly ac- 
quainted with him at Rome. But the matter is not 
much wliere he was born ; seeing that though cried up 
by men of his own profession for his numerous books 
in verse and prose, he was reputed a dangerous enemy 
by the State, for which he was imprisoned and executed, 
March the 3rd, 1595*." 

A brief notice of Southwell and his works appeared 
in the * Gentleman's Magazine ' for 1798 ; and this 
account appears to have been the fullest with which 
Mr. Ellis, who gives some specimens of Southwell's 
poetry in his ' Specimens of the Early English Poets,' 
was acquainted. A more complete and zealous attempt 
was made in the * Retrospective Review' for 1821 to 
do justice to his memory. The writer in that publica- 
tion gives some interesting particulars concerning 
Southwell, from Challoner's * Memoirs of Missionary 
Priests ;' and it is from this account that we have pre- 
pared the following notice of his life. 

He was born about the year 1562, of a respectable 
Catholic family, at St. Faith's, in Norfolk, and was at 
an early age sent to the English College at Douay, for 
education. From Douay he went to Rome, and at the 
age of sixteen was received into the order of the Society 
of Jesus. Having finished his novitiate,' and gone 
through his course of philosophy and divinity with great 
credit, he was made Prefect of the Studies of the Eng- 
lish College at Rome. At this time there was an Act 
in force against Catholic priests, and especially Jesuits, 
coming to England from foreign parts ; yet when he 
was appointed a Missionary priest to his own country, he 
felt the performance of his religious duties superior to all 
other considerations, and did not hesitate to proceed to 
his destination. In acting thus, although his motives 
claim our respect, it must be allowed that he made 
himself a transgressor against the law, and, in the strict 
letter of that law, the authorities were justified in the 
measures they afterwards adopted against him. We 
need not, however, at this day, spend many words in 
declaring the injustice and cruelty of a law, the effect 
of which was to exclude a large proportion of the popu- 
lation from the assistance and services of the ministers 
of their religion. Urged by the spiritual wants of the 
English Catholics, Southwell came to England, having, 
as he said, travelled far, and brought home a freight of 
spiritual substance to enrich his friends, and medicinable 
precepts against their ghostly maladies. He did not, 
however, take up his abode with his relations ; but, 
through anxiety for their safety, " lived like a foreigner, 
finding among strangers that which, in his nearest 
blood, he presumed not to seek." His anxiety for the 
spiritual welfare of his father led him to address to him 
a most eloquent and energetic letter of exhortation 
and advice. This letter, from its vigour of thought 
and strength of language, is quite worthy of the place 
which is sometimes mistakenly given it, among the 
works of Sir Walter Raleigh. 

Father Southwell continued in England, performing 
the duties of his function until the year 1592, when he 
was apprehended in a gentleman's house in the county 
of Middlesex, and committed to a dungeon in the Tower, 
so noisome aud filthy, that when he was brought out 
for examination his clothes were covered with vermin. 
* < Worthies/ Vol. II., p. 344. Edition, rSH. 

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[March 7, 1835. 

Upon this his father presented a petition to Queen 
Elizabeth, begging, that if his son had done anything 
for which by the laws he deserved to die, he might 
suffer death ; if not, as he was a gentleman, he hoped 
her Majesty would be pleased to order that he might 
be treated like a gentleman. The Queen was pleased 
to listen to the old man's prayer, and ordered that 
Southwell should have a better lodging, and that his 
father should have permission to supply him with 
clothes and other necessaries, together with such books 
as he might desire. The only books he desired were 
the bible, and the works of St. Bernard. He was kept 
in prison three years, and what was worse for himself, 
and more disgraceful to the government, it is said that 
he was put to the rack ten several times during that 

Wearied out with torture and solitary imprisonment, 
he at length applied to the lord-treasurer Cecil, entreat- 
ing that he might either be brought to trial to answer 
for himself, or, at least, that his friends might be 
allowed to come and see him. To this application 
Cecil is said to have answered, " that if he was in so 
much haste to be hanged, he should quickly have his 
desire." Shortly after this he was removed from the 
Tower to Newgate, where he was put down into the 
dungeon called " Limbo," and there confined for three 
days. He was taken thence and carried to Westminster, 
to take his trial before Lord Chief Justice Popham and 
others. He was indicted for high treason under the 
statute already mentioned ; and, a true bill being found 
against him, he was brought to the bar, an4 held up 
his hand according to custom. On being asked whether 
he was guilty or not guilty, he answered, — " I confess 
that I was born in England*, a subject to the Queen's 
Majesty ; and that, by authority derived from God, I 
have been promoted to the sacred order of priesthood in 
the Roman Church." But he earnestly denied that he 
had ever entertained any designs against the Queen or 
kingdom; alleging that, in returning to his native 
country, he had no other intention than to administer 
the sacraments according to the Catholic church to such 
as desired them. He was then told that he must leave 
such matters, and at once plead " guilty " or " not 
guiliy." Then he said he was not guilty of any treason 
whatever. The jury were sworn without a single 
challenge; for the prisoner observed that they were 
all equally strangers to him, and therefore charily 
did not allow him to except against one more than 
another. He was found guilty on his own confession ; 
and being asked if he had anything to say why sen- 
tence should not be pronounced against him, he replied, 
" Nothing : but from my heart I forgive all who have 
been in any way accessory to my death." The judge 
having pronounced sentence according to the usual 
form, Southwell made a low bow, returning him thanks 
as for an unspeakable favour. 

The next morning he was drawn through the streets, 
on a sledge, to Tyburn, where a great concourse of 
people had assembled to witness his execution. He 
again admitted that he was a priest of the Society of 
Jesus; but repeated his denial that he had ever con- 
trived or imagined any evil against the Queen, for whom 
and for his country he offered up his prayers. The cart 
was then driven away ; but the unskilful hangman had 
so adjusted the noose, that poor Southwell several times 
made the sign of the cross while he was hanging, and 
a considerable time elapsed before strangulation was 

" So perished Father Southwell, at thirty-three years 
of age," says the * Retrospective Reviewer ; ' " and so, 
unhappily, have perished many of the wise and virtuous 

* The clause under which he wai indicted of high treason par- 
ticularly referred to English subject*, 

of the earth." Notwithstanding his death, however, on 
(it cannot be doubted) essentially religious grounds, 
the circumstances of this event alone afford ample 
evidence that the spirit of the age had already much 
improved, and had made some large advances towards ' 
toleration in matters of opinion. Private individuals 
were no longer exposed to personal molestation on 
charges of heresy, as both Protestants and Catholics 
had been alternately in preceding reigns; nor were 
even priests, — except such as, like Southwell, came 
from abroad — exposed to criminal prosecution. And, 
as we have seen, the statute which marked the excep- 
tions was so framed as to bring the persons implicated 
to punishment, not as heretics, but as traitors. Tin's 
shows that mistaken opinions began to be considered 
questionable grounds on which to take away a man's 
life. The intermediate and somewhat whimsical course 
was taken of declaring certain opinions held by certain 
persons in certain circumstances to constitute treason, 
and to be punished accordingly. In estimating South- 
well's character and conduct, and the effect of the 
statute, it ought to be recollected that, the effect of 
other statutes, and the absence of institutions for the 
education of the Catholic clergy at home, rendered it f l 
almost imperative on those destined for the church to ; 
go abroad for education ; and hence, as we have before 
intimated, the act under which Southwell suffered ne- 
cessarily operated in excluding the Catholics of the 
country from the services of their priesthood ; and that 
this effect was intended is apparent from the fact 
that, by the statute of a preceding year (*23 Elizabeth, 
chap. I.), a person performing the most important and 
common ceremony of the Catholic religion, — the mass, 
— became liable to a year's imprisonment and a fine 
of 200 marks. The fate of Southwell is thus an 
instructive illustration of the spirit of his age. The 
cause — which he doubtless supposed lo be the best of 
causes, — to which he was devoted, and for which he 
died, has necessarily given a peculiar hue to this ac- 
count of him. But it was our principal object to 
furnish our readers with some knowledge of a much 
neglected author ; and with this view we shall, in our 
next Number, give an article consisting of extracts 
from some of his prose and poetical productions. 

Limerick Gloves.— It used to be the custom in the south- 
west of Ireland to slaughter many cows while in calf. The 
skins of these unborn calves were of extraordinary fineness 
and delicacy, and from such was prepared the leather of 
which the celebrated Limerick gloves were made. This 
practice, however, is now almost discontinued, and whatever 
merit the Limerick gloves may still possess is owing to the 
skill of the manufacturer, and not to the superiority of his 
raw material. — Transactions of the Society of Arts. 

Sheep.— The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, have recently carried into practice at Whitechapel 
market, plans for inducing sheep readily to enter the 
slaughter houses. The skin of an ewe sheep is stuffed and 
placed on wheels in such a way as to resemble the living 
animal ; and it is readily followed by the sheep without the 
necessity of employing coercion by men and dogs. As 
sheep also appear to have an instinctive dread of blood, and 
cannot readily be induced to cross it, the society have pro- 
cured hurdles covered with straw to be placed over the 
kennels on market days. Under these little improvements 
the sheep are housed without difficulty, and without those 
scenes of uproar and brutality which have formed so serious 
a nuisance to the public. 

•»• The Office of the Society for the DUTution of Useful Knowledge it at 
59, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


Printed by Wiuxam C&owxt, Duke Street, Umbetb. 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

fc— — ■ .... i i . ■ i i ■ ■ i ■ i ■ . . i ■ i ■■ i .. ■ i . . ,..,. i . . ■ . i i ■ 

]g9J PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. [March 14, 1835. 

fc i — ^ ^— ^ — «^— ■ ^M— ■ ii n il ■ ■■ . i ■■ i n i i ■ ■ n « <m , . ■ 


[From a Correspondent] 

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EMabth N, 

'* * Tkis fcast is flamed* the Carneval, which, being 

Interpreted, implies " farewell to flesh/' 


As I write these lines, the cameval is just expiring ; 
for Ash Wednesday i* at hand, when all its 6ports ami 
frolics give way to the dullness and fasting of Lent. I 
will endeavour to set down some of my recollections of 
that gay season hi Italy, — an easy task, in which I shall 
be assisted by the striking print before me, that happily 
condenses some of the most curious features of carneval 
out of doors. The Egyptian obelisk that rises dimly 
in the back-ground of the picture, and whose austere 
antiquity contrasts poetically with the living bustle, up- 
roar, and enjoyment of the principal scene, shows that it 
is a Roman carneval that the artist represents. With the 
exception of the obelisk, however, and some difference 
in the architecture of the houses, the engraving equally 
illustrates the carneval of Naples, or Milan, or Venice, 
or any other of the large Italian cities. The crowd and 
confusion, the principal masquerade characters, their 
action and grouping, are common to all Italian car- 
nevals on their good days; and, as. these saturnalia are 
limited, at Rome, to eight days, every carneval-day 
there may be considered a good one. In the rest of 
Italy, where carneval continues from the feast of the 
, Epiphany to the beginning of Lent, lasting five or six 
weeks, only the Thursdays and Sundays are observed 
for out-of-door displays ; and these days are either not 
well observed at the beginning, or become languid at 
the close. Within doors, indeed, particularly at Naples 
a few years ago, carneval used to be kept up with spirit 
during all its long legitimate period^ — there being, 
every night, private masquerades, or masquerades at 
the opera-house, balls and suppers, and all kinds of 
feastings and mummeries iu uninterrupted succession : 
— and very hard work it was to go through them all ! 
I have supported what . is called a " London season " 
with considerably less loss of health and flesh. As soon 
as this riot of pleasure was over, the doctors, with their 
gold-headed canes, were always seen more constantly 
abroad, and walking much faster than usual. They 
had always plenty of work on their hands, being' as 
busy after it as milliners and tailors, cooks and con- 
fectioners, fiddlers, and dancing- masters, had been 
during carneval. Even in a physical sense, the ab- 
stinence and quiet of Lent were indispensable : and 
during that sober season, when there were no feasting 
and dancing, and the opera, on the nights in which it 
was allowed to open, closed at the sober hour of eleven, 
without any ballet, people had time to recover them- 
selves ; although there annually occurred a few unlucky 
cases where the long revelling had sown the seeds of 
consumption, or some other incurable disease. But 
this was carneval in-doors. Let us return to our en- 
graving and the streets of Rome. 

In the afternoon, about three o'clock, the Corso begins 
gradually to fill with people, — aome masked, and some 
in their usual holiday-dresses, — some on foot and some 
in hired carriages. About an hour later, the equipages 
of the nobility and gentry swell the crowd ; and the open 
balconies and windows of every house in that long street 
are crammed full of company, who, for the most part, 
are not mere spectators, but actors in the ever- varying 
farce. The carriages and the horses are, for the most 
part, decked out in a very fine or a very capricious 
manner ; and the anomalies represented in the print, 
where a coachman, dressed as a Spanish cavalier of the 
olden times, is driving an old Tabellone, or notary, 
with a huge wine-flask (extended towards a punch on 
stilts), and a Roman doctor, with " spectacles on nose," 
while a small-grown punch climbs up the side steps, and 
a full-grown punchinello, with a squeaking trumpet to 
his lips, and a sturdy, turbaned Moor, with a banner i» 
bis hand, act as footmen, — are such amusing contrasts as 

continually occur, and give the best parts of the drollery 
to the scene. As these carriages pass through the 
crowd, at a slow stately pace, those within them address 
or gesticulate to their friends at the balconies of the 
houses, — or in other carriages,— or in the street, on foot, 
and generally pelt them with sugar-plums. This fire 
is returned by the more stationary actors : and, if you 
look to the left of the picture, you will see a gentleman 
and a lady, with uplifted hands, full of sugar-plums, 
taking aim ; and in another balcony, to the right, two 
gentlemen pelting with much vigour. The greatest 
part of the fun, after the hodge-podge of costume, lies 
in this sugar-plum warfare ; for what with the noise of 
French horns and drums* cow-horns, and guitars, fifes, 
fiddles :ts, and the din 

of tho squeaking in a 

convei unmasked roar- 

ing to ;ate passages qf 

wit ca gallantry, when 

ladies m>iis and sweet- 

meats, aper, with nice 

poesie " amore ;" and 

when ise, they make 

use 01 vith the kernels 

of sw nside. Where- 

ever t the little boys 

and ragamumns most abound ; tor tne Italians gene- 
rally have a very sweet tooth, and these poor fellows 
will run the most imminent risk to fill their stomachs 
and pockets with confetti da rignore*. I have see* 
hundreds of them at a time down on their knees^ 
and even crawling among the wheels of the carriages 
and the horses' legs to pick up the plums, which they 
think it a sin and a shame to waste. Pray turn to the 
picture, and there, in the fore-ground, you will see z 
queer little specimen of the rising generation of Rome, 
with a night-cap on his head in the very position I 
mean, picking up the confetti close to the horses' hoofs. 
The animals seem spirited, and he may probably get a 
kick, but that will not hinder him from trying his luck 
again. I verily believe if the gorge of a tete-de-pont 
bristled with cannon, or the approach of a redoubt, were 
paved with sugar-plums, these urchins would march up 
to it. In the course of their carneval operations a 
broken head or rib, a crushed hand or foot, some- 
times occur; but, from their wonderful dexterity, I 
should not think these casualties are numerous. The 
worst of this sugar-plum fight (and a pretty general 
evil it is) is, that the poorer or more parsimonious of 
the revellers, instead of using good plums that cost 
money, employ villainous hard make-believes, com- 
posed of flour and plaster-of-paris, which hurt where 
they hit almost like stones. I speak feelingly on this 
subject, for on one occasion, when embarked in the 
" ship of fools,'' I received a black-eye, to say nothing 
of a bleeding-nose ; and, in my own party, I had more 
than one brother in misfortune. Even the good, sweet, 
and dear confetti, when thrown with force in handfuls, 
or propelled through long tin tubes, as they frequently 
are, are not to be faced with impunity. I have fre- 
quently seen heroes who took the field with a determina- 
tion to engage in the thickest of the fight, cover their 
faces with visors made of netted wire, and carry tin 
shields and bucklers on their left arms, which gave 
them a very warlike appearance. This warfare at 
Rome, however, was spiritless, compared with the car- 
neval campaigns at Naples in my time. The Nea- 
politans are a magnanimous people in regard to sugar- 
plums ; and then the population is triple that of Rome, 
with gentry of wealth and substance ; and a secular 
nobility can take a more active part than would be 
seemly in the Abati Monsignori, Cacdinali, and the 

* Gentlemanly sugar-plums, 

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[March 14* 

walked along 1 Toledo with Mrs. Policinello at his right 
hand, and ninety-eight young Policinellos, of both 
genders, and all possible sizes, followed in his wake, and 
" ever as he went " he smote his forehead and shouted 
" Ecco qua le vere novanta-nove disgrazie di Polici- 
nello" (Here are the true ninety-nine misfortunes of 
Punch !) — and the joints of his tail that were spread out 
in almost interminable length kept crying aloud, " Give 
us to eat, papa, for we are dying of hunger, and all true 
children of papa Punch ! " Talking of tails reminds 
me that devils are very common Jiguranti in Italian 
carnevals, and there is no getting up a good devil with- 
out a tail, which is an appendage difficult to manage 
in a crowd, where people will keep tugging at it. An 
ingenious friend of mine, however, got over this diffi- 
culty by stuffing his tail with pins and needles arranged 
in cheveaux-de-frise fashion, which made it a tail difficult 
to handle. 

I remember nothing particular about the Turks, 
Greeks, Armenians, Jews, Romans, Hindoos, and the 
rest, which characters are, externally, pretty much like 
what we see in our own masked balls. But only con- 
ceive the difference between tens (or perhaps only 
units) and hundreds ; between a formal affair got up 
in a ball-room, within four walls, and a popular general 
out-pouring in the streets and public places, and under 
the pure enlivening atmosphere and broad day-light of 

Southern Italy, with thousands upon thousands of the 
neighbouring peasantry pouring into the city to enjoy 
the scene, and add to its variety with their different and 
in general picturesque or grotesque costumes. The 
last-named part of the great picture always struck me 
as the pleasantest. 

During my time in Italy, which extended, with some 
short periods of absence, from 1816 to 18*6, 1 thought 
I discerned a gradual decline in the spirit of carnevals, 
which will probably go out altogether, and be forgotten 
of men. As a truly popular amusement — as a circum- 
stance and season which brought people of al! classes 
together, and put them, for the time being, on the same 
footing, — I should almost regret such a sober consum- 
mation. My regret may be the more excusable, as I 
never saw the license allowed seriously abused, or fun 
and frolic convert themselves into riot and shameful ex- 
cess. (I mean, as far as the popular body was concerned.) 

One of the principal amusements of the Roman 
carneval is the horse-racing ; but that I have seen cor- 
rectly described in a former Number [ 102] of the ' Penny 
Magazine. 1 My recollections of these matters would 
carry me a long way farther, but I have already 
occupied too much room ; and, after all, an attentive 
examination of the engraving will give a better notion 
of out-door carneval doings than I could give in many 



Thr limits of our former article on the structure and 
habits of the seal, left us room to allude but briefly to 
the methods pursued in hunting this remarkable animal. 
We are now prepared to supply the omission, furnishing 
also other wood-cuts in illustration of one of the methods 
of hunting described. 

The modes of taking this animal, in use among the 
Greenlandcrs, have been fully detailed by Crantz in 

in Scotland.} 

his * History of Greenland/ from which we have drawn 
up the account immediately following. 

The seal is of far more importance to the Green- 
landers than the slieep is to us, or the cocoa-nut tree 
to the Indian. Therefore, among the Greenlanders, a 
man who cannot catch seals is held in very light esteem. 
It is the ultimate end kept in view in all the training oi 
children. It is the only art to which they are trained 

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from infancy, and it is by the exercise of it that men 
maintain themselves, make themselves agreeable to 
others, and become useful members of the community. 

The Greenlanders have three ways of taking seals ; 
either singly with the bladder, or in company by the 
cJagtptr hunt, or in the winter on the ice; to which 
peculiar methods that of shooting may now be added. 

When the Greenlander, properly equipped for 
hunting, observes the Harp Seal, he endeavours to 
surprise it unawares, and approaches with the wind and 
sun in his back that he may not be seen or heard by it. 
When he comes within four, five, or six fathoms of the 
animal, all his implements being in previous readiness, 
he transfers the oar to his left hand, and taking the 
harpoon (to which an inflated bladder is attached by a 
long string) in his right, launches it with all his force 
against the seal. The moment the animal is pierced, 
the man throws the bladder, tied to the end of the 
siring, into the water, on the same side that the seal 
runs and dives, which it instantly does like a dart. 
The seal often drags the bladder under water ; but, 
from its size, it is so great an impediment, that the 
animal soon tires, and must come up again in about a 
quarter of an hour to take breath. The man hastens 
to the spot where he sees the bladder ascend, and as 
soon as the seal appears, throws an unbarbed lance 
against it. This lance always comes out of the wound 
it has inflicted, and the man continues to employ it 
until the seal is quite exhausted, when he runs a smaller 
lance into it, and kills it outright ; but he immediately 
after closes the wound in order to preserve the blood. 
It is this mode of taking the seal which was illustrated 
by the cut to the previous article. 

Of the several species of seal found in Greenland, 
only one, the Harp Seal, called by the natives attarsoak, 
Which is the most stupid and careless, can be caught 
in this manner. Some other species, more careful or 
timid, are taken by several men in company, in what 

Crantz calls the " clapper-hunt." In this process the 
men cut off their retreat, and frighten them under 
water by clapping, shouting, and throwing stones ; but 
as the seals must come to the surface at frequent 
iptervals to draw breath, the men again persecute them, 
until at last the animals are obliged to remain so long 
under water, that when they do come up, they stay so 
long at the surface as to afford the men an easy oppor- 
tunity of effecting their destruction. 

The third method of killing seals (upmn the ice) is 
mostly practised in Disko, where the bays are frozen 
over in the winter. Several methods of proceeding are 
adopted. The seals themselves sometimes make holes 
in the ice, at which they come to breathe. Near such a 
hole ^he Greenlander seats himself upon a stool, resting 
his feet ou one that is lower to keep them from the cold : 
he thus sits watching ; and when the animal comes and 
puts its nose to the hole, he pierces it instantly with his 
harpoon ; and then, breaking the hole larger, he draws 
it out and kills it quite. Another method is for a man 
to lie along upon his belly on a kind of sledge near 
other holes from which the seals come out occasionally 
upon the ice to bask themselves in the sun. Near this 
great opening another small one is made, at which 
another man is stationed who holds, inserted through 
it, a harpoon with an unusually long shaft or pole. 
The man who lies upon the ice looks into the large 
hole until he perceives a seal under the harpoon ; he 
then makes a signal to the other man, who instantly 
thrusts down the weapon with all his strength to run 
the animal through. 

If a Greenlander happens to see a seal near its hole 
upon the ice, he slides along upon his bell$ towards it, 
wagging his head and imitating the grunting of a seal, 
so that the poor animal, concluding it to be one of its 
own harmless companions, allows the man to come 
near enough to pierce it with his long dart. 

When the current wears a large opening in the ice 

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the ahr, tad seeing' no object to alarm, sports above 
the wave, or swims to and fro like a dog, occasionally 
landing on pieces of rock, and basking at his ease. 
Several of these singular animals soon showed their 
heads above the water, the sportsman waiting until 
they approached within shot. It is very difficult to 
hit them in this way, but I have seen experienced 
marksmen kill them torn the boat at the extreme limit 
of a rifle's power. At one hundred yards they are 
frequently killed." 

In May last we were enabled to furnish an account of 
the loss of the Royal George, from the statements of 
Mr, Ingram, one of the survivors. The Editor has 
lately received from him the following communication 
respecting the woman who was saved from destruction 
through his exertions, in the manner formerly described. 
Our readers will probably be best pleased to have the 
communication as we received it. 

Woodford, February 17th, 1835. 
Dear Sir, — I received a letter, saying that you wish 
to see a copy of a letter that I received from the woman 
that I in a measure saved from the wreck of the 
Royal George that sunk at Spithead In the year 1782, 
by pulling her out of one of the port-holes. You will 
find it copied underneath. 

Dear Sir, 
I remain your most obedient Servant, 

James Ingram. 

Wivenhos, near Colchester, 28th August, 1834. 
Sir, — I have read in the * Penny Magazine, 1 pub- 
lished the 3rd of May last, a very interesting account 
of the loss of the Royal George at Spithead, in the 
year 1782 ; the same having been furnished through 
you. It is there stated that a woman was preserved, in 
a great measure, by your exertion, and it must be very 
gratifying for you to know that she is still living, and a 
resident in this parish. Her husband, who was on board 
also, was likewise saved, but he is now numbered among 
the dead. She is a widow, and in indigent circum- 
stances ; poor but honest : rather infirm, having passed 
hef threescore years and ten. She has a list of the 
names of all those that were saved ; her name is Horn. 
I trust you will excuse the liberty in addressing you 
on the subject. The poor woman was anxious I should 

I remain, Sir, 
Mr. James Ingram,) Your very* obedient Servant, 
Woodford. | John G. Chamberlain, 

One of the Churchwarden*. 

Bread Seals. — Take the crumb of newly-baked bread, 
moisten it with gum-water and milk, and add either ver- 
milion (u\powder) or rose-pink (in powder), to colour. The 
bread thus moistened ought to be worked and kneaded with 
the fingers for a considerable time, till it forms a consistent 
paste without cracking. It should be then laid in a cellar 
till next day. Then take pieces off and roll them into balls. 
Press one of these down on the waxen impression of a seal, 
so as to press the bread into every part of the impression ; 
and, while the bread remains there, squeeze the upper part 
of it so as to fashion a handle by which to hold the bread- 
seal when in use. Take off the bread-seal, and trim off any 
superfluous edges. Let the bread-seals dry very slowly ; 
for, if they are dried too suddenly, they are apt to crack. 
The, more the bread has been worked in the hand, the more 

§lossy will the seals be; and the impression from them (if 
lis be attended to) will not present that dull appearance 
jEhich impressions from bread-seals often bear. 


In the preparation of this cheese, the mttk is, hi the 
first instance, put into a cheese-cowl (which is a large 
deep tub) with two teaeupsful of rennet. A ball of 
annatto is then dipped in the milk and rubbed on a 
piece of pantile, which is washed into the milk till the 
colour is as high as required. The quantity of annatto 
is regulated by the wishes of the cheesefactor, some 
liking more than others. Originally only a small 
quantity was employed, to fnduce the belief that the 
cheese was rich, and to prevent its being discovered 
that skimmed milk had been used. But now almost 
all the cheese is highly coloured ; and the colour is no 
criterion of the goodness of the article. After an hour 
has elapsed, the milk is converted into curd ; this is cut 
with a cheese-knife, which is about fourteen inches in 
length, and has two edges : it is cut gently at first, and 
then very small. It is suffered to remain ten minutes, 
when the milkmaid puts her arms into the cowl and 
draws the curd gently towards her, turning it over in 
the whey. She afterwards again draws it towards l)er 
to dip out the whey, which is strained through a sieve, 
and the small pieces of curd that are strained from it 
are returned to the cowl. The curd is then put into 
vals, in which cloths had been previously laid. The 
vats are placed one on another, and put in a cheese- 
press for ten minutes, a vessel having previously been 
placed underneath the press to catch the expressed 
whey. After this, the curd is taken out of the vats and 
broken small, and some hot whey is poured over it. 
The curd is then drawn to the side of the cowl to drain 
from the whey, which is ladled off and strained so that 
no curd may be wasted. Then the curd is again put into 
the vats, and they are pressed one on another ; any curd 
that is pressed oxer the edges of the vats being put in 
the middle of the vats to make the mass as firm as possible. 
In an hour the vats are taken out of the press to have 
dry cloths, after which they remain in the press till 
night, when the compressed curd is taken out of the 
vats, turned and salted, and then replaced in the press, 
and there remains till morning, when it is salted, and also 
again the following evening. The second morning the 
cloths are taken off, but the cheeses are left in the vats 
seven or eight days, being turned night and morning. 
After that, they* are put on the floor of the cheese-loft, 
(which is a large room on purpose for keeping cheese,) 
and turned everv dav for. three weeks or a month. In 
two months t craped and painted. The 

paint is a red s strewed over the cheeses 

and rubbed on them with the hand. In three months, 
they are what is technically called " ready, and are fit 
for the cheesefactor. 

The whey that drained from the curd, during the 
process of cheesemaking, is put into treadles (a sort 
of tub) and suffered to remain till the next day, when 
it is skimmed. From this whey butter is made, and the 
residue is given to pigs. The rennet is made by mixing 
salt and water till it will support an egg, and then 
boiling it half an hour. When it is cold-, four calves' 
stomachs are put to a' gallon of the* brine, with bay 
leaves and slices of lemon. In six weeks it is fit for use. 

For single Gloucester cheese, the vats, which are 
made of elm, are thirteen inches in diameter, and about 
two inches and a-half in depth : for double Gloucester 
cheese, the same diameter, and twice, or more than 
twice the depth. All the dairy-utensils, after being 
used, are washed with tepid water, and then scalded. 
In making the double Gloucester cheese, and those 
that are called " truckles/' the same method is pursued, 
except that more care is used in pressing the curd into 
the vats, which, for such cheeses, have three jierfora- 
tions to let the whey drain off; and bandages of cheese- 
cloth are put round when the curd is above the vat. 
Sage-cheese is made by pounding sage and straining 

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[March 14, 1835, 

the juice into a part of milk, to which rennet is then 
added. The same process is observed as for other 
cheese till the time when the warm whey should be 
poured upon it, when it is broken up with as much of 
the simple curd as the milkmaid considers necessary, 
and treated as other cheese. To make the richest 
cream-cheeses, the thickest cream must be taken, and 
put, with a little salt, into a straining-cloth, which is 
hung up twelve hours in order that the whey may drop 
from it. When it is taken from the cloth, :t is put 
between two pewter plates, with a weight on the upper 
one, and turned daily during five or six days. These 
cheeses can only be made in this manner in warm 
weather. The milk that the cows give when they are 
first turned into the fields in the, spring, and when they 
are afterwards pastured in fields that have been newly 
mown, yields nearly as much curd again as at any other 
period; and it is also much richer. The principal 
season for making the thin cheese is from April to 
November; and that for making the thick, May, June, 
and the beginning of July. 

In different districts, the produce of cows differs very 
much ; but, in the Vale of Gloucester, from 3£ cwt. to 
4£ cwt. per cow is considered a fair annual ayerage 
return. The same cow, on different pastures, will yield 
milk of very different qualities ; from one will be made 
rank and unpleasant cheese, while the other will be 
fine and rich. An estimate of the profit and expenses 
of a farm for twenty cows can be, from the continual 
variation in the state of the times and local circum- 
stances, of course only an approximation towards the 
truth. But the following, made in the Vale of Glou- 
cester in 1835, where the land is rich and excellent, is 
as accurate an annual average statement as the nature 
of the subject will admit : — 

• £. s. d. 
Kent of 40 acres, at 50#, for pasture ... 100 

20 acres for hay 50 

■ 2 acres of arable, for potatoes . , . 5 

Making hay, 12*. an acre 12 

Carrying and ricking ....... 2 10 

Expense* of raising potatoes and seed • • 1 j 9 

Tithe*, 3«. 6rf. in the pound 27 2 6 

Poor and other rates, 3*. 9d. in the pound . 29 2 ! I 
Dairymaid, < 7/. a year (besides board) • • 7 

man. at 71. a-year (besides board) • • 7 

Wear and tear of dairy-utensils . . . . 10 

Salt 10 

Annatto 4*. a-pound ....... 100 

Rennet and paint ........ 140 

Interest of money laid out in stock and imo 
piemi nts, reckoning each cow at from 8/. > 

to 10/., and chance of loss 
Profit , 


87 11 


Cheese, 4 tons, at 4 cwt. each cow, and at 44*. \ j 7 g q q 

per cwt. J 

Value of whey 20 

Pasture of colts and sheep 20 

Profit of calves 30 

Butter 90 

P-K* 500 

Potatoes . . . , 25 


The capital necessary for the purchase of stock for 
such a farm would, according' to present prices, be 
about 300/. ; but as it is not prudent that the' whole of 
the capital should be expended, a man who had only 
that sum should take a smaller farm, and reserve a part 
for the payment of work-people, and oCher incidental 
expenses which would be required before much profit 
was derived from the farm. From the depressed state 
of agriculture, the present time is not by any means 
auspicious for the commencement of business as a 
dairy- farmer. The requisite dairy-utensils will cost 
about 251. 

Wild-Dogs in Van Diemen** Conrf.— The annoyance and 
danger occasioned by the wild-dogs in Van Die men's Land 
is still a subject of great complaint in the papers of that 
Colony ; and the most active exertions hitherto used seem 
to have had little effect in abating the nuisance. The dogs 
appear rather to increase in number and boldness. A case 
is mentioned in which a person named Akerly was assaulted 
by thirteen of these animals, and would probably have been 
killed if he ha o get up into a tree. The 

means hitherto icate them do not seem to 

have been com he growth of the evil. A 

society has been established at Gaddesden, near Campbell 
Town, to effect their destruction ; and the house of the 
chairman exhibits a collection of skins, to the number of 
a hundred, of dogs that have been killed, of almost all 
kinds, from the shepherd-dog to the Newfoundland. It to 
thought that unless the most decided measures are taken, ft 
will be impossible to pasture sheep in the colony. The 
dogs bring forth six or eight young at a litter, and commence 
breeding at one year old, while the sheep ^brings forth only 
one, And does not commence breeding until two years of 
age. The ultimate and discouraging prospect which this 
opens is brought nearer by the daily defection of the domestic 
dogs of the colony to the wild ones. " At the remote stock- 
huts," says a recent paper, " a free man keeps as many 
dogs as he pleases ; frequently six or eight are kept ; these 
dogs provide for themselves, and continually make off to 
the wild pack*. All remonstrance is received with a smile 
of contempt, and returned by insult ; and until such people* 
are strictly prohibited from keeping dogs in the pastoral 
districts under heavy penalties, matters are not likely to 
mend : indeed it is to be feared that the evil is fixed for 
ever— that it has been too long neglected, and is now past 
remedy." We are too well assured of the resources and 
power of civilized men to partake of these apprehensions • 
but any delay now in organising a plan of simultaneous 
operation against the dogs, is likely to render their future* 
extirpation a matter of great and increasing difficulty and 
expense. Meanwhile, at this distance from the spot, it is 
interesting to watch the various aspects in which this 
remarkable state of things appears, and to observe the 
different measures which it may be necessary to adopt 
against the canine depredators. Since writing the above 
we find that an " Act of Council " has been issued for the 
purpose of restraining the increase of dogs. All dogs are to 
be registered ; and none are to be left at large except in 
Hobart Town and Launceston. Unregistered dogs, or dogs 
found at large contrary to this order, are to be killed. The 
persons killing them are to be paid from 5*. to 40*. for each, 
out of a fund formed by the registration fees. The regis- 
tration fee for a watch-dog kept chained, or a sheep doe, is 
2s. 6</. ; all other docs 10*., or if females double the re- 
spective amounts. The local newspapers are not very 
sanguine in expectations of good from this mea&ure. 

On the Hatching of Poultry.— In the hatching of poultry, 
as in most other things, Nature is the best guide. The ben 
and duck, if left to themselves, find some dry, warm, sandy 
hedge or bank, in which to deposit their eggs, forming their 
nests of leaves, moss, or dry grass. In this way the warmth 
is retained when the bird quits the nest for the moments 
she devotes to her scanty and hurried meal. The good 
housewife's mode is the reverse of ihis. She makes a nest, 
or box, of stone, brick, or wood, and fills it wiih clean lung 
stuaw. By these means, less heat is general ed by the hen, 
and that which is produced quickly escapes in her occasional 
absences ; — the eggs are chilled and addled, and frequent 
failures ensue in the expected brood. To obviate this, the 
best mode is to put at the bottom and sides of the boxes of 
the henhouse, a sufficient quantity of fine, dry sand, or of 
coal or wood ashes, lining them with a little well-broken dry 
grass, or untwisted hay bands, or moss, or bruised straw. 
Wood ashes have been found to be the best, as ihey produce 
the effect of destroying the fleas by which poultry are so 
much infested ; and that this will not be disagreeable to 
them is evident from the propensity which they have to roll 
in heaps of dust, or of ashes of any kind. An experienced 
rearer of poultry adopted the method above described during 
a long course of years, and scarcely ever met with a dis- 
appointment. As this is the season for the incubation of 
every species of domestic poultry, we have thought the above 
might be acceptable to many classes of our readers. '^* 

Printed by William Clowis, Duke Street, Liuubeth. 

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OF THft 

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[March 21, 1835. 


The animals of this genus (Manis) present an appear- 
ance quite as extraordinary as that of the armadillo 
tribe ; being covered on every part, except the belly, 
with exceedingly strong, large, and horny scales. These, 
when the animals roll themselves up, furnish a suit of 
"armour by which they are defended much more effec- 
tually than even the armadillo is against the assaults of 
their enemies. This armour is a compensating circum- 
stance in their structure, giving them the security 
which, from their want of teeth, their inability to grasp 
with their feet, and their perfectly harmless nature, 
they would otherwise want. The external covering, 
together with the unusual length of the body and tail, 
gives to these creatures an appearance so much resem- 
bling that of the lizard, that they have been called 
'* scaly lizards." These animals have, however, no 
proper alliance with the lizard tribe ; yet, on a general 
view of the animal kingdom, they may be admitted to 
be a link in the chain of beings which connects the 
proper quadrupeds with the reptile class. 

With the exception of their scaly covering, the animals 
of this genus have much resemblance to the ant-eaters 
in their structure and general habits. Like them they 
live by thrusting their long tongue into the nests of 
ants and other insects, and then suddenly retracting it 
into their mouths and swallowing their prey. They 
are natives of India and the Indian isles. Our engrav- 
ing represents the two species of the genus which are 
distinguished as long-tailed and short-tailed. 

Vol. IV. 

The long-tailed or four-toed manis (manu tetra- 
daetyla) is known in India by the name of the pbatagen, 
It is of a very long and slender form. The head is 
small and the snout narrow. The whole body, except 
beneath, is covered with broad but sharp-pointed scales, 
which are striated, or divided by small channels like 
those of cockle-shells, throughout their whole length. 
The throat and belly are covered with hair. The tail is 
more than twice the length of the body, and tapers 
gradually to the tip. The legs are very short : each 
foot is furnished with four claws, of which those of the 
fore- feet are stronger than those of the hind. Both the 
tail and the legs are scaled in the same manner as the 
body. The colour of this animal is of an uniform deep 
brown, with a cast of yellowish, and with a glossy 
polished surface. It grows to the average length of 
five feet, from the tip of the nose to the extremity of 
the tail. 

The short -tailed or five- toed manis (manis penta- 
daclyla) is generally called in India the pangolin, but 
in Bengal it is called, in the Sanscrit language, vajra- 
cite, or the thunderbolt reptile, on account of the ex- 
cessive hardness of its scales, which are said to be 
capable of even striking fire like a flint. This species 
differs from the former in being of a much thicker and 
shorter form. The tail in particular is very differently 
proportioned, not being so long as the body : it is very 
thick at the base, and from thence tapering gradually, 
but terminating very obtusely. It has also five instead 


Digitized by 




[March 21, 

of fbnr claws to each, foot ; of whjch those on the fore 
feet are of great strength, excepting the exterior one, 
which is much smaller than the rest. This species is 
scaled in the same manner as the preceding, but the 
scales diffe? in shape, »«d are mqcfr larger and wider 
in proportion to the body and tail. In the larger spe- 
cimens of this species of pangolin the scales are smooth ; 
but in those that are smaller they are slightly striated 
about half way from the base. In some specimens a 
few bristles are found between the scales ; but in others 
this is not observed. The parts without scales are 
covered with hair. The animal is of a very pale yellow- 
brown colour, with a surface as glossy as in the pre- 
ceding species. It is a native of India ; and naturalists 
are disposed to consider that it is the same animal (the j 
Quogelo of the negroes) which Des Marchais describes , 
as a native of Guinea. He says, that it there grows to 
the length of eight feet, of which the tail is about four; j 
that it lives in woods and marshy places, feeding on | 
ants, which it takes by laying across their paths its 
long tongue, which is covered with a viscid matter, so 
that the insects which attempt to pass it cannot extri- 
cate themselves. It walks very slowly with its claws 
bent under its feet, and would be the prey of every 
ravenous beast, had it not the power of rolling itself 
up, and opposing to its adversary a formidable defence 
of erected scales. The hungry leopard then vainly 
assails it with its powerful claws, and after much fruit- 
less exertion is obliged to leave it in safety. The 
pangolin endeavours to elude the vigilance of man by 
retiring into holes in the rocks, or into burrows of its 
own excavation, where the female produces and suckles 
her young. The negroes despatch the animal with 
blows of a stick, sell the skin to Europeans, and eat j 
the flesh, which is white and savoury, and is highly j 
relished by the natives. j 

It is stated in the • Asiatic Researches ' that the 
Malabar name of this animal is alungit, and that the 
natives of JJahar call it bajar-cit, or the stone-vermin. 
In the stomach of the specimen examined by Mr. Burt, 
and described by him in the above work, about a tea- i 
cup full of small stones were found. There were in- 
deed no traces of animal or vegetable substances in its 
stomach or intestines; and Mr. Burt inclines to the ; 
opinion that it is capable of digesting and deriving j 
nourishment from mineral substances. It is more ' 
reasonable to conclude, however, that stones and gravel I 
are merely swallowed by the pangolin to assist diges- 
tion. The tongue in the specimen (a small one) ex- 
amined by Mr. Burt was about the thickness of the ! 
little finger at the root, tapering from thence to a point; 
and when dissected out, it was capable of being ex- 
tended to a length more than equal to that of the ani- 
mal exclusive of the tail. The specimen was a female, 
and her organs were those of a viviparous animal. 
This it was important to notice, because Buffon had 
stated it as a general principle that all quadrupeds 
covered with scales are oviparous *. ' | 

In the sixtieth volume of the * Philosophical Trans- 
actions,' a figure is given of a species of this animal 
which is there called the new manis, and which Pennant 
classes as a new species under the name of the broad- ; 
tailed manis. Dr. Shaw, in his * General Zoology/ I 
follows the precedent, but doubts that it is a distinct j 
species. It has five toes on the fore, and four on the ' 
hind feet. The belly is quite smooth. The tail is very 
broad, decreasing to a point. This specimen was killed 
in the house of a merchant at Tranquebar, having 
been discovered in the cavity of a wall. When pursued, 
it rolled itself up in such a manner as to leave only the 
back and tail visible, and was destroyed with great 

The animal mentioned in the ' Asiatic Researches ' 

* Asiatic Researches, vol. ii, p. 353, &c. Calcutta, 4tu. edit 

presents some small differences from that described 
under the name of pangolin by Buffon ; and the last- 
named broad-tailed species is somewhat different from 
both. Alluding to this, Dr. Shaw observes : — " These 
differences tlo not seem sufficient to constitute a specific 
distinction, and are probably owing to the differences 
of age and sex. In the British Museum are specimens 
of different sizes which show those gradations. In one 
the scales all over the animal are so regularly and 
completely truncated at the extremity as to exhibit the 
appearance of so many hexagons. In another, they are 
remarkably broad and rounded ; and in a third, which 
is a very large specimen, they are less obtuse at the 
tips and somewhat irregularly terminated, as if notched 
or worn through age. The proportional breadth of 
the tail also varies somewhat in these specimens, and 
seems greatest in those that are least advanced in age." 

It bas been well remarked of Southwell as a writer, 
that his prose is, as such, more flowery and imaginative 
than his verse. The charm of goodness of nature and 
kindness of heart, united with the purest morality, dis- 
tinguishes his writings ; and while they afford constant 
traces of a poetical imagination, we discover that he 
seems as if afraid to trust himself in the fairy-land of 
poesy, lest he should imbibe some of its illusions. 
This dread he appears to throw off in preparing his 
prose ; one consequence of which is, that while his 
verse is in general marked by gentleness and simplicity, 
his prose is characterized by energy and passion. 

The longest and most laboured of Southwell's poems 
is ' St. Peter's Complaint,' consisting of 11$ six-lined 
stanzas, in which the apostle laments his guilt in having- 
denied his Master. This is one of the only two of his 
works in the British Museum. It is followed by three 
short poems in the same style ; from one of which, 
called * St. Peter's Comfort,' we extract the following 
passage : — 

" The lopped tree in time may grow again ; 

Moot naked plants renew both fruit and flower; 
The sorriest wight may find release of pain, . 

The driest soil suck in some moist'ning shower ; 
Times go by turns, and chances change by course, 
From foul to fair, from better hap to worse. 

The sea of Fortune doth not ever flow, 

She draws her favours to the lowest ebb ; 
Her tide hath equal times to come and go; 

Her loom doth weave the fine and coarsest web : 
No joy so great but runneth to an end, 
No nap so nard but may in fine amend. 

Not always fall of leaf, nor ever spring ; 

No endless rright, nor yet eternal day : 
The saddest birds a season find to sing ; 

The roughest storms a calm may soon allay. 
Thus with succeeding turns God tempers all, 
That man may hope to rise, yet fear to fall." 

Among Southwell's minor poems there is one which 
is too long to insert entire ; but as we are unwilling to 
omit it altogether, we extract the stanzas which will 
best bear separation from the context. 

« My conscience is my crown, 
Contented thoughts my rest ; 
My heart is happy in itself, 
My bliss is in my breast. 

My wishes are but few, 

All easy to fulfil ; 
I m ike the limits of my power 

The bounds unto my will. 

I fear no care of gold, 

Well-doing is my wealth ; 
My mind to me an empire is *, 

While grace affordeth health. 

* The writer of the popular verses beginning with— 
" My mind to me a kingdom is," 
appears to have kept this poem pretty closely in viiw. 

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183&.] THE PENttY MAGAZINE. 107 

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The heavy seas which break upon the rugged coasts 
of Northumberland and Durham render that part of 
the country the frequent scene of disastrous shipwrecks. 
In the year 1789, the ship Adventure, of Newcastle, 
was stranded, on the south side of Tynemouth Haven, 
in the midst of tremendous breakers. The crew climbed 
up into the shrouds for safety, from whence they dropped 
into the sea in the presence of thousands of spectators, 
not one of whom dared to venture out to their assist- 
ance in the common description of boats, although 
stimulated by the prospect of a high reward. The 
inhabitants of South Shields were so strongly affected 
by this melancholy occurrence that a public meeting 
was called, at which a committee was formed, and em- 
powered to offer premiums for plans of a boat on a 
principle which should render it impossible to sink in 
the heaviest sea. Among many which were laid before 
the committee, that of Mr. Henry Greatheed obtained 
the most general approbation; and, in pursuance of 
their orders, the first life-boat was constructed by him, 
and launched on the 30th of January, 1790. The 
value of this invention was soon fully proved, and 
its importance to our mercantile navy acknowledged. 
Mr. Greatheed had made his models public, and there- 
fore did not himself receive those advantages which, in 
justice, he ought to have derived from his ingenuity. 
In 1802 he accordingly petitioned the House of Com- 
mons, for the purpose of obtaining from the nation 
such reward as, in consideration of these circumstances, 
he might be thought to deserve. The petition was 
referred to a committee, which particularly directed its 
inquiries as to the utility of the life-boat, and the 
originality of the invention claimed by Mr. Greatheed. 
On the first point, several old seamen and persons 
employed in shipping were examined. One of the 
former stated that he had himself been in the life-boat, 
and had seen her go off scores of times, and never saw 

her fail in bringing away the crew from wrecks or 
vessels in distress. No other boat could have gone 
from the shore at the time the life-boat went. He 
also stated that, in the event of the life-boat filling 
with water, she would still continue upright, and not 
founder, as boats of the common construction did. He 
had seen her come ashore so full of water that it ran 
over each side. Another individual had been witness 
to the wreck of several ships at the same time. Out 
of one vessel the life-boat took fifteen men, who would 
otherwise inevitably have perished, as the ship went lo 
pieces immediately after, and the wreck came on shore 
almost as soon as the boat. The crew of one of these 
vessels took to their own boat, which sunk, and all but 
two were lost. It was stated that, on one occasion, 
when the boat was full of water, the crew all went to 
one side, in order to try the possibility of upsetting her, 
which they were unable to accomplish. At the time 
when this committee was appointed, twelve years had 
elapsed since Mr. Greatheed 's invention, during which 
period at least three hundred persons had been brought 
on shore from wrecks and ships in distress off Shields 
alone. It was fully established that no sea, however 
high, could upset or sink the life-boat. The originality 
of the invention being also clearly due to Mr. Great- 
heed, Parliament voted him the sum of 1200/., *' as a 
reward for his invention of the life-boat, whereby many 
lives have already been saved, and great security is 
afforded to seamen and property in cases of shipwreck." 
The subscribers to Lloyd's presented Mr. Greatheed 
with 100 guineas, and voted 2000/. for the purpose of 
encouraging the building of life-boats in different ports 
of the kingdom. Two years afterwards, the Emperor 
Alexander presented Mr. Greatheed with a valuable 
diamond ring. 

Owing to the dangerous character of the Durham 
and Northumberland coast, and the quantity of ship- 

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pin&^ uCKJUgiug iv uui uuiui-coaiciii punn, mv uic-uuai 

is oftener launched here than from any other part of 
the kingdom ; and, under the guidance of its crew, 
more frequently snatches the mariner from destruc- 

The great characteristic of the life-boat is its buoyancy. 
It possesses this requisite quality in consequence of the 
bottom being hollow and perfectly air-tight ; and the 
sides are also surrounded by several boxes, or compart- 
ments, which are also air-tight. We believe that boats 
are coming into use provided with a set of copper-tubes. 
One upon this plan has lately been constructed atf Sun- 
derland. The division of the sides into several parts 
prevents the boat being endangered in case of its being 
struck by a cross wave. This, however, can seldom 
occur, because both ends being formed alike, the 
direction of the boat can be changed without exposing 
it to the rude shocks to which it would be subjected by 
turning from one point to another in a tempestuous 
sea. It is also contrived that when the boat ascends 
the waves any water which it may have shipped passes 
out at the lower end ; and there are also a number of 
holes at the bottom, through which whatever remains 
is immediately discharged. The Sunderland boat was 
built in the year 1800, ten years after Mr. Greatheed's 
invention had become known. It is twenty-six feet in 
length, and the width is nine and a- half feet. This 
boat, on one occasion, would have been knocked to 
pieces by a cross sea but for the division of the side 
into various parts. In< the bottom are six air-holes, 
whicb are so proportioned to the size and gravity of the 
vessel that, when full of water, it is discharged in forty 
seconds. She is managed by six or ten men, as the 
urgency of the case may require, two of whom steer 
with seventeen-feet oars. The oars are secured in their 
places by a coiled rope. The boat is preserved in repair, 
and its crew paid, by a small impost on ships entering 
the harbour. When out of service, it is kept under a 

ouuoianuai oucu ucai uic uv;ui n, uiuiiiiicti UIJUU a IUUI* 

wheeled carriage. As soon as the thrilling cry " A 
wreck ! " is heard, the lieutenant of the boat assembles 
his men ; and, after a survey of the ill-fated ship, each 
proceeds to his place in the boat. When all their 
arrangements are completed, two or more horses are 
harnessed to the carriage, and the boat is drawn to the 
water's edge. By a mechanical contrivance, the frame 
of the carriage is then brought into a sloping position, 
and the boat is launched amid the breakers to pursue 
its benevolent enterprise. 

The men who compose the crew of a life-boat often 
acquire a sort of moral dignity, occasioned by the 
exercise of the manly virtues which a faithful discharge 
of their duties demands, and the sympathetic feelings 
to which they are habituated by the nature of their 
vocation. A fine fellow at Tynemouth said to the 
artist who made the sketches which accompany this 
description, patting the sides of his boat as if it were a 
favourite animal, " Have you made a picture of my 
boat, Sir? She's a good one, and has been with me at 
the saving of twenty-seven lives in one morning." 

We find the following hints in Mr. Greatheed's 
' Instructions for the Management of Life-Boats : ' — 
The boats, in general, of this description, are painted 
white on the outside; this colour more immediately 
engaging the eye of the spectator when rising from the 
hollow of the sea. The person who steers her should 
be well acquainted with the course of the tides, in order 
to take every possible advantage: the best method, if 
the direction will admit of it, is to head the sea. The 
steersman should keep his eye fixed upon the wave, or 
breaker, and encourage the rowers to give way as the 
boat rises to it ; being then aided by the force of the 
oars, she launches over it wilh vast rapidity, without 
shipping any water. It is necessary to observe that 
there is often a strong reflux of the sea occasioned by 
the stranded wrecks, which requires both dispatch and 

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[March 21, 

care in the people employed, that the boat be not 
damaged. When the wreck is reached, if the wind 
blows to the land, the boat will come inshore without 
any other effort than steering." 

In case of a ship being stranded on a part of the 
coast Where the services of the life-boat are inaccessible, 
it has been recommended to fasten a boom to the boat's 
bow, by which means the violence of the waves are 
broken. In a treatise on ' Practical Seamanship/ by 
Mr. Hutchinson, an instance is mentioned of the pre- 
servation of ten men in a small boat only twelve feet 
long 1 , by means of a log of wood tied to the boat's bow, 
which kept her end on to the waves, and preserved her 
from filling with water. 



This metal possesses above all others the qualities of 
utility and beauty, without any deleterious property. It 
has been in all times regarded as the most perfect and 
most precious of the metals, and among the more civilized 
nations has been the standard of value for other com- 
modities. Its peculiar rich hue is well known ; and 
it is the only metal of a yellow colour. ' In its pure 
state it is as soft as tin, and is very flexible, but it is 
capable of receiving a high lustre by polishing with a 
burnisher, although inferior in brilliancy to steel, silver, 
and mercury. It possesses little elasticity or sonor- 
ousness. Its specific gravity is 19*30 — that is, it is 
more than nineteen times heavier than water, bulk for 
bulk. In malleability it exceeds all other metals ; for 
one grain of it can be beat out into a leaf so thin as not 
to exceed rW.msr^ P art of an inch in thickness, and 
which will cover fifty-six square inches ; in this state, 
notwithstanding the high specific gravity, it will float 
in the air like a feather. But even that is not the 
extreme limit to which it is capable of being extended ; 
for a coating of gold, which is calculated to be only 
one-twelfth part of the above thickness, is produced by 
another process : if a silver wire be covered with gold, 
it may be drawn out into wire of still greater fineness, 
and retain a coating of gold ; and one grain of gold 
will in this way coat a surface of wire about two miles 
and three-quarters in length. In ductility it also 
exceeds all other metals ; that is, it can be drawn into 
finer wire than any other. In tenacity, however, it is 
greatly inferior, standing only fifth in order, in respect 
of that property when compared with other metals : a 
wire rVth of an inch in thickness will not support a 
greater weight than 150 lbs., whereas iron wire of the 
same diameter will sustain a weight of 5c0 lbs. without 
breaking. It is not a perfectly opake body like all the 
other metals* for gold leaf transmits a green light ; as 
may be conveniently observed by laying a leaf between 
two thin plates of colourless glass, and holding it 
between the eye and a strong light. It is less fusible 
than silver, and more so than copper : Mr. Daniel 
estimates its melting point to be at a heat equal to 
2016° of Fahrenheit's scale. It is the most perfect of 
all conductors of heat ; that is to say, if heat be applied 
to one end of a rod of gold, it will be transmitted from 
particle to particle, and become sensible at the other 
extremity of the rod more quickly than through any 
other substance in nature. Thus while the conducting 
power of a rod of porcelain is represented by a velocity 
of 12, of lead by 179, of iron by 374, the velocity of 
gold is 1000. Gold may be exposed forages to air and 
moisture without undergoing any alteration ; and a 
quantity of it has been kept for thirty weeks in a melted 
state in a glass-house furnace without the loss of a 
single grain, and without any change in its natum 
But if a small portion of it be intensely heated by elec- 
tricity, or by the osy-hydrogen blow-pipe, it burns with 

a greenish blue flame, and is dissipated in the form of 
a purple powder. 

Gold is found, almost universally, in the native or 
metallic state ; but it is seldom quite pure, being gene- 
rally alloyed, in greater or less degree, with other metals, 
and usually with silver, copper, or iron. The Prussian 
chemist, Klaproth, found a native gold from the Altai 
Mountains to contain as much as 36 ]?er cent, of silver; 
and Professor G. Rose, of Berlin, by more recent 
analysis, has found a specimen from the same district 
to contain 38 per cent., and another from Hungary 
nearly 39 per cent. He found the gold of the Ural 
Mountains to contain from 2 to 15 per cent, in general ; 
but one variety so free from foreign admixture as to 
contain nearly 99 per cent, of pure gold. Boussain- 
gault has found the native gold of Colombia to contain 
from 2 to 36 per cent, of silver. It is found in veins in 
the primary and older sedimentary rocks, and also in the 
unstratified rocks that are associated with these, such as 
granite, porphyry, and hornblende rock ; and sometimes, 
also, in the more ancient of the secondary strata. The 
veinstone in which the gold occurs. Is most generally 
quartz. In Transylvania small quantities of an ore have 
been found, in which gold is in combination with a 
considerable proportion of the rare metal Ttlhtrit/m ; 
and there is a kind of iron-pyrites — that is, a sulphuret 
of iron, — not of very unfrequent occurrence, which con- 
tains minute scales of pure gold interposed between the 
laminae of the pyrites. When gold occurs in veins in 
solid rocks, it is sometimes regularly crystallized. In 
the splendid collection of minerals belonging to the 
Russian noble, Prince Demidoff, there are many beau- 
tiful crystals of gold from the Ural Mountains. By &r 
the greatest proportion of this metal, in all countries 
which produce it, is obtained from alluvial soils, or 
deposites, where the gold is found in scales, grains, and 
lumps, rounded by attrition: so that the inetal has 
evidently been derived from pre-existing rocks, in which 
it was disseminated either in minute scales or veins, and 
which have been broken up ; the fragments having been 
abraded by the action of water in the same manner as 
the pebbles of tin-stone in the stream-works of Corn- 
wall, and other places. For the sake of convenience, 
we shall call this " stream-gold" It is found in the 
sand and gravel of the beds of many rivers and smaller 
streams in most countries of the world ; but the chief 
quantity is met with in extensive alluvial deposites, 
formed by other aqueous causes than the water of 
existing rivers. The lumps of gold, in such situations, 
are of very various sizes \ and masses have been found 
in the Ural Mountains of eighteen and twenty pounds 
weight, — in Columbia, of twenty-five pounds ; and one 
is said to have been found near La Paz, in Peru, of 
nearly forty-five pounds weight, the value of which, if 
estimated at 3/. 10s. per ounce, would be 1890/. A 
considerable portion of stream-gold appears to have 
been derived from auriferous pyrites ; for almost all the 
sands from which this metal is gathered are of a deep 
blackish-brown colour, and are highly ferruginous. It 
is a remarkable and not a very explicable circum- 
stance that, in countries which contain deposites of 
alluvium rich in gold* and the materials of which must 
have been derived from rocks at no very great distance, 
it has rarely happened that the attempts to find the 
metal in the neighbouring rocks have been successful. 
It may be asked, how gold comes to be so often found 
in alluvial' soils, and that other metals should not be 
met with in the same way? Platinum is so found, and 
so is silver, but only very rarely. The reason is, that 
the ores of other metals are liable to decomposition by 
exposure to air and moisture ; and, therefore, although 
they might have been originally in fragments, like the 
other materials of the rocks that were broken up, they 
would gradually disappear by decomposition ; whereas 

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the gold, from its indestructible nature, remains un- 
changed, except in foroa. jn the same way stream-tin 
has been preserved, because the oxide ef tin is not 
affected by air and moisture. 

To describe the methods employed to separate gold 
frpm the pther minerals with which it is combined 
would lea^l us jnto somewhat tedious details. The great 
value of gold makes searching after minute quantities 
profitable, which would never be practised with other 
metals. The usual mode of separation is by a process 
called amalgamation, which is founded on the property 
which mercury (or quicksilver) has of combining very 
readily with gold, and of being easily separated from it 
again by the application of heat. The etymology of 
the word is Greek, viz., ama, together, and gameo, 
to marry ; expressive in this way of the union of 
the gold with the quicksilver. Amalgamation is 
effected in this manner : the ore, broken to pieces and 
freed as much as possible from stony impurities, is 
reduced to powder, and made up into a paste with salt 
and water. • Quicksilver in proper proportion is added, 
and the whole is well beaten and shaken together, and 
kept at the temperature of boiling water for some days, 
till the union is effected ; after which the earthy matter 
is washed away, and the residue is subjected to distil- 
lation, by which the quicksilver is separated, and at the 
same time recovered in great part, and the gold, usually 
containing a little silver, is left behind. This is the 
usual process followed in Mexico and South America. 
In Hungary the gold is generally purified by another 
process, called cupellation. This depends on the pro- 
perty which lead and copper, the metals with which 
the gold is there mixed in the ores, have of attracting 
oxygen from the air when exposed to a strong heat, and 
which the gold does not. The ores are well roasted, to 
drive off the sulphur they usually contain, and are fused 
in several successive operations. The metallic mixture, 
freed from stony matter thus obtained, is put into a 
vessel made of bone-ashes called a cupel ; it is made 
, of that material because it forms a porous texture, and 
is, at the same time, very refractory in the fire. A 
strong blast of intensely-heated air is now made to pass 
over the metal in a state of fusion, and the lead and 
copper becoming oxidated, are absorbed by the cupel, 
or skimmed off, and the gold is left behind. The 
lead is the great agent, for its oxide is easily fusible 
into a glassy substance, which sinks into the cupel, 
carrying the other impurities along with it ; so that 
if the ore does not naturally contain much lead, a 
portion is added. We have described these processes 
only very generally : there are many delicate manipula- 
tions in the mode of conducting them, upon which 
success in the result greatly depends. 

In our next section we shall proceed to describe the 
principal sources from which gold is derived. The 
* Historical Inquiry into the Production and Consump- 
tion of the Precious Metals,' by William Jacob, Esq., 
may be consulted with advantage by those who are 
desirous of minute information ; and we have ourselves 
relied upon it for many of the facts contained in the 
following sections. 

it are well wooded, and laid out with taste, so that, 
altogether, Scrivelsby forms, what 1s not very common 
in that part of the county of Liucoln, a highly-pic- 
turesque residence. 

Of the origin of the office of Champion no very satis- 
factory information can be given; but we know that 
William the Conqueror introduced it into England, 
and that the person who was first honoured with the 
title was Robert de Marmyon, Lord of Fontenoy, who 
bore the Duke's banner at the battle of Hastings, and 
had preserved the life of his sovereign in the field. 
William rewarded this faithful follower by the grant of 
several manors in the newly-subjugated country, and 
%mong the rest that of Tamworth, in the county of 
Stafford, and that of Scrivelsby in the county of 
Lincoln, attaching to the possession of the latter the 
honourable office of being Champion to every future 
King of England. 

The duty required of the Champion was, that on the 
day of the Coronation he should, in complete armour, 
and mounted on a good war-horse, come into the pre- 
sence of the King and all his Court, and make procla- 
mation, that if any one dared to gainsay the right and 
title of the King to the Crown of England, or that he 
ougfit not to enjoy it, that man was a liar and a traitor ; 
and that he (the Champion) was ready to prove it 
upon him by single combat, on what day soever he 
should appoint. He was then to throw down his glove, 
or gauntlet, and, according to the custom of the time, 
whoever took it up was considered to accept the chal- 

Besides the permanent holding of the manor, the 
Champion, at every Coronation, was entitled to a gold 
cup and cover, the horse on which he rode, which was 
stated to be the second best in the King's stables, with 
its saddle and furniture, a complete suit of armour, 
and twenty yards of crimson satin : these perquisites 
of office form a valuable and interesting heir-loom in 
the armoury at Scrivelsby Court. 

The first that bore the office in this country was, as 
we have seen, Robert de Marmyon ; and it seems, with 
the manor of Scrivelsby, to have remained in that family 
till the twentieth year of Edward I., when Philip, the 
last male heir of the Marmyons died, and left two 
daughters : the eldest took for her dowry the manor of 
Tamworth, and the youngest that of Scrivelsby ; and 
she being married to Sir Thomas Ludlow, he, in right 
of being the owner of the manor, became Champion, 
and his grand-daughter and heiress, marrying Sir 
John Dymoke, conveyed Scrivelsby and the Champion- 
ship into that family in the twenty-third year of King 
Edward III. 

This remaining practice of a barbarous and warlike 
age has now ceased to be dignified or grave, in con- 
sequence of the great changes which the usages and 
feelings of society have undergone. The stability of 
the Crown would certainly not be impaired if this now 
absurd though once expressive ceremony were abolished, 
and another tenure substituted more consonant to 
common sense and the spirit of the age. 


There are some estates* held by grant from the Crown, 
which confer a title or flignity on their possessor ; such 
is Arundel Castle in Sussex, in right of which the 
Duke of Norfolk claims the Earldom of Arundel, and 
such is the manor of Scrivelsby in Lincolnshire, which 
constitutes the Dy mokes Champions of England. 

Scrivehby, or Scmelahy Court, as the Champion's 
residence is generally called, lies about three miles to 
the south of Horn castle, and fcr**vtiry elegant mansion, 
which has lately been modernized. The grounds about 


Whoever approaches Chesterfield, either from the 
north or the south, must he struck with the singular 
appearance of the spire of its church, which, instead of 
being perpendicular, is evidently much bent towards 
the west. It is singular that almost every writer who 
has had occasion to mention Chesterfield has called 
this appearance an optical deception, arising from the 
twisted form of the leaden planes which cover its sur 
face. Even Mr. Rickman, in his work on * Gothic 
Architecture,' says, — " The apparent leaning of the 

Digitized by 




[March 21, 1835. 

spire arises partly from the curious spiral mode of put- 
ting on the lead, and partly from a real inclination of 
the general lines of the wood-work of the spire." But 
had he walked out of the town to the eastward, or to 
the westward, he would have seen this crooked spire 
assume a perfectly perpendicular appearance, for in 
one case the bulging, and in the other the hollow part 
of the steeple would be towards him, and consequently 
the crookedness would be lost ; or, had he ventured to 
mount the tower, and walk round the base of the spire, 
he would have seen on the south, or rather at the south- 
western angle, the ball at the summit almost vertical 
to his head, while on the opposite side the same baP 
would be hidden from the sight by the swelling of the 
middle of the spire. These observations would at once 
have proved the fact, that this curious steeple is not 
apparently but really crooked. To place its real 
crookedness beyoud a doubt, the situation of the ball 
was subjected to a careful measurement some years 

x since, when it was found to deviate from the perpen- 
dicular six feet towards the south, and four feet four 
inches towards the west, giving its greatest angle of 
inclination somewhere near to the south-west angle. 

Chesterfield Church is a beautiful and spacious 
edifice. Its ground plan is that of a single cross ; and 
at the intersection of the two arms arises a well-pro- 
portioned and elegant square tower, surrounded by a 
plain simple parapet, bearing at each angle an octa- 
gonal pinnacle surmounted by a rod and weather-vane. 
On this tower is placed the spire, which, but for its 
crookedness, would be thought of very just proportions. 
It rises to the height of 230 feet, exclusive of the rod 
which bears the weathercock ; and is built of timber, 
and covered with lead in such a manner as to divide 
each octagonal side iuto two distinct and channelled 
planes, giving it altogether a singular and, indeed, a 
unique appearance. Its dark colour, however, and the 
want of brackets to break the outline, add an appear- 
ance of heaviness to the general effect which is utterly 
at variance with the other parts of the building.- 

• The interior of the church consists of a nave, two 
aisles, a transept, and chancel. Its length from east 
to west is 168 feet 9 inches, breadth of the body 59 feet 
6 inches, and length of the transept from north to 
south 109 feet 6 inches. It has been newly paved, and 
is in every respect a very comfortable and commodious 
place of worship. 

It is stated in the newspapers that, on Sunday even- 
ing the 8th of February, 1835, two churches in the 
neighbourhood of Huddersfield in Yorkshire were 
struck by lightning ; that from one several stones were 
forced out of the spire, but that the spire of the other 
(Linthwaite Church) " was struck in such a manner, 
that, without any of the stones being shattered, the 
spire was bent out of its perpendicular, and now inclines 
towards the church, so that it is thought there will be 
a necessity for taking it down." This occurrence may 
throw some probable light on the manner in which 
Chesterfield spire was reduced to its present position, 
though no record can be found of any such event, and 
the long lapse of years in which it has appeared in the 
same state has thrown every tradition respecting it into 

Currency. — The word raha y which signifies money in the 
Esthonian language, has not yet lost its primitive accepta- 
tion with tho Laplanders, amongst whom it designates skins 
or furs. Among the different kinds of money which formerly 
circulated in Russia was- one which bore the name of nogata. 
The Esthonians, who were once comprised in the Russian 
Empire, use the word nahat for skins. The change of the 
vowel a into o, and the h aspirated into g, is so fammar in 
tha Russian language that the word appears to be Wactly 
thtf tame in both. M. Krug, a member op the Academy 

of Sciences at St. Petersbnrgh, published, in 1805, a work 
containing curious researches on the circulating medium 
anciently m use in Russia. The most valuable furs were 
those of the squirrel, marten, beaver, sable, and ermine ; they 
formed an important article of exportation, and they were 
in demand in all countries. The Khosars, the Varaigues, 
and, at a later period, the Mongols, raised in furs the taxes 
that they imposed on the Sclavonians and Russians when 
they were obliged to purchase a peace. Pecuniary fines were 
fixed in products of this nature ; indeed they often served 
as a standard by which the price of their merchandise was 
determined. The value of furs was at that period much 
greater than they bear at present. In the time of Marco 
Polo, — t. e. in the thirteenth century,— a pelisse of sable 
could be sold in China for two thousand Byzantine ducats : 
even in the sixteenth century, according to Paul Jovius 
(Paolo Gioyio), it sometimes fetched one thousand ducats. 
But, notwithstanding the ancient Russians made use of 
furs in place of specie, the precious metals were not ex- 
cluded from this function. In Abyssinia, the value of 
merchandise is determined by certain quantities of salt 
and pepper; in Newfoundland, by a certain . quantity of 
dried cod-fish; in Virginia, by tobacco; in Iceland, by 
a woollen cloth called vataul. At Kiahta, pieces of nan- 
kin even yet sometimes serve for the purpose of deter- 
mining the value of the goods which the Russians exchange 
with each other; and among the Greeks of the Lower 
Empire, silk stuffs often performed the same function. In 
India, the high price of metals, even of the common de- 
scription, has occasioned little shells to be adopted for small 
change. These shells are the current money of Mogol, 
Bengal, and Boutan ; also of the interior of Africa and of. 
the Guinea coast. At the time when America was dis- 
covered, the Mexicans made use of the kernels of the 
cocoa-nut as money. (Translated from Storch's Political 

Anecdote of Barry the Painter.— While Barry was a 
young man, residing at Dublin, an incident occurred which 
strikingly illustrates the character of the man. He was 
brought into contact with some young persons of dissipated 
habits, who on several occasions enticed him to form one of 
their tavern parties. As he was returning home late at 
night from one of these carousals, he was struck by a sud- 
den conviction of the folly of the course he was pursuing in 
thus wasting the time which might so much more properly 
be employed in laying the foundation of his future respec- 
tability and independence. Diffident perhaps of his own 
power of foregoing the gratifications which he had the 
means of purchasing, and certain that the most effectual 
preventive would be to rid himself of the means at once, — 
he took all his money, which was probably at that time no 
great sum, and threw it into the Liffey, and afterwards shut 
himself up with great perseverance to his professional 
studies.— Life of Barry prefixed to his Works. 

Famine in London. — Walsingham gives the following 
strong pictare of a famine in London in the reign of Ed- 
ward II. " They [the king and peers] assembled at a Par- 
liament in London, where no great matter was concluded, 
for the famine and pestilence increased. The famine was 
grown so terrible, that horses, dogs, yea, even men and chil- 
awn, were stolen for food, and (which is horrible to think) 
the thieves newly brought into the gaols were torn in pieces, 
and eaten presently by such as had been longer there. In 
London it was proclaimed that no corn should be converted 
to brewers' uses : which act the king (moved with compas- 
sion towards his nation) imitating, caused to be executed 
throughout the kingdom ; otherwise the greater part of the 
people had died with penury of bread. The dysentery, caused 
through raw and corrupt humours, engendered by evil meat 
and unnatural diet, raged' everywhere, and, together with 
other dreadful maladies, brought such multitudes of the 
poorer sort to their end, that the living could scarcely bury 
the dead." . =>•> 

• # « The Offioe of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge kit 

59, Lincoln's Ian Fields. , > . 


Printed by 

*n,Dnke Street, Lsmbeth. 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



Vol. IV. 


Digitized by VjOOQLC 

• -?T TV 




[March 8$, 

Thb feasting" and the canvassing were preliminary to 
the actual conflict to which we are now come. Our 
election scenes, which should have afforded to foreigners 
an example of popular rights exercised with that 
decency and sobriety which becomes England — the 
parent of free institutions — have often been such as to 
inspire them only with wonder and disgust. The cir- 
cumstances attending an actual election have been 
greatly improved by recent legislative enactments. 
The limitation of the time of polling, and the multi- 
plication of convenient places for receiving votes — as 
well as the previous registry — have taken away many 
of the scenes of riot and violence by which a poll was 
formerly disgraced. But the influence which perverts 
the suffrage still remains ; corruption still often wins 
more than honesty. 

This picture tells its own story with the usual effect 
of Hogarth's paintings. The parts of the booth appro- 
priated to the rival candidates are denoted by their re- 
spective party colours. The persons elevated on chairs 
in each compartment would seem to be the chairmen 
of each candidate's committee, present at the booth to 
watch the proceedings. He who is the most remote 
does not appear to be satisfied with the state of the 
poll, as his gesture betrays uneasiness or impatience. 
The other seems to be absorbed in contemplation, and 
does not notice the person on his right hand, who 
appears to be sketching his portrait. The uneasiness 
of the chairman is not the only circumstance that sig- 
nifies the persons in the outer portion of the booth to 
be the losing party. They are hard driven for votes. 
A man who has lost the use of his limbs, and, as 
appears from his vacant stare, of his intellect also, is 
brought to the poll, and the suggestions or solicitations 
of the polling-clerk before him, who tenders the Tes- 
tament, are assisted by a whisperer behind. This 
whisperer has manacles on his legs, and a paper 
appears in his pocket, inscribed as " The Sixth Letter 
to the People of England," — circumstances which 
denote him as Dr. Shebbeare, who was pilloried and 
imprisoned two years for a libel against the king. 
Behind him is a freeholder who has just been brought 
to the poll from a sick or dying bed. He has the 
party favours in his nightcap; and it may be remarked, 
perhaps, as one of those minute touches in which 
Hogarth excels, that the features of one of this poor 
man's supporters are turned so as to furnish consider- 
able resemblance to a death's head. How unhappy it 
is that such contests should ever be associated with 
circumstances which must divest even a victory of that 
true distinction which it ought to confer! 

There is still a further circumstance to denote the 
extremities to which one of the parties seems driven. 
Their attending lawyer appears disputing with the 
lawyer of the other party the validity of a vote which is 
proffered to their clerk. The voter is a pensioner who 
has lost both his arms and one leg in the wars. He 
takes hold of the book with his iron-hook hand, and 
the point disputed between the rival barristers seems to 
be, whether an oath thus taken, without a real hand to 
hold the book, can be valid. This is certainly a severe 
satire on the lefral a nibbles bv which gnats are so often 
strained at, i j swallowed without the 

least difficult; Lance seems to the clerk, 

who holds th< voter is taking the oath, 

so irresistibly is constrained to lay his 

hand to his mouth to check his laughter. The whole 
scene is highly characteristic of the indifference with 
wtkich the most solemn of human sanctions comes to 
be Warded when it has grown too familiar by 
exceaafr^, use. We rejoice greatly at the measures 
which fyrVe been lately taken, and are still in progress, 
for the purpose of doing away with unnecessary public 

Among the subordinate circumstances of the scene 
we should not omit to notice the touch at the squibs 
which are so often circulated by the adverse parties at a 
contested election. We would hope that these, at least, 
have become more decent than they were in Hogarth's 
days: but even of this we do not feel quite certain. 
The character of that which the old ballad- woman is 
circulating is expressed by the figure which it exhibits 
of a man hanging from a gallows. A party of men in 
the booth are reading a copy of this paper with much 
apparent glee. 

And what is the moral of all this? Hogarth himself 
^elis us; and, for the sake of telling it with what he 
considered more of point and effect, he has introduced 
an allegory — a licence which has the countenance of 
great masters, but to which our artist never in any 
other instance resorted. In doing so here, he doubtless 
fell into a mistake of judgment ; but, as he has dealt 
with it, he has made it point most expressively the 
moral he intended to convey. The coach of Britannia 
is broken down, while the servants play at cards on the 
coach-box ; and amidst the excitement and the din of 
party contests, no one perceives her danger or hears 
her cries. 


In the churchyard of Longnor, a small market-town in 

the county of Stafford, there is a head-stone bearing 

the following inscription : — 

" Billeted by Death, I quarter'd here remain, 

And when the trumpet sounds, I'll ri»e and march again." 

We quote this not for the. sake of any point it contains, 
— for we have a decided objection to epitaphs of this 
description — but because we have to mention the person 
to whom it refers. The stone was erected, in the year 
1794, by the subscriptions of some neighbouring 
gentlemen, to perpetuate the memory of a poor man 
who died in that year at Fairfield Head, in the parish 
of Alstonefield at the advanced age of 114 years. 

This man, whose name was William Billings, was 
literally born under a hedge (not more than 100 yards 
from the cottage in which he died), in the year 1679. 
In his youth he was a farmer's servant ; but preferring 
a life of enterprise to the quiet of domestic life, and 
being, perhaps, roused by the warlike spirit of the time, 
he quitted his situation in 1702, and, going to Derby, 
enlisted in a regiment then stationed in that town. 
This regiment afterwards formed part of the expedition 
which was sent, under the command of Sir George 
Rooke, against Gibraltar, which at that time belonged 
to the King of Spain. After Gibraltar was taken, 
Billings's regiment was sent into Flanders, and formed 
part of the army of Prince Eugene and the Duke of 
Marlborough. At the battle of Ramiilies, in 1706, 
Billings had the honour of saving the life of the 
" great captain." The duke was thrown from his 
horse in leaping a ditch, and was nearly surrounded 
by a detached party of Marshal Villeroi's army, deter* 
mined to take him either dead or alive ; when Billings, 
observing the perilous situation of his commander, 
immediately brought to his relief a few of his comrades, 
who threw themselves between their general and the 
enemy, and succeeded in bringing him off in safety. 
But although Billings's intrepidity and presence of 
mind had saved the duke, he had himself the misfortune 
to receive, during the skirmish, a musket-ball in the 
thick part of his thigh, which the surgeons were unable 
to extract. About thirty years after this affair, how- 
ever, it worked itself downward, and eventually came 
out underneath his ham. With that sort of attachment 
with which men regard things to which they have been 
long accustomed, even though these things have been 
the instruments of pain, Billings carefully preserved, to 

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the day of his death, this " French cherry," as he 
jocularly called the ball. 

. Billings was at the siege of Ostend in 1706 ; and, 
so far as the circumscribed sphere of a private soldier 
admitted, he seems to have distinguished himself by 
his gallantry and courage. But the correspondent who 
furnishes the faets of this narrative does not consider 
that there was any higher motive to exertion than the 
plunder and animal indulgences which a victory usually 
ensured to the conquerors. This made the life of a 
soldier a most happy one to him at that time. No 
doubt, he was not singular in these feelings. After 
having had his due share in the several actions of that 
memorable war, Billings returned to England in 1712, 
with the safe possession of all his limbs. In 1715 he 
served against the rebels ; and, in 1745, he was with 
the Duke of Cumberland at Preston Pans and Cul- 

After having spent in the army three-quarters of a 
century, and that principally in foreign lands, it might 
have been expected that some provision would have 
been made for him : but it was not so. He had never 
received any promotion ; and, on his discharge, no 
pension was allotted to him. We have no information 
on the subject ; but certainly this would leave room for 
the suspicion that his conduct had not always been 
satisfactory to his superiors. The old man was, how- 
ever, during his remaining days, preserved from entire 
destitution by the charity of his neighbours. The great 
age at which he died indicates the excellence of his 
constitution. From his birth to his death, he never 
experienced a day's illness ; and his final passage from 
life was perfectly tranquil. 


A sbribs of experiments has lately been made in France 
with a view of determining the effect of gelatine as an 
article of diet ; in the course of which, as we learn from a 
paper read at the Academy of the Arts and Sciences, Paris, 
the following results were obtained. It must be observed 
that gelatine is the jelly extracted from animal substances 
by boiling them in water ; and M. Edwards, by whom the ex- 
periments alluded to were made, considers isinglass as pure 
gelatine: but it was ascertained that, though highly nu- 
tritious under certain circumstances, it resembled bread 
and some other articles in being unable to sustain life by 
itself alone. Bread and gelatine together form a nutritious 
aliment, but they are insufficient to sustain the vigour of 
the body in a proper manner. When, however, gelatine is 
flavoured by the sapid and odorous parts of meat, it then pos- 
sesses highly nutritive qualities, and not only fully sustains 
the animal powers, but occasions their greater development. 
In the course of his experiments, M. Edwards availed himself 
of the dynamometer, a little instrument probably consisting 
of a steel-spring coiled into a spiral, which, if pressed upon 
with all the force a person possesses, becomes compressed : the 
degree to which this is effected being pointed out by an index. 
It was ascertained in this manner that, during the first half 
of the day, the muscular strength is continually increasing, 
while, during the other half, it is progressively diminishing ; 
and that this development of the bodily powers was the 
natural process of the animal system. Another series of ex- 
periments was tried with a view of estimating the muscular 
force immediately before breakfast, and immediately after 
that meal. The mean result of eight days* trial upon the 
same individual was as follows : — 78-^ decrees before break- 
fast, and 80-flr degrees immediately after it. The meal con- 
sisted of a cup of chocolate and a small loaf. On the same 
individual taking, during three successive mornings, a 
similar quantity of water instead of chocolate, it was found 
that a diminution of two degrees was occasioned by the 
alteration. On sugar being added to the water, the effect 
was the same, though not quite so decided. The chocolate, 
prepared with sugar, and the customary quantity of water, 
was now substituted, which created an additional degree of 
strength, amounting to 3? 7 v degs. The chocolate and bread 
were therefore the sole nutritious properties of the meal. 

Common broth was next adopted as a diet; and first the 
effects of warmth were ascertained distinct from that of the 
broth itself. Eight ounces of water were drunk at a tem- 
perature of 104° Fahrenheit, the ordinary temperature at 
which broth is taken. The dynamometer showed that the 
muscular power had been diminished 3 i\j degs. hy the heat, 
in addition to that produced by the water simply. The effec* 
of good broth, even at this temperature, was found to in- 
crease the force of the body six or eight degrees. The 
general conclusions established by these experiments are, 
that the muscular force of strong men is increased after a 
moderate and wholesome meal ; on the contrary, persons 
who are weak from illness, old age, or youth, or by their sex, 
lose strength directly after a meal. This elevation or de- 
pression of the powers immediately after taking food must be 
distinguished from the subsequent effect of the digestion, — 
an operation^/ hich concentrates the bodily energy towards 
the stomach, and, consequently, counterbalances the previous 
effect. The dynamometer indicates the difference between 
these opposed forces : this difference is less among weak than 
among strong persons. In an experiment on the inmates of 
one of the Paris hospitals, it was ascertained that soup com- 
posed of gelatine, instead of diminishing the strength of 
weak persons as the whole meal does, gave an increase to 
the men of two degrees, and to the women of three : and, by 
using a double quantity of gelatine (4 oz.), a further increase 
of strength was afforded. 


The Lombes were originally manufacturers at Nor- 
wich ; but removed to London, and became silk- 
throwsters and merchants there. There were three 
brothers, Thomas, Henry,' and John ; the first was 
one of the sheriffs of London at the accession of 
George II. in 1727, on which occasion, according to 
custom, the chief magistrate was created a baronet, 
and Mr. Lombe was knighted. The second brother, 
who was of a melancholy temperament, put an end to 
his existence before those plans were developed which 
connected the name of Lombe with one of the most 
important manufactures of the country. 

The Messrs. Lombes had a house at Leghorn under 
the firm of Glover and Unwin, who were their agents 
for purchasing the raw silk which the Italian peasantry 
sold at their markets and fairs to the merchants and 
factors. There were many other English houses at 
Leghorn, Turin, Ancona, and other parts of Italy, 
chiefly for exporting silk to England, in part return 
for which numerous cargoes of salt- fish were, and still 
are, received from our ports for the consumption of the 
Italians during their Lent and other fasts. It was at 
that time customary for the English merchants en- 
gaged in the Italian trade to send their apprentices 
and sons to the Italian ports^ to complete their mer- 
cantile education by acquainting themselves on the 
spot with the details of their peculiar line of business. 
It was professedly in compliance with this custom, but 
with a deeper ulterior view, that the youngest of the 
brothers, Mr. John Lombe, who at that time was lit(Ie 
more than twenty years of age, proceeded to Leghorn 
in the year 1715. 

The Italians had at that time become so much supe- 
rior to the English in the art of throwing silk, in con- 
sequence of a new invention, that it was impossible fo*r 
the latter to bring the article into the market on equal 
terms. This state of the trade induced the Lombes to 
consider by what means they might secure the same 
advantage which their improved machinery gave to the 
Italiaus : and the real view of the younger brother in 
proceeding to Italy was, to endeavour to obtain such 
an acquaintance with the machinery as might enable 
him to introduce it into this country. The difficulties 
in the way of this undertaking were very great, and 
would have appeared insurmountable to any but a 
person of extraordinary courage and perseverance. 


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[March 28, 

We find these difficulties thus stated in the paper 
which Sir Thomas Lombe printed for distribution 
among the members, when he applied to Parliament 
for the renewal of his patent. One, at least, of these 
printed papers has been preserved, and has been lent 
us for the present occasion. It is there said that, — 
" The Italians having, by the most judicious and proper 
rules and regulations, advanced and supported the 
credit of the manufacture, have also, by the most severe 
laws, preserved the mystery among themselves for a 
great number of years to their inestimable advantage. 
As, for instance, the punishment prescribed by one of 
their laws, for those who discover, or attempt to dis- 
cover, anything relating to this art, is death, with the 
forfeiture of all their goods, and to be afterwards 
painted on the outside of the prison walls, hanging to 
the gallows by one foot, with an inscription denoting the 
name and crime of the person ; there to be continued 
for a perpetual mark of infamy." * 

The young Lombe, however, was not to "be deterred 
by the danger and difficulty of the enterprise. On his 
arrival, and before he became known in the country, 
he went, accompanied by a friend, to see the Italian 
silk-works. This was permitted under very rigid limi- 
tations : no person was admitted except when the 
machinery was in action, and even then he was hurried 
through the rooms with the most jealous precaution. 
The celerity of the machinery rendered it impossible for 
Mr. Lombe to comprehend all the dependencies and 
first springs of so extensive and complicated a work. 
He went with different persons in various habits, as a 
gentleman, a priest, or a lady ; and he was very gene- 
rous with his money ; but he could never find an 
opportunity of seeing the machinery put in motion, or 
of giving to it that careful attention which his object 
required. Despairing of obtaining adequate informa- 
tion from such cursory inspection as he was thus enabled 
to give, he bethought himself of associating with the 
clergy, and, being a man of letters, he succeeded in 
ingratiating himself with the priest who confessed the 

family to which the works belonged. He seems to 
have opened his plans, partly at least to this person, 
and it is certain that he found means to obtain his co- 
operation. According to the scheme which they planned 
between them, Mr. Lombe disguised himself as a poor 
youth in want of employment. The priest then intro- 
duced him to the directors of the works, and gave him 
a good character for honesty and diligence, and de- 
scribed him as inured to greater hardships than might 
be expected from his appearance. He was accordingly 
engaged as a fillatoe-boy, to superintend a spinning- 
engine so called. His mean appearance procured him 
accommodation in the place which his design made the 
most acceptable to him, — the mill. While others slept, 
he was awake and diligently employed in his arduous 
and dangerous undertaking. He had possessed him- 
self of a dark lantern, tinder-box, wax-candles, and a 
case of mathematical instruments. In the day-time 
these were secreted in the hole under the stairs where 
he used to sleep; and no person ever indicated the 
least curiosity to ascertain the extent of the possessions 
of so mean a lad. He thus went on making drawings 
of every part of this grand and useful machinery ; the 
priest often inquired after his poor boy at the works, 
and, through his agency, Lombe conveyed his drawings 
to Glover and Unwins ; with them models were made 
from the drawings, and dispatched to England piece- 
meal in bales of silk. These originals are still, we 
believe, preserved in the Derby mills. 

After Lombe had completed his design he still re- 
mained at the mill, waiting until an English ship 
should be on the point of sailing for England. When 
this happened, he left the works and hastened on board. 
But meanwhile his absence had occasioned suspicion, 
arid an Italian brig was dispatched in pursuit ; but the 
English vessel happily proved the better sailer of the 
two, and escaped. It is said that the priest was put to 
the torture : but the correspondent of the c Gentleman's 
Magazine,' to which we are indebted for most of the 
facts we have stated, says that, after Mr. Lombe's 

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[March 28, 

^ TIME. 

TtfE object of this paper is to enable our readers to 
look into an almanac with a definite notion of what 
they are to expect to find in such works. Almanacs 
are now penny brethren, and deserve at least a penny- 
worth of consideration. 

The ancients believed in an immense crystal sphere, 
which turned all the stars round the earth. If there 
were such a sphere, but stationary, and if the hours 
of the day were properly marked upon it, a single 
star might serve the purpose of a clock to all the 
inhabited world. The heavens are in truth a clock, 
bat not upon so simple a principle ; there are no hours 
and minutes marked. Now if we suppose the hours 
and minutes rubbed off the face of a watch, while the 
hands perform their revolution as usual, we shall have 
something similar. We shall see phenomena, that is, 
the hands will come together and separate ; but we 
need an almanac for such a watch to tell us how the 
time is to be inferred from the position of the hands. 
The difficulty of such an undertaking is precisely that 
of one branch of astronomy, and to it we shall first 

We begin our reckoning from some time when the 
Fiff.l. minute and hour-hand are, as we should 
say of two planets, in conjunction, as at A 
B in fig. 1 . We agree to divide the intervals, 
which elapse before conjunction again 
takes place at the same spot, into twelve 
parts called hours, each hour into sixty 
parts called minutes, &c. And the law 
of the motion is supposed to be that the 
minute-hand moves round twelve times 
while the hour-hand moves round once, 
or moves, angularly, twelve times as fast as the hour- 
hand. The question now is, when will the next con- 
junction, that at B, take place? The answer is 
roughly, as every one knows, in about an hour and five 
minutes. But this cannot be exact ; for while the 
minute-hand goes over five minutes, the hour-hand has 
described a twelfth of five minutes ; while the minute- 
hand is making up the twelfth of five minutes, the hour- 
hand describes the hundred and forty-fourth part of five 
minutes ; and so on for ever. In this way of considering 
the subject we shall not arrive at any result; but, 
returning to the hands of the watch, we can find 
the interval between two conjunctions as follows. In 
the twelve hours which elapse between a conjunction 
at A, and the same again, the minute-hand will be on 
the hour-hand eleven times, reckoning the last time at 
which conjunction again takes place at A. That is, 
there are eleven of the periods of which we are in 
search contained in twelve hours. Each is therefore 
the eleventh part of twelve hours, or one hour and the 
eleventh of an hour, or one hour, five minutes, and 
five-elevenths of a minute. 

Time is reckoned only by the appearances of the 
heavens, without reference to whether they are caused 

by the motions of the he ' ^ J * ...... 

the earth, or by both toget 
then we confine ourselves. 

By the following explanation it may be shown why 
the interval between new moon and new moon is 
greater than that which the moon takes to move com- 



trietely round. Let the spectator he on the earth at E, 
let the sun move round in the paper from S to T, &c, 
(which is the appearance presented,) and let the moon 
move round in the direction M N. In the meanwhile 

the spectator is carried round with the earth, and the 
sun and moon are both alternately seen and hidden, 
which has nothing to do with the conjunctions of the 
sun and moon we are now considering, except that they 
will appear at one time of the day or another as the 
case may be, and that this day, made by the earth's 
motion, is a convenient measuring unit for the month 
of the moon's revolution, or the year of the sun's. 
Also the moon must not be 
supposed to be in the paper, 
but above or below it, which 
is as if the hour-hand of the 
watch moved on one face, and B - 
the minute-hand on another, 
as in the following diagram. 
The conjunctions are still said 
to take place when one hand 
is directly over the other. 
Supposing the earth to be in the centre, the hour-hand 
to point to the sun, and the minute-band to the moon, 
new moons take place when the minute-hand is over or 
under the hour-hand ; and eclipses of the sun when the 
hour-hand and minute-hand are together at A or B, or 
the moon hides the sun from the earth ; while eclipses 
of the moon take place when one hand points to A and 
the other to B, or the earth hides the moon from the 
sun. Now supposing, which is nearly the case, that 
the moon makes thirteen revolutions from M to M 
again, while the sun makes one from S to S, which 
amounts to supposing the hour-plate to go to thirteen 
hours instead of twelve, and the hour-hand to move 
one- thirteenth as fast as the minute-hand, it will appear 
that the whole year (which is thirteen complete lunar 
revolutions) will contain twelve complete intervals be- 
tween new moon and new moon, and therefore the 
luna\ im new moon to new moon) 

will >f thirteen lunar revolutions, 

or th the lunar revolution by about 

the t ter. 

Tli as a measure of time among 

any of the European nations. The measures of time 
amongst us are, the stars, the sun, and an imaginary 
sun, which completes a whole year in the same time as 
the real sun, moving at an average rate, whereas the 
real sun varies its motion. Time derived from the 
stars is called sidereal time (tidus, a constellation) ; 
time derived from the sun, solar time {sol, the sun). 
Time from the real sun is called apparent solar time ; 
from the imaginary sun, average or mean solar time. 
And the time which a common clock is made to give is 
always mean solar time ; while that of the clocks used 
in observatories is generally sidereal time. Apparent 
solar time is what the sailor gets at sea from the sun 
itself, or the landsman from a sun-dial. We now pro- 
ceed to explain these terms. For our present purpose it 
matters not whether the earth be a globe turning on 
its axis, or a cylinder turning on its axis, or even a 
circle turning round on its centre. All the necessary 



Let the circle, representing the earth, torn uniformly 
round its centre E, and let us suppose the spectator to 
be at a ; L is a star which remains fixed, and S is the 
sun, to all appearance mpving round the earth in the 
same direction as « hat in which the earth mores round 
its axis. It is evident that the spectator will not come 
again to the star until the earth has made a whole revo- 
lution ; that is, will not come to have the star in the 

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came position relatively to himself. For the star is 
fixed, and neither more nor less than one revolution of 
the earth will suffice for this purpose. Hence the 
absolute time of the earth's revolution is the star-day^ 
or sidereal day ; it is called twenty-four hours of side- 
real time, each hour being divided into sixty sidereal 
minutes, each minute into sixty sidereal seconds. But 
sidereal minutes and sidereal seconds are not exactly 
those of the clock. 

Now let us consider the real sun. When the spec- 
tator has recovered his position with respect to the star, 
be will not have recovered that with respect to the sun, 
any more than the minute-hand at one o clock will have 
recovered the position with respect to the hour-hand 
which it had at twelve, and for a similar reason. The 

hour-hand has moved on, the sun has moved on ; the 
minute-hand must overtake the hour-hand, the spec- 
tator must overtake the sun. Hence the apparent 
solar day is somewhat longer than the sidereal day: 
and if we suppose the apparent solar day to be divided 
into twenty-four apparent solar hours, &c, the appa» 
rent solar hour will always be somewhat longer than 
the sidereal hour, &c. 

But we cannot settle how much longer an apparent 
solar is than a sidereal day, without asking of what day 
we mean to speak. For the sun moves sometimes 
quicker, sometimes slower ; that is, the earth is some* 
times a longer, sometimes a shorter time, in making 
up for the advance of the sun. To put this under the 
eye, we have constructed the following diagram : — 

The proportional rates at which the sun moves in right 
ascension (presently to be explained) on different days, 
are represented by the upright lines. Thus, on thelst of 
January he is moving more rapidly than on the 1st of 
February, in the proportion of the line A B to CD; 
and so on. But the apparent motion in right ascension 
needs explanation 

If, in the last diagam but one, we stick a pin into 
the paper at L and S, L and S might move up and 
down that pin without altering their respective days ; 
the spectator would call them both on his meridian when 
he is at c, but would imagine them to come on the 
meridian at different parts of it. To alter the day, S must 
make some motion round the paper. Now suppose the 
pin to be carried round the paper, always upright, and 
S to move up and down the pin while the latter moves 
round. Also conceive the pin to be extended under- 
neath the paper, as in the following diagram : — 

Let the spectator be carried round an axis at E, while 
S moves on the pin, and the pin itself is carried round 
S P P, &c, so that S describes the curve S S S, &c. 
Let S be carried nearly uniformly along S S S, which 
is the case of the sun's apparent motion, for it is not 
the small irregularity of the sun's motion which is the 
most efFective cause of the difference between one appa- 
rent day and another. That day, as we have described 
it, dates from the time when the spectator is directly 
between his own axis and the pin on which S is, 
which represents the sun on the meridian ; and while, 
if the pin remained steady, the day would be a sidereal 
day, it becomes a longer day in consequence of the 
motion of the pin, as before described. Now if the sun 
move uniformly along S S, &c. the bottom of the pin 
cannot move uniformly along S PP, because S is at some 

times moving more obliquely than at others. Thus, at 
the two equinoxes, that is, at the two points where S S, 
&c, cuts P P, a great part of the motion of S is caused 
by the rise or fall upon the pin, and the rest by the 
motion of the pin. But at the two solstices, or highest 
and lowest points of S S, the motion up or down the 
pin is inconsiderable, and nearly the whole change of 
place of S is caused by the latter. The motion of the 
pin (the sun's motion in right ascension) is least 
about the equinoxes and greatest about the solstices, 
as will appear on looking at the last diagram but one. 

The irregular motion of the sun sometimes aids, and 
sometimes counteracts, as far as it goes, the effect of 
the obliquity of the ecliptic S S S, &c, making the 
above not exactly, but only nearly true. 

The apparent solar day is therefore different for 
different days. It is the interval between two successive 
appearances of the sun on the meridian, and, divided 
into twenty-four hours, is shown as long as the sun 
shines, on a sun-dial. Now, clocks are constructed to 
go uniformly, and therefore capnot show the difference 
between one apparent day and another. But if a 
clock be made to go through twenty-four hours in an 
average day, and is set to noon with the dial on any 
particular day, it will be at noon with the dial again 
on the same day next year, and in the interval will 
have been sometimes before and sometimes behind the 
dial. The clock will keep time with an imaginary 
sun, which moves, not in the ecliptic, S S S, but in the 
equator S P P ; and which also moves uniformly with 
the average motion in right ascension of the real sun. 
This imaginary sun, always gaining the same every 
day on the stars, will give a mean solar dajr, always of 
the same length, and a little longer than the sidereal 
day. We may now consider the rotation of the earth 
round its axis as analogous to that of the minute-hand, 
the rotation of the imaginary sun to that of the hour- 
hand, and the fixed stars to the hours and minutes 
marked on the plate, as follows : — 

Phenomena of the 
Imaginary Sum, &c. 
A point on the earth rrvolves 
from under a star to unci* r the 
same star again in one sidereal 
day. All sidereal days are of 
the same length. 

A point on the earth revolves 
from under the imaginary suu 
to under the imaginary mu again 

Phenomena op the Watch. 

The minute-hand moves from 
XII to XII again in one hour. 
Ail hours are of the same length. 

The minute-hand revolves 
from hour hand to hour-hand, 
in a period without a name. 

Digitized by 



Phxmombna of nn Watch. 

All these periods are of the 
seine length, and longer than 
an hour. 

The complete ictation of the 
hour-hand takes place in twelve 
hours exactly, containing eleven 
periods as above. One hour is 
cut up in making twelve hours 
into eleven periods. Hence a 
period exceeds an hour by the 
eleventh part of an hour, or 5 f, 


LMaach 28, 183ft, 


Imaginary Sun, &c. 

in a mean solar day. All 
solar days are of the same length, 
and longer than a sidereal day. 

The complete revolution of 
the mean sun takes place in 
366 sidereal days nearly, con- 
taining 365 mean solar days 
nearly. One sidereal day is cut 
up in making 366 sidereal days 
into 365 solar days. Hence a 
mean solar day exceeds a sidereal 
day by about the 365th part of 
a sidereal day, or about four 
sidereal minutes. 

Hence the reason why the stars come on the meridian 
by about four minutes earlier every day, the reckoning 

being by the tun. We now return to the mean and 
real sun. It appears that the time denoted by these 
two varies on two accounts; first, because the real 
sun moves obliquely to the equator, so that the point 
directly under it does not move uniformly along the 
equator, even though the real sun should move uni- 
formly in the ecliptic ; secondly, because the real sua 
does not move uniformly even in the ecliptic. These 
two effects sometimes counterbalance each other as far 
as they go, sometimes exactly counterbalance, and 
sometimes aid each other. Their united effect it to 
make the clock and dial tell a different story every day 
in the year, four only excepted. The difference between 
the times of twelve at noon as shown by the two, is 
called the equation of time, and may be represented as 
follows :— 

On the horizontal line days are measured, perpen- 
dicular to which is a scale representing minutes. The 
curve is so drawn that the perpendicular distance from 
the point indicating a day to the curve, shall always 
represent the number of minutes by which the dial is 
faster or slower than the clock. Thus, on the 1st of 
January the dial is about three minutes too slow, or 
the noon of apparent time is about three minutes after 
the noon of mean time. On the 1st of May the dial is 
about three minutes too fast, or the noon of apparent 
time is three minutes before that of mean time. 

In most almanacs, a few years ago, all the phenomena 
were given in apparent time, which though useful 
enough at sea, where the real sun must be the guide, 
was not so convenient for landsmen, who are much 
better acquainted with the representative of the imagi- 
nary sun known by the name of a clock or watch. 
Thus, those who consult the * British Almanac,* or any 
other of those published by the Society for the Diffu- 
sion of Useful Knowledge, and those who use * Moore's 
Almanac,' are reckoning in two different sorts of time, 
the first giving clock-time, the second dial-time. Thus, 
according to the ' British Almanac,' on the 1st of 
November the sun rises at fifty-four minutes after six ; 
according to Moore, it rises at eleven minutes after 
seven ; or, the time of c Moore's Almanac ' is seventeen 
minutes fast. But both almanacs agree in stating that 
on the 1st of November the dial is sixteen minutes 
fifteen seconds fast. The neglect of odd seconds in 
the computation accounts for the rest of the difference. 

We can imagine various cases arising in which this 
discrepancy between the almanacs may cause confusion. 
For instance, a master who uses the * British Almanac ' 
makes an agreement with his workmen to be at their 
posts by sunrise. The 1st of November is (which may 
happen) a misty morning, and the workmen look to 
their almanacs for the time of sunrise. Knowing and 
caring nothing about the equation of time, those who 
use * Moore's Almanac ' think they are very punctual 
if they are at their work by five minutes after seven*, 
since the almanac says eleven minutes after seven. 
But the master counts upon their being there at fifty- 
four minutes after six at least. Those who use the 

' British Almanac, 9 or any other which uses mean time, 
are always right by the clock: and in the court* 
of law in England it is the clock which is always 
appealed to in questions of time. Those who use 
' Moore's Almanac,' or any other which has apparent 
time, must proceed as follows. Look at the equation 
of time (p. 31), and opposite to the day in question 
are minutes and seconds, either with fa. (fast) or slo. 
(slow) above them. Add to the almanac time for fa , 
take away from the almanac time for slo. (Take the 
nearest day, as every odd day is given, and the nearest 
minute, not minding the seconds.) Thus, to find the 
time of sun-rise on the 12th of December — * Moore's 
Almanac ' says, eight hours and five minutes, or five 
minutes after eight. In the equation of time we find 
for the 11th, six minutes forty -three seconds; for the 
13th, five minutes fourteen seconds, both slo. Take 
six minutes for the 12th. Then the sun rises at six 
minutes before five minutes after eight, that is at fifty- 
nine minutes after seven, which is the time marked in 
the * British Almanac.' 

The time of sun-rise is not a very precise astrono- 
mical phenomenon. It means the time of sun-rise 
where the horizon is quite level, as at sea ; but inde- 
pendently of variations in the refraction, a spectator 
situated in a valley will see the sun rise later, and one 
on an eminence sooner, than one where the horizon is 
on the level of his eye. This is evident in the following 
diagram : — 

The lines, in which the spectators at A, B, and C, will 
first see the sun, are drawn ; and it is evident that the 
lime will vary with the ground they are upon. 

%• The Office or the Society for the Diffuekm of UnM Knowledge Is at 
69, Lincoln's Inn Field*. 


Printed by William Glows*, Duke Street, Lambeth. 
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chanaier, ana me punncan. ui omcners ana cnan- 
dlcrs there is seldom more than one each, but of 
publicans there are generally six or seven. To the 
practice of indulging at the public-houses is to be 
attributed the degradation of some of the pitmen, aud 
the misery of their families. 

As the influence of the great coal owners and lessees 
can be exercised in so direct a manner on the large po- 
pulation whose industry is sustained by means of their 
capital, it is to be regretted that it is not more generally 
employed in calling forth an improved state of moral 
feeling among them, and exciting some relish for plea- 
sures less debasing than those in which they are now 
too much habituated to indulge. The collier's cottage 
might, under due regulations, be provided with a 
garden ; and a love for the simple pleasures which it 
would afford might perhaps be more easily fostered 
than any other. 

The terms by which the colliers are connected with 
their employers, are usually an engagement for twelve 
months at a fixed sum, generally 14*. or 15?. a- week. 
This they receive whether employed or not; and it does 
not unfrequently happen that they are in the receipt of 
it for many weeks, when it is not possible to carry on 
the works, owing to the drowning of the pit, or the 
occurrence of some other unexpected impediment. 
Besides this, they are paid by the piece. The employers 
provide a house, and supply the family with coal gra- 
tuitously, or in some cases the small sum of 3d. per week 
is paid for these advantages. The bond, containing 
the terms of agreement, stipulates all the conditions 
into which the parties mutually enter. A bounty or 
increase of wages is commonly given to the workmen 
to induce them to break the coal as little as possible. 
When work is abundant, and there is not too great a 
number of hands, the best workmen have been known 
to obtain, at a particular description of work, from JO.v. 
to 12s. a-day. Their earnings are of course much 
lower on an average, and may be taken at from 15*. to 
20*. per week, from which, it should be recollected, 
there is no outgoing for rent or fuel. At times, when 
work has been less abundant, and the supply of hands 
unusually great, wages have sometimes been as low 
as 8#. or 10*. a- week. Some decrease has taken place 
in the average amount of wages during the last twenty 
years ; but the reduction is not so great as that which 
has taken place in the cost of all the first necessaries 
of life. The men generally work from eight to ten 
hours a day, and they are in the mine at a very 
early hour in the morning. In extensive works there 
are different sets or shifts of men, so that the operations 
are carried on unremittingly. Boys are found useful 

at a very eariy age, — so eariy as seven,— ana are em- 
ployed in opening trap-doors, driving horses, pro- 
pelling trucks, &c. 

It is gratifying to remark that, fn spite of the 
obstacles which may operate against the formation of 
provident habits among the colliers, the deposits in the 
Savings' Banks of the two northern counties, in which 
the coal- trade is the most active and predominant 
branch of industry, are 6uch as not only prove the 
existence of considerable prosperity, but indicate a 
wider prevalence of economy and foresight than we 
could have anticipated. 

Having thus endeavoured to present a picture of the 
general condition and economy of a colliery village, 
we shall now attempt to explain the operations con- 
nected with the working of a colliery. The coal-works 
of Colonel Breddyl, at South Hetton, near Durham, 
are perhaps better calculated than any other to display 
all the operations of a colliery in the highest degree of 
perfection, owing to their very recent establishment. 
The machinery is all new, and of the most improved 
and scientific construction, and the whole of the arrange- 
ments are on an extensive scale. The various operations 
may be divided into five series : — 

1. Winning the CoaL — The first thing to be done in 
establishing a colliery is to survey the ground which it 
is proposed to open, which is done by an individual 
called a viewer , who ought to possess not only scientific 
attainments, but extensive practical knowledge, as his 
task is one of great importance and responsibility. 
Not less than 50,000/. have been sometimes expended 
to no purpose in endeavouring to procure coal ; and the 
useless consumption of so much capital has been fre- 
quently occasioned by the erroneous judgment of the 
viewer. Cases of this description are, however, now 
of rare occurrence. The expense of sinking a pit 
varies from 10,000/. to 150,000/. 

The average expense incurred in the operation, in- 
cluding the steam-engine and its apparatus, is about 
80,000/. The site being determined upon, the sinking 
of the shaft is commenced, and a steam-engine is 
erected on the spot to work a set of pumps for draw- 
ing off the water which the ** sinkers" encounter in 
their descent, and also to raise to the surface the 
excavated earth and other materials. While the sink- 
ing is proceeding, every part of the process is care- 
fully noted in a journal kept for the purpose. The vo- 
lume of water which is met with is accurately mea- 
sured in vessels containing fifty or sixty gallons, and 
the time which each takes in filling observed. Means 
art then used to stop the apertures by which the pit is 

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)te co- 
iie pit, 
er are 
a day 
; and 
, and 

in an 
ly so 
le ex- 
1 into 


y the 
is an 



S of 
j im- 
r the 

1 for 
is is 
it for 

m is 
f the 

[lis is 

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and aeagiey, or witmn a circuit or ten miles, •" there I same time supply one third or this quantity. 

are usually twelve or fifteen collieries in work, and as| We need not wonder at the striking contrast here 

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Ms, MONTHLY SUPPLEMENT. [March 31, 183&. 














Thn Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge is at 59. Lincoln's Inn Flelde. 

Printed by William Clowss. Duke Street, Lunbtth 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

193 J * PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. [April 4, 1835. 

•nopwiptt r»ATrnmnAT. 

Vol, IT. b 

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[April 4, 

Norwich Cathbdral, though not to he classed amongst 
the most beautiful or remarkable of our ancieut eccle- 
siastical structures, yet has much to interest the curious 
and the lover of antiquity. It is still a noble pile : and 
although accident and violence have contributed 
nearly as much to its decay as the influence of time, 
and the crumbling and friable nature of the stone 
of which it was originally constructed has given it an 
appearance of extren.e dilapidation, it possesses in its 
decay that air of solemn grandeur which is so peculiarly 
characteristic of our old cathedral edifices. " As an 
object of architectural antiquity," says Mr. Brkton, 
" the cathedral church of Norwich is peculiarly interest- 
ing ; for it comprises, in its different members, many 
curious specimens of the Norman style of design, and 
some forms and features of unique character. Com- 
pared with many other cathedrals, it is, however, small 
in sixe and meagre in embellishment. Its transepts 
are narrow ; the aisles of the nave are small and low ; 
the east end and north side, externally, in a dilapidated 
and ragged condition ; almost the whole surface of the 
building presents a ruinous appearance : the north side 
of the nave is obscured and darkened by a mass of trees 
in the bishop's garden ; some houses are attached to 
and obscure the building at the south-west end ; and 
at the east side of the south transept are other in- 
congruous and unsightly appendages." Since Mr. 
Britton's work was published, in 1817, some improve- 
ments and renovations have been effected : but the evil 
(that of the friable nature of the stone) is a primary 
one. 4i Had our ancient architects," continues Mr. 
Britton, " studied chemistry, and the natural history of 
rocks, with as much care and zeal as they did church- 
architecture, they would have been more choice in the 
selection of stone, and we should not have so frequently 
cause to deplore the destructive effects of weather on 
their scientific and curious works." 

It has been supposed that the original building was 
of wood, and that therefore the present structure is 
the second erection on the site of the cathedral. The 
original edifice was nearly destroyed about 200 years 
after its foundation : but the extreme antiquity of por- 
tions of the present building discredits the supposition 
of an entire destruction ; and it is concluded that the 
original church was at least partly constructed of stone, 
and that a portion of it enters into the composition of 
the present cathedral. 

In giving a brief account of this cathedral, we shall 
first extract a general description from Mr. Britton's 
valuable work on * Cathedral Antiquities.' " The 
whole church now consists of a nave, with two lateral 
aisles ; a north and south transept, without aisles or 
columns; a choir, occupying part of the nave and area 
under the tower ; an unoccupied space east of the choir ; 
and a chancel, with side aisles, continued round the 
semicircular east end : — a chapel of two compartments, 
and of very singular form, at the south-east angle of 
the church ; and a corresponding chapel at the north- 
east end ; a square chapel, branching from the south 
side of the choir; a small chapel, with semicircular 
east end, on the east side of the north transept ; a tower 
and spire, rising from the intersection of the transept 
with the choir and nave ; and a cloister, nearly perfect, 
on the south side of the church. 

" In the semicircular or altar end of the church, as 
viewed from the choir, there is an union of solidity and 
elegance which cannot fail to delight the spectator ; and 
he will view the lantern under the tower with pleasure. 
The whole of the vaulting of the church is finely 
executed ; and the bosses, at the intersection of the 
ribs, contain a vast variety of curious sculpture. The 
nave presents an interesting series of semicircular 
arches, with corresponding piers, columns, and orna- 
ments ; and, although narrow and long in its propor- 

tions, it is impressive and v grand. In the cloister, the 
antiquary and general observer will find much to excite 
curiosity and admiration. The lavatories, doorways, 
windows, and buttresses, with their clustered columns, 
are all entitled to critical examination, and will amply 
repay a diligent study by the gratification they must 
afford. The Erpingham Gatehouse, however, is the 
most elegant and most curious architectural object 
connected with the church: unique in origin, form, 
.decoration, and condition, it commands the admiration 
of all classes of visitors. At the south-west corner of 
the close is another ancient gatehouse entitled to notice ; 
and in the bishop's garden is a third old gateway, and 
an insulated fragment of the ancient palace." 

The height of the spire is 315 feet; — only one spire 
in Britain, that of Salisbury, having a greater eleva- 
tion. The two western towers, usually attached to our 
cathedrals, are wanting in this of Norwich. The 
extreme length of the building is 4 14 feet. The extent 
of the transept, or cross-aisles, from north to south, is 
180 feet. 

The foundation of Norwich Cathedral is attributed 
to Herbert de I#ozingia, in 1096, in the tenth year of 
William II. The stoiy runs that, having acquired the 
see of Thctford by purchase, he was cited to appear 
before the pope, to answer for this and other simoniacal 
practcies. He was deprived of his bishopric, and com- 
manded, by way of penance, to build certain churches 
and monasteries ; and to this circumstance, it seems, 
Norwich is indebted, not merely for the origin of its 
cathedral, but for its advancement to the rank of a city, 
and for many of the numerous religious structures 
for which it has been celebrated from an early period. 
There must have been some arrangement or mutual 
understanding in this affair : for though Lozingia was 
depriyed of the bishopric of Thetford, he had yet the 
power or liberty of transferring the see to Norwich, of 
which he was solemnly consecrated the first bishop by 
the Archbishop of York. The cathedral continued, as 
was the case with most of our ecclesiastical structures, 
to be added to by successive prelates, and at length 
became a structure of considerable magnitude. 

In the year 1272, however, a furious insurrection of 
the people of Norwich occurred, in which the cathedral 
was so totally defaced as to have given rise to the con- 
jecture, previously adverted to, that the original struc- 
ture was of wood. The insurrection arose out of a 
long-pending quarrel between the monks and the 
people. In this tumult, many females took part, one 
of them having, with her own hand, set fire to the 
cathedral. The monks do not appear to have been 
altogether passive spectators of the scene; the prior 
headed them in the conflict with the people, — many 
lives were lost on both sides, — and the church, tower, 
and adjacent buildings were nearly destroyed. The 
monarch (Henry III.), on hearing of the insurrection, 
assembled the hierarchy at Eye, in Suffolk, and the 
citizens of Norwich were subjected to extreme severities. 
An interdict was laid upon the town ; — sentence of ex- 
cqmmunication was passed upon all concerned in the 
riots ; — thirty-six individuals were condemned to be 
dragged about the streets by horses until they were 
dashed to pieces ; — females were burnt to death aud 
hanged ; — nor was the interdict taken off until the 
citizens consented to pay, in six years, 3000 marks to- 
wards the re-edifying of the cathedral besides 100 
pounds in "money for a pix, or cup of gold, weighing 
ten pounds. The arrogance of the monks, which ap- 
pears to have been the exciting cause of the insurrection, 
escaped without censure, with the single exception of a 
short imprisonment endured by the prior. 

The cathedral was restored in 1273; the king, 
queen, and many of the nobles contributing to its 
re-erection, in addition to the sum exacted from the 

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citizens. During the wars between Charles I. and the 
Parliament, the misjudging violence of the Puritans 
subjected the cathedral to considerable injury. The 
sculpture, carving, organ, and other parts, were either 
destroyed or defaced, and almost every brass in the 
church taken away. Soon after the Restoration, the 
loss of these things was partially supplied. In June, 
1801, a fire broke out at the west-end of the roof, when 
a great deal of the timber-work was consumed, the lead 
melted, and the whole fabric in imminent danger. The 
flames were, however, successfully checked. 

Since the commencement of the present century the 
interior has been repeatedly repaired, and, as Mr. 
Britton satirically remarks, " beautified ;" and various 
improvements and renovations have of late years been 
applied. Although there are a few not uninteresting 
circumstances relative to the monuments and in- 
dividuals connected with the cathedral, our limits will 
not permit us to describe them. 

Autesian Wells are formed by perforating the earth 
with a set of instruments called " boring rods," until 
a subterranean body of water be reached whose sources 
are higher than the spot where this operation takes place. 
The effort which water makes to reach its own level in 
this instance causes it to ascend above the surface ; and 
thus an abundant supply of this necessary element 
may be obtained in districts which otherwise might 
be without so great a blessing. The Romans often 
went to an incredible expense in obtaining a proper 
supply of water; and the remains which still exist of 
their aqueducts are amongst the noblest monuments of 
their geniu3 and enterprise. Works of this description, 
however, could not be constructed without an immense 
expenditure of labour and capital ; and it is clear 
that an application of the principles of hydraulics 
and geological science would have been a much more 
simple and economical mode of proceeding. The 
Turks have availed themselves of the simple fact of 
the tendency of water to find its level in executing 
works as efficacious as the Roman aqueducts, but a 
thousand times less expensive. Their Souttrazi are 
water-courses of brick-work, carried from a reservoir 
on some eminence down one hill, along the surface of a 
valley, and up the opposite hill. 

It is easy to understand the cause which occasions 
the water of Artesian wells to ascend to the surface ; 
and the following explanation may serve to show the 
circumstances under which this principle is usually 
brought into action. If the rain which fulls, or the 
snow which is melted, on opposite ranges of mountains, 
filtrates through porous strata, or finds its way through 
apertures or fissures of stone, situated between strata 
either quite or almost impervious to water, and running 
below the surface of the valley, it makes for itself a 
channel, the form of which we will suppose to be that 
of an elongated curve. If any part of the valley be 
bored until this pipe or water-course be reached by 
the boring-rod, the water will spring up, under the 
impulsion of the law of hydraulics to which we have 
alluded, and a natural fountain will by this means be 
created. This result will not be affected by the extent 
of the valley, which may be a mile in width or a dozen 
miles. The force with which the water ascends will of 
course be regulated by the position chosen for the 
operation. It will be the greatest at that point which 
is situated at the lowest level, and will diminish as the 
source is approached from whence the supply is derived. 
The small springs which are met with in sinking a well 
are regulated by the same laws as Artesian fountains, 
but their sources are not sufficiently copious to enable 
them to reach the surface. 

The term Artesian is derived from the name (Artois) 
of one of the provinces into which France was formerly 
divided. In this district it often happens that the only 
way of obtaining water is by boring. In the number 
of the ' Annuaire,' published by the French Board of 
Longitude, for the present year, there is an article, by 
M. Arago, which contains a number Qf facts relating 
to Artesian wells, from which we borrow such as are 
best calculated to explain their most important phe- 

The question as to whence Artesian wells derive their 
supplies is one of the most interesting connected with 
the subject. The vapours of the atmosphere form one 
of their sources. A few hours after heavy rains, the 
miners of Cornwall observe a considerable augmenta- 
tion in the water contained in some of their deepest 
pits. The fountain of Nfmes, in France, throws out, 
when lowest, about 280 gallons per minute; but if 
heavy rain falls in the north-west, although at a 
distance of seven or eight miles, its volume is in- 
creased to upwards of 2000 gallons. The temperature, 
however, is scarcely changed by this great additional 
quantity ; thus proving that it passes with great rapidity 
by channels situated very deeply below the surface. 

The fountain of Vaucluse, likewise in the south of 
France, if it received all the rain which fell during the 
whole year, on an extent of thirty square leagues, would 
not obtain a supply adequate to the yearly issue which 
it pours forth. When it rises from its subterranean 
bed, it m reality forms a river ; and the volume of its 
waters when at its lowest is estimated at 480 square 
yards per minute, which at times is swelled to 1494 
square yards. Its mean volume is 962 square yards. 
This fountain, it is clear, must obtain its waters from 
some more abundant source than the percolation of 
rain-water through the pores and fissures of the earth. 
Its reservoirs, also, must be capable of containing a 
great mass of fluid, and the channels by which it 
flows must be large enough to contain a subterranean 

These reservoirs and these channels are created by 
fractures in great areas of stratified rock, occasioned by 
the action of a mighty power, which, at some period, has 
broken them in various directions. In some cases, these 
cavities actually withdraw from the surface considerable 
rivers. The Guadiana loses itself in a flat country, in the 
midst of a vast prairie : and when a Spaniard hears an 
Englishman or a Frenchman speaking of the bridges of 
their respective countries, he will tell them that there 
is one in Estremadura on which 1 00,000 cattle can 
graze. The Meuse and several other rivers ift France 
also disappear in the same manner; some being 
sucked in by apertures in their bed, situated at various 
distances along the course of the stream. In the 
Austrian dominions, the river Poick pursues its course 
in the cavern of Adclsberg, where its waters lose them- 
selves and re-appear several times. This cavern has 
been penetrated for the space of two leagues from its 
entrance, at which point a lake presents itself which 
has not yet been crossed. Humboldt mentions a 
cavern in South America, about 25 yards high, and 27 
or 28 broad, which the traveller can penetrate for 800 
yards, into whose recesses are rolled the waters of a 
stream above 10 yards wide. The grotto of Windborg, 
in Saxony, is also a remarkable instance of the extent 
of the earth's internal communications, being connected 
with the cavern of Cresfield, from which it is some 
leagues distant. 

The Artesian fountain at Tours recently presented 
some phenomena proving the existence of an extensive 
and complete line of subterranean communication. la 
January, 183', the vertical tube by which the waters of 
this fountain ascended was shortened a little more than 
four yards, on which its volume was immediately aug- 

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[April 4, 

mented a third ; but this sudden increase rendered the 
water less clear than usual. During many hours there 
were brought to the surface, from a depth of above 110 
yards, various substances, among which were recognised 
twigs of hawthorn, several inches in length, blackened by 
their long stay in the water, — stalks and roots of marshy 
plants, — and seeds of various kinds, in a state which 
showed that they had been in the water since the har- 
vest, and, consequently, that about four months had 
been spent in performing their hidden voyage. Shells, 
and other deposits which a small river, or stream of 
fresh water, leaves when it overflows its banks, were 
also brought up during the increased action of the 
fountain, proving the freedom with which they cir- 
culated at the depths below. 

An instance is mentioned by M. Arago of one of 
these subterranean rivers being reached by some work- 
men who were boring for, water close to the Barriere de 
Fontainebleau, at Paris. As usual, the progress of 
the work was slow, but, all at once, the boring rod 
descended nearly eight yards. When they attempted 
to withdraw it, it was evident that it was suspended in 
a body of water whose current was so strong as to 
occasion the instrument to oscillate in a particular 
direction. We have before stated that the course which 
water took in order to find its own level might be of 
any length; a fact which is clearly proved by the cir- 
cumstance of the crew of an English ship becalmed 
in the Indian seas discovering fresh water rising from 
the depths of the ocean to the surface. The nearest 
point of land was 100 miles distant, and from hence it 
had come by a channel situated below the bed of the 

These various facts will account for the phenomena 
connected with Artesian fountains : but the periodical 
disappearance of the waters of the lake of Zirknitz, 
in Camiola, illustrates one of these in a manner so clear 
and distinct that we cannot omit noticing it. This 
lake is about five miles long and two and a-half broad. 
Towards the middle of the summer, if the season be 
dry, its level rapidly sinks, and, in a few weeks, it 
becomes dry. The apertures by which the waters have 
retired may be then distinctly perceived ; some being 
perpendicular, and others in a lateral direction towards 
the caverns of the neighbouring mountains. Imme- 
diately after the waters ' have completely disappeared, 
the whole extent of the surface which they covered is 
put into cultivation ; and, at the end of a couple of 
.months, the peasants reap an abundant harvest of rye, 
millet, and grass. Towards the close of autumn, the 
waters return by the same natural channels by which 
they had disappeared. It frequently happens that a 
heavy shower of rain on the mountains of Zirknitz will 
occasion the lake to overflow its banks. 

The temperature of Artesian springs is invariably 
higher in proportion as their depth increases. The 
deepest of which we have seen any statement is near 
Dieppe, and is about 340 yards below the surface. A 
well formed near Perpignan produces about 425 gal- 
lons per minute ; and one at Tours ascends more than 
two yards above the surface, and gives 234 gallons per 

In France, the waters of Artesian springs are 
sometimes made the moving power in corn-mills. At 
Frontes, near Aire, the waters of ten Artesian springs 
put in motion the wheels of a large mill, and act 
besides upon the bellows and forge-hammer of a nail- 
manufactory. At Tours, a well of nearly 150 yards in 
depth pours 225 gallons per minute into the troughs 
of a wheel seven yards in diameter, which is the moving 
power of an extensive silk-manufactory. Besides their 
general utility in irrigations, and for purposes of 
domestic comfort and salubrity, the water of Artesian 
springs has been specially applied with advantage for 

other useful objects. The workshops of M. Bruck- 
marm, in Wurtemburg, are warmed by means of water 
conveyed in pipes from an Artesian spring, the tempe- 
rature of whose source is considerably higher than that 
of the atmosphere. M. Arago also states that there 
are greenhouses whose temperature is kept up by 
means of the circulation of a constant volume of Arte- 
sian waters. At Erfurt, they are used in the forma- 
tion of artificial beds of cress, which produce 12,000/. 
a-year. In the north of France, the .reservoirs in which 
the flax is steeped which is destined to be employed 
iu the manufacture of lace and the finer descriptions of 
linen are supplied by Artesian springs, whose waters, 
being remarkably clear and of an equable temperature, 
dissolve the vegetable matter with the least injury to 
the most valuable properties of the plant. In fish- 
preserves it is often found that the fish are killed both 
by the severity of the winter and the excessive heats of 
summer; but this effect of the inequality of the seasons 
has been prevented at the fish-ponds of Montmorency, 
near Paris, by furnishing them abundantly with Ar- 
tesian waters. 

Mode of Trading at Shendy.—* The wholesale trade at 
Shendy is principally conducted through the agency of 
brokers. A caravan no sooner arrives than every mer- 
chant's house is crowded with brokers ; but tho avidity and 
Earsimony of all parties are too great to allow them to 
ring their transactions to a speedy conclusion. Even after 
the bargain is made, each party endeavours to cheat the 
other before the goods are delivered and the money paid. 
In addition to this, every attempt to enter into an engage- 
ment of any importance becomes known all over the place, 
and the jealousy of the traders often prevents its taking 
place. No merchandise has its fixed price : there is no such 
thing as a price current ; every one sells according to the 
prospect he has of cheating tho buyer and bribing the 
broker. The purchase- money, or, in case of barter, its 
equivalent in merchandise, is almost always immediately 
paid down. The longest credit I have witnessed is a couple 
of days; and it is evident, on the termination of every 
commercial transaction, that the buyer and seller recipro- 
cally entertain suspicions of each other's honesty. To 
oblige a debtor to settle his accounts, recourse is generally 
had to the slaves of the Mek, who act as police-officers ; but 
a man who is unprotected and without friends is sure to 
lose the greater part of his goods if he allows them to go 
out of his liands without immediate payment. — Burck- 
hardt's Travels in Nubia, p. 298. * 

Imitative powers of the Chinese. — The people discover 
no want of genius to conceive, nor of dexterity to execute $ 
and their imitative powers have always been acknowledged 
to be very great. Of the truth of this remark we had 
several instances at Yuen-min-yuen. The complicated 
glass lustres, consisting of several hundred pieces, were 
taken down, piece by piece, in the course of half an hour, 
by two Chinese, who had never seen anything of the kind 
before, and were put up again by them with equal facility ; 
yet Mr. Parker thought it necessary for our mechanics to 
attend at his warehouse several times, to see them taken 
down and again put up together, in order to be able to 
manage the business on their arrival in China. A Chinese 
undertook to cut a slip of glass from a large curved piece, 
intended to cover the great dome of the planetarium, after 
our artificers had broken three similar pieces in attempting 
to cut them with the help of a diamond. It is well known 
that a Chinese in Canton, on being shown an European 
watch, undertook and succeeded to make one like it, though 
he had never seen anything of the kind before ; but it was 
necessary to furnish him with a mainspring, which he could 
not make : ' and they now fabricate, in Canton, as well as in 
London, and at one-third of the expense, all those ingenious 
pieces of mechanism which at one time were sent to China 
in such vast quantities from the repositories of Cope and 
Merlin.-— Barrow's Travels in China. 

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Hack fall is situated about seven miles north-west of 
Ripon in Yorkshire. The name is supposed to be 
derived from " hag," a witch, and " fall," a descent ; 
the compound signifying " the witch's valley ;" and 
indeed there is no situation which old superstitions 
might have been more likely to mark out as a fitting 
abode for unearthly beings than this deep, gloomy, and 
sequestered vale. Others, however, think that the 
name is probably a corruption of Ac-fell, Acorn-hill, 
which it might be fitly named from its rich plantations 
of oak. It is worthy of remark that the beauties of 

this romantic spot lie within so circumscribed a district, 
that to a traveller on the road, or a peasant in the ad- 
joining fields, their existence would probably be quite 
unsuspected ; nor is there any thing in the tame cha- 
racter of the surrounding country which could lead the 
lover of the picturesque to look for that exquisite com- 
bination of natural effects, tempered and improved by 
art, which Hackfall ofFers. 

The entrance into the grounds is pleasant, but not 
very striking. A little rivulet, rising at some distance, 
runs into a deep woody glen, and forms three or four 

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[April 4, 

small pools, on issuing from which it makes as many 
cascades, judiciously varied in their forms. It then 
flows with precipitancy to the river Ure, at the bottom 
of the dell, rushing over rocks and heaps of stone which 
obstruct its passage, and making a number of water- 
falls more or less full and rapid. At a short dis- 
tance from the second gate two springs issue from the 
rock and fall gently down its side. A little further 
down the visitor comes to a hill, from whence the water 
springs and forms a double cascade, which, after rush- 
ing over rocks and beds of stone, joins the rivulet 
below. Still further on there is another spring, some- 
what less 'ban the former: and, after passing a hill 
crowned by an artificial ruin, a winding walk, under a 
shade of lofty trees growing on a steep bank, conducts 
the spectator to Fisher's Hall, — a small octagon room 
built of petrified substances formed by several springs 
in the ground, and surrounded by hanging wood. At 
this spot two cascades are divided by a grove of fine 
trees. That on the left impetuously forces its way over 
a slaty rock, overhung with the spreading branches of 
the adjoining wood : the other falls down an irregular 
bed of rocks, but not in such strong breaks as the 
former. Without minutely detailing the successive 
cascades, and other objects and points of view which 
intervene, it may suffice to mention that an arrange- 
ment of the most interesting walks, through landscapes 
that cannot be excelled in variety and picturesque 
effect, lead to several romantic situations in pleasing 
succession, and at length to the summit of a rock called 
Mowbray Point, a commanding eminence, from which 
the most grand and extensive prospects are obtained. 
Mr. Gilpin says, that he scarcely remembers to have 
anywhere seen an extensive view so full of beauties and 
so free from faults. In the immediate vicinity, the 
variegated valley, the river confined between its rocky 
banks, and bordered by impending hills and woody sum- 
mits, with a number of villages and farms, compose a 
oeautiful assemblage. The distant objects also form a 
prospect which may be ranked among the finest in 
England. In the front are the whole range of the 
Hambleton Hills and the town of Thirske, with an ex- 
tensive and fertile couutry intervening: towards the 
right are Gilliug and Craike Castle, the Cathedral of 
York, at the distance of thirty miles, and the Wolds 
in the East Riding, forming the boundaries of the view ; 
while, towards the left, the mountain called Roseberry 
Topping is distinctly seen at the distance of forty-five 
miles, and the prospect terminates among the rugged 
heights of the eastern moors. 

The spring represented in our wood-cut is impreg- 
nated with alum, which abounds in the strata of the 
adjacent district, and is worked to a considerable extent 
in the neighbourhood of Whitby, Guisborough, &c. 
Alum works were established at Whitby about the year 
1600, and, with those since established near Glasgow, 
still supply the market with a large quantity of this 
article. At Whitby it is prepared from alum-slate, the 
stratum of which is about twent,y-eight miles in length. 
The cliffs are in general precipitous, and are from 100 
to 750 feet in height. The slate is of a bluish grey 
colour, and varies considerably in hardness. At the 
top of the cliff it is so soft as to be crumbled between 
the fingers, whilst at the bottom it is as hard as roofing 
slate. This slate has never been accurately analyzed ; 
but it does not appear to contain potash-salts, which 
are therefore added. The method used at Whitby 
in obtaining the alum, is to mix the broken alum- 
slate with fuel and set it on fire. When the slate has 
been sufficiently calcined, it is dissolved in water. To 
the solution potash-salts are added, and the crystals of 
alum are formed in it. It takes 130 tons of calcined 
slate to produce one ton of alum. In other places the 
processes are different in detail, but they are mostly 
the same in principle. 

! These alum-mines were discovered by Sir Thomas 
Chaloner, through or near whose estate, near Guis- 
borough, part of the stratum extended. This gen- 
tleman when in Italy spent some time at Puteoli, 
where he had occasion to observe the process of making 
alum at Solfatara, and to know the profits it produced. 
He noticed that the people collected near that place 
a kind of saltish flour or dust, that covered the surface 
in the summer time, and threw it into large vessels 
full of water. These vessels being set in the earth 
over certain natural vents in the mountain, the water 
was evaporated by the warm effluvia, and the alum 
left behind. Sir Thomas (then Mr.) Chaloner was 
an accurate observer, and his subsequent discovery 
in England indicates with how much attention he 
had noticed the character of the soil, and its effects 
upon the vegetables produced in the neighbourhood, 
although he could not at that time have had any 
particular interest in the subject. This is shown in the 
details which Camden has furnished on the subject in 
the c Britannia. 1 Speaking of Guisborough, he says : — 
" The place is really very fine, and may, for pleasant- 
ness, a curious variety, and the natural advantages of 
it, compare with Puteoli in Italy; and then, for a 
healthful and agreeable situation, it certainly far sur- 
passes it. The coldness of the air which the sea occa- 
sions is qualified and broken by the hills between. 
The soil is fruitful, and produces grass and fine flowers 
a great part of the year. It richly abounds with veins 
of metal, and alum-earth of several colours, from which 
they now begin to extract the best sort of alum "and 
copperas in great plenty. This was first discovered a 
few years since by the admirable sagacity of that learned 
naturalist Sir Thomas Chaloner, knight, by observing 
that the leaves of trees were of a more weakly sort of 
green here than in other places; that the oaks shot 
forth their roots very broad, but not deep, and that 
these had much strength, but little sap in them ; that 
the soil was a white clay speckled with several colours, 
namely, white, yellowish, and blue ; that it never froze, 
and that upon a pretty clear night it shined and 
sparkled like glass upon the road -side." 

The time when this discovery was made seems td 
have been about 1600, or perhaps a little earlier. 
Much labour was bestowed, and great expense in- 
curred, before the alum could be obtafned ; which was 
probably owing to the climate, and to the variation in 
the process which this rendered necessary. The diffi- 
culties of detail were, however, finally overcome by the 
assistance of Lambert Russel, and two other work- 
men employed in this business at Rochelle in France, 
who were privately brought over to this country. No 
sooner, however, did the works begin to return a little 
profit to the proprietors than it was adjudged to be a 
royal mine, and so came into the hands of the crown. 
It was then granted to Sir Paul Pindar, who was to 
pay a rent of 15,000/. a year. At that time 800 per- 
sons were employed on the works. Notwithstanding 
the high rent, the farm of the mines produced a large 
profit to Sir Paul, who kept up the price of the article 
to 261. a ton. But the Long Parliament voted the 
affair a monopoly, and restored the mines to the ori- 
ginal owners. At the Restoration not less than R\e 
works were carried on at different parts of the stratum, 
and^the competition between the different proprietors 
soon brought the price of the commodity down to \SL 
a ton. In the end, the mine which had been opened 
near Whitby profited so much by the advantage of its 
situation, that the original works near Guisborough 
soon fell into disuse ; but it does not seem that a less 
quantity of alum is now derived from this stratum than 
at any former period. 

The particulars concerning Ilackfall in the above 
account are chiefly derived from the ' History of Ripon,' 
the • Beauties of England and Wales,' and the * Gen- 

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tlemau's Magazine.' The facts concerning the alum 
stratum, and the manufacture, are from the article 
Alum in the ' Penny Cyclopedia;' and the rest is from 
the notes to the memoir of Sir Thomas Chaloner in tho 
4 Biographia Britannica.' 


The geographical distribution of birds would scarcely 
seem to a cursory observer to be regulated by any defi- 
nite laws. It would rather appear that the localities 
of the several tribes were quite capriciously assigned, 
and that the labour of the inquirer could effect no more 
than the accumulation of disjointed facts, from which 
no principles could be deduced. This, however, would 
be a very incorrect view of the case. The subject is, 
indeed, intricate ; and much remains to be investigated, 
as it is only of late years that the attention of natu- 
ralists has been directed to it. 

Some families, genera, or even species, are distributed 
throughout every part of the globe ; while others are 
confined to isolated spots. Some extend within given 
latitudinal lines throughout the circle of the earth ; 
while others are compensated for a limited latitudinal 
range'by an ample spread between given lines of longi- 
tude. Thus, some of the ptarmigans (the willow- 
ptarmigan, for instance), the suowy owl, the jer-falcon, 
and many more, are spread through the northern lati- 
tudes of Asia, Europe, and America ; and the parrot 
tribe ranges round the globe within given latitudes on 
either side of the equator, — India, Africa, America, and 
New Holland, each producing their peculiar species. 
On the contrary, many tribes are exclusively restricted 
to an appointed country ; and others, that are in general 
spread over the earth, are denied admission to some 
peculiar region. Thus, the woodpeckers abound in 
the Old World and in the New, from north to south, 
but they are excluded from the continent of Australia. 
It may, however, be received as a rule (though the 
inadequacy of our information prevents us from clearly 
following it out in all cases), that those tribes of birds, 
whose localities are circumscribed within given limits, 
will in other countries, where all concomitant circum- 
stances are the same, be represented by tribes filling, 
as it were, their place, performing their work, and 
displaying in the main the same habits and manners. 
We may instance a few of these harmonies. The pea- 
cock, of which there are two species, is limited to India 
and its adjacent islands ; but in America its place is 
supplied by the turkey, of which there are two species 
also, and in Africa by the guinea-fowl. The ostrich 
roams the deserts of Africa; the emeu the wilds of 
Australia ; the cassowary the luxuriant islands of the 
Indian Archipelago ; and the rhea the hilly regions of 
South America. The pheasants of Asia are represented 
by the curassows and guans in America, — where the 
ortyx takes the place of the quaH, and the tinamoo that 
of the bustard. The honey-eaters of the South Sea 
island?, the brilliant sun-birds of India and Africa, and 
the still more splendid humming-birds of America, re- 
spectively occupy in their own territories each others' 
place. If these ideas be correct, then it must follow 
that no group of birds can be studied with advantage 
in an isolated point of view ; — to know them we must 
know their affinities. 

With these preliminary observations, which apply 
more or less universally, we introduce the beautiful 
group to which we have last alluded, namely, humming- 
birds, to the notice of our readers. This group is, in 
every point of view, most interesting to the naturalist. 
They are natives of the New World ; and rich as that 
continent is in the most splendid feathered beings, the 
brilliancy and grace of these small birds are such as to 

excite the highest admiration in the spectator, who at 
once acknowledges their pre-eminence. Our know- 
ledge of their habits and economy is, however, very 
limited at present ; nor have their affinities been 
hitherto fairly investigated. 

Recent discoveries have proved that their range of 
habitation is more extended than was once imagined ; 
for though they chiefly abound in the intertropical 
latitudes of America, many visit the . temperate and 
t continent. The ruby -throated 
hilus Colubris)) passes north as 
of Canada, migrating like the 
s the only species which extends 
into a colder climate. Captain King, while on his 
survey of the southern coasts, met with numerous 
species flying about in a snow-storm neai me Straits of 
Magellan, and discovered two species {Vrochilus Fer- 
nandensis^ and T. Stokesii) in the island of Juan Fer- 
nandez. Still, however, the central regions of the 
continent, and the islands adjacent, are their chief 
resort. There they people the woods and the gardens, 
glancing in the sun like meteors as they flit by with 
inconceivable rapidity, or, suspended on their burnished 
and quivering wings, explore the nectary of some 
scented blossom. These birds may be almost said to 
live upon the wing. There is no bird that equals them 
in power of flight, and fhey are quick as lightuing in 
their motions. Their wings are of extraordinary 
length, and this, with their shape and the character of 
the feathers composing them, contributes to their 
efficiency. The feet and legs, on the contrary, are 
small and feeble; they are, in fact, of merely second- 
rate importance in the economy of the humming-bird. 
The ground and the trees are not its element. It 
sometimes, indeed, settles on a twig, while it preens its 
plumage of glittering scale-like feathers, or arranges 
the moss and down of its nest ; but the air is its abiding 
place, where it feeds and passes the whole of its acti\e 
existence. Wilson observes that " the humming-bird 
is extremely fond of tubular flowers, and I have often 
stopped with pleasure to observe his manoeuvres among 
the blossoms of the trumpet flower. When arrived 
before a thicket of those that are full blown, he poises 
or suspends himself on the wing, for the space of two 
or three seconds so steadily, that his wings become 
invisible, or only like a mist, and you can plainly 
distinguish the pupil of his eye looking round with 
great quickness and circumspection/' With' respect, 
then, to the shape of these powerful organs of flight, 
we may notice that they are narrow-pointed, and more 
or less curved inwards, a good deal resembling those 
of the swift, — and are mainly composed of the primary 
quill feathers, beautifully graduated, the first or outer 
one being the longest. The secondary quill feathers 
are very short, and occupy the inner edge at the base 
of the primaries, taking up little room, and adding 
nothing to the breadth of the wing as in birds in 
general. The structure of these feathers must not be 
overlooked ; they consist of a strong and peculiarly 
elastic shaft, which in many species is very thick at its 
commencement. On each side of this shaft is the vane, 
composed of narrow, closely set, springy plumelets, so 
compacted together, as to give the idea of a thin 
metallic or horny web, and which, cutting the air at 
every stroke, produces that humming noise which is 
heard, while the bird hovers over the flower, or darts 
arrow-like along. Of the immense strength of the 
pectoral muscles by whose action these long pointed 
wings are thus rapidly agitated, we can scarcely form 
an adequate conception. 

Next to the wings, the tail is the most important 
agent as an organ of aerial progression. It is not only 
the rudder by which a bird direcis us course, or turns 
and wheels, but it adds to the superficies of the body 

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[April 4, 1835. 

Without increasing its weight. In this group the tail 
is ample, but varies extremely in shape ; in some species 
it is square, in others forked, in some pointed, but 
in all it is composed of feathers closely resembling those 
of the wing in texture. Thus is the humming-bird con- 
stituted for flight ; nor is this extremely rapid merely, 
hut it is capable of long continuan— rru ^ 11: "-'-- 
progress of the humming-bird from 
resembles that of a bee, — but is infii 
When, however, the bird is joura 
through the air in long undulations, i 

It has been supposed by many t; 
flowers constitutes the sole food of th 
but such is not the fact. Nectar is n 
their diet, bnt by no means the wh< 
the small insects which lurk in the n 
over the petals, — nay, they even tal 
wing, as was observed by Wilson, wh 
fragments in the stomach of such as 1 
Audubon states, in confirmation, that 
those of the coleopterous order, are th< 
the humming-bird. The bill, fitted fo 
the recesses of flowers, is long and s 
in shape. According to Brisson 
tongue consists of two muscular tul 
which in the humming-bird is mainl 
procuring food, is capable of being pi 
siderable distance, as we see in the 
pecker, &c. Audubon says, that i 
tongue of the humming-bird is covere 
saliva, so that the insect adheres to 
hence the bird has only to dart its t 
and retract it into its mouth. 

Diminutive as they are, these b 
are bold and intrepid, and defend tl 
intruders with the greatest spirit, 
flight give them every advantage in 
bats over birds much larger than the 
eyes they tilt with their sharp-point 
at the same time, a shrill piercing sh 
seldom meet without a battle.: and v 
sitting her mate attacks indiscrimii 
that approaches, exhibiting the utmos 
of the humming-bird varies in differ 
have seen some built on the branch 
attached to the extreme twigs, so i 
breeze. The materials with which the 
are, for the most part, the cotton or 
plants, beautifully interwoven; som< 
outside layer of moss or lichen. It 
number of the eggs laid by the feme 
and their colour pure white. 

That these beautiful and elegant bi 
kept in captivity will not surprise the 
difficulty of preserving them, even in i 
for any length of time, in imprisc 
attempts have, however, been made ; 
sion, two nestlings of a species tei 
hninming-bird were actually brought 
and lived for a short time in the possess 
raond ; they were very docile, and fed 
do not know whether insects were ofl 
Audubon states that he has seen man 
in partial confinement ; and that, wh< 
or syrup exclusively, they soon died in 
tion, but that, when duly supplied i 
(abounding with insects), and surrou 
netting, through which insects could 
in health and were active. Indeed, h< 
stance iu which several were thus kej 
twelve months, when they were resto 
person how attended to them having 

To these instances of domestication we may add 
the following from the * Habits of Birds,' in the 
1 Library of Entertaining Knowledge,' where ft is 
quoted from Labat's * Nouveau Voyage aux lies de 
l'Amerique.' " I showed," says this author, " a nest of 
humming-birds to Father Montdidier, which was 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[April 11, 1835. 


MAPLE IS tn6 uuuiinuii name ui mc utci ^cnua i/i 

plants, of which there are thirty- four species. Nine 
of these belong to North America, twelve to Europe, 
six of great beauty to Japan, and the rest to different 
parts of Asia. The timber of the maple is not adapted 
for works of durability and strength; but, from the 
beauty of its texture, it is peculiarly fitted for orna- 
mental purposes ; and the variety called " curled 
maple " is, on this account, held in great esteem. It 
is capable of being highly polished, and is sometimes 
employed with good effect in inlaying ; but is most 
commonly used for the stocks of fowling-pieces, for 
work-boxes, and other articles in which it is desired to 
combine utility with ornament. Its lightness occasion? 
it to be also frequently used in the manufacture of 
musical instruments. The sap of the maple contains 
a certain quantity of saccharine matter ; *but two of 
this fifenus (acer saccharinvm and acer nigrum) yield 
so abundant a supply as to have obtained for them the 
Vol. IV, 

gvuciui ucrsi^uuiiuii ui me sugar-mapie. The former 

of these trees is found in North Ameriea, between the 
42nd and 48th degrees of latitude, — that is, in the 
northern parts of Pennsylvania, the western portion of 
New York, in Upper Canada, Nova Scotia, and the 
northern parts of New England. The acer nigrum, 
or black maple, flourishes in rather a warmer climate, 
and is most abundant on the banks of the Ohio and 
the great rivers of the western states of America. These 
trees furnish excellent fuel, and the ashes are manu- 
factured into potash. The maple is not surpassed by 
many trees in the variety of purposes in which it may 
be usefully employed. 

The ' Encyclopaedia Americana * states, that maple- 
sugar could be manufactured in sufficient quantities to 
supply the consumption of the United States ; but, of 
course, without any intention of insisting upon the 
advantage of affording national encouragement to this 
domestic manufacture. In the newly-settled parts of 

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[April II, 

the United States, and in Canada, where the inha- 
bitants are often placed at great distances from each 
other, and the opportunity of effecting exchanges is 
very imperfectly enjoyed, domestic manufactures of 
various kinds may be wisely undertaken, to engage 
fn which would obviously be mere waste of time in 
a different and more advanced state of society. Ac- 
cordingly, we find that, even in those districts of 
America where the, sugar-maple abounds, it is only 
in remote parts of the country that its manufacture 
forms a regular branch of rural economy, and where 
a reserve is made by settlers of from 200 to 500 maple- 
trees for a " sugary." 

The sugar is said to equal the common brcrvn sugar 
of the West Indies, and, when refined, to yield to none 
in puruv and sweetness. The produce of a single 
tree appears to vary considerably, by some it is said to 
amount to five or six pounds, and by others it is esti- 
mated as high as thirty-three pounds per tree; but 
this amount can probably be obtained only under a 
concurrence of peculiarly favourable circumstances, and 
in the southern states of America; for in Canada the 
average produce of the season from one tree is stated 
by Evans, in his * Emigrants' Directory and Guide to 
the Canadas,' to be not more than two pounds. The 
sugar is worth from fourpence to seven pence halfpenny 
per pound. Two men can attend to 300 or 400 trees. 
A family may even make 1000 lbs. of sugar in the 
course of a season, which commences towards the end 
of March, and lasts a month ; and fortunately happens 
at a period when agricultural labours have not resumed 
their activity. 

The following account of the process of sugar- 
making- is taken from Evans's ' Emigrants' Directory,' 
quoted above : — " A large gouge, or hollow chisel, 
should be provided, and a piece of dry pine or cedar 
got, and cut into lengths of about nine inches each. 
Tnese pieces should be split into bolts, about an inch 
thick, the breadth of the gouge ; and these bolts again 
split up with the gouge about a quarter of an inch thick, 
by which they will become hollow spouts, like the instru- 
ment with which they are cut, for the sap to run in : 
they should then be pared with a sharp knife at the 
end, to the shape of the edge or poiut of the gouge, so 
that when it is driven half an inch or so into the tree, 
the spout also may be driven into the incision, and fit 
it tightly. Troughs, to receive the sap as it falls from 
the spout, are made of pine, fir, or ash, and being split 
into two, each half piece is hollowed out wiih an axe, 
so as to contain about two gallons. Each tree of ordi- 
nary size will require one, and very large trees two 
troughs. Buckets, which cost about tenpence each, 
save much more of the sap than the troughs. A tree 
will run about a bucket-full per day, on days succeed- 
ing frosty nights with a moderately warm sun to thaw 
the sap. 

'* After all these have been prepared, one or two 
of the troughs being placed under each tree, the person 
holding the spouts, gouge, and an axe, makes with 
the corner of the axe a small sloping notch about an 
inch and a half long, and deep enough to penetrate 
into the wood of the tree about half an inch ; the under 
side of the incision being cut sloping down into the 
tree, so that the sap may run to its lowest point : if fit 
to tap, the sap is seen immediately to ooze from the cut. 
About an inch under that, the gouge is driveu in for 
the spout as before directed, through which the sap is 
conveyed down till it drops into the bucket or trough 
at the foot of the tree, the cut being almost two feet 
from the ground : one man can thus tap about 200 
trees or more in a day. One tapping generally answers 
for the season, and the trees, if not greatly hacked, will 
do for a sugary many years." 

The sap is collected daily and carried to the boiling- 

place, when it should be put into puncheons or barrels ; 
or large logs, hollowed out, will, in case of need, serve 
the same purpose. Mr. Evans gives the following 
directions to be attended to in the process of boiling : 
— " Two stout crotches are fixed upright in the ground 
eight or ten feet asunder, and on them is placed a cross 
stick from which pdls or kettles are hung ; a crook to 
hang them by being made of a crooked piece of wood. 
The fire is made underneath of split or small wood 
between two larger logs rolled on each side. The sap 
should be strained into the boilers, and when boiling 
down, one boiler should be kept filled from the other, 
and that again supplied from the others till the liquid 
be boiled down to the consistency of syrup. It is then 
taken up and strained into a deep narrow vessel, where 
it is left to settle for a day or two. When about being 
sugared off, it is carefully poured from the sediment 
into a small boiler, and again hung over a slow fire ; a 
little milk, or a couple of eggs beat up, being put in 
to clarify it : as it boils it is skimmed, and, after boiling 
about an hour to a proper consistence, it is poured into 
vessels to cool, and stirred occasionally till cold. The 
best mode is not to boil it too dry, Put to pour it into 
a barrel after boiling sufficiently, and when cold the 
sugar begins to crust on the surface in a day or so ; 
after which, by having a few gimlet-holes bored in the 
bottom of the barrel, the molasses will run off, and 
leave after it a clean fair sugar. To prevent the sap 
or syrup from boiling over, about an inch square of fat 
pork should be thrown in once or twice a day, and it 
will be found to have the desired effect. The scum, 
sediment, and last run of the sap from the trees which 
is not good for sugar, should be boiled together, one- 
half down ; and, being barrelled, will, by allowing it 
to ferment, make good vinegar." 


The following account of a visit made by three French 
gentlemen to the salt-mines near Salzbourg, in the 
Austrian dominions, is abridged from a work entitled 
' Voyage d'un Francais aux Salines de Baviere et de 
Salzbourg,' in 1796 ; and a gentleman, who has recently 
visited it, asgures us the description agrees exactly with 
its present state. 

The salt-mines are at a little distance from the small 
town of Hallein, and at the foot of the Durenberg 
mountain. We seated ourselves in sledges, and were 
conveyed to the opening which leads into the interior of 
the mine. Before descending into the mine we equipped 
ourselves in the costume of the miners, which consisted 
of flannel waistcoat and trowsers, and a large white 
cape for the shoulders. These preparations are ren- 
dered necessary by the extreme humidity of the mine, 
which would effectually have destroyed the common 
articles of clothing. We were also supplied with strong 
shoes, a leather apron, and a hood. We then seated 
ourselves on a sort of wooden horse called a * wurst,' 
which moved on four small wheels. Three of the 
miners attached the traces of this machine around their 
waists, and dragged us slowly through a long gallery, 
on each side of which was an aqueduct constructed of 
wood. One of these conveyed a supply of fresh water 
into the mine, and the other carried it off* when it 
had become sufficiently impregnated with salt. In a 
quarter of an hour we reached the first shaft. It is 
not dug in a perpendicular direction," but inclines at 
an angle of about 45°. It was along one of these that 
we were to descend to a depth of about eighty yards. 

The descent is effected in the following manner :— *• 
Two round and smooth beams are placed side by side on 
the lower part of the shaft, about afoot asunder. They 
somewhat resemble the machine used by brewers for 
lowering beer into cellars. They are fixed, and extend 

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[April II, 











This old ruin is situated in Northumberland, and 
stands on a peninsula, formed of stupendous jocks, 
on the north side of the mouth of the river Tyne, and 
to the east of the town of Tytiemouth. It is of very 
remote antiquity — earlier than the eighth century ; but 
no authentic record appears to exist respecting its 
original foundation. 

The choice of the situation, however, appears to 
have been dictated by two motives, security and 
gain. " The exalted height/ says Grose, " on which 
the monastery stood, rendered it visible at sea, a long 
way off, in every direction, where it presented itself, 
as if reminding and exhorting seamen in danger 
to make their vows, and promise masses and presents 

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[Apeil II, 

That the situation, at the mouth of a river, and on 
an elevated site, early recommended the place as suit- 
able both for military defence and religious purposes, 
is evident from the fact that Robert de Mowbray, about 
the year 1090, fled hither, and defended himself within 
its walls against William Rufus, (against whom he 
had conspired ;) but, after a time, finding that he 
could hold out no longer, he sought " sanctuary " at 
the altar of the church, from which, however, he was 
taken by force, carried to Windsor, and, after suffering- a 
tedious imprisonment, was put to death. The monas- 
tery at one time enjoyed considerable wealth. It pos- 
sessed twenty-seven manors in Northumberland, with 
their royalties, besides other valuable lands and tene- 
ments. At the dissolution, in 1539, there was a prior, 
with fifteen prebendaries and three novices. The 
annual revenues of the priory were then estimated 
(separate from ^he Abbey of St. Alban's, on which it 
depended) at 397/. 10*. bd. by Dugdale, and at 
5! XL 4*. id. by Speed. The prior, on the surrender of 
the monastery, received a pension of 80/. per annum. 
The site and most of the lands were granted in the 
5th of Edward VI-. to John Dudley, Earl of Northum- 
berland ; but by his attainder in the next year it 
reverted to the Crown, in which it remained till the 
10th of Elizabeth. During the reign of Elizabeth the 
place was occupied as a fortress, as in a statement given 
by Peck, in his ' Desiderata Curiosa,' of that queen's 
expenses, civil and military, Tyne mouth Castle is set 
down as having a master gunner at the " fee per 
diem " of 8rf., and six inferior gunners at 6d. a-piece. 
Camden, quoted by Grose, says, u It is now called 
Tinemouth Castle, and glories in a stately and strong 

During the^ivil war it was besieged and taken by 
the Scots, in 1644, when thirty-eight pieces of ord- 
nance, and a large store of arms, ammunition, and 
provisions fell into their hands. The garrison were 
allowed to march out with their baggage, but bound 
themselves to submit to the instructions of Parliament. 
A sum of 5000/. was voted to repair the damages it 
had sustained. Colonel Henry Lilburne was made its 
deputy-governor ; but having declared for the King, 
Sir Arthur Hazelrig immediately marched from New- 
castle against him, and stormed the place with almost 
ferocious bravery, the men entering the fortress at the 
very cannon's mouth. During the assault Lilburne 
was slain. 

The following description of the remains is from a 
small work published at North Shields in 1806. It is 
compiled chiefly from Grose ; but as it was printed 
near the spot, and appears to have been in some 
instances corrected from personal inspection, we have 
judged it proper to adopt its statements:— 

" The approach to the Priory is from the west, by a 
gateway tower of a square form, having a circular 
exploratory turret on each corner ; from tins gateway, 
on each hand, a strong double, wall has been extended 
to the rocks on the seashore, which from their great 
height have been esteemed, in former times inaccessible. 
The gate, with its walls, was fortified by a deep out- 
ward ditch, over which there was a drawbridge, defended 
by moles on each side. The tower comprehends an 
outward and interior gateway, the outward gateway 
having two gates, at the distance of about six feet 
from each other, the inner of which is defended by a 
portcullis and an open gallery ; the interior gateway is, 
in like manner, strengthened by a double gate. The 
space between the gateways being a square of about 
six paces, is open above to allow those en the top of 
the tower and battlements to annoy assailants who 
had gained the first gate. 

" On passing the gateway, the scene is strikingly 
noble and venerable ; the whole enclosed area may 
contain about six acres the walls seem as well calcu- 

lated for defence as the gateway tower ; the view ia 
crowded with august ruins; many fine arches of the 
priory are standing. The most beautiful part of these 
remains is the eastern limb of the church, of ^legaut 
workmanship. The ruins are so disunited, that it 
would be very difficult to determine to what particular 
offices each belong. The ruins which present them- 
selves in front, on entering the gateway, appear to be 
the remains of the cloister, access to which was afforded ?- 
by a gateway of circular arches, comprehending several 
members inclining inwards, and arising from pilasters. 
After passing this gate, in the area many modern 
tombs appear, the ground being still used for se- 
pulture. The west gate entering into the abbey is 
still entire, of the same architecture as that leading to 
the eloister. The ground, from the cloister to the 
south wall, is almost covered with foundations, which, 
it is presumed, are the remains of the priory. Two 
walls of the church are standing ; the end wall to the 
east contains three long windows ; the centre window, 
the loftiest, is near twenty feet high, richly ornamented 
with mouldings, some of which are of rose work, and 
others of the dancette, as. the figure is termed in 
heraldry, or zigzag, a decoiation common to old 
Saxon architecture. Beneath the centre window at 
the east end is a doorway of excellent workmanship, 
conducting to a small but elegant apartment, which is 
supposed to have contained the shrine and tomb of 
St. Oswin. On each side of the door is a human head, 
cut in a style much superior to that of the general taste 
of the age in which they are supposed to have been 

The manor of Tynemouth belongs to the Duke of 
Northumberland. But the site of the monastery is 
said to belong to the Crown ; and it was held under a 
lease by Colonel Henry Villars, formerly Governor of 
Tynemouth. Villars obtained permission to erect a 
lighthouse, and to receive 1*. for every English, and 
6d. for every foreign ship anchoring in the harbour of 
Shields. It is stated by Grose, — and the statement is 
repeated in the 4 Border Antiquities,' that Villars pulled 
down many of the old buildimrs to obtain materials for 
erecting the lighthouse, an adjoining barrack, his own 
house, &c, and that he stripped off the lead which, till 
then, had covered the church. In the engraving at the 
head of this article, the relative positions of all these 
buildings are shown. That on the right being the 
barrack the others cannot be mistaken. 


Ooi.d — (continued). 

Gold Mines. — The chief supply of gold, for the last two 
centuries and a-half, has been from South America and 
Mexico. When Columbus landed on the Island of 
Hispaniola, in the year 1491, he found the natives 
wearing ornaments of gold ; and they offered gold-dust 
in exchange. • The natives of the coast of Carthagena, 
and of the Isthmus of Darien, had also many ornaments 
of this metal, some of which were .very massive. But 
from the first discovery of the New World to the year 
1519, when Cortez landed in Mexico, the quantity of 
gold and silver brought to Europe, according to the 
estimate of Humboldt, did not exceed 52,000/. The 
wealth in the precious metals which Cortcz and his fol- 
lowers found in the possession of the chiefs, as they 
advanced into the interior, shows that the Mexicans 
must have made some progress in the art of mining 
before their country was visited by the Europeans. 
The Spaniards were struck with astonishment at Ae 
quantity of gold and silver which they found in common 
use, both for ornaments and for utensils. Pizarro 
landed in Peru in the year 1527; and he also found 
gold used for ornaments, and for vessels of various 
kinds, in considerable quantity. Mines had been 
wrought for the Incas, and the ore was smelted in 

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144 THE PENNY MAGAZINE. [April 11, 18S&. 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

]95 J PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. [April 18, 1885. : 


ni-i. »«r 

yoi. i\. 


The fourth and last picture of the * Election ' we may 
consider to have been in some measure forced upon 
Hogarth by his subject, which required this as the 
completion of the story which he had undertaken to 
relate. This possibly accounts for the circumstance 
that the present is perhaps the least interesting picture 
of the series. The artist has, however, made the most 

detail; the feasting and drunkenness with which the 
affair is to end, is only implied in the present picture. 
One barrel of beer has already been consumed by the 
rabble, one of whom prostrates himself to suck up the 
dregs, while the men beyond him are producing a tresh 
supply. In the large and handsome house on the same 
side of the picture — which belongs to a lawyer, as 

e upper story — 
ned excess. A 
e house for the 
to have assem- 
' their favourite 
)led at the win- 
on is the Duke 
Hogarth's day, 
If personally in 
t now be con- 

:o the punning 
— the sentence 
b of the dial, — 
;man who, not 
tie motto " We 
ial, transferred 

to have been 
toldier who has 
rt at the right- 
bandaged, and 
' the figures in 
ible from dis- 
riving home — 
rrow bone and 
i his cap, and 
>st remarkable, 
"or the sake of 
rks in reference 
tably conclude 

•ty will prevail, 
, which is their 
tnd for a glass 

their lives, in 
in see, entitled 
ly of the em- 
it such is the 
e of an ancient 
we necessarily 
t of a modern 
red garb is a 
tie his leathern 
ire \n freestone 

becomes ele- 
a deity." 
e satirical, we 
aeing perfectly 

It entirely with 
»ssarily involve 
i than is likely 
F less combus- 
town of Tula 
ance to which 
BStruction, has 
ire of London. 
» some of the 
the towns and 
rines, or where 
gmnot be made 
J and effective 
;s which inter- 

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vene between the fire and the direction in which the 
flames are impelled by the wind. In point of fact, this 
seems a far more effectual process than the employment 
of engines. In passing through Russia the writer 
generally observed that fires were most destructive in 
towns possessing engines and a good supply of water, 
on which dependance had been placed for the ex- 
tinction of the flames: whereas in villages destitute 
of these apparent advantages the progress of the 
flames was, in most instances, intercepted by a prompt 
resort to the above process. In the other cases it is 
only resorted to after the engines have been tried, and 
have failed to bring the flames under; and by that 
time it is sometimes too late to employ with effect the 
process by which the progress of the fire might easily 
have been checked in the first instance. The writer, 
among other cases, observed that at the town of Vishnei 
Volotchok, which possessed engines, a long line of the 
best houses in the place, fronting a fine navigable river, 
had been recently burnt down. Afterwards, while 
waiting a day or two at the village of Catherinengard 
for the assembling of the Caucasus caravan, a fire , 
broke out at night with great fury in the house of a 
shop-keeper. As there were no fire-engines, and as 
the fire was at a considerable distance from the river, 
which there flowed through a deep channel and was of, 
difficult access, the strangers were fully prepared to 
expect that the half of the village which lay between \ 
the fire and the river would be completely destroyed, 
as the breeze blew in that direction. But the people 
and soldiers set to work with great energy in pulling 
down the house next to that which was on fire, and in 
the morning it was found that the injury had been ' 
limited to the house in which the fire commenced and 
that which had been taken down. Such water as could ' 
be procured was thrown upon the flames in the one 
house, while another party was employed in taking' 
down the next. 

It should be mentioned that, at least in some parts 
of Russia, the inhabitants entertain the superstitious 
opinion that nothing is so effectual as milk in extin- J 
guishing fires which have been kindled by lightning. , 
Hence fires which thus originate are far more destruc- 1 
tive than any others : for in consequence of the small 
quantity of milk which it is possible to procure, whole 
villages are destroyed which might probably have been 
saved by a plentiful supply of water, and still more 
probably by the process to which we have just adverted. 
This superstitious fancy also prevails in some parts of 

There is perhaps in no place a more remarkable regu- 
lation for the prevention or extinction of fires than that 
which is in force at Tsherkask, the capital of the Don 
Cosacks. On a board which is hung out in public 
view at each door are painted figures of the instru- 
ments which each housekeeper is bound to have in rea- 
diness and to attend with when a calamity of this 
description occurs. Thus, for instance, at one door is 
painted the representation of a hatchet; at another 
that of a water barrel ; and at a third that of buckets, 
crow-bars, ladders, or other requisites. On the first 
alarm of fire the housekeepers are expected to attend 
at the spot with their respective apparatus as denoted 
by the figures at their doors. Thus an adequate sup- 
ply of all the articles which may be wanted on such 
occasions is secured ; and in the absence of organized 
fire-establishments, perhaps a much better plan than 
this could not be devised. 

In Moscow there is a regutft establishment for ex- 
tinguishing fires ; and in appearance, if not in efficiency, 
it is probably not exceeded by any single establishment 
in Europe. The building which forms its head-quar- 
ters is a large edifice of three stories, surmounted by 
an elevated watch-tower; it has two wings, and the 

internal square is surrounded with excellent in«f ex- 
tensive stables, smiths' shops, houses for the fire-en- 
gines, waggons, and fire-apparatus, and with dwelling* 
for the police and the firemen. Everything is there 
kept in the best order : the houses are good, the engines 
are excellent, and always in readiness to be started at a 
moment's warning in cases of fire ; the horses also are 
mostly fine animals. In summer the whole regiment 
of firemen, horses, and fire-apparatus is turned out to 
exercise and to water the roads. When grand enter- 
tainments are given by the court or by the nobility, the 
fire-engines and apparatus, the firemen, and the police, 
are all stationed around the building. 

This establishment looks better than it acts. In St. 
Petersburgh the system pursued more nearly assimilates 
to our own, and is really much more effective than that 
of Moscow. The whole establishment is under the con- 
trol of the police, and the fire-engines, which are pre- 
cisely similar to our own, are kept in constant readiness 
at the several police stations. The number of these 
engines is very considerable, and the firemen form a 
regiment regularly trained and marshalled. A uniform 
process is folk wed in every case of fire. As soon as the 
watchman upon any of the towers discovers a fire, and 
by certain stipulated signals has indicated the district 
in which it is raging, the fire-engines start from every 
station in the city, and proceed to the spot in a given 
number of minutes, which is regulated for every station 
in proportion to the distance which it happens to be 
from the fire. Each of the police stations sends two 
fire-engines ; a third carriage conveys the firemen, four 
others are laden with large tanks of water, and another 
follows laden with fire-ladders and escapes. ' The prin- 
cipal functionaries of the city and of the police are 
bound to give their personal attendance on the least 
alarm of fire. 

It is only within these few years that a Fire Insurance 
Company has been established at St. Petersburgh. Dr. 
Granville informs us that, until the foundation of this 
company, houses in the Russian capital were commonly 
insured in the Phoenix Fire-office in London, which 
.furnished the model on which the new establishment 
has been formed, with some difference as to the mode 
of effecting insurances. He adds : — " The establish- 
ment being without competition for the present, must 
necessarily succeed, and ultimately prove very lucrative 
to the subscribers. The emperor has ordained that the 
statutes of the company shall be published throughout 
Russia; and has secured to it exclusive privileges, 
granted for the space of twenty years, and exempted it 
from all taxes except a fine of twenty-five kopecks 
(paper), 2£</., upon every thousand roubles insured. 
The policies of insurance are also declared to be legal 
representatives of real and substantial property insured ; 
and, as such, they are to be received in courts and at the 
banks. This company has issued* shares to the amount 
of ten millions of roubles, each share being for one 
thousand roubles. None but subscribers virtually and 
permanently resident in Russia were admitted to take 
shares, and no distinction was made as to rank or con- 
dition of society with regard to shareholders. The 
founders reserved to themselves 1900 shares, and 8100 
were sent to the market : of the latter, 3000 were for 
such persons as took from 101 to 200 share! at one 
time ; 3000 for those who took from 51 to 100 shares ; 
and 2100 to those whose number of shares at any time 
did not extend beyond 51. Twenty per, cent, was paid 
at once on the subscribed number of shares ; and the 
profits were to be equally divided among all the share- 
holders f." 

Such is the first fire-insurance office in the Russian 
empire. After this statement of the combustible cha- 
* This was written in 1828. r 
+ Granville's St. Petersburgh, vol. ii. p. 461. 

* u % . 

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[April 10, 

racier of Russian houses, it might be supposed that the 
inhabitants in general would be more than commonly 
anxious to preclude danger from fire, and would exhibit 
much caution in the use of that which is required in 
manufactures and domestic affairs. The writer himself, 
however, is unable to recollect that any instance of this 
struck his attention in the course of an extensive journey 
through Russia. Dr. Clarke, however, relates that, at 
Dedilof, which had often been reduced to ashes, the in- 
habitants dreaded the very sight of a tobacco-pipe. 
Seeing him kindling his pipe, the Siarosla ol the place 
came to him to request that he would not use it, 
especially in the open air, as a casual Spark might again 
involve the inhabitants iu flames. 

Currency.— The common currency at Shendy is the same 
as that at Berber, viz., Dhourra and Dammour. Slaves 
and camels are generally bought with dollars, or whole 
paries of slaves are bartered for Egyptian and Souakin 
merchandise. Of d »llars those are only current that are 
coined in Spain. None pass current but those with the 
inscription « Carolus 1111/ ; and these numerals, or lines, 
must be visible upon the dollar to make it pass at its full 
value. They say that the dollars wilh * Carolus 111. * must 
be of less value because they have only three lines, whence 
they are estimated at one-sixth below the real value. Those 
coined under the Ferdinands lose one-third. Austrian 
dollars are not taken at all. During my stay at Shendy, I 
found a blacksmith secretly employed in adding a 1 to the 
dollars of Charles III., for which he received two measures 
of dhourra per dollar. This distinction of the numerals, it 
is said, was first made by the Bedouins. As it is known 
among the merchants here, little inconvenience arises from 
it. Gold coins have no currency.— Burckhardts Travels 
in Nubia, p. 289. 

Be ward and Punishment in Schools. — A teacher can 
render almost anything a reward or a punishment to his 
pupil by his own manner of considering it. For instance, I 
once had an empty seat placed at my side in the school. I 
soon perceived a child that was mischievous and idle. 1 said, 
• Come here and sit by me, you are too naughty to sit among 
good children ; —I cannot trust you at a distance from me 
till you are better/ The child cried bitterly at what he 
deemed a punishment, and soon behaved well enough to 
resume his former seat. Not long after, I saw another 
whose diligence and attention gave me peculiar pleasure. I 
called him, with a smile, to sit on the same seat. ' Come to 
me/ said I ; * I love to have you near me when you are so 
good/ The smiling happiness of the child sufficiently 
testified his comprehension of the spirit of my arrangements. 
— American Annals of Education. 

Various have been the conjectures and investigations 
concerning the origin of heraldic arms, which has been 
attributed to eras and countries the most remote. It 
has been even asserted that the children of Israel dis- 
played the ensigns of their fathers on their tents, each 
family having some device to distinguish it from others 
of the same tribe. The Emperor Charlemagne is said, 
by the writer of his life, to have been the great regulator 
of armorial bearings ; while others attribute their intro- 
duction to the Emperor Frederic Barbarossa. The par- 
tisans of the well-known Guelphs and Ghibelines were 
distinguished by such devices. But Camden and most 
other writers conclude that the estimation in which 
armorial bearings were held commenced in the expedi- 
tions to the Holy Land ; and it was soon considered 
an especial honour to bear arms that had been displayed, 
even by- an ancestor, in that holy service, if the bearer 
could not boast the still greater distinction of having 
been himself a Crusader. 

It is certain that, from time immemorial, symbolical 
marks were used, for the sake of distinction, in armies, 
and to ornament shields and ensigns. But they were, 
as devices and emblems, assumed according to the 
fancy of the bearer of the shield or ensign, and were 
not hereditary marks of the nobility of a house ; and 

the rank of a man was not then estimated, as it is at 
the present day in Germany, according to the number 
of heraldic quarterings in his shield. Some of the 
earliest specimens of hereditary bearings appear on 
the shields of the reign of Henry I. In that of 
Richard they had become much more common : but 
their hereditary use was not established till the time of 
Henry III., before which period the arms of the son 
frequently varied from those of the faiher. Armorial 
bearings are found on seals as early as the seventh and 
eighth centuries ; and, in the thirteenth century, arms 
on plate were in use. The first instance of their being 
sculptured on sepulchral effigies is of the date 1114, in 
the Temple Church, London, where may be seen several 
curious monuments of the once-powerful and famous 
Knight Templars. The arms on the tomb of Pope 
Clement IV., who died in 1268, is an eacly instance of 
this practice, if it be not, as some suppose, an addition 
of later date. The practice of quartering arms was 
introduced into England by Edward III. Blazoning, 
the attitudes of animals, and the grotesque delineation 
of monsters, owe their origin to Frauce; atid to that 
country we are probably indebted for punning arms, 
which were in fashion in the reign of James I. An 
instance of (his occurs in the case of Sir Peter de Vele, 
or de Vitulis, who bore calves on his ensign. 

By the ancient practice of Europe, unmarried women 
placed their paternal arms in a lozenge. The popes 
had no arms till Boniface VIII., who began his ponti- 
fical reign in 1295. The use of yig. i. 
crests, or cognisances, was, for 
many centuries, confined to royal 
use. Fulk, Earl of Anjou, grand- 
father of Henry II., bore the 
broom-branch (Fig. 1) in his 
penitential pilgrimage to the Holy 
Land ; hence the name of Plan- 
tagenet from Planta genista, the 
Latin name of this shrub, which 
was also the cognizance of Henry 
II. and Richwd II. About the fifteenth century, 
cognisances became universal : minstrels wore them 
suspended by a silver chain ; and the servants of each 
noble were distinguished by having the cognisance of 
their master fixed on the arm, a relic of which practice 
is still exhibited in the badge of the London firemen, 
and the watermen of the city companies on the Thames. 
The sleeve-badge for servants was left off in the reign 
of James I. 

The colours of liveries may in some sort be regarded 
as distinctive badges. The royal liveries of the later 
Plantagenets were white and red ; those of the House 
of Lancaster were white and blue, while the colours of 
the House of York were murrey (dark red) and blue. 
The liveries of the House of Tudor were white and 
green; those of the House of Stuart and those of 
George I., yellow and red. In all the subsequent 
reigns, they have been scarlet and blue. The liveries 
of the different younger members of the royal family 
of George III. were crimson until the accession of 
Willtem IV., when they were changed to scarlet. 
Families often had, and still have, their liveries the 
same colour as their bearings. Animals are considered 
the most noble bearing, and next to these are birds, 
and particularly wild and ravenous birds ; fish are lower 
still in the scale of heraldic dignity, on account of their 
being posterior to either of the former in the order of 
their creation. It is a rule in heraldry that animals, 
birds, &c, are to be considered according to their best 
and most noble qualities : thus a lion or a fox do not 
represent savageness or theft ; but majesty and noble- 
ness are typified by the former, and wit and cunning 
by the latter. 

The following is a statement of the changes that 
have been made in the arms and supporters of our 

Digitized by 





Jifferent monarchs, by which it will be seen that some 
change took place in a great 
proportion of the reigns. A 
knowledge of this is useful in 
ascertaining the dates of ancient 
buildings, &c, on which the 
royal arms are frequently to be 

Edward the Confessor (1041): 
his arms were a cross fleure 
between five martlets, or doves. 
(Fig. 2.) Some antiquarians have 
doubted whether these arms were 
ever used by this monarch, and 
have supposed them to be a 
modern invention. 

William the Conqueror (1066), 
William Rufus (los7), and 
*Heury I. ( 1 106), bore two lions ; 
and their shield, in heraldic lan- 
guage, would he thus described : 
— gules (red), two lions, passant 
gardant, or. (Fig- 3.) 


Stephen (1134). A Sagit- 
tarius, which he is said to have 
adopted because he entered Eng- 
land when the sun was in that 
sign. (Fig. 4.) 

Henry II, (1154). Three lions, 
which are the present English 
arms. (Fig. 5.) 

Richard I. (1189) bore the 
same arms ; and he assumed the 
motto " Dieu etmon droit " after 
an important victory at Gysors. 
His cognisance was the broom- 
plant (Fig. 1). 

John (1199), before he was 
king, used two lions, and after- 
wards three, — the present arms of 

In the reigns of Hen*y III. 
(1214), Edward I. (1272), and Edward II. (1307), 
no alterations were made. 

Edward III. (1327.) His arms, after the fourteenth 

year of his reign, were quartered with those of France ; 

not as at a later period, but a number of fleur de 

Fig. 6. lys were scattered over the shield, 

which is called by heralds " seme." 

(Fig. 6.) It is stated by some 

writers that this monarch, and 

not Richard I., first bore the 

motto " DUu et moji droit." 

Richard II. (1377) bore the 
same arms as his predecessor, 
but sometimes he quartered with 
them the arms of Edward the 
Confessor. At other times they 
were on a separate shield, of which his arms on West- 
minster Hall are an instance. His supporters were 
angels; and he was the first English king by whom 
they were used. 

Henry IV. (1399) quartered his shield ;— the first 
and fourth compartments each having five fleur de lys, 
and the second and third the English lions. His sup- 
porters, according to some antiquaries, were two angels, 
4>tit, according to others, a lion and an antelope. 

Henry V. (1418). The same arms as his prede- 
cessor, except that he reduced the fleur de lys to three, 
in imitation of Charles VI. of France. His supporters 
were antelopes, and his motto " une sans plus" 

Henry VI. (1422) used the same arms and sup- 
porters. This king was the first that used the arched 

Edward IV. (1461). The same arms, surrounded 
with the garter, with a black bull and a white lion for 
supporters. The white rose, so celebrated in the wars 
of York and Lancaster, is found in many painted glass 
windows of buildings of this reign. 

Edward V. (1483). The same arms, with a white 
lion and a white hart for supporters, and sometimes a 
leopard instead of the latter. 

Richard III. (1483). The same arms, with two 
boars, or a bull, on the right hand, and a boar on the 
left, for supporters. Richard's cognisance was a boar, 
whence the old saying — 

The Rat*, ihe Cat*, and Lovell the dog, 
Govern eld England under the Hog. 

Henry VII. (1485). The same arms, with a red 
dragon and a greyhound for supporters. This monarch, 
by his marriage with Elizabeth of York, united ihe 
parties that had borne the red and white roses. 

Henry VIII. (1509). This king's arms and sup- 
porters were, in the early part of his reign, exactly the 
same as those of Henry VII. ; but afterwards his sup- 
porters were a lion crowned, and a red dragon. 

Edward VI. (1547). The same arms, with a lion 
and a griffin for supporters. 

Mary (1553). The same arms; but, after her 
marriage with Philip of Spain, 
she impaled (that is, had side 
by side with her own arms) 
the arms of Spain, which are 
quarterly; — first and fourth, a 
castle, second and third, a lion 
rampant. (Fig. 7.) Her sup- 
porters were a greyhound and a 
crowned eagle, or an eagle and a 
lion rampant, with the motto 
" Veritas temporis Jilia" 

Elizabeth (1558). The same arms as Edward VI. 
This queen, according to Fosbrooke's c Encyclopaedia 
of Antiquities,' added the harp for Ireland ; but in 
almost every instance her arms, both on buildings and 
coins, are without it. Her supporters were a lion and 
a red dragon, her motto sometimes " Semper eadrm" and 
her device* were without number; indeed, so fond was 
she of allemAcal allusions, that the pattern of her dress, 
in some or her pictures, is eyes and ears, and her orna- 
ments serpents. 

James 1. (1603). This king made great alterations 
in the arms. The first quarter 
of his shield was divided quarterly, 
the first and fourth bearing the 
arms of France, the second and 
third, England ; the fourth large 
quarter was the same as the 
first; the second large quarter 
contained the arms of Scotland , 
and the third the harp for Ire- 
land. (Fig. 8.) His supporters 
were a lion and unicorn, and his 
motto " Beati pacijici" 

Charles I. (162b). Exactly 
the same as the preceding. 

(1649). The Commonwealth 
did not adopt the royal arms, but 
used instead two long shields; 
on the dexter, or right, shield was 
a St. George's Cross, and on the 
sinister, or left, a harp. (Fig. 9.) 
The motto on the coins was " God 
with us" 

* Ratdifle and Catwby, the well-known inttniments of Richard's 
alleged atrocities. 

Fig. 8. 





*v_ «■ 



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Oliver Cromwell's shield was divided quar- 











terly. The first and fourth quar 
ters contained a St. George's 
Cross, the second a St. Andrew's 
Cross, and the third a harp. In 
the centre of the shield, in a small 
oval like an escutcheon of pre- 
tence, was a lion rampant, Crom- 
well's private arms. (Fig. 10.) 
On some of his coins was inscribed 
" Pax quteritur Bello" and on the 
rim of his crown pieces " Has nisi 
perUurus mihi adimal nemo" r 

Charles II. (1660), and James II. (1685), used the 
same arms as James I. 
William and Mary (1689), also the same as James I. ; 
but in the centre of the shield a 
lion rampant on a field, seme* of 
billets for Nassau. (Fig. 11.) 
The motto of William was some- 
times " Dim et mon droit" at 
others " Je maintiendray" — as 
in the window of Lincoln's-Inn 
Chapel. The coins of William 
and Mary have two heads on 
the obverse, as have those of 
Philip and Marjy* 

Anne (1702). The arms were 
the same as those of James I. till 
the union with Scotland, after 
which the arms of England and 
Scotland were impaled in the first 
and fourth quarters. France occu- 
pied the second quarter, and Ire- 
land the third. (Fig. 12.) Her 
motto was sometimes " Semper 

George I. (1714). The same 
~~ns as before, except that the 
irth quartering contained the 
ns of Brunswick, instead of 
i gland and Scotland impaled. 

'iff. 13.) 

George II. (1727). The 
ne as the preceding. 
George III. (1760). The 
ne, till the union with Ireland, 
ien the arms of France were 
— litted. Then also the first and 
fourth quarters were for England, 
the second for Scotland, the third 
for Ireland; the centre of the 
shield being occupied by an escut- 
cheon of pretence, containing the 
arms of Brunswick surmounted 
by an electoral crown. In 1814, 
when Hanover was erected into a 
kingdom, the electoral crown was 
changed toarovalone. (Fig. 14.) 
George IV. (1820), and Wil- 
liam IV. (1830). The same as the preceding. The 
supporters of the royal arms, under all the monarchs 
since James I., have been the lion and the unicorn; 
and all the kings of the House of Brunswick have used 
the motto " Dim et tnon droit." The motto of George 
IV., when Prince of Wales, consisted of the two 
German words " Ich dim" (I serve). It was first 
assumed by Edward the Black Prince, who is said to 
have taken it from John, King of Bohemia, whom he 
slew at Cressy. 

Eg. 14. 


Torquay is situated in a sheltered cove in the north- 
east angle of Torbay, at the distance of twenty-three 
miles from the city of Exeter, thirty-three from Ply- 
mouth, and fourteen from the southern borders of 
Dartmoor. Torbay is the largest bay on the coast of 
Devonshire. It lies midway between the rivers Dart 
and Teign, bounded by Hope's Nose on the north-east, 
and by the Berry Head on the south, and forms an 
irregular semilunar outline of about fourteen miles in 
circumference. The shores of this fine bay are formed 
by a series of cultivated hills, varying in height from 
100 to 500 feet : these hills in general slope gently to 
the shore, although at times they rise above the coast 
with a rugged and abrupt appearance. Torquay and 
Brixham, well known as the landing-place of Wil- 
liam III., are the only towns on the coast of Torbay ; 
about midway between them on Jhe western shore is 
the village of Paignton, the ancient residence of the 
Bishops of Exeter. 

The cove in which Torquay is situated is formed by 
three limestone hills of about 200 feet in height, be- 
tween which run two valleys, one towards the romantic 
hamlet of Babicombe, the other towards the village 
of Tor Moham. Torquay is built in streets and ter- 
races along these hills, on the shores of the cove, and in 
the valleys ; many houses, however, are built as villas 
on the rising grounds, and are surrounded by distinct 
plantations. This peculiar formation gives Torquay a 
singularly romantic and picturesque appearance. 

It is only within the last half century that this town 
has attained any consequence as a resort for invalids. 
Although abounding in objects of great natural attrac- 
tions, it was known only as a fishing village, and little 
frequented by the tourist, until the late Sir Lawrence 
Palk brought it into notice, by the erection of the pre- 
sent pier, by the establishment of an hotel, and by 
affording encouragement to the building of commodious 
houses. Opportunities being thus afforded of investi- 
gating the character of the climate and the merits of the 
place as a winter residence, the fame of Torquay was 
soon established as a suitable resort for invalids labour- 
ing under pulmonary diseases. Its sheltered situation 
from the north and east winds, the mildness and steadi- 
ness of its temperature, the extent of its exercise-ground, 
and its comparative freedom from the sea fogs which 
prevail so much along the southern shores of England, 
render Torquay superior to all the other watering-places 
on the coast. 

The climate of Torquay is a subject of so much im- 
portance both to the invalid and the medical philosopher, 
that we regret that our limits are too brief to allow us 
to enter upon it here as fully as we could have desired. 
The mean temperature of the six winter months, from 
November to April inclusive, during the seasons 1829-80, 
1830-31, and 1831-32, was 46°43'. The mean monthly 
range of temperature, as deduced from the observations 
made in the above seasons, is 26° 1' ; the mean daily 
range about 4°. The variation between the minimum 
of the night and the temperature of the following 
morning at eight o'clock, during the entire season, is 
3° 15'; and during the three winter months only 2° 29 . 
The highest temperature noticed in the six months at 
2 p.m., during the severe season of 1829-30, was 66° ; 
the lowest, by the register thermometer, 20° : during 
the season 1830-31, the highest was 64°, the minimum 
21°; and during the season 1 S3 1-3 2, the maximum 
was 67°, and the mmimum 30°. The temperature of 
the springs around Torquay is about 51° during the 
winter season *. The prevailing winds are west and 
south-west ; the latter continues for a considerable time 

* ' Panorama of Torquay ; a Description and Historical Sketch 
of the District between the Dart and Teign/ By Octavian Blewitt 
London, 1832. 

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[April 18 # 1835. 

The whole of the fine country of which we have here 
given a brief and rapid sketch is richer than any other 
English district of the same extent in botanical produc- 
tions,— hence the botanist will find it a fertile field of 
research and inquiry. The antiquary will be equally 
interested in the Roman, Danish, and Saxon antiquities 
of the neighbourhood ; and the geologist will not fail 
to derive from the surrounding country both profit and 
pleasure. The scenery of Torquay is deservedly cele- 
brated for its soft and picturesque beauty ; indeed it 
abounds with subjects for the pencil of the artist. The 
rock scenery of the coast is bold and varied ; and from 
the surrounding heights the eye ranges over a wide 
tract of cultivated country, adorned with hedgerows 
and plantations, diversified by hill and dale, and 
bounded in the distance by the misty tors of Dartmoor. 

Extract from a letter from Bujukdere.—" I was walking 
with two friends along the main-street of one of the adjacent 
villages, when a confused murmur of voices drew my atten- 
tion. I found that it proceeded from a mosque immediately 
at our elbow, and upon inquiring whether we might venture 
to go in,— for no stranger is allowed to enter a Turkish 
mosque without express permission,— I was answered in the 
affirmative. Following the direction from which the noise 
proceeded, we mounted a flight of steps, and instead of 
finding ourselves launched into a place of worship, we dis- 
covered that we had made our way into a roomy apartment, 
containing tables near the walls, at which a number of 
Turkish boys of all ages were posted with book in hand. It 
proved to be the village school ; and scarcely a better one, 
as I afterwards learnt, is to be met with in Constantinople 
itself. In one corner of the apartment we observed the master 
reclining upon a decent carpet ; he was an old mullah, or 
ecclesiastic, with an enormous turban on his head, a long 
grey beard, yellow kaftan, and legs crossed in the true 
Turkish fashion. His left hand held a long pipe, which he 
was smoking ; and his right lay quietly in his lap. except 
that it was now and then agitated by a fidgetty motion, as 
ir something particular affected its owner. On his left we 
remaiked a bag of tobacco, and in front of him a ponderous 
tome, probably the Koran; while an enormously, long 
bamboo cane, which reached from the floor to ihe ceiling, 
stood against the wall on his right hand. lie saluted us on 
our entrance with a nod of the head, but did not rise from 
his seat, or suffer his mouth to part for an instant from his 
pipe. The score and a half of urchins who were standing 
or kneeling, as their size required them, behind the tables, 
with carpets fur their feet, were momentarily drawn off from 
their tasks by our appearance ; but an involuntary glance 
at their master's brow, or perhaps some warning from the 
fingers of his right hand, which had not moved from his 
la«>, set them all to work again. They appeare<kto be learn- 
ing to read, and had certainly made considerable progress, 
as there was no spelling going on. All were reading rapidly, 
and as each of them was reading aloud, and none the 
same matter, I leave you to conceive the noise and confusion 
of tongues that filled the room. The bigger boys, or rather 
the wiser ones (for there were several little fellows among 
them), seemed to act as under-master* : for they were not 
reading, like the rest of their comrades, but were hearing 
and correcting them, and this not merely by word of mouth, 
but with the assistance of certain very unceremonious boxes 
on the ear. One diminutive urchin in particular, who was 
quick as lightning in correcting a lapsus lingua*, made no 
scruple of doubling his Lilliputian fists, and directing them, 
might and main, at the face of a huge and seemingly 
incorrigible dunce, with whom he was playing the part of 
monitor; reckless, by the way, on what his blows fell, 
whether the giant's nose or his neighbours. Throughout 
the whole scene, the pedagogue in the corner lay quietly 
smoking his pipe on his carpet as if he had not a limb to 
move. One of my companions, who had a quantity of burnt 
almonds in his pocket, in a fit of mischief suddenly let them 
loose in the middle of the room. It was worth a day's 
purgatory to see the rout which ensued: monitors and 
scholars with one accord dropped their books out of their 
fingers, and gave chase to the prey; and the whole lot 
would have been devoured in a trice, had not the old 

mullah's fingers found their way nimbly to the bamboo- 
cane, and without costing him the pains of uncrossing his 
legs, or even displacing his darling pipe, he belaboured the 
poor devils' backs with it in every direction ; for there was 
not a corner of the room which could escape its cruel length. 
All ran back to their posts as if Jack Ketch had been at 
their heels, and we ourselves took to our heels and made a 
rapid exit into the street/* You have here the model of a 
Turkish school before you. — From the Journal of Education, 

American Aphorisms on Education. — " Good mFtruction 
is better than riches," was the motto that William Penn, 
the illustrious founder of Pennsylvania, placed on the seal of 
a literary incorporation, granted by him 1*0 years ago. 
" In proportion as the structure of a government gives force 
to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should 
be enlightened,'* said Washington. '• A well -instructed 
people alone can be a permanently free people," said Madi- 
son. " Make a crusade against ignorance,'* said Jefferson. 


[From * Correspondent. J 


[Shell-Slug, with the interior and exterior of its Shell.] 

The Shell-slug of which the above is a representation, 
was recently found in a garden in Gloucestershire. 
When at its full length, it measured from an inch-and- 
a-half to two inches. The upper part of its body is of 
a pale colour, very thickly marked with exceedingly 
minute black spots, which unite in an irregular manner ; 
and on the back are three dark stripes, which are more 
distinctly visible in some individuals than in others; and 
it is altogether much darker when collapsed, the light 
colour almost entirely disappearing. The under part 
of the body is of a bright salmon colour, more vivid in 
some specimens than in others. The greatest pecu- 
liarity in this slug is a small shell, a, resembling some 
of the smaller limpet shells, which covers the hinder 
end of the body : what purpose so small a shell answers, 
as the slug has not the power of retiring into it, we 
have not as yet a sufficient acquaintance with its 
economy to* be able to determine. The shell, when 
separated from the slug, is semi-transparent. While in 
its natural position, its colour appears nearly the same 
as that of the back of the slug : o and c represent the ex- 
terior and interior of the shell when separated from the 
slug. These slugs are found in gardens about eight or 
ten inches below the surface of the ground ; and they 
feed on earthworms. A worm, an inch in length, which 
was placed, in a box covered with glass, with three of 
these slugs, soon fell a prey to one of them ; but a 
worm, three inches in length, writhed so violently when 
seized that it succeeded in getting away. Afterwards, 
it probably became impeded in its movements by the 
slime of the slugs; for in a few hours they had devoured 
it, as well as two others of nearly equal length. It was 
observed that two of the slugs made their repast at the 
same time at the two extremities of one of the worms. 
These slugs appear to have been only lately discovered, 
and very little is at present known of their habits. 

••• The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge U at 

59. Lincoln's lun Fields. 


Printed by William Clowes, Duke Sttect. Lambeth, 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[April 25, 1885. 


[Kagle't Nest. J 

The Falcon genus of birds forms a very extensive 
division of the diurnal birds of prey. Upwards of a 
hundred and fifty alleged species have been described; 
but of these many are very little known, and not a 
few of them are mere varieties resulting from age, sex, 
or climate. Few of the species assume the adult plumage 
until three or four years of age; and this circum- 
stance alone has occasioned many mistakes which 
cannot be corrected until the law which regulates the 
change of plumage in every instance has been ascer- 
tained. They are chiefly distinguished from the vulture 
tribe by having the neck and head covered with 
feathers, and by the prominency of the eyebrows, which 
gives to the eyes a sunken appearance. The female 
is, in almost every instance, one-third larger than the 

In the present very unsatisfactory state of the di- 
visions in this genus, we need only state that the eagles 
form a large section of the genus Falcon, and include 
not only the largest species which belong to it, but the 
most powerful and courageous of the bird* of prey. 
They have a very strong beak, which is of considerable 
length, straight at its base, and bent only towards the 
point. The legs are strong and covered with feathers, 
even to the ends of the toes, which are armed with 
powerful and very crooked claws. 

We shall confine the remainder of our statement to 
the Great Eagle, under which term we shall consider 
that there are included the following, which by different 

Vol. IV. 

naturalists have been set down as distinct species:-— 
the common eagle, the royal eagle, the golden eagle, 
the ring-tailed eagle, the white -tailed eagle, and the 
black eagle. Recent naturalists are disposed to con- 
sider that all these terms apply to the same bird under 
different circumstances. The male is about three feet 
long, and the female three feet and a half, the out- 
stretched wings generally measuring between seven and 
eight feet; but these dimensions are sometimes ex- 
ceeded. The female is not only larger but in a state 
of freedom, appears to possess more courage and sub- 
tlety than the male. 

In a clear sky, the great eagle soars to a vast height, 
but flies lower in cloudy weather. He rarely quits the 
mountains to descend into the plains ; and whenever 
this does happen, it is generally in the winter season, as 
will appear from an examination of the dates at which 
eagles have been shot or captured in the plain country. 
His immense muscular power enables him to contend 
with the most violent winds. Ramond relates that, 
when he had reached the summit of Mount Perdu, the 
most elevated point of the Pyrenees, he saw no living 
creature but an eagle, which passed above him flying 
with inconceivable rapidity in direct opposition to a 
furious wind from the south-west. The flight of the 
great eagle is so high that the bird often ceases to be 
discernible by the human eye ; but even at this distance 
its cry, which has been compared to the barking of a 
small dog, can still be heard ; and such is the amazing 

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[Ap*il 8ft 

acuteness of its own sight that, when too high in the 
air to be visible to man, it can mark out a hare or even 
a smaller animal that may be upon the ground, and 
darts down upon it with an unerring aim. 

This bird, with its bold glance, proud air, elevated 
flight, and strength of limb, combined so many of the 
qualities which are commonly esteemed noble, that he 
was called by the ancients the " Celestial Bird ;" and, 
in their mythology, was the messenger of Jupiter and 
the bearer of his thunderbolts. Its figure in gold or 
silver upon the end of a spear, was the military ensign 
of the Romans and Persians. Modern potentates have 
followed the example; and, in heraldry, the figure of 
the eagle has been adopted as the emblem of power. 

The great eagle, although nowhere a common bird, 
is very extensively diffused over the world, being found 
in the mountainous regions of Europe, in various parts 
of Asia, and in Africa (at least in the Atlas chain, for 
the species which have been met with by travellers 
generally in that continent have not been well defined)' 
it is also found in North America, where, however, 
it is even more than ordinarily rare. It likewise ap- 
pears in the mountains of Great Britain and Ireland, 
but not so commonly as supposed, because the osprey is 
often mistaken for it by common observers. It is of 
- importa/ice that when an eagle happens to be shot it 
should be examined by some neighbouring naturalist in 
order to determine the species. Of the several instances 
of eagles which in the course of years have been 
captured in this country, we select from the. * Annual 
Register ' two or three which seem the most remark* 

The largest specimen of the great eagle which, to 
the best of our knowledge, has ever been met with in 
England was that shot at Warkworth, in 1735, which 
measured eleven feet three inches across the outstretched 

In March, 1769, as some gentlemen were hunting 
near Lake Tay, in the county of Wicklow, Ireland, a 
large eagle hastily descended and seized their terrier. 
This being observed by some of the party, they en- 
couraged the dog, who, turning on the eagle as it 
continued to soar within a few feet of the ground, 
brought it down by seizing a wing, and held it fast till 
it was secured by the gentlemen present. This bird 
measured seven feet across the witigs. 

On the 2nd of December, 1798, one was shot in a 
garden at Horsham. It was on the wing when ob- 
served, beset by upwards of a hundred rooks, whose 
noise attracted the notice of the person by whom it was 
shot while at a considerable distance, and gave him 
time to procure a loaded gun. It measured seven feet 
three inches across the outspread wings ; and as it was 
but slightly wounded in the pinion, it was alive at the 
time the account was furnished. 

On the 29th of November, 1S04, an eagle was shot 
at Stockfield Park, near Wetherby, by the gamekeeper 
of the Countess of Aberdeen, in the grounds near the 
house. It received the shot of three discharges before 
it was secured ; and even after being disabled it de- 
fended itself so powerfully as to elude every device of 
the gamekeeper for seizing it, till he thought of pre- 
senting to it the muzzle of his gun, which it seized and 
, held so firmly as to hang suspended from it by the 
beak while he carried it home. It measured nine feet 
four inches between the extremities of the wings, and 
the beak, talons, and legs indicated a strength pro- 
portioned to these dimensions. It continued to live for 
some time after the capture. 

Eagles cannot be tamed without great difficulty. 
European falconers stigmatised them as " ignoble " 
because they could not train them to assist in field- 
sports like the hawks, or ". noble falcons." The Tartars, 
however, have been able to effeet this ; they take the 

eagles young, and train them to assist in the chase of 
hares, foxes, antelopes, and even wolves. Perhaps, how- 
ever, the bird thus employed, which travellers call an 
eagle, is only a species of hawk, like the cherkh y which 
is similarly employed in Persia. A pamphlet was, some 
years ago, published by Professor Reisner of Germany, 
with the object of showing that eagles might be em- 
ployed to direct balloons. He states the number of 
birds which would be necessary, according to the 
dimensions of the machine, and gives directions for the 
mode in which they should be harnessed, trained, and 

The following account of the eagle which was in the 
Garden of Plants, at Paris, in 1807, was copied from 
the French journals of the time into the c Annual' 
Register* for that year, and may be suitably introduced 
in this place. " There has been for some time in the 
Garden. of Plants, an eagle, which her Majesty the 
Empress sent thither, and which is as much dis- 
tinguished by his beauty as by a silver ring which he 
carries in one of his talons. It was originally domesti-. 
eated with an English game-cock, which has at last 
served him for food. It is not known whether the 
death of the game-cock was produced by his own fierce- 
ness, — by some movement of anger,— or merely by the 
hunger of the eagle. The following is the history of 
the eagle since he lost his liberty. He was taken in 
the forest of Fontainbleau, in a trap set for foxes, 
the spring of which broke his claw. His cure was 
tedious, and attended by a painful operation, which 
was borne by the eagle with a patience not often 
exceeded in man. During the operation, his head 
only was at liberty, and of this he did not avail 
himself to oppose the dressing of the wound, from 
which several splinters were taken, nor did he at- 
tempt to disturb the apparatus which the fracture re- 
quired. Swathed in a napkin, and laid on one side, 
he has passed the entire night upon straw without the 
least motion. The next day, when all the bandages 
were unwrapped, he lodged himself upon a screen, 
where he remained twelve entire hours without once 
resting on his unsound foot. During all this time he 
made no attempt to escape, though the windows were 
open. Yet he rejected all nourishment until the thir- 
teenth day of his captivity, when he tried his appetite 
upon a rabbit which had been given to him. He seized 
it with his uninjured claw, and killed it with a stroke 
of his beak between the head and the first vertebra of 
the neck. Alter having devoured it ? he resumed his 
usual place upon the screen, from whence ho stirred 
no more until the twenty-first day after his accident. 
Then he began to try the wounded limb ; and without 
in the least deranging the ligature by which it was 
bound, he has regained the use of it by moderate and 
reasonable exercise. This interesting creature has 
passed three months in the room of the servant who 
attended to him. As soon as the fire was lighted he 
came up to it, and suffered himself to be caressed ; at 
bed-time he mounted his screen, as close as possible 
to the attendant's bed, but removed to the opposite 
extremity as soon as the lamp went out. Confidence 
in his own powers appeared to exempt him from 
any kind of distrust. It is impossible to show more 
resignation, more courage, and one might almost be 
tempted to say, more reason, than was exhibited by this 
eagle during the long continuance of his illness. He 
is of the most beautiful kind, and does not appear to 
experience the least weakness in consequence of the 
accident which robbed him of his libcrty. ,, 

The female lays two, and sometimes, but rarely, 
three eggs annually, on which she sits for thirty days. 
The nest, which is called an " eyrie," is usually placed 
in the hollow or fissure of some high and abrupt rock, 
and is constructed with sticks of five or six feet in 

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length, interlaced with pliant twigs, and covered with 
layers of rushes, heath, or moss. It has no hollow, like 
the nests of most other birds, but is properly a raised 
platform. Unless when accidentally destroyed, it is 
supposed to suffice, with occasional repairs, for the 
same couple during the whole period of their lives. 
Sometimes the platform-nest is thrown across, between 
the edge of the rock and any suitable trees that happen 
to be near it. A nest of this sort is thus described 
by Willughby : — " In the year of our Lord 1668, in 
the woodlands near the river Derwent, in the Peak of 
Derbyshire, was found an eagle's nest made of great 
sticks, resting on one end on the edge of a rock, the 
other on two birch- trees ; upon which was a layer ofj 
rushes, and over them a layer of heath, and upon the 
heath rushes again, upon which lay a young one and 
an addle egg ; and by them a lamb, a hare, and three 
heath-poults. The nest was about two yards square, 
and had no hollow in it." 

It is commonly said that the mother eagle frequently 
destroys the most voracious of her brood. There does 
not, however, appear to be the least evidence for the 
truth of this assertion. It is true, that scarcely ever 
more than two eaglets, and frequently but one, are 
found in the nest ; but, until we have better evidence 
on the subject, we should, in justice, attribute this 
rather to the infecundity of the eggs than to the bar- 
barity of the mother. It is more certain that the 
parents will not allow their offspring to live in idle- 
ness longer than necessary ; for as soon as they can fly 
they are driven from the eyrie and left to shift for them- 
selves. It is also observed that eagles are never disturbed 
by others of their kind in the continued occupation of 
the spot which they have fixed upon for their eyrie. 
These circumstances are finely alluded to by Thomson 
in his ' Spring.' 

" High from the summit of a craggy cliff, 
Hung o'er the deep, such as amazing frowns 
On utmost Kilda's shore, whose lonely race 
Resign the setting sun to Indian worlds, 
The royal eagle draws his vigorous young, 
Strong pounced, and ardent with paternal fire. 
Now fit to raise a kingdom of their own, 
He drives them from his fort, the tow'ring seat, 
For ages, of his empire j which in peace, 
Unstain'd he holds, while many a league to sea 
He wings his course, and preys in distant isles." 


[From a Correspondent. ] 

In Catholic countries Easter relieves people from the 
long fasting of Lent, and is for that and many other 
reasons, at some of which I shall hint, an especially gay 
and genial season. The awful solemnities of the Setti- 
niana Santa, or holy week, during which the severities 
of penance are increased, and which immediately pre* 
cedes Easter Sunday, give the charm of contrast to 
the festival in a degree unknown in Protestant coun- 
tries, where (to the mass of the people) all times 
and seasons are pretty equal, except so far as they are 
affected by heat or cold, clouds, rain, sunshine, or other 
changes of weather. I do not intend to describe the 
holy week's solemnities, which are seen in their greatest 
and truly imposing perfection at Rome; nor have I 
for the present any wish of telling how Easter is kept 
among the wealthier classes, and in the different parts of 
Italy where the mode of the observances varies in a slight 
measure. My present recollections bear wholly upon 
the kingdom of Naples, and relate chiefly to the body of 
the people and to humble individuals who, as*scrupulous 
observers of the fasts of the church, enjoy its feasts and 
holidays with greater zest than the upper classes, whose 
Catholicism, generally speaking, is much le6S strict. 

From the hour of noon of the Thursday of the holy 
week, no wheeled carriages of any kind are allowed to be 
used in the cities and towns. All conditions of people, up 
to the court and king, must walk humbly on foot. The 
troops in patrole and the sentinels at their posts, all 
carry their arms reversed. The numerous church bells 
are all silenced, the market places deserted, the shops 
shut up, and all possible external means adopted that 
may denote a season of solemn silence, penitence, and hu- 
miliation. A Sunday at Naples is the noisiest of all days, 
but on the Holy Thursday and Good Friday I have seen 
that populous city as still as a Scotch town on the sabbath. 
In all the provincial towns, as well as in the capital, 
some of the principal churches are converted into sad and 
sometimes striking scenes. The light of day is excluded, 
and in the darkest recess ol niche of the church there is 
the representation of a sepulchre, with the figure of our 
Saviour lying in it. All round the sepulchre the walls are 
hung with black cloth, while a few large wax torches 
throw a concentrated light within the body of the tomb, 
leaving all the rest of the church in a semi-obscurity, 
doubtful and vapoury, which is increased by the blueish 
grey smoke of the incense that is almost continually 
burning. If Protestant notions are opposed to such 
scenic representations, they ought to take no offence at 
the exquisite, solemn, and almost Divine music that is 
frequently performed on these occasions in the churches. 
The 'Stabat Mater dolorosa ' ofaCimarosa, aPergolesi, 
or a Paisiello, cannot be listened to by any man who 
has a soul within him, without profound and religious 
emotion ; and to the deep impression made by such music 
on the poorest, least enlightened, and coarsest of the 
people, I have been witness a hundred times. 

TheBe churches are thrown open on the afternoon of 
Holy Thursday ; and, until a late hour of the evening, are 
visited in succession by people of all ranks, who are 
blended together without distinction, and who all go 
humbly on foot — a religious commemoration producing 
for a time an almost perfect semblance of equality. The 
court, the nobility, the gentry, and now indeed the mass 
of the citizens of Naples, dress in deep black on this 
occasion, and the peasantry, who flock into the city in 
all directions, wear their best clothes. The Strada To- 
ledo, or principal street, though quite as much crowded 
as I lately described it to be on a grand carnival day, 
presents as different an aspect as can well be imagined. 
Not a Bingle wheel rolls over its rattling lava pavement — 
not a laugh, scarcely a voice is heard. All is hushed, ex- 
cept here and there, where the sounds of sacred music 
float through the open doors of a church, or when at 
nightfall the king and court walk back to the palace pre- 
ceded by a crash of music. 

On the following day (Good Friday) the ceremonies 
are continued with some additions, and on Saturday at 
noon the church bells are set again in motion. Coaches, 
gigs, carts, begin again to dash and roll through the 
streets, the shops are thrown open, the markets become 
crowded. Naples is the same noisy place as usual, the 
garments of mourning disappear, and whichever way you 
turn you see wholesale preparations for Easter feasting 
and jollity. The purveyors of all kinds of provisions 
have their hands full of business, but the butchers' and 
bakers' shops present the most curious scenes. In the 
former, lambs and young kids, sheep and quartered bul- 
locks, partially covered over with flowers and tinsel, or 
gilding, such as we find on our gingerbread, are displayed 
with much effect ; whilst in the bakers! shops heaps of a 
particular kind of bread, only used^jiils season are 
piled up in full view of the public. iFhe shops where 
eggs are sold in large quantities are also curious to 
behold, for all the egg-shells, instead of being white, 
are dyed red, by being dippetrin a decoction, which, I 
believe, is generally m&a&qf log- wood : and hence 
arose the amusing mistake of a hurriejrtourist, who hap- 

X z 

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[April 25, 

pening to be a day or two at Naples during Easter week , 
made " a brief in bis note-book," that, contrary to the 
general habit of their species, all the Neapolitan hens 
laid red eggs. 

I believe at one time this practice of dyeing eggs at 
Easter was common to all Catholic countries. In some 
districts in the north of England the custom of present- 
ing the " Pasch-egg," which is an egg dyed or stained on 
the shell, to young people, at Easter-time, still obtains. 

The Paschal, or Easter bread (called in the patois of 
the country cauatielli), used by the Neapolitans, is 
made in the form of a hollow circle, or ring, indented and 
roughened on the top and the outer sides, and held by 
them to be a pretty correct imitation, both in form and 
size, of the crown of thorns worn by our Saviour at his 
crucifixion. This rough circle is studded here and there 
with eggs, which are sunk in the dough with their shells 
on, and so baked in the oven with the bread. I never 
saw the preparation, or the materials mixed with the 
dough; but these cassatielli are beautifully white, rather 
sweet, anil altogether very delicious bread. 

There is also a curious dish used at this season, and 
meant to imitate the> crown of thorns, at least in shape ; 
this consists of a number of rings or hollow circles, 
about three inches in diameter, made of a thick kind 
of batter* and fried over a quick fire. These symbolical 
circle* are called teppoli. If I remember riglit, they 
make tkeir appearaiice, like our pancakes, on Shrove 
Tuesday, and are eaten through all the Quarisima, or 
Lent ; but they reappear among the good things of 
Pasqua, or Easter. But nearly everything eaten at this 
season, from the Paschal lamb to the household bread, 
has some reference to the mysteries of our religion. 
With what is considered an appropriate change of 
dishes, forms, and materials, the same thing occurs at 
Christmas, Whitsuntide, and the other high festivals of 
the Church. The Neapolitan people have tenaciously 
retained all these old customs, which have gradually 
been passing away in most of the other countries of Eu- 
rope. They have still a running margin to their church 
rubric, in which they mark the dishes d'obbligo, or 
appropriate to each particular season ; and thus, in the 
course of a year, they may be said to eat through a 
course of ecclesiastical chronology and belief. Even 
the very poorest make an effort to keep up these old 
usages, and often pinch their bellies for a week, in order 
to be able to feast on the proper ingredients at the next 
festival. The people of the capital — the Napolitani and 
mangia maccaroni par excellence — who are rather noto- 
rious for their improvidence, occasionally make too great 
sacrifices on this head. I have known a fellow sell his 
only jacket to buy zeppoli and spezrato at Easter ; and 
have heard of another who took the bed from under him 
that he might feast upon capitoni, or fat eels,* at Christ- 
mas ; nor are such instances by any means rare. 

Although Naples contains a population of 400,000, 
ITiave often wondered, on the Saturday, how the moun- 
tains of provisions and good things exposed in the 
market-places, and in the shops all over the city, could 
possibly be consumed ; but the feasting of Easter Sun- 
day alone pretty generally disposes of all that, and the 
festivity is kept up, con brio, the Monday and Tuesday 
following. On Easter Monday the city of Naples is 
crowded, bustling, and noisy in the extreme. The 
country-people in the neighbourhood, — men, women, 
and children,;— flock into town, and indulge in their 
favourite propensity of driving about like mad in hack 
coaches, calessi, carriboli, or any kind of vehicle that 
will run upon wheels. They refresh themselves (and 
sometimes powerfully) at the taverne, or public houses, in 
the suburbs ; but 1 should not say that drunkenness is 
frequent among them even on Easter Monday. 

* These eels are always eaten on Christmas Ere, as we eat 
plum-pudding and roast beef on Christmas-day. 
[To \* continued] 


Thb bonded peasant is bound to pay undeviating obedience 
to his lord, to render due service to him, (which service the 
law has fixed at three days in the week for each married 
couple,) and to pay the tribute which his lord imposes upon 
him. The public authorities are bound to lend their- aid 
to the lord at all times. The bondsman is not, nowever, 
compellable to obey any orders contrary to law which his 
master may require him to execute. He cannot marry 
without the consent- of his master, nor can he be forced to 
marry against his own inclination. If there be any want 
of marriageable females on an estate, or the whole peasantry 
are allied by blood, and a neighbouring lord be possessed 
of such females, in such case the purchase of females may 
be effected ; and in cases where neither the lord nor his 
peasants have sufficient pecuniary means wherewith to 
make this purchase, the buyer may agree with the seller 
to place an un marriageable female at his disposal for every 
female he may deliver to him. Both the lord and his 
peasantry are responsible to the government for all public 
imposts, and the peasantry are personally liable for the 
poll-tax, for all burdens imposed on the land, and for the 
furnishing of recruits. The lord is bound to provide for the 
maintenance of his peasants, and cannot exact greater 
service from them than three days' labour* per week. 
Grown-up children, so long as they are single, are not 

but this regulation is not in 
case of need, the lord may 
nder his own roof, or on his 
>le family in working for his 
enter a complaint against his 
lord ; nay, all his acts become null and void if the lord 
appear or plead in court ; but he may denounce his lord for 
high treason and false returns of the numbers of his serfs. 
Though there may be no express law giving the lord a 
right of disposing of , the denial of a 

hearing before a pu ie ancient laws 

respecting slavery are tiich the peasant 

may seek. The heaa oi every province is oound to prevent 
or punish the commission of any acts of tyranny, and may 
place the affairs of the lord in trust. It is not lawful for a 
peasant to change his place of residence ; runaways must 
be delivered up to their masters ; the lord has power to 
punish the peasant, but neither with starvation, maiming, 
nor death ; he can make a recruit of him, send him to the 
house of correction, and compel him to settle on his estate 
wherever he thinks proper, if he be not fit for service. 
Compensation is due to the lord for every peasant slain by 
design or accident. The lord may emancipate his peasant 
and also sell him with or without any land ; but he cannot 
separate him from his family, nor dispose of him publicly 
to the highest bidder. Custom, however, has gradually 
modified many of these oppressive enactments; and the 
harshest treatment to which the serf is exposed takes place 
on the estates of small proprietors. — Treatise on the 
geopral Laws of the Russian State. St. Petersburg, 1833. 
— Translated in Journal of Education, No. XVIII. 

Docility of Oxen. — My man in Long Island used, in 
summer time, to go out with his yoke and his bows just at 
break of day ; that is to say, as soon as he could see the oxen 
at fifty or sixty yards from him ; for there it is a great thing 
to get the main of the work done before ten o'clock, and after 
five, in order to avoid the burning heat of the day. As soon 
as the man got a sight of the oxen, for the space was large, 
he used to call out * Haw boysT At the second call, some- 
what more loud than the former, the oxen used to rise up 
and look at him, and then look at one another. When he 
approached them near enough for his words to be distinctly 
heard, he used to call out, * Come under /' upon which the 
oxen began to walk off slowly towards him. The next 
words were, • Gome under, 1 TKLLye /' pronounced in a very 
commanding and even angry tone, upon which the oxen set 
off to him at full trot, bringing their heads up close to his 
body ; and, putting the yokes round their necks, each 
fastened at the top with a little piece of wood, away he 
walked, and they after him, into the field, where a single 
plough-chain hooked on to a ring in the yoke sent the 
plough along in a minute. — Cobbetfs Treatise on Indian 

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158 THE PENNY MAGAZINE. |Aphil 2ft, 

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[April 25, 183& 


Gou>— (continued.) 

Gold has been found in many of the tin stream works of 
Cornwall, but none has yet been met with in the mines. 
Mr. Came says, however, that many circumstances 
render it prcfbablt that a vein containing" gold exists 
somewhere in the vicinity of the parish of Ladock, 
N.W. of Gram pound, although it has never been dis- 
covered. Some years ago, a considerable quantity of 
stream-gold was found in the county of Wicklow, in 
Ireland. The discovery was made accidentally in the 
Ballin valley stream at Croghan Kinshela, about the 
autumn of 1796. " It was at first krpt secret, but 
being divulged, almost the whole population of the 
neighbourhood," says Mr. Weaver, ** flocked in to 
gather so rich a harvest, actually neglecting, at the 
time, the produce of their own fields. Several hun- 
dreds of people might be seen daily assembled digging 
and searching for gold on the banks and bed of the 
stream. Considerable quantities were thus collected, 
and the populace remained in undisturbed possession of 
the place for nearly six weeks, when Government 
determined to commence active operations. An Act of 
Parliament was then passed for the management of the 
undertaking under three directors. Regular stream- 
works were soon established, and up to the unhappy 
period of the rebellion in May, 1798, when the works 
were destroyed, Government had been fully reimbursed 
its advances ; the produce of the undertaking having 
defrayed its own expenses and left a surplus. 9 ' In the 
year 1801 the operations were resumed, and trenches 
were cut in various directions in the solid rock, to 
endeavour to discover the veins from which it was con- 
ceived the ore might have been derived, but all without 
success. The gold found was in lumps and grains in 
an alluvial deposit, resting upon the primary clay-slate, 
of which that part of the country is composed, and was 
mixed with fragments of magnetic iron-ore, and other 
ores of iron, tin, manganese, and the rare metal 
wolfram. The total quantity of gold collected by 
Government was about 944 ounces, which produced 
3675/. Some lumps of considerable size were found: 
one weighed twenty-two ounces, another eighteen, a 
third nine, and a fourth seven ounces. 

The slate mountains which run across the southern 
part of Scotland, have afforded stream gold in several 
places, particularly the rivulets in and near Crawford 
Moor, in the southern part of the county of Lanark, 
and not far distant from the lead-mines of Wan lock head 
and Lead Hills. A curious work entitled * The Dis- 
coverie and Historie of the Gold Mynes in Scotland,' 
by Stephen Atkinson, written in the year 1619, was 
reprinted at Edinburgh fen years ago by the Ban- 
natyne Club. It appears from that, that the gold 
mines of Crawford Moor were first discovered in the ; 
time of James IV., who reigned from 1488 to 1518, ' 
and that in the year 1526 a company of German miners 
obtained a grant from James V. for forty-three years, 
of the gold and silver mines of Scotland. Similar grants 
were given by the Crown at after periods, among others 
one by James VI. to this same Stephen Atkinson, who 
was a refiner of gold and silver in London. We have 
nowhere any account of the quantity of gold obtained 
from any of the washings in Scotland, but of this 
we are very sure, that it never could have been con- 
siderable, and most probably was never equal to the 
value of the labour and outlay expended in searching 
for it. 

Gold of Africa. — Gold-dust has long formed an 
article of barter in the trade with the natives of the 
west coast of this continent, from the river Senegal to 
Cape Formosa in the Gulf of Guinea, a part of which 

is called the Gold Coast. It is not only found in this 
rivers near the coast, but a considerable quantity is 
brought from the interior. Our old coin, which has 
bodily disappeared, but still lives in the fee of the 
lawyer and physician, in the lists of charitable sub- 
scriptions, and on all occasions when five per cent, can 
be slily added to the value of the sovereign, under the 
guise of its being more handsome and genteel than 
the vulgar pound, was called a guinea, because when 
first introduced in the reign of Charles II. it was made 
from gold brought from this part of the African coast. 
There are many allusions in the early writers to gold 
mines in Abyssinia, and it is said to be now obtained 
in Sofala, a part of the south-east coast opposite to 
the island of Madagascar. Some authors have con- 
jectured that the land of Ophir, from which Solo- 
mon obtained his gold, was situated somewhere on this 

Gold of Asia. — Asia has long afforded a great supply 
of gold from various parts of its vast continent, and 
the islands adjoining to its coasts. A very large amount 
is annually exported from Japan. Dr. Jack, in his 
4 Account of the Geology of the Island of Sumatra,' 
says, that the province of Mendheling has long been 
celebrated for its gold, which is of the finest quality, 
that it is said to possess upwards of 700 mines, and 
that its annual export of gold probably does not fall 
short of 1000 tales. But as 1000 tales are only a 
little more than 100 troy pounds, according to * Kelly's 
Cambist, 1 the working of the 700 mines must be a 
very unprofitable occupation. Gold forms the principal 
article of export of the island of Borneo, and according 
to Milburn's * Oriental Commerce,' the quantity ex- 
ported annually is 200 peculs, which is equivalent to 
somewhat more than 300,000 ounces, or about 1,*20< ',000/. 
value. But it would be tedious to enumerate places, 
and there is nothing different in the geological history 
of the gold found in Asia from what is known of it in 
other countries. Mr. Jacob vastly underrates the 
supply of gold from Asia, for he says that it does not 
exceed 380,000 ounces annually, including China and 
Japan, whereas the island of Borneo alone appears 
to produce little short of that quantity. 

United States.— Gold has been recently found to a 
large amount in the mountainous part of the southern 
states of North America, especially in North Carolina. 
The gold country, according to Professor Olmsted, lies 
on the southern side of the state, and is spread over a 
space of not less than 1000 square miles. The pre- 
vailing rock is clay-slate, traversed by many veius of 
quartz, and it is in these veins that the gold appears to 
exist ; but almost all that is fouud is in the form of 
grain and lumps of various sizes in the alluvium which 
covers the rocks. It appears from the ' American 
Almanac for 1834,' that the quantity of gold collected 
in 1832 was equal to about 14l,40U/. The proportion 
produced by the different states where it is found was 
as follows : — 

North Carolina . . . . 458,000 

Georgia 140,000 

South Carolina . . . 45,000 

Virginia 34,600 

Tennessee 1,000 


V The OBct of the Saelety for the Diffusion of VmtaX KnowWd* b «t 
69. Lincoln'! Inn Fields. 


Printed by William Clowm ana Son, Stamfcrd 

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monWP SsuppUmtM of 


>, or THE 

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

297] March 31 to April 30, 183S. 

> •> 

V VVi * 1 

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[April 80, 

ground, the train is drawn tip the ascent by a winding- 
engine placed at the summit. In many small establish- 
ments* aqd in some which are situated very near one of 
the rivers or the coast, horses are employed to draw the 
train of coal-waggons ; and, in others, a combination of 
all these methods is practised. Those collieries which 
are situated several miles from either the rivers or coast 
have frequently to pay sums amounting to 400/. or 
500/. a-year for the right of carrying their communica- 
tions through private property which intervenes be- 
tween the pits and the place or loading. 

At the end of the railway, and overhanging the river, 
a large platform of wood is erected, which is called a 
staith. Upon this the waggons laden with coal are 
brought to a stand previous to the discharge of their 
contents into the holds of the ships which lie at anchor 
underneath. Each waggon contains about 2± tons (53 
cwis.) of coal, and when the number of waggons has been 
entered by a clerk appointed for that purpose, they are 
placed, one at a time, on a square open frame, which, 
on the withdrawal of a bolt, is immediately moved from 
the staith by machinery until it is suspended over the 
main-hatchway of the vessel. A man who descends 
with it then unfastens a latch at the bottom of the 
waggon, which, being made to turn upon hinges like a 
door, immediately opens, and the whole of the coal in 
the waggon is cleanly poured into the hold. To fa- 
cilitate this operation the sides of the waggons con- 
verge towards the bottom, and are lined with smooth 
iron-plates. Attached to the suspending machinery are 
two counterpoising weights, which, being less heavy than 
the waggon when laden with coal, do not impede but 
add steadiness to its descent ; but, the moment the coal 
is discharged, their gravity draws up the waggon to the 
staith. This mode of loading the vessels is both com- 
plete and ingenious. In an excursion on the Tyne, 
between Newcastle and Shields, the perpetual ascent 
and descent of the waggons in the manner above 
described forms a very novel and curious spectacle to a 

In situations where, owing to the height of the cliffs, 
the above mode of emptying the waggons would be 
inconvenient or impracticable, a large spout is used, 
and the vessel is brought under the aperture at the 
lower end ; so that the coal emptied at the top passes 
along the spout, and is discharged into the ship's hold. 
The height of the staith at Seaham is perhaps forty feet 
above the deck of the vessel, and to diminish the force 
with which the coal would descend the spout from such 
a height, there is a trap-door at the lower end, by which 
the force of its descent is diminished, and it reaches 
the hold without injury to the vessels. The accompa- 
nying cuts (pages 161 and 168) represent both the 
mode of loading by staith and by the spout. 

One of these two methods is invariably pursued 
wherever there is a sufficient depth of water to allow 
the vessel to come alongside the staith; but as this is 
not always the case, whenever an impediment exists, 
some other mode becomes necessary. There are many 
coal-works in which, owing to local obstacles and the 
intersection of private property, a right of way cannot 
always be obtained. The greatest obstacle of all, and 
one which is coeval with ' the coal-trade itself, is the 
bridge which crosses the Tyne at Newcastle, which 
effeotually bars the passage of coal-vessels above the 
town. Those owners, therefore, whose pits lie " above 
bridge " are compelled, in addition to the railway and 
staith, to employ a number of light barges called 
" keels," for the purpose of conveying their coal to the 
■' ships. This mode of conveyance is the most ancient, 
*\ and was universal before the invention of the staith and 
its mechanical apparatus. 

A keel is built sharp at both ends, and is capable of 
containing about 16% London chaldrons of coal (about 

21 tons), has a sort of quarter-deck for the convenience 
of the keel men, and a footway or gangway along the sides. 
The collier, waiting to receive the cargo of the keel, lies 
at anchor in a convenient part of the river, and gene- 
rally a keel is lashed on each side of her. The coal is 
shovelled through her ports, or into a large tub, which, 
when filled, is drawn up, turned over, and the coal 
emptied into the hold. But this method occasions the 
breakage of the coal to such an extent as to deteriorate 
its value in the market. 

By the vessel receiving her cargo from the staith, 
without the intervention of the keel, a saving of about 
9d. per London chaldron is effected in keel dues. The 
employment of keel men is therefore dispensed with 
wherever it is possible. Still their wages are tolerably 
constant, and are higher than those received by pitmen, 
and considerably higher than the wages of an agricul- 
tural labourer. They average from 18*. to 21*. per 
week, and occasionally they obtain, under certain cir- 
cumstances, from 80*. to 40*. They are paid by the 
tide, voyage, Or trip. 

We feel much pleasure in recording a circumstance 
in the history of the keelmen, which does great credit 
to their foresight, and is worthy of imitation by all 
classes of our industrious population. Warned many 
years ago by the sentiment expressed in the northern 
proverb — 

" Did youth but know what age would crave, 
Many a penny it would save," 

they raised a sum by subscription among themselves, 
with which they founded an extensive establishment in 
Newcastle, known by the name of the " Keel man's 
Hospital. 1 ' In this quiet retreat fifty-two aged men 
and women find a comfortable asylum during their 
latter years. We believe that this is the only hospital 
in the kingdom built and supported by the working 
classes for their own members. The keelmen meet 
once a-year to celebrate the establishment of this 
institution, perambulating the town with bands of 
music, playing the lively Northern air — " Weel may 
the keel row." 

A stranger who visits the banks of the Tyne will not 
fail to be struck by the immense heaps of sand which 
are to be seen, some of them being from 100 to 200 
feet in height. The colliers, after discharging their 
cargoes, take in a quantity of sand as ballast, and on 
their return to the river, it is discharged on its banks. 
It is afterwards removed to the top of these " ballast 
hills," which is often a tedious and expensive process. 
Sometimes a steam-engine and an u endless train" 
of ascending and descending buckets is necessary. 

Newcastle, the metropolis of this district, has doubled 
its population within the last thirty years. It has 
been enriched by the coal-trade, which attracts vessels 
from all parts of the world to discharge their mer- 
chandize upon its quays. By the exchanges which 
follow these transactions, a multitude of trades are 
called into activity, which in their turn give employ- 
ment and, wealth to industrious thousands, who, spread- 
ing over the neighbourhood, form new and flourishing 
communities. In this way North and South Shields, 
at the mouth of the Tyne, and many intermediate vil- 
lages on its banks, have sprung up within the memory 
of persons yet living. Of the coal annually consumed 
in London, one-half, amounting to more than 1,000,000 
tons, is shipped at Newcastle. The foreign export of 
coal from Newcastle amounted, in 1833, to 233,448 
tons, being above a third of the whole quantity sent 
abroad. Vessels do not enter or clear at North and 
South Shields, but at Newcastle, of which (hose places 
are the out-stations. The number of ships registered 
at Newcastle is above 1,100, and their tonnage amounts 
to 221,276 tons. A collier makes en an average nine 
or ten, and sometimes more, voyages to London in a 

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year ; and the number of arrivals in the Tyne annually 
is not less than 13,000 or 14,000,-10,000 of which are 
on account of the coal- trade. 

Sunderland is the great shipping port of the Wear. 
The number of its registered vessels has more than 
doubled within the last fifty years, being 625 in the 
year 1*9, and the tonnage 107,880. The average 
number of vessels quitting the port is 176 per week, or 
-ry 9152 in a year. The amount of coal sent abroad from 
*" Sunderland is about 176,000 tons annually ; and it sup- 
plied the London market in 1833 with 667,787 tons, 
begfdesjienjoymg, along with Newcastle and other ports 
of the North, a share in the general coast-trade in coal. 
Stockton, oil the Tees, is a thriving port ; and its 
trade in coal, though not so large as its more powerful 
neighbours, Newcastle and Sunderland, is, we under- 
^ stand, increasing. 

Blythe, or Blythe Nook, is a small port on the river 
Blythe, which may be considered one of the smaller 
rivers on the Northern coal-field. Above 100 vessels 
belong to this port. Seaton Sluice is another small 
port in this quarter ; and, within the last few years, a 
harbour has been formed at Seaham, near Sunderland, 
by the Marquis of Londonderry. A rail-road leads to 
it from the South Hetton colliery, a distance of about 
four miles, passing, in its course, across valleys, and 
through passages cut in the solid rock. There did not 
exist, at Seaham, the slightest natural appearance of 
a harbour ; but it is now a most convenient shipping- 
station for colliers to receive their cargoes in safety. 
Two piers have been constructed, and a village has 
sprung up on the site where these improvements have 
been so successfully undertaken. 

The quantities of coal shipped from the different 
ports of England, Scotland, and Wales, in 1829, were 
as follows: — Quantities sent coastwise, 5,014,132 tons; 
to Ireland, 840,246 ; to the British colonies, 128,893 ; 
to foreign countries, 240,854 ; making the total quan- 
tity shipped 6,224,125 tons. 

Soon after the Revolution, in 1688, a duty was 
imposed on coal brought coastwise into the port of 
London in addition to the municipal charges with 
which it was burdened. During the last war, it was 
as high as 9*. 4d. per chaldron ; but was reduced to 6s. 
in 1824. There was a drawback allowed on coal sent 
coastwise to Cornwall for the use of the mines. This 
drawback amounted, in 1829, to 16,148/. There was 
no duty on coal sent coastwise from one part of Scot- 
land to another ; and the duty on that exported to 
Ireland was only 1*. 7\d. per ton. After having, in 
the interval, undergone some modifications, the whole 
of these duties were totally abolished in 1831. 

The total sum received for the duty on coals 
amounted, in 1829, to 1,021,862/.; of which London 
contributed 464,599/. ; Norfolk, 88,564/. ; Kent, 
52,549/.; Devonshire, 42*784/. ; Hampshire, 37,813/.; 
Sussex, 36,295/. ; Essex, 30,881/. ; making, with other 
maritime counties, 847,266/. 

In the Bame year, the duty on coal exported to Ire- 
land amounted to 74,050/. The chief ports of ship- 
ment were Whitehaven, Liverpool, Newport, Swansea, 
Irvine, Ayr, and Glasgow. 

Up to August, 1831, the duty on coal exported to 
British possessions was 1*. 6d. per chaldron, and to 
foreign countries 17s. per chaldron, Newcastle measure. 
(53 cwts.) Since that year, the duty on coal sent to 
foreign countries has been 3#. id. per ton ; and on small 
coal 2s. In 1829, the quantity exported was 369,747 
tons ; whereas, in 1833, owing to the reduced duty, it 
had increased to 634,448 tons. 

In 1829, there were sent to the British possessions 
128,893 tons. In 1833, the isles of Guernsey, Jersey, 
Alderney, and Man imported 53,866 tons ; our North 
American settlements, 55,313 tons; British West 

Indies, 46,442; Gibraltar, 9914 tons; and Malta, 
7000 tons. 

Of the coal exported to foreign countries, Holland 
takes a greater quantity than any other. In 1833, the 
exportation from this country to Holland amounted to 
142,38 tons. Denmark took 74,445 tons; Germany, 
69,896; France, 45,218 ; the United States, 28,512; 
Prussia, 24,068; Portugal, 13,532; and Italy, 10,000 

London is, of course, the most important market for 
ooal. In 1833, the supply amounted to above 2,000,000 
tons, which was furnished by the following places : — 
Newcastle, 1,060,839 tons; Sunderland, 667,787; 
Stockton, 170,690; Blythe and Seaton Sluice, 48,689 : 
from Scotland, 15,138; from Wales, 32,156; from 
Yorkshire, 16,110; from inland pits, by the Grand 
Junction Canal and the western part of the Thames, 
4395 tons, making a total of 2,015,804 tons. 

The immense activity which the coal-trade gives to 
the shipping interest renders this branch of commerce 
not only important on account of the wealth which it 
creates, but intimately allies it with our national wel- 
fare, by forming a most admirable nursery for seamen. 
Even sixty years ago, when it was far less extensive 
than it is at the present moment, Postlethwaite said 
that, " in a time of urgent necessity, the colliery-naviga- 
tion alone has been able to supply the government with 
a body of seamen for the royal navy able to man a con- 
siderable fleet at a very short warning, and that without 
difficulty, when no other branch of trade could do the 
like." Above 10,000 men and boys are engaged in 
the Newcastle shipping alone. 

Five-and-thirty years since, Colquhoun, who wrote 
a treatise containing an historical view of the commerce 
of the port of London, says, in that part of it which 
relates to the coal-trade, that this branch of our 
enterprise " exceeds the foreign commerce in the 
number of ships annually discharged; and requires 
double the number of craft which is required for the 
whole import and export trade of the Thames." In 1799, 
the number of colliers which arrived in the Thames 
was 3279; in 1818, there were 5239; and in 1833,7077. 
The two ports of Newcastle and Sunderland now 
possess shipping whose tonnage is above 310,000 tons, 
being about 50,000 tons more than the whole mer- 
cantile navy of the country about the year 1700. But 
as there was no legal registry of tonnage at that time, 
thfe presumption that the shipping of Newcastle and 
Sunderland now and that of the whole country in the 
year 1700 were equal is, perhaps, the most accurate. 

Owing to the configuration of our coasts, persons 
who reside a great distance from inland collieries can 
be supplied from pits 400 or 500 miles off at a cheaper 
rate than if coal had to be procured by land carriage 
only a few short miles from their homes. Even at a 
distance of 600 or 700 miles from the pit, the sea-borne 
coal commands the market. Hence the most distant 
parts of the country partake of the advantages of cheap 
fuel ; and if they be remote from the coast, it is ten to 
one but capital has been employed to open a cheap 
communication with an inland coal-district by means of 
a canal, which always benefits the humble labourer, 
whilst the capitalist whose money has been expended on 
such works is frequently compelled to- wait for years 
before he begins to receive a profitable return on his 
investment ; the advantage to the former commencing 
from the moment that the first boat-load arrives by 
the new communication, tendering an article, which 
formerly only the rich could afford to purchase, ac- 
cessible to the humblest cottager. 

There is generally an intermediate agent between 
the coal-owner and ship-owner or merchant, termed a 
coal-fitter. The intervention of such a class of men is 
an economical and beneficial arrangement to all parties, 

Y 2 

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[April 30 f 

and renders it unnecessary for a coal-owner to leave 
his works and attend the shipping-port in search of 
buyers; at the same time it prevents the ship-owner 
leaving his ship in order to seek a cargo at the pit. 
When the trade is unusually good, the coal-owners 
sometimes hire vessels and send them to market at 
once. A cargo is generally purchased by the trader, 
who, after payment of the freight and other charges, 
disposes of it to the Londou merchant. 

Legislation on the subject of coal commenced about 
400 years ago, and as the use of this article gradually 
became more extensive, it was surrounded by many 
regulations, some of which were intended to benefit .the 
consumer, and others to render the imposition of a tax 
beneficial to the state. The enormous supply which 
the metropolis at present requires is furnished under 
peculiar local regulations, one of the most important of 
which is that all coal must be publicly sold at the Coal 
Exchange. The following extract from an old pamphlet, 
published nearly 200 years ago, and purporting to be 
a dialogue between a wholesale and retail dealer, will 
show the advantages of a public market for the sale 
of coals. The former, detailing the means which he 
used to enhance the price of coal, says : — " Though 
the fleete be an hundred saile, yet we meet them at 
Yarmouth, or before they come so farre, and suffer not 
above twenty or thirty to appeare at a time, and then 
give out the rest are suspected to be lost or taken; We 
tell the masters that our yards at London are full, that 
money is dead, and they must deliver or sell forthwith, 
or else their charges will quickly eat out their gaines ; 
and so we get coales at our owne prices, and sell them 
as we list.'" He then goes on to say : — " There are 
now some forty or fifty saile of colliers come into the 
poole, and the poore people have great hopes to see 
coales fall in their prices ; whereas, alasse, poore silly 
fools, our agents at Newcastle have bought them all 
for us," 

The practice at present is, when a vessel with coal 
arrives in the port of London, to transmit to the autho- 
rised factors at the Coal Exchange a statement con- 
taining the name of the vessel, the port to which she 
belongs, and the quantity and name of the coal she 
contains. The sale of the cargo then takes place under 
certain known and public regulations. The times of 
sale are between the hours of twelve and two on Mon- 
day, Wednesday, and Friday in each week. The average 
number of ships at market on each of the above days 
during the year is about ninety ; the average number 
sold each day about forty-six. 

In the port of London the crew are not employed in 
delivering the cargo when sold. In order, therefore, 
to avoid any delay in this operation, which would be 
injurious both to the seller and purchaser, but par- 
ticularly to the former, whosje profits depend to a great 
extent upon the rapidity of his voyages, a beneficial 
division of employment is created, which is useful to 
both parties under the existing regulations concerning 
the delivery of the ship. Men, called coal-undertakers, 
attend the Coal Exchange when the vessel whose cargo 
he has engaged to deliver is to be sold. He obtains 
the name of the buyers, and then hires a gang of 
labourers, and apprises the purchasers of the time when 
the delivery will commence. 

The men whose duty it is to deliver the colliers of 
their cargoes, are called coal-whippers or coal-heavers, 
and are about 1600 in number. Their existence is 
entirely owing to the regulation which precludes the 
crew of the vessel from performing this work. In any 
other port but London it is done by them. They are 
therefore a u privileged " class ; but, like similar bodies 
whose interests are based upon regulations which are 
artificial and incompatible with the general good, they 
fail to draw from them all the advantages which at 
first sight they might be thought undoubtedly to confer. 
As far as the consumer is concerned, the operation of 

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fSeaham Harbour, showing the Termination of the South Hetton Railway.] 

this monopoly is decidedly injurious. The expense of 
delivering a cargo of coal is above 20/., while a vessel 
laden with timber, which is a more cumbersome article, 
is delivered at a cost of about 9/., owing to the com- 
petition of labour being unfettered. Each of the 1800 
coal-whippers of London earns on an average 66/. 
a-year. This sum, with economy and good manage- 
ment, would surround them with many comforts, and 
if the general habits of this class were steadier, they 
would form a respectable body amongst the industrious 
population of the metropolis. They deserve to be well 
paid, as their labour is very severe ; but it would not 
be difficult to prove that there are much better means 
of sustaining the animal powers than ale and porter, or 
gin, which too often they consume in large quantities. 
But if these men be not distinguished by their habits 
of temperance, the unfortunate position in which they 
are placed with respect to the coal-undertakers (who 
are usually publicans), absolutely compel them to be- 
come his customers. This degrading thraldom is the 
result of their " privileges,'' and could not be main- 
tained if competition were free to any one who was 
capable of Earning his bread by such labour. There 
were but 800 coal whip pers when Colquhoun's work 
was published. But he gave in that work statements 
proving that the coal-heavers were each defrauded out 
of 30/. annually ; and he estimated the profits of the 
publicans on the liquors which are forced upon these 
men, with the money taken for commission as being 
not less than 8577/. per annum'. 

It appears that there existed at one time an act 
(10 George III., cap. 53) which, as far as possible, 
relieved the coal-heavers from their dependance on 
publicans, by enacting that no coal-undertaker should 
take or demand money from any coal-heaver as a com- 
mission for procuring him employment; and that no 
coal-undertaker should be a victualler, or directly or 
indirectly concerned in receiving any part of the profits 
pf such trade, or in any other manner in the selling of 

spirits or drink of any kind, on pain of being deprived 
of his appointment. This act was in force for three 
years, when it expired, and has never since been re- 

Perhaps we ought to add, that though the circum- 
stances described by Colquhoun still exist, and the 
habits of coal-heavers may still be characterized as 
frequently intemperate, yet that the intensity of these 
has considerably diminished ; and it is gratifying to 
reflect that, although the wages of coal-heavers are not 
so high as they once were, they now bring home to their 
families a larger weekly sum than at the former period. 

The bargemen are employed in conducting the 
barges from the ships' side to the different wharfs. 
An idea of their number may be formed by comparing 
the coal-trade at the commencement of the present 
century and its extent at this time. At the former 
period the monthly supply of coal for the metropolis 
was estimated at 300 cargoes per month. Colquhoun 
observes that, on some occasions, 90 colliers (each re- 
quiring on an average thirteen barges) were then dis- 
charging their cargoes at once, giving employment to 
1 170 barges. The total number of barges engaged in 
the trade he estimated at 2196. 

From returns obtained at the Coal Exchange, it 
appears that there are now 598 cargoes sold per 
month, which is double the quantity brought to the 
metropolis when the above estimate was made. The 
number of coal-barges at present employed is therefore 
most probably above 4009. They are usually the pro- 
perty of coal merchants, and must be navigated by 
members of the Watermen's Company. The charges 
for lighterage, — i. e. y for conveying the coal from the 
vessel and discharging it at the wharf, — is 2s. per 
London chaldron. Many of the bargemen receive 
about 30*. per week for conducting their barges up 
and down the Thames. We believe that coal is often 
taken from the vessels and conveyed a* high as Lam- 
beth at the rate of 1*. pe* chaldron. These barges are 

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[April 60, 

carried by the tide, and conducted by a single man. If 
their cargoes had to be conveyed the same distance by 
land, the cost of coal would be enormously increased to 
the consumer. 

The wholesale coal-merchants have wharfs along the 
banks of the river. In the first year of the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth (1559) twenty wharfs were established, 
and up to the commencement of the present century 
their number had not been increased. The coal being 
brought by the barges from the vessel .is landed on the 
wharf, from whence it is sent out to the retail dealers 
and larger consumers. The cost for cartage and shoot- 
ing is about 3s. 5jcL per ton per mile, and assuming 
the average distance carted to be a mile and a half, it 
will amount to at least 7*. per London chaldron. The 
charge of unloading the waggons is 1*. 6d. per chaldron. 
I Previous to 1831 the coal-trade of the metropolis 
was under a series of close municipal regulations, many 
of which are now done away with. They were, how- 
ever, insufficient to prevent the extensive prevalence of 
fraud, and an act was passed in 1831, which, by one of 
its clauses, simplified the previous cumbersome admini- 
stration of the law, and placed the trade on a footing 
much more advantageous to the consumer. This bene- 
ficial change was accomplished by an enactment under 
which, within twenty-five miles of London, all coal 
must be sold by weight and not by measure. Every 
waggon carrying out coal from the merchant's yard is 
required to be provided with a weighing-machine, and 
the waggoner is compelled, under heavy penalties, to 
weigh any sack which the consumer may conceive to be 
deficient in amount. A ticket must always be delivered 
to purchasers of a certain quantity, specifying the name 
of the coal, and the number and weight of sacks which 
the waggon contains. Temptation to fraud is now 
removed as far as possible, and can be easily discovered 

if suspected. . 

To that class of persons whose consumption is small, 
the change in the mode of selling is of the greatest 
importance. Dr. Hutton who, being brought up a 
collier, is a good authority on such a point, says, that 
if a cubic yard of coal when broken be equal to five 
bolls, it will measure seven and a half when broken 
small— Mr. Buddie thinks eight. The consumer, 
therefore, paid for the latter proportion and received 
only the former. It was therefore clearly the interest 
of all classes of dealers through whose bands the article 
passed, to cause as much breakage as possible. 

In addition, the evil of selling by measurement at 
all was greatly aggravated by the nefarious practice 
of selling by heaped measure. By forming the cone 
of small coal, much less would be measured than if 
larger pieces were used. Happily for all classes of 
consumers, the Act respecting " Weights and Measures," 
which came recently into operation, has abolished 
heaped measures entirely. 

In an active and wholesome state of competition 
there cannot exist in any trade a class of men whose 
functions are not obviously connected with its useful 
and beneficial operations. It appears that in the 
middle of the sixteenth century the supply of coal was 
in the hands of too great a number of dealers. This 
subdivision, however, was not owing to the perfected 
manner in which men carried on their different trades, 
but shows rather that these trades had not yet found 
their natural channels, and that they were so unim- 
portant as to have been unable to maintain a separate 
existence, just as we see now a village shopkeeper 
acting as a halter, a draper, a grocer, a druggist, &c. 
An Act passed in the reign of Edward VI. attributed 
the circumstance of a trade being divided in the above 
manner to the " greedy appetite and covetousness of 
divers persons ;" and then went on to state, that, in 
consequence of this, u fuel, coal, and wood runneth 

many times through four or five several hands or more, 
before it cometh to the hands of them that for their 
necessity do burn or retail the same ;" and as a remedy 
for the evil, — " It is therefore enacted that no person 
shall buy any coal, but only such as wi)l burn or con- 
sume the same ; or such persons as sell the same again 
by retail to such as burn or consume the same for their 
own occupying." 

Admitting, however, that the trade was, at the above 
period, engrossed by too great a variety of dealers, we 
shall see that 100 years afterwards, either in con- 
sequence of this very enactment, or from the fluctu- 
ating and unsettled condition of trade, it was then 
monopolized chiefly by two classes of tragus. In a 
pamphlet from which we have already ojpted, pub- 
lished at that time (1653), and entitled, ' The two 
grand Ingrossers of Coles, viz., the Woodmonger and 
the Chandler,' it is shown that they bought the coal at 
the pit, and so held in their hands the power of con- 
trolling the market. In this instance an intermediate 
class of men was required between the coal proprietor 
and the London wholesale merchant, whose interests 
should be best promoted by carrying supplies into the 
market as quickly as possible. 

In order, therefore, that the very poorest class may 
enjoy the luxury and comfort of a fire, there are, first of 
all, men employed in procuring the coal from the bowels 
of the earth, — others in navigating the ships which bring 
it to market, — merchants possessing wharfs and the 
conveniences which enable them to keep a sufficient 
store; and then come the retail dealers, from whom 
even so small a quantity as a single pennyworth can be 
obtained. Lest an article so important should become 
a monopoly where it is sold in large quantities, it can 
only be disposed of, in London, in a public market, in 
which every transaction that occurs is published and 
widely circulated in newspapers, which also state the 
prices which the various descriptions of coal are fetching' 
from one market-day to another. The tricks which 
were practised in this trade some two hundred years 
ago, and which the old pamphlet we have noticed 
details, would now be utterly void of success. The 
"chandler" of that day mentions to a brother dealer 
the devices which he adopts in order to procure a tem- 
porary rise in fuel. " First," says he, " I vent it out 
by carmen and poor folks, that indeed there was a fleet 
come of sirfty-five or seventy saile almost as far as 
Harwich ; but there rose a violent storm, so that most 
of the fleete was shipwreckt, and the rest rendered 
unserviceable to put to sea till next Easter at least. At 
the report of this, O how the poore shrug in their 
shoulders, and pawn their pewter dishes and brasses, 
and any goods, at the brokers, to get some coales in at 
any rate ; and then I vend my worst coales, or mingle 
them with a few good ones." 

Camden, in his history of Durham, the materials for 
which were collected more than 250 years ago, said 
that that county was rich in pit coal, " which we use for 
firing in many places." About 100 years afterwards 
the quantity imported into London was 270,000 
chaldrons; in 1688, 300,000 chaldrons ; and in 1750, 
500,000 chaldrons ; and the consumption has gone on 
gradually increasing until its use has become universal. 
In 1801 the consumption of coal in the metropolis was 
] *05 chaldron per head; in 1828 it had increased to 
1*156. Owing to the very nature of mining specu- 
lations, it is scarcely possible that there should be any 
monopoly of the article by the coal-owners. We have 
stated that when the trade in London is unusually 
good, the coal-owners occasionally freight ships on 
their own accoint, in order to have the benefit of the 
market ; and it appears that they also do this at times 
when prices are excessively low. Mr. Buddie stated to 
the Parliamentary Committee,— u A* though many col- 

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and trimmers, 

ployed, in what 

In London, wh 

factors, agents, 

. 7500 in all. 

country and Lc 

This does not, < 

at the out-ports 

The above re 

"Wear, and does 

or Stockton. ] 

rate approxinu 

trade of Great ] 

be inferred that 

Tyne and Wea 

employs 21,00< 

Gre*at Britain, i 

employ at least 

For the supply of '. 

ton* of coal, the 

employs 15,000 j 

shipped co&stwi 

ton*, the numbe 

trade must be* - 

London consumes 

the mines of Gi 

of factors and in 

employment in 

the number for 

Printed by William Clows* and Sons, SUmfonl Street* 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

298.3 PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. [May 2, 1835. 


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Thb Erpingham Gateway, or Gatehouse, though 
merely an adjunct of Norwich Cathedral, (of which an 
account was given in No. 193*) is the most striking 
object connected with that ancient edifice. It is in a 
very good state of preservation, and as an architectural 
design it must be regarded, to use the words of a 
competent judge, " as original and unique." The 
history of its erection is not without interest ; and we 
shall therefore give a few particulars respecting its 
founder and foundation, previously to describing the 
building itself. 

Sir Thomas Erpingham, the head of a Norfolk family 
of ancient repute, was one of the eminent men of the 
age in which he flourished. He appears to have been 
a favourite of both Henry IV. and Henry V. ; sig- 
nalised himself at the battle of Agincourt; in J 38-5 
had the King's protection on accompanying John, 
Duke of Lancaster, into Spain; in 1399 was Cham- 
berlain of the Household, one of the barons of the 
Cinque Ports, warden of Dover Castle, and was also 
oue of the lords who voted that Richard II. should be 
put into safe custody. 

The then bishop of the diocess, Henry Spencer, was 
termed, even in that age of military ecclesiastics, the j 
14 Warlike Bishop of Norwich." In his youth he had 
been a soldier, nor did his elevation to the episcopal 
bench repress his martial propensities. Bold, resolute, 
and haughty, he alternately tried his strength with the 
people, his own clergy, and the nobility, and never 
failed of success. He was impeached in Parliament 
for having personally engaged in the contest between 
the rival Popes, Urban VI. and Clement VII.; but 
boldly repelled the charges preferred against him, and 
wus acquitted. Where his pride and passion were not 
thwarted, his jurisdiction was generally marked by 
judicious measures; and notwithstanding his despotic 
character, he was in considerable esteem as a man of 
no mean attainments. But he was a bigot : " no 
heretic," says Blomefield, " was allowed to dwell in his 
diocess, and because the Lollards, or followers of Wic- 
liffe, were so esteemed, he was a rigid persecutor of 
them, declaring if he found any in his diocess he would 
make them either hop headless or fry a fagot." " Such 
effect," he quaintly adds, " hath false-grounded zeal 
even on learned and good men." 

Sir Thomas Erpingham became a patron* of Ihe 
Lollards, and exerted himself with some zeal and 
energy in disseminating their principles in Norfolk. 
But neither the rank of Sir Thomas, nor the favour in 
which he stood with his royal master, deterred the bishop 
from laying hands upon him. He was arrested, and 
thrown into prison ; and the price of his release was a 
renunciation of " Lollardy," and the erection of the 
gatehouse " at the entrance of the precinct over against 
the west-end of the cathedral " as a public atonement 
for his heresy. Sir Thomas was subsequently re- 
conciled to the bishop by the commands of the King 
(Henry IV.), who, in a Parliament held February 9th, 
14U0, declared that the proceedings of the bishop 
against the knight were good, and originated in great 
zeal, and also directed them to 4< shake hands and kiss 
each other, in token of friendship, which they did ; and 
it afterwards proved real, Sir Thomas becoming a great 
benefactor to the cathedral, and a firm friend to the 
bishop as long as he lived." 

It is not improbable that Sir Thomas Erpingham, 
in patronizing the followers of Wickliffe, was more 
influenced by his wife, than by any settled principle of 
esteem and regard for the new doctrines of the re- 
formers. His first wife, Joan Walton, died in 1404, 

* In that account ws omitted to state that (he south front of 
the transept has been lately restored in a most Katirfttctory manner, 
and that the repairs and restorations art being still farther pro- 
ceeded with. 

four years after the event already related ; and in her 
will " she mentions no saints, but commends her soul 
to God only ;" — a circumstance which indicates that 
though, out of regard for her husband's safety, she 
might suppress any open show of attachment to the 
persecuted doctrines and people, she still retained her 
principles. The after life of Sir Thomas unequivocally 
demonstrates the sincerity of his renunciation ; and 
at his death, amongst other bequests, he gave 300 
marks to the prior and convent of Norwich, to found 
a chantry for a monk to sing daily mass for him and 
his family for ever, at the altar of the holy cross in the 

The following quotation from Mr. Brit ton's work 
on Norwich Cathedral, gives the author's opinion 
respecting the Gateway, as well as a description of its 
details : — 

" Amongst the great variety of subjects and designs 
in the ecclesiastical architecture of England, the 
Erpingham Gatehouse may be regarded as original 
and unique; and considering the state of society when 
it was first raised, and the situation chosen, we are 
doubly surprised, firstly at the richness and decoration 
of the exterior face, and secondly in beholding it so 
perfect and unmutilated after a lapse of four centuries. 
The archivolt mouldings, spandrils, and two demi- 
octangular buttresses, are covered with a profusion of 
ornamental sculpture; among which are thirty small 
statues of men and women, various shields of arms, 
trees, birds, pedestals and canopies ; most of these are 
very perfect, and some of the figures are rather elegant. 
The shields are charged with the arms of Erpingham, 
Walton, • and Clopton, the two latter being the names 
of two wives of Sir Thomas Erpingham. In the 
spandrils are shields containing emblems of the Cru- 
cifixion, the Trinity, the Passion, &c, whilst each 
buttress is crowned with a sitting statue ; one said to 
represent a secular, and the other a regular priest. In 
a canopied niche, in the pediment, which is plain, and 
composed of flint, is a kneeling statue, supposed to 
represent Sir Thomas. About half way up the gable 
on the parapet, are two pedestals, with parts of figures 
emblematic of two of the evangelists, and two others 
were formerly higher up." 

There is a word or inscription repeated four times on 
a scroll on this gateway, which has been read by Sir 
Thomas Brown, and others as PiENA or PENA, for 
penance; but Dr. Savers suggests that»it should be 
read YENK, an abbreviation for thank, as expressive 
of Sir Thomas Erpingham's thanks for the bishop's 
pardon — a reading which Mr. Britton thinks more 
probable than the former one. 


[From a Correspondent.] 

" A little learning is a dangerous thing ; 
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring ; 
There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, 
But drinking largely sobers us again." 


I cannot but think that a large proportion of the 
readers of the * Penny Magazine* must consist of 
persons who, without any advantages of education, 
— or of more than an elementary education — have 
managed to collect a good share of floating knowledge ; 
and have had their minds opened to receive a larger 
portion of the pleasant and useful things which know- 
ledge offers than has yet become common among 
persons in the class of society to which they belong-, 
and with whom they are associated in the external 
relations of life. I have often been disposed to wish 
that the * Penny Magazine' might become, in some 
degree, a vehicle through which such persons might state 

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fteir encouragements and difficulties — their pleasures 
and vexations— for the benefit and guidance of others 
who may be similarly circumstanced. In past Num- 
bers there are a few papers of this description, which 
would seem to indicate that there is no objection to 
insert such communications. I therefore thought it 
mio-ht be well to transmit some observations I wish to 
make upon the old proverb, that 

" A little learning is a dangerous thing." 

I call it a proverb, because I knew it as such long 
before I was aware of its existence* in Pope, in the 
passage which I have quoted at the head of this paper ; 
and even now it seems to me uncertain whether Pope 
adopted a proverbial expression already existing, or that 
the expression has become proverbial from his use of it. 

The expression, as proverbially used, does not limit 
the application of the term " learning " to classical or 
philological attainments, but employs it as synonymous 
with " knowledge ; " and the sentence, therefore, as 
used and received, says the same as that " A little 
knowledge is a dangerous thing." I have no doubt 
that Pope intended to restrict his satire to the " intoxi- 
cation" which a smattering of the classics was apt to 
produce in weak brains. But I have only to do with 
it in the sense in which it is vulgarly understood and 

I heard this expression so soon, and have heard it so 
often, that it has quite escaped my recollection at what 
period I actually heard it for the first time. My re- 
collection is perfectly correct, however, in this, that 
whenever I did hear it, it was always intended as a 
sneer or a damper, and was always so received. 

I am not going to relate my history ; but I may say, 
in a few words, that I am one of the class of persons to 
whom I adverted at the commencement. At a very 
early period of life, and in the midst of untoward cir- 
cumstances, and* of occupations which left me the least 
possible leisure, I was a diligent collector of all the 
odds and ends of knowledge that fell in my way. I read 
all the bills that were posted upon dead walls and 
empty houses. I studied all the title-pages and open 
leaves that appeared in the windows of booksellers' 
shops ; joyfully hailing the day when the windows of a 
particular shop were cleaned, and a change of books 
and pictures introduced. Sometimes, also, when I was 
allowed a little leisure, I brushed myself up as smart as 
possible, and ventured so far on the respectability of 
my appearance as to make the tour of the book-stalls, 
pausing at each ; and, after dallying a little, " about it 
and about it," taking up some humble-looking volume 
and devouring so much as was possible of the informa- 
tion it afforded with the utmost intensity of appetite, 
and with all the excitement that attends a stolen enjoy- 
ment. In process of time, I knew well the state of 
every book-stall, and could tell at a glance what books 
had been sold, and what additions had been made since 
my last visit ; and many severer troubles in my sub- 
sequent life have made my heart ache less than some- 
times to find a book gone from which I had calculated 
on gleaning more information on a second occasion 
than my first spell at reading had enabled me to obtain. 
I knew perfectly the dispositions of every proprietor of 
a stall in the three towns of Plymouth, Devonport, and 
Stonehouse, and could tell to a minute how long I 
might dabble at his books before he would look sour : 
and in process of time, most of the stall-men, on their 
part, became habituated to me, and came to regard me 
as a tolerated nuisance, or as one of the customary 
inconveniences incident to the trade. Not one of them 
knew anything about me : but experience taught them 
that I was honest ; and as I handled their books with 
the utmost tenderness and respect, and was careful that 
my presence should not interfere with actual customers, 

I do not remember that I ever received a cheek or 
rebuke from any stall-men in. the whole course of these 
knowledge-hunting expeditions. How precious these 
opportunities were, and how dear the recollection of 
them are to me even now, can only be adequately under- 
stood by the few who have realised similar enjoyments, 
and can indulge in similar recollections. 

Thus, and otherwise. I was enabled to collect a 
number of misc lundry departments 

of knowledge, b n possession of the 

links necessary t ier, and form them 

into a connected n as detached facts 

they were valuable; and when t obtained one feet 
that seemed new, striking, and important, I felt a thrill 
to my very soul, as if I had found a blessing: and so 
I had. 

I was always rather reserved and timid in my habits. 
No one could talk less than I was in the habit of doing ; 
and I feel assured that I made as little display as pos- 
sible to others of the information I had acquired. Yet 
there is, as I can now understand, in all knowledge, 
even in the knowledge of naked facts, something that 
opens the mind — I love this expression — and raises the 
tone, not only of thought and feeling, but of lan- 
guage and general deportment : thus, in the course 
of time, forming a distinction, more or less marked, 
between one who is ignorant and another who is par- 
tially informed.' 

As I thus went on, adding gradually to my little 
store of knowledge, I heard with increasing frequency 
the expression,— 

" A little learning is a dangerous thin£. M 

I paid small heed to it at first ; but ultimately its appli* 
cation became so evidently pointed to myself personally, 
that it was no longer possible for me to misunderstand 
its intention. I took it as intended, and its effect was 
discouraging in the extreme ; for I had not advanced 
so far as to receive otherwise than as gospel truths the 
proverbs and popular sayings in which past ages have 
condescended to concentrate their wisdom* I saw 
clearly that if this saying were true, and I doubted not 
it was true, I was every way undone. I saw no reason 
to hope that I should ever possess opportunities and 
leisure sufficient to render the utmost amount of my 
knowledge more than " little." If that small amount 
of knowledge to which I might aspire were really dan- 
gerous, the search for it ought to be immediately relin- 
quished ; but then, on the other hand, my habits and 
tastes were entirely turned to the pursuit, which seemed 
to me as that which was alone adequate to soften the 
bitterness and toil of the life I lived and was to live 

I remained for upwards of a week in the utmost 
doubt and perplexity ; but at last it occurred to my 
mind that it was barely possible, after all, that the 
saying was not true, It was Sunday, and I had lei- 
sure. I instantly wrote out in big letters the sentence, 


and, placing it before me on the table, sat down with 
a resolute determination not to rise until I had satisfied 
myself as to the truth or falsehood of the position it 
contained. I leaned ever it with both my elbows on the 
table, and felt as if I would subject to the most minute 
analysis every separate letter of which the sentence was 
composed. I will endeavour to state as briefly as 
possible the result of my cogitations on this occasion. 

I saw that it was necessary in the first instance to 
inquire whether knowledge was, in itself, a good or an 
evil. If an evil, it must remain so whether the quantity 
were great or little ; if a good, it would be interesting to 
inquire what peculiar quality it was in this good which 
could render a small quantity of it an evil. Many large 
folios have been written on smaller subjects than this ; 

Z 2 

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£nd my own considerations upon it were of some length 
on the occasion I have mentioned ; I cannot, therefore, 
do more than famish for your pages a summary of the 
process by which I arrived at my conclusions. 

It seemed to me, in the first instance, difficult to 
bring the mind to entertain the Question, whether 
knowledge were a good or not ; it appeared such an 
absurdity to suppose that it could be otherwise than 
good. I tried hard at it, however, but found it impos- 
sible to make out that knowledge, considered in itself, 
separately from all agencies and, influences, could be 
otherwise than good. In this I now know that I dif- 
fered from some who consider knowledge in itself of a 
neutral quality : but I am still of my old opinion. 

Perceiving that all wajksafe on this side, I turned 
round to try if knowledj^ were more vulnerable on 
another. I inquired to what extent knowledge might 
become evil in connexion with agencies and influences. 
Answering one proverb by another, I said, " What is 
one man's meat is another man's poison." Can know- 
ledge, the meat by which the mind lives, ever become 

I paused a full half hour over this question, and 
then I looked up, and, with great pain and heaviness 
of heart, answered, " Yes ! " I saw room to believe 
that there were hands which could turn fine gold to 
brass, and minds which could extract deadly poison 
from that which was nourishing food to others. I 
went on multiplying instances that knowledge was 
liable to corruption and abuse — was liable to become 
an instrument of evil. Oh, certainly, certainly, what 
is one man's meat is, indeed, another man's poison ! 

At the moment I had arrived thus far in my dis- 
heartening conclusions, I saw the whole question take 
a turn which made my heart leap tumult uously with 
the most boundless exultation. I saw, at one view, 
that precisely the same arguments which could be 
brought to make the excellence of knowledge ques- 
tionable, could be equally brought to make questionable 
the excellence of everything that is commonly considered 
good. No sooner did I turn my head from knowledge, 
in search of some better and less corruptible thing, 
than I immediately saw that all other reputed goods 
were in the same predicament with knowledge — all 
corruptible— all liable to abuse ; and therefore, that if 
knowledge were not good, there was no good thing 
Under the sun. Still it was true that what is one 
man's meat is another man's poison : but is the meat 
the less a good, less valuable, less nourishing, because 
some stomachs are too weak to receive it or profit by 
it, and others possess so diseased an idiosyncrasy that 
the meat of other men becomes poison to them? 

But still the question is, whether " a little learning is 
a dangerous thing?" It is admitted that much know- 
ledge is good; but a little is dangerous and evil. If 
this be true, knowledge is very unhappily and pecu- 
liarly circumstanced. There is no other good of which 
a littie is said to be dangerous. Take bread, the staff 
of the physical life, as knowledge is of the intellectual 
Hf e ;— who says that a little bread is a dangerous thing ? 
A quartern loaf is certainly most desirable ; but those 
who cannot get a quartern loaf, will declare a crust to 
l)e better thau no bread at all. Is he wise who rejects 
all bread because . he cannot get a quartern loaf— qp 
who eats no meat, because he cannot get a leg of 

The more I considered it, the less I seemed able to 
understand why, of all things, a little knowledge should 
be dangerous. If it were so, it would 'be wrong in any 
man, high or low, to seek knowledge ; because, as the 
knowledge of every one can be but little at the com- 
mencement, every seeker of knowledge must, for a con- 
siderable time, be in,a dangerous position. I had a 
notion that the insinuation referred in some measure to 

the presumed effect of a 
conduct and disposition, ii 
vain, and conceited; but 
because I felt that the real 
was to humble a man in 
him feel his own ignorai. 


littk knowledge upon the 
n dogmatical, 
stress on this, 
tie knowledge 
, and to make 
hat in my own 

case this was the result; and that it operated in making 
me desirous of enlarging, indefinitely, the sphere of 
my information. There is no denying that fools may 
be injured, in the way supposed^ by a little knowledge. 
They may be injured by anything, and can be benefitted 
by nothing. But in forming general conclusions, we 
are not to consider how things affect fools ; but how 
they affect men of average character and understanding. 

Besides, I did not feel it easy to say what that amount 
of knowledge is which can be properly described as 
" little." No man who has so much knowledge as 
to distinguish him in his own sphere of life, can be 
said to have little knowledge; although it may be 
little if we compare it with the amount which is re- 
quired to distinguish a man in another and higher 
sphere. An artizan, with his reading, writing, and 
arithmetic, has the instruments of as great a quantity of 
relative knowledge as the University scholar, with his 
Latin, Greek, and algebra ; and if the mechanic super- 
adds Latin, Greek, and algebra, his relative knowledge 
greatly exceeds that of the scholar, although its actual 
amount may be much less. 

I really think I could go on with these considerations 
till I filled a Monthly Part of the ' Penny Magazine.' 
I have explained myself a little however, and am now 
content to pause. It is only necessary to state that I 
arose from the table perfectly satisfied that knowledge 
— even a little knowledge— was a very good thing ; 
and that I would myself persevere in the pursuit of it. 
So I did, to the extent of my opportunities ; and in 
the fifteen years which have since passed I have seen 
no reason to question the propriety of the conclusion 
at which I then arrived. 


Stack Coaches. 

The present engraving affords a curious illustration of 
the peculiarities of stage-coach travelling in the early 
part of the last century. This illustration constitutes 
its chief interest to us ; and it has thus, like some other 
of Hogarth's works, become invested, by the lapse of 
time, with a kind of interest different from that which 
it possessed for our forefathers. The scene is a country • 
inn yard on the Dover road ; and the precise inn was 
probably sufficiently indicated to contemporaries by the 
sign, containing the figure of an angel with the inscrip- 
tion, "The Old Angle In, Toms Bates from Lon- 
don," a specimen of orthography the like of which was 
doubtless much more common in Hogarth's day than at 
present. Of the several characters introduced, the 
passengers seem to claim our first attention. The 
dimensions of the bulky female seem but ill adapted to 
those of the vehicle which she is in the act of entering, 
assisted by another passenger who is holding up a 
dram-bottle with his left hand. This circumstance, and 
indeed the whole scene, is well calculated to remind the 
reader of the descriptions of stage-coach travelling 
which were, a few years previously to the date of this 
picture, given by Fielding in 'Joseph Andrews/ This 
female, with the equally-stout man waiting for his turn 
to enter, seem, between them, to make out a ba£ case 
for the rest of the passengers. From the comfortable 
dress and well-fed appearance of this last person, to- 
gether with the sword in his right hand, he seems to 
be in good circumstances; but he gives no attention to 
the little stunted and deformed postboy who, with cap 
in hand, solicits the customary fee. This little figure 

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•wonwn Mated in a basket, and smoking a pipe among 

the luggage behind the coach. 

The horrible din produced by the man who is blowing 
a French-horn out of the window, and by the landlady 
who is bawling and ringing the bar-bell for the maid, 
must be left to the imagination. Nor is this all ; for 
the time seems to be that of an election, and a chairing, 
with all its uproar, is going on in the background. It 
is but a mock chairing, however ; for, in derision of 
the age and incapacity of one of the candidates, the 
mob are parading a man dressed in swaddling-clothes* 
with a horn-book in one hand and a rattle in the other. 
This engraving affords us an opportunity of stating 
some facts in the history of stage-coaches which we have 
collected from various sources, and which will be new 
to many of our readers. 

The precise year in which stage-coaches were intro- 
duced is not well ascertained. It seems, however, from 
comparing statements, that something of the sort, for 
short stages, was in use earlier than what we now call 
" hackney-coaches." Indeed, it seems that the first 
instance in which carriages were applied to public ac- 
commodation for hire was in the instance of the vehicles 
which started regularly from Hackney, taking up casual 
passengers whom they set down in London. These 
were called " hackney-coaches ;" but evidently had 
more resemblance to short- stage coaches, or rather 
omnibuses, than to our hackney-coaches : and this re- 
semblance to omnibuses seems to have held good also 
in the general form of these vehicles, which are described 
as resembling the caravans seen at country fairs, but 
without windows. When the present hackney-coach 
system was first introduced into London, the public 
did not w name upon the vehicles thus 

employee hem by the previously- familiar 

name of les, which, in time, became 

exclusively rcsincteu 10 this class of vehicles. The 
distinction between stage and hackney coaches does not 
appear to have been definitely established till the reign 
of Charles II., towards the end of which we still find 
stage-coaches called hackney-coaches, when the context 
did not render it necessary to employ a more distinctive 

Stage- cdaches appear to have begun to be established 
on the great roads towards the end of the reign of 
Charles I. ; and in that of Charles II. they had become 
so numerous that the tradesmen in and near London, 
at the latter end of that reign, took it into their heads 
to consider the existence of such vehicles a public evil, 
and, in a spirit very much like that which dictated a 
late petition from the same quarter against cabs and 
omnibuses, petitioned the king and privy-council to put 
an end to the stage-coach nuisance. This was met by 
a counter-statement from the stage-coach proprietors, 
of which we have been fortunate enough to obtain a 
copy, and will now give an abstract of it for the benefit 
of our readers, retaining generally the words of the 

After stating that they had, about thirty years pre- 
viously, established stage-coaches, and since continued 
them at great expense and risk, they proceeded to say 
that the prejudice that would accrue to his Majesty's 
subjects in general would be evidently much greater, 
by the putting down of the said coaches, than the dis- 
advantage that can be imagined to fall upon any person 
should the same be continued; though withall, were it 
admitted that all the petitioners were damnified thereby, 
yet their interests all conjointly are not to be respected 
in comparison of the public, nor to be put in the 
balance with it. 

As to the charge that the coaches had injured the 
profits and rents of inns, they think it must rather have 
arisen from other causes ; but, even admitting the truth 
of the charge, it is added with much good sense, that 

" that trade, as all others, being only intended for the 
benefit of the publike, their private profit is not to 
come in computation with it, for the people are not 
made to enrich inns or any other trades, but all trades 
for the benefit and service of the people, and all con- 
joyned together are but as a particulai interest in com- 
parison thereof." 

The charge that the consumption of provisions for 
man and beast had been lowered, and the rents of 
lands brought down by means of stage-coaches, is met 
by a fiat denial. As to horse- meat, each of the stage- 
coach horses eats three times as much as any saddle- 
horse that travels ; and in their coaches there is not 
less, taking one-time with another, than one horse for 
every passenger that travels upon the roads : and 
besides this the number of saddle-horses had not 
diminished in consequence of the establishment of 

With any diminished consumption of man's meat, 
the memorialists do not consider that they have any- 
thing to do. " It is either the laying aside the ancient 
way of hospitality and good house- keeping, or else the 
poverty of the country, and not the hackney-coaches 
[evidently describing stage-coaches by this term] that 
hinders the consumption thereof." 

The manner in which they meet the charge that the 
breed of horses had been deteriorated through the 
stage-coaches, is very curious. They contend the 
breed has rather improved ; " for that the stage- 
coaches kill more horses in one year than those who 
travel upon saddle-horses do in three ; and so occasions 
more vent for breed thereby, and more encourages it. 
And besides, few or no gentlemen keep a saddle-horse 
the less for the use that they make of stage-coaches, 
having the like need of them for travelling about their 
occasions in those parts of the country where the 
stage-coaches go not, that they had before." 

In the remaining paragraphs the eoach proprietors 
meet the charge that good horsemanship will be lost 
by the establishment of stage-coaches ; and deny that 
the revenue from the excise and post-office is diminished 
through them, remarking very justly, that the more the 
intercourse between the different parts of the country 
is facilitated, these branches of revenue must necessarily 
be benefited in the same proportion. They had been 
charged with " hindering the breed of watermen;" but 
they reply that the stage-coaches which went upon the 
great roads, far from the Thames, were not to blame 
for this, but rather the hackney-coaches in and about 

It seems that the hackney-coach proprietors in 
London were parties in this petition against stage- 
coaches. But the result of this attempt to put down 
an important public convenience was as unsuccessful 
as every similar attempt made by the few against the 
welfare of the many must ultimately prove, whatever 
temporary success it may obtain. The complaints 
against stage-coaches in the reign of Charles II. might 
be matter of great wonder to us in the reign of 
William IV., but the clamour on every side about the 
" cab and omnibus nuisance " in the present day is so 
much in the same spirit, that our wonder at such short- 
sighted objections is not equal to the pain with which 
we perceive that in the public mind there remain dark 
and narrow crannies which the gradually increasing 
light of 150 years has not yet been able to penetrate. 

The futility of the objections urged against stage- 
coaches is, in general, so well demonstrated in the 
memorial we have quoted, that it only remains for us 
to imagine how we should have been circumstanced if, 
in compliance with the petition, the improvement in 
question had been put down. Our civilization would 
certainly have been of a much lower standard than at 
present ; for there is no single circumstance, or rather 

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[Mat 2, 1885. 

mountain which forms the back ground of the plain in 
one direction, and on which the ruins of Capaccio Vec- 
chio, a town of the middle ages, are most picturesquely 
situated. While we loitered at the roots of the hill to 
observe some hot mineral waters which well out there, 
. we heard the distant sound of many voices singing a 
tort of hymn together ; and presently we saw, high over 
our heads, a long procession, with here and there a 
banner displayed, marching in single file along a narrow 
path on the mountain's side. This procession, in which 
there was much order, was followed by a loose irregular 
line of people to which there seemed to be no end. The 
narrow path led to the ruins of old Capaccio ; and when 
we climbed up the mountain to that spot, we found 
amidst fallen walls, ramparts, towers, and roofless 
bouses, a church in good preservation, and on the espla- 
nade or open space before it, a multitude of the peasantry 
bent on keeping the Easter Monday in their own way. 
At about nine o'clock the church was opened, and 
mass performed with a good deal of magnificence, 
banners carried in the procession were placed i 
porch, and the interior of the church was decoratec 
tapestry, silks, olive-branches, and flowers. Wh< 
religious ceremonies were over, the esplanade ass 
the appearance of the fair, for most of the pei 
from the mountains and remote districts had br< 
apmetfSfag with them to dispose of, and wanted some 
other thing or things to be found at the general meeting. 
Many of these trading operations were, as in the 
infancy of society, carried on by direct barter, without 
the medium of any kind of money. A peasant from 
Persano, for example, gave a wolfs skin to a peasant 
from the Cilento, in exchange for a fixed quantity of 
almonds; a man from the Paestan plain exchanged 
buffalo cheeses for dried figs brought from Capaccio 
Nuovo ; another gave grannone, or Indian corn, for a 
pair of shoes; and the poor women, who were very 
busy, chopped and changed with an amusing variety 
of articles, as home-made cotton nightcaps, hanks of 
borne -spun wool or cotton, linen head-gear, jackets, 
stockings, blankets, mole-skin purses, &c., &c. The 
number of skins of wild animals, particularly of foxes 
and wolves, was very considerable ; and we learned, with 
some surprise, that the peasants were pretty generally 
in the habit of eating the wolves 9 flesh. There were two 
or three professional pedlars, with pins and needles, 
braids and **<» !»"»« »«d ribbons, of small value ; and 
one from — the Sheffield of Naples — 

with sciss xors, and other hard-wares of 

ratlier primitive manufacture. "While this business was 
going on, fires were lit in the open air, among the ruins, 
and the process of cooking carried on with much spirit. 
There was plenty of spezzato, maccaroni, red-eggs, 
cassatiello, and similar luxuries of the season ; and no 
want of a good, light, mountain wine, which was con- 
tained, as usual, in goat-skins, and cost about a penny a 
quart. Many of the peasants brought their own pro- 
visions with them ; but there were itinerant dealers from 
Capaccio Nuovo and the little town of Acropoli, to 
supply those who had not. 

A little before noon, the whole assemblage, in sepa- 
rate knots, most picturesquely scattered on the moun- 
tain's side, and among the ruins, sat down to dinner. 
We scarcely passed one of these groups without some 
man in it saying courteously — Signori, voletefar Patqua 
con noi? (Literally — Gentlemen, will you make Easter 
with us ?) When dinner was over, some of the parties 
began to sing ; and there were a few men who played 
accompaniments on the mandolina, which is a sort of 
ffuitar much used by the Neapolitan people. This was 
followed pretty generally by dancing, — the smoother 
part of the esplanade in front of the church being almost 
covered by parties performing the tarantella, or national 

At twenty-two o'clock, in Italian time, or two hoars 
before sunset, the church was again thronged, and the 
priest pronounced the benedizkme, or blessing. 

As usual on most of these holidays, the poor peasants 
thus united devotion, business, and pleasure, all in one 
day ; and I confess it appeared to me there was no im- 
propriety or inconsistency in their so doing, but that on 
the contrary they had hit upon a very laudable and 
rational way of passing their Easter Monday. 

^ Generally speaking, the men drank wine enough to ex- 
hilarate, without intoxicating them. In all that crowd, I 
did not see a single individual that could be called drunk. 
There was none of that squabbling and quarrelling so 
common on such occasions among the peasantry of the 
Terra di Lavoro, near Naples, who, taken altogether, 
are about the worst specimens of Neapolitans. Part of 
this may have arisen from the different nature of the 
wines, which in the Terra di Lavoro are mostly produced 

ery ; but I 
mwise and 
irnies, and 
r festivals 
r prevent. 

began to 
ot a single 
lnnaoiiea nouse, ana w uuce weir roaas homeward. 
They broke up into parties that went off in every pos- 
sible direction, some descending to the Paestan plain, 
some climbing the lofty mountains in the rear of the 
ruined town, some making their way for Acropoli, on 
the sea-shore, and others winding round the hills inland, 
to reach the high country in the beautiful district of the 
Cilento. • As the different groups parted company, they 
saluted each other with shouts ; and then, for the most 
part, went on their respective ways, singing in merry 
chorus. We followed the most numerous of all the 
parties to Capaccio Nuovo, or the New Town, which is 
situated in a hollow in the mountains, some two or three 
miles from the old town. As inns were out of the ques- 
tion in such a place, we went direct to the Franciscan 
monastery. The friars were civil, and willing enough to 
feed and lodge us, but they had nothing in the shape of 
a spare bed. The old superior shook his head, and spoke 
of the poverty of the land ; but after an. hour's perambu- 
lation in the little town, he contrived to borrow a 
mattress, stuffed with the broad dried leaves of the 
Indian corn, from one — a couple of pillows from another 
— a woollen coverlet here — and one large coarse sheet 
there ; and with these materials we made a double bed 
in one of the cells, in the best manner we could. 

We finished the Easter Monday, and passed nearly 
the whole of the week with the friars, dining at table 
with them at half-past eleven o'clock in the morning, and 
supping with them at seven in the evening. We were 
much better off in the refectory than we were as to our 
bed-room, for we had plenty of good wholesome food, 
and pleasant, light wine. Monks, novices, lay-brothers, 
and all, fared quite sumptuously while we were with 
them, having minestra verde (cabbage- soup), or mac- 
caroni, spezzato (or kid's flesh), red eggs, and cassatiello, 
every day ; and while this unusual feasting was going 
on, the friars kept saying, — •• by the aid of Saint 
Francis, we fasted during Lent till the spirit almost 
went out of us ; but now it is Easter time, and we must 
be joyful." 

And these are some of my recollections of the most 
joyful Easter I ever passed anywhere. 

V The Ofiot of tho Society for U* Diffooion of UwiU Knowledge k at 

09, Lincoln's Inn Field* 


• Printed by William Clowis and Sex* Stamford Street, 

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or THE 

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[May 9, 18S5. 


[Seville Orange-Tree.] 

The citron family of plants comprehends four distinct 
species: — the citron, the lemon, the orange, and the 
shaddock ; and the orange and lemon have many 
varieties. Even in the East, where they are native, 
they are not a little capricious in their growth, the fruit 
and even the leaves frequently altering, so that it is 
not easy to say wl.ich is a distinct species and which a 
variety. They continue flowering during nearly all the 
Voj,. IV 

summer, and the fruit takes two years to eome to 
maturity ; . so that, for a considerable period of each 
year, a healthy tree exhibits every stage of the produc- 
tion, from the flower-bud to the ripe fruit, in perfection 
at the same time. They are all either small trees or 
shrubs, with brown stems, green twigs and leaves, 
bearing some resemblance to those of the laurel. We 
cannot, however, judge of the size of the orange-tree 

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[May 9» 

from the specimens We ordinarily see in England. In 
parts of Spain there are some old orange-trees forming 
large timber ; in the convent of St. Sabina at Rome, 
there is an orange-tree thirty-one feet high, which is 
said to be 600 years old ; and at Nice, in 1789, there 
was an orange-tree which generally bore 5000 or 
6000 oranges, and was fifty feet high, with a trunk 
requiring two men to embrace it. The size depends 
much upon the age of the plant. 

All the citron family are natives of the warmer parts 
of Asia, though they have been long introduced into 
the West Indies, the tropical parts of America, the 
Atlantic Isles, the warmer countries of Europe, and 
even Britain. The orange is a taller and more 
beautiful tree than either the citron or the lemon ; but 
like them has prickly branches in its native country. 
It was originally brought from India. Whether it was 
originally a Chinese fruit seems doubtful, as it is not 
mentioned by Marco Polo, who is so circumstantial in 
describing all the productions of that country. Yet 
the Portuguese found it there, and John Bell was told 
by one of the Missionaries that the tree was still stand- 
ing at Canton, from which the seed was taken by the 
Missionaries and sent to Portugal. The first distinct 
mention of the orange is by the Arabs. It is noticed 
by Avicenna ; and Galessio (in whose * Traite du 
Citrus/ published at Paris in 1811, the history of this 
fruit was first carefully traced) states that, when the 
Arabs penetrated to India, they found the orange 
tribe there farther in the interior than Alexander had 
advanced. They brought them from thence by two 
' routes : the sweet ones, now called China oranges, 
through Persia to Syria, and thence to the shores of 
Italy and the south of France ; and the bitter oranges, 
called in the commerce of England Seville oranges, 
by Arabia, Egypt, and the north of Africa to Spain. 
At the time that the people of Europe first visited the 
Levant in great numbers, that is, during the crusades 
for the delivery of Syria from the dominion of the 
Saracens, — oranges were found to be abundant in that 
country. Though they were in reality cultivated trees, 
their number, and the beauty and excellence of their 
fruit, naturally caused the advent are rs (who were not 
very conversant with natural history, and not a little 
prone to romance and credulity) to believe and state 
that these were indigenous to the country, and formed 
a portion of the glories of the " Holy Land." The 
fables of the profane writers, and the ambiguity of the 
description of vegetables in holy writ, helped further to 
confirm this opinion. As the oranges were of the 
form of apples, and the colour of gold, it did not 
require much stretch of the imagination to make 
them the golden apples of the Garden of the Has- 

There is certainly no evidence to shew that the 
orange was known to the ancients either in Europe or 
Syria ; but there is much to demonstrate that we are 
indebted for the first knowledge of it to the Arabs, who, 
with their zeal to propagate the religion of the koran, 
were also anxious to extend the advantages of agri- 
culture attd medicine. The sweet orange which they 
introduced was not, strictly speaking, that which has 
since been called the China orange, and which under 
that name has been introduced into Spain and Portugal, 
as well as St. Michael's, and other Atlantic isles, and the 
West Indies ; but rather the orange which was known in 
Italy before Vasco de Gam a doubled the Cape of Good 
Hope. When the Portuguese reached India they found 
the orange there, and also in China, which was visited for 
the first time by sea in the early part of the sixteenth 
century. Although the oranges of St. Michael's in ths 
Azores are now the best that are to be met with in the 
European market, they are not indigenous productions 
of that island ; but were sent there by the Portuguese, 

at the same fruit was originally sent to the American 
continent by the Spaniards. In the middle of a forest, 
on the banks of the Rio Cedeno, Humboldt found 
wild orange trees laden with large and sweet fruit. 
They were probably the remains of some old Indian 
plantations ; for the orange cannot be reckoned among 
the spontaneous productions of the New World. 

Many varieties of the orange family are now cultivated 
in Portugal, Spain, Prance, Italy and Greece. In the 
first two countries they especially abound — in Algarve, 
and in the fine plains of Andalusia, on the banks of the 
Guadalquivir. The latter is the place from which the 
bitter or Seville oranges are chiefly obtained. In Algarve 
and Andalusia the orange- trees are of great size. Ex- 
tensive orchards Of them have formed the principal revenue 
of the monks for several centuries; and in the latter 
province, the craggy mountains of which are covered 
with gardens, and vineyards, and forests abounding in 
fruit, the flowers of the orange fill the air with their 
perfume, and lead the imagination back to those days 
which the Moorish historians and poets delight in 
describing, when the land which they conquered was 
adorned with all the refinements of their taste and 
intelligence, and the luxuries of the East were natu- 
ralized in the most delicious regions of the West. In 
Cordova, the seat of Moorish grandeur and luxury, 
there are orange trees still remaining, which are con- 
sidered to be 600 or 700 years old ; the trunks of these 
old trees have begun to decay, and when they get 
diseased they are covered with a kind of lichen which 
is supposed to be peculiar to the orange. 

The precise time at which the orange was introduced 
into England is not known with certainty, but probably 
it may have taken place not long after its introduction 
into Portugal, which was in the early part of the six- 
teenth century. The first oranges, it has been stated, were 
imported into England by Sir Walter Raleigh ; and it 
is said that Sir Francis Carew ? who married the niece 
of Sir Walter, planted their seeds, and they produced the 
orange trees at Beddington, in Surrey, of which Bishop 
Gibson, in his additions to Camden's ' Britannia,' 
speaks of as having been there a hundred years previous 
to 1695. As these trees always produced fruit, they 
could not have been raised from seeds ; but they may- 
have been brought from Portugal, or from Italy, as 
early as the close of the sixteenth century. The trees at 
Beddington were planted in the open ground, with a 
moveable cover to screen them from the inclemency of 
the winter-months. In the beginning of the eighteenth 
century they had attained the height of eighteen feet, 
ami the stems were about nine inches in diameter; 
while the spread of the largest of the number was twelve 
feef one way and nine the other. There had always 
been a wall on the north side of them, to screen them 
from the cold in that quarter ; but they were at such a 
distance from the wall as to have room to spread, with 
plenty of air and light. In 1738 they were surrounded 
by a permanent enclosure, like a greenhouse. They were 
all destroyed by the great frost of the following winter ; 
but whether this was wholly owing to the frost, or partly 
to the confinement and damp of the permanent enclosure, 
cannot now be ascertained. At Hampton Court there 
are many orange-trees, some of which are said to be 
300 years old. They are generally moved into the open 
air about the middle of J une, when the perfume of their 
blossoms is most delicious. Orange and lemon trees 
have been cultivated in the open air in England. For 
a hundred years, in a few gardens of the south of 
Devonshire, they have been seen trained as peach-trees 
are against walls, and sheltered only with mats of straw* 
during the winter. 

The orange, naturally produced in warmer climates 
than our own, has been rendered our property bf 
commerce in a very remarkable decree. It may b& 

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iflMj. TOB PENNY MA0A2INB. , lvp 

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gold by jewellers is not the pure metal, for that would 
be unsuitable on account of its softness, but an alloy of 
gold, silver, and copper, by which a colour is obtained 
nearly the same as that of pure gold. The gold used 
by the first-rate London jewellers has about two-thirds 
of its weight of pure gold; The Dutch ducat, alloyed 
with silver only, is of a pale-yellow colour, and may be 
bent by the fingers. For gold leaf, the purest metal 
must be selected : to make this, a bar weighing about 
two ounces is forged on an anvil, and passed between 
steel rollers until it forms a long riband as thin as 
paper. This is cut into 1 50 pieces, and each of these 
pieces is hammered on an anvil till it is about an inch 
square. Several of these very thin plates are laid 
between small sheets of vellum, and placed in a parch- 
ment case, and then beaten with a very heavy hammer 
until the gold plates are extended to about four inches 
square. Each of these is cut into four parts, and 
placed between layers of prepared ox-gut, and a packet 
of these is beaten as before until they extend to about 
four inches square. Another similar subdivision and 
* beating takes place, and thus at last the two ounces of 
gold produce 2400 leaves, and each grain has been 
opened out to nearly 31 square inches of surface, having 
a thickness of about -mrNmrth of an inch. It is ca- 
pable, however, of being beaten much thinner, as we 
have already noticed. Mr. Jacob estimates the annual 
consumption of all the gold beaten in the United King- 
dom at about 17,500 ounces of fine gold. 

The only employment of gold in the arts, otherwise 
than in its metallic state, is in a preparation which is 
used for painting on china, to give a pink or red 


In extent and magnificence the Duomo or Cathedral 
of Florence ranks among the first ecclesiastical edifices 
of Europe. It also derives a great interest from its 
venerable antiquity, and from its being generally con- 
sidered as the beginning of a new era in the history of 
architecture. Tuscan writers, who have been rather too 
lavish of their praise, have said a great deal about the 
bold abandonment of the Gothic style, and the happy 
adaptation of the ancient Roman style of architecture 
in this building, which shows an admixture of several 
styles, though it certainly has more of the ancient. 
Roman than any work that preceded it in the middle 
ages. Its fine double cupola was the first raised in 
Europe, and in other respects the Duomo of Florence 
served as a model to succeeding architects. This 
cathedral was begun in 1296. The first architect 
employed upon it was Arnolfo di Lapo, a scholar of 
Cimabae the old painter. In 154 years, and under 
successive artists, it was nearly finished. " But," says 
an old Florentine author, " the grand cupola was 'the 
parturitiou of the marvellous genius of Ser Filippo 
Brunei lesco, an architect who in his days had no equal." 
It is related of Michael Angelo Buonarotti, that he 
used to gaze at this proud dome with rapture, and say 
it never could be surpassed by mortal man. He after- 
wards surpassed it himself in his dome of St. Peter's, 
at Rome; but spite of his magnificent boast, the 
cupola of Florence was a prototype, and had more to 
do with St. Peter's than the dome of the Pantheon, 
which Buonarotti said he would suspend in the air. 
Brunellesco, the author of the cupola, gave the finish- 
ing hand to the cathedral. In size, materials, and 
boldness of conception, it is only inferior among Italian 
churches to St. Peter's. The walls are cased with 
black and white marble, and both without and within 
they are adorned with numerous statues, many of which 
are beautiful as works of art, or interesting as early 
specimens of Italian sculpture. As in the Cathedral 

of Milan, where there is a complete army of statues, too 
many of them are placed in positions where they can 
scarcely be seen. 

Like other ojd buildings, the Cathedral of Florence 
has been subjected to the caprices of power and the 
bad taste of despotism. The facade was almost half 
incrusted with beautiful marble, and additionally 
adorned with many statues and bassi-relievi, executed 
from designs by the venerable Giotto, one of the fathers 
of painting — one of the immortal Italians who dug up 
the fine arts from the grave in which they had been 
buried for centuries. In 1586, without any visible 
motive, a grand duke of the house of Medici demolished 
this antique front, and began another on a totally 
different design. This new facade was very slowly 
executed, and never finished ; and in 1688 another grand 
duke, whose taste it did not please, knocked it all down, 
just as his predecessor had demolished the venerable 
works of Giotto. For several years the front of the 
church presented nothing but bare unsightly walls ; and 
then, on the occasion of some ducal marriage, the 
reigning Medici had it shabbily painted in fresco, and 
in that condition it remained for upwards of a century. 
The spirited republicans, the merchants and manu- 
facturers of old Florence, with whose money the vast 
cathedral was originally built, could afford to lavish 
costly statues and the most precious marbles ; but the 
population, enterprize, and wealth of the country had 
suffered a sad blight under the despotic government 
which succeeded the Commonwealth, and the grand 
dukes could only provide a little plaster and paint for 
a building which was the boast of the city, as it was 
the glory of the old republicans. The Medici — that 
family of merchant princes whose virtues and abilities 
went out like lamps lacking oil, almost immediately 
after their assumption of absolute power — kept their 
marbles, their " porphyry, jasper, agate, and all* hues " 
to heap upon their own inglorious tomb, in the church 
of S. Lorenzo; and even that monument of their 
vanity and tawdry taste they never finished. 

Seven great doors, three in front and two on either 
side, give admittance to the interior of the Florence 
Cathedral. These doors are richly ornamented. Gio- 
vanni di Pisa and Ghirlandaio both employed their 
genius upon them. The floor of the church is paved 
with rich variegated marbles, disposed in a beautiful 
manner. Italian writers, who deserve our love by the 
fond, minute attention they have paid to such matters, 
record that the pavement of the great central aisle was 
laid down by Francesco di San Gallo ; that round the 
choir by the versatile and great Michael Angelo ; and 
the rest by Giuliano di Baccio d'Agnolo. The windows 
are smaller and fewer than usual, and the glass being 
painted with the deep rich tints common in ancient 
glass-staining, admits but a subdued light. As 
Forsyth observes, " Here is just that * dim religious 
light ' which pleases poetical and devout minds." This 
light almost becomes " a darkness visible " in the choir, 
for the cupola or dome under which it stands is closed 
at top, and admits no flood of sunshine like the dome 
of St. Peter's. The choir is in itself a blemish. It is 
of an octagonal form, to correspond with the shape of 
the cupola, which is not circular but octagonal, or 
eight-sided. It is enclosed by a colonnade which is 
fine, considered apart and by itself, but its Ionic ele- 
vation is at variance, and jars with the rest of the 
building. Some curious bassi-relievi enrich the choir, 
and high overhead the interior of the cupola is covered 
with fresco paintings — the work of Federico Zuccheri 
and Giorgio Vasari. 

The solemn old church is rich in associations aftd 
historical recollections/ Here are the tombs of Giotto 
the painter, Brunellesco the architect, and Marsilius 
Ficinus, the reviver of the Platonic philosophy, and 

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[May 9, 1835. 

Anguished from an itinerant vender, whether of books 
or broomsticks. Pegge seems to say that the term 
stationer became appropriated to dealers in books 
about the year 1622, at least the first authority quoted 
for this appropriated nse of the word is of that date. 

Linen-draper. — A draper is a dealer in woollen 
cloth, from the French drop and drapier. " Linen- 
draper" is therefore as incongruons as "ale-draper" 
in Ireland; for the drop, whence the drapier, must be 
confined to woollen-cloth. Hence our drab-cloth, pure 
and undyed cloth, called a drab-colour in the trade. 
"Ale-draper " perhaps originated in a joke, or may be a 
corruption of " ale-drawer." 

Cooper. — Ray says that "coop" was a general term 
for a vessel to enclose any thing, — as, a hen-coop. He 
probabW meant that that was the case when the vessels 
were made of wood. A maker of such vessels was 
called a cooper. . 

Cordivalner,*tb'r shoemaker, is supposed to be de- 
rived from Cordovan leather, of Which the finest shoes 
were made. The operation probably obtained in 
France the name of cordovanier, easily corrupted into 
our ** cordwainer." 

Sowter, — the Scotch word for shoemaker ; is used in 
the same sense in the * Pindar of Wakefield ;' and 
Chaucer uses it for a cobbler. 

Se^on is corrupted from " Sacristan." 

Milliner. — Pegge asks if this word is from Milan. 
A Milan cap is mentioned in c Don Quixote.' 

Tinker, — evidently formed from the sounds pro- 
duced by the labour. The Scotch write it " tinklar." 
* Pedlar. — Johnson believed this to be an abbrevia- 
tion of " petty-dealer ;" but some incline to look for 
the origin of the word in the Teutonic bedeler % or in 
the Danish betelere, which both signify a beggar. 

In this part of his subject Mr. Pegge remarks that 
in old towns most of the streets, except the principal, 
which is usually styled the High Street, and those 
denominated from churches, have their names from the 
description of merchandise which is, or was formerly, 
exposed for sale in them. Many instances of this will 
occur to those acquainted with such towns. 

■" Hot Springs at St. Michaels, one of the Azores.— Vol- 
cano* are supposed to exist internally, of which, indeed, the 
fountains in the Valley of Farnan and other parts of the 
island are evident symptoms. This valley is about twenty- 
five miles north and east of Porto del Gardo, and has on its 
south-east side a small village called Carcuis, or Farnan. 
On a small elevation about a quarter of a mile square are a 
number of hillocks, on which the action of fire is every 
where evident. The minerals on the spot are pyrites, lava, 
pumice, marble, and clay of different colours, oehre, iron- 
ore, and calcareous earth, mixed with alv.m and sulphur. 
There are also a number of boiling fountains, and many 
cold springs. The hot springs form several streams, and in 
their course they smoke and emit sulphureous steams; in a 
calm day the vapour is seen rising to a great height. The 
largest of these boiling fountains, called the Caldeira, is 
nearly thirty feet in diameter, but its depth is unknown. 
Its water is scalding hot, and in a constant state of ebulli- 
tion, emitting a vapour highly sulphureous, and smelling 
like burnt gunpowder ; its taste communicates an acescent 

Sungency, and its sediment is a clayey substance of a light 
lue colour. At a few yards' distance, behind a ridge of 
lava, and at the bottom of a projecting rock, another boiling 
fountain is called the Forga, or Forge ; this is ranked as the 
second fountain : its surface is seldom visible, from the dense 
sulphureous vapour ; it boils with great violence, and sends 
forth a great noise, throwing up quantities of a fine glutinous 
blue clfy mixed with vapour, which is scattered about, and 
observed' to encrust the rock and other neighbouring objects. 
These are the principal fountains, but there are several 
others ; and vapour is seen issuing out of the crevices of 
locks in many places, By applying the, ear to some of the 

fissures, the noise of bailing water is distinctly heard ; and 
from others the water is at intervals squirted out, scalding 
those who may unwarily approach too near. The tempe- 
rature of these fountains is not uniform : some are as high 
as boiling heat, others more moderate, and some very cold ; 
the appearance of the water in some is limpid and trans- 
parent, in others turbid, of a white or reddish hue, all gene- 
rally depositing a red or blue clayey substance. Crystals of 
alum and sulphur are here found in abundance, some of 
them beautiful and curious ; and when the vapour issues 
and exudes from the chinks and fissures of the rock, some 
of the crystals are from one to two inches long. A small 
river runs through this valley, and on its edge in several 
places there are hot springs, with at times a perceptible 
ebullition in the middle of the stream from these springs. 
This river deposits an ochrey sediment on the stones and 
pebbles of its bed ; in some places the sediment is of a green 
colour, not unlike martial vitriol ; and the bushes on the 
banks are encrusted over with sulphur and alum. The 
taste of these waters varies. In some it is that of a strong 
impregnation of the vitriolic acid, in others of the carbonic ; 
in others the taste is aluminous or ferruginous, while others 
again are perfectly insipid. The country-people in cooking 
save fuel by those fountains. They place their culinary 
utensils over the hot springs, or upon some of the steaming 
crevices ; and their cattle by instinct or experience approach 
these places to clear .themselves of vermin, by standing in 
the sulphureous steam/' — From the Journal of the Ueo* 
graphical Society, Vol. IV., Part II. 

Advantages of cultivating Intellectual Pleasures. — Man* 
in his lowest state, has no pleasures but those of sense, aad 
no wants but those of appetite ; afterwards, when society is 
divided into different ranks, and some are appointed to 
labour for the support of others, those whom their superiority 
sets free from labour begin to look for intellectual enter- 
tainments. Thus, while the shepherds were attending their 
flocks their masters made the first astronomical obser- 
vations : so music is said to have had its origin from a man 
at leisure listening to the strokes of a hammer. As the 
senses in the lowest state of nature are necessary to direct 
us to our support, when that support is once secure there is 
danger in following them farther : to him who has no rule . 
of action but the gratification of the senses plenty is always 
dangerous; it is therefore necessary to the happiness of 
individuals, and still more necessary to the security of 
society, that the mind should be elevated to the idea of 
general beauty, and the contemplation of general truth ; by 
this pursuit the mind is always carried forward in search of 
something more excellent than it finds, and obtains its 
proper superiority over the common senses of life by learn-, 
ing to feel itself capable of higher aims and nobler enjoy- 
ments. In this gradual exaltation of human nature every 
art contributes its contingent towards the general supply o* 
mental pleasure. Whatever abstracts the thoughts front 
sensual gratifications — whatever teaches us to look for hap- 
piness within ourselves — must advance in some measure the 
dignity of our nature. Perhaps there is no higher proof of 
the excellency of man than this, — that, to a mind properly 
cultivated, whatever is bounded is little. The mind is con- 
tinually labouring to advance, step by step, through suc- 
cessive gradations of excellence towards perfection, which ia 
dimly seen at a great though not hopeless distance, and 
which we must always follow because we never can attain * 
but the pursuit rewards itself; one truth teaches another* 
and our store is always increasing though nature can never 
be exhausted. — Sir Joshua Reynolds's Discourses. 

Extend your benevolence over all nature : love whatever 
partakes with you of her most universal gift — existence. — 

V The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of tJseftil Knowledge If at 
69. Lincoln's Ian Fields. 


Printed by William Clowss and Sow, Stamford Stfeefc 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[Mat 16, 1835. 

[JungW Fowl.] 

The bird known by this name among the English in 
India, is the " Wild Cock " of Sonnerat, who was the 
first to describe it in his * Voyage aux Indes Orientates.' 
This naturalist maintained with considerable zeal that 
this bird formed the stock whence most of our races of 
domestic fowl have proceeded. He concurred in the 
opinion of BufFon, that most of our varieties of domestic 
fowl have proceeded from a single type, and that the 
differences which we perceive among them have resulted 
from accidents of climate, domestication, and crossings 
of varieties. Sonnerat, who did not or would not know 
of any other species of wild cock than this — for he 
speaks slightingly of the authority of Dampier, who 
mentions that he saw wild cocks in the Indian Archi- 
pelago—naturally enough concluded that in this jungle- 
fowl he had found the primitive stock. Subsequent 
inquiries have, however, confirmed the statements of 
Dampier, not only as to the existence of species of wild 
fowl in the Indian Archipelago ; but it is also admitted 
that the Bankiva species in Java, and the J ago species 
in Sumatra, more nearly approximate to our common 
fowl than that now under consideration, and to 
which Sonnerat's statements refer. Upon the whole, it 
seems that our varieties of domestic fowl proceed from 
mixtures of original species. Practical observers arrive 
at much the same conclusions on this point with 
scientific naturalists. It is thus, for instance, con- 
sidered in India that our game cock originated from a 
Vol. IV. 

mixture of the jungle cock with wild species in Malaya, 
and Chittagong. Altogether, however, it must be* 
admitted that, on this disputed point, very little is 
actually known ; and the domestication of the bird 
ascends to such remote antiquity, that it seems hope- 
less to determine the era, and still more hopeless to 
ascertain the original species with precision. It is 
proper to add that the jungle fowl, which we now 
proceed to describe, are quite distinct in India from 
the domestic races reared by the natives, which do not 
in any respect differ from the domesticated varieties in 
all parts of the world. 

The jungle cock is about one-third less in bulk than 

our common village cock. Its length from the point 

of the bill to the extremity of the lowered and extended 

tail, is about two feet four inches ; and its height from 

the level of the feet to the top of the head, without 

including the crest, is fourteen inches and a half. 

The head is furnished with an indented comb, and the 

wattles resemble those of the domestic cock, but the 

naked space around the eyes and on the throat is larger 

than in that bird. The feathers of the head and neck 

grow longer as they approach the body; and in their 

| form and substance are different from those which 

I cover the same parts in other cocks, whether wild or 

| domestic. The quill is thick and flattened, forming a 

; white stripe ; the whole length of the feather, as far as 

! the extremity, where it ends in a dilated cartilaginous 

2 B 

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[May i«, 

saddle -clothes, and good riding suits, coats and cloaks, 
stockings and hats, whereby the wool and leather of 
the kingdom was consumed. Besides, most gentlemen 
before they travelled in coaches used to ride with 
swords, belts, pistols, holsters, portmanteaus, and hat- 
cases, which in these coaches they have little or no 
occasion for. For when they rode on horseback, they 
rode in one suit, and carried another to wear when they 
came to their journey's end, or lay by the way ; but in 
coaches they ride in a silk suit, with an Indian gown, 
with a sash, silk stockings, and the beaver hats men 
ride in, and carry no other with them. This is because 
they escape the wet and dirt, which on horseback they 
cannot avoid; whereas in two or three journeys on 
horseback these clothes and hats were wont to be 
spoiled: which done, they were forced to have new 
very often, and that increased the consumption of 
manufacture. If they were women that travelled, they 
used to have safeguards and hoods, side-saddles and 
pillions, with strappings, saddle or pillion cloths, which 
for the most part were laced and embroidered ; to the 
making of wl * lany several trades, now 

ruined.' 1 Our ountry " does not forget 

to add that c property were also more 

liable to be lost under tne saddle than under the coach 
system ; and how much this circumstance tended to 
the encouragement of trade needed not be told. 

Immediately after this, however, the author neu- 
tralizes his previous statements by complaining of the 
increased frequency of travelling among the country 
gentry who, at London and elsewhere, were led into 
expenses in purchasing things the want of which they 
would not have felt if they had remained at home. 
The stage-coaches and caravans are also alleged to 
hinder the consumption of provisions. " For instance, 
a coach with four horses carries six passengers ; a caravan, 
with four or five horses carries twenty, or twenty-five : 
these, when they come to their inn, club together for a 
dish or two of meat ; and having no servants with them, 
spend not above I2d. or \6d. a-piece at a place; yet 
perhaps foul four, five or six pair of sheets. 

From the writer's attempt to show that stage-coach 
travelling was dearer than going on horseback, we 
quote so much as shows the cost of stage-coach con- 
veyance in his time : — " Men do not travel in these 
coaches with less expense of money or time than on 
horseback : for on horseback they may travel faster ; 
and if they please, all things duly considered, with 
as little if not less charges. For instance, from 
London to Exeter, Chester, or York, you pay 40*. 
a-piece in summer, and 45*. in winter for your passage ; 
and as much from those places back to London. 
Besides, in the journey they change coachmen four 
times, and there are few passengers but give 12(2. to 
each coachman at the end of his stage ; which comes 
to 8*. backward and forward, and at least 3*. comes 
to each passenger's share to pay for the coachman's 
drink on the road : so that in the Summer the passage 
backward and forward to either of these places costs 
4/. 1 Is., and in winter 5/. U. ; and this only for eight 
days 1 riding in summer and twelve in the winter" It 
thus appears that, at this early period in the history of 
stage-coaches, it took six days in winter and four in 
summer to irney which is now done, at 

all seasons, nrenty-four hours ! He after- 

wards alio? the same journey on horseback. 

The writer men proceeds to contend that travelling 
on horseback was much superior, even in point of 
personal convenience, to riding in stage-coaches. His 
statement will, at any rate, enable us to perceive how 
greatly our travelling facilities, both as to roads and 
conveyances, have been improved since the seventeenth 

He asks, " what advantage it can be to a man's health 

to be called out of bed into these coaches an hour or 
two before day in the morning; — to be "hurried in them 
from place to place till one, two, or three hours within 
night: insomuch that, after* sitting all day, in the 
summer-time, stifled with heat and choked with dust, 
— or, in the winter-time, starving or freezing with cold, 
or choked with filthy fogs, they are often brought into 
their inns by torch-light, when it is too late to sit up to 
get a supper, and next morning they are forced into 
the coach so early that they can get no breakfast? 
What addition is it to men's health or business to ride 
all day with strangers, oftentimes sick, ancient, diseased 
persons, or young children crying ; all whose humours 
he is obliged to put up with, and is often poisoned with 
their nasty scents, and crippled with the crowd of boxes 
and bundles? Is it for a man's health to be laid fast 
in the foul ways, and forced to wade vp to the knees in 
mire ; afterwards sit in the cold till teams of horses can 
be sent to pull the coach out ? Is it for their health to 
travel in rotten coaches, and to have their tackle, or 
perch, or axle-tree broken, and then to wait three ar 
four hours (sometimes half the day), and afterwards £o 
travel all night to make good their stage ? " 

The writer then argues that stage-coaches are not 
necessary to any persons whatever. Sick or aged 
persons, or young children, if they have occasion to 
travel, may ride in the long waggon-coaches, which are 
those that were first set up> and are not now opposed, 
as they do little or no hurt. Gentlemen may keep 
coaches of their own, or ride on horseback. And as 
for the poor, " if they be poor people that are to travel, 
it is not fit that they should be encouraged in their 
pride and extravagancy, or suffered to ride among 
gentlemen ; or, like persons of honour, in a coach with 
four or six horses." v 

The " Lover of his Country " seems, in conclusion, to 
despair of putting down the " nuisance " entirely, and 
condescends to suggest the following modifications. 
" If some few stage-coaches were continued, to wit, one 
to every shire-town in England, to go once a week 
backward and forward, and to go through with the 
same horses they set forth with, and not travel above 
thirty miles a day in the summer and twenty-five in the 
winter, and to shift inns every journey, that so trade 
might be diffused, — these would be sufficient to carry 
the sick and the lame, that they pretend cannot travel 
on horseback ; and, being thus regulated, they would 
do little or no harm ; especially if all be suppressed 
within forty or fifty miles of London, where they are 
no way necessary, and yet so highly destructive." 

In another Number we purpose to furnish some other 
notices of stage-coach travelling to the present time. 

Love every one in whom ye behold the honoured traces 61 
humanity, even where they seem in ruin. — Wteland. 

Devouring Books. — It is recorded of Madame de Steel 
Holstein, that before she was fifteen years of age she had 
"devoured" 600 novels in three months, so that she must 
have read more than six a-day upon an average. Louis XVI., 
during the five months and seven days of his imprison- 
ment immediately preceding his death, read 157 volumes, 
or one a-day. If this species of gluttony is pardonable in 
circumstances like those of Louis, it is less so in those of a 
young lady of fourteen or fifteen. No one can have time 
for reflection who reads at this rapid rate ; and, whatever 
may be thought, these devourers of books are guilty of 
abusing nature to an extent as much greater than those 
who overcharge their stomachs as the intellectual powers are 
higher than the animal propensities. Thousands «of young 
people spend their time in perpetual reading, or rather in 
devouring books. It is true, the food is, light; but it 
occupies the mental faculties for the time in fruitless efforts, 
and operates to exclude food of a better quality. — American 
Annals of Education. 

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Arte buvvc avcuc is mnjr ucwiku iu mc wuua ui vjcucsu. 

Jacob, wqo, after the loss of his son Jiad not expected 
to see h im again, afterwards dwelt with him in Egypt 
nearly twenty years, beheld the extent of his authority 
and the esteem with which he was regarded, and saw 
in Joseph's children the commencement of that in- 
crease which was in the course of time to render his 
posterity one of the most extraordinary people of the 
earth. At Jacob's own request, the two children of 
Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, were brought to 
receive his blessing shortly before his death. The 
eldest, Ephraim, stood at his father's right hand, and 
Manasseh on his left. In putting out his hands to give 
them his benediction, Jacob placed his right hand 
upon the head of the youngest, instead of the first-born, 
which Joseph perceiving, said, — " Not so, my father : 
for this is the first-born." But his father did not 
remove his hand, and in blessing them foretold the 
future greatness of both the children ; but that the 
posterity of the younger should become a multitude of 
nations, while that of the elder should only become a 
single people. The female standing at the foot of the 
bed is probably intended for Azenath, Joseph's wife. 

In this composition the most striking figure is that of 
the venerable patriarch, in whom the painter has blended 
dignity and solemnity, while an expression of paternal af- 
fection triumphs over the decrepitude and dimness of age. 
The children present a striking contrast to each other. 
Ephraim receives with heartfelt reverence the bene- 
diction of his grandfather ; while his elder brother seems 
intent on other things, and altogether abstracted from 
the passing scene. The painter has also lavished upon 

utic a piuiuaivn ui uugicu), uuu a> mure cim- 

racter of personal beauty. More of art is visible in 
one, but nature shines with greater force in the other. 

Paul Rembrandt, called Van Ryn, owing to his 
birth-place being near Leyden, at only a short distance 
from the Rhine, was born in 1606. As he did not 
show much aptitude for letters, his father, who was a 
miller, and had been successful in his calling, gratified 
his son's inclinations by placing him under a painter, 
with whom he remained three years. He then studied 
at Amsterdam ; after which he returned to his home, 
determined in future to follow no other guide but 
nature. A picture which he finished at this time excited 
the admiration of some of his neighbours, who advised 
him to proceed to the Hague and dispose of it there. 
He did so, and obtained for it 200 florins. Much 
encouraged by this successful commencement, Rem- 
brandt proceeded to the capital, where he prosecuted 
his avocation as a painter, to which he added that of 
an engraver, with great diligence. He also established 
a school for instruction in the former art, and soon 
found himself in the pathway to competence and an 
honourable fame. 

It has been hitherto pretty generally asserted that 
Rembrandt was of an exceedingly avaricious disposition, 
and that it increased as his good fortune augmented. 
But this and some other charges are proved to be 
unfounded by later biographers, who have entered into 
a closer examination of the circumstances of his life. 
Mr. Nieuwenhuys has shown, in his ' Review of 
the Lives and Works of some of the most Eminent 
Painters,' that Rembrandt, being at one period desirous 

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tated to the Utmost, {he animal increases the violence of 
his efforts, and at last, exhausted by his rage and exer- 
tions, and partly stunned by the blows, falls upon the 
spikes that are planted on the ground to receive him. 

But a more ingenious contrivance than either of 
these is to take the bear in a trap of very simple con- 
struction. It is not unlike a large scale, such as we 
sometimes see in wholesale shops; consisting of a 
board with ropes at each corner united at the top. It 
is then fastened to a branch above the hive in such a 
manner that if left suspended perpendicularly, the 
board would be at some distance from the trunk. But 
when the rope is properly- fastened to the branch, the 
board is drawn from the perpendicular, and attached 
slightly to the trunk on a level with the door of the 
hive, in such a manner that the fastening remains the 
only obstacle to prevent the bear from obtaining access 
to the hive. When the bear ascends and finds a seat 
which seems so admirably adapted to his convenience, 
he gets upon it, and soon commences tugging to 
remove the only obstacle between him and his desired 
prey ; but as this obstacle is the fastening of the board 
to the trunk of the tree, the animal no sooner succeeds 
in his object than his seat swings off with him to its 
perpendicular. He thus remains suspended in the air, 
in a sufficiently mortifying situation, until some one 
arrives to shoot him : but sometimes he throws himself 
off, and is then impaled upon the pointed stakes which 
are planted round the tree. 

It may be interesting to compare this method of 
dealing with bees at the eastern extremity of Europe, 
with the process which, according to the account given 
in Murphy's * Travels,' is pursued at the opposite 
extremity of the same continent. 

In Portugal, when it is intended to form a colony of 
bees, a spot of ground is chosen exposed to the south, 
or south-east, well sheltered from the northern blasts, 
and surrounded with shrubs and flowers ; the more of 
rosemary there is among these the better. In select- 
ing a situation, the condition of the neighbouring 
grounds is a point of consideration, as bees are said to 
range as far as a league from their hives in quest 
of food. The situations being chosen, lanes five or six 
feet wide are cut through the shrubby thickets. The 
fences of these lanes are of about the same height, and 
are formed into small recesses or niches for the recep- 
tion of the hives. 

The hive, which is formed of the rind of the cork- 
tree, is usually of a cylindrical shape, about twenty- 
seven inches high by .fourteen in diameter. This is 
covered with an inverted earthenware pan, the edge of 
which projects over the cylinder like a cornice. The 
whole is fastened with wooden pegs, and the joints 
are stopped with peat. In the front of the cylinder, 
at the height of about eight inches, is a small aperture, 
at which the bees go in and out. The interior is 
divided into. three equal parts, separated by cross sticks. 
Here the bees form their combs and cells, and deposit 
their honey. 

When the bees swarm, which is usually in May or 
June, the hives are placed to receive them where they 
alight. If they descend on a tree they are shaken off. 
The person who does this sometimes defends his face 
with a wire mask and his hands with gloves ; but in 
general this precaution is not considered necessary, as 
it is known that bees only sting when much irritated. 
Sometimes the bees are so wild that they fly away 
when it is attempted to collect them. When this 
happens, they may still be recovered. A sheet is, 
during the night, spread out upon the ground near 
the swarm. They alight on tins, when a hive with the 
entrance closed is placed upon them, and the whole is 
then carried home in the sheet. 

When the time arrives for collecting the honey, the 

business is usually performed during the heat of the 
day, when most of the bees are absent. The operator, 
whose head and hands are guarded in the manner 
before mentioned, is attended by a person with a small 
chafing-dish, containing a coal fire, which is covered 
with damp peat, to make the greater smoke. This 
smoke is introduced into the hive from the top of the 
cylinder, when the bees which happen to be there either 
fly away or remain stupified at the bottom. The hive 
is then taken to pieces by drawing out the pegs, and 
the comb is cut out, except a small portion, which is 
left to induce the bees to adopt it as the nucleus of a 
new comb. After this work has been performed, the 
hive is put together again, and replaced in its former 

The apiarian often visits the ground to repair any 
accident that may have happened. He is careful not 
to destroy any snakes which may frequent the place, as 
they never molest the bees, but destroy the toads and 
lizards which are obnoxious to them. When a hive 
is decayed, it is taken asunder and fumigated, and 
then the bees forsake it and seek shelter in an ad- 
joining hive which has been previously prepared for 
the purpose. This operation is commonly performed 
in the spring, when the flowers begin to open, and 
there is plenty before them. As the bees, in returning 
from their excursions, are heavily burdened and 
fatigued, great care is taken that there shall be nothing 
near the hives to obstruct their descent, which is not 
in a perpendicular but an oblique direction. 


The ' Glossary ' of Archdeacon Nares is unquestion- 
ably one of the most valuable additions which have 
been made of late years to the long list of English 
dictionaries. It was published in 1822, and is a solid 
quarto of 585 pages. It is chiefly occupied with the 
interpretation of the dramatic writers of the age of 
Elizabeth and James I. ; and from the book being so 
large, and the subject so confined, the details are 
minute and accurate. Half-a-dozen such glossaries, 
each explaining a different department or age of Eng- 
lish literature, would be excellent and necessary fore- 
runners of a truly complete English dictionary, bearing 
the same relation to it that topography does to geo- 
graphy. A few extracts will show the nature of the 

" Apostle spoons. Spoons of silver gilt, the handle of 
each terminating in the figure of an apostle. They 
were the usual present of sponsors at christenings. 
Some are still to be seen in the collections of the 
curious. It is in allusion to this custom that, when 
Cranmer professes to be unworthy of being sponsor to 
the young princess, the king replies,— 

* Come, come, my lord, you'd spare your spoons. 9 

Henry Fill. Actv.Sc.2. 

These spoons are often mentioned by the writers of 
that time : — 

' And all this for the hope of two apostle spoons, to suffer ! and 
a cup to eat caudle in ! for that will be thy legacy.' 

B. Jonson's Barth. Fur, At* i. 0c. 3. 

l l Black Monday, Easter Monday. So called from 
the severity of that day, April 14, 1360, which was so 
extraordinary, that of Edward III.'s soldiers, then 
before Paris, many died with the cold. — Stowe, p. 264. 
' Then it was not for nothing that my nose fell a-bleeding on 
Black Monday last.'— Mer u Venice, Act ii. Sc 5. 

" Caul. A thin membrane, found encompassing the 
head of some children when born : superstltionsly sup- 
posed to be a token of good fortune throughout life. 
These cauls were even imagined to have inherent 

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[Mat 16, lftg5. 

virtues, and were sold accordingly ; nor is the supersti- 
tion yet extinct, for advertisements for the sale of them 
are still not uncommon. Mr. Todd testifies the same. 
They are also considered as preservatives from drowning, 
and for that purpose are sold to seafaring people*. 

** Camomile. 1 1 was formerly imagined that camomile 
grew the more luxuriantly for being frequently trodden 
or pressed down ; and this was a very favourite allusion 
with poets and other writers. Shakspeare ridicules an 
absurd use of it : — 

« For though the camomile the more it is trodden on the faster it 
srows. yet youth, the more it is wasted, the sooner it wears.' 
6 ' J I Henry IP. Act ii. 8c. 4. 

The above is evidently written in ridicule of the follow- 
ing passage, in a book then very fashionable, * Lyly's 
Euphues,' of which it is a parody : — 

•Though the camomile the more it is trodden and pressed downe, 
the more it spreadeth ; yet the violet the oftener it is handled and 
touched the sooner it withereth and decaieth.'— Euphuet, Sign. D. 
Bl. Let. 

" Childermas Day. It was a popular superstition, 
which in the remote parts of the island is not yet ex- 
tinct, that no undertaking could prosper which was 
begun on that day of the week on which Childermas, 
or Innocents' Day last fell. 

« Friday, quoth-a, a dismal day ! Chi/derma* Day this year was 
Friday.— Sir John Otdcastte. Fart L Suppl. to Sh. vol. ii. p. 297. 

" Coat-cards. The figured cards now corruptly 
called court-cards. Knaves, we trust, are not confined 
to courts, though kings and queens belong to them. 
They were named from their dresses. The proofs of it 
are abundant. One says, — 

I am a coat-card indeed.' 

He is answered, — 

' Then thou must needs be a knave, for thou art neither king 
nor queen.' — Rowley t When you tee me, Sfc. 

' We calPd him a coat-card 

Of the last order.' B. Jons. Staple of Newt. 

' She had in her hand the Ace of Hearts, with a coateard: 

Chapman's May 'day. 

The same is alluded to by Massinger ; — 

' Here's a trick of discarded cards of us : we were ranked with 
coats as loug as my old matter lived.' — Old Law. Act. iii. Sc. 1. 

" In * Robertson's Phrase Book,' (1681,) under I 
Card, we find this :— * The dealer shall have the turn- 1 
up card if it be an ace, or a cote-card. 9 But the usage 
being then become doubtful, covrt-card is subjoined. 

44 To draw Cuts. To draw lots, being papers cut of 
unequal length, of which the longest was usually the 

' How shall we try it ? That is a question. We will draw cuts 
for the senior ; till then, lead thou find.' 

Com. of Erron. Act ▼. at the end. 

44 In the * Complete Angler* (Part I. cb. v.) they 
draw cuts who shall sing : — 

PUc. ' I think it best to draw cute, and avoid contention.* 

Pet. ' It is a match. Look, "the shortest cut fall* to Coridon.' 

Cor.— • Well theu, 1 will begin, for 1 hate contention.' 

Bolster's 2nd ed. p. 164. 

Thus the shortest cut was here the loser, or the person 
to pay the social penalty of a song. It occurs in the 
old Scotch song of 4 Bessy Bell and Mary Gray,' where 
the lover thus settles his wish for both lasses : — 

4 Wae'a me, for baith I canna get, 
To ane by law we're utentrd : 
Then I'll draw cuts, and tike my fate, 
And be with ane contented.' 

Mut. Misc. Vol. i. p. 160. 

" Dinner Time. The proper time for dinner is laid 
down by Thomas Cogan, a physician, in a book en- 
titled the * Haven of Health,' printed in 1584. It is 

* One was advertised to be sold in April, 1835, price twelve 

curious to observe how far we have since departed from 

the rule : 

< When foure homes bee past after breakefast, a man may 
safely take his dinner, and the most convenient time lor dinner is 
about eleven of the clocke before noon. The usual time for dinner 
in the universities is at eleaven. or else where about noon.' 

Chap. 211. 

So Old Merrythought, in c Beaumont and Fletcher/ 

' I never came into my dining-room but at eleven and six 
o'clock: 1 found excellent meat and drink on the table.' 

Kn. ofB. Pest. Act i. Sc 3. 

It soon became later : — 

' Or if our meals would, every twelve and seven, 
Observe due hours.'— Wayne's Amor. War. 

". Jew's Eye. This phrase does not require explana- 
tion, but its origin may be worth remarking. The ex- 
tortions to which the Jews were subject in the thirteenth 
century, and the periods both before and after^ exposed 
them to the most tyrannical and cruel mutilations, if 
they refused to pay the sum demanded of them. * King 
John,' says Hume, * once demanded 10,000 marks 
from a Jew of Bristol, and, on his refusal, ordered one 
of his teeth to be drawn every day, till he should con- 
sent. The Jew lost seven teeth, and then paid the 
sum required of him.' — Chap. xii. a. d. 1272. The 
threat of losing an eye would have a still more powerful 
effect. Hence the high value of a Jew's eye. The 
allusion was familiar in the time of Shakespeare : — 
( There will come a Christian by 
Will be worth a Jewess' eye.' 

Mer. Pen. Act ii. Sc. 5. 

The fine black eye of the Jew does not seem sufficiently 
to account for the saying. ,r 

We will give our remaining extracts in an abridged 

" Maundy Thursday (the day preceding Good Fri- 
day) is derived from maund, a basket ; on account of 
the king giving alms every year at Whitehall on this 
day, and the gifts being contained in baskets. 

" Sizer, at Cambridge, equivalent to servitor at 
Oxford : from size, a small portion of bread, or other 
food, a term still in use there. 
* To bandy hasty words to scant my sixes.' — Lear, Act i. Sc. 4. 

" Watch. Though the invention of watches may be 
traced to the fourteenth century, the wearing a watch 
was considered a mark of gentility until a late period. 
Aubrey relates a curious story of watches. Mr. Allen, 
a reputed sorcerer, being at Home Lacey, in Hereford- 
shire, happened to leave his watch in the chamber- 
window. The maids coming in to make the bed, and 
hearing a thing in a case cry tick, tick, tick, concluded 
that this was Mr. Allen's devil, or familiar spirit, and 
taking hold of it with the tongs, threw it out of 
window into the moat, in order to drown the devil. 
The string, however, caught hold of the sprig of an 
elder-tree, and saved the old gentleman's watch. This 
may have happened about the year 1 590. 

" Wych, a salt-spring, or salt-work. All the places 
where salt-springs, or pits, were anciently found ter- 
minate in wych, or wich. Hence Drayton speaks 
collectively of the wyches in Cheshire : — 
« But that which vexed her most wan, that the Peakish cave 

Before her darksome self Mich dignity should have ; 

And th' wyches. for their salts, such state on them should take.* 

Polyolb. VuLiii. p. 711. 

And the marginal note on wyches, is * the salt-wells in 
Cheshire.' » 

V The Office of the 8ociety for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge ii at 
69, Lincoln's Inn Fields* 


Printed by William Clowss and Boats. Stauaford Street. 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

201.] PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. [May 23, 1835. 



March to 

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194 , THE PENNY MAGAZINE. [May 93, 

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ftfer-boy, were hired by Hdgarth td sit to nlm for 
half-a -crown a-piece. 

The next principal group in the foreground is an 
illustration of gin-drinking. A soldier, with his dress 
in great disorder, has sunk upon the ground, overcome 
by the efficacy of that potent poison. Yet he calls for 
more ; and two persons respond to the call. One, a 
mirthful comrade, endeavours to force him to drink 
water from his canteen; but from^iiuB the drunkard 
turns away with disgust, and holds out his hand for 
the dram which the female sutler readily fills out for 
him. • But another arm is also held out for it. The 
emaciated child, which this woman carries on her back, 
stretches forth its little grasping hand, with earnest 
entreaty, for a taste of that burning fluid which it has 
been already taught to relish. This is painful, because 
it is true. 

We may direct the attention of the reader to the 
chickens in front of this group. Welch informs us 
that they had been pointed out as an exquisite absurdity 
by a»4contemporary, who was a professed connoisseur in 
painting. He had said that nothing could be more , 
ridiculous than to introduce chickens so near such a 
crowd ; and what increased the absurdity was, that the 
birds were not, as might naturally be expected, en- 
deavouring to escape from the crowd, but were actually 
running towards what it is their nature to «hun. Welch 
points, with well-authorized triumph, to a truly Ho- 
garthian circumstance, which had escaped the notice 
of this acute critic. The chickens are seeking the 
parent-hen, the presence of tfhich, in the pouch of 
the soldier who offers water to the drunken man, is 
indicated to the spectator by the appearance of one 
of the wings. 

The corner of the picture, under the sign-post of the 
King's Head, is occupied by an honest tar on horse- 
back, whose exuberant loyalty finds vent in the esta- 
blished maritime method. The loyalty of this man is 
understood to be contrasted with that of the fellow 
before him, with the countenance of a confirmed drunk- 
ard, who, with his gun on his shoulder and his bayonet 
in his hand, seems to threaten deadly measures against 
the enemy in the approaching conflict. The reader 
may, however, accept the alternative of another expla- 
nation, which supposes this man to be guarding from 
interruption the proceedings of his neighbour, who 
is filling his eanteen through a hole which he has 
bored in a barrel of strong beer, with which a man is 
endeavouring to make his way through the crowd. 

Among the figures in the background in this part of 
the picture, those which principally attract our attention 
are, the stately young officer, behind the last-mentioned 
group ; the basket-woman ; and the woman who de- 
fends herself from the rudeness of one fellow, while 
another abstracts some of the linen which she was 
engaged in taking down from the line on which it hung 
to dry. 

Having thus endeavoured to elucidate, from various 
sources, all the principal and some of the subordinate 
details exhibited in our engraving, we now proceed to 
state some particulars connected with the history of 
this much- admired performance. 

The circumstances attending the publication of the 
engraving and the disposal of the picture are best 
explained in the following notices, which appeared, in 
1750, in the ' General Advertiser.' The first advertise- 
ment appeared in April : — 

" Mr. Hogarth is publishing by subscription a print 
representing the March .to Finchley in the year 1746, 
engraved on a copper-plate, twenty- two inches by 
seventeen ; trie price 7s. 6d. Subscriptions are taken 
at the Golden Head in Leicester Fields till the 30th 
of this instant, and not longer, to the end that the 
engraving may not be retarded. Note : — each print 

will be half-a-guinea after the subscription it over. In 
the subscription-book are the particulars of a propMtf, 
whereby each .subscriber of three shillings, over and 
above the said seven shilliHfib and sixpence for the 
print, will, in consideration thejftof, be entitled to a 
chance of having the original picture, which will be 
delivered to the winning subscriber as soon as the 
engraving is finished." 

On the first of the next month, the following ap- 
peared in the same journal : 

" Yesterday, Mr. Hogarth's subscription was closed ; 
1843 chances being subscribed for, Mr. Hogarth gave 
the remaining 167 chances to the Foundling Hospital. 
At two o'clock, the box was opened, and the fortunate 
chance was 194 1 , which belongs to the said hospital ; 
and the same night Mr. Hogarth delivered the picture 
to the governors." Mr. John Nichols states, that he 
was informed by Mr. Nathaniel Thomas (who was 
many years editor of the * St. James's Chronicle'), 
that the general report at the time was, that the 
fortunate number belonged to a lady, who made a 
present of the picture to the hospital. It was deemed 
by many, at the time, an improper present. Hogarth 
himself, speaking of this picture, observes, " it was 
disposed of by lottery (the only way a living painter 
has any chance of being paid for his time) for 300/." 
* * "By the like means," he adds, " most of my 
former pictures were sold.' 

Soon after the lottery, Hogarth waited upon the 
treasurer to the Foundling Hospital, and informed him 
that the trustees were at liberty to dispose of the paint- 
ing by auction. Scarcely, however, was the message 
delivered, before he changed his mind, and never after- 
wards would consent to the measure he had originally 
proposed. The Duke of Ancaster offered the hospitaj 
300/. for the picture; and Mr. John Ireland under- 
stood that a much larger sum was afterwards offered 
for it by another gentleman. 

It is rather remarkable that tjiis representation 
of purely English manners and humours should be 
dedicated to the King of Prussia. The tfause of this 
deserves to be explained. Before publication, the 
plate was inscribed to George II., and the picture was 
taken to St. James's for his Majesty's inspection, th% 
king, who was a zealous soldier, but one of the moat 
incompetent men on earth to enjoy a work of humour, 
or appreciate a work of art, was apparently prepared, 
from the title of the work, to expect a serious historical 
performance in honour of his favourite guards, who 
had marched so readily against the rebels. We may 
therefore imagine his amazement when the actual piece 
was placed before him. He was highly indignant that 
a painter should dare to satirize his gallant soldiers, — 
for thus he viewed the matter, — and sent back the 
picture with disgust. Some accounts state, however, 
though others are silent on that point, that the king 
sent the painter — a guinea! Whatever be the par- 
ticular facts, it is certain that Hogarth was so much 
mortified by the reception which his great work received 
from the king, that he altered the dedication, ana* in- 
scribed it to the King of Prussia, as an encourager of 
the arts. 


The following curious account of some domestic usages in 
the northern part of the island, upwards of two centuries 
ago, is from Fyne Moryson's ' Itinerary,' which we lately 
had occasion to mention to our readers when furnishing an 
account of English travelling in the seventeenth century. 
Morvson travelled in Scotland in 1598. 

• 4 Myself was at a knight's house, who bad many servants 
to attend him, that brought in bis meat with their heads 
covered with blue caps, the table being more than half fur- 
nished with great platters of porridge, #ach having a little 
° 2C 2 

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[May 23, 

of sodden meat ; and, when the tablet were served, 
the servants did yt down with us : but the upper mess, 
instead of porridge, had a pullet, with some prunes in the 
"broth. And I observed no art of cookery, or furniture of 
household stuff, but rather rude neglect of both, though 
myself and my companion, sent by the governor of Berwick 
upon bordering affairs, were entertained in the best manner. 
The Scots, living then in factions, used to keep many fol- 
lowers, and so consumed their revenue of victuals, living in 
great want of money. They vulgarly eat hearth-cakes of 
oats, but in cities have also wheaten bread, which, for the 
most part, was bought by courtiers, gentlemen, and the 
best sort of citizens. When I lived at Berwick, the Scots, 
weekly, upon the market-day obtained leave, in writing, of 
the governor to buy peas and beans, whereof, as also of wheat, 
their merchants at this day send great quantities from 
London into Scotland. They drink pure wines, not with 
sugar, as the English, yet at feasts they put comfits in the 
wine, after the French manner; but they had not our 
vintners* fraud to mix their wines. I did never see nor hear 
that they have any public inns with signs hanging out ; but 
the better sort of citizens brew ale, their usual drink (which 
will distemper a stranger's body), and the same citizens will 
entertain passengers upon acquaintance or entreaty. Their 
bedsteads were then like cupboards in the wall, with doors 
to be opened or shut at pleasure, so as we climbed up to 
our beds. They used but one sheet, open at the sides and 
top, but closed at the feet and so doubled. Passengers did 
seek a stable for their horses in some other place, and did 
there buy horse-meat, and if, perhaps, the same house 
yielded a stable, yet the payment for the horse did not 
make them have beds free, as in England. * * When 
passengers go to bed, their custom was to present thorn 
with a sleeping cup of wine at parting. The country-people 
and merchants used to drink largely, the gentlemen some- 
what more sparingly ; yet the very courtiers, at feasts, by 
night-meetings, and entertaining any stranger, used to 
drink healths not without excess ; and, to speak truth with- 
out offence, the excess of drinking was then far more general 
among the Scots than among the English. Myself being, 
at the court, invited by some gentlemen to supper, and 
being forewarned to fear this excess, would not promise to 
sup with them but upon condition that my inviter would be 
my protection from large drinking, which I was many times 
forced to invoke, being courteously entertained, and much 
provoked to carousing, and so for that time avoided any 
great intemperance. Remembering this, and having since 
observed in my conversation at the English court with the 
Soots of the better sort that they spend great part of the 
night in drinking, not only wine, but even beer ; as myself 
will not accuse them of great intemperance, so I cannot al- 
together free them from the imputation of excess, where- 
with the popular voice chargeth them." 

Operation of Tapping a Sandwich Islander.— This day 
has been one of no small interest Our surgeon has, to the 
great surprise of the natives, successfully performed the 
operation of tapping Karaimoku. Lord Byron and some 
of the officers were present, as well as a number of the 
chiefs, some of whom were exceedingly anxious about the 
safety of the Regent, and could scarcely be made to com- 
prehend that an opening in so material a part, considered 
by them as the seat of life, could be made without danger ; 
and they seriously expected to see his highness s breakfast 
issue through the aperture. Their wonder and delight were 
accordingly extreme at the complete success of the surgeon ; 
and Karaimoku himself, though he had generously trusted 
himself into the hands of a stranger, must have experienced 
a more than ordinary satisfaction at having done so. When 
asked, before the operation, if he objected to it, he answered, 

T j 2 : my life " in your hands ; do M y° u tnink S 00 * 1 -" 

And though he suffered considerable pain, when it was over 
he exclaimed " Maitai, maitai!" (good, good.) Kahumanu 
was extremely affected ; and though not in the habit of dis- 
playing much tenderness of nature, the tears were streaming 
down her face, while she supported his head, and repeatedly 
kissed his forehead. The relief the old man experienced 
was very great, as the quantity of water drawn off was con- 
siderable. * * * The success of our surgeon has con- 
tributed much to the favour with which we are regarded bv 
^^yn.-Voyage of H.M& Blonde, * / 

Truth. — Nature had done so nmjft fur them in nothing 
as that it made them lords of truth, whereon all the other 
goods were builded. — Sidney's Arcadia^ 

Truth and reason are common to every one, and are no 
more his who spake them first, than his who spake them 
after.— Montaigne. ; L 


I was consulted by Mukni (the Bey of Fezzan) v r46]»ecting 
the construction of a coach, and I promised him that, if he 
could manage to procure good wood for the purpose, Belford 
should make it, and that I would train four horses to run it 
I anticipated much pleasure and amusement in this new 
occupation, as I had at the time nothing to interest or divert 
me. * * * Belford now began to contrive the coach in 
question, and out of an old Shibbia and some boxes, he 
made a body, six feet in length, three in breadth, and four 
in height. This he covered over like a higgler's cart, with 
an arched top, having a door behind, by which a person 
might easily get in ; but Mukni finding that he could 
squeeze himself into a smaller compass, had it reduced in 
such a way as to render it necessary for him to be pushed 
in and shot out like a sack of coals. The body being com- 
pleted, and springs being out of the question, it was 
mounted on two strong poles, which did duty as shafts ; 
and to these were fixed two wheels from one of the field- 
pieces, so that the carriage stood at about three feet from 
the ground. The sultan never for a moment quitted the 
place while Belford was at work, and was all delight at the 
progress which he made. Numbers of people came to see 
it, and many asked if that was the kind of vehicle in which 
our king and "his wives used to ride. I was frequently puzzled 
how to answer ; for, to say the truth, though Bel lord, con- 
sidering his want of materials, had done wonders, it very much 
resembled one of those market-carts which are dragged about 
London by donkies. It soon, however, lost that appearance, 
being covered with a splendid hood of scarlet cloth, and 
having a bed laid inside of it. The shafts, body and wheels 
were painted green, though not very durably. Tho sultan 
had some verdigris, which he had brought from Tripoli , 
part of this was mixed with olive-oil, which, not drying, was 
scraped off, but the rest being prepared with vinegar formed 
a wash which answered his fondest expectations* The 
carriage was now as gaudy as the sultan could wish, and he 
was the sole and happy possessor of it ; but a serious in- 
convenience soon presented itself : the coach was not large 
enough to allow a place for a driver, and his horses were 
too spirited to be trusted alone with such a small state-car- 
riage. After devising many plans to remedy the defect, we 
found we had but one expedient left, which was to convert 
the vehicle into a gig. Accordingly, a jack-of- all- trades, 
who was a very ingenious fellow, made, by my directions, a 
set of harness tolerably well, except that the little pad on 
the horse' s back weighed above fifty pounds. This, how- 
ever, was soon reduced ; but when the animal was put into 
the shafts, we discovered that the carriage was so low as 
to form an angle of at least twenty-five degrees with the 
ground. The sultan's head would, consequently, be about 
a foot lower than his feet ; but as he intended, at any rate, 
sitting with his face to the horse, he thought nothing of this 

His majesty indulged himself with many rides in the 
space near the castle, and, in one instance through the town, 
the coach being drawn by slaves. He, however, at last 
determined to venture a ride into the country with the horse 
to draw him. The animal being put into the vehicle, and 
led slowly through one little gate to where Mukni stood, 
made an attempt to run through another to his stable ; the 
man who led him being frightened, suffered him to set off 
at full speed. The gate brought him up ; one of the wheels 
knocking down the gate-post and part of the wall, but the 
carriage itself remained undamaged. This proof of its 
great strength quite charmed every one, and it was at last 
decided that a large saddle should be set on the horse, and 
that Baba Ishmael, the Turkish cannoneer, should ride him 
and direct the whole machine. Mukni, by way of showing 
his approbation of Belford' s talents, gave him Seven dollars, 
which he brought home to us in triumph, and which really 
saved us when on the very brink of starvation. — Captain, 
Lyon's Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa, 

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built, in the reign of King Stephen, by Alexander, 
Bishop of Lincoln, who also erected the castles of 
Banbury, in Oxfordshire, and Sleaford, in Lincolnshire. 
Henry of Huntingdon says, that this castle, emphati- 
cally called the New-work^ gave name to the town. It 
seems, at that time, to have been considered some- 
what improper for an ecclesiastic to busy himself in 
the erection of fortresses; and we are informed that 
Alexander founded two monasteries in the way of ex- 
piation. If the old writers are to be literally under- 
stood, the bishop was certainly the founder of the 
castle; but Dr. Stukely and Mr. Dickinson are dis- 
posed to contend that they are not to be understood 
as saying more than that Alexander enlarged, orna- 
mented, and fortified a castle which previously existed. 
One of the principal reasons for this conclusion is that, 
even in its ruins, this castle exhibits at least two dif- 
ferent styles of architecture, — one much anterior to the 
other, which was not likely to have been the case had 
the bishop built the structure from the foundation. 

Be this as it may, the king did not at all approve 
of the taste which Alexander and other bishops dis- 
played for building and strengthening castles; and 
when ultimately roused to act with vigour against the 
turbulent barons and factious ecclesiastics, he com- 
menced with the latter, and either cajoled or forced 
them into submission, until he obtained possession, 
successively, of all their strongholds. Alexander was 
found to be very intractable, and was therefore, with 
his uncle, seized by the king, and detained in prison 
till all the fortresses of both were surrendered. The 
governor of Newark Castle refused to surrender it, 
unless ordered to do so by the bishop in person ; but 
he did not persist in this determination when - he 
revived notice from the prelate that the king had 
made a vow that he (the bishop) should have neither 
meat nor drink till tfjat fortress was surrendered* 

reign, the castle was in the hands of the royal party ; 
and it was not only gallantly defended, but the garrison 
frequently sallied out and wasted the lands of such oi 
the insurgent barons as had estates in that neighbour- 
hood. The Dauphin of France therefore thought it 
necessary to send a considerable force, under the 
command of Gilbert de Gaunt, whom he had created 
Earl of Lincoln, to take the castle. . This was found 
to be no easy matter ; and when Gilbert heard of the 
approach of the king at the head of a powerful army, 
he raised the siege and retired to London. Not long 
afterwards, the king actually arrived, but in no con- 
dition to fight the barons, had they been there ; for on 
his march from Lynn through Lincolnshire, a great 
part of his men, together with all his treasure, carriages, 
baggage, and regalia, 

* Were in the washes all unwarily 
Devoured by the unexpected flood." 

When he reached the castle, he was no less indisposed 
in body than distressed in mind, and died there on the 
19th of October, 1216. Stowe adds:—" Immediately 
on the king's death, his servants, taking all that was 
about him, fled, not leaving so much of any thing 
(worth the carriage) as would cover his dead carcase." 

When the French prince made terms with John's 
successor, the barons who had assisted the former being 
left in an unpleasant predicament, seized and fortified 
this castle with the view of making terms for themselves 
with the king. The Protector, the Earl of Pembroke, 
marched against them, and, after a siege of eight days, 
the fortress was surrendered to him, the besieged throw- 
ing themselves upon the kings mercy. Henry restored 
the castle to the see of Lincoln, which was then filled 
by Hugh de Wells, Chancellor of England. 

After this nothing of historical interest occurs for 
ieveral centuries in connexion with Newark Castle 

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Way 23„ 

It deserves to be mentioned, however, that Peter de la 
Mare, the Speaker .of the House of Commons, was 
sent prisoner to this castle in the year 1376, at the 
instance of the Duke of Lancaster who, after the death 
of the Black Prince, influenced the royal councils. 
De la Mare is said to have seen through and opposed 
a design of the Duke to secure the succession of the 
Crown to himself and descendants, to the prejudice of 
the issue of his elder brother. 

In the year 1530 Cardinal Wolsey lodged in the 
castle with a large retinue, while on his way to South- 
well, where he spent great part of that summer. In 
Peck's ' Desiderata Curiosa,' this castle is mentioned 
among the other castles and royal mansions belonging 
to Queen Elizabeth. The fee of the constable is there 
stated at 6/. 13s. 4d. a-year, and that of the porter at 
5/. King James I. lodged in the castle in the year 
1602, on his way from Scotland to London. He was 
entertained by the corporation of the town, who, among 
other demonstrations of loyalty, presented him with a 
gilt cup. Here it was ttyat he afforded to the, English 
the first demonstration of those exalted notions of 
prerogative and kingly power which he had afterwards 
such unfortunate success in inculcating into the mind 
of his ill-fated son Charles. During Charles's reign, the 
castle again became of historical importance. The 
garrison of the castle and the inhabitants of the town 
adhered firmly to the royal interest throughout the 
protracted struggle between the King and the Parlia- 
ment. It formed to the royal party a strong and most 
useful post, from whence many successful excursions 
were made ; and it became an occasional place of 
retreat for the king himself. It was twice besieged 
without success by the Parliamentary forces under Sir 
John Meldrum ; and when it surrendered in May, 1646, 
it was by the king's special command ; and the go- 
vernor, Lord Bellasis, ohtained very advantageous and 
honourable conditions for himself and the garrison. 
After the surrender of the king, most of the royal 
garrisons were ordered by the Parliament to be dis- 
mantled, and this of Newark among the rest. Since 
that time it has been a ruin. 

But though in ruins, it still presents an august 
appearance ; the effect, however, is much impaired by 
the remains being applied to the purposes of coal- 
wharfs, stables, &c. The parts which remain entire 
are the south-west angle, the west wall, and a con- 
siderable portion of a square tower towards the north- 
west corner. The western wall, which is washed by 
the river, presents in one part of it three distinct stories, 
or tiers of apartments, especially towards the north-west 
angle. In the tower at the south-west angle, as well 
as in the whole west wall, from that to the centre 
tower inclusive, there is an appearance of greater 
antiquity than in any other part of the building now 
remaining; but, advancing from south to north, as 
soon as the eye arrives beyond the centre tower, a very 
manifest difference appears. Among the large Gothic 
windows in the principal remaining front, there is au 
excellent projecting window, which forms a perfect 
specimen of those called bays or bowers in ancient 
times. Underneath the great hall, which appears to 
have been one of the most recent parts of the edifice, 
there is a very curious arched vault or crypt, the roof 
of which is supported by a central range of pillars, and 
on the side of the vault towards the river are loop-holes 
and embrasures. 

It is even now not difficult to discover the general 
outline of this once formidable fortress and princely 
habitation. It seems to have been a square of very 
great dimensions, and the number of its stories appears 
to have been at least five. Within the exterior walls 
nothing now remains ; and the plot has long been used 
as a bowling green. 

" The best view of this stupendous pile," says Dick- 
inson, " is from the north-west, the direetion of the 
road from York. Many circumstances contribute to 
deprive it of those qualities which constitute a very 
picturesque ruin — the want of wood, the extreme 
irregularity of its architecture, and above all, the con- 
tiguity of inferior erections for the purposes of ha- 
bitation or the conveniences of commerce. Viewed, 
however, at the distance of a mile, whether considered 
as the termination of a vista, or as the first object on 
the approach to a town, it presents a grand and in- 
teresting scene to the attention of the traveller; in 
the words of the poet — • 

* Frowning majestic o'er the silvery wave*.' " 


[Concluded from No. 300] 

Contemporary books and periodical works enable us 
to obtain a tolerably accurate view of the travelling 
accommodations in this country at the commencement 
of the last century, and to trace the improvements which 
have since taken place. > If, in following this account, 
we have occasion to wonder at the exceedingly slow rate 
at which all travelling processes were conducted in the 
early portion of this period, we should not forget that 
the rate at which the stage-coaches then went, although 
it seem slow to us, who compare it with the easy and 
rapid travelling of a subsequent period, doubtless ap- 
peared very differently to those who could only compare 
it with a worse state of things which previously existed. 
If three miles an hour had before been the usual rate 
of travelling, an increase of speed to four miles must 
have seemed rapid travelling indeed. The present rate 
has been attained by gradual improvements ; and when 
we consider the miserable state of the roads, the clum- 
siness of the vehicles, and the absence of any effectual 
regulations for preventing delays on the journey, we do 
not see much occasion to wonder at the state of things 
we shall now proceed to describe. 

A French traveller, M. Misson, who was in this 
country in 1719, furnishes the first statement of which 
we shall avail ourselves. He says: — "They have 
several ways of travelling in England. The post is 
under a good regulation throughout, and the horses 
are better than those in France. There are coaches 
that go to all the great towns by moderate joumies ; 
and others, which they call flying coaches, that will 
travel twenty leagues a day and more, but these do not 
go to all places. They have no Messageries de Che- 
vaux as in France ; but you may hire horses for what 
time you please. The sea and the rivers also furnish 
their respective conveniencies for travelling. I say 
nothing of the waggons, which are great carts covered 
in, that lumber along, but very heavily ; only a few poor 
old women make use of this vehicle." 

Those coaches that went " moderate journies " were 
apparently those which travelled on the common roads, 
and the " flying coaches" were those which went on 
the best and most frequented roads,— perhaps on the new 
roads, — for it was about this time that the improvement 
of the public roads became an object of attention. 
One thing is certain, that these coaches which flew at 
the extraordinary rate of between four and five miles an 
hour were not very common, as we find this always 
mentioned as a matter of admiration ; and, at a much 
later date, the speed of the common stage-coaches could 
hardly have reached four miles. 

Defoe doubtless has in view one of the " flying 

coaches " when, in his * Tour through Great Britain,' 

he mentions among the recommendations of Ipswich 

that it possessed the advantage of an easy communica- 

* Ilistory and Antiquities of the Town of Newark. 

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tion w&h the Q aet r qpoi fe , there being a fast coach that 
•went from thence to London in one day. It is not cer- 
tain how many hours a coach-day contained. It pro* 
bably signifies, in this and many other instances, the 
whole period of day-light, with some intervals of re- 
freshment ; although' those that did not pretend to be 
flying coaches were content to be on the road about 
twelve hours in the twenty-four. Our impression is, 
that the flying coaches at this period never reached five 
miles an hour, and that the common coaches rarely 
reached, and perhaps never exceeded, four miles. In 
this early part of the century, no stage-coaches travelled 
by night : in time they began to avail themselves of 
moonlight nights, and ultimately, as at present, they 
went both by night and by day. At first, stage-coaches 
were interdicted from travelling on Sundays; but, 
about the middle of the century, a limited number were 
licensed to do so on some particular roads, and in the 
end all restriction was withdrawn. 

In the year 17£5 a work was published by Mrs. 
Manley, with the title of * A Stage-coach Journey from 
London to Exeter.' Pet sons may now be whirled from 
one of these cities to the other in less than twenty-four 
hours ; but it appears, from this production, that pas- 
sengers were then four days on the road, and that about 
• forty-eight hours were employed in actual riding. In 
point of fact, the journey took five days in this instance, 
because a Sunday intervened, on which day, as the 
stage-coaches did not travel, the passengers were de- 
tained at Salisbury, 

It was summer; and Mrs. Manley, who complains 
greatly of the hardships and fatigues of the journey, 
mentions that the passengers were roused every morn- 
ing at two o'clock, left the inn at three, and about the 
same hour in the afternoon arrived at the end of the 
day's journey: When the passengers left the inn to 
enter the coach, a crowd of beggars were, at this early 
hour, found waiting for alms about the coach, " and 
would never leave it unblessed." 

The company seemed to be allowed a pause at ten in 
the forenoon to take dinner. The lady appears very 
little satisfied with the fare : she says, — " They most 
unmercifully set us down to dinner, at ten o'clock, upon 
a great leg of mutton. It is the custom of these dining- 
stages to prepare one day beef, and another our present 
fare. It is ready against the coach Comes ; and, though 
you should have a perfect antipathy, there is no remedy 
but fasting. The coachman begs your pardon; he 
woald not stay dressing a dinner for the king, (God 
bless him !) should he travel in his coach.'* 

The mystery of driving four-in-hand was not known 
in those days. When more than fwo horses were em- 
ployed, the leader, or one of the leaders, was' ridden by 
a postilion, as no coachman professed to control more 
Worses than those fastened to the shaft. This custom 
was retained much longer than some other early usages 
which occur in the history of stage-coaches. It appears 
that by 1740 stage-coaches had begun to travel by 
moonlight, at least on some roads. Fielding's * Joseph 
Andrews' was published about that time; and the 
hero, after being robbed and left for dead by footpads 
in the night, is discovered by a stage-coach. " He just 
began to recover his senses as a stage-coach came by. 
The postilion, hearing a man's groans, slopped his horses, 
and told the coachman." The common people still 
continued, in general, to use the waggons, unless for 
the sake of the greater expedition they ventured upon 
the dangerous roof of the carriage, or nestled in the 
basket behind. Those who have read the work 
we have just mentioned will remember the horror of 
Mrs. Graveairs at the idea of admitting " a fellow in 
livery " inside the coach, notwithstanding the disabled 
condition in which he appeared. 
The 'Tales of an Antiquary,' published in 1828, 

contain an. exdettetffc' description of stag*ooaches and 
stage-coach traveUiagt about the tima of ttogarth g 
picture. We adopt, the account, in a somewhat abridged 
form, without hesitation^ having been able, from other 
sources, to satisfy : ourselves of the accuracy of the 
details. :;. ; : i ~. 

" In my own young days, stage-coaches were con* 
strutted .principally of; a dull black leather, thickly 
studded, by way of ornament, with black, broad-headed 
nails, tracing out the panels ; in the upper tier of which 
were four oval windows, with heavy, red, wooden Frames, 
or leathern curtains. Upon the doors, also, were dis- 
played, in large characters, the names of the places 
whence the coach started, and whither it went, stated 
in quaint and antique language. The vehicles them- 
selves varied in shape. Sometimes they were like a 
distiller's vat, somewhat flattened, and hung equally 
balanced between the immense front and back springs. 
In other instances, they resembled a violoncello-case, 
which was, past all comparison, the most fashionable 
form ; and then they hung in a more genteel posture, 
namely, inclining on to the buck springs, and giving to 4 
those who sat within the appearance of a stiff Guy 
Faux uneasily seated. The roofs of the coaches, in 
most cases, rose into a swelling curve, which was some- 
times surrounded by a high iron guard. The coach- 
man and the guard, who always held bis carbine ready 
cocked upon his knee, then sat together ; not, as at 
present, upon a close, compact, varnished seat, but over 
a very long and narrow boot, which passed under a 
large spreading hammer-cloth, hanging down on all 
sides, and finished with a flowing and most luxuriant 
fringe. Behind the coach was the immense basket *, 
stretching far and wide beyond the body, to which it 
was attached by long iron bars or supports passing 
beneath it ; though even these seemed scarcely equal to 
the enormous weight with which they were frequently 
loaded. These baskets were, however, never great 
favourites, although their difference of price caused 
them to be frequently well filled. 71 

" The wheels of these old carriages were large, 
massive, ill-formed, and usually of a red colour ; and 
the three horses that were affixed to the whole machine 
— the foremost of which was helped onward by carrying 
a huge, long-legged elf of a postilion,' dressed in a 
cocked hat, with a large green and gold riding-coat,—- 
were all so far parted from it by the great length ot 
their traces, that it was with no little difficulty that the 
poor animals dragged their unwieldy burden along the 
road. It groaned and creaked at every fresh tug which 
they gave it, as a ship rocking, or beating up, through 
a heavy sea strains all her timbers, with a low, moaning 
sound, as she drives over the contending waves." 

In the course of the next quarter of a century, the 
roads and stage-coach travelling underwent very con- 
siderable improvement. The vehicles themselves indeed 
do not appear to have been much improved, but they 
had been brought to act with more regularity and sys- 
tem than before. A French traveller, M. Grosley, wh£ 
was in this country in 1765, gives the following account 
of the manner in which he travelled from Dover to 
London. It will, however, be observed that the vehicle 
in which he travelled was not the common stage-coach, 
but the " flying-coach," which we have already men- 

" The great multitude of passengers with which 
Dover was crowded, afforded a reason for dispensing 
with a law of the police, by which public carriages in 
England are forbidden to travel on a Sunday. I 
myself set out on Sunday with seven more passengers 
in two carriages, called * flying-machines.' These 
vehicles, which were drawn by she horses, go twenty- 
eight leagues in a day, from Dover to London, for a 

* Sec the ' Country Inn Tard/ after Hogarth, in No. 19ft, 

Digitized by 




single guinea. Servant* ate entitled to a place for 
half that money, either behind the coach or upon the 
coach-box, which has three places. The coachmen, 
whom we changed every time with our horses, were 
lusty; well-made men, dressed in good cloth. When 
they set off, or were for animating their horses, I heard 
a sort of periodical noise, resembling that of a stick 
striking against the nave of the fbre-wheel. I have 
since discovered that it is customary with the English 
coachmen to give their horses the signal for setting off 
by making this noise, and by beating their stools with 
their feet in cadence : they likewise use the same signal 
to make them mend their pace. The coach-whip, 
which is nothing else but a long piece of whalebone, 
covered with hair, and with a small cord at the end of 
it, is no more in their hands than the fan is in winter in 
the hands of a lady : it only serves them to make a 
show, as their horses scarce ever feel it." 

The overturning of stage-coaches was a far more 
common accident about the middle of the last century 
than at present. In the * Gentleman's Magazine ' foi 
1771, a correspondent points out the causes of these 
accidents, and proposes remedies. The first and most 
manifest cause was the great height of the body of the 
coach from the ground, with the dumber of the pas- 
sengers who sat upon the top. He wishes that riding 
on the top could be forbidden ; but fears in that case 
the coach-owners would raise the inside fares, which 
would preclude many from travelling by coach. 
Another cause was the excessive roundness of the 
turnpike roads, which was often so great as to make it 
dangerous for even a post-chaise to turn out of the 
middle of the road when it met another carriage, the 
road being so very steep on each side. He proposes, 
as a remedy, that it should be made imperative on 
coach-proprietors to lengthen the axletree, so that the 
wheels, instead of being, as then, only four feet eight 
inches distant from each other, on the outside, might 
be distant five feet eight i