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Price 6$. in J\odvt Monthly ParU, and 7«. 6d. bound in Cloth. 

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0. Burrows, M.l>. 

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Sir M. A. Shee, P.R.A., F.R.S. 
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The Right Hon. Earl Spencer 
John Taylor, Esq. F.R.S. 
Dr. A. T. Thomfton, F.L.S. 
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H. Waymouth, Esq. 1 
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Thomas Wyse. Esq., M.P. 
J. A. Yates, Esq. 

Alton, Slajfords/ure—Rer. J. P. Jones. 
Anglesea—ller. E. Williams. 

Rev. W. Johnson. 

Mr. Miller. 
Ashburton— J. F. Kingston, Esq. 
Barnstaple. Bancraft, Esq. 

William Grlbbie, Esq. 
Belfast— Dr. Drummond. 
Biltton— Rev. W. Leigh. 
Birmingham— J.Corne.Esq.F.R.S. Chairman. 

Paul Moon James, Esq., Treasurer. 
Bridport—Wm. Forster, Esq. 

James Williams, Esq. 
Bristol— J. N. Sanders, Eaq., Chairman. 

J. Reynolds, Esq., Treasurer. 

J. B. Ratlin, Esq., F.L.S., Secretary, 
Calcutta— Lord Wm. Bentinck. 

Sir Edward Ryan. 

8lr B. H. Malkin. 

James Young, Esq. 

C H. Cameron, Esq. 
Cambridge— Her. James Bowstead, M.A. 

Rev. Prof. Henaiow. M.A., F.L.S. & O.S. 

Rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A., F.L.S. 

Rev. John Lodge, M.A. 

Rev. Geo. Peacock, M.A., F.R.S. & O.S. 


Rev. Prof. Sedgwick. M.A., K.R.S.& G.S. 

Professor Smyth, M.A. 

Rev. C.Thlrlwall, M.A. 
Canterbury — John Brent, Esq., Alderman. 

William Masters, Eaq. 
Canton.— Wm. Jardine. Esq., President. 

Robert Inglis, Esq., Treasurer. 

Rev. C. Bridgman. ) 

Rev. C. Gutiiaff, ) Secretaries. 

J. R. Morrison, Esq., J 
Cardigan— Rev. J. Blackwell, M.A. 
Carlisle— Thomaa Barnes, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Carnarvon— It. A. l'otde, Esq. 

William Roberts, Eaq. 
Chester— Hayea Lyon, Esq. 

Henry Potts, F.Kq. 
Chichester— John Forbes, M.D., F.R.S. 

C. C. Dendy, Esq. 
Cockermouth—liev. J. Whitridge. 
Corfu — John Crawford. Esq. 

Mr. Plato Petrldes. 
Coventry— Arthur Gregory, Esq. 


Denbigh— John Madocka, Eaq. 

Thomas Evan*. Esq. 
Derby— Joieph Strutt, Esq. 

Edward StriKt, Esq.. M.P. 
Devonport and Stonehouse — John Cole, Esq. 

— Norman, Ksq. 

Lt. Col. C. Hamilton Smith, F.R.S. 
Dublin— T. Drummond, Esq. R.E., F.R.A.S. 
Edinburgh— Sir C. Bell, F.R.S.L. and E. 
Etruria— Jos. Wedgwood, Esq. 
Exeter— J. Tyrrell, Esq. 

John Mllford. Esq. (Coacer.) 
Glasgow — K. Finlay, Esq. 

Professor Mylne. 

Alexander McGrigor, Esq. 

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Glamorganshire— Dr. Malkln, Cowbrldgt* 

W. Williams, Esq., Aberpergwm. 
Guernsey— P. C. Lukis, Esq. 
Hull- J. C. Parker, Esq. 
Kcighley, Yorkshire— Rer. T. Dury, M.A. 
Leamington Spa — Dr. Loudon, M.D. 
Leeds— J. Marshall, Esq.; 
I .ewes— J. \V. Woollgar, Esq. 
Limerick— Wm. O'Brien, Esq. 
Liverpool Loc. As.—W. W. Currle, Esq. Ch. 

J. Mulleneux, Esq., Treasurer. 

Rev. W. Shepherd. 
Ludlow— T. A. Knight, Esq., P.H.S. 
Madrid— Slgnor A. Munor de Sotomayor. 
Maidenhead— R. Goolden, Esq., F.L.S. 
Maidstone— Clement T. Smyth, Esq. 

John Case, Esq. 
Malmesbury—tt. C Thomas, Esq. 
Manchester Loc. As.—G. W. Wood, Esq., Ch. 

Benjamin Heywood. Esq., Trtoiurer. 

T. W. Winatanley, Esq., Hon. See. 

Sir G. Philips, Bart., M.P. 

Benj. Gott, Esq. 
Masham — Rev. Geo r ire Waddingtoo, M.A. 
blertiiyr Tydvil—J. J. Guest, Esq. M.P. 
Minchinhamuton — John G. Bail, Esq; 
Monmouth— S. H. Moggridge, Esq. 
Neath— John Rowland, Esq. 
Newcastle— Rev. W. Turner. 

T. Sopwith, Eaq., F.G.S. 
Newport, Isle of Wight— Ah. Clarke, Esq. 

T. Cooke, Jun., Esq. 

R. G. Kirkpatrick, Eaq. 
Newport Pagncll—i. Millar, Esq. 
Newtown, Montgomeryshire— Vi . Pugh, Esq/ 
Norwich— Richard Bacon, Esq. 
Orsett, Essex— Dr. Corbett, M.D. 
Oxford— Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S. Prof, of Chem. 

Rev. Prof. Powell. 

Rev. John Jordan, B.A. 

E. W. Head. Esq., M.A. 
Penang— Sir B. H. Malkin. 
Pesth, Hungary— Count Ssechenyi. 
Plymouth— H. Woollcombe.Esq., P.A.S.,CA. 

Snow Harris. Esq., F.R.S. 

E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S., Secretary. 

G. Wightwick, Ksq. 
Presteign— Dr. A. W. Duvies, M.D 
Ripon— Rev. H. P. Hamilton, M.A., F.R.S. 
and G.S. 

Rev. P. Ewarr, M.A. 
Ruthen—Rer. the Warden of 

Humphreys Jones, Esq. 
Ryde, I. of Wight— Sir Rd. Slmeon.BU. M.P. 
Salisbury— Rev. J. Bar fit. 
Sheffield— J. H. Abrahaui, Esq. 
Shepton Mallet — G. F. Burroughs, Esq. 
Shrewsbury- 11. A.SIaney, Esq., M.P. 
South Pether tun— John Nicholetls, Esq. 
St. Asaph — Rev. George Strong. 
Stockport — H. Mar aland, Esq., 'treasurer. 

Henry Coppock, Esq., Secretary. 
Tavistock — Rev. W. Evans. 

John Bundle. Eaq. 
Truro — Richard Taunton. M.D. 

Henry S«-well Stokes, Esq. 
Tunhridge Wclis— Dr. Yeats. M.D. 
Uttoxetcr— Robert Biurton, Esq. 
Warwick — Dr. Conully. 

The Rev. William Field, (Leamington.) 
Waterford—SW John Newport, Bt. 
Wot'vcr/iamptiin—J. Pearaou, Eaq. 
Worcester— Dr. Hastings, M.D. 

C. H. Hebb, Eaq. 
Wrexham— Thomas Edgworth, Eaq 

J. E. Bowman, Eaq., F.L.S., Treasurer 

Major William Lloyd. 
Yarmouth— C. E. Rumbold. Esq. M.P. 

Dawaon Turner, Esq. 
York— Rev. J. Kenrick, M.A. 

J. Phillips, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

THOMAS CO ATE S, Esq., Secretary, No. S9, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

.London : Printed by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street. 

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Adbekii to the Readers of the * Penny 
Magazine' on the completion of it» 
fifth volume. 513. 

Ague, euro of. by charms, 903. 

Alfred, Bruce, and Washington com- 
pared, 89, 54. 

Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, his- 
tory of, 37. 

Alps, the peasantry of the, 801. 

Analogies, natural, essays on, 199, 807. 

Anchor, the forging of the, lines on, 39. 

Anglo-Saxons, trades and mechanical 
arts of, 91. 

Animals, presensation of, on changes 
of weather. 863. 

Antelope, the Springei, account of, 193. 

Antiquarian enthusiasm, anecdote, 408. 

Apprentices, Institutions for, 503. 

Arch of Trajan at Beneveuto/489. 

Artisans, diseases of, 88. 

Athlone, description and history of, 68. 

Baixd, Sir David, anecdote of, and 
Lieut. Lucas, at Seringapatam, 192. 

Barbarism and civilization, progress 
from one to the other, 411. 

Barcelona, port and city of, history of, 

Bats, habits of, 407. 

Bavaria, the Walhalla, or Hall of 
Heroes in, description of, 866. 

Beaumaris Castle. Anglesey, 51. 

Betel Nut Tree, natural history of, 85. 

BUls of Mortality, history of, 148. 

Birds' Nests, account of, 306. 

Birds, affection of, 64. 

Birmingham, ancient and modern, his- 
torical and descriptive account of, 
41. 81. 

Blind, instruction of the, 387. 

Books, ancient, form and material of, 

Boston church and town, description 

Breed, wheaten, notice on, 74* 

Bridal gift, the. a tale, 163. 

Brindley and the Duke of Bridge- 
water's canal, 363. 

Britain, ptjetic address to. 11*2. 

British Museum, history of the, 350, 

manufactures among the In- 
dians of South America, 451. 

Bruce. Robert, life of. 62. 

Bull-frog, the, of America, account of> 

Byland Abbey, Yorkshire, history of, 

Cabbaoe-tbee, the, natural history 
of, 387. 

Cabot, Sebastian, life qf, 79. 

Cairo, Ibrahim Pasha's palace at, 17. 

Cambridge, ancient and modern, with 
origin vf universities aud colleges, 

Camilla, original colonisation o& 848. 
Cauadiau iodiaue, account of. JJ3. 

CanncJ Coal, meaning of the term, 347. 
Castile, Old, view and doecrji4ion of a 

village in, 452. 
Castor oil plant, natural history of, 65. 
Catalepsy, a case of, 187« 
Celandine, lines to the small, by 

Wordsworth. 71. 
Cemcteries.oruamentaL decking graves 

with flowers. 153. 
Coreopsis of New Holland, the, natural 

history of, 367. 
Chaja, the, natural history of, 511. 
Chartres Cathedral, history of, 113. 
Chess, history and literature of, 408. 

players, village of, 496. 

Chest, the, capacity of, and condition 

during bodily exertion, 8/9. 

, deformities of the, 307. 

Chester, ancient and modern, historical 

and descriptive account o( 181. 
Cheviot Hills, the, 141. 
Chevrotain, the, natural history of, 473. 
Chichester Market Cross, account of, 

with a notice of the city, 369. 
Chi! Ion, castle of, descriptive account 

of. 60. 
Chimpanzee, the, natural history of, 57. 
China, fruits of, 50 ; vegetable products 

of, 60 ; silk worms and silk, 77. 180 ; 

agriculture, gardening, &c, of, 419, 

Chiueee, a brief captivity amongst the, 


, intellectual progress of, 885. 

Claude Lorraine, curious anecdote re* 

specting, 447. 
Cleland Testimonial, the Glasgow, 147. 
Clermont and the Auverge Mountains, 

Cobh.ira Hall, description of, 860. 
Coffer-dam*), as used in bridge build- 

Coins, English, history of, with illus- 
trations, 875. 883. 298, 324. 

Coipus, the natural history of, SO. 

Contentment, on, 160. 

Corfe Castle, Dorsetshire, accouut of. 

Cornwall, remarkable rocks in, 28. 

, labouring classes of, de- 
scription of manners and customs of, 

, Well of St. Keyne, and 

Southey's ballad on, 204. 

Cottages, Mountain, 96. 

Cow martingale of Normandy, 832. 

Cow Tree of America. 167. 

Cretan or Wallachian Sheep, account 
of, 497. 

Crete, the Labyrinth of, description of, 

Crime in England, Statistics of. 359. 

" Cui Bono, explanation of, 96. 

Crushed bones as manure, 403. 

Dahoxho, an essay on, 1. 

Deity, remark on, from Bishop Hall, 

Denmark, labourers in, 40. 
Desires, immoderate, 150. 
Dog, anecdotes of a. 354. 
Donald Caird, Sir Walter Scott's song 

of, 502. 
Dryburgh Suspension Bridge, account 

of, 416. 
Duel, a remarkable, 31. 
Dunluce Castle. Autrim, history of, 105. 
Dyeing cloth of two colours, 869. 

Easbt Abbey, in Yorkshire, descrip- 
tion of, 313- 

Egypt, ancient, arts of, 237. 

-, modern, some account of, 427. 
-, advent ures in, 43#. 

Elizabeth Castle, -Jersey, history of, 

Employments, division of, 240. 

English history, lias "been the Iiislory 
of progress, 104. 


First attempts, 192. 

Fox and Crow, fable of, 283. 

Fribourg Suspension bridge, with no 

tire* of suspension bridges, 30-^, 317- 
Friends and Asst'cuucs, a maxim of 

Burke'*, 3. 
Fuel, consumption o£ in France and 

England, 462. 

Geneva, state uf the Cur arts in, 240. 
Giraffe, natural hiMory cf the. 231. 
Grecian aud Albanian Costumes, with 

sketches of national character, J 78. 

197. 220. 
Greek Theatre, Syracuse, with a sketch 

of the Gieek Drama, 231. 
Gun lb, Daniel, a remarkable character, 


Hall, Bishop, lus advice how to lire, 

Hamilton and Towuley collections, 403 

Heidelberg, view of, aud description, 

Helena, St.. description of, 108. 

Hemlock or cromlech stono. near Not- 
tingham. 277. 

Herefordshire customs, 430. 

Heritable qualities 32. 

Hip-Joint, disease of the. 496. 

Hoopoe, the, natural history of, 33.' 

Horse-food, on, an essay, 94. 

Horses in Italy. 64. 

, ou the bitting of. 153. 

Hot water, efficacy of, 353. 

Howden Church, description of, 133. 

Hutton, William, some account -tf his 
life. 445. 453, 458, 493 499. 

Ibkx, the, account of, 157. ' « N c* • 
(gel, Roman monument at, 9\\ 
Indian ink, 392. 

Ivan, the Tsar, a fragment of HassUU 
history, 370., a sugar-farm in, history and 
statistics of, 343. 

Kiwkajov, the, natural history of, 137. 
Knights of Malta, history of the. 205. 

226. 245. 261. 270. 
Knowledge, attractions and advantages 

of. 232. 

hints and cautions in the 

Lead-mines in Britain wjrksd by the 

Romans, 503^ 
Lemur, ruffed, natural history of, 4. 
Leydeu, university of, 12. 
Licence to eat flesh. 258. 
Light, theories of, 95. 
Lincoln's Inn, custom in, 104. 
Lion and other animals, a Cable, 164. 
Literary forgeries, 375. 
London and Greenwich Railway. 9. 
London in times past and present, 366. 

Maonesian bread. 150. 

Malmesbury Market Cross, 101. 

Malting, description of the process, 39. 

Maple sugar-making, 476. 

Matlock High Tor, description of, 321. 

Medical evidence, remarks on, 290. 

Miners in England and Mexico, condi- 
tion of, 16. 

, manners of the northern coal, 


, narrative of a remarkable deli- 
verance of. 267. 

Mining district of South Staffordshire. 

Moscow, notice of, 22. 

Mummies, from ' Egyptian Antiquities/ 

Munich, sculpture gallery of, descrip- 
tion of, 236 ; the Pinacoihek, or pic- 
ture gallery of, 244. 

National Gallery, the, with notices 
of foreign galleries, and progress of 
fine arts, 466. 

Negroes, how they were estimated by 
our ancestors, 456. 

Newcastle upon Tyne, '* Pants*' in, 404 ; 
castle of, 426. 

Newspapers, English and American 

Niagara, Falls of, visit to the, 405. 

Nibelungen Lay, the, account of, 410, 
433. 449. 

Nile, the River, 135. 

Norway, scenery of, 217. 

Norwegian Fiords, description of, 393. 

peasantry, manners, cus- 
toms, &c, of. 333. 

peasantry, habits, manners 



pursuit of, 335. 

Labrador Mission. RIEg extraordinary 

narrative o/, ^ 
Lakes, the, se. >8o • „j r :t jng. 203. 

Lead-mine vi s ,t *. tie**" 

of, &c.,356. 

Oberhast.i, pass of, in Switzerland, de- 
scription or, 258. 
Occupations, variety ot 203. 
Ocelot, the, natural" history of. 225. 
Origin of butterflies, a fable, 3, 
Owl, the ear of, 56. 

Paris, l'Arc do Triomphe de PEtoile, 

La Bourse, 401. 

La Madeleine, church of, 419. 

Halle aux Bles et Parities, 481. 

Views ou the Seine. 464, 492. 

Halle aux Vins, 505. 

Palermo, cave of Santa Rosalia near, 

account of, 444. 

account of the city of, 361. 

Panther, the American, 413. 

Paper, printing, and cheap newspaper 

trades of the seventeenth century, 

Patagonian Penguin, the, account of, 

Pawnbroking Establishments, statis- 
tics of. 423. 
Penal Laws, and their moral effects, 71. 
Pesth, city of. account of, 436. 
Petra, amphitheatre at, 162 ; temple at, 

with geueral description, 185. 
Pheasants, natural history of the, 329. 
Physician, choice of a, 70. 
Pickerel lishing, account of, 442. 
Pilgrimages of the middle Ages, 223. 
Pilgrimage to Mariazell, in Austria, 

Pita Plant, the, account of, 182. 
Plague, the, at Eyam, in Derbyshire, 

Pleasures, corporeal and intellectual, 

Plymouth Breakwater, with notices of 

otlier breakwaters, 222. 
Polecat, or Skunk, of North America, 

Political economy of our ancestors, 

essays ou, 130. 148, 164 190. 
Porcupine, the, natural history of, 441. 
Potatoes, natural history of. 66. 
Pri*nn discipline, with an account of 

Mrs. Tatnall's efforts in Warwick 

gaol, 182. 
Prisons of Scotland, account of, 437. 
Proteus Anguiuus, the. account of, 151. 
Provnder fur the Vultures, a fable, by 

Dr. Jo) in son, 433. 
Public Instruction, 150. 

Purple and scarlei 
cients, 194 

dyes of the an 

Rid and oret Foxes, with a peculiar 
method of trapping them, 398. 

Rhubarb, description of, 119. 

Rievaulx, Abbey of, history of the, in 
Yorkshire, 241. 

Ruff and Reeve, the, natural history of. 

Salt-works at Goza, near Malta, cu- 
rious account of, 326. 

Savings' Banks, Metropolitan, account 
of, 406. 

Sea, the. 19. 

Seamen's Hospital ship, the " Dread- 
nought," description of, 402. 

Siamese Narration of a Shipwreck, 223, 

Sidmouth, town of, account of, 447. 

Sign 8, essay on, their origin, uses, &c, 

Silk manufacture, account of the, 414. 

Squirrels in fixed cages, 360. 

Stanton Drew, druidital remains at, 

Stanton Hsroourt, ancient kitchen at, 

- , remarkable " event 

at, 159. 
Steam Engine, the, 35. 
Steam Navigation, 35. 
Spinning, description of the different 

processes of household, 268. 
Stars, shooting, some account of, 331. 

, , remarks on, 440. 

Stockholm, city of, account of, 501. 
Storms, remarkable, in England, 49b. 
Stuttgard, city of! account of, 457. 
Swallows, migration of, 202." 
Swiss Husbandry, 150. 
Swimming and Diving, feats of, 290. 
Superstition m Africa, 112. 

Tallow-tree of China, 7. 

Talkativeness, 11. 

Tanning, description of, 118. 

Tar-making, description of, 49. 

Taste, cultivation ot tiie popular, 479. 

, improvement of, in the decora- 
tion of houses, 434. 

Temper, a kind and gentle, lines by 
Hannah More, 150. 

Templars, knights, history of, 15, 17. 

Teutonic and Scandinavian Uomauces, 
— thn Nibelungen Lay, 410. 

Threshing-machines, 235. 

Tinkers of Scotland, account of, 502. 

Towuley, Charles, life of, 391. 

Tower of London, historical aud descrip 
tive accouut ofc 249, 297. 

Trogons, the, natural history of. 287 

Trough ton, Mr., anecdote of, 187. 

Tutbury Castle, history of, 89 

Umbrellxs, history of, 4. 
Unanimity in crowds, 8. 
Unprofitable discussions, 8. 
Upsala, city of, description of, 373. 
Usefulness, maxim of Felthani, 8. 

Valotjr, a maxim. 11. 
Varnish-tree of China, 11. 
Vicissitude, remark on. 187. 
Vicugna, the, natural history of, 271. 
Vine and viueyards, the, history of, 97 
. 177. 

Vine, cultivation of the, in the East 

Indies, 151. 
, importance of the cultivation of, 

in France, 238. 
Vintage of Castile, 266. 
Virgil's Tomb, near Naples, 332. 

War, remark on, 36. 

Washington, lite of. 70. 

Watchmaking la Switzerland, account 

of. 322. 
Westfjorddalen, Valley of, in Norway. 

Whale fishery on the coast of Ireland, 

Wheaten Bread, on, 74. 
Wheel, high, the. 138. 
Wheels, different kinds of household, 

Wight, Isle of, historical and descrip- 
tive account of. 33,, 377. 

, etymology of places in, '6? 5. 

Winchelsea, Sussex, description aud 

hutory of, 399. 
Winchester Market Cross, description 

of, 295. 
Wine oi the Greek Islands, 8. 
Winter, escape from, lines on, 416. 
Wolf and Crane, a fable, 129. 
Working Men, meaning of the uhrase, 

235. * 

Writing material*, 13. 

Digitized by 



1 Dawcim, vmoM Hooabtb's ' Ana- 48 
lysis or BiAvrr/ page 1. 49 

fi Ruffed Lemur, 4. GO 

8 Skull of Lemur, 4. 

4 Skull of Monkey, 5. 51 

6 London and Greenwich Railway, 
from near Bermondsey New 59 
Church. 9. 53 

6 The University at Leydcn, 13. 54 

7 Palace of Ibrahim Pasha, as seen 55 

from the River Nile, 17- 

8 The Coi pus. SO. 

9 Hairy Palate of the Colpus, 91. 56 

10 Papooses, 24. 

11 Betel Nut Tree. 95 57 
19 The Cheesewring. as seen from the 

North-west. 98. 58 

13 Rilmarth Rocks, as teen from the 59 

8outh east. 98. 60 

14 Trevethy Stone, 99. 61 
16 Hoopoe, 33. 

16 Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, 63 

87. 63 

17 View of Ancient Birmingham, 41. 

18 Modern View of Birmingham, 45. 64 

19 Staffordshire Colliers, 4$. 65 

90 Tar-making. 49. 

91 Beaumaris Castle, 58. 66 
99 Ear of the Owl. and a Feather of 

the BUI magnified, 56. 

93 Chimpanzee. 57. 67 

94 Castle of Chdlon. from the Lake, 

61. 68 

95 Castor-Oil Plant. 65. 69 

96 North Gate. Athlone. Leinster, 68. 

97 The Huff and Reeve. 73. 70 

98 Elisabeth Castle, Jersey, 76. 

99 Trinity Chapel, Birmingham, 81. 71 

30 New Street, da. 85. 79 

31 Interior of Tutbnxy Castle- Yard, 

89. 73 

39 Roman Monument at IgeL near 
• Treves. 93. 74 

33 Chamhery. Savoy. 97. 75 

34 The Market-Cross at Malmesbury, 76 

101. 77 

35 Dunluee Castle, 105. 78 

36 Island of St Helena, 109. 

37 ''orch of Chartres Cathedral. 113. 79 

38 Plan of the Druidical Temple at 80 

Stanton Drew. 116. 

39 Stones at Stanton Drew, 117. 

40 Old Houses in Chester, 121. 61 

41 Watergate Street, and external view 

of the" Rows." 194. 
4 9 T n tenor of a Chester •• Row," 19). 82 

43 Wolf and Crane. 130. 83 

44 llowdeu Church. 133. 84 
4> The Kiukajou. 137- 

46 West Front of Laoo Catbcdiftl, 140, 

47 Ancient Kitchen, 144. ;85 

Port and City of Barcelona, 145. 

Cleland Testimonial, 148. 

Proteus Anguinus, half the natural 

size. 159. 
Church vanl at Wirfln, Valley of 

Salsa. 151 
The Ibex, 157. 
Amphitheatre at Petra, 161. 
The Lion and other Animals. 164. 
Pericarp and Nut of the Palo de 

Vaca, or Cow-Tree of Venezuela, 

of the natural size, 168. 
Interior of King's College Chapel, 

Bridge connecting the Colleges of 

Old and New St. John's, 173. 
Wine-making at Pola, 177- 
Albanian Officer, 180. 
Janissary of Jauina, 180. 
Greek Officer of Naoplia, or Napoli 

di Romania, 181. 
Temple at Petra. 185. 
Woman of the Island of Casos or 

Thasoa. 188. 
Woman of Trikeri, in Thessaly. 189. 
Hunting the Spring-Bok at the 

Cape of Good Hope, 193. 
Cornish Fisherwonien. frort the 

neighbourhood of Mount's Bev, 

Alpine Peasants returning home, 

Well of St. Keyne, Cornwall, 904. 
Cains Gate of Honour, Cambridge, 

The Pepysian Library, Magdalen 

College. Cambridge, 2i2. 
Valley of Westfjcrddalen. 917. 
Woman of Castri, the ancient Del- 
phi. 990. 
Greek Bride in Bridal Costume, 

Wife of an Archon (Athens), 991. 
The Ocelot. 225. 

Scallop Shell of the PiUrims. 998. 
The " Cow-Martingale," 232. 
Giraffes in the Zoological Gardens, 

with one of the Keepers, 933. 
Sculpture Gallery, Munich, 936. 
Arabesque from the Room of the 

Gods in the Glyptothek, Munich, 

The Abbey of R lev aula, from a 

Drawing by W. Westell, A.RJl., 

Picture Gallery, Munich, 944. 
Plan of the Upper Story, 945. 
Hyward Tower aud Stone Bridge, 

with drawbridge leading to the 

Wharf. 940. 
Interior ol the Horse Armoury, 253. 

86 PassofOberhasli.957. 

87 Cobham Hall, 960. 

88 The Walhalla. 9G5. 

89 The Jersey Wheel. 268. 

90 A Hindoo Woman spinning Cotton 

Yam on the primitive Wheel of 
India. 268. 

91 Hargreave's Spinning Jpnny in its 

most improved form, 969. 
99 The Vicugna, 272. 

93 Coffer-dam for carrying on the re- 

pair of Blackfriars* Bridge. 973. 

94 English Coins (ogs. 1 to 9T). 975. 

95 Greek Theatre, Syracuse, 281. 

96 English Coins (figs. 99 to 46), 983. 

97 Trogons.988. 

98 Pox and Crow, 989. 

99 English Coins (flgs. 47 to 67). 993. 

100 Winchester Market Cross. 296. 

101 Queen Elisabeth's Armoury, 997. 
109 Gun raised from the Wreck of the 

Royal George, 300. 

103 Cornice of the Small-arms Ar« 

nuMiry, 300. 

104 Gateway of the Bloody Tower, 301 

105 Pensile Nests of the Oriole. 305. 

106 Frlbours Suspension Bridge. 31/9. 

107 Writing Materials and Implements, 


108 Easby Abbey, Richmond, York- 

shire. 313. 

109 Pribourir Suspension Bridge (Age. 


110 The BuU Frog. 820. 

111 The High Tor at Matlock, 391. 

1 19 English Coins (figs 35 to 69). 394. 

113 The Cabbage-Tree, 398. 

114 The Horned Pheasant, 328. 

115 Virgil's Tomb, 332. 

116 View of Alum Bay. 837. 

117 View of Blaek-Gang Chine, 841. 

118 Pilgrimage to MarUsell, 345. 

119 A Jamaica Sugar Farm, 348. 

190 Byland Abbey. Yorkshire, from a 
Drawing by W. WestaU, A.R.A* 

121 Norwegian Peasantry. 366. 

199 The City of Palermo, 361. 

193 Aqueduct over the lrwelL 864. 

194 Cereopssi and Young, from the 

Zoological Gardens, 368. 

195 Chichester Market-Cross. 369. 
126 City of Upsala, 373. 

197 Ventnor Cove. 377. 

128 Map of the Isle of Wight, 380. 

129 Shankltn Chine, 384. 

130 Roston Church, 385. 

131 L'Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile, 


132 Salmon Fi&hetvon Lake Sottrand, 


133 British Museum, Room I.— No. 5ft, 


134 British Museum, Room III— No*. 


135 The Strand Gate, Wlnche.sea, 400. 

136 La Bourse, 401. 

137 " Paut. ' in Front of the Freeroon't 

Hospital, N««eastle-upon-Tyne, 

138 Frescoes of the Nibelungen. 409. 

139 Church of La Madeleine. 412. 

140 Plan of the Suspension Bridge 

erected at Dtvburgh in 1817. 416. 

141 Suspension Bridge erected at Dry 

burgh in 1818. 416. 
149 Paiagnnian Penguius. 417. 

143 View of Heidelberg from the Ruins 

of the Castle. 491. 

144 Chapel in Newcastle Castle, 495. 

145 Shops in a Street of Cairo. 428. 

146 Men of the Lower Classes of Cairo. 


147 An Egyptian Schcolbov learning 

the Alphaliet, 42* 

148 Siegfried taking leave of Chnm- 

hikt from the Frescoes of the 

149 View of Pesth. in Hungary. 437. 

150 The Porcupine. 441. 

151 Interior of St Rosnlia. 444. 

159 View of Chit Rock. Sid mouth. 449. 

153 Chrimhild discovering the dead 

body of Siegfried, from the Free 
coes of the Nibelunifen. 449. 

154 Village of Villa Vellid. in Old Cas- 

tile. 459. 

155 View of the City of fttuttgard, 457. 

156 Wood-Yard and Raft on the Seine. 

Faubourg St. Antoine 464. 

157 National Gallery, with the propos- 

ed Improvements in front. 4f 5 

158 Plan of the National Gallery. 469. 

159 Interior of Antwerp Cathedral. 

with the Picture of the Teaceut 
from the Cross, by Rubens, 472- 

160 TheChetrotaln.473. 

161 Corfe Castle, Dorsetshire. 477. 
169 Windmill at Chesterton. Warwiok 

shire. 480. 

163 Halle aux Bles et Farines. 481 . 

164 Canooffate Gaol, Edinburgh, 48*. 

165 Arch of Trajan at Benevento. 4*9 

166 Washerwomen ou the Seiue. Pan- 


167 Cretan or Wallachtan Sheep. 49/ 

168 City of Stockholm. 601. 

169 Roman Pigs of Lead in the Briti » 

Museum. 504. 

170 Huile aux Vina. Paris. 505. 

171 Crested Screamer, 512. 
179 Vignette to Address, 513. 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

241J PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. [January 2 f 1836. 

T\ A XT n T XT n 

The ludicrous engraving at the head of our present 
Article is taken from one of Hogarth's plates on the 
* Analysis of Beauty/ wherein he makes us feel what is 
Vol. V. 

beautiful in form and graceful in position and motion 
hy exhibiting their opposites. The grotesque in dress, 
the awkwardness of movements) and the unfitness ol 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


[January 2, 

people for the things they are about, are pnt m a strong 
light in the cotillon scene before us. We can almost 
hear the flooring of the ball-room creak under the 
weight of the heavy-footed paunchy old man who is 
dancing with his three-cornered hat on. And then 
look at his tall lanky neighbour, whose back is towards 
us, and whose legs are bent in the fashion of a pair of 
tpngs. And then the man in the forlorn wig setting to 
that mountain of an old woman who is affecting the 
graces of youth ; and the little old fellow with the 
double pig-tail prancing before the timid bashful 
young woman whose hands are held out like the fore- 
pa vs of a kangaroo ; and then the fine contrast to the 
whole *brmed by the couple at the head of the dance,— *• 
the dignified though somewhat scornful young lady, 
and the nobleman, her partner, who looks as graceful 
as it is possible for one to look in such a costume. All 
this is fine satire; and by carefully examining the 
print cur readers will discover many other touches of 
exquisite humour. 

Although Hogarth's dance is ridiculous enough, we 
are by no means of opinion that dancing, in proper 
time and season, and in the right manner, is an ab- 
surdity. Hitherto we have not been a dancing nation. 
" I/Angleterre," said a Parisian professor, " a produit 
des grands horames dans les sciences et les beaux arts, 
mais pas un grand danseur. A Ilea lire l'histoire !" 
(England has produced great men in the sciences and 
the fine arts, but not one great dancer. Only read 
history !) We are -afraid this is too true, and that 
many defects in our conduct and national character 
have arisen out of our neglect of music and dancing. 
Indeed, that this should be the case is evident to every 
body that has read the immortal Moliere's comedy of 
* Le Bourgeois Gentilhamme. 1 

Music-Master, — " Philosophy, to be sure, is some- 
thing; but music, my dear Sir, music * * V 

Dancing-Master. — " Music and dancing, — music and 
dancing,*— that's all that's wanted in this world." 

Music-Master. — " There is nothing so useful in the 
government of a great nation as music." 

Dancing-Master. — "There is nothing so necessary 
to mankind as dancing.' 1 

Music-Master. — " Without music no government can 
go on." 

Danoing-l%atier.~~ u Without dancing a. man cap do 

Music-Master. — " All the disorders, all the wars we 
see, only happen because people won't learn music." 

Dancing- Master. — " All the misfortunes of mankind, 
— all the sad reverses that swell the pages of history, 
the mistakes of politicians, the failures of great cap- 
tains, — all this comes from not knowing how to dance.'* 

M. Jourdain the t CUi2en.- u - ii How do you make that 

Music-Master. — " Why, doesn't war arise out of a 
want of unison among men ?'•' 

Af. Jourdain.—" That's true/' 

Music-Master — " If therefore all men learned music 
wouldn't that be the sure means to make them agree 
and keep time with one another, — to bring about a 
universal peace 9" 

M. Jourdain. — " You are quite right." 

Dancing- Master. — " When a man has committed a 
fault of conduct, either in family matters or in the 
government of the state, or in the command of an army, 
don't we always 'say, * So-and-so has made a false step 
in such an affair ? ,w 

M. Jourdain. — " Yes, that's what we say.*' 

Dancing-Master. — " And can making false steps pro- 
ceed from anything else than the not knowing how to 

Af. Jourdain. — " That 's very true ; and both of you 
ftre quite right in what you say." 

Dancing-Master.-^-" We have said ft in order to show 
you the excellence and usefulness of dancing and music." 

M. Jourdain. — " And by this time I perfectly well 
understand it all." 

When our readers shall have recovered from their 
consternation, and ceased to wonder how the affairs of 
this great nation can possibly have gone on so well as 
they have done, we will beg their attention to a few 
facts we have collected in relation to the subject of 
dancing generally. The triviality of the subject may 
be excused on account of the festive season of the year, 
when, \f our hearty wishes could be granted, the hearth 
of evepy man should burn brightly; — friends should 
meet from far and near ; and bright young eyes and 
light feet, and hearts lighter than their feet, should 
make a happy holiday and dance, — at least as well as 
poor English people can dance. 

It is well to give an occasional truce to serious 
thoughts and work-a-day occupations. No subject is 
so trivial but that a little research and the art of viewing 
it in connexion with other and greater things can make 
it interesting and even useful. But, properly speaking, 
dancing is not a small subject ; the practice of it seems 
to have prevailed in all times, and in all climes ; and 
the quantity of matter that has been written on it 
by the French and Italians alone is very great. 

" The history of dancing," says an old Florentine, 
" would be the history of human nature: All the 
nations of the earth dance. The distinctive appellation 
for man would be, * the dancing animal ;' for although, 
at a great cost of labour, we do cause bears to stand on 
their hi ad- legs, and teach cocks to dance by putting a 
hot stone under their feet, yet do they not these things 
naturally or of themselves; and, in the very best of 
them, it is not dancing, but a miserable hopping and a 
throwing about of their legs (tin brutto menare di 
gambe.y There is an old French quarto called " His- 
toire critique de la Panse dermis la Creation du Monde 
jusqu' a nos Jours ;" or, A Critical History of Dancing 
from the Creation of the World to our Days. The in- 
genious author seems frequently to be quite over- 
powered by the magnitude and importance of his subject. 
The celebrated musician Pierre Jean Burette published, 
about a hundred and thirty years ago, a very curious 
dissertation on the dances of the ancients in the * Me- 
moirs of the French Academy of Inscriptions/ Ac- 
cording to Theophrastus, as quoted by Athenaeus, the 
ancient Greeks attributed the first invention of dancing 
to one Andron, a native of Catania, a city at the foot of 
Mount Etna in Sicily; but Eumelus, who is also 
quoted by AtheqaBUS, carries the art many steps higher, 
making the god Jupiter the first dancing-master. He 
is represented figuring in that capacity in the midst of 
the deities, of Olympus. After this it is no wonder 
Athenaeus should say that it is wise and honourable to 
be a good dancer. Lucian, again, claims the honour 
of the invention for the goddess Rhea, who, as he says, 
taught her priests in Phrygia and Crete the whole art 
of dancing. The oldest poet and the oldest historian 
of Greece make honourable mention; of dancing. Ho- 
mer speaks of 

" Two with whom none could strive in dancerie," 

as his old translator, Chapman, has it ; end Herodotus 
tells us how Hippoclides the Athenian, the son of Tisan- 
der, lost his bride, the beautiful Agarista, the daughter 
of Clisthenes, king of Sicyon, by making some false 
steps in dancing for her. 

The- king's determination was to marry his daughter 
to the most distinguished man in Greece, and what was 
so proper to mark this distinction as dancing? After 
a year'a probation, the different suitors met at supper 
to decide the business; and, having sacrificed a 
hundred oxen and dmhk plenty of wine, they ea 

Digitized by 




gaged in a dispute about music and dancing. Hip- 
poclides bade the musicians " strike up" with a tune 
called Emmelia, which he danced to, greatly to his own 
satisfaction, though it should appear from Herodotus 
that either the air, or the dance, or both, gave little 
satisfaction to the king. Having finished this dance 
and taken breath for awhile, Hippoclides called for a 
table, on which he danced, in the first place, according 
to the fashion of the Spartans* and secondly in the 
Athenian manner : but at length he stood oh his head, 
using his legs as if the? had been his arms, lie had 
been offended before) btlt when his majesty of 8icyon 
saw his would-be son-in-law eapering with bis feet ih 
the air, he could contain himself no longer, and exclaim- 
ing, " Son of Tiaandef, toil have daneed awajr your wife," 
he immediately gave the fair Agarlsta In marriage to 
Megacles, the son of Atetnieoh, whOj as we may suppose, 
contented himself With daricittg oil hfs feet, the deci- 
sion does credit fo the good taste of the old king, but 
we are inclined to suspect that very ancient dancing, 
and all dancing among uncivilized people, was little 
more than tumbling and posture-making, siieh as we 
still see occasionally at our country-fairs. In an illu- 
minated Latin bible of the 12th century preserved in 
the library of the British Museum 1 there is an embellish- 
ment representing the daughter of Herodias dancing 
for the head of Si. John the baptist* and she is repre- 
sented, like Hippoclides, balancing herself on her head 
and hands, with her legs and feet fn the air. Mr. 
Sharon Turner, in his • History of the Anglo-Saxons, 1 
says, " We may remark that the word commonly used 
in Anglo-Saxon to express dancing is the verb Tumbian. 
The Anglo-Saxon version of the Gospel mentions that 
the daughter of Herodias Tumbube (t. e. tumbled) 
before Herod ; and the Anglo-Saxon word for a dancer 
is Tumbupe (tumbler). It is probable that their mode 
of dancing included much tumbling." 

But to return to the Greeks : in then* days of virtue, 
freedom, and simplicity, dancing was considered an in- 
dispensable accomplishment, and the best men of the 
land danced ; nor Was it until their manners were cor- 
rupted that they conceived the notion that none ought 
to dance except slaves and hired artists who did it for 
money. That severe lawgiver Lycurgus even enjoined 
dancing to the Spartans, as something not only seemly, 
but honourable and necessary. The gravest statesmen 
and magistrates of Thessaly never hesitated to join the 
dance, just as among ourselves, in the days of Queen 
Elizabeth, My Lord Keeper would open the ball, and 
all the cabinet-ministers, judges, and the rest of the 

" Most potent, grave and reverend rigniors," 
would take their part in the dance, without at all 
thinking that they thereby degraded themselves. In 
the time of James I. and Charles I. our lawyers were 
distinguished for their dancing. The author of a 
book entitled * The English Dancing-master, or plaine 
and easie Rules for the Dancing of Country-dances, 
with the Tune to each Dance, 1 exclaims with energy, 
" Who hath not heard of the gentlemen of the Innes 
of court, whose sweet and airy activity has crowned 
their grand solemnities with admiration to all spec- 
tators?" And in another place he says, " Dancing 
is a quality that has formerly been honoured in the 
courts of princes, when performed by the most noble 
heroes of the times ! " This curious book was published 
in 1651, during the gloomy non-dancing days of 
Oliver Cromwell, but it was written some time before. 
The writer, who modestly and perhaps prudently 
concealed his name, giving only the initials J. P., is 
thoroughly in earnest about his subject. " The art of 
dancing," he adds, " called by the ancient Greeks 
Orchestice and Orehestia, is a commendable and rare 
quality fit for young gentlemen if opportunely and 
***% used, And Plato, thai famous philosopher 

thought it meet that young ingenious children be 
taught to dance/' 

It is recorded of the founder of the Grecian stage, the 
great tragic poet ^Sschylus, that he did not consider it 
unworthy of his genius to turn his attention to the 
national dances, which he eventually improved to a 
wonderful extent. These old Greeks had religious 
dances and war-dances, dances for marriages, for 
funerals, and for a great variety of occasions ; and some 
Of these hdve survived ih the land where almost every- 
thing else has perished or beert changed. At the dis- 
tance of twCnty-six centuries* we can trace the Daedalian 
or Cretan dance, as described by Homer, in the 
Romaika of the moderri Greeks; and the ancient 
Pyrrhic dahee in the Albanitico of the present day; 
as also ih another datice peculiar to Candia, in which 
the performers, who are always men, are furnished 
eadh with a target arid a short swOrd, which can differ 
little in forrn from those described ih the * Iliad.' It is 
curidus to see such things ia9tihg 60 Wr ; but, accord- 
ing to one of the old Italian writers we have consulted, 
there is, or there ought to be, as much immortality in 
a good dance as in ah fcpic poem. The historical 
dances of the ancient Greeks deserve a word of notice; 
by their means some of their most remarkable tales 
were handed down to posterity. Each of the tribes at 
Athens seems to hdve celebrated in a peculiar dance 
some historical event with which the forefathers of the 
tribe had been particularly cohhected. Pantomimic 
action and all the play attd expression of the counte- 
nance must have been mihgled with these historical 
dahceSj which probably resembled ih some points the 
ballets d'dctibn which the modern French, and still 
more the Italians under Vigano, have carried to such 
perfection as to make them tell a perfect story without 
the employment of words, and to render them, with the 
aid of music, as effective and touching as a fine tragedy. 
In ancient Rome dancing went through much 
the same phases of fortune as in Greece. The 
hardy simple-minded republicans did not consider 
that there was either shame or sin ih dancing. In 
the days of the Cincinnati, the Gracchi, the Catos, 
when their morality was most austere, and. their 
domestic virtues above reproach or suspicion, the 
children of the senators, and of all the Upper classes 
of citizens, were regularly sent to the dancing-school, 
where they learned how to make use of the castanets as 
well as how to dance. But when Rome became a 
sink of vice and impurity, — when the men ceased to be 
brave and the women virtuous, — then the practice of 
dancing was held as base and dishonouring, and a set 
of panders and hired artists soon rendered it so in 

(To be continued.] . 

friends and Associates. — Those persons who creep into 
the hearts of most people, — who are chosen as the com- 
panions of their softer hours, and their reliefs from care and 
anxiety, — are never persons of shining qualities nor strong 
virtues. It is rather the soft green of the soul on which 
we rest our eyes, that are fatigued with beholding more 
glaring objects. — Burke. 

Origin of Butterflies, — When Jupiter and Juno's wed- 
ding was solemnized of old, the gods were all invited to the 
feast, and many noble men besides. Among the rest came 
Chrysalus, a Persian prince, bravely attended, rich in 
golden attires, in gay robes, with a majestical presence,— 
but otherwise an asse. The gods, seeing him come in such 
-pomp and state, rose up to give him place; but Jupiter, 
perceiving that he was a light, phantastick, idle fellow, — 
turned him and his proud followers into butterflies: and 
so they continue still (for aught I know to the contrary), 
roving about in pied coats, and are called Chrysalides by the 
wisei sort of men, — that is, golden outsides ; drones, flies, 
and things of no worth*— But ton. 

B 2 

Digitized by 



L E M U R S. 

[January 2, 

{Ruffed Lemur.] 

In the island of Madagascar, near as it is to the coast 
of Africa, which in almost every part offers " a wilder- 
ness of monkeys, 7 ' none of those animals are to be 
found. This fact is the more remarkable when we 
consider the latitudinal range through which the mul- 
titudinous family of Simise is distributed. If, however, 
this sultry island be untenanted by monkeys, it is 
supplied, as if to compensate for the deficiency, by a 
singular group of quadrumanous animals, which may 
be said to take their place, a group peculiar to Mada- 
gascar and two or three small contiguous islands : these 
are known under the various names of Macaucos, Mon- 
gous, Makis, and Madagascar cats. They constitute 
the genus Lemur, The true lemurs constitute a tole- 
rably numerous genus, thirteen distinct species being 
now acknowledged, of which one, the Lemur ntjifrons, 
has been lately made known to science. (See * Pro- 
ceedings of Zool. Soc. for 1833,* p. 106.) 

There is something in the appearance, habits, and 
manners of the lemurs very peculiar. Though qua- 
drumanous, like the monkey, the limbs have a contour 
very dissimilar to what we see in those animals, and in- 
deed neither the fore nor hind-paws arc those of a mon- 
key, for the thumb of the fore-paws is short and feeble, 
while on the hjnd-paws it is long, and gradually di- 
lates into an expanded flattened tip. The anterior 
limbs are short and muscular, but the posterior pair 
are elongated and slender ; the body is slender, well 
turned, much resembling that of a cat : it terminates in 
a long, full-furred tail ; the head is somewhat rounded 
on the top, but is reduced into a long pointed muzzle ; 
the eyes are large, bright, and evidently adapted for 
nocturnal vision ; the incisor teeth are four above and 
six below, the latter being long, compressed laterally, 

and projecting almost horizontally forwards ; the ca- 
nines are long, pointed, and sharp-edged, especially 
those of the upper jaw, which are indeed formidable 
weapons ; the grinders have much of the insectivorous 
character about them, the tubercles along their outer 
edge being sharp and conical. On examining the skull 
of the lemur, we find it very different in its general 
aspect from that of the monkey. 

[Skull of Lemur. J 

The fur with which the lemurs are clothed is fine, 
soft, and of a woolly character. In their native woods 
these animals associate together in troops. After sun- 
set their voices, hoarse and loud, may be often heard 
in discordant chorus ; while anon the troop, dimly seen, 
comes sweeping through the dark dense foliage, with 
that sort of progressive motion which we attribute to 

Digitized by 




the unsubstantial forms of fancy. Hence the generic 
title lemur, which signifies a ghost. 

[Skull of Monkey.] 

Wild and savage, they avoid the presence of man, but 
defend themselves with great obstinacy if attacked or 
in danger of being captured. When taken young* 
however, they become easily reconciled to captivity, are 
usually gentle and familiar, fond of being noticed, and 
become attached to those who feed and attend to them ; 
but we have known them in moments of auger bite 
those to whom they were most accustomed, and that 
with great severity. 

The activity of the lemurs is very remarkable. They 
traverse the trees of the forest, taking long sweeping 
bounds from branch to branch with the utmost ease 
and grace; during the hours of twilight they are con- 
stantly in motion. They are in fact nocturnal or cre- 
puscular animals, sleeping in their retreats or among 
the dense foliage during the day, and rousing up as 
evening steals on to commence their search for food, or 
to gambol with their fellows. Fruits, insects, reptiles, 
small birds, and eggs constitute their means of sub- 
sistence. Of the habits of these singular creatures in a 
state of nature much is yet unknown. In captivity 
they are interesting from the peculiarity of their ap- 
pearance and manners ; yet they are certainly far less 
intelligent than monkeys, and display but little inquisi- 
tiveness or playfulness. They are extremely sensible 
of cold, and always appear chilly. If allowed to ap- 
proach a fire they will sit up, spread their hands, 
half close their eyes, and evince the most marked signs 
of the pleasure they derive from the increased tempera- 
ture. At other times they endeavour to maintain a due 
degree of warmth by folding their long tails round the 
body, and where two are in the cage together it is very 
common to see them crouching close to each other, so 
as to resemble a ball of fur. In this manner they sit 
on their perch, presenting an odd appearance, for the 
head is snugly doubled between the arms upon the 
chest so as not to be visible. Chilly as they are, how- 
ever, the lemurs, with due care, bear our atmosphere 
and changes much better than many animals belong- 
ing to far less sultry climates. 

During the greatest portion of the day, these animals 

in captivity are crouching on their perch ; if roused, 

they utter a sort of grunting noise, and traverse their 

cage quickly for a short time. Like parrots, they are 

fond of having their head stroked or scratched gently, 

and will press it to the bars of their cage in order that 

this luxury may be afforded them ; they thus frequently 

solicit it from those with whom they are familiar. It 

w, however, on the approach of twilight that the lemurs 

we most alert; they then begin to leap from perch to 

perch, with their bushy tails raised above the level of 

the back, and climb along the bars, or pursue each 

other, uttering incessantly their short grunting note ; 

and occasionally suddenly breaking out into an abrupt 

hoarse roar. The roar of the vari or ruffed lemur is 
especially deep and sonorous. 

The species represented in the sketch is the vari, or 
ruffed lemur, one of the largest and most beautiful of 
the genus. In size it exceeds a cat ; its fur is of ad- 
mirable texture, being full, fine, and silky; the tail is 
long and bushy. The tasteful arrangement of the 
large black patches on a pure white ground render it 
very conspicuous. A full ruff of longer hairs than 
those on the rest of the body surrounds the face, 
whence its English appellation. In captivity this spe- 
cies is very gentle, aud is easily rendered docile and 


Our name for the umbrella being obviously taken 
from the Italian ombrelfo, naturally refers us to Italy 
as the source from which we have derived that useful 
article. If we had obtained it intermediately from 
Prance we would, doubtless, have taken with it the 
French name ofparaplvie, which in the present use 
of the implement is a more expressive and proper name 
than that of ombrello, which signifies "a little shade," 
and refers to the original use as a defence against the 
sun, rather than to its present use as a shelter from the 
rain. There seems no doubt that the umbrella was 
first introduced into Italy from the East, and from 
thence found its way into the other countries of Eu- 
rope. It seems also that the applicability of the in- 
strument as a defence from rain was quite an after- 
thought, and that it was originally, as in the East, only 
used to protect the person from the rays of the sun. In 
the course of my inquiries into this subject I thought 
of looking. into the * Vocabolario degli Accademici della 
Crusca,' 1733, and was gratified to find that its defini- 
tions confirmed the impressions I had been led to en- 
tertain. The ' ombrello ' is defined as an instrument 
to keep off the sun, also called a parasol * Mention is 
also made of a functionary whose employment it was 
to carry an umbrella for great personages, f being quite 
an oriental use of the instrument. Before this time, 
however, perhaps long before, the umbrella had come 
to be used as a shelter from rain; for it said further 
down that " ombrello " is also the name of an instru- 
ment similar to the former, used for keeping off rain.J 
So then, early in the last century, and probably a good 
while before, the present uses of the umbrella and pa- 
rasol were known in Italy. 

But all this was known also in England, even earlier 
than the date of the above quotations from the great 
Italian dictionary ; and it is this which I am desirous 
of showing, because it is generally believed that its in- 
troduction is very recent. Indeed, I did myself not 
long since entertain the general impression that the 
use of this convenient article had been introduced by 
Jonas Hanway, somewhere about the middle of the 
last century; and the statements which Dr. Cleland 
gives as to its introduction into Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow would also convey the notion that the umbrella 
first began to be known about that time in these cities. 
Speaking of Glargow, the ' Statistical Account of Glas- 
gow ' says : — 

"About the year 1781 or 1782, the late Mr. John 
Jamieson, surgeon, returning from Paris brought an 
umbrella with him, which was the first seen in this city. 
The doctor, who was a man of humour, took great 
pleasure in relating to me how he was stared at with 

* " Ombre Jo. — Strumcmto per parare il sole* al quale diciamo 
auche parasole.'.' 

f " OmbreUiere si dice alfresi colui che porta l'ombrello per 
servizio de' gran personaggi." 

X " Ombrello si dice anche uno strumento simile cbe si usa pe* 
parar V acqua.*' 

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[January 8» 

his umbrella. For a number of years there were few 
used in Glasgow, and these were made of glazed cotton 
cloth. Now every child at school, mechanic, and ser- 
vant, is provided with an umbrella." 

In a note to this Dr. Cleland quotes the following 
from Creech's Edinburgh Fugitive Pieces'; — "In 
J763 there was no such thing known or used as an 
umbrella, but an eminent surgeon of Edinburgh who 
had occasion to walk a good deal in the course of hjs 
business, used one about the year 1780 ; and in 17S3 
umbrellas were much used, and continue to be so, and 
many umbrella warehouses are opened, and a consider- 
able trade carried on in this article. The fashion is 
spread through Scotland." 

If these two statements are to be understood literally, 
that umbrellas were not at all known or used in Edin- 
burgh until about 1780, after they had so long been 
used by the women of London, where also, by that time, 
they had come into extensive use among men, the fact 
is very extraordinary, and would serve to show how 
little intercourse then subsisted between our great 
towns. And why introduce from Paris what was then 
well known and much used in London? We cannot 
help thinking that the two surgeons of Glasgow were 
merely the first menwhd used umbrellas in those places. 
If not so, the gentlemen began in Scotland what com- 
menced with the ladies in England. 

My suspicions about the accuracy of the impressions 
I had received on this subject were awakened by ob- 
serving that Johnson in his ' Dictionary ' illustrates the 
word " umbrella " by quotations from Dry den and Gay. 
On further inquiry I have been enabled to find um- 
brellas mentioned in an author earlier than Dryden, 
and in such a way as to imply that the article was then 
at least well known, if not in common use. Sir William 
Dnvenant in an ' Entertainment/ composed of songs 
and declamations, performed at Rutland House in the 
reign of Charles I., introduces a Parisian and Londoner 
respectively satirizing each other's capitals. The former, 
among other things, says, — " Sure your ancestors con- 
trived your narrow streets in the days of wheel-barrows, 
before those greater engines, carts, were invented. Is 
your climate so hot that as you walk you need umbrellas 
of tiles to intercept the sun*?" It would seem from 
this, however, that at this time the only use of umbrellas 
was to keep off the rays of the sun. The passage from 
Dryden I cannot at this moment find in the original. 
As quoted by Johnson, it is : — 

" I can carry your umbrella, and fan your ladyship." 

Gay's 'Trivia, or Art of Walking the Streets of 
London,' was published in 1712, the very year in which 
Hanway was born. It has a very distinct notice on 
the subject, showing that the umbrella was then 
commonly used by females in rainy weather. The 
following is the passage, given more fully than as 
quoted by Johnson. It is headed, ' Implements proper 
for Female Walkers :' — 

" Good housewives all the winter's rage despise, 
Defended by the riding-hood's disguise ; 
Or underneath th' umbrella's oily shed, 
Safe through the wet in clinking pattens tread. 
Let Persian dames th' umbrella's ribs display 
To guard their beauties from the sunny ray ; 
Or sweating slaves support the shady load, 
When eastern mon arena show their state abroad ; 
Britain in winter only knows its aid, 
To guard from chilly show' r a the walking maid.'' 

The statements which I have made in the former 
article about * Umbrellas in the East' will have shown 
that the line about the use of umbrellas by the "Per- 
sian dames " is quite a mistake. The Persian women 
have nothing to do with umbrellas or parasols, but 
when they go out envelope their persons, face and all, 

* Works of Sir William Davenant, 1673., 

in a great sheet. The passage shows, however, that 
umbrellas had at this time come to be used, by women 
only, as a shelter from the rain. This is further shown 
by the following definitions from Bailey's * English 
Dictionary,' published in 1736 : — 

" Umbella, a little shadow ; also an umbrella, a bon- 
grace ; also a screen which women wear over their heads 
to shadow them. 

" Umbrelto % a sort of wooden frame covered with 
cloth, put over a window to keep out the sun ; also a 
screen carried over the head to defend from sun or 
rain. 1 * 

From other information it appears also that men 
who had occasion to go out in the wet hired a sedan 
chair, if they could afford it, or wore suitable articles 
of dress, or made up their minds to a wetting. We do 
not consider the importance of the umbrella to us in 
equalizing the business of daily life. Before it came 
into use among men rainy weather must have been a 
far more serious affair than at present, and must have 
given a greater interruption to the pursuits of men in 
towns. Few people now are prevented from any busi- 
ness or engagement by rain. Wet weather is now only 
used as an excuse by females and invalids for non-at- 
tendance to business or the neglect of an engagement. 
But formerly it was otherwise, and is so still in coun- 
tries where the umbrella is not in use. No man liked 
to go abroad who could not afford to ride, or who had 
not some very serious business to transact, or indis- 
pensable engagement to attend. Hence the streets 
were much more deserted in wet weather than at pre- 

It is curious to compare the condition of our grand- 
fathers before umbrella-times with that which our own 
would be if some sumptuary law, the extinction of whale- 
bone, or some other cause, were suddenly to deprive us 
of our umbrellas. On our side we have clean and well- 
paved streets, free from the obstructions with which 
they were formerly crowded, so that a man with a toler- 
able stock of wind might have a pretty clear and clean 
run through the rain. Then there are India-rubber 
cloaks or capes, which would doubtless come into ge- 
neral use were there no umbrellas ; and, though last 
not least, there are the omnibuses, which in such a 
state of things would, in consequence of the increased 
demand, be immensely multiplied, at low fares for short 
distances, and would be started on the second and third 
rate lines of road, instead of being confined to the prin- 
cipal as now. This on our side. Now, as to our grand- 
fathers, they were not a running generation ; and if 
they had been such, the wretched condition of the streets 
would not have allowed them to run ; and, in fact, (hey 
would otherwise have had less occasion to do so than 

The upper stories of houses and pent-house rooft 
projecting over the foot-path in the less fashionable, and 
therefore the walking, parts of London and other towns, 
afforded to pedestrians a tolerably continuous shelter 
near the wall, and they had only to scamper as best 
they could across such unprotected intervals as now and 
then occurred. At the worst, it gave them the certainty 
that they should always find places where they could 
wait until the violence of a shower had subsided. The 
loss of time which this involved would now be regarded 
as a serious evil, but time was in those times considered 
a much less precious commodity than at present. That 
this was a common resource appears from the frequency 
with which heroes and heroines and other personages 
encounter each other in such situations in the tales and 
novels ot the time ; and perhaps We may adduce, 
as another illustration, Johnson's saying concerning 
Burke :— " If a man were to go by chance at the same 
time with Burke under a shed to shun a shower he 
would say, * This is an extraordinary man. 1 " 

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It is not unlikely that the want of a portable shelter 
may have given a longer continuance to this mode of 
building t}iau it would otherwise have obtained \ and it 
would be curious to calculate whether any and what 
degree of influence the introduction of umbrellas into 
common use may have had in causing the old style of 
domestic architecture to disappear. 

I now come to Jonas Hanway; for although that 
admirable person cannot, as we have seen, claim the 
merit of having introduced the umbrella, his name is 
importantly connected with its English history. His 
biographer, Pugh, says simply that he was the first 
man who used an umbrella, and this was the truth : 
he was the first man, but it was used by women long 
before. Pugh, gives no explanations, but no doubt he 
intended an emphasis on the word man, as distinctive 
from woman. His readers, however, finding no state- 
ments regarding its previous use failed to distinguish 
the emphatic sense of the expression, and considered it 
equivalent to saying that Hanway was the first person 
by whom an umbrella was carried in this country. 
Hence the common impression as to the recency of its 
introduction. There is little doubt that Jonas, like the 
gentlemen at Glasgow and Edinburgh, took the hint 
from the French ; and he must have been a bold man 
who, in such a town as London, first ventured abroad 
with a convenience which had previously been appro- 
priated to females. What a silly and effeminate jack- 
anapes that enduring and adventurous traveller must 
have been considered. The rain, from which he was 
sheltered, while others were exposed to it, must have 
fortunately operated in rendering less dense the mob 
by which he would have been followed under other cir- 
cumstances. Yet, no doubt, many urchins and idle 
fellows scampered through the wet to see the wonder 
and hoot the wonder-maker, while less daring persons 
were content to rim to their doors and stretch their 
necks out of the windows to witness the shocking effemi- 
nacy into which man had fallen. Londoners wonder 
less at any thing now than they did at that time ; still 
a sensation of a similar sort would be occasioned if a 
man were now to walk the streets with a parasol in 
sunshiny weather, or with a muff in cold ; yet the 
umbrella in its origin was thus used by men, and 
muffs were in use among men in this country a cen- 
tury ago. 

In concluding this notice I cannot refrain from tran- 
scribing Pugh's picture of Hanway's personal appear- 
ance in the streets. It is exquisite in its way ; and 
now that I have fallen on that word I may say that 
Jonas himself— " plain," " honest, ,, •« truth-telling " 
Jonas Hanway — seems to have been somewhat more 
of an exquisite than the ideas usually associated with 
his name would have prepared me to expect. Look on 
this picture: — 

"In his dress, as far as was consistent with his ideas 
of health and ease, he accommodated himself to the pre- 
vailing fashion. As it was frequently necessary for him 
to appear in polite circles on unexpected occasions, he 
usually wore dress-clothes, with a large French bag. 
His hat, ornamented with a gold button, was of a size 
and fashion to be worn as well under the arm as on the 
head. When it rained, a small parapluie (umbrella) 
defended his face and wig. Thus he was always pre- 
pared to enter into any company without impropriety, 
or the appearance of negligence. His dress for set 
public occasions was a suit of rich dark-brown ; the 
coat and waistcoat lined throughout with ermine, which 
jttst appeared at the edges; and a small gold-hilted 
sword. As he was extremely susceptible of cold, he 
wore flaunel under the linings of all his clothes, and 
usually wore three pair of stockings. He was the first 
man who ventured to walk through the streets of Lon- 
don with an umbrella over his head. After carrying 

one nearly thirty years, he saw them come into general 

As Jonas died in the year 1786, this statement en- 
ables us to ascertain that his first appearance with an 
umbrella was not much subsequent to the year 1756. 

We may conclude this paper with the following 
anecdote, which has appeared in the newspapers since 
it was written : — 

March of Umbrellas, — -When umbrellas marched first 
into this quarter (Blairgowrie), they were sported only by 
the minister and the laird, and were looked upon by the com- 
mon class of people as a perfect phenomena. One day, 

Daniel M n went to pay his rent to Col. M'Pherson at 

Blairgowrie House ; when about to return, it came on a 
shower, and the colonel politely offered him the loan of an 
umbrella, which was politely and proudly accepted of; and 
Daniel, with his head two or three inches higher than usual, 
marched off. Not long after he had left, however, to the 
colonel's surprise, he again sees Daniel posting towards him 
with all possible haste, still o'ertopped by his cotton canopy 
(silk umbrellas were out of the question in those days), 
which he held out, saluting him with, " Hae, hae, Kornel ! 
this'll never do ; there's no a door in a' my house that'll 
tak* it in ---my verra barn-door win na tak' it in 1 " — Glasgow 


The Tallow-Tree (croton sebiferum), called by the 
Chinese oo-kieou, is of the height and appearance of a 
pear-tree, with twisted branches and a large rounded 
head. The trunk is short and thick, and the bark 
smooth. The leaves are alternate, and resemble those 
of the black poplar. The blossom is yellow ; but the 
most singular part of this tree is the fruit, which is en- 
closed in a husk, like that of a chestnut. When the 
fruit is ripe the husk opens of itself, showing three 
white grains about the bigness of a filbert. These 
grains contain the beautiful vegetable tallow so useful to 
the Chinese. The fruit of the tallow-tree goes through 
nearly the same process as the seed of the oil-plant. 
The machine by which it is bruised, however, differs 
from that used in the other case for pounding the seed 
of the oil-plant ; but, says Mr. Abel, " it is, no doubt, 
often used for both purposes." That writer gives an 
engraving of it. It consists of a wheel moved back- 
ward and forward in the trunk of a tree, which is 
shaped like a canoe, lined with iron, and fixed in 
the ground. The axis of the wheel is attached to a 
long pole, which is laden with a heavy weight and 
suspended from a horizontal beam. The berries, thus 
bruised and divided, are exposed for a considerable 
time to the action of steam until they become very 
soft, when they are quickly thrown upon layers of 
straw, covered up again with other layers of straw, 
and spread about as equally as possible. Men do 
this with their feet; and as the berries are very hot, 
and of course warily trodden upon, the operation is 
said to bear a striking resemblance to dancing. The 
appearance of a number of men gravely and care- 
fully performing sundry evolutions on their toes has 
been described as irresistibly ludicrous, particularly as 
it 's unaccompanied by nusic. By this process large 
cakes are formed of the mingled grains and straw. 
The cakes thus formed are afterwards pressed in the 
same manner as the bruised seeds of the oil-plant. 
Pressure is, however, not the only method of obtaining 
the tallow ; for it is sometimes procured by boiling the 
bruised seed in water and collecting the oity matter 
that floats on the surface. The tallow is hard and 
white, and has all the sensible properties of that from 
animals. Du Halde says, that three pounds of vege- 
table oil are mixed with every ten pounds of the tallow, 
and that a quantity of wax is used to give it consistence. 
The best candles are also coated with wax. When 
properly prepared, they burn almost without smoke, and 
quite free from disagreeable smell. It does indeed often 

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[January 2, 1836. 

happen that the candles prepared with vegetable tallow 
burn with a great flame, throw out much smoke, and 
consume very quickly ; but this must be attributed to 
a slovenly and dirty mode of preparation, and to the 
nature of the wick, which is usually •made of a dry 
and light wood, not much unlike the wick of a rush- 
light. Candles made of this tallow by Europeans have 
been found very nearly equal to those made of wax. 

The tallow-trees are usually planted in extensive 
plains, and in regular order. The leaves being either 
of a deep purple or brilliant red, and the blossoms of 
a bright yellow, the contrast is said to have a very 
pleasing effect; and European travellers have de- 
scribed the groves of those trees as the most beautiful 
objects in a Chinese landscape, having a resemblance 
to extensive flower-gardens. 

The party being suitably arrayed, have sometimes to wait a 
little until the waggons come out, and in the meantime are 
each furnished with a candle, round which a piece of clay 
is fixed to hold it by. At length the rumbling noise of the 
approaching waggons rapidly increases, and their contents 
having been deposited, they are prepared for the visitors, 
the inside being cleaned, and a board placed at each end for 
a seat. The entrance to the mine, or the level mouth, re- 
sembles an open arched doorway, into which the waggons 
are driven at a moderate pace ; and the visitors experience 
the novel sensation which so unusual a conveyance is apt 
to create. The jolting, tottering motion of the waggon, 
the splashing of the water, and the dark and narrow pas- 
sage, all concur to produce a strange effect, which however 
soon wears off, and the subterranean traveller finds leisure 
to observe the rugged roof and walls of the level, or to listen 
to the guide urging forward his horse in tones which the 
echoes of the mine often render musical. Even the frag- 
ment of a song from the driver sometimes enlivens the 
journey, but on no account is whistling allowed to be heard 
in a mine. The same prejudice exists among seamen, but 
whence its origin is probably unknown. * ♦ * * j ue 
ascent of a rise is frequently attended with some difficulty, 
especially to ladies ; but the gallantry of the gentlemen, 
and the effective civility of the miners, soon overcome the 
apparent dangers, and, one by one, they are raised into the 
workings of the vein. Hence the party are conducted along 
the mine drift of the vein, and this part of the expedition 
must of course vary in different mines ; in all, however, the 
stranger is apt to be impressed with feelings of awe at the 
idea of being so far underground. The contemplative mind 
cannot but find many interesting subjects of reflection on 
the distribution of so much wealth in a country otherwise so 
barren — the various uncertainties which are the means of 
so extensive employment— the fluctuations of fortune so 
often resulting from mining adventures, and the ingenuity 
displayed in prosecuting them, are all circumstances which 
may engage the attention' of a reflecting mind. To the mi- 
neralogist the interior of a mine, especially if it contaiu any 
spar-encrusted caverns, is a sort of " home, sweet home/' 
where the lovers of that science and of geology may derive 
copious stores of intellectual enjoyment. * * * * Xn e 
progress along vein workings is often " with cautious step 
and slow,'* especially among the intricacies of flat workings, 
the friendly caution of •• Take care ye dinna fall down the 
rise,*' sometimes calling the visitor's attention, absorbed per- 
haps in other thoughts, to a yawning gulf not to be passed 
over without some caution. Sometimes an almost perfect 
stillness is suddenly broken by a noise like distant thunder, 
the report of a blast, which, rolling through the workings of 
the mine, at length, after many reverberations, dies away. 
The noise of work " falling down a rise," and the rumbling 
of waggons, occasionally salute the ear; the sound of the 
latter, gradually increasing and lessening, resembles the 
solemn effect of distant thunder. 

The miners usually describe the blasting and other modes 
of working the ore, and frequently fire a shot for the en- 
tertainment of the visitor ; but, when near at hand, the 
effect is by no means so striking as when distance softens 
the noise and adds repeated echoes to it At length arrived 
at the far end, or forehead of the vein, the party usually rest, 
and a pleasant company is occasionally formed by the ac- 

cession of two or three partnerships. Spirits or other re- 
freshments are occasionally taken by the visitors ; and 
those who choose to spend an hour in the company of 
miners may frequently derive both information and amuse- 
ment Most of the miners are well acquainted with prac- 
tical mining, and with this is necessarily blended a know- 
ledge of many facts in geology and mineralogy. But many 
of them are also tolerably well informed on other subjects ; 
and a friend of the author's was much surprised in one 
of these forehead meetings to hear « Blackstone s Com- 
mentaries ' quoted by a miner both with accuracy and direct 
reference to the subject of discussion. 

The miners work by what is often in other trades called 
piece-work, so that the time spent with strangers is taken 
from their own labour; and the prodigal expenditure of light 
is also at their own cost. By the latter is meant the custom 
of miners of not putting out their candles, however numer- 
ous the company may be ; and a forehead assemblage pre- 
sents a brilliant illumination, twenty or thirty candles bein* 
sometimes placed against the wall. If any partners of the 
mines are present, many are the speculations on the good- 
ness and improving prospects of the grove. The " bonny 
dowk\and '• excellent rider," as well as-the ore, come in 
for a share of gratulation, and are often considered har- 
bingers of the vein being still more productive. Many a 
lively song and joke are often added to the entertainment of 
such an assemblage as we are now describing. One ex- 
ample, spoken by a miner, may suffice as a specimen of 
dialect and humour:— «« An folk wad nobbit let folk like 
folk as weel as folk wad like to like folk, folk wad like folk 
as weel as folk ever liked folk sin folk was folk r - It may 
here be remarked that the conversation of miners sometimes 
has a curious effect from their assuming, as it were, a sort 
of volition in the mineral world. Thus they speak of a 
vein being " frightened" to climb the hill, and that she 
therefore •« swims away" to the sun side (a feminine ap- 
pellation being generally used). The throw the strata is 
attributed, as it were, to an •« act " of the vein .— " She throws 
the north cheek up : ,% these are homely but they are also 
expressive modes of describing what they have occasion to 
speak of, and they save a world ci words.— Sopwith's Ac- 
count of the Mining Districts. 

Usefulness.— How barren a tree is he that lives, and 
spreads, and cumbers the ground, yet leaves not one seed, 
not one good work to generate after him. I know all can- 
not leave alike ; yet all may leave something, answering 
their proportion, their kinds.— Owen Feltham. 

Wine.—Th* favourite Vino Santo of the Mgezn is often 
sold on the spot for a penny a gallon. Some English mer- 
chants occupy the Marsala vineyards in Sicily : they, or 
others, might well extend their enterprise to the Greek 
islands, where a vast supply of most cheap and excellent 
wine could be raised. 

A Cause of Unanimity in Crowds.— The shouting of 
multitudes, by the sole strength of the sound, so amazes 
and confounds the imagination, that, in this staggering and 
hurry of the mind, the best-established tempers can scarcely 
forbear being borne down, and joining in the common cry 
and common resolution of the crowd. — Burke. 

Unprofitable Discussions.— Unhappy men as we are, we 
spend our days in unprofitable questions and disputations, 
intricate subtilities about moonshine in the water, leaving, 
in the mean time, those chiefest treasures of nature un- 
touched wherein the best medicines for all manner of 
diseases are to be found; and do not only neglect them 
ourselves, but hinder, condemn, forbid, and scoff at others 
that are willing to inquire after them.—" Severinus the 
Dane; % quoted in Burton. 

%• The Office of the Society for the Diffeiion of Utefel Knowledges .at 
69, Lincoln'* Inn Fields, 

Printed by William Clowsi and So** Stamford Street 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

242.] PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY. [Januahv 9, 1895. 









The London and Greenwich Railway must necessarily 
possess much interest with the inhabitants of the me- 
tropolis, were it only from the circumstance of being 
the first constructed in its neighbourhood. As a work 

of art it is undoubtedly very striving, while the minor 
considerations involved in the plan are novel and inter- 
esting. The distance between London Bridge "and 
Greenwich is about five miles by the public carriage- 

Vol. V. C 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[January 9, 

way ; the line of the railway is three miles 'and three- 
quarters ; the railway, proceeding from the south side 
of London bridge, is carried on a viaduct, supported 
by nearly a thousand arches ; these arches are intended 
to be converted into dwelling-houses or places of 
business, while the projectors calculate that the foot- 
way; being so much more direct than the public high- 
way, will become a thoroughfare for pedestrians and 
carriages, from which a revenue by way of toll' will 
accrue to the company; and that thus the expense 
of erecting the viaduct (at first sight formidable, and 
likely to continue for a long time a heavy burden on 
the capital) will be as ho thing when compared with 
the profits which will probably arise from these sources, 
independently of the returns from the railway itself. 

Iri addition to these considerations, it is also calculated 
that the London and Greenwich Railway will become 
a sort of turnpike road, by which other railways will be 
enabled to Open a communication with the heart of 
London. Ah Act! was passed during the last Session 
of Parliament for the construction of a railway between 
Brighton and Croydon, an arm of which is to run into* 
the London and Greenwich Railway ; and railways 
between London, Gravesend, and Dover are projected, 
which will be, in fact, only extensions of the Green- 
wich one. Other railways, which cannot be brought 
within several miles of London, may also form junc- 
tions with the Greenwich Railway, so as to deposit their 
goods and passengers with the least expense and delay 
in almost th€ centre of the trading portion df the me- 

Independently of these Commercial considerations, 
by which the simple circumstance of a railroad com- 
munication being opened between London and one of 
its most frequented suburbs is likely to become very 
useful to the public and profitable to the proprietors, 
the work itself jS really worthy of the term frequently 
applied to it, " magnificent.'' If cbrrtpletecJ according 
to (he original plan, hafrielf, the" arches, fitted up as 
dwelling-houses or places of business, and if the expec- 
tations of the footway becoming & great thoroughfare 
are realized* there* wilt theft be exhibited the fine 
spectacle of It fifattf tit hearty four miles in extent, 
along which art almost perpetual stream of traffic is 
flowing, while* tffoove, the rushing of the engines With 
theft loaded trains* bearing in and out of London 
thousands bent On pleasure or business, Will form not 
the least remarkable feature of the scene. 

But as the railway is tied yet coiripleted,* this picture 
has; yet to be filled tfp. in the meantime a short ac- 
count of what has been &me* may not be unacceptable* 
to frnr 1 readers. • 4- ■ 

The London and Greenwich Railway Company Was 
incorporated by Act of Parliament obtained in 1838. 
The passing of the act through both nouses of the legis- 
lature does not appear to have attracted much attention. 
Complaints have beert made that 4 clause in the act 
has retafftetf thd progress of the work. This clause 
empowers tocal committee* W dfccftfe 6n the plans Which 
may be pMposed for passing tiie railway over the several 
roadf* which cross th£ line; How far this is a grievance 
is,; of course, matter of o^nion j—ff the Work has beert 
retarded* H6 beauty and fftfformity have not been 
affected. ^h% e*&£ftat of the Company was set out at 
406,000/., irt <We*ty tfrotistfrta* shares oT 80/. each. The 
projector uitA fcngf rteeY or* <hfc taf Iway is lieut.-Colonei 
Landman 4 , fate of <h£ Roj*l Angftteefs. The elevation 
of the Viatftfct ft 2Sf feet \ titt arches ate built With brici, 
and it is stated in the ' Companion to the Almanac ' 
for 1835, that the consumption of brick during the pro- 
gress of the work (at one period the consumption was 
about one hundred thousand daily) very materially 
affected the price of that article in London. In a 
printed statement circulated respecting the railway, it is 

said that " the work is being erected in a most sub- 
stantial manner upon concrete foundations, with walls of 
considerable thickness crossing the arches, (intersected 
with concrete) upon which blocks of granite, one foot 
apart, will be fixed, bearing iron chairs, holding mallea- 
ble iron rails of greater thickness than yet laid on any 
other line ; strong parapet walls will also be erected,* 
although along the Manchester and Liverpool Railway 
embankments (which hi some parts are very much 
higher than these arches will be) there is no barrier 
whatever; these parapets will be within eight inches of 
the engine and train of carriages, so that in case of any 
accident, the whole will be kept in an upright position, 
preventing the weight of even a single carriage falling 
upon any portion of the para pets. Two miles and a 
quarter of the railway and viaduct arc now finished, 
the remainder of the distance is rapidly approaching 
completion; probably early in 1836 — at all events by 
the commencement of summer — the entire line from 
London Bridge to Greenwich will be opened. 

At present the railway terminates at Deptford, at 
which end a number of the arches are converted into 
workshops for the use of the smiths, carpenters, &c. 
employed by the Company. At this end, also, two of 
the arches are fitted up as dwelling-houses, and are ex- 
hibited as specimens of the manner in which it is 
intended that the remainder will be, or ought to be, 
fitted up. These houses contain six rooms each, and, 
though small, appear comfortable, and even neat. A 
question Will naturally be asked, in what degree will 
the comfort of the future inhabitants of these singular 
houses be affected by the noise of the engines and trains 
of carriages passing overhead ? One individual described 
the passing 6f a train, while he was within one of the 
hotfses, as resembling a distant /oil of thunder, which 
Was, hbWever, from the rapidity of motion, away in an in- 
stant ; another thought it resembled the sudden passing 
of a heavily laden waggon, the noise of Which did not at 
all disturb his commit. There will be different opinions 
upon this point, according to the varying sensitiveness 
cf individuals ; and ho fair opportunity will be afforded of 
fanning A correct judgment until the railway is opened 
stad the traffic on it begun. The noise will, however, 
be much less than m£ny person's* might be inclined to 
suppose ; the soliA'ty of the arches and the smoothness 
df the "railway will dimmish the vibration. In order td 
prevent the annoyance of the smoke, which, on the sup- 
position of the arches being all tenanted, and heated by 
the ordinary mode, Would render 1 the railway absolutely 
impassable, the houses are fitted! up with gas stoves, 
very heat in (heir constru'etion. A number of the arches 
have doorWays, by Which two or three arches may be 
converted into tfne house or warehouse, if required. A 
paragraph irt the newspapers states that it is in con- 
templation, among other 1 improvements in the borough 
df South Wark, to remove the hop-market from its pre- 
sent position to a new site under the arches of the 
Greenwich Railway. There can be little doubt of the 
sdecess pi th& speculation as respects the occupation of 
the arches on the side next to London ; whether they 
Will be occupied tn£ entire way, remains to be seen. 

The lin6 of the railway from London Bridge crosses 
Russell Street, thr>e roads, termed the Neckenger, 
Grange, and Bide Anchor Roads, the Surrey Canal, 
and 6ne tit two lanes or narrow roads, which cross 
fields. The vieW given* m the wood-cut represents that 
portion of the railway near the Blue Anchor Road, and 
Within a shot! distance of Bermondsey New Church. 
There is a low parapet-wail which runs along the foot- 
way, separating it from the fields and garden -grounds, 
but which is not given in the wood-cut, in order to 
show the elevation of the arches. The path along one 
side of the arches was originally intended to be reserved 
for pedestrians, and the other to be used by carriages^ 

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but this arrangement is not decided upon. At present, 
the pathway is open to pedestrians on the payment of 
a toll of one penny each. 

It is almost needless to state that the viaduct will be 
reserved exclusively for the railway ; no persons being 
allowed to be on it except such as will be conveyed by 
the trains of carriages. The danger of accidents will 
be thereby much diminished, while the prospect from 
the railway — an elevation of twenty-two feet — will be 
a very great addition to the pleasure of conveyance. 
Greenwich, — the favoured resort of the pent-up citizen 
of London, — with its fine Park and interesting Jlos- 
pital, being brought within ten minute*' distance of the 
its < 
be a 
in de 




duction of a tree which grows wilcl as well in China as 
Japan. It is cultivated in plantations/an 
improved by the treatment it receives tha 
tree affords three Hrpes more of this vali 
than the wild one. The Chinese call tl 
Shoo : " it has some resemblance to the as 
shaped like those of the laurel, of a light 
and downy feel. It Is of no great be 
valuable as the source of a very hicraliye manufacture. 
There is scarcely anything more curious in this tree 
than the common manner of propagating it, which Ts 
neither by seeds nor suckers. Early in spring, a small 
branch or twig is selected, about a foot and a-half or 
two feet in length, and a ring of bark cut from jt ail 
round, about half an inch in breadth. The wound is 
immediately coated up with smooth soft clay, and a 
ball of the same clay formed all round it as large as a 
child's head. This is then covered up with matting to 
prevent it from falling to pieces, and a vessel of water 
hung over with a very minute hole in the under part, 
sufficient to let the water drop slowly upon the ball 
and to keep it constantly moist. As the water drops 
from the vessel it is of course replaced from time to 
time, and in the course of six months it is round that 
the wounded edges of the bark have shot forth into the 
mass of clay, fibre-like roots, which form the more 
readily as the tree is still supported by the sap from 
its parent stock. When the twig is thought to have 
taken sufficient root in the mass of clay to support an 
independent existence, it is sawed off from the tree a 
little below the clay, placed immediately into a hole 
prepared for the purpose, and becomes at once a tree. 

When these trees are seven or eight years old, they 
are capable of supplying the precious varnish, which is 
gathered in the following manner : — About the middle 
of summer, a number of labourers proceed to the 
plantations of these trees, each furnished with a crooked 
knife and a large number of hollow shells, larger than 

oyster-shells. With their knives they make many in- 
cisions in the bark of the trees about two inches in 
length, and under each incision they force in the edge 
of the shell, which easily penetrates the soft bark and 
remains in the tree. This operation is performed in 
the evening, as the varnish flows only in the night. 
The next morning the workmen proceed again to the 
plantation ; each shell is either wholly or partially filled 
with varnish; this they scrape out carefully with their 
knives, depositing it in a vessel which they carry with 
them, and throw the shells into a basket at the foot of 
the tree. In the evening the shells are replaced, and 
the varnish again collected in the in This nrocess 

eld a 
ing is 
'e im- 
ic. . 
ed in 
; and 
n the 
; the 
i the 



\ and 




uiiij i*>u nuics iui uieireyes; ana aiso cover tnem selves 

n/itii « close dregs 6/ leather, and wear long gloves 

above the elbows; by' these means they are 

to escape the' diseases generated by the noxious 

s of the yarriisli-tree.r Tt is not improbable 

exaggerated ve recautions may 

en 'the first id of the dreadful 

poison-tree oi .lava, wun wnich the Dutch 

;,...". w *>f the last century amused or horrified their 


Another tree very useful to the Chinese artisans is 
the Kou-Chou, which resembles a fig-tree. This tree 
on incision yields a milk, or liquid gum, whiA they use 
in gilding with leaf-gold. They wet their pencils in it, 
and then draw their figures and ornaments with the 
gum upon wood, over which they apply the leaf-gold, 
which is so firmly cemented by the gum, that it never 
detaches. This gum in its effects is like the transferring 
varnish now used in Europe, but more tenacious. 

Valour.— I love the man that is modestly valiant • that 
stirs not till he must needs; and then to purpose.— O. FelU 

Talkativeness.— A talkative fellow is like an unbraoed 
drum, which beats a wise man out of his wits Surely 
nature did not guard the tongue with the double fence of 
teeth and lips, but that she meant it should not move too 
nimbly. I like in Tsocrates, when of a scholar, full of words, 
he asked a double fee : one to learn him to speak well; 
another to teach him to hold his peace.— O. Felt ham, 

* It 19 said that there are men that will handle this varnish- 
tree or touch the juice with impunity, while others are dreadfully 
affected even by being in the way or the smoke, or the wind which 
dames the effluvia of the tree. The artisans who employ this var- 
nish can only work in the 4*y teason when the north wind blows. 
The varnish is brought to market in great tubs— its natural colons 
is white, and it looks like cream, but it blackens in the air Da**- 
pier says they make ifc Tottquin the best glue in the world from **• 

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The Leyden University, so celebrated in theology and 
medicine, was founded in the year 1575. During the 
previous year the citizens of Leyden had made a noble 
stand against the Spaniards, and had sustained a siege, 
in which they had suffered severely; and, amongst 
other privileges conferred upon the city by William 
Prince of Orange and the states of the provinces as a 
reward of their fidelity and devotedness, the University 
was established. 

One of the earliest students was Arminius, whose 
name is familiar to every one in the slightest degree 
acquainted with the history of theological controversy. 
He became one of the professors of divinity at the 
University ; and it was with his colleague, Francis 
Gomar — or Gomarus, as his name is Latinized, — that 
the controversy began, which, during the lifetime of 
the parties, not only shook the province of Holland but 
agitated Protestant Europe. That controversy exists 
to this day. 

Amongst many able men who adorned the Uni- 
versity, and extended its reputation, Boerhaave is con- 
spicuous. That truly illustrious man was worthy of 
the veneration and affection with which he was regarded 
by the citizens of Leyden and the students of the Uni- 
versity. As professor of chemistry, of botany, and 
ultimately as rector, during the long period in which 
he was connected with the University, its character, 

especially as a school of medicine, was very high. So 
European was Boerhaave 's reputation that, as the 
story goes, a letter was addressed to him by a Chinese 
mandarin, which bore the superscription, " To Boer- 
haave in Europe/' and which found him without delay ! 
The story, as is remarked in the * Penny Cyclopaedia,' 
is probably apocryphal, but it illustrates the extent of 
Boerhaave's reputation. (See the Lives of Arminius and 
Boerhaave in the ' Penny Cyclopaedia/) 

Mrs. Radcliffe, whose journey through Holland was 
published about forty years ago, says, " The Univer- 
sity would not be known to exist if it had no more 
conspicuous objects than its buildings. The Dutch uni- 
versities have no endowed foundations, so that the pro- 
fessors, who have their salaries from the States, live in 
private houses, and the students in lodgings." There is a 
great similarity between the government and regulations 
of the Scotch universities and that of Leyden ; in fact, 
nearly all the universities of Protestant Germany have 
a similarity with the Scotch universities. This is one 
reason why so many students — especially medical stu- 
dents — have come from the Continent to attend the 
University of Edinburgh. The reputation of this latter 
university as a school of medicine, rose very high in 
the eighteenth century, while that of Leyden, particu- 
larly after the death of Boerhaave, began to decline. 

The library of Leyden University is ordinarily stated 

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to contain 60,000 volumes and 14,000 manuscripts. 
The Botanical Garden is a remarkably fine object; 
the Anatomical Theatre, the Observatory, and the 
Museum, are also worthy of the University. 

In a volume of the ' Family Library,' published in 
1831, and entitled ' A Family Tour through South 
Holland,' there are the following remarks respecting 
the University of Leyden : — 

" They were just now employed in adding consider- 
ably to the buildings of the University, the number of 
students, which generally amounted to about 300, 
having increased to 500 within the last three years. 
Attached to the University is a Museum of Natural His- 
tory and Comparative Anatomy, beautifully and scien- 
tifically arranged, and a Library of 50,000 volumes. 
To the Museum has recently been added the splendid 
collection of birds belonging to Mr. Tern mink of 
Amsterdam, the produce chiefly of Java and the other 
Oriental possessions of the Dutch ; and Professor 
Lesson is probably the first ornithologist in Europe. 

" The Botanical Garden does credit to all who be- 
long to it, being kept in the highest possible order. 
The walks are beautiful, and without a pebble : they 
are covered with a mixture of peat earth, and the spent 
dust of tanners' oak bark. The garden is tastefully 
laid out in clumps of shrubbery in various forms, round 
which, on borders, are the various plants, named and 
numbered according to the system of Jussieu. The 
whole extent is seven acres, four of which have only 
been added a few years ago, and laid out in good taste 
by the late Professor Brugman, as a garden for the 
reception of medicinal plants and for the use of the 
meilical students. Among the hot-house plants we 
saw a dale-palm with fruit upon it, which the gar- 
dener said had been there two hundred years. 

** It may be questioned whether the Botanical 
Garden of Leyden and the Museum are not superioi 
to the Jardin des Plants and its Museum in Paris. 
Taken altogether, we were of opinion that they had a 
decided preference, though they wanted the attraction 
of living animals, of the influence of which we have 
had experience in the multitudes that flock to the 
Zoological Gardens of London." 

In 1930, the number of students which matriculated 
at Leyden was 684; in 1831, it amounted to 791. 
Previous to 1820, the average number had been about. 


We have several times spoken of the great and con- 
stant improvement which has been made in the means 
of diffusing knowledge since the invention of printing. 
Many of our readers will have compared in their minds 
the vast difference between the rare and costly manu- 
script of the fourteenth century and the cheap publi- 
cations of the present day, and they will probably be 
aware that the knowledge which in those times could 
not be procured but at the sacrifice of a large sum is 
now to be bought for a few pence ; but possibly they 
may not know that the writing materials of the four- 
teenth century were improvements upon those of more 
ancient date as important as the invention of printing 
itself. The invention of paper was perhaps more 
useful to the world than that of printing : literature 
had long been declining, even below the state to which 
it had been reduced by the irruptions of the northern 
barbarians; and the practice of erasing from books 
the valuable records of antiquity to make room for 
false legends and unimportant chronicles was daily 
rendering its recovery more difficult. Like the lords 
of Italy in the middle ages, who pulled to pieces the 
beautiful remains of ancient Rome to furnish materials 
for their own paltry dwellings, the mischievously busy 
monks were rapidly destroying the treasures they were 

unable to appreciate, and would in a few years have 
utterly annihilated them. The invention of paper put 
an end to this practice at once, and we may safely aver 
that all the works of value which reached the period of 
that invention, have come down in safety to modern 

In the most ancient times it would seem that writing 
was used for great occasions only ; and that a rock, a 
tablet of stone, or a plate of metal was the receptacle. 
The reader will doubtless remember the stone tables of 
Moses, and the wish of Job, that his words were graven 
with an iron pen and lead in the rock. The works of 
Homer and Hesiod are said to have been first written 
on plates of lead, and many ancient documents on 
copper, of considerable extent, are still met with in 
India. The use of the tablet-stone is still familiar, and % 
the sculptured rocks of the north of Europe show the 
practice of consigning records to this imperishable 
material to have been frequent amongst our ancestors 
of the ninth and tenth centuries. 

Some persons are of opinion that the first writing 
was upon thin pieces of wood, which from their conve- 
nience is very probable. Such boards were used at an 
early period by the Greeks and Romans, and were fre- 
quently covered with wax, which was of Course more 
readily written upon than the bare wood. But such 
writing would be more easily obliterated, and was 
therefore used chiefly for temporary purposes. In one 
of the comedies of Aristophanes, a oebtor proposes to 
elude the payment of his debt by melting with a burn- 
ing-glass the waxen tablet on which the transaction was 
recorded, while his creditor should be looking over the 
account. When wax was used any errors were easily 
erased by rubbing with the blunt end of the piece of 
metal which served for a pen. To make the, characters 
more visible, it appears that some black substance was 
smenred over the surface of the white wax, which re- 
mained in the scratched marks. The convenience of 
this process caused the practice to be continued long 
after the introduction of other materials. 

Leaves of trees were used in ancient times by the 
Egyptians, and probably by the Greeks. The Hindoos 
continued the use of this material until within these 
very few centuries, and even at the present time books 
of leaves are not uncommon in the south of India and in 
the island of Ceylon. The leaves of some Asiatic trees 
are, from their size and smoothness, so admirably 
adapted for books, that the cheapness and beauty of 
European paper has not been able entirely to supersede 
their use. If we may judge from the name of leaf 
being still applied to paper books, we should imagine 
these leaves to have been formerly the principal material 
in use. 

The interior bark of trees is of very ancient use, and 
its Latin name {liber) seems to intimate that it was as 
ancient among the Romans as the art of writing itself; 
no other name being used for a book than that of the 
writing material. In one respect the bark was superior 
to the leaf; it could be rolled into a volume, which was 
the favourite form among the ancients, while the leaf 
would crack if subjected to such a process. 

Linen cloth was occasionally used, but was never 
very common. The mummy cases found in Egypt 
have occasionally linen manuscripts folded in them, and 
the Chinese before the invention of paper used silk and 
cotton cloths. The Romans also wrote on linen, as is 
stated by Pliny and others. The use of this material 
necessarily introduced an alteration in the process of 
writing. All the other substances we have mentioned 
were rather engraved than written upon, and an iron 
point was used for the purpose. To write on linen it 
was necessary to paint upon it with some coloured 
liquid, which might get dry and leave a permanent 
mark. This gave rise to the invention of pen and ink ; 
the first ink used was probably composed of soot«or 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[jANtJAE*9 f 

lamp-black, mixed with some sort of si^ce or gum-water. 
An ink of this description may be somewhat le$s flowing 
than our modern ink, and consequently less adapted for 
rapid writing; ; but it has the great advantage of being 
a solid body of unalterable colour, whereas our ink is 
liable to have its colour destroyed by several chemical 
processes. The advantage of a solid body appears- in 
the manuscripts dug up at Jlerculaneujn, which 
although burned to a perfect charcoal, and buried ibr 
nearly eighteen centuries, are still Jegible; the in^ 
remaining as it were embossed on the surface, and 
appearing blacker than the burned paper, which, from 
having been polished, reflects the light in a small 

The instrument answering to pur pen was the reed, 
a sort of bulrush, which grew in many parts of the 
East. Such reeds, cut in the manner qf a quill, are 
still used by all those nations who write the Arabic 
character ; and are found, even by Europeans who have 
occasion to write much Persian or Arabic, to be more 
suitable to that character (a way of writing from right 
to left) than our pens. Those nations who have 
adopted the Chinese character use a camel's -hair 
pencil, which is held perpendicularly in the hand ; and 
although it would seem to us to be but little adapted 
for quick writing, the Chinese write .their complicated 
characters with these implements with a] rapidity 
seldom equalled by European writers. 

The quill appears to have been first in use about the 
year 600: the word penna, meaning a quill, is not 
found in any work older than that period, previous to 
which we usually find the word calamus, a reed. This 
word still exists in the modern Italian word calamajo, 
which signifies inkstand. The quill has an advantage 
over the reed in being finer and more durable, the 
same quill often serving for weeks, and even months. 
Instances are on record of pens being used for many years. 
Official clerks may stare at the astounding fact, but 
where calligraphy is not an object, an immense quantity 
of writing may be executed without mending a pen. 
Leo Allatius used the same pen for forty years, and did 
not wear it out at last : he lost it by some accident, 
and bewailed his loss bitterly. P. Holland, the trans- 
lator of J'liny, completed that work with a single pen ; 
and he celebrates the achievement in the following 
doggrel verse : — 

" With one sole pen J. wrote thi* book, 
Made of a grey goose quill j 
A pen it was when I it took, 
A pen I Ibave it still." ' 

We may well laugh at distress qf mjnd occasioned 
by the toss of such a relic; anpl a greajt writer has 
pronounced the fondness for an old pen to be the mark 
of a little mind : but, after all, these attachments to 
insensible objects have a tinge of poetry in them, and 
arc marks at least of an amiaole temper. 

The skins of animals were another and very ancient 
material for writing upon. The obvious convenience 
of this substance must have caused its adoption as soon 
as any means were devised for preserving i% from 
spoiling; and the large size of skins, added to their 
pliability, must have caused them fo be preferred to 
leaves of trees. It is most probable that the rolls of 
books mentioned by Ezekiel, Isaiah, and other prophets, 
were rolls of skins ; and the very ancient copies of the 
Bible preserved by the Jews of Cochin, in India, are 
said to be of leather. These skins would naturally be 
made as white as it was practicable, in order to receive , 
and show the ink, and thus by degrees would parch- 
ment be invented. 

The invention of parchment is usually attributed to 
Eumenes, King of fergamus, who reigned in the third 
century before the Christian Era. He was the founder 
of an extensive library, in which the new manufacture , 
was largely introduced, Ihe use of this article, aided i 

by that of paper from papyrus, which was £r*t brought 
from Egypt about the same Jime, hf*d a most beneficial 
influence in diffusing literature. Its whiteness, strength* 
and size, gave it a preference over every other material ; 
and to its durability we chiefly owe the remains of 
ancient science which have reached our times. Even 
at the present day, with aU our improvements in paper- 
making, the use of parchment for documents of imporju 
ance prevails oyer that of paper. Its English name is 
most probably a corruption of the ancient one/jPerga- 
mena, winch was derived from that pf the place where 
it was first manufactured or most used. 

The Egyptian paper, from the papyrus-planfc was 
for a long time as much in use as parchment. The 
papyrus- plant was described in Vol. I., p. 310 ; but the 
paper made from it was not what we understand by the 
term, — a mass of torn fragments of vegetable matter, 
evenly spread out, and joined together by size and their 
own adhesiveness; it was a species of inner bark, or 
thin pellicle, separated from the plant by a sharp tool, 
and pasted together in layers until it attained the 
desired size and thickness, when it was pressed and 
polished. This sort of paper continued to be used 
contemporaneously with parchment until aboujt the 
twelfth century, when the introduction of modem 
paper caused it to be disused, and the art of making it 
was lost. It was very extensively employed by the 
Romans, and by the Greeks in Home. AU the rolls 
burned at Herculaneum, and preserved by the fire 
which apppeared to destroy them, were written on 
papyrus. No other writing is known to exist of nearly 
that age, although we have some undoubted specimens 
of ancient Egyptian papyrus. We may observe, how- 
ever, that many old manuscripts said to be on papyrus 
are in reality written on cotton-paper. 

In the ninth or tenth century, the use of paper, 
properly so called, was introduced into Europe. This 
article had already been manufactured in China, from 
a remote period (a.d. 95), of the internal substance of 
the bamboo, sometimes of the mulberry-tree, and occa- 
sionally of cotton. About tjie middle of the seventy 
century the manufacture was brought to Samarcand, or 
perhaps this city was only the dep6t of China paper, 
as it was of some other objects of Chinese skill brought - 
into the west by the Arabs. It seems to be ascertained 
that a manufactory of cotton-paper was established at 
Mecca in the year 716, from whence it was brought 
by the Greeks to Constantinople. 

The invention of cotton-paper, as far as common use 
required, superseded that of all other writing materials. 
It was of good colour, made very thick, and glazed 
With a tooth or hard stone, until it .became smooth and 
lustrous, when it resembled parchment, or vellum. 
The Ureeks are supposed to have introduced it into 
,Western Europe, — first, through Venice into Italy, and 
afterwards into Germany, where it was known by the 
name of Greek parchment. Its importation into Spain 
Jby the Arabs was most probably somewhat later. 
Documents of the eighth century on cotton-paper exist 
Jin Italy, and many in Germany, as early as the ninth 
'and tenth: in France and Spain it appears to have 
'come into general use about the beginning of the 
eleventh century ; these dates are deduced from those 
of manuscripts now existing ; but it must be remem- 
bered that such documents do not afford a certain proof 
of the period of the introduction of paper ; it is not 
likely that the very first documents written have reached 
us ; many have doubtless perished, and some may exist 
unknown to us: on the other hand, documents pur- 
porting to be of a certain date, may be mere copies 
tnade at a more recent period. The earliest date upon 
Icotton-paper known in England is nearly of the middle 
jnf the eleventh century. " 

Cotton-paper appears to have supplied all Europe 
until the end of the thirteenth century, when timn.* 

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paper, such as we now use, is ascertained to have been 
invented. This invention has been placed considerably 
earlier by some good authorities, but it would appear 
that they have confounded linen with cotton paper. 
In truth the earlier specimens of linen-paper differ so 
little from that of cotton, that it requires a considerable 
acquaintance with the peculiar characters of the two kinds 
to distinguish them. It is most likely that before linen- 
paper came into use as a separate article, linen rags would 
be occasionally mingled with cotton by the manufacturer, 
and as such a mixture would tend to improve the fabric, 
the proportion of linen would be increased, until at length 
it would be used alone. The oldest documents ascer- 
tained by competent judges to be on paper made wholly 
of linen, date very early in the fourteenth century, and 
before the close of that century they are found in 
England, France, Spain, Italy, and Germany. But 
the manufacture spread slowly, although the paper 
itself was soon in use in all parts of Europe. The first 
% manufactures appear to have been in Spain and Italy ; 
into the former country the Arabs had long before 
introduced the making of cotton-paper, and that of 
linen would naturally be substituted there as early as 
in any place, particularly as cotton was rare, and flax 
an article of frequent cultivation. In the year 1366 we 
find an exclusive patent granted by the Republic of 
Venice to the town of Treviso, for the manufacture of 
linen-paper. England was so slow in adopting the art, 
that although paper was used here as early as the four- 
teenth century, the first paper-mill was not built until 
the end of the sixteenth, wheu it was introduced by a 
German at Dartford in Kent. 

Proceeding up the Rue da Temple in Paris, we come, 
before reaching the Boulevards, to a large building 
occupying the angle formed by the junction of this 
street with the Rue de la Corderie. This is the ancient 
palace of the Knights Templars, being the house in 
which resided the chief, or Grand Master, as he was 
called, of that famous association, once so eminent for 
its wealth and power, but destined to be better remem- 
bered in after-times for the lesson of the instability of 
human grandeur bequeathed by it to history in its 
sudden downfal. 

The order of Knights Templars was one of those 
grotesque confederacies of military monks which grew 
out of the Crusades. Its founders were nine of the 
followers of Godfrey of Bouillon, who soon after the 
conquest of Jerusalem united themselves by a vow to 
defend the holy city and its devout visitors from the 
outrages of the Paynim. The zeal of these pious 
chevaliers rapidly attracted imitators ; and many of the 
other Christian warriors having joined their company, 
Xing Baldwin II. in 1118 granted the society for 
their residence 8 building contiguous to the Temple ; 
whence thfe name by which they were thenceforth known. 
In 1128 they were recognised by the council of Troyes, 
when a rule or constitution was prescribed to them, 
and a white cloak, with a red cross on the left shoulder, 
was appointed to be the uniform or canonical attire 
of the order. After this the community speedily spread 
'tself over the different countries of Christendom ; and 
in course of time it acquired establishments in France, 
England, Gefmany, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Den- 
mark, Poland, Sardinia, Sicily, Cyprus, Constantinople, 
and elsewhere. 

Paris, however, became eventually the principal seat 
of the Templars. The earliest notice that has been dis- 
covered of their appearance in this city, is the record of 
a chapter of the order which was held here in the year 
1147, and at which 130 members were frtesent. On 
this occasion it is probable that the knights assembled 
in a house (long after known by the name of Le Vieux 

Temple) which they had near the Place St. Gervais, 
and a tower belonging to which was standing in 
the last century behind the choir of the church of Si. 
Jean-en-Greye.* The Templars had fixed themselves, 
however, in the Ville Neuye du Temple, as it was then 
called, before the year 1182. 

For many years after this time the order of the 
soldiery of the Temple subsisted in honour and renown. 
The grand duty imposed upon them, and which formed 
the main purpose of their institution, — the defence, 
namely, of the Holy Land against the infidels, — they 
must at least be allowed to have sustained with a valour 
and devotedness not to be surpassed. Throughout the 
long and fluctuating struggle between the Cross and 
the Crescent which fills the history of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, we find the Templars among the 
foremost of the brave wherever danger is to be en- 
countered; and at Jerusalem, at Cyprus, at Ptolemais, 
or at whatever other point was for the moment the 
focus of the contention, shedding their blood freely in 
" the imminent deadly breach " or the battle-field. 
" Clothed in simple attire and covered with dust," says 
the eloquent St. Bernard, in one of those addresses by 
which he so powerfully promoted the second Crusade, 
" they present a visage embrowned by the heat of the 
sun, and a look haughty and severe : at the approach 
of battle they arm themselves with faith within and with 
iron without ; their weapons art their only ornament, 
and these they use with courage in the greatest perils, 
fearing neither the numbej nor the strength of the 
barbarians : all their trust is in the God of armies ; and 
in combating for his cause, they seek a sure victory or 
a holy and honourable death. Oh ! happy mode of 
life, in Which death is waited for without fear, desired 
with joy, and received with assurance of salvation !" 
And this true military spirit continued to animate them 
so long as they formed a community. All the wealth 
and power which they acquired never made them forget 
that they were the Soldiers of the Faith, or tempted 
them to shrink from any exertion or exposure to which 
that title called them. 

As for the general morals of the Templars, it may 
probably be admitted that they were not always so un- 
exceptionable as the service to which they had devoted 
themselves, and the vows by which they were bound, 
would seem to demand. The period during which they 
flourished, nbtwiths'tanding its spirit of religious enthu- 
siasm, was distinguished by anything rather than 
purity of manners. Even the combination of devotion 
and licentiousness in the same character was no un- 
common phenomenon ; it seemed to be imagined that 
the one kept the other in countenance. The Crusades 
themselves were the means of inundating Europe with 
a tide of immorality, in the disorderly habits which the 
soldiers of these expeditions brought home with them 
from their wild campaigns, as well as in that breaking- 
up of all the regularities of peaceful industry, and that 
universal unsettlement of society, which the rush of so 
many adventurers to foreign lands had previously 
occasioned. The Templars, it may be supposed, did 
not remain untainted in the midst of this prevailing 
dissoluteness ; and many of them, doubtless, while 
spending their lives at the rude trade of war, often 
forgot that they were monks, and demeaned themselves 
very much after the fashion of their brother soldiers. 
It is probable, also, that when quartered in the spacious 
and splendidly furnished residences which belonged to 
them in France and elsewhere, they took the liberty of 
mitigating the severity of monastic discipline by many 
indulgences not hinted at in their statutes, as has been 

* The church of St. was mostly demolished 
during (he devolution ; but part of it is stifl in existence ttfhlhcd to 
the Hotel de Ville, and forming tlul City Library and thw Sitte &*- 
Jean, m which general literary and •eieatific wctttiei hM th*** 

Digitized by 




[January 9, 1S36. 

done by other religious communities, without having so 
good an excuse to plead, either in their past services 
and toils, or in the temptations to which their mode of 
life had exposed them. Their great wealth, in short, 
the power with which it armed them, and the plentiful 
enjoyments of all sorts which it afforded them the means 
of procuring, may have made both pride and luxurious 
indulgence common characteristics of the order ; and to 
this extent the charge of degeneracy and corruption 
which was brought against them was probably well 

But of the impiety and enormous profligacy of which 
they were accused when the object was to accomplish 
the destruction of the order, certainly no proof has ever 
been advanced. In a work published a few years ago 
in France, by M. Raynouard, in which the subject has 
been examined with great ingenuity and research, and 
by the aid of many unprinted documents which had 
never before been brought forward in its illustration, it 
has been abundantly shown that, up to the moment 
when it was resolved to sacrifice them, the character of 
the Templars had remained entirely unblemished by any 
of the calumnies of which they were then made the 
victims, and the suspicion of the partial truth of which 
has continued to cast a shade over the memory of the 
unfortunate chevaliers. Although many writers have, 
since the dissolution of the order, given way to the ex- 
pression of unfavourable surmises with regard to the 
conduct of its members, no trace of any such imputa- 
tions is to be found in any production which appeared 
before that event. On the contrary, not only are the 
Knights Templars the theme of commendation with the 
most daring libellers of other churchmen, but we find 
their valour, their piety, and their munificent charity 
extolled in the warmest terms only a few years before 
their suppression by the very men who were so soon to 
become their persecutors and destroyers. All this 
certainly does not demonstrate their innocence, but it 
establishes at least their unsullied reputation, and 
shows that the unfavourable impressions which have 
been entertained with regard to them by some au- 
thorities in modern times have originated merely in the 
same evidence which was brought forward to justify the 
condemnation of the order, and have no other founda- 
tion to stand upon : the character and real value of this 
evidence, however, fortunately do not admit of much 

Philip IV. of France, surnamed the Fair (le Bel), 
was one of the most resolute and energetic characters 
that ever occupied the throne of that or any other 
country. He had become king by the death of his 
father, Philip III., in 1285, when he was only in his 
seventeenth year ; and from the moment when he ob- 
tained possession of the royal authority, he showed 
himself determined that it should at least suffer no 
curtailment in his hands. The wars in which he 
engaged, although for the most part successful, in- 
volved him in financial embarrassments from which the 
expedients usual in that age were found at last inade- 
quate to extricate him. Some new course of revenue, 
therefore, was to be found ; and provided it was likely 
to prove worth the seizing, Philip was not the man to 
hesitate about his right of appropriating it, or the 
means to be employed for that purpose. It was in 
these circumstances that, after having carried the de- 
basement of the coinage (the customary contrivance in 
such emergencies) as far as the people would bear, he 
cast his eyes upon the rich possessions of the Templars, 
and resolved to seek in the destruction of that re- 
nowned fraternity the supply of his necessities. 

The instruments of whose assistance Philip mainly 
availed himself in this scheme, were his two ministers 
Enguerrard de Marigni and William de Nogaret, men 
devoted to his interests, and of characters similar to 
his own. His confederate was the Pope, Clement V.» 

whom his influence had recently raised from the Arch- 
bishoprick of Bordeaux to the chair of St. Peter, and 
who was his creature not merely from gratitude, and by 
the ordinary sympathies between client and patron, but 
according to some historians, under the bonds of a 
positive agreement. Clement, some time after his ele- 
vation, exhibited to Christendom a remarkable proof of 
his subserviency to the French king, by transferring 
the seat of the Popedom across the Alps to Avignon, 
in the dominions of that monarch. 


Early on a Monday morning the streets of Alston ring 
with the clanking noise of heavy iron-shod clogs, and 
numerous groups of miners are seen departing to their sub- 
terranean labours, laden with jumpers, picks, &c., many of 
them carrying an ample store of provisions for the week. 
They generally work eight hours a day, and four, five, or 
six days a week, according to their circumstances. Some 
miners have small farms, which occupy their leisure time, 
while gardening and reading, these most delightful of all 
recreations, also form the leisure occupation of many. 

Some of the mines are so near the residence of the work- 
men as to admit of their returning home between shifts, 
while others are situated amid wild and extensive hills and 
moors, far from any human habitation. Near the entrance 
of such remote mines is a house or mining shop, with ac- 
commodations not only for the miners, but also for the 
smiths and joiners employed in making and repairing 
waggons, railways, &c. In the miners' apartment, a num- 
ber of beds are crowded in different parts ; but it would be 
difficult by any description to convey an idea of the want of 
cleanliness and comfort which prevails in some of them. If 
Ledyard, who so beautifully and justly eulogized woman for 
kindness and hospitality, had visited certain of these mining 
abodes, he would have praised them with equal eloquence 
for the order and cleanliness which we chiefly owe to their 
presiding care, and which by the rougher sex are here so 
lamentably neglected. 

To this description, however, there are some, and it is to 
be hoped increasing exceptions. The author recollects 
having seen in a mining shop in Crossfell, a set of very 
orderly regulations, and since then has been much gratified 
by the clean and comfortable arrangements of a large 
mining shop in Teesdale, lately built under the directions 
of Mr. Stagg. The discomforts of English mining, how- 
ever, are few in comparison with those of other countries. 
The following account, for instance, abridged from private 
letters of miners who emigrated from Alston, gives a lament- 
able picture of the Mexican miners. 

" Their houses and clothing are of little value ; the former 
for the most part being miserable huts, which it would be 
no hard task to erect in a single day. In families of seven 
or eight individuals, the furniture, cooking utensils, in short, 
the whole contents of several huts belonging to the labouring 
class which we examined, we never found to exceed twenty 
shillings in value. Not one house in twenty contained 
either knife, fork, or spoon, and even in several whole vil- 
lages they could not be had. As for beds, they never think 
of such a thing, but lie down on the bare floor in the eorner 
of the hut. The dress of the labouring man, when new, 
would be thought dear for six shillings, and this he wears 
at all times, and in all places, in the mine and out of it, on 
Sunday as well as every -day, and at night it serves both for 
bed and bed-clothes, until torn off piece by piece/' 

If the Mexican miner falls short of English comforts and 
cleanliness, it appears that he much exceeds our miners in 
devotion ; for the same intelligent correspondent adds the 
following singular particulars : — u Sixty fathoms down the 
Despaches, one of the entrances to Valenciana mine, is a 
church, where lamps are continually lighted ; the workmen 
often spend half an hour in it on going to or retiring from 
work, and none of them pass without bowing before the 
painted images ; they usually spend an hour in singing 
before they begin and the same after they have done work.** — 
Sop with'* Account of the Mining Districts of Alston Moor t 


Printed by WiLLUM Cmwii and Sojrt, Stamford Stmt.) 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[January 16, 1836. 


[Palace of Ibrahim Pasha as seen from the River Nile.] 

In ascending the Nile from Boulac, the port of Cairo, 
we behold a large irregular edifice of imposing dimen- 
sions : this is the Palace of Ibrahim Pasha, son of 
Mohammed Ali, the viceroy of Egypt. This has been 
the constant residence of his harem during the absence 
of that successful warrior in Syria ( 1833). Immediately 
opposite this princely dwelling is the Island of Rhoda, 
which likewise belongs to Ibrahim. Active preparations 
are making for building a new palace on this fertile 
island, a great part of which has been already converted, 
by his direction, into delightful gardens ; and these, 
stocked with European and tropical plants, both useful 
and ornamental, have already been brought into a 
high state of culture under the superintendence of Mr. 
Trail, a scientific and highly intelligent horticulturist, 
who was engaged in England at the desire of Ibrahim. 
The wood-cut at the head of this article is taken from a 
beautiful drawing in water-colours, made on the spot 
by a young Armenian, a subject of the viceroy of Egypt, 
who wa3 educated in England at the expense of the 
Pasha. We may venture to anticipate, from his taste 
for the arts and proficiency in our language, — which 
he speaks like a native, — together with his various other 
useful acquirements! that this prince will hereafter 
Vol. V. 

become a valuable contributor to the improvement ei 
his country. It is gratifying to record, among other 
proofs of Ibrahim Pasha's superiority to Oriental pre- 
judices, that he has for some time constantly employed 
persons at his own expense in Upper Egypt to ex- 
cavate for antiquities, with the avowed intention of 
forming a museum at Cairo; and has forwarded to 
that city a considerable collection of books originally 
belonging to the great mosque at Acre, with an order 
that they may be appropriated to the foundation of a 
public library. 


It was on Friday the 13th of October, 1307, that the 
Grand Master and all the Knights Templars who were 
found with Him in his residence at Paris were arrested 
there by command of King Philip, while at the same 
time all the members of the order in the other parts of 
France were treated in the same manner. As soon as 
they were seised they were put into irons ; the Palace 
of the Temple was taken possession of by the king ; a 
proclamation was issued denouncing the unhappy men 
as monsters of wickedness, whose deeds, and even whose 


Digitized by 




[January 16, 

very words, were enough to pollute the earth and to 
infect the air; and the people were invited to assemble 
immediately in the royal garden to listen to the detail 
of their unheard-of crimes. A multitude having ac- 
cordingly collected from all the parishes of the capital, 
several persons appointed for that purpose addressed 
them, and in the style of oratory best adapted to inflame 
their passions, recounted to them the charges which 
had been brought against the devoted order. 

According to many authorities, the accusers of the 
Templars,' in the first instance, were two individuals of 
their own community, who had been condemned by the 
Grand Master, for their general profligacy, to perpetual 
, imprisonment. Both, it is remarked, afterwards pe- 
rished disgracefully, one of them having been hanged. 
In the mean time, however, they received their liberty 
as a reward for the part which they played. The testi- 
mony of other witnesses was subsequently added to 
theirs,— - how obtained, we shall immediately see. The 
charges themselves may be shortly described as being 
exactly of the sort most calculated to im'pose upon the 
credulity of that age, and to shock the reason of ours. 
The ceremonial of initiation, it was asserted, was little 
else than a medley of debauchery and profanity, in 
which the wildest excesses of both were practised by the 
whole assembly, and systematically taught to the novice. 
Whatever may have been the profligacy of individuals, 
it is sufficiently improbable that in any circumstances 
conduct such as this should have been hazarded at the 
general meetings of the order, and especially on occa- 
sion of the reception of new members into its bosom ; 
but a fact which has for the first time been noticed by 
M. Raynouard renders the accusation still more palpably 
absurd and incredible. It is ascertained that the 
Templars* not in France only, but in other countries, 
were well aware of the conspiracy which was in pre- 
paration for their ruin a very considerable time before 
their actual arrest. A letter of Clement's dated the 
2?nd of August, 1807 (nearly two months antecedent to 
that event), testifies that the Grand Master and other 
chiefe of the order, having learned that they were de- 
nounced, had applied to him, not once only, but many 
' imes, to institute an investigation respecting the matters 
of which they were accused. This readiness, and even 
anxiety, to meet the charges against them, of itself 
argues favourably for their innocence ; but we may at 
least be certain that, if any criminal practices had 
hitherto polluted their meetings, they would be aban- 
doned now that they knew the dangerous position in 
which they stood. Yet upon referring to the evidence, 
it appears that several of the witnesses who depose to 
the same flagitious transactions as the rest had, accord- 
ing to their own account, been received into the order, 
some only a few months, some only a few weeks, some 
•mly a few days, before the general arrest. The persons 
who gave this evidence were members who thereby 
purchased their life and freedom, while their brethren 
who asserted the falsehood of the accusations were 
consigned to torture, imprisonment, and the stake. 
Their testimony, suspicious enough from the cir- 
cumstances in which it was delivered, ought to have 
been felt to be altogether confuted by its own intrinsic 

But, in truth, what can we think of any of the stories 
brought forward upon this occasion, except that they 
were well devised to catch the easy faith of that bar- 
barous age, when we look to the mingled tissue of the 
horrible, the ludicrous, and the impossible, which forms 
their substance ! So vehement, if we are to believe these 
narratives, was the anti-christian zeal of the chevaliers, 
that no sooner had they admitted among them a new 
brother than they forced him to deny the Saviour and 
to trample upon the crucifix. Yet such at the same 
time was their abject superstition, that they were ac- 

customed at their general meetings to offer adoration 
to a wooden head with a great beard. Their impiety 
seems to have been at once the most daring, the most 
purposeless, and the most irreconcilable, either with 
their interests, the feelings and habits natural to their 
profession, or even their other follies and vices, that was 
ever heard of, and only to be understood, indeed, in its 
recklessness and inconsistency, on the supposition that 
it was intended to include every variety of outrage on 
the common faith which was likely to render it at the 
same time most revolting if discovered, and most 
obnoxious to detection. Some of the witnesses, it may 
be added, even asserted that the devil was wont to 
appear at the meetings of the order, in the form of a 
cat, which conversed with the members as they knelt 
down and worshipped it. This tale, we may be sure, 
was not the least greedily swallowed of the whole col- 

The accusations, in short, to which the Templars 
were sacrificed, resemble nothing so much in their 
general character as the charges on which so many 
unhappy persons, in our own and other countries, were 
wont to be condemned to death for the imaginary crimes 
of sorcery and witchcraft. The parallel holds good 
also in regard to the manner in which the evidence in 
both cases was obtained. 

The Knights, as soon as they were arrested, were 
everywhere put to the torture to force them to confess 
the crimes laid to their charge. Those who were appre- 
hended in Paris were committed for this purpose to the 
tender mercies of the inquisitor Imbert, the king's con- 
fessor, who seems to have been a person not given to any 
negligent performance of the duties of his office. So 
severe were the agonies to which he and his assistants 
subjected their victims, that thirty-six of them died in 
their hands. Others, unable to endure such extremity 
of anguish, confessed anything that was asked of them. 
Among this latter number, was the Grand Master 
himself, Jacques Molay, of a noble family of Burgundy, 
who had beeu admitted a knight in 1265, and after 
having distinguished himself in the wars against the 
infidels, had been, while absent beyond the seas, 
unanimously elected chief of the order, in 1:?9S. He 
confessed that he had denied his Redeemer, and once 
trampled on the Cross* 

Of those, however, who thus yielded at the moment 
to the weakness of nature, many soon repented of the 
treason to their order and to truth, by which they had 
purchased their release from the rack, and with indignant 
self-condemnation recanted the confessions Which only 
excTueiatiug pain had wrung from them. No one 
lamented his pusillanimity more Ufttqrly than the Grand 
Master. We cannot afford to pursue the series of 
violent and iniquitous proceedings which were resorted 
to during a period of nearly two years towards the 
unfortunate knights who, in the different towns of the 
kingdom, had survived the first havock of the torturers* 
and who all this while lay loaded with irons in their 
dungeons, the king drawing their revenues. At last a. 
commission appointed to try them met at Paris on the 
7th of August, 1309. On the 26th of November, the 
Grand Master, being brought before this tribunal, de- 
clared his intention of standing on his defence. " Al- 
though 1 do not conceal from myself," he added, " the 
difficulty of the task I undertake, a prisoner as I am io 
the hands of the pope and of the king, and without even 
the smallest sum of money wherewith to defray the 
necessary expenses of such a process." On the follow- 
ing day, Tonsard de Gisi was brought forward, another 
of the knights who had confessed the truth of the alle- 
gations brought against the fraternity, " Do you mean 
to defend the order ? " asked the Commissioners. ** \ 
do," answered De Gisi; "the imputation which has 
been east upon us of denying Jesus Christ, of trampling 

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upon his cross, and of committing infamous immoralities 
at our meetings, and all the other accusations to which 
we have been subjected, are false. If I myself or other 
knights have made confessions before the bishop of 
Paris or elsewhere, we have betrayed the truth, we have 
yielded to fear, to danger, or to violence. We were 
tortured by Hexian de Beziers, the Prior of Montfaucon, 
and by the monk William Robert, our enemies. Many 
of the prisoners agreed among themselves to make 
these confessions to avoid death, and because thirty- 
six knights had died under the torture at Paris, 
besides a great number in other places. As for me 
I am ready to defend the order, in my own name, 
and in the name of all those who shall make common 
cause with me, if from the property of the order there 
be allowed me therewithal to defray the necessary ex- 
pense. ,, He then demanded the assistance of counsel 
whom he named, and laid on the table a list of persons 
whom he regarded as the enemies of himself and his 
brethren, and consequently as unfit to judge them or to 
be heard against them. It comprised only four or five 
individuals, at the head of whom stood the two monks 
who had presided over his sufferings on the rack, and 
of whose energetic practice on that occasion their 
patient naturally had retained a vivid recollection. 
" Were you put to the torture?" asked the Com- 
missioners. " Yes," he replied, " three months before 
the confession which I made to the bishop. They had 
tied my hands behind my back with such tightness that 
the blood was almost oozing through the nails ; I was 
left for an hour in this state in a dungeon." At a sub- 
sequent meeting of the commission, another knight, 
Bernard de Vado, said, " I was tortured so terribly, and 
held so long before a burning fire, that the flesh on the 
soles of my feet was consumed, and these two bones 
which I now lay before you were detached." 

The number of knights who presented themselves to 
intimate their readiness to defend the order, having at 
last risen to nine hundred* seventy-five were selected to 
undertake that task; and on the 11th of April, 1310, 
the trial was formally commenced. It was continued 
by a succession of adjournments to Monday the 11th 
of May, up to the evening of which day fourteen wit- 
nesses had been examined. But by this time the king 
seems to have come to the conclusion that a process 
such as this was not the best mode of ensuring the 
success of his scheme. On that night the brother of 
the Chancellor Marigny, who had been recently ap- 
pointed to the archbishoprick of Sens, gave orders for 
the seizure of fifty-four of the knights appointed to 
conduct the defence of the order. They were all of the 
number of those who had formerly made confession of 
the crimes imputed to them, and had since retracted 
that avowal. On this pretext they were now designated 
by the archbishop " relapsed heretics," and condemned 
by him to the names. Next day the sentence thus 
passed upon them was carried into execution : they 
were burned in a field behind the abbey of St. Antoine. 
After they had arrived on the ground, their lives and 
their freedom were offered to them if they would repeat 
their former confession ; but although assailed by the 
imploring prayers of their friends and relations, and 
with the torches which were to kindle their fires of 
martyrdom blazing before their eyes, not one of them 
could be moved a second time to purchase a prolonga- 
tion of his days, or an exemption from bodily torment, 
by falsehood and self-degradation. They died invoking 
God and the saints, chanting hymns, and with their 
last breath protesting their innocence from the midst 
of the flames. Even the spectators, prejudiced as they 
were against them, could not behold tjj . sufferings 
and tueir noble endurance without givijj iterance t0 
their admiration and sympathy, mingle^ */*. .jjurmurs 
of indignation against their desiroyers, ^itf 1 

This terrible example had, to a great degree, the 
effect intended. Forty-four knights immediately re- 
tracted their plea of not guilty. They, along with all 
the others who acknowledged the crimes imputed to 
them, were classed as reconciled, set at liberty, and in 
many cases rewarded. Such as had all along persisted 
in refusing to confess were condemned to perpetual 
imprisonment. Meanwhile, the course which had been 
pursued at Paris with regard to those denominated 
relapsed heretics was imitated in other parts of the 
kingdom ; and numbers perished in different places 
by the same cruel death which had been experienced 
by the victims of the Archbishop of Sens. The com- 
missioners themselves seem to have been astounded by 
these proceedings; and on the 21st of May they ad- 
journed their sittings till the 3rd of November. When 
they reassembled on that day, and made the usual 
proclamation, that all who were willing to defend the 
order should present themselves, no one appeared. 
They continued however to receive the depositions of 
witnesses till the 26th of May, 1311. Several of the 
knights who were dragged before them had still the 
courage to persist in their asseverations of innocence ; 
but all the most intrepid members of the order having 
been by this time destroyed, while such among those 
still languishing in their dungeons as it was appre- 
hended might prove the most troublesome to deal with 
were not allowed the privilege of appearing to offer 
their testimony, it is no wonder that the greater number 
of the persons examined gave such evidence as suited 
the views of the managers of the prosecution, and 
secured their own safety. The number of witnesses in 
all was 231, of whom about 150 were knights who 
confessed in whole or in part the crimes charged against 
the order. It is not too much to say, however, that 
the records of criminal procedure scarcely present any- 
thing more deplorable than these examinations. The 
witnesses manifest the internal struggle between fear 
and remorse under which they are writhing, by such con- 
tradictions, and other signs of perturbation, reluctance, 
and apprehension of blundering in their invented tale, 
as are sufficient, independently even of the absurdity 
of their statements, to divest them of all claims to 

The flfea.-— The boundless and unmanageable mass of 
earth presented by the continents of Asia and Africa has 
caused those parts of the world, which started the earliest 
in the race of civilization, to remain almost at the point from 
whence they set out; while Europe and America, pene- 
trated by so many seas, and communicating with them by 
so many rivers, have been subdued to the uses of civilization, 
and have ministered with an ever-growing power to their 
children* s greatness. Well indeed might the policy of the 
old-priest nobles of Egypt and India endeavour to divert 
their people from becoming familiar with the sea, and re- . 
present the occupation of a seaman as incompatible with the 
purity of the highest castes. Well might the Spartan aris- 
tocracy dread the introduction of foreign manners, and 
complain that intercourse with foreigners would corrupt 
their citizens, and seduce them to forsake the institutions of 
their fathers. Injustice and ignorance must fall if the light 
be fairly let in upon them : evil can only be fully enjoyed 
by those who have never tasted good. The sea deserved to 
bt noted by the old aristocracies, inasmuch as it has been 
the mightiest instrument in the civilization of mankind. In 
the depth of winter, when the sky is covered with clouds, 
and the land presents one cold, blank, and lifeless surface of 
snow, how refreshing is it to the spirits to walk upon the 
shore, and to enjoy the eternal freshness and liveliness of the 
ocean ! Even so in the deepest winter of the human race, 
when the earth was but one chilling expanse of inactivity, 
life was stirring in the waters. There began that spirit , 
whose genial influence haa now reached to the land, has 
broken the chains of winter, and covered the face of the 
earth with beauty,— Appendix to Dr. Arnolds Thucydides. 


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THE COlPUS, COYPOU, OR COV 1 A.- (My opotomu* Coipus, Comm.) 

[The Coipus.] 

The couia f or coipus, is a most important animal In a 
commercial point of view. The fine under-fur which 
invests its body being extensively employed, like that 
of the beaver, in the manufacture of hats, thousands 
of its skins are annually imported into Europe, under 
the name of racoonda, and have for nearly forty years 
supplied the markets, while the animal itself remained 
unknown to the scientific world. The coipus belongs 
to the rodent order, and constitutes the sole example of 
a genus allied in some respects to that of the beaver, 
yet differing from it in many external as well as 
anatomical characters; — while at the same time it 
is no less evidently allied to the genera hydromys and 

Though unnoticed till very lately by naturalists, we 
are not to suppose that the older writers have left us no 
traces of its history ; on the contrary, we have clear 
references to it. Until Geoffrey St. Hilaire however 
published a memoir of the animal in 1805, in the 
4 Annates du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle,' these re- 
ferences had been overlooked or disregarded. Com- 
merson bad even figured it, but to that figure no 
attention was paid, till in looking over the vast col- 
lection of skins in the storehouses of M. Bechem, a 
furrier at Paris, Geoffroy St. Hilaire was struck with 
the resemblance which the skins of this animal bore to 
the figure in question. Of these skins M. Bechem 
never received less than a thousand, and often from 
fifteen to twenty thousand annually, and had long been 
in the habit of employing the fur for the same purpose 
as that of the beaver, having observed the similarity of 
texture between them. 

Com merson, who was a naturalist of great eminence, 
appears to have understood very clearly the systematic 
affinities of the coipus : he regarded it with justice as 
the type of a new genus, to which he gave the title of 

myopotamus, the animal being designated as myo- 
potamus bonariensis, the specific name bearing allusion 
to the country where it came under his observation, viz., 
the province of Buenos Ay res. Long, however, before 
Commerson, the coipus was described both by Molina 
and afterwards by Don Felix d'Azzara. 

Though M. St. Hilaire published his Memoir in 
1809, the attention of British naturalists does not 
appear to have been directed to the animal in question 
till long afterwards ; nor was it really known to them, 
for, in 1812, we find an account of it in the Trans- 
actions of the Linnean Society, by the Rev. E. J. 
Burrow, A.M., F.L.S., under the name of miu cas- 
tor ides, without any reference to St. Hilaire or other 
authorities. Mr. Burrow adds, " The person who first 
possessed the animal in this country states that he 
bought it on board a ship from the Brazils: I had 
afterwards frequent opportunities of observing it, and 
of making my drawing while it was alive at Exeter 
'Change. It died suddenly, and without any apparent 
cause, and is now in the collection of Mr. Bullock. 
When teased or disturbed, it uttered a weak cry, but 
was good-tempered and not easily roused to resistance. 
The method of feeding was the same with that of most 
the glires, but the forepart of the body was very little 

Such is a summary of the scientific records of the 
coipus or coypou. 

The coipus, of which the writer of this article has 
not only examined numerous perfect skins, but which 
he has recently had an opportunity of observing in a 
living state, and of dissecting after death, is a native of 
the southern and meridional regions of the American 
Continent. It resides habitually in burrows or holes 
which it excavates along the banks of the larger rivers, 
and in these burrows the female brings forth her youngs 

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from five to seven in number, to which she manifests 
great attachment, taking them with her as soon as 
sufficiently grown to follow her in her rambles. Every 
point in the configuration of this animal indicates its 
aquatic habits, as well as its facility of burrowing. 

The body is clothed with two sorts of hair, an under 
garment of fine close fur, almost water-proof, and an 
upper layer of long shining straight hairs of rich brown, 
which is the general colour, except on the muzzle, which 
is dirty white. The head is large, thick, and depressed 
on the top, the eyes being small, and placed so as to be 
above the water while the animal is swimming, and ap- 
proximating to each other; the ears are small and 
rounded, the moustaches long and wiry, the incisor 
teeth large, strong, and of a fine orange yellow. Pos- 
terior to the upper incisors there is a hairy palate, or 
; space, which makes it seem as if those teeth pierced the 
upper lip : the fact is, that this hairy anterior palate is 
| thus constructed in order that the incisors, which both 
| above and below are always exposed, may work freely 
on rough bark or hard materials, without injury to the 
palate, or that rough sticks or pieces of wood may be 
| grasped between the palate and lower incisors and 
| carried to the burrow. The annexed sketch from 
I nature illustrates this curious point in the structure of 
the coipus. 

f Hairy Palate of the Coipus.] ' 

The anterior limbs are short, but very strong ; the 
toes are five on each foot, armed with strong nails ; 
the posterior feet are large and spreading ; the toes are 
five in number, armed, as those of the fore-feet, with 
large claws ; but with the exception of the outer toe, 
which is free, the rest are connected together by ex- 
tensive webs. The tail is long, round, scaly, and very 
thinly clothed with stiff hairs. In size the coipus is 
smaller than the beaver, but considerably larger than 
the ondatra, or musquash, of the northern regions of 
America ; the living specimen which we measured (an 
adult male) having the head and body one foot eleven 
inches in length, that of the tail being one foot three 

Both Molina and Azzara notice the gentleness and 
inoffensive habits of the coipus, and the attachment 
which it manifests in captivity to those who feed and 
caress it. It is easily domesticated, and never resents 
ill usage. It utters no noise unless when hurt; its 
voice then consists of a piercing cry. We have ascer- 
tained, by dissection, that the larynx, or rather the 
glottis, is received into the posterior narcs, which are 
continued backward in the form of a funnel-like cavity ; 
so that breathing is carried on solely through the 
nostrils, — a point of great importance to an animal of 
aquatic habits, whose under jaw and exposed teeth are 
beneath the surface of the water while in the act of 
swimming, the nostrils being just elevated above. 
Such a structural arrangement, however, of the larynx, 
precludes the utterance of definite tones, - a ny modu- 

lation of voice, a shrill cry being the utmost that might 
be expected. 

Much yet remains for investigation connected with the 
habits of this remarkable animal in its native regions. 
Multitudes are annually destroyed, — thousands of skins 
are annually imported into Europe, — but no accounts 
connected with the details of the history of the coipus 
have, as far as we know, been transmitted with them. 

In captivity the coTpus is gentle and inoffensive. 
The individual which came under our notice allowed 
itself to be handled and played with, and was evidently 
pleased with any marks of attention from those from 
whom it received its food, and with whom it was 
familiar. At the same time it exhibited but little 
intelligence : its movements were sluggish ; there was 
nothing lively in its appearance or actions. It re- 
minded one of a huge overgrown water-rat, divested 
of the alacrity which that animal displays on the banks 
of our ponds and rivers. Its time seemed divided 
between sleep or repose, and feeding ; and twilight or 
night appeared the season of its natural activity. We 
must not however judge of an animal altogether by its 
manners in captivity. Free, and in its native regions, 
it is perhaps alert and watchful, quick to perceive and 
prompt to escape the approach of its natural enemies ; 
while in the exercise of its instincts it fulfils its ap- 
pointed part in the great plan of creation. 

The claims of Moscow to admiration have not gene- 
rally been under- rated by travellers ; and we have often 
thought that the colouring of their pictures has been 
considerably influenced by the direction of their journey. 
A traveller fresh from Europe is prepared to consider 
Moscow as, to a considerable extent, an Asiatic city ; 
and if he has never been in Asia, and is not on his way 
thither, he dwells with admiration and wonder on its 
Asiatic features, which are all new to him, and to which 
he is perhaps induced to give an undue prominence, on 
account of the satisfaction which he may naturally feel 
in having, so to speak, travelled beyond the moral 
boundary of Europe. He wants materials for that 
comparison between Moscow and the cities, not only of 
Europe but of Asia, by which it seems to us that only 
a correct estimate of this remarkable place can be 
formed. The Asiatic arrangement of the houses with 
their appendages in detached courts, so that a line of 
twelve adjoining houses can scarcely be seen even in the 
most crowded part of the town, — the throng of un- 
christian-like churches, with their clustered domes of 
green and gold, their white towers and green spires, and 
their round or octangular minarets surmounted by 
glittering bulbous domes, — and then the endless and 
analogous variety of costumes and languages in the 
streets and places of public resort, so that it would 
seem as if all nations, from India to the Atlantic, were 
holding congress at Moscow: all these are circum- 
stances calculated to impress and influence the most 
severe imagination, and to prevent that well-balanced 
view which it is in all cases most important to obtain. 

On the other hand, the traveller who comes to 
Moscow on his way from Asia to Europe is enchanted 
by the indications of European civilization which he 
discovers at Moscow, and which form perhaps the first 
actual evidence of his approach to his own country. 
This feeling disposes him to regard all that is European 
with the utmost favour, and to give it an exaggerated 
importance. The buildings on the models of Greece or 
Rome, — the broad streets*, paved, though badly, — the 
lamps, though few and far between, — are things that 
delight him, as bringing to his mind scenes from which 

* It is odd enough that Dr. Lyall regards broad streets at among 
the Miotic features of Moscow \ 

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[January 16, 

he has long been absent : and as the houses front the 
streets and have sash- windows, he is in no disposition 
to cavil at the gay colours — white, yellow, orange, green, 
pink, blue, or red — with which their stuccoed fronts are 
covered. All is pleasing. Even the Asiatic part of the 
scene is grateful to him, as affording him a last glimpse 
of the " wild and wondrous East " from which he is de- 
parting, while at the same time the things of his own 
Europe form part of the same prospect. Moscow is in 
fact a divided empire, of which neither Europe nor 
Asia can say — " This is mine ! " 


(Extracted from a paper on l The Dueatrt of Artitaru] Sfc^ in the 
4 H'urking-Maris Ycar-Book fur 1836.') 

Workers in metals may be considered under five heads, 
namely, as workers in arsenic, copper, lead, mercury, and 
lastly, workers in gold and silver. 

I. Arsenic. —The fumes of arsenic are extremely per- 
nicious. ** It is an artificial production, and is prepared 
principally in Saxony, from cobalt ores. Whilst the latter, 
in the crude state, are roasting for the purpose of obtaining 
zuffre. the vapours arising from the oxide are condensed in 
a long and large chamber, and to these potash is added. 
The mixture is then sublimed, and the white oxide is ob- 
tained, leaving p>tash with sulphur. This employment is 
a dangerous, and in a short time, fatal one ; and, accord- 
ingly, convicts, whose punishment would otherwise be 
death, are condemned to it"— (Beck's Med. Jurisprudence, 
3rd edit., p. 383.) The men in the copper smelting works 
of Wales and Cornwall are affected by the arsenical vapours 
arising from the crude ore, and they rely upon oil as an 
antidote, with which they are supplied by their employers. 
They are sometimes attacked with a cancerous disease, 
similar to that which infests chimney-sweepers. The ar- 
senical fumes are believed to exempt them from fever. 
Some other artisans, as for instance, paper-stainers and 
glass-workers, occasionally use arsenic, and suffer head- 
ache and sickness from its employment. 

•2. Cojiper.— Patissier, in his * Treatise on the Diseases 
of Artisans/ says that copper-workers have a peculiar 
appearance, which distinguishes them from other trades- 
men ; that they have a greenish complexion ; that the 
same colour tinges their eyes, tongue, and hair, their ex- 
cretions, and even their clothes, through the medium of the 
perspiration ; that they are spare, short in stature, bent, 
their offspring ricketty, and they themselves old and even 
decrepit at their fortieth or fiftieth year. And Me>at also 
asserts that they are liable to the painter s colic. But Dr. 
Christison, from whom we have borrowed these statements, 
observes with great justice, that the copper-workers of the 
present day are by no means the unhealthy persons that 
Patissier represents ; and he says that the painter's colic is 
very rare among them. 

Still they suffer from the inhalation of the metal, either 
oxidised or in a state of very minute subdivision ; and in the 
founding of yellow brass there is a great evolution of oxide 
of zino, which affects respiration and even digestion. The 
brass-melters of Birmingham state that they are liable to 
an intermittent fever, which they call the brass-ague, and 
which attacks them once a-year, or oftener, and leaves them 
in a state of great debility. They are in the habit of taking 
emetics as a preventive. 

3 . Lead. —The disease which affects house-painters, white- 
lead-manufacturers, and others exposed to the poison of 
lead, is called the painter's colic ; by medical writers itis often 
called colica Pictonum, i. e. the colic of the people of Poitou; 
this province in France, like Devonshire in England, having 
been much infested with the formidable malady in question. 
It was clearly shown by Sir George Baker (who wrote many 
valuable papers on the subject in the early volumes of the 
• Transactions of the College of Physicians') that the disease 
in Devonshire arose from the use of cider which had been 
contained in leaden cisterns. In England the disease very 
rarely occurs at present, excepting among those who work 
in lead ; in Paris, it will appear from the following extract, 
that a considerable number of other persons laboured under 
the malady ; but these two things may have altered for the 
better since 1811. Perhaps the use of wines, sweetened 

with lead, may have caused the colic in many cases. " The 
work of Mlrat contains some interesting numerical docu 
menU, illustrative of the trades which expose artisans to 
colica Pictonum. They are derived from the lists kept at 
the Hospital of La Charitl, in Paris, during the years 1 77* 
and 1811. The total number of cases of colica Pictonum in 
both years was 279. Of these 24 1 were artisans whose trade 
exposed them to the poison of lead, namely, 1 48 painters, 
28 plumbers, 16 potters, 15 porcelain-makers, 12 lapidaries, 
9 colour-grinders, 3 glass-blowers, 2 glaziers, 2 toymen, 
2 shoe-makers, a printer, a lead-miner, a leaf-beater, and a 
shot-manufacturer. Of the remainder, 17 belonged to 
trades in which they were exposed to copper, namely, 7 
button-makers, 5 brass-founders, 4 braziers, and a copper- 
turner. The remaining 21 were tradesmen who worked 
little, if at all, with either metal* namely, 4 varnishera, I 
gilders, 2 locksmiths, a hatter, a saltpetre-maker, a wine- 
grocer, a vine -dresser, a labourer, a distiller, a stone-cutter, 
a calcinex, a soldier, a house- servant, a waiter, and an 
attorney's clerk."-— (Christison on Poisons, p. 421.) 

Cleanliness will do much as a preventive. Dr. Christison 
was informed by an intelligent journeyman that the hours 
of labour being shorter in Edinburgh than in London, 
painters pay greater attention to cleanliness in the farmer 
than the latter city; and the disease in consequence u 
mueh rarer. The use of diluted sulphuric acid as a common 
drink has been lately tried at Paris, and, we believe, with 
great success; for the acid converts the carbonate into 
sulphate of lead, which is insoluble and harmless. 

4. Mercury. — More than a century ago, Jussien gave an 
account of the workmen in the quicksilver- mines of Al- 
maden, in the province of La Mancha, in Spain. M The 
free workmen at Almaden,*' he says, " by taking care, cm 
leaving the mine, to change their whole dress, particularly 
their shoes, preserved their health, and lived as long a> 
other people ; but the poor slaves, who could not afford a 
change of raiment, and who took their meals in the mine, 
generally without even washing their hands, were subject 
to swellings o£ the parotids, apthous sore- throat, salivation, 
pustular eruptions, and tremors/* — (Christison on Poisons, 
p. 311.) 

In this country we have no quicksilver-mines ; but the 
trades of the silverers of mirrors and water-gilders expose 
them to the disease called by the French trcmblement mn- 
curiel, i. e. mercurial shaking. One of the cases reported 
by Mr. Mitchell, in the ' London Medical and Physical 
Journal/ for November, 1831, will show the nature of the 
disease : — ** P. Nash, set twenty, of nervous temperament, 
commenced silvering six months ago ; the trembling came 
on three days after he began to work, and his mouth was 
sore in six days ; and he has continued to suffer, mete or 
less, up to the present time. 14th March, 1 831 — The speech 
greatly impeded ; the limbs totter when he attempts to 
stand or walk, which he accomplishes very slowly and with 
great difficulty ; an infirm step and awkward gait : be is 
unable to convey any substance to the mouth, in con- 
sequence of the severity of the tremors ; slight stUtsvltut 
tendinum [twitching of the tendons] confined to the upper 
extremities; the tongue quivers; gums slightly tender; 
pulse strong, rather quick ; appetite diminished ; skwp 
disturbed ; body wasted ; he complains as if a feeling op- 
pressed, like a bad, across the lower pait of the chest, or a* 
if a substance lay at the bottom of the lungs, as be ex- 
presses himself, which he conceived to have been drawn in 
by inspiration ; the breathing was quick, accompanied with 
strictured feeling and cough. He was nearly thrown from 
a bath by the violence of the trembling ; a large quantity 
of the water was driven by his excesssive agitation over the 
sides of the bath ; and if two men had not held him steadily 
in the water? he must have been thrown out before- he was 
capable of remaining quiet" 

A part of the noxious effects is no doubt owing to want 
of cleanliness ; but a great part must be attributed to the 
mercurial vapours diffused in the air and inhaled by (lie 
workmen. How much must be owing to this latter cause 
may be seen from a well-known accident, which took place 
in 1810. Two ships of war, the Triumph and the Phipps, 
were bringing home a large quantity of quicksilver, when, 
by some accident, several of the ba^s burst. The whole 
crews of both vessels were salivated on the voyage home 
from Cadiz ; many were dangerously ill, and two died ; and 
the sheep, goats, dogs, eats, &c„ were likewise destroved 
by the gaseous poison. 

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What is the best method of prevention ? Marat informs 
us that M. Ravrio, g> celebrated dealer in gilt bronze, at 
Paris, left by will the sum of 3000 francs (120/.) for the 
discoverer of the best method of preserving gilders from the 
diseases to which they are subject. The prize was given 
to M. Darcet, for the invention of a draught furnace, by 
which the destructive vapour is instantaneously removed 
from the workshop. Many gilders have adopted it, and, as 
Merat assures us, with the desired effect. He refers us to 
the work which M. Darcet printed in the year 1818, entitled 
* A Memoir on the Art of Gilding Bronze/ 

5. Gold and Silver.— Workers in gold are subject to 
several pernicious vapours, the worst being the one which 
arises in the process of dry colouring, from the fusion of 
saltpetre, alum, and common salt. It produces great dis- 
tress in the head and nervous system. These evils are 
aggravated by a bad posture and the foul air of crowded 
workrooms, so that an old jeweller is scarcely, if ever, seen. 
A communication made to Mr. Thackrah, by a master, is 
interesting and pathetic. We give it, though gloomy ; as 
it is not by concealing the evils of trades that they are to be 
remedied: — 

44 The men drop off from work unperceived and disre- 
garded. I am quite at a loss to know what becomes of 
them. When they leave off working, they go, and are 
seen no more. Some, perhaps, become applicants for 
charities ; but so few have I known of the ages of sixty or 
seventy, that leaving work, they seem to leave the world as 
woll, a solitary one appearing at intervals to claim some 
trifling pension, or seek admission to an almshouse." 

Workers in silver have a tolerably healthy occupation ; 
they suffer but little from effluvia, with the exception of 
some who work in badly-constructed rooms, where charcoal 
is burned. A master of twelve or sixteen working-silver- 
smiths informed Mr. Thackrah that he had two or three 
men in his employ between fifty and sixty years of age, and 
that on examining a club of 1 00 men, he (bund as great a 
proportion of aged as town-life commonly exhibits. He 
favoured Mr. Thackrah with the following general re- 
marks : — • 

" Their habits are various. Say two of every dozen are 
rather abstemious, taking about a pint of malt liquor per 
day, and spirituous liquors not once a month, and live 
regularly. Eight of the same number are men who live 
well the first four or five days in the week, that is, eating 
meat two or three times a day, and drinking perhaps from 
two to four pints of beer ; they then appear dull and heavy ; 
but in the last two days they * study Abernethy,' as we 
say; take perhaps no meat, and water instead of beer, 
which makes them as cheerful as possible, aided a little by 
the idea of being near the eating and drinking days. The 
remaining two, or one at any rate, is a regular drunkard, 
taking from four to eight pints of beer per day, and perhaps 
three or four glasses of spirits in the same time. Some of 
this class die at thirty, but others are in the workhouse, and 
live to fifty or sixty.' —(Thackrah, p. 47.) 


(From the ' Backwood* of Canada? by the Wife of an Emigrant 
British Officer, Just jntbtuhed in the fc Library of Entertaining 
A family of Indians have pitched their tents very near 
us. On one of the islands in our lake we can distin- 
guish the thin bine smoke of their wood fires, rising 
among the trees from our front window, or curling 
over the bosom of the waters. 

The squaws have been several times to see me; 
sometimes from curiosity, sometimes with the view of 
bartering their baskets, mats, ducks, or venison, for 
pork, flour, potatoes, or articles of wearing-apparel. 
Sometimes their object is to borrow " kettle to cook," 
which they are very punctual in returning. 

Once a squaw came to borrow a washing- tub, but 
not understanding her language, I could not for some 
time discover the object of her solicitude ; at last she 
took up a corner of her blanket, and, pointing to some 
soap, began rubbing it between her hands, imitated the 
action of washing, then laughed, and pointed to a tub; 
she then held up two fingers, to intimate it W as fbr two 
days she needed the loan. 

These people appear of gentle arid amiable dispo- 
sitions ; and, as far as our experience goes, they are 
very honest. Once, indeed, the old hunter, Peter, ob- 
tained from me some bread, for which he promised to 
give a pair of ducks, but when the time came for pay- 
ment, and I demanded my ducks, he looked gloomy, 
and replied with characteristic brevity, " No duck~ 

Chippewa (meaning S , this being the name they 

have affectionately given him) gone up lake with canoe 
— no canoe— duck by-and-by." By-and-by is a favourite 
expression of the Indians, signifying an indefinite point 
of time ; may be it means to-morrow, or a week, or a 
month, or it may be a year, or even more. They rarely 
give you a direct promise. 

As it is not wise to let any one cheat you if you can 
prevent it, I coldly declined any further overtures to 
bartering with the Indians until my ducks made their 

Some time afterwards I received one duck by the 
hands of Maquin, a sort of Indian Flibbertigibbet : 
this lad is a hunchbacked dwarf, very shrewd, hut a 
perfect imp; his delight seems to be tormenting the 
brown babies in the wigwam, or teazing the meek 
deer-hounds. He speaks English very fluently, and 
writes tolerably for an Indian boy; he usually accom- 
panies the women in their visits, and acts as their inter- 
preter, grinning with mischievous glee at his mother'** 
bad English and my perplexity at not being able to 
understand her signs. In spite of his extreme defor- 
mity, he seemed to possess no inconsiderable share of 
vanity, gazing with great satisfaction at his face in the 
looking-glass. When I asked his name, he replied, 
" Indian name Maquin, but English name Mister 
Walker, very good man;" this ?as the person he was 
called after. 

These Indians are scrupulous in their observance of 
the Sabbath, and show great reluetance to having any 
dealings in the way of trading or pursuing their usual 
avocations of hunting or fishing on that day. 

The young Indians are very expert in the use of a 
long bow, with wooden arrows, rather heavy and blunt 
at the end. Maquin said he could shoot ducks and 
small birds with his arrows ; but I should think they 
were not calculated to reach objects at any great 
distance, as they appeared very heavy. 

'Tis sweet to hear the Indians singing their hymns 
of a Sunday night; their rich soft voices rising in the 
still evening air. I have often listened to this little 
choir praising the Lord's name in the simplicity and 
fervour of their hearts, and have felt it was a reproach 
that these poor half-civilized wanderers should alone be 
found to gather together to give glory to God in the 

I was much pleased with the simple piety of our 
friend the hunter Peters squaw, a stout swarthy ma- 
tron, of most amiable expression. We were taking 
our tea when she softly opened the door and looked in ; 
an encouraging smile induced her to enter, and deposit- 
ing a brown papouse (Indian for baby or little child) 
on the ground, she gazed round with curiosity and 
delight in her eyes. We offered her some tea and 
bread, motioning to her to take a vacant seat beside 
the table. She seemed pleased by the invitation, and 
drawing her little one to her knee, poured some tea 
into the saucer, and gave it to the child to drink. She 
ate very moderately, and when she had finished, rose, 
and wrapping her face in the folds of her blanket, bent 
down her head on her breast in the attitude of prayer. This 
little act of devotion was performed without the slightest 
appearance of pharisaical display, but in singleness aud 
simplicity of heart. She then thanked us with a face 
beaming with smiles and good humour ; and, taking 
little Rachel by the hands, threw her over her shoulder 
with a peculiar sleight that I feared would dislocate 

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[January 16, 18S& 

the tender thing's arms, but the papouse seemed well 
satisfied with this mode of treatment. 

In long journeys the children are placed in upright 
baskets of a peculiar form, which are fastened round 
the necks of the mothers by straps of deer-skin ; but 
the young iufant is swathed to a sort of flat cradle, 
secured with flexible hoops, to prevent it from falling 
out. To these machines they are strapped, so as to be 
unable to move a limb. Much finery is often displayed 
in the outer covering and the bandages that confine the 

There is a sling attached to this cradle that passes 
over the squaw's neck, the back of the babe being 
placed to the back of the mother, and its face outward. 
The first thing a squaw does on entering a house is to 
release herself from her burden, and stick it up against 
the wall or chair, chest, or anything that will support 
it, where the passive prisoner stands, looking not unlike 
a mummy in its case. I have seen the picture of the 
Virgin and Child in some of the old illuminated missals 
not unlike the figure of a papouse in its swaddling- 

The squaws are most affectionate to their little ones. 
Gentleness and good humour appear distinguishing 
ts in the tempers of the female Indians; whether 
this be natural to their characters, the savage state, or 
the softening effects of Christianity, I cannot deter- 
mine. Certainly in no instance does the Christian 
religion appear more lovely than when, untainted by 
the doubts and infidelity of modern sceptics, it is dis- 
played in the conduct of the reclaimed Indian breaking 
down the strong-holds of idolatry and natural evil, and 
bringing forth the fruits of holiness and morality. They 
may be said to receive the truths of the Gospel as little 
children, with simplicity of heart and unclouded faith 

The squaws are very ingenious in many of their 
handyworks. We find their birch-bark baskets very 
convenient for a number of purposes. My bread- 
basket, knife-tray, sugar-basket, are all of this humble 
material. When ornamented and wrought in patterns 
with dyed quills, I can assure you they are by no means 
inelegant. They manufacture vessels of birch-bark so 
well, that they will serve for many useful household 
purposes, such as holding water, milk, broth, or any 
other liquid ; they are sewn or rather stitched together 
with the tough roots of the tamarack or larch, or else 
with strips of cedar-bark. They also weave very useful 
sorts of baskets from the inner rind of the bass-wood 

and white ash. Some of these baskets, of a 
kind, are made use of for gathering up potatoes, Indian 
corn, or turnips ; the settlers finding them very good 
substitutes for the osier baskets used for such purposes 
in the old country. 

The Indians are acquainted with a variety of dyes, 
with which they stain the more elegant fancy-baskets 
and porcupine-quills. Our parlour is ornamented with 
several very pretty specimens of their ingenuity in this 
way, which answer the purpose of note and letter-cases, 
flower-stands, and work-baskets. 

They appear to value the useful rather more highly 
than the merely ornamental articles that you may ex- 
hibit to them. They are very shrewd and close in all 
their bargains, and exhibit a surprising degree of cau- 
tion in their dealings. The men are much less difficult 
to trade with than the women : they display a singular 
pertinacity in some instances. If they have fixed their 
mind on any one article, they will come to you day after 
day, refusing any other you may offer to their notice. 
One of the squaws fell in love with a gay chintz dress- 
ing gown belonging to my husband, and though I 
resolutely refused to part with it, all the squaws in the 
wigwam by turns came to look at " gown," which they 
pronounced with their peculiarly plaintive tone of voice; 
and when I said " no gown to sell," they uttered a 
melancholy exclamation of regret, and went away. 

They will seldom make any article you want on 
purpose for you. If you express a desire to have 
baskets of a particular pattern that they do not happen 
to have ready made by them, they give you the usual 
reply of" by-and-by." If the goods you offer them in 
exchange for theirs do not answer their expectations, 
they give a sullen and dogged look or reply, " Car-car" 
(no, no), or " Carwinni" which is a still more forcible 
negative. But when the bargain pleases them, they 
signify their approbation by several affirmative nods of 
the head, and a note not much unlike a grunt ; the 
ducks, fish, venison, or baskets, are placed beside you, 
and the articles of exchange transferred to the folds of 
thei. capacious blankets, or deposited in a sort of rushen 
wallets, not unlike those straw baskets in which English 
carpenters carry their tools. 

The vomen imitate the dresses of the whites, and 
are rather skilful in converting their purchases. Many 
of the young girls can sew very neatly. I often give 
them bits of silk and velvet, and braid, for which they 
appear very thankful. 


Priatcd by William Ciaym tad Sox«, Stamford Street 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[January 23, 1836. 


[Betel-Nut Tree.] ^ 

The betel -nut tree (areca catechu, Ltnn.) is one of the 
most graceful of the palm tribe. It is a native of all 
the countries of Asia within the tropics, and is culti- 
vated all over India for the sake of the nut, which is 
in high esteem. It is known by a variety of names, 
each language having a distinct term tor it, every one 
of which is native. Crawford tells us that- it is an 
indigenous product of all the Indian islands ; but Dr. 
Roxburgh says that he does not know where it grows 
wild. The islands of the Indian Archipelago, and the 
lands of the continent near to the coast, are most 
favourable to its growth; there it requires least care 
and expense in the cultivation, bears fruit on the fifth 
year, and dies about the twenty-fifth year. But in 
many parts of the continent it does not arrive so soon 
to maturity, bears fruit for a much longer period, and 
>s of course much longer in decaying. But in this 
latter case the cultivation is attended with considerable 
care and expense. Dr. Francis Buchanan, whose 
'Journey through Mysore, Canara, and Malabar/ 
Vol. V. 

contains many interesting particulars respecting" the 
culture of the betel-nut tree, tells us, in one place, that 
the tree begins to bear fruit at five years, and live9 
from thirty to forty years ; and in another place, that it 
does not begin to bear fruit until from eight, nine, 
twelve, and fifteen years ; that it bears for sixty or 
seventy years, but that when it has been twenty-five 
or thirty years in perfection it begins to decay. The 
tree is in flower most part of the year ; its trunk often 
rises from forty to fifty feet high, but is in general 
only about twenty inches in circumference, almost 
equally thick and smooth. The nut is about the size 
of a hen's eg:^^ inclosed in a membraneous covering, 
and of a reddish yellow when ripe. The tree has no 
branches ; but its leaves are very beautiful, forming a 
round tuft at the top of the trunk. There are two 
crops in the year; the quantity of nuts yielded by a 
singletree varies considerably in different places: on 
the Coromandel coast the average number of nuts ob- 
tained from a single tree is usually about 800. 


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[January 23, 

The betel-nut is dried, cut into slices, usually four ; 
these slices are wrapped up in the leaf of the black- 
pepper vine, and sprinkled with quicklime, termed by 
the natives chunam. Thus prepared it is chewed, and 
is enjoyed by the people as a universal luxury. What 
the benefits are to be derived from this preparation it 
would be hard to say. The nut, which has a harsh 
astringent flavour, is never eaten by itself; but in con- 
junction with the hot pungent leaf of the black-pepper 
vine and the quicklime, it is much relished. The chew- 
ing of the betel provokes much spitting of a reddish- 
coloured saliva; and the Indians have an idea that by 
this means the teeth are fastened, the gums cleaned, 
and the mouth cooled : — so Dr. Ainslie says. The 
modern Arabs, while they occasionally chew the betel- 
nut in the same manner as the Indians do, give a pre- 
ference to the buds of a plant which they call ftaet, and 
which they think sweetens the breath and preserves the 
gums. Besides being greatly cultivated in India, the 
betel-nut is brought thither from Borneo; Malacca, and 
Cochin-China. An apparently more rational, but very 
limited, use of the betel-nut than in being chewed is its 
employment in dyeing. A red Variety is commonly 
used in Malabar for dyeing that colour. However, the 
use of the betel-nut in chewing is probably as defensible 
as that of tobacco. 

" I tried," says the late Bishop Heber, " chewing 
betel to-day, and thought it not unpleasant, at least I 
can easily believe that, where it is fashionable, people 
may soon grow fond of it. The ttut is cut into small 
squares and wrapped up in the leaf [the leaf of the 
black pepper-vine] together With wme ckunam. It 
is warm and pungent in the mouth, add has the 
immediate effect of staining the tongue, tttouth, and lips 
of a fiery orange colour. The people here fancy it is 
good for the teeth, but they do tint all take it. t see 
about half of the crew [of the Vessel in which Heber 
was sailing up the Ganges] without the sUitt ort their 
lips, but I do not think the teeth of the other are better. 

"The betel is a beautiful tree* the tallest and 
slenderest of the palm kiiid, and With a Very smooth 
white bark. Nothing can be ttiore graceful than its 
high slender pillars when backed by the dark shade of 
bamboos and other similar foliage/* ' 

Dr. Anslie says, that the betel-nuts, when young and 
tender, are, in conjunction with other articles, occasion- 
ally made into decoction, aild prescribed for such 
people as suffer from dyspepsia. 

We are told by Forbes (Oriental Memoirs) that the 
chunam, or delicate shell-lime, which is spread over 
the betel, is carried by the natives in boxes, and that 
the betel is chewed at all hours. In some parts of 
India, however, as in Canara, in place of quicklime, 
they use the ashes of the bark of a common tree. Ort 
visits of ceremony the betel is introduced, the leaf in which 
it is inclosed being fastened with a clove, it is presented 
to the guests on a salver, and is a signal of taking leave. 

The black-pepper vine-leaf, or betel-leaf, as it is 
termed, in which the dried slices of the betel-nut are 
inclosed, is very much cultivated in India, principally 
for the purpose of being eaten with the nut. On the 
Malabar coast, and in' other parts of India, the vines 
are usually trained up the betel-nut-tree, " which,'* 
says Dr. Roxburgh, " renders it more particularly 
useful in those parts." But in other places it is a 
separate and special object of cultivation. 

The betel-nut-tree was introduced into the island of 
Jamaica in the year 1793. Lunan, who makes this 
statement in his ' Hortus Jamaicensis,' says that the 
dried betel-nut, when eaten by itself, impoverishes the 
blood, and causes jaundice ; but it is not attended with 
those inconveniences when mixed with betel, — by which 
he means when eaten with the pepper-vine leaf, and 
with quicklime or chunam. The quicklime undoubtedly 
corrects of neutralises the acidity of the nut. 

" The tree is propagated," says Crawford, ** from the 
ripest seeds or fruits, first sown in beds and afterwards 
transplanted. It thrives in ordinary soils and in ail 
situations ; but the neighbourhood of the sea is con- 
ducive to the perfection of the fruit ; and the warmer 
and lower the land the more rapidly does the tree 
advance to maturity ." 


Notwithstanding all this bloodshed, the fate of the 
Templars was not yet formally sealed. For that pur- 
pose it was deemed expedient to summon a genera] 
council of the cfhureh, which met accordingly on the 
13th of October, 1311 (just four years after the general 
arrest of the order) at Vienne in Dauphiny. The pro- 
ceedings which followed were of a most extraordinarr 
description. All who desired to defend the denounced 
community having been solemnly cited to appear, nine 
knights presented themselves before the assembled 
fathers, stating that they were deputed by from fifteen 
hundred to two thousand of their brethren, who, having 
escaped at the era of the first attack upon their order, 
had ever since been wandering about as fugitives amon^ 
the mountains in the neighbourhood of Lyons, and 
that they were ready to defend the common cause 
against all assailants. They offered themselves for 
this purpose, they said, under the safeguard of the 
public faith, and of the special permission which had 
been granted by the Pope, and proclaimed throughout 
Christendom. These brave chevaliers had thrown 
themselves into the lions' den. Scarcely had they 
declared their mission, when, by Clement's order, they 
Were seized, thrown into prison, and loaded with irons. 
The pontiff himself states the fact in a letter date*! the 
11th of November, addressed to his confederate, King 
Philip.* This act of atrocious perfidy excited the gene- 
ral indignation of the couneil, and many of the members 
did not temple to give expression to what they felt. 
Ort being called upon to decide whether or no the ac- 
cused should be heard in their own defence (a strange 
questioti for debate, it may be thought, in any circum- 
stances, and especially after the steps which had already 
been taken In the present case, all the prelates of Italy, 
with one exception, all those of France, saving the 
Archbishop of liheims, of Sens, and of Rouen, and aJI 
those of Spain, of Germany, of Denmark, of England, 
Ot" Scotland, and of Ireland, gave their votes in the 
affirmative. On this decision Clement immediately 
declared the session terminated, and the council ad- 
journed to the 3rd of April, 1312. 

Meanwhile in the beginning of February, Philip 
himself suddenly made his appearance in Vienne, ac- 
companied by his three sons, his brother, and a nu- 
merous suite. The Pope soon after re-assembled the 
cardinals, and a select portion of the prelates in secret 
consistory, and there by his own authority pronounced 
the abolition of the order. The second session of the 
council opened on the day appointed, when seated on 
the Pope's right hand appeared the King of France, 
surrounded by his brother, his sons, and an imposing 
array of military. On the 2nd of the following month, 
in this august presence, Clement simply read to the 
assembly the decree by which he had declared the order 
of the Templars abolished, and to which the holy fathers 
listened in silence, no one deeming it expedient to ex- 
press either dissent or approbation. 

There now remained only the closing scene of this 
long tragedy. On the 18th of March, 1314, the Grand 
Master and three of the other chiefs of the order, who 
had formerly made confession, were brought from their 
prisons, in which they had now been shut up for more 
than six years, and placed upon an elevated stage, 

* Sm the letter in the original Latin in Raynouard, pp. 177, 178* 

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erected before the porch of Notre Dame, at one ex- 
tremity of which were seated Che Archbishop of Sens 
and several other ecclesiastics as their judges, while the 
court all around was filled with the multitude. No 
form of trial was gone through, but it was intimated to 
the knights that in consequence of the contrition which 
they had shown in acknowledging their guilt, they 
were sentenced only to perpetual imprisonment. On 
hearing this doom, the Grand Master, calling upon all 
present to listen to his words, spoke with a loud voice 
to the following effect : " It is right that in these the 
last moments of my life I should proclaim the truth. I 
declare, therefore, in the sight of heaven and of earth, 
that, to my eternal shame, I have indeed committed the 
greatest of crimes, but it was only when I acknowledged 
those with which so black a malevolence have been at- 
tributed to our order: I attest, as the truth obliges me 
to do, that it is innocent. I declared the contrary only 
to suspend the excessive agonies of the rack, and to 
obtain the forbearance of my torturers* I know the 
penalty that awaits me for what I now utter; but the 
frightful prospect presented to me by the fate of many 
of my brethren shall not tempt me again to confirm my 
former lie by another ; the life offered me on so infamous 
a condition, I renounce without reffret." The emotion 
with which the spectators heard this address burst from 
the lips of the throng in a murmur of applause. One 
of the Grand Master's three companions, Guy, com- 
mander of Normandy, the brother of the Earl of Au- 
vergne, immediately expressed his assent to what had 
been spoken by his chief. The two brave chevaliers 
were not left lon^ in doubt as to their fate. The king's 
council having instantly met, condemned them both 
to the flames ; and that same evening they were burned 
together at a slow fire on the southmost of the two 
small islands in the Seine which then lay to the west of 
the Isle de la Cite*, but which have since been joined to 
it. They endured their sufferings with heroic com- 
posure, and with their latest breath repeated their pro- 
testations of the innocence of their order. The spectacle 
excited in an extraordinary degree the pity and admi- 
ration of the people; and contemporary writers inform 
us that during the night many persons repaired to the 
spot where the two martyrs had perished, and gathered 
their ashes for the purpose of preserving them as holy 

Such is the melancholy story of the destruction of this 
Tenowned association, the chiefs of which had so long 
ranked almost with the princes of the earth. The order 
of the Templars was abolished at the same time in most 
of the other countries of Europe, although in none 
were the same cruelties inflicted upon the members as 
in France. Although dispossessed of their property 
they were no where else either put to death or per- 
secuted; and in some countries, as in our own, an 
asylum was provided for most of them in the monasteries 
after they were turned out of their own establishments. 
In France, as soon as the order was dissolved, their 
houses and other possessions were seized by the king and 
the pope; and although the palace of the Grand Master, 
with its furniture and other portions of the confiscated 
property, were afterwards granted to the Hospitallers of 
St. John of Jerusalem (since more generally known by 
the name of the Knights of Malta), it i» asserted that the 
latter paid the full value for their new acquisitions. The 
chief actors in this work of robhery and murder did not 
long survive their victims. Clement died suddenly within 
six weeks after the execution of the Grand Master; 
and Philip was killed by a fall from his horse before the 
expiration of the year. Under the influence of not an 
unnatural superstition, it became a popular article of 
faith that De Molay, while consuming at the stake, had 
summoned these his two powerful persecutors to meet 
him at the judgment-seat of heaven within the short 

periods to which their days on earth were actually ex- 
tended. But the most strikingly retributive doom was 
that which befel the minister Marigny, the chief adviser 
and instrument of his sovereign in these execrable 
proceedings. Deprived by the death of his royal master 
of the protection which had enabled him to defy the 
envy of his rivals, the ex-favourite was assailed by a 
powerful combination, at the head of which was the 
Count de Valois, the uncle of the new king (Louis X.) 
driven from his post at court, and eventually with many 
of his friends and connexions seized and thrown into 
prison. The prison to which he and his companions 
were consigned wa^ the Temple. After lying here for 
some time loaded with irons, to force them to confess 
the crimes with which they were charged, they were 
put to the torture. But the imputations under which 
the malice of his enemies was now labouring to over- 
whelm Marigny were, there is every reason to believe, 
as unfounded as those by which he and his master had 
formerly accomplished the ruin of the Templars ; and, 
although they endured indescribable agonies, the re- 
quired acknowledgment could Jiot be extorted from any 
of the sufferers. Still the unfortunate man was de- 
tained in custody, " shackled," says a contemporary 
chronicler, " with good bands and rings of iron, and 
right diligently guarded." At length, a new accusation 
was pointed against him, and in that age the most 
terrible of all others. He was charged with being a 
sorcerer, and with having in that capacity attempted 
to bring about the deaths of the king and other distin- 
guished persons by fashioning images of them in wax, 
and then stabbing them with pins. With what bitter 
remorse must Marigny have remembered the share he 
had had in the persecution of the Templars, when he 
found his own life thus about to fall a sacrifice to im- 
putations so similar to those of which he had availed 
himself to destroy them ! Upon this wild accusation 
he was actually condemned to be hanged; and he 
underwent his sentence on the gibbet of Mpntfaucon, 
which he had himself caused to be erected. 

It is a curious fact, that the order of the Knights 
Templars, although despoiled of its possessions, has 
never after all been extinguished in France, but still 
exists in Paris in the form of a society which has been 
continued by unbroken succession from the time of the 
great persecution of which we have given an ac- 
count. This society, which still retains the name of the 
order of the Knights of the Temple, is actually at this 
day in possession of a variety of documents which had 
belonged to the community at the era of its dispersion, 
and especially of a 'Greek manuscript volume in the 
handwriting of the twelfth century, which contains, 
among many other precious evidences, the original record 
of the foundation of ,the order, and the golden table, or 
list of the Grand Masters. That dignity, it appears, has 
never been vacant since the time of Jacques de Molay, 
he having before his death transferred it to John Mark 
Larraenius of Jerusalem, by whom it was in like man- 
ner made over in 1334 to Francis Theobald or Thibaut 
of Alexandria, by a charter written in the Latin tongue, 
which is still preserved in the archives of the society. 
In 1340 it was resigned by Theobald into the hands of 
Arnold de Bracque, a member of a very distinguished 
French family of those times ; and from him it has de- 
scended through an uninterrupted line of sucessors, all 
French, and many of them of illustrious rank, to our 
own day. In 1985, the Grand Master was Doctor 
Bernard Raymond Fabr^-Falaprat. Among other 
relics which the society possess are the sword of Jacques 
de Molay, and some fragments of burned bones en- 
veloped in an ancient linen handkerchief, which are said 
to have been gathered from among the ashes of the fire 
in which that unfortunate chief was consumed*. 
* Sea Dulaure, Histoire de Parii, viii. 121. 

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[The Cheese wring, as seen from the North-west.] 

The Cheescwring is a natural pile or combination of 
rude granite rocks, in the parish of St. Cleer, Corn- 
wall, between Liskeard and Launceston. It rises to 
the height of thirty-two feet, and stands near the top 
of a high hill. The stones are placed one upon another ; 
and from the shape of the pile probably resembling an 
ancient cheese-press, the name appears to have been 
derived. It consists of eight stones, of which the upper 
ones are so much larger than those below, and project 
so far over the middle *and base, that it has for many 
generations excited astonishment how so ill -constructed 
a pile could have resisted the storms of such an exposed 
situation. Some art may possibly have been used in 
reducing the size of one of the central stones, and in 

clearing the base from circumjacent rocks, but other- 
wise this curiosity is entirely a work of Nature. 

Or. the same hill- are several other similar piles of 
granite rocks, but not one of them is so singular in iu 
relative proportions. One stone is of the enormous 
measurement of eleven yards in length, nine yards in 
breadth, with an average thickness of little more than 
two feet. The shape of the hill is that of a truncate 1 
cone, the diameter of the summit being about 100 
yards. Round this flat summit is an immense number 
of small stones, piled up to form a rampart, and pro- 
bably used in olden times both for defence and tor 
attack on assaulters. Within the circle are many large 
masses of rocks, with small excavations on the tops of 

[Kilmarth Rocks, as seen from the South-east.] 

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them called " rock«-basins, ,, _ formed, in all probability, 
by the natural decomposition of the granite, under 
the united action of the sun, rain, and wind. De- 
tached granules of the stone, and others which may 
be loosened by the finger, are generally found at 
the bottom of these basins, and attest their most 
frequent origin, though others may have been partly 
formed by man, to supply his thirst or to perform his 

The Kilmarth Rocks are a lofty range of half a mile 
in length, running east and west, about two miles 
northward from the Cheesewring, and in the parish of 
Linkinhorne, Cornwall. The westernmost pile, repre- 
sented in the sketch, stands on the summit of this 
elevated ridge, and is in itself about twenty-eight feet 
high. It overhangs at least twelve or fifteen feet 
towards the north, and when viewed from the east 
appears so slightly based, that a man or a strong gale 
might suffice to shove the whole mass over the tre- 
mendous precipice ; but when surveyed from the western 
side its foundation appears more solid, and it will re- 
quire perhaps many ages to subvert the wonderful pile. 
The immense size of many of the granite rocks of which 
this ridge is formed, and the rude and heterogeneous 
manner in which they lie one upon' another, together 
with the wildness and extent of the surrounding pa- 

norama, overpower the mind with awe and astonish- 
ment at the grandeur of the operations of Nature. 
Towards the north is seen the top of Launceston Castle, 
also, in clear weather, the Bristol Channel and Lundy 
Island; to the south-east Plymouth, its Sound, and 
Mount Edgcumbe ; and towards the south-west the 
Dead man Point and the English Channel, with the 
bleak midland hills of Devonshire and Cornwall. A 
large rock-basin, of about three feet in diameter and 
one foot deep, is on the summit of one of the eastern 
rocks of Kilmarth. 

Trevethy Stone is a fine cromlech in the parish of 
St. Cleer, near Liskeard, Cornwall. The term Trcuuli 
is said to signify, in the British language, the place, of 
graves, and its object was in all probability sepulchral. 
The stones are all of granite: six of them are uptight, 
and one large slab covers them in an inclined position, 
with another reclining under it. The dimensions ot 
the uppermost stone are about twelve feet by eight and 
a- half feet, and one foot in thickness. No tradition 
exists as to the time when this monument was erected, 
but its name at once designates it to have been this 
work of the ancient Britons. It stands on a barrow, 
upon the summit of a hill. A good vignette of this 
cromlech may be seen in the frontispiece to one volume 
of ' The Beauties of England and Wales.' 

ITrevetby Stone. J 


The most elevating passages in the history of our 
race are those national resurrections, as we may call 
them, in which the popular spirit that had seemed ex- 
tinguished has suddenly shot up again into a blaze, and 
the cause of liberty or independence, after having been 
piven up for lost by almost all men, has yet been raised 
horn the dust and set on high by one man's patriotism, 
which no despair could quench. Even if human life 
were a mere game, every such rebound of a people 
from depression and degradation would be pregnant 
with interest and excitement. But the occasion is 
always one on which far higher qualities are called into 
exercise than mere skill and dexterity, or an y kind of 
talent or knowledge : ability, great and varied, there 
must be, of course; but the sustaining iris n * n fK nl °^ tne 
effort \s always the moral grandeur and $ t ,r ^ t h which 

the crisis develops, both in individuals and in the hea t 
and soul of the nation. Of all the other means and 
resources by which contests among men are influenced 
and decided, there is generally more store in the hands 
of the established tyranny, than in those of the youiu? 
power that attempts to throw it down ; there is no 
reason, at least, why the counsellors and generals of the 
former should not be fully the equals of those of the 
latter in political wisdom and in military science, while 
with armies and the whole material strength of war, 
they are likely to be much more plentifully provided. 
If the issue therefore depended solely or chiefly upon 
the conflict either of physical or of intellectual demerits, 
the chances would always be greatly against the success 
even of the most righteous insurrection. But the life 
and best might of such a cause lie in a higher principle 
than that either of physical force or intellectual capacity. 
" Twice is he armed," it has been truly said, " th**» 

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January fc3; 

hath his quarrel just;" besides the blessing of heaven that 
may in that case be deemed to go with him, his sense of 
his quarrel's justice is as good to him as another right 
hand, and braces every sinew to double vigour. On 
this side, too, every thing is at stake. The struggle is 
not for mere power or glory, but for existence itself, or 
for all that makes existence dear — for air to breathe, or 
for the decision of the question, whether the breath 
that is drawn shall be life or poison. Hence the care, 
and vigilance and activity, of leaders and followers, the 
circumspection and economy in all things, the quick 
sei/.ure of every advantage, the great deeds that are 
achieved, the important ends and objects that are 
gained, with the scantiest means. Hence a per- 
severance to the death, an endurance whose nerve toils 
and hardships only harden and strengthen. And not 
new energies only are called forth in all engaged in the 
solemn enterprise ; it infuses something of its own 
majesty into each, and elevates his whole mind and 
nature ; — 

* Then 

Gods walk the earth, or being* more than men I " 

Such a contest, crowned with victory, never fails to 
leave behind it a certain nobility of blood and character 
to the people which has so worked out its freedom. 

It is cheering also to observe how often it has hap- 
pened that a national regeneration of this kind has been 
essentially the work of but a single individual. The 
circumstances no doubt in all such cases may be said 
to have called forth the man, and also to have provided 
him with the means of accomplishing what he did; but 
still, without the man to turn them to account, the cir- 
cumstances would have existed to no purpose. They 
were at most the ready instruments, which, with all 
their aptitude, would have lain dead and useless had 
they not been taken up and wielded by his living hand. 
It is cheering, we say, to perceive in this way what 
one man can do. It helps to keep alive that faith 
in himself which each of us is somewhat in danger 
of losing in a highly artificial state of society, when 
the individual seems to be wholly swallowed up in the 
throng, like a drop of water in the ocean ; and all 
operations seem to be carried on, and all effects to 
be wrought by the movements of men in masses. This 
state of things is attended with great conveniences 
and advantages ; and it is, besides, the inevitable result 
of advanced civilization : so that, even if its advantages 
were less than they are, it would be in vain to struggle 
against it ; but that is no reason why we should not 
resist, and gladly avail ourselves of whatever helps us 
better to resist any depressing tendency it may have in 
the direction we have mentioned. Nothing could be 
conceived better fitted to train mankind to any yoke of 
bondage to which it might be attempted to subject 
them, than the extinction of all strong belief in the 
efficacy of individual exertion, and the general diffusion 
among us of the conviction that each individual in the 
system of society was no better than one of the units 
of a battalion, or a helplessly revolving spoke in one 
of the wheels of a great machine. 

Of the modern European communities almost every 
one has, at one period or another of its existence, been 
served and saved in the manner of which we have 
spoken. Thus Spain has had her Pelayo, Switzerland 
her Tell, France her Maid of Orleans, Portugal her 
Alfonso Henriques, Holland her William of Orange. 
But of all such illustrious deliverers whom modern 
history records, there is no other, we think, who can be 
placed before, or, all things considered, even by the 
side of the three names we have prefixed to this article, 
the English Alfred, the Scottish Bruce, and the Ameri- 
can Washington. None certainly ever had more for* 
midable difficulties to contend with — a cause at a 
lower point of depression at the moment when it was 

taken up — or a more fearful superiority of force and 
resources against which to make head. None ever 
derived less assistance from accident, or panic, or 
superstition, or any sudden outburst of popular enthu- 
siasm, or owed everything more entirely to themselves 
alone, — to their strength of heart and hope, that never 
failed — to their sagacity — to their prudence — to their 
watchfulness — to their patience — to their heroism — to 
their military skill — to all those qualities, in short, 
which go to the conduct of great enterprises, and to 
a man's command over others and over himself. And, 
lastly, none ever succeeded more triumphantly : the 
deliverance from foreign domination which each effected 
for his country was complete ; he reinstated it in tran- 
quillity, in independence, and in power; and each lived 
to preserve in peace what he had won in war, and 
display, after he had sheathed the sword, a still higher 
genius and patriotism as a civil governor and legislator. 

Factory Labour. — Of all the common prejudices that 
exist with regard to factory labour, there is none more un- 
founded than that which ascribes to it excessive tedium 
and irksomeness above other occupations, owing to its being 
carried on in conjunction with the " unceasing motion of 
the steam-engine." In an establishment for spinning or 
weaving cotton, all the hard work is performed by the 
steam-engine, which leaves for the attendant no bard 
labour at all, and literally nothing to do in general ; but at 
intervals to perform some delicate operation, such as joining 
the threads that break, taking the cops off the spindles, 
&c. And it is so far from being true that the work in a 
factory is incessant, because the motion of the steam-engine 
is incessant, that the fact is, that the labour is not incessant 
on that very account, because it is performed in conjunction 
with the steam-engine. Of all manufacturing employments, 
those are by far the most irksome and incessant in which 
strain -engines are not employed, as in lace-running and 
stocking-weaving; and the way to prevent an employment 
from being incessant,* is to introduce a steam-engine into it. 
These remarks certainly apply more especially to the labour 
of children in factories. Three-fourths of the children so 
employed are engaged in piecing at the mules. " When 
the carriages of these have receded a foot and a half or two 
feet from the rollers," gays Mr. Tufnell, " nothing is to be 
done, not even attention is required from cither spinner or 
piecer." Both of them stand idle for a time, and in fine 
spinning particularly, for three quarters of a minute or 
more. Consequently, if a child remains at this business 
twelve hours daily, he has nine hours of inaction. And 
though he attends two mules, he has still six hours of non- 
exertion. Spinners sometimes dedicate these intervals to 
the perusal of books. The scavengers, who in Mr. Sadler's 
report have been described as being " constantly in a state 
of grief, always in terror, and every moment they have to 
spare stretched all their length upon the floor in a state of 
perspiration," may be observed in cotton- factories idle for 
four minutes at a time, or moving about in a sportive mood, 
utterly unconscious of the tragical scenes in which they 
were dramatized. Occupations which are assisted by steam- 
engines require for the most part a higher, Or at least a 
steadier species of labour, than those which are not; the ex- 
ercise of the mind being then partially substituted for that 
of the muscles, constituting skilled labour, which is always 
paid more highly than unskilled. On this principle we can 
readily account for the comparatively high wages which the 
inmates of a factory, whether children or adults, obtain. 
Batting cotton by hand for fine spinning seems by far the 
hardest work in a factory ; it is performed wholly by women, 
without any assistance irom the steam-engine, and is some- 
what similar in effort to threshing corn; yet it does not 
bring those who are engaged in it more than 6*. 6rf. weekly, 
while close by is the stretching-frame, which remunerates its 
tenters or superintendents, women, and even children four- 
teen years old, with double wages for far lighter labour. In 
power-loom weaving also, the wages are good, and the mus- 
cular effort is trifling, as those who tend it frequently exercise 
themselves by following the movement of the lay, and lean- 
ing on it with their arms. It is reckoned a very healthy 
mill-ocoupation, as is shown by the appearance of the females 
engaged in it, in every well-regulated establishment in Eng- 
land and Scotland.--CJr>r # Ure % * \PML of Manufactures: j 

Digitized by 






lr [From a Correspondent. J 

*' % With the exception of the celebrated DUfida^ or Chal- 
l' lenge of Barletta, in 1503, which induced thirteen 
'1 Italian knights to fight as many French knights for 
the honour of their country, no duel in the kingdom 
of Naples ever made so much noise as that between the 
Count of Conversano and the Duke of Martina, which 
"took place in the following century. Mr. R. Keppel 
\ Craven, in his amusing * Tour through the Southern 
t Provinces of the Kingdom of Naples,' has given a 
history of this rencounter. I shall make use of his 
narrative, taking, however, the liberty of correcting a 
" few trifling mistakes in it, which I am enabled to do 
r from the circumstances of having been intimately ac- 
quainted with the descendants of both of the noble 
13 houses, and having lived some time in the province 
where the events took place, which are still preserved 
in local tradition. The details, as Mr. Craven remarks, 
r are strongly indicative of the temper and manners of 
the times. They carry a valuable lesson with them, 
t and expose the fallacy of the notion of the honour and 
i happiness of the " good old times.' 1 

44 The management of the sword," says Mr. Craven, 
" as au offensive and defensive weapon, was at that 
period not only considered as the most fashionable and 
manly accomplishment which a nobleman could possess, 
but was generally practised by all ranks of persons ; 
for it is noted that, even at a less remote era, the fisher- 
men of Taranto, after their daily labours, were wont to 
meet in the evening, and resort to the recreation of 
fencing. The barbarous custom of duelling, maintained 
in its full force by false notions of honour and pre- 
rogative, — the inefficiency of the laws, and the errors of 
feudal institutions, — contributed, no doubt, to ennoble 
this sanguinary art, and extend the prevalence of its 
exercise throughout the realm." 

It was in these turbulent times that the Neapolitans 
acquired the character of being the best swordsmen in 
Europe, — a reputation they have never lost, — though 
in modern times their duels, though frequent enough, 
have very seldom been murderous. The first drawing 
of blood settles the business; and it is rare (among 
gentlemen) that anything more than a scratch or a 
prick is given or received. It was far different with 
their ancestors, the Acquavivas, the Imperiali, the 
Pignatelli, the Caraffas, the Galestas of the olden 

The Count of Conversano, Marquis of Le Noci and 
Duke of Atri, of the most ancient and noble family of 
Acquaviva, and the Prince of Francavilla, of the family 
of Imperiali, were the two most powerful barons in 
Lower Apulia, The count, who came of a haughty 
and fierce race, was proud of his ancient descent, his 
numerous titles and royal connexions. One of our 
Norman princes, on his return from the Holy Land, 
on passing through Apulia, was entertained at the 
castle of Conversano, where he became enamoured of 
a daughter of thit house and married her. Besides 
their immense possessions in Apulia, as dukes of Atri, 
the Acquavivas were lords of nearly one-half of the 
Ahruzzi ; and in the sixteenth century they could travel 
for days without passing the boundaries of their own 
territory, on which they exercised all the rights aud 
privileges of feudal lords. 

Some of their numerous castles were in extent 
and magnificence like royal residences. The stabling 
attached to the castle of Atri, in the Abruz/.i, had 200 
stalls; and tradition reports that these used always to 
be tilled, the old barons never tiding out without a 
band of dependent knights, squires, and pages, who 
were all mounted on steeds sprung from the noble 
breed that belonged exclusively to the counts of Con- 

versano. Branksome Hall and the splendour of the 
house of Buccleugh were nothing to this ! 

Nine-and-twenty knights of fame 

Hung their shields in Branksome Hall ; 
Nine-ami-twenty squires of name 
Brought them their steeds to bower from stall j 
Nme-and-twenty yeomen tall 
Waited, duteous, on them all : 
They were all knights of mettle true, 
Kinsmen to the bold Buccleugh *. 

The breed of horses which we have mentioned was 
ancient, and almost entirely of pure Arab blood. This 
noble stud was one of the last thiugs the falling family 
parted with ; but it was broken up, dispersed, mixed, 
and lost, in the course of those disastrous revolutions 
in Italy consequent on the French Revolution, and 
which completed the ruin of the ancient aristocracy of 
Italy. I have had the somewhat melancholy satisfac- 
tion of riding a mare of the pure Conversano breed, — 
Vvltimo avanzo y the only remains of the stud which the 
present count-duke had retained. She was old, but 
still a superb animal. The head, neck, eye, the long, 
springy fetlock, the clean legs, the setting-on of the 
tail, were all truly Arabian; and even age had not 
cooled her spirit or slackened her speed. 

Mr. Craven describes the old Acquavivas as being 
tyrannical and violent — a race dreaded by their in- 
feriors, and hated by their equals. I am afraid there 
is a good deal of truth in this, but he ought to have 
added that they were rather magnanimous tyrants, 
exceedingly courageous, entertaining high notions as 
to the point of honour, and never crafty or treacherous. 
In the course of the invasions, revolutions, and counter- 
revolutions to which the kingdom has been a prey in 
all ages, they shed their -blood freely on the field for 
the party they espoused, which was generally the 
national and patriotic one. In several instances they 
conferred inestimable benefits on their country. 

The Count Girolamo, the unfortunate hero of the 
tale we are to relate, took a distinguished part in the 
suppression of the insurrection at Naples, in 1647, 
when Massaniello entirely overthrew the authorities of 
the city, and seated himself for a few days upon the 
throne of Naples. 

The Prince of Francavilla, of the stock of the Im- 
periali, hated the Count of Conversano with a most 
cordial hatred, and as they were neighbours in Apulia, 
their territories adjoining, they had plenty of oppor- 
tunities for quarrelling. At first the fiery Count 
Girolamo affected to despise the prince as a foreign 
and low-born intruder ; but the Imperiali, who were of 
Genoese extraction, had the quality, common to the 
people of Genoa, of economy and money-saving, and 
the prince was enormously rich in specie; while his 
neighbour, with five times the extent of lands, had 
very seldom many ducats in his castle, where hospitality 
was exercised on a gigantic scale, and everything 
managed without any attention to expense. The com- 
mand of ready money gave the prince several advan- 
tages over the count. This stung Acquaviva to the 
very soul, and he declared to his retainers that it was 
too hard that a dirty, stingy Genoese, of no antiquity or 
nobility of fumily — a fellow who had only come into 
the* kingdom with Charles V. — should be allowed to 
beard the Count of Conversano in Apulia, where he 
and his ancestors had been lords for centuries. Words 
like these stung the prince and quickened his hatred, 
for he was as proud as the count, and very jealous of 
family honours — the more so, perhaps, because there 
was truth in Acquavivas taunt, aud because his family 
name Imperiali (the Imperialist) seemed to denote 
that he was one of the Italians who only in the pre- 

* Lay of the Last Minstrel. 

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[January 23; 183& 

ceding century attained rank and wealth by attaching 
themselves to the Emperor Charles V. Their terri- 
tories, as we have said, joined, and the constant. litiga- 
tions arising out of their inordinate but ill-defined 
jurisdictions, were all superadded to the long list of 
mutual injuries recorded by both families. After 
quarrelling all their lives, they came to blows when 
they were both old men. The crisis happened in the 
capital one day as each of the noble rivals was driving 
in his carriage. After a long contest of words, the 
Count of Conversano said, all this must end — that one 
of them must die, in order that the other might live in 
peace, and formally challenged the prince. The prince 
knowing his opponent to be one 'of the best swordsmen 
' iu the kingdom, put forward his age and infirmities, 
and declined the combat with swords ; but Mr. Craven 
is iu error when he says that he offered to fight with 
pistols. Fire-arms were never used on such occa- 
sions in Italy, where the rapier was always considered 
as the only weapon for a cavalier. In order to force 
his rival to the field, Conversano leaned over his 
carriage, and struck him repeatedly with the flat side 
of his sword. 

" An insult," says Mr. Craven, " so grossly offered 
in the public streets authorized the government to 
suspend or check the consequences likely to arise by 
placing the aggressor under arrest for a time, and 
subsequently it ordered them both to retire to their 
respective estates. But the feelings of unsatisfied 
hatred iji the one, and of insulted pride in the other, 
were not likely to be allayed by this exclusion from the 
world ; and in a short time the Prince of Francavilla 
proposed a champion in his cause, in the person of his 
sisters only son, the Duke of Martina, of the house of 

The couut admitted the substitution of this youthful 
adversary, and even agreed to a year's delay, in order 
that the duke might " finish his education ;" by which, 
I suppose, is meant, that he might perfect himself 
in fencing. The day was named, and the field of 
buttle fixed at Ostmii, a small town in Lower Apulia, 
the jurisdiction of which had been furiously disputed 
by both noblemen. Dark hints of this singular duel 
got abroad, and the eyes of the whole kingdom were 
turned anxiously to the spot. In these matters people 
always select a favourite, and as the duke was young,, 
handsome, accomplished, and of a cheerful disposition, 
he carried away nearly all sympathy from the gloomy 
old count, who, however, so high was his fame as a 
swordsman, was considered by every one as the sure 

" The Prince of Francavilla, actuated more by the 
apprehension of shame in the event of defeat, than 
by feelings of affection for his nephew, endeavoured to 
insure success by tjie following stratagem : — A gentle- 
man who had been some time, as was the custom in 
those days, a retainer in his family, left it abruptly one 
night, and sought the Count of Conversano's castle, 
into which he gained admission by a recital of injurious 
treatment and fictitious wrongs heaped upon him by 
the tyrannical and arbitrary temper of the Prince of 
Francavilla. A complaint of this nature was always a 
passport to the count's good graces, and he not only 
admitted this gentleman to the full enjoyment of his 
princely hospitality, but having found that he was a 
dexterous swordsman, passed most of his time in prac- 
tising with him that art, which he hoped would soon 
insure the triumph he valued most on earth. A few days 
previous to that fixed for the duel, the guest, under pre- 
tence of paying a visk to his relatives, withdrew from the 
Count of Conversano's territories, and secretly returned 
to those of his employer, where he lost no time in com- 
municating all the peculiarities and advantages re- 
peated experience had enabled him to remark in the 

count's manner of fencing. The Duke of Martina was 
thereby taught that the only chance of success which 
he could look to, was by keeping on the defensive 
during the early part of the combat : he was instructed 
that his antagonist, though avowedly the most able 
manager of the sword in the kingdom, was exceedingly 
violent, and that if he could parry the thrusts made 01 
the first attack, however formidable from superior skill 
and strength of wrist and arm, he might perhaps 
afterwards obtain success over an adversary, whose 
person, somewhat inclined to corpulency, would speedily 
become exhausted from the effects of his own impetu 
osity. The Duke of Martina, furnished with this salu 
tary advice, and strong in the conviction of what be 
considered a just cause, awaited in calm anxiety the 
day of battle ; and the behaviour of the two combatant: 
011 the last morning strongly characterizes their dif- 
ferent dispositions, as well as the manners and habi r 
of the age they lived in. The Duke of Martina made 
his will, confessed himself, and took an affectionate 
leave of his mother, who retired to her oratory to pass 
in prayer the time her son devoted to the conflict: 
while, on the other hand, the Count of Conversano 
ordered a sumptuous feast to be prepared, and in- 
vited his friends and retainers after the fight ; he then 
carelessly bade his wife farewell, and alluding to his 
adversary's youth and inexperience, said, Vaao a far 
w/t caprctto. (I am going to kill a kid, or, literally, to 
make a kid.) They met at the place appointed : it was 
an open space before a monastery of friars at Ostuni : 
but these good fathers, by their intercession and prayers, 
prevailed upon the combatants to remove to another 
similar plot of ground, in front of the Capuchin convent 
in the same town ; here the bishop and clergy, earning 
the Host in solemn procession, attempted in vaiu to 
dissuade them from their bloody purpose : they were 
dismissed with scorn, and the duel began. It was ct 
long duration, and afforded the duke an opportunity of 
availing himself of the counsels he had received: when 
he found the count began to be out of breath, and off 
his, guard, he assumed the offensive part, and having 
wounded him, demanded if he was satisfied, and pro- 
posed to desist from any further hostility ; but, stun* 
to the quick by this unexpected reverse, the count 
refused all offers of accommodation, and by blind 
revenge, and redoubled animosity, soon lost all command 
of himself, and received a second wound, which termi- 
nated the contest, together with his life.". 

It was quite as well, or perhaps it was much better, 
that the count died in the duel, for the subtle and 
cowardly Prince of Francavilla, fearing that in spite of 
all his precautions his nephew might fall, had posted a 
strong band of assassins to waylay and murder Conver- 
sano on his road home, had he come off victorious at 

The sword with which the fatal duel was fought, a 
long and very heavy rapier of Spanish make, and with 
a Spanish motto inscribed along the blade, is, or was, a 
few years ago, in the Count of Conversano's small but 
curious collection of old arms at Naples, in the Palazzo 
Stigliano Colonna. 

Heritable Qualities. — Physical or natural qualities aw 
most strictly inherited in the inferior realms of creation. 
Thus we observe an unvarying transmission of instinct, 
properties, and impulses in the animal kingdom, see them 
less strictly inherited in the human race, and least of all so 
in the highest grades of intellectual existence. The pro- 
ducts become more free and independent as the scale 
rises. — Characteristics. 

* The Ofnce'of the Society for the Diffusion of Lteiwl Knowledge is at 
SO, Lincoln** Inn Field*. 


.Printed by William Clowii and Sojra, Stanford Street.; 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[January SO, 1936. 


H Hoopoe.] 

This handsome bird, the "Eiro\J/, (Epops) of the Ancient 
Greeks, under which name it figures as a principal 
character, 'in Aristophanes's play of "The Birds," 
Upupa of the Latins, Gallo del Paradiso, Pubula % 
Bubola and Puppila of the Italians, Hupc, Hnppt 
and Putput of the French, El Abubilla of the Spa- 
Vol. V. 

niards, IFiedthopf of the Germans, Upupa Epop$ of 
Linneus, is generally an annual though a rare visitant 
to these islands. Latham indeed, mentions a nest 
which a pair began in Hampshire, and deserted on 
being disturbed ; but such instances are not common. 
We most probably owe their visits to their periodical 

'Digitized by 




[January 3»>, 

migrations, when a few stragglers reach us. The bird 
is widely spread over Europe in the summer months, 
and is abundant in the South. Sweden is mentioned 
by some as its northern limit, where the country people 
are said td consider its appearance as ominous ; and in 
Great Britain it was formerly looked upon by the same 
class as the harbinger of some calamity. Montagu 
relates that it i9 plentiful in the Russian and Tartarian 
deserts ; and Sonnini saw it on the banks of the Nile : 
Africa indeed and Asia are supposed to be its winter 

In a state of nature moist localities are the chosen 
haunts of the hoopoe. There it may be seen on the 
ground, busily searching with its long bill for its 
favourite insects, (chiefly coleopterous) which it often 
finds in cow-dung, and in the droppings of other 
animals ; and sometimes it may be observed hanging 
from the branches of trees, examining the under side of 
the leaves for those which there lie hid. 

The hole of a decayed tree is the locality generally 
preferred for the nest, which is made of dried grass lined 
with feathers, wool or other soft materials, and is gene- 
rally very fetid from the remains of the insects, &e. f 
with which the parent-birds have supplied their young. 
This offensive odour most probably gave rise to the 
story adopted by Aristotle*, that the nest of the hoopoe 
was formed of the most disgusting materials. When a 
hollow tree is not to be found, the places selected are 
sometimes the fissures of rocks, and the crevices of old 
buildings. The eggs are generally four or five in num- 
ber, of a greyish-white spotted with deep grey or hair- 

Few birds are more entertaining in captivity: its 
beautiful plumage, droll gesticulations and familiar 
habits soon make it a favourite. When it perceives 
that it is observed it begins to tap with its bill against 
the ground, (which, as Bechstein observes, gives it the 
appearance of walking with a stick,) at the same time 
often shaking its wings and tail, and elevating its crest. 
This latter feat, which is performed very frequently and 
especially when the bird is surprised or angry, is effected 
by a muscle situated on the upper part of the head for 
the purpose. Its note of anger or fear is harsh and 
grating, something like the noise made by a small saw 
when employed in sawing* or the note of a jay, but 
nothing like so kMid. It gives utterance to a soft note 
of complacenev occasionally, and is not without other 
intonations. tlte* grating note is not always indicative 
of anger or fear* nW the bird generally exerts it when 
it flies up, and settled bfc Its perch. 

The following extract from a letter Written by M. 
Von Schauroth, given by tieehstein in his interesting 
little book on stove-birds or cage-birds, a very goon 
translation of which was published by Orr awl Smith 
last year, cannot fail to interest our readers. 

"With great care and attention,*' writes M. Voti 
Schauroth, *■ I was able last slimmer to rear two young 
hoopoes, taken from a nest which was placed at the top 
of an oak-tiee. These little birds followed me every 
where, and when they heard me at a distance, showed 
their joy by a particular chirping, jumped into the air, 
or, as soon as I was seated climbed on my clothes, par- 
ticularly when giving them food from a pan of milk, 
the cream of which they swallowed greedily; they 
climbed higher and higher, till at last they perched on 
lny shoulders, and sometimes on my head, caressing me 
very affectionately: notwithstanding this, I had only to 
speak a word to rid myself of their company ; they 
would then immediately retire te the stove. Generally 
they would observe my eyes to discover what my temper 
might be, that they might aet accordingly. I fed them 
Hfce the nightihgales> or with the universal paste, to 
which I sometimes added insects ; they would never 
* Hist. Anim. book 9, c. 15. 

tduch earth-worms, but were very fbnd of beetles and 
may-bugs; these they first killed, and then beat them 
with their beak into a kind of oblong ball ; when thiv 
was done, they threw it into the air, that they might 
catch it and swallow it lengthways ; if it fell across 
the throat, they were obliged to begin again. Instead 
of bathing, they roll in the sand. I took tlrefn one day 
into a neighbouring field, that they might catch insects 
for themselves, and had then an opportunity of remark- 
ing their innate fear of birds of prey,and their instinct 
under it. As soon as they perceived a raven, or even a 
pigeon, they were on their bellies in the twinkling of an 
eye, their wings stretched out by the side of their head, 
so that the large quill feathers touched ; they were thus 
surrounded by a sort of crown, formed by the feathers 
of the tail and wings, the head leaning on the back, with 
the beak pointing upwards; in this curious posture 
they might be taken for an old rag. As soon as the 
bird which frightened them was gone, they jumped up 
immediately, uttering cries of joy. They were very 
fond of lying in the sun ; they showed their content by 
repeating in quivering tones, " vec, vec, vec ;" when 
angrjr tneif. notes are harsh, and the male, which is 
known by its colour being redder, cries " hoop, hoop." 
The female had the trick of dragging its food about the 
room, by this means it was covered with small feathers 
and other rubbish, which by degrees formed into an 
indigestible ball in its stomach, about the size of a nut, 
of which it died* The male lived through the winter; 
but not quitting the heated stove, its beak became so 
dry that the two parts separated, and remained more 
than an ineh apart ; thus it died miserably." 

BufTon gives an aceount of one which was taken in a 
net when full grown, and became very much attached 
to its mistress, to whem it would fly for protection. It 
had two Very different tones ; one soft and inward, 
seeming, as Buffort says, to proceed from the very seat 
of sentiment, — this it addressed to its beloved mistress: 
the other sharp and more piercing, which expressed 
anger and fear. It was not confined ; and though it 
had the full range of the house, and the windows were 
often open, it never showed the least desire to escape ; 
its love of liberty not being so strong as its attachment. 
It is painful to add that this amiable bird died of hun- 

The hoopoe was not without its uses in the old 
Materia Medica. Thus we read that its heart tvu* 
good against pains in the side ; that the tongue sus- 
pended (round the tteck we suppose) helped a bad 
memory; while a fumigation of the feathers was a 
vermifuge, and the skin cured the head-ache when 
placed on the ailing part. 

Moreover, he who wished to dream astonishing dreams 
had only to anoint his temples with hoopoe's blood, and 
the wonderful vision Was sure to follow. 

Jonston, who enumerates these formula, adds with 
great gravity^ that he disbelieves the assertion that the 
right wing of the bird and a tooth, suspended at the 
head of a sleeper, will keep him in slumber till it be 

The plumage of the bird is too well known to need 
description here. The female is similar to the male, with 
the exception that her tints are less bright. Those who 
have tasted the flesh describe it as very unpalatable. 
A specimen was bought lately at Vienna, and brought 
to this country. The bird soon after it was pur- 
chased became tame, and was remarkably bold, not 
showing the least fear of a favourite dog, when allowed 
to come out of his cage. ' But the severe wea* her killed 
it, notwithstanding the great care taken to protect it 
from eold* and our drawing was copied, by per«Hs*Mofl, 
from a plate in Mr. Gould's splendid werfe, tbe • &ftfs 
of Europe, 

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(From the Nrw Edit torn of Dr. Ltvdnrr on the Steam- Emgine,-*-* 
work of great researoJt and qath>rity.) 

In the year 1811, several of the proprietors of mines in 
Cornwall, suspecting that some of their engines might 
not be doing a duty adequate to their consumption of 
fuel, came to a determination to establish a uniform 
method of testing the performance of their engines. 
For this purpose a counter was attached to each engine 
to register the number of strokes of the piston. All 
the engines were put under the superintendence of 
Messrs. Thomas and John Lean, engineers ; and the 
different proprietors of the mines, as well as their 
directing engineers, respectively pledged themselves to 
give every facility and assistance in their power tor the 
attainment of so desirable an end. Messrs. Lean were 
directed to publish a monthly report of the performance 
of each engine, specifying the name of the mine, the 
size of the cylinder, the load upon the engine, the length 
of the stroke, the number of pump lifts, the depth of 
the lift, the diameter of the pumps, the time worked, 
the consumption of coals, the load on the pump, and, 
finally, the duty of the engine, or the number of pounds 
lifted one foot high by a bushel of coals. The publi- 
cation of these monthly reports commenced in August, 
1811, and have been regularly continued to the present 

The favourable effect which these reports have pro- 
duced upon the vigilance of the several engineers, and 
the emulation they have excited, both among engine- 
makers and those to whom the working of the machines 
are intrusted, are rendered conspicuous in the improve- 
ment which has gradually taken place in the perform- 
ance of the engines, up to the present time. In a 
report published in December, 1826, the highest duty 
was that of an engine at Wheal Hope mine in Corn- 
wall. By the consumption of one bushel of coals, this 
engine raised 46,636,246 pounds a foot high, or, in 
round numbers, forty-seven millions of pounds. 

In a report published in the course of the present 
year (1835) it was announced that a steam-engine, 
erected at a copper-mine near St. Austle, in Cornwall, 
had raised by its average work 95 millions of pounds 
1 foot high, with a bushel of coals. This enormous me- 
chanical effect having given rise to some doubts as to 
the correctness of the experiments on which the report 
was founded, it was agreed that another trial should be 
made in the presence of a number of competent and 
disinterested witnesses. This trial accordingly took 
place a short tiirie since, and was witnessed by a num- 
ber of the most experienced mining engineers and 
agents : the result was, that for every bushel of coals 
consumed under the boiler the engine raised 125i 
millions of pounds weight one foot high. 

It may not be uninteresting to illustrate the amount 
of mechanical virtue, which is thus proved to reside in 
coals, in a more familiar manner. 

Since a bushel of coal weighs 84 lbs. and can lift 
56,027 tons a foot high, it follows that a pound of coal 
would raise 667 tons the same height ; and that an 
ounce of coal would raise 42 tons one foot high, or it 
would raise 18 lbs. a mile high. 

Since a force of 18 lbs. is capable of drawing 2 tons 
upon a railway, it follows that an ounce of coal pos- 
sesses mechanical virtue sufficient to draw 2 tons a mile, 
or 1 ton 2 miles, upon a level railway.* 

The circumference of the earth measures 25,000 
miles. If it were begirt by an iron railway, a load of 
one ton would be drawn round it in six weeks by the 
amount of mechanical ppwer which resides in the third 
part of a ton of coals. 

* The actual consumption of coal upon railways U in practice 
about eight ounces per ton par mile. It is, therefore, worked with 
sixteen times less e&ct than in the engine above-mentioned. 

The great pyramid of Egypt, stands upon a bft§* 
measuring 700 feet each way, aa'i is 500 feet higfci 
its weight being 12,760,000,000 lbs. To construct iU 
cost the labour of 100,000 men for 20 years. He 
materials would be raised from the ground to their 
present position by the combustion of 479 tons of coals. 

The weight of metal in the Menai bridge is 4,000,000 
lbs., and its height above the level of the water is 120 
feet: its mass might be lifted from the level of the 
water to its present position by the combustion of 4 
bushels of coals.* 

The enormous consumption of coals in the arts and 
manufactures, and in steam navigation, has of lat& 
years excited the (ears of some persons as to the pos- 
sibility of (he exhaustion pf our mines. These appre- 
hensions, however, may be allayed by the assurance? 
received from the highest mining and geological au- 
thorities, that, estimating the present demand from our 
coal -mines at 16 millions of tons annually, the coal 
fields of Northumberland and Durham alone are suf- 
ficient to supply it for 1700 years, and after the ex- 
piration of that time the great coal basin of South 
Wales would be sufficient to supply the same demand 
for 2000 years longer. 

But, in speculations like these, the probable, if not 
certain, progress of improvement and discovery ought 
not to be overlooked; and we may safely pronounee 
that, long before a minute fraction of such a period of 
time shall have rolled over, other and more powerful 
mechanical agents will altogether supersede the use of 
coal. Philosophy already directs her finger at sources 
of inexhaustible power in the phenomena of electricity 
and magnetism. The alternate decomposition and re- 
composition of water, by magnetism and electricity, 
has too dose an analogy to the alternate processes of 
vaporisation and condensation, not to occur at once to 
every mind : the development of the gases from solid 
matter by the operation of the chemical affinities, and 
their subsequent condensation into the liquid form, has 
already been assayed as a source of power. In a word, 
the general state of physical science at the present 
moment, the vigour, activity, and 6agacity with which 
researches in it are prosecuted in every civilised country, 
the increasing consideration in which scientific men are 
held, and the personal honours and rewards which begin 
to be conferred upon them, all justify the expectation 
that we are on the eve of mechanical discoveries still 
greater than any which have yet appeared ; and that 
the steam-engine itself, with the gigantic powers con- 
ferred upon it by the immortal Watt, will dwindle into 
insignificance in comparison with the hidden powers of 
nature still to be revealed ; and that the day will come 
when that machine, which is now extending the bles- 
sings of civilisation to the most remote skirts of the 
globe, will cease to have existence except in the page 
of history. 


To form an approximate estimate of the limit of the 
present powers of steam navigation, it will be necessary 
to consider the mutual relation of the capacity or ton- 
nage of the vessel ; the magnitude, weight, and power 
of the machinery ; the available stowage for fuel ; and 
the average speed attainable in all weathers, as well as 
the general purposes to which the vessel is to be 
appropriated, whether for the transport of goods aud 
merchandise, or merely of despatches and passengers. 
That portion of the capacity of the vessel which, is 
appropriated to the moving power, consists of the space' 

* Soott of these examples wore given oy Sir John Herschel, in 
his Preliminary Discourse ou Natural Philosophy ; but since th4 
work was written an increased pjowcihas been obtained from coals, 
in the proportion of 7 to 12 J. 

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f Janujley SO, 

occupied by the machinery and the space occupied by 
the fuel ; the magnitude of the latter will necessarily 
depend upon the length of the voyage which the vessel 
must • make without receiving a fresh supply of coals. 
If the voyage be short, this space may be proportionally 
limited, and a greater portion of room will be left for 
the machinery. If, on the contrary, the voyage be 
longer, a greater stock of coals will be necessary, and a 
less space will remain for the machinery. More power- 
ful vessels, therefore, in proportion to their tonnage, 
may be used for short than for long voyages. 

Taking an average of fifty-one voyages made by the 
Admiralty steamers, from Falmouth to Corfu and back 
during four years ending June, 1934, it was found that 
the average rate of steaming, exclusive of stoppages, 
was 7£ miles per hour, taken in a direct line between 
the places, and without allowing for the necessary de- 
viations in the course of the vessel. The vessels which 
performed, this voyage varied from 350 to 700 tons 
burden by measurement, and were provided with 
engines varying from 100 horse to 200 horse-power, 
with stowage for coals varying from 80 to 240 tons. 
The proportion of the power to the tonnage varied from 
1 horse to 3 tons to 1 horse to 4 tons ; thus, the Mes- 
senger had a power of 200 horses, and measured 730 
tons; the Flamer had a power of 120 horses, and 
measured 500 tons; the Columbia had 120 horses, and 
measured 360 tons. 

In general, it may be assumed that for the shortest 
class of trips, such as. those of the Margate steamers, 
and the packets between Liverpool or Holyhead and. 
Dublin, the proportion of. the, power to the tonnage, 
should be that of 1 horse-power to every 2 tons by 
measure; while for the longest yqy ages the proportion 
would be reduced to 1 horse to 4 tons, voyages of 
intermediate lengths having every variety of intermediate 

Steamers thus proportioned in their power and ton- 
nage may then, on an average of weathers, be expected 
to make 7J miles an hour while steaming, which is 
equivalent to 174 miles per day of, twenty-four hours. 
But, in very long voyages, it rarely, happens, that a 
steamer can work constantly without interruption. 
Besides stress of weather,. in .which she must sometimes 
lie-to, she is liable to occasional derangements oi her 
machinery, and more especially, of her paddles. In 
almost every long voyage, hitherto attempted,, some 
time has been lost in occasional repairs of this nature 
while at sea. - We shall perhaps, therefore, for long 
voyages, arrive at a more correct estimate of the daily 
run of a steamer by taking it at 160 miles. 

By a series of careful ly-rconducted experiments on 
the consumption of coals,; under, marine boilers and 
common land boilers, which have, been lately made at 
the worris of Mr. Watt, near, Birmingham, it has been 
proved that the consumption of fuel under marine 
boilers is less than under land boilers, in the proportion 
of 2 to 3 very nearly. On the other hand, I have 
ascertained from general observation throughout the 
manufacturing districts in the. north of England, that 
the average consumption of coals under land boilers of 
all powers above the very, smallest class is at the rate 
of 15 lbs. of coals per horse -power per hour. From 
this result, the accuracy of which may be fully relied 
upon, combined with^the result of the experiments just 
mentioned at Soho,*we may conclude that the average 
consumption of marine boilers will be at the rate of 
10 lbs. of coal per horse- power per hour. Mr. Field, of 
the firm of Maudslay and Field, in his evidence before 
a Select Committee of the House of Commons on Steam 
Navigation to India, has stated from his observation, 
and from experiments made at different periods, that 
the consumption is only 8 lbs. per horse-power per 
Mvlt. In the evidence of Mr. William Morgan, how- 

ever, before the same committee, the actual consumption 
of fuel on board the Mediterranean packets is estimated 
at 16 cwt. per hour for engines of 200 horse-power, 
and 8^ cwt. for engines of- 100 horse-power. From 
my own observation, which has been rather extensive both 
with respect to land and marine. boilers, I feel assured 
that 10 lbs. per hour more nearly represents the prac- 
tical consumption than the lower estimate of Mr. FiekL 
We may then assume the daily consumption of coal by 
marine boilers, allowing them to work upon an average 
for 22 hours, the remainder of the time being left for 
casual stoppages, at 220 lbs. of coal per horse power, 
or very nearly 1 ton for every ten horses' power. la 
short voyages, where there will be no stoppage, the 
daily consumption will a little exceed this; but the 
distance traversed will be proportionally greater. 

When the proportion of the power to the tonnage 
remains unaltered, the speed of the vessel does not 
materially change. We may therefore assume that 
10 lbs. of coal per horse power will carry a sea-going 
steamer adapted for long voyages 7| miles direct dis- 
tance ; and therefore to carry her 100 miles will require 
138 lbs., or the -rrth P ar t of a ton nearly. Now, 
the Mediterranean steamers are capable of taking a 
quantity of fuel at the rate of l£ tons per horse power; 
but the proportion of their power to their tonnage is 
greater than that which would probably be adapted for 
longer runs. We shall, therefore, perhaps be warranted 
in assuming is practicable to construct a steamer 
capable of taking 1 J- tons of fuel per horse-power. At 
the rate of consumption just mentioned, this would be 
sufficient to carry her 2400 miles in average weather; 
but as an allowance of fuel must always be made for 
emergencies, we cannot suppose it possible for her to 
encounter this extreme run. Allowing, then, spare 
fuel to the extent of a quarter of a ton per horse-power, 
we should have as an extreme limit of a steamer s prac- 
ticable voyage, without receiving a relay of coals, a run 
of about 2000 miles. 

War.— Another powerful spring of war is the admiration 
of the brilliant qualities displayed in war. These qualities, 
more than all things, have prevented an impression of the 
crimes and miseries of this savage custom. Many delight in 
war, not for its carnage and woes, but for its valour and 
apparent magnanimity, — for the self-command of the hero, 
— the fortitude which despises sufferings— the resolution 
which courts danger, — the superiority of the mind to the 
body,— to sensation, — to fear. . Let us be just to human 
nature even in its errors and excesses. Men seldom delight 
in war, considered merely as a source of misery. When 
they hear of battles, the picture which rises to their .view ii 
not what it should re, a picture of extreme wretchedness, of 
the wounded, the mangled, the slain. These horrors are 
hidden under the splendour of those mighty energies, which 
break forth amidst the peri 1 3 of conflict, and which human 
nature contemplates with an intense and heart- thrilling 
delight. Attention hurries from the heaps of the slaughtered 
to the victorious chief, whose single mind pervades and ani- 
mates a host, and directs with stern composure the storm of 
battle ; and the ruin which he spreads is forgotten in admira- 
tion of his power. This admiration has, in all ages, been ex- 
pressed by I he most unequivocal signs. "Why that garland 
woven ? thatarch erected ? that festive board spread ? These 
are tributes to the warrior. "Whilst the peaceful sovereign, 
who scatters blessings with the silence and constancy of Pro- 
vidence, is received with a faint applause, men assemble in 
I crowds to hail the conqueror, perhaps a monster in human 
form, whose private life is blackened with lust and crime, 
and whose greatness is built on perfidy and usurpation. 
Thus war is the surest and speediest road to renown ; and 
war will never cease while the field of battle is jhe field of 
glory, and the most luxuriant laurels grow from a root 
nourished with blood.— From Discourses, Review* > and Mis- 
cellanies, by the Rev. W. E. Chanmng. 

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Alnwick Castle, one of (he seats of the Duke of 
Northumberland, is interesting from its antiquity, the 
stirring events connected with its history, and its pre- 
sent state of complete restoration : it now exhibits one 
of the best specimens of the old baronial structures of 
Great Britain. The castle is placed on an eminence, 
which rises from the south side of the river Alne, 
opposite to the town of Alnwick. It is stated by Grose, 

that immediately before the Norman conquest, the 
castle and barony of Alnwick belonged to a baron or 
the name of Gilbert Tyson, who was slain with Harold 
at the fatal battle which gave William the crown of 
England. The possession passed into the hands of the 
Norman lords de Vescy, where it remained until the 
reign of Edward I., when, in 1297, Lord William de 
Vescy dying without legitimate issue, he, by the king's 

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[JAN04K* 9Q, 

licence, bequeathed the castle and barony to the Bishop 
of Durham, who, twelve years afterwards, sold them to 
the Lord Henry de Percy, from whom they haw come 
down, in regular succession, to the present noble oc- 

At whatever time a castle we* first erected here, ft 
was a place of great strength from a vary early period. 
In the reign of William Rufus, Malcolm III. of Scot- 
land, eurnamed Cean-mobr, or Great-heed, laid eicge 
to Alnwick Castle, and both he and his son fell ia a 
conflict with a party of Anglo-Norman troop*, who 
came to the assistance of the besieged, A story baa 
been long repeated in the common histories connected 
with this siege, and the death of Malcolm, It ia stated 
that the garrison of the castle, despairing of succour, 
weie on the ooint of surrendering to the Scotch, when 
a soldier rode forth completely armed, and, presenting 
the keys of the castle to the incautious king on the 
point of a spear, he suddenly pierced his eye, and 
killed him, and, by the fleetnees of bis horse, escaped 
across the river, which was then swollen with rain, To 
this the fable add*, that the author of the successful 
stratagem obtained the name of Percy from u pierce 
eye," and that he became the founder 6f the bouse of 
Northumberland, The latter part of the story has 
been long ago shown to be pure invention, fat William 
dc Percy, the ancestor of the family, came over with the 
Conqueror, and had founded Whitby Abbey, in York- 
shire, before the death of Malcolm, as appears from the 
charter of foundation which bears his name. The 
surname Percy wee derived from the family domain in 
Normandy ; and, ae baa been already mentioned, the 
Percys did not become possessed of Alnwick till about 
the beginning of the fourteenth century. The former 
part of the story,— that of Malcolm being actually slain 
by a soldier from the prison, who pretended to present 
the keys of the e*«tle,~-thoogh it rests on somewhat 
better evidence than the latter, is also, in all pro- 
bability, fabulous, Sir Walter Scott etatee that Roger 
de Mowbray, a Norman baron, at the head of a con- 
siderable wee, surprised the Scotch king before the 
walls of Alnwick, on the 1 3th of November 1098, and 
that an action ensued, in which Malcolm Ceeu-mohr 
and his son were both slain. 

Alnwick Castle proved disastrous to another Scotch 
Jdn$, William, eurnamed the lMm 9 from his having 
been the first to adopt the lion into the royal arms of 
Scotland, The celebrated Richard Cmnr de Lion, 
while young, having rebelled again* bis father, Henry 
II, William needlessly interfered in the fray, and 
engaged to help the rebel son against bis sovereign 
and parent. In pursuance of bis engagement, he 
entered Northumberland with a tumultuary army, and 
laid ekge to Alnwick, A party of about 400 English 
horse had sallied from Newcastle one morning in quest 
of adventure ; they were envelomd in a mist, and lost 
their way ; but on the mist suddenly clearing on, they 
found themselves in the neighbourhood of Alnwick, 
and not far from William, who, with about 60 horse. 
was scouring the country the rest of bis array being 
scattered in search of plunder. William at first mi*- 
took the English horse for a part of his own troops ; 
but being informed of his mistake, be gallantly ex- 
claimed, " Now shall we see who are good kuight6 V 
and charged. But he was unhorsed, taken prisoner, 
with a number of his attendants, an d carried to Henrv 
II., to whom he was presented with his legs tied beneatn 
his horse's belly. Henry was doubtless exasperated at 
William's interference in the quarrel between himself 1 
and his son ; nor was the Scottish monarch released 
from captivity until, by a special treaty, he bound him- 
self as the liegeman of Henry, and engaged to do 
homage for Scotland. This occurred in the year 1174. 
After Henry'* death, Richard, previous to his departure 

for the Holy Land, annulled the degrading treaty on 
being paid 10,000 marks. 

It would greatly exceed our limits to give a history 
of Alnwick Castle, for such a history would in fact 
embrace a history of the "debatable land," and all 
the tends and forays of the borders. The names of 
Percy and Douglas are amongst the mos't renowned in 
the ballad fore of our country. The bloody contests ot 
rival chiefs, or the fatal inroads of rival monarchy 
frequently turned the entire border country into a vast 
desert of desolation and ruiu. When plunder could 
not be obtained on a foray, the ravagers endeavoured to 
bring home at least a booty of " men ;" for, as in all 
such eases, the common people were the sufferers. 
The prisoners thus taken were sold as slaves; and 
there are occasional periods in the annals of England 
and Scotland, when, from the immense number ot 
prisoners brought home, according to the success ot 
either party, slaves became, in modern phrase, a drug 
in the market. 

Alnwick Castle was kept rather as a military fortress 
than as a domestic residence by the Percys. On first 
coming into their hands, it was substantially repaired. 
About the year 1567, a minute survey was made of the 
place by the surveyor of the Earl of Northumberland, a 
copy of which is given in Grose. From this document 
it would appear that a considerable part of the building 
was in a defective state, from the larjse of time and 
injuries. It describes the place as a The Castell of 
A I new ike, a verve ancyent, large, beutifull and portlie 
castell, scytewate on ye southe side of ye ryver of Alne, 
upon a lytle mote." There is a curious passage in it, 
which shows that glass was an expensive rarity at that 
time : — " And because throwe extreme winds the glasse 
of the wind owes of this and other my lord's castles and 
bouses here in the countrie dooth decay and waste, yt 
vere good the whole leights of everie windowe at the 
departure of his lordshippe from lying at any of his 
said castels and houses, and dowring [i. e. during] the 
tyme of his lordship's absence, or others lying in them, 
were taken downe, and lade up in safly. And at soocae 
tyme as ather his lordship or anie other shole lie at 
anie of the said places, the same might then be set up 
of new with small charges to his lordship, wher [i.e., 
whereas] now the decay thereof shall he verie costlie, 
and chargeable to be repayred." 

The ( Household Book ' of the Earl of Northumber- 
land, a MS. which was drawn up in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and which was printed in the year 1780 by the 
late duke, contains a number of very interesting per* 
ticuiars respecting the style of living at that period in 
Ibis rich and princely family. The mention of this 
circumstance has no immediate connexion with Aln- 
wick Castle, further than that Alnwick belongs to the 
Duke of Northumberland : for the regulations laid 
down in the book are for the direction of the household 
at Wreasil and J>ckinneld castles. The same style of 
\i\ing would however be kept up when the earl visited 
Alnwick P This book, as the editor remarks, exhibits a 
curious picture of ancient manners, The Earl of Nor- 
thumberland emulated a royal style; all the head 
otSeers of his household were gentlemen by birth ; and 
among otber instances of magnificence it may be stated 
that not fewer than eleven priests were kept in the 
houeehoid, at the head of whom presided a doctor or 
bachelor of divinity, as dean of the chapel. The earl 
and his family ordinarily used wooden trenchers at their 
meals, but on great occasions pewter vessels were hired 
to grace the board. In removing, all the beds, hang- 
ings, and furniture, were carried from one castle to 
another. On such an occasion the number of carts 
employed in a family of tliis size must have formed a 
caravan, nearly as large as those which traverse the 
deserts of the East. In fact, the mingling of rude mag- 

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Biftcente «*d splendour *lth what, nowadays, woold 
be termed misery, poverty, and distil*, meets us 
whereter we obtain a view of the domestic mannets of 
the nobility of the feudal times. 

About eight years ago, the then Duke of Northum- 
berland re-edified Alnwick Castle at an expense, as 
stated, of nearly 200,000/. So solicitous was he to 
hate the castle rebuilt after the precise model of the old 
one, that he preserved a number of stone warriors 
which formerly graced the battlements, and replaced 
them in then* old positions; and such as were too 
feeble, from age and injuries, to occupy their stations 
he dismissed, but got new statues cut to supply their 
place, that nothing might be wanting. The castle how 
is therefore quite a model of what Alnwick Was in the 
days of the border chivalry. The entrance, like that of 
Warwick Castle, is through a large gate between two 
high round towers ; this opens into a spacious court, 
surrounded on all sides bv walls with high battlements. 
The part of the castle which contains the family resi- 
dence, stands on an artificial elevation in the centre of 
the inner court. The apartments are fitted up in a very 
splendid manner. The library, which is a room of 64 
feet in length, has a very good selection of books. The 
chapel is elaborately decorated. The ceiling is an 
imitation of the ceiling of the chapel of King's College. 
Cambridge ; the paintings on the walls are borrowed 
from those of the cathedral of Milan ; and the genealo- 
gical table of the house of Northumberland is inter- 
woven with them. The chapel is 50 feet in length, 22 
in height, and 21 in breadth. The apartments for the 
servants are in the towers. The keep or prison is partly 
above and partly under ground. 

Alnwick castle is situated in the neighbourhood of a 
number of interesting objects. The town of Alnwick 
itself — the ruins of two abbeys — Warkworth castle and 
hermitage-^one ortwomonumenls — Morpeth castle, &c. 
are all within a moderate distance. The grounds round 
Alnwick castle are in very fine order. 


{From the fifteenth Report of the Commissioners of Excise 

Barley is the grain generally used, but oats and other 
grain, and pulse, viz., beans and peas, are sometimes 
used for the purpose; and the process commences with 
wetting or steeping the same in an oblong or square 
vessel called a cistern. Sometimes the grain is first 
\mt into the cistern and then covered with water, at 
other times the water is first put in and the grain added 

Very soon after the grain has been covered with 
water it begins to swell and increase in bulk, and 
continues to do so pretty regularly until it reaches 
its maximum. The amount of the swell depends not 
only upon the length of time the grain remains in the 
steep covered with water (which by law can in no case 
be less than fbrty hours), but also upon its quality, 
and slate of dryness before put in steep, and must of 
c*ourse be expected to vary ; but the law presumes that 
the swell will amount to seventeen and a-half bushels 
for every eighty-two and a-half bushels before steeped. 

The grain, after being steeped, and the water drawn 
off, is thrown out of the cistern into a square or oblong 
Utensil called a couch-frame, in which it is required by 
law to remain for the space of twenty-six hours at the 
least. Immediately after the expiration of twenty six 
or thirty hours, as the case may be, the grain in opera- 
tion is said to be on the floor; and during the time 
it remains on the' floor it undergoes a variety of 

1st. The grain at a certain period (which varies ac- 
cording to circumstances) becomes moist, and emits a 

rather agreeable smell, arid soon after this period the 
roots begin to make their appearance. 

2nd. The acrospire or future stem begins to swell, 
and gradually advances under the husk from the same 
end where the roots are observed to spring, till it nearly 
reaches the other extremity of the grain. 

3rd. The kernel* as the acrospire advances through it, 
becomes friable and sweet-tasted, and the whole art of 
malting depends upon the proper regulation of these 
changes. In a day or two after the grain has been 
thrown out of the cistern the roots begin to appear at 
the end of each kernel in the shape of a small white 
protuberance, which soon divides itself into distinct 
fibres or rootlets. The grain about this time appears 
moist on the outside, which is called sweating, and 
which usually goes off in a day or two. 

In about & day generally after the spreading of the 
roots, the rudiments of the future stem may, by splitting 
the grain, be seen to lengthen. It rises from the same 
extremity with the root, and, advancing within the 
husk, would at last issue from the opposite end of the 
grain and assume the form of a green blade of grass ; 
but the process of malting is brought to a conclusion 
some time before the stem has made such progress as 
to burst the husk. 

As the germination proceeds, the grain Is gradually 
spread thinner on the floor; and when the moisture has 
been in some degree evaporated, and the germination 
has thereby been checked, it is again gradually laid 
thinner to wither. Maltsters differ much in their 
manner of working, which is affected also by the 
state of the weather. 

The grain having thus germinated to the extent re- 
quired is put upon the kiln, and heat applied by means 
of a fire, which is regulated according to circumstances ; 
and when the malt has attained the requisite state of 
dryness it is thrown off the kilh, the process being then 


By S. Ferguson* 

(Cojried by Permitmon of the Author ft-om Blackwoo&s Magazine.) 

" Cohk, tee the Dolphin's Anchor forg*d ; 'tit at a white heat now * 

The bellows ceased, the flames decreased j though on the forge's 

The little flames still fitfully play through the sable mound ; 
And fitfully you still may see the grim smiths ranking round, 
All clad in leathern panoply, their broad handi only bare j 
Some rest upon their sledges here, some work the windlass there. 

The windlass strains the tackle chains, the black mound heaves 

And red and deep a hundred veins burst out at every throe : 
It rises, roars, rends all outright — O, Vulcan, what a glow ! 
Tis blinding white, 'tis blasting bright; the high sun shines 

not so! 
The high sun sees not, on the earth, such fiery fearful show ; 
The roof.ribs swarth, the candent hearth, the ruddy lurid row 
Of smiths, that stand, an ardent band, like men before the foe ; 
As, quivering through his fleece of flame, the sailing monster, slow 
Sinka on the anvil — all about the faces fiery grow — 
' Hurrah I' they shout, ' leap out— leap but ;* bang, bang, the 

sledges go : 
Hurrah ! the jetted lightnings are hissing high and low ; 
A hailing fount of fire is struck at every squashing blow ; 
The leathern mail rebounds the hail ; the rattling cinders strow 
The ground around ; st every bound the sweltering fountains flow ; 
And thick and loud the swinkhig crowd at every stroke pant 


Leap out, leap out, my masters; leap out and lay on load 1 
Let 1 * forge a goodly anchor ; a Bower, thick and broad : 
For a heart of oak is hanging on every blow, I bode : 
And I si?e the good ship riding all in a perilous roau 
The-4ow reef ruaring on her lee j the roll of ocean poured 
From stem to stern, sea after sea ; the mainmast by the board ; 
The bulwarks dowu; the rudder gouej the boats stove at the 

chains ; 
But courage still, bmre mariners-«4he Bower yet remains, 
And not an inch to flinch he deign* anve when ye pitch sky high* 
Then moves his head, ns though be said, ' Fear nothing— here 

am 1 !' 

Digitized by 




[January 30, 1S36. 

Swing in your strokes in order ; let foot and hand keep time, 

Your blows make music sweeter far than any steeple's chime ; 

But while ye swing your sledges, sin^; and let the burthen be, 

The anchor is the anvil king, and royal craftsmen we ! 

Stiike mi, strike in — the sparks begin to dull their rustling red ; 

Our hummers ring with sharper din, our work will soon he sped : 

Our anchor soon must change his lied of fiery rich array 

For a hammock at the roaring bows, or an oozy conch of clay ; 

Our anchor soon must change the lay of merry craftsmen here, 

For the yeo-heave-o', and the heave-away, and the sighing sea* 

man's cheer; 
When, weighing nlow, at eve they go, tar, far from love and home ; 
And sobbing sweethearts, in a row, wail o'er the ocean foam. 
In livid and obdurate gloom he darkens down at last ; 
A shapely one he is, and strong, as e'er from cat was casi — 
O trusted and trustworthy guard, if thou hadut life like me, 
What pleasures would thy toils reward beneath the deep green sea! 
O deep sea-diver, who might then behold such sights as thou? 
The* hoary monster's piilaces ! methinks what joy 'twere'now 
To go plumb plunging down amid the assembly of the whales, 
And feel the'ehum'd sea round me boil beneath their scourging 

Then deep in tangle-woods to tight the fierce sea unicorn, 
And send him foiled and bellowing back, for all his ivory horn ; 
To leave the subtle sworder-fish of bony blade forlorn ; 
And for, the ghastly-grinning shark to "laugh his jaws to scorn ; 
To leap down on the kraken's back, where 'mid Norwegian isles 
He lies," a* lubber anchorage for sudden shallowed miles; 
Till snorting, like an under-sea volcano, off he rolls ; 
Meanwhile to. swing, a-burleting the far-astonished shoals 
Of his back-browsing ocean calves ; or, haplv. io a cove, 
Shell-strown, and consecrate of old to some Undine'* love, ' 
To find the longhair'd mermaidens ; or, hard by icy land*, 
To wre>tle with the sea-strpent, upon cerulean Hands. 

O bn>ad-arraed fisher of the deep, whose sports can equal thine ? 
The Dolphin weighs a thousand tons that tugs thy cable line; 
And night by night 'tis thy delight, thy glory day by day, 
Through sa.ble sea and breaker white, the giant £amc to piny ; 
But, shamer of our liitle sports! forgive the name I gave, 
A fisher's joy is to destroy— thine office is to save. 
O ftjdger iu the sea-king's halls, couldst thou but understand 
Whose be the white bones by thy side, or who that dripping band, 
Sl»w swaying in" the heaving wave that round about thee bend, 
With sounds like breakers in a dream blessing- their ancient friend: 
Oh, couldbt thou leuow what heroes glide with larger steps round 

Thine iron side would swell with pride ; thou'dst leap within the 

sea '. 

Give honour to their memories who left the pleasant strand, 

To shed their blood so freely for the love of father-land, 

Who left their chance of quiet age and grassy churchyard grave, 

So freely,' for a restless bed amid the tossing wave : 

Oh, though our anchor may not be all I have foudly sung, 

Honour him for their .memory, whose bones lie goes among!" 


It appears from evidence given during the last Session 
of Parliament before a Committee on Public Works in 
Ireland, that the whale fishery might be cairied on with 
advantage on the northwest cpast of Ireland. The 
following extract of a letter from Lieutenant Boroughs, 
Commander of the Coast Guard, contains many curious 
details : — 

It is very extraordinary, and still very true, that this 
coa^t (one of the best fishing coasts iu Europe, abound- 
ing from the most productive, whales, both spermaceti 
and Greenland, to the common herring), possesses the 
worst and most ignorant race of fishermen, and (with 
a few exceptions) very indifferent boatmen. But the 
cause of these remarks may be easily accounted for; 
their poverty, which prevents them from procuring 
proper stout vessels for so dangerous a coast, and 
almost total absence of all patronage and support to 
follow up with energy and spirit the unbounded sources 
of wealth which nature has thrown within their grasp. 
It may appear still more extraordinary to those con- 
nected so extensively in the Greenland and South Sea 
whale fishery, that they should so long have remained 
in ignorance that thpse fish abound on the coast which 
I have described. In order to give proof to so bold an 
assertion, I shall state some circumstances which came 

under my immediate observation in my own vessels, 
and at a subsequent period in command of a revenue 
cutter. On a visit, in company with the Rev. Mr. 
Mahon, to the sun-fishery at Bofin Island, we strayed 
on a blustry day to observe the coast and breakers ; at 
a short distance from the shore we saw several large 
fish, which I supposed to be grampuses or tinners, 
that had taken shelter under the lee of the island : 
still looking closely at them, they advanced towards 
the rocks immediately under the cliffs, where we had 
a perfect view of them at a distance of 500 yards with 
a spy-glass, their double-tufted heads quite con- 
spicuous, and no intervening back-fins; I decided at 
once on their species. In the month of July, after the 
sun-fishery, a large spermaceti whale was drilled on 
shore, dead, at the- -bay of Bunowen, in Connemara, 
about two leagues from ClitiUen or Ardbear Har- 
bour ; in consequence of the ignorance of the pea- 
santry and boatmen, and their continual squabbling 
and fighting, three-fourths of the oil was lost ; the 
surface of the bay was dyed with a rainbow tinge from 
the floating particles of oil. Shortly after an immense 
fish was towed into the island of 'lurk by three of the 
island fishing- boats ; the monster was observed floating 
about a mile from the island, and had been but receutly 
killed, but how could not be ascertained ; this fink 
completely .filled up the small and only inlet in the 
island, and measured in length thirty-three yards ; it 
was claimed by the proprietor, I believe the Archbishop 
of Tuain, who, I had been informed, gave it up to the 
islanders. A small village near the place where they 
had towed it to shortly became deserted, the inhabitants 
never calculating on the fojtid air caused by their im- 
prudence. The islanders were two mouths employed 
in cutting up and launching over the cliffs the bones 
and remains of their prize. About the beginning- of 
August, in beating down Blacksod bay with light airs, 
and near the islauds of Inniskeas, two large whales 
came nearly alongside the cutter; the day very due, 
and making but liitle way, I ordered the gig and jolly- 
boat out and pursued them ; and had the men been 
sufficiently acquainted with the art, I should have suc- 
ceeded in killing them ; they allowed me to go along- 
side them, and I was only prevented from striking them 
by the bowman, who intercepted me at the moment by 
panic, being fearful of the event of a lash of the tail 
What the result might have been I know not, but 
nothing could have been easier accomplished than 
striking them, and only in fifteen fathoms water. I 
had been after these whales three hours, and they 
never went above about 300 yards from our boats, and 
at that distance turned their huge heads towards the 
boats, and got wary. I gave up following toward* 
evening; had I struck them at the commencement of 
our chase, when they were perfectly tame, I might 
have succeeded, even with the sun-fish spear and line, 
owing to the small depth of water. 

Labourers in Denmark. — In Denmanc, notwithstanding 
Sunday is nearly as much a work-day as any other, the 
wages of labourers do not usually amount to more than \U. 
a-ycar. Women earn about Ad. a day. The united earn- 
ings of a family, consisting of a labourer and Ids wife with 
three or four children, will not enable them to purchase any- 
thing better as food than rve-bread, bad milk-cheese and 
butter and poorcofTee ; to which must be added tobacco a,iui 
snuff, and cheap bad spirits, which they consume in large 
quantities. The weekly earnings of a spinner are 6*. or It. ; 
and those of a weaver are from 7s. to 1 2#. In the most 
favourable situations, the diet is not so bad as we have men- 
tioned. — From an article on the Condition of Working Men 
in Europe, in tlie • Working Man's Year Book/or 1836.' 


Printed by Witmam Clowis and Sows, Stamford Street. 

Digitized by 


Jftontftfg &uppltmrnt of 



Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 


December 31, 1835, to January 31, 18^6. 


[View of Aucii'iit liirtuioghain.] * 

The evidences of the antiquity of Birmingham, as the 
chief seat of art and manufacture in Britain, ate inde- 
pendent of the testimony of topographers. The dingy 
regions of mineral enterprise offered but few attractions 
for those who travelled to fill their portfolios with 
sketches of ecclesiastical edifices, castellated remains, 
camps, moats, and tumuli ; nor was the din of files 
and hammers an inciting matter for antiquarian specu- 
lation or historical research. 

Leland passed over the busy scene about the year 
1540; but our curiosity is as little excited as gratified 
by his notice of it, which we insert below on the sole 
ground of its brevity and quaintness. Camden fol- 
lowed Leland about forty years afterwards, and admits 
" Bermicham" to be " full of inhabitants, and resound- 
ing with hammers and anvils ; for the most of them 
are smiths. The lower part thereof standeth very 
waterish : the upper riseth with faire buildings.' 1 Speed 
has published an itinerary of Warwickshire without 
once mentioning Birmingham ; and we are left, as far 
as he is concerned, to infer the nature and extent of 
the operations carried on in the corner of the county 
" north of the Avon," by his remark, that the woods 
are becoming " much thinner by the making of iron, 
and the soil more churlish to yeeld to the plough." 
Dugdale is as little inclined as his predecessors to award 
due honour to the men of Birmingham for their industry 
and skill, content with expatiating, after the fashion of 
his times, on the family history of the lords " Birming- 

The first author who ever attempted to describe Bir- 
mingham with any pretensions to the requisite qualifi- 
cations of the antiquarian and admirer of the triumphs 
of industry and art, was William Hutton, whose work 
has recently been enlarged, and republished by Guest, 
of Birmingham. 
Vox,. V. 

Speculative opinions on the origin of a town's name, 
highly flattering to every one's feelings of native parti- 
ality, and therefore more or less indulged in at the com- 
mencement of all local histories, will give little lustre 
to the honours of Birmingham. Antiquarians differ 
greatly on this question. The late Mr. Hamper, an 
inhabitant of Birmingham, and a man of great anti • 
quarian research, asserts that the name of this town has 
been spelt by different writers and at different times in 
no less than 140 different ways. The two extremes, 
however, of the modes of spelling and pronouncing it ap- 
pear to have been these — Bromwycham and Bermynge- 
ham : which is the right it is difficult to determine, but 
perhaps, in point of antiquity, the former has the pre- 
ference, though the latter has prevailed at very distant 
periods. It has always been pronounced by the mass 
of the population Brummejum or Brummagem ; and in 
imitation of the supposed more ancient spelling, the 
late Dr. Parr and more than one eminent literary man 
of the present day pronounce it as if written Bromi- 
cham. Hutton derives the name from Brom, the Saxon 
spelling for the shrub broom, wich y or ivic y a village, a 
fortress, and various other things, and ham, the common 
Saxon termination expressive of residence. Birming- 
ham, therefore, according to Hutton, signifies a resi- 
dence on Broom-hill or in Broom village. That the 
consonant ought to precede the vowel in the first syl- 
lable of the word in question may be inferred from the 
fact of the antiquity of this mode, its common use, as 
well as the circumstance of there being in the neigh- 
bourhood of the town two Bromwichs and one Broms- 
grove. Some writers derive Birmingham from the 
Roman, others from the Celtic or British, and a few, 
we believe, contend that it is composed of both lan- 
guages, including Saxon and Danish. To us all their 
speculations appear to be vague and frivolous. 

Digitized by 




[January 31, 

The antiquity of the Cornish tin-mines and the com- 
mercial intercourse which the worker* of those mines 
held with the Phenicians, who brought hither the pro- 
ductions of the East to be exchanged for the mineral 
treasures of the aboriginal islanders, are considered by 
some as matters of history. But for the raising the 
tin ore and the operations of smelting, hammering, 
cutting, shaping, and conveyance, machinery of some 
kind must have been used, and a harder substance than 
tin must have been used as tools; and thus we are 
thrown back into speculations on the pre-existenee, or 
at least co existence of iron mines, and the manufacture 
of implements of iron. 

When Julius Caesar invaded this island, the Britons 
resisted him with that formidable engine the war- 
chariot, having a sharp blade, somewhat resetting 
that of a scythe, projecting horizontally from each 
wheel ; and this, to say nothing of their spears, swords, 
shields, and implements of husbandry, is another and 
direct evidence of British iron manufacture at a period 
of which no historical records of it have been preserved. 
Camden quotes a Roman orator of the fourth century 
who, in an address to Constantius, the father of Con- 
st amine, deplores the loss the Roman empire would 
sustain by the abandonment of Britain as "a land full 
of mines and veines of met all." From such evidence 
of the antiquity of iron manufacture in Britain we are 
naturally led into inquiries respecting the sources of 
the material itself: and no other district offering such 
ancient and extensive traces of iron-mining operations ; 
such extensive forests, converted into charcoal ; such 
mounds of cinders to testify the ancient labours of 
smithery as the district surrounding Birmingham, to 
that district must he assigned the earliest honours of 
metallic handicraft in Britain, a distinction of which 
modern discoveries in machinery, and the greatest per- 
fection in every branch of the ait, confirm the justice. 
** Upon the borders of the parish," says Hutton, 
" stands Aston Furnace, appropriated for melting iron- 
stone and reducing it into pigs ; — this has the appear- 
ance of great antiquity. From the melted ore in this 
subterranean region of infernal aspect is produced a 
calx or cinder, of which there is an enormous mountain. 
A few years ago a jeweller cut and polished some 
cinders from this place, and set them in ring?, brooches, 
and other articles of jewellery, as fragments of Pom- 
pey's Pillars much money was made before the fraud 
was discovered. From an attentive survey the observer 
would suppose so prodtgions a heap could not ac- 
cumulate in one hundred generations ; however, it 
shows no perceptible addition in the age of man. This 
place is now changed into a paper manufactory. 

" There is also a common of vast extent, called Wed- 
nesbury Old Field, seven miles from Birmingham, in 
which are the vestiges of many hundreds of coal-pits, 
Jong in disuse, which the curious antiquarian would 
deem as long ia sinking as the mountain of cinders in 

Antiquarians dais the period of the existence of 
Birmingham, as a market-town, prior to the Roman 
invasion. The charters lor the market and fairs have 
been renewed at different periods, by both Saxon and 
Danish kings, which show an increase in population 
and importance ; but the market-day has never been 
changed : it has always been Thursday. 

Birmingham is situated in nearly the centre of the 
flaxon kingdom of Mercia, the northern boundary of 
which was the H umber, the southern the Thames, the 
western the Severn, and the eastern Norfolk and the 
German Ocean. The founder of this kingdom and its 
first king was Cridda,a Saxon military adventurer, who 
#a%e Birmingham, in 685, to one of his lieutenants, of 
♦he name of Ulwine, a promomen, all the corruptions of 
which are included in the now common surname of Allen. 

The Aliens possessed Birmingham until William U* 
Norman introduced the feudal law into Jhis country, 
and usurped absolute dominion over all private as we 
as public lands and other property. In his arbitrary 
division of the land into baronies, he gave Birmingham 
with all its rights, dependencies, and immunities to one 
of his Norman followers, of the name of William Fiu 
A use ul ph. The Aliens of Birmingham, in commoc 
with the other English gentry of that period, were 
forced to bend under the yoke of Norman usurpation, 
and in heu of their hereditary claims, were compelled 
to the alternative of either submitting to a degrading 
vassalage, or to hold their ancient patrimony by mili- 
tary tenure. They preferred the latter, retaining 1 also 
their residen ce on the Birmingham estate* and became 
the knights or servers to their superiors, the Barons 
Fitz Ausculph, who successively held their court a: 
Dudley Castle. The manor was held in regular suc- 
cession by this family till the reign of Henry VII!., 
when Edward de Birmingham, having peaceably 
enjoyed the family honours and estates till 1537. 
was suddenly deprived of both, through the machi- 
nations of John Dudley Lord Lisle, (the then occu- 
pant of Dudley Castle and its princely domains) who 
afterwards became Duke of Northumberland in the 
time of Edward VI. The melancholv story is re- 
lated in ' Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire. 
Northumberland coveted the •manor of Birmingham, 
and sounded Edward de Birmingham respecting 
the disposal of it; but the latter being in no 
need of money, and having a natural objection to 
alienate a property which had been in the possession of 
his family for many centuries, the Duke's overtures 
were rejected. Upon this, he resolved on the execution 
of a project which has seldom been exceeded in the 
annals of infamy ; which was to hire some villains to 
perform the ceremony of a highway robbery on one of 
their own fraternity on a public highway, at a moment 
when Edward de Birmingham should be passing*, so 
that it might be sworn he was present as a confederate. 
By this clumsy contrivance, and on such evidence, was 
the lineal descendant of a thousand years of honourable 
ancestry convicted of a highway robbery ! < 

Hints were then of course thrown out that an igno- 
minious death might be averted by making over the 
manor of Birmingham to the Duke, who would use 
his influence with the king to save the culprit's life. 
With this impudent proposal the hapless Edward felt 
it necessary to comply, with a reservation of 40/. per 
annum for the future support of himself and his wife. 

Thus ended the importance of the ancient and 
honourable family of De Birmingham : and in a few 
years aftewards [1st Mary, 1553] Northumberland 
himself paid the forfeit of his own head for treason. 

But this execution, like many others of those times, was 
the effect rather of accident, caprice, or some wild and bar- 
barous notion of personal vengeance, than of any discri- 
minating and active principle of Justice in the breast of 
the sovereign. On the attainder and execution of Nor- 
thumberland, the estate fell to the crown ; and Queen 
Mary, instead of returning the property to the wronged 
and despoiled family of Birmingham, conveyed it to a 
Warwickshire family of the name of Marrow, in whose pos- 
session it continued till the beginning of the last century, 
when, the possessors being all females, they sold it to 
Doctor Sherlock, Bishop of London, who in 1746 re- 
sold it to Thomas Archer, of Umberslade, in Warwick- 
shire, from whom it descended to Andrew Lord Archer, 
who died in 1778, leaving three daughters, co-heiresses, 
one of whom was married to the Earl of 1*1) mouth, 
another to Christopher Musgrave, Esa., of the county 
of Sussex, by whom the manor is still neld. The most 
important of the manorial rights, the market tolls, were 
purchased, a few years ago, by the Commissioner of 

Digitized by 



lTlfe Pfetftf* MAGAfcWB. 


the Birmingham Street Acts, for the benefit of the 
town, for (he sum of 12,500/., and are now supposed 
to be worth 45,000?. 

The locality of the manorial residence of the original 
Lords de Birmingham, as moated round, in .the Sartort 
times, and inhabited by them and their successors, was 
at the southern extremity of the town, below the church 
of St. Martin. Letand visited Birmingham ift 1 539, 
but his description does not include the manor-house 
or castle, as Hutton calls it, which Was a moated resi- 
dence standing near the old chufclj, the site of which 
is now used as a beast market. 

<c I came through a pretty street,'* he says, u aS ever 
I entred into Bermigham towne. This street, as I 
remember, is called Dirtey [Dentend]. In it dwell 
smithes and cutlers, and there is a brooke that divideth 
this streete from Bermigham, and it is an hamlet or 
member belonginge to the parish therebye. (Aston). 
" There is at the end of Dirtey a propper chappell, 
and mansion-house of tymber hard on the ripe (ripd, a 
bank,) as the brook runneth downe; and as I went 
through the ford by the bridge, the water ran downe 
on the righte hand a few miles lower goeth into Tame, 
rlpa dextra, 

'* This brooke, above Dirtey, breaketh into two armes, 
that a little beneath the bridge close again. This brooke 
riseth, as some say, four or*five miles above Bermigham, 
towards Black Hilles. 

" The beauty of Bermigham, a good market towne 
in the extreapae parts of Warwickshire, is one Street 
going up alonge, almost from the left ripe of the brook 
up a meane hill, by the length of a quarter of # a mile. 
I saw but one paroch church in the towne. There be 
many smithes in the towne, that used to make knives 
and all mannour of cuttinge tooles, and many lorinerS, 
that make bittes, and a great many naylors, so that a 
great part of the town is maintained by smithes who 
have (heir iron and sea-coal out of Staffordshire." 

On referring to the view we have prefixed of Bir- 
mingham as it appeared in 1640, we find the general 
aspect of the town remained without much visible 
alteration for the space of 100 years after the descrip- 
tion given by Leland, and affords a very humble con- 
trast to the prospect of Birmingham as viewed from 
nearly the same spot, an engraving of which we give 
in the present Number. 

As a continuation of the general history of Birming- 
ham, it may here be mentioned that Ring Charles I. 
imposed his obnoxious tax under the name of " ship- 
money," the inhabitants of Birmingham opposed the 
royal cause with persevering energy and various success. 
Adjoining Birmingham is the parish of Edgbaston, (a 
part of the present borough) which in 1643 probably 
did not contain twenty houses. It is now occupied by 
the villas of the rich manufacturers of the town. In 
this village there was, in 1642, a moated mansion 
called Edgbaston House. We learn from Dugdale 
that this house was garrisoned for the Parliament, and 
, commanded by a person of the name of Pox. 

The history of Birmingham, as the Midland metro- 
|>olis of art and manufacture, may be divided into three 
i periods. The first period may be supposed to have 
terminated at about the restoration of King Charles II. 
Down to this time (the Restoration) though Birmingham 
had been a manufacturing town from unknown anti- 
' quity, her artisans, in general, kept themselves within 
t the Smoke of their forges, to execute such orders for 
j implements of war, and husbandry, carpenters' and 
if other tools, khchen utensils, and Such articles as might 
y be periodically ordered of them, by those who required 
them, or by merchants or their itinerant agents. 
At the Restoration, therefore, may t>e said to commence 
% the second period of the manufacturing history of Bir- 
mingham, when a travelled king and a luxurious court 

introduced a taste for article* of * raorfe elegant and 
costly description than those that had been previously 
iit demand, and Birmingham naturally took the lead 
in the manufacture of them. Thus she proceeded m 
her prosperous career of industry and skill to that im- 
portant «ra — the discovery of the steam-engine. The 
magnitude and commercial importance of the works 
consequent oh this discovery* as well as some of their 
effects o« the progress of art, are described in the 
account of Soho, published in our Magazine of Sep- 
tember the 5th, 1885; but we shall here enter into 
some farther details of the modern manufactures of 
Birmingham, as illustrative of the third or modern; 
period of her manufacturing history. 

In the meantime we may herd be allowed to state 
the curious fact that, notwithstanding the constant 
increase of Birmingham in extent, population, and 
manufacturing importance, she continued to a late 
period iit a state of comparative insignificance as a 
thoroughfare or road town. It has already been noticed 
that Speed never mentioned Birmingham in his notices 
of Warwickshire; nor, in fact, did any of the principal 
roads pass through it: and within the memory of 
persons now living, letters from the north were directed 
44 To Birmingham, near Wednesbury," while some of 
the London and other southern correspondents super- 
scribed their letter " To A. B., Birmingham, Warwick- 
shire." And one adds, " N.B. Turn at Cotesbrtl." 
Wednesbury was then a post town, while Birmingham, 
though a more important and populous place, was not, 
from the circumstance of its not being situated upon 
arty of the great roads. 

One of the most flourishing manufactures of Brr- 
mingham was that of the shoe-buckle. When thin 
ornament was in fashion, about 2,500,000 pairs were 
annually made here, giving employment to about 
5000 artisans. The buckle was worn for about a 
century in England. It came in not much larger than 
a horse-bean, with the Prince of Orange ; and from 
having taken all shapes, it expanded out into such 
unnatural, ugly, and troublesome disproportions, that 
the eye rejected it and the foot spurned it away, and so 
it went out of fashion. 

The button manufacture, having the same foundation 
in utility and vanity, but without the liability to ugli- 
ness and disproportion, which appears to have attended 
the buckle, continues to be an important branch of 
Birmingham manufacture. The manufacture of buttons 
comprises about sixty separate branches of handicraft, 
many of which are assigned to females and boys; 
The sweepings of the manufactory of the late Mr. 
Taylor, where the costly metals were used, receiving 
the filings and ttihiote particles which fty off during the 
various- operations, are said to hare been sold annually 
to the sweep-washer for 1000/. In the manufactory of 
Messrs. Heatort forty tons of btttton-shanks have beef! 
made annually ; and the whole number of shanks made 
annually in Birmingham is estimated at 600,000,000. 

Swords are supposed to have been made in Birming- 
ham in the time of the Britons; but fire-arms are a, 
comparatively modern invention, and the manufacture 
of them appears to have been almost, if not entirely, 
confined to London down to the revolution in 1688. 
The society of gun-makers was incorporated in the 1 9th 
Charles I. (16*88) under the name of the Master, War* 
dens, and Society of Gun-makers of the City of Lon- 
don, from whose manufactories the parliamentary force* 
in the civil wars were supplied with fire-arms. But 
soon after the Restoration, this branch of manufacture 
naturally found its way to Birmingham. 

It appears that English manufactured fire-arms were 
not held in very high estimation in the early part of 
the reign of William III.; for it is said, that being 
heard at one of his levees to eipress much regret tlnrt 

G 2 

Digitized by 




[Jawuamt 31 

be was obliged to import fire-arms from Holland at 
much expense and with great difficulty. Sir Richard 
Newdigate, one of the members of Parliament for the 
county of Warwick, being present, opportunely recom- 
mended his Birmingham constituents to his Majesty's 
notice as being fully competent, if duly patronized, to 
obviate the difficulty complained of. The king imme- 
diately despatched Sir Richard Newdigate into War- 
wickshire with an extensive order, and Birmingham 
has ever since been as famous for the manufactory ot 
fire-arms as for all other ingenious productions. 

No adequate provision of fire-arms being made by. 
the English Ordnance Department of the last century, 
the emergency of 1793 was lo an alarming degree un- 
prepared for. Lieut -Col. Miller was employed for a 
year or two conveying orders to the different gun- 
manufactories in Germany, to procure arms for the 
British forces. But the manufacture of fire-arms was 
subsequently carried to such an extent in England, that 
from 1905 to 1815, 3,079,120 gun-barrels and 2,935,787 
locks, for the use of government, were manufactured in 
Birmingham alone; of which, 1,827,S89 were com- 
pleted as musquets, carbines, &e. The supply was in 
general 30,000 stand of arms per m'onth, or two in a 
minute ! This number is exclusive of fire-arms manu- 
factured there for the East India Company's service 
during the same period, to the number, as it has been 
calculated, of about 1,000,000 : and exclusive, also, of 
trading guns, fowling-pieces, &c. These facts are in- 
teresting, not only as regards the manufacturing capa- 
bilities of Birmingham, but as shewing the amazing 
power of the British government in having such a 
manufactory in the centre of the kingdom, from which 
supplies of arms can be distributed in all directions, for 
defence or annoyance, far exceeding in amount, as it 
appears by official returns, all the fire-arms manufac- 
tured in the chief manufactories of France, from the 
banks of the Rhine to the foot of the Pyrenees. 

On the superiority of this destructive engine of war- 
fare, as manufactured in Britain, and wielded by the 
British soldier, M. Dupin makes the following remarks : 
44 Besides the attention bestowed upon the musquet 
itself, every expedient for increasing the effect of its 
fire is likewise sought by the British. The locks of the 
English musquets are of better workmanship than 
those hitherto manufactured by any other nation of 
Europe ; they will less frequently miss fire upon a 
given number of rounds than all the rest. This 
applies equally to the goodness of the fine powder, 
which possesses great strength, burns without leaving 
either foulness or residue, that, by adhering to the 
lower part of the hammer, could fall among the prim- 
ing and prevent its taking fire. With the union of 
these advantages, let us suppose an infantry, whose 
characteristic solidity and calmness have received the 
aid of discipline in rendering them immovable ; — let 
us imagine them placed in such a position, as those 
always chosen for English lines, well situated by nature 
and fortified by art, — let such an infantry receive 
orders to await the attack of their enemy on the ground 
they occupy. They commence their fire in two ranks 
as soon as the assailing columns, after having suffered 
all the fire of the artillery converging upon them, 
arrive within good range of the English musquet. 
Let us conceive the effects of fire maintained with 
resolute calmness, which enables the soldier deliberately 
to load his arms, take steady aim, and use activity with- 
out haste, and we shall then form an idea of the power 
of the English line — even of two ranks only — at the 
moment most critical for its safety." 

The Ordnance Department purchased some land in 
Banbury-street, Birmingham, on the bank of the canal, 
and erected a proof house for fire-arms, with an in- 
spect injr nx>m, for the purpose of proving, inspeciing, 

and marking, according to tjie provisions of an Act of 
Parliament, all gun-barrels, locks, bayonets, &c, fabri- 
cated in the town. This establishment was incorporated 
by the same act, and consists of the lords-lieutenant of 
the counties of Warwick, Worcester, and Stafford, the 
members of parliament for those counties, the high and 
low bailiffs of Birmingham, the acting magistrates within 
seven miles, and fifteen individuals connected with the 
gun manufacture in Birmingham. We will here give 
a description of the Birmingham proof house, as trans- 
lated from M. Dupin's work 'On the Military Forces 
of Great Britain/ 

44 The spot on which all fire-arms fabricated in Bir- 
mingham and its vicinity are proved, whether intended 
for the state or for the purposes of commerce, is a rect- 
angular space, inclosed by walls from four to six yards 
in height. To this place there is but one entrance, in 
front of which is an exterior court, surrounded by a 
grating, and containing several pieces of cannon in 
battery, placed there merely to indicate that it is a 
military establishment. The buildings connected with 
the site for proving arms form three of the four sides 
of the interior court; atone extremity of which, and 
detached, is a small powder magazine. One part ot 
the range of buildings is occupied by offices ; on the 
right, as you enter, is a foundry for balls, and on the 
left, the apartment for proving the arms. 

44 You first cross two ante-rooms, where the arms are 
charged ; you then pass into a small place, where they 
set fire to the powder by means of a red-hot iron rod; 
this is inserted through a small hole in the wall which 
encloses the room where the barrels are set for the 
proof. All the interior of this room is lined with 
plates of cast iron, from three quarters of an inch to 
an inch in thickness ; the door and window-shutters of 
the apartment are also of cast iron. 

The barrels are set in two iron stocks ; the upper 
surface of one of which has a small gutter, to contain 
the train of powder ; on this train the barrels rest with 
their touch-holes downwards, and in the rear of the 
breeches of the barrels is one mass of gravel, while a 
second is formed before the muzzles of the pieces under 
proof to receive the balls. When the train of powder 
is laid, and the gun or pistol -barrels laid on the stocks, 
the window-shutters are closed, and fire is set to the 
train, as already mentioned, from without. From the 
complete mode in which every aperture in the proving- 
room is closed up, scarcely a sound escapes when the 
explosion takes place ; immediately afterwards the win- 
dow-shutters are opened, the smoke dissipates, and 
they find in the mass of gravel the barrels which have 
been buried in it by the force of the recoil. 

44 The barrels are all proved with a double charge of 
powder and ball, and are not examined until twenty- 
four hours after the proof of firing. It is required 
that the salt-petre shall not appear on any part of the 
exterior surface ; the stamp is then set upon those 
barrels that are good, while the bad ones are broken to 
pieces in a vice, by means of a machine prepared for 
the purpose." 

The limited extent of this article precludes the pos- 
sibility of giving anything like a detailed account of 
the Birmingham manufactories; for to explain the 
mechanism, powers, and productions of the steam- 
engine, the rolling-mill, the lathe, the stamp, the press, 
and the draw- bench would alone fill volumes. But we 
may give a sketch of the former state of the iron- works 
in the neighbourhood on which the business of tbe 
town so materially depends. 

Dr. Plot, in his * Natural History of Staffordshire,' 
published in 1686, after an exulting description of the 
then existing mode of operation on the iron ore of the 
county, makes a contemptuous allusion to the proceed- 
ing of " our ancestors, who in their imperfect way, 

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made at one furnace 100 lbs. of iron per day." 
This imperfect way consisted, as he tells us, in the 
attempted urging of the heat to the required tem- 
perature, by the strength or weight of the workman, 
through the means of "foot-blasts, or Meddles,*' acting 
on some kind of bellows; the power of the horse, or of 
the dammed up stream, not havjng been yet applied. 
The improved mode of working brings us down to the 
era when Plot himself visited and described the coun- 

try — the reign of James II. ; when, as the doctor de- 
clares, a single furnace, by the assistance of " two vast 
pair of bellows, compressed alternately by a water 
wheel," would produce " two or three tons of iron in 
twenty-four hours ;" and when " the new invention of 
slitting mills " seemed to leave nothing to be desired. 
These glories of the art are declared in full by the 
doctor, who concludes, as well he might, " The iron- 
works are now exercised in perfection," One of the 




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[January 31, 

most remarkable of the contrasts which exists between 
the state of the trade at that period and at present, as 
described in the work which we are quoting, (Smith's 
4 Birmingham and its Vicinity/) is afforded by the wide 
distance at the former period of the several establish- 
ments for smelting the ore. Chareaal was employed 
for the purpose ; and it was necessary to establish the 
furnaces in neighbourhoods conti anally becoming fewer 
where charcoal could bo obtained, and where, at the 
same time, a stream existed with sufficient fall to turn 
the wheel that should act on the bellows, raise the 
hammer, or whirl the rollers ; and the performance of 
one of these operations was generally as mnch sS could 
be effected by the gravitating force of the water. From 
the operation of these causes, the furnace was of neces- 
sity placed at a distance from the mine, and the forge 
and the mill (unless in the case of very powerful 
streams) were far separated from the furnace and from 
each other, in order to keep the great consuming powers 
apart. These indispensable requisites of wood and 
water induced the establishment of iron furnaces in 
situations whence, as soon as coke and steam super- 
seded their use, all trace of the iron manufacture 

The eighteenth century was drawing to its close, and 
still no considerable change in this state of things had 
taken place. Previously to the year 1780, the Staf- 
fordshire mining country might still have been viewed 
in Dr. Plot's portrait of it ; " vast bellows, alternately 
compressed," were still employed, with indifferent suc- 
cess, to produce the continuous blast at the furnaces ; 
the atmosphere was comparatively guiltless of smoke : 
the ore, when raised, was borne to the nearest wood- 
lands, in order to have the benefit of the use of char- 
coal. This fuel, from its lightness and cumbersomeness, 
was more difficult of conveyance in fitting quantities, 
through the deep and narrow roads of the time, than 
was the ponderous, compact, and more manageable 
mineral itself. The removal was therefore still made, 
and along the profound lanes, of which here and there 
a few traces still remain, the ore was conveyed in 
various directions towards the existing furnaces, on the 
backs of horses, perpetually moving in long array, to 
keep up the indispensable though dribbling supply. 
And such was the tranquil character of the trade in 
those days ; so little of the stirring competition of later 
years existed that the additional price laid on the 
wrought material was un thought of. Capitals, too, 
were smaller than at present ; and a furnace, a forge, or 
a rolling and slitting mill was, each singly, a sufficient 
undertaking for an individual speculator. In France 
the absence of coal still induces similar removals, which 
have to a certain degree a similar effect hi keeping up 
the price of iron in that country. 

Whatever may be the exigencies of state, the fluctua- 
tions of trade, or the caprices of fashion, Birmingham 
has now reached such a state of superiority in the 
manufacture of articles of indispensable utility, as well 
as of those connected with the elegancies of life, that 
her future progressive importance is a matter of moral 
certainty. Should war again break out, from Birming- 
ham the great demand for instruments of warfare must 
be supplied ; and thus a state of things that must be 
more or less disadvantageous to most other places, will 
add to the manufacturing importance, the wealth, and 
extent of Birmingham. Should peace happily prevail, 
and population continue to increase, the necessary im- 
plements for a more perfect cultivation of the soil than 
has hitherto been in practice, will not be found the 
least important amongst the objects of her future skill 
and industry. 

Birmingham is With good reason reckoned a healthy 
town, containing at all times as many instances of lon- 
gevity as can be exhibited in any Other district in the 

kingdom. There were but few cases of cholera fn Bir- 
mingham, though that dreadful epidemic raged in the 
neighbouring villages of Staffordshire to a great extent 
The smoke of the town, issuing from the chimneys : .; 
the furnaces, makes a formidable appearance in a fh>- 
tant view, but there is little real atmospheric impurit* 
to be perceived on a nearer approach. This is pa Kn- 
owing to the jreat height of those chimneys, but more 
especially to the sort of coal used, it being lighter than 
Newcastle coal, and consequently depositing fewer of 
those particles of black which thicken the air of London 
and other places. 

No part of the town lies on a flat surface. The river 
Rea, being too insignificant to hold out any induce- 
ment for the formation of wharfs, the builders, began 
early to spread themselves up the acclivity, commanding 
a southern aspect; so that, with the exception of the 
parts occupying the narrow spaces between those de- 
clivities which the progressive extent of the town nlri- 
mately reached, the town is built either upon or on the 
sides of hills : consequently, a heavy shower of ram of 
twenty minutes' duration will completely clean&e it, or 
such moisture as is not carried off by drainage, rs as 
effectually taken off by evaporation, or by absorption 
into the red and sandy soil which prevails in the neigh- 
bourhood. Built on this bed of sand, Birmingham, 
before the practice of paving and draining came into 
use, must have been comparatively a clean and dry 
town. ~. Until lately, the foot-ways in the principal 
streets were paved with stones found in the neighbour- 
ing fields. Compared with the thickly-populated parts 
of London, very few of the Birmingham people reside 
in cellars, nor do families live in lodgings, but in gene- 
ral each house is occupied by a separate family. Con- 
sequently, the town spreads over a vast extent of ground, 
the boundaries of the borough being about twenty miles 
in extent. The suburbs are very beautiful, but the 
most interesting parts, lying out of the great roads, are 
but little seen by strangers. 

This account of Birmingham, which will be con- 
cluded in a succeeding Supplement, it is thought will 
be agreeably illustrated by the following notices of the 
appearance and manners of the adjoining districts, 
which we derive from two sources. The following para- 
graph is from Smith's • Birmingham and its Vicinity:' 

The person who now for the first time traverses our 
mining counties, with an eye to their peculiarities, is 
struck with astonishment at the extent and magnitude 
of the operations performed. He sees himself sur- 
rounded by unnumbered clouds of smoke which affect 
the entire atmosphere. He discovers buildings of pe- 
culiar and unwonted form — massive and Egyptian- 
looking pyramids of masonry, accompanied by chimneys 
which emulate in altitude and tenuity the tallest obelisk. 
Here and there he sees protruded the mighty arm of the 
giant of art, the potent steam-engine, whirling the 
heavy fly which regulates the motions of the whole 
attached machinery ; while the sky is crossed by the 
light tracery of wheels and ropes, adapted to the pur- 
poses of the mines, both right and left of the moving 
power. The prospect, where the view is not impeded 
by the flat-topped mountainous ridges of cinder, is 
varied by numerous clustering hamlets, or assemblages 
of small houses, the habitations of the countless labourers 
and others called into activity by the neighbouring tooth, 
interspersed here and there with modern mansions of 
superior pretension, oddly placed; or with dwellings of 
a still less congruous character ; curious specimens of 
fretted brick-work, embroidered chimney Stacks and 
chevroned gables ; or black and white-timbered grange- 
houses, the relics of an agricultural age, invaded by 
the encroachments of smoke and bustle ; all intermixed 
with a moderate supply of green or greenish fields, 
dotted occasionally With JOoty sheep or Cattle. Canals 

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with all their appurtenances intersect the region in 
every direction, and strange noises from every quarter 
are wafted to the ear. If the visiter venture to explore 
the penetralia of those establishments whose exterior 
has attracted his attention, he notes with admiration 
the fiery gleams, the rivulets of molten metal, the 
deafening roar of the seeming magic blast, which 
urges the fires to an intensity sufficient to u melt the 
stubborn ore ;" the motion, the whirl, the power of 
machinery, the clangour of perpetually acting hammers, 
the labourers hurrying to and fro, the crowd without 

The description of the Staffordshire Collieries which 
we are about to give, was published in Knight's 4 Quar- 
terly Magazine ' in 1 822 : — 

Many of my readers must recollect crossing, in the 
route from London to Holyhead, a miserable tract of 
country commencing a few miles beyond Birmingham 
and continuing to Wolverhampton. If the volumes of 
sulphureous vapour which I shall not compliment with 
the name of smoke, permitted them at intervals to 
u view the dismal situation waste and wild," they would 
observe the surface of the desert around them scarred 
and broken, as if it had just reposed from the heaviugs 
of an earthquake. Now and then they would shudder 
as they passed the mouth of a deserted mine left without 
any guard but the wariness of the passenger. Some- 
times they would see a feeble and lambent flame, (called 
by the miners the wild fire,) issue from chaps in the 
parched earth. It is self-kindled by a process familiar 
to that chemist, and feeds on gas evolved by the refuse 
of the coal that has been left in immense caverns, 
hollowed by the labours of ages, over which the car- 
riage of the unconscious traveller rolls for many miles. 
They would be struck also with the sight of houses 
from which the treacherous foundations have gradually 
shrunk, leaving them in such a state of obliquity with 
the horizon, as if they stood only to evince the con- 
tempt of themselves and their inhabitants for the laws 
of gravitation. 

If the traveller, in addition to these attacks on his 
organs of smell and of vision, has nerve to inspect more 
closely the tremendous operations which are going on 
around him as far as the eye can reach, he must learn/ 
to endure the grating of harsh wheels, the roaring of 
the enormous bellows which, set in motion by the 
power of steam, urge the tires of the smelting furnace 
till they glow with almost the bright brilliance of the 
noon-day sun. He must learn to care little for the 
sparks which fly from the half-molten iron, under the 
action of the forge, in torrents of burning rain, while 
the earth literally trembles beneath the strokes of a 
mightier hammer than Thor himself ever wielded against 

But my present business is with the human part of 
the spectacle. The miners, or, as they call themselves, 
the colliers, are a curious race of men, and the study of 
their natural history would be replete with information 
and entertainment. Nothing can well be more uncouth 
than their appearance. Their figures are tall and 
. robust in no ordinary degree, but their faces, when, by 
, any accident, the coating of black dirt in which they 
are cased is partially rubbed off, show ghastly pale, and 
even at an early age they are ploughed in the deepest 
furrows. Their working dress consists of a tunic, or 
short frock, and trowsers of coarse flannel. Their 
holiday clothes are generally of cotton velvet, or velve- 
teen as I believe the drapers call it, decorated with a 
t profusion of shining metal buttons; but they seem 
principally to pique themselves on their garters, which 
are made of worsted, and very gay in colour : these they 
j tie op, so that a great part, a* if by accident, appears 
I below the knee. Their labour is intense. They stand, 
i sit, or crouch for hours, often in the most irksome pos- 
, ture, undermining rocks of coal with a pickaxe. Not 

unfrequently they are crushed beneath the weight of 
the superincumbent mass, or suffocated by a deleterious 
exhalation, which they call by the expressive name of 
the " choke damp,*' and sometimes they are scorched 
by the explosion of the hydrogen which is generated in 
the depths of the mine — a disaster from which the 
beautiful invention of Sir Humphry Davy, the safety- 
lamp, does not always preserve them. This evil is not, 
however, attributable to any imperfection in the instru- 
ment, but to the astonishing recklessness of the men, 
who are with difficulty prevailed upon to observe the 
plainest and most simple directions even in matters of 
life and death. 

The high cheek bones and the dialect of these people 
seem to argue them of northern descent. Perhaps in 
some remote age they may have swarmed from the 
Northumbrian hive to seize on the riches of the less 
adventurous or intelligent Southrons. Be that as it 
may, they have clearly no similarity either in speech or 
feature with the peasantry of the neighbouring districts. 
They have also manners and customs peculiar to them- 
selves. One in particular is the non-observance, or at 
least the very irregular observance, of the common rule 
for the transmission of the surname. What rule they 
follow I cannot say, but it often happens that a son has 
a surname very different from that of his father : some- 
times a man will have two sets of names, as John Smith 
and Thomas Jones, and that without any intention of 
concealment ; but, except on high occasions, as a 
marriage or a christening, they rarely use any appella- 
tive except the cognomen or nick-name. The Latin 
word is the best, because the English implies some- 
thing inconsistent with the staid and regular usage of 
the epithet by all persons connected with the subject of 
it, his wife, his children, and himself included. 

I knew an apothecary in the collieries, who, as a 
matter of decorum, always entered the real names of 
his patients in his books : that is, when he could ascer- 
tain them. But they stood there only for ornament ; 
for use he found it necessary to append the soubriquet, 
which he did with true medical formality, as for in- 
stance, •* Thomas Williams, vulgo diet. Old Puff." 
Serious inconvenience not unfrequently arises on occa- 
sions where it is necessary to ascertain the true name 
and reduce it to writing, not only from the utter igno- 
rance displayed by the owner of all the mysteries of 
spelling, but from his incapacity to pronounce the word, 
so as to give the slightest idea of what its orthography 
ought to be. Clergymen have been known to send 
home a wedding party in despair after a vain essay to 
gain from the vocal organs of the brjde or bridegroom, 
or their friends, a sound by way of name which any 
known alphabet had the power of committing to paper. 
The habit of using the cognomen is so common, that 
the miners apply the cusfom to strangers with an un- 
consciousness of offence quite classic. If a traveller 
should be hailed by the epithet " nosey," he should re- 
collect that Ovid endured the same treatment in the 
court of Augustus without dreaming of an affront, and 
he may even flatter himself that he bears some outward 
resemblance to the great poet. 

Indeed, in all communications with persons of higher 
rank, the miners preserve a bold simplicity of manners 
far different, at least in my mind, from insolence. I 
recollect passing through the little town of Bilston at 
the time of the first abdication of Bonaparte, and 
being accosted by one of a group of colliers, who, with 
black faces and folded arms, were discussing the events 
of the day, with an interrogation, which, imitated in 
print, might stand thus: " Oy say* what dost thee 
think o' the paice, Beoots?" — which being rendered 
into our language is, " I say, what dost thou think of 
the peace, Boots?'* My boots were, I suppose, that 
part of my dress by which I was most conspicuously 
distinguished from the natives. This I understood as 

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L J ax u a ii. 3!, 1S3S. 

a friendly invitation to a conference on the state of 
affairs, and my feelings were no more hurt by the 
designation bestowed on me than those of Hercules 
ever were by the epithet Claviger. 

But I had made this race of people in some sort my 
study. I remember once mounting rather hastily the 
outside of a stage-coach which was passing through the 
coal district, and setting myself down in the first place 
that offered itself, without taking time to reconnoitre. 
When I had opportunity for inspection, I found at my 
right an old man with a rope coiled round him like a 
belt, by which my practised eye at once recognised him 
for a canal boatman, carrying home his towing-line. 
On my left was a personage whose dress was not a little 
equivocal, consisting of a man's hat and coat, with 
something like petticoats below. The mysterious effect 
of this epicene costume was heightened by the wearer's 
complexion, which reminded the spectator of dirty 
wash-leather. A short pipe adorned the' mouth, with 
which it seemed well acquainted ; and the tout ensemble 
sat in deep silence. These diagnostics, and especially 
the last, might have imposed on a novice the belief that 
the subject of my observation was of the worthiest gen- 
der, as the grammarians uncivilly term the masculine ; 
but I knew my compagnon de voyage at a glance for 
one of the softer sex, and treated her with becoming 
attention. To all my politeness she returned little 
more than a nod and a whiff. At length my fellow 
passengers began to converse, or rather, I suppose, to 
resume a conversation which I had interrupted. The 
lady, I found, was of the same profession as the gentle- 
man on the other side — a conductor of boats. They 
appeared not to have had much, if any, previous ac- 
quaintance, but seemed drawn together by community 
of sentiment and pursuit. They were soon engaged in 
an occupation interesting alike to all ranks of society — 
namely, an inquiry into the characters of their common 
friends. As their conversation illustrates in some degree 
the manners of this people, I will give a short specimen 
of it in the original, together with a glossary for the 
benefit of the mere English reader. 

Lady.— Dun yo know Soidcn mouth* Tummy? 

Gentleman. — Eees : an' a 'neation good feller he is tow. 

Lady. — A desput quoiett mon! But he loves a sup o' 
drink. Dun yo know his woif ? 

Gentleman.— Knovr her! Ay. Her's the very devil 
when her sperit's up. 

^Lady.— Her is. Her uses that mon sheamful— her rags J 
him every neet J of her loif. 

Gentleman. — Her does. Oive known her come into the 
public ||, and call him all the neames her could lay her tongue 
tew afore all the company. Her oughts to stay till her's got 
him i'the boat, and then her mil say what her'd a moind. 
But her taks alter her feyther. 

Lady. — Hew was her feyther? 

Gentleman. — Whoy, singing Jemmy. 

Lady. — Oi don't think as how Oi ever know'd singing 
Jemmy. Was he ode Soaker's brother? 

Gentleman. — Ees, he was. He was the wickedest, 
swearinst mon H as ever I know'd. I should think as how 
he was the wickedest mon i' the wold, and say he had the 
rheumatiz so bad 1 

Many anecdotes might be collected to show the great 
difficulty of discovering a person in the Collieries with- 
out being in possession of his nickname. The follow- 
ing I received from a respectable attorney. During 
his clerkship he was sent to serve some legal process on 
a man whose name and address were given to him with 
legal accuracy. He traversed the village to which he 
had been directed from end to end without success; 
and, after spending many hours in the search, was about 
to abandon it in despair, when a young woman, who 
had witnessed his labours, kindly undertook to make 

* With the mouth aside. f Desperately quiet. . 

I Scolds outrageously. $ Night. || Public-house. 

<[[ Most given to swearing. 

inquiries for him, and began to luiil her friends for tha; 

Oi say, Buliyed, does thee know a mou noamed Adam 
Green ? 

The Bull-head was shaken in sign of ignorance. 

Loy-a-bed. dost thee ? 

Lie-a-bed's opportunities of making acquaintance 
had been rather limited, and she could not resolve the 

Stumpy (a man with a wooden leg), Cowskin, 
Spindle-shanks, Cock-eye, Pig-tail, and Yellow- belly, 
were severally invoked, but in vain, and the querist fell 
into a brown study, in which she remained for some 
time. At length, however, her eyes suddenly bright- 
ened, and, slapping one of her companions on the 
shoulder, she exclaimed, triumphantly, "Dash my wig! 
whoy he means moy feyther!" and then turning to 
the gentleman, she added, ** Yo should'n ax'd** for 
Ode Blackbird." 

Now and then, but not very frequently, groups of 
these children of nature may be seen wandering about 
the streets of Birmingham, with much the same sensa- 
tions as the Indians experience at New York or Phil- 
adelphia. It was at Birmingham that the Roscio- ma- 
nia, as Lord Byron calls it, first broke out, and in a few 
weeks indistinct rumours of Young Betty's fame caught 
some ears even in the coal-miues. One man, more 
curious or more idle than his fellows, determined to 
leave his work, and see the prodigy with his own eyes; 
and having so resolved, he proceeded, although in tbe 
middle of the week, to put on a clean shirt and a clean 
face, and would even have anticipated the Saturdays 
shaving, but he was, preserved from such extravagance 
by the motive which prevented Mrs. Gilpin from allow- 
ing the chaise to draw up to her door on the eventful 
morning of the journey, 

« . lest all 

Should say that she was proud." 

But notwithstanding this moderation he did not pass 
unobserved. The unwonted hue of the shirt and face 
were portents not to be disregarded; and he had uo 
sooner taken the road to Birmingham, than he was met 
by an astonished brother, whose amazement, when at 
last it found vent in words, produced the following dia- 
logue : Oi say, sirree, where be'st thee gwaiu*?"— 
" Oi'm agwain to Brummajum." — " What best agwain 
there for ?" — u Oi'm agwain to see the Young Rocus.'" 
— u What ? ' — " Oi tell thee Oi'm agwain to see the 
Young Rocus." — " Is it aloive? : * 

* You should have asked. f Going. 

*,* The Office of the Society tot the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge ie at 
59, Lincoln's Inu Fields. 


Printed by Wiuiam Clow** and Boat, Stanford Street. 

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OF T« 

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[February 6, 1836. 



Tar is a thick, black gum, obtained from the fir-tree 
by burning. Pitch is the name applied to the same 
article when thickened by boiling 1 . The vast forests of 
the north of Europe are necessarily the spots to which 
the manufacture of tar on an extensive scale is con- 
fined. Thus, in the year 1833, there were imported 
into Great Britain 10,152 lasts of tar, all of which, with 
the exception of 1231 lasts, came from the forests of 
northern Europe. Russia supplied us with 7980 lasts, 
Sweden 442, Denmark 415, and Norway 83. The 
duty amounted to 76011. Each last contains twelve 
barrels ; and a barrel holds about thirty gallons. The 
German name for tar is " theer," and the Swedish 
u tjara," so that the English word is clearly to be 
traced to a northern origin. 

The process of making tar was known to the Greeks, 
and has been described by Theophrastes and Dioscorides. 
Dr. Clarke, who has described the method of extracting 
tar in Russia, Sweden, and other northern countries, 
says, " There is not the smallest difference between a 
tar-work in the forests of Westro- Bothnia and those of 
Ancient Greece. The Greeks made stacks of pine, and 
having covered them with turf, they were suffered to 

Vol. V. 

burn in the same smothered manner; while the tar, 
melting, fell to the bottom of the stack, and ran out by 
a small channel cut for the purpose." 

The following is Dr. Clarke's account of tar-making 
in the north of Europe :— " The inlets of the Gulf of 
Bothnia are surrounded by noble forests, whose tall 
trees, flourishing luxuriantly, covered the soil quite 
down to the water's edge. From the most southern 
parts of Westro-Bothnia to the northern extremity of 
the Gulf, the inhabitants are occupied in the manu- 
facture of tar, proofs of which are visible in the whole 
extent of the coast. The process by which the tar is 
obtained is very simple; and as we often witnessed it, 
we shall now describe it, from a tar -work we halted to 
inspect upon the spot. The situation most favourable 
to the process is in a forest near to a marsh or bog, 
because the roots of the fir, from which tar is prin- 
cipally extracted, are always most productive in such 
places. A conical cavity is then made in the ground 
(generally in the side of a bank or sloping h\V0 ; and 
the roots of the fir, together with logs and bi\\cts °f the 
same, being neatly trussed in a stack of tfce *ame 
conical shape, are let into this cavity. TK^» ite&* ** 

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(February ft 

then dbvered with turf, to prevent the volatile parts 
from being: dissipated, which, by means of a heavy 
wooden mallet, and a wooden stamper worked separately 
by two men* is beaten down and rendered as' (irm as 
possible above the wood. The stack of billets is then 
kindled, and a slow combustion of the fir takes place, 
without flame, as in making charcoal. During this 
combustion the tar exudes ; and a cast-iron pan being 
at the bottom of the funnel, with a spout which projects 
through the side of the bank, barrels are placed beneath 
this spout to collect the fluid as it comes away. As 
fast as the barrels are filled, they are bunged and made 
ready for exportation. From this description it will be 
evident that the mode of obtaining tar is by a kind of 
distillation perdvscenxum; the turpentine, melted by the 
fire, mixing with the sap and juices of the fir, while the 
wood itself, becoming charred, is converted into char- 

CHINA.— No. IX. 
The Pktcbbb, Ok aw ob, Pbar, Giittiwo, and Rhubarb. 
The fruits of China are numerous; almost every fruit 
known in Europe is found in China ; and tnough 
generally, from tne want of a proper mode of cultivation, 
they are interior to those produced in our gardens, 
there are some which surpass anything we can produce, 
and they have many fruits which we know only by 
name. The guava, the shaddock, the mango, and the 
pine-apple they possess, in common with the inhabitants 
of our Indian possessions; but they have also some 
which are found onty in China. The letchee, a fruit 
about as large as a walnut, is said to be delicious ; it is 
frequently exported to India in a dried state, wrinkled 
like a French prune : the Chinese take it in this state 
with their tea, preferring the pleasant acid of this fruit 
to the sweetness of sugar. But the most curious of 
all the fruits of China, if all that has been said of it 
were true, is the petchee. This plant is a sort of 
water-lily, to the roots of which a white substance is 
attached, covered with a red skin ; the white substance 
is eatable, and is confidently said to have the s range 
property of rendering copper eatable. Many whimsical 
theories have been started to account for such a won- 
derful property, some chemical, and others mechanical ; 
but a French Jesuit took the more simple course of 
trying the experiment. He placed a Chinese cash in 
his mouth, enveloped in a bit of petchee, and he actually 
found that on a resolute bite with good teeth, the cash 
{ which is a very brittle cast alloy of copper) broke into 
small pieces, but thai the pieces were as far from being 
eatable as .before ; and that xhe same effect could be 
produced by enveloping the cash in a piece of leather 
sufficiently thick to preserve the teetn from injury. 
Many strange stories, if heard with similar scepticism, 
would probably be explained with equal ease. 

Though tile' orange is now completely naturalized in 
Europe, we must not' target that it was originally a 
native of China. It was brought first to Europe in 
the sixteenth century, by the Portuguese: the original 
tree from whence all the oranges in Europe have been 
produced was shown not many years since at Lisbon. 
This delicious fruit was certainly unknown to the an- 
cients, although if has been contended that the golden 
apples of the Hesperides so frequently mentioned by 
them, were nothing more than oranges ; but had this 
fruit ever grown in Europe, it is very improbable that 
a tree of such easy cultivation would have wholly 
peiished in the darkest ages, however the fruit might 
have degenerated. It is more probable that the apricot 
was the fruit so distinguished in ancient times, and the 
name (Crisomele, or golden apple) vulgarly given to 
this fruit in the south of Italy, affords some weight to 
the conjecture, the name Pdrtogallo, given to the 

Orange by the inhabitants of great part of Italy, shows 
from what part of the world thry at least received this 
valuable fruit. 

If we admit that the orange was introduced by the 
Portuguese, and was then an unknown fruit in Europe, 
it must strike us as a curious omission, that that minute 
observer Marco Polo should never have mentioned it 
though he describes several sorts of fruits, and amon^ 
others, a pears of an extraordinary size, weighing ten 
pounds a- piece, that are white in the inside like paste, 
and have a very fragrant smell." 

As the largest pears in Europe are not found to ex- 
ceed the weight of two pounds, so extraordinary a weight 
as ten was included among the exaggerations or in- 
ventions of the old Venetian ; but modern travellers have 
confirmed the fact that pears of uncommon magnitude 
are produced in the provinces of China. ** Along the 
road," says Van Braam, the Dutch envoy, " people sold 
us pears which are here very large. Yesterday I had 
one given to me, the circumference of which in its 
oblong sense, was fifteen inches and a half, by fourteen 
inches thick. This seems to be the only species of peai 
found in the northern provinces. Its colour is a beau- 
tiful golden yellow, the skin is rather hard, but the fruit 
is very juicy, melting, in the mouth, and very agreeable 
to the taste." As the pear was found in a northern 
latitude and at a poor village, it may be conceived that 
those raised in a nUd climate and for the consumption 
of a luxurious capital, might have attained the higher 
perfection mentioned by Marco Polo. De Guignes also 
describes this fruit as very large and excellent. 

Europe has received only one sort of orange from 
China, but there are many beautiful species in their 
native country which would well repay the expense of 
importation. The sort most admired by the natives 
themselves is small, smooth, and reddish ; the skin is 
very thin, and the pulp firmer than in those of our gar 
dens ; it is not divided by partitions like ours, nor does 
it so easily quit the rind. The oranges of Pokier are 
larger and of a fine red colour; these are more admired 
than the former by Europeans. Those of Canton are 
still larger and yellow ; they are usually roasted and 
filled with sugar before they are eaten. 

We must not omit to mention the far-famed ginseng, 
which the Chinese consider the most valuable pro- 
duction of nature. It is their specific for all dis- 
orders of the lungs or of the stomach, curing asthma, 
strengthening the eye-sight, renewing a worn-out con- 
stitution, and delaying the approach of old age, thus 
rivalling the professions of the most fearless quacks of 
the present day. These virtues are most probably 
over-rated, as Europeans have no\ , found the, same 
good effects from this plant as are ascribed'to^it bj the 
Chinese: we have, however, some authority for ad- 
mitting that, when fresh, ks imputed good qualities 
are not wholly imaginary. The Pere Jartoux, when 
employed in constructing a map of Tarfary by order of 
the emperor Kam-he, frequently made an infusion of 
the ginseng-leaf, or drank the decoction of its root, and 
felt himself always much better after its use; when 
exhausted by a hard day's work, by walking over the 
rugged plains, or climbing to the elevated stations 
proper for measuring extensive angles in the pro- 
secution of a great undertaking, he invariably found 
himself much relieved by this remedy. We have, how- 
ever, often found the same effect produced in England 
by two or three cups of good tea, and are inclined to 
imagine the virtues of the ginseng to be of no very 
superior stamp. The Dutch naturalists thus described 
the ginseng : — " Its name is taken from its shape, 
because it represents a man (in Chinese Gin) striding 
with his legs. It is a larger and stronger species of our 
mandrake. The dried root is of a yellow colour, 
streaked round with blatkish veins, as if drawn with 

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ink. It yields when chewed an unpleasant sweetness, 
mixed with bitterness. The Chinese will give three 
pounds of gold for one pound of it. 

To the Chinese this plant is in some measure a 
foreign production, as it is found only in Manchoo 
Tartary ; but it does not owe all its reputation to its 
distant origin ; the Tartars also prize it, and give it a 
name (Orhota) expressive of its quality as the chief of 
plants. They endeavour to procure it at the risk of 
losing their lives or liberty, equally endangered by the 
nature of the country where it is found, and by the 
policy of the Chinese government, which endeavours to 
monopolize this much esteemed production. 

A large eitent of country to the north-east of Pekin, 
covered with inaccessible mountains, and almost im- 
passable forests infested with wild beasts, and affording 
no means of subsistence, is separated from the province 
of Leao Tong by a strong barrier of stakes, always 
carefully protected by guards of Chinese soldiers who 
seize and punish unlicensed intruders : this is the native 
country of ginseng, and these precautions are considered 
necessary to preserve the valued plant from depredation. 

The above-named P&re Jartoux, while employed in the 
survey of Tartary, describes the mode of gathering the 
ginseng, as it was practised at that time ; his authority 
on this head is undeniable, as he frequently met with 
the parties of Tartars employed on the service. On 
this occasion ten thousand Tartars were commanded to 
gather all the ginseng that could be found; and after 
deducting two ounces from the quantity gathered by 
each man, they were allowed for the remainder its 
weight in pure silver. This army of botanists divided 
themselves into companies of a hundred men, with a 
chief to each company. The whole territory was then 
apportioned to the several divisions ; each division formed 
a line, and s|owly advancing, traversed tHe r~nolt por- 
tion of country allotted to it ; nearly six months were 
spent in the occupation, and the whole territory was 
thus searc hed through. This clumsy mode was probably 
adopted to give employment to a number of persons 
who might otherwise have been troublesome, as a tenth 
part of th«e number employed, if acquainted with the 
habits and localities of the plant, would have been 
more successful in discovering it. 

These Tartars had little to subsist on but the flour of 
a sort of millet-seed which they carrjed with them ; they 
slept usually under trees, merely covered with pieces of 
bark or such few clothes as they were able to carry with 
them. But few however perished on this expedition, 
and we may conclude the country, like most other moun- 
tainous tracts, to be very healthy, and proper for the 
reception of much of the surplus population of China, 
did not the peculiar policy of that Government discourage 
the residence of the people in any part of (he empire 
which might possibly bring them in contact with any 
of the nations of Europe ; and the extension of Russian 
power along the northern frontier of China, operates as 
a motive to withdraw the population as far as practi- 
cable from that quarter. 

Of the ginseng when collected the root is the only 
part preserved : these are all buried in one place 
for the space of a fortnight, when they are taken 
out, washed, and carefully cleansed from dirt by a 
brush ; they are then dipped for a moment in water 
nearly boiling, and dried over a slow fire, into which 
grains of a yellow sort of millet are thrown in order to 
communicate to the ginseng a colour admired by the 
Chinese, without which it would lose much of its 
marketable value. The root may be dried in the sun, 
and would preserve its virtues equally well, but the 
want of the favourite colour is a bar to the adoption of 
so easy and obvious a mode of preparation. 

The rhubarb, so familiar to us as a useful simple medi- 
cine, is also a production of China, It grows in most 

parts of China, but is most abundant near and beyond 
the Great Wall. The Chinese call it Tayhuan (deep yel- 
low) from its colour. Our name is of curious derivation. 
A river called Rhu runs through the sava-iv c •■ 
of the Tartars, beyond the Great Wall, and a> the -v «. 
were originally gathered for the Europeans near tin' 
stream or sent across it, the material was denominated 
Rhu-barbarus, a compound of the name of the river, 
and the barbarous state of the country. Rhubarb 
found its way into Europe by land, by Kaskar, Astracan 
and Russia, or through Thibet and Persia, whence the 
Venetians carried it into Italy. The Dutch were ac- 
customed to bring it by sea to Batavia, and i hence to 
Holland. The men who hawk it about our streets, 
sometimes in a sort of oriental dress, are chiefly Jews 
from the coast of Barbary. 

It is scarcely necessary to describe a plant which may 
be found in nearly all our gardens, j.nd the stalks of 
which we use for puddings and pies. It is the root 
that contains the medicinal property, which our climate 
is not suited to develope. 

When the Chinese dig them up they take great care 
to saturate the roots with their own juices, which are 
yeiy apt to escape, and to deprive them of their virtue. 
They lay the pieces cut, upon a hollow table, and turn 
them twice or thrice a-day, that so the sap or juice may 
soak and dry by degrees into the pieces, and remain in 
them. When they have laid four days on the table 
they string the roots and hang them up in the shade 
to dry by the air. 

The trade in this medicinal root seems to have been 
at all times very considerable. 

Marco Polo speaks of its excellence and the immense 
quantities " which merchants who procured loadings of 
it on the spot, conveyed to all parts of the world ; ' and 
Du Halde informs us that while the missionaries were 
employed in making the maps of the mountainous 
region that forms the western frontier of China, they 
often met long strings of camels loaded with rhubarb. 


I i i. and of Anglesey. 

Beaumarts Castle was built by Edward I. about the 
year 1295, in pursuance of that policy which led him to 
secure his conquests by every precaution which he might 
think available. He had subdued the Welsh, after an 
arduous struggle; the last descendant of the ancient 
British princes had fallen in battle; and Edward aimed 
at keeping down for ever the insurrectionary spirit 
which might be expected to manifest itself whenever 
there was opportunity. The sovereignty of Anglesey, 
remarks Sir Richard Colt Hoare, in his edition of 
Giraldus Cambrensjs, had been sturdily contested for 
above four centuries ; it was the chosen seat of the 
Druids ; it was the asylum to which the Britons fled for 
succour from the victorious Romans ; it had been the 
residence of the British princes; and continued to the 
last to be their strong- hold. The circumstances which 
immediately preceded the war in which the Welsh were 
finally subdued, are in substance as follows : — Lhewelyn, 
the last and one of the bravest of the sovereign princes 
of Wales, was obliged, in the year 1277, to sue for 
peace from Edward I. The terms on which it was 
granted were humiliating : besides the payment of large 
sums of money, the prince was required to com* to 
London every Christmas to do homage to the king for 
his lands. The following story is told by Carte the his- 
torian ; and it is quoted by Sir Richard Colt Hoare : — 
" The barons of Snowdon, with other noblemen of 
the most considerable families in Wales, had attended 
Lhewelyn to London, when he came thither at Christ- 
mas, a.d. 1277, to do homage to King Edward ; and 
bringing, according to their usual custom, large retinues 

H 2 

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[Beaumaris Caitie.] 

with them, were quartered in Islington and the neighbour- 
ing villages. These places* did not afford milk enough 
for such numerous trains ; they liked neither wine, nor 
the ale of London; and though plentifully entertained, 
were much displeased at a new manner of living which 
did not suit their taste, nor perhaps their constitutions. 
They were still more offended at the crowds of people 
that (locked about them when they stirred abroad, 
staring at ihem as if they had been monsters, and 
laughing at their uncouth garb and appearance. They 
were so enraged on this occasion, that they engaged 
privately in an association to rebel on the first oppor- 
tunity, and resolved to die in their own country rather 
than ever come again to London as subjects, to be held 
in such derision ; and when they returned home, they 
communicated their resentments to their compatriots, 
who made it the common cause of the country." 

In the war which ensued, which was a severely-con- 
tested struggle, Edward advanced in to Wales by land, and 
sent the fleet of the Cinque Ports to Anglesey. When 
the brother of Lhewelyn learned that they had taken 
that place, he exclaimed " Lhewelyn has lost the finest 
feather in his tail.'' The Welsh king was shortly after- 
wards slain, and when the body was discovered, Edward, 
says Turner, " sent the head up to London, adorned in 
derision with a silver crown, that it might be exhibited 
to the populace in Cheapside, and fixed upon the 
Tower." Edward's military talents and vigour of mind 
fitted him for his turbulent age : his policy was in many 
respects in advance of it ; but he retained much of its 
savage fierceness. The brother of Lhewelyn attempt- 
ing to renew the war, was defeated and taken ; he was 
drawn on a hurdle, hanged, and his amputated head 
sent to London. In the Chronicles of Hollinshed, 
under the year 1295, there is the following account: — 

" The Earl of Warwick, hearing that a great number 
of Welshmen were assembled together, and lodged in a 
valley betwixt two woods, he chose out a number of 
horsemen, with certain cross-bows and archers, and 

coming upon the Welshmen in the night, compact 
them round about, the which, pitching the ends of ik 
spears in the ground, and turning the points aim .,- 
their enemies, stood at defensive, as to keep off ;; 
horsemen. But the earl having placed his battle m> 
that ever betwixt two horsemen there stood a cros 1 .... 
a great part of the Welshmen which stood at defend in 
manner aforesaid with their spears, were oveniinvM!, 
and broken with the shot of the qvanls, and then \hc 
earl charged the residue with a troop of horsemen, cad 
bare them down with such slaughter, as they had not 
sustained the like loss of people (as was thought) at 
any one time before. In the mean time, Kinjr FM- 
ward, to restrain the rebellious attempts of fh<^e 
Welshmen, caused the woods of Wales to be cut down, 
wherein before the Welshmen were accustomed to hide 
themselves in time of danger. He also repaired the 
castles and holds in that country, and builded some 
new, as the city and castle of Beamarise, with other ; so 
that the Welshmen, constrained through hunger and 
famine, were enforced within a while to the kings 
peace. " 

The erection of the Castle of Beaumaris, though 
consistent with Edward's policy, was an unnecessary 
stretch of prudence. He had already broken down the 
spirit of independence which inspired the native Welsh, 
without which, as he experienced in Scotland, strong- 
holds are but a slight security. The only notable 
things which the garrison appear to have done were to 
quarrel with the country people, and, under pretence of 
keeping them quiet, to oppress them with great severity. 
In consequence, the garrison was withdrawn from the 
time of Henry VII. to the year 1642, when, the Earl 
of Dorset being constable, his deputy furnished it with 
men and ammunition ; and it was retained on behalf of 
Charles I. The first governor of the castle was a 
Gascon knight. Sir William Pickmore, who was ap- 
pointed by Edward I. Twenty-four soldiers were 
allowed for the guard of the castle and town. 

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During the Civil War, the inhabitants of Anglesey 
agreed to some strongly-expressed resolutions in behalf 
of Charles I. But the garrison of Beaumaris did not 
hold out long against the parliamentary forces; they 
however obtained an honourable capitulation. The 
castle was surrendered to General Mytton, who ap- 
pointed Captain Evans his deputy. The estimated ex- 
pense annually of keeping the garrison was, inl653, 703/. 

The motives which led Edward I. to aim at the sub- 
jugation of the entire island of Great Britain were 
chiefly those of military ambition. But the castle and 
town of Beaumaris are evidence of themselves that he 
foresaw the benefits which would result from the con- 
solidation of the kingdom, and having subdued the 
Welsh, he sought to introduce something of civilization 
amongst them. Notwithstanding the nearness of the 
castles of Caernarvon and Conway, immense expense 
and pains were spent — and, as it proved, needlessly 
spent — on Beaumaris. The town indeed flourished for 
a time ; but the castle was an incumbrance. The castle 
was the parent of the town, which Edward surrounded 
with walls, incorporated, and endowed with many pri- 
vileges. The place was originally called Bonover, but 
it was changed to Beaumaris, from, as the interpretation 
most generally followed, beau fine, and marais a marsh. 
A low marshy site was selected, for the purpose of 
having a fosse round the castle, which, being filled 
with water from th-s sea, would enable vessels of a 
small size, by means of a canal, to discharge their 
lading close under the walls of the fortress, [n the 
17th volume of the * Beauties of England and Wales,' 
it is stated thai u Part of this canal, till very lately, 
was visible under the name of Llyn y Green, and the 
chains for mooring the vessels at the quay. The low- 
ness of the site, the expansive diameter of its circular 
towers and bastions, together with the dilapidated 
state of its walls, deprives the structure, though a pro- 
digious one, of that prominent character and imposing 
effect so strikingly apparent in the prouder piles of 
Caernarvon and Conway. The shape approaches to 
an oblong square, comprising a case encircling the 
castle. This outer vallium consists of low but massy 
embattled walls, flanked by ten circular thwers." The 
principal entrance of the castle faces the sea; within 
the fortified envelope, equidistant from the walls, is the 
body of the castle, the height of which far exceeds the 
envelope, and at a distance appears to rise majestically 
from it, as from a base. It is nearly quadrangular, 
with a grand round tower at each angle, and another 
in the centre of each face. The interior consists of 
an area, 190 feet square, with obtuse corners. The 
centre of the north-west side contains a great hall, 
seventy feet long and twenty- three broad, with a pro- 
portionate height ; it has five large pointed windows, 
which form a handsome front to the inner quadrangle. 
On the eastern side of the area there are remains of a 
chapel, the sides of which are ornamented with receding 
pointed arches. The elegantly-groined roof is sup- 
ported by ribs springing from pilasters, between each 
of which is a long narrow window. There was a com- 
munication between the several parts of the inner court 
by means of a narrow surrounding gallery, a portion of 
which is still entire. The ruins of the castle are covered 
with gillyflowers, but which as is stated, grow nowhere 
else in Anglesey. 

The castle was erected on lands belonging to several 
proprietors, whom Edward I. removed to distant places, 
remunerating them by estates, probably sequesfc'ated. 

The castle is the property of the crown. Within the 
walls a tennis-court, fives-court, and bowling-green 
have been formed for the amusement of the inhabitants 
of Beaumaris. The reader will find some particulars 
respecting the town of Beaumaris in the * Penny Cyclo- 

IN 1666. 

One of the most pleasant and most healthful of Peak 
villages is the little town of Eyam, (for in that neigh- 
bourhood town is synonymous with village.) It is 
situated among the hills to the westward of Sheffield, 
at about the distance of twelve miles, thirteen or four- 
teen from Chesterfield, and about twelve or thirteen 
from Buxton. Surrounded on every side by bleak and 
barren mountains, it appears to be one of the last 
places where a community would choose to take up 
an abode ; yet, composed of plain, neat, cheerful cot- 
tages, each having a garden, and every interval filled 
up with trees of the most luxuriant growth, — its an- 
tique church showing its grey tower among the foliage, 
and every house partaking of that simple rural cha- 
racter which never fails to please — it presents a most 
agreeable picture of content and comfort. . Such is 
Eyam at the present day ; and though situated so near 
to the first manufactory of cutlery in Britain, the morals 
of its inhabitants are comparatively uncontaminated, 
and their manners approach nearer to primeval sim- 
plicity than we often find in similar situations. 

Eyam is but little known. Although a good turn- 
pike-road was made many years ago (in those times 
when road-makers preferred taking a line over the 
summit rather than round the base of i mountain), 
it is not much used. The town is consequently little 
visited but by a few strangers, who come to view its 
antique Cross, the tomb of Mrs. Mompesson, or the 
romantic dell in which stands the singular rock called 
Cucklett Church. 

Eyam, though inhabited by a race of miners, of all 
classes in Derbyshire the one most remarkable for 
health and longevity, and even more secluded than at 
the present day, was, in the great plague of 1666, 
subjected to a most severe and fatal visitation. Here 
that dreadful malady committed the most fearful de- 
vastations; — and here, by the prudence, Che energy, 
the devotedness of the pastor and his wife, the destroy- 
ing pestilence was stayed, and the remainder of the 
nation spared from its influence. 

The manner in which the plague was communicated 
to this remote village shows the virulence of its nature, 
and the caution that ought to have been used to pre- 
vent the spread of the contagion. A box of cloth was, 
during the affliction of London, sent to a tailor ot 
Eyam, who no sooner opened it than he fell ill ; all his 
family soon shared the same fate, and every person, 
except one, died. These were the first victims. The 
disease spread with an astonishing rapidity, — entering 
almost every house, and carrying off a part of every 
family. " The same cottage in many instances contained 
both the dying and the dead. Short indeed was the 
space between health and sickness, and immediate 
the transition from the death-bed to the tomb ! When- 
ever symptoms of the plague appeared, so hopeless was 
recovery, that the dissolution of the afflicted patient 
was watched with anxious solicitude, that so much of 
the disease might be buried and its influence destroyed. 
In the churchyard, on the neighbouring hills, and in 
the fields bordering the village, graves were dug ready 
to receive the expiring sufferers, and the earth, with 
an unhallowed haste, was closed upon them. 
' Over the friendly bier no rites were read, 
No dirge «lovr chanted and no pall outspread; 
While Death and Night piled up the naked throng, 
And Silence drove their ebon cars along.' " 

Mr. Mompesson, who then held the living of 
Eyam, was about twenty-eight years of age, — his 
wife about a year younger ; they had two children, 
a son and a daughter, both of necessity very young. 
On the breaking out of the disorder, Mrs. Mom- 
pesson with her babes in her arms earnestly solicite4 

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[Febauaey 6, 

her husband to fly with them from the devoted spot. 
Her intreaties were in vain ; — he had determined never 
to desert his flock. In his turn he became the sup- 
pliant, and besought his wife to retire from Eyam with 
the children till the visitation had passed over. She 
would not abandon her husband. They finally re- 
solved to abide together the danger of the dispensation, 
but to send off their infants to a place of apparently 
greater safety. Their family disposed of, they found 
themselves more at liberty to attend to their afflicted 
parishioners, and this devoted pair became the minister- 
ing angels of the village. Friends and relatives might 
abandon the plague-marked victims, but the pastor and 
his wife never forsook the patient, or hesitated to enter 
an infected dwelling. The dying were comforted, and 
the living counselled as to the best manner of prevent- 
ing the spreading of the contagion ; and such was the 
influence of this good man, that his parishioners re- 
garded his directions almost as the behests of Heaven, 
and gave themselves up unconditionally to his guidance. 
Considering that this frightful scourge was isolated 
in this mountain tract, Mr. Mompesson Chought that if 
he could cut off all communication with the surround- 
ing country, there was a probability that it would then 
in a little time completely die away. He therefore 
prevailed on his flock to remain at home, and assisted 
by the Earl of Devonshire, who also remained at Chats- 
worth, his princely seat, at the distance of six or seven 
miles from Eyam, he drew an imaginary cordon round 
the village, beyond which egress or regress was not 
allowed. In this boundary at various places were 
stations appointed for the inhabitants of other towns to 
bring the necessaries of subsistence, leaving them upon 
a stone, withotft any person being near, and returning 
for the value, which was found deposited in the same 
place, in a, trough of clean spring water. Some of 
these troughs are still remaining, and are pointed out 
to strangers by the older inhabitants of Eyam. 

To prevent as much as possible the effects of con- 
tagion, Mr. Mompesson closed the church, and retiring 
to Cucklett-dale, a dell at a little distance from the 
town, bounded on one side by craggy rocks, and on the 
other overhung by trees as planted by the hand of 
nature, he placed himself in a natural arch at a great 
height above the level, and thence, as from a pulpit, 
addressed his congregation, and performed the accus- 
tomed service. The narrow gloomy dell, the babbling 
stream which ran along its bottom, the overhanging 
tors, the perforated rock since named Cucklett Church, 
the graceful trees, and its complete freedom from every 
interruption, would render this place at the present day 
one of the most fascinating of confined landscapes ; but 
when we fancy in our minds the assembled villagers 
seated on, the rising ground on one side the brook, at a 
distance from one another, as if each feared contagion 
from his neighbour, but all anxiously intent on catching 
every word of the preacher on the rock, and bending 
in solemn prayer before that Being who can alone 
afford them comfort and protection, we feel ourselves 
carried back to the scene of 1666, and are especially 
lost in admiration of the holy pastor who could thus 
direct to one great end the jarring passions and the 
afflictions of our nature. 

For seven months did this pious man watch over the 
interests of Eyam, for so long did the pestilence con- 
tinue its ravages. He retained his health. Mrs. Mom- 
pesson, as a precaution, prevailed on him to have an 
incision made in his leg, which, by being kept open, 
might, in case of infection, carry off the complaint, 
She saw one day, on examination, that her precaution 
had been useful, and that, from the appearance of the 
wound, Mr. Mompesson had escaped the danger ; but 
the plague had entered their dwelling ; and this devoted 
wife, while rejoicing at her husband's safety, fell -a | 

victim to its fury. She was buried in the churchyard, 
where her tombstone yet remains. The feelings of 
her husband on this melancholy occasion are deeply 
expressed in a letter to his patron, Sir George Saville, 
and another to his children, which letters are still pre- 

Mr. Mompesson had the pleasure of seeing the ex- 
tinction of the disease in the village of which he was 
the pastor ; for by his measures its contagion was con- 
fined, and finally destroyed, as Eyam appears to have 
been the last place visited by this dreadful calamity. 
His conduct procured him the approbation of all, and 
he had soon after bestowed upon him the rectory of 
Eakring, in Nottinghamshire; was made a prebendary 
of York and Southwall, and had an offer of the deanery 
of Lincoln ; this he declined in favour of his friend 
Dr. Fuller. He married for his second wife Mrs. 
Nuby, relict of Charles Nuby, Esq., who bore him two 
daughters, and died at Eakring the 7th of March, 1708, 
in the 70th year of his age, where a brass plate records 
his memory. 

So great was the mortality during this visitation, thai 
graves were dug, and cemeteries formed on the hills 
on every side of the town; these burying places aie 
now almost entirely destroyed. One yet remains to 
the eastward of Eyam, known by the name of Riley 
Grave Stones, but not as it originally appeared. One 
family alone seems to have been buried there, and the 
dates of their deaths are a powerful record of the 
strength of the pestilence in (his remote situation. 

44 I know not," says the author of 4 Peak Scenery,' 
14 that I ever felt more seriously and solemnly impressed 
than on my visit to this place. The dreadful power of 
that disease, which,while it prevailed in London, appalled 
the whole empire, and in the following year unpeopled 
the village of Eyam, is here strikingly exemplified. 
Six headstones and one tabular monumental stone 
yet remain to tell the tale of the total extinction of a 
whole family, with the exception of one boy, in the 
short space of eight days. The inscription, though 
much worn, may still be distinctly traced. The re- 
spective dates are, 

Elixabeth Hancock, ditd August 3, 1666. 

John Hancock, Sen. 



John Hancock, Jun. 



Oner Hancock 



William Hancock 



Alice Hancock 


- % 

Anne Hancock 



44 What a mournful memorial of domestic calamity 
do these few stones and their inscriptions present ! On 
the four sides of the tomb which contains the ashes of 
the father of this unhappy family of sufferers are the 
words, 4 Horam Nescitts, Orate, Vigilaic* " 

A descendant of the boy mentioned above, whose 
preservation may almost be considered as miraculous, 
introduced about the middle of the last century into 
Sheffield the method of plating ingots of copper with 
silver, and thus laid the foundation of one of the most 
lucrative manufactures of thai towu and its rival Bir- 

We shall in this and another notice, or perhaps two 
more, endeavour to point out, in a short narrative, what 
each of these illustrious deliverers singly did in the 
hour of greatest peril for his country. 

When the English crown, by the death of Ethelred 
the last of his three elder brothers, fell, in the year S72 
to the inheritance of Alfred, then only twenty-three 
years of age, it was scarcely worth the wearing. He 
was a ki*g, but almost without a kingdom. The place 
to which he had succeeded called him, not to power and 
enjoyment, but to difficult and dangerous duties ? U) 

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severe toils, to sharp trials, to anxious responsibility. 
Forty-five years before, his grandfather, the able Egbert, 
had for the first time united t\\ England into one 
sovereignty, and taken to himself the title of King of 
the Anglo-Saxons. Even during the reign of this great 
prince, the dominions, within which he had put down 
all native power but his own, were attacked by those 
daring sea-rovers from the north, whom our historians 
have commonly called the Danes, but who are to be 
considered as having been in fact a mixture of the 
various Scandinavian nations, including not only the 
Danes, but also the Swedes and Norwegians. These 
invaders — the same who in this century also repeatedly 
assailed the coasts, and even penetrated into the heart 
of France, where they were known under the more 
correctly descriptive name of the Normans, and who in 
the next obtained a settlement and a large territory in 
that kingdom — had made their first appearance in 
England iu the year 789, at Portland, in Wessex, during 
the reign of Brithric, Egbert's immediate predecessor 
in that sovereignty. They did not return till the year 
832, when, in a sudden descent, they plundered and 
laid waste the Isle of Shepey, at the mouth of the 
Thames. By fa* their most formidable attack, how- 
ever, was made the following year, when, presenting 
themselves off the coast of Dorset in thirty-five vessels, 
they seemed to threaten the conquest and occupation of 
that part of the country. And in this they had nearly 
succeeded ; for having landed at Charmouth, they not 
only devastated all the surrounding district, but even com- 
pletely beat and put to flight a considerable force which 
Egbert sent against them. Still, deeming themselves 
not strong enough to maintain their footing, they, 
after a short time, returned to their ships ; and when 
they came again, two years after, and put on shore in 
Cornwall, where they were joined by many of the 
natives, Egbert, being now better prepared for them, 
went to meet them in person, and defeated them with 
great slaughter. After this they were seen no more 
during his reign. But from the time that his son 
Ethel wolf, Alfred's father, an indolent and un warlike 
prince, came to the throne in 838, they renewed their 
visits, and, landing almost every year at one point of the 
coast or another, kept the whole kingdom in a state of 
constant alarm. " The inhabitants of one county," as 
Hume observes, " dared not to give assistance to those of 
another, lest their own family and property should in 
the meantime be exposed by their absence to the fury 
of these barbarous ravagers. All orders of men were 
involved in this ruin ; and the priests and monks, who 
had been commonly spared in the domestic quarrels of 
the Heptarchy, were the chief objects on which the 
Danish idolaters exercised their rage and animosity. 
Every season of the year was dangerous; and no man 
eould esteem himself a moment in safety because of the 
present absence of the enemy." At last, in 851, they 
for the first time remained all the winter in the country, 
fixing their quarters in the Isle of Thanet, from which, 
issuing forth, they burnt the cities of London and 
Canterbury, and spread devastation over other parts of 
the country. The reigns of Ethel wolf's three eldest 
sons, Ethelbald, Ethelbert, and Ethel red, witnessed 
only a continuation and increase of the same calamities. 
All this time an incessant war was kept up with the 
foreign invaders for the possession of the country. In 
the concluding year of his reign, Ethelred is said to 
have fought no less than nine battles with his enemy, in 
the last of which the heroic but unfortunate monarch 
lost his life. The greater part of his kingdom he had 
already lost ; for the Danes had by this time actually 
made themselves masters of a large portion of the north 
ann east of England, and Ethelred's final desperate 
efforts had been directed merely to preserve from them 
his old hereditary dominions of Wessex. 

Alfred, young as he was, had fought by his brother's 
side throughout this terrible contest, commanding as 
general-in-chief in many of the engagements. 11 aving 
become king, he continued the struggle as long as he 
was able to maintain an army ; and many more bloody 
battles took place, in some of Which the Danes were 
defeated by the English monarch with great slaughter. 
But, continually strengthened by reinforcements of 
their countrymen, the foreigners upon the whole con- 
tinued to gain ground. At length in the year 878 they 
succeeded in overrunning ana occupying nearly the 
whole of Wessex, comprehending the modern counties 
of Hants, Wilts, Oxford, Bucks, Gloucester, and part 
of Somerset. The last ensign of English independence 
was now struck down ; and Alfred, the defender and 
sole hope of his country, was himself obliged to provide 
for his safety for the present by flight and concealment. 
Having disguised himself, he is said to have taken 
refuge at first with one of his cowherds, whose wife, — 
if we may give credit to the famous story, which every 
reader will remember, of his being left by her one day 
to take charge of some cakes she had put to the fire, 
and having been rated by the good woman for allowing 
them to burn while he was busying himself in repairing 
his bow and arrows,— seems to have treated him as a 
kind of menial. 

Such, then, was the depth of depression to which 
England was at this crisis reduced. Everything was 
in the hands of a foreign enemy ; the spirit of the 
people was quite broken ; all resistance or thought of 
resistance was at an end ; it was a complete conque^ ; 
the invaders were wholly masters of the country. 
Alfred, so far from having even the poorest remnant 
of an army, had not even a follower left 

Yet his heroic heart did not despair. It was very 
early in the year that the invaders had thus carried 
everything before them. By Easter Alfred had again 
collected a few of his adherents, and had posted himself 
on what was then the island of Athelney, a small piece 
of dry ground which rose in the midst of the now 
drained marshes formed by the waters of the Tone and 
the Parrot, in Somersetshire. Here was once more a 
rallying- point established for the scattered friends of 
their king and their country. Alfred's little band, 
accordingly, gradually received accessions of strength. 
For some time he contented himself with annoying 
the enemy by making occasional sallies from his strong- 
hold. Meanwhile, his friends in other parts of the 
country, with whom he could now hold communication, 
were not inactive in the same irregular warfare. At 
last, about Whitsuntide, he boldly ventured to come 
forth for a decisive trial of strength with his powerful 
enemy. Having shown himself at a place called Eg- 
bertstane, at the head of his troops, he was received 
with enthusiasm by the people of that district. From 
this place he marched forthwith by night to where the 
principal part of the Danish troops lay, near the town 
of Eddington, in Wiltshire; and here giving them 
battle, obtained a complete victory, which at once re- 
instated him on his throne, and re-established the 
national .independence. The invaders were driven 
from Wessex, and reduced to subjection throughout 

Alfred, however, knew too well the daring character 
of his enemies to take it for granted that he had rid 
himself of them for ever by this single blow. He 
appears to have employed the period of tranquillity he 
had now secured — the first the country had enjoyed 
for many years — in actively providing the means of 
defence against future attacks. Before the events we 
have related, he had tried the novel and bold experi- 
ment of endeavouring to oppose the Danes on what 
was more peculiarly their own element — the sea. The 
navy which he equipped was the first England had 

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[February 6, 183$. 

ever possessed ; so that to this admirable prince, along 
with many other benefits, we owe our first gift of that 
power which was destined to become eventually the 
right arm of the national strength. The trial which 
Alfred had made of the efficiency of his new force, al- 
ihough it had been unable to save the kingdom in the 
failure of his military operations on land, was such as 
to satisfy him of its value, and its adaptation to the 
country and the people. He now therefore set himself 
without delay to get ready another fleet. The language 
of the contemporary authorities would seem to imply 
that in building his ships he introduced some improve- 
ments till then unknown in naval architecture. It is 
certain, at any rate, that his navy was now found a match 
for whatever opposed it. The Danes repeatedly re- 
newed their attacks after this in the course of his reign ; 
but, however formidable the force in which they ap- 
ponred, the excellent state of defence in which he kept the 
kingdom, and the activity and ability which he showed 
in the field, always drove them home again before they 
had done much damage. He survived till the year 901, 
and had his life been longer spared, it is probable that 
the whole of the remainder of it would have passed, as 
did the two or three years before his death, without either 
a domestic or a foreign enemy daring to molest him. 

But Alfred did in'ueh more for his country than eltect 
its liberation from a foreign yoke. Here, however, we 
cannot enter upon his admirable labours as the legis- 
lator and civilizer of the people he had rescued from 
bondage. He well earned for himself the epithet of 
Great which has descended with his name ; for he is not 
only one of the greatest princes that figure in history, 
but, in every point of view in which he can be regarded, 
one of the brightest characters that have adorned 
human nature. 

Under the outer edge of the ring of feathers which 
surrounds the eye of an owl, is a sort of valve of skin, 
is t 

Food of the Anglo-Saxons. — In the dialogues composed 
by Elfiic to instruct the Anglo-Saxon youths in the Latin 
language, which are yet preserved to us, we have some 
curious information concerning the manners and trades of 
our ancestors. In one colloquy the fisherman is asked, 
• What gettest thou by thine art?* * 4 Big loaves, clothing, 
and money." — * How do you take them?' " I ascend my 
ship, and cast my net into the river ; I also throw in a book. 
a bait, and a rod." — ' Suppose the fishes are unclean ? ' "I 
throw the unclean out, and take the clean for food."— 
'Where do you sell your fish?' "In the city." — 'Who 
buys them ? ' •' The citizens ; I cannot take so many as I 
can sell." — • What fishes do you take ? * •' Eels, haddocks, 
minnows, and eel-pouts, skate, and lampreys, and whatever 
swims in the river." — • Why do you not fish in the sea?' 
" Sometimes I do ; but rarely, because a groat ship is ne- 
cessary there." — • What do you take in the sea ? * " Her- 
rings and salmons, porpoises, sturgeons, oysters, and crabs, 
muscles, winkles, cockles, iiounders, plaice, lobsters, and 
such like." — 'Can you take a whale?" * No, it is dan- 
gerous to take a whale ; it is safer for me to go to the river 
with my ship than to go with many ships to hunt whales.' 
— 'Why?' " Because it is more pleasant to me to take 
fish which I can kill with one blow ; yet many take whales 
without danger, and then they get a jjreat price, but I dare 
not, from the fearfulness oC my mind/ This extract .-shows 
the uniformity of human taste on the main articles of food. 
Fish was such a favourite diet, that the supply never equalled 
the demand, and the same fishes were then in request 
which we select, though our taste has declined for the por- 
poises. The porpoise is mentioned in a convention between 
an archbishop and the clergy at Bath, which enumerates six 
of them under the name of mere-swine, or the sea-swine, 
and 30,600 herrings. * * * It is an article in the * Peni- 
tentiale* of Egbert, that fUh may be bought though dead. 
The same treatise allows herrings to be eaten, and states, 
that when boiled they are salutary in fever and diarrhoea, 
and that their gall, mixed with pepper, is good for a 
sore mouth ! Horse-flesh, which our delicacy rejects with 
aversion, appears to have been used, though it became un- 
fashionable as'their civilization advanced. The • Peniten- 
tiale* says, "Horse-flesh is not prohibited, though many 
families will not buy it." .: But in the council held in 785, in 

Nnrfhiimhria. liafnm Alfvrnlrl. and in Morria. before Offa. 

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07 THV 

Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[February 13, 1836. 



The arrival of a healthy young chimpanzee at the 
gardens of the Zoological Society has afforded us the 
gratification of contemplating the habits and actions 
of this animal, the rarity of which in our country adds 
greatly to the interest. With respect to bodily confor- 
mation, as well as intellectual faculties, the chimpanzee 
ranks in a higher class than the orang-outang; it 
advances some degrees beyond that animal, whose 
instincts and organic conformation are such as to render 
it in all its habits exclusively arboreal. In saying this, 
we at the same time accord to the orang a far greater 
Vol. V. 

share of intelligence than what obtains among the 
ower groups of the simiadte. 

The orang-outang is a native of Sumatra, Borneo, 
and others of the Indian Islands, the chimpanzee is a 
native of the western coast of Africa ; both are inter- 
tropical animals, and live in the secluded depths of the 
mighty forests which spread over their respective regions. 
To the former must be given as synonyms, the names 
of red orang and pongo ; for at different periods of its 
growth it has been described under these names by 
different writers ; to the latter the names of black orang, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[February 13, 

pigmy, and jocko. It is also the satyre of Tulpius. 
The jocko of Buffbn is the young animal ; his figure is 
incorrect in the extreme. 

These two extraordinary annuals, the largest of the 
simiadce, although they resemble each other in certain 
points, widely differ in many important details con- 
nected With their organic conformation. With regard 
to their osteology, an admirable paper by Mr. Owen 
has appeared in the 4th part of the 1st vol. of the 
* Transactions of the Zoological Society,' in. which the 
author gives the results of a rigid examination of their 
respective skeletons, both as relating to the skeleton as 
a whole, and also to the separate bones of which it 
consists. Without entering, however, upon this ground, 
which would be foreign to our present object, we may 
observe that the orang-outang is more organized as a 
climbing animal than the chimpanzee ; and it is there- 
fore more essentially arboreal in its habits, while at the 
same time its adaptation for an upright position, or for 
progression on the ground or any level surface, is 
diminished in a proportional ratio. If we survey the 
limbs of the orang-outang, we find the inferior ex- 
tremities very short, and bowed inwards, bo as to allow 
of liule more than the outer edge of the foot being 
fairly applied to the ground ; while there is not only a 
want of development in the peculiar muscles which 
enable the human subject to walk and move with ease 
and vigour ; but the ligament which binds the head of 
the thigh-bone to the bottom of the socket is altogether 
wanting — an arrangement which diminishes the firm- 
ness of the joint, while at the same time it adds most 
considerably to its freedom and flexibility. Thus the 
short, ill-turned, and loosely-jointed limbs of the orang, 
render its movements on the ground as awkward and 
constrained as can be well imagined 5 nor indeed could 
the animal get along at all were it not for the assistance 
derived from the arms, — these are of enormous power 
and length, — they actually touch the ground, and serve 
the orang as crutches ; tor resting his weight on the 
knuckles, he swings or drags his body along, the hinder 
extremities performing only ft secondary part in the 
effort at progression. The ground is not the true habi- 
tation of the orang, the forest is its abode, and among 
the trees its activity is extraordinary ; there its long 
arms and hook-like hands and feet, its obliquely-fixed 
and flexible hinder limbs, and the strength of its 
thick-set broad shoulders, give it an immense advantage. 
Now if we turn to the chimpanzee, though we find it 
also organized for arboreal habits, still it is not so 
exclusively adapted for them as the orang. In the 
first place its lower limbs are larger in proportion, 
and though their tournure is obliquely inwards, the 
palm of the feet, or hinder hands, is capable of 
being applied fairly to the ground, and the hip-joint 
is secured by the internal ligament as in man. The 
arms, though long, reach only a little way below the 
knee, and both the hands and feet are broad, short, and 
have less of that hook-like character which is so re- 
markable in the orang. The thumb of the hand it is 
true has not the same relative degree of development as 
in man, otherwise this organ has much of the contour 
of the human hand in its outline and appearance ; 
whereas, on the contrary, the thumb of the foot is of 
considerable length, while in the orang it is very short, 
and indeed almost rudimentary. So far, then, as it 
regards external characters, the chimpanzee differs 
materially from the orang. As regards the skull of 
the two animals, the distinction is quite as palpable. 
In the orang, at least when adult, (for while immature 
the skull differs exceedingly from what it is in the full- 
grown animal) a ridge beginning above each orbit, at 
the angle of the temporal bone, and passing obliquely 
upwards, meets on the top where the front d bore 
joins the parietal bones, and forms a bold, strong keel, 

(as in the hyaena) which runs along the union of the two 
parietal bones together, and gives off, on arriving at the 
junction of these bones with the occipital, a continua- 
tion of itself in the* form of two bold ridges, each of 
which sweeps obliquely downwards and forwards to the 
orifice of the ears in the petrous portion of the tempore 
bone. The strength and elevation of this interparietal 
crest, and of its occipital branches, indicate the develop- 
ment of the great temporal muscles which act on thr. 
enormous lower jaw, as well as of those of the back of 
the neck attached to the posterior part of the skuU. 
and whose office it is to support the weight of the head 
and prevent it from falling forwards. The teeth art 
very large, especially the canines, which are furrowed 
with a series of narrow grooves from the base to the 
point. In the chimpanzee there is no ridge along the 
skull, which is small and of an oval figure, with a 
marked supraciliary projection. The lower jaw is less 
expanded, and the teeth are smaller; though in their 
character and in the furrows of the canines they are 
similar to those of the orang. The facial angle in the 
adult chimpanzee is 35°, in the adult orang 30°. In 
other parts of the skeleton also, as marked a series ot 
differences may be followed out as those we have touched 

To revert to external characters, we may obsene 
that in the orang the ears are small and lie flat on the 
skull, while in the chimpanzee they are large, expanded, 
and stand out. In both there is a similarity in the 
expression of the face, which has a grave and even 
melancholy cast of expression, more striking in the 
Indian than the African species. In both the hair is 
long, thin, and coarse, and on the fore-arms it is retro- 
verted towards the elbow. In the chimpanzee it is 
black, in the adult orang red, but in the very young 
orang it is of dull black also. The stature of the full- 
grown chimpanzee, when standing upright, is about 
four feet ; that of the orang four feet four or five inches. 
Such, then, is a summary of the most obvious differ- 
ences which characterize these two species ; and having 
alluded to them by way of a preface, we will at once 
introduce to our readers the specimen now creating so 
much interest in the scientific world. 

The capture of this chimpanzee, which was effected 
by shooting its mother, who was nursing it in her 
arms, occurred about 120 miles in the interior from 
Grand Dassan, on the south-west coast of Africa, to 
which place, on being secured, it was brought, and 
thence shipped to Bristol, where, after a residence of a 
few weeks, it was purchased by the Zoological Society, 
who had it immediately conveyed to their Gardens. 
On entering the room in which it is kept, the first 
thing that struck us was its aged appearance, and its 
resemblance to an old, bent, diminutive negro. This 
appearance of age is much increased by a spare beard 
of short white hairs, which is spread over the muzzle, 
and by the deep wrinkles which furrow the cheeks. It 
is not until being informed of its age, which, as proved 
by its dentition, is about eighteen or twenty months, that 
a person ignorant of the natural history of the chim- 
panzee would consider this specimen in the light of an 
infant ; its actions however are those of an infant 
capable of running about and amusing itself; — live!} 
and playful, yet neither mischievous nor petulant, it is. 
alive to everything which takes place about it, and 
examines every object within its reach with an air so 
considerate and thoughtful as to create a smile on the 
face of the gravest spectator. In its cage or den, to 
which it is occasionally restricted, is a swing, upon 
which it delights to exercise, throwing itself into a 
variety of attitudes, which at once bespeak its security 
and its perfect fitness for the waving branches of the 
foivst. Sometimes it will stand in the swing grasping 
the rope by its hind-feet, and holding by one hand,— 

Digitized by 


n 836.7 



•then it will swing suspended by one foot or hand, or 
throw iuelf over the rope in an easy and frolicsome 
summerset. When tired with this play* it will roll 
about the floor, or climb the bars, or run hobbling 
about, which it does very quickly, generally assisting 
itself by resting the knuckles of the two first fingers of 
the hand on the ground, to do which it stoops its 
shoulders a little forwards ;— it can, however, and does 
frequently, walk perfectly upright. Its pace is a sort 
of waddle, and not performed, as in man, by a series 
of steps, in which the ancle-joint is brought into play 
at each successive step, the heel being elevated, and the 
body resting on the toes;— on the contrary, the foot 
is raised at once and set down at once, in a thoroughly 
plantigrade manner, as in stamping; which, by-the- 
bye, is an action it often exhibits, first with one fool 
and then with the other, sometimes alternately, at other 
times with one only. It is curious to observe how 
firmly it grasps with its hind-feet, which are broad and 
strong ; and how easily, while thus resting on the back 
of a chair or on a perch, it can throw itself completely 
backwards, and raise itself again into its previous posi- 
tion, — a feat indicating great bodily power. This, in- 
deed, it evidently possesses ; for its frame is thick-set 
and broad, but the abdomen, as in the orang, is pro- 
tuberant. With its keepers it is on the most familiar 
terms, and will play with them like a child, now run- 
ning" round them,— now dodging them, — now climb- 
ing up them and throwing its arms round their necks ; 
— in fact, it is treated like a child, and has its face and 
hands regularly washed, during which ordeal it com- 
ports itself with great order and gravity. Laughter 
is said to be peculiar to our race, and certainly, if this 
animal be not an exception to the rule, in none does the 
face thus display the emotions of pleasure or mirth. 
We have however more than once observed with sur- 
prise, that when at play with its attendants, and tickled 
smartly, its countenance exhibited what most would 
call a decided laugh ; — its eyes twinkled, the angles of 
the half-open mouth were drawn upwards, and the teeth 
displayed, while at the same time it uttered a chuckling 
noise, sounding like that of a smothered laugh. If 
this be laughter it is not laughter from mental emotion, 
— not from mirth or pleasure of mind created by the 
imagination alone, — for here man is isolated in the 
animal creation, — but from agreeable bodily sensa- 
tions, — from the sympathies of the nerves of the frame 
acted on by external causes,, If however it be not 
conceded to be laughter, then will it be the nearest 
approach to laughter which any animal below man can 

The propensity of this animal to put everything into 
its mouth is very remarkable. On being presented with 
a tin rattle, it took no notice of the noise of the instru- 
ment made by shaking it, but at once tried to crush it 
between Its teeth. After carrying it about, it would 
abandon it, take up something else, leave that, and 
return to it again. It is however always very anxious 
to obtain what is out of its reach, which, when obtained 
and examined, is soon neglected. From the gentleness 
of its disposition, it is not easily put out of temper ; 
bnt when this is the case, as occasionally happens, it 
evinces its displeasure by a hoarse guttural sound, and 
by protruding the lips, while it looks intently, and with 
an expression of anger, at the offender. This expres- 
sion is rendered more marked by the vivacity of the 
eyes, which, though small and deeply set, are quick 
and penetrating: their colour is dark hazeL In the 
various antics and sportful play of this lively little 
chimpanzee there is nothing of that brwtquerie and that 
restless quickness which are so observable in the actions 
of the monkey ; — nothing of that chattering and grin- 
ning on every surprise ; — and it is in these minutiae 
that we recognise its superiority* and the approxima- 

tion, however distant, of its manners to those of the 
young of our own race. 

Farinaceous food, fruit, cooked meat, milk, Ac, con- 
stitute the diet upon which this interesting little chim- 
panzee is fed. It is also fond of tea, but refuses beer 
and fermented liquors. It is certainly amusing to see 
the creature take a cup of milk or tea in its hand, and, 
in imitation of our actions, gravely sip the contents, 
and set down the cup with due propriety. In drink- 
ing, however, we observed that the lips, which are ex- 
tremely mobile, are always protruded ; the animal can 
in fact insert them into a cup of fluid and thus suck it 
up. We have witnessed him apply his protruded lips 
to the orifice which had been bored through the shell 
into a cocoa-nut and thus suck out the milk, holding 
up the fruit with both hands, which, after the juice was 
drained, he quietly laid down. We have seen him 
receive a cake with an air of gentleness and a manner 
so difFerent from that of monkeys in general, as to be 
quite remarkable, nor less so was his deliberate mode 
of eating it. 

Like most animals in a reclaimed state, the chim- 
panzee has his favourites, — among these are the cook 
(for he is at present in the kitchen where the meals of 
the keepers are dressed,) and the person 'appointed to 
take immediate charge of him. On their approach he 
testifies the most unequivocal signs of pleasure ; he 
recognises even their footsteps, and watches for them 
with evident impatience. The moment he sees them he 
pouts his lips, utters a low sound of satisfaction, and, if 
at liberty, at once makes towards them, climbs upon 
them, and commences a fondling sportful play. The 
cook indeed sometimes finds the little creature's attach- 
ment troublesome, for she finds it difficult to disengage 
herself from him ; and, if not prevented, he will go 
about the place with her, holding by her gown like a 
child. On one occasion he opened the lattice-window 
of the kitchen, and was seen looking very composedly 
about him, as if in admiration of the novelties offered 
to his view. On the supposition, however, that he 
might escape into the garden, and not be induced, 
without some difficulty, to return, he was ordered to 
come away (for though he cannot understand the words, 
he feels the force of a command from the tone in which 
it is uttered), and he not only obeyed but closed the 
window, and descended to his attendant. 

The monkey tribes have, as is well known, an in- 
stinctive fear of the larger kinds of snakes, to which 
they often fall a prey : it was considered worth the 
trial to ascertain whether, in an animal so young, and 
which most probably had never seen a formidable 
snake, this feeling was fairly displayed. Accordingly a 
large snake was showed to him, on seeing which the 
chimpanzee was at once filled with terror, and hid itself 
in a corner. The lid of the basket into which the 
snake was put was then closed, and an apple placed 
upon it ; and though the animal desired the fruit, it 
would not venture near the lurking-place of its dreaded 
foe, but by actions and gestures, too plain to be mis- 
understood, expressed its consternation; — nothing, in 
feet, would induce it to approach the basket. This, 
with the snake, was at length removed, and the ar ,,,.<* 
was placed upon a chair ; then, after a most cautious 
and keen scrutiny, with many doubts and misgivings, 
the timid creature at length ventured to take the offered 
prize. From this experiment it is plain that the snake is 
dreaded instinctively even by the largest of thesimiada?, 
— yet tins young chimpanzee has no fear of a dog. In 
the same room is a Maltese or hairless female dog, with 
a Htter of young ones ; and, notwithstanding the snarl-* 
mg and barking of their mother, he will intrude upon 
her kennel, take up the puppies one by one, gravely 
look at them, and replace them with the utmost gentle- 
ness. When wearied with its exertions, the chin** 


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[Febzuas* U 

parage retires to its bed; of blankets in a corner of the 
cage, and there, covering itself up, it usually crosses its 
arms over the chest, buries the face upon them, and 
thus settles to sleep. 

Dressed in the Guernsey Jacket and cap in which he 
came over to England, the odd appearance and the 
almost human demeanour of the animal elicit the 
surprise of visiters. Most, however, admire his gentle- 
ness and air of intelligence. Whether as he grows 
older this intelligence and docility will remain is a 
question that remains to be tried. It is observed that 
the most playful and gentle of the apes and monkeys 
lose, on arriving at maturity, all that previously ren- 
dered them entertaining, and degenerate into sullen, 
irascible, and malicious brutes. The temper, disposi- 
tion, and intellect of the adult chimpanzee are yet to 
be ascertained,; for, as far as is known, neither an 
adult chimpanzee nor orang have ever been in a state 
of captivity. We trust that the present animal will live 
long enough to enable the scientific world to form a 
correct and thorough estimate of its capabilities^ man- 
ners, and instincts. 

CHINA.— No. XI. 
Sundry Veobtablb Puooucta. 
The arachis hypogca or ground-nut, which, though 
found in other parts : of Asia and in Africa, was pro- 
bably introduced from China,. where it is much culti- 
vated in fields, like our potatoes, forms an import- 
ant article of food. ; It is, eaten both as a fruit and 
a vegetable, and its seeds are made to render oil. 

Besides gourds and cucumbers of different species, 
kidney beans, capsicums, and other things common to us, 
the Chinese have their famous pettai, which is a peculiar 
kind of cabbage. This is indeed essentially a national 
plant. ** The quantity consumed," says Mr. Clarke 
Abel, "all over the Chinese empire, but in Pekin es- 
pecially, is immense; ; the nine gates of this city, accord- 
ing to some authors, being frequently choked by various 
vehicles laden with it, which pass through them daily 
from morning till night during the months of October 
and November. This vegetable may in fact be con- 
sidered in relation to the Chinese what the potatoe is to 
the Irish. It is prized by all classes, and esteemed by 
them as a necessary of life. It is cultivated all over the 
empire, and receives a greater share of horticultural 
labour and skill than any other plant. In rearing it 
the Chinese consume an enormous quantity of their 
celebrated manure, called by them Ta Few, composed 
chiefly of human ordure. This plant, which I have 
eaten as a salad, and found equal to any lettuce, has 
somewhat the flavour, when boiled, of asparagus. It 
often weighs from fifteen to twenty pounds, and reaches 
the height of two or three feet. The Chinese preserve 
it during the winter by different methods; many pickle 
it in salt and vinegar, others keep it fresh, either by 
planting it in large quantities in wet sand, at the bottom 
of trenches cut for the purpose, or after drying it in the 
sun, by burying it deep in the earth. Those who wish 
to preserve it for a short time only, place it two or three 
feet beneath the surface, covering it with a layer of 
straw and earth." 

In the northern^provinces of the empire the Chinese 
cultivate on an extensive scale the xing-ma or nda 
tiliafolia and the ge ma or cannabis saliva^ not as articles 
of food, but for the manufacture of cordage, which is 
formed of their fibres. With the usual intelligence of 
these people in detecting every useful quality of all the 
prodaciions of nature, they have discovered a mediciual 
property in the root of the side, which they use as a 
powerful sodorifie. 

The castor-oil plant, or ricinu* communis^ valued 
try us, solely as a medicine, is extensively cultivated by 

the Chinese as an article of food. They have inge- 
niously discovered some method of depriving- the d 
produced from the seeds of this plant of its purgatm 
properties and nauseous taste to such a degree that 
they use it in their dishes*. They also eat the seek 
after the oil has been extracted from them. 

The kinds of corn most, cultivated in China, sees 
to be several species of millet and buck-wheat; bat 
rice, and not corn-bread, is the staff of life of the 

" Wheat," says Marco Polo, " does not yield mo good 
a crop as rice ; and bread not being in use amoo^ 
them, wheat is eaten only in the form of vermicelli or 
of pastry." This fact is confirmed in all its points by the 
missionaries, by Mr. Barrow, and all our modern tra- 
vellers. " A stronger proof of the old traveller? 
fidelity," adds Marco Polo's learned editor and com- 
mentator, Mr. Marsden, " cannot be required than is 
afforded by the minute agreement of these observation* 
on the use made of certain grains as articles of food.* 

The Castle of Chillon is an object of prominent interest 
on the north-eastern shores of the lake' of Geneva. If 
is about a mile and a half from the village of Clareus, 
midway between it and Villeneuve, at the eastern ei- 
tremity of the lake, near the mouths of the Rhone. 
Opposite the castle, on the southern side, are the height; 
of Meillerie, which, though they shut out from view 
the Alps of Savoy, compensate for this by their own 
beauty. The lake is here seven miles wide, and of 
great depth. A torrent rushes down from the heights 
behind the castle, and the character of the scenery is 
that of grandeur and wildness rather than that soft 
Italianized beauty described by Rousseau in his * Nou- 
velle Heloise.' But some licence may be allowed to 
poets and romancers ; and Clarens, which is described 
by Simond in hh * Journal in Switzerland,' as " a dirty 
village, less prettily situated than any in the neighbour- 
hood," was chosen by Rousseau, according to the same 
writer, for no other reason than that its name is a better 
sounding one than thajt of o^ber villages which sur- 
round it. Helen Maria Williams, who travelled over 
the scene of Rousseau s tale about forty years ago, 
saw Clarens with more romantic eyes than M. Simond, 
and describes it as " embosomed in trees at the foot of 
a mountain." 

The castle of Chillon is built on a flat rook near the 
shore, from which access is obtained by a wooden bridge. 
Lord Byron says of the castle, — " It is large, and seea 
along the shore for a great distance; the walla are 
white." When Miss Williams visited it, it was con- 
verted into a sort of Bastile, and guarded by soldiery. 
All the great and little governments were at that 
period alarmed by the progress of revolutionary prin- 
ciples* The dungeons were, according to her account, 
pierced by the groans of incarcerated patriots, and she 
saw a placard issued by the alarmed authorities, pro- 
hibiting the introduction of French newspapers, and 
describing with great accuracy the various degrees of 
corporal punishment to be inflicted on individuals who 
should have the audacity to discuss the principles of 
the government under which they lived, or to read 
the journals in which its actions were recorded and 
commented upon. 

This was in Switzerland, whose oppressors, 300 years 

• " Its drastic qualities," says Mr. Barrow, « may probably be 
diminished by applying lets pressure in extracting the oil, oc by 
habit, or by using it fresh, as it does not appear that the Chinese 
suffer any inconvenience in its application to culinary purposes. 
As well as I could understand, the seeds were first bruised and 
then boiled in water, and the oil that floated on the surface was 
skimmed off. Our Florence oil they afford sot to admire 
having, as they said, no taste,"-* Trwnli, p. 546 

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[Cwtle of Chilton, from tht lake.] 

before, bad been trodden down by the free and bold 
inhabitants, and thereby secured their political inde- 
pendence, though in Geneva a relentless persecution for 
religious opinions was instituted by themselves. The 
castle of Chillon was at that period a state prison. The 
Duke of Savoy, the oppressor of the Genevese, enclosed 
within its dungeons the firmest supporters of the inde- 
pendence of Geneva ; amongst whom was Francois de 
Bonnivard. He was confined from 1530 to 1536. 
The Duke of Savoy was determined on stifling the 
Reformation, if it were possible for his armed bands to 
effect such an object ; but his persecution and tyranny 
drove his victims to arms. He endeavoured to starve 
the Genevese into submission by intercepting their sup- 
plies, but they boldly fitted out five boats, each manned 
with eighty soldiers, and crossed the lake to procure 
provisions on his own territory. Being afterwards 
aided by 7000 Bernese, the Duke's position soon 
became desperate, and the last place which held out 
for him was the castle of Chillon. It was invested 
both by land and water, and the imprisoned Swiss 
heard the cannon of their victorious countrymen batter- 
ing the walls which had so long confined them. Bon- 
nivard was among the number released. He had worn 
a track across the rocky floor of his cell by pacing it 
so many weary days and nights. Lord Byron's fine 
* Sonnet on Chillon 1 alludes to this circumstance : — 

Chillon ! thy prison ii a holy place, 
And thy sad floor an altar — for 'twas trod. 

Until his very steps have left a trace 
Worn, as if thy cold pavement were a sod, 

By Bonnivard ! — May none those marks efface ! 
For they appeal from tyranny to God* 

Lord Byron appears to have obtained a sketch of 
Bonnivard's history from a citizen of the Genevese 
republic, and has inserted it as a note to the above 
poem* Ha baa himself added that Geneva is still 

proud of the memory of a man "worthy of the best age 
of ancient freedom." Setting aside the meaning of the 
very questionable term '* ancient freedom," it is clear 
that Lord Byron was in some measure misled by the 
citizen of Geneva who furnished him with the materials 
on which he grounds his eulogy. In this notice of 
Bonnivard it is stated that after having rendered 
Geneva free, he succeeded in rendering her tolerant. 
As to his toleration, M. Simond relates that, very 
shortly after his escape from the dungeons of Chillon, 
he became member of a tyrannical council which pro- 
ceeded to treat the opinions of those who adhered to 
the old faith with the utmost bigotry. Bonnivard, it is 
true, was somewhat in advance of others. He voted 
that time should be allowed for the Catholics to deliberate. 
The acts of the council produced many serious conflicts, 
but they were eventually enforced. In estimating the 
justice of an eulogy on Bonnivard, regard should be 
had to the spirit of the times in which he lived, as 
compared with that of the present day. The contrast 
will show how imperfectly the principles of rational 
liberty were developed at the former period, and that 
though he was in some respects a dauntless lover of 
freedom, he was in others, when compared with our 
own times, incapable of valuing the rights and privileges 
of liberty of opinion and conscience. 

Lord Byron, in his note on the castle of Chillon, 
says, — '* Within it are a range of dungeons. Across 
one of the vaults is a beam black with age, on which 
we were informed that the condemned were formerly 
executed. In the cellars are seven pillars, or rather 
eight, one being merged in the wall ; in some of them 
are rings for the fetters and the fettered : in the pave- 
ment the steps of Bonnivard have left their trace.' 1 M. 
Simond visited the castle in 1817: it was then gar- 
risoned by a few lazy soldiers, one of whom guided him 
to the dungeon said to be beneath the level of the lake. 

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[February 13 

M. Simond, however, wos sceptical on this latter point. 
He says, " Comparing the height of the loop-hole grates, 
v here captives weep, (as he sarcastically remarks,) above 
the water's edge from the outside, and above the rocky 
floor inside, I remained satisfied the latter was some- 
thing above the former; — particularly when I observed 
a hollow place full of water, which must come from the 
lake, and would rise above the floor of the dungeon if it 
really were lower than the level of the lake." The writer 
satirically adds, — " It grieves me to contradict poets pr 
picturesque and sentimental travellers, but really the 
dungeon of Cbillon is not underwater; and, besides, 
is absolutely a comfortable sort of a dungeon enough, 
full forty feet long, fifteen or twenty feet wide, and fif- 
teen feet high, with several narrow slits into *he thick 
wall, above reach, but admitting air and light, and 
even some rays of sun." 

Lord Byron's touching poem, ' The Prisoner of 
Chillon ; a Fable," contains one or two descriptive 
allusions to the castle, which we subjoin. As the story 
is fictitious, so also has the poet, with a pardonable 
license, introduced into his picture of the castle points 
which do not precisely correspond with the actual 
edifice. With an exception, which contributes to 
heighten the interest, the following part of the poem, 
however, is in every respect an accurate sketch :— 

Lake Leman lies by Chilton's walli ; 
A thousand feet in depth below 
lit massy waters meet and flow ; 
Thus much the fathom-lint was sent 
From Chillon'g snow-white battlement, 

Which round about the wave enthralls : 
A double dungeon wall and wave 
Have made—and like a living grave. 
Below the surface of the lake 
The dark vault lies wherein we lay; 
We heard rt ripple night and day j 

Sounding o'er our heads it knock'd ; 
And I have felt the winter's spray 
Wash through the bats when winds were high 
And wauton in the happy sky; 

And then the very rock hath rock'd, 

And I have felt it shake, unshock'd, 
Because I could" have smiled to see 
The death that would have set me free* 

And again : — • 

There are seven pillars of Gothic mould 
Jn Chillon's dungeons deep and old, 
There are wvcn columns, massy and gray, 
Dim with a dull imprisoned ray, — 
A sunbeam which hath lost its way, 
Ami through the crevice and the cleft 
Of the thick wall is fallen and left; 
Creeping o'er the floor s > damp, 
Like a marsh's meteor-lamp. 

Our view is taken from an original drawing, made on 
the spot, in 1835, by H. T. Delamotte, Esq. 

A short chronological detail of the course of events 
during the quarter of a century which preceded the 
appearance of Robert Bruce on the scene of Scottish 
history, will place in the clearest light what that great 
deliverer achieved for his country. 

In 1282 Scotland was in the enjoyment of profound 
peace, and perhaps unprecedented prosperity, under 
the sway of Alexander III., — one of the ablest and best 
in the list of her kings. Alexander had married Mar- 
garet, a daughter of King Henry III. of England, and 
was, consequently, the brother-in-law of the reigning 
king of that country, Edward I. The Scottish king 
was now in the forty-second year of his age, and having 
a sou and a daughter arrived at maturity, had a fair 
prospect of leaving his sceptre to a. line of descendants, 
after a reign which might yet have been extended to a 
distant date. This year his daughter Margaret 

united in marriage to Eric, the young King- of Norway; 
and, soon after, his son, of the same name with himself, 
to Margaret, daughter of Guy, the head of the power- 
ful house of Flanders. 

A short space sufficed to turn to darkness all th:s 
appearance of a secure and happy future. The Queen 
of Norway had scarcely been married a year when she 
died, after having given birth to a daughter. The 
death of Prince Alexander, without issue, followed in 
January, 1284; and, finally, on the 16th of March, 
1286, the king himself, having fallen over a rock at 
Kinghorn, in Fife, while riding at night, was killed on 
the spot. 

Thus terminated the line of the original Celtic kin^ 
of Scotland. The sovereignty of that turbulent coun- 
try now devolved upon the infant Norwegian prince^ 
who of course was still at the court of her father. Ha 
even she survived, the calamities that fell upon the 
kingdom might still have been averted. The crown 
had been solemnly secured to her by a declaration of 
the Estates of Scotland, which her grandfather hci 
taken the precaution to obtain the year before h > 
death; and, since that event, it had been arrange i 
that, as soon as she was brought home, she should be 
affianced to her second cousin, the eldest son of th 
English king, — a project which, if it had been carrie i 
into effect, would have eventually united the two kin? 
doms under one sceptre. But this hope was ato 
doomed to be disappointed. Margaret, the youn r 
Queen of Scotland, — known in Scottish history by the 
name of the Maid of Norway — having, in 1289, beei 
placed by her father in the hands of ambassadors sent 
to conduct her to the country of which she was to wear 
the crown, was taken ill on the voyage, and havinc 
been carried on shore to one of the Orkney Islands, 
died there. 

Now came the calamity of a disputed succession to 
the throne, — always one of the greatest that can bef?l 
a state, but in this case aggravated by the advantage 
taken of the crisis by the English monarch to endeavour 
to make himself master, by fraud or force, of the dis- 
tracted country. The contest which ensued lasted for 
more than twenty years; the barbarities of war, in the 
constant alternation of conquest and insurrection, being" 
only interrupted for short seasons by the gloomy tran- 
quillity of enslavement and despair. Although many 
competitors started in the first instance, the only tno 
that eventually prosecuted their claims were John 
Baliol, Lord of Galloway, and Robert Bruce, Lord of 
Annandale; the former the grandson of the eldest 
daughter, the latter the son of the second daughter, of 
David Earl of Huntingdon, in whose line the right to 
the crown now undoubtedly resided. On the 19th of 
November, 1292, the English king, to whom the de- 
cision had been referred, gave judgment in favour of 
Baliol. On the next day, the new King of Scotland 
did fealty to Edward as his feudal superior; and on 
the 30th he was crowned at Scone. For more than 
three years Baliol and his subjects remained apparently 
quiet under the yoke which had thus been imposed upon 
them ; but in the spring of 1296, Edward having by 
this time become involved in a war with France, the 
Scots, seeing what they thought a favourable oppor- 
tunity of regaining their freedom, also rose and took 
arms against him ; — Baliol, driven into resistance by 
many humiliations he had been made to suffer from his 
haughty liege lord, having been induced to place him- 
self at the head of the insurrection. This effort, how- 
ever, conducted with no ability, wholly failed; the 
generals of Edward carried everything before them, 
and, after a few weeks, the conquest of the country was 
complete. As this was considered to be the supp^ 9- 
sion of a rebellion, the sword was allowed even mor»" 
than its usual license, and th* victor endeaieurea ** 

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strike tenror into the hearts of the miserable people by 
massacres and devastations on a large scale. On. the 
2nd of July, Baliol formally surrendered the kingdom 
into the hands of Edward, who immediately appointed 
one of his generals to govern it as his deputy. 

In less than two years/ however, the Scots again 
revolted. Their leader now was the illustrious Wallace. 
Under his conduct they chased the English authorities 
from the kingdom,— overthrew, at Cambus Kenneth, 
a force of 40,000 men that was despatched to put down 
the insurrection, — obtained possession of some of the 
principal fortresses, — re-established a native govern- 
ment, — and were not again brought under the yoke till 
Edward himself came against them at the head of an 
army of 100,000 strong, and defeated the Scottish cham- 
pion at the fatal battle of Falkirk, fought on the 22nd 
of July, 129S. 

The spring of the year 1303 was signalized by 
another revolt, which lasted for nearly two years, and 
which in like manner was not decided till the English 
king had again taken the field in person. Its suppres- 
sion was followed by new cruelties and devastations, 
and by the abandonment of the unhappy country to a 
tyranny more grinding than ever. Among other acts 
of vengeance, Edward stained his character with in- 
delible infamy by the execution of the heroic Wallace, 
who had been betrayed into his hands. He suffered 
on Tower Hill, London, on the 23rd of August, 

It was now that Bruce resolved to put himself at the 
head of his countrymen, and to call them up to yet 
another struggle for their liberties and independence. 
He was the grandson of Robert Bruce, the competitor 
for the crown with Baliol, and was at this time, about 
thirty years of age. His father and grandfather having 
adhered to the English interests in the late contests, or 
having perhaps been forcibly detained by Edward under 
his own eye, he had till now resided at the English court. 
That his detention here was compulsory appears to be 
proved by the stratagem to which he was obliged to 
resort in order to make his escape from Londor. He 
had already been concerting hit. plans with some con- 
nexions in Scotland, when a friend, having learned that 
lie was watched, but not venturing to give him direct 
warning, sent him one day, by a servant, a pair of 
spurs and a purse of money. Penetrating the hint, 
Bruce lost not a moment. Having ordered three 
horses to be shod with the shoes turned backwards, in 
order to perplex his pursuers, he set ofF, accompanied 
by two trusty servants, in the middle of the same night. 
When his flight was discovered, horsemen were ordered 
to scour the country in all directions, — but he eluded or 
outrode them; and on the 10th of February, .1306, 
which was the seventh day after he had set out from 
London, he made his appearance, in the midst of his 
friends, at his castle of Lochmaben, in Dumfriesshire. 
From this he immediately proceeded to Dumfries, where, 
in an interview in the Dominican church with John, 
called the" RedComyn," — who, after having become a 
party to the enterprise, is supposed to have expressed 
an inclination to recede from his engagement, — he, in 
the heat of the dispute which arose between them, slew 
that nobleman with his dagger at the altar. From the 
manner in which the news of this deed of blood and 
sacrilege was received by the Scots, there is reason to 
think that Comyn was generally believed to have been 
engaged in the interest of the English king when his 
career was thus suddenly cut short, and to have been 
preparing to betray his friends and his country. 

Many of Bruce' s countrymen now gathered to their 
new leader, and having made his way to Scone without 
being opposed, he was crowned there on the 29th of 
March. A sudden reverse, however, was awaiting him. 
Edward now Jos't no time in collecting his strength, 

and a powerful force, under the command of Aymer de- 
Valence, soon arrived in the neighbourhood of the 
royal residence. An engagement took place on the 
19th of June, at Methuen, near Perth, and ended in 
the total defeat and rout of the Scots. Several of 
Bruce's most distinguished adherents were here taken 
prisoners, and afterwards executed as rebels and 

He himself was compelled to seek safety in flight. 
Having placed his wife, his two sisters, and his youngest 
brother Nigel in the castle of Kildrummie, in Aberdeen- 
shire, where they soon after fell into the hands of the 
ruthless Edward, he himself retreated to the wilds of 
Breadalbane. " He was left," says Hollinshed, trans- 
lating from the old Scottish chroniclers, " so desolate 
and unprovided of all friendship, that he was constrained 
for his refuge to withdraw into the woods and moun- 
tains, with a few other in his company, and there lived 
on herbs and roots oftentimes for want of other food.'* 
" Yet," continues the narrative, " though he was thus 
left desolate of all aid and succour, having his brethren 
and other of his friends murdered and slain, to his utter 
discomfort and ruin, as was then supposed, he never- 
theless lived ever in hope of some better fortune, 
whereby in time to come he might recover the realm 
out of the enemy's hands, and restore the ancient liberty 
thereof to the former estate. As for the pains which 
he took in living barely for the most part by water and 
roots, and lodging ofttimes on the bare earth without 
house or other harborough, he was so accustomed 
thereto by haunting the wars in his youth that the 
same grieved him little or nothing at all. But to con- 
clude : such was his valiancy and most excellent 
fortitude of mind and courage, that no injurious mis- 
chance or froward adversity could abash his invincible 
heart and warlike stomach.'' 

He afterwards found it necessary to cross over from 
the mainland to one of the Hebrides, and eventually 
he took refuge in the small island of Rach-erin or 
Rach-rine, lying opposite to Ballycastle, on the coast of 
Ireland. From this he passed to the Isle of Arran ; 
and, by the spring of 1307, he was again at the head 
of a considerable force in Ayrshire, and openly pre- 
paring to regain his crown. Edward now determined 
to march against him in person ; and, having collected 
another great army, had advanced nearly to the Border 
at its head. But heaven averted from the land which 
had been already swept by so many similar visitations, 
this new storm. The English king was suddenly taken 
ill at Carlisle, and died there on the 7th of July. This 
event broke up the expedition. Bruce was now left 
free to pursue his enterprize : assisted by his younger 
brother Edward and other gallant associates, he assailed 
and reduced one after another nearly all the strongs 
holds in which English garrisons had been placed; 
and, in no long space, almost the whole of Scotland 
was once more his own. 

Taking advantage of the indolent character of the 
new king of England, he even made various successful 
inroads into that country, and avenged by (he plunder 
of his enemy a small part of what his subjects had 
again and again suffered in this protracted contest. In 
this state things continued for some years, without any 
serious attempt being made by Edward to recover his 
father's conquests. At last, however, in the spring of 
1314, the troubles in which the commencement of the 
reign of that king was involved having been somewhat 
composed, he determined to make a grand effort to 
crush the rebellion for ever; and, collecting the 
mightiest host which England had ever yet sent forth, 
he inarched with it into the heart of Scotland. Every 
reader is aware of the issue, so glorious to Bruce and to 
the Scottish aims. The ever-memorable battle of 
Uttiinockburu, fought on the 25th of June, scattered 

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[February 13, 1836. 

Edward's proud armament like chaff before the wind, 
struck from Scotland the last link of her chain of 
bondage, relieved her from the curse of war for many 
years, and left the great hero of the day on a throne 
which so long as he lived was never again either shaken 
or assailed. 

His reign did not close till the year 1329, when a 
disease, under which he had -suffered during a great 
part of his life, at last brought him to his grave. This 
admirable king did not lose in peace the renown which 
he had gained in war ; but, on the contrary, by the 
wisdom of his civil government, greatly heightened the 
fame which he had acquired over all Europe, as well as 
the love and honour in which he was held by his sub- 
jects at home. He was regarded in that age as in all 
things the model of a perfect knight ; and one name 
only, that of the Emperor Henry of Luxembourg, was 
placed in the popular estimation before that of Bruce. 
It is related that upon one occasion, in the presence of 
Edward II., an English herald ventured even to defend 
the claim of the Scottish king to take precedence of the 
Emperor; "for the valiant acts," said he, "achieved 
by Henry may be ascribed rather to the wisdom of his 
counsellors than to his own valiantness and prudence ; 
but, contrarily, Kiug Robert, being confined out of his 
country, and destitute of friends and all convenient 
aid, recovered the realm of Scotland, by his' singular 
manhood, out of the hands of your noble father, and 
established it with such tranquillity, that he appeared 
more terrible to his enemies of England than ever they 
had been afore to his subjects of Scotland." His 
history, as related in detail by the old chroniclers, 
abounds in instances of the lofty generosity of his 
nature, and the clemency and kindliness which ever 
tempered 'and graced his valour. " The commendations 
of which King Robert," says Francis Boteuile, in his 
Additions to Holinshed, " Buchanan setteth forth (to 
comprehend many things in few words) to be, that he 
was every way a most worthy person, and that there 
were few to be found, from the former heroical days, 
equal unto him in all kinds of virtue; for as he was in 
battle most valiant, so was he in peace most temperate 
and just. And though his undivided good success and 
perpetual course of victories (after that fortune was 
once satisfied or rather wearied with his misfortunes) 
were very great, yet he seemeth to Buchanan to be far 
more wonderful in his adverse fortune ; whose valour 
of mind was such that it could not be broken, no, not 
so much as weakened, by so many evils as happened 
unto him at one time; whose singular constancy 
appeared by the captivity of his wife and the death of 
his valiant brethren ; and, besides that, his friends were 
at one time vexed with all kind of calamities, and they 
which escaped death were banished, 'with the loss of 
their substance ; he himself was not only spoiled of all 
his patrimony, but of his kingdom also, by the mightiest 
king of that age, Edward I., king of England, a man 
most ready in counsel, and of dispatch of his affairs as 
well in war as peace, Yea, so far was this Bruce 
oppressed at one time with all these kinds of evils, that 
he was driven into extreme poverty : in all which mis- 
fortunes he never doubted of the recovery of the king- 
dom; neither did or said anything unbeseeming the 
noble mind of a king ; for he offered no violent hands 
to himself, as did the later Cato and Marcus Brutus ; 
neither with Marius did he pursue his enemies with 
continual hatred. For when he had recovered his 
former estate, he so lived with them that had most 
occasioned his labour and trouble, that he rather 
remembered himself to be a king over them and not an 
enemy unto them. To conclude, he did noj so forsake 
himself towards his end (when a grievous disease added 
troubles to age) but that he confirmed and established 
the present estate of the kingdom, and provided for the 

quiet of posterity, whereby his subjects did not so much 
lament his death as that they were deprived of so just a 
king and Godly father." 

Hares.— The vicinity of Monza and a great part of the 
royal park has a bad soil. The land inclosed in the park 
is sown with rye, whilst that beyond the inclosure, though 
in other respects similarly circumstanced, is occupied by 
wheat The manager (Wirthschaftsverwalter) told me that 
within the park wheat could not be sown on acton at of the 
hares, by wliom it would be entirely destroyed, as they are 
very fond of the young wheat, but let the rye stand un- 
touched.— Z)r. Burger's Travels through Upper Italy, 
(Vienna, 1831) vol. ii., 159. 

Affection of Birds.— The following instance of attach- 
ment in these birds (swans) has recently come under my 
observation. A pair of swans had been inseparable com- 
panions for three years, during which time they had reared 
three broods of cygnets : last autumn the male was killed, 
and since that time the female has separated herself from all 
society with her own species ; and though at the time I am 
writing (the end of March) the breeding-season for swans is 
far advanced, she remains in the same state of seclusion, re- 
sisting the addresses of a male swan who has been making 
advances towards forming an acquaintance with her, either 
driving him away, or flying from him whenever he comes 
near her. How long she will continue in her present state 
of widowhood I know not, but at present it is quite evident 
that she has not forgotten her former partner. This puts 
me , in mind of a circumstance which lately happened at 
Chalk Farm, near Hampton. A man, set to watch a field 
of peas which had been much preyed upon by pigeons, shot 
an old cock-pigeon who had long been an inhabitant of the 
farm. His mate, around whom he had for many a year 
cooed, and nourished from his own crop, and assisted in 
rearing numerous young ones, immediately settled on the 
ground by his side, and showed her grief in the most ex- 
pressive mariner. The labourer took up the dead bird and 
tied it to a short stake, thinking that it would frighten away 
the other depredators. In this situation however his partner 
did not forsake him, but continued, day after day, walking 
slowly round the stick. The kind-hearted wife of the bailiff 
of the farm at last heard of the circumstance and imme- 
diately went to afford what relief she could to the poor bird. 
She told me that, on arriving at the spot, she found the hen- 
bird much exhausted, and that she had made a circular 
beaten track round the dead pigeon, making now and then 
a little spring towards him. On the removal of the dead 
bird, the hen returned to the dove-cot. 
, ' Like to a pair of loving turtle-doves, 

' That could not live asunder day or night.' — Shaxspbaak. 
The only instance I have met with in which the hen-bird 
has- not the chief care in hatching and bringing up the 
young is in the case of the emus at the farm belonging to 
the Zoological Society near Kingston. A pair of these 
birds have now five young ones: the female at different 
times dropped nine eggs in various places in the pen in 
which she was confined. These were collected in one place 
by the male, who rolled them gently and carefully along 
with his beak. He then sat upon them himself, and con- 
tinued to do so with the utmost assiduity for nine weeks* 
during which time the female never took his place, nor was 
he ever observed to leave the nest When the young were 
hatched he alone took charge of them, and has continued to 
do so ever since, the female not appearing to notice them in 
any way. On reading this anecdote, many persons would 
suppose that the female emu was not possessed of that 
natural affection for its young which other birds have. In 
order to rescue it from this supposition, I will mention that 
a female emu belonging to the Duke of Devonshire at Chis- 
wick lately laid some eggs ; and, as there was no male bird, 
she collected them together herself and sat upon them.— 
Jesse's Gleanings in Natural History. 

V Ti» Ofto of the Society for tho Diffusion of Uieftil Knowledge f ■ at 
&9, Lincoln's Inn Ffoldi. 


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■ua omf Dmnnni arww 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 




[Febeuary 20, 1836. 

[Castor-Oil Plant] 

The castor-oil plant (ricinus communis) belongs to an 
order {cuphorbiacetxi) whose affinities have not yet 
been accurately limited by botanists ; but it is supposed 
to comprise at least 1500 species, distributed in each 
quarter of the globe from the equator to latitudes as 
high a* Great Britain ; u sometimes," as Professor 
Lindley remarks, " in the form of large trees, fre- 
quently of bushes, still more usually of diminutive 
weeds, and occasionally of deformed, leafless, succulent 
plants resembling the cacti in their port." The ricinus 
communis becomes an annual in our climate, and its 
stem and branches are said to lose their ligneous 
nature, and afterwards, on being placed in a hot-house, 
to re-assume their former characteristics. At Ville- 
franche, near Nice, there were, in 1818, specimens in 
the open, air above thirty feet high! which it was believed 
Vol, V. 

were the only instances in Europe of the species growing 
in an arborescent form. The tropical latitudes of 
Asia, Africa, and America are the regions in which it 
is indigenous, and of course most flourishing. 

The properties of the order of plants to which the 
ricinus communis belongs are remarkably varied, and 
highly valuable on account of their medical uses. Both 
Jussieu and Lindley have enumerated them in their 
respective systems of botany. The peculiar virtues of 
the plant reside principally in a milky secretion which 
it produces, the strength and efficacy of which are de- 
termined by the secretion being more or less copious^ 
Some of the species exhale an aromatic odour, others, a 
disagreeable and pungent one. The flowens of some 
may be used in preparing a decoction possessing useful 
tonic properties ; in others, the leaves are sudorific ; 

Digitized by 




[February 20, 

and; again, the juice and root of aome of the species 
may be taken as an emetic. The properties of the 
plant range from gentle and beneficial stimulants to 
rank poison ; the nature of the poison, however, fre- 
quently being so volatile as to be deprived of its baneful 
effects by the action of fire : so that the roots of some 
species which would be destructive of life if eaten in 
their natural state, become, after cooking, a nutritious 
food for sustaining and invigorating it. The prepa- 
ration called turnsot (croton tinctorum) is obtained 
from one of the plants of this order, so named from its 
turning its flowers to the sun ; and caoutchouc is sup- 
plied by others of this widely-diversified genus. 

The ricinvs communis y or castor-oil plant, is highly 
valuable for the excellent medical virtues of the oil 
which it furnishes : its root is said to be diuretic. The 
positions of the flowers are shown in the accompanying 
cut ; but it is from the seeds that the oil is extracted, 
three of which, of an oblong flatfish form, are inclosed 
in each receptacle. The oil is prepared chiefly in the 
East Indies, and in the West India Islands, the United 
States, and also in the south of Europe. 

In America, the seeds being stripped of their covering, 
are boiled about six hours in a considerable quantity of 
water, and the oil, as it rises to the surface in a white 
and frothy state, is carefully skimmed off. Successive 
boilings, and straining in a canvass bag, bring it to the 
necessary degree of fineness and purity. 

The oil which has been what is called <c eold drawn" 
is generally held in the highest estimation. This me- 
thod consists in the seeds being bruised in a mortar, 
in order to express the oil, the whole being afterwards 
tied up in linen bags, and strained until the oil 
separates from the bruised seeds. 

A" French chemist has proposed a third method of 
extracting the oil, founded on the circumstance of its 
remaining insoluble in alcohol. 

The best castor- oil is of a pale straw colour, and 
the more limpid it is the better are its qualities. The 
use of castor-oil in medicine is not of very old date; 
but not only are its excellencies generally acknowledged, 
but in some respects its properties are to be found in 
no other medicine. It was formerly believed that the 
mode adopted for obtaining the oil by bruising the seeds 
was the means of rendering it harsh and acrid ; but 
some French chemists who made experiments both on 
the seed and its rind found that the quality of the oil 
was not injured from the cause which had been supposed ; 
but that some mismanagement attending the preparation, 
and which might occur under either system, occasioned 
the decomposition of a small portion of the essential 
properties of the oil. 

In 1833 the importation of castor-oil in the United 
Kingdom was 343,805 lbs. ; viz., 7282 from the south of 
Europe; 38 from the Cape of Good Hope; 316,779 
from Ceylon, and the territories of the East India Com- 
pany ; 12 from China ; 13,124 from the British Norfti 
American Colonies ; 1905 from the West Indies ; 4665 
from the foreign West India Islands. The duty pre- 
vious to the year 1827 yielded about 11,000/. a-year ; 
from 1827 to 1832 about 4,500/. a year, and in 1833 
only 621/. ; the variations being occasioned by altera- 
tions in the tariff. During the last fifteen years the 
duty on castor-oil has successively been Is. 3c/., 6d., and 
3d. per lb., if imported from any of the "British pos- 
sessions. It is now only 2*. 6d. per cwt. 


Although the use of potatoes is now generally diffused 
among civilized nations, it is yet somewhat singular 
that the history of their introduction into Europe is 
still wrapped in mystery. We find them, indeed, men- 

tioned by Shakspeare in bis, * Troilus and Cressida,' 
as appendages to the devil Luxury; and Falstaff~is 
made to say, in the * Merry Wives of Windsor,* ** l,et 
the sky rain potatoes" and "hail ki>sing comfits;" 
from which it has been supposed that they were well known 
in this country during the reign of Queen 'Elizabeth. 
The plant there alluded to was, however, the •' sweet 
Spanish potatoe," whicb was probably brought into 
Spain from some part of the East, as it is a native of 
India, and is spoken of by ancient writers under the 
name of batlatas, which were at that time sold in our 
markets as a great delicacy, and were thoug-ht to pos- 
sess extraordinary powers. They are, indeed, spoken 
of by old Gerard the English botanist, in his Herbal, 
as ** being roots which do strengthen and comfort 
nature, and are used to be eaten rosted in the ashes; 
some, when they be so rosted, infuse them and sop 
them in wine ; others, to give them the greater grace 
in eating, do boyle them with prunes, and so eate 
them ^ likewise making these comfortable and delicate 
meates, called in shops morselli placentul(B % and divers 
others such-like/* 

The root which is the object of our present inquiry 
is indigenous in Chili, and the first notice taken of it 
by any European writer is by the German botanist 
Clusius, who in 1598, while residing in Vienna, re- 
ceived a present of two of the tubers from Flanders, 
under the name of taratovflis, of which there is a plate 
among his rare plants. The next mention of it is by 
Gerard, who describes it distinctly from the sweet 
potatoe, and says that the specimens were sent from 
Virginia, and planted in his garden near London, in 
1597. They are, however, said to have been carried 
into Ireland by Sir Walter Raleigh, on his return from 
America, in 1586; and we are told in De Bry's Collec- 
tion of Voyages, by Heriot, who accompanied him, 
that they are " good food either boiled or roasted, and 
are called by the Indians openawk. It is stated, how- 
ever, by Humboldt, in his account of New Spain, that 
the potatoe was unknown in Mexico at the conquest of 
that country ; and we are left to conjecture how it 
could have found its way across that wide intermediate 
territory to Virginia, tathe soil of which it is naturally 
a stranger. 

It appears by tradition that the . roots were planted 
by Sir Walter at his residence near Youghal, which is 
still standing, and were soon afterwards found so useful 
in some disastrous season which threatened famine, 
that they became generally cultivated in most parts of 
the island. Here, however, their progress was so slow, 
that we find them mentioned in 1619 as one of the 
articles provided for the queen's table, at the price of 
2.?. per lb. ! and they were for a long time only grown 
as delicacies in the gardens of men of fortune. Indeed 
more than a century elapsed ere they were much 
noticed ; for, although they were brought before the 
public as an object of national importance at a meeting 
of the Royal Society, held in March 1663, yet they are 
not included in the list of vegetables described in the 
4 Complete Gardener/ which was published by eminent 
London nurserymen in 1719; and we learn* from the 
General Agricultural Report of Scotland that their 
cultivation was very little understood there, even in 
gardens, until after the year 1740, nor practised in the 
fields until nearly twenty years later. 

In whatever way it may have been brought into 
general cultivation, it may be justly considered as the 
most valuable esculent root with which we are ac« 
quainted ; for, whether regarded as the food of m*n 
or beast, its adaptation to almost every variety of 
palate and constitution, renders it universally welcome. 
There may, indeed, be some truth in the observations 
which have been made by the late Mr. Cobbett upoa 
the pauperizing effects which its habitual use bM 

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occasioned among the peasantry of Ireland ; but in 
this country, where it only comes in aid of other food, 
it adds materially to the comforts of the working 
classes, and cannot be looked upon in any other light 
than as a national benefit. 

Every one is aware that the roots or tubers, which 
is the edible part, grow underground, of very irregular 
form and size ; though when planted upon land of the 
same nature, always producing potatoes of similar 
quality when the seasons do not materially differ. It 
is, however, not generally known that the varieties 
brought to our markets are so numerous, that one 
account has been lately presented to the Highland 
Society of experiments made upon 130 different sorts ; 
another has been published by the Agricultural Society 
of Geneva, containing details by Professor De Candolle, 
of the properties and produce of 154 species collected 
from various parts of Europe and America ; and there 
are besides these the records of pumberless trials in the 
county surveys of the United Kingdom, and the trans- 
actions of the London Horticultural Society. Now as. 
the qualities of the root when grown in the usual way 
do not vary, it is evident that these varieties can only 
be produced by pursuing a different process of planting, 
as -thus — the haulm or stem of the plant, which springs 
Jrom the tuber, carries a small fruit, called " the apple," 
which is about the size and appearance of a green plum, 
but containing many seeds, which, whea again sown, 
produce new plants ; and, singular as it may appear, 
frequently .bear roots of a kind nearly distinct from 
each other in weight, flavour, and those properties 
which constitute their chief value. 

It will be readily imagined that great advantages 
may be gained by the production of a superior species ; 
and accordingly trials are constantly made by farmers 
and gardeuers with a view to obtain them ; but the 
operation is slow. For this purpose a few large ripe 
apples should be chosen from a perfectly healthy plant 
of an approved kind, and preserved carefully throughout 
the winter in dry sand, so as to keep them apart from 
each other. In the beginning of April the seeds should 
be either picked out from the apples and sown in nar- 
row drills or rows in a prepared bed of garden-mould, 
or the apples and sand may be mashed up together, 
and sown in the drills witltout the trouble of separa- 

When the seedling plants are about an inch high, 
they sliould be raised carefully, with as much earth as 
possible adhering to their roots, and planted out in 
rich and well-pulverized ground, the rows being about 
fifteen iuches wide, and the plants standing ten inches 
asunder, keeping them clear of weeds both by the hoe 
and hand-weeding; and when ripe the roots should 
be cautiously secured from frost, either in an outhouse 
well covered with straw, or in a pit well guarded from 
the' weather. 

Next season the roots should be planted out in the 
common soil of the farm, which, however, should be of 
a dry, sandy, and friable nature, and the cultivation 
should be carried on in the ordinary manner. The 
potatoes will then arrive at their full size, when their 
distinctive properties can be ascertained ; and whether 
only those of the former quality, or any new varieties of 
a better kind are thus procured, it will be found that 
those grown from seed will continue for several years 
to yield a larger return than those planted in the usual 
way, as well as to be more free from the destructive 
disorder called the " curl.' 1 

Besides what we have here stated regard ing the 
ignorance which prevails respecting the seed of the 
pntatoe, among persons who only see the roots upon 
their table, it is not improbable that many of those who 
are conversant with rural affairs are yet unacquainted 
with the extensive uses to which it is applied when 

manufactured kito flour ; for the public arc not aware 
that it is not only very generally mixed by bakers in 
our bread, as well as made into starch, but that the 
substances commonly sold in the shops as tapioca, 
arrow-root, and various other farinaceous compounds, 
are in many instances formed of that alone. The 
bakers are thus accused of adulteration ; but the fact 
is, that, when only a moderate quantity is employed, it 
improves the lightness of the bread, as well as that of 
all kinds of pas'ry; and in Paris, where the bread is 
well known to be of very superior quality, upwards of 
40,000 tons of potatoes are annually converted into 
flour. When manufactured upon a large scale, means 
are necessarily resorteJ to for the reduction of labour, 
the process of which it is unnecessary that we should 
describe; but when prepared for family use, the mode, 
may be described as simply peeling off the skin, 
together with the eyes or any spots by which the root 
may be discoloured, and then rubbing down the pulp 
with a strong, rough-holed iron grater, by which means 
it will be converted into a soft, watery mass, and is to 
be thrown into a tub of cold water. It should be then 
well mixed with the hand ; after which it should be 
poured through a drainer, to remove any coarse frag- 
ments of the potatoe which may be accidentally present. 
After being allowed to remain for some time, — until the 
flour is completely fallen to the bottom, — the water is 
to be carefully poured off, and the deposit in like man- 
ner subjected to repeated ablutions of cold water, which 
will gradually dissolve all the soluble matter of the 
root, and must be persisted in until the water, which 
was at first turbid, becomes quite clear and trans- 
parent, some time being of course allowed to elapse 
between these operations, that the flour may subside 
completely to the bottom of the tub. It is completely 
insoluble in cold water, and, when perfectly white and 
pure, forms a consistent mass, which is then spread out 
upon- a cloth or other contrivance for drying it; and, 
by rubbing it with the hand as it dries, it falls down 
into a fine impalpable powder, constituting the potatoe- 
flour. If kept in a dry place, this may be preserved 
for any length of time ; arid from the commencement 
until the termination of the process, the operation may 
perhaps occupy a week. 

Chemists have found, by analysis, that 100 parts of 
the potatoe, when deprived of its skin, contain 6*8 to 
72 parts of water, and 28 to 32 parts of insoluble 
matter, consisting of starch, fibrous matter, and soluble 
mucilage, which together constitute the flour, the 
amount and quality of which depend greatly upon the 
mealiness of the root. When used in the manufacture 
of bread, it should be mixed with a considerable portion 
of rye* or wiieateu flour; but a very palatable loaf m;iy 
be formed with about one-third potatoe-meal and two- 
thirds of that of wheat. Thus it is stated in a late 
Number of (he * Bulletin des Sciences AgrieoleV that 
4 J lbs. of die former and iOlbs. of the latter produce, 
as nearly as possible, 25 lbs. of bread, or six full-weight 
quartern loaves. The leaven is prepared in the usual 
manner; but the dough requires to be rather more 
kneaded in order to make it rise. The same account 
further says, that the dough is divided into portions 
not larger than 6 lbs., which are baked in small pans. 
The oven is left shut for a quarter of an hour, alter 
which it is partially opened for some time; and, when 
the bread has had sufficient time to bake well, it is 
removed. In half an hour it is again placed in the 
oven, and allowed to remain an honr, the door being 
left open during the time, — this second baking, it is to 
be observed, being of great importance. The bread 
made in this manner is described as of excellent quality, 
and may be kept for eight or ten days without any 
apparent alteration. Now, according to all common, 
calculation, the proportion of household bread made 

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[February 20, 

from any given quantity of whealen flour is as four to 
three, consequently 10 lbs. would only yield at the 
most 13J lbs. of bread; yet we here find that, by the 
admixture of 4Jlbs. of good potatoe-meal, an increase 
is obtained of 1 1+ lbs. ! 

Puddings made with potatoe-flour closely resemble 
those formed of arrow-root ; and a very nutritious article 
of food for individuals of ever}' age, but particularly for 
that of childhood, or persons of weak digestion, maybe 
prepared in the same manner as blanc-mange, in the 
proportion of one large cupful of the meal to eight of 
milk, the flour being well mixed up with a spoonful or 
two of cold milk before it is put on the fire to boil, and 
afterwards allowed to cool. If the juice of any acidulous 
fruit, such as raspberries, currants, or especially cran- 
berries, be , employed instead of milk, a jelly is also 
thus formed which will be found an elegant and agree- 
able appendage to the table. One word may also be 
added to notable housewives upon the essential point of 

boiling potatoes : — they shoufd be chosen as nearly as 
possible of the same size ; and, if very large, tbey 
should be cut into halves or quarters. They should be 
put into an iron pot, with a good handful- of coarte 
salt; and the water — which should be quite cold- 
should not be allowed to quite cover them ; nor should 
the lid be closed. When about half done, those at tbe 
bottom should be removed to the top ; and when the 
whole appear completely done, the water should be 
instantly poured off, and the potatoes left in a napkin, 
within the pot, by the side of the fire. The boiling of 
those of moderate size generally takes about three- 
quarters of an hour ; and their being done to the 
heart can only be ascertained by thrusting a fork 
through one of them. Cooks generally follow one rule, 
— either peeling them or boiling them in their jacket*; 
but this is wrong ; for some sorts are better in their 
skins, and others peeled, and the difference can only be 
ascertained by experience. 


[ixonn roue, Ainione, r«eii»icr.j 

The town of Athlone, from its position, was formerly 
one of the most important of the fortified places of 
Ireland. It was termed, what in fact it was, the " Key 
of Connaught," being situated on the principal, and, at 
one time, almost the only road leading from Dublin 
into the western province of the island — which, like 
the mountain-fastnesses of Wales and the highlands of 
Scotland, was the inaccessible retreat where the inde- 
pendent, who could not bring themselves to submit to 
English law, — the turbulent and restless, to whom it 
proved irksome, — those who dreaded punishment for 
crime, and those who feared apprehension for debt, — 
could safely shelter themselves. The town lies on both 

sides of the Shannon, and doubtless arose from the cir- 
cumstance of there being here a ford of the river. It 
is conjectured that Athlone is only a corruption of A& 
Luain, — Moon Ford, or Ford of the Moon. The por- 
tion of the town which lies on the eastern bank of the 
Shannon was termed English Town, and is situated in 
the county of Westmeath and province of Leinster ; 
that on the western bank was termed Irish Town,— i* 
was the part most strongly fortified, and is situated in 
the county of Roscommon and province of Connaught. 
On the Connaught side of the river there is a castle, 
said to have been erected, or at least enlarged and 
strengthened, by King John. This castle, which h*« 

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been re-edified in a modern style of fortification, com- 
mands the bridge which connects the town, — was once 
the residence of the lord-presidents of Connaught, and 
has been the scene of stirring events. The bridge was 
built, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by Sir Henry 
Sidney, Lord Deputy of Ireland, and has survived the 
accidents of war as -well as the wear of time and traffic. 
It is only twelve feet wide; and being the highway 
from Connaught into Leinster, it is a great thorough- 
fare, and is often disagreeably thronged. In the centre 
of the bridge is a stone monument, bearing an inscrip- 
tion, nearly obliterated, setting forth that, " in the 
ninth year of the reign of our most dere soveraign ladie 
Elizabeth, this bridge was built by the device and order 
of Sir Henry Sidney, knt., who finished it in one year, 
by the good Industrie and diligence of Peter Levis, elk., 
Chanter of the Cathedral Church of Christ, Dublin, and 
steward to said deputy." 

The town of Athlone was incorporated " by charter 
from James the First, and received a further charter 
from Charles the Second. The corporation consists of 
a sovereign, vice sovereign, two bailiffs, twelve bur- 
gesses, and freemen. The total number of houses is 
1027; of which 546 are slated, and 481 thatched; 182 
having seveu windows and upwards*." /The only thing 
which now renders the town of importance is its being 
a station, or government depot for troops and military 
stores. There are barracks for the reception of 2000 
men, to which an ordnance-yard, magazines, and hos- 
pital are attached. Some trade is carried on by means 
of an extensive brewery and two distilleries, and by 
the manufacture of felt-hats. Markets are held three 
times a week. 

Athlone is however well situated for trade. The 
Shannon is navigable for thirty-eight miles farther up 
than the town ; the navigation, which is interrupted by 
the bridge and ford, being continued by means of a 
canal, cut oh the Connaught side of the river, by which 
also the distance is shortened, as the Shannon makes 
here a considerable sweep. The Grand Canal, also, 
which communicates with Dublin, joins the Shannon 
seventeen miles below Athlone. 

The capabilities of the Shannon have never hitherto 
been appreciated so as to render it available to the im- 
provement of Ireland. The attention of the legislature 
has been repeatedly directed towards it ; and during the 
session of Parliament, 1835, a bill was passed for its partial 
improvement. The river embraces 234 miles of con- 
tinuous navigation, runs through the centre of Ireland, 
and washes the shores of ten counties out of thirty-two, 
viz., Leitrim, Roscommon, Longford, Westmeath, 
King's County, Galway, Tipperary, Clare, Limerick, 
and Kerry. " How can we," says Mr. Williams, a 
gentleman who has interested himself greatly on the 
subject, " convey to English eyes the picture of the 
Shannon through its great course ? Let us suppose a 
navigable river taking its rise in some distant county of 
England, — as far from Liverpool as Essex or Middle- 
sex. Suppose it occasionally spreading itself into noble 
and picturesque sheets of water, of more than twenty 
miles in length, with numerous islands, — receiving the 
waters of many rivers, and stretching its bays into the 
adjacent counties, as it were to increase the measure of 
its utility and beauty. See it winding its way through 
Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire, Northamptonshire and 
Warwickshire, and the rich soil of Leicestershire, and, 
after passing by Staffordshire, Derbyshire, and Cheshire,' 
falling into the estuary of the Mersey in Lancashire. 
S»e it presenting to each of these counties the benefit 
of fifty miles of navigation, and we shall have a correct 
view of the extent and capabilities of this river. 
" But how shall we describe the state in which it has 

* Boundary Reports, 1832. 

remained for ages as to trading intercourse, and in 
which one-half of it remains to this very hour, — abso- 
lutely wanting in all the incidents of navigation ? For 
nearly 100 miles of its length, not a sail or boat is to 
be met with on its waters. No appearance of utility ; 
— no indications of industry or capital ; — even its beau- 
ties unknown. Deficient to an extent scarcely credible 
in roads and approaches to it, and, consequently, having 
bit little connexion with the interior, where nature 
designed its influence should extend — without any 
employment of its waters, it flows unheeded by, and 
unproductive of any good. Over many of its districts 
of great extent, from the absence of that control which 
human skill and means could have effected, its waters 
have become a source of wide-spreading wa8te. ,, 

A well-known Irish tourist (the Rev. C. Otway), de- 
scribing his arrival at Athlone from Dublin, says/'* The 
coach stops at the Westmeath side; but neither in the street 
outside or inside of the inn where you put up, do you 
find much that may minister to your pleasure or comfort. 
Neither is there anything in the town, when you walk 
abroad, to catck your attention ; — no antique buildings ; 
— no marks of ancient power or splendour. When you 
wish to see the Shannon, you go through a narrow 
street, or rather lane, towards the bridge, which you find 
narrow, and encumbered with mills and houses, besides 
sundry annoyances moveable and immoveable; — but 
still, if you can with any safety, amidst the rush of pigs, 
cars, and Connaughtmen, stand on this important 
bridge, and observe the huge volume of the Shannon 
rushing rapidly and clearly under its arches — look up- 
wards, and you will perceive how the stream bristles 
with staked eel-weirs; and, above them, the cols of 
fishermen and the pleasure-yachts of the officers of the 
garrison ; and, across the river, the old castle, com- 
manding the river-pass, once the residence of the lord- 
president of Connaught, and the well-defended posi- 
tion maintained for the English, in 1641, by Lord 
Ranelagh, and for the Irish, still more resolutely, in 
1690 and 1691, by Colonel Grace." 

Some account of the latter of the historical events 
thus referred to can hardly be omitted in a notice of 
Athlone, although details of battles and sieges, while 
they excite, do not always improve the mind. 

In 1690, after the decisive battle of the Boyne, and 
while King William was investing Limerick, Lieu- 
tenant-General Douglas was detached to lay siege to 
Athlone. It was then held for King James by Colonel 
Richard Grace, an old and attached servant of the de- 
posed monarch. Before the arrival of Douglas, Grace 
burned English Town, and crossed the river, determined 
to dispute the passage. Douglas summoned him to 
surrender ; but Grace fired a pistol at the messenger, 
bidding him say that these were his terms, and that he 
would eat his old boots before he would yield. Douglas, 
after unavailingly battering the place, and not daring 
to cross the river, drew off his troops. 

About a year afterwards, in 1691, General Ginkle 
invested Athlone. He drove the garrison out of Eng- 
lish Town ; and, after an interval of a few days, crossed 
the river, and took the castle and Irish town by storm. 
This has been considered a bold military achievement, 
and was very decisive in its consequences. In crossing 
the river, the English troops had to wade " up to their 
cravats in water;'* and after some desperate fighting, 
the town of Athlone was taken. This was on the 30th 
of June ; and on the 12th of July, General Ginkle 
totally defeated the troops of King James at Aghrim, 
in which St. Ruth, their commander-in-chief, a brave 
but vain and rash French officer, was killed. Ginkle, 
who had come over from Holland with William, was 
created Baron of Aghrim and Earl of Athlbne, a title 
which is still enjoyed by the family. 

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[February 20, 


The establishment of the Empire of the United States, 
— the greatest political event of modern times, — al- 
though it was brought about by the combined exertions 
of many remarkable men, was principally the work of 
Washington. He was the man, born for the occasion, 
who, from the beginning to the end, — in war and in 
peace, — was the great captain of the enterprise, com- 
bining, and in some degree directing, the efforts of all 
his fellow-labourers;— their chief reliance in all their 
difficulties, — the Atlas on whom rested the central 
weight of the cause, and of all its cares and responsi- 

When the American Revolution broke out, in 1773, 
George Washington was in his forty-second year — 
about the age of Cromwell at the commencement of 
the Great Rebellion. Although living, however, at 
this time on his estate as a country gentleman, he had 
already not only served in a military capacity, but had 
distinguished himself as a brave and skilful officer. 
From the beginning of the quarrel with the mother- 
country, he had taken the patriotic side; and imme- 
diately after the sword was first drawn, in 1775, he 
was, by an unanimous vote of the General Congress 
(of which he was a member), appointed Commander- 
in-Chief of the Forces of the Thirteen Provinces. 

At the moment when he was placed in this con- 
spicuous station, the cause which had been committed 
to him was in circumstances which demanded all his 
exertions, all his vigilance, and all his moral courage. 
The Congress had found a general ; to the general him- 
self was left the task of organising an army. Between 
14,000 and 15,000 men were indeed enlisted, and bound 
to serve for a short period ; but the force thus collected 
could only be said to constitute so much rude material, 
which might help in the formation of an army. An 
effective army consists not of soldiers only, but of many 
other things equally essential. The soldiers must be 
officered, and disciplined, and armed, and clothed ; there 
must be a commissariat to supply them with provisions, 
and financial arrangements to secure them regular pay. 
Of all these indispensable requisites the American 
troops were either entirely or nearly destitute when 
Washington took the command of them. In the state 
in which the country was, with scarcely an established 
government, and the whole social edifice violently 
shaken, the difficulties with which he had to contend 
were necessarily of the most formidable and trying 
nature; but his patience and perseverance gradually 
overcame them. The caution of the Congress, and the 
jealousies and competing claims of individuals in the 
camp, gave way before the influence of his character, 
and the manifest disinterestedness of his whole con- 
duct ; and in no long time he had the satisfaction of 
seeing order established in every department of the 

We cannot here follow him through his military 
career; but we may remark that the greatness of his 
character was shown, not so much in a series of splendid 
victories as in the unfaltering courage with which he 
bore up against the multiplied embarrassments which 
long continued to press upon him, and in that daunt- 
less spirit and reliance on the eventual success of his 
cause which no temporary reverse was ever able to 
shake. His situation only a few months after he ac- 
cepted the command is strikingly described in one of 
his own letters to the Congress. "It gives me great 
distress," he writes on the 21st of September, 1775, 
" to be obliged to solicit the attention of the Honour- 
able Congress to the 6tate of this army in terms which 
imply the slightest apprehension of being neglected. 
But my situation is inexpressibly distressing ; — to see 
the winter fast approaching upon a naked army, — the 

time of their service witbin a few weeks of expiring, — 
and no provision yet made for such important events. 
Added to these, the military chest is totally exhausted ; 
—the paymaster has not a single dollar in hand ; — the 
commissary-general assures me he has strained his 
credij, for the subsistence of the army, to the utmost ; 
— the quartermaster-general Is precisely in the same 
situation ; — and the greater part of the troops are in a 
state not far from mutiny upon the deduction from their 
stated allowance." Thus left without the support ne- 
cessary to render his exertions of any avail, had the 
American commander-in-chief been an ordinary man, 
he would have thrown up his commission. But nothing 
could move Washington. In the circumstances in which 
he was placed, he could not even venture upon the 
chance of offensive operations, and was obliged to suffer 
in silence all the strictures that were passed upon an 
inactivity to which he was constrained by embarrass- 
ments, the extent of which was known only to himself, 
and which k was of the utmost importance to conceal 
from the public. These complaints and clamours were 
heard not only throughout the country, but even in the 
camp itself; and the disgust with the service which was 
thus produced became so general, that full a-third of 
the men, after their original term of six months had 
expired, refused to enlist again, and returned to their 

A new army, however, having at length been raised 
by great exertions on the part of Dr. Franklin and 
other commissioners appointed by Congress, Wash- 
ington at length, on the 17th of March, 1776, made an 
attack \ipon the British garrison in Boston, the result 
of which was their expulsion from the town. But a 
succession of disasters speedily followed this success. 
In the following August the American general was 
driven from Long Island (which he had fortified), in 
the neighbourhood of New York ; and, soon afterwards, 
that important town itself, in spite of Ris best endeavours 
to save it, fell into the hands of the enemy. From this 
point Washington was gradually driven, first to the 
opposite bank of the Hudson, and then across the 
whole province of Jersey to the Delaware. By this 
time also, through losses and desertions, the number 
of his troops had fallen to about 3000 men. The Con- 
gress had fled from Philadelphia to Baltimore; and, 
dismayed by the victorious progress of the enemy, the 
spirit of the country was quite broken. 

Washington however neither lost heart nor relaxed 
his watchfulness for an opportunity to strike a blow 
which might yet save his country ; and this opportu- 
nity he at length found. He had now crossed the 
Delaware, and his pursuers were only waiting for the 
setting in of the ice to follow him, when on the evening 
of Christmas Day he suddenly recrossed the river, and, 
falling upon a division of the British army which lay at 
Trenton, took nearly the whole of them prisoners. 
" This successful expedition/* says an American writer, 
" first gave a favourable turn to our affairs, which, 
after this, seemed to brighten through the whole course 
of the war." Following up his success, Washington, 
on the 28th, attacked another detachment of the British 
at Princeton, which he also completely dispersed, killing 
60 men and taking 300 prisoners. The importance of 
these exploits, however, is to be measured, as we have 
said, by their moral effect in dispelling for ever the 
despoudency into which the Americans were fast sink- 
ing, and rousing them to new hopes and new exertions. 
The advance of the British' troops was not permanently 
checked, for within a year Lord Cornwallis found 
himself in possession of Philadelphia; but the acquisi- 
tion was rendered useless by the energetic spirit of 
resistance that was now every where awakened and in 
action in every part of the country which had lately 
been supposed to be all but conquered. Recruits were 

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now easily raised in great numbers, both for the forces 
commanded by Washington in the south, and for those 
sent under General Gates to oppose Burgoyne in the 
north. Lord Corhwaliis found himself shut up at 
Philadelphia with hardly the power of moving from the 
ground he occupied; aud the expedition of General 
Burgoyne ended in the surrender of himself and his 
whole army. 

The history of the rest of the war— down to the 
annihilation of the array of Lord Cornwallis by Wash- 
ington, at New York, on the 19th of October, 1781, 
with which it may be said to have terminated — would, 
if we had room to detail it, illustrate in the same man- 
ner in its whole course the rare and noble qualities of 
the American commander. Few military leaders how- 
ever had such a complication of difficulties to struggle 
with as beset him to the very end of his career; and in 
triumphing over them as he did, he showed himself to 
be rich in many higher endowments than mere military 
sagacity and skill. It was therefore with great fitness 
that, alter having saved his country by his sword, he 
was chosen to direct her in her entry as an independent 
nati >n upon the path of peace. Washington was 
unanimously elected the First President of the United 
States in March, 1789. In this high office he dis- 
played the same wisdom and firmness which had dis- 
tinguished his previous services; and in circumstances 
of considerable difficulty through which, not without 
opposition from various quarters, he had to guide the 
young republic, proved himself born to attain and ho'd 
ascendancy not less in civil affairs than in arms. His 
grateful and admiring country again recognized him 
as her first citizen, by continuing him at her head for 
a second term of four years after the expiration of his 
first appointment; and he might have been a third 
time elected if he had not found it necessary to decline 
further public service from his advancing years and 
declining health. His last act in office, however, was 
one of the most useful of his useful and glorious life ; 
we allude to the address in which he took leave of his 
countrymen as a public character, and in which he 
left them as admirable a legacy of political wisdom as 
was ever bequeathed by any patriot of any nation. 
Tnis, address, if his country and the world owed him 
nothing else, would be enough to immortalize the 
name of Washington. But the life, of which this was 
the last act, was throughout crowded with eminent 
services, and its whole course was such as to entitle 
his memory to be held in everlasting remembrance by 
all the reverers either of public greatness or private 
north. Seldom have the two been exhibited in the 
same character in such beautiful and perfect combi- 

Washington was not long spared to enjoy the quiet 
of his well-earned retirement. His death took place 
on the 14th of December, 1799, within three years of 
ti'e time when he quitted public life. 

The Choice of a Physician, — To choose a physician well 
one »hould be half a physician one's self : but as this is not 
the case with many, the best plan which a mother of a 
family can adopt is to select a man whose education has 
been suitable to his profession ;— whose habits of life are 
such as prove that he continues to acquire both practical 
and theoretical knowledge ; — who is neither a bigot in old 
°pinions nor an enthusiast in new ; — and, for many reasons, 
not the fashionable doctor of the day. .A little attention 
in making the necessary inquiries will suffice to ascertain 
the requisites here specified; to which should be added, 
^ hat are usually found in medical men of real worth, those 
qualities which may serve to render him an agreeable com- 
panion; for the family physician should always be the 
luraily friend.— Lady Mount cashell on j Physical Educa- 


Pansibs, lilies, kingcups, daisies, 
Let thein live upon their praise* ; 
Long as there '* a sun that sets, 
Primroses will have their glory ; 
Long as there are violets, 
They will have a place in story :' 
There 'a a flower that shall be mine, 
'Tis the little celandiue. 

Eyes of some men travel fer 
For the finding of a &iar ; 
Up and down the heavens they go, 
Men that keep a mighty rout I 
l*m as treat as they, I trow, 
8ince the day I found thee out 
Little flower I — I'll make a stir 
Like a great astronomer. 

Modesty yet withal an elf, 
Bold, and lavish of thyself ; 
Since we needs must first have met, 
1 have seen thee, high and low, 
Thirty years or more, and yet 
Twas a face I did not know ; 
Thou hast now, go where I may, 
Fifty greetings in a-day. 

Ere a leaf is on a bush, 
In the time before the thrush 
Has a thought about its nest, 
Thou wilt come with half a call, 
Spreading out thy glossy breast 
Like a careless prodigal ; 
Telling tales about the sun, 
When we've little warmth, or none. 

Poets, vain men in their mood ! 
Travel with the multitude : 
Never heed them ; 1 aver 
That they all are wanton wooers ; 
fyit the thrifty cottager, 
\Vho stirs little out of doors, 
Joys to spy thee near her horns ; 
Spring is coming, thou art come I 

Comfort hare thou of thy merit, 
Kindly, unassuming spirit ! 
Cureless of thy neighbourhood, 
Thou dost show thy pleasant fact 
On the moor, and in the wood, 
In the lane — there's nut a place, 
llowsoi-ver mean it be. 
But 'tis good enough for thee, 

111 befall the yellow flowers, 
Children of the flaring hours! 
Buttercups, that will l>e seen, 
Whether we will see er uo ; 
Others, too, of lofty mien ; 
They have done as worldlings do, 
Taken praise that should be thine, 
Little humble celandine I 

Prophet of delight and mirth, 
Scorned and slighted upon earth ! 
Hi raid of a mighty band, 
Of a joyous train ensuing, 
Singing at my heart's command, 
In the lanes my thoughts pursuing, 
I will sing, as doth behove, 
Hymns in praise of what I love !— 



{From Report on the Penitentiaries of the United State*. 
By Wlltam Crawford, Esq.) 

It is well known that the population of New England 
ranks far superior to any other part of the Union in 
morals and intelligence. Education is univeral, the 
laws are ably administered, the police is well regulated, 
and pauperism is limited ; and yet the Returns in the 
Appendix tend to show that there is more crime in pro- 
portion to the population in the most enlightened of 
these States, viz. Connecticut and Massachusetts, than 

1 * Common pile-wort. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[February 20, 1836. 

in Pennsylvania, part of which is but recently settled, 
or in the more western States, which are comparatively 
uncivilized. The false impression which these state- 
ments are in this respect calculated to convey, is in a 
great measure to be ascribed to the fact that in New 
England few crimes pass undetected and escape punish- 
ment ; but this is far from being the case in other parts 
of the Union. As the traveller proceeds towards the 
western and southern States he will find that the 
numbers in the penitentiary must not be taken as the 
extent of even the higher classes of offences. In many 
counties of even New York and Pennsylvania, and still 
more in those of other States, offences pass unprosecuted 
which in New England would scarcely fail to incur 
punishment. In a newly- formed and scattered popu- 
lation, such is the value of labour that the interests of 
the community would often materially suffer by the 
incarceration of its members. The prosecution of an 
offender is attended with the loss of valuable time : 
hence there is a disposition to overlook crimes which are 
not of the most flagitious character, and which do not 
awaken a strong sense of insecurity to person as well 
as to property. This feeling of repugnance to pro- 
secute for offences is carried so far in the western 
States, that no inference could be more unsafe than to 
judge of the extent of crime from the returns of com- 
mitments to the penitentiaries in those districts. The 
state of Illinois presents an illustration in point. Its 
population at the last census amounted to 1 57,000 
souls, consisting of natives of various countries, differ- 
ing not less in morals than in manners. Crimes are of 
course matters of frequent occurrence, and yet I was 
informed during my stay in America that there was not 
a single prisoner in the penitentiary convicted of any 
serious offence. The discrepancies between the number 
of commitments and the actual extent of crime, in the 
more western as well as the southern States, merit 
peculiar attention. There exists in those, parta of the 
country a great recklessness of htiman life. Personal 
insult is resented by the immediate gratification of re- 
venge. A custom prevails of carrying pocket-pistols, 
or of wearing a dirk in the bosom, while scarcely any 
of the labouring classes are without a large clasped 
knife, which, opening with a spring, becomes a truly 
formidable weapon. Hence assaults of the most des- 
perate character in the public streets frequently occur, 
and death to the parties often ensues. Prosecutions, 
however, arising out of these acts of violence, are by no 
means common. These offences pass in many instances, 
in a legal sense, entirely unnoticed. An appeal to a 
court of justice in such cases would not be sanctioned 
by public opinion; and even if the offender were 
brought before a jury they would euter into a consider- 
ation of the provocation given by the parties, and dis- 
countenance by their verdict the practice of rendering 
such acts amenable to the ordinary course of criminal 


It is impossible, on examining the prisons to which 
these tables refer, not to be struck with the great pro- 
portion of crime which the coloured bears to the white 
population. The causes are too obvious. The force of 
public opinion has in a remarkable degree contributed 
to retard the education and moral improvement of the 
coloured race. Hence these oppressed people form, of 
course, the most degraded class of the community. 
This prejudice appears to me to be, if possible, stronger 
m the free than in the slave States. A law has recently 
passed, even in Connecticut, discouraging the instruc- 
tion of coloured children introduced from other States ; 
and in the course of the last year a lady, who had with 
this view established a school for such children, was 
prosecuted and committed to prison. From a feeling 
which is unknown in Europe, a coloured person, 

although residing in the most enlightened of the States, 
is prevented from attaining that position in society to 
which his natural intelligence, aided by the benefits of 
education, would inevitably raise him. Under such 
circumstances the only wonder is, that there should not 
be more crime among a population so numerous and so 
disadvantageously situated. 

There never was a greater delusion than the opinion 
which has for many years prevailed in England in 
favour of the superiority of the criminal institutions of 
Pennsylvania. This error has doubtless arisen from 
confounding the mitigation of' the penal law, which 
at an early period honourably distinguished the legis- 
lature of this State, with improvements in prison dis- 
cipline, in the progress of which New York preceded 
it, and in which Pennsylvania has been considerably 
behind England. Assertions have nevertheless bees 
made by writers upon this subject, that the solitary 
imprisonment of criminals originated in Pennsylvania. 
A mere reference to dates will show the fallacy of thi> 
opinion; and also prove that so far from either the 
suggestion or the example of this practice having firs: 
occurred in Pennsylvania, that State has been indebted 
to England for the advantage of both. 

The first public allusion in Pennsylvania to the 
solitary confinement of criminals is to be found in aa 
Address issued in 1787 by the " Philadelphia Society 
for alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons." Refer- 
ring to the recent law which sentenced criminals to 
hard labour, " publicly and disgracefully imposed," the 
committee suggest that, as the good intended by the 
measure had not fully answered, " punishments by 
more private or even solitary labour Would more suc- 
cessfully tend to reclaim." Eleven years, however, 
prior to the date of this Address, which, it will be 
observed, emanates from an association of private indi- 
viduals, and contains by no means a strong recommen- 
dation of solitary confinement, the statute of the 19 
Geo. III., c. 74, containing the passage above recited, 
was enacted by the British Parliament. The same semi 
ments were reiterated in an Act passed six years after- 
wards for the erection of the penitentiary at Gloucester. 
This prison contained seventy-one cells strictly "solitary, 
without any means of exchanging communication, and 
in which convicts were confined at hard labour. It was 
opened in the early part of 1791, prior, I believe, to 
the erection of the sixteen cells for men and fourteen 
cells for women in the Walnut-street Prison (which, 
however, were in no respect solitary, and in which no 
labour was ever performed) ; and it is a fact worthy cf 
notice, that at the time, or within a few months of the 
period, when the solitary system at Gloucester was iu 
operation, criminals were actually worked in ganp 
with iron collars round their necks, and chains upon 
their persons, in the streets of Philadelphia. It is 
singular to find that those who ascribe so much excel- 
lence to the Walnut-street Prison in its earliest days, 
and who have seriously designated its management the 
" ancient Pennsylvania system," should, in 1828, have 
recommended for the government of the Eastern peni- 
tentiary a plan entirely different from that which it is 
alleged was enforced in Walnut-street Prison ; — namely, 
solitary confinement without labour. In the penal law 
of 1794 the words " penitentiary houses" occur, the 
phrase being evidently borrowed from the Act of Par- 
liament passed in England in 1776. 

%• The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge b el 
59, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

[Printed \>j William Cl# ww and 8 oKs,J$UaJord Street, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[Fbbevary 27, 1836. 


[The Ruff and Reeve.] 

The periodica] changes which the plumage of the 
feathered race undergoes have long excited the atten- 
tion of naturalists. To a great extent these changes 
are connected with atmospheric temperature. The 
severities of winter demand a warmer, a fuller, and 
often a differently coloured garment, in order that the 
vital heat of the system may be duly preserved. The 
autumnal change of colouring (where such occurs) is 
from variegated, or bright and rich tints, to dusky, or 
pure white ; the spring change restores these tints again. 
But besides the changes here alluded to, and which have 
a special reference to the preservation of the tempera- 
ture of the body in winter, and secondarily to conceal- 
ment — changes which are exemplified most fully in the 
ptarmigan and other allied species, — there is another 
change of dress, if change it can be called, peculiar to 
many birds, which consists in the assumption of orna 
mental plumes in the males on the approach of spring. 
Among the species peculiar to the hotter climates 
of the globe, this arrangement predominates to a very 
great extent ; but it is also remarkable in some species 
Vol. V. 

indigenous in our latitudes, and eminently so in the 
bird now before us {Machetes pugnax, Cuv.), of which 
the male, in consequence of the ornamental plumes on 
the neck during the breeding season is termed the ruflf^ 
while the female, to whose attire no such addition is 
made, is termed the reeve. 

The ruff (applying the term, for convenience sake, 
as is usually done, to both sexes), belongs to the order 
Grallalore*, and is one of our summer birds of passage, 
leaving our latitudes on the setting in of the cold months: 
of winter. A few stragglers, however, occasionally re- 
main with us during the whole of the winter season ; 
and on one of the severest days of December last, an? 
individual was shot on the banks of the Thames, near 
Hampton, by Mr. Gould, the author of the c Birds of 
Europe* and other works on ornithology. This is cer- 
tainly a very remarkable instance ; indeed, we are not 
aware of another on record. The individual in question 
was a male in its plain or winter livery. 

It is seldom before the middle of April that the raft 
visits our island and the parallel latitudes of the adja- 


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[Piiuv kur 27, 

cent continent, on its return from its winter quarters in 
the sunny districts of the south ; and it is still later 
before it reaches more northern regions, for it extends 
its vernal migration tfven as far as the bleak shore* of 
Iceland. Its favourite haunts and breeding-places are 
extensive fenny districts or marshes, where it can enjoy 
undisturbed seclusion, and procure food ih due abund- 
ance. In England, the fens of Lincolnshire and Cam- 
bridge are its principal resort, but it occurs also in 
various other places of a similar character. In Holland 
it is very abundant. It would appear that the males 
are the first to arrive at their destined station ; at all 
events they keep themselves in distinct bands, sepa- 
rate from the females. As the breeding time draws 
near, beautiful long plumes round the neck, forming a 
ruff, and large full ear-tufts, rapidly develope. The 
males now begin to hill f as it Is termed — that is, they 
seek some spot a little elevated above the surrounding 
marsh, to which, as to a common centre, numbers are 
gradually drawn. Here each individual selects its own 
station or little territory, for the possession of which it 
strenuously contends ; the attempt of a rival to encroach 
upon the circle i& immediately followed by a hard-fought 
battle, the territory being ceded by the vanquished to 
the victor. These battles and contests are almost in- 
cessant, at least during the day ; for at night they at! 
return to the marsh in order to feed, (in this respect 
their habits being nocturnal), but in the morning each 
resumes its station, and the contests are again carried 
on. Here, full of animosity against each other, and 
jealous of each other's rights, they await the arrival of 
the females. The arrival on the hill of one of the other 
sex is the signal to a general contest. The scene is 
now one of perpetual warfare, female after female ar- 
riving at the hill, so that " the theatre of these battles," 
as Selby observes, u soon becomes bare of grass from 
the constant traversing of the combatants." Not only 
have the neck and ear plumes now attained their per- 
fection, but the face of the male becomes covered with 
small yellowish papilla*, or fleshy excrescences, instead 
of the short feathers with which it is ordinarily clothed. 
During the whole of iff ay and the early part of June, 
this scene of warfare continues with unabated energy. 
The manner in which the ruff rights has much resem- 
blance to that of the game cock ; the head is lowered, 
the plumes are thrown up into a disc, the tail is ex- 
panded, and each adversary attempts to seize the other 
with h ; s bill, following up his advantage by a blow 
with the wing. The legs are too feeble to strike with, 
and they are not armed, as in the fowl ; the contest, 
therefore, is seldom fatal, the vanquished being rather 
wearied out and dispirited by the superior strength and 
determination of his antagonist than seriously injured. 
Towards the latter part of June this combativeness 
abates, the papillae on the face disappear, and shortly 
afterwards the fine plumes are moulted off, their place 
being supplied by ordinary feathers. 

The females, or reeves, which, as we have intimated, 
only visit the hill at intervals, breed among the swamps. 
The nest consists of little more than a slight depression 
among a tuft of grass or rushes, or other herbage which 
luxuriates in such situations. The eggs are four in 
number, and closely resemble those of the snipe, only 
being somewhat larger. In the group of grallatorial 
birds, to which the present species belongs, the females 
usually exceed the males in sjze ; here, however, the 
emales are much smaller than the males, and moreover 
andergo no corresponding changes of plumage. With 
respect to the beautiful plumes which for a season or- 
nament the ruff, one circumstance is very remarkable : 
we allude to the diversity of their colouring. In no 
two examples is the colour precisely alike. We have 
seen them pure white ; white elegantly barred with 
black ; reddish brown intermixed with black, or barred 

and spotted ; pure glossy black ; grey and black, &c 
It appears, moreover, that in no individual are these 
colours the same for any two seasons. 

There are several points in which this singular species 
evidences an analogy to the true gallinaceous groups 
of the Rasortal order. Agreeing m food and general 
habits with the triage and snipes, it differs frorn them 
in being decidedly polygamous, the females courting 
the society of the males, as is the case with the wild 
turkey and some others of the order rasores. The tem- 
porary plumes of the neck, resembling the hackled 
feathers of the cock, the development of fleshy excres- 
cences about the face, the pugnacious habits, the jealousy 
of encroachment upon a preoccupied territory, put us 
in mind of the common fowl, and (with the exception 
of the hackles) 6f the pheasant, capercailzie, and black 

The ruff is among the list of birds whose flesh is ac- 
counted as a delicacy for the table ; indeed, it is held 
in high esteem, and the birds, therefore, always fetch a 
good price in the market. Considerable profit is made 
by various fowlers in the fens of Lincolnshire, who de- 
vote themselves at certain seasons of the year to the 
business of catching them and feeding them for sale. 
The means employed for taking them are chiefly clap- 
nets, into which they are lured by various devices, one 
of which is a stuffed bird of their own species. The 
seasons for taking them are, first, April and May, wheii 
the males are hilling, and pugnacious in the extreme ; 
and secondly, September, after the Joung are fully 
fledged and ready for the autumnal migration, when 
(hey with the old birds pass to more southern latitudes. 
Few birds seem so indifferent and contented in capti- 
vity — a circuhistartce fortunate for the fowler, whose 
object is to fatten them for the market. Their natural 
food consists of worms, small insects, &c., with which 
the soft ooze or mud of the marsh abounds ; but they 
are easily reconciled to a change of diet, and feed 
eagerly upon bread end milk, boiled wheat, and other 
articles of a farinaceous quality, upon which they thrhe 
and become plump. Captivity, which subdues the spirit 
of most wild creatures, strange to say. does not abate 
the pugnacity of thfe full -plumed males taken in the 
spring. Not only will the appearance of a reeve excite 
them to Strife, but * howl of food set before them will 
produce the same effect, and lead to a tumultuous con- 
flict, which, as the arena is very limited, and the weaker 
have no chance of escape, is sometimes known to result 
in fatal consequences. 

Of the variable colour of the neck and ear plumes we 
have already spoken. The rest of the colouring may 
be thus described. The upper parts of the body are 
varied with a mixture of brown, pale yellow, and black ; 
the sides of the chest and flanks are barred with bjack 
on a pale yellow ground. The under surface is white. 
In some individuals these tints are much darker than 
in others. 

The reeve in summer has the tipper surface varied 
with glossy black on a cinereous grey ground ; in winter 
the colour becomes more uniform, losing the markings 
of black. The young of the year have the sides of the 
neck and chest and the region round the eye of a yel- 
lowish brown, with a tinge of orange, and the back is 
dark brown, glossed with purple, each feather having 
a deep margin of pale yellowish brown. In this stage 
it has been mistaken for a distinct species. 

The qualities of bread vary materially, not only in 
flavour, according to the species of gram of which it 
is formed, and the mode of manufacturing it, but aiso 
in its nutritive properties, for it has been shown by the 
analyses of chemists that 1000 parte of the con usually 

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employed contain 4he following proportions of the dif- 
ferent substances of which it is composed : namely, — 

Wbol« Quantity Mocibfe Saoefcarioe Matter GUttm 
of or or or 

Nntritir* Matter. Starch. Sugar. Albumen. 

Wheat ... 955 ....... 765 — 190 

Rye ... 792 645 38 109 

Unrley ... 920 790 70 60 

Oat* ... 743 641 )5 87 

It is thus evident that the same weight of wheat is 
capable of affording more nourishment than any other 
kind of bread ; and, if estimated by measure, it is still 
superior, as the bushel weighs heavier than any white 
core : the average of which, of the ordinary qualities, 
may be assumed as 

Wheat 60 lbs. Barley 50 lbt. 

Rye 56 „ Oats 40 „ 

In former times tjie peasantry of these kingdoms 
used only bread made of rye, oats, or barley-meal, and 
that of iyheat was exclusively devoted to the nobility 
and gentry, wltb a few of the wealthy inhabitapts of the 
great towns ; Indeed, s6 prevalent was the employment 
of inferior substitutes for this tc staff of life," that, in 
the description of a farmer's life, as depicted in the 
* Vision of Piers Ploughman,' which is supposed to 
have been written sometime in the 14th century, we 

*" A few croddes and creyme, and a cake of otes, 

And bred for my bames (children) of beanee and of petes, 1 * 

in common use by persons of that class. In later days 
the progress of industry, and the consequent increase of 
the comforts of life, gradually introduced wheaten bread 
into more general consumption; and now all other 
grain has nearly disappeared in the formation of our 
household loaf. The use of oats in the shape of 
" crowdy," u stirabout," and " porridge," is indeed 
still common among the labouring classes of Scotland 
and Ireland, while in the north of England and 
some parts of Wales, a mixture of rye and wheat, 
under the name of u meslin," is usual among respect- 
able families, and in the north of Europe rye-bread is 
universal. It is not, however, alone in the weight of 
nutriment that the superior advantage of bread made 
of wheat consists, but in the greater quantity which 
that grain contains of the substance termed ** gluten ;" 
which is considered by chemists as a sort of half-ani- 
mal ized matter, and not only imparts its peculiar 
flavour to the bread, but being also more adhesive 
and fermentable than the other ingredients, occasions 
it to rise better in the making, and its greater absorp- 
tion of water renders it more spongy. 

A Winchester bushel of wheat of fair quality, weigh- 
ing 60 lbs., is usually calculated to yield 48 lbs. of 
household flour ; which is the sort chiefly used for the 
manufacture of bread throughout England. The quan- 
tity of bread produced hy the same* weight of flour 
depends, however, in some measure upon the properties 
of the corn ; and it has been shown by a comparative 
experiment tried a few years ago upon Scotch and 
Euglish wheat, of apparently equal quality, that a 
quarter of the latter, though yielding rather less flour, 
yet when made into bread gave 13 lbs. more than the 
former, which is accounted for by the greater strength 
of sunshine under the climate of England having an 
effect upon the grain when ripening, which occasions 
the flour to absorb more water in the formation of the 

The corn, after being cleansed by the miller in a 
circular screen of wire, the scutchers of which are made 
to revolve with great rapidity, is then poured into the 
nopper of the mill, which, being placed over the burr- 
stones with which it communicates, and which grind it, 
feeds them gradually; the stones being set so close 
together as to convert the grain into a meal, which, 

when bonlted, feels smooth if rubbed between the 
finger and thumb. When flour of different qualities is 
to be made, the process is, however, more complex : as 
thus — 

The burr-stones are placed bo far asunder as to cut 
the wheat into a coarse kind of meal, called " sharps," 
which is re ground, with the stones set so close to- 
gether, as by their friction to occasion so Intense a 
degree of heat in the flour, that the hand can hardly 
bear it. It is then spread upon a floor, and kept con- 
tinually turning until ft becomes cool. When quite 
cold it is passed through a boulting-machine, which 
revolves on its axis, and is furnished with coarse wire- 
gauze, which permits the passage of the bran and 
pollard. The flour is then put a second time through 
a similar engine covered with the finest kind of wire- 
gauze, which divides it into the qualities termed " firsts ,f 
and ** seconds,*' or fine and household ; the proportions 
are usually ss follows : — 

Fine Flour 25Jlbs. 

Household ditto .... 22$ 

Pollards 8 

Pran 2} 

Waste; 1± 

A sack of flour must weigh, by the law of England, 
2 80 lbs. ; and when the assize of bread was fixed by 
the Lord Mayor of Londoti, it was calculated as suf- 
ficient to make eighty-four quartern loaves of 4 lbs. 
5 oz. each. The bakers, however, admit that if the 
flour be of good marketable quality, it will make eighty- 
six such loaves, or 370 lbs. 14 oz. of bread, equal to 
92i loaves of the present weight of 4 lbs. each. The 
charges on manufacturing a sack of flour into bread, 
and the baker's profit, were estimated at 155. ; it is thus 
evident that, when flour is at the actual price, as stated 
in the last returns, of 38*. per sack, the quartern loaf 
should be sold for Id. Cheap bakers, indeed, charge 
only 6Jrf., which they are enabled to do by means of 
slack baking, by the use of inferior qualities of flour, 
and by the mixture of a considerable portion of potato- 
meal, which, however, is so far from containing any- 
thing deleterious, that a small quantity of it, to the 
amount of not more than one-sixth, rather improves 
the appearance of the bread. 

It may also be observed that the use of alum, which 
is so much decried by the public, as being injurious to 
the constitution, is not pernicious, unless when employed 
in quantities which never enter into the composition of 
bread ; and the only unwholesome effect which can be 
in that case ascribed to it is, that it may occasion 
slight constipation of the bowels. It partly improves 
the colour of the bread, but the chief object of that, or 
any alkali, is to correct a certain degree of clamminess 
and unpleasant taste, approaching to acidity, which the 
bread acquires when made from new flour, or that which 
has been heated, or otherwise of indifferent quality. 
This, it is imagined, would be better attained by the 
application of magnesia ; and it is the opinion of an 
eminent chemist that the addition of thirty to forty 
grains of the subcarbonate of magnesia to every pound 
of flour, in proportion according to its quality, would 
render the bread light, porous, good-tasted, and not the 
least clammy. 

A Special Commission was appointed in the year 
1817 by the French Government, for the purpose of 
inquiring; into the state of the corn harvest, and framing 
directions for the management of damaged grain, and 
the baking of bread; the latter of which are as follow^ 

" As the yeast is the principal agent in the fermen- 
tation, nothing is more important than that it should 
be procured in the freshest and the best state. 

" All potable-waters are good for baking : the best 
flour imbibes about one-half of its weight of water; 
middling good, from a fifth to a fourth. The tern- 

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[February 27, 

perature of the water should be in an inverse ratio to 
that of the air, — that is, as much colder as the air is 
hotter, and vice vend. 

" The baking- of flour which has been made from 
germinated wheat, ought to be proceeded in with much 
greater rapidity than that of flour from grain noways 
injured ; because the gluten of such flour having been 
more or less destroyed, the process of its fermentation 
goes on much quicker. The water employed ought to 
be of less warmth in all the operations ; the dough 
should be kneaded more firmly, and divided into loaves 
of smaller size ; the batch should be put into the oven 
a quarter or half an hour sooner than usual, after it is 
completed ; the oven should be raised to a higher tem- 
perature; the bread should be left in the oven only 
forty-five minutes, or less, instead of an hour, as in the 
ordinary case, and it ought not to be given out for 
consumption till two or three days after it has been 

By attending to these directions, bread made of 
damaged grain may be obtained sufficiently salubrious 
and of good appearance ; but it is only by a mixture 
with good flour to the extent of one-half or two-thirds, 
that the taste of the loaf can be so improved as to 
entitle it to be considered as palatable household bread. 
It deserves also to be noticed, that the employment of 
a greater quantity of yeast than is usual in the fabri- 

cation of good bread, with a view of improving- the 
quality of that made of inferior flour, will have m con- 
trary effect; for although it may render its external 
appearance better, it will more fully develop the bad 
qualities of the flour in point of flavour. 

Those persons who use home-made bread, and who 
naturally suppose that they are thus secure of having 
it of the best quality, yet can never be certain of that 
unless they also use their own wheat, and grind it 
themselves or attend to see it ground at the mill ; for 
if they buy their flour of the miller or the baker, it will 
necessarily be in great part made from new wheat, and 
not improbably mixed up with that which is damaged 
They should therefore keep a stock in hand, frequently 
turning and airing it in the granary, so as to keep it 
perfectly sweet, and not grind it until it is at least six 
months old. They need not be particular about the 
colour of the grain ; for if it be plump, dry, and smooth, 
with a certain feel of mellowness when passed through 
the hand, it will assuredly answer all the purposes of 
excellent bread. The sweet, corny taste which is 
discernible in the brown loaf, arises from the skin 
which immediately envelopes the farina not being- re- 
moved, as is done in the fabrication of fine meal ; but 
this flavour can be retained in bread made of superfine 
flour, by mixing the dough with water in which a 
quantity of bran and pollard has been boiled. 

Bat of St. Aubin's, Island oy Jzksby 

[Elisabeth Castle, Jersey.] 

The Channel Islands, though now for nearly seven 
centuries (since the Norman Conquest) an appendage 
of Great Britain, have been, until lately, comparatively 
little knowu to the great bulk of the British population. 
The nature of the government of the islands, their 
peculiar privileges, the manners, customs, and even the 
language (a corrupt Norman French) of the inhabit- 

ants, the former importance of the islands, with respect 
to commanding the British Channel, &c, are all matters 
of interest, which might naturally be supposed to excite 
curiosity ; yet, with the exception of a few detached 
notices ; a History of Guernsey, in 4to., which was pub- 
lished in 1815 by Mr. William Berry; and a lively and 
amusing History of Jersey, published in 1694 by the 

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Hcv. P. Falle, (one of the parochial clergy of the 
island,) were the only accounts to be had, until the 
appearance, in 1834, of the late Mr. Inglis's interesting 
work, entitled the ' Channel Islands.' 

Our present object is not to enter into any account of 
the islands, but simply to describe the object delineated 
in the engraving. The Bay of St. Aubin's, in Jersey, 
is the largest in the island: the tides rise and fall 
upwards of forty feet in it, so that the contrast between 
high and low water is very singular. At the head of 
the bay are the towns of St. Aubin and St. Helier's, the 
one at the eastern, the other at the western side ; and 
between the two stretches a sandy, shelving beach, 
studded with Martello towers. St. Helier's is the chief 
town of Jersey. In the centre of the bay, within about 
three-quarters of a mile from the pier of St. Helier, is 
a large rock, not less than a mile in circumference, the 
surface of which is covered with the buildings and 
fortifications of Elizabeth Castle. The only access, on 
foot or horseback, from St. Helier's to the castle during 
low water is by a natural causeway, or beach of pebbles 
and sand, termed the bridge. When the tide is full 
the castle must be approached by water. 

The Rev. Mr. Falle, speaking of Queen Elizabeth, 
says, — "That incomparable princess, knowing that 'tis 
a great part of wisdom, in the profoundest peace, to be 
prepared for war, had even at that time a careful eye 
on the safety of these islands. She began that noble 
castle in Jersey, which from her is to this day called 
Castle Elizabeth, but lived only to finish that part of it 
which is above the iron -gate, and is called the upper 
ward, the lower parts having been since added to that 
fortification." Many additions were made to the castle 
in Charles I.'s time. There is a tradition, mentioned 
by Inglis, that in order to defray the original expense 
of building Elizabeth Castle, all the bells of the churches 
and chapels of Jersey were seized, and shipped for 
St. Malo, to be sold ; but that the vessel which carried 
them foundered in a storm, to the satisfaction of those 
who regarded the seizure as a sacrilegious act, and the 
loss, therefore, as a judgment from heaven. Falle 
simply says that an Order in Council was made in 
1551, enjoining the bells of the island (leaving one in 
every church) to be sold, and the money to be applied 
to the building of the castle. 

During the Civil War, the inhabitants of the Channel 
Islands adhered to the royal cause ; and Elizabeth 
Castle, which was the residence of the governor of 
Jersey, made a stout resistance to the parliamen- 
tary fprccs; but the garrison were ultimately obliged 
to surrender. Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards the cele- 
brated Lord Clarendon, resided in Elizabeth Castle 
nearly two years, during which he composed a large 
portion of his well-known history. 

Elizabeth Castle, as a fortification, has been thrown 
into the shade by a huge fortress, termed Fort Regent, 
which was begun in 1 806. It was erected at an expense 
of 800,000/., as stated by Mr. Inglis, who seems also to 
be of opinion that the utility of the work bears no pro- 
portion whatever to the immense sum of money which 
it cost. 

Of the present state of Elizabeth Castle the following 
quotation from Mr. Inglis's work will give a sufficient 
account, — the concluding sentiment will, we are sure, 
be assented to by every reader : — 

" The rock on which Elizabeth Castle is built is not 
less than a mile in circumference ; and I was surprised, 
on passing through the gateway, to find a wide grassy 
level, terminated by extensive barracks and their ap- 
purtenances. In war-time, this fortress was an im- 
portant place, and, no doubt, presented to the eye and 
ears of the traveller a very different scene from that 
which it now presents. Decay seems now to be creep- 
ing over it ; and although a solitary sentinel is still to 

be seen pacing to 'and fro ; and although pyramids of 
shot still occupy their accustomed places, grass and 
weeds have forced their way through the interstices; 
and the rows of dismounted cannon show that the 
stirring days of war have gone by. May the weeds 
long grow, and the rust continue to creep over the 
engines of death V 9 

On the top of a rock, situated a little to the south of 
Elizabeth Castle, and, like it, accessible at low water, 
may still be seen the rude remains of a hermitage, the 
canonized tenant of which is said to have given name 
to St. Helier's. 

CHINA. — No. XII. 


The zoology of China offers to our consideration little 
that is new or peculiar. All the larger quadrupeds of 
China are common in many other parts of the world, 
and are too well known to require any description. We 
shall also spare our readers the description of flying 
cows and flying apes,— of the baboons on the mountain 
Tayung, in the province of Suchuen, *' which in bigness 
and shape are very like a man.'* — of the musk-deer, which 
when taken out of the kingdom of Lu into the kingdom 
of Laos " dies instantly, like a fish which is taken out 
of the water," — and of all the other marvellous beasts, 
birds, insects, and fish, which Marco Polo, and, after 
him, credulous missionaries or imaginative Dutchmen, 
palmed upon an age that had a surpassing facility 
of belief. We will only dwell on what is peculiar to 
China and authentic or curious. 

In the zoology of China there is, in fact, nothing 
more worthy of notice than that which is, to all appear- 
ance, the most humble and insignificant ; — this is the 
silk-worm, the history of which, and of its valuable pro- 
duct, is full of interest and instruction. 

In the best ages of Greece and Rome silk was 
hardly known but by report ; and the little information 
obtained by the interest and curiosity of merchants was 
confounded and obscured by being mixed up with some 
notions of the cotton-plant. The soft wool -of the 
Chinese is celebrated by Virgil as combed from trees ; 
and nearly four centuries elapsed before a distinct 
knowledge of the truth found its way to Europe. The 
manufactures of this precious substance — then more 
costly than gold — were patiently unravelled by the 
artistsof Greece, and re-manufactured with a mixture 
of some less costly material ; the transparent garments 
formed of the mingled stuff were worn by ladies of high 
rank at Rome, and the moralists of the time were 
strong in their disapprobation of the indecent innova- 
tion. The terms of " woven air " and " textile clouds " 
will demonstrate the extreme thinness which the high 
price of the material or the caprice of the purchaser 
compelled the workman to produce. But the commu- 
nication between China and the western world, which 
the wars of the Roman and Parthian empires had re- 
stricted, became more easy by the destruction of the 
latter in the third century; — the supply of silk in- 
creased, and a rich Roman might now, without the 
imputation of extravagant luxury, be clothed in the 
gorgeous fabrics of the East. In the reign of Jus- 
tinian (a. d. 552) the valued manufacture was brought 
to Europe. The missionaries of the Christian religion 
had successfully preached the Gospel in India, and had 
even penetrated into China. Two Persian monks, 
during a long residence in that country, had carefully 
considered the advantages which might accrue to the 
western world by the introduction of the insect itself, 
instead of the precarious and expensive importation of 
its produce. Their proposal was eagerly embraced by 
the enlightened Justinian; and after many attempts, 
and some danger, a sufficient number of eggs was en- 

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[February t7, 

closed in the hollow of a cane, and successfully con- 
veyed to Constantinople. Plantations of mulberries 
had been prepared : after some awkward attempts, silk 
enough was produced to show that a proper method 
had been adopted ; the artists of Greece gradually ap- 
proached perfection, and, in a few years, equalled or 
surpassed those of China. The ingenuity of the Arabs 
discovered the secret in the eighteenth century, and the 
manufacture was introduced in the dominions of the 
caliphs ; but the profitable monopoly of supplying the 
Christian world was retained by the Greeks until the 
twelfth century, when the Norman Roger, after his 
conquest of western Greece (a. d. 1146), by an en- 
lightened policy, most uncommon in that age, carried 
off among the prisoners a number of silk-weavers and 
spinners, whom he settled at Palermo. Sicilians were 
instructed in the process; — Italy soon acquired the 
valuable art; — and the manufacture has gradually 
spread itself over the western world. The artists of 
London now rival those of China, and under the su- 
perior management of Europeans the insect itself has 
improved. A healthy cocoon, which hardly ever equals 
a grain in China, has been known to weigh three grains 
in England, and the average of many thousands show 
a weight of more than two grains. 

There is every reason to conclude that the silk-worm 
has been cultivated, and silk woven in China, from the 
most remote antiquity. As the necessity for clothing 
must have long preceded that of recording events, the 
inventions of the loom and distaff are lost in the un- 
certainty of tradition. The mycologists of the west 
have ascribed these inventions to the gods ; and in like 
manner the ancient monarchs of China, who in their 
traditionary history play the part of gods, are said to 
have been the inventors of the silk-manufacture. For 
nearly twenty centuries Europe has received silk from 
the East: the names given to it on its introduction 
sufficiently indicate the country from which it came. 
The Greek name 2^ resembles the word implying silk 
in most of the Chinese dialects, and is identical with 
the pronunciation of Corea seer; in the mandarin 
dialect it is pronounced sze; but in a language of 
which the written character affords no indication of 
sound, the pronunciation must be as varied as in those 
savage tongues which are not at all committed to 
writing. The Latin name sufficiently resembles the 
Manchoo and Mongol sirke and sirkek, to show the 
people by whom the silk was carried on its departure 
from China. Those names, altered perhaps in their 
long journey over central Asia, acquired from the 
cultivated organs of the Italians the more agreeable 
form of serica % by some modification of which it is 
still known in most of the languages of Europe. 

In ancient times an example of industry was annually 
given by the empress of China, who fed the laborious 
insects with the leaves she had gathered with her own 
hands, from trees growing within the verge of the 
imperial palace. The produce of the worms was after- 
wards spun and woven by herself. This was- a politic 
mode of inducing habits of industry ; and it appears to 
have been retained, on account of the pleasing nature of 
the occupation, long after the necessity of example had 
ceased. Since the accession of the present family the 
custom has been discontinued : a part of the palace is, 
however, still stocked with insects and mulberry-trees 
for the amusement of the royal ladies ; and the govern- 
ment has not neglected the manufacture. Treatises of 
considerable extent have been published to point out 
the best mode of rearing worms and managing silk, 
showing in complete detail the best method of preserving 
and of hatching the eggs and feeding the worms, the 
diseases to which they are subject, and the modes of 
prevention and cure; the best form of building, and 
manner of warming and ventilating their habitations, 

and every other particular. The precautions recom- 
mended, although not rigorously adopted by every 
manufacturer, have greatly tended to improve the 
quantity and quality of the produce. 

During the fine season, worms are reared and silk 
made in almost every house, and any spare room is 
used for their habitation ; but by those who make the 
rearing of worms a profession, a dry airy spot is chosen, 
free from pungent smells and loud noises : a square 
room is built with the entrance if possible towards the 
south. It is usual to have a window on each side 
covered with white paper to exclude the air, and pro- 
vided with thick blinds to shut out the light when 
darkness is necessary. A stove, or more, is furnished 
to keep up a constant and equal temperature through- 
out the room, and to prevent any chance of damp, which 
is very injurious to the worm. Around the room 
several rows of shelves are fixed, one above another, 
about a foot apart, — not against the wall, but leaving a 
clear passage, wide enough for a person to walk out- 
side all round the room, and an open space in the 
middle. These shelves are formed of rushes or withies 
and are intended to receive the worms when hatched. 
The hatching may be accelerated or retarded at pleasure 
by exposing the eggs to heat or cold ; and the usual 
practice is to keep them in a cold place until the mul- 
berry-trees have put forth their young leaves : the 
paper on which the eggs are deposited is then brought 
out, and hung up in such a situation that the sun ma? 
shine on the back of the sheets ; this is repeated for 
two or three days, during each of which the paper is 
allowed to remain exposed to the rays of the sun only 
long enough to acquire a gentle warmth : a great heat 
would be very prejudicial. On the fourth day a ^reat 
number of the eggs will be hatched. AH the worms 
which leave the eggs before this time are thrown away, 
as they would not agree with the others in the times of 
eating, casting their skin, or spinning, which would he 
the cause of much additional trouble to the attendants. 
The papers are then carefully weighed, turned upside 
down, and gently placed upon young mulberry-leaves, 
cut into small shreds to be more easily masticated by 
the tender worms. The smell of the fresh leaves soon 
induces the worms to leave the paper, which is again 
carefully weighed ; the weight of worms is of course 
known by the difference of the present and former 
weights, and the quantity of food regulated accord- 
ingly *. 

In the first days of their existence the Chinese worms 
are fed nearly every half hour, and the number of 
meals is gradually diminished, as the worms grow 
older. After a few days they are fed four times a day, 
and the leaves are no longer shred, but given whole as 
they are gathered ; after this the number of meals 
suffers no diminutionf. 

The daily process of feeding the worms is very care- 
fully attended to ; they are kept free from noise, bad 
smells, or other causes of annoyance ; and in some 
places even the food and dress of the attendants are 
scrupulously regulated. Small stoves are used occa- 
sionally for drying the air of the apartment during the 
prevalence of damp weather: shades are placed over 
the windows when the heat of the sun would be ei- 
cessive; in case of a drying wind, small vessels of 
water are interspersed between the shelves to refresh 
the air of the room ; if the worms appear sickly and 

* The Italians usually procure the deposition of eggs upon 
cloths, from which they are detached by washing. The eggs are 
then kept in little bags, in as cool a place as possible, until the 
mulberry-trees are in leaf, when they are hatched in a staved room, 
of which the heat is gradually raised from 65 9 to 80° of Fahrenheit 
The process usually occupies twelve or fourteen days. 

+. In Italy it is usual to feed the worms four times a day from 
the first ; when very young they receive chopped leaves, and ia 
about sixteen days the chopping is discontinued. 

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heated, a fine powder of dry mulberry, leaves is thrown 
over them ; in short, every precaution is takeri which 
the interest of the proprietor ma) suggest, or the 
delicate habits of the animal may seem to render ne- 

Notwithstanding every precaution, the worms some- 
times die, particularly at the time of moulting, or 
casting their skin* This is a season of danger which 
occurs three times during the short life of a silk- worm. 
In the fourth day of its existence it falls sick, refuses 
food, and is then said by the Chinese to sleep : within 
twenty-four hours it casts its skin with much apparent 
pain ; two days usually elapse before health and appe- 
tite return, and after two days of health a second sleep 
approaches ; the pain and danger is repeated, and after 
an equally short interval of health, the third and last 
steep attacks the laborious insect. When this sleep is 
completed, the worm enjoys a longer interval of health 
thau at any other period : for five or six days it con- 
tinues to eat heartily, and then begins to »spin the 
" golden tomb," to the formation of which its whole 
existence appears consecrated. 

The silk-worm of Europe has one step of danger 
more than that of China, and casts its skin four times 
instead of three. It is the opinion of some naturalists 
that this difference must be the effect of climate; but 
such a supposition is negatived by the fact that the 
silk-worm of three casts, like that of China, is known 
in Europe, and that in some districts of Lombardy it 
is reared as well as that of four casts, though the 
latter is preferred from the larger quantity of the pro- 
duce. The worm of four casts being the best known 
in Europe, was probably the species introduced by 
Justinian; the smaller sort was most likely imported 
in one of the many vessels which have sailed between 
Europe and China for nearly four centuries. Both 
species are cultivated in Bengal, and are both thought 
by the Hindoos to have been brought from China. 
The smaller sort is known there by the name of the 
monthly worm, and can be brought to spin eight or 
ten times a year ; the other is called the annual worm, 
and produced silk in March only*. 


Sebastian Cabot, a maritime discoverer of great emi- 
nence, who, in all probability, was the first European 
who reached the main land of the New World, was 
born in Bristol about the year 1477. His father, Gio- 
vanni Gabota, or John Cabot, as he is usually called, 
was a Venetian adventurerf, settled in Bristol, who 
obtained the notice of Henry VII. during the arrange- 
ment of a treaty with the King of Denmark, by which 
Bristol was considerably benefited. Sebastian Cabot 
was instructed by his father in the various branches of 
nautical science as it was then taught, and before he 
had attained the age of seventeen he had been to sea 
several times. But the first voyage of any importance 
in which he bore a part, appears to have been when he 
accompanied his father for the discovery of unknown 
lands with the hope of finding a north-west passage to 
India. The discoveries of Columbus, who returned 
from his first expedition in 1493, having attracted the 
attention of Europe to the New World, on the 5th of 
March, 1495, John Cabot received letters-patent from 

* The Bengal worm has degenerated of late years, and several 
attempts have been made to introduce a better breed, by bringing 
eggs from the N. W". provinces of China, whence the first silk- 
worms were sent to Europe. These attempts have failed; the 
annual worm (chosen as the best sort) has in a short time changtd 
its distinctive character, and become monthly. Attempts are now 
making by the East India Company to convey the European e££s 
to Bengal, by first naturalizing the breed on the island of St. 
Helena, all their endeavours to convey the eggs direct to Bengal 
having failed, 
t According to Stowe and Grafton, John Cabot was a Genoese. 

Henry VII., directed to himself and his three sons, — 
Lie wis, Sebastian, and Sancius,— authorizing them to 
" saile to all parts, coun treys, and seas of tne east, and 
of the wett, and of the north." They were to subdue 
and occupy all towns, cities, castles, and islands for the 
king, who reserved to himself a fifth part of the profits 
of the voyage after the payment of all expenses ; and 
they were directed to return to the port of Bristol. 

Cabot did not set out on this voyage for some tkne 
afterwards ; for we find that, on the 3rd of February, 
1497, Henry VII. gave him license to take six English 
ships, of the burden of 200 tons, or under, and as many 
mariners as were willing to go with him. One ship, in 
which some merchants of London were interested, was 
equipped at Bristol at the expense of the king. She 
was attended by four small barks, fitted out by the 
merchants of that city, and laden with " coarse cloths, 
caps, lace-points, and such other." John Cabot, ac- 
companied by his second son Sebastian, sailed in the 
spriug of that year (in a manuscript calendar of the 
city of Bristol 1499 is the year mentioned), steering to 
the north-west, in the hope of reaching India by a 
shorter course than that which Columbus had taken, 
and of reaching the coast of Cathay, or China, of the 
fertility and opulence of which the descriptions of 
Marco Polo had excited high ideas. After sailing for 
some weeks due west, and nearly on the parallel of 
Bristol, they made the discovery of Newfoundland. 
The day on which this occurred is known by a map 
drawn by Sebastian Cabot, and cut by Clement Adams, 
which hung in the Privy Gallery at Whitehall, Under 
the author's picture was this inscription, " Eifegies 
Seb. Caboti, Angli Filii Jo. Caboti, Venetiani, Mi litis 
Aurati,'.' &c. On this map was likewise a narrative of 
the discovery, the original of which was in Latin, and 
which, as well as the following translation* may be seen 
in 4 Hakluyt,' voL hi., p. 27. " In the yeere of our 
Lord 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, and his son Se- 
bastian, with an English fleet, set out from Bristol, and 
discovered that land which no man before that time had 
attempted, on the 24th of June, about five of the clocke, 
early in the morning. This land he called Primavisla, 
that is to say, first seene, because, as I suppose, it was 
that part whereof they had the first sight from sea. That 
island which lieth out before the land he called Island 
of St. John, upon this occasion, as I thinke, because it 
was discovered upon the day of John the Baptist. The 
inhabitants of this island used to weare beasts' ski lines, 
and have them in as great estimation as we have our 
finest garments. In their warres they use bowes, ar- 
rowes, pikes, darts, woodden clubs, and slings. The 
soil is barren in some places, and yeeldeth little fiuit, 
but it is full of white beares and stagges, far greater than 
ours. It yeeldeth plenty of fish, and those very great, 
as seales, and those which we commonly call salmons : 
there are soles also above a yard in length, but 
especially there is a great abundance of that kinde of 
fish which the sauages call baccalaos (codfish). In 
the same island also there breed hauks, but they are so 
blacke that they are very like to rauens, as also their 
partridges and eagles, which are in like sort blacke." 

Having brought away three of the natives, Cabot 
proceeded westward, and soon reached the continent nf 
North America, sailing along it from the fifty-sixth to 
the thirty-eighth degree of latitude, from the coast of 
Labrador to that of Virginia, till he came to Florida. 
It does not appear that he landed anywhere during this 
extensive course, and he returned to England without 
attempting either settlement or conquest in any part 
of that continent, though he returned with a good 
cargo. The accounts of this voyage are in some mea- 
sure involved in obscurity, and it is conjectured that 
Sebastian Cabot made some voyages without his 
father in the reign of Henry VII. ; for during a period 
of nearly twenty years, no authentic detail of his life or 

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[February 27, 1856. 

proceedings is extant. Nor is it known at what time 
or in what plaoe his father died. No further attempt 
at discovery was made in England in the reign of 
Henry VII., and we hear no more of Sebastian Cabot 
till 1516, when he became connected with Sir Thomas 
Pert, then vice-admiral of England, who obtained a 
king's ship for the purpose of making discoveries. 
Sebastian Cabot seems at this time to have intended to 
proceed to India by the south ; for he sailed first to, where, failing of success, he steered for the 
islands of Hispaniola and Porto Rico. The design of 
Cabot was by various accidents completely frustrated. 
It is supposed that this disappointment disposed him 
to leave England and enter the service of Spain, 
where he was appointed piloto mayor y or grand pilot ; 
and by the nature of his office he was intrusted with 
the review of all projects of discovery, which at that 
time were numerous and important. His great ability 
and reputation induced several opulent merchants to 
negotiate with him in 1524 concerning a voyage to be 
made at their expense by the new-found passage of 
Magelhaen to the Moluccas; and Cabot sailed from 
Cadiz on this expedition, (of which there is an account 
in the Spanish historian Herrera) with four ships, in 
the early part of April, 1 525. 

The dearth of provisions and a mutiny among his 
men prevented the completion of his original plan, of 
going to (he Spice Islands. He sailed up the Rio de 
la Plata (river of silver), where he found an island 
about a league in circumference, and half a league from 
the continent towards Brazil, which he called St. Ga- 
briel. Here he anchored, and taking the boats three 
leagues further, he discovered a river, which he called 
San Salvador, or St. Saviour. Finding it deep and a 
safe harbour for ships, he brought up his vessels and 
unloaded them, because (here was a deficiency of water 
at the mouth of the river; he left a few men in a fort 
that he had built, and continued his course up the river 
with boats and a flat-bottomed caravel, in the hope that 
his voyage might hot be altogether fruitless. 

After various adventures, in which he was occupied 
nearly five years, he embarked the remainder of his 
men and all his effects in tire largest of his ships, leaving 
the rest behind hi in. In the spring of 1531 he arrived 
at the Spanish court, where, apparently, he was not 
very cordially received ; for his treatment of his Spanish 
mutineers had made him many enemies, and the' mer- 
chants were dissatisfied that he had not gone to the 
Moluccas. He, however, retained his place, and con- 
tinued some years in the service of Spain, till his return 
to England, which is supposed to have been about the 
close of the reign of Henry VIII. In the commence- 
ment of the reign of Edward VI., Cabot was introduced 
to- the Duke of Somerset, then lord protector, who re- 
ceived him with great consideration, and presented him 
to the king. 

On the 6th of January, 1549, he was constituted 
Grand Pilot of England, and received a pension for his 
life of 166Z. 13*. 4c/. a-year. In this year, according 
to Strype, (Memorials, vol. ii.,) the emperor, Charles 
y., desired that the king should send Cabot to him, as 
lie could be of little service to the English, who had 
not much to do with the Indian seas, and as he Was 
his servant, in the capacity of grand pilot of the Indies ; 
but this application was not complied with. Cabot con- 
tinued high in favour with Edward VI., and his advice 
was sought on all matters relative to commerce, and 
especially in the important business of the merchants of 
the Steelyard in 1551. These merchants, who : were 
originally from Germany, had -settled -in EngltnuNn or 
before the reign of Hertryfll. They hnpartted varioud 
merchandise, aftoflg Which Wra -steel, -from which theirj 
residence acquired the name of the Steelyard. They 
had been encouraged by many privileges, which, as the 
English trade increased, proved a source of annoyance. 

On the 29th of December, 1551, the Company of Mer- 
chant Adventurers, at the head of whom was Ca1>ot, 
exhibited an information to the Privy Council against 
them, and, after several hearings, they were declared 
not to be a legal corporation. 

As a communication with China and the Spice Islands 
by some other route than that of the Cape of Good 
Hope continued to attract the attention of the English, 
Cabot, whose opinion was of great weight, urgently 
pressed them to make another attempt, which he pro 
posed to be north-east ; and he supported this advice 
by such reasons as to excite sanguine hopes of success. 
Several persons of rank and eminent merchants formed 
an association, which was incorporated by a charter 
from the King as " The Company of Merchant Adven- 
turers for the Discovery of Regions, Dominions, Islands, 
and Places unknown ; " and Cabot, appointed governor 
of this company, soon prepared two ships and a bark, 
which he furnished with instructions from himself, 
which bear date the 9th of May, 1553. These instruc- 
tions, which were to be read once a week to the ships' 
companies, may be seen at length in Hakluyt, vol. i., 
p. 251 ; and they ufford the clearest proofs of Cabot's 
naval skill and mercantile sagacity. The following 
curious passage occurs in them: — " And if any person 
[of the natives] taken may be made drunke with your 
beere or wine, you shal know the secrets of his heart. ' 
In consideration of his trouble on this occasion, the 
king granted him 200/. There is so much variation in 
the accounts and dates respecting this voyage, that it 
has been supposed that they apply to two different voy- 
ages; but on the other hand, it appears that there is 
no distinct relation of any other attempt in the northern 
seas except this under Sir Hugh Willoughby, the result 
of which was the trade to Archangel in Russia. 

Cabot took an active part in the transactions of the 
Russia Company. In the journal of Stephen Bur- 
roughs, (Hakluyt, vol. i) it is stated that on the 26th 
of April, 1556, he went to Gravesend; and when on 
l)oard the Sereh-thrift, a small vessel fitted out for 
Russia, under the command of Burroughs, he gave to 
the " mariners right liberal rewards," and on his return 
to Gravesend he generously bestowed alms on the 
poor, wishing them to pray for the pros^teritX^fcjhe 
voyage. On this occasion he made a' banquet at the 
sign of the Christopher at Gravesend, where, as Mr. 
Burroughs says, " for the very joy he had to see the 
towardness of our intended discovery, he entered into 
the dance himself," and in further evidence of his 
excellent qualities, we find in the 6(h chapter of the 
third Decade, that Peter Martyr says " Cabot is my 
very friend whom I vse familiarly, and delight to have 
him sometimes kcepe mee company in mine own house. ' 
The renewal of his patent is the last information 
that we possess of this remarkable man, who is supposed 
to have died some time in the following year, when lie 
was probably uearly eighty, though his age, 7 
accurately ascertained. By his biograpb 
asserted to have been the first who made trj 
discovery of the variation of the, cqmf 
Irvimr's ' Life of Columbus,* (voL i. p* 
that when 200 leagues from Ferro, xm T *S 
September, 1492, " Columbus for ttefirsi^ 
the variation of the needle, a phenomenon whic 
never before been remarked," and this occurred 
period before Cabot could, from his tender age, have 
made the discovery. '---'-» \ 

*«• The Office of tlio Society tor the Dirtusioi of Useful Knowledge is at 
50. Lincoln's Inn Melds. 


Printed by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street* 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ifcontfjig Ssuppltmmt of 



Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

951 "j January 31 to February 29, 1830* 


[Trinity CbsptLJ 

Od* last Supplement was chiefly devoted to a general I we shall endeavour to make the reader acquainted with 
sketch of the antiquity and early history of Binning- Birmingham in its present state, 
ham and its manufactures. In resuming the subject, Few events calculated to interest the historian hava 
Vol.V. W 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[Februahy 29, 

occurred at Birmingham. Every 6ne, however, has 
heard of the riots which took place there in 1791 ; and 
as they furnish an instructive lesson of the madness of 
party and the consequences of ignorance they may be 
briefly alluded to. The breaking out of the French 
Revolution occasioned in this country hopes and fears 
equally unfounded when carried to excess, as they fre- 
quently were, by bigoted or over-zealous individuals. 
The excitement into which the former were thrown 
prevented them from distinguishing the good from the 
bad in the institutions under which they lived : the latter 
class of persons indulged in expectations of a period of 
happiness and liberty altogether inconsistent with the 
existence of society. While these were the views under 
which the most violent partizans acted, the more sober 
portion of the community were in extreme agitation, 
and in this unhealthy state of public opinion, a trivial 
circumstance was calculated to produce much feverish 
and unwarrantable alarm among those whose views 
were not sufficiently clear-sighted to perceive the true 
nature of the events which were taking place around 
them, and who did not possess the wisdom to direct 
their consequences to useful ends. At this period there 
resided at Birmingham Dr. Priestley, who was a dis- 
tinguished man of science and a divine of Unitarian 
sentiments. This individual looked with hope to the 
spread of liberal sentiments being hastened by the great 
movement which was taking place in France. Writing 
to one of his friends, he said, "We are, as it were, 
laying gunpowder, grain by grain, under the old build- 
ing of error and superstition, which a single spark may 
hereafter inflame, so as to produce an instantaneous 
explosion; in consequence of which that edifice, the 
erection of which has been the work of ages, may be 
overturned in a moment, and so effectually as that the 
same foundation can never be built upon again.' , By 
some means the above passage was made public, and it 
had the effect of exciting the enmity of all who clung, 
from a feeling of veneration, to the old institutions 
which they saw menaced. The transition was easily 
made from a defensive to an offensive position ; and it 
was not long before the occasion arose for such a change 
being effected. 

The 14th of July, 1791, being the second anniversary 
of the taking of that old fortress of despotism* the 
French Bastile, was fixed upon by one of the parties 
into which the town was divided as a day of rejoicing, 
and it was determined to celebrate it by a public 
dinner. The other party also resolved upon a counter 
display, and they, with very different sentiments, also 
resolved to get up a public dinner on the same day. 
A number of persons congregated during the evening 
around the 1 head-qUarterd of each party ;— rumours 
circulated among them, which they were too un- 
enlightened to see the folly of, and they made an attack 
upon the house iri which the party friendly to the 
French Revolution were assembled. The windows were 
soon demolished, and the rooms were searched by the 
rabble, Who entered Jh the hope of laying hold of Dr. 
Priestley ; but he had not attended the dinner. The 
multitude then proceeded to the chapel in which he was 
accustomed to officiate, and in half an hour it was in 
flames. Afterwards they set out for Dr. Priestley's 
residence, Which Was about a mile out of the town : they 
gutted it df the furniture, books, philosophical instru- 
ments, and manuscripts, on which he had spent some 
of the most valuable portion of his life. 

On the following day (Friday, July 15th), a number 
of the respectable inhabitants assembled in St. Phillip's 
Churchyard to be sworn in as special constables ; but 
they were but imperfectly organized, and the civil 
authorities did not display sufficient energy for the 
occasion. The mobj therefore, recommenced the work 
of destruction, but were at one time dispersed by the 

special constables. They however rallied again, and in 
a second attempt to disperse them one of the special 
constables was killed. No military force being present, 
the mob went on to exercise their mischievous power 
uncontrolled. About 10,000 of them proceeded to the 
house of Mr. Ryland, at Easy Hill, and the premises 
were soon in flames. The wine-cellar was broken open, 
and many of the besotted rabble became intoxicated 
with its contents, and were in it when the roof and 
heated ruins fell to the ground. This day the places in 
which persons were confined for crime were broken 
open, and the inmates liberated. Barrels of ale were 
broached in the street before the houses of respectable 
persons who wished to propitiate the favour of the 
capricious body into whose hands the town had fallen. 
Mr. Hut ton was one of those who had placed a barrel 
of ale before his house to regale the mob. When it had 
been emptied, they proceeded to drag him out of the 
house, and compelled him to give them money, and, 
not content with his compliance, they confined him in a 
public-house until they had drunk 329 gallons of ale at 
his expense, and afterwards exhibited their good faith 
towards him by destroying everything in his house to 
the minutest article. The rioters closed their proceed- 
ing this day by the destruction of Bordesley Hall, the 
residence of John Taylor, Esq. 

On Saturday the work of havoc was resumed. The 
house of Mr. Hutton, at Bennett's Hill, and that of 
Mr. Humphries, were first destroyed. At the latter 
place it was determined to make some defence, but the 
idea occasioned so much alarm among the female part 
of Mr. Humphries' family that it was abandoned. As 
the family made their escape from the house the mob 
entered it, and the work of destruction was speedilv 
completed. At the house of Mr. W. Russell, at Showell 
Green, another attempt was made to withstand the 
mob, but without success. During the day the houses 
of Mr. Hawkes, Lady Carhampton, Mr. Hobson, 
Mr. Pidarck, Mr. Harwood, and Mr. Coates, were de- 

On Sunday morning the work of mischief was re- 
sumed by an attack on the house and chapel of Mr. 
Cox, at Wharstock. The contents of the cellar were 
first drunk, and the house and premises were then set 
on fire* the mob waiting to see that the ruin was com- 
plete ; after which they disposed of the meeting-house 
and parstinage-house of Kin*rswood in a similar manner. 
They then proceeded to Edgbaston Hall, where thev 
displayed their usual fury. At ten o'clock in the even- 
ing, three troops of cavalry had arrived at Birmingham, 
and on this intelligence being communicated to the 
rioters they discontinued their lawless operations. They 
did not, however, at once disperse, but, forming them- 
selves into small bodies, levied contributions on hamlets 
and farm-houses, until finally the country people col- 
lected together in their own defence and dispersed the 

It is quite immaterial under what watchword a bodv 
of men carry on a series of outrages on the persons 
and property of their fellow -citizens. The folly and 
wickedness of such acts can in no way be dimiutshed 
or rendered less conspicuous thereby. Forty-five years 
ago the Birmingham rioters plundered their felloe- 
townsmen in the name of" Church and King;" and 
five years ago the city of Bristol was in the hands of a 
mob equally ignorant and foolish, whose rallying- crv 
was exactly the reverse of that of the Birmingham 
rioters of 1791. In both cases the lamentable proceed- 
ings which took place were the results of ignorance of 
the most fatal description. 

All men have so strong an interest in the security of 
property, that its possessors will never be loug iu 
aiding each other when it is forcibly attacked. How- 
ever surprise or want of energy may paralyze them for 

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the moment, a community wftose best interests are in 
jeopardy soon assumes a defensive "position. The 
shameful perpetrators of violence then find that their 
own interests have suffered not less severely than those 
of their injured neighbours, although in a less direct 
manner. During the riots at Birmingham, three of 
the persons who sustained the greatest damage to 
their property employed in their several concerns 
many hundred persons, who would be thrown out of 
employment by the derangement which such events 
occasion in manufacturing and commercial establish- 
ments. After a considerable interval all those whose 
property had been injured by the rioters recovered 
damages from the county to the extent of 26,961/. 

Dr. Priestley, whom the rioters thought to have 
seized when they first commenced their proceedings, 
fortunately made his escape from his house with his 
wife and family. Before quitting his residence the 
fires were put out, in the hope that the mob, not rinding 
immediate facilities for destroying the house, might be 
induced to relinquish the idea. This precaution, how- 
ever, had not the desired effect, and the laborious task 
of hewing and tearing the house to pieces was quickly 
begun. Dr. Priestley first retreated to Worcester, and 
afterwards to London, where he was appointed to suc- 
ceed Dr. Price, as the pastor of a congregation at Hackney. 
He finally quitted his native land in 1794, for America, 
where he purchased 200,000 acres of land on the banks 
of the Susquehannah, about 120 miles from Phil- 
adelphia. Here he spent the remainder of his days in 
retirement, not undisturbed by domestic sufferings. 
In 1796 his wife died of a fever, and his second son 
was shortly afterwards cut off by the same malady. 
Dr. Priestley died February 6th, 1804, in the 71st year 
of his age. A tablet of white marble, with a suitable 
inscription, was erected to his memory at Birmingham 
by frhe congregation over which he had presided. 

Birmingham does not possess any buildings remark- 
able for their antiquity. The church of St. Martin, 
which stands at the edge of the town, on the London 
side, is doubtless the most ancient building in the 
town, though no precise date can be fixed to the period 
of its erection. The spire is finely proportioned, but 
both the tower from which it springs, as well as the 
body of the church, were encased in brick-work in 
1690, and are therefore more remarkable for their 
singular appearance than anything else. The spire, 
however, was not thus disfigured, but was taken down 
in 1783 to the extent of forty feet, and rebuilt to 
its original state with a durable stone from the neigh- 
bourhood of Nuneaton. In the interior of the spire 
there is an iron shaft 105 feet in length, which is 
secured to the masonry by iron braces at intervals of' 
ten feet. The tower contains twelve musical bells. 
The attempts to " beautify" this church do not appear 
to have been well managed, as the principal monu- 
mental memorials of the ancient lords of Birmingham 
were destroyed when the exterior of the edifice was 
repaired. The successive erection of galleries to pro- 
vide sittings for the increasing inhabitants, occasioned 
alterations to be made which have caused them to be 
still further mutilated or .emoved. 

The increase of the town occasioned the erection of 
another church (St. Phillip's) in 1715, and this was 
surrounded by a cemetery of four acres in extent. The 
church of St. Phillip is of the Corinthian order, and is 
placed on the summit of a hill, and the dome and 
cupola with which it is surmounted are therefore con- 
spicuous objects. The triennial musical festivals for 
the support of the Birmingham General Hospital were 
held here from their commencement in 1778 to 1820. 

St. John's Chapel, Deritend, on the south side of 
the Rea, was erected in 1735, and the tower, in which 
we eight bells, twenty-sevcu yean afterwards. St. 

Bartholomew's Chapel, on the east side of the town, 
was built in 1749, and St. Mary's in 1774. St. Paul's 
was erected in 1779, from a design by Godwin ; the 
steeple was not completed until 1823. . St. James's 
Chapel, Ashted, was consecrated in 1810. Christ- 
church was begun in 1805, but was not completed until 
1816: it contains an excellent organ. St. George's, 
erected in 1822, is a Gothic edifice, with a lofty tower 
in the style of Edward III. The dimensions of the 
interior are ninety-eight feet by sixty, and it possesses 
accommodations for nearly 2000 persons. The internal 
decorations and arrangements are executed on a superior 
scale. The height of the tower to the top of the 
pinnacles is 114 feet. Trinity Chapel, in the hamlet 
of Bordesley, is likewise from a Gothic design. A 
representation of Christ at the Pool of Bethesda adorns 
the altar. St. Peter's Chapel, Pale-end, is in the 
Grecian style of architecture. It was finished in 1827, 
but the interior was destroyed by fire in 1831. St. 
Thomas's, also in the Grecian style, stands on an emi- 
nence called Holloway Head, and was consecrated in 
1629: the height of the tower is 130 feet. The 
dimensions of the interior are 130 feet by 60. The 
ceiling is enriched with highly ornamental pannels, and 
is thirty-eight feet from the floor. This church pos* 
sesses accommodation for more than 2000 persons. 
All Saints, on the road to Soho, was consecrated in 
1833, and is a brick structure with stone pinuacles. 

Birmingham not being a corporate town naturally 
attracted many of the old non-conformers, who were 
prevented in less liberal times from residing within five 
miles of such privileged places. The number of places 
of worship for the various bodies of Dissenters is there- 
fore large, and we believe not fewer than forty-five. 

The public buildings of Birmingham for municipal 
or other useful purposes may now vie with those of any 
other town in the country, and the magnificent Town* 
hall is not paralleled by any of them. The view of 
New Street does not present all the fine edifices which 
it contains, some being excluded by the nature of the 
view, and others being only partially visible. The 
theatre, the portico of the Society of Arts, Radenhurst's 
Grand Hotel, with its elegant colonnade, are all in 
New Street. In an adjoining street a news-room has 
been erected, ornamented by lofty pillars of the Ionic 
order. The Market Hall is an ornamental as well as 
most useful building, 365 feet in length and 108 feet 
wide. On the north front is a facade of the Doric 
order, sustaining an entablature, which is continued 
round the other sections of the buildings. Twelve 
spacious entrances afford convenient means of access 
from the principal streets of the neighbourhood. The 
roof is divided into three compartments, supported by 
two ranges of ornamental iron columns, twenty-eight 
feet high. ' The Town Hall, the most striking public 
building in Birmingham, has already been described 
in No. 142 of the * Penny Magazine.' A description 
of the organ which it contains, and which is perhaps 
the finest in Europe, has also been given in the * Penny 
Magazine,' No. 167. Cuts both Qf the Town Hall and 
the organ accompany the descriptions of each in the 
Numbers of this work already mentioned ; to those we 
must refer the reader. ' ' • • , 

The Grammar School, new rebuilding in the Gothic 
style, with extensive cloisters under it, a spacious library 
and residences for the head master and assistants, will 
be one of the finest buildings of the kind in the king- 
dom when completed. The Post-office, the offices of 
the different banking companies, the Police-office, and 
other edifices for public purposes have been erected 
with much spirit and taste, and would adorn any capi- 
tal in Europe. The cemetery on the Wolverhampton 
Road presents similar architectural features to the 
metropolitan cemetery in the Harrow Road. 

M 2 

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In 1B01 the papulation of Birmingham and the 
suburbs was 73,670, and it was only exceeded in this 
respect by Manchester, Glasgow, and Liverpool. In 
1811 the population of Birmingham had increased to 
85,753 ; in 1821 to 106,721. At the census taken in 
May, 1831, Birmingham contained 69,415 males and 
72,836 females, making a total population of 142,251. 
It still held the rank which it occupied when the census 
of 1801 was taken ; and though it had not increased 
in bo rapid a manner, its progress had been more 
steady. From 1801 to 1811 the increase was 16 per 
cent., and for the two following decennial periods it 
Was 24 and 33 per cent respectively. The following 
is a table of the number of .baptisms, burials, and 
marriages registered in Birmingham for the ten years 
ending in 1830 :-*• 





1821 ... 

.... 2998 ... 

.... 1775 ... 

.... 1193 

1822 ... 

.... 5523 ... 

.... 1764 ... 

... 1181 

1823 ... 

.... 2790 ... 

.... 1943 ... 

.... 1321 

1824 ... 

... 3058 ... 

.... 2178 .... 

... 1582 

1825 ... 

.... 3283 ... 

.... 2242 ..., 

... 1832 

1826 ... 

.... 2777 ... 

.... 2235 ... 

... 1366 

1827 ... 

... 3568 ... 

.... 2084 .... 

... 1463 

1828 ... 

... 4749 ..., 

... 2310 .... 

... 1525 

1829 .... 

... 4313 ..., 

... 1941 .... 

... 1474 

1830 .... 

... 4472 .... 

... 2138 .... 

... 1571 

The number of 'persons who died above the age of 
95 during the above ten years was forty-eight, of whom 
there were eleven aged 98 ; six aged 100 ; four 101 ; 
two 102 ; four 103 ; two 104 ; one 109 ; and one aged 
1 14. The rate of mortality among children under five 
years is '44 per cent., i.e. less than one-half, and some- 
what fewer than in the towns of Liverpool, Notting- 
ham, and Leeds, where the proportion per cent*, is 
respectively as follows : — Liverpool '46 per cent. ; Not- 
tingham "48 per cent. ; and Leeds *49 per cent. The 
longevity of the inhabitants is remarkable, as will be 
seen by the following statement : — Proportion of deaths 
per cent., from 1821 to 1830, of persons aged between 
90 and 99 :— Birmingham '90 per cent.; Hull '96; 
Halifax 98; Somersetshire -96; Dorsetshire '98. 
The longevity of the inhabitants of Birmingham exceeds 
even that of the county population, the proportion in 
the latter case being *95 per cent., and at Birming- 
ham •90. The result to which the above facts point 
will be evident to every one. 

A striking idea may be formed of the wants of society 
in the present day, and of the manner in which they 
contribute to stimulate industry and direct the ingenuity 
and skill of the manufacturing population into an im- 
mense variety of channels by the following detailed list 
(taken from the Population Returns of 1831) of the 
branches into which the staple trade of Birmingham is 
divided :— 

Makers of anvils 5 ; augers 1 ; awl-blades 7 ; bayo- 
nets 1 ; beer-machines 2 ; bellows 4 ; bellows-pipes 7 ; 
blacking 1 ; bolts 5 ; bone-toys 3 ; brace-bits 3 ; bottle- 
jacks 2 ; braces 8 ; brass-cocks 1 ; braziers 7 ; bridle- 
bits 18; bridles 5; Britannia tea-pots 51 ; bronze 1; 
buckles 10 ; burnishers 2 ; buttons 646 ; cabinet-locks 
3 ; candlesticks 4 ; casters 94 ; casting-pots 3 ; chasers 
29 ; clock-dials 4 ; clock-work 2 ; coach-lace 1 ; coach- 
springs 7 ; coach-founders 5 ; coffin-furniture 2 ; coral- 

m carver 1; corkskrewsS; currycombs 1; die-sinkers 60; 

"dirt-washer 1 ; dog-collars 4 ; edge-tools 8; enameller 
1 ; fenders 17; files 55; filers 6; fire-irons 21 ; fish- 
ing-rods 1 ; floor-cloth 3 ; forgers 14 ; frying-pans 7 ; 
gas 3; gilders 15; gilt-toys 255 ; gimblets 25; girth- 
springs 1 ; glass-blowers 16 ; glass 7 ; glass-pinchers 3; 
glass-boys 24; gold-cutler 1 ; goldbeater 18; gold- 
plater 1 ; grinders 15 ; gauge- plates 1 ; gun-barrel 
filers 4 ; gun implements 19 ; gun-lock filer 1 ; hinges > 
19.; horn-presser 1 ; iron*nlers 4 • iron-plate workers 6 ; 
key-maker 1; lanterns 1] locfcftler* 3$ lock-smiths 1 

113; machines 2; malt-mills 12; mathematical instru- 
ments 16 ; metal-rollers 1 1 ; metal tea-pots 1 ; military 
ornaments 2 ; miniature-frames 1 ; modellers 7 ; needles 
2; paper trays 1; patent cards 1; patent sashes 5; 
pearl-workers 3 ; pewterers 5 ; picture-frames 2 ; pins' 
9; pistol-finisher 1 ; planes 26; platers 616; polishers 
7 ; pot-ash 1 * refiners 20 ; repairer 1 ; ring-turners 4 ; 
rollers 3; ruler-makers 55; saddle-trees 1; saddlers' 
tools 1 ; saw-handles 2 ; saws 7 ; scale-beams 25 ; 
Scotch snuff-boxes 1 ; screws 27 ; si rail ore r 1 ; snuffers 
40 ; solder 2 ; spades 6 ; spectacles 16 ; split-ring* 5 ; 
spoons 67; spurs 2; stampers 94; steel-toys 171; 
steelyards 2; stirrup- filers 6; strikers 2; sword-cul- 
lers 8 ; tarpaulins 4 ; tea-trays 21 ; tea-urns 11 ; thim- 
bles 9 ; thread 2 ; tools 79 ; tortoise-ahell workers 7 ; 
toys 13; traces 2; Tutania (Tutenag) tea-pots 6; 
varnish 2 ; vices 6 ; violins 1 ; waiters 4 ; watch- 
glasses 1 ; watch-hands 2 ; watch-pendants 1 ; watch- 
pinions 2 ; watch-springs 1 ; weavers 19 ; web 1 ; 
white-metal smith 1; wire-drawers 150; workeos in 
copper and brass 34 ; workers in iron and steel 37. — 
Total 3415. At Aston: makers of anvils 1 ; awl- 
blade 27 ; bellows 10 ; brass-founders 576 ; Britannia 
metal 8; buckles 3; buttons 158; carpets 1; coffin 
furniture 15; edge-tools 24; fenders 38; files 33; 
frying-pans 8 ; gilt toys 16; gimblets 16; glass 132; 
hinges 34; latches 1; locksmiths 59; machines 3; 
malt-mills 6; needles and fish-hooks 5; pewterers 10; 
pins 4; planes 6; rulers 18; saws 19; screws (wood) 
27; snuffers 6; spades and shovels 1; spoons 36; 
steel toys 120 ; steelyards and scale-beams 17; thimbles 
17; thread 3; traps (mouse and rat) 3; vices 2; 
weavers 5; wire 87. Total 1555. At Edgbaston: 
brass-founders 8; button-makers 6; coach-springs 1; 
files 2 ; gimblets and braces 2 ; glass 3 ; hackles 2 ; 
iron 6; locksmiths 4 ; platers 7; polishers 2; press- 
nails 1 ; rollers of metal 2 ; screws 1 ; spectacles 1 ; 
spoons 2 ; vinegar and starch* makers 3. Besides this 
specification* which produces a total of more than 5000 
men, a number not much less appears in the Birming- 
ham return a& handicraft* — brass- workers, gun-makers, 
jewellers, whitesmiths, glass-cutters, japanners, silver- 
smiths, and toymen. 

The number of families employed in trade, manu- 
factures, and handicraft is 19,469 ; in manufacture, or 
in making manufacturing machinery 5028; and the 
families of capitalists, bankers, professional and other 
educated men are 2388. Add to these 5292 day- 
labourers employed in various ways, but not in agri- 
cultural labour ; 966 male servants, and 5233 female 
servants ; and it will be at once seen that Birmingham 
is well entitled, both on account of its population and 
industry, as well as its intelligence, to the designation 
of the Midland Metropolis, 

The population of Birmingham comprises more than 
two-fifths of the population of the county of Warwick. 
The criminal returns for the county will therefore 
enable us to form an approximate idea of the morality 
and habits of order which prevail in Birmingham. In 
the returns published in the * Companion to the 
Almanac' for 1836, the proportion of offenders to the 
population in Warwickshire is 1 in 510. The popu- 
lation to the square mile is 357, and the opportunities 
of crime are necessarily great amid a population so 
active and flourishing. In Hereford the proportion o! 
criminals is exactly the same ; but the population to 
the square mile is only 121, and the temptations to 
crime less frequently present themselves. The counties 
of Chester, Lancaster, Surrey, and Middlesex, contain 
a greater number of criminals in proportion to their 
population than Warwickshire does ; and couuties which 
contain a smaller proportion, have, it must be remarked, 
a much smaller amount of town population. 
A savings 1 bank was established at Birmingham ia 

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[New Stock] 

May, 1827, which, in November, 1829, contained 
43,881/., and had opened accounts with 2499 depositors. 
In the live savings' banks established in the county, 
5755 depositors had put in their earnings, and the 
amount of each deposit averaged 2SL 19*. 2\d. For 
the year ending 1833 the number of depositors in the 
Warwickshire savings' banks was 6580 ; but we have 
no means of distinguishing the number of those who 
reside in Birmingham. These valuable institutions 
appear to have been established at a late period in 
Birmingham, at least ten years after their being insti- 
tuted in most of the other large towns in the country. 

We have much pleasure in noticing the manner in 
which Friendly Societies are supported at Birmingham. 
We learn that upwards of 400 of these excellent in- 
stitutions are established, and it is supposed that about 
40,000 of the inhabitants are enrolled in them. The 
system of holding the meetings, depositing the chests, 
and transacting the business at public-houses is, we 
rejoice to hear, on the decline, to the evident advantage 
of the members. 

The General Hospital claims the first notice among 
the benevolent institutions of Birmingham. It was 
commenced in 1776, but for want of adequate funds 
the work was not finished before 1778* It cost 7137/. 
Two wings were added in 1791, at an additional cost 
of upwards of 8000/. The subscriptions and donations 
to this noble charity have been progressively aided by 
the profits of the Celebrated Birmingham Triennial 
Musical Festivals. The net produce of the first of 
these festivals, in 1778, was 127/. The gross receipt 
of that of 1829 was 9771/., and the net produce 3806/. 
The gross receipts in 1834, (being the first of the 
musical festivals in the New Town Hall,) were 13,278/. 

The Dispensary was established in 1794, and the 
present building, in Union Street, erected in 1808, at 
the cost of 3000/. Three physicians and six surgeons 
give their services gratuitously, and such of the poor as 
cannot attend at the dispensary are visited at their own 
houses. There are two resident surgeons, an apothe- 
cary and midwife. No recommendation is required for 

vaccine inoculation, which is gratuitous on Mondays 
and Thursdays. 

Besides these benevolent institutions there is a Fever 
Hospital, an Institution for the Relief of Bodily De- 
formity, an Infirmary for the Diseases of the Eye, and 
a Magdalen Asylum. There are musical performances 
at Christmas, in the Town Hall, at which the per- 
formers act gratuitously, for the benefit of distressed 

The education of youth has received ap much atten- 
tion in Birmingham, that a history of its schools would 
make a voluminous work. The Twentieth Report of 
the Commissioners for inquiring into Public Charities, 
dated July, L828, contains 114 closely-printed folios, 
which are devoted to the. charities of Birmingham. The 
Geueral Grammar School of this town was founded in 
the 5th of Edward VI. (1552), " for the education, in- 
stitution, and instruction of boys and youths in gram- 
mar/' The school was endowed by the king with the 
lands and other property of the dissolved religious 
foundation called the Guild of the Holy Cross, to be 
held in common soccage, at 20*. per annum. The 
government of the school and the management of its 
revenues were invested in twenty discreet men of the 
township, at first nominated by the crown, and subse- 
quently having the power of supplying the place of 
deceased members. They were constituted a body cor- 
porate, with power to hold or receive lands or other 
possessions of the king or other benefactors ; to appoint 
the masters, and, in conjunction with the bishop of the 
diocese, to prescribe rules for the interior management 
of the school. Since the year 1676, a sum, more or 
less, has been set apart to furnish exhibitions for the 
more advanced pupils at Oxford or. Cambridge ; and 
subsequently to 1796, the number was ten, at 357. each. 
The income arising from the estate of the charity is 
gradually on the increase. In 1827 it was about 3400/., 
but fron* the expiration of old leases and the usual ad- 
vantages of renewajs, it has been calculated that by the 
year 1840 the income will be 9000/. The revenues in 
183^ were 400QA, and the expenditure below 3000/. 

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[February 29, 

A chancery inquiry into the validity of some of the 
statutes relating to this foundation led to other inquiries 
respecting it, and the result was, a chancery decree, 
dated June 7th, 1830, ordering, amongst other things, 
that the learned languages should be taught under the 
direction of a head master and usher, each to be a gra- 
duate of Oxford or Cambridge, of the degree of M. A. ; 
that the salary of such head master should be 400/., 
with other contingent benefits, while that of the usher 
should be 300/. ; each to have a residence, rent and tax 
free, and a retiring pension to the amount of half the 
salary. The head master and usher each to nominate 
his own assistant, subject to the approval of the gover- 
nors, and the salary of such assistants to be 200/. per 
annum each. That a master to teach writing and arith- 
metic should also be appointed, with a salary of 100/. 
That no boy should be admitted under eight years of 
age, or who could not read and write; and that no 
youth should remain on the foundation after he had 
attained his nineteenth year. That for the education 
of the children of persons who were not inhabitants of 
Birmingham, payment was to be made according to 
Mich a scale of charges as the governors should autho- 
rize. That ten exhibitions of 50/. per annum each 
should be founded for the Grammar School boys going 
to Oxford or Cambridge; two exhibitions to be elected 
one year and three another, to be held for four years: 
but residence during terms to be indispensable. That 
there was to be an annual visitation and examination, 
both as to learning and proficiency in the Christian 
religion ; aud that there should be a library and a gra- 
duated scale of rewards to deserving pupils on leaving 
the school. Exceptions to this report were filed, but 
it was ultimately confirmed, and additional schools, 
with extended plans of public usefulness, have arisen 
in the town, supported by the parent institution. 

The Blue Coat School was founded in the early part 
of the last century. The school-house was erected in 
St. Philip's churchyard in 1724, and considerably en- 
larged in 1794. The number of children of both sexes 
educated on this foundation is nearly 200, under the 
care of a committee of subscribers and of a governor 
and governess, both single, and members of the Church 
pf England. The revenues of the institution, arising 
from rents of lands, premises, and funded stock, 
amounted in 1S27 to 1029/. Additions being made by 
charity sermons, collections, and other benefactions, a 
revenue of 2000/. is generally made up, the whole of 
which is expended in the purposes of the institution. 
The trustees under the will of George Fentham, a 
mercer of the town, dated 1690, (who left property 
now producing about 308/. per annum, a portion of 
which to be applied to teaching poor boys and girls 
" to know their letters, spell, and read," and putting 
them out as apprentices), pay to the Blue Coat School, 
for boarding and lodging from fifteen to twenty of the 
objects of Fentham's bounty, the sum of 11/. per an- 
num for each child, with an annual gratuity of 10/. to 
the master and matron for their extra trouble. These 
children are clothed once a year from the funds of Fent- 
ham's charity, and on attaining the age of fourteen 
ore put out as apprentices. 

At the Protestant Dissenters' Charity School 43 
children are fed, clothed, and educated, from the age of 
nine to fifteen years. There is also in Birmingham a 
Deaf and Dumb Institution, which is supported partly 
by contributions from the public and partly by pay- 
ments of 8/. per annum from the parents or friends of 
the children. There *re about fifty children boarded 
and instructed in this excellent institution. The boys 
are taught the elements of useful education, and assist 
in gardening; and the girls are taught sewing, knit- 
ting, and household work, and also receive instruction 
in the iual elements of school education. 

In the town and suburbs there are twelve infant 
schools. The St. George's School, commenced in 1823, 
is attended by 120 children; the St. Mary's School, 
established in 1831, by 100 children; the Ann Street 
School, opened in 1827, by 140 children ; the Islington 
School, also opened in 1827, by 65 male and 55 
female children; the All Saints' School, commenced in 

1829, by 90 children; one school in the parish of 
Acton, opened in 1833, is attended by 120 children. 
These schools are supported in some cases wholly by 
voluntary contributions, and in others, jointly by this 
means and payments from the parents. There are be- 
sides six infant schools, containing 191 children, which 
are entirely supported by weekly payments from the 

There are, including boarding-schools, the above- 
named infant-schools and charity-schools, about 133 
daily-schools in Birmingham. The St. Philip's School 
of Industry is attended by 60 girls, who contribute, by 
the produce of their work, to the support of the school. 
The school in Tinfold Street, and St. Mary's School, 
are national schools; the former is attended by 278 
males and 145 females, and the latter by 170 males 
and 140 females. In another (the Workhouse School) 
are 123 males and 140 females; another, containing; 
160 children (chiefly boys), belongs to the Roman 
Catholics, and is partly supported by payments from 
the parents and partly by voluntary contributions. 
The New Jerusalem Church Free School is attended 
by 126 boys, who each pay 3d. a-week; and the salary 
of the master is increased to 84/. 10*. a-year by volun- 
tary contributions. The boys' Lancasterian School 
contains 230, and the girls' Lancasterian School 110 
scholars ; and each child pays Id. per week. In 95 of 
the daily-schools of Birmingham the cost of instruction 
is defrayed entirely by the parents. 

In the town of Birmingham there are 31 Sunday- 
schools. Mr. Matthews, in a little tract published in 

1830, entitled ' A Sketch of the Principal Means which 
have been employed to ameliorate the Intellectual and 
Moral Condition of the Working Classes at Birming- 
ham,' says : — " Birmingham was one of the places where 
this benevolent plan of ameliorating the mental con- 
dition of the working-classes was not only very early 
adopted, but every religious denomination cordially and 
zealously united to support and promote it." Nine of 
the above schools, containing 1181 male and 1053 female 
children, are supported by the Established Church ; 
and five of them possess lending libraries. Two Roman 
Catholic Sunday-schools are attended by D3 males and 
53 females. Five others (in two of which there are 
lending libraries) are supported by the Wesleyan Me- 
thodists. They contain 914 male and 968 female scho- 
lars. The members of the Methodist New Connexion 
support one school, which is attended by 125 children ; 
the Arminian Methodists another, attended by SS 
children ; and the school supported by the Primitive 
Methodists is attended by 740 males and 760 females. 
To the latter school there is attached a lending library. 
The four schools, in connexion with the Independents, 
each possess lending libraries : the number of children 
attending the schools is 860 males and 650 female?. 
The Baptists support two schools, which are attended 
by 592 males and 490 females. Both possess libraries. 
To one an adult school is attached, which is attended 
by 121 males and 35 females. There are two Unitarian 
Sunday-schools, which are attended by 1100 boys aud 
803 girls, and to each of them a library is attached. 
There are also, in conjunction with these two schools, 
saving clubs and a benefit society, which are stated to 
have had a beneficial influence in the formation of 
habits of economy. The total number of children 
attending the Sunday-schools of Birmingham may be 
estimated at about 11,000, The number of children 

Digitized by 





attending twelve Suridtry-schbors established in the 
suburbs is about 2566. 

In the little work by Mr. Matthews, which we have 
previously quoted* an account is giVSn of some early 
attempts which were made to enlarge Mr. Raikes's 
scheme of Sunday-school instruction. Mr. Matthews 
says, — ** In 1789 some young men conceived the idea 
of extendiug the plan of Mr. Raikes by taking under 
their care the youths when they were dismissed from 
the Sunday Schools. They designated themselves the 
c Sunday Society : * their purpose was to teach writing, 
arithmetic, and also to communicate such other informa- 
tion as would not only contribute to form the moral 
character of the boys, but be useful to them in their 
several future occupations, as well as to keep them in 
the paths of rectitude. Hence geography, book-keep- 
ing, and drawing, were afterwards added, as well as 
moral instruction. Moreover, some of those who en- 
gaged in this attempt had cultivated a taste for natural 
philosophy, and belonged to a small society, established 
a few years before, for their mutual improvement in 
useful knowledge ; and as some of them were skilful 
and ingenious as workmen, they constructed a variety 
of apparatus for experiments to illustrate the principles 
of mechanics, hydrostatics, electricity, pneumatics, and 
astronomy. This Philosophical Society also possessed a 
well-selected, though not a large library, consisting 
principally of works on scientific subjects; and they 
permitted the reading of their books by others, uncon- 
nected with them, upon payment of a small subscrip- 
tion. Some of its members likewise occasionally gave 
lectures on the above subjects to the young men and 
others connected with the manufactories in the town ; 
thus gratuitously communicating scientific information, 
and probably creating a taste for it in a larger circle. 
Hence the disposition to such pursuits was widely 
spreading in the town; for the various individuals 
belonged to different manufactories, and they were 
equally ardent and active in promoting the success of 
such schemes. 

" As those who originated the plan of giving farther 
instruction to the boys when they had been taught to 
read in the Sunday Schools had witnessed the machina- 
tions which had heretofore been employed to check the 
current of intellectual improvement in the town, they 
deemed it discreet to provide the means of accomplish- 
ing their purposes from their own resources, and thus 
to prevent any improper interference to thwart their 
views of being useful. They first engaged a large 
and commodious public room for the business of their 
school ; but, as its occupation was chiefly on a Sunday, 
in order to iucrease their pecuniary meaus, the idea was 
suggested of applying the use of their room to the pur- 
poses of a debating society, in which some useful and 
interesting question should be discussed once a week, 
and strangers admitted at sixpence each. This point 
was also attained : some of the first questions were on 
subjects connected with education; and as the discus- 
sions attracted great attention, they not only increased 
the spirit of liberal inquiry in the town, but also pro- 
duced an earnest desire of information in many of those 
who attended them." 

These enlightened and benevolent efforts were pro- 
ceeding when the riots of 1791 occurred. These 
melancholy scenes (it is justly remarked) proved the 
importance of increasing the exertions to instruct and 
enlighten the labouring classes; but such was the acri- 
monious spirit which they occasioned that the Sunday 
Society was compelled to suspend its useful labours for 
a period of several months, and it was not until 1792 
that the members resumed their plans. In 1796 a new 
society, entitled the " Brotherly Society," was formed, 
to which, with the aid of additional labourers, they 
devoted their earnest exertions. The following rule 

explains the object of this association, and shows how 
nearly it approximated to the Mechanics' Institutions of 
the present day:— u 'The subjects fbr improvement 
shall be Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Drawing* Geo- 
graphy, Natural and Civil History, and Morals ; or, in 
short, whatever may be generally useful to a Msnu-> 
facturer, or as fitrnishihg principles fbr active benevo- 
lence and integrity.' — Mr. James Luckcock, who was 
one of the first to engage irt the project, delivered a 
series of Moral Lectures to this society, which he after- 
wards published Under the title of • Moral Culture/ " 
In 1794 and 1795 courses of lectures were delivered by 
another individual oh the * Philosophy of the Human 
Mind as connected with Education;' the * Theory of 
Morals ;' and also on * General History.' The ad- 
mission to these lectures was gratuitous. In 1797 a 
library was established for the peculiar use of the work- 
ing-classes by Messrs. T. and S. Carpenter, and the 
former individual occasionally gave lectures gratuitously 
on some useful subject to young artisans. The present 
Mechanics' Institute is not so well supported as such an 
institution deserves to be. 

Birmingham has long enjoyed the advantage of a 
public library. The first was established in 1779, and 
its rules were greatly improved by Dr. Priestley. The 
spirit in which it was unhappily conducted occasioned 
another library to be established in 1796, and a hand- 
some building has been erected for its reception. Both 
libraries are now liberally supported. 

The beneficial influence of the many useful institutions 
for which Birmingham is distinguished, cannot fail to 
have struck persons who are even personallyuuacquainted 
with the town. Within the last five years it has fre- 
quently been the scene of immense public meetings, 
but the individuals present have assembled and sepa- 
rated with as much quietness as if they had been at- 
tending a lecture on the steam-engine. Such a multi- 
tude of persons could not have been gathered together 
forty years ago without occasioning popular tumiilts, es- 
pecially when political feeling had called and united them 
together. The working classes of Birmingham may, 
therefore, be most favourably contrasted with those of 
the last generation. Mr. Matthews says that " previous 
to the wide diffusion of knowledge among the working 
classes in the town and its vicinity, whenever trade was 
so bad as to occasion a deficiency of employment, or 
provisions were at a high price, bakers, millers, butchers, 
farmers and others became the objects of their hatred 
and vengeance, and often suffered considerably from 
the depredations committed upon them, by the injury 
or destruction of their property. Happily, however, 
the influence of education has obviated these very 
serious evils ; and such violations of justice and law as 
indiscriminate plunder and riotous assemblages, do not 
now occur to disgrace the population. Though endued 
with feeling, they have learned to reason, and conse- 
quently their actions are consonant with their improved 

Placed in circumstances in which their interests are 
deeply involved in several important political questions, 
the increase of political knowledge among them is to 
he desired rather than repressed ; and it is gratifying 
to know that one of the consequences of their increased 
intelligence in this respect has been to render them 
more peaceable and orderly members of society. In 
the different branches of the Birmingham trade the 
proportions per cent, which materials bear to wages is 
so great as to be in some cases almost resolvable into 
the latter proportion. The theory of wages, of free 
trade, &c, are therefore familiar subjects of discussion 
among the most intelligent workmen of Birmingham ; 
and it is highly desirable that they should have the 
benefit of all the light which the best information is 
enabled to throw on such subjects. 

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[February 20, 1836. 

Birmingham still exists under the simple form of 
local government which it possessed when an obscure 
and unimportant place. The public authority is vested 
in a constable and a head borough, assisted by other offi- 
cers, whose duty it is to inspect weights and measures, 
and ascertain that articles of food are not brought to 
market in an unfit state. The bailiffs have gradually 
assumed a degree of consequence to which, under the 
lords of the manor, they were not originally entitled. 
The town, it is probable, will possess a better organized 
municipal system at no great distance of time. 

A company for supplying the town with water was 
incorporated in 1826. The supply is chiefly drawn 
from the Thome. : The waterworks are on the right 
side of the Litchfield road, about two miles from the 
town. There are two reservoirs on a level with the top 
of the Town Hall, so that every house can be thoroughly 
supplied, even in the attics; and there are fire-plugs 
in all the streets, as iu the metropolis. The town has 
also the advantage of possessing two gas companies. 

There is a debtors' gaol at Birmingham. The costs 
of the court in which cases are heard is limited for 
debts not exceeding 40*., to 4#. 2(f., and for debts ex- 
ceeding 40*. and nut exceeding 5/., to 7s. Sd. The 
number of persons confined in the years 1830-1-2-3 
and 1834 was as follows :— 492, 548, 534, 495, 449. 

The estimates of the annual value of real property, as 
assessed, to the property tax in 1815 were— for Birming- 
ham, 247,088/.; Aston, 53,142/.; Edgbaston, 11,724/. 
The aggregate of the rental of Birmingham and its 
suburbs is about 500,000/., which makes a freehold of 
10,000,000/. at twenty years' purchase. The poors' rate 
for the year ending March, 1834, paid by each of the 
above parishes, was as follows : — Birmingham, 49,713/. ; 
Aston, 8,621/.; Edgbaston, 1,178/. In 1676 the poors' 
rate for the parish of Birmingham amounted to 338/. ; 
in 1745 to 746/. From the improvements, which the 
amended system of parochial relief has produced in 
other places, it is very probable that this heavy local 
burthen will also be diminished at Birmingham. 

The amount of assessed taxes paid within the parts 
which now constitute the parliamentary borough was 
in 1828, 26,929/.; 1829, 27,804/. ; 1830, 28,350/. The 
amount of postage collected in Birmingham during the 
years 1832, 1833, and 1834 was respectively— 28,685/., 
28,812/., 29,258. 

By the Reform Bill Birmingham was invested with 
the right of sending two Members to Parliament. The 
limits of the borough comprise the parishes of Birming- 
ham and Edgbaston, and the townships of Bordesley, 
Deritend, and Duddeston with Nechels. The number 
of houses worth 10/. a year within this limit was, in 
1831, about 7000, and the total number of houses 

Birmingham has two roads communicating with 
the metropolis; one passing through Banbury and 
Warwick, the distance by which is 119 miles ; and the 
other is the great road from London to Holyhead, 
which is nine miles shorter. The mail reaches Bir- 
mingham in eleven hours and eight minutes after 
leaving the General Post Office. The distance from 
London to Birmingham in a direct line is 102 miles. 
Birmingham is in the very centre of the canal system, 
to which indeed it has been indebted for a great 
measure of its prosperity. One canal communicates 
with the Severn, another with the Trent and Mersey, a 
third line with the Thames ; so that the products of its 
industry can be conveyed in an economical manner to 
the ports of London, Liverpool, Bristol, and Hull. 
The railway, which is now in progress, will still further 
accelerate the activity of Birmingham, and afford in- 
creased facilities for intercourse with it. The line 
passes through Watford and Rugby. At the former 
place the cuttings are very deep, and the embankments 

high, and a funnel is at present cutting which will oc- 
cupy considerable time. Liverpool is only seventy- 
nine miles distant from Birmingham, and it is there- 
fore highly probable that the railway will be at some 
period extended to that place. 

It will be out of place to notice in this article all the 
important advantages which cannot fail to be derived 
from the application of steam to the rapid transport 
of merchandize and passengers on railroads. When 
private carriages were becoming general in this country 
an Act was passed for restricting their use, on the 
ground that the horses would consume the food of the 
poor. We have lived, however, to see the fallacy of 
this notion; and, within the last few years (between 
1828 and 1835), wheat, the food of man, has fallen 36 
per cent., while oats, the food of horses, have only 
fallen 2 J per cent., the effect being exactly the reverse 
of the anticipations of a former period. Assorting that 
the general effects of railways will be to lessen the num- 
ber of draught horses at present required, and that 
there will not be a corresponding increase in the number 
of those used for pleasure, the result will most probably 
not be far different from the anticipations of Mr. Alex- 
ander Gordon, who in his work on ' Elemental Loco- 
motion' says, — " If instead of 20,000 horses, we keep 
30,000 fat oxen, butchers' meat will be always cheap to 
the operative classes, whilst the quantity of tallow will 
of course make candles cheap ; and so many hides lower 
the price of leather and of shoes, and all other articles 
made of leather. Or the same quantity of land may 
then keep 30,000 cows, the milk of which will make 
both butter and cheese cheaper to the poor, as well as 
the labouring manufacturer; all which articles are very 
considerable, and of material moment in the prices of 
our manufacturers, as they, in a great measure, work 
their trade to rise and fail in price, according to the 
cheapness of their materials and the necessaries of life. 
The same may be said in favour of more sheep and 
woollen cloths.*' In a few years, however, experience 
will more effectually enlighten us on these subjects than 
the most plausible conjectures. 

In 1783 Hutton estimated that there were at that time 
in Birmingham 209 persons worth 2,500,000/., viz. : — 

3 persons, each possessing £100,000 

7 „ „ 50,000 

8 „ n 30,000 
17 „ „ 20,000 
80 „ „" 10,000 
94 „ „' 5,000 

In 1828 Mr. James Luckcock made a calculation of the 
wealth of the town, which he estimated at 10,000,000/. 
viz. : — 

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%• The Office of the Society for the Diffnsion of Useful Knowledge is at 
59, Lincoln* Inn Fields. 


Printed by William Ci-owes and Soxs* Stamford Street. 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[March 5, 1836. 


[Interior of Tutbury Castle-Yard.] 

The Dove, which from its rise on the southern side of 
Ax-edge, within a few miles of Buxton, to its confluence 
with the Trent, in the neighbourhood of Burton, forms 
the natural boundary of the counties of Derby and 
Stafford, runs through the romantic Dovedale, and 
visits in its course a variety of picturesque scenery, 
noble mansions, and antique remains. A description 
of Dovedale has been given in the 126th No. of the 
1 Penny Magazine. 1 

Tutbury is seated on the south or Staffordshire 
*ide of the Dove, and is a very clean pretty place, 
mostly inhabited by farmers and husbandmen, and by 
such handicraftsmen as are usually to be found in 
every town and village. It possesses no place of manu- 
facture, except a cotton-mill, but this gives employ- 
ment to the young of both sexes in the surrounding 
neighbourhood. Seated at the extremity of a high 
tract of ground, known as Needwood Forest, it is well 
sheltered from the eastern winds, while in the opposite 
direction it overlooks a rich valley, interspersed with 
woods, villages, and mansions, bounded by the tower- 
ing hills of Derbyshire. 

Tutbury lies about eleven miles south-west of Derby, 
and about a mile south of the road to Uttoxeter and 
the potteries. The castle forms a prominent object to 
the left in many parts of the road from Derby, but 
the most picturesque view is obtained of it from a 
point near the river. The ruins appear towering over 
the wood-covered hill, and the church is seen on a 

Vol. V. 

bare slope a little distance below, while some tall frag- 
ments to the right appear like broken pyramids in the 
elevated horizon. It forms altogether from this point 
one of those pictures on which the eye of taste delights 
to dwell. 

The castle, or rather its ruin, is situated to the 
south-west of the town. Built on the summit of a 
high natural mount, with a deep and rapid river 
in front, it must once have been a very grand and 
imposing object. The castle-yard now forms the home- 
stead of a farm, and part of the buildings on the 
southern side, with the addition of a semi-octagonal 
tower-like entrance, is fitted up as the residence of the 
farmer ; all the other parts are but fragments of walls. 
The engraving represents the interior of the castle- 

It is difficult to determine when Tutbury Castle was 
first erected. From its forming one of the chain of forts 
on the Mercian frontier, it was probably in existence 
during the Heptarchy, and is conjectured to have been 
the palace of OflFa, of Kenulph, and of Ethelred ; the 
last of whom came to the throne in 674, and imme- 
diately on his accession " granted to his niece, the 
pious Werburga, the neighbouring village of Hanbury, 
where she erected a nunnery, in which she was after- 
wards buried. 1 ' *' After a peaceful interval of 200 
years from the accession of Ethelred/' says Sir Oswald 
Mosley, " the town and castle of Tutbury, together 
with the monastery at Hanbury, were overwhelmed 

Digitized by QOOgle 



[March 5, 

\n one common destruction by that formidable irruption 
of the Danes, who drove the last of the Mercian sove- 
reigns from his throne." 

44 From this fatal period," Sir Oswald continues, 
" the castle remained a, r,uiu t until after tlje Norman 
conquest, and the ferocious Danes continued to exercise 
their tyrannical sway in its vicinity for more than forty 
years, when the Saxons, assisted by the brave Etbelfleda, 
daughter of Alfred the Great, succeeded in expelling 
them from this part of the kingdom : their triumph, 
however, was but transitory ; the Danes returned, and 
a second time became masters of the country, until at 
length (a.d. 1012) the Saxon inhabitants, goaded by 
oppression, and driven to despair, eagerly embraced 
King Ethelred's plan of extirpating the whole race by 
one general massacre, and the opening scene of this 
bloody tragedy is actually fixed by an ancient historian 
at Houndhill, about five miles distant from Tutbury." 

In Domesday we find the castle of Tutbury, with 
146 lordships in the surrounding counties, besides 
many others in various parts of the kingdom, was held 
by Henry de Ferrers, a particular favourite of William I. 
He raised the castle from its' i;ums, built it upon a 
more capacious and splendid plan, and made it for a 
time his principal residence ; he rebuilt the citadel .or 
keep, ** excavated the fosse, and enclosed the whole 
of the present area within the walls of his castle," 
and founded in its immediate vicinity " a priory which 
he and his wife Bertha rich,ly endowed." 

The castle of Tutbury continued to be the residence 
of the family of Ferrers., tiR the latter end of the reign 
of Henry III., when in cppseqtieuce pf the repeated 
acts of rebellion of Robert de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, 
it was nearly destroyed ky *He king's army ; and the 
lordship or honour, after repeated acts of clemency 
on the part of the king, was finally forfeited, and 
became by royal grant the property of Edmund Plan- 
tagenet, Earl of Lancaster, second son of the king. 

The castle seems not to have met with much repara- 
tion from the hands of Earl Edmund, but his suc- 
cessor Thomas, the second Earl of Lancaster, not only 
repaired the ravages it had sustained while in the hands 
of the Earl of Derby, but gave to it a grandeur and 
magnificence which it had not previously possessed. 
He made it his principal residence, and, from the more 
than princely style in which he lived, became a bene- 
factor to the surrounding country, giving a stimulus 
to the industry of his tenantry, and finding a mart for 
all their productions ; his housekeeping in one year 
(1313) amounting to the amazing sum of 22,000/. of 
our present money, and this too at a time when pro- 
visions of all kinds were remarkably cheap. An ac- 
count of the fate of Earl Thomas will be found in No. 
166 of the * Penny Magazine/ with some particulars 
respecting the finding of the Tutbury coius in the bed 
of the Dove in 1831. 

By the attainder of the Earl of Lancaster the castle 
became the property of the crown, and was granted in 
succession to different persons, none of whom appear 
to have taken any interest in its restoration. It be- 
came at last vested in the celebrated John of Gaunt, 
the second Duke of Lancaster, by whom it was again 
restored to its former strength and beauty. On his 
return to England after his marriage with the Lady 
Constance, Queen of Castile and Leon, he gave his 
duchess the choice of his various castles for her abode, 
and she, without hesitation, fixed on Tutbury, which 
the duke immediately fitted up for her as a royal palace. 
It became her residence; and, as is well observed, 
" this was by far the most prosperous period in the 
annals of Tutbury : the splendour of the queen's court, 
— the number of strangers who daily resorted there, — 
and, above all, the magnificent liberality of John of 
Gaunt, rendered this place somewhat similar to a 

modern, Windsor. The, town of Tutbury wqs enlarged 
far beyond its ancient dimensions ; : — tie agriculturist 
found here a ready market for his produce, and the 
merchant for his goods; — everything contributed to 
enrich the ijijiabjj^t^ antf to increase, the value of 
property in the vicinity." 

On the accession of Henry of Bolingbr oke to the 
crown, Tutbury, an<£ the other parts of the duchy of 
Lancaster, which had descended to him as duke of 
Lancaster, became the property of the kings of Eng 5 - 
land. Its popularity passed away; — other events 
fixed its proprietors in other parts of the kingdom, and 
few among them ever condescended to rest a night in 
this once-favoured castle. Henry VII., indeed, whose 
reign was comparatively peaceful, sometimes brought 
his court hither to enjoy the amusement of hunting in 
the adjacent Forest of Needwood, and of one of his 
excursions we find the following anecdote : — 

" One day, during the ardour of the chase, he was 
separated froin all his companions ; and having in vain 
sought to join them again through the thick masses of 
wood with which t,he forest abounded, he determined at 
length to extricate himself from his difficulties by pro- 
ceeding to the nearest village* and inquiring his way 
from thence to Tutbury. It so happened that, for this 
purpose, he stopped at the house of a poor man named 
Taylor, in the village of Bartou-under-Needwood, whose 
wife "had, not long before, presented him with three 
sons at a birth. The lather volunteered his services to 
conduct the king (who did not disclose his rank) to 
the place of his inquiry ; and while he was making 
himself ready for t,hat purpose, the mother introduced 
the three little babes to the stronger at the cottage- 
door. The king was much pleased with the adventure; 
and, in reward for the poor man's services, undertook 
to pay for the education of the thr^e children, if they 
should live long enough to be put to school. Taylor 
expressed his grate Ail thanks, and (he king did not 
forget his promise. When the three children attained 
man's estate, they fcad made such good use of the 
learning thus afforded them, that they all became 
doctors in divinity, and obtained good preferment. 
John Taylor, the eldest of them, became Archdeacon 
of Derby, Rector of Sutton Coldfield, and Clerk of the 
Parliament that sat in the seventh year of the reign of 
Heiry YIU. He was made Master of the Rolls in 
1528, and died in 1534 ; but not before he had proved 
his gratitude to the Almighty Disposer of Events for 
the singular mercies extended to himself and his brothers 
by erecting the present church of Barton, near the site 
of the cottage in which they first saw the light." 

Tutbury Castle seems not to have been noticed 
during subsequent reigns; in that of Elizabeth it ac- 
quired notoriety as being, at two different periods, the 
prison of the fair but unfortunate Queen of Scotland. 
She was brought hither, under the custody of the Earl 
of Shrewsbury, in January, 1569. She left 'tutbury 
for Wingfield Manor in the spring, under the, guardian- 
ship of the same earl, whence she was removed to 
Coventry in November. In about two months she was 
brought back to Tutbury ; soon afterwards she went to 
Wingfield, and in the course of the summer to Chats- 
worth. Duriug the next fourteen years '• she resided 
principally at Sheffield, occasionally visiting Chatsworth 
and Buxton. In the months of Octof>er # November, 
and Depember, 1564, she was again at Wingfield, 
having been placed there uuder the care of Sir Ralph 
Sadler, and on the 14th of January following was 
brought back through Derby to Tutbury Castle. 

Sir Ralph Sadler in his papers gives a very accurate 
description of the state of Tutbury Castle during the 
last imprisonment of the unfortunate Mary. ** The 
whole area, containing about three acres, was encom- 
passed on all sides but one with a strong and lofty 

Digitized by 





embattled wall and deep fosse, as the present ruins 
plainly show. The principal entrance was by a bridge 
under the great gateway to the north ; at a small 
distance to the left of this gateway stood a building 
containing Mr. Dorcll's (the superintcndant) office 
and bedchamber, and four other rooms. Along this 
north-east wall, about 160 feet from the entrance, was 
a lofty tower embattled, containing four rooms, viz., 
a store-house at the bottom, above Curie's apartment, 
over which was the Doctor's, and at the top the chief 
cook's. This tower was then much shaken and cleft, 
but it still forms a prominent feature among the castle 
ruins. At a little distance from this began the prin- 
cipal suite of the queen's apartments, which did not 
overlook the walls, but formed a long line of low 
buildings, on the eastern side of the area ; they con- 
tained the queen's dining-chamber and closets adjoin- 
ing, her bed-chamber, cabinet, place for wood and 
coals, and her gentlewomen's apartments. ,, The site 
of the present farmer's house were store-rooms, kitchen, 
scullery, &c. ; and where the modern erected round 
tower now stands upon the mount was the Keep, 
called Julius's Tower, even at that time in a state of 
ruin, The dungeons or vaults under the greater part 
of the building were used as store-rooms for provisions 
and go* •'**. 

Sir Oswald Mosley remarks, u After the departure 
of Mary Queen of Scots, no incident occurred at 
Tutbury during the remainder of Elizabeths reign 
which is worthy of notice. Her son, King James I., 
visited more than once this place of her captivity ; in 
all probability his feelings were not much affected when 
he surveyed the late abode of his unfortunate mother, 
for extreme sensibility was not one of his foibles. His 
purpose in coming here was not to indulge melan- 
choly reflections, but to gratify an occasional delight 
which he took in the diversion of hunting ; the scenery 
of Needwood particularly attracted his notice, and a 
favourite eminence, on which he sometimes rested 
during the chase, was denominated from him * The 
Kings Standing.' He was at Tutbury Castle from 
the 16th to the 20th of August, 1619; again on the 
19th of August, 1621 ; and from the 16th to the 19th 
of the same month, fn 1624." 

In August, 1636, Tutbury was visited by King 
Charles I., and in 1634 he is stated to have spent a 
fortnight here. This was before the commencement of 
his troubles ; but when he had decided on an appeal 
to the sword, he sent a mandate to the high sheriff of 
Staffordshire, commanding him to raise forces, both 
horse and foot, at the expense of the county, and to 
place them n.« a garrison in the castle of Tutbury ; 
this was in November, 1642. On the 24th of May, 
1645, the King himself, accompanied by Prince Rupert 
and a large army, took up his abode at Tutbury, and 
the troops were quartered in the surrounding villages. 
This was on Whitsunday, and on the following Tuesday 
the king marched off for Ashby-de-la-Zouch and 
Leicester. The battle of Naseby, which decided the 
affairs of the king, took place on the 14th of June ; 
and on the 12th of August, 1645, the unfortunate 
monarch, attended by about 100 foot soldiers, visited 
Tutbury for the last time. 

" The castle of Tutbury was one of the last places 
within the county of Stafford that held out for the 
king; the natural strength of its situation and the 
well-known bravery of its garrison rendered it almost 
impregnable. Repeated attempts had been made by 
the Parliament forces to take it." 

It was surrendered to Sir William B re re ton on the 
20th of April, 1646, on terms more honourable than 
are generally granted. Ah order of Parliament for 
the total demolition of the castle soon followed, and 
this majestic pile was once more reduced to ruin. 


(Abridged from Turner's History of the Anglo- Sax ant?) 

In the present state and under the fortunate constitu- 
tion of the British islands, our tradesmen and manufac- 
turers are an order of men who contribute essentially to 
uphold our national rank and character, and form a 
class of actual personal distinction superior to what the 
same order has in any age or country possessed, except 
in the middle ages of Italy. They are not only the 
fountains of that commerce which rewards us with the 
wealth of the world, but they are perpetually supplying 
the other classes and professions of society with new 
means of improvement and comfort ; and with those 
new accessions of persons and property which keep the 
great machine of our political greatness in constant 
strength and activity. 

Our earlier ancestors had neither learnt (he utility of 
dividing labour nor acquired the faculty of varying its 
productions. They had neither invention, taste, enter- 
prise, respectability, influence, or wealth. The trades- 
men of the Anglo-Saxons were, for the most part, men 
in a servile state. The clergy, the rich, and the great, 
had domestic servants, who were qualified to supply 
theni with those articles of trade and manufacture 
which were in common use. Hence, in monasteries, 
we find smiths, carpenters, millers, illuminators, archi- 
tects, agriculturists, fishermen. Thus a monk is de- 
scribed as well skilled in smith-craft. Thus Wynfleda, 
in her will, mentions the servants she employed in 
weaving and sewing; and there are many grants of 
land remaining, in which men of landed property re- 
warded their servants who excelled in different trades. 
In one grant, the brother of Godwin gives to a mo- 
nastery a manor, with its appendages; that is, his 
overseer and all his chattels, his smith, carpenter, fisher- 
man, miller ; all these servants, and all their goods and 

The Anglo-Saxon artificers ana' manufacturers were 
for some ,time no more than what real necessity put in 
action. Their productions were few, inartificial, and 
unvaried. They lived and died poor, unhonoured, and 
unimproved. But, by degrees, the manumission of 
slaves increased the numbers of the independent part 
of the lower orders. Some of the emancipated became 
agricultural labourers, and took land of the clergy and 
the great, paying them an annual gafol, or rent ; but 
many went to the burgs and towns, and as the king 
was the lord of the free, they resided in these under his 
protection, and became free burghers or burgesses. In 
these burgs and towns they appear to have occupied 
houses, paying him rent, or other occasional compensa- 
tions, and sometimes performing services for him. 

By slow degrees the increasing numbers of society, 
or their augmented activity, produced a surplus pro- 
perty beyond the daily consumption, which acquired a 
permanent state in the country in some form or other, 
and then constituted its wealth. Every house began to 
have some article of lasting furniture or convenience 
which it had not before ; as well as every tradesman 
goods laid in store, and every farmer corn, or cattle, or 
implements of tillage more numerous than he once 
possessed. When this stage of surplus produce occurs, 
property begins to multiply; the bonds of stern ne- 
cessity relax ; civilization emerges ; leisure increases, 
and a great number share it. Other employments than 
those of subsistence are sought for. Amusement begins 
to be a study, and a class of society to provide it 
becomes desired. The grosser gratifications then verge 
towards the refinements of future luxury. Thfc mind 
awakens from the lethargy of sense, and a new spirit, 
and hew objects pf industry, invention, and pursuit, 
gradually arise in the advancing population. All these 
successions of improvement become slowly visible to 

Digitized byV^OOQlC 



[March 5, 

^'ariti^ariafl'ob^rvtfp as h^ approaches the latter 
peribriV of the Anglo-Saxon dynasty. But they were 
ribl the acrtomparilthents of its first state; or, if they at 
all existeoY they were confined to the court, the castle, 
arid the 'monastery ; arid Were not indeed to be found 
among the inferior theghs or the poorer cloisters. Some 
df these had so littte property that they could not afford 
to allow meat, and others not wheaten bread, as an 
article' of : their food. In such miserable abodes the 
comforts of surplus property could not be obtained; 
and where these are not general, the nation is poor. 
This epithet was long applicable to the Anglo-Saxon 

Both war and agriculture want the smith. Hence 
one of the most important trades of the Anglo-Saxons 
was the smith, who is very frequently mentioned. The 
smiths who worked in iron were called isernsmithas. 
They had also the goldsmith, the seolfersmith (silver- 
smith), and the arsmith or coppersmith. Smiths are 
frequently mentioned in Domesday. In the city of 
Hereford there were six smiths, who paid each Id. 
for his forge, and who made 120 pieces of iron from 
the king's ore. To each of them 3d. was paid as a 
custom, and they were freed from all other services. 

The treow-wyrhta, literally tree or wood workman, 
or, in modern phrase, the carpenter, was an occupation 
as important as the smith's. 

The sceowyrhta, or shoemaker, seems to have been a 
comprehensive trade, and to have united some that are 
now very distinct businesses. He says, in an ancient 
Anglo-Saxon dialogue, " My craft is very useful and 
necessary to you. I buy hides and skins, and prepare 
them by my art, and make of them shoes of various 
kinds ; and none of you can winter without my craft.'' 
He subjoins a list of the articles which he fabricates, 
viz. — " Ankle leathers, shoes, leather hose, bottles, 
bridle thongs, trappings, flasks, boiling vessels, leather 
neck-pieces, halters, wallets, and pouches." 

The salter, baker, cook, and fisherman were common 
occupations among the Anglo-Saxons. 

Besides the persons who made those trades their 
business, some of the clergy, as we advance to the age 
preceding the Norman Conquest, appear to us as 
labouring to excel in the mechanical arts. Thus Dun- 
stan, besides being competent to draw and paint the 
patterns for a ladv's robe, was also a smith, and worked 
on all th mrs of his in- 

dustry, \ the church at 

Abingdor bishop, made 

two othei \ smaller size ; 

and a wh t, to be turned 

round foi \ also displayed 

much art wi tne laDncation or a large silver table of 
curious workmanship. Stigand, the bishop of Win- 
chester, made two images and a crucifix, and giH and 
placed them in the cathedral of his diocese. One of 
our kings made a monk who was a skilful goldsmith 
an abbot. It was even exacted by law that the clergy 
should pursue these occupations; for Edgar says, 
" We command that every priest, to increase know- 
ledge, diligently learn some handicraft." It was at 
this period that it began to be felt that skill could add 
value to the material on which it operated ; and as the 
increasing wealth of society enabled some to pay for its 
additional cost, a taste for ornament as well as massy 
value now emerged. 

The art of glass-making was unknown in England 
in the seventh century, when Benedict, the abbot of 
Weremouth, procured men from France, who not only 
glazed the windows of his church and monastery, but 
taught the Anglo-Saxons the art of making' glass for 
windows, lamps, drinking-vessels, and for other uses. 

The fortunate connexion which .Christianity esta- 
blished between the clergy of Europe favoured the 

advancement of all the mechanical arts. We read 
perpetually of presents of the productions of human 
labour and skill passing from the more civilized 
countries to those more rude. We read of a churca 
having a patine made with Greek workmanship ; and 
also of a bishop in England who was a Greek by 
birth. ,, ,, 

They had the arts of weaving, embroidering, and 
dyeing. Edward the Elder had his daughters Caught 
to exercise their needle and their distaff. Indeed the 
Anglo-Saxon ladies were so much accustomed to 
spinning, that just as we in legal phrase, and by a 
reference to former habits now obsolete, term unmarried 
ladies spinsters, so Alfred in his will, with true appli- 
cation, called the female part of his family the spindle 
side. The Norman historian remarks of our ancient 
countrywomen that they excelled with the needle and 
in gold embroidery. Aid helm's robe is described to 
have been made of a most delicate thread, of a purple 
ground, and that within black circles the figures of 
peacocks were worked among them of ample size. 

Bede' alludes to their jewellers and goldsmiths. 
From the custom of the kings making presents of rich 
garments, vases, bracelets, and rings to their witena- 
gemot and courtiers, and of great lords doing the same 
to their knights, the trades for making these must have 
had much employment. One of their trades seems to 
have been the tavern, or the public-house ; for a priest 
is forbidden to drink at the " wine tuns." An ale- 
house and ale-shop are also mentioned in the laws. 


I gel is a small village in Prussia, situated on the road 
from the ancient city of Treves to Luxemburg. There 
is nothing in the village worthy of particular notice; 
but the ancient Roman monument represented in the 
engraving has attracted attention to the place, and 
given rise to considerable speculation among anti- 
quaries. The whole surrounding country is full of 
Roman remains. Treves itself, in the days of the 
Roman empire, was a place of great splendour ; — its 
monuments and ruins attest the importance and 
magnitude of the town, which has been noticed in 
No. 173. The Emperor Augustus conferred on it 
the title of capital of Second Belgian Gaul ; and Am- 
mtanus Marcellinus, says Malte Brun, " wishing to de- 
scribe its extent, population, and edifices, calls it the 
Second Rome. The ruins of a Roman way between 
Treves and Reims are observed at some distance on 
the road wbich leads to Luxemburg. But perhaps the 
most curious monument which the Romans have left 
in all the country of the Gauls is the one at the village 
of Igel, in the same direction and on the Same road. 
Antiquaries have examined it in vain, and the purpose 
for which it was erected is still doubtful. It is a sort 
of quadrangular tower, terminated in the form of a 
pyramid, and surmounted by a terrestrial globe, on 
which an eagle rests. Ausonius says that, like the 
pharos of Memphis, it rises above every other building. 
If it be the tower that he alludes to, some allowance 
must be made for poetical license. Its height, it is 
certain, is less than seventy feet, and its Breadth not 
greater than fifteen. It is stated in a letter, published 
in 1S24, and addressed to Vauquelin, the celebrated 
chemist, that the monument is crowned by a genius, 
with extended wings, kneeling on a globe. The author 
of the letter is probably mistaken ; or, if his statement 
be correct, it proves the ignorance of the German 
architect who was appointed by government to repair 
the tower. We examined it carefully before it was re- 
paired, and could easily distinguish an eagle in the 
same position as on several medals. It is well known 
that the head of the eagle was destroyed by a cannon- 
Digitized by VjOOQlC 




halt in 1675, during' the •engagement in which the 
Marshal of Crequi was defeated on the plain of Treves. 
"As to the purpose for winch it was erected, it 
appears to us to have been a monument raised to 
the memory of the dead. It cannot be denied that a 
learned German is of a different opinion : he supposes 
that it was intended to record either the birth of Ca- 
ligula or the marriage of Constantins Chlorus with the 
Empress Helen. It is not improbable that an orna- 

ment on one of the baa* reliefs — the figure of a man 
offering his hand to a woman — has originally led to 
this supposition. But it may be mentioned that the 
same opinion has been formerly maintained and re- 
futed. The dances and games of the different genii 
with which the tower is decorated, as well as a figure 
of the shepherd Paris, are not incompatible with the 
design of a funeral monument. A mutilated inscrip- 
tion, which has been explained and restored by anti- 

• / '-• i 

Digitized by 




[March 5, 

quaries, leads us to couclude that the tower was built 
by two members of the Secundini family, In memory 
of Secundums Securus, a wealthy merchant, the founder 
of Igel, during the latter part of the fourth century*." 

The following is a short account of this very curious 
Roman monument from Goethe's Travels : — 

" At Igel, on the road between Treves and Luxem- 
burgh, I was struck by a Roman monument ; being- 
aware how happy the Romans were in the choice of 
the sites of their monuments and buildings, in fancy 
I got rid of the surrounding hovels which encumbered 
it, and then the position was fully fitting to the object. 
The broad stream of the Moselle, which is joined by 
the waters of the Sarr, wanders close by, and the 
pleasing undulation of the ground, and the luxuriant 
vegetation of the soil, all tend to give importance and 
dignity to the building, which may be termed an archi- 
tectural sculptured obelisk. It rises in different stories, 
arranged in an artist-like manner, one above the other, 
ending in a kind of pinnacle, ornamented with scales, 
like tiles, surmounted by a ball, with an eagle and a 
serpent rising in the air. I trust some of the engineers 
whom the present war has brought to this country may 
be induced to make an accurate measurement of it, and 
make drawings of the figures which are still to be dis- 
tinguished on its four sides. How many dull and 
shapeless obelisks have I seen erected in my time, no 
one ever thinking of referring to this as a model. It 
must be admitted that it is not of the best time, the 
style showing it to be of the lower age. In the subjects 
of the ornaments, one recognizes that desire which the 
Romans always had of handing down to posterity per- 
sonal representations, and all the circumstantial details 
and demonstrations of activity and real life. Here are 
parents and children opposite to each other, people are 
eating in a family circle, and in order that the spectator 
may know whence comes the good cheer, loaded sumpter 
horses are seen approaching. Traffic and commerce 
are represented in various ways, for it seems that those 
by whom the monument was erected were commissaries 
of the army, thus fully testifying that then, as now, 
such gentry acquired sufficient riches by their calling. 

" The whole obelisk is built of massive blocks of 
sandstone, and then, as from the face of a rock, were 
hewn out the ornaments ; and it is to the adoption of 
this mode that the duration of this monument and its 
sculpture, through so many centiries, is to be ascribed." 


People generally imagine, when they hear the quality 
of oats mentioned, that their qnly desirabfe properties 
consist in their brightness of colour, purity of scent, 
and freedom from all appearance of having been damp 
or heated ; but they rarely advert to the fact, that, when 
these objects have been attained, their main value yet 
rests in their weight ; and a material difference Yrray be 
found in samples which, to the hand ari'd eye of one 
who is not a good judge of the article, may appear to 
be of nearly the same sort, though the bushel of the 
one kind may be several pounds lighter than the other. 
The following table will show the quantity of meal 
which, in ordinary seasons, is usually extracted from 
certain weights of that grain, and on which the nourish- 
ment to be obtained from it depends: — 

WVight per bu»hel areirdupois. 
<H lbs. produce in ineal 25 lbs. 2 uz. ditto iu husk 16 lbs. 14 oz. 

40 „ 23 6 „ 16 10 

38 „ 21 12 „ 16 4 

36 „ 20 3 „ 15 13 

34 „ 18 11 „ V } 5 

32 „ 17 5 „ 14 11 

Thus it will be seen that the beast which is fed upon 

oats of the latter description (which abound iu our 

• Malte-Brun, Geography, vol. vii. p. 251 

markets) is a loser of about one-third of the nutriment 
which he would obtain if supplied with those of grwl 
quality; and if this be not looked to, he will, on a 
long journey, soon fatt off in condition ; for the price 
varies according to the weight, and Stable-keepers take 
especial care not to buy the heaviest. 

The custom of reeding by measure has thus led to 
great irregularity in the care and maintenance of horses, 
and has giveu rise to a prevalent notion that beans and 
peas are more nutritive, and consequently more heating 
than oats; though, according to an analysis made by 
Sir Humphry Davy, and inserted in his * Elements of 
Agricultural Chemistry,' it was found that 1000 parts 
contained severally the following portions of matter:— 

Whole Quantity Mucilng* Saccharine G Intra, Extrvt,*: 
Grain. o( Soluble, or and Matter, or or iaiolubU 

Nutritive Matter. Starch. Sugar. Albumen. Matter. 

Good Scotch Oats .. 743 ... 641 ... 15 ... 87 ... — 
Common Horse-beans 570 ... 426 ... — . . 103 ... 41 
Dry Grey Pea* 574 ... 501 ... 22 ... 35 ... 16 

Thus it will be seen that oats are, in fact, greatly 
superior, weight for weight, to either beans or peas; 
for the average weight of each, when of fair quality, 
may be assumed as — 

Feed Oats 40 lbs. Per BusheL. 

Horse -beam 56 „ 

Grey Peas 60 „ 

and if oats be taken at the present price of 3*. Ad. per 
bushel, or Id. per pound, the relative value of beans 
will then be As. $d., and Of peas 5j. per bushel. 

The cavalry allowance to the army is four feeds of a 
quartern of oats, weighing 40 lbs. per bushel, or 10 lbs. 
daily for each horse, together with 12 lbs. of souud 
meadow hay. Upon this the cattle are kept in ex- 
cellent working order, and nq horse of equal size and 
muscle can be maintained in good condition upon less. 
On journeys he should have an additional feed, with a 
good handful of old beans, if the work be hard; and, 
once a week, when a leisure day occurs, he should, on 
the previous night, have a bran-mash, with an ounce 
of nitre or common salt in it, instead of oats. When 
our troops were iu the Peninsula, the horses were fed, 
according to the Custom of that country, upon barley 
and straw, only £ lbs. of the former being allowed 
instead of 10 lbs. of oats, and they thrive equally well; 
the barley being considered in that proportion more 
nutritive, in consequence of the greater amount which 
it contains of Starch, and the smaller quantity of husk. 
Many postmasters have since partly adopted the same 
plan ; for disrofonve'd barley, which is unfit for malting 
may frequently be purchased as cheap afi fine oats, and 
the weight of an equal measure is usually full one- 
fourth more; indeed, under the late depressed prices 
of wheat, many inferior samples 6f that 'grain have 
been applied to the same purpose. 

An account has been published In the * Sporting' 
Magazine,' by Dr. Sully, of Wivelrseombe, in Somer- 
setshire, of the mode of feeding, by which his R? nt 
draught horses, which he constantly usei in single 
harness upon long journeys at a rapid pace, have been 
kept during a series of years in hi^ tfcaltn and perfect 
working order. The ingredients of the food are di- 
vided into four classes, containing different quantities 
of each, to be used as discretion of convenience may 
dictate, in the following proportions i~ 

1.!. 8ofr. Zri. 4rt. 

iu. $£. ibi. a- 

Bruised or Ground Beans, Peasfr, orl i * in 5 

WhiteCorn ....;. J ? ? 1U 

Hay, cut into Chaff .............. 7 L fc W B 

Straw, ditto 7 10 10 8 

Steamed Potatoes *.. 6 5 

M-ilt-diurt, or Ground Oil-cake. ..... 2 * 

Brew* re' Grains.... 6 

Bran * j 

. ,, 30 30 30 30 

And 2 oz. of Salt to each 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

IS 36.1 



The weight of each, class is. thi^ equal, and the. quan- 
tity of nutriment contained in each, is supposed to be 
the same; but he prefers the-.fir&t and second classes; 
and we are surprised that he has not adverted to the 
use of raw carrots, which are well known to have a fine 
effect upon the wind, and strikingly to improve the 
appearance of the cuat and general condition. 

The Doctor, however, properly observes that grooms 
are wasteful of hay f and* by allowing the horses an 
unlimited use. of it, tempt therp to eat too much; his 
stables are, therefore^ without racks* and the provender 
is put into the manger in small quantities during the 
day. It is indeed a most excellent plan ; for not only 
is the saving in food very considerable, but the animal 
is thus compelled to masticate it thoroughly, whereas 
young and greedy cattle are apt to devour part of their 
corn entire, and old horses lose much of the power of 
grinding it; it therefore passes through them entire, 
without affording any kind of nourish men t^ 

The order and economy of the stable are points of 
the first consideration with every man who justly esti- 
mates the condition of his horse. The word, indeed, 
has an extensive meaning in the opinion of gentlemen, 
and seems to he so generally well understood, that any 
remarks on the subject might be deemed superfluous; 
but in the management of heavy draught cattle, kepi 
more for work than si^pw, it may be assumed to mean 
a healthy, mellow, clean-skinned hide, without much 
fat ; a lively eye, and general appearance of health. 
This, however, can ortly he acquired by a sufficiency of 
wholesome food; but the quantity in which it should 
be administered, according to the strength and labour 
of the animal, and the different kinds and preparat ion 
which may be employed with advantage, merits the 
serious attention of every one who regards the expense ; 
and upon this subject we confidently refer to the copious 
details which may be found under the head of British 
Husbandry,' in the ' Farmer's Library,' now publish- 
ing under, the superintendence of the Society for the 
Diffusion, of Useful Knowledge. 


Two rival theories of light have, during nearly the two 
last centuries, divided the suffrages of philosophers. 
The corpuscular, investigated by Newton, accounts for 
many of the ordinary facts and laws, by supposing 
infinitely small material particles projected with incon- 
ceivable velocity in all directions, in straight lines, from 
luminous bodies; these are reflected back from polished 
surfaces, exactly as billiard balls are, and being attracted 
by transparent media through which they pass, are 
drawn out of their previous direction, or undergo 
refraction. Many other of the known facts are ex- 
plained in a somewhat similar way. 

Huyghens started the other theory, that of undu- 
lations. He supposed an infinitely subtile medium or 
jether to fill all space and penetrate all bodies ; luminous 
bodies excite vibrations in this aether, which spread 
and propagate themselves in waves, exactly like those 
formed by dropping a stone into still water : by this 
hypothesis he explained the phenomena of reflexion 
and refraction in a way as plausible as the other theory. 

But other phenomena have presented themselves 
calling for explanation. The singular fact of a double 
refraction existing in some crystals, the colours of the 
thin films formed by blowing soap-bubbles, the stripes 
and bands of light formed on placing opaque bodies in 
a narrow beam of sun-light ; these and other pheno- 
mena drew the attention of philosophers to the question 
of preference between the theories. But little real 
advance can be*said to have been made, till our distin- 
guished countryman, Dr. T. Young (about 1802), 
pointed out the beautiful principle, which he termed 

interference of the waves of aether : two waves propa- 
gated from opposite points may arrive at the same 
point either exactly at the same time, so as to conspire, 
and thus produce a double effect, or may follow at just 
such an interval as to oppose and clash, and thus 
mutunlly destroy each other. Upon this principle, 
which he proceeded fully to develope, he succeeded m 
explaining perfectly a vast range of phenomena, in- 
cluding all those above named. It is difficult, if not 
impossible, and certainly has never been done, to frame 
any application of the corpuscular theory which shall 
explain how two rays of light conspiring together shall 
produce, instead of a uniform double light, an alter- 
nation of dark and light spaces. But the analogy of 
the waves gives a perfect explanation. 

A vast range of new facts have been eKerted by 
modern research: the labours of Brewster, MaVus, 
Arago, Fresnel, and Airy, have brought to light an 
immense assemblage of curious optical phenomena, all 
of which the undulatory theory explains in the most 
perfect and satisfactory manner, wnilst nothing ap 
proaching to an explanation has been proposed on any 

There are, however, a ftw phenomena for which no 
theory has as yet assigned a complete explanation. The 
absorption of light in such singular varieties of pro- 
portion-, by different coloured media, the dark bands 
which are seen crossing the spaces of the prismatic 
spectrum, and several analogous facts are at present 
wholly unexplained: they have even been urged as 
objections against the theory of undulations ; they are, 
however, at present no further objections than merely 
that they are unexplained; there is nothing to show 
that they may not be explained ou these principles. 

Another most material case is that of the unequal 
refrangibility of light, as exhibited by the prism. Of this 
fundamental fact in optics, no kind of explanation Was 
afforded by the corpuscular theory, and (till lately) the 
undulatory was supposed to be absolutely at variance 
with it. M. Cauchy, however, has suggested a new * 
modification of the first principles of the theory, which 
assigns a certain relation, by virtue of which such 
effects ought to take place. The verification of this 
theory must depend upon comparison of numerical 
data. As far as this has been yet done, it establishes 
M. Cauchy's principles in a most remarkable manner ; 
but the data we at present possess are but scanty : 
researches, however, are known to be now in progress, 
which will, before long, throw some additional light on 
the subject. 


The fbllowing experiment is recommended for exhibit- 
ing, without any apparatus, by the light of a common 
candle or lamp (though only on a minute scale the 
phenomenon of the diffraction or interference of light. 

Take a small pocket lens (such as those commonly 
used for magnifying insects, &c), stretch across it, 
close to the glass, a piece of fine wire, then applying 
the eye to the other side, look through it at a distant 
candle, (the wire being vertical, or parallel to the 
length of the flame,) and the dark space, or shadow of 
the wire will be seen beautifully and distinctly marked 
by several bauds, alternately dark and bright in the 
direction of its length, whilst it will be edged on the 
outside all the way by one or more light parallel bands 
on each side. The centre band in the shadow is always 
a bright one; these bands are formed by the inter- 
ference of the two portions of light which come from 
each side of the wire and diverge into the shadow, 


If two pipes be pitched a little out of unison, and 
sounded together, they will produce not a uniform 
double harsh squnfj, but a series of regular beats or 

Digitized by 




[M aiich 6, 1535. 

alternations of sound and silence. So two streams of 
light arriving almost by the same length of route at 
the same point, will produce not a uniform double 
light, but stripes or alternations of darkness and light. 
The experiment is shown best in this way. Let 
the sun's light be admitted through a pin-hole into a 
dark room, (or what may be still better, let them be 
collected at the focus of a small lens ;) provide a piece 
of perfectly regular plate glass, and cut it into two, so 
as to ensure two pieces of precisely the same thickness ; 
lay these two pieces together on a table, and look at 
the image of the light reflected from them by a small 
magnifying lens, at a few inches' distance. By gently 
pressing one of the two pieces, it will be very easy to 
alter very slightly their inclination, and thus two 
images of the luminous point will be formed close 
together, and partly overlapping. In the part where 
they overlap, or where the light is double, will be seen 
(by the lens) a series of dark and light bands ; these 
are produced by the interference of the two reflected 
rays with each other. 


Thr fanciful term polarization, bas been applied to 
designate a particular state or condition into which 
light may be brought, the reality of which is evinced 
by the properties which actually distinguish the light 
so modified, by whatever name it may be described. 

Light may be polarized by various means, reflexion 
from the surface of a transparent medium is one of the 
simplest. At a certain angle, perfectly, but more ot 
less at all angles, the effect is produced. That it is 
produced is evinced by several experimental methods ; 
the simplest is to look at the reflected light through a 
piece of tourmaline. This is the method used in the 
Adelaide Street Gallery. When the tourmaline is held 
in one position, the light of the clouds, reflected from 
a plate of glass, is almost wholly obscured ; whilst in 
ether positions it appears of its natural brightness. 
If a piece of unannealcd glass, or a plate of mica, or a 
plate of rock crystal, or of several other crystallized 
bodies be interposed between the glass plate and the 
tourmaline, it appears tinged with vivid colours, arranged 
in various bands or rings. The explanation of these 
colours is Satisfactory and complete on the modulatory 
theory of light ; but no other explanation has ever been 
imagined by the supporters of any other theory. 


Thky are scattered over the valleys, and under the hill 
sides, and on the rocks ; and even to this day, in the more 
retired dales, without any intrusion of more assuming build- 

ClufterM like stars some few, but single most, 
And lurking dimly in their thy retreats, 
Or glancing on each other cheerful looks, 
Like separated stars with clouds between. 

The dwelling-houses and contiguous outhouses are, in 
many instances, of the colour of the native rock, out of 
which thoy have been built; but frequently the Dwelling 
or Fire house, as it is ordinarily called, bas been distinguished 
from the barn and byerby rough-cast and white-wash, which, 
as the inhabitants are not hasty in renewing it, in a few 
years acquires, by the influence of weather, a tint at once 
sober and variegated. As these houses have been, from 
father to son, inhabited by persons engaged in the same 
occupations, yet necessarily with changes in their circum- 
stances, they have received without incongruity additions 
and accommodations adapted to the needs of each successive 
occupant, who, being for the most part proprietor, was at 
liberty to follow his own fancy; so that these humble 
dwellings remind the contemplative spectator of a produc- 
tion of nature, and may (using a strong expression) rather 
be said to have grown than to hare been erected ;— to have 

risen, by an instinct of their own, out of the native rock, se 
little is there in them of formality, such is their wildness 
and beauty. Among the numerous recesses and projec- 
tions in the walls and in the different stages of their rook, 
are seen bold and harmonious effects of contrasted sunshine 
and shadow. It is a favourable circumstance that the 
strong winds which sweep down the valleys, induced the 
inhabitants, at a time when the materials for building were 
easily procured, to furnish many of these. dwellings with 
substantial porches ; and such as have not this defence are 
seldom unprovided with a projection of two large slates over 
their thresholds. Nor will the singular beauty of the 
chimneys escape the eye of the attentive traveller. Some- 
times a low chimney, almost upon a level with the roof, is 
overlaid with a slate, supported upon four slender pillars, to 
prevent the wind from driving the smoke down the chimney. 
Others are of a quadrangular shape, rising one or two fees 
above the roof; which low square is often surmounted by t 
tall cylinder, giving to the cottage chimney the most beau- 
tiful shape in which it is ever seen. Nor will it be too 
fanciful or refined to remark, that there is a pleasing har- 
mony between a tall chimney of this circular form; and the 
living column of smoke ascending . from it through the 
still air. .These dwellings, mostly buijt, as has been said, 
of rough unhewn stone, are roofed with, slates, which were 
rudoly taken from the quarry before the present art of 
splitting them was understood, and are, therefore, rough 
and uneven in their surface, so that both the coverings and 
sides of the houses have furnished places of rest for the 
seeds of lichens, mosses, ferns, and flowers. Hence build- 
ings, which in their very form call to mind the processes of 
nature, do thus, clothed with this vegetable garb, appear to 
be received into tho bosom of the living principle ot things, 
as it acts and exists among the , woods and . fields ; and, by 
their colour and their shape, affectingly direct the thoughts 
to that tranquil course of nature and simplicity, along 
which the humble -minded inhabitants have, through so 
many generations, been led. Add the little gardeW^with 
its shed for bee-hives, its small beds of pot-herb*,* ^gA its 
borders and patches of flowers for Sunday posies, with^eme- 
times a choice few too much prized to be plucked; an 
orchard of proportioned size; a cheese-press, often sup- 
ported by some tree near the door ; a cluster of embowering 
sycamores for summer shade ; with a tall Scotch fir, through 
which the winds sing when other trees are leafless; the 
little rill or household spout murmuring in all seasons; 
combine these incidents and images together, and you have 
the representative idea of a mountain cottage in this country 
so beautifully formed in itself, and so richly adorned by the 
hand of nature. —From Wordsworth % s Description of tht 
Scenery of the Lakes, 

" Cui Bonof %% u Who gains f "—There is hardly any 
equally harmless custom so offensive to me as the use of 
words and phrases taken from one language in the midst 
of a sentence written in another. But my dislike is reason- 
ably heightened when the borrowed words and phrases are 
used without a correct perception of their meaning. Hardly 
any phrase has more frequently suffered misapplication 
than cui bono. The history of a phrase is always the best 
explanation, and may possibly correct the propensity to 
abuse this unfortunate pair of words. Cassius laid it down 
as a maxim, that in examining conflicting evidence as to 
which of two parties had perpetrated a crime, we should be 
guided to lay our suspicions by inquiring which partjr be- 
comes a gainer by tho crime. Cui bono t to whom is the 
act for an advantage ? Who gains ? The maxim was thus 
applied by Cicero to the inculpation of Clodius and the 
exculpation of Milo, and we have it, in Cicero's defence of 
Milo, handed down to us as " the Cassian maxim. — From 
a Correspondent* , 

%• The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge U ei 
59. Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


Printed by WolUM Clows* and Soul, Stamital Street, 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Society for the Diffusion of Usefal Knowledge. 



[March 12, 1836. 


'[Chambery, Savoy.] 

The vine has perhaps more frequently been the subject 
of notice in works not expressly devoted to botanical 
subjects than any other plant. It was a peculiar 
favourite in ancient times; and Bacchus and Osiris, 
who are fabled to have been the first who instructed 
men in the art of cultivating and drawing from it its 
inspiring virtues, are not among the least celebrated 
deities of heathen mythology. It would not be very 
instructive to enter into a detail of these fabulous 
histories. In claiming for the cultivation of the vine a 
high historical antiquity, it is sufficient simply to men- 
tion that, immediately after the Deluge had subsided, 
Noah, to use the words of the Bible, " became a hus- 
bandman, and he planted a vineyard." Proof is 
afforded, also, that he was not unacquainted either 
with the use or the abuse of the properties of the vine. 
It may also be stated that the spies whom Moses sent 
into Canaan, to examine the land, went forth at " the 
time of the first ripe grapes." The fruit of the vine 
was so much esteemed, that a higher proof could not be 
afforded of the plenty which the promised country con- 
tained than a cluster of grapes which they cut down at 
the brook of Eshcol, and two of them bore it between 
them on a staff to the camp. From Asia the vine was 
Vol. V. 

doubtless introduced at an early period into Greece; 
and it could not fail to be cultivated in Italy on its 
first colonization or soon afterwards. Its progress 
through the remainder of southern Europe would be 
coeval with the extending influence of civilization. 

Some interesting facts are connected with the geo- 
graphical distribution of the vine. It is not an in- 
habitant of torrid climates ; and this may be considered 
as wisely ordered; for as its juice possesses exhilarating 
rather than cooling qualities, the demand for it does 
not arise out of any natural wants ; and in hot climates, 
indeed, it cannot be enjoyed with the same freedom as 
in those parts in which it is indigenous. Montesquieu 
said that the law of Mahomet, prohibiting wine, was a 
law of the climate of Arabia. Such a regulation is 
there in perfect accordance with the best rules for 
avoiding the derangement of the animal economy, while 
in a climate like that of northern Europe it would long 
since have become obsolete. Arthur Young pointed 
out the fact that the northern boundary of the cultiva- 
tion of the vine followed an oblique direction from 
south-west to north-east. This is not precisely correct, 
but the meaning is, that, as far as the cultivation of 
the vine does extend, a line 4rawn along the limits to 
~ Q 

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^Ma^cu 12, 

which it is carried in a northern direction would reach 
farther north at one point than at another. This cir- 
cumstance is occasioned by the temperature which 
exists during the summer, and no$ by the mean tem- 
perature of the year, or the temperature of the winter 
season. The mean winter temperature of London is 
39° 56, of Manheim 33°, and of Vienna 32° 72. The 
grape is not brought into a state of perfection in the 
south of England, although it is at Mannheim and 
Vienna, where the winters are 6° or 7° colder than in 
the vicinity of London. But we have already hinted 
that it is the power and continuance of the sun's rays 
during summer which ripen the grape, and endow it 
with its most valuable properties ; and accordingly Mann- 
heim and Vienna, where the mean summer temperature 
is 67° and 69°, are situated in a wine-making district, 
while London, not having a higher mean temperature 
than 62°, is beyond the line which limits the successful 
cultivation of the vine on a large scale. The mean 
temperature, taking the whole of the year together, 
averages the same, or nearly so, for each of these three 
places. It follows, therefore, from the temperature 
during winter being higher in the vicinity of London 
than at Vienna, that many tender plants live in the 
open air here which the greater severity of the winter 
in the wine districts around the latter place would 
destroy. The vine, though requiring a comparatively 
high temperature to attain perfection, may therefore be 
considered a hardy plant. The line which separates 
the drinkers of wine from those whose drink is beer, 
naturally follows, or pretty nearly so, the limits up to 
which the vine is cultivated. The force of habit, how- 
ever, causes some deviations. Make Brun draws the 
line of separation through Belgium, Hesse, Bohemia, 
the Carpathian mountains, Odessa, and the Crimea. 
In some cases wine is a common beverage in places 
where the vine is not cultivated, as in some portions of 
the north of France and in Belgium. 

Mr. Barton, a gentleman who has delivered some 
very interesting lectures on the 'Geography of Plants * 
to the members of the Chichester Mechanics' Institute, 
says, — "The cultivation of the vine succeeds only in 
those climates where the annual mean temperature is 
between b0° and 63°; or the mean temperature may 
even be as low as 48° provided the summer heat rises 
to C8°. In the Old World these conditions are found 
to exist as far north as latitude 50°; in the New World 
not beyond latitude 40°. In both hemispheres the 
profitable culture of this plant ceases within 30° of the 
equator, unless in elevated situations, or in islands, as 
Teneriffe, where the intensity of the heat is moderated 
by the atmosphere of the sea. Thus the region of 
vineyards occupies a band of about 20° in breadth in 
the Old World, and not more than half that breadth in 
America. In the southern hemisphere, the Cape of 
Good Hope just falls within the latitude adapted to the 

The vine, though yielding fruit of the richest and 
most grateful description, is a plant so abstinent in its 
habits as to flourish among mere stones; and it may 
often be seen growing in the ruins of an old wall. The 
rocky limestone soils, which are found frequently on 
the sides of hills, are particularly adapted to its nature. 
The choice of the soil is of the greatest importance to 
the cultivator, as some soils communicate a peculiar 
flavour and excellence to the fruit which no manage- 
ment cangive. Miller, in the ' Gardener's Dictionary/ 
says, — " The best soil for a* vineyard in England is a 
light, sandy loam, about a fbot and a half, but not 
more than two feet, deep above the gravel or chalk, 
either of which bottoms are good}. If the soil be too 
rich, the roots are enticed downward, and the influence 
pf the sun and air is counteracted." It is stated by the 
same authority, though other horticultural writers pre- 
fer a southern aspect, that in this country ah eastern 

aspect is the best for tie vine, as^the night dews are 
then dissipated by the morning sun. It is added that 
the fruit is rarely injured by the east wind. 

The vine grows wild in many parts of Europe and 
America, and climbs to ins tops of the highest trees. 
Its culture has been successfully attempted in almost 
every part of the United States; and, in several in- 
stances, good wine has been made. It is expected that 
if attention be paid to some of the native varieties of 
the vine which are already adapted to the climate, wine 
may in time be extensively made for domestic consump- 
tion. In Chili the vine has been cultivated with great 
success; and in Mexico the attempt has also proved 
successful— more so than in Brazil. Cham plain, an old 
voyager, regarded the prospects of the future inhabi- 
tants of Canada with great satisfaction on perceiving 
that the vines, although wild, bore tolerably good fruit. 
Canada, though extremely severe in winter, has a high 
summer temperature; and Quebec is several degrees 
farther south than either Mannheim or Vienna. la 
every part of the globe within the limits already men- 
tioned the vine is cultivated with more or less success, 
either for the table or for making wine. 

There are about twenty-one species of vines, which 
are subdivided into innumerable varieties. The Frencfl 
government, being desirous to bring the cultivation of 
the plant to the highest degree of perfection, formed 
a nursery at the Luxembourg a few years ago. which 
was placed under the superintendence of a scientific 
man, who collected not fewer than 1400 varieties, and 
he was then far from possessing all the varieties known 
in France, so much had the varieties been increased by 
the influence of soil, climate, and culture. 

Loudon, in his * Enclopaedia of Gardening,* recom- 
mends I he following varieties for planting in this coun- 
try, either against a garden-wall or house-side: — the 
July black, white muscadine, white and black sweet 
water, small and large black, white cluster, esperione, 
&c. In favourable seasons, he adds, the fruit of the 
more hardy early sorts of vine attains a tolerable decree 
of maturity and flavour, but it is of little value whea 
compared with the produce of the hot-house. 

There can be little doubt but that the cultivation 
of the vine was introduced into this country bv the 
Romans. Vineyards are mentioned in * Domesday 
Book ;' and it is known that the abbeys and religious 
houses usually possessed a vineyard. The inmates o( 
these institutions were many of them foreigners, and 
they contributed to render the cultivation of the vine 
tolerably successful. The names of several places in 
Kent are supposed to be derived from their having' beea 
the site of vineyards. It was in the south of England 
that vineyards were most numerous, but there is evi- 
dence of a vineyard as far north as Derbyshire. 

In the reign of Henry II. the cultivation of the vine 
in England began to be neglected. Our intimate con- 
nexion with Prance — our actual possession indeed of a 
portion of the wine-growing districts of that country — 
contributed to produce this circumstance. But though 
the making of wine was no longer carried on in so ex- 
tensive a manner, yet there is the testimony of Dr. Plot, 
Barnaby Googe, Samuel Hartlib, and others, to the 
fact, that during the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies a considerable quantity of native wine was sttil 
made in England from the produce of the grape. 
Hartlib mentions Sir Peter Ricard, who made she or 
eight hogsheads every year. It is stated in Miller's 
4 Dictionary,' that, so late as 1763, there were fn the 
cellars of Arundel Castle, Sussex, above sixty pipes of 
wine, the produce of English grapes; and he quotes 
several examples tending to prove that, up to within 
about a century, native wine, made from the grape, was 
now and then to be met with. Hales, in his 4 Prac- 
tical Husbandry,' says, that he had drunk wine with 
Dr. Shaw, made by the latter from a little vineyard at 

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Kensington, which he asserted was equal in quality to 
some of the lighter wines of France. During the last 
century the Hon. Charles Hamilton made wine re- 
sembling champagne from the produce of a vineyard 
near Cobham, in Surrey, which was situated on the 
sonthern slope of a hill, and was planted only with the 
Auvernat and black-cluster grapes. 

During the early part of the eighteenth century, the 
idea of cultivating the vine on an extensive scale, slo as 
to supersede the necessity of having recourse to France, 
seems to have been very warmly entertained. One 
writer says — " Our gardeners find that vines are capable 
of being cultivated in fcngland, so as to produce large 
quantities of grapes, and those ripened to such a degree 
as may afford a good substantial vinous juice." He 
will not admit that the climate of England is in any 
respect inferior or less favourable to the vine than that 
of France, but remarks — " It does not seem so much 
owing to the inclemency of our English air, that our 
grapes are generally inferior to those of France, as to 
the want of a just culture." 

The notion that England could be made a wine- 
growing country was accompanied and supported by 
some extraordinary fallacies respecting the injury sus- 
tained by the nation in spending money abroad to 
procure those luxuries which our own climate failed 
in producing. To deal with "foreigners" was, ac- 
cording to the maxims then prevalent, one of the surest 
means of ruining the nation. I*ostlelhwayt, who wrote 
about the middle of the last century, was of opinion 
that, if we could not succeed in producing tolerable wine 
from grapes, we ought to try if it might not be pro- 
cured from some other native production of Great 
Britain. He says, — " The great expense to which this 
nation is put for foreign wines should induce Us, me- 
thinks, to make our utmost efforts to try whether we 
cannot amply supply ourselves with this commodity, of 
which we are so fond. It is commonly objected against 
this attempt that our climate will not admit hereof to 
any considerable degree. I am afraid that has never 
been effectually tried ; but if it has not, for want of 
proper management, succeeded upon the grape, I am 
inclined to believe that we have many other productions 
of Great Britain that will afford exceeding good wines." 
He then notices that several gentlemen in different 
parts of England were at that time planting and im- 
proving vineyards, and states that some wine had been 
made " of good strength, and of a more delicate flavour 
than the best growths of France." Alluding to the 
exertions which were making to produce wine from 
native grapes, he adds, — " It is greatly to be wished 
they may meet with success, since the nation pays such 
sums for those liquors as tend to impoverish us, and 
augment the strength of our rivals." Another patriotic, 
but, in political and commercial matters, equally mis- 
taken writer, in a small volume, printed in 1727, en- 
titled the 'Vineyard/ and dedicated to the Duke of 
Chandos, also endeavoured to promote the cultivation 
of the vine, which, he states, " had been so long neg- 
lected to the reproach of the natives of our island, and 
the impoverishment of the nation in general, who have 
annually remitted vast sums of specie to purchase its 
exhilarating liquor from foreigners, which we might as 
well raise at home by a little industry." Cherries, he 
observes, were once more rare in Italy than vines in 
England ; and yet cherries throve as well here as there. 
Among other encouraging statements which he puts 
forth in order to show the facility with which his 
favourite object could be accomplished is the following ; 
" A fanner's wife in Kent, about twelve years since, 
gathered a large quantity of unripe grapes, but finding 
them unfit for the market, got them pressed, intending 
to make vinegar thereof; and putting the liquor up 
into a Cask set it iu her cellar, which, being pretty 

warm, so accelerated the ripening of the same, that, 
about seven months after, tapping it, in expectation of 
finding a tolerable vinegar therein, she was agreeably 
surprised to find herself deceived with a glass of brisk 
and sparkling wine, pleasant to the eye and grateful to 
the palate." 

When we see, as in the above cases, the wine ob- 
tained from English grapes compared with the best 
wines of France, it is necessary to recollect that at that 
time even the French wines were greatly inferior, in 
point of richness and flavour, to those of the present 
day. Improvements have been introduced both in the 
mode of culture and in the process of wine-making 
which have occasioned this change. The old French 
writers speak with admiration of the wines of Mont- 
morency, of Argenteuil, and of Marly : and in a treatise 
' De Vineis,' printed at Rome in 1696, a previous 
writer on the subject is quoted, who, setting aside the 
wines of Bourgogne, of Champagne, and other esteemed 
districts, speaks in the warmest terms of the wines of 
the environs of Paris, which, compared with those 
of the south, are detestable, and are chiefly con- 
sumed in the lowest cabarets outside the walls of Paris. 
It was with wines of this description, therefore, that 
the produce of our English grape was compared, and 
it would be no flattering distinction in such a case for 
the latter to be considered of a superior quality. Wine 
which is produced towards the northern limits of the 
vine-climate is not only lighter but more acid than when 
the fruit has received the highest qualities of richness, 
and been brought to full maturity by the glowing suns 
of a more southern latitude. 

The attempt to introduced the vine in Normandy, 
with a view tdrkiipply the consumption of that part of 
France, has never succeeded. We cannot expect that 
it would be much more successful, even in the south of 
England, if attempted on a large scale. The horti- 
cultural amateur, however, may, if he be so disposed, 
drink wine of his own growth. Mr. Loudon has " no 
hesitation in saying that vineyards would succeed in 
various parts of England, and produce wine," not equal 
to that which is produced in France, we may remark, 
but, as Mr. Loudon says, " equal to much of that im- 
ported from France." The selection of a proper soil, 
suitable situation, and the sort of grape best adapted 
to the climate, are the chief means of success in this 
matter. The plant should be grown low, as in the 
north of France. 

Artificial heat was not applied to the production of 
grapes before tire beginning of the last century. Iu 
Lawrence's * Fruit Calendar,' 1718, it is stated, that at 
the Duke of Rutland's, at Belvoir Castle, fires were 
constantly kept up, from Lady Day to Michaelmas, 
behind the slope-walls on which the plants were trained. 
The vinery of the Duke of Portland, at Welbeck, near 
Worksop, was the most celebrated in the country a 
little after the middle of the century. It was under the 
direction of Speechley, an horticulturist of great merit, 
and contained seventy different varieties of the vine, 
all of which were raised to the highest state of per- 
fection. It was at Welbeck that a bunch of Syrian 
grapes was produced, weighing 19J lbs. This fine 
specimen of fruit was sent by the Duke of Portland as 
a present to the Marquis of Rockingham, and was 
carried to Wentworth House, a distance of twenty 
miles, by four labourers, two of whom carried it on a 
staff by turns, just in the same way that the cluster of 
grapes was carried from the brook of Eshcol to tlie 
camp of the Israelites. This was doubtless the best 
way of bearing the fruit uninjured, in case of a carriage 
not being used. The Syrian grape is not remarkable 
for the excellence of its fruit, but for the enormous size 
of the bunches which it produces. 
The art of forcing bas most probably gradually 

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[March 12, 

diverte4 the attention pf gardeners from the cultivation 
of the vine in the open air. Mr. Loudon says, that 
u no kitchen-gardifn worth notice is now without a 
vinery ; the fruit is produced 'n some vineries in every 
month of the year; and in the London market is to be 
had in the highest degree of perfection from March to 
January ." Grapes appear to have been early in de- 
mand for the table. It is related that in 1325 the Bishop 
of Rochester sent the king wine and grapes, the pro- 
duce of his vineyard at Hailing. Grapes for the 
dessert are nowhere produced of so fine a quality as in 
the vineries in this country. 

The following facts respecting the produce of the 
vine are taken from Miller, Loudon, and other horti- 
cultural writers : — A single vine grown as a dwarf 
standard, in the manner practised in the vineyards in 
the north of France, ordinarily produces from three to 
nine bunches; but by superior management in gardens 
in England, the number of bunches is prodigiously 
increased. One plant, the red Hamburgh, at Hampton 
Court, has produced 2200 bunches, averaging 1 lb 
each, or, in all, nearly a ton ; another plant, at Va- 
lentines, in Essex, has produced 2000 bunches of 
nearly the same average weight. The same autho- 
rities concur in stating that the vine attains an age 
equal to that of the oak : a vineyard 100 years old is 
reckoned young. In 1789 a vine was growing at 
Northallerton which had once covered a space of 137 
square yards ; and one is mentioned at II ford, in Essex, 
the stem of which was about 19 inches in girth, and 
the branches extended 200 feet. 

The application of steam to the purposes of navi- 
gation has occasioned the introduction of large quan- 
tities of foreign grapes, which are sold in London at from 
If. to 2s. per lb. They form a pleasant repast in hot 
weather with a little bread. The fruit when green may 
be made into tarts. Verjuice and vinegar are obtained 
from the grape ; and from some varieties a pleasant 
beverage may be made from a decoction of the leaves. 

Raisins are nothing more than grapes dried in a 
peculiar manner. Twiss, who travelled in Spain and 
Portugal, says that in those countries they are cured 
by cutting the stalk of the bunches half through when 
the grapes are almost ripe, and being then suspended 
by their stalks on the vine, the sun in this state 
candies them, and when they are dry they are packed 
up in boxes. Another plan is to dip the newly- 
gathered grapes in ley, made from the ashes of grape- 
cuttings, and afterwards expose them to the sun. 
Swinburne, in his ' Travels through Spain/ says that 
the raisins on the coast of Valencia are dipped in a 
ley of wine and ashes. 

The northern imagination is apt to be wonderfully 
taken with the idea of a country covered with vines 
and glowing with their luscious fruit, and it is ten to 
one if the u vine-clad hills " do not form the most 
prominent feature in the idea generally formed by any 
one who has not visited France. The vine, however, 
is not an object of such striking beauty in France as 
is generally supposed. At particular seasons it is 
perhaps surpassed by the hop-gardens of Kent. The 
common way of planting the vine is to put down one 
stake about four feet high to each vine. Before the 
foliage of the plant has made its appearance, nothing 
but a field of stakes is visible. " At this time," says 
Mr. J. M. Cobbett, in his * Tour in France,* " the 
vine is ugly. It looks like currant-bushes, or any low 
and leafless sort of shrub." November 6th his brother, 
Mr. J. P. Cobbett says, in his * Ride of Eight Hundred 
Miles in France,' " the vines look beautiful at this 
time, with all their leaves off, and loads of ripe grapes 
hanging upon them.'' This was just previous to the 
vintage. When this is over, the stakes to which the 
vines were bound are collected together in a stack, just 

the same as hop-poles are in England* Mr. Cobbett 
remarks, ** The idea of a whole country covered over 
with black and white grapes is a rich one ; and it is 
but natural we should suppose the makers of Burgundy 
rich in proportion to the richness of the luxury they 
produce ; but vines are subjected to so many chances, 
that there is not a poorer country than that which is 
covered with thero A frost in May will cut ofF the 
bods of a whole country of vineyard ; at the end of 
June one really hard shower of rain effectually destroy* 
the crop by knocking off the flower; at the end of 
July, or in August, a hail-storm will cut off the new k- 
formed fruit ; and a wet autumn rots it." 

It is the vineyards of Italy which are really beautiful, 
and which, rather than those of France, are worthy of 
being pictured in the choicest colours either by those 
who are unacquainted with the country, or those who 
have visited it. The last writer whom we have quoted 
says, — " I cannot help envying the Italians one charm 
that their country possesses — I mean her vines. Here 
the fields have rows of trees planted round them ; and 
the trunks and branches of these trees are the sup- 
porters of the vine, the greatest embellishment that a 
country can possibly have. The vine is not at all 
the same thing here that it is in France. In Prance 
it is comparatively a humble thing. The French cut 
it down nearly as we cut our currants, check its vigorous 
and aspiring shoots, and confine them to the height of 
a mere stake. Here each individual tree or row of 
trees with the vines clambering up and hanging from 
the branches is an object of admiration in itself. The 
poplar and the common maple are the trees most com- 
monly used to train the vine to. These trees do not 
so much overshadow it as most other trees would. The 
trees are not allowed to grow their full height. In 
training the vine, a main object seems to be that of 
directing the shoots downwards ; and this in order to 
make them bear more fruit. The yearling shoots that 
are to bear fruit in the following summer are brought 
together in twos; each two are twisted round and 
round one another, cut off at| a certain distance and 
tied together with a twig of osier. The shoots thus 
managed hang over the branches of the tree with their 
ends towards the ground. Some of them are bent 
outwards, in the form of a bow, the ends being tied iu 
to the tree, or to the main stem of the vine. Others 
are led away from the tree, and have their ends tied to 
the tops of high stakes, at four or five yards off. Great 
taste is shown by these people in this matter. They 
give it all the variety that such a thing can admit of. 
One of the forms is particularly elegant ; that in which 
two couples of twined shoots are brought to mee| Jach 
other half way between two trees, then tied tog^Aer, 
and their extremities bent right and left, and tied Again 
in such a way as to make a festoon. In summer *nd 
autumn the broad leaves, tendrils, and clusters' of grapes 
are beautiful." 

When travelling between Rome and Naples, he 
states that u Within a few miles of Naples the yfnes 
nre trained to elms or poplars, generally to poplars. 
These trees grow to their natural height, the ..fide 
branches being lopped away just enough to let in, the 
sunshine between them. Only think of fifty or stity 
acres of land in this way ; high poplars standing in 
rows with wide intervals ; vines clambering up €#ery 
tree, their long shoots led from the branches of one 
tree to those of another, crossing in all directions, aome 
of them hanging down towards the ground! Luxu- 
riant crops grow under the trees ; capital wheat, now 
all in ear, and turning yellow ; fine Indian corn, planted 
in drills from two to three feet apart, besides oats and 
beans, and other things. Thus is the land cultivated 
for miles before you come to Naples," 

In the neighbourhood of Rome the vines are trained 

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the PEJNttY' iiXdXzmtf. 


nearly close to the ground : they stand ia rows five or 
six feet apart, and in the intervals there are French 
t>eans, Indian corn, rye, or wheat. 

All travellers in Italv give an equally glowing 
account of the beauty of the Italian vineyards. Mr. 
Beck ford, who visited Italy fifty years ago, and whose 
* Sketches 1 were recently published, describes as fol- 
lows the luxuriant manner in which the vine grows 
near Lucca : — ** Mounting our horses, we wound among 
sunny vales and enclosures with myrtle hedges, till we 
came to a rapid steep. We felt the heat most power- 
fully in ascending it, and were glad to take refuge 
under a continued bower of vines, which runs for 
miles along its summit. These arbours afforded us 
both shade and refreshment. I fell upon the clusters 
which formed our ceiling, like a native of the north, 
unused to such luxuries : one of those Goths, Gray so 
poetically describes, who 

Scent the new fragrance of the breathing rose, 
And quaff the pendant vintage as it grows. 

I wish you had journeyed with us under this fruitful 
canopy, and observed the partial sunshine through its 
transparent leaves, and the glimpses of the blue sky 
it everywhere now and then admitted. I say only every 
now and then, for in most places a sort of verdant gloom 
prevailed, exquisitely agreeable in so hot a day." 

The vintage has already been described in No. 100 

of the c Penny Magazine;' Mr. fteckford says, c< Of the 
vintage in Italy you cannot imagine a pleasanter sight/ 9 

Chambery (the view of which, as given in the cut, 
was taken on the spot in 1835) is only a few miles from 
the frontiers of France. Under the empire, it was the 
chief town of the department of Mont Blanc ; but by 
the treaties of 1815 it was included in the continental 
territories of the king of Sardinia, and is now the prin- 
cipal town in Savoy. The French language is more 
generally spoken in this part of Savoy than pure 
Italian. Chambery contains about 12,000 inhabitants, 
and is the seat of an archbishop, and of the higher 
courts of law. The town possesses a museum and 
public library, and the Royal Agricultural Academy of 
Savoy, which frequently publishes interesting memoirs 
on subjects connected with agriculture, commerce, and 
industry, holds its sittings here. There are barracks for 
nearly 4,000 troops. The valley in which Chambery is 
situated is highly picturesque, and the whole space 
between the town and the mountains in the distance 
is covered with the vine, which is here trained as in 

After having given these general notions of the 
subject, we shall devote an article hereafter to the 
economy of a vineyard, and to the consideration in a 
commercial point of view of the vineyards of France, so 
as to afford a distinct notion of their importance. 


Malmesbuuy is one of those old towns which possess 
peculiar charms for the antiquary and the picturesque 
tourist. It is situated at the north-west extremity of 

Wiltshire, out of the way of any great thoroughfare ; 
there is out little trade or bustle in its streets ; it ha* 
an ancient and decayed appearance ; while its situation 

Digitized by 




[March !£, 

on an eminence which la almost surrounded by two 
streams — the Newnton Water and the Avon — gives it 
a pleasing effect. These two streams unite near the 
town, and form what is termed the Lower Avon, which 
runs into the Severn below Bristol. Malmesbiiry 
derived its ancient splendour from its ecclesiastical 
institutions. The abbey, once a magnificent structure, 
was founded in the seventh century ; it was originally 
a religious house or monastic retreat for a few recluses, 
until by grants and donations it became a stately 
abbey. The buildings are said to have occupied a 
space of forty-five acres, including the gardens and 
offices belonging to the monks. The town contains 
many relics of its monastic glory, but they have either 
been converted into dwelling-houses, and altered from 
their original appearance, or they are mere fragments, 
with the exception of the Abbey Church, the remains of 
the nave of which have been repaired, and rendered 
fit to be used for public worship. 

The Market Cross represented in the engraving 
stands nearly in the centre of the town. Of this the 
late Mr. Cobbett says in his 4 Rural Rides/ " there is 
a market cross in this town, the sight of which is worth 
a journey of hundreds of miles to see." Without 
going so far, however, it may be admitted to be an 
interesting architectural relic. It is an octangular 
stone building, with flying buttresses, and a richly orna- 
mented turret, which is also octangular, with a small 
niche on each side, filled with figures in basso-relievo, 
one of which represents the Crucifixion. Lcland says, 
" There is a right, fair, and costly piece of workman- 
ship in the market-place, made all of stone, and 
curiously vaulted for poor market-folks to stand dry 
when rain cometh. There be eight great pillars, and 
eight open arches, and the work is eight square. One 
great pillar in the middle beareth up the vault. The 
men of the town made this piece of work "in hominum 
memoria" i. e. within the memory of man, or in the 
recollection of the existing generation. Leland wrote 
his * Itinerary ' in the reign of Henry VIII. " The 
cross was substantially repaired," says Mr. Britton, 
" by the late Earl of Suffolk and Lady Northwick 
about twenty years ago/' that is, prior to 1825. 

The town of Malmesbury was one of the earliest of 
the incorporated boroughs of England, and was also 
early distinguished as a place of trade. It has pro- 
duced several celebrated literary characters, among 
whom may be mentioned William of Malmesbury, so 
called either because he was born in the town (which is 
uncertain), or (which is the most probable supposition) 
from his connexion with the abbey, of which he was for 
many years the precentor and librarian. This monkish 
historian is deservedly honoured by our later historical 
writers, who draw largely from his works. The cele- 
brated metaphysician Hobbes was a native of Malmes- 

In the 'Boundary Reports' (1833) it is stated— 
u Malmesbury is not a place of any trade, and not a 
considerable thoroughfare. There are no new build- 
ings in the suburbs, nor any indications of increasing 
prosperity. A cloth-factory was established about 
twenty years ago, but it is now abandoned, and has 
been converted into a corn-mill. It contains very few 
houses which appear to be occupied by persons in inde- 
pendent circumstances, and has altogether the air of a 
place on the decline ; it must now be considered as 
entirely an agricultural town." But in the Municipal 
Corporation Report it is stated that u a clothing esta- 
blishment, recently revived, has given some stimulus to 
the demand for labour." 

The late Mr. Cobbett (the strength of whose pre- 
judices was in exact proportion to the vigour of his 
mind) was delighted with Malmesbury, because its 
ancient remains and present state supplied him with 

food for the absurd idea which he used so vigorously to 
advocate, viz., that England was formerly much more 
populous than it is now. u This town," he says, 
" though it has nothing particularly engaging in itself 
stands upon one of the prettiest spots that can he 
imagined. Besides the river Avon, which I went dows 
in the south-east part of the country, here i« another 
river Avon, which runs down to Bath, and two branches 
or sources of which meet here. There is a pretty rid^t 
of ground, the base of which is a mile, or a mile and t 
half, wide. On each side of this ridge a branch of th* 
river runs down, through a flat of very fine meadows. 
The town and the beautiful remains of the famous M 
abbey stand on the rouuded spot which terminates this 
ridge; and just below, nearly close to the town, the 
two branches of the river meet, and then they begin tc 
be called the Avon. The land round about is excelled, 
and of a great variety of forms. The trees are lofty and 
fine, so that, what with the water, the meadows, the 
fine cattle and sheep, and, as I hear, the absence c: I 
hard-pinching poverty, this is a very pleasant place/' I 

In the Municipal Corporations Report, it is stated 
that " a court of record, with jurisdiction over aii 
causes of action not exceeding 40/., had fallen into dis- 
use before the date of the governing charter,' 1 that is. 
before the eighth year of the reign of William III , or 
before the commencement of the eighteenth century. 
" There is,'' it is added, " no other court, and, con- 
sequently, no occasion for juries, except on coroner's 
inquests. There is no police in the town, except the 
parish constables, and no jail/' 

Few casual observers are perhaps aware of the curious 
origin of many of the signs of public-houses, and a still 
smaller number remember when all shopkeepers dis- 
played signs of a similar nature, ou which, and on tbe 
iron supports, which projected far into the street, largf 
sums were expended. In is stated in the ' Gentleman s 
Magazine/ 1770, that there were signs and sign-irons 
on Ludgate Hill which cost several hundred pounds. 
In a paper (No. 28) in the * Spectator/ which th< 
signature indicates to have been written by Addison, 
allusion is made to this custom, which is of remote 

The practice of the young tradesman adding to bis 
sign that of his late master, accounts for many incon- 
gruities. This was the source of the union of tbe 
Three Nuns and a Hare, the Lock and Hope, and 
many others. Mirza Itesa Modeen, who travelled in 
England about seventy years since, describes the shoe- 
maker as exhibiting the figure of a shoe, — the bakers 
loaf, — the fruiterer different kinds of fruit ; but whim, 
or some other cause, produced various signs, of which 
it is not easy to discover the origin. Addison speaks 
of the sign of the Goat before the door of a perfumer, 
and the French King's Head at a sword-cutler's. In 
the sixth plate of Hogarth's * Industry and Idleness,' 
the sign of West and Goodchild, who are si Ik weavers, 
is a rampant lion, with a cornucopia on each side. 
In the same artist's plate of * Noon ' the cook's shop is 
distinguished by a Baptist's head ; and in the plate d 
' Night,' in the same series^ the sign of the barbers 
shop is, betides his pole, a band drawing a tooth, 
the head being in exquisite pain, and having written 
underneath " Shaving, Bleeding, and Teeth drawn 
with a touch. — >Bcce signutru" In Shakspeare's play 
of ' Richard 111.' (Act Hi. scene 5) occurs the passage 

•• Tell them how Edward put to death a citiien ! 
Only for saying he would make his son 
Heir to the Crttm; meaning indeed hie house, 
Which, by the sign thereof, Waa termed so." 

The person, says Gray, here alluded to was one Walker, 
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a substantial citizen and grocer at the Crown in Cheap- 
side. The welt known sign of the Good Woman, which 
is a woman without a head, was a common emblem at 
oil -shops, and it is supposed to have been originally a 
large oil-jar, fancifully painted, so as to resemble a 
headless woman. At the present day, an oil-jar is fre- 
quently put over the door of an oil-shop by way of 
si^n. The three balls which are affixed to the houses 
of pawnbrokers are jocularly said to betoken that it is 
two to one that the articles pledged are never redeemed. 
They were the arms of a set of merchants from Lom- 
bardy, who were the first who publicly lent money on 
pledges. From them Lombard Street derived its name, 
and the term Lombard was long synonymous with 
usurer. A dog licking a porridge-pot was formerly 
a usual sign at ironmongers' : an instance of this now 
rare sign may be seen at a large ironmongers shop in 
Blackfriars' Road. The barber's pole is one of the 
few remaining ancient shop-signs, and one which has 
caused much antiquarian discussion. It is supposed to 
represent (when barbers were surgeons also) the bleed- 
ing stick, the black stripes being the tape wound round 
it. In the • Athenian Oracle,' vol. i., p. 334, it is stated 
that the barber's art was so beneficial to the public, 
that he who first brought it up in Rome had, as authors 
relate, a statue erected to his memory ; and it is further 
stated that barbers were wont to hang their basins out 
upon poles, that weary and wounded travellers might 
see from a distance to whom they might have recourse. 
In the 'Antiquarian Repertory' it is supposed that the 
rmrty-coloured staff denoted that the master ol the shop 
practised the art of surgery as well as the more humble 
art of a barber, it having been the custom with village- 
practitioners to put a staff into the hand of the patient 
who was undergoing the operation of phlebotomy: 
the white band is meant to represent the fillet thus 
elegantly twined about it. In ' Comenii Orbis pictus,' 
in a barber's shop, a patient under phlebotomy is de- 
picted with a pole or stalf in his hand ; and that it is an 
ancient practice appears by an illumination in a missal 
of the time of Edward I. Lord Thtirlow, in his speech 
concerning the Surgeons' Incorporation Bill, in July, 
1797, stated " that, by a statute still in force, the 
rmrbers and surgeons were each to use a pole. The 
barbers were to have theirs blue-and-white-striped, with 
no other appendage; but the surgeons, which was the 
same in other respects, were likewise to have a gallipot 
ami a red rag, to denote the particular nature of their 
vocation." The red rag is also alluded to in Gay's 
description of a barber's shop, in his well-known fame 
of the 4 Goat without a Beard/ As recently as seventy 
years since, and perhaps even later, the shops in London 
displayed signs swinging across the street; but from 
their impeding the free circulation of air in the narrow 
streets, they were taken down and placed against the 
houses, and were, after a time, superseded by the pre- 
sent fashion of the name and business painted on the 
house The sign of the Chequers is of great antiquity, 
if having been found at Pompeii, and it is still common. 
Brand considers that this sign was intended to make 
known that a gam* called "Tables" might be played 
there. From the colour, which was red, and the 
similarity to a lattice, it was>£ometimcs corruptly called 
the M Red Lettuce," which Words are frequently adopted 
by ancient writers to signify an alehouse. Falstaff, in 
the * Merry Wives of Windsor, 1 speaks of 8 f your red- 
Tattice phrases." In an old play, called the * First 
Part of Antortio and Melida *,' the following passage 
occurs : — *• As well known by my wit as an alehouse 
by a red lattice." The lattice was converted into the 
Green Lettuce, which was formerly a public-house in 
Brownlow Street, Hoi born ; and the sign of the Green 
Lattice is still to be found in Billingsgate. In the 
* Marston's Works, 8vo., 1633. 

preface to the 'Law of Drinking,' 1617, keeping a 
public-house is called the well-known trade of the Ivy 
Bush, or Red Lattice. The Bush was so general a 
sign that probably from thence has arisen the proverb 
that " good wine needs no bush," or indication as to 
where it was sold. In ' Good Newes and Bad Newes,' 
by S. R., 4to., London, 1622, a host says, — 
" I rather will take down ray Bush and siga 
Than live by means of riotous expense." 

And it seems that anciently putting up boughs upon 
anything, signified that it was to be sold, which also 
continues to be the reason why an oid besom (or birch- 
broom) is placed at the mast-head of a vessel that is 
for sale. In Dekker's ' Wonderful Yeare,' lo*03, is the 
passage " Spied a bush at the end of a pole (the antient 
badge of a countrey ale-house ;)" and in * Harris's 
Drunkard's Cup,' p. 299, " Nay, if the house be not 
worth an ivie bush, let him have his tooles about him ; 
nutmegs, rosemary, tobacco, with other the appurte- 
nances, and he knows how of puddle ale to make a 
cup of English wine." From a, passage in * Whimzies, 
or, a New Cast of Characters,' 12mo., Lond. 1631, it 
should seem that signs in ale-houses succeeded birch- 
poles. Jn Scotland a wisp of straw upon a pole is or 
was the symbol of an ale-house. The owner of the 
Mourning Push at Aldersgate is said to have been so 
affected at the decapitation of Charles I., that he paid 
the singular respect to his memory of having his bush 
painted black. It is usual in some counties, particu- 
larly Staffordshire, to hang a bush at the door of an 
ale-house, or, as it is there called, mug-house. Before 
the introduction of the present heer*shops, it was a 
common practice for persons who wished to sell beer 
at the provincial fairs and wakes to place a green branch 
of a tree over the door. Sir Thomas Browne considers 
that the human faces depicted on ale-houses for the 
sun and moon are relics of paganism, and that they 
originally meant Apollo and Diana. This has been 
noticed in Hudibras. 

*' Tell me but what's the natural cause 

Wiiy on a sign iro painter draws 

The full moon ever but the halt." 

But it is stated by the Rev. S. Seyer in his i Memoirs of 
Bristol,' that the Full Moon in Bristol is an extremely 
ancient inn. Many signs are evidently heraldic, being 
the arms or crest of the nobleman or gentleman in whose 
service the innkeeper may have formerly been. Fos- 
broke says that the Bell Savage is a strange corruption 
of the Queen of Sheba ; but in the paper on * Signs' 
in the * Spectator,' the Bell Savage, of which the device 
was a savage man standing by a bell, is supposed to 
be derived from the French Belle Sauvage, on account 
of a beautiful savage having once been shown there ; 
by others it is considered with more probability to have 
been so named, in compliment to some ancient landlady 
of the celebrated inn on Ludgate Hill, whose surname 
was Savage ; as in the close rolls of the 31st year of the 
reign of Henry VI. is an entry of a grant of that inn to 
" John Frensch, Gentilman," as that inn called " Sa- 
vages Ynne," alias the Bell on the Hoof. In Flecknoe's 
* ./Enigmatical Characters,' 1665, where speaking " of 
your fanatick reformers," he says, " As tor the signs 
they have pretty well begun their reformation already, 
changing the sign of the Salutation of the Angel and 
our Lady into the Shouldier and Citizen, and the 
Katherine Wheel into the Cat and Wheel, so that there 
only wants their making the Dragon to kill St. George, 
and the Devil to tweak St. Dunstan by the nose to 
make the reformation compleat. Such ridiculous work 
they make of their reformation, and so zealous are they 
against all mirth and jollity, as they would pluck down 
the sign of the Cat and Fiddle, too, if it durst but play 
so loud as they might hear it." The sign In God is 
our Hope, is still to be seen at a public-house on the 

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[March 12, 18Sfc 

western road between Cranford and Slouch. Coryatt 
mentions the Ave Maria with verses as the sign of an 
ale-house abroad, and a street where all the signs on 
one side were of birds. M. Paris says that foresters 
were famous for setting up ale-houses, — hence the 
Green Man. The Swan with two Nicks, or Necks, 
as it is commonly called, was so termed from the two 
nicks or marks, to make known that it was a swan of 
the Vintners' Company, the swans of that company 
having two semicircular pieces cut from the upper 
mandible of the swan, one on each side, which are 
called nicks. The Bolt-in ^Tun is thus explained. The 
bolt was the arrow that was shot from the cross-bow, 
the tun being a barrel which was used as a target ; and 
as in this device the bolt is painted sticking in the 
bunghole, it appears not unreasonable to conclude 
that hitting the bunghole was as great an object in 
cross-bow shooting as it is to a member of a Toxopholite 
club to strike the target in the gold. The sign of the 
Three Loggerheads is two grotesque wooden heads, 
with the inscription, " Here we three Loggerheads be," 
the reader being the third. The Honest Lawyer is 
depicted at a beer-shop at Stepney ; the device is a 
lawyer with his head under his arm to prevent his 
telling lies. The Lamb and Lark occurs at Keynsham, 
near Bath, and in Printing-house Lane, Black friars, 
and has reference to a proverb well known, that we 
should go to bed with the lamb and arise with the lark. 
The Eagle and Child is by some persons imagined to 
allude to Jupiter taking Ganymede, but others suppose 
that it merely commemorates the fact of a child having 
been earned off by an eagle. The Bull and Gate, 
which at first appears incomprehensible, is a corrup- 
tion from the Boulogne Gate, or one of the Gates of 
Boulogne, and is said to have been so named in com- 
pliment to Henry VIII. , who took that place in 1544. 
The Bull and Mouth also is considered to have a 
Fimilar derivation' from the Mouth or Harbour of 
Boulogne. The Lamb and Flag was the arms of the 
Knights Templars, and is still the arms of the Hon. 
Society of the Middle Temple. Simon the Tanner 
occurs as>a sign in Long Lane, Bermondsey, a. part of 
Loudon much inhabited by tanners. ' The Moon rakers, 
which was once probably kept by a Wiltshire man, as 
that is a soubriquet applied to persons from that 
county, was formerly to be seen in Great Suffolk Street, 
Borough. The Well and Bucket, which was perhaps 
meant metaphorically to announce their inexhaustible 
supplies, is situate in Church Street, Bethnal Green. 
The Labour in Vain is attempting to wash the blacka- 
more white. The Sun and the Thirteen Cantons is 
the sun shining on the cantons of Switzerland. The 
Black Jack, Portsmouth Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
was so denominated from an ancient leather cup so 
termed. The sign of the Two Chairmen was formerly 
not an un frequent emblem in London, the public- 
houses bearing it being at that time much resorted to 
by the men who carried sedan chairs ; as the sign of 
the Running Footman in Charles Street, Berkeley 
Square, was probably patronised by that active but 
now extinct class of men, who are commemorated by 
Sir Walter Scott in his novel of the 4 Bride of Lam- 
mermoor,' chap. xiv. The Pig and Whistle, a com- 
mon sign in the north of England, is supposed to 
mean the elephant, the trunk of the animal being the 
whistle. The Hog in Armour is defined as the rhino- 
ceros. The Devil and Bag of Nails as Pan and the 
Bacchanals. The Cat and Fiddle, La Catherine Fidele, 
meaning St. Catherine. The Cat and Wheel, the 
Catherine Wheel, on which St. Catherine was tortured. 
The Goat and Compasses, a corruption of a sign of 
the Puritans " God encompasseth us." The Talbot is 
the ancient English hound. 

In the neighbourhood of the Fleet Prison, before 

the year 1753, a sign of two hands joined, indicated & 
marriage house, or a house in which Fleet marriages 
were celebrated, just as Gretna Green marriages art 
now. These places were not all public-houses, and at 
some of them a person was stationed at the door to 
invite the passers-by to come in to be married. Tbe 
marriage-houses were about sixty in number. At a 
trial at Shrewsbury, in 1827, in which Colonel Passing- 
ham was interested, it was proved that the books con- 
taining the registers of marriages kept at tbe Fleet 
marriage-houses, were between 500 and 600 in number, 
and they were upwards of a ton in weight. Fleet 
marriages were totally abolished by the passing of the 
Marriage Act in the 26th year of the reign of George II., 
and these register-books are now deposited in the 
registry of the Bishop of London. 

Knocking Down in Lincoln s Inn. — At Lincoln's Inn 
Hall the benchers, barristers, aud other members of that 
society dine together every day during the Law Terms. 
When the dinner is placed on the table, and the company 
are arranged to hear grace, the butler strikes three hard 
blows on the sideboard with a wooden mallet, and then 
grace is said by the chaplain. In like manner three blows 
are struck before the grace after dinner: this custom is 
called " knocking down." A circumstance similar appears 
to be alluded to in Sir Richard Steele's play of the * Conscious 
Lovers/ (act 1, scene 1.) where the modern valet says to the 
old butler, •• You talk as if the world was now just as it 
was when my old master and you were in your youth— wheu 
you went to dinner because it was so much o clock— when 
the great blow was given in the hall at the pan try-door, aud 
all the family came out of their holes in such strange dresses 
and formal faces as you see in the pictures in our long gal- 
lery in the country. w 

" Liberty, without obedience, it confusion ; and obedience, with- 
out liberty, is slavery."— William Pbnn. 
Thk history of England is emphatically the history pf pro- 
gress. It is the history of a constant movemeut of the 
public mind which produced a constant change in the 
institutions of a great society. We see that society at the 
beginning of the twelfth century in a state more miserable 
than the state in which the most degraded nations of. the 
East. now are. ; We see it subjected to . the ;tyranny t of a 
handful of armed foreigners ;, we see a strong distinction of 
caste, separating the victorious Norman from tne vanquished 
Saxon ; we see the great body of the population in a state 
of personal slavery ; we see the most debasing and cruel 
superstition exercising boundless dominion over the rno>t 
elevated and benevolent minds ; we see the multitude sunk 
in brutal ignorance, and the studious few engaged in 
acquiring what did not deserve the name of knowledge. 
In the course of seven centuries this wretched and degraded 
race have become the greatest and most civilized people 
that the world ever saw, — have spread their dominion over 
every quarter of the globe,— have scattered the seeds of 
mighty empires over vast continents, of which no dim 
intimation had ever reached Ptolemy or Strabo,— ha™ 
created a maritime power which would annihilate in a 
quarter of an hour the navies of Tyre, Athens, Carthage, 
Venice, and Genoa together, — have carried the science of 
healing, the means of locomotion and correspondence, every 
mechanical art, every manufacture, everything that pro- 
motes the convenience of life, to a perfection which our 
ancestors would have thought magical,— have produced a 
literature abounding in works not inferior to the noblest 
which Greece has bequeathed us,— have discovered the la** 
which regulate the motions of the heavenly bodies,— have 
speculated with exquisite subtlety on the operations of the 
human mind, — have been the acknowledged leaders of the 
human race in the career of political improvement. The 
history of England is the history of this great change in the 
moral, intellectual, and physical state of the inhabitant* of 
our own island. — Edinburgh Review. 

«• The Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Koowledf* U « 

69, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


Printed by William Clowib and Sons, Stamford SteefW 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[March 19, 1836. 


[Dunluce Cattle.] 

The Castle of Dunluce, about two miles from the sin- 
gular and interesting curiosity, the Giant's Causeway, 
is one of the most important as well as picturesque 
remains of the kind in Ireland. It is situated on an 
insulated rock, of 100 feet in perpendicular height, 
which is separated from the mainland by a precipitous 
chasm of about twenty feet wide. The only way by 
which it can be entered is by a narrow wall, one of the 
supporters of the ancient drawbridge. The Rev. Mr. 
Hamilton, in his Letters on the Antrim Coast, speak- 
ing of the isolated, abrupt rock ou which the castle 
stands, and which projects into the sea, says, " It seems 
as if it were spHt off from the terra nrma. Over the 
intermediate chasm lies the only approach to the castle, 
along a narrow wall, which has been built somewhat 
like a bridge, from the rock to the adjoining land ; and 
this circumstance must have rendered it almost im- 
pregnable before the invention of artillery. It appears, 
however, that there was originally another narrow wall 
which ran across the chasm parallel to the former, and 
that, by laying boards over these, an easy passage 
might occasionally be made for the benefit of the gar- 
rison." This peculiarity in the position of the castle is 
thus graphically described by the Rev. C. Otway in 
his ' Sketches in Ireland :' — 

" Reader, surely you cannot be at a loss for a draw- 
ing or print of Dunluce Castle ; — take it now in hand, 
and observe with me the narrow wall that connects the 

Vot. V. 

ruined fortress with the mainland : see how this wall is 
perforated, and, without any support from beneath, 
how it hangs there, braving time and tempest, and still 
needing no arch, simply by the strength of its own 
cemented material; — the art of man could not make 
such another self-supported thing : it is about eighteen 
inches broad, just the path of a man ; don't be afraid 
to cross it ; rest assured it won't tumble with you : it 
has borne many a better man, — so come on !" 

The walls of the castle are built of columnar 
basalt, many joints of which are placed in such a 
manner as to show their polygonal sections. The 
reader will recollect that the Giant's Causeway is com- 
posed of polygonal or many-sided basaltic columns, 
vast masses of which are still lying on the coast, as if 
they had been torn up and strewed around by some 
convulsion : so that at the early period at which the 
castle was built, it would appear, so to speak, as if the 
architect had availed himself of the ruins of nature to 
aid him in his art. The base of the rock on which the 
ruin stands has been formed into caves by the action of 
the waves, some of which communicate with the castle. 

There is no record of when Dunluce Castle was built. 
The same may be stated of many of the other ruins 
which lie along the extensive line of coast of the county 
of Antrim. It would appear, however, to have been, 
at an early period, the principal stronghold of a power- 
ful family termed the McQuillans, or, as the Irish 

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*rit«is term them, the Mac Ujdhlin*. The >fJ?oniiells, 
from Scotland, on one of their predatory excursions in, 
the north of Ireland, entered into a league with the 
M'Quillans, from which event an intermarriage sprung. 
Afterwards, either by force or fraud, for the story is 
by no means clear, the McDonnells dispossessed the 
M'QuIllans, and secured Dunluce to themselves. From 
this the chief of the M'DonneHs, called by the 
English Surly Boy, (in Irish Somhairle Buidhe, or 
Yellow Charley,) according to Camden, was driven 
by Sir John Perrot, lord deputy of Ireland in Queen 
Elizabeth's time, who secured the castle for the English. 
But next year Surly Bay contrived to regain pos- 
session ; and on his coming 1 to Dublin, and swearing 
allegiance to the crown of England, Elizabeth granted 
him Dunluce Castle, and a large district of country, to 
be held of the crown, on condition that neither he nor 
his men, nor his descendants, should serve any foreign 
power without leave; that they should restrain their 
people from ravaging; furnish at their own expense 
twelve horsemen and forty footmen for forty days in 
time of war; and pay to the king of England a certain 
number of cattle and hawks annually. The head of the 
McDonnells was subsequently created Earl of Antrim ; 
and Dunluce Castle continued to be the principal 
residence of the Antrim family till U fell into ruin, 
when they removed to Glenarm, their present residence. 
u It was," says the Rev. C. Otway, ** as fine a 
morning as ever fell from heaven when we landed at 
Dunluce : not a cloud jn the sky, not a wave on the 
water : the brown basaltic roek, with the tpwers of the 
ancient fortress that capped and covered it, — all its 
grey bastions and pointed gables, lay pictured on the 
incumbent mirror of the ocean ; everything was re- 
posing — everything was still, and nothing was heard 
but the splash of our pars and the song of Alick 
M 'Mullen, our guide, to break the silence of the sea. 
We rowed round this peninsular fortress* and then 
entered the Rne cavern that so curiously perforates the 
rock and opens its dark arch to admit pur boat, tie 
must, indeed, have a mini eased up in all the cotnmoo- 
plaee of dull existence wno would not, while within this 
cavern *nd under this fortress, enter into the associa- 
tions connected with the scene ; who could not hold 
communings with the ' genius loci.' Fancy, I know, 
called up for me the war-boats and the foemen* who 
either issued fj*w or took shejter in this sea-cave: I 
imagined, as the tide was growling amidst tlie far 
recesses, that J heard the moanjngs of chained captives, 
and the huge rocks arpund must be bales, of plunder 
landed and lodged here; and I took an interest, and 
supposed myself a sharer in the triumphs of the for- 
tunate and the helplessness of the eapxive while suffer- 
ing undejr the misery that bold bad men inflicted in 
troubled times. ^Landing in this cavern, we p&sscd up 
through its land-side entrance towards the rujn; the 
day had becorne exceedingly warm, and going from the 
coolness of the cave into the sultry atmosphere, we felt 
donbly the force of the sun's power ; the sea-birds had 
retreated to their distant rocks \ the goats were panting 
under the shaded ledges of the cliffs ; the rook$ and 
choughs, with open beaks and droopjpg wings, were 
scattered ©v^er the downs, frpni whose surface the air 
arose with a quivering, undulating motion. We were all 
glad to retire U) where, under the shade of the project- 
ing cljft a clear cold spring pffered its refreshing 

Jt is stated that, in tlie year 1689, on a stormy day, 
Jie part of tb# castle where the kitchen was situated 
gWP way, and the eoofc, with eight other servants, who 
w^re busy preparing dinner, were precipitated intp the 



the 2nd volume of c Egyptian Antiquities/ just 
about to be published in the ' Library of Entertaining 
Knowledge/ is a very curious chapter regarding 
mummies, from which the following is taken. Hero- 
dotus is the first who described the Egyptian process 
of embalming : — 

" There are persons whose business it is to embalm 
the dead, and they make this a regular profession. 
When a body is brought to them, they show the friends 
patterns of dead bodies, made in wood, and paiated to 
represent a human likeness. 

" The most elaborate style, they say, belongs to 
Him whose name I dare not venture to mention on 
such an occasion [he means Osiris : compare Herod, ii. 
170] ; the second is an inferior and cheaper style; and 
the third js a very economical one. The relations 
having made their choice and agreed on the terms, 
the embaimers begin their work; proceeding in the 
following manner, when they have to embalm a body 
in the most expensive style. With a crooked piece of 
iron they draw out the brain through the nostrils, and 
then pour in some mixture of drugs (aromatics and 
astringents). In the next place, they make an incision 
in the side with an Ethiopian stone (a piece of basalt, 
or possibly flint), and take out all the intestines, which 
they clean and drench with palm-wine, and afterwards 
with pouuded aromatics. Finally, after filling the 
cavities of the body with pure myrrh pounded, with 
cassi* and other aromatics, except frankincense, they 
sew the incision up. The body is then placed in nitre 
(ncdron) for seventy days, but not more ; for this is 
tjie prescribed time. When the seventy days are past, 
they wash the body and wrap it all over with strips oi 
linen, smearing them with gum, which the Egyptians 
generally use instead oF glue. *the relations, oft it- 
cejving the body, have a wooden ease made, resembling 
the human form, and in this they place the body, and 
deposit it in a totob of the farm of a chamber. The 
case containing the fcpdy is set Upright agaiast the 

" When the friends choose the second Method, pad 
wish to avoid expense, the process is as follows :— They 
fill syringes with oil of cedar, which they inject into 
the body through the seat, without making any in- 
cision or taking out the inner parts. The injection 
being prevented from returning, they lay the tody in 
the salt for the prescribed number oF davs; on the last 
day they allow the inject jon to flow put, and such is its 
strength, that it brings with it the bowels and viscera 
completely dissolved. The natron destroys the flesh 
also, and nothing is left but skin and bones. When 
this is done, they give the body to the friends without 
doing any more to it. 

" The third mode of embalming is as follows, and is 
used for the poorer sort. They drench the interior 
well with a strong injection, and after putting the body 
in the salt brine for the seventy days, return it to the 

The following acconnt of the general appearance of 
an Egyptian mummy, after the lapse of many a^es, 
forms an interesting commentary on the text of He- 
rodotus. It is extracted from a journal of M. Yilloteau, 
communicated to M. de Sacy : — 

" The 5th October, 1800, having left Carnak, we 
passed to the other bank of the Mle, and encamped 
opposite the village of Gourney. Scarcely were we 
encamped, when we saw some men approach with dead 
bodies on their shoulders, which turned out to be 
mummies. 'they put them on the ground, and offered 
them for sale. One was the mummy of a female, very 
well preserved. As we wished to know how it had 
been embalmed and swatbed ? ws }pok off the outer 

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covering, consisting of an upper and a lower part, the 
opening of which had been laced in front. With much 
care we took off a great number of bandages, which 
passed round the legs and feet, the thighs, the body, 
Arms and head ; and after this We began to distinguish 
more clearly the forms df the extremities, the head, 
ftet 4 and hands, while the shape of the bosom and body 
Were still but faintly seeft. 

•• As we came nearer the skitr, the bandages Were 
broader, and the extremities became more distinct. 
At last, we could clearly distinguish the nails of the 
fingers and toes, the nose, mouth, and eyes. Finally, 
we came to a kind of enveldpe, which covered' every 
part ; so that we took off in a single piece the part 
which covered the higher division of the face, and 
which preserved perfectly the form of the projecting 
features. The other parts were more cdvered in pro- 
portion, biit those where the embalmed had been skilful 
enough to [fill up the form, shdwed Us nothing but 
black and dry members. The shape atld the colour of 
the nails, which were expressed oh the envelop, dis- 

" Yet all the parts of the body, though dried, re- 
tained their natural form. The nair, eygs, nose, and 
mouth were so well preserved, that one could easily 
recognise the expression of ctitfntenatice which they 
must have produced. The hair was quite black, 
without any mixture of white hair, though the person 
appeared to have been old at the time of death. All 
that we could observe was, that it was si little red near 
the roots. The hair Was welt fixed, long, and divided 
into plaits, fastened Up on the head rather carelessly ; 
which makes me infer, that at that time the women let 
their hair fall down along their back in numerous tresses. 
" The eyelids, lashes, and eyebrows were still in their 
natural state. The eyes only appeared to be slightly 
injured, because they Were dried, and the pupil had 
shrunk in a little. The nose was pretty nearly in its 
natural state, very regularly formed, and Very beautiful. 
The tongue was dry, and like a piece of parchment. 
The lips were thin, and the mouth small. The teeth 
appeared to be worn out through old age, and to have 
lost their sharpness, but they were all there, and seemed 
not to have been decayed. Even at the present day it 
is remarkable that the natives of Egypt have very good 
teeth, which they keep to the most advanced age. The 
head of this mummy presented in general a tolerably 
regular oval. The body had been opened on the left 
side of the stomach, in Order to get at the entrails, and 
to introduce the aromatic substances ; and we drew 
out enough to satisfy ourselves that these were resinous 

'••This female ftlumttty had the arms and hands 
extended and placed along the body, while a male 
mummy which we examined had the arms crossed on 
the breast ; facts Which we observed to be of regular 
occurrence in the female and male mummies.*' 

The author of the volume to which we are indebted 
for the above extracts thinks that Herodotus only in- 
tended to indicate the three methods of embalming 
most generally in Use, the examination of mummies 
having made* us acquainted With variations arid details 
not included in his account. We may mention a few 
of the more remarkable of the additional facts. The 
brain does not appear to have been always extracted, it 
having been sometimes found in the skull in the form 
of a caky substance. When extracted, it must have 
been done, as Herodotus says, without opening the 
skull, as the dura mater has been found entire, and the 
falx, tentorium cerebelli, and lateral sinuses uninjured. 
When empty of brain, the skull is found to contain 
aromatic substances in the form of a coarse powder. 
In some skulls, otherwise empty, some insects, and the 
pup« of others, hate been discovered. The incision 

seems to have keen always made in tne* left side* ; and 
no instance lias occiirrdd of its having been Sewn up 
again, as mentioned by Herodotus,— the cut surfaces 
or the incision are merely brought together. Some 
mummies appear to have been" gilt. The mummy 
examined and described by Mr. Fettigrew stems to 
have been gilt all over, and parts of the gilding still 
remained irregularly scattered over different parts of 
the body. Irt other mummies gilding has been ob- 
served, more especially OU the nails of t^e fingers and 
toes, and on the eyelids, lips, artd face. In some mum- 
mies the eyes had been taken out and (he cavitv filled 
Up with a compact mass, of linen, in the centre of which 
a little colour was used to represent the pupil ; some 
mummies, however, were fufftished with eyes of glass „ 
or porcelain. Female mummies have usually the hair 
long, but the males have the head, beard, and even the 
eyebrows shaved. Mummies regularly embalmed are 
not, even at this distance of time, dry and brittle, but 
are rather tough, and slightly flexible ; aftd when one 
has been prepared in the best manner, With asphaltum, 
it would be a troublesome process to tear it to pieces. 
Some idea may be formed of the quantity of cloth em- 
ployed in swathing a mummy embalmed in the best 
manner, from the statement that, in one instance, the 
weight of the bandages, including the external envelop, 
was 29Ibs., and their total length 292 yards. In 
another instance the bandages weighed 35jlbs. ; and 
in that examined at Leeds there were not less than 
forty thicknesses of cloth. 

The other process described by Herodotus must, as 
being cheaper, have been more common than the other. 
The mummies in vvhich no bituminous or resinous 
matters were used were not of course calculated to last 
so long as the others. Nevertheless, bodies prepared 
in this or some equally cheap way have been found 
buried at a small depth in the sands. Some of these 
bodies have been merely dried ; others have been filled 
with bituminous matter, or merely covered with char- 
coal. The greater part of such bodies are found 
wrapped in pieces of coarse cloth, and in mats made of 
reeds and palm-leaves. Belzoni, judging from those 
he had seen, thought that mummies prepared in this 
humble way were in the proportion of ten to one of the 
better sort. He also concludes, with good apparent 
reason, that mummies of this sort were dried in the 
Sun, after having been picklejd seventy days in nitre, as 
mentioned by Herodotus. 

Before the embalmed and swathed bodies were put 
into the wooden cases mentioned by Herodotus, they 
were enclosed in a kind of shell, consisting of a num- 
ber of layers or* hempen or linen cloth glued together 
so as to form a strong but flexible kind of board, re- 
sembling papier mdche. This was made in the shape 
of the mummy, which was introduced by a longitudinal 
aperture at the bottom, extending the whole length of 
the figure, which was afterwards coarsely stifched up 
wilh hempen thread, ^hese cases are plastered wkliin 
and without, the external surface being rudely painted 
with figures of beetles, ibies, &c, done with ochreus 
earths tempered with water, and which are easily 
rubbed off with the finger, except where fixed by an 
outer coating of gum. The upper part has the usual 
representation of a human face, covered witn strong 
varnish. The outer case, or " wooden figure made to 
resemble the human form," mentioned by Herodotus, 
is usually cut from a single block* or made with dif- 
ferent pieces of sycamore-wood. Some of these cases 
are plain, and others highly ornamented with figures pf 
sacred animals, or with paintings representing mytho- 
logical subjects. There is sometimes still a second 
wooden case, or coffin, still more highly ornamented 
than the other, with gilding and painted figures secured 
by a strong varnish. Both the cases are made to rep re- 


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[Makcw 1% 

sent a human figure, and the sex is clearly denoted by 
the character of the head-dress, or the presence or 
absence of a beard. The bottom of all the wooden 
mummy-cases is flattened with a projection in front, 
forge enough to receive the thickly -bandaged feet. 
This affords a considerable base, on which they might 
conveniently be set erect in chambers high enough to 
receive them. Herodotus says that they were so de- 
posited in the tombs, standing on one end against the 
walls, and they are very properly so placed in our 
museums and collections. 

The last covering for the remains so anxiously pre- 
served was a stone coffin, or sarcophagus, which, how- 
ever, must have been such a vast additional expense as 
we can only suppose to have been incurred for kings 
or very wealthy persons. These coffins consist of two 
parts, — a large case, cut out of one piece of stone, 
large enough to contain the mummy with all its cases, 
and open at the top, and the other a lid to fit the 
opening. There are several specimens of these sar- 
cophagi in the British Museum, but only one of the 
larger sort has a lid, which is rounded into the general 
outline of the human form, with a face in high relief, 
and a general appearance* analogous to that of the 
wooden coffins : this coffin is of granite. There are 
two very large ones which have no lids : one is of a 
species of basalt, or perhaps breccia, and the other is a 
breccia similar to what the Italians call breccia verde. 
The coffin which is of this last material is a very curious 
and elaborate work, which has given occasion to much 
speculation. This sarcophagus is rounded at one 
end and flat at the other, the rest of it having the ap- 
pearance of a large box. It is about 3 feet 10 inches 
in length ; 4 feet 2 inches wide at the feet, and 5 feet 
4 inches at the head, — the height being about 3 feet 9 
inches. Both the exterior and interior surfaces of this 
vast coffin are sculptured with a multitude of characters 
and human and animal figures, which are more nu- 
merous, however, on the outside. This is a most 
astonishing work, when we consider the hardness of the 
material, the generally correct outline of the animal 
forms, and the minuteness of the work, — from eight to 
twelve hieroglyphics being in some parts included in 
the space of a square inch. The sculptured superficies 
exceeds 100 square feet (French), and the number of 
figures is said to be more than 21,700. The other sar- 
cophagi have also their surfaces sculptured in the same 
style, but not so minutely and elaborately. Another 
large and similar sarcophagus (of alabaster), covered 
with sculptures, which afford curious illustrations of 
the arts, customs, and religion of the Egyptians, was 
brought to this country by Belzoni, and is now in the 
museum of Sir John Soane, who purchased it for 2000/. 
These elaborate sculptures probably record the titles, 
actions, and merits of the kings or heroes whose mortal 
remains these wonderful coffins were destined to receive. 
Of Sir John Soane's sarcophagus there is an account, 
with valuable engraved illustrations, in Britton's * Union 
of Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting,' 1827. 

Besides these larger sarcophagi, there are two beau- 
tiful and perfect specimens in the Museum, of smaller 
stone coffins, one of black and the other of white marble, 
very highly polished. They are of a rounded form, in 
the outline of the human shape, and of really elegant 
proportions. The concave lids are sculptured, having 
at the top well-executed faces, one of a man and the 
other of a woman. These are so small that it is im- 
possible they could have contained a wooden mummy- 
case. It would therefore seem that sometimes, after 
the mummy had been swathed, and perhaps enclosed 
in a pasteboard case, it was placed at once in a stone 
receptacle, without the intervention of the usual wooden 
case ; — it seems indeed to have been an exchange for 
such a case. 


The discovery of St. Helena by John de Norm, tin 
Portuguese navigator, in 1502, contributed in a moat 
important manner to facilitate the intercourse betwecti 
Portugal and India. "This island," says Osaris, it 
his Account of De Nova's Voyage, "standing by itself 
in the midst of such a vast ocean, seems, as it were, to 
have been placed there by Providence for the reception 
and shelter of weather-beaten ships." The discovery at 
the island was made by De Nova on the 21st of Mar, 
being the anniversary of Helena, mother of the Em- 
peror Constantiue. It is believed that the Portuguese 
were anxious to prevent other nations availing them- 
selves of the advantages of St. Helena, and for their 
own purposes they stocked it " with goats, asses, bogs, 
and other cattle." In the year 1515 a few Portuguese 
were induced by the following circumstances to prefer 
the solitudes of St. Helena to their native land. Al- 
phonso Albuquerque, the governor of the Portuguese 
establishments in the East Indies, having obtained a 
victory near Goa, several of his countrymen who had 
deserted fell into his power. He ordered their noses, 
ears, right hands, and thumbs of their left hands to be 
cut off as a punishment for this crime, and that, in this 
mutilated condition, they should be sent to Portugal. 
They were, however, left at St. Helena with a few 
negroes ; and poultry, partridges, pheasants, and other 
birds were turned adrift on the island to multiply and 
furnish them with subsistence. A small stock of fruit- 
trees and vegetables was also given to them. The re- 
sources of the island increased abundantly under the 
judicious management of its residents. For every ship 
which touched from Portugal there was a supply of 
fresh provisions, vegetables, and water ; and those who 
are aware how much the efforts of the early navigators 
were impeded by living for a long period upon salted 
provisions, by which disease often rapidly enfeebled and 
thinned their numbers, will perceive that a resting-place 
in the middle of -the Atlantic, abounding with the 
means of renewing their health and strength, would 
soon become an object of the highest importance to 
navigators, and a station which it was equally desirable 
to render serviceable for political reasons. Purchas 
says in his Pilgrims : — u It seems that God hath planted 
this island in convenient place for the long and danger- 
ous Indian navigations. There the Portugals leave 
their sick, which stay till other ships come next year to 
take them." St. Helena afforded the early voyagers to 
the East advantages somewhat similar in degree to 
those which would be derived in the present day by the 
discovery, in the well-explored Atlantic, of an island 
abounding with coal, and situated half way between the 
coasts of Ireland and North America. Such a circum- 
stance would at once, by means of steam-boats, render 
the intercourse between the United States and the 
United Kingdom much more rapid and extensive than 
it is at present. In the other case the risks of early 
commercial enterprise were not a little diminished by 
the facilities which St. Helena offered for restoring 
the health of a ship's crew, and by its convenience 
as a rendezvous in time of war for merchant-ships 
waiting for convoy and protection before encounter- 
ing the cruizers of unfriendly ports in the European 

St. Helena is in the sixteenth degree of south lati- 
tude, and is six degrees west of Greenwich. It is 
about half way between Africa and South America, its 
distance from the former being 1200 miles. It is 1800 
miles distant from the Cape of Good Hope ; and the 
little island of Ascension, which is the nearest point of 
land to St Helena, is at a distance of 600 miles. The 
extreme length of the island is ten miles and a half; its 
breadth six miles and three-quarters, and its total cir- 

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cumference about twenty-eight miles. Its area, there- 
fore, is about 30,300 acres, not quite one -third the size 
of the smallest county in England. 

The Portuguese had been in the constant habit of 
touching at St. Helena in their voyages to and from 
the East for a period of nearly ninety years before it 
was visited by an English ship. At length Sir Thomas 
Candish, or Cavendish, on his return from a voyage 
of circumnavigation, came within sight of the island, 
June 8th, 1588. It was then well-stocked with par- 
tridges, pheasants, turkeys, goats, and hogs ; and though 
nothing is said of inhabitants, there was a church to 
which there was an approach' by a " fair causeway." 
The valley in which the church stood is described as 
" extremely pleasant, and so full of fruit-trees and 
excellent plants, that it seemed like a very fair and 
well-cultivated garden, having long rows of lemon, 
orange, citron, pomegranate, date, and fig trees, de- 
lighting the eye with blossoms, green fruit and ripe, 
all at once." Here Cavendish remained twelve days. 
The second English ship touched at St. Helena in 1591. 
In 1600 the East India Company was incorporated, 
and the island was more frequently visited by the 
English. About the same time the Dutch were also in 
the habit of calling at St. Helena. The numerous 
settlements which the Portuguese had formed on both 
the eastern and western coasts of Africa rendered St. 
Helena of less importance to them than it had hereto- 
fore been, and on its being abandoned by them, the 
Dutch took possession of it-; but in 1651 they also 
withdrew from the island, and established themselves at 
the Cape of Good Hope. The East India Company 
now took it into their hands, with a view of rendering 
it a permanent station. Fortifications were erected 
by the first governor in 1658, near the site of the 

present Government House, immediately over the letter 
c in the view above. The name given to these erec- 
tions was Fort James, in compliment, it is believed, to 
the Duke of York, afterwards James II., who was at 
the head of an African company. In 1672 the Dutch 
got possession of the island by stratagem, but iu the 
following year it was retaken by the English } and by 
displaying the Dutch flag, six ships of that nation, 
returning from India, richly laden, were decoyed into 
the harbour, when four of them were taken. The 
island was regranted to the East India Company 
under a new charter, settlers were invited, and lands 
assigned to them. According to the tenure on which 
the island was held, the Company had power, if land 
had remained uncultivated for six months, of dispos- 
sessing the occupier. A salary of 100/. was given to the 
governor, and a public table was kept from the produce 
of certain lands cultivated for the purpose. The go- 
vernor and council, with the head artificer and ser- 
geant of the guard, dined at the same table, where 
they sat according to their respective ranks. Captain 
Poirier, who was governor in 1697, did away with this 
familiar admixture of ranks. A letter sent to England 
at the time thus alludes to the circumstance : — '* This 
governor is of opinion that nobody ought to sit at table 
with him that is not cleanly dressed, or that is drunk." 
This important question gave occasion to a resolution of 
the council in 1717, in which it was laid down that, "in 
the governor's absence, there shall stand a salt upon 
the table, which shall be placed below the council 
and the chaplain. Those who sit above that salt shall 
always drink, as they think proper, either* wine or 
punch ; but those who sit below that salt shall have to 
two persons one common bowl of punch, which contains 
about three pints j if but three, the same ; if four, two ; 

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and if ftve, no mere ; of in ease of wine instead thereof, 
one bottle for each bowl of punch." 

From the end of the seventeenth century to within 
the last two years St. Helena has been in the posses- 
sion of the East India Company. Although the scurvy 
is no longer dreaded by seamen, yet the island is not 
less visited by ships on their voyage to and from the 
East Indies. From 1801 to 1805 an average of 165 
ships touched annually at the island : in 1823 the num- 
ber which anchored in the road was 193. During the 
war the crews and passengers of ships stopping in the 
road frequently exceeded the number of the inhabitants 
ai^d garrison, who were compelled to live on salt pro- 
visions; and a person could not kill his own cattle 
without the governors permission. This restriction 
was removed when the circumstances which occasioned 
the adoption of such a regulation were no longer in 
operation. In lime of peace vessels arrive singly, and 
there need be no delay for convoy of men-of-war. 

In 1805 the population of St. Helena amounted to 
3078; in 1893 to 438 1 : viz., whites 1201; eivil and 
military establishment 911; slaves 1074; free persons 
of colour 729? Chinese 442; Lascars 94. 

Nearly one-half of the island consists of waste and 
rugged land. Corn-growing is an object of secondary 
consequence, and bread is made of .imported flour. 
The most Valuable productions of the larid ere roots* 
vegetables, and live stock. The profit on land is from 
7 to 8 per cent. 

The price of labour is high. The wages of a car- 
penter are 0*. or is. a day; of a mason from 4*. to 
54. j of a labourer 2s. to 2s. 6d. In 1810 fifty Chinese 
labourers were introduced from the Company's Factory 
at Canton, and their services proved so valuable, that 
others were afterwards introduced. *f he terms on which 
they were engaged were, for labourers, 1*. per day ; 
for mechanics Is. 6d., eielnsive of their board, which 
might be reckoned at another shilling. The> further 
importation of slaves was soon afterwards forbidden. 
Under Sir Hudson JJowe's government it was declared 
that all children born of a slave woman, from and after 
Christmas Day, 1818, should be free, but that they 
fchduld be considered as apprentices to the proprietors 
of the mothers, if males, until the age of eighteen 
years ; and if females, until the age of sixteen. Masters 
and mistresses were recommended to enforce the 
attendance of free-born children at church and at the 
Sunday schools. These resolutions were voluntarily 
adopted by the Inhabitants at a public meeting held 
August 13th, 1813. 

Under the governorship of General Beatson gferit 
Attention was paid to the improvement of the agri- 
cultural resources of the island. The governor himself 
made a Series of experiments in agriculture arid arbo- 
riculture, and the results were published in a local 
periodical, entitled c The St. Helena Register/ 

Governor Wilks* who was appointed in 1813, esta- 
blished a Society, one. of the leading objects of whieh 
was to educate the children of the poorer classes. In 
1823 there were 400 children in attendance at the 
different schools which had been established. The 
sum Of 250J. was voluntarily contributed for this pur- 
pose. The degrading punishment 6f flogging was 
abolished, and the tread-mill introduced as a Substitute; 
an agricultural and horticultural society was founded ; 
a 1 regular market established, which h the exclusive 
blace of sale for articles of native produce. On the 
5th of December, 1823, a fair and a prtee show for 
agricultural cattle and produde were held, and a 
plouffhirtg match took place. The supply of water 
has been rendered more abundant, and 300 tons 4>er 
day may now be obtained. A great improvement has 
taken place in the moral character of the inhabitants, 
ill consequence of the Judicious measures of the various 

individuals by whom the island was governed for & 
thirty or five and-thirty years preceding 1823, aad i 
gratifying contrast is presented to the lawless a4 
tumultuous proceedings which had frequently ocean*: 
at an earlier period. 

The most important event in the history of the isfak 
is its being chosen as the residence of Bonaparte ifar 
the termination of his continental fortunes by the fiaJlit 
of Waterloo. A convention was signed at Para, 
August 20th, 1815, between the four great Alike 
Powers, by which the person of Bonaparte was in- 
trusted to the English government, and commissioners 
were appointed by France, Russia, and Austria, to 
reside at St. Helena, whither it was determined tc 
convey the ex-Emperor. The frrce Of the ffamsrc 
was considerably increased** and Ships of War wer? 
stationed off the island diifing Bonaparte's reekle a* 
He landed in November, 1815, and died Hay Sti 
1821, at his residence at Lbngwood, indicated by tk 
letter 6, in a line above it in the view. On the 8th tie 
body was interred, with ell the honours due to a mHitan 
man of the highest rank, in SJane's Valley, in a vpr: 
of his own selecting, overhung by the creeping willow 
The question of applying to the English goventfaea: 
for the remains of this great man, in ordef to bar? 
them deposited near the scene of his former power aad 
glory, has been frequently touched upon in the Freed 
Chamber of Deputies ; but no step has yet been taken 
of an official character. The last resting-place of 
Napoleon will long render St Helena a scene of his- 
torical notice and interest. 

" Longwood," says O'Bfeara, ,f is situated on a plain 
formed on the summit of a mountain, about 1800 feet 
above the level of the sea ; and, including Dead Wood, 
comprises 1400 or 1500 acres of land, a great pro- 
portion of which Is planted, with an indigenous tree 
called gum-wood. Its appearance is so mb re and un- 

Mr. T. H. Brooke, a member of the Council of St 
Helena, who has published the most complete ac- 
count of the island, says, — u The appearance of St 
Helena at a distance is that of an abrupt and rugged 
rock. A nearer approach brings to view the centra! 
eminences, which have a softer outline. A still nearer 
approach shuts from the view these eminences, and 
nothing is presented to the eye but craggy and stu- 
pendous difrs. On nearing Muaden's Point, harness 
narrow valley, situated between two lofty mountains, 
presents itself." O'Meara, in his ' Voice from St. He- 
lena,' says, that the view of the town of St. James from 
the sea " resembles that of a scene at the theatre." 
The town has an agreeable aspect, and contains a species 
of the Indian banyan-tree, planted at intervals. It is 
entered by a gateway, forming one side of the parade, 
which is about 300 feet square. The Government 
House and other public offices are on the left side. 
The church (marked d) is a neat edifice. There are three 
streets, two of whieh contain shop*, in which both the 
produce of Europe and the East id sold. The two 
ridges between which the town is situated ate Rupert's 
on the east and Ladder HH1 (marked e) on the west. 
The winding road up the latter leads to the governor's 
Country-house. Carts and oxen pass along these roads, 
which are dreary and cheerless in their aspect for about 
a couple of miles. At length a more agreeable view 
presents itself;— neat dwellings, cultivated plantations, 
and the vegetable productions of the Old and New 
World flourishing together. 

Diana's Peak, the highest point of a chain of hilte 
which runs across the island, is 2700 feet above the 
level of the sea. The view from the Summit is extremely 
novel, picturesque, and grand, and doses with the sea 
dashing against the rugged cliffs. 

CPMeara, Bonaparte* medical attendant, has given 

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a nest tmsarourabJe account of the climate of St. 
Helena. "A ride of a few miles," he says, " takes a 
man through a new climate every half-hour. One 
moment becalmed in the bottom of the ravines, he 
experiences the heat of the tropics in a latitude of 
1 5° 55" south ; — a moment after, passing the aperture 
of some chasm, perspiring from every pore, the temporary , 
lull is succeeded by a sudden and bleak blast from the 
mountains.? 1 Mr. Brooke says that the thermometer 
at James's Town seldom rises above 80°. The seasons 
are not divided so distinctly into dry and rainy seasons 
as is usual in the tropics c every month has a portion of 
rain. The number of ploudy days is large. O'Meara 
states that *' one moment there is a shower of rain, 
accompanied by fog; — then the sky brightens, the 
weather clears up, and the scorching rays of a tropical 
sun are experienced. This continues for a time, an4 is 
then followed by a repetition of fog, rain, and mist." In 
1523 the mortality, according to Mr. Brooke, was under 
one per cent. In 1807 the measles were very fatal, 
but the small-pox, which was once introduced in a 
similar manner, only carried off two persons. Vacci- 
nation, however, is regularly practised. Dr. H alley 
visited the island, in order to observe the transit of 
Venus ; and in If 61 Dr. Maskelyne made astronomical 
observations at St. Helena. The elevation of the island 
and the serenity of the sky are said to be favourable for 
these objects. A view of the Observatory is given jn 
the cat. 

Vines, figs, oranges, and lemons ripen in the valleys 
near the sea. Gooseberries and currants do not pro- 
duce fruit, but turn to evergreens. Cherries do not 
grow on the island. The usual culinary vegetables, 
such as cabbages, peas ? beans, &c, are raised in large 
quantities. .The blackberry overran the island on being 
introduced. The oak only flourishes in sheltered spots. 
The breed of cattle and sheep is English. Rabbits, 
pheasants, and partridges are numerous. The shores 
abound with wild fowl. There are neither frogs, toads, 
nor snakes on the island, but a few scorpions and centi- 
pedes : the bite of the former is not dangerous. Bees 
have been brought, but they generally disappear, being 
probably driven out to sea. Whales are occasionally 
seen on the coast. 


From a number of old printed papers, principally 
single sheets, which have been preserved in the British 
Museum, we are enabled to collect a few notices on 
these subjects, which may have some interest at the 
present moment, when the policy of the paper-duty 
and the stamp-duty on newspapers, as they now e*ist, 
i§ occupying much of the public attention. 

It is unfortunate that most of the documents to 
which we are about to refer are without any date; but 
their internal evidence will generally enable us to sup- 
ply this deficiency. 

Before, however, coming to the subjects and the 
period mpntioned in our title, we may state a fact 
respecting the business of printing in London at a 
somewhat earlier period, which sounds strange enough 
at the present day. From a paper, entitled "The 
Case and Proposals of the Free Journeymen Printers 
in and about London," and dated the 23rd October, 
1666, it appears that the entire number of working 
printers who had served a regular apprenticeship, then 
resident in and about London, was no more than 140 ! 
There were, to be sure, in addition some " foreigners," 
as they were called, that is, workmen who had not 
obtained their freedom by their serving a regular 
apprenticeship ; but they are not spoken of as very 
numerous. The paper is a remonstrance against any 

such interlopers feeing allowed tp be employed, ^cn 
cording to the Population Returns for 1831, the num- 
ber of printers then in tfce metropolis was 3623, or 
probably more than twenty times the number it con- 
tained in l$66. 

A bill fpr laying a stamp-duty of a penny upon 
eyery number of a periodical publication, consisting 
of a whole sheet, and of a halfpenny when it con- 
sisted of only half a sheet, appears to have beep first 
brought into Parliament in the Utter part of the reign 
of King Willfam, thpugh it did not then, we believe, 
pass into a law, Among the loose sheets in the 
museum, there is one entitled ' Reasons humbly 
offered to the Parliament in behalf of several Persons 
concerned in Paper-making, Printing, and Publishing 
the Halfpenny Newspapers/ against this bill while it 
was in dependence. From this statement it appears 
that there were then in London five printers (that is, 
we must suppose, master printers) engaged in the trade 
of these cheap periodical publications, which is spoken 
of as one of very recent origin. The quantity of paper 
consumed by them is estimated to amount, " by a modest 
computation," to 20,000 reams in the year. Each of 
the rive printers, it is stated, " pays 9*. per week duty 
to his Majesty, over and besides 1*. for every advertise- 
ment therein inserted, so that, by a like computation, 
each printer of the said halfpenny newspapers pays 
cotnmunibuB annit to the king the sum of about 60/., 
besides what the paper-maker pays. 71 

The third objection urged against the proposed 
stamp-duty lets us into a little more of the statistics of 
the trade. It runs thus : — " For that the said news- 
papers have been always a whole sheet and a half, and 
soid for one halfpenny to. the poorer sort of people, 
who are purchasers of it by reason of its cheapness, to 
divert themselves, and also to allure herewith their 
young children, and entice them to reading ; and should 
a duty^of three-halfpence be laid upon these mean 
newspapers (which by reason of the coarseness of the 
paper the generality of gentlemen are above conversing 
with), it would utterly extinguish and suppress the 
same/' It is added that hundreds of persons and 
families get their bread by selling the publications in 
question. Many blind persons are stated to be thus 
employed, and *' divers of them," says the account, 
" who are industrious, and have but a penny or three- 
halfpence for a stock to begin with in a morning, will 
before night advance it to eighteen pence or two shil- 
lings, which greatly tends to the comfortable support 
of such miserable, poor, and blind creatures, who sell 
them about the streets/' An Act imposing such a 
stamp-duty as is here deprecated was afterwards passed 
in 1712, in the reign of Queen Anne, and came into 
operation in August of the same year. On a former 
occasion (see * Penny Magazine/ vol. i. p. 147) we 
have noticed some of the effects produced by this 
impost, among which one appears to have been the 
discontinuance of the f Spectator/ 

Another of our documents, also without a date, is 
entitled ' The Case of the Paper Traders/ We believe 
this representation to have been called forth by a bill 
which was brought into parliament in the beginning of 
the year 1^96, and eventually passed into a law. The 
preamble of the statement represents that " there is a 
bill now depending for laying 25/. per cent, upon paper, 
parchment, vellum, and pasteboard to be imported ; 20k 
per cent, on English paper, &c. ; and 17/. 10a percent, 
on those goods now (in merchants' and others' hands) 
to be sold/' It is contended, in the first place, that 
these duties will not produce so much as even the small 
sum of 18,000/. per annum. It is stated that there were 
not then in ail England above 100 paper mills, and 
these, with the exception of that belonging to the Oomt- * 
pany, (we do not exactly know what company in 
meant,) making only brown paper and the 

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[AfAEM M>, 18 

white, * do not," it is affirmed, "one with another, 
annually make 200/. worth." The Company are stated 
to make about 8000/. worth per annum. Altogether, 
therefore, the value of the paper annually made in 
England at this time was only about 28*000/. Then 
are now about 700 paper mills in England, employing 
about 27,000 workmen, and manufacturing annually 
fully 1,200,000/. worth of paper. ** The vellum, parch- 
ment and pasteboard," the statement goes on to say, 
u made and expended here the last year was not above 
10,000/." The writers add,— 44 The paper last year 
imported was not worth 40,000/. (and much less will be 
brought in if this duty be laid.)" From these several 
sources it is calculated that the proposed duty will 
bring in altogether only 17,600/., from which is to be 
deducted the expense of the collection. A trifle more, 
indeed, it is admitted, may be obtained from the stocks 
in hand, the project of taxing which, however, is cha- 
racterized as a most extraordinary one, and as wholly 
without precedent. The small dealers in, the country, 
it is anticipated, must be left entirely out of considera- 
tion, as the amount that could be obtained from them 
would not repay the expenses of collecting it. Of 
merchants and wholesale dealers, from whom alone it 
would be practicable to collect the duty, the number 
is stated not to exceed thirty-live, who might, in all, 
have goods in hand to the value of about 16,000/. 
Upon that amount of stock the tax would be only 
2800/., and that, it might have been added, only for 
the first year. 

44 The paper-makers," the representation goes on to 
say, 44 are generally very poor, and now can scarce 
maintain their families; but when (as by this bill 
required) they must pay, or give security for, the duty 
before they sell, this manufacture will be so much 
lessened that most of the mills must be ruined, and the 
makers, with their families, become a charge to their 
respective parishes. The same may be said of the 
parchment-makers. * • * The printing trade now 
consumes the greatest part of the paper ; but if this 
duty be laid, the consumption will not be half what it 
now is, few books but that are of absolute, necessity 
being now printed by reason of the present advance 
upon paper ; much less will they be able to bear the 
charge upon the press when so great a duty shall 
be laid upon the commodity. This will ruin some 
hundreds of booksellers, bookbinders, and printers, and 
others depending on that trade.'* 

It appears that under this Act every sheet of paper 
that was sold to the public bore on it the king's stamp, 
and also that offices or shops for the retail of paper thus 
stamped were opened in all parts of the kingdom by 
commissioners appointed to .see the Act carried into 
effect. The commissioners seem to have obtained their 
supplies of paper by contracting for it with certain 
manufacturers. This system gave great umbrage to 
the established dealers in the commodity, especially to 
the Company of Stationers ; and among the documents 
in the Museum are various representations from them 
on the subject, and also replies to their complaints by 
the commissioners. The stationers complain of the 
opposition set up to them as an unfair interference on 
the part of the government ; the commissioners, on the 
other hand, vindicate the system on the ground of the 
reduced prices at which the public were supplied with 
paper at their establishments. But dealers in their 
situation might well afford to sell their goods cheaper 
than others ; they of course required no profits. The 
capital with which they traded was publie capital ; and 
they were also, no doubt, salaried by the public. The 
interference, therefore, was really as unfair a one as it 
is possible to conceive. We do not recollect to have 
before met with any notice of this singular scheme of 
finance. It appears that the two principal offices of 
the Commissioners were at Lincoln's Inn and in South- 

ward Some*notiots of the prices of paper" at this date 
may be found in the statements of the two parties to 
which we have referred. 

The actual produce of (he duties imposed by this 
Act is stated in another paper, entitled 4 Reasoa* 
humbly offered to the Honourable House of Com moos 
against laying a further Duty upon Papar.' Thts repn- 
sentation appears to have been made some time after 
the Act of 1697 had expired, and whenj% bill had bees 
brought into parliament for imposing certain new duties 
upon paper. The bill in question is probably that 
which was passed into a law on the 5th of July, 1698, 
under the title of * An Act for paying to His Majesty, 
his heirs and successors, further duties,. upon stamped 
vellum, parchment, and. paper.' The authors of the 
4 Reasons ' state, that u the whole produce, of the paper- 
duty from March L, 1696 (this must be a mistake for 
1697), to March 1, 1698, came but to 16,848/. 10#. 9d, 
about one-third whereof was collected, from the stock 
which was in the hands of tradesmen before and at the 
time when the Act was passed." This result may be 
compared with the estimate extracted (rom the last- 
mentioned paper. It was now purposed to lay a duty 
of 30 per cent, on French paper, in lieu of that of 25 
per cent., which had expired.. If this duty shall be 
imposed, it is contended, French paper wit] cost 4t. the 
ream ; and it is added, * 4 Note that two-thirds of the 
paper used for printing and common writing, which is 
rated in our books of rates at 4s. 6d. per ream, doth 
cost beyond sea no more than 1*. 3d. to 3*. per ream." 
With regard to foreign paper in general, it is stated 
that, although the high duty. of 25 percent, had ex- 
pired, it was still extremely dear; and "the dearness 
of paper," observe the writers of the 4 Reasons,' 4t is the 
only occasion that, a great number of voluminous and 
useful books, in many sciences, now ready for the press, 
cannot be printed ; — to the great discouragement of 
trade, as well as of industry and learning, very many 
of the profession bejng forced to employ themselves on 
trivial pamphlets." f 

Superstition. — " The Amaponda Caflfers have three pro- 
fessions—that of the • Amaqira,' or witch-doctor ; of the 

• Abanisi-bamvula/ or rain-maker ; and of the • Agika/ or 
doctor of medicine, which may be considered the moat valu- 
able of the three. The ' Agika ' is acquainted with many 
valuable roots, which are used both internally and as em- 
brocations. Dr. Morgan remarks, in a paper recently read 
at the South African Institution, Cape of Good Hope, 

• There are not many diseases peculiar to these people. 
The teeni a (tape- worm) appears to be the only one that can 
be called endemic : dyspnoea, sicca, and rheumatism are not 
uncommon complaints, most probably produced by smoking 
noxious herbs, fatigue, and exposure to atmospheric changes. 
Paralysis and glandular swellings are also complaints to 
which they appear subject. In their treatment of disease, 
no regard appears to be paid to the character of the com- 
plaint; the treatment is generally loss of blood by a rough 
sort of operation, consisting of scarifying and drawing blood 
after the manner of cupping among us. Roots are infused 
in water which communicate a purgative quality, and some- 
times an emetio root is given to the sick person. In pains 
and aches of the bones and limbs, they bum a' preparation 
similar to the moxa; they have lately substituted gun- 
powder when it can be obtained/ They are subject to a 
variety of other diseases which baffle the skill of their 
medical advisers, who in such cases have recourse to smear- 
ing the patient with cow-dung, and keeping up bis spirits 
with the constant excitement of dancing and singing within 
his hut Should he still continue sick, he is supposed to be 
bewitched, and then the ' Amaqira ' is called in. The 
medical men arc well paid, and if the patient be poor, the 
people of tho kraal where he lives are responsible for the 
remuneration. In fact the man who fetches a doctor usually 
carries with him either a calf or a quantity of beads and 
assagais, as an inducement for his immediate attendance.— 
Steedman's Wanderings in Southern Africa. 

Printed hf William Cuftrss and Sevt, Stamford 6*reot. 
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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[March 26, 1826. 


| [Porch of Chartres Cathedral.] 

Chart res, the principal town 6f the department of the 
Eure and Loire, is about sixty-five miles south-west of 1 
F*aris, on the road which passes through Versailles and 
Rambouillet to Tours. It is one of the oldest towns 
i n France, and was known to the ancients under the 
names of A u trie am and Carnutum. During the middle 
ages it was frequently taken and pillaged, and in the 
fifteenth century it was for a considerable period in 
tbe possession of the English; but it was retaken 
by Dunois. In 1563 the Protestant party, then in 
arms, besieged Chartres, but without success. In 159 1 , 
when France was torn by internal contests, the town 
was taken by Henry IV. Three years afterwards he 
was crowned in the cathedral ; that of Rheims, in which 
this ceremony had always, been performed, not being 
Vol. V 

in his possession ; or, as is sometimes stated, the prelate 
of Rheims being considered a disaffected person, the 
monarch transferred his favours to Chartres. At the 
village of Bretigny, a short distance from Chartres, a 
treaty was signed between the French and English, 
by which , the French King, who had been taken 
prisoner at the battle of Poictiers in 13b 6, was restored 
to his country. 

The ancient defences of the town are destroyed, but 
the houses in many parts of it still retain the appearance 
which is peculiar to the domestic edifices of the middle 
ages, standing with their many-gabled fronts towards 
the narrow and crooked streets ; the wood with which 
they are constructed exhibiting curious specimens of 
the carver's art. Some of the houses have 'little towers, 


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[MLikch t*. 

which are still more characteristic of the period referred 
to. The town stands on an eminence, and is divided 
into the upper and lower town ; the former, being the 
most modern, contains the principal inns, the post-office, 
and other public buildings. Nevertheless the place of 
St. Peter, which is in the old town, is very agreeably 
ornamented by alleys of trees. The old ramparts are 
converted into a boulevard, which is much frequented as 

' a promenade. The finest public walk is the Place des 
Barricades, which is beyond the walls. Three of the old 
gates are standing, the most remarkable of which is 
the Porte Guillaume. The communication between the 
upper and lower town is by pathways so steep, as totally 
to exclude the use of carriages ; and wine, wood, coal, 
and other bulky articles are introduced by means of hand- 
barrows. The river Eure, which runs through the lower 
town, divides into two branches, only one of which 
enters within the limits of the town. The bridge was 
constructed by Vauban. Chartres does not possess 
any variety of public buildings. The Prefecture was 
formerly the palace of the bishop, but the Revolution 
has changed its destination to secular purposes. There 
is a statue of General Marceau, who was a native of 
Chartres, and while employed by the Republican 
government in the task of pacifying La Vendee, earned 
this memorial by his admirable prudence and good 
feeling in such difficult circumstances. The choir of 
the church of St. Andrew is built on an arch beneath 
which the Eure passes. The construction of the church 
is somewhat peculiar, and the stones are cemented in 
such a manner, that the edifice appears as if constructed 
out of the solid rock. The population of Chartres is above 
14,000. It is the seat of a bishop, and contains several 
administrative offices of the first class. The public 
library possesses about 35,000 volumes ; there are public 
baths, a museum of natural history, a botanic garden, 
a public drawing-school, and other useful institutions. 
Chartres is the centre of the most important corn- 
growing district in France, and the capital derives its 
chief supplies from the markets which are held here 
twice a week. The population is so small in comparison 
with the large district in which it is situated, that 
nearly all the corn is consumed elsewhere than where 
it is grown. The town is celebrated throughout the 
kingdom for its pies. Tanneries, dyeing-establish- 
ments, and hat- manufactories are carried on rather ex- 
tensively, and the wool-trade is also of some importance. 
The spires of the cathedral are visible twenty-five 
miles before; the traveller reaches Chartres, from what- 
ever quarter he approaches the town ; and yet it is not 
possible to obtain a complete view of this fine old edifice, 
so closely is it surrounded by other buildings. One of 
the spires is heavy and without ornament, if we except 
the stones being cut like the scales of a fish, the effect 
of which is singular rather than pleasing. This spire 
seems always to be leaning, from whatever point it is 
viewed. This is owing to the angle which faces the 
spectator being so straight as to appear as if it were 
entirely vertical. The other spire is enriched with 
ornaments towards the middle ; but as they are not 
continued throughout, the effect is not harmonious. The 
steeples of Chartres are about 306 feet high ; that of 
Strasburg is 492 feet in height. There is in France an 

.old saying to the effect that all the requisites for a 
perfect church would be combined by adopting the 
entrance of the cathedral of Rheims, the nave of that 
of Amiens, the choir of Beauvais, and the steeple of 
Chartres. The entrance to the cathedral is by a porch 
a portion of which is represented in the cut. The 
obscurity which reigns in the interior is so great, that 

.except the day be bright, it is not possible to read 
small .print. This is owing to the thickness of the 
glass, and to its being highly stained. Along the 

<axteritr of the choir there are forty-three niches, filled 

with groups illustrative of Scripture history, abort 
which are delicately executed Gothic ornaments, and 
beneath arabesque ornaments equally graceful. TLe 
interior part of the choir contains representations in 
effigy of various scenes* in the "life of Christ, executed 
in Carrara marble by Bridan ; and one to commemorate 
a vow made by Louis XIII. in this cathedral. The 
choir is surrounded by a double range of lateral naves, 
sustained by thirly-lwo pillars. ' In the middle of the 
Have the pavement is laid in a spiral form, and i± 
popularly called " la lieue," from the belief that the 
length of the circles, if traced from their commence- 
ment, would be equal to a league. The nave is sup- 
ported by a single row of sixteen pillars; eight sustain 
the cross, making altogether fifty -six pillars. Tk 
principal altar is remarkable for a colossal group ia 
marble of the Assumption of the Virgin, which wis 
executed in 1773 by Bridan. This work had very 
nearly been destroyed during the Revolution, but wi- 
saved by one of the inhabitants, who proposed 
changing the Virgin into the Goddess of Liberty, 
and accordingly placed a Phrygian cap on her head. 
The group is supported by five columns, which stand 
in the lower church. This latter portion of the cathe- 
dral, previous to the destruction, during the Revolu- 
tion, of the chapels and effigies which it contained, 
was one of the most complete of its kind in France* 
It is not at present generally exhibited to visitors, 
though highly curious and picturesque. 

The Rev. G. D. Whittington's ' Ecclesiastical An- 
tiquities of Francs' contains the following account ot 
the Cathedral of Chartres : — 

" The Cathedral of Chartres, one of the grandest 
works of the age, was rebuilt in the eleventh century by 
Fulbert, its bishop. This church, which is said to hate 
been originally founded in. the third century, had been 
frequently burnt, particularly by lightning in 1020; 
upon which Fulbert undertook its entire reconstruction, 
and the great reputation he enjoyed in France and the 
rest of Europe enabled him to execute it in a manner til: 
then unknown in his country. Kanute, king of Eng- 
land, and Richard, duke of Normandy, were among 
the princes who assisted him with contributions. Some 
accounts mention that he had the gratification of seeing 
the work finished before his death, which happened in 
1028 ; this, however, is disproved by the epitaph upon 
Thierri, or Theodoric, his successor, still existing in the 
church of St Pere, which ascribes the completion of the 
fabric to that prelate, who died in 1048. The northern 
part was erected afterwards, in 1060, at the expense ot 
Jean Cormier, a native of Chartres, and physician to 
the king/' The above he has taken from the account 
given by Lenoir, who derived his information from 
the archives of the city of Chartres, preserved in the 
King'% Library at Paris. Mr. Whittington adds,— 
" The length of the Cathedral of Chartres is 420 feet; 
the height 108 feet ; the nave is 48 feet wide, with 
aisles 18^ feet wide and 42 feet high. On each side of 
the choir the aisles are double, and the transept, which 
is 210 feet long, contains aisles, which seems to have 
been the first instance of this magnificent arrangement 
in France. There are seven chapels in the chevet, and 
the crypts and lower church are built with great art 
and regularity ." 

The splendid remains of ecclesiastical architect are 
which abound in France and England, and so many 
specimens of which have been given in the • Penny 
Magazine,' may be contemplated with feelings as 
various as are the different degrees of taste and know- 
ledge in those who look upon them. They cannot fail 
to impress the mind with a sense of the grandeur of the 
human intellect when it aspires to noble efforts; they 
show that the social condition of man was improving, 
and that the circumstances in which he was placed at 

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the period when these edifices were erected were happier ' 
than those through which he had previously passed. 
The Cathedral of Chartres was commenced when the 
human race, so far as Europe was concerned, were 
gathering confidence and putting some life into their 
movements, after the passing away of a period which 
they had been led to look upon as fatal to their ge- 
neral existence. Sismondi, alluding to this apprehen- 
sion which so generally pervaded men's minds at the 
period alluded to, says, in his * Fall of the Roman 
Empire,' — " At the end of the tenth century the almost 
universal expectation was then entertained of the ap- 
proaching end of the world. The nearer the thousandth 
year from the birth of Christ approached, the more did 
panic terror take possession of every mind. The 
archives of all countries contain a great number of 
charters of the tenth century beginning with these 
words : — ' Appropinquante fine mundi,' i. c, as the end 
of the world is approaching. All the ordinary motives 
of action were suspended, or superseded by contrary 
ones ; every passion of the mind was hushed, and the 
present was lost in the appalling future. At last, the 
extreme period fixed by the prophecies was passed ; the 
end of the world had not arrived; the terror was 
gradually but entirely dissipated." It was at this 
period, observes the Rev. G. D. Whittington, that the 
Christians of the eleventh century " hastened to rebuild 
and repair their ecclesiastical structures, and the various 
cities and provinces — especially of France — vied with 
each other in a display of enthusiastic devotion. On all 
sides, new and more stately edifices of religion arose, 
and the world, according to the expression of a con- 
temporary writer, seeming to cast off its ancient appear- 
ance, everywhere put on a white mantle of churches.'' 

The following passages, showing the influence of 
circumstances on the progress of architecture, are taken 
from Mr. Whittington's work, and will serve to render 
such objects as cathedrals more interesting to the 
general observer: — "The style of architecture in the 
eleventh was the same as in the preceding centuries, 
though the churches were constructed on a larger scale 
and in a more solid manner. With a few exceptions, 
the oldest buildings now existing in France are to be 
traced to this era. The fashion in practice all over 
Europe continued to be a barbarous imitation of the 
Roman manner; but from various circumstances, in 
different countries, it partook of different features. The 
Saxon churches of England were inferior in elevation, 
massiveness, and magnitude to those of the Normans ; 
and the Norman mode differed considerably from that 
which was adopted in the neighbourhood of Paris, and 
farther to the south." The author next alludes to the 
effects of the Crusades on the arts and manners of 
Europe. " They roused mankind," he says, " from the 
intellectual lethargy into which they had been plunged 
for so many centuries: they brought the different 
people of Europe together, and carried them into more 
civilized regions : the intercourse which this promoted 
among themselves, and the accession of light which 
they derived from a communication with Italy, Con- 
stantinople, and the East, gradually effected a general 
and visible improvement. The first crusade was soon 
followed by a change in the arms, dress, and architec- 
ture of every nation of Europe." 

The pointed arch began to show itself in France and 
the neighbouring countries in the twelfth century. 
"In the thirteenth century," Mr. Whittington remarks, 
" the ecclesiastical architecture of France arrived at the 
utmost point of excellence which it was destined to 
attain in the course of the middle ages. Everything 
seemed to conspire, in the circumstances of the nation 
and of the world, to produce an interval favourable for 
the cultivation of the arts ; and genius and talents were 
not wanting to make use of the^ happy opportunity. 

The thirteenth century found the French artists a 
numerous and protected body, in possession of a new 
and beautiful style of building ; the religious enthusiasm 
of the times, formed by the spirit of the crusades, was 
at its height, and the throne of France was filled by 
monarchs equally distinguished by their piety and their 
magnificence. The dissensions between the barons and 
their sovereign, which agitated England during the 
greater part of this century, increased the power and 
ensured the tranquillity of France. Thus were external 
circumstances no less favourable to the prevailing taste, 
and its triumph was proportionably brilliant At this 
time churches, almost without number, and rivalling 
each other in magnificence, were rising in every part of 
France : at Rheims, the cathedral began to display the 
graceful lightness of the new style ; and the cathedral 
of Amiens, the pride and boast of Gothic architecture, 
was reared." 

Among the causes which contributed to the decline 
of this brilliant period in the history of architecture, 
may be assigned, according to the above writer, " the 
wars which the English carried into the heart of 
France, and the divisions and factions of the French 
nobility, which rendered that kingdom during the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries a theatre of bloodshed 
and devastation. The unfortunate sovereigns were 
sometimes in captivity, and generally defeated ; without 
finances, and at the head of an exhausted state, they 
had as little means of promoting, as their subjects had 
leisure for the cultivation of the arts. The strongest 
expressions are used by the French writers to describe 
the terror and misery which pervaded the country. 
The peasantry were forced from their labours, whole 
districts were laid waste, and the towns impoverished 
by the heaviest imports and exactions. In the 
midst of these evils, which were aggravated by the 
sufferings of famine and pestilence, we cannot wonder 
that the piety of the nation was unable to display itself 
in the construction of religious buildings. The princes 
of France had more occasion to fortify their cities than 
to found monasteries ; and when their treasuries were 
insufficient to maintain their armies, it is not extra- 
ordinary that they afforded but few proofs of ostenta- 
tious devotion." 


The Druidical remains at Stanton Drew, in Somerset- 
shire, though not equal in size and celebrity to those of 
Stonehenge and Avebury, in Wiltshire, are still worthy 
of description. 

Stanton Drew is a small parish in the hundred of 
Keynsham, which was formerly called Stantone, and 
Stantune from Stean, a stone, and ton, a town. The 
present name is said to mean the Stone-low n of the 
Druids. It is about seven miles south of Bristol, on 
the farther side of Dundry Hill (the site of an ancient 
beacon) ; and from its being equidistant from Pensford 
and Chew-Magna arose the proverbial rhyme, 

« Stanton Drew, 

A mile from Pensford and another from Chew/' 

For what purpose this and similar monuments were 
erected, is a point that has been much discussed ; but 
it is considered, from the name and other circumstances, 
to be almost certain that this ancient structure not only 
belonged to the Druids, but that the village of Stanton 
Drew was in some measure the metropolis or seat of • 
government of the Haedui. Druidical circles are by 
some antiquaries supposed to have been used to contain 
assemblies for purposes of religion, legislation, and 
other national affairs; but great difference of opinion 
has arisen as to what may have been the object of those 
rude solitary stones which have no uniformity of shte 
or structure, and which are found at irregular dig' 

Q 2 

Digitized by 




[MimCH 26 

♦ •* 


♦• » 

6 . 

The Great Circle. ','.'. ■ ^ 

! :»: > 



..... ^ 

', «\ 

o; * 

* •* 

The South-west Circle. 


The Core,' 

v \ \ i '*. 

m *n 

[Plan of the Druidieal Temple at Stanton Draw.] 

tances. The great antiquity of these monuments is 
unquestionable, some of them being intersected aud 
injured by Roman ways, which sufficiently proves that 
their original use was lost before the construction of 
the roads. Druidisro, which is said to have been 
first established in this country, flourished in the time 
of Nero, and subsisted for a considerable time after- 
wards ; and young men came from Gaul to Britain to 
be initiated in the mysteries. 

It is asserted that Stanton Drew was constructed 
before Stonehenge ; and Dr. Stukely, who visited this 
place about 1723, considers it to be even more ancient 
than Avebury. Circles of upright stones of the same 
nature occur in many English counties ; as the Hurlers, 
in Cornwall— Long Meg and her Daughters, in Cum- 
berland — in Derbyshire, Devonshire, Dorsetshire, Ox- 
fordshire, Westmoreland ; and those of Stonehenge and 
Avebury, 114 Wiltshire, are well known. 

Besides some other stones, Stanton Drew consists of 
three circles, which, by the people in the neighbour- 
hood, are called the " Wedding," from a tradition that 
as a bride and her attendants were proceeding* along, 
they were all converted to stone. The bride and bride- 
groom, the fiddler and the dancers, are fancifully 
pointed out ; and it is considered wicked to attempt to 
count the stones. The measures given are principally 
taken from an account of this place 1 published by/ the 
Rev. S. Seyer in the year 1821 ; and on comparing his 
description with the existing state of the place in the 
year 1834 it was found correct. The plan given 
above represents the whole structure';'— : the black 
marks indicating the stones that project largely, the 
outlines those that are merely visible, and 'the snail 
dots show those that are conjectural. The great circle 
(a) has a diameter of 342 ; feet; but as ouly five 
stones are standing in their places, the coup dot U is 

Digitized by 





Fig. 1. 


( Stones at Stanton Drew.] 

not striking. How many stones there were originally 
it is not easy to determine, those that remain being at 
unequal distances; and if the prostrate masses still lie 
where they fell, the stones could never have been regu- 
larly placed in the circle. 

Dr. Musgrave, who wrote in 1718, imagines that 
the number of stones in this circle once amounted to 
32, and possibly there may have been more. They 
were not perfect in his time ; and they are said to have 
been much injured and broken, upwards of a century 
ago, for the purpose of mending the roads ; and Dr. 
Stukely also mentions that they had suffered great 
dilapidation. Mr. Seyer thinks that there are certainly 
27 stones, which vary considerably in size and shape : one 
is 16 feet high ; — another, which is prostrate, is 11 feet 
high and 9 feet wide ; — others are not so large, but .are 
of a remarkable form, as Fig. 1 in the cut above. On the 
east side of this circle are five stones (6), which may 
have formed part of an avenue, as it is supposed that 
there were formerly four or five others. Still more to the 
east is a circle of 8 stones (c), the circumference of 
which is 150 feet distant from that of the large circle : 
the diameter of this circle is 94 or 96 feet. It appears 
by Musgrave that the eight stones were all erect in his 
t'nne except one : at present four are prostrate, but they 
are high above the ground; and from the superior 
workmanship, this circle is possessed of considerable 
interest. Fig. 2 is 12| feet high perpendicularly : it 
inclines towards the north, in which position it is sup- 
posed to have been originally placed. Fig. 3 is square 
ami massive, and this, as well as the stone opposite, is a 
little out of the exact circle. The largest stone (Fig. 4, 
15]} feet in length) is prostrate, and another stone is 
broken in several pieces. Eastward of these eight stones 

are seven others (<2), which, with the addition of three or 
four more, which are conjectural, are said to have been 
an avenue to the circle of eight. Musgrave considers 
that these extrinsic stones and the five others before 
described originally formed another circle, going round 
the circle of eight. Stukely supposes that this circle 
and the stones in question were at first five concentric 
circles, but this appears improbable from the number of 
stones required, and of which there are no traces which 
would justify such a conclusion. The centre of the 
south-west circle (c), called by Stukely the Lunar 
Temple, is 714 feet from the centre of the great circle, 
which distance could not be shown in the plan.' The 
diameter is stated by Wood*, to be 140 feet ; — by 
Stukely 120 feet; and it consists of eleven or twelve 
stones, which are rude and irregular in appearance. 
North-west of this circle, a little more than 100 yards 
distant, is a cove, Fig. 5 (/ in the plan), at which' the 
Druids are supposed to have sat for judicial purposes. 
It is formed of three large flat stones, which are about 
992 feet from the centre of the great circle, and it is 
not far from the church of Stanton Drew. North or 
north-west of the cove, and about two-thirds of a mile 
from the great circle, are two large stones (ir), lying 
flat ; and beyond the river Chew, near the road on the 
approach to Stanton Drew, is a stone of large dimen- 
sions, called " Hackell's Quoit" (A), which was formerly 
computed to weigh thirty tons ; but it has been broken 
at different times for materials to mend the roads. The 
local tradition is, that this immense stone was' thrown 
into its present situation from Maes-knoll (which is 
called in the vicinity u Miss Knoll-tump " ) by Sir John 
Hautville, or Hawkwell, a famous champion, the dis- 
* Description of Bath. 

Digitized by 




[March 2$, 

tance being about a mile. At Maes-knoll is a barrow, 
which it is probable may have reference to Stanton 

Dr. Stukely supposes the original number of stones 
to have been 160 ; but Sever, with more appearance of 
probability, considers that they did not exceed 60 ; in 
addition to which, some few, hitherto unnoticed, are 
said to exist in unfrequented parts of the parish. The 
greater part of the stones are of magnesian limestone, 
but some are of red sandstone and breccia. 


The skins of -animals would naturally suggest them- 
selves as a covering among savage nations, and they 
were probably in use long before the art of converting 
skins into leather was known, though tlie origin of 
tanning is supposed to be of great antiquity : however, 
m modern times, patents have been frequently taken 
out for improvements in tanning, and almost every 
manufacturer has some peculiar method in the different 
stages of the business. 

Leather has been applied to a great variety of pur- 
poses ;— by the classical ancients it was converted into 
shoes, girdles, &c. Dottles were made of it in the 
form of the bodies of animals; and skins are used in 
Spain for holding wine; an instance familiar to all 
presents itself in Don Quixote's battle with the wine- 
skins: bags, buckets, (as those of the fire-engines,) 
garments called camisini, quivers, strings for musical 
instruments, (among the Irish,) caldrons, jerkins, 
surcoats covering for shields, boats of boiled leatheP 
tents, sails and vessels for liquors, have been made of 

i uu 'J 3 ' 101 "' the water "P<*t, speaks of two black 
leather bottles, or bombards, of wine; they were also 
used to carry beer to soldiers on duty, and resembled 
black-jacks of leather. Sheep-skin pasted on wood 
was anciently a common binding for books. 

The term hide is usually applied to the skins of 
horses, oxen, and cows, which are intended for the sole- 
leather of very stout shoes, and other substantial pur- 
poses Skins, technically speaking, are those of calves 
and other annuals, for upper-leather of shoes, boots, &e. 

The bark used for tanning is the bark of the oak, 
though many other substances contain the tannin 
principle. The outside roughness of the bark, which is 
called the cru^ is first taken off with a large drawing! 
knife; and after the crut (which is not employed ?n 
tanning) ,s removed, the bark is dried in a kiln and 
ground in a mill; the bark thus ground is then mixed 
with water m the pits, and forms what are called the 
woozes. When hides are brought to the tanner the 
stoutest parts of them are selected to make bu Is o 
backs, which are for the sole-leather of very thick shoes. 
Ox and cow-hides are called crop-hides, and are also 

thf skL 8 o^r ther * ThG , fiFSt P— -d toward 
1 1 r k T*' ° Xen ' &C ' is t0 SGak the ™ ^ water 
for a few hours to get out the blood, and they are then 
put into pits containing lime and water, where hey 
remain ten days or a fortnight, being taken out and in 
two or three times a-week: after that they are token 
out and put across a beam, which is a piece of wood 
rather convex on the upper side, about three feet br^ad, 
and four and a half in length, one end of which rests 
on the ground the other end being supported on K 
a aconyenient height forthe workman, who spreads the 
hide on i , and takes the hair off with a blunt kind of 

teC?* 1 f£ I Workin e- kn ^ -nich is curved 
to suit the form of the beam ; this being completed the 
ft!" "fleshed "that is, the fat, &l is aH removed 
from the of the hide with a double-edged draw- 
ing-knife, called a flesher. The hides are thef putTnto 
a weak wooze, and frequently handled, «. e., drawn £ 

and out of the pit to prevent creases, and that they may 
thoroughly imbibe the tannin principle : from this weal 
wooze they are removed gradually to woozes strong 
and stronger ; and in the strongest of these they reman 
some days without being taken out. The same wooze* 
are used for many hides in succession. Hides reman 
in the woozes from six to twelve months, according to 
their thickness ; and, at the proper period, they ar? 
taken out of the strongest wooze and hung up to dry. 
and, being sufficiently hardened, they are put on ac 
iron half cylinder, about as thick as a man's tfch, 
called a striking-beam, on which they are mauled"* 
beaten with a wooden mallet. They^re then rubbd 
on this beam with a striking-pin to give them a face: 
the striking-pin is of iron, with two handles, the \m 
being triangular or square, and in size an inch each 
way. When the hides are a little drier, from hanging 
they are spread on a large flat stone, or iron plate, arid 
rolled with a brass roller, five inches in diameter and 
nine inches in length, which is loaded with weights to 
the amount of a quarter or half a ton, in an iron boi 
fixed over the roller. The hides are then gradually 
dried in a drying-house, and are, After that, ready for 
sale. The pits in which the woozes are contained are 
usually about seven or eight feet long by four broad, 
and five feet deep. 

Calf-skins, and the skins of other animals intended 
for dressing-leather, are first put into a pit of water :o 
get out the blood, and they are then placed in th* 
lime-water to remove the hair, after which they are 
steeped in a solution of the excrement of pigeons, h 
pits tailed " grainers," to reader them soft and to 
cleanse them from the lime. They remain in theses 
day or two, and are worked over with a working-kuiif 
of the same kind as that used to remove the hair, the 
object of this being to remove all the small hairs and 
the filth called the " scud," which is the technical lenu 
for the colouring matter of the hair, that of red cahes 
being red ; of black ones, black, and the like. When 
the skins are sufficiently soft and clean they are im- 
mersed in the woozes, where they remain three month?, 
more or less, according to the judgment of the manu- 
facturer. Skins are more slowly and carefully dried 
than hides ; and they are pulled out by hand as they 
dry, to prevent their shrinking, and, when nearly dry, 
they are doubled up and beaten upon a pin-bloek by a 
man holding the skin in his hand and striking it agaiu^t 
the pius. The pin-block is four feet in length and two 
in width. The pins, which are of wood, are four inches 
in height and an inch in diameter; they are fixed 
upright on the block, and are placed in rows of eight 
by eighteen, being 144 in all. The leathers are sorted 
and put into half dozens, so as to make the weight of 
each bundle nearly equal. They are sold to the car- 
rier, who dresses and blacks them for the upper-leather 
of shoes and boots, and many other purposes. 

Basils, which are sheep-skins for book-binding, «"* 
of which many pocket-book covers are made, are manu- 
factured much the same as the last, except that they 
are worked in bran and water or pollard and water 
instead of the excrement of pigeons, and that the skins 
are wrung to get the fat out after they have been a k* 
days in the woozes, the skin having been put in hot 
water to liquify the fat first. The odd bits which are 
cut off to make the skins more shapely are put into pits 
well saturated with lime, and then tied up in bundles 

WUI *>aiuraiea witn nme, and then tied up in d uuu,vj 
and dried for tbe gluemakers. The hair is sold to the 
plasterers ;— the long horse-hair is collected by me* 
who come round to buy it for stuffing chairs, mattresses, 
&c. When the tannin principle is exhausted, th« tan 
is dried and fermented by being laid to heat, and then 
water is added to it, and a horse treads it, it being p 
into a mould to give it a shape. When dry it is «»» 
a turve, and is sold for fuel, as is also the crut. The 

Digitized by 





torus are disposed of to persons who collect them : the 
ails of the oxen and cows, as well as the tails and the 
ower part of the ears of the calves, are the perquisites 
>f the tanner's men. The tails and ears of the calves 
ire called " rumps and burs," and from their gelatinous 
sature they make a rich stew. The business of a tanner 
equires a considerable capital, from the length of time 
necessary to prepare the hides and skins ; — a capacious 
rard, drying- houses, sheds, pits, and an abundant sup- 
ply of water, are also indispensable. 

Previously to the year 1830 there was an excise-duty 
an leather, i)ut that duty was taken off by an Act of 
Parliament passed on the 29th of May in that year. 
Leather imported into this kingdom is, by a statute 
3rd and 4th year of his present Majesty's reign (c. 56), 
made liable to a duty of 30 per cent, on the value, 
except in certain cases, which are otherwise specified ; 
and skins which are not dressed are made liable to 
a duty of 20 per cent, on the value, except the species 
enumerated in the statute, which are — for a tiger-skin, 
2s. 6d. ; a lynx-skin, 6d. ; chinchilla-skin, 3d. ; elk- 
skin, I*. ; &c 


Op the many exotic plants which have been naturalized 
in this country, none has of late been brought into 
more general use, as a culinary vegetable, than the, 
rhubarb ; the fibrous parts or stems of the leaves of 
which, when baked, form a very agreeable substitute 
for the apple, at a much earlier period of the season 
than that in which any fruit is found to ripen in this 
climate. It was, indeed, occasionally cultivated for 
amusement in our gardens, and grown, in a few in- 
stances, for the production of its roots, which are ex- 
tensively employed all over the world as medicine ; but, 
for any other purpose, it was, until within these few 
years, utterly unknown. Its consumption for the table 
has now, h.owever, become so universal, that whole 
acres are in many places devoted to its culture, and it 
has acquired a degree of importance which entitles it, 
on that account, to notice. The medicinal qualities 
of the species produced in England should also, we 
think, be more generally inquired into, as a prejudice 
exists again. st it which we believe to be entirely un- 
founded, and which, if removed, might render it a still 
more valuable article of growth. 

The foreign countries from which it is obtained are 
chiefly the Tartarian provinces of Russia and China, 
some parts of the East Indies, and Asiatic Turkey, from 
each of which it is largely imported into Europe. 
Botanists distinguish its varieties under the several 
names of rheum rhaponticum, undulatum, palmalum, 
and compactum ; and it is remarkable that they were 
for a long time greatly divided in their opinions con- 
cerning the species to which the officinal rhubarb 
belongs. The rhapontic was the rka, or rheum, of 
Dioscorides, and all the ancient Greeks and Romans, 
to whom the other kinds were unknown; and it con- 
tinued in use until about a century ago, when the 
undu latum was considered superior, but was afterwards 
discarded for its competitors, which have been each 
in its turn alternately preferred. The sort termed 
rhtum pal ma turn has, however, been since pronounced 
— upon the joint authority of both Dr. Pallas and Lin- 
naeus — to be the true Turkey rhubarb ; and it is only 
that which demands our present attention. 

The Turkey, the Russian, and even the East Indian 
rhubarb, it must be confessed, are more sightly to the 
eye, and consequently more marketable than the 
English: but it is well known that much artifice is 
used in rasping and colouring the roots, to give them 
such an improved outward appearance as may impose 
upon the druggists; and it behoves the faculty to 

examine whether the griping effects so frequently 
complained of may not proceed from the Dutch yellow, 
extracted from buckthorn berries, with which they are 
commonly tinctured. The foreign species may indeed 
be supposed to acquire some advantages from soil, 
climate, culture, and the mode of drying, but more, it 
may be presumed, from its superior age. The root 
has not been many years cultivated to any great extent 
in this country, and that which has been converted to 
medical use has usually been only from four to five or 
six years growth ; whereas the foreign rhubarb is not 
taken up until it is eleven or twelve years old, which 
alone may perhaps be sufficient to constitute the dif- 
ference : the circumstance at least seems to merit future 

We learn from authentic sources furnished by Mr. 
Foster, in his * History of Voyages to the North,' that 
at Suchur — a province subject to the Great Khan of 
Tartary, where fche plant flourishes with the greatest 
luxuriance, and from whence it is exported in vast 
quantities — the country is rocky and mountainous, 
being everywhere intersected by rivulets, the soil red, 
with an under-stratum of rubble, of that kind which 
our hop-growers here call " stone-brash ;" in which 
land, the plants, when arrived at their full growth, are 
of such enormous size, that the roots often measure 
three-quarters of a yard in length, and are of the 
thickness of a man's body. They are dug up in 
winter, because they then contain the entire juice and 
virtue of their medicinal properties; those that are 
taken up in summer being of a light spongy texture, 
and unfit for use. 

The root being thoroughly cleaned, and stripped of 
its outward coating, is cut transversely ; the pieces are 
then placed on long tables, and turned carefully three 
or four times a day, that the yellow viscid juice which 
would otherwise exude from them, may incorporate 
with the substance of the root ; for, if it be suffered to 
run out, the roots become light and unserviceable ; 
and if they be not cut within five or six days after they 
are dug up, they become soft, and decay very speedily. 
In this state they remain for a few days, when holes 
are bored through them, and they are hung up on 
strings, exposed to the air and wind, but sheltered 
from the sun-beams ; and thus, in about two month's, 
they are completely dried, and arrive at their full per- 

These directions, we apprehend, might be judiciously 
followed by those gardeners who cultivate the plant in 
this country ; except that perhaps our climate is too 
damp to completely effect the drying process during 
the winter. It has therefore been recommended to 
use a room equally warmed by an air-stove, or else a • 
moderately-heated oven; but we imagine the object 
would be equally well attained by slinging the pieces 
on lines hung under the roof of the kitchen. *When 
thoroughly dry, the pieces should be rasped, to take 
off that shrivelled, scabrous appearance which they 
sometimes acquire during the operation; and it may 
not be improper to hint, that all the larger roots ought 
to be perforated through the centre, this part of the 
plant being the most liable to decay. They lose about 
two-thirds of their weight in drying ; and if well pre- 
pared they should be dry, firm, and solid, but not hard 
or flinty, easily pulverizable, variegated on the inside 
with numerous pale red streaks resembling a nutmeg ; 
appearing, when powdered, of a bright yellow colour, 
of a bitter astringent taste, and peculiar flavour, with 
an aromatic quality, manifested to the smell as well as 

Regarding the culture of the plant, we find numerous 
reports on the subject in the volumes containing the 
4 Transactions of the Bath and West of England 
Agricultural Society,' in consequence of a^ premium 

Digitized by 




[March 26, IS36. 

offered some years ago by the Society for its growth 
and management. In these, however, 'nothing is 
stated demanding more minute detail than every gar- 
dener is acquainted with; as it is only requisite to have 
land of a deep, dry, and sandy staple, or what farmers 
call a "friable loam," and to keep it . carefully free 
from weeds. It may be taken from the eyes or off-sets 
of the root, and set in the natural earth, Well. prepared 
either with rotten ,-dung or... compost^about; the latter 
end of March, at about, twelve, to eighteen inches deep 
in the earth,; and from eight to ten feet distance from 
each other ; the, latter the most .advisable, if the soil 
be rich, as the plants will in that ;case completely cover 
it. The ground should :: be well .hoed" during the 
summer, and earthed up in the winter to guard the 
plants ffom the effects of frost ; ;and if some manure be 
added eviry^twO'Or three years, it will, be found to 
im prove; Uiem.> /Fhe^ young, leaves; may ,be cut off in 
the course rif A the/ spring, for table, use ; but this should 
be sparingly done,; when the roots are amain object, 
as it weakens their growth. \ They should b'e takeu up 
in October or. November ;• and wehayeseeu the account 
of a plant, in the sixth year of its age,. whic/iTose to 
the height of eleven feet four incites ; it grew in one 
day three inches, ;and .in one niglit above , four';, many 
of the ^leaves were. above five feet long, the numerous 
branches all covered with blossom, .and then with seed. 
The root ^w ben i ake n 'up, clean wa^he^l , ancl r deprived 
o'ffts small and useless .fibres, weighed 36 lbs. • . ~ f/ 

Plants ^nayjalso be raised from the seed .by, sowing 
it in a warm garden-bed^ and taking up, the plants in 
the following Wu turn nj* to be secured during 4he winter; 
and planted out- in the following spring. ^'Plants 
grown in this manner have at' four .years' . growth pro- 
duced 220 lbs*. ;bf 'dried, marketable rhubarb, upon a 
piece of garden gr # o|ind. forty -four feet long by twenty j 
two feet wide, and divided into beds ofJaBoiit, five !feet 
each. The seed comes to perfection in four or five 
years, but should riot be allowed to reach maturity, as 
it injures the future growth of the root : the seed-stalks 
should, therefore, be cut off as soon as they appear. 
Plants of the different Varieties should also be grown 
separately; for if placed near each other, they 'will 
produce a mongrel species,' which is afterwards in^ 
capable of future propagation : it has, however, been 
conjectured that these hybrids may be found to conjoin 
the properties of each, and thus to be susceptible of 
further improvement.- ., 

On the comparative medicinal qualities, of the 
English and foreign species, numerous experiments 
lrave been made, and we have before us the results of 
more than forty trials of their different effects, made 
at the General Hospital and the pauper charity of 
Bath, upon patients of every age and sex by Drs. Fal- 
coner and Parry, and Mr. Farnell, the intelligent apo- 
theca»y to the hospital, as well as Dr. Lettsoni, and 
other medical men of eminence; all of whom concur in 
stating, that the exotic plant contains no one essential 
quality which is not possessed in a nearly equal degree 
by oilr own; it being, in some cases, even more 
effectual than the foreign sorts, especially that sort 
known as the East Indian. It appeared, indeed, that 
forty-five grains of the Turkey rhubarb contained a 
purgative property nearly equal to sixty of the English ; 
or, in other words, that the latter requires to be given 
to the amount of about one-fourth more to produce the 
same effect ; but some later experiments evince that it 
approaches nearer and nearer to the foreign rhubarb, 
in proportion to its age. 

In addition to this, we have been told that the 
refuse pieces, such as small roots, or off-sets not thick 
enough to dry, have been used with great success in 
the dysenteries of cattle, when made into a strong 
infusion with white wine. In France, also, the recent 

stfcm is ebhverted into a marmalade, which constitutes 
a mild and pleasant laxative : it is prepared by stripping 
off the bark, and boiling the pulp with an equal quantity 
of honey or sugar. 

* <• CHINA.— No. XIII. 

• ■ i . SlLK-WORMS AND SiLk (cofUittuttf), 

From the s time when the wdrrnr leave the eggs to 
the'peViod : of inert* spinning, about twenty-four days* 
elapse when the process is well managed; and it is 
usually observed that the silk is in greater quantity and 
of better quality 1 in proportion' to , the : rapidity with 
which -the worms are brought to' the t last stage. The 
quantity* of leaves consumed will also be less, and the 
expense of attendants diminished. Instead of putting 
the wormsi when ''ready to spin, into' little cones of 
paper, as is done in England by those who keep silk- 
worms for their amusement 1 , or,>ai in Italy, upon little 
hedges or espaliers of heath or* straw, the Chinese lay 
them on shelves protected from the light. In this situ* 
ation they draw from their mouths the silken thread in 
which they inclose themselves to undergo their final 
change. This curious and interesting operation is 
usually completed in four days. From 500 to 1000 
yards of silk are spun iu this time, at the rate of about 
six inches aminute, a rapidity as surprising, if the small 
size of the worm be considered, as is the fineness of the 
Ihfeacl produced : UhVwhole quantity scarcely weighing 
a' single grain. 1 * When the cocoon,' or little ball of silk, 
is completed, the worm once more throws off its skin, 
and becomes 'a brown chrysalis or grub; without external 
members, and almost 1 without motion— a state of being 
well lilted for* the close prison it is destined to inhabit 
After remaining in this state about ten days, the slug- 
gish' chrysalis* throXvs off its brown skin and comes forth 
a perfelct but terfly, furnished with legs, eyes, and wings, 
and fitted for the enjoyment of its new state of exist- 
ence. ' These last transformations take place within the 
cocoon ; but the insect; now become active and com- 
paratively powerful, makes use of .its newly-found 
strength to burst its cell and set itself at liberty. The 
cocoon would be thus destroyed,- the silk spoiled, and, 
as far as profit is concerned; all the hopes Of the culti- 
vator rendered vain, unless means were' taken to pre- 
vent the last step. The death of the chrysalis is the 
only remedy devised, and this unfortunately necessary 
operation is performed in various ways.* The easiest 
arid cheapest rriode is to expose the cocoons for a whole 
day to the he^at of the suft, which effectually kills the 
grub, but renders the silk gumrny. To avoid this, some 
persons boil the cocoons in water, or jilace them for an 
hour in a hot stove. This last mode is usually prac- 
tised in India and in Europe by the most careful 
rearers; but the Chinese have a mode which they con- 
sider very superior,' and- which deserves a trial by other 
cultivators. The cocoons are placed in large earthen 
jars, interspersed with layers of dry salt ; when the jars 
are full, they must be stopped so as to exclude the ad- 
mission of air. By this method the chrysalis is killed 
in a few days, and the silk may be wound off at leisure. 
A particular sort of wild silk is found in the province 
of Shantung. It is the produce of a caterpillar which 
feeds indiscriminately on the mulberry and many other 
trees. They do not spin cocoons like the silk-worm, 
but they form long threads, which being driven about 
by the wind, are caught by the trees and bushes, whence 
they are carefully gathered, and spun like flax or wool. 
A thick sort of cloth is woven from this silk ; it is very 
strong and durable, does not easily spoil, and is con- 
sidered very valuable. ' 
* Iu Italy from thirty to thirty-two days. : 

Printed by William G*otr*s and Sox», Starifonl &"«*• 

Digitized by 


$gotttf)Ig Sbnppltmmt of 


or THE 


Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 

February 29 to March 31, 1836. 


[Old Homes in Chester.] 

The city of Chester is one of the most interesting 
places in Great Britain. It is of high antiquity, and 
was long occupied by the Romans as an important 
military station. The present state of preservation of 
its walls and ancient monuments render it a spot sin- 
gularly curious, not only to the antiquary, but to all 
those who seek, in the remains of other ages, valuable 

The Bishop of Cloyne, in an Essay on Roman Roads 
in Cheshire, in ' Lyson's Magna Britannia,' says, 
41 Chester is one of the towns which, like London, 
York, Bath, and a few others, is universally allowed to 
be Roman. It was called Deva, from the river which 
runs by its walls ; and as early as the time of Agricola, 
] or ut least not long after, they fixed here the head- 
I Yol,V. 


quarters of the twentieth legion, which, according to 
tlie military practice of the Romans, they fixed at 
Chester for upwards of 200 years. The different 
fortresses in Cheshire were garrisoned by the legion- 
aries, — the more distant dependencies by its auxiliary 
cohorts, the whole amounting to near 13,000 men." 

It has been contended that Chester is of British 
origin, and was founded long prior to the arrival of the 
Romans in Great Britain. This, however, is a point of 
no importance. There might have been a fortress 01 
settlement on the spot, but it is highly probable that 
the Romans would have selected it as a military station 
whether it had been previously occupied or not. Dray- 
ton, in his * Polyolbion,' (a most elaborate poem on the 
History, Topography, and Antiquities of England and 

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[March 31 1 

Wales,) thus alludes to a legend which assigns the 
formation of the city to the labours of a gigantic in- 
dividual : — 

'< Fair Chester ! called of old 

Caerlegion ; whilst proud Rome her conquest here did hold 

Of those har legions known, the faithful station then 

So stoutly held to tack by the near North- Wales men, 

Yet by her own name she'd rather called be, 

As her the Britons termed, the Fortress upon Dee; 

Or vainly she may seem a miracle to stand, 

The imaginary work of some huge giant's hand.'' 

Agricola, who had twice before served in Britain in a 
subordinate capacity, was made, about the. year 78, 
governor-in-chief of the island ; and it is extremely pro- 
bable that, during his successful career, Chester, or 
Deva, was first permanently occupied by the Romans. 
The city may therefore fairly claim an antiquity of 
upwards of 1700 years. The remains discovered in the 
city clearly prove that Chester enjoyed a share of the 
luxury as well as the civilization of Rome. Altars, 
tesselated pavements, and baths have been discovered 
here. The Roman road, the " Via Devana," ran directly 
across the island, from the Roman colony of Camalo- 
dunum, now Colchester in Essex, to Deva, or Chester, 
passing through the present counties of Cambridge, 
Leicestershire, and Stafford. 

At what time the Romans abandoned Chester is not 
certain, but it was probably before they finally quitted 
Britain in the fifth century. It was then taken posses- 
sion of by the natives. The first historical event con- 
nected with the city of any authenticity or importance 
which occurs after the departure of the Romans, is the 
defeat of the Britons under the walls of Chester by 
Ethelfrid, the Saxon king of Northumberland, about 
607. In or about the year 907, Ethelred, the Earl or 
Duke of Mercia*, and his wife Ethelfleda, sister of 
King Edward the Elder, repaired the city of Chester, 
which had suffered much injury from the Danes, rebuilt 
the walls, which they are also supposed to have en- 
larged, and adorned with turrets. About 971, King 
Edgar, being with his army at Chester, was visited by 
six petty sovereigns, who came to pay him homage. 

The Roman name of Chester — Deva — has been 
already mentioned. The British called it Caer-leon 
dufyr dwy, " the city of legions on the waters of the 
Dee." By the Saxons it was termed Legecestre, and 
Legeacestre. The city gave name to the county, which 
was formerly written Ceastre-scyre. Ccastre signifies a 
city, a castle, and it is to be found in the names of 
many places in England, such as Leicester, &c. The 
Latin word castrum signifies a camp, or military 
station, hence Doncaster, &c. 

The celebrated Northman, Hastings, whose abilities 
and spirit, as a daring and enterprising adventurer, are 
recorded in history, was besieged in Chester by Alfred 
the Great, about the year 894. He had thrown himself 
into the place with a large army which he had raised 
from the East Anglians and Northumbrians. "Alfred,'' 
says Turner, " for two days besieged them, drove away 
all the cattle in the vicinity, slew every enemy who 
ventured beyond the encampment, and burned and con- 
sumed all the corn of the district." The siege was 
raised, and Hastings led his bands into North Wales, 
which he plundered. 

At the Norman Conquest William the Conqueror gave 
Hugh d'Avranches, commonly called Hugh Lupus, the 
whole county of Chester to hold as freely by the sword 
as he himself held England by the crown. The Nor- 
man earldom of Chester was first granted to Gherbod, 
a noble Fleming, and then to Hugh d'Avranches, the 
king's kinsman. The grant included the entire lands 

* The Mercians were divided by the Trent into North and 
$outh Mercians ; the North Mercians occupied the counties of 
Chester, Derby, and Nottingham. — Turner, 

of the palatinate, with the exception of those held by 
the bishop, and nearly all the Saxon proprietors appear 
to have beeh ejected. This deprivation, and the sub- 
sequent distribution of lands to the Earl's Norman 
followers, was finished before the, year 1086, when the 
Domesday Survey was completed. The successors v f 
this earl continued to exercise their mediate soverei^ntT 
for about 160 years. For this sovereignty they owtd 
allegiance to the paramount ruler, the king of England r 
but that sovereign does r^ot appear to have exerci^ 
any part of his royal prerogative within the palatinau 
in temporal matters, beyoud the retaining a mint s* 
Chester. The palatinate constituted, however, but i 
very small portion of the estates of these inighu 
earls. They had possessions in Stafford, Derby, Le 
cester, Nottingham, and Warwick, in addition to esta:e< 
in Normandy. The influence and power of the Ear'.' 
of Chester was extended over about a third of Eng- 
land. This power was too great for a subject & 
possess, and was incompatible with the peace of the 
kingdom. After the death of the seventh earl, Job 
Scot, in 1237, King Henry III., by a violent but wise 
resumption, wrested the earldom from his coheirs, ao<i 
united it to the crown. After this seizure the kinjf? 
commissioners possessed themselves of Chester Castle, 
and other strongholds of the palatinate, and the earl- 
dom was afterwards given by Henry III. to his elde*: 
son, Prince Edward, probably in 1245, on the occasion 
of his marriage with the princess Eleanor of Spam, 
when Wales, Gascon y, Ireland, and other territories, 
were settled upon him. Two years after this, the ne* 
earl received the homage of his military tenants a: 
Chester. The earldom of Chester has since remains: 
as part of the titles of the eldest son of the king « 

The Norman earls of Chester maintained a regd 
style within the palatinate. They had their great 
council or parliament, with its appropriate officers. 
The jurisdiction, in cases of capital felony, was no: 
confined to the earl's court, but was also intrusted to 
the abbot of Combcrmere, to the abbot of St. Werbur^h 
during the fair of Chester, and lastly to the courts ot 
the eight barons, at the option of the felon, who might 
remove his trial to the earl's tribunal. The internal 
peace of the county was preserved by the perambu- 
lations of the Serjeants of the peace, by the forester? 
in the hundreds, and forests at large, and by those of 
similar oilicers in each barony, all of whom could, in 
certain cases, inflict immediate punishment by decapi- 

Among the singular powers exercised by the ancient 
earls of Chester, was that of granting privilege or 
sanctuary to criminals — a power generally supposed 
to have belonged exclusively to the church. It was a 
source of emol ument. As late as the reign of Henry VIII. 
the privilege of sanctuary in a more modified form was 
granted to Chester for a short period; but during the 
time of the Norman earls, the most infamous robbers 
might resort to the fair with impunity, saving the abbots 
cognizance of crimes there committed. 

It would be an unnecessary occupation of space to 
record the various historical events connected with 
Chester, from the Norman conquest downwards. The 
situation of the city necessarily rendered it an important 
place ; and it was- frequently honoured with the presence 
of the kings of England. It was here that Edward I. 
summoned Lhewelyn, the last sovereign prince of 
Wales, to attend him to do homage, which, on hi? 
refusal, led to the war which ended in Lhewelyui 
destruction. During the civil war Detween Charles 1 
and the Parliament, Chester stood several sieges, or 
rather one continued siege of three years ; the inha- 
bitants, who had sided with the lung, endured great 
privations ; but at last, when the siege was converted 

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into a blockade, they surrendered on honourable terms 
to the parliamentary troops on the 3rd of February, 
1645-6. In the reign of William III. Chester was 
one of the six cities appointed for the residence of an 
assay-master, and permitted to issue a coinage of 
silver. In the year 1696 it is stated that, " A mint 
being" this year set up in Chester, coinage of money 
be«*an on the 2nd of October. There was coined 
101,660 ounces of wrought plate; all the pieces had 
the letter C under the king's head." 

Chester is situated on a dry rock, elevated above the 
stream of the Dee, which winds round it on two sides, 
in an irregular semicircle. The district immediately 
adjacent is a rich but flat plain, exhibiting, however, 
interesting views. The ancient walls of the city are 
now only useful as a healthful and favourite walk for 
its inhabitants, but they are curious as the only perfect 
military work of the kind which the kingdom possesses. 
In Ormerod's ' Cheshire,* an elaborate county history, 
in three volumes folio, published in 1819, is the follow- 
ing description of the appearance and extent of the 
walls of Chester : — 

44 The walls enclose an oblong parallelogram, and 
most undoubtedly stand, for a large portion of their 
extent, on Roman foundations, as is indisputably proved 
by the remains of the ancient East Gate, discovered in 
erecting the present arch, and some relics of Roman 
masonry near it, still existing, but concealed from public 
view by the houses adjoining. The Ship Gate is also 
supposed to be of similar antiquity, but cannot have 
been any part of the original walls, if the story of the 
extension of the original fortifications in the direction of 
this gate by Ethelfleda be correct. The present circuit 
of the walls is somewhat more than a mile and three- 
quarters: the materials are a red stone; the exterior 
elevation is tolerably equal, but the interior is, in some 
places, nearly level With the ground, and in others with 
the tops of the houses. The entire line is guarded 
with a wooden rail within, and a stone parapet without ; 
and the general line, which is kept in repair as a public 
walk, commands interesting prospects, among which 
may be specified the views towards the Forest Hills 
from the eastern front, towards North Wales and the 
Dee from the opposite one, and a fine view of the 
bridge and river, with the surrounding country, from 
the south-east angle. A very large proportion, how- 
ever, of the eastern front* and a part under the castle, 
are completely blocked up by contiguous buildings. 

" At the sides of the walls are the remains of several 
ancient towers, which have either been made level with 
the walls, been completely dismantled, or been fitted 
up as alcoves by the citizens. 

" At the north-east angle is a lofty circular tower, 
erected in 1613, and called the Phoenix Tower, ob- 
servable from the circumstance of Charles I. having 
witnessed a part of the battle of Rowton Heath from 
its leads in 1645. Another tower, of higher antiquity, 
and the most picturesque of the military remains of 
Chester, projects out at the north-west angle, and is 
approached by a small turret, called Bonwaldesthorne's 
Tower, which forms the entrance to a (light of steps, 
leading to an open gallery embattled on each side. 
Below this is a circular arch, under which the tide 
flowed before the embankment of the Dee. At the 
end of the gallery is the principal tower, a massy cir- 
cular building of red stone, embattled ; the principal 
room is an octagonal vaulted chamber, in the sides of 
which were pointed arches for windows. This tower, 
now called the Water Tower, and formerly the New 
Tower, was erected in 1322, for 10(H., at the city ex- 
pense, by Johu Helpstone. 

" The principal gates of the city of Chester are four, 
facing the cardinal points, and severally named the 
Bridge Gate (on the south side), the East Gate, the 

North Gate, and the Water Gate ; the last situate on 
the west side of the city*." 

Formerly, there were two citizens annually chosen, 
under the name of" Muragers," to overlook and repair 
the walls, who were paid by a small duty upon Irish 
linens imported into the city by the Dee, which was 
called the " Murage Duty." The expenses of repair- 
ing the walls are now defrayed wholly by the corpora* 

The Bridge Gate was taken down in 1781, and the 
present gate then substituted, consisting of a handsome 
central arch, with two small arches at the sides for the 
foot-passengers. The North Gate was demolished in 
1808, and a gate of Doric architecture, consisting of a 
wide central arch, divided from two smaller ones at the 
sides by couples of pillars, was erected at the expense 
of Earl Grosvenort. The North Gate, at the period 
of its demolition, was a dark, narrow, inconvenient pas- 
sage, under a pointed arch, over which was a mean and 
ruinous gaol, equally inconvenient. The custody of 
this gate was from time immemorial confided to the 
care of the citizens. For an account of the tenure by 
which it was held, and which was the origin of the 
custom of devolving on the sheriffs of Chester the 
execution of all criminals for both city and county, see 
|>. 127. The custody of the Water Gate was purchased 
by the corporation, in 1778, from the Earl of Derby. 
The present gate was erected on the site of the old 
one in 1788, and consists of a wide and lofty arch 
thrown over the Water-gate Street, where a rapid 
descent adds much to its apparent elevation. 

Within the walls, the city is subdivided by four 
principal streets, drawn from the gates, and intersect • 
ing at right angles. These streets retain numerous 
old timber buildings, which give them an unusual and 
impressive appearance. The streets are much wider in 
general than those in many other cities of equal an- 

Chester Cathedral was founded within tfie site of the 
Benedictine Abbey of St. Werburgh. It stands on the 
east side of North-gate Street. All authorities agree 
that, in the reign of King Athelstan, a monastery of 
secular canons was established here, in honour of St. 
Werburgh and St. Oswald. These canons, at the period 
of the Domesday Survey, retained possession of the 
abbey, and of the lands with which the liberality of the 
Saxon monarchs and the governors of Mercia had 
enriched them. The conventual buildings occupied 
nearly, if not totally, one-fourth of the city, and were 
bounded by the city walls on the north and east, and, 
with perhaps some slight exceptions, by the North-gate 
and East-gate Streets on the remaining sides. The 
cathedral is a spacious and irregular building, com- 
posed of the red stone of the county, and was nearly 
entirely built or rebuilt during the reigns of Henry VI., 
VII. and VIII. In the cloisters and buildings adjacent, 
particularly in some doorways now closed up, may be 
found very interesting specimens of Norman architec- 
ture, and the early decorations of the pointed style. 
" The western front, and some other detached parts, 
exhibit equally beautiful specimens of the enriched 
Gothic near the time of the dissolution; and the space 
occupied by the entire range of the conventual build- 
ings furnishes a magnificent idea of the grandeur of 
the establishment. This effect is however injured by 
the want of vaulting in the nave, choir, and south tran- 
sept, which was prohably interrupted by the dissolution, 
and by the nature of the stone, which, partly from its 
friability, and partly from its exposure to the sea-breezes, 
has long lost the greater part of its external ornaments. 
The progress of ruin is aided by the great inequalities 
which progressive decay has made in the surface. 

* OrmeroU's ' Cheshire,' vol. i., p. 279. 
f Earl Grosvenor is now Marquis of West minuter. 

R 2 

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[March 31 

[Watergate Street, with an external View of the " Rows."] 

Every exertion has of late years been made by the 
Chapter, under the auspices of the late Dean, in per- 
fecting substantial and even ornamental repairs ; but it 
is to be feared that the general decay is far beyond any 
restoration which the slender funds of the cathedral 
can supply; and the lapse of another century will 
probably level a considerable portion of the venerable 
fabric with the ground *." 

The kingdom of Mercia was originally divided into 
five bishoprics, of which Chester was one. About the 
year 785 the bishopric of Chester became incorporated 
with Lichfield. In 1075 the Bishop of Lichfield re- 
moved his episcopal seat to Chester. After his decease 
his successor removed to Lichfield, and Chester re- 
mained without a bishop until after the dissolution of 
the monasteries. 

The present bishopric of Chester was erected upon 
the dissolution of the abbeys, in the 33rd of Henry VIII., 
1541. The then first bishop of Chester was a John 
Bird, who had been a friar of the order of the Car- 
melites. Several eminent men have held the see of 
Chester, among whom may be mentioned Brian 
Walton, the celebrated editor of the Polyglot Bible, 
&c, and John Wilkins, whose share in founding the 
Royal Society is well known. 

Chester has long been celebrated for the architectural 
peculiarity in the construction of many of the old 
houses, known by the name of " rows." To a stranger 
these rows appear very singular things. It is difficult 
to convey a clear idea of the Chester Rows by a de- 
scription. A refereuce to the engravings will enable 
the reader to understand the description better. The 
rows may be termed a sort of gallery, arcade, or piazza, 
up one pair of stairs. These galleries at present occupy 
* Ormenod's ' Cheshire.' 

the greatest part of both sides of Eastgate Street, and 
the upper part of both sides of Watergate and Bridge 
Streets. They run along what would be the first- floor 
of the houses, reaching from street to street, open in 
front, and balustraded. Beneath the galleries or rows 
are shops or warehouses on the level of the street ; and 
at occasional intervals there are flights of steps leading 
into the rows. The upper stories over the rows project 
to the streets, and are dti a level with the shops and 
warehouses below. Mr. Pennant supposed these rows 
to have been the same with the ancient vestibules, and 
to have been a form of building preserved from the 
time that the city was possessed by the Romans. Mr. 
Ormerod gives a simpler conjecture. Their origin is 
accounted for on the principle of erecting galleries, 
from which the citizens might protect themselves from 
a sudden inroad of cavalry. In Leland's time there 
was a street in Bridgnorth which had a gallery along 
its extent, similar to the rows in Chester. The follow- 
ing description is taken from the * Vale Royal/ pub- 
lished originally in 1656: — 

" The buildings of this city are very ancient, and the 
houses be builded in such sort, that a man may go 
dry from one place of the city to another, and never 
come in the street, but go as it were in galleries, which 
they call the rows, which have shops on both sides, 
and underneath, with divers fair stairs to go up or 
down into the street; which manner of building I have 
not heard of in any other place of Christendom. Some 
will say that the like is at Padua, in Italy ; but that 
is not so, for the houses at Padua are built as the 
suburbs of this city be, that is, on the ground, upon 
posts, that a man may go dry underneath them, like as 
they are at Billingsgate, in London, but nothing like 
to the rows. It is a goodly sight to see the number 

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of fair shops that are iu these rows, of mercers, grocers, 
drapers, and haberdashers, especially in the street 
called the Mercers' Row ; which street, with the Bridge 
Street, (being all one street), reacheth from the High 
Cross to the bridge, in length 380 paces in geometry, 
which is above a quarter of a mile." 

The erection of the castle of Chester is ascribed to 
William the Conqueror in 1069. It has of course the 
palace of the earldom, as well as its stronghold, and 
retained m uch of the appearance of this mixed cha- 
racter until the recent alterations. The castle is situ- 
ated near the south-west angle of the city walls. The 
upper ward is on very high ground, defended by natural 
precipices on the south and west, and by an artificial 
elevation on the north. It retains one square tower, 
which was probably erected before the assumption of 
the earldom into the hands of the crown, and it is also 
likely that the castle of the Norman earls occupied the 
advantageous site of that ward only. 

Before the alterations, the castle, as described by 
Pennant, was composed of two wards, an upper and a 
lower, each with a strong gate, defended by a round 
bastion on each side, with a ditch, and formerly with 

Two Acts of Parliament were procured in 1788 and 
1807, for the purpose of erecting the modern castle, 
containing the county courts and gaol. The upper 
ward of the castle was but little altered, but the lower 
ward was demolished, and a series of five buildings 
erected in its stead, the architect of which was the late 
Mr. Harrison, a native of Chester, and an honour to 
his profession. The erection of this, the finest structure 
in Chester, was spread over a period of twenty-eight years. 
The grand entrance is in the Doric style, and con- 
sists of three pavilions or temples conjoined together, 
the central one being an entrance for carriages. The 
length is upwards of 100 feet. The two pavilions 
placed at the side form open porticos to the interior of 
the court, each supported by four fluted pillars without 
pedestals. The ceilings are of stone, divided by stone 

beams into square compartments. Alh the pillars here 
as in other parts, are single blocks, and the stone was 
exclusively brought from the Man ley quarry, about 
eight miles distant. 

A semicircular wall 6f hewn; stone, within a deep 
fosse, is continued from this entrance to the armoury, 
which completes the west side of the inner court, and 
to a corresponding building on the opposite side, a part 
of which is used as barracks, the rest being intended for 
the purposes of a court, of justice during the winter and 
spring sessions of the county magistrates, and for the 
court of exchequer of the palatinate. The fronts of 
these buildings are ornamented with columns of the 
Ionic order, supporting an elegant entablature. , 

The remaining side of the court (the southern oue) 
is occupied by the front of an extensive pile, containing 
several of the offices of the palatinate, the county- gaol, 
and the Shire Hall, in the front of which is a magnifi- 
cent portico, supported by twelve massy pillars, placed 
in rows, each pillar being a single stone, twenty- two 
feet in height, and upwards of three in diameter. This 
portico, which is the most striking feature of the whole, 
was an addition to the original design. 

From this portico is the entrance into the Shire Hall, 
on the north side of which is a recess for the seat of 
the judges ; the rest of the hall, in front of this recess, 
forming an exact semicircle of eighty feet diameter, 
round the edge of which is a colonnade.of twelve Ionic 
pillars. From the base of these pillars the floor de- 
scends to the court in the centre, in a series of circular 
steps, for the ^accommodation of the spectators ;. and 
the pillars themselves support a semi-dome, forty-four 
feet high, terminating over the judges' bench, and 
divided into square compartments, each of which con- 
tains a large rose, the centre of which is pierced through 
to the roof for the purposes of ventilation. 

Behind the Shire Hall is the gaoler's house, under 
which is the chapel. On the right of this 's a quad- 
rangle, containing the hospital on the west side, the 
county-offices on the north, and the apartments for 
female debtors on the east side. On the other side of 
the projection of the gaoler's house is a corresponding 
quadrangle, two sides of which are appropriated to the 
male debtors. The south side of these quadrangles is 
left open, and in front of them, and of the gaoler's 
house, is a terrace, overlooking the felon's yard, which 
lies twenty-six feet below, divided into five yards, which 
converge towards the foot of the gaoler's house. Be- 
hind this is the great boundary wall of the castle, which 
abuts upon the city walls. The military government 
of the castle is vested in a governor and lieutenant- 
governor; the gaoler, who has the custody of both 
debtors and felons, is called constable of the castle, 
and holds his place by patent. 

" Within the walls of this fortress was an instance of 
a felon suffering " prison forte et dure," for standing 
mute on his trial, till he died of hunger. One Adam, 
son of John, of the Woodhouses, was, in 1310, the 4th 
of Edward II., committed for burning his own houses, 
and carrying away the goods. He stood mute ; a jury 
as usual was impannelled, who decided that he could 
speak if he pleased. On this he was committed " ad 
dietam ;" and afterwards John le Morgan, constable of 
the castle, testified that the aforesaid Adam was dead 
" ad dietam." This was the origin of the punishment 
of pressing to death, or the 4< peine forte et dure," 
which seems a sort of merciful hastening of death ; for 
it must have been much more horrible, as well as 
tedious, in the manner prescribed by the law of the first 
Edward, in whose reign it originated. * * The 
term " ad dietam " was ironical, expressive of the sad 
sustenance the sufferer was allowed ; viz. on the first 
day, three morsels of the worst bread ; on the second, 
three draughts of water out of the next puddle ; and 

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[March 31, 

this was to be alternately his daily diet till he died*." 
By the 12 Geo. III., c. 20, persons remaining- mute 
when arraigned, are held as guilty, and may be con- 
demned and executed. 

Chester is divided into twelve wards, Viz. — Trinity, 
St. Michael's, St. Giles's, St. Thomas's, St. Bridget's, 
St. John's, St. Oswald's, St. Mary's, St. Martiu's, East 
Gate, North Gate, and St. Olave's; and it compre- 
hends portions of nine parishes, viz. — St. Oswald's, St. 
John's, St. Mary's, Trinity, St. Peter's, St. Bridget's, 
St. Martin's, St. Michael's, and St. Olave's. The 
boundary of the city is well defined by stones, which 
are numbered; and a list of them, containing their 
relative bearings and number, is kept in the office of 
the town-clerk. The limits of the city extend far be- 
yond the actual town, except in two directions, viz., in 
that of the township of Great Boughton, and that of 
the townships of Hoole and Newton. These townships 
are without the city-boundary. Into the former of 
them a considerable portion of what must be considered 
as the actual town, or its suburbs, extends, antl there 
are also scattered about in this direction several de- 
tached houses that are connected with the town. 

The population of Chester has not increased very 
rapidly. In 1801 it was 15,052; in 1811, 16,140; 
in 1821, 19,949 ; and in 1831 it was 21,344. Of this 
latter number, 9635 were males, 11,709 females. Of 
families employed in trade, manufactures, &c, there 
were in 1831, 2665 ; employed in agriculture, 355 ; and 
of families not entered under any particular class there 
were 1608. The amount of assessed taxes for 1831 
was 7732/. ; of parochial assessment, in 1829, 4850/. 
The number of houses, in 1830, above 10/. and under 
20/. rent, was 536 ; from 20/. to 40/., 347 ; at 40/. 
and upwards, 157 : — total 1040. 

The port of Chester was formerly a place of con- 
siderable traffic. Lucian, a monk of St. Werburgh's 
in the twelfth century, and who wrote a book, * De 
Laudibus Cestriae,' says, — "The beautiful river on 
the south side serves as an harbour for ships from 
Gascoigne, Spain, Ireland, and Germany, who, by 
the guidance of Christ, and the industry and prudence 
of the merchants, supply and refresh the heart of the 
city with abundance of goods; so that, through the 
various consolations of the Divine favour, we have wine 
in profusion from the plentiful vintages of those coun- 
tries." Amongst the articles of export were slaves, a 
traffic to which the Saxons were addicted. In Hak- 
luyt (vol. i., p. 199), is the following list of the Chester 
articles of commerce : — 

" Hides and fish, salmon, hake, herriuge, 
Irish wooll, and linen cloth, faldingo, 
And marterns pood, be her marchandie. 
Hertes hides, and other of venerie, 
Skins of utter, squirrel, and Irish hose, 
Of bheep, lamb, and foxe, is her chaffare, 
Fclles of kids, and conies great plenty/ 

Chester was long one of the chief points from which 
the communication with Ireland, especially Dublin, was 
kept up. It did not, in fact, entirely lose its import- 
ance in this respect until the formation of the great 
Holyhead Road. The commerce of the city has been 
long declining, and is now almost absorbed in that of 
Liverpool. Primarily, this must be attributed to, per- 
haps, natural causes. The " ruinous state of the city 
and haven " in the time of Richard II., and the " la- 
mentable decay of the port, by reason of the abundance 
of the sand which had been allowed to choke up the 
creek " in the time of Henry VI., are mentioned in 
charters granted by these mouarchs. Various attempts 
were made to obviate these evils; but they were in- 
sufficient to check the decay of commerce. Other causes 
have also operated, such as the withdrawing of almost 
* Pennant's Tour in Wales, p. 162. 

the entire trade in Irish linen, for the promotion of 
which, about sixty years ago, the Irish merchants tra- 
ding to Chester established a Cloth Hall. Chester still, 
however, retuins a small external trade. The principal 
articles exported and shipped coastwise are cheese, 
coal, lead, and copper. Chester likewise supplies many 
of the shopkeepers in North Wales with London, Man- 
chester, and Birmingham goods. The manufactures 
of the town are inconsiderable ; these consist prin- 
cipally of lead and shot, and a few other articles : there 
are two lead-foundries. The trade in cheese — for 
which Cheshire has been famous from a very early 
period — creates considerable activity. There are now 
eight cheese-fairs annually. Chester is a sort of me- 
tropolis to the adjoining principality of Wales; and a 
considerable number of families of respectability, whose 
incomes are limited, and who do not add to theru by 
any profession, reside in the city. 

The Dee has been honoured with much notice by 
the poets, and is celebrated by DraUon, Browne, 
Spenser, and Milton, as the holy, the divine, and 
the wizard Dee. Much superstition was founded on 
the circumstance of its being the boundary between 
England and Wales. The navigation of the river was 
impeded by sands as early as the reign of Henry VJ., 
and a quay was then formed in the neighbourhood ut 
Shotwick Castle, about six miles below Chester, from 
which place troops were usually embarked for Ireland. 
In the reign of Elizabeth, a new haven or quay was 
built lower down, and was the origin of the town ot 
Parkgate. The navigation of the river up to Chester 
was restored in 1754 by a new channel, formed by a 
company. The embankments of the sands were carried 
down to Shotwick, and upwards of 2,400 feet of land 
rescued from the sea. In the " Vale Royal " the course 
of the Dee is thus described :— * 

" The Dee, called in Latin Dea, in British Pifirdwy, 
is not only the chiefest river of this county, but also 
of all North Wales. I may well call ft of this county, 
because it hath in some places Cheshire on both sides 
thereof. And of it was the city of Chester, in times 
past called Deva, and the people of the country De- 
vani. It springeth in Merionethshire, in North Wales, 
two miles from the great lake called Tegill, which lake 
is engendered, or rather fed, by divers rills and ri\erets 
which descend from the mountains. * * It leaveih 
Denbighshire on the west side, and hath Flintshire on 
the same side, but not very far ; for at Pootou (which 
is but a mile from thence) it hath Cheshire on both 
sides thereof; * * and, lastly, toucheth on the 
south side of the famous city of Chester, capital city of 
the whole shire, where, having passed the bridge, it 
fetcheth a rouud compass, making a fair plain called 
the Rood-Eye [Roo Dee] ; and, after, toucheth on the 
west side of the city at the Watergate. * * After- 
wards the Dee becometh very broad, so that at Shot- 
wick Castle, over into Flintshire, it is a mile broad ; at 
the New Key, which is six miles from Chester, it is 
above two miles broad. * * The whole course 
thereof, from the head unto the sea is about fifty-five 
miles. Which river of Dee aboundeth in all manner of 
fish, especially salmon and trout. The number of 
quicksands in this river, and the rage of winds, causeth 
changing of the channel. A south or north moon 
maketh a full sea at Chester." 

The bridge over the Dee which connected Chester 
with the principality of Wales was an inconvenient 
clumsy structure, and long a source of complaint. h\ 
lieu of this old bridge, a handsome bridge of one arch 
has been erected, from a design by the late Mr. Har- 
rison, the architect of the modern castle of Chester. 
It was erected in 1830-31. The span of the bridge is 
200 feet, the roadway 33, and the elevation from low- 
water mark 54* 

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In the Municipal Corporation Report there is a list 
of forty-one charters, patents, and grants, which have 
been made at different times to the city of Chester. 
The earliest of this list of charters are three, granted 
by Ranulph, Earl of Chester, without date. Some 
controversy has arisen whether they were granted by 
three several Earls Ranulph or Randle, who governed 
the city in succession from 1120 till 1232, with the 
intervention of Earl Hugh from 1152 till 1180, or 
were all grants of Ranulph Blundeville, the third earl 
of that name. What the citizens termed the " great 
charter" was granted by Henry VII., by which the 
city was made a county of itself. The date of this is 
ihe 5th of April, in the 2 1st year of his reign. Under 
this charter the title of the corporation was " per nomen 
majoris et civium civitatis Cestriae" — " the mayor and 
citizens of the city of Chester." 

The office of mayor is of very high antiquity in 
Chester: the precise time when it was first erected 
has not been ascertained. The charter of Henry VII. 
defined the mode of election of mayor, and also of 
sheriff. With respect to sheriffs it provided that u the 
said mayor and citizens may have, make, and have 
power to choose from among themselves every suc- 
cessive year two citizens for sheriffs of the same county 
of the city of Chester,*' and "That the mayor, sheriffs, 
and aldermen of the said city and county, dwelling 
therein, being annually assembled and met together, they, 
or the greater part of them, then there personally being 
may (on the day of assembly) freely elect and appoint 
an able and efficient person for one sheriff of the 
aforesaid city ; and the said other fellow-citizens then 
there in like manner present, or the greater part of 
them, another sufficient and able person for the other 
sheriff of the aforesaid city : which two, so elected, may 
be and remain sheriffs, &c, for one whole year." These 
were usually called the " first" or u mayor's" sheriff; 
and the " second" or " popular" sheriff. By the 
Municipal Reform Act, cities which are counties of 
themselves, are to have their sheriffs elected by the 
town councils, consequently the election of the Chester 
sheriffs is vested in the town-council of the city. By 
the same Act Chester is divided into five wards, with 
ten aldermen and thirty counsellors. 

An ancient building called the u Pentice," and in 
some old charters the 4< Appentice," was formerly the 
place in which the sheriff's courts were held, and in 
which banquets were given to such royal and noble 
guests as honoured the city with Iheir presence. It 
was situated at the junction of the North and East- 
gate Streets ; it was erected in 1498, partly taken down 
in 1780, and the remainder in 1805, for the purpose 
of widening the streets*. 

The sheriffs preside as judges in the " Pentice Court," 
and to them belongs the execution of all writs from 
the superior courts at Westminster, within the liberties 
of the city of Chester. Upon them also formerly 
devolved the duty of executing all criminals capitally 
convicted, not only within the jurisdiction of the city 
and county, but also within the county of Chester at 
large: this was done in pursuance of a writ directed 
to them from the court of gaol delivery, requiring them 
to execute the criminal on a certain day named in the 
writ. The officers of the corporation, as well as the 
inhabitants of the city, held the imposition of this duty 
upon their sheriffs to be a great hardship and annoy- 

In the township of Gloverstone, adjoining the castle, 
the bodies of convicts left for execution are delivered 
by the constable, or his deputy, to the city sheriffs, 

* Appentttivm is defined in the glossaries to be a smaller build- 
ing annexed to a larger one — the name probably given to this 
building as descriptive of its position with respect to St. Peter'i 
Church*— LyW* Magna Brit. 

whose office it has" been from time immemorial to see 
the sentence of the law fulfilled within their own limits. 
There have been various unsatisfactory conjectures re- 
specting the origin of this custom, which is sufficiently 
elucidated by some ancient records of the corporation. 
In an inquisition taken in the year 1321, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining the tolls payable at each of the 
city gates, it is stated that the mayor and citizens, as 
keepers of the North-gate, had a right to certain tolls, 
for which privilege they were bound to watch the said 
gate, and the prisoners in the prison of the Earl there 
imprisoned,— to keep the key of the felon's gallows, — 
to hang up the condemned criminals, — to execute the 
sentence of pillory, proclaim the ban of the Earl, &c, 
&c. There were certain customary tenants of the city, 
sixteen in number, who enjoyed certain privileges and 
exemptions, on condition of watching the city three 
nights in the year, and to watch and bring up felons 
and thieves condemned, both for county and city, as 
far as the gallows. 

In the first year of the present king an Act was 
passed, (1 Will. IV. c. 70 ; see an abstract of it in the 
* Companion to the Almanac* for 1831) entitled, ' An 
Act for the more effectual Administration of Justice in 
England and Wales." It was contended that several 
clauses in this Act, the 19th in particular, discharged the 
city sheriffs from their painful duty ; and an occasion 
soon arose, in which the question was tried. In the 
year 1834 two men were left for execution at Chester, 
for a crime most abhorrent to all manly and moral 
feeling — namely, that of assassination for hire. The 
sheriffs both of the county and of the city refused to 
perform the duty, and the criminals were left in gaol ; 
the day of execution passed over, the murderers were 
respited from time to time, and the law appeared likely 
to be defeated. In this emergency the Court of Kings 
Bench exerted its powers. Writs of certiorari and 
habeas corpus were granted, the one being to remove 
the conviction, and the other the bodies of the criminals 
from the inferior to the superior court. The Attorney- 
General, in moving for these writs, produced various 
cases, in order to show that the court of King's Bench 
possessed this power, and had foimerly exercised it. 
The criminals were accordingly brought up from 
Chester, and after undergoing the ceremony of being 
introduced into the Court of King's Bench, and of 
hearing their sentence ordered to be carried into exe- 
cution, they were hanged at Horse monger- Lane Gaol, 
on the 25th of November, 1834. In order to settle 
the disputed point, an Act of Parliament was passed in 
1835, by which the sheriffs of the city of the county of 
Chester for the time being, are to execute the sentence 
of death upon all criminals appointed to die for offences 
committed within the county of Chester. 

The ancient Common Hall of the city was in a street 
which still retains the name of Common- Hall Lane. 
In 1695, a new town-hall, or exchange, was begun in 
the North-gate Street, which was completed in 1698, in 
which year the elections of the mayor and city officers, 
and the courts formerly held in the old Common Hall, 
were removed to this building. The Exchange is built 
of brick, enriched with stone ornaments, among which 
may be enumerated a fine statue of Queen Anne in her 
coronation robes, and two tablets, one of which contains 
the royal arms, and the other a variety of armorial 
bearings, allusive to the several titles of the earls of 
Chester. The original fabric rested in a great measure 
on arches and pillars of stone ; but shops have been 
introduced in several instances under the piazza below, 
for the purpose of giving additional strength to the 

The City Gaol and House of Correction are situated 
immediately adjacent to the city walls, between tne 
Water Gate and the Water Tower, and are comprised 

Digitized by 




[March 31, 1836. 

in one uniform plan, being built of brick, with entrances 
of stone on the eastern and western sides. In the 
centre of the building is a chapel. The place of execu- 
tion for the county and city criminals is over the eastern 

The Infirmary of Chester is a handsome brick- 
building, contiguous to the walls, on the west side of 
the city, near the Water Tower, in a situation peculiarly 
healthy, being removed from the noise of the streets, 
and open to the fine air from the estuary of the Dee 
and the Welsh mountains. It was founded in the year 
1756, and originated from a bequest of 300/., aided by 
subscriptions. It was opened in March, 1761. This 
hospital was the first into which distinct wards for 
fever patients were introduced, having been adopted 
under the direction of Dr. Hay garth, in 1783. 

In addition to the corporation of the city at large, 
there were twenty-four companies called the Trades, 
which all claimed to be, and were, esteemed corpora- 
tions by prescription, and enjoyed many peculiar pri- 
vileges. The reader is aware that inhabitants of incor- 
porated boroughs may now exercise any trade or calling 
without requiring to be free of any guild or incor- 
porated company. The citizens of Chester were not 
less famous for their dramatic performances than 
those of Coventry. They exhibited two species, one 
formed upou moral romance, the other on scriptural 

The Chester plays have been the subject of a good 
deal of speculation. They are stated to have been 
written by one Randle, a monk of Chester Abbey, and 
to have been first performed between 1268 and 1273. 
Roscoe, in his * Lorenzo de Medici,* questions this, 
and states his opinion that the Chester plays are ante- 
dated by nearly two centuries. But the majority of 
authorities assign them to the thirteenth century. They 
were rude compilations, containing, amid many pas- 
sages of a curious or ludicrous nature, much that is 
offensive to modern taste and propriety. 

Chester is well supplied with the means of education. 
There are, according to the Education Returns of 1835, 
upwards of 62 schools in the place, under the heads of 
Daily, Boarding, Sunday, ami Infant Schools. Of 
charity schools, the oldest is the King's School, attached 
to the Cathedral. There are twenty-four scholars on 
the foundation, who are nominated by the dean and 
chapter. It was founded by Henry VIII., in the thirty- 
sixth year of his reign. The Blue Coat School was 
founded in 1700, at the instance of Bishop Stratford. 
There is also a school in which from 400 to 450 boys 
and girls receive daily instruction at the expense of the 
Marquis of Westminster. 

The Roo Dee, on which the city races are annually 
run, is a large level plain, on the bank of the Dee, 
immediately under the walls, stretching to their north- 
west angle from the Watergate. The whole . ground 
was formerly covered by the water, as appears from an 
award in 1401, that it could not be tithed by the rector 
of Trinity, in consequence of its being land recovered 
from the sea. A stand hat been erected on the race- 
course, by subscription from the neighbouring gentry. 
The building and improvements on the ground cost 
about 4000/. 

1558. In this year occurred the well-known inter- 
ruption of the commission of Dr. Henry Cole, dean of 
St. Paul's, by Mrs. Elizabeth Mottershed, an inn- 
keeper in Foregate Street, who was alarmed for the 
safety of her brother, in Dublin, and had the address 
to substitute a pack of cards for the dean's commission. 
The story is mentioned by Archbishop Usher and Sir 
James Ware. 

Under the year 1636, the following extracts are 
given by Ormerod, in his ' History of Cheshire/ as 
proofs of the excessive filth which was suffered to accu- 

mulate in the close streets of Chester, and the unwil- 
lingness of the people to exert themselves to prevent the 
recurrence of that dreadful scourge — the plague, which 
had been just depopulating the adjacent country, and 
had been so severely felt by themselves at the com- 
mencement of the century : — 

" That the lord-bishop be informed of the unwhole- 
someness of the puddle near the East Gate, and the 
inhabitants be ordered to cleanse the streets before 
their respective doors, within one month, under a fine 
of 10*." The length of time allowed under the circum- 
stances is most singular. 

•• 1636. This man (William Edwards, mayor) was 
a stout man, and had not the love of the Commons. 
He was cruel, and, not pitying the poor, he caused 
many dunghills to be carried away, but the cost and 
time was on the poor ; it being so hard times, might 
well have been spared.'.' 

" The mayor caused the dirt of many foul lane? in 
Chester to be carried to make a bank to enlarge the 
roodey, and let shipps in. It cost about 100/." 

In this year the celebrated William Prynne being 
conveyed through Chester to be imprisoned in Caer- 
narvon Castle, he was met on his approach by num- 
bers of the citizens, who paid so much respect to the 
sufferer for liberty of conscience, as to give offence to 
the government. Many of them were therefore fined, 
—some 500/., '300/., and 250/. Mr. Peter luce, a 
stationer, and one of the offenders, made a public re- 
cantation before the bishop, in the cathedral. In the 
following year, four portraits of Prynne, painted in 
Chester, were burned at the High Cross, in the 
presence of the magistracy. 

1683. In the middle of August, James Duke of 
Monmouth, came to Chester, greatly affecting popu- 
larity, and giving countenance to riotous assemblies 
and tumultuous mobs, whose violence was such as to 
pelt with stones the windows of several gentlemen's 
houses in the city, and otherwise to damage the same. 
They likewise furiously forced the doors of the cathedral 
church, and destroyed most of the painted glass; beat 
to pieces the baptismal font, attempted to demolish the 
organ, and committed other outrages. Monmouth was 
taken into custody on his return from Chester, at 
Strafford. While. at Chester he tried various arts to 
gain popularity, and obtain support for his ill-timed 
and injudicious insurrection. The infant of the mayor 
was christened during his stay, and the duke siu*i 

1745. The last event of sufficient importance to he 
noticed, occurred this year, on the news of the approach 
of the army of the Pretender. The city was put iira 
posture of defence ; orders were given that all house- 
holders should lay in a stock of provisions for a fort- 
night; all trade and business ceased entirely ; and the 
principal inhabitants removed their valuables. The 
city, however, was not disturbed. 

The chief sources from whence the foregoing account 
of Chester have been derived, are, * Lyson's Magna 
Britannia;' 'Cheshire,' in 3 folio vols., by Georg* 
Ormerod. ll.d., f.r.8., &c. ; Pennant's ' Tour in Wales,' 
and the * Boundary and Municipal Corporation Re- 

•«• Tkc Office of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledft a a* 
' 69. Lincoln's Inn Fields. 


Printed by William Clowks tad Sows, Stanford Stotot, 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[April 2, 1836. 


[Wolf and Crane.] 

The fact that fables have been a popular medium of 
communicating useful truths in all ages and in every 
part of the world proves how simple are the elements 
from which an observant mind may gather intelligence 
and obtain an intimate acquaintance with things which 
elevate and improve it. To him who has thoroughly 
investigated the qualities and character of objects with 
which he is daily surrounded, the following lines of 
Wordsworth are Hot inapplicable : — 
" The outward ihows of ilcy and earth, 
Of hill and valley he lias view'd ; 
And impulse* of deeper birth 

Have come to him in solitude. 
In common things that round us lie 

Some random truths He can impart, 
— The harvest of a quiet eye, 
That broods and sleeps on his own heart" 

The reply of the Shepherd to the Sage, which Gay has 
given in his Introduction to his Fables, will further 
illustrate our meaning, and point out the manner in 
which the result of observation may be applied in a 
practical manner as a guide in actual life. 
. " The Shepherd modestly replied : — 

' The little knowledge I have gain'd 

Was all from simple nature drain'd ; 

Hence my life's maxims took their rise. 

Hence jrrew my settled hate to vice. 

The daily labours of the bee 

Awake my soul to industry ; 

Who can observe the careful ant, 

And not provide for future want ? 

My dog (the trustiest of his kind) 

With gratitude inflames my mind : 
Vol. V. 

I mark his true, his faithful way , 
And in my service copy Tray. 
Ih constancy and nuptial love, 
I learn my duty from the dove. 
The hen, who from the chilly air, 
With pious wing protects her care ; 
And every fowl that flies at large, 
Instructs me in a parent's charge. 
From Nature too I take my rule, 
To shun contempt and ridicule* 
I never, with important air, 
In conversation overbear. 
Can grave and formal pass for wise, 
When men the solemn owl despise ? 
My tongue within my lips I rein ; 
For whe talks much must talk in vain* 
We from the wordy torrent fly : 
Who listens to the chattering pye ? 
Nor would I, with felonious sleight. 
By stealth invade my neighbours right. 
Thus every object of creation 
Can furnish hints to contemplation ; 
And from the most minute and mean, 
A virtuous mind cao morals glean." 

Having already touched somewhat largely on the 
literary history of this species of composition, we shall 
now merely give the illustration to the cut as we find 
it in Dodslcy's collection : — 

" A wolf having with too much greediness swallowed 
a bone, it unfortunately stuck in his throat ; and in the 
violence of his pain he applied to several animals, 
earnestly entreating them to extract it. None cared 
to hazard the dangerous experiment, except the crane ; 
who, persuaded by his solemn promises of a gratuity, 


Digitized by 




lApftxi. 2, 

Tcntured to thnist her enormous length of neck down 
his throat, and having successfully performed the ope- 
ration, claimed the recompence. c See the unreason- 
ableness of some creatures*' said the wolf; ' have I not 
suffered thee safely to draw thy neck out of my jaws, 
and hast thou the conscience to demand a further 

The moral, as given in Dodsley, is that the utmost 
extent of some men's gratitude barely consists in 
refraining from oppressing and injuring tbeir bene- 


We are not among the deriders of what is properly 
called the wisdom of our ancestors, though we think 
that phrase is often used without any understanding of 
its true meaning. If any person holds that the men 
who lived two, or three, or four centuries ago were 
wiser than we their descendants of the present day, 
with that person we cannot agree; and we would re- 
mind him that if it be M old experience " which gives 
wisdom, that belongs, as Bacon has observed, more 
to the age that now is than to any that hath preceded 
it. What is commonly called antiquity was com- 
paratively the youth or nonage of the world, And we 
are really the true ancients. 

But we look with much respect upon the wisdom of 
our ancestor*, rightfully so called. We respect that 
which has stood the test of time, and been sanctioned 
by the approval of many past generations. We do this 
not from any superstition in favour of the past, but on 
the rational principle that, in matters disputable or 
doubtful, experience is entitled to go for something, 
and therefore that which has been long established end 
found to answer its purpose has in so far an advantage 
over that which is altogether new and untried. The 
wisdom of our ancestors in this sense is merely another 
name for the certainty of experience as opposed to theo- 
retical or conjectural expectation. In the case of any 
contemplated change, therefore, and especially of any 
great social or institutional change, the consequences 
of which may be so fearfully momentous, it is an 
element which no prudent or considering mind will 
omit to take into calculation. Like any other element 
in moral questions, where precise admeasurement 
is impossible, it may sometimes be rated too high, — 
but it may also be rated too low. AH we say is, that it 
is always to be allowed some weight. In other words, 
the wisdom of our ancestors, — that is, the experience 
of the generations which have preceded us, — is never 
to be altogether set aside in weighing such adverse 
reasoning, however plausible, as is supported by no 

Speaking however of the wisdom and knowledge pos- 
sessed by our ancestors some ages back, as compared 
or contrasted with our own, one observation which we 
may make is, that one of the very greatest advantages 
we enjoy is in the vastly more general diffusion of 
intelligence and of sound opinions which characterises 
the present times. In this respect, most remarkably, 
modern civilization appears to be distinguished from 
that of the ancient world — or rather, we should say, 
the civilization which has arisen since the invention of 
printing from that which existed previously. But even 
this mighty instrument was not able to work its whole 
effects at once. So far from it, its powers are but un- 
folding themselves even now. When the very first 
printed book appeared, it may well be said, knowledge 
was made the rightful property of the many. The 
light which had been heretofore immured in libraries, 
or carried about in lanterns, was now ** set in the 
firmament of heaven to give light upon the earth." 
But many obstacles were to be removed before it could 
diffuse itself over the whole wide region that had so 
long lain in darkness. Cheap printing, by means of* 

machinery, and the new power of 6leam, and unprece- 
dentedly-large impressions, is in our own day working 
a second revolution* perhaps as great as that which was 
effected by the first employment of the printing-press. 
Stereotyping, lithography, and other ingenious and 
valuable inventions, are contributing their aid to the 
same end. And co-operating also with these improve- 
ments of the instrument, there has been constantly 
going on a general improvement of society, — of its 
institutions, — of its resources,— of its powers, and the 
various modes of employing them, — in short, of its 
whole organization, action, and tendencies, — which has, 
as it were, actually elevated the mass of the people in 
Europe, within the last three centuries, to altogether a 
new condition of being. 

Still, as we have observed, the grand difference be- 
tween the wisdom of the present day and that of past 
times is not so much in the amount of the one as com- 
pared with that of the other, as in the much greater 
extent to which knowledge and correct views are now 
diffused. Of course, of that kind of knowledge which 
depends upon experimental investigation, and also in 
mathematical knowledge, where every step that is taken 
on the straight Udder of demonstration is necessarily a 
step in advance, the positive increase has been very 
great. But in the field of moral speculation there is 
reason to believe that most of our soundest conclusions 
have been anticipated by the superior minds of past 
generations, at though they may never perhaps, till a 
comparatively recent date, have come to be commonly 
understood and received, and to form part of the general 
intellect The eandle fas* been lighted, though it has 
been placed under a bushel. 

If there be any moral science which may be thought 
pre-eminently to deserve the name of a modern science 
it is that of Political Economy. Undoubtedly, in so 
far as it has been reduced to the form of a science, it 
is of very modern date. But we shall be in error, 
nevertheless, if we suppose that the subject of " the 
Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations " did not 
engage the attention of anxious speculators ages before 
it began to he systematically treated of by those writers 
whom we regard as the fathers of the science, either 
in our own country 'or elsewhere. The doctrines, in 
several respects in advance of their age, maintained 
towards the close of the seventeenth century by the 
Hon. Dudley North, Sir Josiah Child, and others of 
our countrymen, have been frequently pointed out; 
but long before their day questions in political economy 
had been discussed with great ability and ingenuity in 

We have lately met with a very curious discourse 
upon this class of subjects, published about the middle 
of the reign of Elizabeth. It is curious and interest- 
ing both as an example of the political economy of 
that era, and from the notices to be found in it respect- 
ing the domestic manners and other minute pecu- 
liarities of the time, which have been neglected by our 
more formal histories, although such things really 
make the best indications of the state of society, and 
bring before us at once the liveliest and the truest 
picture of the country. 

The pamphlet, which is in black letter, is of a small 
quarto ibrm, and consists of fifty-five leaves ; the pages, 
as was then the practice, being numbered only on one 
side of each leaf. It is entitled ' A Compendious or 
Brief Examination of certain ordinary Complaints of 
divers of our Countrymen in these our days, &c, by 
W. S. Gentleman : Imprinted at London, in Fleet 
Street, near unto St. Dunstan's Church, by Thomas 
Marshe, 1581. Cum Privilegio.' The running title, 
however, or that which appears along the tops of the 
pages, is ' A brief Conceit, touching the Commonwealth 
of this Realm of England.' The work is dedicated to 
the Queen, Elizabeth. 

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The form Which the author has adopted in the dis 
cnasion of his subject is that of dialogue. He himself 
assumes the character of a Knight* or country gentle- 
man ; but we shaH let ham introduce the several per- 
sonages of the drama in his own way. 

44 After I and my fellows," he begins, " the justiees 
of peace of this commonalty, had the other day declared 
the Queen's Highness* Commission, touching divers 
matters, and given the charge to the inquest, I being 
both weary of the heat of the people and noise of the 
same" thought to steal to a friend's house of mine in 
the town, which selleth wine, in the intent to eat a 
morsel of meat, for I was then fasting, taking with'me 
an honest husbandman, whom for bis honesty and good 
discretion I loved very well ; whither as we were come, 
and had but scarce sat down in a close parlour, there 
cometh me in a merchantman of that city, a man of' 
estimation and substance, and requireth the said hus- 
bandman to go and dine with him. * Nay, 1 quoth I, 
c he will not, I trust, now forsake my company, though 
* he should fare better with you.' * Then,' quoth the 
merchantman, ' I will send home for a pasty of venison 
that I have there, and for a friend of mine, and a 
neighbour that I had bid to dinner, and we shall be so 
bold as to make merry withal in your company, and 
as for my guest he is no stranger unto you neither. 
And therefore both he of yours, and you of his com- 
pany, I trust, will be the gladder.' 
Knight— 'Who is it?' 
Merchant. — * Doctor Pandotheus.* 
Knight — * Is he so? On my faith he shall be 
heartily welcotne ; for of him we shall have some good 
communication and wise, for he is noted a learned and 
a wise man.' And immediately the merchant sendeth 
for him, and he cometh unto us, and bringeth with 
him an honest man, a capper [that is, a dealer in 
caps, a hatter] of the same town, who came to speak 
with the said merchant. Then after salutations had 
(as ye know the manner is) between me and master 
Doctor, and renewing of old acquaintance, which had 
been long before between us, we sat all down, and 
when we had ate somewhat to satisfy the sharpness 
of out stomachs, * On my faith, 1 quoth the Doctor 
to me, * ye make much ado, you that be justices of 
the peace of every county, in sitting upon commissions 
almost weekly, and in causing poor men to appear 
before you, leaving their husbandry unlooked for at 
home/ " 

To this the Knight replies by admitting the truth of 
the Doctor's remark. With some nazvcte y however, in 
excusing the practice, he passes over altogether the in- 
conveniences it occasions to the poor husbandmen, and 
takes the whole merit of putting up with the hardship 
to himself and those of his own class. u Yet," he says, 
" the prince must be served, and the commonweal ; for 
God and the prince have not lent us the poor livings 
that we have, but to do service therefore .abroad among 
our neighbours." 

The equal and familiar footing on which the several 
individuals introduced in this passage are represented 
as associating is a trait of the times when there was as 
yet only one intermediate class in English society be- 
tween the nobleman and the labourer. The order of 
gentry as distinguished from that of tradesmen and 
yeomen was only as yet in process of formation. 
Twenty or thirty years later, the Knight, the Merchant, 
and the Doctor would scarcely have been found on 
such terms of easy and intimate companionship with 
the Husbandman and the Capper. 

The conversation having thus commenced, was 
speedily drawn to what was then, it appears, as it still 
is, the standard English dinner-table topic. " Let us 
drink about," says Squire Western in 'Tom Jones,' 
u and talk a little of the state of the nation, or some 
such discourse that we all understand." So to the dis- 

cussion of the state of the nation proceeded our five 
friends over their wine in the year 1581. 

The Husbandman opens the debate with* his budget 
of grievances. The bad times, in his judgment, are all 
owing to the inclosing of waste lands. " Marry," he 
says, " for these inclosures do undo us all ; for they 
make us to pay dearer for our land that we occupy, and 
causeth that we can have no land in manner ibr our 
money to put to tillage : all is taken up for pasture, — - 
for pasture either for sheep or for grazing of cattle ; in- 
somuch that I have known of late a dozen ploughs, 
within less compass than six miles about me, laid down 
within this seven years ; and where three score persons 
or upwards had their livings, now one man with bis 
cattle hath all." 

He adds that all things also have become so dear, 
that labourers are no longer able to live by their day 
wages. " I have well the experience thereof," exclaims 
the Capper, next taking up the discourse, " for I am 
fain to give my journeymen two-pence in a day more 
than I was wont to do, and yet they say they cannot 
sufficiently live thereon. And I know for truth that 
the best husband [that is, the best manager] of them can 
save but little at the year's end ; and by reason of such 
dearth as ye speak of, we that are artificers are able to 
keep but few or no prentices like as we were wont to 
do." In consequence, he asserts, the cities in all parts 
of the kingdom are falling to decay. 

This last statement is confirmed by the Merchant, 
as true of the kingdom generally, with the exception 
only of London. " And albeit," he adds, " there be 
many things laid down now which be foretime were 
occasions of much expences, as may-games, wakes, 
revels, wages at shooting, wrestling, running, and 
throwing the stone or bar, and besides that, pardons, 
pilgrimages, offerings, and many such other things; 
yet I perceive we be never the wealthier, but rather 
the poorer, • . . for there is such a general dearth of 
all things as before twenty or thirty years hath not 
been the like, not only of things growing within this 
realm, but also of all other merchandize that we buy 
from beyond the sea; as silks, wines, oils, woad, 
madder, iron, steel, wax, flax, linencloth, fustians, 
worsteds, coverlets, carpets, and tapestry ; spices of all 
sort and all haberdasher ware, as paper both white and 
brown, glasses as well drinking as looking, and for glazing 
of windows ? pins, needles, knives, daggers, hats, caps, 
broaches, buttons, and laces. I wot well all these do 
cost now more by the third part than they did but few 
years ago. Then all kind of victual are as dear or dearer 
again, and no cause of God's part thereof, as far as 
I can perceive, for I never saw more plenty of corn, 
grass, and cattle of all sort than we have at this present, 
and have had, as ye know, all these twenty years past 
continually, thanked be our Lord God." 

The case, then, is evidently one of a general rise of 
prices — how occasioned will be matter for consideration 
in the sequel. In the mean time we would point 
attention to this speech of the Merchant, as highly 
curious for the catalogue which it gives us of the 
foreign imports of that day. A good many of the 
articles, it will be observed, for which England was 
then dependent upon other nations — including espe- 
cially the various descriptions of hardware goods and 
of the textile manufactures — are those with which she 
may now be almost said to supply the world. In those 
days she was obliged to foreigners not only for the 
manufactured articles, but even for the raw material. 

To the Merchant's remarks the Knight now replies ; 
— •• Since ye have plenty of all things, of corn and 
cattle (as ye say), then it should not seem this dearth 
should belong of these enclosures, for it is not for 
scarceness of corn that ye have this dearth ; for, thanked 
be God, corn is good cheap, and so hath been these 
many years past continually. Then it cannot be the 

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[Ana 2, 

occasion of the dearth of cattle, for enclosure is the 
thing that nourisheth most of any other." 

" Yet," he adds, " I confess there is a wonderful 
dearth of all things." The word dearth, it is to be 
remembered, means here simply dearness ; the modern 
idea of scarcity is expressly excluded in the present 
case. The Knight contends that the hardship of his 
own case, in consequence of the general rise of prices, 
is in some respects greater than that sustained by any 
of his friends. The landed proprietor, he observes, 
whose estate is all let on lease, is, while all other 
dealers are raising the prices of their commodities, 
nearly altogether precluded from protecting his par- 
ticular interests by the same expedient. It is true, he 
admits, that as a lease occasionally falls in he may 
obtain some small addition to his rents, but what he 
gets in this way is nothing like a compensation for the 
greatly increased expense of living. " As we cannot 
raise our wares," he says, " as you may yours, and as 
methinketh it were reason we did, and by reason that 
we cannot, so many of us, as ye know, that hare de- 
parted out of the country of late have been driven to 
give over our households, and to keep either a chamber 
in London, or to wait on the court uncalled, with a 
man and a lackey after him, where he was wont to 
keep half a score of clean men in his house, and twenty 
or twenty-four other persons besides, every day in the 
week. And such of us as do abide in the country, still 
cannot, with two hundred a-year, keep that house that 
we might have done with two hundred marks but six- 
teen years past* " 

The Knight adds, that to obtain some increase to 
his income, he is obliged to keep part of his estate in 
his own hands and to rear sheep on it. " Yea," in- 
terrupts the Husbandman, " those sheep is the cause 
of all these mischiefs, for they have driven husbandry 
out of the country, by the which was increased before 
all kind of victuals, aud now altogether sheep, sheep, 
sheep. It was far better when there were not only 
sheep enough, but also oxen, kine, swine, pig, goose, 
and capon, eggs, butter, aud cheese ; yea, and bread- 
corn, and malt-corn enough besides, reared altogether 
upon the same land." 

The Doctor, who had hitherto remained silent, now 
strikes in : — " I presume," he observes, " by you all, 
that there is none of you but have just cause to com- 
plain." " No, by my troth,'' replies the Capper, <4 ex- 
cept it be you men of the Church, which travail nothing 
for your living, and yet have enough." " Ye say 
troth, indeed," mildly rejoins the Doctor, " we have 
least cause to complain ; yet ye know well we be not 
so plenteous as we have been." He then mentions, as 
diminutions of their incomes, that the clergy have 
sustained the deduction of first-fruits and tenths ; but 
he admits that they might still live comfortably enough, 
notwithstanding the rise of prices, too, which affects 
them like all others, if they might have more peace 
and less anxiety. " Albeit," he proceeds, " we labour 
not much with our bodies (as ye say), yet ye know we 
labour with our minds, more to the weaking of the 
same [bodies] than by any other bodily exercise we 
should do, as ye may well perceive by our complexions : 
how wan our colour is, how faint and sickly be our 
bodies, and all for lacke of bodily exercise." " Marry ," 
exclaims the Capper on this, u I would, if I were of 
the Queen's Council, provide for you well a fine, so as 
you should need take no disease for lack of exercise ; 
I would set you to the plough and cart, for not a 
whit of good do ye with your studies but set men 
together by the ears — some with this opinion and some 
with that — some holding this way and some another — 
and that so stiffly, as though the truth must be as they 
say that have the upper hand in contention ; and this 
contention is not alone the least cause of former up- 
* A made was two-thjnto of a pound, or 13#. 4<L 

roars of the people, some holding of the one learn- 
ing, and some of the other." " In my mind," con- 
cludes this genuine Jack Cade, " it made no matter 
though we had no learned men at all. 9 

We must pass over the long debate to which the ex- 
pression of these extreme opinions gives rise, as not 
belonging to our present purpose. The Doctor argues 
for the advantages of learning to the commonwealth, 
with great patience as well as considerable eloquence, 
with his thorough-going opponent, who admits, how- 
ever, that he would have people taught reading and 
writing ; and would also preserve in the country a 
knowledge of some of the languages spoken by neigh- 
bouring nations, that we might not be cut off from all 
intercourse with the rest of the world. 

At last the Knight cuts short the further discussion 
of this matter by the following proposition: "Foras- 
much as we have thus far proceeded as to the finding 
out of the griefs, which, as far as I perceive, standeih 
in these points, that is to say, dearth of all things in 
comparison of the former age, though there be scarce- 
ness of nothing, desolation of countries by inclosures, 
desolation of towns for lack of occupations and crafts, 
and division of opinions in matters of religion, which 
haleth men to and fro, and maketh them to contend 
one against another; now let us go to the garden, 
under the vine, where, having a good, fresh, and cool 
sitting for us under the shadow there, we may proceed 
further on this matter at leisure. And I will bespeak 
our supper here with mine host, that we may all sup 
together. A God's name, quoth every one of the rest 
o f the company, for we are weary here of sitting so 
long. And so we all departed to the garden." 

And thus concludes Dialogue the First, or the state- 
ment of the evils complained of by the different classes 
of the community. 


The wapentake of Howdenshire, in the East Riding 
of Yorkshire, is bounded on the south by the river 
Ouse ; but as the Trent joius that river nearly opposite 
the eastern limits of Howdenshire, the H umber forms 
its south-eastern boundary line. A very small part of 
Howdenshire is west of the river Derwent, and there 
are two small portions which are altogether detached, 
and are situated east of the wapentake, on the basks 
of the H umber. The population of the whole wapen- 
take was 6,246 at the last census. The country is 
flat, and was formerly subject to frequent inundations. 
Nothing can be less picturesque than the appearance 
which it presents; and yet, though there is little to 
strike the eye, the district is far from being destitute of 
interest if its former condition and history be investi- 

Howden, the principal town of the wapentake, is 
situated about a mile from the Ouse. The parish con 
tains twelve townships and two chapel ries, and rather 
more than 4,500 inhabitants. A reference to its past 
state will explain some of the circumstances connected 
with its present condition. The manor and church of 
Howden, or Hoveden, as it was anciently called, origi- 
nally belonged to the abbey of Peterborough ; but pre- 
vious to the Conquest, they had been wrested from that 
monastery, on account of its inability to pay the tax 
called dane-gelt, which was levied with such rigour, that 
those who failed in raising the required contribution 
forfeited their lands. This church and manor were in 
possession of the crown at the period of the Conquest, 
and were given by the Norman monarch to the Bishop 
of Durham, who obtained a confirmation of the gran 
from Pope Gregory VII. The bishop vested thechurcli 
in the monks of Durham, but retained the manor. Th"* 
the prior and convent of Durham obtained ecclesiastica 
jurisdiction in Howdenshire ; and the bishop, being 

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J 836.3 


J 33 

[How den Church.] 

lord of the manor, was invested with extensive secular 
authority within the same district. The clergy were at 
that period the most enlightened men of the age, and 
from the position which they occupied, a large share of 
wealth and influence fell naturally into their hands. 
The intelligence of which they were the chief and nearly 
exclusive possessors has long ceased to be the inherit- 
ance of a particular class, and none are now excluded 
from the advantages which it confers. But though this 
change has been going on for a long period, it has only 
more recently begun to work out its natural results. 
By virtue of the manorial rights with which the Bishops 
of Durham were invested eight centuries ago, they 
still held their copyhold courts, their freehold courts, 
and courts baron in Howden. The separation of the 
secular from the ecclesiastical functions of the Bishops 
of Durham is now on the point of being effected, and 
Howdenshire will of course be affected by the change. 
In the thirteenth century, a Bull was issued, appro- 
priating the church c^ Howden to sixteen monks ; but 
the prior of Durham successfully exerted himself with 
the Pope, and the church was rendered collegiate, with 

five prebendaries. Accordingly, in 1267, the Archbishop 
of York, after setting forth that the parish church of 
Howden was very wide and large, and the rents and 
profits so much abounding as to be sufficient for many 
spiritual men, ordained that there should be endowed 
* c for ever" five prebends out of its revenues, and that 
each of them should maintain at his own proper cost a 
priest and clerk in holy orders, to administer in the said 
church in a canonical habit, according to the custom of 
the church in York, except in matins, which they should 
say in the morning for the parish. There were five 
chantries, dedicated respectively to St. Thomas the 
Martyr, St Mary, St. Catherine, St. Cuthbert, and 
St. Andrew. At the Reformation the net revenue of 
the prebends was 63/. 18*. Ad. 

The collegiate church of Howden was dissolved in 
the first year of Edward VI., and the temporalities 
thereby became invested in the crown. Thus they re- 
mained till 1582, when Queen Elizabeth granted them 
by letters patent to Edward Frost and John Walker, 
their heirs and assigns for ever. The tithes are now in 
the hands of several impropriators. The living is a 

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(Ami. % 

vicarage in the gift of the crown, and is only worth 
163/. per year, out of which the salary of a curate is 
paid. The revenues of the church in the thirteenth 
century were sufficient for the maintenance of •* many 
spiritual men ;" and if, at the dissolution of the church 
as a collegiate institution, these revenues had been re- 
served for public purposes, some provision might now 
have been made for religious instruction in the new 
port of Goole, only three miles from Howden, which, 
though containing only a few years ago some half- 
dozen houses, promises to become the resort of industry 
and a place of extensive commerce. There are at this 
moment two collegiate churches (at Heytesbury and 
Middleham), whose utility is, perhaps, not less than 
that of Howden at the period of its dissolution ; but 
instead of distributing their revenues to individuals, by 
which no security would be obtained for their beneficial 
employment, it is proposed by the Commissioners who 
have recently investigated such establishments, to ren- 
der them subservient to public use, by bestowing their 
endowments in quarters in which they are really needed. 

When the church of Howden had got into private 
hands, the work of decay soon became visible. In 1 591 
the churchwardens directed a survey to be made, for 
the purpose of ascertaining " what decay the choir of 
Howden church is in, whether it be in timber, in stone, 
in lead, or glass. No effectual repairs appear to have 
resulted from the investigation ; for the choir becoming 
altogether unsafe, the parishioners, in 1634 and 1636, 
fitted up the nave for the celebration of public worship. 
In 1696 the groined roof fell in, and from that time 
the east end has been but a venerable memorial of its 
former magnificence. The church is built in the form 
of a cross, with a square tower, 135 feet in height. The 
ohapter-house was formerly the most celebrated portion 
of the edifice. It was built in the thirteenth century, 
and contained thirty stalls, each under a gothic arch, 
separated by clustered pilasters, very small, and of deli- 
cate form, having foliated capitals of pierced work, from 
which rich tabernacle work rose, and formed a canopy 
for each stall. The tower of the chapter-house fell in 
1750. The whole length of the church, including the 
ruins, is 255 feet, and the breadth 66 feet. The length 
of the choir is 120 feet, and of the nave 105 feet, and 
the breadth of each is 66 feet. 

Nearly close to the church the bishops of Durham 
had an ancient palace, which was their frequent summer 
residence. A park extended from it to the Ouse, distant 
about a mile. The ruins of this ancient edifice have 
been occupied as a farm-house. 

At Knedlington, one mile from Howden, Terrick, a 
bishop of London, was born. Roger de Hoveden, a 
monkish historian of the reign of Henry II., is sup- 
posed to have been born at Howden. 

Wressle Castle, an ancient seat of the Percys, Earls 
of Northumberland, though not in Howdenshire, is not 
more than four miles from Howden. It was dis- 
uantled at the* close of the civil wars, and was after- 
wards occupied as a farm-house, but in 1796 it was 
burnt down. The establishment which the Percys kept 
up at Wressle was scarcely inferior to that maintained 
at Alnwick. The number of priests retained was eleven, 
at the head of whom was a Doctor or Bachelor in 
Divinity, and there was a complete set of singers and 
choristers for the service of the chapel. The river 
Derwent runs close to the site of the ancient castle, but 
nothing can be less inviting than the neighbouring 
country. Other circumstances than the charms of 
beautiful scenery determined at that period the spot in 
which the baronial structure was destined to arise. 
When the power of the barons had been circumscribed 
by the growing extension of the sovereign authority, 
that authority was still occasionally bearded ; and until 
the sympathy between the crown and the nobility was 
a_ little strengthened, the remote and in some degree 

inaccessible parts of the country would be the natural 
home of the subdued but still proud and haughty 

Whatever may have been the case formerly, Howden 
now possesses extensive means of intercourse with other 
places, though we question if such a vehicle as a stage- 
coach has been seen in the town for the last ten or 
twelve years. The horse fair which is held here is 
one of the most celebrated in the kingdom, and is 
numerously attended. The steam-boats which pass as! 
repass Howden many times a day, between Hull and 
Selby, ofFer more convenient means of communication, 
with Howden than any other mode of transport. 
Selby, which is only ten miles distant, places Leeds 
and the busy district around it in close contact witii 
Howden. The steam-boats to Thorne render the com- 
munication with Sheffield nearly as rapid ; and from 
Goole, which is so short a distance from Howden, there 
are steam-boats to Hamburg, London, and Yarmouth. 
The communication with the part of the west-riding of 
Yorkshire nearest Howden is effected by a ferry-boat 
It will afford an idea of the extent of accommodation 
which the Post-office has provided, and of the rapid 
manner in which it accomplishes its useful ends, if wc 
add that though Howden is distant 180 miles from 
London, and no direct mails pass nearer than twenty 
miles, yet that letters from the metropolis reach it in 
about twenty hours. 


Auvergne is placed nearly in the centre of France, and 
though no other province in that kingdom can vie with 
it in natural curiosities and in magnificent scenery, it is 
perhaps the least known of all. Auvergne is divided 
into several departments, the principal one of which is 
the Puy de Dflme, so called from a lofty mountain in 
it, the top of which bears an exact resemblance to 
a dome, and towers above a long-extending chain of 
other mountains. Nothing can exceed the picturesque 
appearance of Clermont, the principal town of the 
department : on entering It, however, it is found to be 
an old and irregularly-built town, with narrow and dirty 
streets; but the names of some of them will startle 
the educated stranger, for example, among others he 
will meet with the Rue Pascal, the Rue Massillon, and 
the Rue Jacques Delille : upon inquiry, he ascertains 
that the illustrious mathematician and moral aud 
natural philosopher, Pascal, was born in Clermont, — 
that Massillon, the eloquent preacher, was for a long 
time bishop of that city, — and that Delille, the most 
natural and most harmonious, perhaps, of French 
poets, was born near it. 

The cathedral of Clermont is the first attraction for 
the stranger : it is an imposing pile, built on the most 
elevated part of. the city: it had formerly four towers, 
but two were destroyed in the first Revolution. The 
bishop's palace is near the cathedral. There is also a 
public library, to which is attached a botauical garden, 
filled with all the plants peculiar to the department in 
the reading-room, a portrait of Massillon, in his epis- 
copal robes, and a statue of Pascal, presented by 
Charles X. The library also contains a cabinet of 
choice and rare minerals, some of which are entirely 
peculiar to the department. 

In one of the " faubourgs " of Clermont is the foun- 
tain of St. Alyre, which petrifies whatever its water 
falls on, or rather covers it with a hard and gravelly 
incrustation. Grapes, chestnuts, cabbages, birds and 
birdcages, and even dogs and cows, have been thus 
encrusted over. A large cow and calf thus preserved 
may be seen in the garden attached to the fountain. 
A number of curious objects can be purchased for a 
few francs. But by fax the most remarkable object 

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there is the bridge that has been formed by the waters 
of the fountain; it took 150 years to complete it. 
There is another bridge in the course of formation ; 
half of it is already finished : when complete, it will be 
about five feet long and two broad ; — the process of Its 
formation can be seen by the visiter. There are baths 
fitted up near this fountain, which supplies them with 

As a spectator gazes around from some elevated spot 
in Clermont, the panorama which he views is truly 
magnificent : on one side he beholds the Puy de D6me 
chain of mountains, the extent of which cannot be 
measured by the eye. The Puy de Dome itself is 
verdant in summer, but the others for the most part are 
rocky and bare, with intervening chasms, frightful pre- 
cipices, and deep tortuous ravines : their ascent is dif- 
ficult and fatiguing, and, in many parts, impracticable. 
In summer the mountain-torrents are dried up, but the 
marks of their impetuosity are still visible. Many of 
these mountains are covered with discoloured lava. These 
mountains were formerly volcanic, and many evident 
traces of the ravages committed are visible to this day. 
There are many little villages among these moun- 
tains. They are built of. and on, the lava that, some 
hundreds of years ago, had flowed from these moun- 
tains. The dress of the inhabitants is extremely pic- 
turesque, and their wild expressive looks, their large 
flashing eyes, and long flowing hair, seem all to be in 
unison with their mountahvhomes. 

Like most mountaineers, they are hospitable to 
strangers, but they have likewise the reputation of 
being dexterous thieves; and as there seems to be a 
great dislike among these men to the inhabitants of 
Clermont, it would be well for those addicted to mine- 
ralogy, or similar pursuits, Co take with them some 
weapons of defence. 

The women of these mountains are extremely plain, 
and numbers of them are frightfully deformed by large 
swellings (called gottres) in their throats, which some- 
times reach the size of an infant's head, and which, if 
not cured in time, generally bring the unhappy pos- 
sessor to san early grave, or to a state of complete idiot- 
ism. Thesre is scarcely a woman to be met with on 
these mountains who is not more or less disfigured in 
this manner. These swellings seem to be occasioned 
by the intense coldness and mineral qualities of the 
water. The nature of these complaints however seems 
to be little understood. 

There is a disagreeable patois, or corrupt French, 
spoken in these mountain-villages, which is almost un- 
intelligible to those even who are perfectly conversant 
with the French language. In some parts of the south 
of France the ** patois'* is extremely pleasing and even 
highly poetical; but the 'uvergne patois is anything 
but harmonious. There are however different dialects 
of it ; and that which is spoken at Mont d'Or, a village 
celebrated for its baths, is perhaps more pleasing and 
intelligible than the others. The patois is everywhere 
spoken with such an astonishing volubility, that it is 
difficult even to catch the words. * 

On Sundays, in summer, the Puy de Dome is the 
rendexvous of many gay parties from Clermont and 
the neighbouring towns. The ascent is performed in 
about an hour and a half: there was formerly a little 
hut built on the top of it, for the accommodation of 
visiters, but it was mischievously burnt down by some 
of the townspeople. As this happened in the dusk of 
the evening, and as this mountain was known to have 
been formerly volcanic, the sight of the flames occa- 
sioned no small terror in the surrounding villages. It 
was qn this mountain that Pascal made his observations 
on the weight of the air. 

The ascent to the Puy de D6me, however, well 
repays the exertion ; once on the top of it, you gaze 
with utter astonishment on the scenes around • on all 

sides you look down on extinct volcanoes, dark craters, 
and on high rocky mountains, that, from the place 
where you stand, appear but as so many mounds. A 
countless number of villages are glistening in the sun 
before you ; to your right extends a magnificent chain 
of mountains ; and at the farthest visible poinfof them 
you may see, if the day be clear, the still loftier peak of 
Mount Sancy, in the Mont d'Or chain. The eye seems 
lost amid such a variety of objects, and the visiter 
descends, convinced of the inadequacy of language to 
describe so diversified a scene. 

On the top of the Puy de Dome you have all at one 
grasp, as it were ; your eye embraces the whole view, — 
mountains, hills, villages, vineyards, and the beautiful 
plain of the • Limagne ;' but in wandering among the 
less elevated mountains, in their ravines, their broken 
and abrupt gorges, among their winding paths, you 
have all these objects doled out to you, as it were, in 
different portions and under various appearances. At 
one time you find yourself completely blocked up by 
gloomy mountains, of which you can see no end, and 
from which you know not exactly how to emerge : a 
few turns more will perhaps bring you before a narrow 
and deep ravine : you look along it, and you may pos- 
sibly discover, in the distance, the shining steeple of 
somffvillage-cburch, surrounded by vineyards or humble 
cabins ; advancing a few steps more, you see on the 
left an extensive and varied landscape, white on the 
right all view is prevented by rugged and obtruding 
mountains ; you go back, and presently all is changed : 
it is now on your left that the mountains extend, while 
on your right a more extensive view than even the last 
one is opened for you ; you gaze on shining villages, 
teeming vineyards, and possibly on the whole city of 
Clermont. There is, indeed, no end to the varied 
views that may be had from these mountains; and 
each of those views forms in itself a perfect picture : at 
one time, it is a little vineyard with a peasant tending 
it, and his dog sleeping near his basket of provisions 
on his coat ; at another, it is a number of peasant girls 
returning from Clermont to their mountain-homes, 
alternately seen and lost, as they walk up the winding 
paths ; now it is a merry knot of peasants, male and 
female, returning from vintage with cows yoked to a 
patriarchal sort of cart, filled with the trodden-down 
grapes ; you see them one moment talking all merrily 
together, and the next bowing or kneeling before a 
wooden cross or image of the Virgin with her infant 
in her arms; you look beneath you, and you find 
yourself near one of these mountain villages, built of 
and on the once melting lava ; you look above you, 
and you see a silent group of peasants in all their 
picturesque appearance gazing down at you, and 
saluting you the moment you perceive them ; now it is 
the city of Clermont, with the country on one side of it, 
now part of Clermont with the country beyond it ; now 
it is a little chapel built near some cross roads, with 
perhaps some old venerable peasant praying before it : 
each turn, each step, almost, presents some striking 
view ; you seem to be looking through a kaleidoscope, 
and from familiarizing yourself, as it were, with the 
continued variety, the whole assumes at last something 
of the ridiculous. Altogether, there is perhaps no part 
of France more interesting on many accounts than 
Auvergne, and particularly the department of Puy de 

{From the NoUe to * The Pictorial BibUS) 

u Stand by the river's brink V— This is the Nile. 
This indefinite indication, ** the river," always suf- 
ficiently denotes the Nile in speaking of Egypt, because 
in fact that country does not possess any other river. 
• Exodus, chap. vii. vcr. 15. 

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[April 2, 1836 

In a. distance of 1350 nautical miles, from the mouth 
of the Tacazze to the Delta, the Nile does not receive a 
single tributary stream from either the east or west, 
which, as remarked by Humboldt, is a solitary instance 
in the hydrographic history of the globe. It is to this 
noble river that Egypt owes its fertility, and even its 
existence. The soil of Egypt was no doubt originally 
formed by the earth brought down by the river from 
Abyssinia and the interior of Africa, and deposited 
during the annual inundation; and that it has been 
progressively elevated in the course of ages from the 
same cause, is demonstrated by a considerable number 
of distinct facts. Thus towns and buildings which are 
known from history to have been originally built on 
mounds, to secure them from the effects of the inunda- 
tion, now lie so low on the plain as to be inundated 
every year : and it also appears that a greater rise in 
the river seems now necessary to prevent a dearth than 
was required in the age of Herodotus. Thus, in time, 
the land of Egypt would become desolate, from the 
failure of the inundation which is essential to its fer- 
tility, were not an equilibrium preserved by a nearly 
corresponding elevatien of the river's bed, so that the 
point of overflow is maintained nearly in the same ratio 
with the elevation of the soil. Among other facts, this 
is demonstrated by the ancient Nilometer near Elephan- 
tine, mentioned by Strabo, which. is still in existence. 
The highest measure marked upon it is twenty-four 
cubits; but the water, now rises, when at its greatest 
elevation, nearly eight feet above this mark ; while it 
appears from an inscription on the wall, made in the 
third century A.p., that the water then rose only a foot 
above that level. ; This gives an elevation of about five 
inches in a. century; and it has been collected, from 
quite independent data, that the rise in the circum- 
jacent soil has been nearly in the same proportion. It 
is true that there are isolated facts which seem to mili- 
tate against this general conclusion ; but they may be 
accounted for by supposing certain irregularities, in 
themselves very probable, which in some places make 
the rise in the bed of the river exceed that in the neigh- 
bouring soil, and in others, make the elevation of the 
soil to exceed that of the river's bottom. Dr. Shaw, 
who estimates the increase in the depth of the soil at 
rather more than a foot in a century, observes that 
Egypt must have gained forty-one feet eight inches of 
soil in 4072 years; and as he does not sufficiently 
advert to the corresponding elevation of the river's 
bed, he sees cause to fear that, in process of tinfe, the 
river will not be able to overflow its banks, and Egypt, 
from being the most fertile, will become, from the want 
of the annual inundation, one of the most barren coun- 
tries in the universe. 

The swell of the river varies in different parts of its 
channel. In Upper Egypt it is from thirty to thirty- 
fire feet; at Cairo it is about twenty -three feet, whilst 
in the northern part of the Delta it does not exceed 
four feet, which is owing to the artificial channels and 
the breadth of the inundation. Yet the four feet of 
increase is as necessary to the fertility of the Delta as 
the twenty-three or the thirty feet elsewhere. The 
river begins to swell in June, but the rise is not rapid 
or remarkable until early in July ; the greatest height 
is attained about the autumnal equinox, and the waters 
remain nearly at the same level until the middle of 
October. After this the subsidence is very sensible, 
and the lowest point is reached in April. These phe- 
nomena, however striking, are by no means peculiar to 
the Nile ; they are more or less common to all rivers 
whose volume is annually augmented by the periodical 
rains which fall within the tropics; but there is no 
river the annual swelling of which is so replete with 
important consequences, or so essential to the existence 
of a nation. This is because Egypt depends wholly 
upon the river for its fertility; and wherever the 

influence of its inundation does not extend, there the 
soil is desert. Very little rain ever falls in Egypt. In 
Upper Egypt it is scarcely known; and in Lower 
Egypt, a very slight and almost momentary shower 
. is all that is occasionally experienced 'even during the 
cool part of the year. Therefore the irrigation which 
the land receives through the direct overflow of the 
Nile, and by means of the canals which convey its 
waters where the inundation does not directly extend, 
is quite essential to that fertility for which Egypt has 
in all times been proverbial. The inhabitants of Egypt 
have with great labour cut a vast number of canals 
and trenches through the whole extent of the land. 
These canals are not opened till the river has attained 
a certain height, nor yet all at the same time, as then 
the distribution of the water would be unequal. The 
sluices are closed when the water begins to subside, 
and are gradually, opened again in the autumn, allowing 
the waters to pass on to contribute to the irrigation of 
the Delta. The distribution of the Nile water has always 
been subject to distinct and minute regulations, the 
necessity far which may be estimated from the common 
statement, that scarcely a tenth part of the water of the 
Nile reaches the sea in the first three months of the 
inundation. Minute regulations are necessary in our 
own land for the equal distribution of streams which 
afford power to mills. In a country where fertility es- 
sentially depends upon one great fertilizing power, such 
regulations must have been amongst the first steps in 
the laws of civilization. Lower Mesopotamia, tyhich in 
the time of Herodotus competed the palm of exuberant 
production with Egypt, is now a desert, in consequence 
of the abandonment of a system of irrigation, which, 
from actual inspection, we should judge to have been 
nearly analogous to that which continues to fertilize 
the land of the Nile. During the inundation, the whole 
level country appears like a scries of ponds and reser- 
voirs ; and it is not merely the saturation of the ground, 
but the deposit of mould or soil which takes place 
during the overflow, that is so favourable to the agri- 
culture of Egypt. This mud contains principles so 
friendly fo vegetation, that it is used as manure for 
those places which have not been adequately benefited 
by the inundation; and, on the other hand, where the 
deposit has been complete, the people are said to mingle 
sand with it to abate its strength. The cultivation of 
the ground commences as soon as the waters have re- 
tired, and where the soil has been sufficiently saturated, 
the labours of agriculture are exceedingly light. The 
seed is sown in the moistened soil, and vegetation and 
harvest follow with such rapidity as to allow a succes- 
sion of crops, wherever water can be commanded. The 
influence of the river upon the condition and appemr- 
ance of the country can only be estimated" by comparing 
its aspect in the season which immediately precedes, 
with that which follows the inundation. Volney has 
illustrated this by observing, that the surface of the 
land successively assumes the appearance of an ocean 
of fresh water, of a miry morass, of a green level plain, 
and of a parched desert of sand and dust. 

It was the feeling generally entertained of their entire 
dependence upon the Nile, co-operating with the natural 
disposition of man to look rather to the secondary causes 
than to the infinitely great and good. God from whom 
all blessings come, which led the Egyptians to deify 
their Nile, which had its appointed priests, festivals, 
and sacrifices : and even now, under the sterner system 
of the Moslem religion, the reverence entertained for 
this stream, still called u the Most Holy River," and 
the rites with which its benefits are celebrated, seem to 
exhibit a tendency towards the same form of acknow- 
ledgment and gratitude. 

Printed by William Clqwii and Sons, Stamford Stn«t 

Digitized by 




Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[ApaiL 9, 1836. 


[The Kinkajou.] 

The kinkajou is one of those animals which the na- 
turalist has rarely an opportunity of observing in 
captivity; nor indeed are there many museums of 
Europe in which a preserved specimen is to be found. 
To these causes are to be attributed the obscurity at- 
tending its history, and the contradictory opinions 
which have been entertained respecting its true cha- 
racter and the station it occupies. Desmarest was the 
first who assigned to this animal its true situation 
among the plantigrade carnivora. Illiger formed for 
it a genus under the title of cercoleptes, which is that 
now generally retained. The species (a single one, as 
far as we know) is the cercoleptes condivolvulus. The 
kinkajou is a native of Southern and Intertropical 
America, where it appears to be extensively spread, and 
is known under different appellations. In New Grenada 
it is called, by the native Indians, guchumbi, and 
manaviri in the mission of Rio Negro. In its manners 
it much resembles the coati-mondi (jtasua fusca), but 
differs from that animal not only in the shape of the 
head, which is short and compact, but also in having a 
prehensile tail. Of recluse and solitary habits, the 
kinkajou lives for the most part among the branches of 
the trees in large woods or forests, and is in every 
respect well adapted for climbing: being, however, 
decidedly nocturnal, it is but little exposed to the 
Vol. V. 

observation even of those who sojourn among the places 
frequented by it During the day it sleeps in its 
retreat, rolled up like a ball, and, if roused, appears 
torpid and inactive. As soon, however, as the dusk of 
evening sets in, it is fully awake, and is all activity, dis- 
playing the utmost restlessness and address, climbing 
from branch to branch in quest of food, and using its 
prehensile tail to assist itself in its manoeuvres. Few 
mammalia are more incommoded by light than the 
kinkajou: we have seen the pupils of the eyes con- 
tracted to a mere round point, even when the rays or 
the sun have not been very bright, while the animal at 
the same time testified by its actions its aversion to the 
unwelcome glare. 

In size the kinkajou is equal to a full-grown cat, 
but its limbs are much stouter and more muscular, 
and its body more firmly built. In walking, the sole 
of the foot is applied fairly to the ground, as in 
the case of the badger. Its claws are strong and 
curved, the toes on each 'foot being five. The ears 
are short and rounded. The fur is full, but not long, 
and very closely set. There is no animal among the 
carnivora (as far as our experience goes) in which the 
tongue is endowed with more remarkable power* of 
extension. Among ruminating animals, the giraffe is 
as we know, capable of extending this organ to a very 


Digitized by 




[April 9 r 

great length, and of using it much in the same manner 
as the elephant does the extremity of his proboscis, 
drawing down by it the twigs arid boughs of the trees, 
upon the leaves of which the creature feeds ; — in like 
manner can the kinkajou thrust forth its tongue, a long 
and slender instrument, capable of being inserted into 
crevices, or fissures, in search of insects, reptiles, or the 
eggs of birds. Baron Humboldt informs us that this 
animal is an extensive devastator of the nests of the 
wild bee, whence the Spanish missionaries have given 
it the name of " honey-bear," and that it uses its long 
tongue to lick up the honey from the cells of the comb. 
In its fondness for honey it is not singular, for the ratel 
(jnellivora capensi$)> a plantigrade allied to the badger, 
is also celebrated for the havoc it makes among the 
hives of the wild bee in order to obtain the luscious 
contents. In addition, however, to this food, birds, 
eggs, small animals, roots, and fruits constitute the diet 
of the kinkajou ; and, as we have seen, it will draw these 
articles towards it with its tongue, when presented just 
within its reach. In drinking it laps like a dog, and. 
also makes use of its fore- paws occasionally in holding 
food, and even in conveying it to the mouth, as well as 
in seizing its prey. In its aspect there is something of 
gentleness and good nature ; and in captivity it is ex- 
tremely playful, familiar, and fond of being noticed. 
In its natural state, however, it is sanguinary and 

The kinkajou was not unknown to Buffon, who, how- 
ever, for a long time confounded it with the glutton, 
— nor was he aware of his error until an opportunity 
occurred of his seeing two of these animals. One was 
exhibited at Saint Germain in 1773, under the title of 
" an animal unknown to naturalists." The other was 
in the possession of a gentleman in Paris, who brought 
it from New Spain. This latter individual was suf- 
fered to go at large, being perfectly tame ; and, after 
rambling about all night, would return to its accustomed 
sleeping-place, where it was always to be found in the 
morning. " Without being docile," says M. Chauveau, 
iu a note to BufFon, u it is familiar, but only recognises 
its master, and will follow him. It drinks every 
fluid, — water, coffee, milk, wine, and even brandy if 
sweetened with sugar, with which latter it will become 
intoxicated ; but it is ill for several days afterwards. It 
eats, with the same indifference, bread, meat, pulse, 
roots, and especially fruits. It is passionately fond of 
scents, and eagerly devours sugar and sweetmeats. 
It darts upon poultry, always seizing them under the 
wing. It appears to drink the blood only, leaving them 
without tearing the body to pieces. When the choice 
is at its option, it prefers duck to fowl, but it fears the 

M. de Sive, speaking of the kinkajou exhibited at 
St. Germain, observes, that it was at first very good 
tempered, but soon began to be savage, in consequence 
of being perpetually irritated by the public. He notices 
also its dexterity in climbing, and adds that •• it often 
rests on its hind limbs, and scratches itself with its 
fore paws, like monkeys. * * * It feeds like a squirrel, 
holding between its paws the fruits or vegetables which 
are given to it. It has never been offered meat or fish ; 
when irritated it endeavours to dart on the assailant, 
and its cry in anger resembles that of a large rat. * * * 
It dexterously uses its tail in a hook-like manner to 
draw towards itself different objects it wishes to obtain ; 
it is also fond of suspending itself by the tail, twining 
it round anything which is within its reach." Notwith- 
standing, however, that BufFon had seen the kinkajou, 
so little was known as to its manners in a state of 
nature, and the range of its habitat, that this writer, 
misled by an account of Denis (Geographical and His- 
torical Description of the Coasts of North America, 
Paris, 1672) regarded an animal ealled by this name 

(which indeed has been often applied to the glutton) 
as the one before us, — and quotes the words of Denis, 
who states it to lurk among the branches, and drop 
down upon the elk or moose deer, (as the glutton is 
also erroneously said to do,) twist its tail rouna its neck, 
and bite it above the ears, till at length the deer sink*. 
down exhausted. The account of Denis is altogether 
unworthy of notice. l 

An individual of this species has recently died, at the 
gardens of the Zoological Society : it had lived in the 
possession of the Society about seven years, and was 
remarkable for gentleness and its playful disposition. 
During the greater part of the day it was usually 
asleep, rolled up in the inner partition or box of its 
large cage : this indeed was invariably the case in the 
morning, unless purposely disturbed, but in the after- 
noon it would often voluntarily come out, traverse its 
cage, take food, and play with those to whom it was 
accustomed. Clinging to the top wires of its cage with 
its hind-paws and tail, it would thus suspend itself, 
swinging backwards and forwards, and assuming a 
variety of antic positions. When thus hanging, it 
could bring up its body with the greatest ease, so as to 
cling with its fore-paws as well as the hind pair to the 
wires, and in this manner it would travel up and down 
its cage with the utmost address, every now and then 
thrusting forth its long tongue between the wires, as if 
in quest of food, which if offered outside its cage, it 
would generally endeavour to draw in with this organ. 
It was very fond of being stroked and gently scratched, 
and when at play with any one it knew, it would pre- 
tend to bite, seizing the hand or fingers with its teeth, 
as a dog will do when gambolling with its master, but 
without hurting or intending injury. As the evening 
came on, its liveliness and restlessness would increase. 
It was then full of animation, — traversing the space 
allotted to it in every direction, — examining every ob- 
ject within its reach, — rolling and tumbling about, and 
swinging to and fro from the wires of the cage: nor 
was its good-humour abated ; it would gambol and 
play with its keepers, and exhibit in every movement 
the most surprising energy. In this state of exercise 
it would pass the night, retiring to rest on the dawn 
of the morning. The age of this individual is not 
ascertained; the state of its teeth, however, which are 
much worn down, shows it to have attained an advanced 
period ; its colour was a pale yellowish grey, inclining to 
tawny, the hairs, in certain lights, having a glossy ap- 
pearance. Its dissection after death fully confirmed the 
propriety of assigning it a place among the plantigrade 


[From a Correspondent.] 
" There is something very picturesque in the great spinning 
wheels that are used in this country for spinning the wool ; too " 
attitude were to be studied among our Canadian lasses, thix 
cannot be one more becoming or calculated to show off the w* 
tural advantages of a fine figure than spinning at the big-whe^ 
1 Backwoods of Canada? by the Wife of an Emigrant Oft* 

The foregoing sentence naturally recalls to the mind 
of a septuagenarian a state of society in England Ion? 
since gone by, when the high-wheel (another name tot 
what the lady calls the big-wheel) was in use in ever? 
cottage and farm-house. Improvements in machine^ 
have banished this domestic utensil from our A^ n 
and the high-wheel and the low-wheel have both km- 
lowed the fate of their once useful and general precorso t 
the distaff. 

The high-wheel was a simple but effective maemjh 
and, perhaps on that very account, difficult to ^IJ ' 
The body, a rectangular block of wood of about ^ 
feet in length, nine or ten inches in breadth, ana 
inches in thickness, was supported in an ^ ^ 

Digitized by 





position by four round legs, such as are generally used 
in a common three-footed stool, and made an angle 
with the horizon of about twenty-five or thirty degrees. 
On the far side of the lower end was fixed an upright 
support, about thirty inches in height, at the top of 
which was the axle or peg on which the wheel turned 
round. This wheel was very light in its make, and 
consisted of a thin rim about four inches broad, con- 
nected to the nave by about a dozen of light ornamented 
spokes. At the higher end of the block was the sup- 
port for the spindle, which, furnished with a whorl, (a 
small pulley cut in grooves for confirting the wheel- 
band,) turned in two projecting gudgeons of stout sole- 
leather, the spindle itself (of steel, well polished) pro- 
jecting about nine or ten inches from the body of the 
wheel. A double band of twisted worsted ran round 
the wheel and the whorl, by which motion was com- 
municated to the spindle, and the operation of spinning 
performed ; and when it is considered that the whorls 
were not more than an inch or an inch and a half in 
diameter while the wheel itself was nearly five feet, the 
spindle must have possessed a very considerable com* 
parative degree of velocity. 

To apply this machine to use, a roll of wool (pre- 
viously taken from the card) of about twelve or thirteen 
inches in length, and very light in its texture, was applied 
to the point of the spindle by the left hand of the spin- 
ner, she at the same time touching the spokes of the 
wheel with her right to give it a gentle motion, and 
attach the new wool to an old half-spun thread left for 
the purpose on the spindle ; she then turned more 
rapidly, keeping the wool in her left hand, and, stepping 
backward at the same time, drew out the thread, still 
keeping her right hand upon or near to the wheel 
to regulate the motion, and, her left arm rather ex- 
tended, she continued to step backward till she got 
to the utmost length of the thread which her roll of 
wool would produce, when, reversing the motion of the 
wheel to take up the thread already spun, she stepped 
forward, and, attaching another roll of wool, repeated 
the operation as before. 

Of the picturesqueness of the spinner I cannot say 
•much ; — youth can always show itself to advantage : 
but when the wheel was managed by an attenuated old 
woman, drooping under the infirmities of age, — when 
her shrivelled arms and unfleshed elbows were almost 
the only parts exposed to view, — and when her knees 
trembled under her with the fatigue of her daily exercise 
— perhaps a walk backwards and forwards, and in a 
stooping position, of not less than twelve or fourteen 
miles — it exhibited bat little of grace or beauty. 

The high wheel appears to have succeeded the* dis- 
taff*, and, in comparison with that machine, was a very 
great improvement. As it was formerly spun, all the 
yarn, or worsted, was used for stockings, or for weaving 
with linen-thread into the cloth called "linsey-wool- 
sey," which was the universal wear of the peasantry, as 
jackets and breeches for boys, and frequently for men, 
and for petticoats and other garments for women. Our 
progenitors seem principally to have- aimed at what 
was useful and substantial. A servant-girl at that 
time, with her short bed-gown, thick leather stays, her 
linsey-woolsey petticoat, and thick hob-nailed shoes, 
was not a very graceful object ; but she perhaps had 
other recommendations which were of infinitely greater 
value. She could spin her own garments and knit her 
own stockings ; her face bore the ruddy hue of health ; 
and, though her manners might be rough, her morals 
were uncorrupted: she would make an industrious 
wife, and she would bring up a family ashamed of 
eating the bread of idleness. 

The low-wheel was* an improvement on the high- 
wheel, intended at first for spinning flax, or, as it is 
generally called, " tow." At this the spinner is seated, 

and motion is given by a treadle. To obviate the 
walking necessarily attached to the high wheel, it was 
presently adapted to the spinning of the finer kinds of 
wool, and was found to produce a thread of yarn of 
superior fineness. In every farm-house the wheel was 
the evening fire-side companion; and while the mis- 
tress or the dame was spinning fine tow, the servant- 
girl was allowed to spin hording for herself, after the 
termination of the day's labour. The yarn was sent 
periodically to the weaver, and the servant was allowed 
to have a part of her own, for present use, woven at 
the end of her mistress's web, either as linsey-woolsey 
or as linen. The high and the low wheel have both 
almost totally disappeared, being completely super- 
seded by the improved machinery of modern times, and 
the change which has taken place in the habits of the 
people and in every part of our domestic economy. 

Laon, one of the most ancient cities in the north of 
France, is the chief town of the department of the 
Aisne. Before the last territorial division of France, a 
small district surrounding Laon was called the Laonois, 
but it was included in the larger province of Picardy. 
Picardy was bounded on the west by the English Chan- 
nel, and on the south-west by Normandy* It was, after 
Normandy, the province with which the English were 
most intimately connected during the period which pre- 
ceded the consolidation of France as a European power 
of the first rank. The town is built on a hill which 
stands alone in the midst of a vast plain. It was a 
natural defence, which doubtless was soon rendered 
more impregnable on account of the constant want of 
order which prevailed. The castle, built on the site of 
Laon, was the means of affording protection against 
the violence of power. Clovis granted some privileges 
to the population which had resorted hither to avail 
themselves of this advantage, and an episcopal church 
was founded in 515, by St. Remy. The last kings of 
France of the second race, hemmed in by powerful 
contenders for the territory of what now constitutes the 
kingdom, found their power confined within a small 
extent of country around Laon. Louis d'Outre-mer, 
after having twice besieged the town, died a prisoner 
there in 953. Laon was one of the earliest towns in 
the north of France in which the inhabitants emanci- 
pated themselves from the shackles of feudal power. 
Within Amiens, Beauvais, Noyon, and other places 
which had also obtained a considerable degree of inde- 
pendence, there existed a spirit of rough freedom, the 
influence of which deserves to be duly estimated by the 
student of this period of European history. In 1419 
Laon was taken by the English, but they were subse- 
quently driven out by the inhabitants who rose against 
them. It enjoyed some repose until the wars of the 
League; but it surrendered, in 1594, to Henry IV. 
The citadel which he caused to be built is destroyed. 
In the seventeenth century Laon suffered much, in con- 
sequence of the wars of religion and the Fronde. In 
fact, throughout the history of France it has been 
generally connected with the leading events, or in some 
manner .experienced their influence. This arose chiefly 
from its position as a place of defence and its situation 
on the frontiers. The town and castle were anciently 
regarded as one of the ramparts of France. An old 
wall flanked with little towers is all that remains of its 
former defences. 

Laon is about 75 miles from Paris, and is visible on 
all sides to the distance of sixteen or eighteen miles. 
The town occupies the greater part of the crown of the 
hill, which in one place extends in a forked direction. 
On one arm of the hill stand the ruins of an abbey. 
The View from the Boulevards on the ancient walls is 

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extensive. Laon has only one considerable street ; the 
others are narrow and ilUbuilt. The puliation in 
1831 was 8400. There are five fauxbourgs at the foot 
bf the hill. The usual establishments of a town of 
this class are to be found at Laon. 

The cathedral, as will be seen by the cut, is a fine old 
building. It existed in 1114, but the precise date of its 
erection is not known. Its length is 333 feet* breadth 78 
feet f and height of the towers 1 79 feet. The only descrip- 
tion we have been able to obtain of the cathedral is 

[Wtst Front of Laon Cathedral] 

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from the. MS. Journal of a Tourist, who communicated 
his notes to the editor of * Sir David Brewster's Edin- 
burgh Encyclopaedia.' The writer says: "The open 
buttresses, and the long open windows in the square 
towers, give a peculiar air of lightness to the building 
when seen from a short distance ; but at a considerable 
distance, and particularly in the night, they give it the 
appearance of a scaffolding, the light coming through 
in every direction. The great portal is not unlike that 
of Rheims, but it is less elegant in the sculptures. 
There is a small spire on the south tower of the cathe- 
dral. The interior of the cathedral is very fine. In the 
nave are ten circular pillars on each side, with capitals ; 
two of them on each side having four small columns 
round it. Above the choir is a most magnificent circular 
window of painted glass. There is another fine circular 
window in the nave, above an excellent organ, and at 
each end of the transept." 

The bishopric was suppressed at the Revolution. 
Its revenues amounted to 35,000 livres, and the bishop 
was invested with the title and privileges of a duke and 
peer of France, and took part in the ceremonies at 
coronations. The chapter consisted of four dignitaries 
and eighty-four prebends. 


[From a Correspondent.] 

" To chase the deer with hound and horn 
Earl Percy took his way ; 
The child may me that is unborn 
The hunting of that day/' 

Ballad of Chevy CJuue. 

There are but few who, in the early period of life, have 
not been charmed with the old, spirited ballad of 
* Chevy Chase/ — who have not admired '* Earl Douglas 
on his milk- white steed," and Earl Percy leading on his 
English bowmen, — or who have not felt sympathy for 
the courageous Witherington, who, "when his legs 
were smitten off, still fought upon his stumps;" — yet 
the theatre of this border-battle seems to be almost as 
little known as the real occasion of the quarrel. 

The Cheviot Hills are a high, rocky range, which 
serves as a natural boundary betwixt England and 
Scotland : on the southern side, the country was under 
the command of the Earl of Northumberland, on the 
north, under that of Earl Douglas, both of thein at the 
time apparently Lord Wardens of the Marches, and 
both noblemen of high spirit, ready to give or avenge 
an affront. Percy, according to the song, determined 
to cross the boundary on a hunting excursion, without 
asking leave of his neighbour Douglas, and the latter 
called up all his forces to drive the aggressor back. A 
battle ensued, as described in the ballad, and the two 
earls, with hundreds of their vassals, were left dead 
upon the field. 

These hills, though remarkable for this event, and 
for other battles fought in their immediate neighbour- 
hood, seem not to have awakened the interest of tra- 
vellers so much as might have been expected, yet they 
would well repay a journey up their steep and rugged 
sides. The celebrated Defoe, the author of * Robinson 
Crusoe,' and a political writer of no mean character, 
visited their summit in 1723. " Here," he observes in a 
letter from Kelso, " we made a little excursion into Eng- 
land, and it was to satisfy a curiosity of no extraordinary 
kind neither. By the sight of Cheviot HiHs, which we 
had seen for many miles riding, we thought, at Kelso, 
we were very near them, and had a great mind to take 
as near a view of them as we could ; and taking with 
us an Englishman, who had been very curious in the 
same enquiry, and who offered to be our guide, we set 
out for Wooller, a little town, lying, as it were, under 
the hill. 

" Cheviot Hill or Hills are justly esteemed the highest 
in this part of England, and of Scotland also; and, if 
I may judge, I think 'tis higher a great deal than the 
mountain of Mairock, in Galloway, which, they say, is 
two miles high. 

** When we came to Wooller, we got another guide 
to lead us to the top of the hill; for, by the way, 
tho 1 there are many hills and reachings for many 
miles, which are called Cheviot Hills, yet there is 
one pico, or master-hill, higher than all the rest by 
a great deal, which at a distance looks like the Pico- 
Teneriffe, at the Canaries, and is so high, that I re- 
member it is seen plainly from Roseberry Topping, 
in the East Riding of Yorkshire, which is near sixty 
miles distant. We prepared to clamber up this hill on 
foot, but our guide laugh 'd at us, and told us that we 
should make a long journey of it that way : but, getting 
a horse himself, told us he would find a way for us to 
get up on horseback ; so we set out, having five or six 
country boys and young fellows, who came on foot, 
volunteering to go with us. We thought they had only 
gone for their diversion, as is frequent for boys; but 
they knew well enough that we should find some occa- 
sion to employ them, and so we did, as you shall hear. 

44 Our guide led us, very artfully, round to a part of 
the hill where it was evident, in the winter season, not 
streams of water, but great rivers came pouring down from 
the hill in several channels, and those (at least some of 
them) very broad ; they were overgrown on either bank 
with alder-trees, so close and thick, that we rode under 
them as in an arbour. In one of these channels we 
mounted the hill, as the besiegers approach a fortify *d 
town, by trenches, and were gotten a great way up 
before we were well aware of it. But, as we mounted, 
these channels lessened gradually, till at length we had 
shelter of the trees no longer ; and now we ascended 
till we began to see some of the high hills, which 
before we thought very lofty, lying under us, low and 
humble, as if they were part of the plain below, and 
yet the main hill seen id still to be but beginning, or 
as if we were but entering upon it. 

c< As we mounted higher, we fouud the hill steeper 
than at first, also our horses began to complain, and 
draw their haunches up heavily, so we went very softly. 
However, we mov'd still, and went on, till the height 
began to look really frightful, for I must own I wished 
myself down again: and now we found use for the 
young fellows that ran before us ; for we began to fear, 
if our horses should stumble or start, we might roll 
down the hill together ; and we began to talk of alight- 
ing, but our guide called out and said, c No, not yet ; 
by-and-by you shall ; ' and with that he bid the young 
fellows take our horses by the head-stalls of the bridles 
and lead them. They did so, and we rode up higher 
still, till at length our beasts fail'd us altogether, and 
we rcsolv'd to alight ; and tho' our guide mock'd us, 
yet he could not prevail or persuade us ; so we work'd 
it upon our feet, and with labour enough, and some- 
times began to talk of going no farther. 

44 We were the more uneasy about mounting higher, 
because we all had a notion that, when we came to the 
top, we should be just as upon a pinnacle, — that the 
hill narrowed to a point, and we should have only room 
enough to stand, with a precipice every way round us ; 
and with these apprehensions we all sat down upon the 
ground, and said we would go no farther. 

44 Our guide did not at first understand what we 
were apprehensive of; but at last by our discourse he 
perceived the mistake, and then not mocking our fears, 
he told us, that indeed if it had been so, we had been 
in the right ; but he assured us there was room enough 
on the top of the hill to run a race if we thought fit, and 
we need not fear anything of being blown off the pre- 
cipice, as we had suggested ; so he encouraging us we 

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[April 9 

went on, and reach' d the top of the hill in about half 
an hour more. 

" I must acknowledge I was agreeably surprised 
when, coming to the top of the hill, I saw before me a 
smooth, and with respect to what we expected, a most 
pleasant plain, of at least half a mile in diameter ; and 
in the middle of it a large pond, or little lake of water, 
and the ground seeming to descend every way from the 
edges of the summit to the pond, took off the little 
terror of the first prospect, for when we walkt towards 
the pond, we could but just see over the edge of the 
hill ; and this little descent inwards, no doubt, made 
the pond, the rain-water all running thither. 

** The day happened to be very clear, and to our 
great satisfaction very calm, otherwise the hight we 
were upon would not have been without its dangers. 
We saw plainly the smoke of the salt-pans at Shields, 
at the mouth of the Tyne, seven miles below New 
Castle, and which was south about forty miles. The 
sea, that is, the German Ocean, was as if but just at 
the foot of the hill, and our guide pointed to show us 
the Irish Sea; but if he could see it, knowing it in 
particular, and whjre exactly to look for it, it was so 
distant that I could not say I was assur'd I saw it. 
We saw likewise several hills, which he told us were in 
England, and others in the West of Scotland; but 
their names were too many for us to remember, and 
we had no materials there to make minutes. We saw 
Berwick East, and the hills called Soutra Hills North, 
which are in sight of Edinburgh. In a word, there 
was a surprising view of both the united kingdoms, 
and we were far from repenting the pains we had 

" Nor were we so afraid now as when we first 
mounted the sides of the hill, and especially we were 
made ashamed of those fears, when to our amazement 
we saw a clergyman and another gentleman, and two 
ladies, all on horseback, come up to the top of the hill, 
with a guide also as we had, and without alighting at 
all, and only to satisfy their curiosity, which they did it 
seems. This indeed made us look upon one another 
with a smile, to think how we were frighted at our first 
coming up the hill. And thus it is in most things in 
nature. Fear maguifies the object, and represents 
things frightful at first sight, which are presently made 
easy when they grow familiar. 

" Satisfied with this view, and not at all thinking 
our time or pains ill bestowed, we came down the hill 
by the same route that we went up, with this remark, 
by the way, that whether on horseback or on foot, we 
found it much more troublesome and also tiresome to 
came down than to go up. 

" When we were down, our guide carry'd us not to 
the town of Wooller, where we were before, but to a 
single house, which they call Wooller- Haugh- Head, 
and is a very good inn, better indeed than we expected, 
or than we had met with, except at Kelso, for many 
days' journey. There we had very good provisions, 
very well dress'd, and excellent wine. The house is in 
England, but the people that kept it were Scots; yet 
everything was well done, and we were mighty glad of 
the refreshment we found there. 

u Here we inquired after the famous story of ' Che- 
viot Chase,' which we found the people there have a 
true notion of, not like what is represented in the 
ballad of ' Chevy Chase,' which has turn'd the whole 
story into a fable; but here they told us what all solid 
histories confirm, namely, that it was an in-road of the 
Earl of Douglass into England, with a body of an 
army, to ravage, burn, and plunder the country, as 
was usual in those days ; and that the Earl of North- 
umberland, who was then a Piercy, gathered his 
forces, march'd with a like army, and a great many of 
the gentry and nobility with him, to meet the Scots , 

and that both the bodies meeting at the foot of Cheviot 
Hills, fought a bloody battle, wherein both the earls 
were slain fighting desperately at the head of their 
troops ; and so many kill'd on both sides that they that 
outlivd it went off respectively, neither being able to 
say which had the victory." 

Such is the account of the ascent of the Cheviots 
given by this quaint and animated writer. He men- 
tions afterwards the visiting of the spot where the two 
earls were killed ; and he further observes that he also 
examined Flodden Field, which is within " some six or 
seven miles" of the same place, and which is remark- 
able tor the defeat of the Scottish invading army, and 
the death in battle of their king, James IV., in the 
year 1538, when the Earl of Surrey, for his valiaut 
conduct, obtained an honourable augmentation of bis 
arms, since always borne by the not>le family of 

Our author must have made a wrong estimate of the 
height of Cheviot when he supposed it to be more than 
two miles : it is now found to have no greater altitude 
than 2658 feet, and consequently is considerably lower 
than many mountains either in England, Scotland, or 
in Wales. 


As it is probable that some comprehensive measure for 
the proper registration of births, marriages, and deaths 
will soon pass the legislature, a few remarks on a sub- 
ject so much neglected and misunderstood in this 
country may be acceptable. 

In an analysis of the bills of mortality in the 'Com- 
panion to the Almanac for 1835,' the writer says, 
" Looking at one peculiar evidence of advancement, a 
statistical physician might be pardoned if he selected as 
a touchstone of civilization good bills of mortality. 
That these interesting records might be made perfect, 
or nearly so, it would be requisite that the cause of each 
death should be certified by a well-educated prac- 
titioner; and to qualify him for doing this, an anato- 
mical examination of the body would be necessary in 
many or most cases. The friends of the deceased would 
thus have an opportunity of comparing the physicians 
diagnosis given during life with the actual appearances 
found after death ; and the check thus afforded to care- 
less practice would advance medicine in a very material 

In a little pamphlet recently published by Dr. Cle- 
land of Glasgow is the following sketch of *he history 
of hills of mortality : — 

" Bills of Mortality are understood to contain a list 
of births, marriages, and burials, taken from parochial 
registers, at stated periods. When the registers are 
accurately kept, and the various enumerations methodi- 
cally arranged, in connexion with the classified popu- 
lation of a place, data are produced, from which toe 
political economist may draw beneficial results. 

" The keeping of parish registers commenced in Eug* 
land in the year 1538, in consequence of an injunction 
issued in that year by Thomas Cromwell, who, after w 
abolition of the pope's authority in this kingdom, i" the 
reign of Henry VIII., had been appointed the *wp 
vicegerent in ecclesiastical affairs. 

" About the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
such registers appear to have been established in ro°* 
parts of Europe ; but it was not until the year 1M- 
that they began to attract public notice, and to 
considered as the sources of valuable and interes <? 
information. In that year John Graunt, a citizcu o 
London, published his ' Natural and Political Observa- 
tions on Bills of Mortality.' The London bills, ora ^ 
counts of baptisms and burials, appear to have ^ 
occasioned by the plague, and to have been l)e £ ul1 
the year 1592, a time of great mortality. ' h * v * 

'tfney* ere 

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afterwards discontinued, but were resumed in 1603, 
after the great plague of that year. They have ever 
since been continued weekly, and an annual bill also 
has been regularly published. In 1629 the number of 
deaths by the different diseases* and casualties was 
first inserted in them ; also the distinction of the sexes, 
and these have continued ever since. But it is in the 
totals only of the baptisms and burials that the sexes 
are distinguished in these bills ; they do not show how 
many of each sex died of each disease ; neither have 
they since 1728, when the distinction of the ages of the 
dead was first introduced, shown how many of each sex 
died in each interval of age, but only the total number 
of both sexes. 

" Although Mr. (afterwards Major) Graunt's book had 
but few attractions for the generality even of reading 
men, who cannot endure the fatigue of thinking closely 
for any length of time, yet by showing the usefulness 
of parochial registers and bills of mortality, he con- 
tributed to form a taste for those inquiries among 
thinking men, and, consequently, to improve both the 
registers and the bills derived from them ; so that from 
his time the subject has been continually cultivated 
more and more. Parish registers in some 'parts of the 
continent of Europe are now kept with more care than 
formerly, and a succession of works of considerable 
merit has been published on the subject, containing an 
important part of the natural and political history of 
our species, and affording valuable matter for the 
science of political economy. As the ages at which the 
deaths took place were not inserted in the London bills 
till 1728, Major Graunt could not avail himself of that 
important information, but made a fruitless attempt to 
determine the law of mortality without it. 

'* The Breslaw bills appear to have been the first 
wherein the ages at which the deaths took place were 
inserted; and the most important information which 
bills of mortality can afford was first drawn from them 
by Dr. Halley, who, in 1692, constructed a table of 
mortality for BreslaW from those bills for the five pre- 
ceding years. 

" In 1771 the first edition of Dr. Price's « Observa- 
tions on Reversionary Payments ' made its appearance, 
containing observations on the expectations of lives, — 
the increase of mankind, — the number of inhabitants in 
London, — and the influence of great towns on health 
and population. This work added greatly to the in- 
formation already before the public connected with bills 
of mortality. 

" In 1774-5, Dr. Haygarth of Chester wrote two 
valuable papers, wherein he gave bills of mortality for 
that city, in a form calculated to exhibit at one view the 
most useful and interesting information respecting po- 
pulation. About the same time Dr. Perceval produced 
a paper respecting the population of Manchester. 

" During a period of nine years, commencing with 
1779 and ending with 1787, Dr. Heysham of Carlisle 
kept accurate registers of the births and of the deaths 
at all ages, in the two parishes of that city and environs ; 
also the diseases and casualties which the deaths at each 
age were occasioned by ; and the sexes were in all cases 
distinguished. These excellent registers were kept 
with great care and skill, on the plan of Dr. Haygarth 
above-mentioned, and included all dissenters within the 
two parishes. Dr. Heysham published them from year 
to year, as they were made, and accompanied them with 
valuable observations on the diseases of each year. The 
value of these bills was greatly enhanced by two enu- 
merations of the people within the two parishes, the one 

* The publication of a partial list of diseases is worse than use- 
less. It is well known to the medical profession, and to the statist, 
that it cannot lead to any beneficial results; and it is evident that 
general lists of diseases cannot be procured without compulsory 

made in January, 1780, the other in December, 1787, 
in both of which the ages were distinguished, but not 
the sexes of each age, though the totals of each sex were. 
These documents, printed in convenient forms, may be 
found in ' Milne's Treatise on Annuities.' 

" The mortality bills of Breslaw, Chester, and Car- 
lisle, seem to have been drawn up with much care, but 
no reliance whatever can be placed on the London bills. 
This has been long known to the political inquirer, and 
latterly to the public, through the medium of the * Re- 
port of the Select Committee on Parochial Registra- 
tion,' containing the minutes of evidence ordered to be 
printed by the House of Commons on 15th August. 

" One of the witnesses before the Committee, John 
Tilly Wheeler, Esq., Clerk to the Worshipful Company 
of Parish Clerks in the City of London, in his evidence, 
stated that the Company is of old standing, having 
been first incorporated by 17th Henry III., in 1233. 
The next charter was the 4th James I. ; the next 11th 
Charles I. ; and the last was in the 14th of that reign. 
The Company has the exclusive privilege of issuing the 
bills of mortality for London, including the 17 parishes 
in the liberties of the city without the walls, the parishes 
in the borough of Southward, and 24 parishes in Mid- 
dlesex and Surrey. As to the registration of births, 
children, who are half baptized, i. e., children who are 
baptized without sponsors, are not registered. These 
may amount to about one in ten. Great numbers of 
children are never brought to be registered. As to 
burials there is an act of parliament which makes it ' 
imperative on churchwardens to appoint two searchers 
in each of the parishes within the bills of mortality. 
The office of searcher is confided to two old women, 
generally paupers, who are legally entitled to ask a fee 
of Ad. and on their hearing from the parish clerk that 
there has been a death in any house, they go and 
demand a sight of the body. Being very needy people, 
they are open of course to any fee that may be given 
them to dispense with theit office altogether. Instead 
of id. if they get one shilling, or half-a-crown, they go 
away without looking at the body. Indeed they are 
perfectly inadequate to the purpose, and no reliance 
can be placed on them or their reports of diseases by 
which persons die. From the circumstance of there 
being only 26,974 christenings registered in 1832, and 
28,606 burials, while the population is increasing, there 
must be great inaccuracy in the bills, and moreover 
there are no burials registered which do not take place 
in churches or churchyards." 

Dr. C lei and details, in his pamphlet, the mode in 
which he set about obtaining the necessary information 
for the Glasgow bills of mortality. With reference to 
what the writer in the * Companion to the Almanac* 
alludes to, in the paragraph quoted from his Essay, 
the following attempt of Dr. Cleland may be taken as 
an illustration : — 

" About twenty years ago, when I first began to 
draw up the bills of mortality for this city [Glasgow], 
the causes of death were announced yearly in a news- 
paper, along with the gross number of burials; but as 
no confidence could be placed on such statements, I 
have, since that period, declined to publish a list of 
diseases ; but being aware that if a correct list could 
be obtained at the census of 1831, when the population, 
births, marriages, and deaths were ascertained, it would 
be very beneficial, in a medical point of view, I ad- 
dressed letters to 132 medical gentlemen in the city 
and suburbs, requesting that they would favour me 
with a return of the diseases of which their patients 
died, during the period in which I had requested the 
clergymen to give me a note of the number of baptisms. 
As I only succeeded with a small portion of the pro* 
fession, the attempt became fruitless, and in all proba? 

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[April 9, 1885. 

bility any future attempt will be unsuccessful, until a 
compulsory act of the legislature, regarding" parochial 
registers for births, marriages, and deaths be obtained. 11 

" From a recent official return, 19 continues Dr. 
Cleland, " of the population, births, and deaths in the 
kingdom of the Netherlands, where the compulsory 
law is strictly enforced, and the return as perfect as 
any in Europe, it appears that the population was 
6,166,854, births 207,388; viz., males 106,481, females 
100,907. Deaths 158,800 ; viz., males 81,742, females 
77,058. In drawing results from these data I find 
them remarkably similar to those of Glasgow; viz., in 
the Netherlands there is one birth for 29 73-1 00th 
persons, and one death for 38 83- 100th persons. In 
Glasgow there is one birth for 29 47-1 00th, and one 
death for 39 4-100th persons. 

" That little credence can be given to the amount of 
mortality assigned for England and Wales, it is suf- 
ficient to say, that from the returns for the census of 
1831, the compiler of the Government Digest, in giving 
the averages for ten years, ending in 1830, of the pro- 
portion of registered and unregistered burials to the 
population, he had no alternative but to state, that in 
Pembrokeshire it was one in 71 9-10ths of the popu- 
lation, in Anglesea 70 6-10ths, in Monmouthshire 
62 2-10ths, while in Lancaster it was only 45 l-10th; 
in Surrey 47 7-10ths, in Northamptonshire 50 MOths. 
For all England 50 2-10ths, Wales 63 3-10ths, and 
for England and Wales 51. As the Parochial Registers 
in Scotland and Ireland are not more correct than in 
England, it is evident that until they are put on a 
better footing, the mortality of these countries cannot 
be ascertained with any degree of accuracy.' 1 

It is to be hoped that this most important subject 
will soon be placed on a better footing ; and that the 
system of registration in Great Britain will no longer 
be reproached as the most imperfect in Europe. In 
this respect we are far behind France, Belgium, Hol- 
land, many parts of Germany and Sweden, where the 
registries are admirably kept. There are some objec- 
tions, however, to the modes adopted on the Continent, 
which, if avoided in the proposed measure, will reverse 
the character our registries have hitherto borne. 


Stanton Harcourt, in Oxfordshire, is situated about 
nine miles north-west of Abingdon, and four miles and 
a-half south-east of Witney. The manor was granted 
by Adeliza, the second queen of Henry I., to her kins- 
woman Milicent, wife of Richard de Camoil, whose 
daughter Isabel married Robert de Harcourt, in the 
possession of whose family it remained more than 600 
years, being their chief place of residence till the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. It is now the property 
of the present Archbishop of York. 

A very curious kitchen, which is the most remarkable 
remain of the ancient mansion, is the subject of the 
accompanying sketch. This part of the building is 
evidently of great antiquity, but the exact date of its 
construction is uncertain. Dr. Littleton, Bishop of 
Carlisle, is of opinion that the reign of Henry IV. was 
the period when the present windows were inserted ; and 
the faint appearance of an arch seems to indicate that 
they are not now in their original state. In the 
turret is a stone staircase which leads to the battle- 
ments, the roof of which is tiled to the apex ; it is 
surmounted by a griffin, seiant (sitting) on a small 
pedestal, holding an iron weathercock in the shape of a 
flag. The walls of the kitchen are of considerable thick- 
ness ; it is a room twenty-nine feet square, and sixty 
feet high to the point of the roof. There are two fire- 
places, opposite to each other, against the wall, either | 

of which is sufficiently capacious to roast an ox whole. 
But the principal peculiarity of this kitchen, and of which 
the only other example is said to be that which belonged 
to the ancient Abbey of Glastonbury, is the total want 
of a chimney of any kind,— the smoke making its exit 
at a line of holes, each about seven inches in diameter, 
which are all round the roof. They are covered, on the 
outside of the building, by falling doors of wood, part 
of which is visible between the battlements. The doors 
are raised according to the direction of the wind, those 
on the side the wind blows being shut, and those on the 
lee-side open. " Thus," says Dr. Plot, " one may truly 
call it either a kitchen within a chimney, or a kitchen 
without one." At the time of our visit to Stanton Har- 
court (the summer of 1835), the traces of the smoke 
and soot extended fifteen feet wide on the walls at the 
back of each fire-place, and up to the sloping roof. 
This place is now used as the kitchen of the adjoining 
house, and the servants informed us that they find no 
inconvenience in their culinary operations • from the 
smoke, as it goes up the wall at the back of the fire- 
place (one only being now in use), and out at the aper- 
tures at the bottom of the roof. 

It was in the secluded and deserted mansion of 
Stanton Harcourt that Pope spent a part of two 
summers while he was occupied with the translation 
of Homer. One of the rooms is called " Pope s Study," 
and is situated in a tower which also bears the 'name of 
this celebrated poet. On a pane of glass in one of the 
casements he placed this inscription : — 

"In the year 1718, 
Alexander Poph 
Finished here 
The Fifth Volume of Homer." - 

The pane of glass was afterwards preserved as a relic 
at Nuneham Courtenay. 

[Ancient Kitchen.] 

»•• Tho Offiw of fte Society for tU Diction of Utefo] Kaowledgt it *t 
% 9, fjinooln't Ian Fields. 


Watt* hy Waaiui Clowii aa* So** Stamfcri Stroet. 

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Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 



[April 16, 1836. 


[Port and City of Barcelona.] 

As the early navigators of the Archipelago crept along 
Ihe coasts of the Mediterranean, making themselves 
acquainted first with the shores nearest to them, and 
soon afterwards with those more distant, it is extremely 
probable that the suggestions of antiquarians, which 
assign to Barcelona a high degree of antiquity, are in 
the main correct. Barcelona, like Marseilles, was 
most probably a Greek colony. Its Latin name was 
Barcinona, and it is said to have been so called after 
Hannibal Barcino, a Carthaginian general. The 
Romans, Goths, Moors, and French have successively 
been masters of the town. During the middle ages it 
was governed by its own sovereigns, who held the title 
of Counts of Barcelona ; but their possessions passed 
into the hands of the kings of Aragon, and finally were 
reunited to the Spanish monarchy. In 1706 Barcelona 
resisted the pretensions of Philip V. to the Spanish 
throne, and sustained a siege which, though unsuc- 
cessful, afforded decisive proofs of the heroism of the 
Catalonian character. Barcelona has experienced on 
many occasions the calamitous effects of war. It 
endured no less than five sieges in the course of sixty- 
two years, including the one to which we have alluded, 
which were attended with the usual effects on public 
interests and individual prosperity. In 1715, after the 
siege of the preceding year, the population was reduced 
to 37,000 souls. In the course of half a century, the con- 
tinuance of peace being favourable to industry, wealth 

accumulated, and the population had increased, in 1769, 
to 54,000 ; eighteen years afterwards it had more than 
doubled, being 111,410. Thus, not only had the town 
been enabled to afford the means of livelihood to the 
inhabitants, who in consequence of the state of comfort 
in which they were generally placed had rapidly increased 
in number, but the progress of enterprise was suffi- 
ciently active to create a demand for the services of the 
adjoining population. In 1 807 the population amounted 
to 130,000. From 1808 to 1814 Barcelona was oc- 
cupied by the French. The capitalists were in a state 
of alarm, industry was paralysed, and an extensive 
emigration took place. In 1820 the population was 
140,000. In 1821 the yellow fever ravaged Barcelona 
in a most disastrous manner, and it is computed that 
one-fifth of the inhabitants became its victims. But 
the infliction of a pestilence produces -less effects on 
men's interests than the continual influence of those 
alarms which exist during a war, or when a country is 
torn by internal contests; and accordingly we find 
that, in 1830, nine years after the yellow fever had 
ravaged the town, the population had increased to 
160,000 inhabitants. When Spain shall be more 
peaceful and industrious, and when the Levant becomes 
a more active scene of commerce, the intercourse of 
Barcelona with Turkey, with Greece, and Egypt, and 
the eastern shores of the Mediterranean generally, can- 
not fail to increase* This result will be the conse* 

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[April 16, 

quence both of the geographical position of Barcelona, 
and of the character of the Catalonians. 

Barcelona is the capital of the province of Catalonia. 
The form of this province is triangular. It has its 
base, 140 miles in length, on the Mediterranean ; one 
of its sides, 120 tnttes in length, on the frontiers of 
France ; and the other side, 140 miles in length, is 
formed by the province of Aragon, and at its south- 
western extremity, by the province of Valencia. Bar- 
celona is nearer than Marseilles to Algiers and the 
coast of Africa by 150 miles. The natural productions 
of Catalonia are corn, wine, oil, flax, hemp, Indian 
corn, and rice ; and the cork-tree is a native of the 
province. Almonds, figs, olives, nuts, and various 
kinds of fruit are abundant. There are mines of lead 
and of iron, and also marble mines. Near Barcelona 
a beautiful black marble, veined with white, is procured. 
The population of the province exceeds 1,000,000. 
Catalonia does not grow sufficient agricultural pro- 
duce for its own consumption. It therefore imports 
from other provinces, and it sends to them in return 
calicoes, silk-handkerchiefs, ribands, tapes, cotton- 
stockings, silk-stockings, coarse cloth and serges, super- 
fine cloths, woollen stockings, lace, steel goods, fire- 
arms, printed cottons, paper, dressed hides and shoes. 
The foreign trade of Barcelona is in brandy aud wine, 
oil, nuts, cork-bark, wrought silk, wool, fruits. Its 
foreign imports consist of corn, sugar, salt-fish, spices, 
hides, cotton wool and cotton goods, linen, hardware, 
earthenware, &c. In 18*20 the number of- vessels 
entered in the port of Barcelona was 3839, of which 
8625 were Spanish traders, seven ships of war, and 
206 foreign ships. The principal part of the Spanish 
vessels were coasters of small burden. In 1829 the 
number of foreign vessels entered was 122; in 1830 
there were 86; and 128 in 1831. The number of 
British ships in each year was twenty-four, nineteen, 
and eighteen. The number of Swedish vessels exceeded 
those of any other country, and were chiefly laden with 
salt-fish. The quantity of nuts annually exported to 
England is 80,000 bags, value 45,000/., or 30*. per 
bag. The exportation of wine consists of about 30,000 
pipes, of an average value of 4/. each; and 11,000 
pipes of- brandy, each pipe worth on an average about 
8/. In 1831 the importation of fish from Sweden was 
44,000 cwt. ; Denmark 13,000 cwt. ; and England 
7,000 cwt.: the total value being about 76,800/. 
Scarcely any of the wine or brandy is exported to 
England. The imports from England were, in 1831, 
of cotton 10,000 bales, value 53,750/.; iron-hoops, 
4000 bundles, value 3,200/. ; and 7000 cwt. of fish, 
as above-mentioned, the value of which was 8,400/. 

Laborde gives the following character of the Catalo- 
n, ans : — " The Catalonians are proud, haughty, violent 
in their passions, rude in discourse and in action, tur- 
bulent, untractable, and passionately fond of inde- 
pendence ; they are not particularly liberal, but active, 
industrious and indefatigable ; they are sailors, hus- 
bandmen, and builders, and run to all corners of the 
world to seek their fortunes. They are brave, intrepid, 
sometimes rash, obstinate in adhering to their schemes, 
and often successful in vanquishing, by their steady 
perseverance, obstacles which would appear insur- 
mountable to others.*' 

Much to the credit of the Barcelonese, we may state 
that, thirty years ago, they endeavoured to render the 
fine arts auxiliary to the improvement of manufactures. 
A school of design was established and supported by 
the inhabitants, and every one who desired might obtain 
admission. The number of masters in every depart- 
ment was sufficient for an extensive establishment. 
We have the testimony of M. Laborde, a few years 
after the school had been in existence, that it had in 
some measure attained the ends for which it was insti- 

tuted. He says, in speaking of the designs for calico- 
prints, — "The designs have been much improved lately, 
and mora taste has been displayed in them." 

Barcelona stands on a -gentle eminence, between two 
rivers, and open to the sea on the east, north-east, and 
south-east. The river Bergos runs to the north and 
south-east of the town, and on the south the river Llo- 
hregat. The country is mountainous to the north and 
north-east. The latitude of Barcelona is 41° 21' and a 
few seconds. The climate is temperate, the winters 
mild, and the summers not too hot ; but although the 
seasons, in their general character, are not irregular, 
yet in a single day great vicissitudes are frequently 
experienced at Barcelona. The east wind frequently 
blows, and the neighbouring elevations often occasion 
rain. The town is defended by a citadel, situated at its 
north-eastern extremity. The port is below the citadel, 
and between the town and Barcelonetta. It is chiefly 
artificial, being formed by piers, solid quays, and the 
ramparts of the town. The sand which the waves and 
tides bring into the port is removed at considerable 
trouble aud expense. The town is divided into two 
unequal parts by a promenade, ornamented with rows 
of trees. The new town is the smallest, and contains 
the best houses. The streets are narrow, crooked, and 
badly paved in the old town. The best houses are of simple 
and rather pleasing appearance, from four to five stories 
high, and have large windows and balconies. Many el 
the houses are adorned externally with paintings in fresco. 
The public edifices are the cathedral, churches, con- 
vents, the palace in which the ancient Cortes held their 
sittings, — that in which the Counts of Barcelona resided, 
the custom-house, exchange, theatre, &c. The ca- 
thedral was begun in the thirteenth century, but is not 
yet completely finished. There are about thirty foun- 
tains in Barcelona, in the various squares and public 
places. The town possesses several colleges, three 
public libraries, a school for the deaf and dumb, an 
academy of arts and sciences and one of belles lettres, 
and a botanic garden. 

Barcelonetta is a suburb of Barcelona, and is in- 
habited chiefly by sailors. 

The environs of Barcelona are highly beautiful. 
Though the Catalonians are distinguished for their 
habits of economy, yet their passion for a country 
residence is the one which they are least capable of 
opposing ; and there is no city in Europe of an equal 
size which possesses so many country-houses in its 
neighbourhood. It is not the richer class who alone 
enjoy the advantages and pleasures of the country; 
these residences, ornamented according to the taste and 
circumstances of each of their occupiers, form a most 
agreeable diversity in the prospects around the town, 
especially when the town itself and an extensive view of 
the sea are included, as they may be from certain places. 
In a fine day, the eye may wander with delight over 
this agreeably -varied landscape 

The following narrative is from the periodical account 
of the Moravian Missions : — 

Brother Samuel Liebisch (now a member of the 
Elders' Conference of the Unity), being at that time 
intrusted with the general care of the brethren's mis- 
sions on the coast of Labrador, the duties of his office 
required a visit to Okkak, the most northern of our 
settlements, and about 150 English miles distant from 
Nain, the place where he resided. Brother Wiling 
Turner being appointed to accompany him, they'* 
Nain on March the 11th, 17&2, early in the mornm* 

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with very clear weather, the stars shining- with un- 
common lustre. The sledge was driven by the baptized 
Esquimaux, Mark, and another sledge with Esquimaux 
joined company. The two sledges contained five men, 
one woman, and a child. All were in good spirits, and, 
appearances being much in their favour, they hoped to 
reach Okkak in safety in two or three days. The track 
over the frozen sea was in the best possible order, and 
they went with ease at the rate of six or seven miles an 
hour. After they had passed the islands in the bay of 
Nain, they kept at a considerable distance from the 
coast, both to gain the smoothest part of the ice and 
to weather the high rocky promontory of Kiglapeit. 
About eight o'clock they met a sledge with Esquimaux 
turning in from the sea. After the usual salutation, 
the Esquimaux, alighting, held some conversation, as 
is their general practice, the result of which was, that 
some hints were thrown out by the strange Esquimaux 
that it might be better to return. However, as the 
missionaries saw no reason whatever for it, and only 
suspected that the Esquimaux wished to enjoy the 
company of their friends a little longer, they proceeded. 
After some time, their own Esquimaux hinted that 
there was a ground swell under the ice. It was then 
hardly perceptible, except on lying down and applying 
the ear close to the ice, when a hollow disagreeably 
grating and roaring noise was heard, as if ascending 
from the abyss. The weather remained clear, except 
towards the east, where a bank of light clouds appeared, 
interspersed with some dark streaks. But the wind 
being strong from the north-west, nothing less than a 
sudden change of weather was expected. The sun hud 
now reached its height, and there was little or no altera- 
tion in the appearance of the sky ; but the motion of 
the sea under the ice had grown more perceptible, so as 
rather to alarm the travellers, and they began to think 
it prudent to keep closer to the shore. The ice had 
cracks and large fissures in many places, some of which 
formed chasms of one or two feet wide ; but as they are 
not uncommon, even in its best state, and the dogs 
easily leap over them, the sledge following without 
danger, they are only terrible to new-comers. 

As soon as the sun declined towards the west, the 
wind increased and rose to a storm, the bank of clouds 
from the east began to ascend, and the dark streaks to 
put themselves in motion against the wind. The snow 
was violently driven about by partial whirlwinds, both 
on the ice and from off the peaks of the high moun- 
tains, and filled the air. At the same time the ground- 
swell had increased so mqch, that its effect upon the ice 
became very extraordinary and alarming. The sledges, 
instead of gliding along smoothly on an even surface, 
sometimes ran with violence after the dogs, and shortly 
after seemed with difficulty to ascend the rising hill; 
for the elasticity of so vast a body of ice, of many 
leagues square, supported by a troubled sea, though in 
some places three or four yards in thickness, would, in 
some degree, occasion an nndulatory motion not unlike 
that of a sheet of paper accommodating itself to the 
surface of a rippling stream. Noises were now likewise 
distinctly heard in many directions, like the report of 
cannon, owing to the bursting of the ice at some 

The Esquimaux, therefore, drove with all haste to- 
wards the shore, intending to take up their night- 
quarters on the south side of the Nivak. But as it 
plainly appeared that the ice would break and disperse 
in the open sea, Mark advised to push forward to the 
north of the Nivak, from whence he hoped the track to 
Okkak might still remain entire. To this proposal the 
company agreed; but when the sledges approached the 
coast, the prospect before them was truly terrific. The 
ice, having broken loose from the rocks, was forced up 
and down, grinding and breaking into a thousand 

pieces against the precipices, with a tremendous noise, 
which, added to the raging of the wind, and the snow 
driving about in the air, deprived the travellers almost 
of the power of hearing and seeing anything distinctly. 

To make the land, at any risk, was now the only 
hope left; but it was with the utmost difficulty the 
frighted dogs could be forced forward, the whole body 
of ice sinking frequently below the surface of the rocks, 
then rising above it. As the only moment to land was 
that when it gained the level of the coast, the attempt 
was extremely nice and hazardous. However, by God's 
mercy, it succeeded ; both sledges gained the shore, 
and were drawn up the beach with much difficulty. 

The travellers had hardly time to reflect with grati- 
tude to God on their safety, when that part of the ice 
from which they had just now made good their landing 
burst asunder, and the water, forcing itself from below, 
covered and precipitated it into the sea. In an instant, 
as if by a signal given, the whole mass of ice, extend- 
ing for several miles from the coast, and as far as the 
eye could reach, began to burst, and be overwhelmed 
by the immense waves. The sight was tremendous, 
and awfully grand ; the large fields of ice, raising them- 
selves out of the water, striking against each other, and 
plunging into the deep, with a violence not to be de- 
scribed, and a noise like the discharge of innumerable 
batteries of heavy guns. The darkness of the night, 
the roaring of the wind and sea, and the dashing of the 
waves and ice against the rocks, filled the travellers 
with sensations of awe and horror, so as almost to 
deprive them of the power of utterance. They stood 
overwhelmed with astonishment at their miraculous 
escape, and even the heathen Esquimaux expressed 
gratitude to God for their deliverance. 

The Esquimaux now began to build a snow-house, 
about thirty paces from the beach ; but, before they 
had finished their work, the waves reached the place 
where the sledges were secured, and they were with 
difficulty saved from being washed into the sea. 

Before they entered this habitation, they could not 
help once more turning to the sea, which was now 
free from ice, and beheld with horror, mingled with 
gratitude for their safety, the enormous waves driving 
furiously before the wind, like huge castles, and ap- 
proaching the shore, where, with dreadful noise, they 
dashed against the rocks, foaming and filling the air 
with the spray. The whole company now got their 
supper, and, having sung an evening hymn in the 
Esquimaux language, lay down to rest about ten 

In this miserable habitation the missionaries re- 
mained for seven days, reduced to the utmost misery 
for want of food. The weather then cleared up— they 
discovered a new track of ice, and returned in safety ib 
their own homes. 


In Nos. 224 and 230 of the 4 Penny Magaxine ' an 
account of the city of Glasgow is given, in which the 
merits of Dr. Cleland are briefly acknowledged. We 
now feel considerable pleasure in presenting a view of a 
building which has been erected by his fellow-citizens, 
on his retirement from public office, as a testimony of 
their approbation of his services ; and we do 4his the 
more re'adily as the case forms one of an increasing 
number of exceptions to the general rule, that local 
merit is rarely or never locally appreciated. 

During the long period in which Dr. Cleland filled 
the office of Superintendent of Public Works* many of 
the finest improvements which have been made in the 
city of Glasgow were originated and carried into execu- 
tion. In 1826 the university of his native city con* 

rU 2 

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[April 16, 

ferred on him the degree of Doctor in Laws, and, in 
doing so, paid him an unusual compliment by remitting 
the fees. 

The meeting at which it was resolved to erect the 
building which is represented below, was held on 
the 7th of August, 1834 : it was largely attended by 
the merchants, bankers, manufacturers, and other 
inhabitants of Glasgow; and the manner in which he 
was spoken of, and the resolutions which were passed, 

must have been very gratifying to Dr.Cleland. At the 
meeting 2000/. were subscribed ; the subscriptions were 
shortly afterwards increased to 4,6032. The committee 
appointed by the meeting resolved that the sum sub 
scribed should be laid out on a productive and orna- 
mental building, to be erected in Buchanan Street- 
one of the principal streets of Glasgow, — and that it 
should be presented to Dr. C lei and, and bear the name 
of " The Cleland Testimonial.' ' 

[Cleland Testimonial,] 

No. II. 
Tu« second of the curious Dialogues which we have in- 
troduced to our readers under this title is commenced 
by the Husbandman, who pertinaciously holds to his old 
dogma, that the general rise of prices is all owing to the 
landlords having, in the first instance, raised their rents. 
"And I say," retorts the Knight, with equal obstinacy, 
" it is long of (that is, by reason of) you husbandmen 
that we are forced to raise our rents by reason that we 
must buy so dear all things that we have of you, as 
corn, cattle, goose, pig, capon, chicken, butter, and eggs. 
What thing is there of all these but that ye sell it 
now dearer by the one-half than ye did within these 
thirty years? Cannot you, neighbour, remember thai 
within these thirty years I could in this town buy the 
best pig or goose that I could lay my hand on for 4d., 
which now costeth 1 2d. ; a good capon for Sd. or 4<2., 
a chicken for Id., a hen for 2d., which now costeth me 
double and triple the money. It is like wise in greater 
ware, as beef and mutton." " I grant you that," re- 
joins the Husbandman ; " but I say you and your sort, 
men of lands, are the first cause hereof, because you 
raise your lands." Here, then, we have our two dis- 
putants fairly at issue upon the great modern question 
of whether it is the rise of prices that raises rents, or 
the rise of rents that raises prices. 

To bring the difference between them to a practical 
test, the Knight meets the Husbandman's charge that 
the whole mischief has come from the raising of lands" 
with the following proposal : — " Well, if ye and your 
sort will agree thereto, that shall be holpen; undertake 

that you and your sort will sell all things at the price ye 

did thirty years ago, and I doubt not to bring all gentle- 
men to let unto you their lands at the rent they went 
at thirty years past." He also argues, that while the 
rise of prices has been universal, the rise of rents has 
probably not extended to half the lands in the king- 
dom. The lands of which the rent has been raised, he 
says, are principally those that had belonged to the 
church, " that never were surveyed to the uttermost 

" When the Husbandman had paused awhile," con- 
tinues the Dialogue, he said, " If I had the price of 
everything that I must pay for besides likewise brought 
down, I could be content; else not." To a question 
from the Doctor, " What things be those ?" he answers 
further, " Marry ! iron for my plough, harrows, and 
carts ; tar for our sheep, shoes, caps, linen, and woollen 
cloth for my mainy, [that is, servants, menial* — we sec 
that farm servants at this time were not only fed out 
clothed by their master,] which if I should buy, never- 
theless, as dear as I do now, and yet sell my wares 
good cheap, though my rent were thereafter abated, 
except the other things aforesaid might be abated in 
price together, I could never live." On further con- 
sideration, however, he adds, that he thinks if the law 
were brought down, the price of all things would w* 
with it. - . . 

The absurdity of this notion is immediately pom"* 
out by the Doctor. Those, he asks, from whom you 
buy your tar, flax, &c, how are they to be compel!** 
to let down the prices of their wares? "^^.^ 
strangers, and not within obedience of cur s ^^ 
lady." And if they cannot be compelled to let do*» 
their prices, would it be expedient for as eiM to #* 

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our own wares cheap? In that case foreigners would 
come and obtain a still larger quantity of our com- 
modities than they now do for a certain quantity of 
their own. It is plain you could not have one rate of 
selling to the foreigner, and another to your own 

To make the matter still clearer, the Knight now 
makes a second offer. " Let my tenants' rent," he 
says to the Husbandman, " be increased as your pay- 
ment is increased," that is, as he explains his meaning, 
as you now sell for thirty groats what you used formerly 
to sell for twenty, let my rent be increased only in the 
same proportion, and I shall be content. This propo- 
sition the Husbandman rejects at once; " My bargain," 
he says, " was to pay for my hold but 61. 13*. Ad. 
yearly of rent, and I pay that truely ; ye can require 
no more of me." 

The Doctor next proposes to consider whether, if the 
Husbandman were forced to sell his wares cheap, all 
things would then be well ? This notion, he shows, is 
as visionary as that which has just been disposed of. 
** Put the case thus," he says, " that this husbandman 
should be commanded to sell his wheat at 8d. the 
bushel, rye at 6d., barley at 4d., his pig and goose at 
Ad. y his capon at Ad., his hen at Id. ob. (that is, lid.), 
his wool at a mark (13s. Ad.) the todd, &c." All this 
might be very well in so far as the landlord and tenant 
only were concerned ; u but," he proceeds, " let us go 
farther; the Husbandman must buy iron, salt, tar, 
pitch, and suppose he should be also forced to rear up 
flax on his own, and that prices of cloth, both linen 
and woollen, and leather were set after the rate. The 
gentleman must buy wines, spices, silks, armour, glass 
to glaze his house withal, iron also for tools, weapons, 
and other instruments necessary ; salt, oils, and many 
other divers things more than I can reckon without 
sum, whereof they may in no wise want, as iron and 
salt, for that which is within the realm of both is not 
half sufficient for the same ; oils, tar, pitch, and rosin, 
whereof we have none at all, and without some other 
of the said commodities we could live but grossly and 
barbarously, as without wines, spices, and silks, these 
must be brought from beyond the seas; shall we buy 
them as good cheap after the rate ?" (that is, shall we 
be able to purchase these foreign commodities according 
to the same reduced rate that, according to the suppo- 
sition, has been established for our own husbandmen ?) 
It is remarkable that in the whole of this argument the 
farmer appears to be considered as almost the only 
domestic producer of commodities. The few articles 
that were produced by the labours of the artisans in 
towns are scarcely thought worth being taken into 
account. At this time there were no manufactures in 
England, and not a great many trades. 

It might at first be supposed, the Doctor goes on to 
argue, that the foreign merchants would be contented 
to sell their commodities according to the reduced rate, 
seeing that the smaller amount of money would still go 
as far as the larger sum formerly would have done, in 
purchasing the native commodities of the island. For 
instance, he observes, they now sell a yard of velvet 
for 20*. or 22*., and pay the same price for a todd of 
wool ; would it not be the same thing for them to sell 
the one and buy the other for a mark ? 

It is clear in the first place, however, he continues, 
that they could not be compelled thus to reduce their 
prices ; nor, secondly, would they have any inducement 
to do so. " I think," he concludes, M they would still 
sell at the highest as they do now, or bring nothing at 
all to us." It is to be remembered that these foreigners 
trade with other countries as well as with us ; " and 
for that purpose coin universally current is most com- 
modious." To understand this observation it is to be 
remembered, that English money had of late jrears been 

most seriously debased, first by Henry VIII. and after- 
wards to a still greater extent by Edward VI. ; and 
although it was one of Elizabeth's first cares after she 
came to the throne to restore the currency to its ancient 
standard, it appears that our coin had not, even by the 
time when the present tract was written, recovered in 
foreign countries from the low estimation to which the 
pernicious practices of former governments had deservedly 
reduced it. This being the case, the Doctor contends 
that foreigners would not of course object to exchange 
their goods for the same quantity of English produce 
as before, they certainly would never accept of a less 
quantity of money in any case in which that medium of 
exchange had to be employed. '* Think ye," he says, 
" that they would not study to bring to us such wares 
and stuff as should be best cheap with them, and most 
dear with us?" And what, he asks the Knight, do 
you think these are? "Marry!" quoth the latter, 
" glasses of all sorts, painted cloths and papers, oranges, 
pippins, cherries, perfumed gloves, and such like trifles." 
It is agreed, in short, that they would bring to England 
nothing they could sell elsewhere. The Doctor after- 
wards adds that they would probably bring also con- 
siderable quantities of brass, not in the useful forms of 
pots, pans, and other such vessels, but " in coin made 
beyond sea, like in all things to our coin, which they 
brought over in heaps, and when they see that esteemed 
here as silver, they bring that for our commodities, for 
our wools, fells [skins], cheese, butter, cloth, tin, and 
lead." It is stated in a subsequent passage that there, 
was every reason to believe that there had been Con- 
stant importations into the realm of such base money 
fabricated abroad ever since the coinage had begun to 
be corrupted by the late governments. 

The Knight suggests that searchers might be ap- 
pointed, and punishments devised, with the view of 
preventing either the coming in of such foreign coin, 
or the going forth from the realm of victual in exchange 
for it. This draws from the Doctor the following apt 
illustration of the vanity of all such attempts by govern* 
ments to stop up by interdicts and custom-house regu- 
lations the natural channels of commerce. " There 
may be no device imagined so strong," he replies, " but 
that ye may be deceived in both those points, as well 
in such coin brought in as in victuals carried forth, for 
many heads will devise many ways to get anything by, 
and though we be environed with a good pool (that is, 
the sea), yet there is too many posterns of it to get out 
and in, unwares of the master. Whosoever hath but 
a petty house with any family of his own, and but one 
gate to go forth and come in at, and the master of th& 
house never so attentive, yet somewhat shall be pur- 
loined forth ; much more out of such a large realm as 
this is, having so many ways and posterns to go forth 
at and come in." 

We have extracted the substance of the remarks 
made under this latter head for the sake of some inte- 
resting facts which they notice, and the deduction may- 
be allowed to make out the position laid down by the 
author. At the same time it is obvious that the con- 
clusion in question might have been arrived at by a 
much shorter and more direct road. The foreign 
merchant would not bring his goods to England to sell 
them for less money than he had been accustomed to 
receive, for reasons altogether apart from the considera- 
tion of the state of the coin. His profits, hitherto, 
with all the advantages he had derived from the resto- 
ration of the coin to its proper standard, had been no 
more than the fair profits of trade ; for if they had 
been more, competition would have reduced them. He 
consequently cannot afford to have them diminished, 
and if he may not have his former prices, he will no 
longer resort to the country at all. 

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[April 16, 

By Hannah More. 

Since trifles make the sum of human things, 

And half out misery from our foibles springs; 

Since life's best joys consist in peace and ease, 

And few can save, or serve, but all can please j 

Oh \ let the ungentle spirit learn from hence, 

A small unkindness is a great offence. 

Large bounties to bestow we wish in tain ; 

But all may shun the guilt of giving pain. 

T«» bless mankind with tides of flowing wealth, 

"With power to grace them, or to crown with health, 

Our little lot denies : but Heaven decrees 

To ail the gift of ministering to ease. 

The geutle offices of patient love, 

Beyond all flattery, and all price above, 

The mild forbearance of another's fault ; 

The taunting word suppress'd as soon as thought : 

On these Heaven bade the sweets of life depend, 

And crush'd ill fortune when it made a friend. 

A solitary blessing few can find ; 

Our joys with those we love are intertwined : 

And he, whose wakeful tenderness removes 

The obstructing thorn which wounds the friend be loves, 

Smooths not another's rugged path alone, 

But scatters roses to adorn his own. 

Small slights, contempt, neglect unmix'd with hate, 

Make up in number what they want in weight ; 

These, and a thousand griefs, minute as these, 

Corrode our comforts, and destroy our peace. 

Swiss Husbandry. — The Alpine pasturages are elevated 
in heights of two, three, or more ranges, according to the 
soason— the herdsmen ascending with their cows and goats, 
and often with sheep, as the heat increases from early spring 
to die high temperature of July and August, and then de- 
scending as autumn declines into winter. These pastures 
form the principal source of maintenance and opulence to 
the inhabitants of the greater part of Switzerland, Savoy, 
the Voralberg, and the Tyrol. Each pasture elevation has 
its particular chalets for the herdsmen. The butter and 
cheese afterwards carried down to market are made in fhese 
tiny habitations. Below in the valleys, or often in sheltered 
nooks on the brow of the mountains, are the winter houses 
for the cattle, which are then fed with the hay gathered by 
great industry even in spots to which the goats can scarcely 
resort. * * * The intrepidity of the mliher (mower) of 
the Alps is scarcely less than that of the Chamois hunters. 
Whether he be gathering grass for the cows, blue melilot to 
mix with the cheese, or medicinal herbs for the druggist, 
he starts forth provided with food, kirehwasser, and tobacco ; 
the soles of his shoes fortified with pointed nails, and with 
hay inside to soften his fall when he leaps from rock to 
rock ; his gaiters unbuttoned below to leave him free at 
the ancles, and a whetstone stuck under his belt to sharpen 
the little scythe or sickle carried over his shoulder. He 
thus ascends to the hollows and crests of rocks on the brows 
and summits of mountains, and ties the hay he cuts in firm 
bundles, which he then pitches downwards from the heights. 
In this perilous way he in summer gains a scanty living. 
In winter he may be seen suspended by ropes over pre- 
cipices and gorges, to reach fallen trees, which he contrives 
to displace and slide downwards for fuel. If he succeeds in 
saving by these daring pursuits enough to justify his de- 
manding the band of the maiden he loves, and whose father 
often has no more fortune than a little chalet, an Alpine 
pasture, and the milk of three or four cows, which the pretty 
peasant maid carries to sell in the valley where he has pro- 
bably first met her, he marries, takes a chalet, and becomes, 
in his turn, a herdsman, and in time the proprietor of a few 
cows, and the father of a family. — * My Note Book; by John 

Immoderate Desires. — All immoderations are enemies ; 
as to health, so to peace. He that desires wants as much 
as he that hath nothing. The drunken man is as thirsty as 
the sweating traveller. Hence are the studies, cares, fears, 
jealousies, hopes, griefs, envies, wishes, platforms of achieving, 
alterations of purposes, and a thousand like ; whereof each 
one is enough to make the life troublesome. One is sick of 
his neighbours field, whose misshapen angles disfigure his, 
and hinder his lordship of entirencss : what he hath is not 
regarded, for the want of what he cannot have. Another 

feeds on crusts, to purchase what he must leave, perhaps, to 
a fool ; or, which is not much better, to a prodigal heir 
Another, in the extremity of covetous folly, chooses to die at 
un pitied death ; hanging himself for the fall of the market, 
while the commons laugh at that loss, and in their speeches 
epitaph upon him as on that pope, " He lived as a wolf, and 
died as a dog*." One cares not what attendance be dances 
all hours, on whose stairs he sits, what vices he soothes, 
what deformities he imitates, what servile offices he doth, 
in a hope to rise. Another stomachs the covered head and 
stiff knee of his inferior ; angry that other men think him 
not so good as he thinks himself. Another- eats his own 
heart with envy at the richer furniture, and better estate, or 
more honour of his neighbour ; thinking his own not good 
because another hath better. Another vexeth himself with 
a word of disgrace, passed from the mouth of an enemy, 
which he neither can digest nor cast up ; resolving, because 
another will be his enemy, to be his own. These humours 
are as manifold as there are men that seem prosperoui. 
For the avoiding of all which ridiculous and yet spiteful in- 
conveniences, the mind must be settled in a persuasion of 
the worthlessness of these outward things. — Bishop Hall. 

Magnesian Bread.— -A correspondent has sent the fol- 
lowing observations on a paragraph in the article on 
• Wheaten Bread,' in No. 250 of tne • Penny Magazine,' 
(p. 75, col. 2). The habitual use of alum must be per- 
nicious, even in very small doses, especially when we con- 
sider that the majority of persons in great cities are already 
suffering from constipation. The magnesia recommended 
by the eminent chemist alluded to in the paragraph com- 
mented on, would be worse still ; for if used in the unsparing 
way he proposes, a hearty bread-eater would swallow bis 
fifty or sixty grains of subcarbonate of magnesia daily, (or, 
what comes to the same thing, the equivalent quantity of 
pure magnesia, supposing the carbonic acid to be expelled 
by baking.) Now this quantity would be amply sufficient 
as a daily medicinal dose for a patient labouring under 
acidity of the stomach ; what then would become of those 
who, not having any superfluous acid, yet became consumers 
of the magnesian bread ? — Why, the natural and necessity 
acid of the stomach being absorbed, their digestion would 
suffer most severely. Individuals whose digestive powers 
have been impaired, and who may be said to subsist on 
stimulants, may look upon lemonade with horror, and use 
absorbents by the hundredweight ; but the happy possessor 
of a peaceable and contented stomach always likes ackU 

Public Instruction. —When the city of Leyden, in common 
with all the Low Countries, had fought through the bloodiest, 
and perhaps the noblest struggle for liberty on record, the 
great and good William of Orange offered her immunity 
from taxes, that she might recover from her bitter sufferings, 
and be rewarded for the important services which she had 
rendered to the sacred cause. Leyden, however, declined 
the offer, and asked for nothing but the privilege of erecting 
a university within her walls, as the best reward for more 
than human endurance and persevoranco. This simple 
fact is a precious gem to the student of history ; for if the 
protection of the arts and sciences reflect great honour ujK>n 
a monarch, though it be for vanity's sake, the fostering care 
with which communities or republics watch over the culti- 
vation of knowledge and the other ennobling pursuit* •' 
man, sheds a still greater lustre upon themselves. Nowhere, 
in the whole range of history, does man appear in a more 
dignified character, than when a republic founds a new 
seminary of learning, or extends her liberal aid toward tlie 
support of a scientific institution, in whose prosperity sw 
takes a just and fruitful pride. It is by the exertion of the 
people themselves, by the fruits of their own labour, by JM 
free grant of their own means, that these schools fa ww 
cultivation of knowledge and the education of their soni v* 
erected. Nothing but their fullest conviction of the Wm 
purifying, and invigorating effect which the diffusiou^ 
sciences and the trainiug of the youthful mind exercise up 
society, can induce them to establish or protect these nurse /j 
of civilization. It is a voluntary tribute brought by a *n 
community to the superiority of letters and sciences to> 
great universal cause of learning. — Lieber** Inaugw* 
Address at Carolina College, United States. 
* Boniface VHL 

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Cultivation of the Vine. — A communication which wo 
have received from Lieut.-Col. W. H. Sykes, F.R.S., enabled 
us to give some facts not generally known relative to the 
vine. In the • Penny Magazine,' No. 253, it was staled 
that the cultivation of* the vine was. limited to countries 
having a mean temperature between 50° and G0°; but 
Colonel Sykes says that six species of vines are cultivated 
profitably in Dakhun (Deccan), East Indies, between the 
17° and 19° parallels of latitude, and longitude 73° 50' and 
76° 50 # east of Greenwich, at an elevation above the sea 
varying from 1500 to 1800 feet; the mean temperature of 
the year being 77° to 78°; the mean temperature of the 
hottest months (April and May) 8 1° to 65° ; and of the 
coldest (October and January) 66° to 71°. The six species 
of grapes cultivated by the natives in Dakhun, to the 
luxuriant production of which Colonel Sykes' residence in 
that part of the East Indies enables him to bear testimony 
from personal observations, are, the Hubshee, or long, 
black, truncated, fleshy grape; the Fuckree, an oblong, 
green, musky grape; the Sahibee, an oblong, yellowish- 
green, fleshy, dry grape ; the Ahbee, as its name implies, a 
large, round, watery grape ; the Bedana, as'its name implies, 
a seedless grape, very small and round, like the " rishmish " 
of the Persian Gulf. Colonel Sykes adds : — " There is also 
one other species whose name at this moment I do not 
recollect ; but as the whole six species, I hope, are now on 
their way to this country, I shall be able to supply the 
omission. The Portugal round, black grape is also met with 
at Poona, but as it is not looked upon as so valuable as the 
rest, its cultivation is very limited. The whole of the above 
grapes are cultivated for the table, the natives not manu- 
facturing wine ; but, as they are abundant and cheap, wine 
no doubt could be made. The Ahbee grapes sell at a rate 
varying from 4 lbs. to 12 lbs. for Is, ; the other kinds axe 
Tery much more expensive.'.* 


In the late Sir Humphry Davy's posthumous work, 
44 The Last Days of a Philosopher," a very interesting 
account is given of a remarkable animal whose existence 
is connected with the most curious speculations. Found 
only in one part of the world, Illyria, — and in only one 
or two spots of that country, — it is conjectured not to 
be an inhabitant of the surface of our globe, but to be 
forced up from the depths of a subterranean lake 
through the crevices of the calcareous rocks with which 
that region abounds. Without offering an opinion 
upon this conjecture, we present our readers with a cut 
of the animal to accompany the vivid description of our 
gTeat chemist : — 

" In the middle bf August we pursued our plans of 
travel. We first visited these romantic lakes Hallsstadt, 
Aussee and Toplitz See, which collect the melted snows 
of the higher mountains of Styria, to supply the unfail- 
ing sources of the Traun. We visited that elevated re- 
gion of the Tyrol, which forms the crest of the Pusterthal, 
an«i where the same chains of glaciers send down streams 
to the Drave and the Adige, to the Black Sea and to the 
Adriatic. We remained for many days in those two 
magnificent valleys which afford the sources of the Save, 
where that glorious and abundant river rises as it were 
in the very bosom of beauty, leaping from its subter- 
raneous reservoirs in the snowy mountains of Terglou 
and Manhardt in thundering cataracts amongst cliffs 
and woods into the pure and deep cerulean lakes of 
Wochain and Wurzen, and pursuing its course amidst 
pastoral meadows so ornamented with plants and trees 
as to look the garden of Nature. The subsoil or strata 
of this part of Illyria are entirely calcareous and full of 
subterranean caverns, so that in every declivity large 
funnel-shaped cavities, like the craters of volcanos, may 
be seen, in which the waters that fall from the at- 
mosphere are lost ; and almost every lake or river has 
a subterraneous source, and often a subterraneous exit. 
The Laibach river rises twice from the limestone rock, 
and is twice again swallowed up by the earth before it 
makes its final appearance and is lost in the Save. The 

Zirknitz See or lake is a mass of water entirely filled 
and emptied by subterraneous sources ; and its natural 
history, though singular, has in it nothing of either 
prodigy, mystery, or wonder. The grotto of the Mad- 
dalena at Adelsberg occupied more of our attention 
than the Zirknitz See. I shall give the conversation 
that took place in that extraordinary cavern, entire, as 
well as I can remember it, in the words used by my 

Eub. — We must be many hundred feet below the 
surface ; yet the temperature of this cavern is fresh and 

The Unknown. — This cavern has the mean tem- 
perature of the atmosphere, which is the case with all 
subterraneous cavities removed from the influence of 
the solar light and heat ; and, in so hot a day in August 
as this, I know no more agreeable or salutary manner 
of taking a cold bath than in descending to a part of 
the atmosphere out of the influence of those causes 
which occasion its elevated temperature. 

Eub. — Have you, Sir, been in this country be- 
fore ? 

The Unknown. — This is the third summer that 1 
have made it the scene of an annual visit. Indepen- 
dently of the natural beauties found in Illyria, and the 
various sources of amusement which a traveller fond of 
natural history may find in this region, it has had a 
peculiar object of interest for me in the extraordinary 
animals which are found in the bottom of its subter- 
raneous cavities; I allude to the Proteus anguinus. 
We shall soon be in that part of the grotto where they 
are found; and I shall willingly communicate the little 
that I have been able to learn respecting their natural 
characters and habits.