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Full text of "The Struggle For Peace"

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLICY AND
PRINCIPLES
Spain was again the subject of debate on 2ist October, 1937,
when Mr. Chamberlain rose towards half-past ten at night,
following Mr. Grenfell, to reply to the attacks of the Oppo-
sition on the Government's Foreign Policy. During the
summer holidays, then just concluded, the action of the Govern-
ment in initiating and concluding the Nyon Agreement with
France and the other Mediterranean Powers—including ulti-
mately Italy—had brought to an abrupt conclusion the piratical
submarine attacks in non-territorial waters on neutral shipping.
Meanwhile^ public feeling had been rising over the delays in
obtaining from the interested Powers any withdrawal of the
foreign volunteers jighting in Spain, and the Opposition was
equally busy in denouncing foreign Dictators and blaming the
Government. It appeared to be an article of faith with the
Opposition speakers that all the intervention in Spain had been
on behalf of one side only and had come entirely from Fascist
Italy and Germany, though it was universally admitted that a
year earlier the International Communist Brigades had saved
Madrid at a time when there were no Italian legionaries in Spain.
The only certain truth was that no one knew the exact numbers
of foreign volunteers jighting on either side. Signer Mussolini,
who had never made any attempt to deny Italian intervention as a
counterpoise to international Communist intervention and had
given the number of Italians serving in Spain as 40,000, proposed
to the Non-Intervention Committee as an eleventh-hour solution
of an impasse that was threatening the peace of Europe^ that
all parties should undertake in advance to agree to proportionate
withdrawals based on the figures of a Commission to be sent to
Spain, whatever its figures might ultimately prove to be. On
this proposal Mr. Grenfell commented :
"In regard to the question of withdrawals, Signor Mussolini
•    admits that there are 40,000 Italians in Spain.   When he makes
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