Skip to main content

Full text of "The Survival of Civilization - John D. Hamaker"

See other formats

Three Problems Threatening 
Our Existence 

Soil, Tectonic, Climate & Economic 
Systems Explalned-Problems and Solutions 
Selected Papers by JOHN D. HAMAKER 
Annotations, Supporting Evidence by 



The Survival of Civilization 

depends upon our solving three problems: 
carbon dioxide, investment money and population. 

Selected papers of 
John D. Hamaker 

Annotations by 
Donald A. Weaver 

Hamaker-Weaver Publishers 

Michigan California 


World Wide Web Edition 

© 1982 by Hamaker-Weaver Publishers, © 2002 by Anita Hamaker and Donald 
Weaver, to protect the wholeness and integrity of this work. 

Please respect the intent and purpose of this book, which is implied by its title. The 
book is no longer intended for commercial use, but for educational purposes only. 
Thank you. 

Communications may be addressed to: 
Don Weaver 

Earth Health Regeneration 
P. O. Box 620478 
Woodside, CA 94062 


Quotes From Readers of 
The Survival of Civilization 

"I have received and read John Hamaker's The 
Survival of Civilization. Well done - completely 
convincing. I explained in Critical Path my whole 
grand strategy for what I could see would be the 
most effective way in which I might carry on. This 
does not include joining political forces with anyone. 
It does include using every opportunity afforded to 
clarify for those asking me to speak to them just what 
I think they might do to be effective in coping. I will 
tell all those inquiring of me about matters relevant to 
our survival that they had best read Hamaker's book 
The Survival of Civilization. 
Gratefully, faithfully," 

Buckminster Fuller 

(Very possibly the most intelligent and synergistic thinker of the 
20th Century) 

"The Survival of Civilization is regarded by a 
growing movement worldwide as a blueprint for the 
survival of the Earth, restoring ecological balance 
and, perhaps, even recreating Eden. The health and 
well-being of all living things ultimately depends on a 
highly mineralized, alive and vibrant soil. Rock dust 
adds up to a hundred elements and trace minerals 
and can greatly increase yield and quality of food, 
making organic agriculture truly viable. Undertaking 
the task of remineralization is urgent to restore our 
agricultural soils, to save the dying forests in the 
temperate latitudes, and to stabilize our climate." 

Joanna Campe, Editor 
Remineralize the Earth magazine 

"This visionary book shows how the survival of 
civilization depends upon the recovery of culture and 
agriculture from ignorance and greed. This recovery 

entails the transformation of agribusiness practices, 
politics and economics by natural science and 
bioethics. The Survival of Civilization is based upon 
natural science, not the reductionistic and 
mechanistic corporate science of industrialism. 
Natural science leads to ecological wisdom. Healthy 
soils mean healthy crops and healthful foods. 
Bioethics leads to reverence for all life, including the 
living soil, and in the spirit of this book, moves us to 
radical compassion and spiritual anarchy: new ways 
to live, to farm, to be." 

Michael W. Fox, author and senior scholar, Bioethics, The 
Humane Society of the United States 

"It is essential in the current 'global warming' debate 
to heed the many climatologists who predict not 
merely rising sea levels but the threat of an imminent 
Ice Age. Today's freakish weather — high winds, 
downpours, tornadoes, earthquakes — harbinger of 
such a coming deep freeze, was predicted years ago 
by the authors of The Survival of Civilization, a 
subject which is, or should be, of paramount interest 
to mankind." 

Peter Tompkins, co-author of The Secret Life of Plants and 
Secrets of the Soil 

"I write the 'Annual Review of the Environment' for 
the Encyclopedia Britannica, and I have written 
several environmental studies textbooks. John 
Hamaker has developed a beautiful and 
comprehensive theory of climate change, every 
element of which is supported by scientific evidence. 
His theory has been sitting under the noses of many 
other scientists, but they have largely overlooked it. 
In my judgment, John Hamaker's theory is a major 
contribution to humanity." 

Prof. Kenneth Watt 

Evolution and Ecology Dept., U. C. Davis 

"The world is in transition from a hydrocarbon-based 
society (fossil oil, gas and coal) to a carbohydrate 
society (crops, crop and forestry residues, hybrid 
trees and grasses, yard and garden trimmings, and 
the biomass part of garbage heading for the dump). 
More biomass is needed. The transition requires 
clean water and air, nutrients, and environmentally 
enhancing agricultural/forestry practices. These are 
growers' responsibilities. This includes the need to 
restore the mineral base of the soils — minerals that 
have been depleted since the last ice age, as The 
Survival of Civilization points out. Biorefineries 
'recycling C0 2 ' in every county and bioregion will 
contribute to national and energy security, new 
industries, good jobs, democratization of energy 
supplies, and to U.S. leadership by example in a 
world of people and other living things, intuitively 
knowing that human synergy with nature is an 
absolute imperative." 

William C. Holmberg, Director, American Biofuels Association, 

"Hamaker and Weaver aptly point out the importance 
of natural soil remineralization. Their claim we should 
imitate natural grinding and transportation by 
technical means to induce new life for the organic- 
mineral buildup of soil seems purely logical. With 
C0 2 rising dramatically, evidence points to a new ice 
age period approaching rapidly. It will need all our 
courage, knowledge and joint global activity to slow 
down the impact. The starting point must be the 
buildup of the linkage system of soils. Man is still the 
missing link in the restructuring of the biosphere he is 
in danger of destroying." 

Dr. Gemot Graefe, agro-ecologist, Germany 

"The diminishing mineral content of our food supply 
affects everyone, including many who consume 
natural foods. Inadequate mineral content diminishes 
food quality and thereby reduces the potential health 
benefits of whole foods. Even much of our 
organically farmed land no longer yields such vital, 
mineral-rich food crops as were found earlier this 

century. Clearly food quality should be a major 
concern for people throughout the world. Mineral 
depletion also feeds directly into the whole problem 
of the 'Greenhouse Effect,' as so eloquently 
explained by John D. Hamaker in his superb book, 
The Survival of Civilization. This is must reading for 
everyone on the planet." 

Mark Mead, writer, Massachusetts 

"In each generation an idea is born that alters 
mankind's perception of itself, life and all that is 
about. There is an awakening from ignorance which 
once initiated alters the hopes, fears and aspirations 
of those who experience it. Such an idea has 
occurred in the mind of a man called Hamaker, co- 
author of The Survival of Civilization. The concept he 
presents is simple and chilling. It provokes that age- 
old drive to survive." 

Henry Osiecki, Australia 

"I've just finished The Survival of Civilization and I've 
never read a more interesting, provocative, 
astonishing and truthful book in my life!! It should be 
required reading in every grade, junior high, high 
school and college in the world!!! I've been an 
organic gardener for fifteen years but never realized 
the importance of minerals in the soils. I've had some 
excellent results using compost but I've had a few 
problems and now know why. Thanks so much for 
sharing your love of life with humanity. I truly hope 
it's not too late for all of us. What is being done now? 
What can be done? What can I do?" 

Nathan Bales, Arizona 

"Hamaker's concept of the 100,000-year atmospheric 
C0 2 cycle that drives (triggers) the glaciation 
process, and that we might be able to control the 
C0 2 cycle through soil remineralization is certainly 
fascinating. Based on the knowledge I have of soil 
and plant sciences plus climatology, I don't see any 

flaws in the concept. At any rate it would seem most 
imprudent to sit idly by waiting for the return of an ice 
age to verify his concept when we have the means to 
regreen the Earth, thereby reducing atmospheric 
C0 2 . It's important to note that regreening of the 
Earth would do society an immeasurable amount of 
good even if it did not avert a glaciation." 

Bob Dixon, former USDA scientist 
The Imprinting Foundation, Arizona 

"It is becoming increasingly and excruciatingly 
apparent that human activities are destabilizing the 
Earth's climate. By shooting unimaginable quantities 
of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into 
the atmosphere and by ripping the ozone layer 
asunder, we are jeopardizing the conditions that 
make human life possible. How long we have to shift 
from fossil fuels to renewable non-polluting fuels 
such as solar is a matter of dispute, yet even the 
most optimistic scientists acknowledge it isn't very 
long. Is there any way to widen the window of 
opportunity and expand our odds? John Hamaker's 
work makes it clear that if we remineralize the soil 
through the widespread application of rock dust, we'll 
have a much better chance of restoring balance, 
saving our dying forests, generating a healthy 
agricultural base, and stabilizing the climate." 

John Robbins, author 

Diet for a New America and The Food Revolution 

"Only rarely does a publication come along that 
provides an adequate long-view understanding of 
planetary dynamics that affect our small history- 
bound lives. This new release of The Survival of 
Civilization with its companion volume could not be 
more timely to awaken us and our political and 
economic institutions with its clarion call for change. 
A work as clear and brilliant as this has the power to 
break us out of our denial and paralysis. Let us ask 
those in leadership worldwide to read and 
comprehend it. Let all of us do our essential part to 
re-green and re-forest our homes and bioregions and 

remineralize the precious soil on which all life 

Sister Miriam MacGillis 

Genesis Farm Educational Center, New Jersey 

"It is the positive side of remineralization which is so 
appealing, that each of us, in one way or another, 
can do his or her bit to re-adorn the earth with her 
beauty and abundance. Clearly scarcity was never 
intended by the Universal Heart and Mind. It is the 
result of mismanagement. Restoring the fertility of 
the soil is vital for everyone. Alas! Human beings 
seldom do the necessary thing unless they are also 
afraid of its alternative. John Hamaker and Don 
Weaver spotlight the threat that should make us take 
action now — namely that we have hastened the 
coming of the next ice age to the point that it may 
well grip us before the end of this century. They tell 
us that we can still avert it if we remineralize the 
earth now, causing great increases in biomass, green 
cover, forest plantations, luxuriant high-quality 
foodstuff that will absorb the C0 2 — which is the chief 
cause of climate deterioration. 

"The prevention of the oncoming ice age will cause 
mankind to unite. Earth, soil, food, water, warmth, 
are fundamental to all. None can survive without 
them. An ice age eliminates them all. Friend and foe 
alike will suffer and die. Thus humanity working 
together, uniting to live, can rediscover the 
brotherhood of man! Harmony among people can 
change the future to one of peace, abundance and 
well-being. Mother Earth gives us the opportunity, 
simply and gratefully, to give as we have received." 

Betsan Coats, founder 

Men of the Trees Queensland and Hamaker Coordination Network 

"The mechanism of cooling suggested by Hamaker 
and Weaver — increased evaporation of ocean 
waters, transport of clouds toward polar regions, 
increased snow and ice formation, increased albedo 
and movement of ice masses from the poles — I 
consider as fully applicable and valid. I am certain 

that global reforestation of the mountainous regions 
to the tropics, regular rehumification of arable soils, 
control of soil erosion, remineralization of acid soils, 
and reasonable fertilization of all arable soils will very 
much improve the planetarian balance of C0 2 in the 
biosphere. Of course every continent, natural region 
and particular country requires its own concrete 
program and sequence of actions. But general 
theoretical principles and technology must be 
coordinated to be complementary to each other. 

"I am very much impressed with the intention to put 
the 'Problem of Earth Regeneration' as the global 
super-problem to the governments and scientific 
circles as a vital subject of peaceful international 
cooperation in the interests of humanity of the 21st 

Victor A. Kovda, Director 

vicior a. i\ovaa, uirecior 

Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Moscow 

"The buildup of atmospheric carbon dioxide poses 
one of the most challenging problems that humanity 
has ever been faced with. Gaian evolution is 'forcing 
our hand' so-to-speak. Peoples of the world must 
either acknowledge the magnitude and seriousness 
of the problem, lay down their arms, and join together 
in a world-around effort to replenish our soils or 
endure untold suffering." 

Greg Watson, former Secretary for Science & Technology, 
Massachusetts and Director, New Alchemy Institute 

"Evidence continues to mount as to the validity of 
John Hamaker's thesis regarding the underlying 
causes of the glacial cycles the Earth experiences at 
approximately 100,000-year intervals. His 
engineering background and experience in solving 
real problems fostered a systems view in putting 
together the many diverse elements of this puzzling 
phenomenon. In extending his construction beyond 
the physical observations to include social and 
economic characteristics of humans, he laid the 
framework for seeking comprehensive societal 
approaches to devising possible solutions. The 

systems approach, so generally lacking in the 
training and fragmented structure of the academic 
research environment, forces the investigator to 
model the known elements of the puzzle into an 
interactively balanced operating relationship 
consistent with human experience. It is an incumbent 
requirement for anyone challenged with performance 
as the measure of success in any attempt to solve a 
problem. Lacking such a requirement, the academic 
research community mires in a self-perpetuating bog 
of papers and grant applications. Don Weaver's 
extensive search of the literature supports and 
materially contributes to an understanding of the 
thesis. Still, vision, action, and recommendations for 
action characteristically elude that research 

"TSOC lays out a compelling picture of the climatic 
process and proposes actions that stand on their own 
merit irrespective of the validity of the thesis in all 
detail. The persuaded reader must risk acting on that 
persuasion in his or her own individual setting. No 
enlightened scientific, political, or economic entity will 
champion the coordinated effort necessary to 
address the still-uncertain timing and severity of the 
challenge Hamaker and Weaver lay out without such 
convincing evidence of individual commitment." 

Frederick I. Scott, Editor 

American Laboratory and International Laboratory 

"The Hamaker-Weaver study exposes serious flaws 
in the official warming theory. It presents a well 
researched case that cries out for an urgent 
investigation. In 1982 they first urged specific 
measures, on a crash basis, to reverse the deadly 
climate shift now gaining global momentum. Their 
arguments were ignored but never scientifically 
refuted. Meanwhile, without our knowledge or 
consent, our government is betting our lives on a 
flawed warming theory that has not been subjected to 
open examination or public debate. . . . The potential 
benefits to humanity of global soil remineralization 
could be the dawn of a new era of health, abundance 
and a higher quality of life. It is no exaggeration to 
say humanity is now poised on the knife-edge 
between a glorious rebirth and the final abyss." 

Bertram Cohen, New York 

"The Survival of Civilization is a most compelling and 
inspiring work on soil remineralization and Earth 
Regeneration! As a farmer and arborist I've seen and 
tasted the fruits of remineralized soil and urge 
growers everywhere to experience the benefits of 
remineralization. Most importantly, the book's 
message and logic go beyond the simplistic models 
being used to anticipate climate changes, foreseeing 
a massive breakdown of our interglacial life support 
system. Combining this with information on human 
and animal health, and our inextricable dependence 
on soil organisms makes TSOCa Millennium 

Captain Tim Carr, Hawaii Director of the Sea Shepherd Conservation 
Society, eco-farmer, Permaculture design consultant 

"I've just finished your earth-shaking The Survival of 
Civilization, and it shook me up equally as much. 
You've both done a magnificent job. With the 
worldwide fulfillment of your prophecies now so 
graphically portrayed every night on TV, maybe this 
will trigger a serious interest in your message. Would 
to God the farmers of the world could see the light 
and heed your message and remineralize the soil. 
Then we and this sad old earth might have a chance 
to survive." 

George Fathman, co-author (with wife Dorothy) 
Live Foods, Nature's Perfect System of Health 

(George and Dorothy are 92 and 87 years young) 

"The Survival of Civilization contains the most 
important information on climate in our time. 
Remineralization of the soil is a first priority which is 
fully explained in Hamaker and Weaver's momentous 
work. It is my profound desire to make this book 
available to everyone as soon as possible. We are 
already dealing with devastating impacts from climate 
change but there is a solution to this climatic 

deterioration if we'll work together NOW as sovereign 
citizens of the Earth." 

Dr. John Whitman Ray, President 
World Assoc, of Integrated Medicine and 
Director, New Zealand Natural Healing Center 

"The young Zulu on this card is born to sing and 
dance. Hence my tree project is designed to keep 
these young stars dancing ecologically. I am sure 
The Survival of Civilization is the book for me and my 
Zulu people and all peoples of the 3rd World." 

R. T. Mazibuko, South Africa 

"I have just read The Survival of Civilization which I 
found to be a brilliant multi-disciplinary synthesis. It 
seems you've really gotten down to the root of the 
problem. For some years I've been working to 
identify the causes of and solutions to desertification, 
and I think you've hit upon the answer. Your 
programme of remineralization has my fullest 

David Mulligan, Director, Green Deserts, England 

"Not too many people know it, but there have all 
along been two streams of science, a science of life 
and a science of death. The one has given us 
nuclear bombs, nuclear power, chemical agriculture, 
genetic engineering for commercial profit, biological 
warfare, fossil-fuel technology. The other has 
discovered how to make humans more alive, creative 
and intelligent, how to eliminate all diseases without 
drugs, how to make the earth more beautiful with 
more abundant life, how to settle disputes peaceably 
with mutual benefit, and apparently even clean and 
unlimited energy without even burning anything. This 
earth remineralization advocated in The Survival of 
Civilization strikes me as a fine example of the 
science of life." 

Joe Alexander, artist, author, Arkansas 

"I've read The Survival of Civilization and am much 
concerned about the danger of glaciation. As a 
graduate of the college of Agriculture at U. C. 
Berkeley, I understand how our soils are depleted 
and how important it is to grind up rock flour fine and 
apply it to our agricultural lands and forests. The 
scientists are not doing anything. You will have to 
arouse the average citizen. If they realized the real 
danger they would rise up and demand that 
something be done." 

Harry F. Russell, California 

"The Survival of Civilization shows the essential unity 
of Earth's needs and our own. Not alone does it offer 
an entrance to understanding the marvelous whole 
planetary life-support system, but provides a 
stunning vision of the unprecedented degree of 
evolutionary cooperation required of us NOW to 
regenerate the Biosphere and live truly. Is this not 
the Divine Intention that fills our hearts?" 

Harold F. Lane, Director 
Greenfire Consultancy, Scotland 

Nature imitates herself. 

A grain thrown into good ground 

brings forth fruit; 

a principle thrown into a good mind 

brings forth fruit. Everything is created and conducted by 

the same Master — the root, the branch, the fruits — 

the principles, the consequences. 

— Pascal 

A student of geology, history, and a half-dozen other disciplines, 
Hamaker discerned that when the glaciers marched across the 
landscape, glacial gravel remained to provide the proper mix of 
essential nutrients. 

— Charles Walters 

To continue any longer as blind consumers of life, without learning to 
be visionary restorers of life, will likely insure an end to both 
opportunities — sooner than most of us would like to look at. Yet to 
fully look, in search of what is true, must surely be the first step. 

— Donald A. Weaver 

Message from Don Weaver 
Winter Solstice 2001 

When we first published The Survival of Civilization in April, 1982, my friends 
the Hamakers added my preceding words (from Chapter 4) here in front to 
complement those of Blaise Pascal, 17 th Century French philosopher and natural 
scientist. (From a 1994 memorial tribute to John Hamaker, Charles Walters' words 
exemplify a key "principle" a la Pascal, sown into the good mind of Hamaker, 
bearing fruit as this book.) Twenty years after writing those words, their call for us 
to move forward with open eyes and minds and hearts, courageously exploring for 
truth, still resonates within me. 

That exploration (along with trying to live truthfully day by day) is still a primary 
motivation. So is my strong feeling of responsibility to help humanity and all life 
not only survive but to thrive in a conscious, balanced, truly healthy Biosphere of 
Interdependence. (Shall we write a new Declaration of Interdependence for this 
century?) That is why I helped John Hamaker convey his insights and warnings to 
the world until his passing in 1994, and have continued sharing them since. 

When this book went out of print at the end of 1997, 1 began research for an 
Update which grew into the large companion volume, To Love And Regenerate 
The Earth: Further Perspectives on The Survival of Civilization. As you may 
already know, that volume and this original The Survival of Civilization are both 
available as gifts to the world at the Internet website, www.remineralize-the- Only a few minor revisions have been made in this World Wide Web 
edition of The Survival of Civilization . 

As you will read (or re-read), John Hamaker was convinced — right up until his 
1994 passing at age 80 — that we are in a "rapid" transition from our interglacial 
period to another glacial period. (Yes, he was quite fully aware of the "Global 
Warming" theory and its computer modeling projections.) When we were putting 
the book together in the early 80s, he reasoned that "rapid" meant comparable to 
the approximately 20-year interglacial termination phase found by the brilliant 
Belgian scientist G. Woillard in her studies of pollen deposits of the last 
interglacial. John's 30+ years of ecological studies further led him to reason that 
such a period probably began for us about 1975 and would therefore put us in 
danger of passing a "point of no return" in the 1980s and "worldwide starvation by 
1990," with a consequent "death of civilization." I have made no revisions of the 
written timing predictions made by John, as Nature is handling that job and 
continually giving us more important clues about Her real- world timetables. 

I thought of and still think of John as a rare kind of genius, whose sincere concern 
and efforts for us all were very admirable, and his reasoning and predictions very 
plausible — certainly deserving of "a fair hearing" by our endangered world. His 
time estimates and predictions may now appear to some readers to have been ill- 

advised, and suggest that the entire Hamaker Thesis be disregarded. My view is 
this: John perceived a strong likelihood that we were facing a real-life "worst-case 
scenario" of a 20-year (or less) transition, and he thought we'd better respond in a 
real-life dramatic fashion commensurate with this potentially overwhelming and 
devastating threat. I think we can be grateful to him for his efforts to shake and 
wake us, and to Nature/Life for continuing to renew our collective lease on life. 

I think most wise and caring now would be to consider whether Hamaker may 
have been correct in his general analysis of human, ecological and climatic 
degeneration, even if his chronological predictions have proven somewhat inexact. 
After 20 years of researching and helping publicize the Hamaker Thesis, / think the 
evidence powerfully supports his general analysis, and that his chronological 
predictions are proving to be not so very far off. I apologize if the book did or will 
frighten anyone "prematurely," but hope you will agree that this would be far 
better than receiving such a warning of immense danger when it is "too late"! In 
any case, I suggest that not a lot of time lies between the two, and that there is 
logically such a thing as "the point of no return." You are invited to help discover 
which side of that point we're experiencing the gift of life, and what we may have 
opportunity to give in return, to sustain a perpetual cycle of giving and receiving. It 
may be "more blessed to give than receive," yet is it not most blessed and natural 
of all to be a constructive participant in the Great Planetary Cycles of Giving and 

For much more on this and related topics, you may read the long Introduction to 
my separate new volume, To Love And Regenerate The Earth: Further 
Perspectives on The Survival of Civilization. I suggest you first carefully study the 
original The Survival of Civilization, then see if you have the additional time and 
inspiration needed to study and understand what To Love And Regenerate The 
Earth provides. I hope you will find it natural to join with me and countless others 
both "in search of what is true" and in "learning to be visionary restorers of life". 

For Life, Health and Regeneration, 
Don Weaver 


The indispensable ingredient in the publishing of this book is a 1 15-pound 
miracle named Anita. For forty years she has supported my efforts in every 
conceivable way, not to mention keeping me alive. 

The book's editor (and I think all the editor's friends and relations), the 
typesetters and the printer all pitched in to get the book out in creditable 
condition, under the pressure of time. Time is slipping away from all of us. 

My friend, the artist, did the artwork on the cover and the portrayal of the 
tectonic system components on page 132. 1 don't have to have artistic talent to 
see that he has added some "class" to the book. 

The difficulty in writing about a multi-disciplinary subject — a synthesis of 
many subjects — is that the reader almost never has the background education 
and experience in all of the subjects that would enable him to make a reasoned 
evaluation of the synthesis. For this reason, it seemed advisable to include a 
review of previous studies in the various disciplines in the form of a few lines 
distilling the essence of their findings. 

Of course you know I don't like to brag; but when I asked Don Weaver to 
take on the monumental task, I committed a "sheer stroke of genius." The 
reader will get a wealth of information from Don's "Perspectives" — I did. 

This book exists because a small group of people thought it was worth their 
best efforts. I think there are many millions of people across the land who will 
join this attempt to insure that human progress and human life shall continue 
into the future. 

John D. Hamaker 



Introduction viii 

Preface xv 

Chapter 1 Our 100 Percent Junk Food 1 

Supply Is Destroying Us 

Chapter 2 Food, Energy and Survival 12 

Chapter 3 Worldwide Starvation by 1990 50 

Chapter 4 The Role of C0 2 in 66 

the Process of Glaciation 

Chapter 5 The Subsoil Drainage System 92 

and Our Vanishing Food Supply 

Chapter 6 The Glacial Process and 127 

the End of the Food Supply 

Chapter 7 Taxes, Freedom 173 

and the Constitution 

Postscript 199 

Bibliography 205 



Since the late 1960's, John D. Hamaker has published articles directed to the theme that 
the health of an individual, a society and a planetary ecology can thrive only as an integrated, 
interdependent whole. 

He has applied a highly gifted and disciplined mind to seeing and understanding the facts 
and principles of nature operating on this Earth, and in recognition of these life principles, 
has been developing and communicating practical and comprehensive approaches to our 
many urgent, long-evolving problems. As most people are aware of to some degree, 
numerous problems, all interrelated, are reaching the crisis stage. 

The Survival of Civilization presents the profound synthesis of thought and principle that 
has emerged from John Hamaker' s studies, and is found to be supported by advanced 
research proceeding from all the scientific disciplines he draws upon — from soil 
microbiology to nutritional science, glacial geology to palynology, pedology (soil science) to 
paleoclimatology, etc. 

A very good sense of the real and potential significance of John Hamaker' s message for 
the world of the 1980's is given through the words of Hazel Henderson, internationally 
respected author of Creating Alternative Futures (1978), The Politics of the Solar Age 
(1981), and co-founder of both Environmentalists For Full Employment and the Princeton 
Center for Alternative Futures. She has helped begin a wide distribution of Hamaker' s 
writings, and in a cover letter (4/21/80) to Gus Speth (Council on Environmental Quality), 
Douglas Costle (Environmental Protection Agency), Dennis Hayes (Solar Energy Research 
Institute), Ann Cheatham (Congressional Clearinghouse on the Future), Amory Lovins, 
Norman Myers, Marilyn Ferguson, Jacques Cousteau, the Club of Rome, New Age, and 
others, Ms. Henderson placed John Hamaker' s message in this perceptive context: 

Hamaker' s thesis, for which he presents much evidence here, is that 
another crucial contributor (to atmospheric C0 2 build-up) is the progressive 
soil demineralization that runs on a long cycle from glaciation to glaciation 
(glaciation being the natural remineralization process). If he is correct, this 
means we can expect a continuous rate of increase of C0 2 build-up, and that 
climatologists were in error in advising the Administration that we had 50 
years to complete the solar/renewable resource transition, before weather and 
climate changes would interfere with crops, etc. ... I have heard, for example, 
that the committees of the National Academy of Sciences have been worried 
about the general issue of destruction of topsoils, but that they have not chosen 
to share their concern very widely. Thus, this material is potentially a very big 

However, I do not see it as one more apocalypse story, to add to those of 
genetic diversity loss in plant and animal species, adulterated food and water, 
nuclear proliferation and all the rest. It is obvious to me that if one uses a 
model of morphogenetic change to view all these simultaneous-sub-systems- 
going-critical, as well as the acceleration of all these processes, then the pattern 
is clear: a total system global transformation is already taking place — also 
pushing changes in social systems, e.g. the tables are turning all over the world, 
from the crack-up of the world monetary system, a new international economic 
order, and various other social upheavals now visible. The point is, is it good 
news or bad news? Order and chaos are two sides of the same coin — and imply 
an observer. If you are on the outside in one way or another, marginalized by 
the existing system: e.g. women, minorities, Third World country peoples (not 
their leaders), citizen and public interest movements, etc., you may see the new 
order emerging (birth is a painful process, as women know). 

Thus, the hopeful side of this C0 2 build-up story is that if Hamaker is right, 
i.e. that we have not 50 years, but only 10 years to make the solar transition, 
and that we can remineralize the soil with our existing resources and 
technology (without waiting for nature's glaciation method) then it means that 
not only is the transition to the renewable-resource based societies of the Solar 
Age economical, politically advantageous as a potential de-centralizer, good 
technologically, etc., etc., but that it is also absolutely necessary for our 
survival. Thus this new threat to our atmosphere — which we can deal with, 
might provide a very credible "external threat" which social scientists and 
philosophers have always maintained would be needed for the human species 
to act co-operatively. This threat is external, not in space (as the old idea of 
invasion from another planet) but in time (i.e. it is outside of human time, being 
part of a 100,000 year climatic cycle, to which we have contributed, to be sure, 
with fossil fuel combustion and ecosystem destruction). Thus, in principle, 
leaders from Jimmy Carter to all others in industrial countries of East and West 
(equally worried about C0 2 build-up), could sound the alarm and start joint 
emergency programs that would supersede in importance all the sub-games of 
competition and conflict over ideology, the idiotic discussions about the 
"economy," the banality of the electoral political process, etc. I am only saying 
that this is possible, as a scenario and that the world will only get more 
dangerous if we don't shift our attention soon from the insane political 
discourse (amplified by mass media) over non-issues, to some real issues. This 
might be one — and what is there to lose? 

John Hamaker gave a simple answer to that question, when he said in a letter to Vice 
President Mondale: "We have everything to gain by remineralizing the soil, and everything to 
lose by failing to do so." 

* * * 

The Survival of Civilization is organized into 7 chapters; the first 6 representing a series 
of Hamaker's papers written from January 1979 to May 1981, and the seventh, minus the 
newly added preface, written in 1972. 

A brief introduction and/or preface accompanies each paper, and each paper save the last 
is followed by an in-depth perspective that is intended to provide additional insight and 
overview on the preceding article. This is accomplished, in part, by calling upon some of the 
most relevant scientific contributions that have been made in many fields over the past 
century, i.e., bringing to practical focus key findings and information serving to verify or 
refute the main thesis of this book — which obviously demands verification or refutation. 

For easy documentation and reference, we adopted the system of noting published 
sources by author's name and year of publication, or name of periodical and date of issue, 
with a single alphabetical reference listing to be found in the back of the book. Pictures, 
tables, graphs, etc., plus quotes from various governmental and other sources are included 
where appropriate in illustrating a point or an important principle. Also, where fitting, are 
included reviews of recent news reports and events of obvious importance to our 
subject — especially in identifying what is now actually taking place as our biosphere 

The Survival of Civilization is offered for careful consideration to every political 
representative, farmer and gardener, forester and scientist from all disciplines — plus people 
in all businesses and services. It is not by any means intended to be a book of sensationalism 
or some pointless literary "harbinger of doom." Any experienced ecologist, or other aware 
individual, is by now acutely aware that life and the balance of nature is very fragile, and that 
"doom" for any life form may result from destruction or over-exploitation of its environment. 
For humanity this principle applies to the socio-economic as well as the natural environment, 
as the last chapter indicates. 

This book is intended to express only truth, to the best of our understanding and ability. It 
is released into our semi-chaotic world in the belief that it is essential to do so, that the great 
principles and wonderful re-creative potential discernible through its chapters may be 
grasped by everyone seriously concerned with removing the causes of malnutrition and 
disease, starvation, poverty and unemployment and the destruction of the natural 
world — which must inevitably include the human race. 

* * * 

As the final preparations for publishing this book were being made, I asked John 
Hamaker what might be told to readers about his background, as I assumed there would be 
some interest in it. "You don't need to say anything," he told me. "You and I don't matter in 
this book — getting out the facts to people is all that matters." 

In essence, I fully agree with him on this point. Nevertheless, some readers may benefit 
from even a very limited preliminary sense of the intelligence and life perspective of the man 
behind this book's message. A separate book would be needed to do John Hamaker full 
biographical justice, with chapters on the generous heart and deeply penetrating mind which 
motivate him, on his very subtle yet warm, self-effacing sense of humor, and on his highly 
stubborn refusal to accept the unnecessary self-destruction of the human race. 

Therefore, to provide a brief insight into his background, and conclude this introduction, 
it is fitting to excerpt part of a short autobiographical sketch written on request of Michigan 
Congressman Howard Wolpe's office in early 1980: 

I have observed the things of the world for almost 66 years. The luck of the 
genes equipped me to observe and learn. I had the highest mechanical aptitude 
test score in a class of 110 Bachelor of Science, Mechanical Engineering 
students majoring in Industrial Engineering at Purdue University (class of 
1939). In a Motor Maintenance Battalion of 650 men and officers in WWII, I 
had the highest army test score. So I became a "90-day wonder" and was 
discharged with a superior officer rating. In every engineering office where I 
have worked, the jobs requiring the most synthesis generally wound up on my 
drawing table. On the four occasions when I could not work because of 
chemical contamination, I have either worked on the problems that afflict 
humanity or I have spent time on inventions. I have found that the solutions to 
the problems of the economy and the environment can be found by the same 
rigid attention to facts and established principle which yield solutions to 
problems of machine design. 

In my 66 years I have seen more history made than any generation has seen 
before. Now it appears that I will see one more thing — the end of civilization 
as we know it during this interglacial period. For 10 years I have known the 
soils of the world were running out of minerals and that glaciation was 
inevitable. For 10 years warnings and the solution have been ignored by people 
in government. Now hard evidence insures that by 1 995 the temperate zone 
will become a subarctic zone and the world will have lost its food supply. 

I don't think I care to see the tragedy which is scheduled to unfold in this 

The following preface by the author continues this amazing "story." 

Donald A. Weaver 


On July 4, 1776, fifty-five representatives of the people of the thirteen colonies 
dedicated "our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor" to the purposes stated in the 
Declaration of Independence. The problem in 1776 was political freedom; the problem today 
is far greater—the very survival of civilization. Yet it is doubtful if there is one legislator in 
the entire Congress of the caliber of the men who led the revolution. Congressmen, in their 
compulsion to do what they have to do to get re-elected, continue to serve the interests of the 
proprietors of an economic system which has ruined the land, impoverished the people and 
bankrupted the government. Meanwhile, the underlying causes of these problems are ignored 
as we move from crisis to crisis. 

The attitudes of the people of the nation toward Congress cover a broad spectrum. 
There are those who are angry for a variety of reasons. There are those who feel no hope of 
any improvement. There are even a few who out of ignorance of the facts still express 
confidence in the government. If these divergent attitudes can he quickly mobilized toward 
those neglected issues which directly affect the earth's capability to provide, and our 
subsequent ability to survive, there may still be time to prevent the impending starvation of 
almost all of the world's people. Therefore this book presents a basis in truth around which a 
consensus can be built to solve the problem of our very survival. 

x v i 

It is useless to state a problem without also stating the solution. There are three 
problems which must be solved if civilization is to survive. The three problems are shown on 
the book cover. As indicated by the curves, they are all increasing at an accelerating rate 
towards immediate crises. 

The increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is man's most urgent problem. In 
order to save civilization, we will have to take immediate action on a worldwide scale of a 
magnitude never before undertaken by mankind. The carbon dioxide curve must be reversed 
and started downward by about the middle of this decade. It is so urgent because crop losses 
due to the carbon dioxide-induced severity of weather conditions are creating a world that has 
virtually no food surplus for customers who can pay, let alone for those who are hungry and 
those who are now starving to death. The daily reports of harsh and enduring weather 
extremes around the world assure us that it won't be just the Poles and the Russians who are 
short of food by 1985. The stress of general famine will produce chaos and anarchy before 

the decade is over. Under those conditions we cannot do the job that must be done. There is 
also a point of no return at which the natural process of glaciation cannot be stopped by 
human efforts. 

Our second problem is the money crisis. We can't function to accomplish the solution 
to the first problem with a dollar that is rapidly becoming worthless. The trouble is that the 
wealth of this nation (and that of most of the other nations) has become concentrated in 
investment funds, the income from which is put back into the funds to "make" more money. 
The doubling rate for such funds is now somewhere in the 6- to 8- year range and the time is 
constantly getting shorter as interest rates go up. Financial crisis will occur in this decade. 
We cannot avoid the strong measures and the economic reform necessary to establish a sound 
economy and a social order which makes peace instead of war. 

The third problem has become critical because world population has outstripped world 
resources. At the present rate of increase, population will double in about 30 years. It will not 
happen-in fact, population will decrease drastically by 1990 due to famine. 

Decreasing food supply, increasing population, and the inevitable result, are about as 
simple a set of facts as one can imagine. Voluntary birth controls efforts are failing due to 
lack of education, funding and personal responsibility. Can this rapidly change, or must we 
have the alternative of laws to limit offspring? If humanity cannot face up to these simple 
facts, then there is no chance that civilization is capable of effecting its survival. 

x v i i 

This collection of papers was not written to please anyone. It was written as a search 
for truths upon which a peaceful and successful world civilization can be based. The broad 
truth is that without radical and immediate reform (particularly in this nation), civilization 
will be wrecked by 1990 and extinct by 1995. 1 resent the fact that my two children and three 
grandchildren have no future. If there are enough people who feel the same way, then 
perhaps we can effect our survival and establish a far better future for civilization than it has 
yet known. 

John D. Hamaker 


Chapter 1 

Our 100 Percent Junk Food Supply 
Is Destroying Us 


This chapter is a composite of two of Hamaker's writings from 1979; most of it was 
published in the Lansing State Journal (1/21/79) as "Americans Must Accept Food For 
Thought." The paper stands as a short and powerful summary of humanity's crisis of social- 
ecological well-being and survival — as perceived by one individual — yet potentially obvious 
to all who will look and understand. 

As always, Hamaker writes with an awareness that our problems can be resolved, if we 
will flexibly apply what is already known of how to work with and accentuate the natural 
operational principles of the Biosphere-the living Earth. 

Because we have not fully recognized and applied these principles in key areas of our 
daily lives, Hamaker points out, we have brought ourselves to the point where we must now 
courageously face the totality of our problems. 

Vapor from the sea; rain, snow, and ice on the summits; glaciers and 
rivers — these form a wheel that grinds the mountains thin and sharp, sculptures 
deeply the flanks, and furrows them into ridge and canyon, and crushes the 
rocks into soils on which the forests and the meadows and gardens and fruitful 
vine and tree and grain are growing. 

— John Muir, 

John of the Mountains: The Unpublished Journals of John Muir 

There is a nutritional basis for modern physical, mental, and moral 

— Weston A. Price, 

Nutrition and Physical Degeneration , 1945 

P. 2 





















Glaciation is an acceleration of the normal 
process of using evaporated water to carry 
excessive heat energy from warm zones to cold 
zones. The greenhouse effect of an increase in 
atmospheric CO2 is to increase cloud cover over 
polar latitudes. The clouds have a cooling effect 
as well as providing the snow for glaciation. 
The energy is dissipated in arctic space. 
Glaciation occurs whenever the soil minerals 
left by the last glacial period are used up and 
the plant life can no longer regulate the CO) by 
growing faster in response to an increase in 
CO2 in the air. Forests are the major factor in 
CO2 control. 


A U.N. report estimates that by the year 2000, 
90% of the agricultural land and two-thirds of 
the forests will be destroyed in the tropics. 

Temperate zone forests and crops will be 
destroyed by disease, insects, drought, wind, 
and fire. 

By 1990 the 50 to 100 mph winds of 1980 will 
increase to 100 mph and up. 

For these and other reasons agriculture and 
industry will be so crippled that the effect 
of man on the CO2 curve will be nullified 
and the rise in CO2 will take place as a 
result of uncontrolled forest fires. 

380 ppm 


354 ppm 



Ice Age begins. 

1700 1800 1900 2000 

335 ppm 

Average CO2 (290- ppm) during interglacial 
period. CO2 fluctuates about 10 ppm above and 
below average with volcanism of 100 year cycle 
of tectonic systems. 

1940, 304 ppm, 4.75% 
increase over 290 ppm. 

Hawaiian weather 
station has recorded 
C0 2 since 1958. 

Unless we stop the increase of atmospheric CO2 by: 

1. Remineralizing the surface of the earth. 

2. Stopping the use of fossil fuels and the destruction of 














Fig. 1.1 Parts per million CO2 in Atmosphere, original Hamaker CO2 curve projection 

Our 100 Percent J unk Food Supply 

Is Destroying Us 

The American people have so many disease problems that the costs of medical care have 
gone beyond the financial means of most citizens. It is not coincidence that livestock are also 
suffering from a variety of diseases. Clearly, the food supply as it is grown is unable to 
supply the nutrients needed to maintain a state of good health in man or animal. 

Yet we still observe how many university professors of agriculture and of nutrition miss 
no opportunity to defend the food supply, including the devitalizing methods of processing. 
Such "experts" seem to be too busy propagandizing for the food industry to have time for 
science, so I will review some recent findings. 

In the last year numerous studies have been reported by behavioral researchers relating 
the quantity and kinds of brain compounds to behavioral variations from normal. Whether or 
not those compounds are present in normal amounts depends on the proper function of 
numerous enzyme systems which are involved in the fabrication of all the body production, 
maintenance, and control systems. Whether or not there is an adequate supply of enzymes 
present depends on the food supply. In particular, it depends on an adequate soil mineral 
supply in the food, because it has been observed by microphysicists that the soil elements are 
required in the enzyme molecules. All of this has been established by direct laboratory 


So close is the relationship between human behavioral performance and the compounds 
in the brain that one science writer stated flatly, "You are what you eat." The laboratory proof 
is done. Thus the many behavioral problems of epidemic proportions in this country are 
primarily caused by malnutrition. Thirty percent functional illiteracy, crime, alcoholism, 
dope addiction, cultism, the killing of babies in the womb — all of these marks of a degenerate 
society are inflicted on us because we have permitted the food supply to become 100 percent 
junk food. 

In the summer of 1977 a corn crop was grown on soil which was mineralized with glacial 
gravel crusher screenings. The corn was tested along with corn from the same seed grown 

with conventional chemical fertilizers. The mineralized corn had 57 percent more 
phosphorous, 90 percent more potassium, 47 percent more calcium, and 60 percent more 
magnesium than the chemical-grown corn. The mineral-grown corn had close to 9 percent 
protein, which is very good for a hybrid corn. All of the nitrogen in the mineral-grown corn 
(whose content in the food is the indicator for protein) came from the atmosphere by way of 
biological processes and was in the amino acids of the corn protoplasm. None of it was raw 
chemical nitrate, the precursor of the carcinogenic nitrosamines. No pesticides were used and 
there was no insect damage. 

All of the elements are in glacial gravel. The large increase of the principal elements must 
be accompanied by a similar increase in the trace elements. This follows from the fact that 
the trace elements are required in order for the soil microorganisms to produce the enzymes 
needed to make all of their other protoplasm compounds. In order to show such a major 
increase in the principal elements and a corresponding increase in protein, the soil 
microorganisms must be able to reproduce abundantly, so as to furnish the large quantities of 
protoplasm required by the plant roots. Microorganisms can reproduce abundantly only when 
all minerals are present, along with plant residue to supply their carbon needs for energy and 
protoplasm compound building, plus nitrogen, oxygen and sea solids from the air, and of 
course water. 

Everything is connected to everything else. We can have good social behavior in this 
country only if we have good health. We can have good health only if the soil 
microorganisms have good health. They supply the protoplasm compounds for every living 
organism above the ground. The basis of their health is the availability of the elements of the 
inanimate rock crust of the Earth which is the basic food supply of microorganisms and 
hence of all of us. 


Virtually all of the subsoil and most of the topsoil of the world have been stripped of all 
but a small quantity of elements. So it is not surprising that the chemical-grown corn had 
substantially less mineral content than the 1963 corn described in the USD A Handbook of 
the Nutritional Contents of Food. The mineralized corn was substantially higher in mineral 
content than the 1963 corn. Hence, as the elements have been used up in the soil, a poor food 
supply in 1963 has turned into a 100 percent junk food supply in 1978. There has been a 
corresponding increase in disease and medical costs. Essentially, disease means that enzyme 
systems are malfunctioning for lack of the elements required to make the enzymes. 

Hunza is a small country in a high Himalayan mountain valley. The health and strength 
and longevity of the Hunzacuts is legendary. The key factor is that they irrigate the valley's 
soils with a milky-colored stream from the meltwater of the Ultar glacier. The color comes 
from the mixed rock ground beneath the glacier. The people are virtually never sick. They do 
not develop cancer. Many are active workers at 90; some live to be 120. These facts are well 
documented, yet the world's "health professionals" ignore them while continuing the 
hopeless search for man-made "cures." 

Ten thousand years ago the Mississippi Valley was fed and built up by runoff from the 
glaciers. The deep deposit of organically-enriched alluvial soil in Illinois attests to a long 
period of luxuriant plant growth. Yet, when the settlers plowed the valley, they did not find 
topsoil that would give the health record of the Hunzacuts. Ten thousand years of leaching by 
a 30-inch annual rainfall is the difference. Man can stay on this Earth only if the glacial 
periods come every 100,000 years to replenish the mineral supply — or man gets bright 
enough to grind the rock himself. There are several other places in the world similar to 
Hunza, such as the Caucasus Mountains in Russia where 10 percent of the people are 
centenarians. There are glaciers in the mountains. Regardless of where it is that people attain 
excellent health and maximum life, it can be traced to a continual supply of fresh-ground 
mixed rocks flowing to the soil where their crops are grown. Thus the secret of good health 
and long life lies not in the fountain of youth or in a chemical company's laboratory, but in 
the acceleration of the natural biological processes. 


Failure to remineralize the soil will not just cause a continued mental and physical 
degeneration of humanity but will quickly bring famine, death, and glaciation in that order. 

Glaciation is nature's way of remineralizing the soil. It occurs automatically because as 
the plant life dies out for lack of protoplasm, large amounts of its carbon move, as carbon 
dioxide (C0 2 ), into the atmosphere (See Fig. 1.1). Then we see what is occurring now. CO,'s 
"greenhouse" heating effect is causing large amounts of evaporation from the tropical oceans. 
Cold polar air moving over the cold land areas displaces this lighter, warm, wet air from the 
tropics, forcing the warm air to flow over the warm oceans toward the northern latitudes to 
replace the cold air, be cooled, lose its moisture to snow, and descend over the land mass. 

The result is massive cloud cover under which huge amounts of cold air are generated 
and from which ever-increasing amounts of precipitation occur. Every winter must be worse 
than the last. We can stand them for some time into the future. What we cannot stand is for 
the winters to carry over into the summers to destroy crops and trees with frosts and freezes. 
Numerous temperatures from 32 degrees to 40 degrees were recorded in the summer of 1978 
in the northern tier of states from Michigan to the Rockies. Cold waves, just a few degrees 
lower in temperature, can cause major crop losses in Canadian and Eurasian grain crops, 
most of which are at the latitude of Michigan or north of it. Famine could begin soon. At best 
it is only a few years away. The 1978-79 fruit and vegetable losses in California, Texas and 
Florida were indicative of what will also happen to summer crops in the years just ahead. 

So now we are on the doorstep of a famine crisis and experiencing numerous crisis 
conditions as the result of malnutrition. I have been warning of both since 1970. The facts 
have not changed since then but the effects of those facts have changed drastically. It appears 
too late now to prevent the deaths of hundreds of millions of people from famine. There may 
still be time to prevent the extermination of civilization for another 90,000 years of 
glaciation — or there may not be sufficient time. 

If we are to survive we must remineralize all of the world' s soils and double, triple, and 
quadruple the rate of growth of all plant life. We can then go on a solar energy cycle using 
food crops and tree crops for producing alcohol and methane and wood as fuels for our 
energy supply. Only in this way can we hope to reverse the flow of carbon dioxide into the 
atmosphere and ultimately eliminate the deadly effects of the onset of glaciation. 

Technically remineralization is feasible. Our problem is lack of intelligent and 
courageous scholastic and political leadership. Perhaps the results of our lack of 
leadership — glaciation and famine — are the ultimate price to be paid by a people whose 
national philosophy has been the exploitation of man and nature. 



Most of what John Hamaker writes stands fully on its own as a unique synthesis and re- 
statement of facts and principles operational throughout nature, and recognized within the 
diversity of scientific disciplines he draws upon. This synthesis arises from a profound 
"common sense" and much practical experimentation. Yet a deeper understanding of the 
truth in Hamaker' s words may be gained by a look at certain areas demanding further 
exploration. Initially, developing a measure of "geological perspective" may be most 

The Glacial-Interglacial Cycle 

This cycle has been clearly revealed as of the 1970's by numerous workers in many fields 
of "Quaternary research." The Quaternary is the present geological period encompassing the 
Pleistocene epoch and the Holocene (recent) epoch — the present interglacial. 

NAS Study 

The National Academy of Sciences 1975 publication, Understanding Climate Change, 
explains it this way: 

The present interglacial interval — which has now lasted for about 10,000 
years — represents a climatic regime that is relatively rare during the past 
million years, most of which has been occupied by colder, glacial regimes. 
Only during about 8 percent of the past 700,000 years has the earth 
experienced climates as warm or warmer than the present. 

The penultimate interglacial age began about 125,000 years ago and lasted 
for approximately 10,000 years. Similar interglacial ages — each lasting 10,000 
plus or minus 2000 years and each followed by a glacial maximum — have 
occurred on the average every 100,000 years during at least the past half 
million years. During this period fluctuations of the northern hemisphere ice 
sheets caused sea-level variations of the order of 100 meters, (p. 181) 


Further on, the question arises: 

When will the present interglacial end? Few paleoclimatologists would 
dispute that the prominent warm periods (or interglacials) that have followed 
each of the terminations of the major glaciations have had durations of 10,000 
plus or minus 2,000 years. In each case, a period of considerably colder climate 
has followed immediately after the interglacial interval. Since about 10,000 
years have passed since the onset of the present period of prominent warmth, 
the question naturally arises as to whether we are indeed on the brink of a 
period of colder climate, (p. 1 89) 

And of obvious importance: 

What is the nature of the climatic changes accompanying the end of a 
period of interglacial warmth? From studies of sediments and soils, Kukla finds 
that major changes in vegetation occurred at the end of the previous 
interglacial. The deciduous forests that covered areas during the major 
glaciations were replaced by sparse shrubs, and dust blew freely about. The 
climate was considerably more continental than at present, and the agricultural 
productivity would have been marginal at best. (p. 189) 

At that point, in 1975, it is suggested that: 

The question remains unsolved. If the end of the interglacial is episodic in 
character, we are moving toward a rather sudden climatic change of unknown 
timing. ... If on the other hand, these changes are more sinusoidal in character, 
then the climate should decline gradually over a period of thousands of years, 
(p. 189) 

Report to the U.S. Congress 

Weather Modification: Programs, Problems, Policy, and Potential is a document 
prepared for the 95th Congress. Chapter Four (Justus, 1978) confirms the NAS study in 
regard to our place in the cycle: 

"In geological perspective, the case for cooling is strong. ... If this 
interglacial age lasts no longer than a dozen earlier ones in the past million 
years, as recorded in deep-sea sediments, we may reasonably suppose that the 
world is about due to begin a slide into the next Ice Age." (p. 153) 


The Present Interglacial, How and When Will It End? 

This was the title of a working conference of paleontologists, sedimentologists, 
stratigraphers, paleoclimatologists and others, held at Brown University in 1972. Over a 
dozen of the papers presented were published that same year in Quaternary Research (Vol. 2, 
p. 261-445). The papers strongly confirmed the 100,000 year average glacial-interglacial 

cycle, and virtually every author stressed the fact that we should indeed be at or close to the 
end of the present inter glacial. Most presented solid evidence from their fields that this is the 
case; none could explain with certainty the precise "causative mechanism" of climate change. 

The search for causes of "Ice Ages," beginning over a century ago and continuing up to 
this day, is one of the most fascinating stories imaginable — especially so in light of an 
imminent onslaught of a new one. Yet the answer literally lies beneath our feet, as finally 
revealed by John Hamaker in the fact of progressive soil demineralization of Earth's soil 
mantle, causing an eventual collapse of the global carbon cycle. Such a major breakthrough 
in understanding should logically lay a foundation for major shifts in how we look at and 
relate to life on Earth. 

A closer look at interglacial soil demineralization, vegetational succession and collapse, 
the glacial process, and soil remineralization follows in the next chapters. In concluding here, 
another key contribution to our knowledge of the glacial-interglacial cycle should be noted: 

In 1977, Quaternary Research published the latest work of George Kukla and Julius Fink 
entitled "Pleistocene Climates in Central Europe: At Least 17 Interglacials after the Olduvai 
Event." The study documented their work on the interlayered soils exposed in excavated 
brickyards of Czechoslovakia. 17 major cycles of glacial loess deposition and subsequent 
interglacial soil "decalcification" (and overall demineralization) over the last 1.7 million 
years are revealed. The interglacial soils are shown to have supported the deciduous forests 
native to northwestern and central Europe until in some way they died off and gave way to 
the steppe vegetation of a chilled and wind-torn glacial desert where dust was blown freely 
about. Loess, which is simply mixed rock dust and silt ground by the glaciers and swept 
away by the winds, always returns to cover the demineralized soils. Then, again, over the 
centuries, the loess becomes "mostly consumed by the pedogenic process." (p. 369) 

In the coming chapters, we must examine the forest die-off process — which is now 
quickly happening worldwide — and the interrelationships of the C0 2 crisis, our deteriorating 
weather and soil minerals and health. We will also look at the overviews of broad studies, 
such as the Global 2000 Report by the U.S. government. 


Chapter 2 
Food, Energy and Survival 



John Hamaker's "Food, Energy, and Survival" was first published in August 1979. The 
article received widest distribution when it appeared in the June and July 1980 issues of 
Acres, U.S.A. 

Over 25 years of farming and gardening experience, extensive reading and 
experimentation, and observations of extraordinary depth concerning natural processes have 
preceded this potentially "landmark" study of the principles of the natural agriculture process 
and the need — as an absolute survival necessity — for immediate worldwide support of this 

May the reader "new to the soil" have patience with unfamiliar terms and perhaps 
difficult- to- visualize concepts (a second reading later may be most helpful); and may the 
experienced and "trained" agriculturist approach this work with a fresh mind and enthusiasm. 
The future of humanity and all life on Earth may well depend on this article and your 
approach to it. 

It is not too much to say, that the publication of Professor Liebig's Organic 
Chemistry of Agriculture constitutes an era of great importance in the history of 
Agricultural Science. Its acceptance as a standard is unavoidable; for following 
in the straight path of inductive Philosophy, the conclusions which are drawn 
from its data are incontrovertible. We can truly say, that we have never risen 
from the perusal of a book with a more thorough conviction of the profound 
knowledge, extensive reading, and practical research of its author, and of the 
invincible power and importance of its reasoning and conclusions, than we 
have gained from the present volume. 

— Silliman 's Journal, in review of Justus von Liebig's Organic Chemistry in its 
Application to Agriculture and Physiology, 1840. 


I had sinned against the wisdom of the Creator, and received my righteous 
punishment. I wished to improve his work, and in my blindness believed that, 
in the marvelous chain of laws binding life on earth's surface and keeping it 

always new, a link had been forgotten which I, weak and powerless worm, 
must supply. 

— Justus von Liebig, late in life quoted from Encyclopedia Britannica, 1899; 
removed from subsequent editions. 

Food, Energy and Survival 

At a time when there is a great need for food and fuel and an equally great need to 
withdraw the excessive amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, it is imperative that 
the natural process for production of life in and from the soil be thoroughly understood. 
These critical needs can only be met in the time available by vastly increasing plant growth. 
Perhaps the best approach is by means of a brief comparison of the principles of chemical 
agriculture and those of the natural process, the most important of which is the availability of 
elements in the soil. 

Chemical Agriculture 

In 1840 the German chemistry professor, Justus von Liebig, wrote a book on agriculture. 
Among other things he said that humus did not supply plant food, that certain minerals 
should be supplied to compensate for deficiencies, and, most important, that acids would 
make the minerals more available to the plants. 

That was the signal to the chemical companies to go into action. By 1850 they were 
prospering, and the professors of agriculture were reaching for the grant money passed out by 
the chemical companies. 

Liebig later regretted that he had imposed his superficial knowledge on so complex a 
process as the soil life system. Those profiting from his error had no such misgivings. As a 
result, civilization has been brought to the verge of extinction with virtually no knowledge of 
how to avoid it. 


Chemical agriculture holds that there is a "soil solution" which exchanges ions with plant 
roots and clay particles. It does not explain how such a water solution can stay in the soil 
while rain is percolating through the soil or flooding it and running off the top. The only soil 
solution which can be proven to exist is that which occurs when chemicals are applied to the 
soil and these solutions, plus the soil nutrients they liberate, are now fouling all our surface 
waters and the crops we grow. 

Chemical agriculture says that the plants extract minerals from the soil clay and soil 
solution by ion exchange. This is unproven. 

Chemical agriculture says that proteins are produced in the plant. This is unproven. 

Chemical agriculture uses soluble chemicals which are either acidic or basic and which 
have the final effect of acidifying the soil, destroying the soil life, using up the organic 
matter, and finally rendering the soil useless. The primary reason these things occur is that 
whatever chemicals are used on the soil act selectively, readily dissolving some stones while 
leaving others unaffected. In particular the silicate stones are unaffected. They form the bulk 
of the soil and contain elements useful to the life processes imbedded in a matrix of silicon 
dioxide, which is glass. Glass is not affected by the agricultural chemicals. Therefore some 
elements are almost entirely removed from the soil and others are not made available. 

Most of the elements in the soil are used by the microorganisms in making enzymes. A 
shortage of elements means a shortage of enzymes. A shortage of enzymes means a shortage 
of compounds catalyzed by the enzymes, and hence malfunction of enzyme systems in all the 
life forms dependent on the soil mineral supply. The fact that Johnnie can't read and that we 
have a $200 billion annual national medical bill both stem from the same cause — a poor 
delivery of elements from the soil in both quantity and balance. 

Natural Agriculture and 
the Carbon Dioxide Cycle 

This discussion takes place within a broad context of events. The natural system of soil 
remineralization calls for glaciation to start up every 100,000 years. The glaciers grind the 
rock in the top layers of the Earth' s crust, and high- velocity winds carry the ground rock dust 
all over the world. We happen to be due for glaciation now. 


Glaciation starts when the minerals in the soil are so depleted that they cannot support 
plant life. Forests, jungles, and other plant life become subject to destruction from disease, 
insects, drought, and fire. Ultimately most of the carbon in the plant life winds up as carbon 
dioxide in the atmosphere. (See Fig. 2.1, pg. 18) 

Normally trees grow faster when there is an increased release of carbon dioxide into the 
air resulting from an increased activity in the earth's tectonic system. We are now in a 
hundred-year cold cycle which occurs when tectonic activity is high. The carbon dioxide 
released from volcanic and other tectonic system components is secreted in the earth by 
deposit of once-living organic debris. The faster growth of trees in response to an increase in 
carbon dioxide results in a volumetric increased storage of carbon in plant life, which 
subsequently increases the rate of deposit of plant life debris in the crust of the earth. This 
keeps the carbon cycle in balance. Unfortunately, the soil has run out of useful soil elements 




















Glaciation is an acceleration of the normal 
process of using evaporated water to carry 
excessive heat energy from warm zones to cold 
zones. The greenhouse effect of an increase in 
atmospheric CO2 is to increase cloud cover over 
polar latitudes. The clouds have a cooling effect 
as well as providing the snow for glaciation. 
The energy is dissipated in arctic space. 
Glaciation occurs whenever the soil minerals 
left by the last glacial period are used up and 
the plant life can no longer regulate the CO) by 
growing faster in response to an increase in 
CO2 in the air. Forests are the major factor in 
CO2 control. 


A U.N. report estimates that by the year 2000, 
90% of the agricultural land and two-thirds of 
the forests will be destroyed in the tropics. 

Temperate zone forests and crops will be 
destroyed by disease, insects, drought, wind, 
and fire. 

By 1990 the 50 to 100 mph winds of 1980 will 
increase to 100 mph and up. 

For these and other reasons agriculture and 
industry will be so crippled that the effect 
of man on the CO2 curve will be nullified 
and the rise in CO2 will take place as a 
result of uncontrolled forest fires. 

380 ppm 


354 ppm 



Ice Age begins. 

1700 1800 1900 2000 

335 ppm 

Average CO2 (290- ppm) during interglacial 
period. CO2 fluctuates about 10 ppm above and 
below average with volcanism of 100 year cycle 
of tectonic systems. 

1940, 304 ppm, 4.75% 
increase over 290 ppm. 

Hawaiian weather 
station has recorded 
C0 2 since 1958. 

Unless we stop the increase of atmospheric CO2 by: 

1. Remineralizing the surface of the earth. 

2. Stopping the use of fossil fuels and the destruction of 














Fig. 2.1 Parts per million CO2 in Atmosphere, original Hamaker CO2 curve projection 

at the same time that exploitative man has compounded the problem by rapidly removing 
carbon from the crust of the earth where nature has wisely secreted it. Not just fossil fuels 
have been removed, but our agricultural soils have also been stripped of carbon. 

At whatever latitude the sun is concentrating its energy, the greenhouse effect of carbon 
dioxide heats up the atmosphere, causing increased evaporation of water and huge cloud 
mass formation. The increased temperature differential and hence pressure differential 
between cold high-pressure polar air and hot, humid low-pressure equatorial air causes large 
masses of cold air to move southward, displacing the hot air. The displaced hot air is forced 
to flow toward the polar zones, creating cloud cover that can now be seen in August on the 
satellite weather pictures to cover all of Canada. Protected from the sun by the clouds, huge 
masses of cold air are generated to insure that every winter will be colder than the last, just as 
certainly as each year the percent of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing. The 
accelerating rate at which this is occurring is frightening. 

If we are to avoid the consequences of having too much carbon dioxide in the 
atmosphere, we must understand the natural phenomena which support vegetative growth. 
Natural agriculture is the art and science of accelerating the natural processes from which the 
entire chain of life receives its nutritional support. The following should help clarify the 
urgency of applying its principles. 


This writer has ten acres of more-or-less typical, flat Michigan soil. Examination of rock 
content of the soil shows that there are about 272 inches of unused rock left in the topsoil and 
none in the subsoil. In short, there are Tli inches of sand and gravel which still have useful 
minerals and the rest is worn-out soil (subsoil) — nothing but clay (aluminum silicate) and 
tiny bits of glass (oxides of silicon) as deep (8 or 9 feet) as the backhoe would go. These 
subsoil elements and an occasional few others are in excess of the soil life needs. 

Soil microorganisms were extracting the useful elements from the soil rock long before 
there were higher plants — and they are still doing the job. 

Plants are basically predators. Their roots extract the protoplasm from the 
microorganisms. The plants, as well as all animals, alter some of the protoplasm compounds 
to provide enzymes, hormones, etc. specifically needed by them. But the basic supply of 
protoplasm comes from the soil microorganisms. The quality (health, vigor, intelligence, 
longevity, etc.) of all living things depends on the quality of the protoplasm of the life in the 
soil and that depends on the availability of elements in the soil stone. 

Examine a stone, other than limestone, in the soil. Crack it open. Under a very drab 
demineralized exterior "skin," you will see the minerals. That skin represents the depth to 
which the microorganisms have been able to penetrate the crystal structure of the stone. At 
this point, the stone is passivated and will release its useful elements only as fast as the slow 
process of weathering (see footnote, Ch. 5, p. 101) removes bits of the demineralized stone 

skin, exposing a few more elements. Thus the 272 inches of sand and gravel in the topsoil of 
the above-mentioned ten acres has such a slow rate of availability of minerals that the stunted 
corn plant it will grow produces only a nubbin with most of the grains of corn missing. There 
are very few microorganisms in the soil, and when cultivated it breaks up into hard clumps of 

The fact that the soil has been almost fully demineralized in the 10,000 to 1 1,000 years 
since the last glaciation has led to the popularity of chemical agriculture. The chemicals, 
unlike the microorganisms, will dissolve the carbonates and a few other rocks completely, 
liberating some of the remaining useful elements, thus stimulating enough of a growth of 
microorganisms to support a crop growth. Unfortunately, the crop therefore receives a short 
supply of an unbalanced protoplasm. The result is that the crop is subject to disease and so 
are the people and livestock who eat it. 


The bits of useless demineralized skin weathered from the stone are ignored by the 
microorganisms as they build the granular, capillary soil system which provides aeration and 
water retention to the soil. Percolating water carries the bits of subsoil downward into cracks 
under large particles of unused stone. The cracks are caused by contraction (drying) of the 
soil. The percolating water washes used material off the top of the unused stone, leaving a 
space into which the stone can rise when expansion (wetting) of the soil forces the unused 
stone upward by the amount of material sifted under it. 

Thus, in 10,000 years, eight or ten feet of glacial deposit has been cycled to the topsoil, 
demineralized by the soil life, and descended back into the subsoil to form a dense clay. 
There are only Xli inches of the original deposit left in the topsoil, and there is no more on 
the way up. 

From now on we must provide the minerals to the soil or glaciation will do it — and soon. 
There is only one-fortieth of the land mass on which life can continue through a glacial 
period. That will not suffice for 4/2 billion people. We will mineralize the soil or almost all 
of us will die. Fortunately, it is technically possible to mineralize the soils. 

For instance, a one-pound stone might have a surface area of 12 square inches. Ground to 
about 200 mesh, it would have a surface area of about 8 acres. One ton would therefore have 
a surface area of 16,000 acres. The significant thing about that 16,000 acres is that it is all 
freshly-broken stone with the useful elements exposed right on the surface. These elements 
are readily available for extraction by the microorganisms. Applied at the rate of three- 
fourths ton per acre to a test plot on the ten acres, edible ears of corn were produced with a 
full set of grains and excellent taste quality instead of grainless nubbins as on the control plot. 

Availability of elements from a large surface area of stone is one requirement for large 
crop yield. 

The stone should be a natural mixture which comes from the top strata of the earth' s 
crust. All of the crust, except ore intrusions in the mountains, is sea floor deposit which has 
been raised up from the ocean in relatively small areas (like the Bering Sea floor) and welded 
together to form the land masses. A mixture of the strata is therefore much the same the 
world over. 

p. 2 l 


There are extensive deposits of ground glacial gravel dust in the previously glaciated 
areas. These deposits are little changed in 10,000 years and can be used as found. A survey of 
well drillers and geologists would probably provide location information. Some of the 
deposits which contain very fine sand could benefit from a pass through a close-set roller 
mill. The following chart, adapted from the USDA system, gives a good idea of the relative 
feeding surface values for various small sizes of rock (table 2.1). 

Characteristics Of Soil Separates 


Diameter (mm) 

Number of par- 
ticles per gram 

Surface area in 
1 gram (sq. Cm) 

Very coarse sand 




Coarse sand 




Medium sand 




Fine sand 




Very fine sand 









Below 0.002 



Note: The smallest three diameters listed will all pass a 200-mesh screen. 
Table 2.1 Characteristics of soil separates 

In addition, from experiments to date, it seems likely that most river gravels will give 
good results when ground to dust. 

Any non-river deposit of mixed gravel is likely to be of glacial origin and highly active 
when ground. 

All present gravel pits where crushing of gravel is done have large amounts of discarded 
fines which can be economically ground. 

In all probability these sources of raw materials are adequate anywhere in the world for 
many years to come. Sometime in the future vertical cuts in gorges and mountainsides may 
be necessary. 

An average spectrographic analysis of Michigan gravels can be used as a rough standard 
for gravels. The spectrograph will show between 25 and 35 of the elements, depending on the 

skill of the operator and the quality of the machine. If the principal elements are there in 
roughly the same quantities as in glacial gravel, and if the other elements are present, the 
gravel will be useful. An even simpler test is to grind a little gravel, mix it with an organic 
soil, and grow some radishes to compare with those grown on untreated soil. They should 
show a major difference in size, taste quality, and texture. Any mixture that will give good 
growth and is found locally is what we must use. 


In 1893, a German named Julius Hensel published a small book called Bread From 
Stones. He had demonstrated that a mixture of ground stones representing a cross section of 
all the types of rocks would produce good yields of top-quality crops. The only reason he 
could not compete with the agricultural chemicals was the lack of a good grinder. Such a 
grinder has been patented and a small prototype built by the writer. It is far more efficient, far 
less expensive in initial cost and maintenance, than conventional rock grinders and it can be 
mass-produced in a size suitable for individual farmers or big enough for gravel pits. It was 
offered to the mining industry in the mid- 1 960' s and refused unanimously. It would have cut 
the mining grinder business to a fraction of its then-and-present gross income. In this 
monopolistic economy, "the better mousetrap" concept is dead if the better machine will 
adversely affect a significant amount of invested capital and earnings. The grinder is not 
being built now because it would render obsolete the very non-competitive agricultural 
chemicals industry. [2002 DW Note: My separate volume, To Love And Regenerate The 
Earth, also on this website, includes an Appendix I titled "More on the Hamaker-Designed, 
Patent-Free, High-Pressure Autogenous Grinder".] 

If remineralization is to be effective in the short time left to us, some form of small, 
efficient grinder must be mass-produced. We need millions of units both here and abroad. 

Improving soil fertility means feeding the microorganisms. Availability of the rock 
elements is one food factor. Another factor is sea solids. They come with the clouds whipped 
off ocean whitecaps. They are highly available near the coast and not sufficiently available 
far inland, where goiter problems indicate that iodine and many other elements, most of 
which are highly water soluble or water suspendable, are in short supply and should be added 
to the soil at 5 percent or 10 percent of the weight of gravel dust added. 

The microorganisms in a rich soil build the soil to take in rainwater and hold it in storage. 
The proper proportion of water in protoplasm is 90 percent. It is important that protoplasm be 
maintained as a dilute solution. The sun evaporates water from the leaves of the plant, 
concentrating the protoplasm solution. It is characteristic of water solutions that the water of 
the more dilute solution will pass through a membrane into a more concentrated solution. 
This force of osmosis is very powerful. It is the force that moves the water to the top of a 
sequoia. Water is of course necessary to all cells in order for them to function. Cells have a 
way of opening up and engulfing the very large molecules of protoplasm. Since the cells are 
alive and expend energy, they probably pass the molecules or its components from one cell to 
another until it reaches the part of the plant where it is needed. 


If dry weather depletes the water held by the soil and the microorganisms to the 
concentration of the water in the leaf cells, all protoplasm feeding stops and growth is 

Irrigation is not the answer to water shortage problems. If all farmers irrigated, the 
underground water supplies would soon be depleted (as they are in the process of becoming 
now). The answer is to keep feeding the microorganisms until the aerated zone is 18 to 24 
inches deep and capable of holding all of the rain that falls until the excess can seep into the 
subsoil and reach the underground aquifer, instead of running off the surface and taking the 
soil with it. It will take a decade or two for roots and earthworms to deepen the topsoil 
significantly below plow depth. 

Nitrogen from the air is the ultimate source of most of the nitrogen in the protein 
compounds of the microorganism protoplasm, the solid matter of which is about two-thirds 
protein. It is not, however, the principal source of crop-growth nitrogen, as will be discussed 

The same is true of carbon, which is the dominant element in all organic matter. The 
leaves take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen, retaining the carbon for the necessary 
carbohydrate construction and for energy requirements. When the plant dies, it goes into the 
soil or on the soil where it is utilized as a part of the food supply of various soil organisms. 
Eventually it is all carried into the soil, principally by earthworms as they combine leaf mold 
with minerals ground in their gizzards to produce microorganisms. Their castings are almost 
all microorganisms, and a source of protoplasm not overlooked by the hair roots of plants. 
Since the rye plant has been estimated to have a root system seven miles long, it is apparent 
that plants can do a lot of searching for protoplasm. The root tips grow a lot faster than 
microorganisms can move, so the microorganisms are easy prey to roots. When in intimate 
proximity to the cell, the flow of protoplasm begins. 


The root cannot take in the cell membrane of the organism. The membranes are held 
against the root by the pressure of other cells forced against the root by the diffusion pressure 
between the microorganism cells and the root cells. Soon the older root cells are all plugged 
with microorganism cell membranes, which subsequently turn the brown color of all mature 
roots. The root functions simply as a pipe, while the rapidly growing white root tips continue 
to devour cell protoplasm. 

If the protoplasm of the root cells gets too dry, then the protoplasm intake must stop 
because osmosis requires that the more dilute solution in the microorganisms must flow 
toward a more concentrated solution in the plant cells. For this reason the root tips (which 
can take in soil water) constantly remove water from the zone where they are feeding, and the 
water is moved upward to the leaves, keeping the cells saturated and evaporating the excess. 

The intestinal tracts of all animals work essentially the same way, except that the 
microorganisms and their food supply are inside intestines and the protoplasm compounds 
feed into the intestinal wall where they are picked up by a blood vessel system for sorting out 
in the liver. Excess water passes readily through the system and is ultimately evaporated from 
the sweat glands or extracted by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. 

Nature has used just one basic design for all the living organisms with variations as 
required by each type of organism. 

It should be noted that plant and animal digestive systems will readily pass water into the 
plant or animal. If toxic compounds are in solution in the water, they too will pass readily 
into the plant or animal. Therein lies the great danger of water-soluble chemicals used in the 
soil and in foods and beverages. Any toxic substance can enter the plant or animal with the 
protoplasm if it has been taken in by the microorganisms. Thus, anything other than the 
natural balance of elements and the natural organic compounds produced from them by the 
microorganisms is damaging to the entire chain of life. In particular, the continued buildup in 
the biosphere of non-biodegradable synthetic organic compounds is now in the process of 
destroying humanity by alteration of the genetic compounds. 

We see, then, that the rate of production of microorganisms will be high if the soil 
contains: a large surface area of available elements; a large supply of plant residue for carbon 
and a little nitrogen; the nitrogen that many organisms can take from the air as the air 
breathes in and out of the soil with temperature changes; water and the other necessary 
factors from the air. 


Since the life of a microorganism is only a few hours whether or not it is used by a plant 
root, a huge number of cell membranes (hereafter "skins") will be produced in a growing 
season. The skins are proteins, meaning that they constitute a ready supply of carbon and 
nitrogen and a few elements, which are highly available to grow microorganisms in the 
presence of available elements from the soil stone particles. Skins start accumulating as the 
soil warms up in the spring, and continue to build up until the crop root system starts 
removing carbon and nitrogen as protoplasm, thus depleting the soil of both live 
microorganisms and skins. As soon as the frost comes, the tide is again turned and the dead 
root system supplies carbon and small amounts of other elements to again build up the supply 
of skins. 

It appears that the carbon and nitrogen of fresh skins are not available to microorganisms 
until the skins go through whatever changes are involved in turning black. Apparently, a 
colony of organisms working around a stone particle soon produce so many fresh skins that 
the colony is sealed off from the black skins and must therefore use nitrogen from the air. 
Thus the intake of atmospheric nitrogen goes on from the time the ground warms up in the 
spring until it gets too cold in the fall. When the plant roots start feeding in the spring, 
nitrogen and carbon are available in the black skins for rapid production of microorganisms. 

Earthworms can use both fresh and black skins to quickly produce microorganisms in their 
castings. In a natural soil, the earthworms contribute very heavily toward rapid plant growth. 
After a soil is mineralized in depth, tillage should be limited to weed control to avoid 
excessive worm destruction. 

Obviously, from the preceding discussion, soil needs a rest period if large yields are to be 
obtained. It would also be desirable to lightly disk crop residues into the soil to provide a 
winter mulch and to make the crop stalk easily available to the soil organisms for rapid 

It is also implied that a maximum amount of plant residue be returned to the soil if 
maximum yields of grains, vegetables, fruits and trees are to be produced. The reason is the 
proximity factor. If one ton of gravel dust per acre is added to the soil, the available elements 
are there only at one part per 1000 in the top seven or eight inches by weight, and even less 
by volume in a predominantly clay (subsoil) soil. If there is not an abundance of skins 
present, the skins may not be close enough to the available minerals to be useful to the local 
colony of microorganisms. High yields depend on loading the soil with both a large surface 
area of available minerals and organic matter; the combination is turned into live 
microorganisms which then yield more skins. Note: others call the skins humus, not knowing 
what humus is. 


If my ten acres were farmed chemically, the organic matter (skin supply) would be 
constantly depleted. The small overall surface area of unused stone in the soil provides an 
insignificant amount of available elements. The chemical fertilizer would release enough 
elements to grow sufficient microorganisms to feed a weak crop, but when the chemicals are 
used up (and on weak soil this often occurs before the crop has matured if the chemicals are 
inadequate in quantity or too fast in dissolving), the production of microorganisms would 
virtually stop. There would be no significant buildup of skins either in late fall or in the 
spring. Taking the stalk along with the grain, etc., as is often done, would limit the utilization 
of the very few available minerals in the dwindling supply of passivated stone particles still 
in the soil. 

What I have been saying about how the soil really works to provide food (and fuel) can 
be easily proven. Mostly it can be done by simple experiments which, of course, can be 
verified by sophisticated microscopic equipment and other techniques. 

Protoplasm can be extracted from soil either by centrifuge or simple mechanical working 
of the soil to burst the cell walls. If the soil is then flooded with water, stirred to put the 
protoplasm in the water, and soil particles allowed to settle, the solution of protoplasm water 
can be drawn off as a clear fluid. 

The few microorganisms which live through the experience, plus those which are in the 
air, soon repopulate the solution. You can't see them because they are colorless, but if a 

plant's roots are placed in the solution, you can see the flocculated mass of skins which 
collect around the root. You can also see the color of the roots change as the skins seal off the 
cell walls of the root. Plants grow luxuriantly in protoplasm solution. Fortunately they don't 
know they are supposed to indulge in an ionic exchange with the rock particles of the soil. 
And they don't have any oddball ideas about following microorganisms around to consume 
any waste products they may discard. They just sidle up to an organism and take all the 
protoplasm it has. 


Professor William Albrecht of the University of Missouri, some 50 years ago, decided to 
centrifuge soil to see if a single component of the soil was responsible for plant growth. The 
centrifuge inevitably broke all the organism cell walls and delivered the clear protoplasm off 
the top. It did give excellent growth to the plants. Unfortunately, he did not recognize that it 
was protoplasm, although he found carbon and nitrogen with repeated testing. He called it a 
soil colloid or soil solution. 

As mentioned earlier, a water solution in the soil cannot stay there because it would 
diffuse into rain water and run off the surface or percolate into the subsoil. The only way it 
can stay there is inside a cell wall. This is clearly shown in the low spots in fields with a slow 
subsoil percolation rate. If water stands in such a spot for about two weeks, the cell wall of 
the aerobic organisms lyse, i.e. rupture, and spill the protoplasm into the water where it can 
diffuse into the pond. The sun dries the pond, leaving a hard protoplasm cake on the surface 
of the soil. The crop in the low spot will be badly stunted throughout the growing season and 
the soil will not be productive until the protoplasm cake is cultivated back into the soil. 

Dr. Albrecht did a great deal of experimentation with various rock elements, relating 
them to plant growth and plant and animal health. Had he but realized that the elements were 
feeding the microorganisms which in turn fed the plant, the world might have been spared the 
crisis which is in the process of destroying us. On the other hand, the agricultural chemicals 
establishment has shown a remarkable ability to quash heretical statements of fact. 

It is interesting to note that a highly organic soil can be turned to a sand color simply by 
adding a heavy application of gravel dust. What happens is that the availability of elements is 
so high that skins cannot exist in the soil without being consumed by live microorganisms. 
As soon as a microorganism dies, its protoplasm is consumed by live microorganisms. Since 
live microorganisms and fresh skins are colorless, only the color of the soil minerals is seen. 

The fertility of such a soil is at a maximum until additional plant residue is added to the 
soil. Sufficient residue will permit the development of skins, and the soil will turn brown 
indicating a good balance between available elements and available carbon and nitrogen. A 
black soil indicates more carbon than can be used. Soils should show black in the spring, and 
brown in the fall. This color change phenomena, indicating the relation between available 
elements and the carbon-nitrogen supply, cannot occur if chemical agriculture is practiced 
because the skins would never build up in the soil to turn brown and then black. 


Understanding how the factors in the soil work together makes it possible to tailor 
farming practices to the feeding requirements of the microorganisms. However, the 
elemental requirements for high yields are simply to load the soil with as much plant residue 
and available elements as the increased rate of production (hence income) will support. The 
upper limit of soil fertility (crop yields) is not yet known. A few examples of the application 
of the natural principles will both verify the accuracy of the principles and give some idea of 
potential crop yields. 

Organic Gardens 

Old organic gardens are invariably loaded with skins. Garden produce is not high in 
protein and hence does not remove the quantities of protoplasm removed by grain crops. The 
gardens are kept bare of grass and often mulched with crop residue taken from outside the 
garden. The available minerals spend most of the growing season just turning plant residue 
into skins. Thus, when ground gravel is added, the availability of carbon and nitrogen to the 
organisms working a dust particle is excellent. Given a good water supply, the 
microorganisms multiply prolifically. 

One such garden was treated with about 1 'A tons of ground glacial gravel per acre; a 
squash plant crawled all over a nearby tree, making it look like a squash tree. The next year 
an additional l'A tons per acre of gravel dust was added, but owner George Haynes sold his 
house, and the garden grew up in weeds. It was rather awesome when one considered how to 
go about getting that mass of organic matter worked back into the soil so a garden could be 
planted the next year. The plants were 6 to 12 inches apart and grew to 1 1 feet in height. (See 
Fig. 2.2) In that massive woody growth, one could see the potential for wood plantations 
producing eight-inch diameter cordwood in about four years with fast-growing tree varieties 
(such as poplars, cottonwoods, eucalyptus, willow, locust, southern beech, etc.) One can also 
see how foolish it is to spend research money on photosynthesis. If the protoplasm is in the 
leaf, photosynthesis booms. 

The same kind of weeds growing outside the Haynes garden on land which had not been 
farmed for at least 30 years were about four feet tall and widely spaced. On my farmed-out 
ten acres, the same plants were growing two to three feet tall. Three different soils with three 
different levels of organism-feeding capacity. It makes a clear picture of why all the living 
things on Earth have been slowly starving to death — needlessly. 


Fig. 2.2 "George Haynes grows the best crop of weeds in Michigan." 

Another organic garden gained its necessary proximity factor in a different way. It was 
on a natural deposit of ground glacial gravel dust. The reason such deposits can remain 
almost as deposited is that they are so dense that plant roots and earthworms cannot penetrate 
them. The zone of aeration therefore remains very thin and the aerobic organisms cannot 
penetrate. A grass turf had a root zone of about two inches. Undaunted, the gardener dug it 
up and mixed all his leaves and grass clippings with the dust, and soon had it booming. In a 
garden only about 30 by 40 feet, he supplied the vegetables to raise a family. After a frost 
there were more tomatoes and melons on the ground than a lot of gardeners grow in a whole 
season. Carrots, still growing, were a foot long and 1 l h inches in diameter. 

P. 30 


Another organic gardener grew potatoes up to three pounds. I saw his plants recently. 
They were three or four times as big as my garden plants and I grow respectable potatoes. 
This gardener happened to be the owner of a gravel pit, so when he added crusher screenings, 

he did not stint on the amount. About one-sixth of the screenings are 200-mesh dust. 
Screenings have considerably less surface area than ground gravel on a weight basis, and 
there is certain to be more demineralized stone skin in the crusher fines. Screenings are 
nevertheless quite active when used in sufficient quantity. 

Finally, I have in my garden 1 1.2 tons per acre of dust on one end and 8 tons per acre on 
the other end. I also have peat where there is the most dust. When there was adequate ground 
moisture (which has not occurred too often between 1976 and 1979), flowering and yield 
have been excellent. With a long "Indian summer" in 1978, carrots grew to three inches in 
diameter and 174 pounds; cabbage heads to nine inches in diameter. 

The garden was started on the worn-out ten acres. It has been mineralized to some degree 
since 1974. There has been a huge improvement in the soil. At both ends the soil continues to 
darken, indicating a buildup of skins. Yields have increased accordingly. The garden is 55 ' 
by 135 '. In spite of the dry summers (and no irrigation), it provides the two of us with all of 
our winter vegetables as well as a surplus for our two daughters. 

A more important experiment is the four and one-third acres of my ten acres which were 
mineralized with 46 tons per acre of crusher screenings in late 1976. The cost was $820. Not 
a cent has been spent since nor will be for the next 10 or 15 years. A farmer works the field 
on shares. After spreading the screenings on the weedy growth, it was plowed to get available 
elements in deep. Those elements at the bottom of the furrow probably did not become very 
useful until this year's crop because the zone of aeration had to be developed from the top 
down in the heavy clay soil. 

In this third crop year, the soil seems to be well mixed and much darker in color. In 1 977 
a corn crop was grown. At 65 bushels per acre it was a good crop in an area of sparse rainfall. 
In 1978 a soybean crop of 25 bushels per acre was obtained. Local crops just dried up and 
quit in late August of that year, leaving most of the beans in an immature state. In spite of 
this the protein was up to 32/2 percent — all protein, no false nitrate fertilizer reading. High 
yields cannot be obtained when precipitation is 6 inches short of normal by the first week of 


The weather pattern in 1979 changed from the previous three dry years. That year a cold 
dry spring carried to the 25th of June when frost damaged some crops. At one local point in 
lower Michigan, the temperature dropped to 28 degrees F. and killed all crops. Shortly 
thereafter we had a slow 3-inch rain which saved a lot of crops. Then it was dry again. But by 
mid- August 1979 we had adequate rain and were running only Xh inches below normal. We 
were 450 temperature degree-days below normal, which ought to make all Michigan 
legislators do a lot of thinking about what it will mean when all of Michigan' s farmers are 
faced with frozen crops some crisp summer day in the next few years. 

The 1979 crop on the four and one- third acres was scheduled to be oats, but the ground 
did not warm up soon enough, so it turned out to be corn. A substantial part of the corn was 8 
feet tall and a good proportion of the stalks made two ears. In spite of the two dry periods in 
the growing season, it was a good crop. 

The mineralized organic gardens clearly show that there is a potential for increasing 
present yields by a factor of four. When this is accomplished across the land, we will have 
about twice the capacity we need to provide the present amount of food and all of our energy 
supplies. The problem is the time scale in which we must work in order to survive. 

A small area of the ten acres was mineralized but not plowed. In the third growing season 
(1979), there was evidence of penetration of the available elements into the soil. Young trees 
which had seeded themselves were healthier-looking and growing faster than those on the 
rest of the ten acres. Crimson clover multiplied. From this meager information on a soil 
which had been too dry for perceptible growth during half the growing season, it appears that 
grazing lands and forests which have decaying plant litter on the ground will begin to show 
the remineralization health factors within two years, and the growth rate will increase year by 


In the case of cropland which has been worn out and compacted like the four and one- 
third acres of now-mineralized soil, a heavy application of available elements has produced 
crops equal to or better than similar crops in the same rainfall area. For instance, the 65 
bushels per acre corn in the first year compares very well with yields of under 25 bushels per 
acre experienced by a number of local farmers. In 1975, the last year of good soil moisture, 
60-day golden bantam corn in the garden gave an excellent yield having 2, 3, and 4 ears per 
stalk. With a full growing season of good soil moisture, the present four and one-third acres 
of field corn would have done as well, for a probable yield of around 200 bushels per acre. 
The onset of glaciation has sent too many summer-time cold waves over Michigan and 
precipitated the clouds over areas to the south and west, leaving most of Michigan too dry. 
However, from Iowa east and south, corn has never had it so good. The same treatment I 
have used, if given to those areas, would now be producing super yields of over 200 bushels 
per acre of high-quality corn. Every year of adding back the stalk will produce a substantial 
jump in yield as shown by the organic gardens' performance and numerous single-plant 

The yield limit is uncertain but the factor of 4 appears to be minimal. It is this great 
potential which gives us a chance to get enough plant growth and convert far enough toward 
biomass solar energy to arrest and begin to reverse the flow of carbon dioxide into the 
atmosphere in the six or eight years in which it must be done. The 1979 June and mid- August 
frosts lacked only a few degrees of temperature drop to have caused major crop losses in the 
top tier of states and Canada. We can expect much damage to these areas, and to almost all of 

Eurasian grain areas, before the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide is arrested and reversed. It 
is therefore imperative that those areas where crops can still be counted on, be made to 
produce at a maximum. 

Needless to say, no pesticides nor herbicides should be used, because they all kill 
microorganisms as well as the target insects and weeds. Only biological controls and quickly- 
biodegradable natural insecticides such as pyrethrins, rotenone and B. thuringiensis should be 
used. Money spent for chemical fertilizer will give more yield if spent instead for more 
gravel dust. 

When widespread production of ground gravel dust is set up, the ground product will be 
substantially lower cost than crusher screenings. I estimate that the 46 tons per acre of 
screenings is just about as active as 10 to 12 tons per acre of gravel dust. Any transportation 
of stone is expensive, but transportation cost for dust is only one-fourth that for screenings. 
Distribution costs for screenings are also higher. However, either one is a far better buy for 
the farmer than agricultural chemicals. If the dust is applied heavily, it does not need to be 
applied again for a period of years; each ton per acre applied will last somewhat more than 
one year, unless it is desired to raise the production level. After 5 years my garden is still 
increasing in yield. The rate of yield will vary the requirement for minerals, of course, and 
with a given amount of available minerals the rate of yield depends on the amount of plant 
residue added. 


Soil Minerals and Health 

The 1977 corn crop was tested against the same corn grown with chemical fertilizers (see 
postscript after Chapter 7. Tests were made by the Detroit Testing Laboratory, Inc. — Report 
No. 712163-A). The mineralized corn had 57 percent more phosphorous, 90 percent more 
potassium, 47 percent more calcium, and 60 percent more magnesium than the chemically- 
grown corn. This major quality improvement was reflected in the 9 percent protein content, 
which is good for hybrid corn. Nationally, corn protein runs in the 6 to 8 percent range. What 
is true of the major elements must necessarily be true of the trace elements. The trace 
elements are required to provide the differential function of about 5,000 or more enzymes. 
The enzymes are catalysts which are themselves proteins. 

If the enzymes are not present, the proteins cannot be produced and the total protein 
analysis falls off. That has been happening to our crops over a number of decades. It is 
therefore not surprising that all of our livestock and one-fourth of our people are too fat. 
Neither is it surprising that so many handicapped babies are being born to mothers suffering 
from malnutrition. As the various elements required by enzymes disappear from the soil, 
various body functions must inevitably fail, so that the diseases of malnutrition become the 
norm rather than the exception. 

The USD A is still using food analysis figures compiled in 1963. They have lost their 
validity. In 1963, the food supply was poor in the elements and an honest appraisal now 
would show by comparison a drastic decline in soil element availability. The difference in 
element content of vegetables grown on different soils can be 1 ,000 to 1 , yet both plants will 
look much the same. 

Normally we could expect to get a balanced diet by eating fruits and vegetables plus 
meats, poultry, dairy products and/or nuts, seeds, grains, etc. — but it is no longer possible. 

The purpose of food is the same as the purpose in establishing soil fertility: to feed a healthy 
crop of microorganisms. The human intestine does essentially the same job that the plant root 
does. It takes the protoplasm of the microorganisms and moves it into the bloodstream in the 
outer wall of the intestine. The intestine, however, does not plug up as the root does because 
it is lined with velvety projections called cilia which keep sweeping the cell walls of the 
organisms downward along the intestinal tract. 


The food taken in must contain enough elements so that all of the solid food except the 
cellulose can be consumed by the microorganisms, the size of whose population is controlled 
by the element content of the food. Fruits and vegetables are supposed to have lots of 
elements and very little protein. The protein foods are just the opposite. With both in the diet, 
the microorganisms should obtain balanced rations. Unfortunately, if you ate enough of 
today's fruits and vegetables to get the required elements, you would get an overdose of toxic 
pesticides and of absorbed raw nitrate fertilizer. Millions of Americans suffer from 
constipation, which is the precursor of many problems, and the multi-billion dollar blasting- 
compound business is booming. 

For four years now I have been taking about { U to l h teaspoon per day of ground gravel 
dust. At first I did it to check out my conclusion that it would fill the intestine with live 
microorganisms and thereby end constipation, which it did. Now I take it because it turns 
low-element content foods into high-quality protoplasm which has many beneficial effects in 
the body. It is a sad commentary on the food supply when one must eat ground gravel dust in 
order to digest the food. 

Animals know when their food supply is lacking in minerals. I know of a dairy herd 
which consumed more than a ton of dust one summer. They filled their rumens with hay and 
stuck their heads through a hole in the barn to get at the dust stored there. Those cows were 
making their own sad commentary on the quality of their forage. And it's also a very sad 
commentary when beef cattle can grow 25 percent faster when given cement kiln dust, which 
is simply very fine ground gravel dust that has not been heated enough to convert it to cement 
clinker. It is not coincidence that the meat of cattle fed kiln dust grades high, and they are 
free of disease. 


Recently, investigators have found anti-cancer factors in various foods. Dr. Max Gerson 
knew they were there when in the early 1940's he testified before the Delaney Committee 
that he had removed, and put in remission, cancers in 30 percent of terminal patients other 
doctors had rejected. Essentially what he did was to cut off the intake of carcinogens by 
switching patients off contaminated commercial foods and onto organic foods, while at the 
same time vastly increasing their consumption of fruit and vegetable juices. What he was 
doing was getting enough elements in his patients to insure conversion of food to top-quality 
protoplasm which contained the anti-cancer factors. In all probability glacial gravel dust will 
do the same thing. Needless to say, applying it to the soil must hold highest priority. The 
people of Hunza, who do just that at least twice yearly, are 100 percent free of cancer 
according to authors McCarrison (1936), Wrench (1945), Rodale (1948), Banik (1960), Tobe 
(1965), and Taylor (1969). 

Experimenting with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and ground gravel shows that the abundant 
carbon in this organic acid is very readily available to microorganisms. When the acid is 
neutralized by the dust in a shallow dish, and the material is innoculated with the organisms 
in a pinch of dirt, and kept damp for 6 or 8 hours, a prolific population of microorganisms is 
produced. Nitrogen is readily supplied from the air which surrounds the thin layer of 
material. The high availability of the carbon in vitamin C has very important health 

Almost all of the animals make their own vitamin C. Man and the guinea pig and 
possibly a few other vegetable-eating animals seem to have lost the ability to synthesize their 
own vitamin C. When ascorbic acid or any other solution (toxic or non-toxic) is swallowed, it 
passes readily through the intestinal wall into the blood system just as such solutions pass 
through a plant root surface into the plant. 

The blood has billions of microorganisms living in it. There are single-celled organisms 
like the red and white blood cells as well as numerous other organisms comprising a part of 
the body's maintenance and defense systems. For instance, a virus-like organism has been 
photomicrographed entering a harmful bacteria cell and totally consuming it while vastly 
multiplying its own population. If these beneficial processes are to go on, there must be an 
expenditure of energy derived from carbon. The very simple compound, ascorbic acid, 
C 6 H 8 6 , must certainly be easier for any organism to use than the more complicated blood 
sugar glucose consisting of two sugars, dextrose (C 6 H 12 6 ) and maltose (C 12 H 22 O u H 2 0), and 
dextrins (hydrolyzed starches), (C 6 H l0 O 5 )n, plus H 2 0. Glucose does, however, supply carbon 
for many useful purposes to the body cells. 

The necessity for a quickly-available form of carbon in the blood is seen in the fact that 
all of the blood circulates through the body and back to the heart in 15 minutes. The live 
organisms in the blood stream have to "eat on the run," so to speak. 


It should be obvious at this point that the anti-cancer factors in protoplasm cannot 
function without a carbon supply to energize the blood's maintenance and defense system 
organisms. Dr. Linus Pauling is right about the value of vitamin C with respect to cancer. 
Vitamin C does far more than prevent scurvy. In addition to energizing the blood 
maintenance and defense system organisms, it can tie up inanimate toxic products in the 
blood stream, rendering them harmless for removal by the kidneys. 

Good vegetables and fruits are not commercially available to anybody. The poor cannot 
afford even the vegetables and fruits available. Therefore it would be the lowest cost 
"preventative medicine" possible to assure that ascorbic acid is made available to the poor at 
little or no cost. The program would pay for itself many times over in unneeded medical care. 

The feeding of microorganisms both inside the body and in the soil must be carefully 
attended to. Good health starts with high availability of all the minerals in the top strata of 
the earth 's crust. The price of that availability is less than half the annual cost of agricultural 

The Role of Government in 
This Crisis of Survival 

We have an unprecedented crisis situation. The present level of percentage increase in 
carbon dioxide over normal levels will increase 50 percent in the next decade. The world 
grain supplies are now threatened by frost and freeze damage, as well as increasingly 
frequent and severe droughts, floods, hail, and high winds. Forests too are being assaulted by 
climatic extremes, plus four billion people demanding lumber and fuel. 

We can expect serious crop losses in the first few years of the decade, and calamitous 
losses in the last half of the decade. The chaos of widespread famine and the violence of the 
weather will by then render soil remineralization ineffectual. If soil remineralization is to be 
done, it must be done in the next six or eight years. Our forests and jungles are fast 
disappearing while our use of fossil fuels is increasing. This is a sure prescription for mass 


The first thing that the Congress should do is to go on record, perhaps with a resolution, 
declaring its intent to do everything it can to enable the remineralization of the world's land 

The Congress should set up an expediting agency with authority to expedite all things 
useful in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and to eliminate as quickly as 
possible all things which introduce carbon dioxide into the atmosphere with no provision for 

removing it. I would suggest putting a hold on most space exploration until we find out if we 
are going to survive, and give the expediting job to the Space Agency. They have 
demonstrated an ability to get the job done. 

The Congress should set up a loan guarantee program for the biomass capital goods 

The Congress should establish an international coordinating team to work throughout the 
world to do the jobs which must be done if any of us are to survive. For instance, the jungles 
are being cut down by hungry peoples to get fuel or a few more crops off the demineralized 
jungle soils. It is imperative that jungles be saved. Many of the jungles are now living off the 
minerals in the decaying wood of dead trees. But they are usually in areas of high rainfall, 
and if minerals are added to the decaying organic matter, the trees will increase their growth 
rate and be immensely valuable in taking up and storing carbon from the atmosphere. 

Again, the jungles must be saved or we will have no chance at survival. They obviously 
cannot be saved unless the croplands of starving people are remineralized. In all probability 
the air forces of stronger nations must do most of the forest work from the air. It would not 
be out of place to press all civilian air lines into service if the logistics of the job prove it 
necessary. The Armed Services have equipment and manpower plus the Air Force which can 
take on the job of forest remineralization. 

And the Congress should stabilize the dollar. That can only be done by facing honestly 
the real cause of inflation. Most of the ownership in this country has become centralized in 
the hands of investors. The annual income from those funds is so large that the funds are 
doubling in less than ten years. That income must be invested to make the funds grow. And 
what do they invest it in? Multi-billion dollar nuclear plants whose total industrial leakage of 
radioactive materials must eventually destroy humanity. Billions of dollars are invested in 
chemical plants which produce non-biodegradable chemicals which are turning the biosphere 
into a vast "Love Canal" that will eventually destroy humanity. Billions are invested in fossil 
fuel mining and drilling equipment to take more carbon out of the earth and put it into the 
atmosphere. Our destruction from this practice will be certain and soon if continued. 


As an emergency measure, the Congress must stop all investment in enterprises which 
threaten the existence of man, and Congress must control all transfer of funds into and out of 
the country. This will stop the inflationary pressure on capital goods, provide more than 
ample funds for the low-cost biomass capital goods, and leave plenty of funds to just sit in 
the financial institutions as a positive force to lower interest rates. At present the competitive 
bidding for capital goods raises the cost of all capital goods, which necessitates higher prices 
for goods sold. To buy the higher-cost goods, labor must have higher wages. But it is the 
centralization of wealth in pools whose only purpose is to increase in numerical quantity, 
uncontrolled by the needs and wants of people, which initiates inflation. For the duration of 
the emergency, investments must be controlled to serve useful purposes. Eventually the 

factors which permit centralization of wealth must be dealt with and eventually is not far 
away. The fact that we run an economy in which "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer" 
is why various forms of socialism governed by people are taking the place of societies 
governed by law. Our own nation will go the same way unless the laws are just laws. 


Present day agriculture commercializes a microscopic bit of knowledge and imposes it on 
the vastly complicated life system as created. To understand the exact requirements of the 
soil, one must first understand the protoplasm of all the soil microorganisms. That may be 
possible with a thousand years of research. Meanwhile, the way nature works and the 
technique for accelerating her processes are available to vastly increase our supplies of 
natural organic materials. 

The world's topsoils are fast running out of available elements. The rapid rise in percent 
increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere assures us of massive crop losses throughout 
the world due to frost and freeze damage. It will occur in the 1980's. The only way to remove 
carbon dioxide from the air is to get it into a massive growth of plant life and into carbon- 
depleted soils. This can only be done by mineralizing the world's land mass while 
eliminating the practice of using the carbon supplies secreted in the Earth. 

If government acts in a way in which it has not performed since World War II, we may 
be able to effect our survival. If so, we will come out with a completely solar energy 
program. We will have a food program which will provide a very high level of health and 
longevity. And perhaps the world may come to realize that it is far better to use its brains 
instead of its armaments. 


Recap 1981 

The corn on the right side of the ruler (Fig. 2.3) was grown in 1977 after a fall application 
of 46 tons/acre of gravel crusher screenings. The corn on the left was grown in 1979 
following soybeans in 1978. The yield increased by about 15 bushels/acre to 75 bushels/acre 
in 1979. This can be attributed to the better mixing of the screenings and the stalk residue of 
two crops. 

Since 1975 the Lansing area of Michigan has been short of average precipitation at the 
end of the growing season by 5 or 6 inches for five years in a row. In 1981 it hit average 
rainfall by getting a 3 inch rain about the middle of May and another on the 26th of August. 
Between those dates the area went from +2 inches to -2 inches. The drought came within a 
week or 10 days of destroying all the crops in the area. 





Fig. 2.3 Superior quality of remineralized food 

ONE PICTURE IS WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS. The actual difference between 
the nubbins and the ears of corn is soil remineralization. The picture might also be seen 
as the difference between nutrition in this country as it is and as it ought to be. It can 
also be viewed as the difference between death from starvation and glaciation and an 
abundance of the basic resources of life. 

Now in early October it is harvest time and a cloudburst has flooded the land with 3 inches to 
9 inches of rainfall. Dry edible bean crops are expected to be a total loss to many farmers. 
Other crops may be worth harvesting if the land ever dries out enough to work the fields. 
Many farmers are expected to throw in the towel. A succession of low yields, low crop 
prices, this final crop loss, and prohibitive interest rates which preclude borrowing for next 
year's crops simply means that it is not possible to continue farming. 

All over the country farmers are quitting for much the same reasons. The violence of 
nature is not the least of the reasons. When will our brilliant leadership make the connection 
between a rise in atmospheric C0 2 that is running wild and our weather which is also running 

The nubbins on the right side of the picture clearly show that there are not enough 
minerals left in the untreated soil to produce a crop. Most of the tillable land between the 
Rockies and the East Coast is in the same or worse condition. Much of the forest land is 
equally sterile. Yet it can all be made productive by the addition of ground glacial gravel. 


A further look at soil remineralization and its tremendous positive potentials will be of 
value here. Due to long-time general neglect of the need for balanced remineralization, these 
potentials are scarcely known, both by practitioners of the widespread "soil mining" chemical 
agriculture, and by the "organic," "bio-dynamic," and "eco-agriculture" practitioners. These 
last individuals have generally gone beyond the use of acidified chemical nutrients and toxic 
sprays, yet their means of producing food are often dependent on extracting fertility from one 
piece of land in order to enrich another, i.e. "robbing Peter to pay Paul." Meanwhile the 
overall fertility of the Earth continues to decline. 

As may be obvious by now, it is helpful in the understanding of this book to see the earth 
as having a single soil (as it has a single atmosphere), nearly all of it 10,000 or more years 
"old," or in development, since the bulk of its surface "parent material" was laid down. 

In addition to those cited by Hamaker, some other examples of results obtained with 
ground gravel (mixed rock) materials may help illustrate the great potential to restore 
youthfulness and productive fertility to any and all soil. 

LePage in Vermont 

Alan LePage is a young, intensive "truck crop" farmer, near Barre, Vermont, with an 
obvious love for the soil. Alan's father manages the local glacial gravel pit. Having missed 
John Hamaker' s early Acres, USA articles, Alan was not fully aware of what he was doing 
when he spread about 6 inches of gravel screenings on an infertile, waterlogged section of his 
farm "to improve the drainage," and plowed it in. It did, of course, and also gave the soil 
microorganisms an abundance of all the minerals, something they never had while Alan used 
only the usual organic methods. 


The first crop grown in that rejuvenated topsoil was clover. The organism development in 
that soil must have been awesome, because the plants showed no interest in terminating 
growth — reaching 12 feet in length when autumn's cold called a halt. Initial attempts to disk 
that clover back into the soil failed when the stalks proved too thick to cut. The writer is not 
exaggerating. The clover root systems were no doubt massive as well. Such outstanding 

biomass production reveals the natural way for farmers and gardeners to "get organic 
matter" — primarily by hauling it in, year after year, from the atmosphere via a thriving soil- 
plant life system. 

Asked how his second-year crops, broccoli and carrots, had fared, Alan LePage informed 
me: "Great! Broccoli averaged around 272 pounds per head, carrots Vli feet in length." Alan 
needs no chemical fertilizer or pesticides, and states that his prime concern is to build soil 
fertility and produce good food. 

Weaver in California 

After visiting John Hamaker's Michigan 10 acres and garden in late 1978, observing the 
"miracle" of remineralized soil and eating the startlingly delicious produce therefrom, I 
returned to California. By adding river gravel screenings from the vast Kaiser and Lonestar 
Industry gravel pits east of San Francisco Bay to an average organic garden at rates of 40 to 
80 tons per acre (2 to 4 lbs per sq. ft.), crop yields increased two to four times in quantity 
with unmistakable flavor enrichment. Pole beans, climbing out of prolific zucchini and 
tomato beds, went to 18 feet before being turned back under the weight of heavy beans at the 

Now (1981) in this third year of soil improvement, with an additional application, at a 10- 
20 ton/acre rate, of a commercially-mixed rock dust from Utah, the very dark green bean 
leaves are already up to 14 feet in early July and producing heavily. Their flowers tell of 
another huge total crop — and the wonderfully sweet, rich (indescribable!) taste of these 
beans, the lettuce, carrots, zucchini, cucumbers, melons, etc. shouts the greater story of an 
end to malnutrition and disease. 

One can not adequately describe the color and great vibrancy of plants grown in 
mineralized soil, yet perhaps an idea may be communicated of zucchini squash plants with up 
to 32 leaves each by July 9th (planted mid-May), with leaves up to 60 inches and more in 
circumference. No chemicals were used, and there is no insect or disease damage. There are 
friendly birds abounding. 

P. 43 


Fig. 2.4 "Kentucky Wonder" pole beans in the 1981 Weaver garden grew 
luxuriantly, producing heavily from July to late October. 

Fig. 2.5 Picking tender 8-inch beans from a 20-foot, 4-inch long "stalk.' 

P. 44 


Apparently, there are at least 6 billion tons of the above-mentioned Utah deposit in 
reserve, and another 5 billion or more tons of a similar deposit in Nevada. Both are being 
very gradually quarried, ground and distributed to farmers and gardeners, and to doctors and 
dentists who use it in pill form as food "supplements." No doubt there are more than enough 
easily-accessible gravel materials in California already (California Division of Mines, 1957), 
but as an example, note that the Nevada deposit alone could provide the 100 million-acre 
land surface of California with 50 tons per acre of soil remineralization. Similar deposits, of 
glacial or other origin, are said to exist in Colorado, New Mexico, Imperial Valley of 
California, France, Germany, Africa, and perhaps many other parts of the world (Ambler 
Pennant, 1950). 

There is not likely to be a shortage of accessible mixed rock anywhere in the world — 
even the Sahara desert and Brazil are underlaid with till from ancient glaciations (John, 1980) 
— only a shortage of environmentally constructive systems set up for quarrying, grinding, 
distributing and recycling the nutrients; and a lack of awareness of the need. 

Soil Remineralization Past and Present 

Concerned readers should be aware that at present there is virtually no "official" research 
being done on soil remineralization. An extensive computer search through the U.C. 
Berkeley agricultural data base in December 1980 showed zero published research on the 
following as soil additions: gravel dust, gravel screenings, gravel crusher screenings, rock 
dust, loess, volcanic ash, basalt. This search covered a huge amount of published work over 
approximately the past decade. There has been a huge amount of research done on single 
element effects on plant and soil processes, on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and on 
measuring and intricately classifying the endless variations of demineralizing soil. 

Apparently the last person prior to John Hamaker to publicly advocate remineralization 
was Julius Hensel in the late 1800's. A few words on Hensel's efforts may be enlightening 

In the introduction to the re-published edition of Hensel's Bread From Stones (from 
Health Research, 1977), Dr. Raymond Bernard explains that Hensel and his writings were 
heavily scorned and attacked by the chemical interests of the day, who supported Justus von 
Liebig's doctrine of adding factory-acidulated nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium in 
concentrated form to the soil (Liebig, 1852). The "Stone Meal," which a few companies in 
Europe had tried to produce, was forced off the market. Bread From Stones, which contained 
many testimonials to soil remineralization by the farmers who were actually using "Stone 
Meal" on their lands, was suppressed and even removed from libraries. 


Hensel had this to say about the attacks on the message he offered the world: 

The men interested in artificial manures, who thought that they had attended 
to the funeral of Stone Meal as a fertilizer have learned nothing from history, or 
have at least forgotten that every new truth has first to be killed and buried 
before it can celebrate its resurrection. Besides I do not stand as isolated as these 
people suppose, for I have the light of truth and knowledge on my side- 

He who sights for truth and right 

E'en alone, has strength and might. 

Hensel continued: 

What is lacking at present is that the manufacture of Stone Meal should be 
undertaken by men of scientific attainments who at the same time have sterling 
honesty, so as to make it certain that farmers will actually receive what is 
promised and what has proved itself to be so useful hitherto. I have received 
innumerable requests from farmers who asked for this mineral manure, but I 
had to answer them that with my advanced years I could not actively engage in 
this manufacture. The whole subject is of such immense importance for the 

common welfare that it is my wish to see this work placed into hands that are 
thoroughly reliable. I but point the way for the benefit of the human race. 
(Hensel, 1893, 1977) 

Hensel also understood the important principle that Hamaker is now stressing, namely: 
"that the fineness of the stamping or grinding and the most complete intermixture of the 
constituent parts are of the greatest importance for securing the greatest benefit of stone-meal 
fertilizing." Much later, scientists M.L. Jackson and E. Truog demonstrated this principle 
well in their experiments and subsequent article, "Influence of Grinding Soil Minerals to 
Near Molecular Size on Their Solubility and Base Exchange Properties" (Jackson and Truog, 

Note that Hamaker has no use for solubility and base exchange, since the microorganisms 
extract the elements, and the natural mixture of elements is neutral (pH 7). 

It is perhaps a fascinating irony to note that Liebig, "father of chemical agriculture," 
recommended the use of (and himself sold) the simplistic N-P-K fertilizers, based on his 
analyses of plant tissue and ashes showing those three elements as "major constituents." Had 
Liebig been able to utilize the advanced spectrographic or x-ray fluorescence analytical 
equipment of today, he would have discovered the 25 soil mineral elements so far proven to 
be essential for humans (Edell, 1979), plus virtually all the 90+ elements in his plants 
(Ermolenko, 1972). Then he too would likely have reached the obvious conclusion to add all 
the elements together as finely-ground rocks. This can also be inferred from his own words, 
from a later edition of his book: "By the deficiency or absence of one necessary constituent, 
all the others being present, the soil is rendered barren for all those crops to the life of which 
that one constituent is indispensable." (Quoted from Russell's Soil Conditions and Plant 
Growth, p. 13, emphasis Liebig's.) On the other hand, since he had himself become engaged 
in peddling his "Liebig's patent manure" (Russell, p. 12), perhaps he too would have ignored 
the evidence that multiple element deficiency and widespread malnutrition would be 
inevitable via chemical fertilizers. That he eventually did gain some realization of the 
ecological design of wholeness and balance we saw at the start of this chapter. 


Since Hensel' s time, two other well-known agriculturists, J.I. Rodale and Sir Albert 
Howard, gave voice to their perceptions of the need to remineralize soils — yet their words 
apparently had little positive influence at the time. In 1948, Rodale published his 
enlightening book, The Healthy Hunzas, which revealed how the world' s healthiest people 
annually add to their soils the mixture of stones finely ground by the local Ultar glacier, 
together with the abundant organic matter produced by these highly-mineralized soils. (Little 
animal manure is added as the Hunzacuts keep few animals.) Rodale stressed the great value 
of adding the wide variety of rocks to soils in a "ground-up, flour-like form" by using the 
most efficient modern machinery (p. 100). He also pointed out the danger of adding 
unbalancing single-rock types, and concluded his chapter, "Rock Powders," by giving major 
credit for the Hunzacuts' outstanding health, longevity, and intelligence to the glacial rock 
powder, their provision for perpetual soil fertility and high-quality foods. Rodale was 

emphatic that we in the United States begin to utilize the billions of tons of rocks of all kinds, 
and apply them — the equivalent of the Hunza sediments — to our lands, in a powdered form. 

Sir Albert Howard, often called the "father of organic agriculture," also described the 
Hunzacuts in his 1947 book, The Soil and Health. He too observed the Hunza Valley's 
glacial silt fertilizer, and the powerful evidence suggesting that — "to obtain the very best 
results we must replace simultaneously the organic and mineral portions of the soil." (p. 177) 

Rejuvenation of Soil and Animal Life 

In the published research work emerging from the universities and USDA laboratories 
there is, as noted, no conscious effort to learn how nature feeds the microorganisms who feed 
the plants (as documented by Krasilnikov, 1958; McLaren and Peterson, 1967; Jennings, 
1963; Sanders et al, 1975; Marks and Kozlowski, 1973; Mori et al, 1977 and many others). 


Yet in 1959, and again in 1963, the USDA fertilizer laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland 
released articles strongly corroborating the fact that nature's gravel dust methods do indeed 

Cement kiln dust (noted in "Food, Energy, and Survival"), which is primarily derived 
from local gravels, was gathered for these studies from 20 cement manufacturers in Virginia, 
Maryland, New York, Iowa, Oregon, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Florida, Tennessee, 
California, Wisconsin, Kentucky, Minnesota, Michigan, and Washington. 

The authors of the articles, while they mention a number of the elements in the dust, think 
of it as a "liming" material rather than a broad- spectrum remineralization material. 
Significantly, they observe: "Use of cement kiln dusts for soil liming is not a new idea, but it 
seems to have received little attention and the relative merits of the dust and of conventional 
liming materials have not been well studied. The large amount of dust potentially available 
and the distribution of cement plants throughout much of the humid regions, where the dust 
could be applied to the soil without shipping great distances, makes this byproduct of special 

All the dusts were said to be about equal to each other as suppliers of calcium, and in 
comparisons with agricultural limestone (a single rock type) on yields of alfalfa, the cement 
kiln dusts "tended to be superior" to the limestone. Fortunately the researchers noted a few 
other elements in the rocks, concluding: "If applied at the rate of 4 tons the dusts would 
supply, on the average, 3 times the magnesium, 6 times the sulfur, 9 times the potassium (as 
soluble K) and, except for one dust that would supply only 9 times, 16 times the calcium 
removed in a typical 5-year rotation." (Whittaker et al, 1959, 1963.) Note: The figures are 
based on the elements in chemically grown crops — not crops grown on mineralized soil. 

Whether any farmers, foresters, doctors, or nutritionists were specifically informed of 
these studies is not known. Apparently no one at USDA's Beltsville headquarters became 
very excited over the value of the rock dust for soil building and nutritional uplift, as another 
more recent article on cement dust in Science (Maugh, 1978) indicates. 

"The Fatted Calf (II): The Concrete Truth About Beef explains that some Georgia cattle 
ranchers "on impulse" dumped some of the cement kiln dust they were using on their soils 
into their cattle feed. When the "astonished" ranchers reported to Beltsville that the cattle 
grew unexpectedly fast, USDA researchers Wheeler and Oltjen were "skeptical." Still, they 
tried feeding 7 steers a control diet; 7 others the same with 3.5 percent cement kiln dust. They 
were quite surprised to discover, that after 112 days, that the dust-fed animals had gained 28 
percent more weight than those on the control diet, while at the same time consuming 21 
percent less feed. 


Analyses revealed that the extra weight was "all meat" of a higher quality than the 
controls, and these dust-fed animals were described as being "quite healthy." The article goes 
on to report how the dust, "a calcium-rich mixture of minerals," gave similar results with a 
second group of 32 steers, 60 lambs, and groups of laboratory rats. USDA's Mr. Wheeler 
speculates that "some element" may be responsible, or perhaps "the small size of the 
particles" is the key. 

Perhaps one day the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center will stumble upon the dust's 
value for growing bigger and healthier soil organism populations, crops, forests — even a 
fading human race. Someone, perhaps the U.S. Congress, should probably inform them 
immediately, however. John Hamaker and this writer have tried at length to communicate 
with many USDA people, including the Secretary and Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, the 
Chief of the Forest Service, and the Director of the Science and Education Administration, 
Anson Bertrand. A scheduled meeting of this writer and Dr. Bertrand to discuss "Food, 
Energy, and Survival," in January 1980, was cancelled by Dr. Bertrand at the last minute for 
undisclosed reasons. 

This is the same Anson Bertrand who, according to the USDA news release in June 1979, 
"has assembled a crew of experts he calls the 'Coordinating Team for Organic Farming.' " 
This news release concludes by saying: 

Many conventional farmers question whether organic farming can produce 
enough food to feed the millions of people who must be fed in modern times. 
Has new knowledge already boosted the productive power of organic farming? 

"We'll find out," said Bertrand. "When the facts are in, we'll use them to 
develop a program or policy recommendations for Assistant Agriculture 
Secretary Rupert Cutler and Secretary Bob Bergland. If it appears reasonable to 
do so, we may suggest additional redirection of research, education, and 

The fact is, the "Team for Organic Farming" crew of experts were specifically informed at 
least four times of the basic facts and potentials of soil remineralization; that there was 
indeed "new" knowledge that has greatly boosted the productive power of organic or any 
kind of farming. Invitations to visit Hamaker's soil and crops were ignored. A representative 
"brush-off response to John Hamaker's many letters to USDA people said, in part: 
"Although we very much appreciate your interest and concern, we cannot agree that the 
measures you propose are practical ones for improving soil fertility. . . . The fertilizer value 
of many kinds of rocks is nil. For all but a few kinds of rocks the fertilizer value is so low 
that it is impractical to grind them to improve soil fertility." (From Frank Carlisle, Jr., 
Administrator, Soil Conservation Service). 


John Hamaker' s perspective may well be brought in again at this point, by quoting from 
two of his letters to former Vice President Walter Mondale. One letter, regarding Rupert 
Cutler's idea to start more research on organic techniques, said this: 

Organic techniques have been researched up one side and down the other 
without results. The reason is that the name of the game is feeding 
microorganisms. It should surprise no one (but surprises everyone) to find that 
the best food for growing microorganisms consists of those things readily 
available all over the earth. The money spent on conservation has been wasted 
because no one can conserve the soil and water but the microorganisms. Mr. 
Cutler won't be worth his salary until he starts feeding the microorganisms. He 
could learn more from my four and one-third acre corn plot than he could from 
a thousand organic farms. 

The other letter, also pertinent to this consideration, said this: 

Dear Sir: 

Enclosed is a copy of the response of my government to two papers. One 
paper proved that cancer, malnutrition, and the threat of starvation and 
glaciation can be eliminated. The other showed a demonstration of the process. 

Meanwhile, under the brilliant guidance of the USDA and its Soil 
Conservation Service, the Plains States are flying east on the wind. 

The arrogant ignorance of bureaucrats is going to come to an end. Either 
the Carter-Mondale Administration will end it or the laws of nature will do it. 
One way we live, the other way we die. And if you people don't act damned 
fast, there won't be an option. 

While Carlisle babbles about the impracticability of grinding the mixed 
rocks of the top layers of the earth' s crust, a local gravel pit operator is 
investing in grinding equipment because the President of the Organic Growers 
of Michigan asked him to supply dust. Such small efforts across the land by 

very practical people are going on, but without the help of government in 
mobilizing and hugely accelerating these efforts, we will never be able to hold 
the dry western soils against wind erosion or the wet eastern soils against water 
erosion, nor can we get control of the destructive winds, tornadoes, droughts, 
blizzards, and floods. This country must mobilize and lead the whole world in 
an effort to save it. And it must be done now. 


John D. Hamaker 


A final note. The above-mentioned Science article on cement kiln rock dust provided 
another bit of immediately valuable information. It said that 30 million kilograms (66 million 
pounds or 33,000 tons) are readily available from cement kilns, in the U.S. alone, each day. 
Therefore at an application rate of 3 tons per acre, for example, 1 1,000 acres per day could be 
somewhat remineralized with this "waste material" alone. When we look at the ongoing 
process of forest die-off in the next chapters, it will be apparent how crucially important such 
immediately available materials may be, should we choose to try to save the forests. 


Chapter 3 
Worldwide Starvation by 1990 



"Worldwide Starvation By 1990" was originally published in January of 1980, revised in 
the summer of 1980, and appeared in Acres, USA (October, 1980) and the Price-Pottenger 
Nutrition Foundation Bulletin (Vol. 5, No. 4, 1980). The paper has been widely distributed to 
people in many fields, including most of the 1980 U.S. Congress, the President's Council on 
Environmental Quality, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Forest Service, and many 
others. Also it was given as part of a presentation of the same title at the "First Global 
Conference on the Future" held in Toronto in July 1980. 

"Worldwide Starvation By 1990" is a concise explanation, now documented by solid 
evidence, of the degenerative forest changes known to occur during the interglacial-to-glacial 
transition period. Sufficient evidence revealing the soil based causes of this dying-out period, 
and of obvious signs that we are well into it, will be considered following this paper. 

The U.S. government's The Global 2000 Report to the President, mentioned herein and 
purported to "serve as the foundation of our longer term planning" (Jimmy Carter), deserves 
some specific consideration. That may wait until the "Perspective" on Chapter 6, "The 
Glacial Process and the End of the Food Supply." 




















Glaciation is an acceleration of the normal 
process of using evaporated water to carry 
excessive heat energy from warm zones to cold 
zones. The greenhouse effect of an increase in 
atmospheric CO2 is to increase cloud cover over 
polar latitudes. The clouds have a cooling effect 
as well as providing the snow for glaciation. 
The energy is dissipated in arctic space. 
Glaciation occurs whenever the soil minerals 
left by the last glacial period are used up and 
the plant life can no longer regulate the CO) by 
growing faster in response to an increase in 
CO2 in the air. Forests are the major factor in 
CO2 control. 


A U.N. report estimates that by the year 2000, 
90% of the agricultural land and two-thirds of 
the forests will be destroyed in the tropics. 

Temperate zone forests and crops will be 
destroyed by disease, insects, drought, wind, 
and fire. 

By 1990 the 50 to 100 mph winds of 1980 will 
increase to 100 mph and up. 

For these and other reasons agriculture and 
industry will be so crippled that the effect 
of man on the CO2 curve will be nullified 
and the rise in CO2 will take place as a 
result of uncontrolled forest fires. 

380 ppm 


354 ppm 



Ice Age begins. 

1700 1800 1900 2000 

335 ppm 

Average CO2 (290- ppm) during interglacial 
period. CO2 fluctuates about 10 ppm above and 
below average with volcanism of 100 year cycle 
of tectonic systems. 

1940, 304 ppm, 4.75% 
increase over 290 ppm. 

Hawaiian weather 
station has recorded 
C0 2 since 1958. 

Unless we stop the increase of atmospheric CO2 by: 

1. Remineralizing the surface of the earth. 

2. Stopping the use of fossil fuels and the destruction of 














Fig. 3.1 Parts per million CO2 in Atmosphere, original Hamaker CO2 curve projection 


Worldwide Starvation by 1990 

For 10 years I have been warning that the world's soils are running out of minerals and 
that glaciation must inevitably follow. Now there is hard evidence that the temperate zone 
will become a part of the subarctic zone in approximately 15 years. Somewhere in that time 
period we will stop eating. 

A report by G. Woillard in the English science magazine Nature (10/18/79) draws a grim 
picture from a study of pollen in the mud of a lake bottom in South Vosges, France. At the 
start of a number of past glacial periods, the vegetation changed from temperate zone trees to 
subarctic needle-bearing trees in a period of 150 years ± 75 years. The change was one of 
gradual deterioration until the last 20 years. During the last 20 years the type of vegetation 
completely changed. 

The 150-year death of the temperate zone vegetation recorded in the French lake mud 
corresponds exactly with a curve showing the annual percent increase of carbon dioxide over 
the interglacial level. The gradual increase in the rate of destruction of the forests 
corresponds to the rate of increase of carbon dioxide. The curve was drawn simply by 
extending the actually -recorded Mauna Loa Curve backward to the middle of the last century 
and forward to the year 1995 in a smooth curve with an increasing rate of change with 
respect to time (Fig. 3.1). By 1995 the rate of increase is so great each year that it is pointless 
to extend the curve farther. 


At what point on the curve does the 20-year collapse of temperate zone vegetation begin? 
Why does the collapse occur so quickly? We already have the answer to these questions. 

The mechanism of change in the interglacial forests involves several factors. 

The process of deterioration starts with malnutrition about 150 years ahead of the 
collapse. Malnutrition results from the depletion of the minerals deposited by the last glacial 
period. The available minerals decrease in quantity to the point where enzyme systems no 
longer function vigorously. Disease spreads through the forests and they begin to die out. 

The problem starts with the soil microorganisms. As the quantity of available elements 
decreases, the soil's organism population must decrease. One hundred and fifty years ago a 
virgin soil may have had 25 tons per acre of organisms; today's soils generally have less than 
5 tons per acre. The importance of the soil microorganisms is that their protoplasm 
compounds are the source of the cell protoplasm of every other living thing on Earth. 

A simple key to awareness of the mineral shortage is the easily-measured property of 
acidity of soil, water, and precipitation. If acidity goes up, it is because the mineral supply 
has become too weak in acid-soluble basic elements for the microorganisms to maintain a 
neutral soil in which they can thrive. It is the needle-bearing trees which can best survive the 
increasing acidity and reduced availability of protoplasm, because the needles have smaller 
mineral requirements and far fewer cells to fill with protoplasm. Unlike the broadleaved 
trees, these conifers can live with only the top branches green while the resin prevents (for a 
time) rot from quickly penetrating the trunk from the dead lower branches. 

Needle-bearing trees have taken over from much of our worn-out one-time crop (and 
deciduous forest) soils. Other such soils are kept in production by periodic applications of 
agricultural limestone. However, the large quantity of basic elements available from 
limestone is not matched by an availability of other elements from the silicate rocks, because 
neither the acids of chemical agriculture nor those from acidic rain can dissolve the silicate. 
The result is specific element shortage, resulting in malnutrition and death. 


When the tropical forests are dead and gone, the very badly depleted mineral supply will 
support very little life until glacial gravel dust borne on very high winds has remineralized 
the soil to start the process of plant growth. Temperate zone forests are those which will grow 
in the cooler equatorial atmosphere of the glacial period. They will begin the process of 
removing the excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and bringing the carbon back to 
earth to renew life on earth. 

There have been numerous reports of crop damage due to acidic rains. Many lakes in the 
Northeast have become so acidic that no life can exist in them. Lewis and Grant (Science, 
1/11/80) report some frightening statistics. On the Colorado section of the Continental Divide 
where there is very little industrial pollution in the direction of the prevailing wind, the pH of 
all precipitation dropped from 5.43 to 4.63 in just three years. Neutral is pH 7.0. The 
precipitation was already acidic three years ago, and it increased in acidity by .8 of a point on 
the pH scale in just three years. Since the C0 2 curve is almost vertical at the year 1995, we 
can go back 20 years to 1975 for the start of the 20-year critical period and not be off by 
more than a few years. The pH then must have been about 6. 

Temperate zone vegetation (including crops) can not grow on acidic soils. The large 
numbers of dead and dying trees in our forests is directly attributable to the increasing acidity 
of the soils and decreasing quantities of available elements. Dead forests burn easily with a 
hot fire which oxidizes large quantities of atmospheric nitrogen. Lewis and Grant found that 

the oxides of nitrogen were dominant in the acidic precipitation. The more trees die and burn, 
the more the soils become acidified and the more trees must die. There are also a number of 
mildly acidic gases released from burning wood. These, plus the acidic gases from 
volcanism, are nature's way of bringing on glaciation. Man's fossil fuel fires are a big factor 
in the destruction. Logically, the 20 years for the change in vegetation should be much less 
because of industrial pollution. 

The burning of the temperate zone vegetation will carry huge quantities of carbon dioxide 
into the atmosphere. In the zones of latitude where the sunlight is most intense, the carbon 
dioxide holds the heat at the surface of the earth, providing the energy to increase the 
evaporation and to move the massive cloud cover to the polar regions. The cloud cover 
lowers the temperature and increases the quantity of cold air which flows south over the land 
masses. The temperate zone will become a part of the subarctic zone. We can't grow grain in 
the subarctic. Growing seasons have already been shortened and interrupted by freeze 
damage. Furthermore, the acidic rain will destroy growth all over the world. The local areas 
to survive will be the few near the equator that are blessed with a constantly renewed supply 
of basic minerals sufficient to maintain a neutral soil in spite of the acidic rains. 


Humanity should have seen impending crisis in the slow rise in atmospheric carbon 
dioxide and the deterioration of forests and jungles. It would have been easy 50 years ago to 
remineralize the world's soils and bring the carbon dioxide back to normal. Now we must 
stop the rise in carbon dioxide level in 6 or 8 years or we must die shortly thereafter. I all but 
begged the Carter Administration three years ago to institute a massive soil remineralization 
program and to propagate it worldwide as the condition for survival of all of us. Had Carter 
done so, the Russians would not have been playing power games in the Middle East, and Iran 
would not have held 50 hostages. Nobody on this earth has either time to waste or resources 
to use on anything but soil remineralization, and the associated food and energy programs 
compatible with our survival. There must be a common struggle for survival or we won't 
stand a chance. And if it doesn't start right now, we still won't stand a chance. 

Most of the politicians in both state and local government have campaign debts to pay 
off. The people who control the wealth hold the I.O.U.'s. So after all this time we do not have 
a permanent energy policy. All the hired mouths are saying coal and nuclear power is the 
way to go. Yet nature has decreed that only by increasing biomass growth rate 2, 3, and 4 
times can we hope to get the raw materials for food and energy and at the same time effect 
our survival by taking carbon from the air and storing it in soils and forests. My research has 
shown how we can accelerate the life process to give us food, energy, and survival. 

The evidence points to several things which government ought to do immediately: 

A. Declare a survival emergency carrying with it all the authority of a war emergency. 
Publicize the situation throughout the world as well as the information required to save 

B. The increasing acidity of precipitation must be stopped. That requires two things: 

1. The first thing we must do is remineralize the world's soils. Since the 
soils are acidic now and will be more acidic by the time we get the job done, it 
would probably be best to use a mix of about 1 part agricultural limestone, to 3 
parts of a mixture of all the rocks such as in glacial gravel or most river 
gravels. Both should be ground to about 200 mesh for maximum availability of 
elements. There are substantial glacial deposits which can be used without 
grinding. Ten tons of gravel dust per acre with minimal organic matter will 
insure at least as good a crop as last year and require no additional expense for 
about 10 years. For a more detailed explanation see Chapter Two, "Food, 
Energy and Survival." 


The jungles and forests must be mineralized to stop the deadly cycle of 
dying, burning and increasing acidity of precipitation. To do it rapidly, every 
aircraft capable of modification to carry wet rock dust and spreading it on the 
forests should be utilized. 

Agricultural soils must be mineralized as well as tree plantations. Present 
U.S. crop yields are relatively high, probably because of three factors: there is a 
high availability of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis; on most of the grain- 
growing areas there has been plentiful rainfall; acidification of the soil 
dissolves some kinds of rocks, releasing their elements. This is the basis of 
chemical agriculture, and now the acid rains are increasing the action. 
Unfortunately, the acid is working on the last of the topsoil minerals, and as the 
minerals decrease in quantity, the soil becomes more and more acid. At some 
point the soil microorganisms which supply the protoplasm for all other living 
things on Earth are killed by the acidity and the soil becomes sterile. We have 
lost many millions of acres of crop land. By adding the natural balance of rock 
elements in a form to make them highly available, we can take advantage of 
the carbon dioxide and the rainfall to produce yields capable of supplying our 
food and energy needs. 

2. The second thing which must be done is to minimize acidity of 
precipitation by controlling man-made fires of all kinds to burn at temperatures 
which will produce a minimum of nitrogen oxides since that is the acidic gas 
which, if not now, soon will be the dominant acid in the destruction of plant 


In particular, internal combustion engines must be replaced by engines 
using a constant flame, such as steam engines. An alcohol-burning steam 
engine would eliminate virtually all pollutants, including the acidic oxides of 
sulphur which come from gasoline. 

C. Loan guarantees must be provided for the rapid construction and purchase of all 
mechanical equipment required. At the same time there must be an end to the construction of 
all coal and nuclear facilities, tall smokestacks, armaments and any other junk inimical to our 
survival or unnecessary to it, so the funds will be available to do the things which we must 

D. The entire domestic program should be placed under one expediting agency. The Space 
Agency is probably better equipped to do the job than any other. It should therefore be 
transferred to survival duty for the duration of the emergency. 

These and other Spartan measures must be taken if we are to effect our survival. 
Everybody is going to have to sacrifice until we have control of the situation. We don't have 
time for legal hassles. It must be done under emergency measures which pre-empt the civil 

The bottom line is simply this. The hard evidence shows that world food supplies will 
largely be destroyed by the end of this decade. Only a massive effort on the part of all 
governments can possibly prevent our destruction. Since politicians have done nothing about 
soil remineralization in the last 10 years, there is no reason to think they will do anything 
now unless forced to act by their constituents. 



The Interglacial Soil Demineralization 
and Retrogressive Vegetational Succession 

In researching this most fascinating subject, it was rather startling to discover so much 
information from so many scientists (including geologists, botanists, ecologists, pedologists, 
palynologists, climatologists, and others) which clearly confirms the foundation of John 
Hamaker's arguments. A broad representative look at this work is obviously called for. 

It may seem incredible that up to now this work could have escaped becoming common 
knowledge, at least to workers in agriculture, forestry, geology, climatology and other such 
immediately-related fields. Apparently the many diverse pieces of the glacial-interglacial 
climate cycle "puzzle" had to be gradually discovered through various disciplines over 
decades, before at last enough pieces were evident to be joined in a coherent picture by a 
trained "ecological thinker" — John Hamaker in this case. Yet now everyone may see for 
themselves the truth in his synthesis. The looming question of "when does an individual, 
society, and world see enough to act intelligently?" awaits many answers. 

A look at some more pieces then, starting with the work of one Johannes Iversen, and 
eventually returning to Genevieve Woillard and "her" 20-year interglacial to glacial 
transition period. 

Dr. Johannes Iversen, State Geologist, Geological Survey of Denmark 

In the preface to his last book, The Development of Denmark s Nature Since the Last 
Glacial, Iversen is praised as a brilliant and devoted scientist who mastered the subjects of 
Late-Glacial vegetation and Post-Glacial forest history. Using pollen analysis as a highly 
refined instrument of botanical investigation, the preface to Iversen (1973) says, "He created 
a picture which was revolutionary in many ways and will stand unrivaled." 


In his 1964 paper, "Retrogressive Vegetational Succession in the Post-Glacial," Iversen 
introduces this picture: 

At the end of each glacial epoch raw mineral soil, basic or neutral, covered 
the land left behind by the receding ice. Also in the adjacent periglacial regions 
soils were unleached and devoid of humus because of the removal of the upper 
layers by strong solifluction in the preceding stage. 

The early Post-Glacial succession is thus linked with a gradual soil 
maturation. (Iverson, 1964, p. 59) 

Iversen explained that: 

Only successions that are irreversible under the prevailing climatic 
conditions, and which lead to ecosystems with permanently-reduced organic 
productivity, are regarded as true retrogressive successions. It should also be 
stressed that the concept of forest in this paper actually means the whole 
ecosystem, including the humus layer, in which the breakdown of the plant 
debris from the forest takes place, (p. 59) 

Two types of retrogressive vegetational succession are next distinguished: one caused by 
local rise of the ground water table, the other "is connected with the leaching of the soil." 
This type, of course, "occurs more widely." (p. 59) 

Iversen says that although the chemical-physical-biological aspects of the soil changes 
have been studied intensively by soil scientists, the actual undisturbed course of the 
retrogression — and what point in the interglacial it begins — are less well known. 

Yet Iversen is here able to define this point as being, "When the yearly disintegration of 
the plant debris no longer keeps pace with the fresh supply from the living plants, and, 
consequently, a layer of mor (raw humus) is accumulated on top of the mineral soil." (p. 59) 

Soil Deterioration Begins 

Then five years later, in a paper styled "Retrogressive Development of a Forest 
Ecosystem Demonstrated by Pollen Diagrams from Fossil Mor," Iversen presents his 
discovery that this change from the "mull" humus (characterized by richness of available 
minerals, including bases — Kubiena, 1953, 1970) to the mor (acidifying humus) state is, 
"Marked by the accumulation of pollen grains which, due to the disappearance of 
earthworms, were no longer mixed into the mineral soil. The date of this change varied 
depending on soil conditions, the greatest age found so far is 6,300 C-14 (carbon-14) years 
B.P." (Iversen, 1969). Earlier (Iversen, 1960) he noted that such pollen must be laid down "at 
a time when soil deterioration had already produced very low pH values, otherwise the pollen 
grains would have disappeared as a result of bacterial activity." (p. 13) 


Therefore we can see that from the 10,000 to 10,800 years B.P. (before present) date 
commonly accepted as the opening of the present interglacial, it took about 3,700 to 4,500 

years for the first of the glacially-deposited raw mineral soils of basic or alkaline pH, to 
"mature" and then go into a gradual "irreversible" degradation. This process Iversen shows to 
be characterized by soil organism reductions and complete die-outs (the earthworms, e.g.), 
and by a vegetation retrogression necessarily accompanying the soil degradation. 

Sixty-three Centuries Later 

What has happened to the Earth's soil(s) and forests in the 6,312 years since Iversen' s 
oldest pollen samples were deposited? The answer comes in part by his description of the 
Denmark forest ecosystems which he labored in. 

The Draved forest area is described as an extremely nutrient-poor, strongly acidic and 
swampy "moorland" of raised bogs which have transgressed over wide areas of former pine 
forests, then eventually overtook dying-out oak (Iversen, 1964, p. 60) and once-rich elm-oak- 
alder-pine forests (p. 69). Though the area receives only 750 mm (30 inches) of precipitation 
annually, the demineralized acidic soils, no longer hospitable to earthworms and 
microorganisms, form drainage-inhibiting hardpans and thick acid-humus layers. Again, this 
easily leads to death and swamping of the forests; as in Sweden, Germany, the British Isles, 
and elsewhere (p. 69). 

6 1 






Fig. 3.2 Summary of the glacial/interglacial cycle (after Iversen 1958). 

P. 62 


The soils not yet swamped have reached the "podzol" (or "podsol") stage of degeneration, 
podzolization being simply a form of demineralization. Vast areas of present or former forest 
lands in Eurasia (Vilenskii, 1957), Western Europe (Kubiena, 1953, 1970), Canada (Legget, 
1960), the United States (Marbut, 1935, 1928; USDA, 1975), etc., are considered podzolized. 

This stage of extensively podzolized (demineralized) soils — the apparent pre-condition 
for a new glacial soil rejuvenation period — and the broad processes leading to it, are lucidly 
described by Iversen in The Development of Denmark's Nature Since the Last Glacial. 
Starting at the stage where temperate zone soils had developed the fertility to support vast 
deciduous and mixed forests, when the normal soil was mineral-rich mull, "the most 
favorable of all the soil types," Iversen depicts the changes: 

Mull changes in character as the millennia pass; the change is extremely 
slow in clay soil but faster in poor sandy soil. First the lime is leached out and 
the mull becomes acid. Moderately acid mull can also be very fertile, but if it 
becomes too acid the earthworms and the bacterial flora can no longer thrive; 
the soil begins to deteriorate. The rich mull changes to a poor mull. The larger 
earthworms, which constantly pull organic matter deep into the soil and deposit 
their casts on the surface, thus turning the earth over every few years, are the 

first to disappear. The smaller earthworms, which turn over a shallow layer, 
follow after them, and so only the smallest earthworms, which stay near the 
surface, are left. At about this stage, the bacteria which attack the pollen exines 
also seem to disappear, and pollen then accumulates together with humus on 
the soil surface. A critical threshold has thus been passed: mull has become 
mor. . . In pronounced mor the breakdown of organic matter is mainly carried 
out by fungi. (It may be noted here that soil scientists, botanists and foresters 
have found that most present-day forest trees and many other plants, in both 
temperate and tropical zones, receive their soil nutrients directly from the soil 
fungi, as in the well-known "mycorrhizal association," e.g. Marks and 
Kozlowski, 1973; Sanders et al, 1975). 

The mor layer causes the downwardly percolating water to become very 
acid, and thus the iron in the upper soil layers is dissolved and is re-precipitated 
lower down together with dissolved humus, forming a hard-pan. This can be 
rock-hard and nearly impenetrable both for water and for plant roots, since the 
mineral particles are glued together by humus or by iron salts. . . The 
combination of mor, hardpan, and the intervening ash-colored leached sand, 
extremely poor in nutrients, makes up a podsol profile. (Iversen, 1973, p. 100- 

An Important Consideration, and an Iversen Summary 

The reader may now see that human land use practices over the past 10,000 years, and 
those of today, are characterized by the burning and cutting of forests; plowing, overgrazing, 
eroding, and continuously demineralizing 


crop and forest soils; and by the release of large quantities of toxic chemicals and fossil fuel 
carbon dioxide. The reader may then consider the likelihood of a sooner-or-later than average 
(10,000-12,000 years) end to the present interglacial. Yet we know now from Johannes 
Iversen (and others) that gradual soil de-vitalization is a primary ecological process of the 
interglacial periods, and in concluding his "Retrogressive Vegetational Succession in the 
Post-Glacial," he tells us, and warns us, that in former interglacial epochs: "The 
anthropogenic factor was negligible, and interglacial regional pollen diagrams demonstrate 
very clearly the increasing importance of soil degradation (Andersen 1963), until in the final 
stage the effect of the climatic factor becomes decisive." (Iversen, 1964, p. 69-70) 

Svend Th. Andersen, Geological Survey of Denmark 

Pollen deposit studies by Svend Th. Andersen of three past interglacial periods forcefully 
support the theses of John Hamaker and Johannes Iversen, as documented by three of 
Andersen's published papers. These papers are: 

"Interglacial Plant Successions in the Light of Environmental Changes," 1964; 
"Interglacial Vegetational Succession and Lake Development in Denmark," 1966; and 
"Interglacial Vegetation and Soil Development," 1969. 

As did Iversen, Andersen clearly saw the broad picture, with interglacial stages 
representing, in his own words, ". . . stable intervals between the glacial stages of disturbance 
and chaos. The vegetation had a chance to develop until the new glacial released its 
destructive forces." (1969, p. 90) 

His studies demonstrate how "the interglacial successions of vegetation form 
uninterrupted sequences of forest stages," which he saw as "intriguing objects for reflections 
as to the causes of long-time vegetal changes." These vegetal changes, unlike the present 
interglacial, "are undisturbed by human influence." (1964, p. 359) 

Andersen divided the interglacials into four broad phases (similar to Iversen' s, Fig. 3.2) 
which he termed protocratic, mesocratic, oligocratic, and the final phase preceding the new 
glacial period — the telocratic. 

At the start of the interglacials, open forest of pioneer species entered, which Andersen 
called the "quickly spreading trees and shrubs with unpretentious requirements to climate and 
soils." Birch, pine, poplar, juniper and willow were most important in Denmark. 

In this most practical study, he notes: "This vegetation belonged to the fresh soil left by 
the glaciers, and as mentioned by Iversen (1958) this protocratic phase resembled the 
conditions in the early Postglacial strongly." (1969, p. 97) The rich mixed forest of mull 
vegetation had of course not yet developed, and the acid humus soils obviously had little role 
to play. 


In the mesocratic phase, the soil had developed a high fertility, therefore, "the plants of 
rich soils reach maximum frequencies." This was a time when immense forests covered great 
portions of the Earth (Johnson, 1978; etc.), and the climate created by these typically 
immense trees (and the other factors) earned the name "Postglacial Climatic Optimum" 
(Lamb, 1977), which spanned the years from about 6,000 to 3,000 B.C. Lamb says these 
trees, such as oaks, were "reported to be often of remarkably large size, e.g. with trunks 
reaching a height of 27.5 meters before the first branch." (Lamb, 1977, p. 373) These are 
found preserved in now-degenerate treeless peat soils in England and elsewhere. 

This phase is dominated by trees such as elm, oak, lime, hazel, ash, hornbeam, and alder, 
growing on stable mull soils which Iversen showed to eventually begin to retrogress. 
Andersen gives a description of the process similar to Iversen' s, which in light of its 
immediate importance, is worthy of quoting here. In these mull soils, of roughly 6,000-3,000 
B.C., "the leaching of the soil salts is to some extent counteracted by the mixing activity of 
the soil fauna and the ability of the prevailing trees and shrubs to extract bases from the 

deeper soil layers and contribute them to the upper layers during the decomposition of their 
litter. However, a slow removal of calcium carbonate will bring the soils into a less stable 
state, where the equilibrium may be more easily disturbed." (Andersen, 1966, p. 119) 

This leaching of calcium carbonate (lime) is shown to be so significant to the topsoil 
ecology because, according to Andersen, "the leaching of soil minerals other than lime will 
be insignificant, until the calcium carbonate has been removed." (p. 121) 

With this gradual leaching, "The mull forest could not maintain itself, and with the lapse 
of time, caused itself a depauperization and acidification of the upper soil layers, which 
extended so far that the dense forest receded and more open vegetation types expanded." 
(1969, p.99) 

Andersen, too (confirming Iversen), shows that the changeover from mineral-rich mull 
soils to acidifying mor soil conditions begins in the mesocratic, and with the gradual 
demineralization of formerly calcareous soils, growth of impenetrable hardpans and soil life 
die-outs follow. This creates shallow topsoils susceptible to drought or being easily 
swamped; and this infertile state leads to takeover by heathlands, peat bogs, and trees with 
ability to survive on acidic soils — spruce, pine, birch, poplar, etc. (p. 98) This condition 
becomes prevalent in Andersen's oligocratic phase, and is brought on, he says, "as a result of 
degeneration of the soils." (1966, p. 123) The increasing podsolization, characterized by 
increasing demineralization and acidity, continues up through the interglacial telocratic (end) 


Significantly, his pollen deposits reveal the conditions both in the oligocratic and the 
telocratic. The oligocratic shows clearly the "decrease of rich soil vegetation," indicating "a 
gradual expansion of leached and podsolized soils." The final interglacial phase, the 
telocratic, is the time when the demineralized soils begin to be removed: "The rigorous 
conditions at the end of the interglacial are reflected by an. . . increase in allochthonous 
mineral matter. . . no doubt due to increasing surficial erosion." (1966, p. 121) 

So, where are we now, after 10,000 plus years of this interglacial? Surprisingly, neither 
Iversen nor Andersen specifically raise the question. Andersen's articles, however, together 
with the information in virtually every textbook on soils, forestry, or ecology, leave no doubt 
that the present world civilization is (at least) deep into his oligocratic phase. His further 
strong evidence showing that the Scandinavian lakes and soils reflect a close parallel 
development from basic to acidic conditions (1966, p. 117), and the fact that many thousands 
of lakes there and in the northeast U.S. and Canada are already acidified to lifelessness (with 
a final kick from acid rains), also confirms it. Rapidly accelerating worldwide erosion rates 
are exemplified by the U.S. where 1975 Soil Conservation Service (SCS) figures of 3 billion 
tons of topsoil lost per year (Brown, 1978) have jumped to 4 billion in 1978 (CEQ, 1978), 
and now, according to the Chief of the Soil Conservation Service, to 6.4 billion tons in 1981 
(Berg, 1981). These facts, along with the increasingly "rigorous conditions" imposed by the 

weather since at least 1972, very strongly indicate that the telocratic end phase may indeed 
have begun. 

Svend Th. Andersen just says: "Soil development was indeed an important factor in the 
Quaternary cycles." 

The Picture Grows. . . More Obvious 

The geological and ecological framework for the severely challenging picture presented 
by John D. Hamaker, and further clarified by the work of Iversen, Andersen, and earlier 
considerations, should now be intelligible to the reader. Over a dozen more books and 
articles, by as many researchers, have presented themselves as further proof of the regular 
cycles of the interglacial soil development-demineralization-glaciation (remineralization) 
sequence, suggesting an irrefutable status for the foundations of Hamaker' s arguments. 

2002 DW update: In the interests of total readability for a wide and diverse audience, 
brief summaries of the above-mentioned books and articles were originally omitted from this 
book, but were available as a Supplement to those readers wanting further documentation 
supporting Hamaker' s thesis. Now they are available as Appendix II, "Supplementary 
Perspectives to Chapter 3," in my separate volume, To Love And Regenerate The Earth, also 
at this website. 


Chapter 4 

The Role of C0 2 in the 
Process of Glaciation 



"The Role of C0 2 in the Process of Glaciation," first published in April 1980, was written 
as a concise explanation of the glacial process which could be understood by the U.S. 
Congress, at a time when "the C0 2 problem" was just being recognized by some of its 
members, but not yet taken very seriously. 

At one point, a member of Michigan Congressman Howard Wolpe's office (Keith 
Laughlin) informed John Hamaker that the paper would indeed be circulated to every 
member of Congress. Apparently it was never done. Congressional Clearinghouse on the 
Future Director Anne Cheatham stated in her letter of response, March, 1980 — "Mr. 
Laughlin and I both agree that if Mr. Hamaker is right we had all better do something 
soon. . . . We will be back in touch with you as the situation develops." No evidence of an 
effort to prove John Hamaker' s thesis true or false has been forthcoming. 

"The Role of C0 2 in the Process of Glaciation" appeared in Acres, USA in September, 
1980. Its title refers to the relationship that has been virtually never considered by the 
hundreds of researchers of glaciation, starting with the first "Great Ice Age" theory of Louis 
Agassiz in 1837 (Imbrie and Imbrie, 1979). 

Systematic measurements of atmospheric C0 2 began only as late as 1958 (Calder, 1975). 
Most climatologists, one may observe, seem fond of repeating the extremely dangerous 
oversimplification of CO,'s "greenhouse effect." "We are going to warm up" is the general 
message reaching the media and public from the climatologists. 

The crux of this problem was perhaps stated best by John Hamaker in an earlier article 
("Life or Death — Yours," 1976), in reference to two well-known, outspoken climatologists, 
when he said, "Of course, neither of these gentlemen know about the role of life in and on the 
soil in demineralizing it in a period of 10,000 to 15,000 years, depending on the amount of 
ground rock supplied by the last glacial advance. Nor do they know and understand the 
Earth's tectonic system and its role in determining the weather." 

The first six chapters of this book offer that fundamental understanding. 

The Role of C0 2 in the 
Process of Glaciation 


Glaciation occurs whenever the supply of soil minerals ground from rocks by the last 
glaciation is used up. This exhaustion of soil minerals by the life in and on the soil initiates 
the whole chain of events which results in restocking the soil with minerals and a new 
proliferation of life. 

It is a function of plant life to remove all excess C0 2 (carbon dioxide) from the 
atmosphere. It normally does this simply by growing faster in response to an increase in C0 2 . 
It can no longer do so. Plant life gets its cell protoplasm from the soil microorganisms. The 
microorganisms produce the protoplasm by taking elements from the mixture of stone in the 
soil, and combining them with the carbon in some form of plant or soil organism residue to 
make the organic compounds. When the elements are no longer available in the soil (which is 
the case at present), the microorganisms die of famine, and the plant life also starves to death 
for lack of protoplasm. 

The dead plant life is set on fire by lightning; the carbon in the plant life goes into the 
atmosphere as C0 2 . The CO, traps the sun' s heat radiating from the earth and radiates it back, 
thus increasing the surface temperature. The C0 2 has no heating effect at the poles in the 
winter when it is dark 24 hours a day. It has maximum effect in the equatorial region at the 
latitudes where the sun's rays are most intense. 


When air gets hotter, its atmospheric pressure decreases. It is then easier for the cold air 
moving down over a cold land mass to displace the warm equatorial air and force it to move 
poleward over the warm ocean to replace the cold air moving toward the equator. This is the 
normal air circulation pattern impressed on the west winds. The temperature differential is 
minimal in summer and at a maximum in winter. During glaciation, when there is an 

extensive ice field, there is no summer because the refrigerated air from the ice field 
maintains the temperature differential required to carry the clouds to the northern latitude. 
Thus there can be unusually large masses of hot air in the equatorial latitudes and unusually 
large masses of cold air in the polar latitudes. 

Glaciation, or for that matter anything else on this earth, can not take place without an 
expenditure of energy. By the time the ice sheet has built up between the temperate zones and 
the poles, the ocean level will have dropped some 100 feet or more, depending on how much 
C0 2 is in the atmosphere to provide the heat of vaporization. Ocean-level measurements of 
the water transferred to the land mass are not accurate, because land elevation varies with the 
ice load and with the hydraulic pressure under the land mass. Without a build-up in C0 2 and 
hence temperature, glaciation can not happen. 

Glaciation is only a little more complicated than your refrigerator. Energy is put into the 
system to remove the heat from one batch of air and dump it into another. In the case of 
glaciation, the dump is the Polar Regions, which have an excess of cooling capacity. The 
refrigerated air flows toward the equator to gradually eliminate the tropical zones. 

The average temperature at the start of a glacial period must be higher than the 
interglacial temperature, and must remain higher until the cooling effect of the ice sheet starts 
bringing it down. Unfortunately, that will not help agriculture, because the northern part of 
the temperate zone will experience summer freezes and frosts and the southern temperate 
zone will have excessive heat and drought. We can expect violent weather everywhere. 

When an ice field builds up to about 50 feet thick, the pressure causes the ice on the 
bottom of a glacier to melt and in this condition the glaciers "flow." As they flow, they grind 
all the rocks they flow over. The ground rock moves with the melt water from high elevations 
to lower elevations. As the glacial debris clogs all the rivers, the water spreads out over the 
land filling the low areas with glacial till. The water then moves on from one low area to 
another, thus leveling the entire land surface with fresh glacial till. 


The temperature difference between the glaciated area and the equatorial zone induces 
violent winds which ultimately carry the finer particles of ground material all the way to the 
tropical zones. Luxuriant temperate-zone forests then begin the long task of withdrawing the 
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The build-up of ice stops as the C0 2 decreases in the 
atmosphere. The melting of the ice sheets reduces the excessive volcanism from the tectonic 
system. The temperate-zone vegetation follows the melting glaciers toward the poles, and 
tropical forests return to the tropical zones. 

It is cloud cover which supplies the moisture for glaciation and protects the glaciated area 
from melting too much in the summer time. A necessary condition for glaciation is that 
snowfall shall exceed snow melt, plus pressure melt, by a sufficient amount to build up 100 
feet or more of ocean water as ice on the land area during a total of 90,000 years of glacial 

advances that alternate with limited glacial retreats. The 1980 late winter floods in Hawaii 
and the unprecedented 1 1 inches of rain in a week in Southern California, the "worst in 
history" flood in Louisiana, the freeze in Florida, and the 120-mph winds at Anchorage, 
Alaska are a forecast of things to come. The waves of clouds now coming in off the Pacific 
on an almost daily schedule will give way to solid masses of clouds when all the forests have 

Glaciation usually occurs at a time when the earth' s tectonic system has fired up volcanic 
activity by feeding ocean floor into the continental heaters, which are located primarily in the 
Pacific "ring of fire." Volcanic action releases large amounts of liquefied gases trapped in the 
molten rock. C0 2 and sulphur dioxide (SO,) are the principal gases released, and both cause 
the "greenhouse effect." The result is our present "hundred-year cold cycle." These cycles 
vary in their time interval, the intervals being determined by the pressure in the tectonic 
system. To the volcanic gases are added C0 2 from the decaying and burning mineral- starved 
vegetation. Together, they initiate the change from interglacial to glacial climate. 

When the ice sheet is formed, the weight of ice forces the earth to sink lower in elevation. 
The more liquid part of the semi- solid, partially molten rock on which the crust of the earth 
moves is forced back into the tectonic circulatory system and is forced out from under the 
crust in volcanic actions. One of the actions is along the mid-ocean ridges where the 
increased weight of exuded rock increases the pressure in the entire system. Volcanism in a 
glacial period is several times that of an interglacial period. The dust exerts a cooling effect 
by radiating back into space some of the sun's rays. It provides dust particles for inducing 
precipitation. It assists in the job of remineralizing the earth's surface. The increased amount 
of C0 2 released by the increased volcanic action intensifies the glaciation. When the ice 
melts, the pressure drops rapidly in the tectonic system, volcanism decreases, and the glacial 
system collapses back into the interglacial climate conditions. 


The acidic gases from volcanism and burning forests quench the life on earth by leaching 
the few remaining basic elements into the subsoil. Thus the change from interglacial to 
glacial conditions occurs in about 20 years as reported in Nature by G. Woillard in 1979. 
Man's contribution of C0 2 from fossil fuels, acidic gases from various sources, and forest 
destruction has probably moved the present glacial process forward in time by perhaps 500 
years. It will probably shorten the 20-year change period. 

That' s essentially all there is to the glacial process — all but the consequences to mankind. 
All of the requirements for glaciation are in place and accelerating in intensity at a very fast 
pace. The percentage of C0 2 increase is rising rapidly, and the pH of precipitation is rapidly 
moving toward intolerable acidity. Within a very few years the 1979 crop losses in Russia 
will be intensified and spread throughout the temperate zone. Most of the world's population 
will be starving to death. Summer frosts and freezes, short growing seasons, drought and 
violent storms, plus rapidly diminishing soil minerals and increasing rain acidity will destroy 
the world's grain crops. 


It may be that the average temperature of the atmosphere is getting warmer. However, it 
is totally false to assume that the polar ice will melt and that temperate zone crops will have 
to be moved toward the poles. The time scale that has been allowed by the "experts" (on 
whom government is relying for reacting to the falsely-assumed weather change) is much 
longer than we actually have because the first stage of glaciation is now occurring — the 
killing of the plant life which includes our crops. We must react immediately or prepare to 


The idea that we can keep on using fossil fuels is totally false. On the 25th of June 1979, 
a cold wave came out of Canada and killed frost-sensitive vegetables from Minnesota to 
Michigan. In a small area of each state the temperature dropped low enough to destroy all 
crops. This is not supposed to happen in late June but it did. A few degrees colder and all 
crops would have been wiped out. The principal cause of the problem is C0 2 in the 
atmosphere. By June of 1979 the percent of increase of C0 2 over an assumed normal level of 
290 ppm was about 15 percent. In 1985 it will be about 18 percent. It is a certainty that crop 
losses will be extensive by 1985. By 1990 the percent of increase in C0 2 in the atmosphere 
will be about 22 percent (50 percent more than it is now). The world's crops are already 
under heavy pressure from adverse weather conditions. Yet we go on bringing carbon out of 
the ground and putting it into the atmosphere. 

It is a fallacy to think that conservation of anything will prevent nature from going ahead 
with a process which is well on its way. Conservation of forests is impossible when the trees 
are dying because the soil will no longer support the life process. You can not conserve crop 
soils which have been virtually stripped of some of the available elements. It is too late for 
conserving; we must rebuild. 

It is a fallacy to think that any form of solar energy which does not result in withdrawing 
C0 2 from the atmosphere and storing it in biomass or in the soils will have any effect 
whatsoever on the need to save us from starvation. 


The Congress has been evaluating the C0 2 problem on the basis of a consensus reached by 
specialists. These people freely admit that they do not know what causes glaciation. Yet they 
say that the average temperature must drop several degrees C. before we can have glaciation 
simply because they have evidence that it does get much colder during glacial periods. They 
ignore the fact that historically glaciation has been alternating with interglacial periods on a 
roughly 100,000 year cycle and the fact that glaciation is due. Do they think that the fact that 
crop soils of the world are turning to deserts at the same time that the weather is throwing 
one natural catastrophe after another at us is just coincidence? Actually, they have not even 

thought about the soil and its relation to glaciation, nor do they understand the role of the 
tectonic system in the glacial process. 


The people charged with the responsibility for the C0 2 problem are simply not trained to 
solve problems. They are trained to be observers and they have done a creditable job of that. 
But the job of making a rational synthesis of the facts as a basis for Congressional action 
ought to have been assigned to engineers and physicists, both of whom have been trained to 
work with the facts and laws of nature. The fault lies at the higher levels of education, which 
have neglected the necessity for interdisciplinary education and action in favor of 

That mistake, if not corrected immediately, will become, and may already have become, 
a fatal mistake for all of us. 

If an effort is made to save humanity, Congress is going to have to grant to some existing 
technical group, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the absolute 
authority to press into service all elements of the nation which are capable of contributing to 
the soil remineralization effort. The basic nature of soil fertility and how to obtain it quickly 
have been detailed in my paper, "Food, Energy, and Survival." These principles must be 
applied and applied quickly. For example, every plant generating electricity that burns fossil 
fuels should be required to establish, in the summer of 1980, wood plantations of sufficient 
size on remineralized soil to replace fossil fuels at a time not later than 1984. They should 
further be required to use any surplus waste heat in extensive greenhouses so that local 
requirements for vegetables can be met without expending the fuel to bring them from 
Florida, the Rio Grande Valley, Mexico, or California. Air travel should be cut to necessity 
use only. Ninety percent of the planes should be stripped of weight and refitted for forest 

All of the nations must make a similar effort. 

Make no mistake. We must revolutionize what we do and the way we do it. And we will 
do it NOW or we will die. We can not do it while there is so much confusion about the C0 2 
problem and its effect. The Congress must hammer out the facts and lead the whole world in 
what must be the greatest human effort ever undertaken. If we don't remineralize the soil, 
nature will and her first act will be to eliminate almost all of the life on Earth. 



It is possible to very quickly release enough CO, into the atmosphere to turn the world 
into a steaming jungle planet with the tropical zone replacing the subarctic and that part of 

the temperate zone which is not under water. If sufficient amounts of water are evaporated 
and moved toward the poles fast enough so the clouds can retain enough heat to fall as rain at 
the poles, the polar ice sheet can be washed into the sea. The tropical condition would remain 
for a very long time because there is very little loss of either carbon or minerals when a 
jungle floor has built up a deep layer of decaying vegetation. Mineral loss can be largely 
made up by the sea solids in the rain. These conditions can occur only as a result of a 
catastrophic event in the tectonic system. The result is a submergence of a substantial part of 
the land mass (thus limiting vegetative growth) and minimal tectonic activity. 

Such a condition probably occurred after a mid-ocean ridge (part of which is now 
California, Oregon, and Washington) was overrun by the westward moving continent. At the 
time, the Gulf of California was a mountain range and part of the Sierra Nevada mountains, 
with a continental heater under them. The high-pressure, high-temperature melt in the heater 
broke through into the ridge and the thin, newly formed crust could not stand the pressure. It 
blew out and molten rock met ocean water in a continuous explosion. It did not stop until the 
liquid melt had run out from under the plateau now called the Great Basin, creating such 
things as the crustal crack called the Grand Canyon on the southeast, and the sinkhole called 
Lake Tahoe under the sheared-off east wall of the Sierras. 

The amount of C0 2 and other gases released from so much molten rock could turn the 
world much warmer and give rise to the huge leaf-eating mammoths and the large carnivores 
which were common in the Pliocene epoch. The rock dust from such an explosion would 
mineralize the whole earth. 

In 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission tested a 5-megaton bomb a mile below sea level 
on the Aleutian island of Amchitka. The Aleutian chain is a continental heater and the Bering 
Sea floor is slowly being raised to plateau status. The underground bomb test had the 
ingredients for a total change in the world' s weather. Fortunately a group of senators headed 
by Sen. Phillip Hart persuaded the AEC to stop the testing. 


It is conceivable that if all the fossil fuel supplies in the crust of the earth could be burned 
(or some lesser amount), we could produce a warmer world. It can't happen, of course, 
because when there is sufficient CO, in the atmosphere, the temperate zone vegetation will be 
destroyed and the consumers of fossil fuels, too. 

The talk about how long it will take to double the normal level of CO, and what the 
average temperature will then be is pure nonsense. We will be dead and gone before the 
increase in CO, reaches 30 percent — about 1995. Our ability to extract fossil fuels will be 
lost by 1990. 


In light of Hamaker's essentially positive message, "We must rebuild," let's examine 
some more key parts of this whole amazing picture as others have studied and reported on 

At least four areas immediately present themselves for further overview: C0 2 build-up, 
weather changes, forest fires, and acid rain and snow. The first three will be looked at here, 
while the urgent threat and reality of acidic precipitation, as well as insect/disease destruction 
of the forests, will be considered in Chapter 5. 

C0 2 Build-up 

David P. Adam of the U.S. Geological Survey, a long-time student of glacial periods, has 
emphasized the point that to understand what causes them, one must solve the "energy 
problem" they present (Adam, 1976). In his Quaternary Research paper, "Ice Ages and the 
Thermal Equilibrium of the Earth (II)," Adam clearly shows that an essential requirement to 
begin and sustain a glacial period is an increased transfer of (excess) energy towards the 
glaciated regions, and that energy is in the form of moisture. This is, of course, precipitated 
largely as snow, thus forming the initial perennial snowfields and subsequent ice sheets. He 
states that some increased energy source must therefore be invoked to sustain these vast 
energy transfers, yet he does not consider in his paper the fact of excessive C0 2 's solar heat- 
trapping effect as the possible "booster" for providing this increase of effective energy, 
which, as Adam points out, is "required to fuel a continental glaciation." (Adam, 1976) 


In a personal communication to this writer (1981), David Adam agreed that Hamaker's 
C0 2 theory could indeed fulfill the requirements of providing the glacial energy fuel. Yet, 
surprisingly, he knew of no one in the history of modern Quaternary research who had 
postulated a C0 2 -glaciation relationship, perhaps due to the relative state of infancy of 
modern C0 2 /climate studies. David said there was one well-respected climatologist who had 

presented an explanation of the basic glacial process very similar to John Hamaker's — Sir 
George Simpson of Britain. 

Simpson, as explained by Willett (in his chapter on "Atmospheric Circulation" in 
Climatic Change, 1953), was the first to point out the impossibility of accounting for the 
glacial pattern of circulation and climate by a general decrease of solar heating. This is 
because a decrease must lower the mean temperature of the Earth' s surface, especially in the 
tropics, decrease the equator-to-pole temperature gradient, and distinctly lower the moisture 
content of the atmosphere. Simpson (1934, 1957) realized that it is obviously paradoxical to 
expect fulfillment of certain fundamental requirements for glaciation — intensified equator-to- 
pole temperature gradients, stepped-up atmospheric circulation, and increase of poleward 
heat and moisture transfer — with a model of declining surface temperature, especially in the 
tropical regions. 

So Simpson postulated a hypothesis of a "variable sun" which must at times send more 
solar energy to the Earth to cause extra surface heating that would be greater at the equator 
than at the poles due to the shape of the Earth. This, Simpson said, would increase 
cloudiness, storminess, and precipitation in higher latitudes; while the cloud cover causes 
overcast skies and cool temperature in summer, snow and glacier build-up in other seasons, 
with strong winds and violent storms common the year round. The clouds and snow would 
greatly increase global albedo and generate huge amounts of cold air to plunge equatorward. 
The glacial period would be well underway. 

Since no substantial evidence of a variable sun has come forth to lend support to 
Simpson's heat-increase model of glaciation, his entire well-reasoned hypothesis has never 
been fully accepted, and parts of it required rejection as the newer knowledge of the 100,000 
year glacial cycle was made clear. The fundamental principles are still considered sound, 
however, and nearly every author on climatology recalls Simpson's major contributions to 
understanding the "mystery" of glaciation (e.g., Willett, 1953; Wexler, 1953; Ponte, 1976; 
Lamb, 1977). 

John Hamaker, while unaware of Sir George Simpson's theory, was apparently the first 
to correlate the basic heating and circulation principles operating at glacial initiation with the 
soon-to-be-infamous differential "greenhouse effect" of C0 2 . 


Other recent warnings on this differential heating effect have come from Lester Machta, 
head of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Air Resources Labs, 
who said (in Green, 1977) that the C0 2 could indeed cause the massive cooling cloud 
coverage; and from Justus (1978) of the Congressional Research Service, who stated, "If the 
Earth's temperature rises, the water vapor content of the atmosphere is likely to rise. A rise in 
water vapor would quite likely increase the fraction of the globe covered by clouds. Such an 
increase could cause the amount of primary solar radiation absorbed by the Earth to fall." 

Justus goes on to conclude that "some combination" of increased temperature and cloud 
cover will "balance" the heat absorption effects of excessive C0 2 . 

//"these climatological principles and relationships, along with the broad ecological 
picture painted by Hamaker (and confirmed by many studies mentioned earlier) can be 
proven to be fundamentally incorrect, some one should obviously do so right away. 

Are we now experiencing excessive C0 2 -induced differential heating that causes 
increased cloud production, precipitation, storminess, wind speeds, etc.? Probably any reader 
over 15 years of age can recognize not all is well "weatherwise." A representative look at the 
increasing weather violence and destruction will follow shortly. First, some additional 
notations of immediate relevance to the C0 2 -glacial relationship, and how some people are 
responding, and not responding, to our "invisible crisis." 

** In a 1977 paper, John Hamaker asked the question: "How rapidly is C0 2 increasing in 
our atmosphere? In 1977, a National Academy of Sciences panel on energy and climate 
provided a very frightening statistic arrived at by Charles Keeling (Science, 9/2/77): Keeling 
said that there had been a 13 percent rise since the industrial revolution began. The alarming 
thing is that 5 percent of this 13 percent had occurred since 1962." (That same Science article 
discussed the oversimplified computer models of CO,'s "general warming" effect, and stated 
that there are some scientists who "privately suggest" that because of "complex feedback 
phenomena," global cooling could result.) 

** James Peterson of NOAA says that between 1958 and 1968, the annual CO, increase 
amounted to .7 ppm (Environment, 1979). Between 1970 and 1975, the annual increase went 
to .8 ppm (Weatherwise, 10/77). Between 1977 and 1978, it was up to about 1.5 ppm 
(Environment, 1979). Now, John Gribbin (New Scientist, 4/9/81), noting the intensification of 
worldwide forest destruction and fossil fuel combustion, reports that the present annual 
increase has jumped to 2 to 4 ppm , and "is increasing rapidly today." It is now clear that 
Hamaker' s C0 2 curve projection may prove quite conservative. 

** A U.S. Department of Energy study released in April 1979 stated: "It is the sense of 
the scientific community that carbon dioxide is potentially the most important environmental 
issue facing mankind." (Baltimore Sun, 1/13/80) 

** In July 1979, four scientists submitted a report to the President's Council on 
Environmental Quality entitled "The Carbon Dioxide Problem: Implications for Policy in the 
Management of Energy and Other Resources." The scientists state conservatively that: 

Fig. 4.1 Global C0 2 measurement stations 



The C0 2 problem is one of the most important contemporary 
environmental problems, is a direct product of industrialization, threatens the 
stability of climates worldwide and therefore the stability of all nations, and 
can be controlled. Steps toward control are necessary now. 

The potential disruptions are sufficiently great to warrant the incorporation 
of the C0 2 problem into all considerations of policy in the development of 

We may observe that as of July 1981, no such incorporation has taken place. The 
scientists — Woodwell, Revelle, Keeling, MacDonald — go on to stress the great need for at 
least a minimum ecology restoration program, as stated thus: 

It seems elementary that we have reached a point worldwide where the CO, 
problem alone dictates a need to balance the harvest and other transformations 
of forest with some other storage of carbon The regrowth of forests is the 
obvious solution: total respiration, including fires, should be less than or equal 
to, but not more than, total photosynthesis on a regional and worldwide basis. 
There are many additional advantages in such a program, quite apart from the 
advantages gleaned from wise management of the CO, problem. 

That no such minimum program has seriously begun, nor has even been recognized as 
"elementary" by the vast majority of the world's people, including political representatives, 
does not speak well for humanity's future. From many sources comes a similar message: to 
continue any longer as blind consumers of life, without learning to be visionary restorers of 
life, will likely insure an end to both opportunities — sooner than most of us would like to 
look at. Yet to fully look, in search of what is true, must surely be the first step. 

Some additional notes on the "greenhouse effect" are of importance. 

Recent investigations have established that other man-made pollutant trace gases may 
increase the "greenhouse effect" by another 50 percent (Flohn, 1979; Kellogg and Schware, 
1981). These gases come primarily from burning vegetation (Crutzen et al, 1979), release of 
industrial halocarbons (freons) (Flohn, 1979), and the denitrification of nitrogen fertilizers in 
the soil (J. Williams, 1978). 

Two books on C0 2 and climate have recently been published. The Greenhouse Effect, by 
meteorologist Harold Bernard, issues a strong warning that the heating effects alone will 
likely be devastating to humanity due to increasing climatic stress; agriculture in particular 
will suffer greatly. Bernard cites a coming agenda of increasing destructiveness characterized 
by tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, searing "dust bowl" type droughts, water depletion, and 
massive forest fires if we continue on the fossil fuel route. He presents a whole "bank" of 
arguments against doing so. He says that "solar energy" and "conservation" look like the 
ways to go. Yet, incredibly, in regard to the solar energy collectors (and C0 2 consumers) 
known as plants and trees (biomass), he suggests that the 1 percent of the energy coming 
from biomass today (U.S.) could maybe reach 6 percent by year 2000. 

As for withdrawing CO, from the atmosphere and storing it in soils and trees, Bernard 
chooses to ignore ecological realities by implying that the natural process is "really 
nonsense" because, he says: "One can imagine the number of trees required." 


Harold Bernard deserves thanks for his warnings on the likely destruction to come from 
increasing climatic stress, and for his chapter, "We Can't Put Weather In A Test Tube," 
which says the scientists studying the CO, threat to date may be wrong because of incorrect 
assumptions, inaccurate modeling techniques, and their ignoring of important processes 
through lack of knowledge. It is clear that the interglacial soil demineralization is one such 
process they have ignored. The knowledge is now freely available. 

Climate Change and Society: Consequences of Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide 
was released in early 1981 "under the auspices of the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, 
and supported by a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy," according to the first 
introductory page. Later, in the forward, it is explained that the DOE became the book's 
"principal sponsor" and that "additional support" has come from the Weyerhaeuser 
Foundation, Volkswagen Foundation, and Mitre Corporation, among others. 

This book is mentioned here because it presents such a good example of the growing 
attitude of some who wield influential powers, that whatever the effects of C0 2 pollution and 
Earth destruction are, "we" will accept them and try to "mitigate them" (in the sense of "to 
make less severe.") This attitude seems little concerned to perceive causes, to restore 
ecological balance, or to build a future for today's children. 

The book's 178 pages devote 2 pages to considering how the Earth's living plants might 
come into the picture, and one paragraph to "protecting" the soil because "entire 
civilizations" declined due to past soil abuse. The following ideas concerning biomass solar 
energy and reforestation are given in their discussion of how to control C0 2 buildup. 

** According to one scientist, an increase of only one percent of Earth's plant life could 
absorb an equivalent of the annual fossil fuel CO, release, but if we keep burning an extra 4 
percent of the fossils for 17 more years (an implied necessity), we will then have to increase 
biomass by 2 percent, "probably an unreasonable level." (p. 112) 

** Once the biomass is grown, we'd need to find "disposal methods" in order to keep that 
carbon from going back to the air. [It seems the authors do not appreciate the natural system 
for wood and soil humus/biomass storage of carbon; forests contain about 1.5 times 
(Whittaker and Likens, 1975) and soil humus about 4 times (Stuiver, 1978) the total of 
atmospheric carbon. Nor do the authors appreciate the potential of ground rock dust to vastly 
increase old and new forest growth and humus storage.] 

* * We might try spreading nitrogen and phosphorous on the ocean to grow algae to 
withdraw C0 2 ; the carbon would eventually reach the ocean floor for storage there. 
(Admittedly "unlikely" as an effective scheme). 


** Or we could try using the nitrogen and phosphorous for growing trees instead; 
however, "a great number of trees would be involved," and "significant environmental 
problems" could result from programs to plant all those trees. This is because part of the land 
that could grow trees is already being used for other things, and much more is in the process 
of being deforested — for lumber, grazing land, and agriculture [such as Volkswagen 
Foundation's former virgin forest land of about 300,000 acres in Brazil, now used for an 
expanding cattle export operation involving deforestation at an average 13,000 acres each 
year (Grainger, 1980); and Weyerhaeuser Corporation's 6,000 square kilometers of timber 
concession in the fragile rainforests of Indonesia (Myers, 1979)]. Yet if we really want to 
rely on biomass as a CO, sink, we'll need to find land somewhere of sufficient size which can 
be "successfully planted." (p. 112). However, that problem of disposing of so much carbon 
would still remain. 

** Biomass can, of course, be converted to various fuels, but this requires an energy 
investment; and since there would be so much biomass available for fuel conversion from 

massive reforestation programs, the energy used in the conversion would likely require 
"enormous resources" and thus might "exacerbate" the C0 2 problem (p. 113). The new 
biomass would also require considerable expansion of transportation facilities to handle it as 
it comes in "complex and heavier forms" than the coal, oil, and gas now being extracted from 
the Earth's crust. 

** Finally, the "ecological implications" of reforesting the Earth must not be overlooked. 
"Additional climatic consequences" could result from "changed vegetation patterns," which 
could absorb more solar radiation (unlike deserts and snow which reflect it), thus warming 
the Earth rather than producing "the intended cooling effect." 

Having not too subtly tried to write off biomass energy and the Earth's terrestrial carbon 
storage system as unworthy of serious consideration, the book moves on to the next section, 
"Mitigating the Effects." We may move on at this point. 

Weather/Climate Changes 

Hamaker estimates that the beginning of a likely 20-year changeover period from 
interglacial to glacial conditions was about 1975. 

If this estimate is accurate, then tremendous weather changes should have begun by that 
time, signified by growing intensification of all storm effects, including unusually heavy 
rains and snows, record cold and heat, drought, hail, tornadoes, etc. — all symptomatic of 
increasing temperature and pressure differentials, greater evaporation of moisture, and an 
overall speeding up of global atmospheric circulation. 

7972 is generally seen as the approximate year when the world's weather became 
obviously "abnormal." Even in 1970 the droughts which had brought starvation to perhaps 
400,000 people in Africa's Sahel region were occurring (Ponte, 1976). Numerous books, 
such as Calder's The Weather Machine (1975), Ponte's The Cooling (1976), Gribbin's 
Forecasts, Famines, and Freezes (1977), and Roberts and Landsford's The Climate Mandate 
(1979) and others summarize much of the increasing weather destructiveness during the 


These many extreme events of the early and mid- 1 970' s are too well-known to need 
repeating here. This weather report will primarily focus on what has actually been occurring 
since the late 1970's up to now (July, 1981), and to note, where it is not obvious, how these 
weather effects and trends may directly relate to an understanding of where we actually are in 
terms of this interglacial-to-glacial cycle. 

The main sources of the following reports are: the NOAA/USDA publication Weekly 
Weather and Crop Bulletin; NOAA's Storm Data; NOAA's weekly "Assessment of World 

Weather Events"; Weatherwise magazine and others; and assorted U.S. newspaper accounts 
via AP and UPI, primarily. 

The "Weatherwise" Annual Summary, 1979 and 1980 

"The Weather of 1979" issue (2/80) reveals the following seasonal events: 
In the U.S., after the exceptionally severe winters of '76-'77 and '77-'78, a third 
consecutive year of severe winter weather struck, an unparalleled occurrence in modern 
times. A great number of records were broken; nearly every state recorded below-normal 
temperatures. Winter was colder and stormier than usual over middle latitudes, causing 
heavier than normal precipitation to fall, mostly as snow. One of the coldest Decembers on 
record (in 1978) over much of the Northwest, Rocky Mountains, and northern Great Plains; 
and one of the snowiest on record from the northern Rockies to the Great Lakes, led into a 
record cold January for dozens of cities in the Northwest, Rockies, Great Plains, and 
Mississippi Valley. Parts of the Midwest had a third consecutive January of record or near- 
record cold. Average temperatures were 16-19 degrees F. below normal in areas of Kansas, 
Nebraska, Wyoming and Montana. Precipitation was heavier than normal over most of the 
U.S. and again fell largely as snow, with record rains elsewhere. Some cities reported the 
snowiest January ever. 

February extended the cold air flow patterns, bringing record cold temperatures to cities 
all the way to the Atlantic coast, and the entire month was ranked as one of the coldest 
Februarys ever recorded. Again, heavy precipitation this month, and record snows in the 
Atlantic States. 

The summer of 1979 saw greater than normal precipitation over most of the U.S., though 
with serious drought affecting the Northwest and northern Rockies where extensive forest 
fires were finally relieved by August rains. Extensive cloudiness and heavy rains covered 
much of the U.S. east of the Rockies. Higher than normal temperatures in the West 
contrasted with a cool East and South, which persisted into the first half of July. The colder 
than normal polar air masses brought the coldest June on record to parts of the Carolinas. 


Fall, 1979 brought both record early season cold and snow, and record late season 
warmth to parts of the Northeast and Atlantic States. Hurricanes David and Frederick hit the 
U.S. mainland, while many areas in the upper Midwest and Great Lakes had their driest 
September on record. In October, abnormally rapid middle-latitude westerly air flows 
produced very mobile storm systems, and unexpectedly fast weather changes resulted. 103 
degrees on October 1st and 99 degrees on the 12th in Texas were all time record highs, while 
a record early snowstorm hit New England and the Appalachians on October 10th, heavily 
damaging deciduous trees in full leaf. 

1979 flood and flash flood destruction was second only to those of 1972 in monetary 
losses ($4 billion compared to $4.4 billion) as the worst in history, killing over 100 people. 

The worst of these included: Hawaii's "great rainstorm" of February which broke every 
rainfall record there; Illinois' March floods when every river in the state flooded at nearly the 
same time; Texas' 6 days of heavy rains causing half a billion dollar losses in April; 
continuing flooding in Illinois which finally ended on May 28th after 13 weeks; a fourth 
consecutive month of killer floods in Texas by June followed by the record flooding rains of 
early July which were commonly 20 inches, including 45 inches near Alvin, breaking the all- 
time U.S. mainland record. September brought Texas its seventh consecutive month of severe 
flooding as 21 inches fell in Brazoris County, and Hawaii had heavy property and crop losses 
when another 15 inches fell in November. 

A crucial question stands prominent — how much cloud cover and excessive precipitation 
is now occurring in the high and middle-high latitudes where the ice sheets of the glacial 
period begin formation (John, 1980; Calder, 1975, et al.)? Specific data on this question has 
proven elusive, yet if the unusually deep and severe penetration of cold air and snow into the 
temperate zones over the past five winters is an indication of increased high latitude cloud 
cover, snowfall, and cold production, then this would be perhaps the strongest and best 
evidence available. 

One article in this The Weather of 1979 issue, "A Record Cold Month in North America," 
reviewed some of the numerous record cold temperatures in the winter of '78-'79, and noted 
that none were more significant than those recorded in the Northwest Territory of Canada. At 
Eureka (NWT), the February mean daily temperature was -47.9 degrees C. (-54 degrees F.), 
the lowest mean temperature ever recorded in North America for any month in history. For 
17 straight days the mercury failed to exceed -45 degrees C. Several stations within the 
Arctic Circle also reported record February cold; at least four experienced all-time low mean 
temperatures, and at least nine stations north of 60 degrees N reported their coldest February 


It was further noted that the persistence of the cold day and night was an "astonishing 
feature" of it, and that the lowest reading of -55.3 degrees C. was the all-time extreme low, 
-1.4 degrees C. colder than the previous record set in 1972. Finally, the authors note with 
much interest that the five coldest months on record, during 33 years of observations, have 
occurred since 1972. That does indeed seem a highly significant year. 

Tornado statistics for 1979 revealed an increase of 59 over 1978, continuing a 
consistently upward frequency trend of many years. And in 1980, tornadoes increased in the 
U.S. once again — up from 847 to 866, and 88 more than 1978. The "normal" is given as 673, 
an out-of-date figure based on past averages. The clashes of heat and cold which produce 
thunderstorms and tornadoes are clearly increasing in frequency. 

Dec. 2001 Note: the remainder of this lengthy section on weather was put in the original 
Supplement mentioned at the end of the Perspective to Chapter Three. It further revealed the 
extent of global weather deterioration as of the late '70s and early ' 80s and is less relevant 

now, as we contend with the more ferocious weather and climate extremes of the 21 st 

It was mentioned earlier that this section would conclude with some additional evidence 
throwing further light on John Hamaker's urgent thesis. In short, this supporting data strongly 
confirms the obvious — that there is no longer any shortage of evidence needed for the 
initiation of intelligent worldwide cooperative action. 

** The Monthly Weather Review of March, 1980, carried an article by W.S. 
Harley — "The Significance of Climatic Change in the Northern Hemisphere 1949-1978." 
The lengthy article is summarized in its abstract: "No evidence of climatic warming is 

** The National Geographic article of November, 1976 entitled, "What's Happening To 
Our Climate" quotes Dr. J. Murray Mitchell of NOAA as saying that a distinct drop in 
average global temperature has occurred since 1940, about .5 degrees F., with a greater drop 
in high northern latitudes. This is precisely the opposite of what most climatologists, 
predicting "global warming" from the C0 2 build-up, have anticipated. 

** S.A. Bowling of the University of Alaska's Geophysical Institute contributed 
"Possible Significance of Recent Weather and Circulation Anomalies in Northeastern Canada 
for the Initiation of Continental Glaciaton" to the book Climate of the Arctic (Weller and 
Bowling, eds., 1973). Bowling notes the past tendencies for extremely rapid shifts to glacial 
conditions, and states that the first observable signs of continental ice sheets are widely 
agreed upon — primarily an increase in perennial snow cover in northeastern Canada and/or 
Scandinavia. Bowling suggests that the recent weather extremes in North America and 
elsewhere are analogous to those to be expected in the early stages of a glacial period. 


** Barry, Bradley, and Jacobs, in the same book mentioned above, contribute the article, 
"Synoptic Climatological Studies of the Baffin Island Area." Baffin Island is of course in 
northeast Canada and a site of past ice sheet coverage. The scientists reveal the fact that in 
the 1960's (just prior to the study), summer temperatures in the area distinctly declined, 
while winters grew snowier. 

** A third article in Climate of the Arctic is "Recent Climatic Changes in the Eastern 
North American Sub- Arctic." Scientists Schell, Corkum, and Sabbagh show that beginning in 
the early 1970's, the number of icebergs counted drifting southward past 48 degrees N 
latitude grew to about 2 to 4 times the 1921-1950 average, and about 4 to 8 times the 1950- 
1970 average. They interpret this as obviously indicative of climatic change but are not able 
to define it. 

** Lowell Ponte, in his 1976 book, The Cooling, states that in 1971 the Arctic areas with 
ice and snow cover suddenly increased by 12 percent (an area equal to France, Italy, and 
Great Britain combined), and has persisted to the time of his writing (1976). He also notes 

that parts of Baffin Island formerly bare in summer are now snow-covered year round, and 
that the Antarctic is expanding also. 

** "Recent Year-To-Year Variations in Seasonal Temperatures and Sea Ice Conditions in 
the Eastern Canadian Arctic," by Jacobs and Newell (Arctic, 12/79), states that the record 
cold temperatures experienced in the winter of 1978-79 in the Baffin Island area are part of a 
worsening weather trend in that region. The trend began in the 1960's and is characterized by 
growing coolness of summers and more severe sea ice conditions. 

** "New Data on Climatic Trends" (Nature, 12/15/77) is an article by nine scientists 
from three countries which states that the cooling of the northern hemisphere observed over 
the past 30 years has not yet reversed, and that spring snow totals in North America and 
Eurasia increased throughout the 1966-75 period. Thus, they say this means a general 
decrease in absorbed solar radiation at the Earth's surface. 

** The Encyclopedia Britannica's 1980 Book of the Year (p. 179) states that scientists 
aboard the icebreaker "Glacier" discovered that the Mertz and Ninnis glaciers of Antarctica, 
receding between 1911 and 1958, have advanced 12 and 15 miles, respectively, during the 
past 21 years. 

** "Recent Climatic Trends and Local Glacier Margin Fluctuations in West Greenland" 
(Nature, 3/13/80) by J .E. Gordon, states that in northwest Greenland and throughout the 
Canadian Arctic Archipelago, a distinct summer cooling has occurred since 1963 along with 
a winter precipitation increase. He notes this as a climatic deterioration which has produced 
documented sea-ice cover increase, advance of glaciers up to at least 1978, and lowering of 
average July freezing elevation by up to 500 meters. 


** "Ice-Sheet Initiation and Climatic Influences of Expanded Snow Cover in Arctic 
Canada" by L. Williams (Quaternary Research No. 10, 1978) says that a large increase in 
October 1st snow cover in the Canadian Arctic took place from 1967-70 to 1971-75. 
Williams suggests that similar effects would be expected at the onset of continental 
glaciation. No explanation is offered for the cause of the increasing snow cover. 

** Finally, we note the article from Weatherwise, April 1980, "Snowiest Cities of the 
Decade." Peter R. Chaston, its author, is Meteorologist-in-Charge of the National Weather 
Service office in Rochester, New York. Chaston has been tabulating snowfall statistics for 
the past decade. What he says is that much of the Northern Hemisphere experienced a 
"dramatic upsurge" in snowfall over the 1970' s compared with the last several decades. It is 
an established fact, he says, that along with this dramatic snowfall increase, a small drop in 
the Earth's overall temperature occurred during the 1970's. Chaston also says that the 
greatest snow cover extent ever observed was revealed by weather satellites scanning North 
America in the late 1970's. 

Meteorologist Chaston further says it is debatable whether or not what he calls the 
"Snowy Seventies" signifies a major cooling trend or is just a temporary irregularity, and that 
50 meteorologists would likely give 50 different opinions on the matter. And he says this is 
why meteorology is so exciting — the fact that even with advanced computers and the ability 
to model the motions of the atmosphere, we remain far from comprehending the mechanics 
of Mother Nature. 

Forests and Fires 

The crucial role of epidemic forest fires, as indicative of an accelerating transition into 
glacial conditions, was strongly emphasized in John Hamaker's last two papers. 

Are the forests of the world increasingly going up in smoke as they should be in a time of 
demineralized and thus "droughty" soils, increasing climatic stress (including record heat and 
drought), worsening acid rain effects, deforestation and spreading deserts, chronic 
insect/disease epidemics, etc? 

They are. The trends of increasing and accelerating destruction seem unmistakably clear 
from the available evidence, presented here. Relatively little information on areas outside of 
North America have been found by this researcher, yet the story is more than likely the same 
or worse in other temperate forest areas. Tropical forest wildfire data is scarce, though it is 
reported (Grainger, 1980; see Chapter 2) that the nutrient-poor soils and highly carbonaceous 
(mineral-poor) vegetation there burns terrifically when moisture is withheld for a time. Wide- 
scale drought and acidic rains will provide the final pre-conditioning influence prior to the 
tropical forest conflagrations predicted by Hamaker's glacial onslaught scenario. Even at 
"only" the present rates of human deforestation and desertification, these forests are, 
according to most researchers, "scheduled" for virtual extinction in 15-30 years. A new 
awareness of the glacial process, or the process itself, should alter such a schedule 


Here is the summary of the key forest fire information gathered over the past few years. 

The editorial page of the April, 1961 American Forests magazine was entitled "Fire 
Weather Ahead." The editor warned of the explosive fire situation building up in the U.S. 
forest lands, and exhorted his readers to "do something!" because so little was really known 
about how to control fires. We desperately need "more research" was his plea. He also 
warned of the great dangers of the forests' existing susceptibility to drought, and he called 
the recent fire record "pretty grim." 

This record was summarized as 80,308 fires in 1958; 86,737 fires in 1959; and in 1960 
preliminary figures said over 420,000 acres had burned, the greatest loss since 1942. Only 
four previous years, he said, had losses been so high. The worst losses of 1960 were 80,000 

acres in southern California, 110,000 acres in Oregon- Washington-Idaho-Montana, and 
17,560 acres in Wisconsin. So this is how things appeared in 1961. 

Since 1961, according to the latest available data, from USD A Agricultural Conservation 
and Forestry Statistics 1979, there have been significant jumps in both the number of fires 
and number of acres consumed. The accelerating destruction of the temperate zone forests 
may be seen in the following summary (table 4.1) of USDA's statistics. 

Table 4.1 Temperate zone forest fires/acreage burned 



% Increase 

Average # of 
fires per year 




Average total 
acreage burned 
per year 




A report in Science (4/14/78) by C. S. Wong entitled "Atmospheric Input of Carbon 
Dioxide From Burning Wood," gives the latest figures available to him for forest fire losses 
in Canada. These show that the average annual acreage burned from 1959 through 1968 was 
1,083,000 acres. (A little more than this of non-wooded acreage burned.) The latest 
information report comes from a Canadian Press release published in the Toronto Globe 
(7/24/80). The article quotes Don Merrill of the Canadian Forestry Service, who reports that 
already in July this was the worst forest fire season on record: almost 8.2 million acres had 
burned across the country. 



UPI stories from May (5/24/80) and June (6/27/80) told of some of these fires, as many 
as 500 burning at one time through drought-parched Ontario and western Canada; the fires 
were unbelievable "infernos" of 35,000; 40,000; 50,000; 80,000; 110,000; 132,000; 215,000; 
and 275,000 acres! 

These figures should help clarify the state of the forests in terms of their great (soil- 
based) vulnerability to drought, hence vulnerability to fire and quick return of their huge 
carbon stores to the atmosphere. They should also help to put the perspective and 
recommendations of John Hamaker in very sharp contrast to those of the American Forests 
editor, and countless others up to 1981, who tell the public that what we really need is. . . 
"more research!" 

More research through recent media reports only turns up more destruction, more effects 
of a failing ecology produced by the causes of a failing ecology. The following serve to 
exemplify such effects: 

** The worst fires in drought- stricken southeast Australia since at least World War II 
sweep through over 100,000 acres of woodlands. (Reuters, 10/4/80) 

** Forest fires rage on Spain's Mediterranean coast from Barcelona to Alicante province. 
(AP and UPI, 10/16/80) 

** 25,000 acres of Michigan's Huron National Forest are consumed at an "incredible 
pace." (American Forests, 7/81) 

** A record 16-square miles (over 10,000 acres) burns in a wilderness area of Colorado's 
White River National Forest, while 12,000 acres burn in the Sunflower Mountains of Arizona 
in 100 degree-plus temperatures. (San Francisco Chronicle, 6/30/80) 

** 140,000 acres (220 square miles) burns in Idaho in August, 1979. (American Forests, 

** In four months of "fire season" in 1979, officially one of the worst seasons ever, 
hundreds of thousands of acres burn in Western states, including 150,000 in Idaho, 200,000 
in Arizona, 250,000 in California. "Drought" is implicated as the major factor. (San 
Francisco Examiner, 7/6/80). 

** 50,000 acres burn in less than a week in 26 Kentucky counties in November, while 27 
forest fires burn out of control in West Virginia where 26,400 acres have been consumed 
since summer's end. (AP, 11/13/80) 

** Millions of acres of pine and oak are tinder dry, "just like a bomb," during record 
Texas heat wave. Over 250,000 acres did burn. (American Forests, 11/80) 


** California Department of Forestry official Robert Connelly, after the 23,000-acre 
Napa fire and the 61,000 acres lost in southern California fires, says that in the past decade 
1977 was "the worst." 1981, though, "has every indication that it will surpass that." (AP, 

** Over 46,000 acres burn in Alabama and 41 of 67 counties are put under alert due to 
the "critical fire situation," as 227 new fires are reported on Sunday. (San Francisco 
Examiner, 3/16/81) 

** In the first 272 months of 1981, over 500,000 acres of timberlands have been 
destroyed in Florida, Mississippi and Alabama — already more than in the entire drought year 
of 1980. (Coming Changes, May- June 1981) 

** Rainfall helps firefighters to "stall" Alaska fires, touched off by lightning strikes, 
which have burned over 400,000 acres of woodlands. At least four other western states report 
that dry weather has nourished hundreds of fires, including a 73,000-acre conflagration in 
Idaho. (San Francisco Examiner, 6/29/81) 

** Over 4,000 army troops, aided by firefighting planes and helicopters, are attempting to 
stop fires raging across southern Greece. These fires, some burning for a week so far, have 
destroyed "hundreds of thousands" of woodland acres. Ancient Olympia, birthplace of the 
Olympics, is threatened, and another huge fire is out of control in Western Greece near the 
Ionian Sea. Emergency legislation to aid the damaged areas is being proposed as the fires 
travel on. (San Francisco Examiner, 8/7/81) 

In conclusion, a note on two articles which have further bearing on fire, human 
responsibility and the state of the forests. 

"War Technology Comes To The Forests," by J.A. Savage, appeared in Friends of the 
Earth's Not Man Apart in December, 1980. It describes how the U.S. Forest Service is 
adapting technologies used in Vietnam to "modern silviculture." In addition to the arboricide 
Agent Orange, flame-throwers and bombs of napalm- like jelly are used to achieve a "clean" 
burn of all the "debris" left after clearcutting. With these methods, no slash is left, only 
"charred dirt." 

"Burning Desire" (American Forests, 1/81) quotes the Wood Energy Institute's figures 
that the number of wood-burning stoves (in the U.S.) has increased from 250,000 to 
2,000,000 in five years, yet the supply of firewood hasn't begun to keep pace with this 
growing demand. 

As Erik Eckholm made abundantly clear in Planting for the Future: Forestry for Human 
Needs (Worldwatch Institute Paper No. 26), the "gargantuan" demand for firewood, lumber, 
and undepleted agricultural land is making short work of the Earth's tree cover the world 
over. The assistance being provided via insects, disease, and acid rains must be summarized 
in the next chapter, but here some appropriate words of summation may be offered. They are 
the words of John Hamaker in sending a follow-up article and letter to Representative James 
Weaver of Oregon (3/3/80). 

The article was "Worldwide Starvation By 1990," and the letter simply said, "If you want 
the forests to come back in Oregon you will have to bring them back throughout the world." 


Chapter 5 

The Subsoil Drainage System and Our Vanishing Food 




John Hamaker completed this article in May of 1981. In it he further clarifies the present 
advanced (late-interglacial) state of soil demineralization. He explains the long-neglected and 
abused soil phenomena involved in the soil' s natural drainage system, showing the relation 
between this basic system and our survival. Hamaker depicts, most convincingly, how close 
is the relation of soil quality and human health — and how deeply critical the degenerating 
quality of both has become. 

As always, the fundamental way to re-build and restore soil, as well as human health, is 
emphasized. Thus the perceptive reader will again see the immeasurably valuable, practical, 
positive messages Hamaker offers which make it possible to deal, in a truly "wholistic" way, 
with the apparently awesome negative realities at hand. With the whole life and future of 
humankind at stake, such a way must be recognized and, obviously, acted upon. 

P. 94 


_ ^f4*£*'^ 

* ft 

^ j" 

-v ■ 


■1 j 

t » •• 

n 1Il_ 

Fig. 5.1 Wandell Drain 


Dirt removed from ditch 

Old topsoil 


Gravel layer 

Dense clay soil, probably 


glacial advance preceding 

the last one 

Stream bed 


Fig. 5.2 Wandell Drain layers 


The Subsoil Drainage System 
and Our Vanishing Food Supply 


Since the early 1960's it has been clearly recognized that the population curve was going 
to outrun the food supply curve in the decades immediately ahead. What was not recognized 
is that the food supply curve was going to drop to very low production levels, forcing 
starvation on the world much sooner than anticipated. 

Much of Africa is suffering from drought. In its remote areas there is anarchy. Armed 
bands roam the countryside taking the little food that farmers have and leaving them to starve 
to death. Those who saw TV newsman John Hart's pictured essay of the starving families 
may have thought, "Those could be my children and my grandchildren." By 1990 they well 
may be your children and mine. 

Twenty years have passed and nothing of substance has been done to prevent the 
destruction of civilization. Part of the failure is due to the unholy alliance of government and 
the owners of this country whose only interest is profit. Part of the failure is due to the 
fragmentation of the efforts of innumerable groups of do-gooders who insist on "scratching at 
what itches." The result is that nothing of substance has been accomplished. We are on the 
threshold of starvation and the environment is deteriorating at an accelerating rate. Twenty 
years of failure. 

The only possible way out of this morass is to recognize the basic problems and attack 
them head on. This paper is about the basic problems and the relationship between some of 
the "what itches" problems to the basic problems. If these things are known and understood, 
perhaps we may yet effect our survival. 


Food production in the northern hemisphere in 1980 seems to have lost about 20 percent 
of potential because of adverse weather. On this continent it was drought and heat. On the 

Eurasian continent it was cold, wet weather. In the southern hemisphere, the growing season 
started with drought in Australia, Africa, and South America. The world food reserves are 
expected to be gone by the spring of 1981. We will probably have a worldwide food shortage 
by 1982. There is no reason to expect the weather to improve, because the atmospheric 
carbon dioxide which is destroying the temperate-zone climate is increasing at an 
accelerating rate. 

Everyone who has ever studied the C0 2 problem has warned that the consequence of 
permitting the rise of CO, would be to alter the weather in ways which would be destructive 
to agriculture. More recently, some have warned that if anything is going to be done about 
the problem, it must be done now. With the world on the verge of famine, I would think that 
is the least that could be said. I was saying the same thing 10 years ago. Now my opinion is 
that, based on past human performance, it is unlikely that we have sufficient time to do what 
must be done if we are to prevent the destruction of almost all of the present world 
population by starvation. 

Weather problems are not the only reason for the impending famine. Far more important 
is the fact that the soils are almost stripped of minerals. In fact, the weather problems are 
caused simply because the soil does not have enough minerals worldwide to support a 
sufficient growth of plant life (forests in particular) to remove the amount of C0 2 from the 
atmosphere which is going into it from all sources. 

Farmers all over the world have known for centuries that it would be better to eat the seed 
than plant it in subsoil. Only in the few places where the glaciers left unusually heavy 
deposits of ground rock are there enough minerals left in the subsoil so it can be made 
productive. For a good many decades we have been completely dependent on a few inches of 
topsoil for our food supply. We have spent hundreds of millions of dollars on agricultural 
research; yet the problem was not even recognized. Incredible! Now we face the crisis — mass 


The Drainage System 

Many people have difficulty in comprehending the fact that the soils are running out of 
minerals. Perhaps the following discussion will help to explain our dilemma. 

About 25 miles northwest of Lansing, Michigan, (one mile west on Price Road from 
Francis Road,) there is a portion of a drainage ditch called the Wandell Drain. (Fig. 5.1 and 
Fig. 5.2, p. 94) 

The pictures show a streak of gravel, sand, and clay on both sides of the ditch. Gravel and 
boulders strewn on the bank and in the bottom of the ditch simply fell out of the backhoe 

bucket as it was drawn up the bank. I followed the ditch for about four miles and the gravel 
streak was continuous. The visible streak is a cross section of a layer of gravel which lies 
about 6 to 10 feet below all the land drained by the ditch. 

The gravel layer averages about a foot thick, varying above and below this dimension. 
Below the gravel layer is a very dense clay with a very slow rate of water penetration. Above 
the gravel layer is typical worn-out subsoil. The ditch is in a natural stream bed. 
Consequently, there is much more organic matter in the subsoil than there is on the crop land 
in the drainage basin. When there is water in the subsoil, numerous small streams of water 
flow out of the gravel layer. The streams of water have, in a few weeks, cut many small 
ditches in the dense clay below the gravel layer. 

The information in the ditch ties into something learned from a backhoe hole dug on my 
10-acre plot in a vain effort to satisfy the asinine septic system requirements of the Michigan 
State Health Department. They require that a septic field be connected to an underlying bed 
of deep sand, presumably on the theory that sewage improves the nutritional quality of well 

On the sidewall of the backhoe excavation close to the bottom, there was an oval area of 
sand about a foot wide, through which a stream of water was flowing. The sand was a rather 
large-grain size, making a porous vein through which the water could flow toward the ditch. 

In retrospect, it is apparent that the depth of the gravel layer now exposed in the ditch is 
about the same as the stream of water close to the bottom of the backhoe hole, and that the 
water was flowing to the ditch through the gravel layer. What the backhoe brought up at that 
depth was mostly subsoil with a few pieces of large gravel and a little sand. 


The above observations are very instructive. They permit our drawing two significant 

1. The thin drainage layer of gravel is all that is left of the approximately 6 to 10 feet of 
glacial till which was deposited by the last glacial advance in this area. 

2. This bottom layer of that glacial till constitutes the natural drainage system which 
prevents the land from becoming saturated and turning into a vast swamp. It also supplies 
water for the deep roots of plants in dry weather. 

The thickness of the layer of glacial till immediately following glaciation 10,000 years 
ago can only be guessed at. We know that erosion has removed some of the worn-out rock 
residue; we do not know how much, since we do not know if the present elevation of the 
gravel layer is at the original elevation. Furthermore, water filtering down from the topsoil 
and flowing horizontally in the drainage layer of gravel and sand keep this layer cleared of 
the fine particles of worn-out material. Above the drainage zone, the worn-out particles, 
carried by percolating rain water working in conjunction with the soil expansion and 

contraction, flow under the larger particles of unused material and gradually displace them 
upward to the topsoil. One thing is certain. On my 10 acres, the only significant amount of 
unused glacial till is in the drainage layer and in the topsoil. In the topsoil I found a total of 
272 inches of unused material, and it has been so badly leached by the acids of chemical 
agriculture that four of the trace elements (zinc, tin, strontium and lithium) found in glacial 
gravel by spectrographic analysis did not show up at all in a similar spectrographic analysis 
of my soil. 

Virgin forests take in 100 percent of the rainfall. A couple of hundred years ago, 
Michigan was largely covered with virgin forests. At that time, the amount of water flowing 
in the drainage layer of till was undoubtedly enough to keep the entire layer flushed out and 
in place. The land was converted for farming and, as a result, the bank of fertility, instead of 
being recycled as in the virgin forest, has been converted to crops and shipped out. The 
remaining forested land has been harvested repeatedly, thus removing soil minerals. 

The lack of soil moisture has become a major problem. Under natural conditions, a drainage 
basin stream tends to fill with sediment up to a foot or two above the graveled drainage layer, 
thereby slowing the discharge of water from the drainage basin subsoil. This holding back of 
the water in the drainage layer causes streams and rivers to run at about the same level the 
year around instead of being dry or flooding. 



Ten years ago, there was a shallow pond plus 4 or 5 acres of marshland behind my 10- 
acre plot. This water-saturated area exerted a constant pressure of about 10 feet of water on 
the slowly-permeable dense clay below the gravel layer. It must have been a prime source for 
the underground water supply. When the drainage layer under the drainage basin was full of 
water, it also greatly enhanced the penetration of water into the underground reservoirs. 

Now there is a ditch about 15 feet deep through the marsh. The marsh and pond have 
been drained. In the pond area, there is about 10 feet of peat exposed above the drainage 
layer of gravel. The underground reservoirs are obviously being depleted. 

Five acres of marshland have been made available for agriculture, but the underground 
water has been pulled out from hundreds of acres of cropland subsoil. No wonder the crops 
are in trouble after a couple of weeks of dry weather! The crops are almost entirely dependent 
on a thin topsoil that is low on organic matter and contains too few available minerals to 

support a soil organism population adequate to prepare the soil for good water storage. 

There is another effect taking place. The base of the gravel drainage layer is a sharp line, 
but the topside of the layer is up-and-down, as seen in the picture (Fig. 5.2). When the trees 
were cut down, and the moldboard plow sealed the subsoil clay, the water started moving 
laterally on the hardpan into the low areas of the field. My four-and-a-third acres of soil 
mineralized with 46 tons/acre of gravel crusher screenings is still doing that after four years, 
although to a much lesser extent than when the first crop was planted. Throughout the world, 

soils similar to my ten acres have only enough water reaching the drainage layer to keep 
small streams flowing at intervals of 6 or 8 feet. The rest of the gravel layer has become 
infiltrated by clay, and the gravel has begun to rise toward the surface. We are in the process 
of losing the drainage layer on a worldwide scale. 

The destruction of the drainage layer has been further intensified because some farmers 
have listened to "experts" at the ag schools and have installed toxic plastic drain pipes a few 
feet below the surface in order to short-cut the percolating water and thereby further dry up 
the drainage layer. 


About 25 years ago, in East Texas, I dug a pond. The cut ran about 250 feet along the 
base of a hillside. In all that length, there were only two or three sand channels where the 
water was still coming down the hill. All the rest had been sealed up by clay long ago. The 
water simply penetrated the 8" sandy loam to the dense clay beneath it and drifted downhill 
— an ideal set-up for sheet erosion if anyone tried to plow the land. Even the weedy growth 
on the hillside did not prevent some of the topsoil from eroding during heavy rains. 

There is a penalty for failure to maintain the drainage layer. 

Michigan's County Drain Commissioners are trying to outdo the ag professors in 
destroying agriculture in Michigan. Does anyone know of anything sensible that the 
agricultural establishment has done for the soil? 

If drain commissioners were to do what makes sense, they would fill the ditches to the 
bottom of the drainage layer, put in a foot of gravel to reestablish the drainage layer, and let 
the stream take over. In order to refill the drainage layer with water it is necessary to obtain 
nearly 100 percent penetration of rain. A soil remineralization program must be maintained. 
In about 50 years, there would develop a deep organic topsoil that would take in all the rain 
that falls and hold it until the excess water could sink into the subsoil to refill the drainage 
layer. With water in the drainage layer, the increased flow would eventually remove the clay, 
consolidating sand and gravel as it should. The water in the drainage layer would induce deep 
root growth to sustain the plants in times of drought. 

If we assume that in this particular area there was a mixture of 10 feet of coarse gravel 
and sand 10,000 years ago, then 1 foot was consumed every 1,000 years, or .1 foot (1.2 
inches) every 100 years. There is still left 272 inches, or theoretically enough for 210 years. 
This is a rough figure, needing a lot of interpretation, but it does give some perspective about 
what has happened in the approximately 200 years in which the land has been farmed. 

Two hundred years ago, we can estimate, there was about twice as much rock in the 
topsoil as at present. Since weathering affects the surface area of all the particles of rock 
equally, the loss of rock is partially due to reduction of particle size of the rock which is still 
there, and partially due to the change of smaller particles into demineralized subsoil. As the 
percentage of rock still containing useful elements decreased in the topsoil, the quantity of 

fine particles (produced by weathering of larger material) must decrease. When the glacial 
mix was still feeding upfront the subsoil, the balance of particle sizes could be maintained by 
new material. That is no longer true, and probably has not been true for at least 400 years. 


The significance of the loss of small particle-size rock is, of course, a huge percentage 
loss of rock surface area. The weathering* of the total surface area of rock determines the 
rate of exposure of elements useful to the microorganisms in the soil. The plant roots feed on 
the protoplasm of the microorganisms; thus, the amount of plant life growth is dependent on 
total rock surface area in the soil. 

*The term "weathering" is a poor description for the process of reducing 
rocks in the topsoil to minute particles stripped of minerals of value to the life 
process. "Weathering" over-emphasizes such factors as freezing and thawing. 

If weathering were a significant factor, no gravel would ever reach the 
surface in the northern states where freezing of the ground extends to depths of 
3 or 4 feet. The gravel would be reduced to the very fine particle sizes in worn- 
out subsoil before it ever got to the topsoil. It doesn't happen. Gravel does not 
break down until it reaches the aerated topsoil. Furthermore, if weather factors 
(freezing, thawing, moisture, and weak acids in the rain under natural 
conditions) were significant, then the more vulnerable rock would disappear 
from the total glacial mixture long before the mixture is exhausted in the 
10,000 years after glaciation. This process does not happen. The balance of soil 
elements remains the same right down to the time of exhaustion. 

The only explanation for this breakdown of rock is the expenditure of 
energy by microorganisms. The crystal structure of the silicate rocks (about 2/3 
of all the rocks) is mostly useless to the organisms. However, the minerals 
between the crystals of silicon oxides or aluminum silicate are useful to the 
microorganisms. The organisms simply cut the crystals loose by working down 
the sides of the crystals and across the bottom. Only at this point can the 
weathering factor have any effect in removing the crystals from the rock 

The microorganisms can not break down some rocks and neglect others 
because if they did, the topsoil would be filled with undesirable rock that in 
time would result in starvation of the microorganisms. But nature in the infinite 
wisdom which constitutes "the balance of nature" has provided organisms 
which prefer the combinations of elements found in each type of rock so that 
all of the rock is consumed in accord with the needs of the total microorganism 
population. The microorganisms swap minerals (probably as organic 
compounds) so that all get the exact balance of elements they need. Then 
nature has provided plants which prefer the protoplasm of specific organisms, 
so that all the organism protoplasm is brought to the surface and the minerals 

therein ultimately go into the rivers, mostly as leaf mold, where they may go 
through many more life cycles before coming to rest as sedimentary deposits 
on the ocean floor. 

"Weathering" is an obsolete word. 


A ton of ground gravel will make something on the order of 16,000 acres of surface area 
available to the microorganisms. The minerals exposed on the surfaces of the ground rock do 
not need weathering to make them available. This is what makes soil remineralization 

The mathematical statement that there is enough rock left in the soil to last 210 years is 
just the sort of silly figure we often get from statisticians. 

When lands begin to fall off in yield, they cease to have useful productivity in a few 
decades. That happened in East Texas in roughly the period from 1930 to 1950. Now it has 
about run its course in the glaciated area of Michigan in which my ten acres are located. The 
"thumb" area of Michigan saw its white bean yield drop from 2,000 pounds per acre to 1,300 
pounds in the decade of the 1960's. No amount of agricultural chemicals can bring that 
production back or keep it from dropping to a lower yield. 

What has happened, of course, is that the unused, fine rock material has stopped coming 
up from the subsoil because there isn't any more. During the few decades when the soil 
collapses in yield, the fine material is used up and the major part of the surface area of rock in 
the soil is gone. Or to put it another way, the availability of the elements has all but ended. 

The discussion of the gravel and sand drainage layer in one area of central Michigan 
applies to all the land. All underground water eventually drains into a stream bed, or lake; it 
then comes up in springs at a lower elevation or runs directly into the ocean. The point is that 
the capacity of the subsoil drainage layer in any area has been geared to the annual rainfall 
and water penetration under natural conditions. When we alter the amount of water reaching 
and being maintained in the drainage layer, we are in trouble. If we decrease the amount of 
water by losing it to surface run-off, we will lose water and therefore sand and gravel from 
the drainage layer. This sand and gravel cannot be replaced. Arid soils have very little 
drainage layer left, simply because a drainage layer which is not kept full of slowly flowing 
water will clog up with fine, worn-out particles which will eventually displace the drainage 
sands and gravels and lift them to the topsoil. The sea salts carried in by the infrequent rains 
have generally accumulated in the soils for lack of sufficient water to establish drainage 
systems and thereby flush the salts back to the ocean. When dry lands are irrigated, they tend 
to become waterlogged for lack of drainage. The salts dissolve and are left on the surface 
when surface moisture evaporates. 


The best use of arid soils is to put them back into grass, the way most of them were when 
the land was settled. With remineralization more and better grass can be grown than was 
there originally and the land can be used by grazing animals. The water that is left in the 
underground reservoirs should be reserved for people and livestock. The refill rate of the 
reservoirs is much too slow to support irrigation, as shown by steadily falling water tables in 
most exploited areas. 

In spite of the excellent mixing and selection of the types of rocks in a glacial mix by the 
tectonic and glacial systems, soils vary somewhat in their ability to supply the elements 
useful to the microorganisms. The sea solids are a back-up system for supplying minerals to 
the microorganisms. When the sea solids fall with rain, they are either in solution or of an 
extremely small particle size. On well-drained soils they pass through the soil with the water 
and go back into the ocean. All of the elements are in the sea solids. This makes it possible 
for the microorganisms to choose what they need as the elements pass through the topsoil. 
Where the supply of sea solids is adequate, the sea solids are an important factor in the 
quality and quantity of microorganisms and hence the crops which grow there. 

The mineral requirements to support the growth of soil organisms (and hence plants) are 
a natural balance of the available (to the microorganisms) elements in the total mixture of the 
rocks on the top layers of the earth's crust, and the natural balance of elements dissolved and 
suspended in sea water brought with the clouds. 

The mineral balance of salted soils must be restored by remineralization and by allowing 
large quantities of plant refuse to go back into the topsoil. The plant refuse would provide the 
carbon requirements of the microorganisms; the gases in the air and water complete their 
food requirements. 


The lands which have adequate rainfall and salvageable drainage systems must be used 
for food and fuel crops. The latter will have to be mostly wood plantations grown on 
mineralized soil. The wood, grown where people are, can provide firewood, alcohol, and 
methane gas. With small local alcohol and methane power plants serving local needs, the 
very heavy cost and energy requirements for transportation of energy supplies can be 

The Decline of Soil Minerals 
and the Rise of Malnutrition 

The true measure of the annual mineral supply coming from the soil is the state of health 
of plants, animals, and people living on the land. Now the record shows that everywhere one 
looks, there is malnutrition and death. It is a time for dying, and the reason is quite clear. 

The following is quoted from Hunza Health Secrets by Renee Taylor: 

In December 1945 in the United States Soil Conservation publications the following 
statements were made: 

"The U.S. produces more food than any other nation in the world, yet, according to 
Dr. Thomas Parran, Jr., 40 percent of the population suffers from malnutrition. How can 
this be true? The majority of people get enough to eat. Evidently the food eaten does not 
have enough of the right minerals and vitamins in it to keep them healthy. What causes 
food to lack these necessary elements? Investigators have found that food is no richer in 
minerals than the soil from which it comes. Depleted soils will not produce healthy 
nutritious plants. Plants suffering from mineral deficiencies will not nourish healthy 
animals. Mineral-deficient plants and undernourished animals will not support our people 
in health. Poor soils perpetuate poor people physically, mentally, and financially." 



Parran' s observation was in 1945. In 1950, the USDA put out a handbook, Composition 
of Foods; revised it in 1963; then put a new cover on it in 1975 and called it Handbook of the 
Nutritional Contents of Foods. To my knowledge, there has been no revision as of 1980. The 
agricultural chemicals industry, which has been running USDA for decades, probably 
wouldn't like to see an updated mineral comparison with the 1963 figures. However, the 
protein content is high or low in just about the same proportion as the minerals. This is so 
because just about all the minerals are used in the proteins called enzymes, which in turn are 
catalysts which assist in making all the other protein compounds. So with the protein in corn 
down from the poor protein content of about 9 percent in 1963 to 6 percent now, the mineral 
content must also have dropped about 33 percent. Malnutrition of 40 percent in 1945 has 
risen to about 100 percent in 1980. 

The malnutrition which Parran observed in 1 945 is a reflection of the fact that many 
American soils were collapsing in crop protein yields (soil microorganism protoplasm 
proteins). William Albrecht ( The Albrecht Papers, page 276, published by Acres, USA) noted 
that Kansas wheat dropped from a range of 10 to 19 percent protein in 1940 to a range of 9 to 
15 percent protein in 1949. In 1940, the western half of Kansas produced wheat ranging from 
15 to 19 percent. In 1949, only 5 counties had wheat as high as 15 percent protein. Almost 
the entire state wheat crop had dropped below 13 percent, and most of it was below 12 
percent protein. U.S. wheat averages 8 to 12 percent now — about half what it ought to be. 

The best land in the corn belt produces wheat around 15 percent. We are being robbed of our 
food supply by our profit-hungry financial rulers and the government they have bought and 
paid for. So Johnny can't read, crime is on a rampage, the cost of disease is staggering, 
absenteeism from the work place is 14 percent in the auto industry, the army can't use half its 
applicants because of physical or mental reasons, etc. 

Year by year, as the last of the soil minerals disappear, our strength and vitality are being 
thrown away. What better example than the 35,000,000 of us who are handicapped by 
arthritis. Basically the problem is that one member of the body, such as bone or muscle, rubs 
against an adjacent member without sufficient lubricant between them. The body's mucus is 
supposed to do this job. However, if the intake of zinc is too little, the mucus will lose its 
lubricity and viscosity and turn to the consistency of water. 


Personally, I don't need documentation for the foregoing because I experienced it. First I 
was hit hard by the domestic version of Agent Orange, Ortho "Weed Be Gone" (2,4-D 2,4,5- 
T). One of the many afflictions which followed was that of continuous sinus leakage. In 
about 6 months, the mucus turned to water. Obviously I was not making the necessary 
compounds as fast as I was losing them. I developed arthritis in the right knee. I had it for no 
more than 2 months when I read about zinc being necessary in at least 27 enzyme systems. I 
knew that zinc was required in relatively large quantities for that of a trace element. Under 
normal conditions there is a steady loss of mucus from the body. It seemed an obvious 
relationship, so I obtained some zinc sulfate pills from the health food store and took 6 or 8 
pills a day for a week. At the end of that time, the mucus was more viscous than it had ever 
been. In 30 days the painful arthritis was gone. Within 6 weeks the shoulder muscle that 
simply would not heal was repaired and the various hyper- sensitive areas in the sinuses and 
respiratory tract were de-sensitized by the protective mucus. 

It is the function of the mucus to lubricate and protect virtually every part of the body. 
Therefore, when it loses its ability to function, there is a great variety of physical as well as 
probable nerve and brain problems which result. The American people are forced to suffer 
this pain and handicap because the USDA and the land-grant colleges have for decades been 
controlled by the agricultural chemical companies who insist on selling chemicals even if it 
kills us all. 

Zinc is not a cure-all. It takes a lot more than that to produce high-quality mucus. In 
excess, it can inhibit the beneficial effects of other elements. It is known that copper is 
suppressed by excess zinc, and copper is required for heart function. Therefore, those who 
take zinc should take it only when the mucus loses its viscosity and lubricity or when pain 
indicates a need. 

Obviously, there is no way to maintain good health by taking some of this and a pinch of 
that. We aren't smart enough. The only answer is to make sure that the soil contains an 
abundance of available elements from the total natural mixture, and let the microorganisms 

pick and choose what they want, so that the natural balance of nutrients comes up through 
the plant life to us. There is no legitimate excuse for continuing to degenerate in mind and 
body. We can have the best health the world has ever known. 


Our Forests Are Dying 

In the March 1969 issue of American Forests, Hugh Fosburgh has written an eloquent 
article, "All Is Not Well at Baker." Baker is a tract of forest in the Adirondack Mountains of 
New York. It seems that within a span of only a few years, the dying of all varieties of trees 
has taken place, except for two of little value — the hemlock and tamarack. At the same time, 
the insects which attack the various trees have greatly multiplied. 

It is clear enough what happened to the Baker Tract, and it is in process in all of the 
forests and jungles. For instance, "The rate of forest growth in the White Mountains of New 
Hampshire has declined 18 percent between 1956 and 1965. . ." ("Acid Rain," The Amicus 
Journal, Winter 1981, National Resources Defense Council) 

The last of the minerals have come up in the forest lands, as in the croplands. Over the 
last 3 to 6 decades, the finer fraction of unused rock has been turned into subsoil with a 
consequent great reduction in surface area and hence protoplasm production. Since these are 
the compounds which impart health, and resistance to disease and insects, the trees have 
become easy prey to the parasites. Acid rain, so heavy in the northeastern states, has wiped 
out the last of the carbonates, resulting in excessive acidification of the soil, as it has done to 
the lakes of that region. When the acidity of water and soil drops below about pH 5.5, it 
begins to kill off various kinds of microorganisms. Only a few acid-tolerant organisms can 
survive, and only a few acid-tolerant trees and plants can survive on the poor quality and 
quantity of protoplasm which the soil provides. No amount of pesticides can arrest the dying 
in the Baker Tract; only an immediate aerial remineralization program can save what is left 
of it. 

In September 1961, W. Schwenke presented a paper on "Forest Fertilization and Insect 
Buildup." The paper described work done in the previous nine years at the Institute of 
Applied Zoology at the Forest Research Center, Munich, Germany. 

The work was based on the observation that forest parasites had greater population 
density on poor forest soil than on more fertile forest soil, and on the observation that forest 
soils can be improved by fertilization. 

The fertilization consisted of 72 to I/2 tons per acre of limestone plus a light application 
of NPK. This minimal soil remineralization cut parasite populations on the order of 30 
percent to 50 percent. On some of the soils the effect was still observable nine years after the 

application. They also found that the increase in growth rate produced a value which far 
exceeded the cost of fertilizing the soil. 


Limestone probably has a broader range of elements than any other single type of rock. 
That is because it is formed from the shells, bones, and organic matter which falls to the 
ocean floor. It is not, however, a complete balance of elements to support living organisms. 
This is shown by the observed fact that the lasting effect of the fertilization depended on the 
minerals that were in the soil before fertilization. 

This minimal experiment can be compared with a real mineralization project which has 
been going on for about 3,000,000 years; that is, all during the present glacial epoch. Two 
dozen glaciers can be counted in the Himalayan Mountains at the headwaters of the Mekong 
and Red Rivers of Vietnam. Every year the rivers flood the two river deltas. Every year a rice 
crop is grown. For as long as anyone remembers, the two deltas have served as the "rice bowl 
of the Orient." They will continue to be productive soils as long as the glaciers continue to 
grind the mixed layers of rock in the mountains — unless some educated fool decides to install 
flood control projects on the two rivers. 

The deltas are nature's demonstration of how to feed the soil organisms which in turn 
feed the plants. No chemist can ever improve on the natural system for creating life. It is too 

One would be very dull-witted to fail to learn from this demonstration what we must do to 
reinvigorate our crops, forests and jungles so that civilization can survive. 

In recent years, there has been developed much excellent scientific equipment applicable 
to the study of biological compounds. There has been a resulting boom in knowledge gained 
about the compounds that enter the body by way of the food supply. A listing of just a few of 
the many articles now appearing in the science journals is pertinent to this question of 
minerals in the food supply: 

* "Chemical Clue to Obesity Found" {Science News, 1 1/8/80) states that a high- 
energy enzymatic process for controlling sodium and potassium within the cell is 
functioning at a low level in fat people. Carbon compounds are stored as fat instead 
of being used for energy. An enzyme containing sodium, potassium and 
phosphorous is in short supply. [Author's note: a shortage of one or all elements in 
the food could cause a shortage of the enzyme. The shortage in the body starts as a 
shortage in the soil.] 


* "Mental Disorders: A New Approach to Treatment," {Science, 1/5/79) says that 
choline (found in lecithin) cures a mental disorder called tardive dyskinesia. 

* "Vitamin D Deficiency Inhibits Pancreatic Secretion of Insulin," (Science, 8/15/80). 

* "Mind-Body Confusion," (Science News, 10/1 1/80). Of 100 people about to be 
legally confined to a mental institution, about half were found to have physical 
causes, basically of a dietary nature, which were responsible for their behavior. 

* "Protein Celebrities Meet in the Brain," (Science News, 1 1/29/80). Interferon, an 
anti-viral compound, is thought to belong with the pituitary gland hormones and 
endorphins in affecting human thoughts, emotions, and behavior. 

* "Vitamin A as a Cancer Shield," (Science News, 1 1/15/80). 

* "Prostaglandins Thwart Viruses," (Science News, 9/6/80). 

* For a more comprehensive view of the relation of health and nutrition, one might 
read the 1,129 pages of Vol. I and II of The Influence of Nutritional Status on 
Pollutant Toxicity and Carcinogenicity by Edward J. Calabrese, University of 

The above references are just a small sampling of the research now going on in the field 
of biological chemicals. The chemical and pharmaceutical companies are turning these 
compounds into profit-making products. Nutrition will now come by way of a doctor's 
prescription. Peculiarly, I have yet to see in a science journal the obvious conclusion that we 
must remineralize the soil (and stop poisoning and demineralizing the food in growing and 
processing), so that we will all have an abundance of the natural compounds required to build 
healthy bodies and functioning brains. It is unfortunate for us that the chemical companies, 
the government agencies, and the researchers have a vested interest in the 200-billion dollar 
annual medical bill. 

The crop soils are badly demineralized. The minerals that are left have been selectively 
leached by acidic "fertilizers" so that the minerals in the food supply are not only in short 
supply, but some elements are virtually missing. This can only result in enzyme shortages. 

Enzyme shortages sooner or later result in the physical, mental and spiritual degeneration of 


Alexander Schauss, author of Diet, Crime, and Delinquency and Orthomolecular 
Treatment of Criminal Behavior, and other research works, was interviewed in the August, 
1980 issue of the farm journal, Acres, USA. He puts the cost of crime at $200 billion 
annually, the same as our national medical bill and about $60 billion more than the defense 
budget. Schauss has shown convincingly that diet and crime are directly related. Several of 
our more progressive cities now have a system whereby juvenile first offenders are paroled to 
people capable of supervising their diet. Remarkable records are being made in preventing 
the first-offense juveniles from becoming repeaters — habitual criminals who would otherwise 
overflow the prisons. 

In Michigan, we always go the stupid route. Our answer to the crime problem is longer 
sentences. Some prisons and jails have 2 or 3 times the occupants they were built to house. A 

federal judge has issued orders, so we are going to build more prisons. With what, I don't 
know. The taxpayers are in revolt. We have 14 percent unemployment. The state can't meet 
the budget, so we are cutting down on "unnecessary" things like education, welfare, care of 
the aged, etc. 

Along with the rest of the country, Michigan's scholastic achievement scores have been 
dropping steadily for two decades. We send our malnourished, chemically-toxified, 
hyperactive, misbehaving, dull-witted kids to school and then scream at the teachers for not 
turning them into geniuses. 

The whole sorry picture could have been changed by now if the state's politicians had 
jumped on soil remineralization and biomass solar energy 10 years ago. We would now have 
major and growing machinery and equipment industries related to food and fuel, and a food 
supply which would have given our people the vitality of mind and body the state so 
desperately needs. But what can you expect from an elective system which permits the Farm 
Bureau and the corporate structure generally to buy candidates at election time? The result is 
that the legislature and the executive branch are putty to be molded in the corporate interests. 

The situation is the same at the federal level. The Congress will dispense (out of your 
pocket) palliatives by the hundreds. But suggest a problem solution which conflicts with 
corporate interests, and these stout defenders of the common man start squeaking like mice. 
As Ralph Nader says, "80 percent of the time Congress comes down on the corporate side of 
an issue." It is my observation that the Congress does something for the people either when 
there is a massive public demand, or when the corporate structure thinks it would be wise to 
throw the peons a bone to keep them from rioting in the streets. 



In the Congress, the corporations enjoy a "heads I win, tails you lose" situation. They 
control both major parties. The people, in disgust, have turned to revulsion voting. Every four 
years of failure to solve problems, by weak and corrupt politicians, elicits a "throw the bums 
out" election response and we get a new set of bums. Failure doesn't satisfy anybody, so we 
see third party efforts. Unfortunately, third parties tend to advocate socialism and such anti- 
human practices as unlimited abortions. 

Our people, or their immediate ancestors, came to this country because they did not want 
to be governed by the arbitrary decisions of other people. Our people are independent and 
they are smart enough to know that if the doctrine of personal responsibility for the results of 
one's behavior is abandoned, then we must lose our independence to those who of necessity 
must control our actions for us. A successful third party must be based on a restructuring of 
the laws to insure a degree of justice which will enable us to function as a free and peaceful 

Meanwhile, the power of centralized wealth holds us to a system of soil destruction 
which, before the decade of the 80' s is over, will destroy our agricultural and technical 

civilization. In so doing, centralized wealth will also destroy itself, just as certainly as it is 
now destroying the dollar. 

We are losing the soil's underground drainage system. We are losing the last of the soil's 
life- supporting minerals. It is time for human civilization to die out and relinquish the world 
to the small number of tribal bands which, as in the past glacial periods, will manage to 
survive. Most of this process will have taken place by 1990. Why? Simply because a rule of 
greed has been allowed to perpetuate itself for century after century. "All experience hath 
shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer while evils are sufferable, than to right 
themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed." The evils are no longer 




Providing a concise review of further evidence on life's supporting chain of soil fertility- 
quality nutrition-human health, and a sense of the immeasurably great consequences of 
allowing any links to weaken, will be the first purpose here. Then a closer look should be 
taken at how forest disease and insects, plus acidic rains, are indeed "ably assisting" 
wildfires, weather stresses, and man to bring quickly a "world without trees." 

The Soil and Health 

Vast quantities of research have been done this century on the infinite manifestations of 
ill-health in human beings, and on how to alter these states with man-made chemical 
compounds. A comparatively miniscule amount of thought and research has gone toward 
understanding and utilizing a balance of the elementary factors, including soil fertility, which 
together build and sustain the normal state of positive well-being. Simply stated, these health 
factors (such as pure whole food from fertile soil, pure air and water, exercise, rest, sleep, and 
sunshine) have not been given prominence in human educational systems, and the degree to 
which these factors have been ignored or abused is closely reflected in individual and societal 

So as not to insult the reader's intelligence and good sense by examining all the works at 
hand which are "shouting" evidence of the decisive nature of the soil-health relationship, a 
representative few examples may be cited to inspire a recognition of the obvious. 

Firman Bear of Rutgers University did a study on the trace element contents of 
vegetables which was published in the 1948 Soil Science Society of America Proceedings. 
This study deserves mention because it clearly shows the very significant fact that foods 
which may look the same, actually may have huge variations in mineral content and thus their 
health-promoting value. A chart summarizing his findings appeared in the March, 1977 issue 
of Acres, USA, and is reproduced below (Table 5.1). 

1 1 4 


Variations in Mineral Content in Vegetables (Firman E. Bear report. 

Rutgers U.) 

Percentage of 
dry weight 

Millequivalents per 

100 grams dry 


Trace Elements 
ppm dry matter 

Total Ash or 
Mineral Matter 























































































































































Table 5.1 Variation in mineral content in vegetables 

In a 1977 paper, John Hamaker made detailed comparison of Bear's data with that of 
USDA's 1975 reprint of the 1963 Composition of Foods Handbook. Among other things, he 
notes the fact that the Handbook only gives data for a single trace element, iron. To quote 

. . . but it is a very significant element. A comparison on a part-per-million 
basis with Bear's highest and lowest, followed by the Handbook average is as 
follows: snap beans 227, 10, and 8; cabbage 94, 20, and 4; lettuce 516, 9, and 
14; tomatoes 1938, 1, and 5; spinach 1584, 19, and 31. In the Bear study, if one 
trace element is low in all the vegetables, then all the other trace minerals are 
low. Therefore, the average of these vegetables in 1963 were no better supplied 
with trace minerals than the lowest in 1948. It has been fourteen years since the 
1963 studies. USDA ought to have upgraded its information and included 
much more trace element information. Instead, they copied the old 1963 
Handbook tables and put them out in a fancy new cover in 1975. An honest set 
of figures on trace elements would show a lot of zeroes on a part-per-million 
basis and damn chemical agriculture for the monstrous fraud it is. 

All of our food should be as good or better than the best found by Firman 
Bear. Such standards can be and must be obtained very quickly if we are to 


Now, 18 years (of soil demineralization) after 1963, the Handbook is still being 
distributed by USDA as a valid resource. A letter to them requesting updated information 
brought a reply from Frank Hepburn, Leader, Nutrient Data Research Group (Federal Bldg., 
Hyattsville, MD 20782, 301-436-8491) on September 16, 1980. It said, in part: "Revised 
sections of Agriculture Handbook No. 8 covering cereal grains and grain products, fruits, 
vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds are all underway, but with publication dates scheduled 
for 1981 through 1982. Some of the data will be coming from analytical studies which are 
just starting. I am sorry that we are not far enough along with any of these sections to provide 
summary values at this time." 

A full Congressional investigation and public disclosure of the methods and results of 
this research, as a highest form of public service and as a survival necessity, would appear 
essential at the earliest possible date. 

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Soils Bulletin No. 17 is 
entitled Trace Elements in Soils and Agriculture, published in 1979. The Bulletin gives data 
similar to Bear's in showing the wide variations in extent of soil mineral depletion. It notes 
the biologically essential nature of the minerals for health of soil-building microorganisms, 
plants and humans, and it states that widespread deficiencies now exist; e.g., soil zinc 
deficiency is documented for 12 European countries, as is boron for nearly every European 
country. Also noted is the danger of trying to correct deficiencies by adding purified single 
elements due to their toxicity (for example, boron has been used as a weedkiller). 

Nowhere is soil remineralization considered, due to lack of knowledge or concern; yet on 
page 1 it is stated that in spite of the "favorable development" in fertilizer use, that generally 
from 2 to 6 times more of the main nutrients are being annually taken from the soil than are 
added by mineral fertilizers. Crop and manure residues are returning some of these, but a 
negative balance of these nutrients likely remains. 

And what of the trace elements? Again on page 1, this FAO soils bulletin states that trace 
element deficiencies were first reported in the late 1800's, and that extensive areas of Earth's 
soils are no longer able to supply adequate amounts to plant life. Furthermore, several factors 
are together causing an accelerating exhaustion of the available soil supply, including these 

• weathering and leaching 

• stimulation of increased yields by one-sided NPK fertilizing 

• decreasing use of natural fertilizer materials in comparison with chemicals 

• increasing purity of these chemicals used to stimulate growth 

Although this bulletin does not provide any solutions, at least it states well the problems 
that demand solutions, e.g. when it says: "Trace elements are not regularly applied to the soil 
by the use of the common fertilizers. Their removal from the soil has been going on for 
centuries without any systematic replacement." (p. 1) 

The stimulation of increased yields with the imbalanced chemicals mentioned above can, 
of course, continue only as long as sufficient soil minerals and soil organic matter remain to 
be dissolved out and recombined into new plant food (as described in Ch. 2). The well- 
known "geometric increase" in the use of these chemical concentrates to continue forcing 
crop production is another clear indicator (and accelerator) of soil demineralization. 

The following table (5.2) from U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization statistics gives 
an interesting picture of the "progress" of this chemical demineralization process, and 
suggests a corresponding mineral decline in food crops. 



p 2 o 5 

K 2 
































1980 Low (est.) 





1980 High (est.) 





Table 5.2 World chemical NPK fertilizer use in Gg (1 gigagram equals 1 billion grams), 
from FAO 1976. 

Note the six-fold increase from 1950 to 1975, and the projection indicating an 8- to 9-fold 
increase will have occurred in just the 30 years from 1950-80. A related statistic comes from 
the booklet "World Crisis in Agriculture" (Alexander et al, 1974), which states that in the 
U.S. from 1950 to 1970, yields per acre were increased 53 percent and chemical fertilizer use 
increased 700 percent in the same period. Food quality and edibility declined (p. 19). 


Going hand in hand with the imbalanced fertilizers has been the use of almost 
innumerable pesticides — "toxic rescue chemistry" (Walters and Fenzau, 1979) — in order to 
temporarily protect weak crops from insects and disease. That this approach has not been 
greatly effective and beneficial to the biosphere is shown by the USDA's "Report and 
Recommendations on Organic Farming" (1980). It states (p. 62): "Organic farming strongly 
encourages that the use of synthetic pesticides be avoided in crop production. Use of 
pesticides has increased 40-fold in the last three decades." Also, in their article, "The Risks 
of Pesticides" (1980), Pimentel and Pimentel state that insecticides (one class of pesticides) 
have seen a 10-fold increase over the last three decades. No one knows the total effects of this 
increase on human health and that of the soil, etc., but crop losses to insects have nearly 
doubled (p. 24). 

Apparently few people have heard or comprehended the warnings of Dr. Albrecht (and 
many others) who often said that "insects and disease are the symptoms of a failing crop, not 
the cause of it." (Albrecht, 195 8; 1975) 

Trace Elements in Agriculture 

Prof. B. Nemec (forest remineralization researcher mentioned in Appendix II of To Love 
And Regenerate The Earth) says nearly all elements are found in the ashes of plants {Trace 
Elements in Plant Physiology, 1950). Robinson and Edgington of USDA (1945) give the 
figure of "approximately 60 elements" as being positively identified in plants. 

N.F. Ermolenko {Trace Elements and Colloids in Soils, 1972) states that close analyses 
show that both plant and animal organisms contain almost all the elements of the Periodic 
System (92 plus), and he stresses the primary need of the soil organisms for these elements 
so they may build up soil fertility via protoplasm, humus and atmospheric nitrogen 

These articles and books illustrate a story of Earth's living organisms demanding a wide 
variety of rock-born soil elements in order to fully express that life, and it may now be 
clearly seen against the background of 100 centuries of interglacial soil "weathering" and 

The following considerations point to some implications of soil depletion, 
malnutrition — and soil remineralization — for the whole of humanity. 

The remarkably healthy people of the Hunza Valley are already the subjects of a number 
of books and articles. 


Sir Robert McCarrison (1936) appointed Director of Nutrition Research in India in 1929, 
did extensive studies on nutrition, health and deficiency diseases. After he observed the 
Hunzacuts' magnificent bodies, sound teeth, strength, longevity, intelligence and happy 
dispositions — human health almost to perfection — McCarrison gave colonies of Albino rats 
the diet of the Hunzas. He gave other colonies the diets of disease-ridden cultures on the 
Indian Sub-Continent. He discovered that the rats would invariably duplicate the states of 
health seen in the various peoples: perfect health and contentment on the foods of Hunza, the 
diseases of the Madrasi on the Madrasi food, and so on. 

In his seven years of work among the Hunzas and Sikhs, both of whom are superb 
gardeners and farmers, McCarrison never found a case of stomach ulcer, appendicitis or 
cancer. A group of doctors founded the McCarrison Society in Britain in 1966 to revive his 
crucial message for humanity. McCarrison summed up that message in one of his published 
lectures (1936) when he said, "it seems clear that the habitual use of a diet made up of natural 
foodstuffs, in proper proportion one to another, and produced on soils that are not 
impoverished, is an essential condition for the efficient exercise of the function of nutrition 
on which the maintenance of health depends," and combined with healthy bodily activity, "is 
mankind's main defense against degenerative diseases; a bulwark, too, against those of 
infectious origin." (p. 306) 

John Tobe (1965) reports that there is one ten-bed hospital for the 40,000 people of the 
Hunza Valley, and it is practically empty all the time. 

William Albrecht (former Chairman of Soils, University of Missouri, now deceased) 
wrote an article published in "The Journal of Applied Nutrition" (1962) and later in The 
Albrecht Papers (1975), entitled "The Healthy Hunzas, A Climax Human Crop." In it he 
praises these people highly as an example for the world, of a people thriving in adherence to 
the natural laws of biology, being supported on soils fertilized by pulverized rock and organic 
materials grown in place (as opposed to imported). Dr. Albrecht states that the emphasis on 
incomplete chemical fertilizers has distracted us from seeing the basic nutritional role of 
powdered rock which, when combined ("chelated") with organic matter via microorganism 
activity, is then assimilated by the plant "in the form of organic complexities." 
("Protoplasm" — Hamaker). Albrecht concludes by saying that the people must be educated to 
the Hunza example of soil management and consequent outstanding health; especially now 
(1962) when the word "degeneration" is beginning to be substituted for "disease". 


We may note in passing that Dr. G.T. Wrench said essentially the same things as did 
Albrecht and McCarrison in his brilliant books, The Wheel of Health (1938) and 

Reconstruction By Way of the Soil (1946). So did Dr. Lionel Picton in his Nutrition and the 
Soil (1949). Other examples at hand are Mount's The Food and Health of Western Man 
(1975), in which he reveals how serious and widespread is dietary mineral deficiency, e.g., 
66 percent of college women in America possess low-to-absent iron stores; while at the 2nd 
World Symposium on Magnesium held in Montreal in 1976, the alarm was sounded that "a 
grave danger of a magnesium deficiency in foods consumed in the developed countries" now 
exists. Cancer, arteriosclerosis, and heart and bone diseases are implicated as resulting from 
such deficiencies. (The Ecologist, 12/79, p. 317). The same obvious message can be read 
from Trace Elements in Soil-Plant- Animal Systems (Nicholas, 1975), which reveals the 
continuing findings by researchers of "new" essential elements for human health and that 
deficiencies can be expected to result in breakdown of the physiological functions where the 
element is involved. They say there are now 14 known trace elements essential for animal 
life, and most or all of them are essential for soil microorganisms as well. These are (in order 
of their discovery as essential): iron, iodine, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, molybdenum, 
selenium, chromium, tin, fluorine, silicon, nickel and vanadium; also boron for "higher 

Weston Price wrote an epochal 526-page book entitled Nutrition and Physical 
Degeneration (1945, 1975), which reported his findings from many years of studying people 
of cultures and lands worldwide. He proved how rapidly individuals and entire peoples 
degenerate physically, mentally, and morally when the diet changes from natural whole foods 
from fertile soils to the refined and nutrient-poor foods of modern societies. Price, a dentist 
by training, found (among many other things) that people suffering from tooth decay were 
ingesting deficient amounts of vitamins and less than half the minimum requirements of 
calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, iron and other elements. His case showing that severe 
malnutrition is the primary cause of juvenile delinquency and violent criminal tendencies is a 
powerful if not indisputable one. 

In his chapter "Soil Depletion and Animal Deterioration," Price says this in summary: 

In my studies on the relation of the physiognomy of the people of various 
districts to the soil, I have found a difference in the facial type of the last 
generation of young adults when compared with that of their parents. The new 
generation has inherited depleted soil. . . The most serious problem confronting 
the coming generations is this nearly un surmountable handicap of depletion of 
the quality of the foods because of the depletion of the minerals of the soil. (p. 

One chapter of the book is by Dr. Albrecht, entitled "Food is Fabricated Soil Fertility," in 
which Albrecht again closely correlates the level of nutrition with fertility of soil, and he 
concludes that "it is to be hoped that a national consciousness of declining soil can enlist our 
sciences and industry into rebuilding and conserving our soils as the surest guarantee of the 
future health and strength of the nation." (p. 469) This was the need Albrecht saw when these 
words were written over 35 years ago. 


Metabolic Aspects of Health: Nutritional Elements in Health and Disease by John Myers, 
M.D. and Karl Schutte, Ph.D. (1979), is another major work documenting the elementary 
facts of the soil-food-health chain, and the disastrous consequences resulting from "ignore- 
ance" and abuse of the natural human and soil ecology. They stress the following: the very 
widespread incidence of soil mineral deficiency; the innumerable forms of diseases brought 
on by these deficiencies, including psychobiological imbalances; that dozens of known 
human enzyme systems are absolutely proven to be keyed to soil elements, including zinc, 
boron, cobalt, manganese, barium, nickel, copper, magnesium and more; and the great need 
for the natural balance of these elements via the food supply. Schutte, the botanist, 
demonstrates that the same principles apply for healthy, disease/insect resistant plant growth. 

The known evidence on cancer and trace element links is given, such as the study in 
South Africa showing 89 percent of the cancerous regions as having poor soils, whereas 
nearly 66 percent of cancer- free regions are on comparatively "rich" soils (p. 121). 

The exact relations between the many soil elements and the many forms of cancer have 
yet to be defined, they say, but it is now clear that they are associated with imbalances in the 
trace element supply, which key the normal enzymatic activity of the cell. The same 
association has been implicated for atherosclerosis and hypertension, (p. 193) 

In light of the Hunzacuts' total freedom from cancer, and the fact that in the U.S. 1 of 4 
people are conservatively estimated as due to develop cancer in their lifetimes (Eckholm and 
Record, 1976), the need for very fundamental re- orientation could hardly be more clear. Gus 
Speth, Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, stressed this point when he 
recently announced (July, 1980) that the incidence of cancer rate jumped by 10 percent from 
1970 to 1976. Contrast this figure with the 3 percent increase from 1960 to 1970 (CEQ, 
1980). Science News (Vol. 1 10, p. 310) contains an article summarizing previous articles on 
the effect of diet as follows: "Diet can have a dramatic influence on the prevention and 
treatment of cancer. Spontaneous regression of cancer, for instance, appears to have resulted 
from a change in the balance of trace elements." 

The relation of cancer to soil depletion and imbalance is also examined in Voisin's work, 
Soil, Grass and Cancer: Health of Animals and Man Is Linked to the Mineral Balance of the 
Soil (1959). Voisin's evidence confirms his statements that: "The dust of our cells is the dust 
of the soil," and "animals and men are the biochemical photograph of the soil." Hur (1975) 
and The Soil Association (1979) offer further reviews of available soil-cancer (etc.) 
documentation. This relation may be readily understood by a look at the four types of cell 
processes known to be subject to the balance of trace elements, as summarized in Trace 
Elements in Plant Physiology (Wallace, 1950): 


1) synthesis and breakdown of tissue structures 

2) energetic processes ("oxido-reductions") 

3) regulation of nervous stimuli 

4) detoxification of cellular poisons 

These processes refer to the actions of about 5000 soil-dependent enzyme systems, all of 
which can be disrupted or prevented by element deficiency, imbalance, or drugs, pesticides, 
radiation, etc. (Knight, 1975). 

As a single example of the great importance of these enzyme systems, which John 
Hamaker and many biologists are stressing, consider "superoxide dismutase" (SOD), which 
has recently come into prominence through the discoveries of Irwin Fridovich, Duke 
University Biochemistry Professor (Science, 9/8/78; Donald, 1980). SOD is found in all cells 
and functions as a defender of cellular integrity by rendering harmless numerous forms of 
"superoxide radicals" which continually threaten the cell. Four types of SOD are now known; 
each is identified simply by the trace element used to bind with the protein that makes up the 
enzyme. One type requires both copper and zinc, two others require manganese, while the 
fourth (found in microorganisms) uses iron. 

The most significant fact revealed in this research is that SOD activity is distinctly altered 
in cancerous cells. In fact, as Donald reveals, lowered amounts of the manganese-dependent 
SOD have been found in all tumors examined by cancer researchers Deamer and Yamanaka, 
and sub-normal amounts of the copper-zinc SOD in many, though not all, the tumors. None 
of this research mentions the soil as the source of these elements, although it is mentioned 
that SOD is now being sold in pill form. A check at a local "health food" store turned up the 
small bottles selling for $11.50 each. (Note: This writer has been purchasing river gravel 
screenings from California gravel pits for under $6.00 per ton). 

Another related article comes from the Lansing State Journal (7/30/80) which reports on 
research proceedings at the Stanford University Medical School. Dr. H. Kaplan states that 
there are 200 to 300 different types of cancer, and that the "antibody" that will prevent one 
type will not work for another type. In other words, it is necessary to have all the elements 
available for the cells' 5000 enzyme systems all the time, if the body's natural immunity 
system is to function normally. Again, we hear no word on the soil or food quality; the 
doctors are busy trying to grow hybrid cells in the laboratory which they hope can produce 
some of the antibodies. How long before "practical applications" become widespread? 


Dr. Kaplan says: "It will be necessary to generate literally hundreds of specific 
antibodies. It's going to take a long time." 

$30 billion per year is being spent on such efforts to find "cures" for cancer (Samuel 
Epstein, 1979), which happens to be about $30 billion more than is going towards soil 
remineralization. It is interesting, if not mind-boggling, to consider how many doctors could 
travel to observe the cancer-free Hunzacuts were that $30 billion used for the doctors' tickets 
at, for example, $2000 per round-trip ticket. No doubt even the remarkable good-naturedness 

and superior health of the Hunzacuts could be strained by a party of 15,000,000 curious 

How many doctors ("teachers") actually want to learn why there is just one ten-bed 
hospital for the 40,000 people of the Hunza Valley, and why it is practically empty all the 
time? (Tobe, 1965) 

Prior to a further look at the behavioral implications of soil depletion and malnutrition, 
let's cite a few statistics provided by the article, "The Myth of Health in America" (Fry, 
1976), on the general state of ill-health in the U.S., as of 1974: 

1) The U.S. Public Health Service reports only 3,000,000 people out of the entire 
population can be considered healthy — about 1.5 percent. 

2) The U.S. ranks 89th among nations in death rate. 

3) About 1 billion visits to physicians are made annually. 

4) 30 million citizens will spend time in a hospital annually. 

5) About 9 of 10 (190,000,000) suffer from constipation. 

6) Over 21,000,000 suffer from "mental illness." 

7) 98.5 percent have defective teeth (31,000,000 have no teeth). 

8) 60 percent have defective vision. 

9) About 77 percent of adults are affected by forms of arthritis and rheumatism. 

10) Over 13,000,000 of the 100,000,000 alcohol drinkers are considered "alcoholics." 

11) 58.6 percent of children cannot pass a minimum physical fitness test. 

12) The average child has eight colds per year. 

13) Every child over the age of four has incipient or severe heart problems. 

14) Over 50 million suffer from heart diseases. 

15) Over 7 million children are "mentally retarded." 

16) Cancer is the number one cause of disease-related death of children. 

17) Total annual disease cost: $104 billion, or roughly $500 per U.S. citizen. 


Although updates on all these figures are not at hand, Fry again provides the disease bill 
projected for 1981: $250 billion, about 4 times the 1950 figures in non-inflated dollars 
{Better Life Journal, 1/81). Since the Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare (1978) gives 
the figure of $238 billion for 1975, Fry's figure may be too low. 

Psychobiological Connections 

In his article, "Is America Going Crazy: A nutritional approach to mental health" (East- 
West, 9/80), Tom Monte shows us a curve for outpatients being "treated" for mental illness 
which looks much like the curves on this book' s cover. He gives some more educational facts 
and figures on the U.S.: 

• 15 percent of the population, over 32 million people, are "officially" suffering from 
mental disorders, although the Department of Health and Human Services (formerly 
HEW) officials suggest 20 percent is more realistic. 

• Whereas in 1950 there were 12,000 psychologists and psychiatrists, there are now over 
50,000. In 1955, 380,000 people were in psychoanalysis; by 1977, there were 4.6 

• $40 billion is spent yearly by people seeking to maintain or regain their mental health; 
two million people entered "mental institutions." 

• Divorce rates have tripled since 1970. 

• Since 1967, Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores have been sinking fast; combined 
math and verbal scores have on average dropped almost 100 points. 

• Since 1956, arrests of children suspected of committing murder, rape, and other violent 
crimes have increased six fold 

• Nearly 30,000 men and women took their own lives in 1978, part of a steady climb over 
many years. Among 20-to 24-year olds, the rate tripled between 1955 and 1975. 
[Columnist Sydney J. Harris quotes a 900 percent rise in suicides by 15- to 24-year olds 
in the last decade; there were 5,000 in 1979. (Harris, 1980)] 

• Monte also reports on the findings of scientists Fernstrom, Wurtman, and others at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology which show how close is the relationship between 
dietary nutrients and normal brain function. Dr. Fernstrom is quoted: "It is becoming 
increasingly clear that brain chemistry and function can be influenced by a single meal. 
That is, in well-nourished individuals consuming normal amounts of food, short-term 
changes can rapidly affect brain function." Dr. Michael Lesser, who has been working to 
improve the diets of schizophrenic and depressed patients in Massachusetts and 
California, shares his observations: "I can almost say as a truism that the better the diet, 
the better the person's mental health. Everything you put into your mouth is going to 
affect your mind and body. . . A good diet helps preserve sanity; a poor diet helps lose 


These same sorts of observations were made by all those who studied the "Healthy 
Hunzas"; they could not help but note the unusually clear and balanced mental and emotional 
natures they expressed. Now in Science News (5/30/81), we see an article, "Psychiatry for the 
80' s," which reports on an American Psychiatric Association meeting in New Orleans 
attended by over 8,000 psychiatrists. The article relates that the meeting was not upon 
theories of Oedipal complexes or psychodynamic theory but about recognizing the links of 
biology and behavior — specifically, the roles of brain chemicals. As is usual, no direct 
consideration of the quality of nutrition or soil fertility was reported. Most of the enthusiasm 
at the meeting was over the possibilities for psychiatrists to acquire their own 
"armamentarium," i.e., a mixed arsenal of "psychoactive agents" (drugs) aimed at 
establishing chemical balance in the brain, and presumably, mental health. It is stated that the 
single trace element lithium, being given to "manic-depressives," has helped 70 percent of 
those receiving it. 

Perhaps most significant in this article are the two Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 
scanner pictures comparing a "normal" brain to a "schizophrenic" brain. Great differences 
are quite obvious, and the owner of the chemically abnormal brain is said to be experiencing 
visual and auditory hallucinations. Since the question of whether to drug, or to abundantly 
nourish, such a brain is still hardly being asked, the following work of Alex Schauss may be 
valuable in resolving this "controversy." 

The following is a summary from the interview mentioned earlier. Schauss, an 
experienced criminologist, counselor, and Director of the Institute for Biosocial Research, 
makes these points: 

• The crime rates continue to climb quickly; violent crime went up 1 1 percent from 1978 to 
1979. (It went up another 13 percent in 1980 — Associated Press Washington, 3/31/81) 
Over 800,000 people are in prisons and jails. 

12 million arrests of juvenile offenders were made in 1979. 

10 million teenage children are alcoholics. 

30 million Americans take drugs to escape from stress. 

Malnutrition is the prime cause of criminal behavior. 

All the essential food nutrients in balance are needed by the brain for positive behavioral 
performance and ability to handle stress. 


Of the many amazing cases Schauss has worked with, here are several examples: 

Eskimos and Native Americans living in very remote territories on indigenous food 
supplies in the Stewart Islands of Alaska, who had been physically and psychologically 
healthy for centuries, experience the degenerative diseases and moral decay so prevalent in 
western culture when the foods (not specified) from that culture are allowed in. Crimes are 
subsequently committed for which these "primitive" cultures didn't even have words in 
their language to describe; the words had to be invented. 

In Germany, an extremely hyperactive child would react violently, to the point of throwing 
siblings out of closed windows, within 3 to 5 minutes of receiving small but brain- 
imbalancing amounts of phosphate additives from processed foods. His parents, and many 
others experiencing similar problems, noted dramatic behavioral improvements when the 
diets were better balanced. (A double-blind study of children reported in Science, 3/20/80, 
further proved the dietary links to "hyperactivity" first warned of by Dr. Benjamin 

After Schauss spoke for over three hours on the importance of good nutrition to a group of 
prisoners, these men decided to try to obtain some nutritional supplements to their prison 
food. After fighting hard for two years to make these available, even petitioning the 
Human Rights Commission of the United Nations, these inmates had all their requests 
denied and were transferred throughout the prison system. This resulted in the transferred 
men inspiring many other prisoners to seek better nutrition, and finally the facility in 
Lompoc, California, allowed inmates to choose three supplements which they could 
purchase with their prison wages. They chose brewer's yeast, wheat germ and desiccated 
liver. One of the men wrote back to Schauss and said, in part: 

I noticed that supplements motivate a feeling of health and hope in me, 
also in others around me, many of whom have shown little or no sign of hope 
before. In fact I saw guys smile today — and this was only a week after they 
got the supplements — that I had never seen smile before and that is ten years. 
That is really encouraging. 

The Forest Die-Out Continues 

The almost unbelievable rate at which the Earth' s remaining forest cover is being 
destroyed by human exploitation (20 to 30 million hectares per year — Global 2000 Report; 
50 acres per minute — Myers, The Sinking Ark), are finally being widely acknowledged, and 
their additional consumption by wildfire is, we have seen, increasingly been made evident. 
What has, of course, not been widely recognized or acknowledged is the recent evidence 
disclosing the cyclical nature and accurate timing of the glacial-interglacial-glacial sequence; 
nor has the last 10,000 years of soil demineralization and retrogressive vegetational 
succession been brought to present focus within the multitude of human plans, schemes and 
struggles for prosperity and survival. 


If these realities had been clear, perhaps the many environmental modification projects to 
date would have had their basis in a wholly different appreciation of natural systems: the 
beauty of their design, the inherent provisions for human prosperity within the natural design, 
and the requirements of natural systems to maintain a perpetual symbiotic relationship with 

Consider again all the factors of forest assault in their simultaneous operation: human 
deforestation, soil degeneration, insects/diseases, fire, worsening climate, air pollution, acid 
rains. . . Then consider John Hamaker's estimation that human actions have accelerated the 
glacial onset by 500 years, and the "20-year transition period" by some unknown amount. 

A discussion of forest die-out would by no means be complete without looking at a 
picture of how another "team" is moving quickly to help annihilate the forests: insects and 
disease, of course. This important section has also been placed in the back of my separate 
volume. For a more in-depth look at the forest predators aside from man, and their crucial 
relationship to soil fertility, plus a look at the so-called "acid from heaven" crisis, see 
Appendix III of To Love And Regenerate The Earth at this website. 


Chapter 6 

The Glacial Process and 
the End of the Food Supply 


John Hamaker completed this article in May 1981, and it is likely one of the most 
important articles that can be found in terms of understanding how our living Earth works, 
and consequently how a living humanity can and must work en rapport with this established 
planetary Biosphere. This paramount need is again made self-evident herein, because, as 
Hamaker describes it, "The climate cycle is a byproduct of the entire life system, all of which 
rests on the expenditure of atomic energy in the tectonic system." 

This forms the central underlying theme of "The Glacial Process and the End of the Food 
Supply." Once again the overlying theme is the fact of human responsibility to uplift and 
restore that entire life system, and John Hamaker makes the urgency of this great task crystal 
clear, "We have no time to spare in gaining control of the glacial process — it has already 

Hamaker appropriately concludes the article with a list of minimal objectives to be met if 
such a worldwide effort to stabilize and replenish the Earth's biosphere is to succeed. 
Following the article is a look at how such documents as the U.S. Government's Global 2000 
Report and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature's World Conservation 
Strategy relate, or do not relate, to the principles and themes of this book's first six chapters. 
May the reader proceed with understanding. 

It is one of the moral functions of science to change this attitude of men to 
the soil which has borne them; to bring men to a clear recognition of the 
marvel and beauty of the mechanism on which the existence of all the living 
beings on the earth intimately depends. This end it attains through the clear 
views which it opens into the structure and history of the earth by removing the 
dull conception of mere chance which we almost instinctively apply to the 
phenomena of nature, and in its place giving an understanding of those 
processes which lead to the order and harmony of the universe. 

— Nathaniel Southgate Shaler 

The Origin and Nature of Soils, 1891 

The Glacial Process and 
the End of the Food Supply 

The information about past glacial periods is now sufficient so that there is general 
agreement on what has happened in the past. There is no agreement on why it happened. 

We can say with assurance that the climate cycle requires very close to 100,000 years to 
be completed. We can say that during that time there are only 10,000 years in which there is a 
temperate zone capable of supporting an agricultural and technological civilization. We are at 
the end of the 10,000 year period. 

For the purpose of a discussion of the survival of civilization, the climate cycle consists 
of about 10,000 years of interglacial conditions and 90,000 years of glacial conditions. If we 

are to have any chance of survival, we must understand the glacial process so we can take 
the necessary steps to eliminate glaciation. 

There are two energy systems which are so powerful by comparison to any other factors 
(such as sun spots, the Milankovitch effects, or the alignment of planets in space) that these 
latter factors can be dismissed except to note that whatever effect they have, it is 
superimposed on the glacial process without substantially altering it. Both of the primary 
energy systems use the energy in the atom. One is the sun and the other is the tectonic 

The Sun 

There is not much to say about this practically constant source of energy. The earth intercepts 
this supply of energy constantly. However, if the energy incident to the earth at the higher 
latitudes is deflected into space instead of being absorbed at ground level, the total amount of 
energy available to warm the earth is decreased by that amount. During the glacial period the 
total amount of sun energy reaching the earth is decreased because the C0 2 (from the tectonic 
system) directs a heavy cloud cover to the polar latitudes. The clouds have a very high 
albedo, i.e., ability to reflect the sun's rays into space. 


The Tectonic System 

Everything on this earth, especially the maintenance of a viable environment for all living 
organisms, is totally dependent on the tectonic system. When the tectonic system runs out of 
fuel and fails, the earth will be a cold dead planet like Mars. Although everything on and in 
the earth is connected to everything else, only those factors directly related to glaciation are 
pertinent to this discussion. 

The tectonic system is a thermomechanical system. As such, it is designed to work in 
conformance with all the known laws governing such systems and in conformance with the 
known physical characteristics of the materials which comprise the system. The system is 
also capable of performing in a manner which produces the geological structures which have 
been found on the land and on the ocean floor. The principal operational elements of such a 
system are shown in Fig. 6.1 (page 132-133). For pictorial reasons, the sketch is not to scale. 

Operational Components of 
the Tectonic System 

If the tectonic system is to work, certain requirements must be met. These will be 
described in detail later. The requirements are: 

1. The crust must be supported by the hydraulic pressure beneath it. 

2. The elevation of the crust at any point must depend on the weight of the crust and 
the pressure beneath it. 

3. There must be a massive release of energy at some point in order to build sea floor 
at the center of the ocean, melt it down, and send it back. The only such energy 
supply available is atomic. Heat is also needed to maintain the internal heat 
requirements of the earth. 


4. The energy source must be at the edge of the continents where sufficient pressure is 
demonstrated to build mountains and hydraulically lift sections of the sea floor to 
plateau elevations. The energy is released in what I call continental heaters. 

5. The principal source of radioactive fuel is the unmelted portion of the mantle. 
Everything which has been melted was melted at the expense of its original supply 
of radioactive materials. 

6. The highest temperatures are in the heaters, where gravity separation of the molten 
components results in accumulation of a critical mass which, in turn, results in 
release of energy by explosion. 

The next highest temperature is in the core, which, according to seismic data, is 
melted to within 800 miles of the center of the earth in spite of the great pressure at 
that depth. The core gets its heat from the hot magma discharged from the heaters. 

The third highest temperature is in the mantle, which gets its heat primarily from 
contact with the core as the heat from the core moves across the temperature 
gradient to the cold of outer space. 

The fourth highest temperature is in the Mohorovich discontinuity ("gunk"). 

7. The pressure at a common elevation under the crust is highest in the heater. At all 
other points there is a lower pressure caused by the friction of flow of superheated 
magma out of the heater to the common reservoir (the core) and back up to the 

8. The contour of the mantle is a true circle at 90 degrees to the earth's axis. The shear 
line or line of relative motion between the crust and the mantle is a true circle and 
lies just above the mantle. 

9. There are basically three types of rocks produced in the tectonic system. The effect 
of gravity separation in the heater is shown in the igneous rocks, which show up as 
intrusions and extrusions in the mountains and hills above it. 

The lighter-weight materials expelled from the heater to the core float on top of the core, 
and the heavier components sink into the core material. The lightweight materials are low in 
melting point and super-heated and hence more fluid than the core material. They would 
therefore tend to cut channels through the core material to points of more or less regular 
usage such as the mid-ocean ridge. The material which arrives at the ridge holds the pressure 
against the gunk and feeds material into the gunk as required to make up for that which is 
melted down in the heater. 

















3 J 










I mm- 

AM l,,! 1 ji fflii ,,' if few 


V<;.:. Hi*" in- ft, i];iL'iiT' ; w* <i 

rv,,;.;,:-:^;;,:!,::,.^ 1 : 

1» tells 





Fig. 6.1 Hamaker's Tectonic System Diagram 


The gunk gets that name for lack of a better one. It has peculiar properties. It is thought 
that there is several times as much gunk as ocean floor. If so it must move into the heater at a 
fraction of the velocity of the crust. As the gunk travels, it must tear and erode particles of 
unmelted rock from the mantle. The gunk is therefore magma of the same type as that which 
comes out of a ridge, and is enriched with solid bits of mantle, which stiffen it like flour 
added to bread dough. It carries all the elements, including unused radioactive compounds, 
into the heater where the lighter materials are separated out and moved up to the crust, the 
radioactive materials are used in the heater, and the heavier materials are dropped out in the 

The gunk can support heater action wherever used material can be expelled from the 
heater and gunk or mantle is supplied as the make-up material. The action will not occur if 
there is enough motion in the gunk to prevent gravity separation. 

Description of Components 

The mantle 

The mantle is the original space debris which formed the earth. It has low-melting-point 
aluminum silicate above and below it in the molten form. Therefore, the low-melting-point 
compounds in the mantle must be melted. The higher-melting-point compounds must exist as 
a porous sintered mass in order to give seismic reflections in at least some respect similar to 
those from a solid mass. Since the molten compounds exist throughout the mantle, a positive 
pressure in a heater can initiate a flow in a downward direction. The flow from the heater is 
very hot and it can erode and melt a channel through the mantle as the heater builds up 
strength. The heaters have operated all over the mantle. By this time there must be numerous 
old channels, such as point A, Fig. 6.1, that are no doubt partially blocked but operable as 
needed, to conduct a flow of magma to any part of the crust that needs it. 

The Ocean Floor 

The floor is built by something which I call a ridge toggle because it functions much like 
a toggle press. The toggle is fifty to several hundred miles wide, as measured along the ridge, 
and it extends several hundred miles at 90 degrees to the ridge. 


Probably no more than fifty miles either side of the ridge is involved in the production of 
the force which pushes the sea floor toward the land and into the continental heaters. 

When there is increased flow at E, Fig. 6.1, both sides of the toggle lift up until the 
magma can leak through and fill the crack (Fig. 6.2, page 136). As the magma escapes from 
the magma chamber, the toggle drops down. The ocean water and the walls of the rift freeze 
the magma to some depth. Below that it varies from plastic to molten at the bottom. Since 
new magma has entered the rift, the two opposing halves of the toggle must move farther 
apart. The force generated by two members operating at an angle approaching 1 80 degrees is 
so great that the ocean floor must move or the material in the rift must fail. The amount of 
force exerted is testified to by the fact that only a few hundred yards below the surface, the 
magnetic orientation lines in the rock become completely jumbled together, showing that the 
pressure forges the hot, somewhat plastic, rock into a cohesive mass. 

There is a similar force exerted in the lower portion of the rift when the bottom edges 
tend to come together as the plate rises. It is doubtful, however, that much pressure is exerted 
on the ocean floor because the more plastic magma in the lower portion will yield too easily. 
The act of yielding, however, may force material upward and cut channels through which the 
magma can enter as it opens above. Such a crack is shown in Fig. 6.4, p. 137. It is much 
wider than most such fissures because at the latitude of Iceland the toggle is working against 
great pressure, there being no heaters to receive the sea floor. The toggle is therefore on the 
high side of the approximately 3-to-6 mile thickness range of ridge toggles. The ocean floor 
thickens by cooling on the bottom side with time. A six-mile thick toggle does not have to 
rise very much to open a 200-foot wide fissure. 

Numerous cracks have been detected parallel to the rift and extending for some distance 
away from the rift. It seems probable that these are caused by bending. The magma chamber 
is not very wide, and pressure and volume changes in the rest of the system are reflected 
immediately in the chamber. The toggle plates are too heavy and long to react quickly to such 
changes; therefore, one would expect the ends of the toggle plates to receive a cantilevered 
load at the rift. If the pressure and volume in the chamber increase, the bottom of the plates is 
put in tension. The top of the plates is in compression. When the chamber pressure and 
volume decrease, the top of the plates is in tension and the bottom in compression. Since the 
top is cold, and cold rock has almost no tensile strength, the tension cracks occur on the top 

Thus there is probably a bending action in the toggles adjacent to the rift in addition to 
the up-and-down movements of Fig. 6.2, which open and close the rift. The force required to 
keep the ocean floor under pressure and feeding into the heaters (F h , Fig. 6.2) is developed in 
the same manner as the force in a toggle press. The toggle can not buckle because it is 
uniformly supported by the weight of water and plate on the top side and the hydraulic 
pressure of the magma on the bottom side. 





F v 

force diagram 

Fig. 6.2 Ridge toggle action 

100,000 YBP 

Glacial advance and retreat, 
approximately 20,000 years 

10,000 YBP 


- 10,000 years inter-glacial 
90,000 years glacial (no temperate zone) 

Fig. 6.3 Buttes are formed on the ocean floor in response to pressure and volume 
changes in the magma of the tectonic system. 



* ^^* **■_ ■ 

l. **■ ■ ' ^* 



^_^iB5* *-- *^ 




a _*% - '"i. -J 








L - 

^^^^-^^^^^ ■-***! 

» ' -&J 


-**-*•""- *. 



V j-^1 

' b *K _ J 



p^s^t k 


•^_ ** r 




^ix" */£bcI 

xm^f ' 


SlT *^ 



p .y ft 

Fig. 6.4 Tension rift in the spreading crest of the Mid -Atlantic Ridge, as exposed in 
southwest Iceland. The faults and fissures break a plain of Basalt lava flows that 
are a few thousand years old. The foreground fissure has a maximum width of 
about 60 meters (200 feet) and a maximum depth of about 45 meters (150 feet) 
below the rim on the near side and twice that below the rim on the far side. View is 
northeastward along the Almannagia (Great Fissure). Photograph by Bruce 
Heezen, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University. *See 
text for explanation. 

Butte Formation and Glaciation 

The record of pressure and volume of flow at the ridge during the climate cycle is clearly 
recorded in the butte formed at the ridge. The buttes are visible in Nevada, California, and on 
the ocean floor. One is formed on either side of the rift every 100,000 years. 

The butte shown in Fig. 6.3 was proportioned on the basis of those in Nevada which were 
estimated to originally be 20 miles long by 2 miles high. The number of glacial advances and 
retreats during the last glaciation is an estimate based on some agreement among those who 
have studied the glacial deposits in depth. An accurate count could be made on the ocean 
floor.The two primary users of the magma are the ocean ridges and the inland sea floors 
being pumped up to plateau status. However, if the weight of the land mass increases by the 
addition of an ice field, the more fluid portion of the gunk will be squeezed out from under 
the depressed portion of the continent and into the inner core. The only place it can go from 
the inner core is out the ridges. Thus during glaciation, as one ice field after another is 
established, the flow at the ridge increases. As the flow at the ridge increases, the rate of 
ocean floor movement into the heater increases, and the heaters produce more melt and more 
pressure. When the glaciation collapses, the situation is reversed. There is a huge demand for 
magma under the formerly glaciated parts of the land mass, and the pressure and volume 
available at the ridges decreases accordingly. Over a period of a thousand years, more or less, 
the material in the center of the ridge collapses, leaving the two buttes facing each other. The 
material under the dashed lines (Fig. 6.3) feeds back into the rift to keep the ocean floor 
feeding into the heaters until the situation stabilizes. 



"Flow" of the Ocean Floor 

The only large stress possible in the ocean floor is compression. The tensile strength of 
cold rock is only about 4 percent of compressive strength, and shear strength is between 10 
percent and 20 percent of compressive strength. The compressive stress for the floor 
thickness is probably no more than 10,000 psi. The shear stress is probably no more than 
1,000 psi. When a toggle is ready to move, it must shear the fracture zone on each side of the 
toggle. Since the toggles are from fifty to several hundred miles wide along the rift, a force of 
100 psi acting on an effective one-mile thickness in the rift would be much more than enough 
to initiate shear in the fracture zone. The shear crack originates at the toggle and runs as far 
along the fracture zones as it can before elasticity in the rock absorbs the motion of the 
toggle. So the toggle has to go through a number of cycles to crack the fracture zones all the 
way to the shore. Toggles move independently and they will move in the direction that offers 
the least resistance. 

But they do not go very far before they meet too much resistance and have to wait for 
adjacent toggles to move and help take up the strain in the ocean floor. For this reason they 
all stay close to the average ridge line (Fig. 6.5, p. 140). When the stress in the ocean floor is 

enough to overcome the frictional resistance of driving the ocean floor into the heaters, there 
is a general feeding into all of the heaters impelled by the elastic stress built up in the sea 

A direct shearing stress, such as that in the fracture zones, induces an equal shear stress at 
90 degrees. Therefore, the toggle would just as soon shear across its width as down the 
fracture zones. It will readily do so in response to a higher pressure from one side of the 
toggle than the other side. The gunk is always ready to heal the fracture zones. It is heavier 
than ocean floor, so it stops rising about a mile below the sea bottom. Major fracture zones 
make huge canyons. The ocean floor is not a single plate but a mosaic of a great many pieces 
always subject to change and motion (Fig. 6.5). 

The floor thickens by freezing on the bottom side and adding sedimentary deposits on the 
top side as it moves away from the ridge. The total thickness of the ocean floor at the edge of 
the continent might be 15 or 20 miles. Largely due to the weight of sedimentary deposits, the 
ocean floor sinks lower as it moves and the deep ocean basins are thus formed. 


Fig. 6.5 Eight toggles in the South Atlantic mid-ocean ridge 



The rate at which the ocean floor travels varies widely. The variation which is probably 
common to all sea floors is that they move faster during glaciation than during the 
interglacial period. The Nevada buttes (Fig. 6.3) tell us that the floor traveled 20 miles in 
100,000 years or 12.6 inches per year, which is well above the 2 inches to 4 inches per year 
that it has been moving in recent years. Part of that speed of movement is due to the fact that 
the mid-ocean ridge, which built the Great Basin plateau, was close to shore. The ridge itself 
may have been moving eastward because there was too much resistance to movement on the 
west side of the ridge. The basin was built so fast and raised out of the water so quickly that 
the ridges did not have time to be covered with much sedimentary rock. Ocean floor studies 
of buttes could probably give us a more accurate idea of the increase in speed of floor 
formation during glaciation relative to the interglacial rate. 

In recent centuries ocean floor feeding into the heaters has occurred on about a 100-year 
cycle. Following a series of heavy earthquakes around the Pacific "ring of fire" which herald 
the feeding, we have had 50 years of colder-than-average weather. The cold weather is 
accompanied by more volcanic action and the warm weather by less. 

During the hundred-year period, ocean water penetrates deep into the joint between the 
incoming ocean floor and the mountain above it. It comes back out as superheated steam 
which cuts the sedimentary rock away. The deep trenches in front of the heaters are formed 
in this way. The mineralized hot water rises to the surface, causing the upwelling currents so 
widely observed. The minerals support an abundant sea life and excellent fish yields. But 
when the ocean floor moves into the heater, all the leaks are sealed and the fishermen must 
go elsewhere. When the ocean floor feeds, a large amount of heat and liquefied gases, mostly 
carbon and sulfur oxides, are released. The ocean warms up a degree or two, and the gases 
either dissolve into the water or go up into the atmosphere. 

Ocean floor volcanoes form in large numbers at the ridges. The flexing of the toggles 
causes many leaks, particularly in the fracture zones between adjacent toggles where the rock 
is subject to both horizontal and vertical shearing forces. These volcanoes evidently result 
from the fact that there is highly fluid magma at the ridges which, during times when the 
pressure in the magma chamber is high, is able to blow out. One would expect an 
accumulation of gases at the ridge peak also, and the two together are probably all that is 
involved in these volcanoes. As they leave the ridge, they invariably freeze up and are 
covered with sediment. 


There is another type of ocean volcano. Hawaii is the outstanding example. It is standing 
still while the ocean floor is moving past it to the northwest. When one volcano moves away 
from it, another forms behind the first. That would only be possible if there were a heater 
operating in the mantle. How it got started is anybody's guess. Once started there is little 
likelihood that it will stop until it becomes a part of the continental heater system. As fast as 

the radioactive material is used up in a batch, the gunk cascades into the heater chamber, 
expels the used material (through the volcano), and fires it up with new radioactive material. 
Apparently during the time it abandons one volcano and establishes another directly 
overhead, the very hot column of magma and gases from the heater have disrupted the ocean 
floor on both sides of the line of volcanoes, because there are undersea mountains all over the 

Continental Heater Operation 

The land masses are made up of many inland seas raised out of the ocean by heater 
action. The old heater trenches can be traced out by seismographic studies even though the 
mountains have long since eroded away. The heaters have long since ceased to be active in 
the interior of the continent, but the newest two or three are in various stages of development 
and decay. At position D (Fig. 6.1) a new heater is starting to function. It started because the 
ocean floor at position C was forced lower and lower as the mountain chain grew above it. 
There is always one section of the mountain chain which is heavier than any other. The 
situation is analogous to stepping on the edge of a thin ice sheet on a pond. At the point of 
pressure, the ice is forced downward, requiring the ice to bend over the buoyant force of the 
water in a long bend. The maximum tensile stress is in the center of the bend, and that is 
where the ice cracks. The crack runs in an arc back to the shore line because the bend 
produced by a local stress at the shore line runs radially over a 180 degree area of the ice. The 
ocean floor bends over the buoyant force of the gunk and a crack is formed. 

Leakage through the crack draws the more fluid portion of the gunk to the crack and 
gradually an arc- shaped chamber of magma develops. It is only a matter of time until gravity 
separation produces a critical mass and the heater begins to function. 


The pressure in the gunk between D and C is gradually increased by the pressure 
developed in the two heaters. As the pressure goes up, the crust between D and C must go up. 
When the lower edge of the inland sea crust bears against the upper edge of the sea floor, the 
two grind on each other until the ocean floor can begin to move under the inland sea floor. At 
that time it becomes easier for the toggles to push the ocean floor under at point D than at 
point C. 

When the floor stops feeding at C, it no longer drags gunk into the heater and it begins to 
die out. At point B is a heater which has raised its plateau about as far as it can go and is now 
only helping the heater at C to finish raising the plateau between points B and C. 

The heater at point A has died out. The heater chamber has been filled with gunk. 

The incoming gunk is much colder than the inshore gunk which is at heater temperatures. 
Therefore, the melting is faster in the inshore gunk. As the floor feeds new relatively-cold 

gunk (and any of the floor which advances beyond the protection of the underlying gunk) 
into the heater chamber, it cascades into the chamber, gradually moving the heater to a 
position more central to the inland sea it is raising. 

When the gunk stops feeding into a heater, the heater "drowns" in its own magma. When 
it has exhausted the radioactive components to the point where it can no longer develop a 
critical mass, the heater is dead. 

It is not practical to think of the entire arc- shaped heater as a single unit. The eruptions of 
Hawaiian volcanoes indicate that a few years of settlement are required between explosions. 
If the settling in the entire arc had to occur all at once, there would not be the great number of 
heavy earthquakes recorded in the inland seas. Therefore the trenches must be viewed as 
containing a number of short chambers protected on each end by gunk with the lightweight, 
low-melting-point molten rock floating just under the crust. 

When an explosion occurs, a plasma of many compounds develops around the explosion 
at very high temperature and pressure. The upward blast must shoot particles from every 
layer above it into the lightweight aluminum silicate and silicate layers, resulting in the 
complex granite rock which almost, if not always, forms the cores of mountains. The 
mountains are the first things formed, which means that the blasts are not far below the crust. 
For this reason, a great variety of elements can be found in the dikes and sills resulting from 
the explosions that drive the granite cores upward. 


As a result of the explosion, the temperature goes up and some components of the melt 
gasify to hold the pressure between explosions. Materials below the explosion are driven 
down to the inner core against great flow resistance. Precisely how everything is handled 
within the heater is never likely to be known, but the result is that the light elements are 
driven up into the crust along with enough traces of all the elements so that when the rocks 
from the heater are mixed by glaciation with the sedimentary rocks of the ocean floor, the 
mixture contains a well-balanced quantity of the elements necessary to sustain life. 

Sills are formed as the granite core pushes upward through the sea floor. The weak bond 
between different layers of sedimentary rock breaks. Huge slabs of rock lift up like the pages 
of a book; the openings are quickly filled with magma; the result is a layer of young rock 
between two much older layers of rock. 

Dikes are vertical cracks which are filled with magma. They often contain ores, some 
showing heavy metal such as gold and silver. These things are in the gunk, and their 
concentration in the ore indicates that they were gravitationally separated at the time of 

Volcanoes always form behind the high mountains. They act as pressure relief valves. 
They form domes in the crust, which are caused by upward pressure of the magma from the 
heater. They may contain gas or lava in the dome. If gas comes out first, the lava usually 

follows, impelled by the pressure maintained in other gas pockets. When the heaters die out, 
the volcanoes become inactive. 

Some Geological Structures 
of the Tectonic System 

All along the coast of the Americas lie the remains of a mid-ocean ridge that was 
wrecked as it tried and failed to enter the heaters operating all along the coastline. The ridge 
was run over by the westward moving Americas pushed by the Atlantic mid-ocean ridge. 

Probably about 45,000,000 years ago, the ridge first made contact with South America, 
possibly on the Chilean coast. At that time the down-going channels from the heaters were 
only a few hundred miles from the rising channels to the ridge. When they were close 
enough, it became easier to flow directly through the mantle, or possibly break through above 
the mantle to the ridge magma chamber, than to continue to make the long trip down to the 
core and back. The thin ridges just opened up and let the high-pressure, high-temperature 
magma flow out into the ocean. The result was an explosive event which would make the 
explosion of Tambora and Krakatoa behind the Java Trench look like firecrackers. 


Huge amounts of ash were released as well as huge amounts of carbon and sulfur oxides. 
The lower and middle latitudes got hot and dry, just as our southern states did in the summer 
of 1980, only a lot more so. Because of the large temperature difference between the northern 
latitudes and the lower and middle latitudes, the huge amounts of water that evaporated from 
the ocean went to the northern latitudes. The same thing happened in the winter of 1980-81 
for a period of 4 months ending in mid- January. The clouds went over Alaska, warming it, 
and then moved on over Canada. The very cold air came back from Canada over the area east 
of the Mississippi — but not the water. The whole country was dry until the system gradually 
collapsed as the sun started moving north and the rains came back in late March. 

The difference between what is happening now and what happened when the ridge 
started breaking up is the amount of carbon and sulfur oxides in the air. It was then so hot in 
the tropical and temperate zones that the amount of heat in the clouds moving to the polar 
latitudes was so great that the water fell as rain and washed the ice away. That put a lot of the 
land mass under water. The oceans heated up so they could absorb very little C0 2 . 

To make matters worse, with only the heaters on the west side of the Pacific still 
operating, a huge open leak in the tectonic system, and a major ridge destroyed, the feeding 
of the heaters slowed down. The system was starved for magma to operate it. The short 
circuit between the eastern pacific heaters and the ridge stopped the flow into the gunk under 
the North American continent. With the loss of pressure, the continent sank to a lower 
elevation, forcing gunk to flow from the continent to the heaters, thus keeping the heaters 

going until the gunk lost its fluidity and the continent could sink no lower. Only then did the 
heaters finally burn out and allow the ocean water to freeze the leaks in the collapsed ridge. 

Apparently the ridge broke up one section at a time as it came close to the shore. 
Presumably, the ocean water was able to freeze off each affected section at some distance 
either side of the point at which the short circuit occurred. 


The high pressure from below lifted the ridge almost to sea level. Along the coast of 
South America, the sea floor has now moved under the off-shore part of the ridge and is now 
building another row of mountains. 

The North American part of the ridge was the last to come ashore, probably because the 
continent was up against the Eurasian land mass at the northern latitudes. South America can 
and is moving faster to the west than North America. Nevertheless, we can expect new 
heaters to develop off the coast of the United States and Canada in a few million years. 

The only significant part of the ridge which survived relatively intact consists of the parts 
of the states of California, Oregon and Washington which are west of the Sierras and the 
Cascades. They survived because there was a strong outflow of magma from the collapsing 
Great Basin plateau and the mountains. The magma lifted the ridge gently because the high 
pressure had been lost from the heaters under the mountain. How? 

There is a missing range of mountains which once connected the Sierra Nevadas with 
Mexican mountains at the lower end of the Gulf of California. Those mountains were 
replaced by the Gulf. In other words, it was not just a matter of high pressure from the heater 
getting into the ridge, but a matter of the damage to the ridge at the mouth of the Gulf being 
so extensive that ocean water could flow into the heaters. The explosions that followed may 
have been the world' s greatest. The magma moved out of the heaters and went into the air as 
ash and dust. With the pressure released, the magma which had been forcing the Great Basin 
to high plateau status was free to flow back through the heaters to the place of contact with 
the water. The flow through the heaters prevented gravity separation and so shut down the 
heaters. The magma was free to flow in any direction it could. 

Thus it was relatively cold low-pressure magma which raised California, Oregon and 
Washington out of the water. 

By this time the Great Basin stopped settling down, and the Gulf stood where a mountain 
range and its heaters had been. Tahoe and Mono Lakes are probably on sink holes directly 
over the old heaters. In that area the basin dropped 2,000 to 3,000 feet. And to a lesser degree 
eastward to the Rockies and northward to the Columbia River Basin. All of the western 
canyons (Grand, Snake, Yosemite, etc.) are cracks in the crust which occurred when the 
supporting magma flowed out from under the Great Basin and the mountains. 


The coastal ranges of California are the buttes formed on either side of the San Andreas 
fault or ridge centerline. A ridge (butte) west of Sacramento and north of Berkeley, according 
to an aerial photo, still shows the minor buttes (Fig. 6.3) as well as the sheared west wall of 
the butte. 

The Golden Gate is a crustal crack which resulted in an explosive event that left the hole 
called San Francisco Bay. Lake Nicaragua and Lake Managua in South America were formed 
in similar manner. 

The Cayman Trench in the Caribbean is a crustal crack opening up because South 
America is moving to the west faster than North America. South America is also moving 
faster at its southern end than at its northern end where it connects to North America. It is 
thus rotating to the west around a point in Guatemala. As the crack opens up, it puts the 
"Bermuda Triangle" in the Atlantic in tension. It is not surprising, therefore, that large cracks 
open up in the ocean floor releasing large amounts of carbon and sulphur oxides before they 
are sealed. Clouds of such gases rising through the air would, as reported, cause an airplane 
to lose altitude until it had passed through the cloud simply because it would change the 
oxygen-to-fuel ratio of the mix delivered by the carburetor. Magnetic compasses would "go 
wild" as a result of a sudden flow of magma under the crust. A ship would drop like a rock in 
an area where the water had a high concentration of gas bubbles coming up through the water 
simply because a ship's buoyancy is equal to the weight of water (not gas and water) 
displaced. You venture into the Bermuda Triangle at your own risk. 

Many geological phenomena are easy to understand with a basic understanding of how 
the tectonic system works. Others are more obscure. 

Michigan has about 20,000 feet of sedimentary deposits dating back to the Precambrian 
over 600 million years ago. That simply means that Michigan has spent a lot more time under 
water than above it. Deposits of approximately the last 100,000,000 years are either ground 
up in the two hundred feet of glacial drift, or are already spread out over the Mississippi 
Valley as it grades down from about 650 feet elevation in Michigan to sea level at the Gulf of 


The land masses largely go under water when great catastrophes exhaust the magma 
supply. These are also times when climate is tropical. Most of the life on earth is in the sea. 
As a result of the explosions, there are plenty of minerals in the seas. It is a biological fact 
that every living organism will multiply to the limit of its food supply — including the "Homo 
sapiens" who, if he's so smart, ought to know better. The abundant sea life uses the minerals 
and carbon, and their mineral components result in the sedimentary deposits. The shellfish 
flourish in the sunlit shallow waters over the sunken land masses, and leave the extensive 
limestone deposits in the middle of the United States and Eurasia. 

When the explosions end because of magma exhaustion, carbon and sulfur oxides are 
quickly used up. When the C0 2 drops to levels which do not overpower the natural cooling 
capacity of the polar regions, glaciation begins. In the past, glaciation has always resulted in 
producing a catastrophe in a few million years. If humans could learn to control themselves 
so they could control the high pressures in the tectonic system, there could be an indefinitely 
long period of peaceful development of human potential. 

The Glacial Process 

The tectonic system has a hand in everything that happens on the earth. The thing that 
controls the climate directly is the discharge of carbon and sulphur oxides by the tectonic 
system. However, if the C0 2 in the atmosphere is known, it alone indicates the kind of 
climate we can expect. The C0 2 curve (Fig. 6.6) is such a record to which has been added a 
projection of estimated future C0 2 levels. The curve was drawn on the basis of figures 
available up to 1976. The projection has been accurate since then. 

French researchers Dalmas, Ascencio, and Legrand (Nature, 3/13/80; Science News, 
5/10/80), using what is probably an accurate technique for determining past CO, content of 
the air as trapped in Antarctic ice cores, found that 15,000 to 20,000 years ago the C0 2 in the 
atmosphere was 160 ppm. One hundred years ago it was around 290 ppm. Now the C0 2 is at 
about 340 ppm. 

As far as the C0 2 is concerned, the warm interglacial period was in progress 15,000 to 
20,000 years ago. The precipitation was less than average and ready to fall in the temperate 
zone, except for the fact that over a substantial part of the land masses there was a sheet of 
ice from a few hundred to a few thousand feet thick. Ice has the highest heat of fusion of 
anything. It takes a great deal of heat to melt it. The ice sheets acted as a giant refrigerator. 
Therefore, a huge mass of cold air continued to move southward while the ice was melting 
and forced the warm air to move north over the oceans to replace the air moving south. 
Glaciation continued even though the C0 2 had dropped to a low level in the air. What did 
happen is that the annual addition of new ice became less than the annual subtraction of ice 
due to melting. Thus it was a long time before there was significant loss of ice. When the 
system did begin to collapse, it started on the windward side of continents. As soon as the 
weight of ice was removed or reduced over a substantial area, the flow of magma to the 
ridges was diverted to the depressed land areas, and the ridge buttes were formed by the 
collapse in pressure in the system. Volcanism was also reduced as ocean floor feeding to the 
heaters slowed down, which meant a further lowering of the atmospheric C0 2 . The 
temperature of the ocean had dropped very substantially, thus increasing its capacity to store 
C0 2 . With plenty of C0 2 and glacial ground rock to supply the minerals, sea life had to be 
booming and rapidly returning C0 2 and minerals to the crust as sea floor sediments. 

It took about 85,000 years to build up the ice and probably 15,000 years to melt the ice 
caps back to their interglacial low. However, as one area after another lost its permanent ice 

field, tundra was replaced by northern latitude trees, and then by temperate zone trees in 
rapid sequence. 

The ocean temperatures cannot begin to rise while the bulk of the glacial water is running 
into it. So it lags behind the land by perhaps 5,000 years. It may still be warming up and, if 
so, it may still be giving off more C0 2 than it takes in. At least it has a reduced ability to take 
in C0 2 . This goes along with the fact that sea life required to remove the C0 2 from the water 
is at low ebb because the depleted soils are no longer giving an abundance of minerals to the 
ocean. There is a scarcity of minerals on the land and in the sea. This inevitably means a 
buildup of C0 2 in the atmosphere as more and more CO, is supplied by the tectonic system 
and less and less is put back into the earth's crust by the living organisms. 

If the C0 2 in the air was 160 ppm 15,000 to 20,000 years ago, there may have been even 
less during the climatic optimum, roughly 4,000 to 8,000 years ago, because the land was 
covered with a massive growth of temperate zone forests, the sea still held an abundance of 
sea life, and the tectonic system was under low pressure and volume. If the C0 2 drops that 
low, then the 290 ppm of 100 years ago is probably too high to provide an adequate margin 
of safety. This is especially true because the continents are all at about as high an elevation as 
they go. We can therefore expect more volcanism than during the climatic optimum. The 
indication is that the C0 2 level has been slowly moving up for 4,000 years toward the level of 
initiation of glaciation. That level is now-when the curve (Fig. 6.6) is making a sharp break 
toward infinity. 

Many things are operating to affect the climate. They all have long overlapping time lags so 
that we can not say that this happens, then this, and then this. But we can say that the 
minerals (those available to microorganisms) and the carbon released by the tectonic system 
can be monitored and can be controlled. We can therefore control climate. The only thing we 
might not be able to do is prevent or control catastrophes. However, we may have a few 
million years in which to learn how to control them. We have no time to spare in gaining 
control of the glacial process — it has already started! 




















Glaciation is an acceleration of the normal 
process of using evaporated water to carry 
excessive heat energy from warm zones to cold 
zones. The greenhouse effect of an increase in 
atmospheric CO2 is to increase cloud cover over 
polar latitudes. The clouds have a cooling effect 
as well as providing the snow for glaciation. 
The energy is dissipated in arctic space. 
Glaciation occurs whenever the soil minerals 
left by the last glacial period are used up and 
the plant life can no longer regulate the CO) by 
growing faster in response to an increase in 
CO2 in the air. Forests are the major factor in 
CO2 control. 


A U.N. report estimates that by the year 2000, 
90% of the agricultural land and two-thirds of 
the forests will be destroyed in the tropics. 

Temperate zone forests and crops will be 
destroyed by disease, insects, drought, wind, 
and fire. 

By 1990 the 50 to 100 mph winds of 1980 will 
increase to 100 mph and up. 

For these and other reasons agriculture and 
industry will be so crippled that the effect 
of man on the CO2 curve will be nullified 
and the rise in CO2 will take place as a 
result of uncontrolled forest fires. 

380 ppm 


354 ppm 



Ice Age begins. 

1700 1800 1900 2000 

335 ppm 

Average CO2 (290- ppm) during interglacial 
period. CO2 fluctuates about 10 ppm above and 
below average with volcanism of 100 year cycle 
of tectonic systems. 

1940, 304 ppm, 4.75% 
increase over 290 ppm. 

Hawaiian weather 
station has recorded 
C0 2 since 1958. 

Unless we stop the increase of atmospheric CO2 by: 

1. Remineralizing the surface of the earth. 

2. Stopping the use of fossil fuels and the destruction of 














Fig. 6.6 Parts per million CO2 in Atmosphere, original Hamaker CO2 curve projection 

Glaciation is initiated by a change from temperate zone to northern latitude types of trees 
and by the broad-scale dying of the forests. We are in that stage now. One species of tree 
after another is dying out. The Forest Service blames insects and foolishly sprays the forests 
with deadly poisons. Insects always infest trees and other plants (as pathogens invade people) 
which are weakened by malnutrition and no longer have resistance to their natural enemies. 
The trees are dying because there are no longer enough available elements in the soil to 
support them. Drought and high winds join with fire to destroy the dead and dying forests, 
sending large amounts of C0 2 into the atmosphere. Nitrogen and sulphur oxides from the 
fires come down as acid rain to acidify the soils and kill more trees. Man is ably assisting in 
the destruction of the forests. The warm, demineralized ocean can not take up the CO, as fast 
as it is being put into the air. The result is reflected in the C0 2 curve (Fig. 6.6). The polar ice 
field is expanding and growing in northeast Canada, and probably across the tops of 
Scandinavian countries and into Russia. The pressure is rising in the tectonic system as 
indicated by the accumulation of lava flows along the ridges and by increasing volcanic 
activity. We are in the high-pressure part of the ocean floor feeding cycle, which at least for a 
few centuries has occurred about every 100 years. It is a bad time for the CO, to start its 
telltale climb toward infinity. 

Researchers in different fields agree that glaciation starts in a very short time. A pollen 
study by G. Woillard (Fig. 6.7) shows that the change of vegetation 100,000 years ago 
occurred in a 20-year period. Judging from the CO, curve, we are at least 5 years into such a 

Before proceeding with comment on Woillard' s study, it should be pointed out that the 
only thing that might be expected to be constant in the climate system over a short period of 
geological time, like a million years, is the average release of energy from the tectonic 
system, but energy release is probably not constant for a period as short as 100,000 years. 
The sun's energy has not been found to vary to a significant degree. Everything else is 
variable down to the number of heaters and the elevation of their plateaus. 

It is not surprising that the last interglacial period ended 1 15,000 YBP (Years Before 
Present) instead of taking the average of 100,000 years. On the other hand, the Woillard 
study was done a bit north of east-central France and may not reflect the timing of an area 
1,000 miles east at the same latitude. France was out of the main ice field and may have 
benefited from warm air off the ocean and warmed up earlier than elsewhere. The fact that 
there was substantial forest growth spread over about 25,000 years may reflect a warmer 
location and the benefit of glacial debris carried by rivers and winds from the land north and 
west of the bog where the core was taken in the Vosges region. There are many variables 
which affect the details found in localized studies. However, there are solid and important 
observations to be gained. 

Woillard isolated core zones 3, 2 and 1 where a change of vegetation took place in 
approximately 20 years. The only way that would be possible would be for the temperate- 
zone trees to die and burn so the colder zone trees could take root in the ashes of the burned 

Jtaniftr Vvl- 2$1 IH Gctelxr 1979 

Cm) zgnss 



i*- M ©"^^ 


_4 Ul^t~UUi 

Arboreal Pollen \ NorvArborsaf Pollen 
Que^cstunn-MJxtLsrT? *Corylu5 

Gtfief Trees {Pisie, Birch, el£.) 

Q Heras ^ Tundra 

Fig. 6.7 Woillard Pollen- Climate Correlation 

The change in each case was from hazel, oak and alder to pine, birch and spruce. That 
represents a change from warm-weather to cold-tolerant trees. But even more significant is 
that this change is from nut-bearing trees to trees which can not yield a proteinaceous crop. 
That translates to mean a decline in soil minerals to the point where there are insufficient 
microorganisms in the soil to grow proteinaceous trees (or crops). 


Following the last interglacial period (Fig. 6.7, Zone B, point 3) there were several 
thousand years of much colder weather than during the interglacial period. For a short period 
of several hundred years (Zone C), it was cold enough to kill almost all the trees, leaving 
tundra. During this period, erosion of the worn-out soil must have proceeded on a massive 
scale. There were too few microorganisms to prepare the soil to take in water, so the water 
ran off the surface and gullied the land. The summer rains were torrential because colder air 
than interglacial air runs into warmer and wetter air than interglacial air, producing very 
heavy rainfall. 

The above description is also valid for what is now happening or about to happen. If it is 
not too late now to prevent the destruction of the land, it certainly will be sometime before 
1985. The present rate of soil erosion is saying loudly and clearly that the United States is 
going out of the farming business. At the present rate, our 8" of topsoil will be gone in 100 
years. Erosion doesn't work that way, of course. Today's erosion figures are out of date 
tomorrow because the rate is rapidly accelerating. Furthermore, the erosion starts on the 
weakest land first, cuts gullies, removes the small amount of organic matter it has left, and 
the land is of necessity abandoned as useless. Most of the erosion is from the poorest soils 
and most of it is worn-out subsoil. But when Iowa reports serious erosion (13 to 28 tons per 
acre per year) on soils which have any slope to them, and California soils have jumped to an 
average 6 l k tons per acre per year lost, can a complete failure of agriculture be far behind? 

During glaciation all types of vegetation move south. The tropical vegetation largely dies 
out because of the heat and drought. Minerals are lacking until the glaciers advance far 
enough to provide wind blown loess (gravel dust) to the tropical zone. However, both 
tropical- and temperate-zone vegetation survives in protected pockets of land where minerals, 
water and climate are sufficient for the survival of each type of vegetation. 

Glacial deposits older than the last climate cycle are scarce. In Michigan there is a 
maximum of 220 feet of glacial drift. During glaciation, the weight of ice insures that all of 
the drift would be churned up. The first thing to come out of the mass would be any worn-out 
subsoil material because it is so easily entrained in water. Any worn-out subsoil material that 
does not erode away in the next few thousand years is likely to be removed by glaciation 
toward the end of the glacial period. South of the glaciated area, the subsoil will generally 
wash away until it has exposed still useful material at lower levels or until bedrock is 
reached. What growths are attained in the glacial retreat periods following the interglacial 
period must be based on the consolidation of unused glacial materials from the past, except in 
the limited areas glaciated by the limited initial advances following the interglacial period. 


When full glaciation sets in (Fig. 6.7, Zones H and I) there are plenty of minerals for 
growth, but by that time the total land area covered by ice makes the weather too cold for 
significant tree growth. 

The fluctuations of C0 2 in the air are responsible for the five or more glacial advances 
and retreats indicated on the ridge butte (Fig. 6.3) and in the pollen diagram. Initially the re- 
growths after each glacial advance are effective in lowering the C0 2 level. But in looking at a 
pollen diagram, we are only seeing a part of the C0 2 picture. To tell it all, we would need a 
similar diagram of what is happening in the oceans. While the growth on land is dwindling 
away, the life in the ocean is increasing. With the water getting colder and dissolving more 
C0 2 , and the increasing area of land under glaciation supplying ground rock minerals in 
increasing amounts, ocean life must increase. Most of that life has only a short life cycle. It 
can expand quickly to the limit of its food supply. Whereas on land it is the minerals which 
run out first, in the sea it is more likely to be the CO, . The shellfish are probably the major 
element in depleting the C0 2 in the water. Since the C0 2 in the air is in equilibrium with the 
C0 2 in the water, it also decreases. Thus it is the living organisms which cause the 
fluctuations ofC0 2 in the air. These fluctuations in turn determine the climate. By the end of 
the 90,000 years of glaciation, the pressure in the tectonic system is high, the volcanism is at 
a maximum, and the C0 2 output from the system is at a maximum. However, the capacity of 
living organisms to consume the available food supply has no apparent limit. They are 
obviously capable of completing the carbon cycle by turning it into the carbonaceous 
sedimentary rocks on the ocean floor. 

The time to stop the glaciation is before it starts, because it starts with the destruction of 
agriculture. Before this decade is over, the evidence shows that our technological capacity to 
remineralize the soil will have been lost in the chaos of a world of starving and dying nations. 



The climate cycle is a byproduct of the entire life system, all of which rests on the 
expenditure of atomic energy in the tectonic system. 

The tectonic system constantly removes materials from the mantle, separates the 
compounds containing a balance of elements useful to living organisms, and moves them into 
the mountains or into the atmosphere. Those compounds containing elements not required for 
life processes are consigned to the core or are recycled to build the basic ocean floor at the 

The tectonic system supplies molten rock to perform three separate jobs. One is to build 
new ocean floor at the ridges. One is to hydraulically support the crust and to mend rifts and 

breaks in the crust all over the world. The last job is to build mountains and plateaus so the 
soil-enriching minerals can move to the lowlands by water and wind erosion. The last job 
requires the maximum pressure and is done above the continental heater. The distribution of 
rock between the other two jobs depends on the friction of flow to a particular point as 
compared with another point. It also depends on changes of weight of crust. Specifically, if 
glaciers melt from a section of land mass, the hydraulic balance is disturbed and the magma 
flows easily to that part of the land mass until it is raised up to a state of hydraulic balance 
with the rest of the crust. Conversely, if the land becomes glaciated, it drops to a state of 
balance and greatly increases the magma flow to the ridges. Thus, changes in the climate are 
reflected in change in the direction of flow of the magma, a fact which probably has 
something to do with changes in polarity of the earth' s magnetic field. 

The climate changes are recorded in the buttes formed at the ridges, but the reason for the 
climate changes is basically the fluctuation of the level of C0 2 in the atmosphere. The amount 
of CO, determines whether the pattern of airflow around the hemisphere is a wave of low 
amplitude or high amplitude. If the C0 2 level is high, the amplitude is high and almost all of 
the moisture is carried to high latitudes where it produces glaciation. 

The microorganisms can increase in quantity or die out in remarkably short periods of 
time. Their food supply contains the two variables, carbon and minerals. They in turn are the 
source of the protoplasm compounds of all other life. If either the carbon or the minerals or 
both are depleted in the land and/or in the sea, the life system collapses. 


Glaciation starts because the minerals are used up in the land and in the sea. That ends a 
glacial cycle of 20,000 to 25,000 years, depending on when the last glacial advance is 
assumed to have started. Subsequent cycles are shorter as indicated on Woillard's pollen 
diagram and the climate index drawn from the pollen diagram (Fig. 6.7). The interglacial 
cycle is probably the longest because the soil and plant life have a great ability to recycle the 
minerals, whereas the ocean life uses both the carbon and minerals in the chain of life and 
dumps them on the ocean floor where there is very little recycling. 

Once started, the glaciation can not be stopped because the ice load reverses the flow of 
magma from the inner core into the gunk under the crust to flow out of the gunk into the 
inner core. This increases the feed rate into the heaters, which results in a greater release of 
C0 2 into the atmosphere. The increase in C0 2 requires a greater equilibrium pressure 
differential between the C0 2 in the atmosphere and that in the ocean in order to increase the 
rate of absorption of C0 2 into the water. The sea life can expand to use up the C0 2 in the 
water and thus increase the rate of CO, absorption, but then it must die back and allow time 
for the slow process of C0 2 absorption into the ocean. Because of the requirement of a 
greater amount of C0 2 in the atmosphere in order to increase the rate of absorption (as 
opposed to the direct consumption of C0 2 by plant life on the land), the C0 2 never drops to 
interglacial levels. Therefore the temperature constantly gets colder as indicated by Woillard. 

The sea life is responsible for the C0 2 fluctuations which result in glacial advance and 
limited retreat. 

From what we are now seeing of the relation between C0 2 and establishment of the 
glaciation now in progress, it now seems doubtful if the C0 2 in the air ever rises as high as 
twice the interglacial level. It could happen if we could continue to burn fossil fuels, but it 
won't happen. The dead have little use for energy and they are poor producers of fossil fuels. 

There is no doubt that there is a point of no return at which no matter what we do, the 
increase in C0 2 from the tectonic system exceeds the capacity of the remaining forests and 
sea life to remove the C0 2 . At that point a remineralization program becomes useless. Given 
the time such a program will take, we may already have passed the point of no return. 
Replacing fossil fuels with wood plantations may give us the margin of survival. 


The limit of glaciation is reached when it has built up so far south that the annual melting 
equals the annual ice buildup. At that point volcanism moves quickly to a lower level 
because magma is no longer forced to flow out from under the glaciated area into the core. 
The ocean floor slows its feeding of fuel to the heaters and the output of molten rock and the 
C0 2 dissolved in it is reduced to interglacial levels. As the rains come back to the middle 
latitudes, the life on the land flourishes on the newly remineralized soils. As the glaciers melt 
back, the magma once again flows under the depressed areas. In the next 10,000 years the 
minerals on the land and in the oceans will support sufficient life to keep the C0 2 at the 
interglacial level. But when the minerals are too few to support enough life to hold down the 
C0 2 level, it begins to rise and the die-back of the temperate and tropical zone forests swiftly 
initiates the air flow pattern which brings glaciation to polar latitudes and extreme, killing 
heat and drought in between. 

The whole world takes part in the making of climate. Every factor is complex and has its 
own time lags built in. The only sharply identifiable time in the whole climate cycle is the 
time at which the temperate zone climate is destroyed and we stop eating. We can look at the 
satellite pictures, see a cloud mass moving toward us, and figure we will soon get rain. It is 
doubtful if we will ever go very much further in forecasting. But we can easily chart the C0 2 
content of the atmosphere and know whether or not we have enough minerals in the soil and 
in the water. The CO, chart is now telling us very clearly that glaciation, the time of no 
temperate zone, is almost upon us. 

The solution to this crisis is obvious from the cause. We must remineralize the world's 
soils and put carbon into the earth as fast as we can in order to reverse the C0 2 curve and 
bring it back to a safe level. 

The following is a list of minimum objectives which must be met in order to effect our 

1. Stop the use of fossil fuels by 1985. 

2. Have mature tree plantations to take the place of fossil fuels. This is possible using 
fast-growing trees on mineralized soils. Soil remineralization has been discussed in previous 
papers such as "Food, Energy, and Survival." (See Chapter 2) 


3. Incorporate ground gravel dust in all sewage waters and make sure there are enough 
excess minerals in the discharge to remineralize the rivers and estuaries. Remineralize all 
other coastal waters where shellfish growth is possible. 

4. Remineralize all forests and jungles sufficiently to stop the dying and increase the rate 
of growth. 

5. Remineralize all crop lands to increase food quality and yield to compensate for the 
increasing loss of crops to drought and cold growing seasons. 

These five minimal objectives must be met by 1985. They can only be met by a colossal 
effort on an international scale. To attempt any less is to resign ourselves to death by 
malnutrition and starvation. 



Global 2000 

The Global 2000 Report to the President was commissioned in 1977 by President Carter 
and finally released in July 1980 as a 3-volume work of over 1,000 pages. Mr. Carter 
explained its purpose in his Environmental Message to the Congress (May 23, 1977): 

Environmental problems do not stop at national boundaries. In the past 
decade, we and other nations have come to recognize the urgency of 
international efforts to protect our common environment. 

As part of this process, I am directing the Council on Environmental 
Quality, working in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency, 
the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration, and other appropriate agencies, to make a one-year study of 
the probable changes in the world's population, natural resources and 
environment through the end of the century. This study will serve as the 
foundation of our longer-term planning. 

Before quoting a few of the report's findings, it is well to note, on these U.S. government 
projections, this word from Vol. 1, the summary ("Entering the Twenty-First Century"): 
"They do not predict what will occur. Rather, they depict conditions that are likely to develop 
if there are no changes in public policies. A keener awareness of the nature of current trends, 
however, may induce changes that will alter these trends and the projected outcome." 

Here then are a few of Global 2000' s "Principal Findings." 


• Rapid growth in world population will hardly have altered by 2000. . . 
population will grow from 4 billion in 1975 to 6.35 billion in 2000. . . In 
terms of sheer numbers, population will be growing faster in 2000 than it is 
today, with 100 million people added each yearcompared with 75 million in 

• The large existing gap between the rich and the poor nations widens. 

• Significant losses of world forests will continue over the next 20 years as 
demand for forest products and fuelwood increases. The world's forests are 
now disappearing at the rate of 1 8 to 20 million hectares a year (an area half 
the size of California), with most of the loss occurring in the humid tropical 
forests of Africa, Asia, and South America. 

• Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone-depleting 
chemicals are expected to increase at rates that could alter the world' s 
climate and upper atmosphere significantly by 2050. Acid rain threatens 
damage to lakes, soils, and crops. 

• Extinctions of plant and animal species will increase dramatically. Hundreds 
of thousands of species — perhaps as many as 20 percent of all species on 
earth — will be irretrievably lost as their habitats vanish. 

• Regional water shortages will become more severe. 

What are Global 2000' s projections on climate change to the year 2000? It says this: 

Because climate has a profound effect on our lives and economies and has 
possible consequences for the future, we cannot ignore it, yet there are 
unresolved problems which make statements about future climate very 
uncertain. This is to say, not enough is known about climate to provide us with 
a reliable predictive capability. . . Before the future climate can be reliably 
estimated, science must understand it well enough to build realistic quantitative 
models that relate cause and effect. . . Such models are yet primitive and 

And on the carbon dioxide crisis: 

Carbon dioxide increase is thought to produce a warming of the earth by 
the so-called greenhouse effect, (p. 51, Vol. II) 

As discussed in Chapter 4 and in the climate section of this chapter, the 
experts are more or less evenly divided over the prospects for warming or 
cooling, and most felt the highest probability was for no change, (p. 337, Vol. 

Therefore, in Table 13-46, "Summary of Impacts on the Environment" projections, the 
global, regional, and local climate effects are in every case given as "No impact projected." 
(p. 392) 


This same table projects many forms of severe environmental devastation from 
expanding consumption of fossil fuel and nuclear energy technologies. It says this about 
carbon dioxide: 

• C0 2 emissions will increase from 26 to 34 billion short tons per year, 
roughly double the C0 2 emissions of the mid-1970s. 

• 446 million hectares of C0 2 -absorbing forests will be lost. 

• Burning of much of the wood on 446 million hectares will produce more 
C0 2 . (446 million hectares equals 1,070,400,000 acres) 

• Decomposition of soil humus will release more C0 2 . 

• A doubling of the C0 2 concentration by 2050 could increase the average 
temperature of the earth by about 3 degrees C, melting much of the polar ice. 

And about Agriculture and Food: 

Land productivity is declining in many industrialized countries as well as 
LDCs (Less Developed Countries). Losses of range and farmland to 
desertification by 2000 could total 2,800 million hectares. . . One half the total 
irrigated land is already damaged by waterlogging, salinization and 

If it is not obvious at this point, it is important to realize that the projections given by this 
report, and those offered by John Hamaker, while similar in some ways, are fundamentally 
different in a number of ways, including these three: 

1 . Hamaker' s whole thesis emphasizes ecological problem solutions beginning 
now on a worldwide scale. Global 2000 admittedly suggests no solutions, but concurs 
with Hamaker in asserting, "Prompt and vigorous changes in public policy around the 
world are needed to avoid or minimize these problems before they become 
unmanageable. Long lead times are required for effective action. If decisions are delayed 
until the problems become worse, options for effective action will be severely reduced." 
(p. 5, Vol. I) 

2. Hamaker, to a great degree, performs the absolutely essential task of recognizing 
and understanding the many interactions and "feedbacks" within the whole man- 
environment ecology, and he realizes where we are in the long-term soil-climate cycle. In 
contrast, Global 2000, "the foundation of our longer-term planning," took this approach: 

The elements of the Government' s global model were not, of course, 
designed to be used together as an integrated whole. The constituent 
models were developed separately and at different times to serve the 
various projection needs of individual agencies (Vol. II, p. viii). 


Exercises cutting feedback within integrated world models reveal that 
the omission of system linkages greatly influences the results of forecasts, 
which suggests that the Government's Global Model. . . is presenting a 
distorted picture of the probable future. The predictive error incurred by 
omissions of feedback is cumulative over time: in most cases it is not 
highly significant over a 5 -year period, but becomes important in a 20-year 
period and may become paramount over a 50-year span." (Vol. II, p. 681) 

John Hamaker has already made it abundantly clear that the errors of such a 
fragmented approach can become quite "paramount" in only a 5-year period at this point. 
The Report concludes Vol. I with the admission: "The inescapable conclusion is that the 
omission of linkages imparts an optimistic bias to the Global 2000 study's (and the 
U.S. Government's) quantitative projections." (p. 45) 

3. Hamaker' s fundamental assumptions and perceptions of the present state of the 
biosphere — and of humanity's capacity to build up its health and fertility, should also be 
seen in sharp contrast to the assumptions and projections of the Global 2000 authors. No 
better nor more important example of this could be presented than their views of the soil 
and future productivity therefrom. 

This book's first six chapters have presumably made clear Hamaker' s findings, findings 
that are based on the documented natural cycles and observable, easily-proven processes of 
fertility creation. The following section on the Global 2000 views of soil, food and 
agriculture is needed to make unmistakably evident the distinctions between the two views 
on the most basic factor of health and survival. Certainly the truth in either or both views 
must be recognized and applied on an unprecedented scale if humanity is to prevent either the 
rapid and quickly irreversible socio-ecological decline and glaciation projected by Hamaker, 
or the relatively slower, eventually irreversible decline into misery conservatively projected 
by the U.S. Government — were those government projections valid. 

Global 2000 On The Soil Support System 

As noted, Global 2000 does not acknowledge the prior 10,000 years of interglacial soil 
demineralization; in fact, loss of soil minerals is not recognized specifically at all in its listing 
of "the five major agents of soil loss." (Vol. II, p. 277). These are given as a classification for 
"what is now known of world land degradations" as follows: 

1. Desertification; 

2. Waterlogging, salinization, and alkalinization; 

3. Soil degradation that follows deforestation; 

4. General erosion and humus loss from "routine agricultural practices"; 

5. Loss of lands to urbanization and related developments. 


Before quoting the report's somewhat fantastic food production increase projections, a 
few of its views on the deterioration of soils are important to note: 

Soil is a basic agricultural resource, but it is a depleting, salifying, and 
eroding resource. Lost soil fertility can be restored, but only after long periods 
of time and at great cost. (Vol. II, p. 297) 

Restoration of mildly damaged soils could be accomplished over a decade 
with fallowing and green manuring. . . but restoration of severely damaged 
land would require much longer. . . (Vol. II, p. 416) 

Accelerated erosion, loss of natural fertility and other deterioration. . . may 
have more effect in the coming years than is indicated in the Global 2000 food 
projections. (Vol. I, p. 20) 

To what extent does soil deterioration on existing croplands affect the 
world' s agricultural potential? The limited data available suggest the outlines 
of an answer. . . showing scattered but alarming examples of soil deterioration. 
The primary problems include: (1) loss of topsoil to erosion, (2) loss of organic 
matter, (3) loss of porous soil structure, (4) build-up of toxic salts and 
chemicals. (Vol. II, p. 276) 

Apparently, the most basic underlying cause of all these problems — worldwide soil 
demineralization — is outside the awareness of the authors. This statement is made regarding 
the present state of deterioration: 

Changes in soil quality cannot be directly and accurately measured over 
large geographic areas, and too few sample measurements have been made to 
obtain a detailed statistical picture at the global (or even, with a few 
exceptions, at the national) level. . . The study of world soil conditions is 
further complicated in many regions by the use of synthetic fertilizers and 
high-yield varieties, which may maintain or even increase production for a 
time, temporarily masking losses of soil and deteriorating soil structure. (Vol. 
II, p. 276) 

Concluding the section, "Deterioration of Soils," the authors state a message as 
significant and clear as any in the report: 

Whether the soils of the world will deteriorate further or be reclaimed will 
depend in large part on the ability and willingness of governments to make 
politically difficult policy changes. . . Assuming no policy change — the 
standard assumption underlying all of the Global 2000 study 
projections — significant deteriorations in soils can be anticipated virtually 
everywhere including in the U.S. Assuming that energy, water, and capital are 
available, it will be possible for a time to compensate for some of the 
deterioration by increasing. . .inputs. . . (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, etc.), 
but the projected increases in energy (and chemical fertilizer) costs will make 
this approach to offsetting soil losses ever more expensive. Without major 
policy changes, soil deterioration could significantly interfere with achieving 
the production levels projected in this Study, (p. 283) 


Global 2000 food projections, and the means to achieve them, "assuming no 
deterioration in climate or weather" (Vol. II, p. 13) are based upon "the food and agriculture 
projections developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture which foresee a 90 to 100 
percent increase in total world production over the 1970-2000 period. . .The projection 
increases are based in part on a projected 4 percent increase in arable area." (Vol. II, p. 
272 — emphasis added) 

Such tremendous gains in global food production could, without a doubt, occur if 
generous soil remineralization programs are instituted (and, of course, greater gains could 
come from replacing certain unnecessary non-food crops with essential food crops). How do 
the USDA authors involved in the study believe the gains will occur? Such gains obviously 
require greater soil fertility and thus "fertilizer" — presumably the balance of elements and 
materials which are responsible for producing fertility and life. However, for this most 
crucial study, the authors have decided to impose on it the narrow, commercially- 
institutionalized definition of "fertilizer": packaged concentrates of acidic "nitrogenous 
fertilizer, phosphates (P 2 5 ) and potash (K 2 0)." (Vol. II, p. 100) More of these authors' 
views are best related, if not fully comprehended, by further direct quotes from the study: 

Because of this tightening land constraint, food production is not likely to 
increase fast enough to meet rising demands unless world agriculture becomes 
significantly more dependent on petroleum and petroleum-related inputs. 
Increased petroleum dependence also has implications for the cost of food 
production. . . the real price of food is projected to increase 95 percent over the 
1970-2000 period. . . (Vol. I, p. 16-17) 

A world transition away from petroleum dependence must take place, but 
there is still much uncertainty as to how this transition will occur. (Vol. I, p. 


Farmer's costs of raising, and (costs of) even maintaining yields have 
increased rapidly. . . Costs of. . . fertilizers, pesticides, and fuels have risen 

very rapidly throughout the world, and where these inputs are heavily used, 
increased applications are bringing diminishing returns. (Vol. I, p. 18) 

While there have been significant improvements recently in the yields of 
selected crops, the diminishing returns and rapidly rising costs of yield- 
enhancing inputs suggest that yields will increase more slowly than projected. 
(Vol. I, p. 19) 

The 90 to 100 percent increase in food production projected through 2000 
under Alternative I suggests roughly a 1 80 percent increase in fertilizer use, 
from 80 million metric tons in 1973-75 to 225 million in 2000. . . Measures of 
fertilizer per arable hectare. . . point up the increasingly input-intensive nature 
of food production through the end of the century. (Vol. II, p. 99) 


Note: "the 'fertilizer' projections are intended to apply to a full package of yield- 
enhancing inputs," including "pesticides, herbicides, irrigation, etc." (Vol. II, p. 283) 

Chapter 6 projects that by 2000 global use per hectare of "fertilizer" (as defined in that 
chapter) will be 2.6 times that of the record levels reported in the early 1970s. Usage in LDCs 
is projected to quadruple. "The per-hectare usage of fertilizers in all regions can be expected 
to increase at essentially the same rates as total applications." (Vol. II, p. 283) 

While U.S. Department of Agriculture officials regard the global levels of 
fertilizer use projected for 2000 to be safe when applied carefully by trained 
personnel, they are aware that improper use leads to increased dangers. 
Improper use can aggravate rather than alleviate problems of soil deterioration 
and declining fertility. (Vol. II, p. 284) 

Nitrous oxide from fertilizer usage. . . depletes the ozone layer. If this 
phenomenon turns out to be serious, the world could find itself in the tragic 
situation of having to support the human population at the cost of subjecting 
the world's biota to damaging doses of cosmic and ultra-violet radiation, at 
least one effect of which would be increased incidence of skin cancer in human 
beings. (Vol. II, p.284) 

From the perspective of ecology, the known terrestrial effects of increased 
fertilizer usage are surprisingly benign. The addition of large amounts of three 
critical nutrients (phosphorous, potassium and fixed nitrogen) might be 
expected to produce many changes in soils. The most apparent effect is simply 
the intended increase in plant growth. . . ("the number of malnourished people 
in LDCs could rise from 400 to 600 million in the mid- 1 970 's to 1.3 billion in 
2000. . . " — Vol. I, p. 17) Increased nitrogen usage contributes to reduction of 
soil organic matter, thus degrading soils and contributing carbon dioxide to the 

atmosphere. . . Generally soil organic matter declines to. . . 40 to 60 percent of 
the original content. Soil quality deteriorates as well. While in most cases crop 
yields can be maintained through the continual applications of chemical 
fertilizers, through plowing with large tractors, and through irrigation, the 
modern methods of farming tend to lock agriculture into a particular mode of 
cultivation and resource allocation if high yields in degraded soils are to be 
maintained. (Vol. II, p. 284) 

While mortality from methemoglobinemia is now extremely rare, the 
presence of high levels of nitrate in drinking water supplies poses a health 
hazard that is already a valid concern in the United States, and the projected 
doubling-to-quadrupling of fertilizer applications by 2000 could make this 
disease more serious and more widespread. (Vol. II, p. 285) 


The reader has perhaps already posed the question: What can the short and long-term 
value be of such fertility-depleting "fertilizers" and overall increasing fossil fuel dependence 
be? And how can anything but overall degradation of soil, humanity, and the "globe" result 
from pursuing these "traditional" but ecologically out-of-date technologies? The Global 
2000 authors, being oblivious to soil remineralization and recycling potentials, believe that 
ecological destruction must result from human food production methods, as shown by this 
conclusion to Chapter 6, "Food and Agriculture Projections": 

Fertilizer and pesticide pollution problems can also result from misuse. 
Even relatively small quantities. . . can generate major environmental 
problems. . . The fast growth in the use of fertilizers and pesticides implied by 
the projections for most LDCs over the next three decades point up the need for 
expanding and upgrading farm education programs and monitoring input use to 
insure the optimum trade-off between food production increases and 
environmental quality. 

In summary, while solutions to foreseeable environmental problems in 
expanding food production are theoretically available, their 
application — particularly in those parts of developing countries experiencing 
the greatest environmental stress — is in question. Ultimately, the 
environmentally positive or negative nature of increases in food production is 
likely to depend on short-term versus long-term costs. The real food price 
increases projected for the decades ahead could well make the short-term costs 
of environmentally positive agriculture seem high and the long-run costs of an 
environmentally negative agriculture seem small. In the industrialized 
countries, internalizing the costs of pollution. . . could narrow the margin 
between short-term and long-term costs and accelerate the move to an 
environmentally positive agriculture. In most developing countries, however, 
questions of grain gaps and calorie gaps are likely to outweigh problems of 
environment well beyond the year 2000. (Vol. II, p. 104) 

Presumably no commentary is needed on those statements. A section on "Feedback to the 
Food and Agriculture Projections" (p. 414) reveals another interesting assumption, namely: 
"Yields are assumed to continue increasing at essentially the same rates as in the past two 
decades," despite the fact that former USDA researcher Lester Brown, now Worldwatch 
Institute president, has documented that chemically-induced yields have been falling or 
leveling off in the U.S., China, France, and elsewhere (The Worldwide Loss of Cropland, 
1978, Worldwatch paper No. 24). 


Pollution by pesticides and fertilizers is assumed not to constrain the use of 
pesticides and fertilizers (p. 414). . . over the period of the projections there 
will be no major improvement in the food supply for the world's poorest 
populations, and what improvements do occur will require an increase of 95 
percent in the real price of food. . . (p. 415) 


For the LDCs, the food projections assume that land deterioration will not 
be more serious than in past decades, because farmers will be aware of the 
problems, will institute practices preventing more extensive deterioration, and 
will charge more for their crops to cover increased costs. There is a significant 
discrepancy between these assumptions and the environment projections. . . 
(they) anticipate significant increases in the intensity of use of agriculture lands 
in the LDCs and very few preventative or remedial measures. The primary 
LDC remedial measures implied by the food projections are a fourfold increase 
in the use of fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides and a large increase in 
irrigation. . . Furthermore. . . deforestation will increase the degradation of the 
LDC agricultural lands. . . increased erosion and. . . a fuelwood shortage. . . 
will result in an increase in the burning of dung [150 to 400 million 
tons/year — ed.] that would have otherwise been returned to the soil as 

The food projections assume that agricultural pests and diseases will not 
present more difficult problems in the future than they have in the past. The 
projections indicate that these problems will be managed through a global 
doubling in the use of pesticides. A still larger increase is anticipated for the 

By contrast, the environmental projections suggest that pest and disease 
problems will increase, especially if reliance continues to be placed primarily 
on pesticides, (p. 415-17) 

These excerpts should more than suffice to make plain the contrast between the approach 
designed to restore the entire Biosphere from the soil up, and that approach found effective, 
in years past, for extracting soil fertility reserves via fossil fuel-based chemical technologies. 
The crucial choice to move ahead swiftly and intelligently with the one, or to attempt an 

intensification of the other (as Global 2000 "projects"), should be seen in its total 
ramifications for human life on Earth, now and in the potential future. If this can be done, the 
sensible human mind may well perceive that there isn't actually any choice. 

In this connection may be considered these words from Global 2000' s "Conclusions" of 
Vol. I: 

Vigorous, determined new initiatives are needed if worsening poverty and 
human suffering, environmental degradation, and international tensions and 
conflicts are to be prevented. . . New and imaginative ideas — and a willingness 
to act on them — are essential. 


Global Future: Time To Act 

This is the title of the 200-page follow-up (released in January, 1981) to the Global 
2000 Report, intended to begin developing solutions, says the preface, for the "problem 
areas needing priority attention. . . The report presents a collection of considered assessments 
and new ideas for actions the United States could take, in concert with other nations, for a 
vigorous response to urgent global problems." 

This report may be summarized briefly by noting that nothing is yet forthcoming on the 
requirement to remineralize the soils and stabilize or restore degenerating ecosystems, 
although its recommendations to begin immediate worldwide communication and 
cooperation are a beginning. 

One of the authors, Gus Speth, Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, has 
been informed by a number of people of John Hamaker's breakthroughs in understanding. 
Speth writes: 

"What the recent reports do emphasize in a new way are the accelerating pace and scale 
of the problems and their interrelationships — the web of causes and effects that bind them 
together." Yet he does not offer a single word on remineralization potential, just a vague 
statement that "soil enrichment techniques" should be encouraged. Here is the brief 
paragraph, under "Techniques for sustainable agriculture," where this possibility is 

The Global Report projections assume that global use of agricultural 
chemicals will accelerate. However, continued rapid increases in their use may 
not be feasible. The manufacture of nitrogen fertilizers and. . . pesticides, is 
based on fossil fuels and will be subjected to steeply rising costs. In addition, 
many of these chemicals produce a wide range of serious environmental 
consequences, some of which adversely affect agricultural production. 
Alternatives that can contribute to raising agricultural yields on a long-term 

sustainable basis are available and should be encouraged. Among them are 
integrated pest management and soil enrichment techniques, (p. 34-5) 

Finding ways to assist soil microorganisms in assimilating atmospheric nitrogen is also 
highly recommended (p. 38), but no connection between this and the aforementioned soil 
enrichment techniques is made. 

Recommendations on reforestation, renewable energy, and C0 2 are also given — in 
isolation from their relations to the soil system — as follows: 

U.S. support for a global fuelwood program that would double the rate of 
tree planting in developing countries over a 5-year period is highly desirable. 
U.S. efforts should take at least three forms: support for the large expansion of 
World Bank fuelwood-forestry lending recently proposed by the bank, a major 
expansion of AID and Peace Corps fuelwood assistance, and support for 
adoption of a global fuelwood program at the 1981 UN Conference on New 
and Renewable Sources of Energy. 


The World Bank has concluded that massive reforestation is essential and 
recommends raising the global rate of tree planting five-fold, from 1.25 million 
acres a year to 6.25 million acres. [About 50 million acres of forest are being 
"consumed" yearly— Global 2000, Vol. II, p. 126] 

An interagency task force should be established to chart a realistic path for 
achieving the goal of getting 20 percent of our energy from renewable energy 
by the year 2000. 

The United States should ensure that full consideration of the C0 2 problem 
is given in the development of energy policy. Efforts should be begun 
immediately to develop and examine alternative global energy futures, with 
special emphasis on regional analyses and the implications for C0 2 buildup. 
Special attention should also be devoted to determining what would be a 
prudent upper bound on global CO, concentrations. (Vol. II, p. 125-130) 

The World Conservation Strategy 

This strategy, published by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, is the 
result of three years of research and discussion involving more than 450 government agencies 
and over 100 countries. It was "launched" on March 5, 1980 in London and 32 other capital 
cities across the world. A summary of the WCS appears in the April 1980 Not Man Apart. It 
is difficult to criticize a document and worldwide educational effort that represents a giant 
leap forward from no strategy or concern at all, but as well-meaning as it may be, it too fails 
to recognize the naturally-retrogressed and humanly over-exploited state of the present late- 
interglacial soil and biosphere. Instead, according to "How To Save The World: A Bold New 

Campaign" (Not Man Apart), it suggests that: "The biosphere is like a self-regenerating cake, 
and conservation is the conduct of our affairs so that we can have our cake and eat it too. As 
long as certain bits of the cake are not consumed and consumption of the rest of it is kept 
within certain limits, the cake will renew itself and provide for continuing consumption." 

It also says that most countries are poorly organized to conserve, that severe soil 
degradation is already a critical problem, that deserts may soon adversely affect 630 million 
people, that tropical forests are quickly becoming extinct, and that time is running out. In 
spite of these realizations, the strategy gives no emphasis to remineralizing or otherwise 
"enriching" soils, reforesting large areas or establishing biomass energy plantations, nor to 
restoring — implying giving to or nourishing — Earth's poverty stricken ecosystems in any 
sufficient way. 


Apparently, its authors have accepted the common belief that policies of "conservation," 
even on a worldwide scale, will function to prevent collapse of Earth's (late-interglacial) life 
support systems, and human civilization. (The Survival of Civilization will of course be sent 
to the Global Future and World Conservation Strategy authors as soon as possible.) 

In concluding, the growing perspective of the reader may well consider these wise words 
of this "How To Save The World. . ." article: 

The devastation of the biosphere is the ultimate threat to the survival and 
well-being of human beings. It is seldom perceived as such, because for many 
peoples and their governments it is overshadowed by apparently more pressing 
concerns: war, poverty, epidemics, the energy crisis, inflation, unemployment. 
Nevertheless, failure to conserve living resources is closely linked to the 
worsening of the other problems. 

John Hamaker offered a similar message in an open letter to the readers of Acres, USA 
(April, 1980), and part of it is of value to consider in this connection. John wrote — 

A letter from Bruce Walker of Saskatoon in the Dec. '79 issue was recently 
brought to my attention. I would like to correct a couple of mis-statements. 

Bruce spoke of John Hamaker' s 'theory on gravel dusts.' Surely he is not 
referring to the use of ground glacial gravel dust on the soil as being 
theoretical. It is exactly the same stuff that nature left on the whole earth during 
the last glacial period so that life could once again flourish. The fact that nature 
knows what to use to furnish the mineral base for all life on earth is hardly 
theoretical. The facts and laws of nature comprise all the science there is. 

Unfortunately, virtually all of the smaller particles of glacial till from very 
fine sand (.004 inch) and smaller on the soils of most of the earth have been 
stripped of useful elements during the 10,000 years since the last glaciation. 
Those particle sizes must be replaced or we must die. 

We can commit mass suicide in a number of ways. We can continue to 
pollute the biosphere with nuclear contaminants. We can do the same thing 
with non-biodegradable organic compounds. We can push the button on 
nuclear war. But the quickest and surest way is to fail to remineralize the soil. 

In my opinion, this inter-glacial civilization will be dying out by 1990 and 
totally destroyed by 1995. If it occurs, it will be because too few people are 
able to examine the evidence, perceive the inevitable consequences, and take 
corrective action. 

John D. Hamaker 


Chapter 7 

Taxes, Freedom and 
the Constitution 




John Hamaker's Taxes, Freedom, and the Constitution was first written in October 1972, 
and is a condensation of thought from forty years' study of economic and ecological 
principles, and from an earlier manuscript entitled Total Freedom. 

Taxes, Freedom, and the Constitution explains the significance of the compound interest 
curve on the cover of the book. The article must stand alone on its own merits, and no 
"Perspective" section will follow it. 

The newly-written preface explains the relation of this chapter to the rest of this book. 

Leading into that preface, a powerful statement from the opening address to the 10th 
anniversary meeting of the Club of Rome (7/13/78) is worthy of consideration. It was spoken 
by Aurelio Peccei, internationally respected economist, and founder-president of the Club of 
Rome. Peccei said, in part: 

Whatever evaluation or forecasts we undertake, they are just sectoral, 
fragmented, or short-term. Never is our vast assortment of resources mobilized 
across disciplines and boundaries with a view to pursuing common, global 

As a consequence, we are all pitifully unprepared to cope with the 
formidable challenges and threats looming ahead. Although such a bitter reality 
is seldom recognized, it is high time to understand at least two essential things. 

One is that mankind as a whole is striding rapidly towards a momentous 
crossroads where there can be no place for mistakes; yet, its values, institutions 
and bearing are still a reflection of the past and certainly cannot carry it safely 
into the future. That something fundamental is wrong with its entire system is 
quite evident — for even now it is unable to assure the minima of life to all its 
members, to be at peace with itself, or to be at peace with Nature. 

The second is mankind' s desperate need to break this vicious circle, while 
it can still get free and mold its future. 


Many more of Peccei's words are valuable to consider. In direct relation to the messages 
of this book, however, these few stand out: 

There is much charitable talk about basic human needs but no earnest drive 
at the very roots of this knot of problems, no concrete commitment to eradicate 
hunger, deprivation and ignorance from the world, once and for all. . . Neither 
are there reliable plans or even ideas on how to find work for the 300 million 
able-bodied men and women currently unemployed, or how to create the 1,000 
million more jobs which will be needed during the 1980s and the 1990s. . . 

Almost half the world's scientists are engaged in "defense" projects, and 
the annual military expenditure is approaching 400 billion dollars — which 
breaks down to more than one billion dollars a day. "The world," said 
President Carter at the United Nations, "spent last year (1976) 60 times as 
much equipping each soldier as we spent educating each child." 

The great step is then for all of us, and especially for those who command 
knowledge and power, to realize that — if we will it — ahead lies not catastrophe 
but the best part of the human venture. The keystone is the full development of 
the human being — the human revolution which can guide and crown all other 
revolutions of our time. 


In the past, some nations have failed because their agriculture systems removed minerals 
from the topsoil faster than minerals could come up from the subsoil. The people of such 
nations migrated to new lands and lost their identity as a nation. They left behind deserts. 

More often, nations have failed because their economic systems permitted the wealth to 
become centralized in the hands of a few people. The impoverishment of the rest of the 
people inevitably resulted in revolution of one sort or another. 

In the world today, almost every nation is in the process of failing for both reasons. We 
not only have to remineralize the earth, but we must design a society which meets everyone's 
need for survival. 

Our present economy is completely autocratic. The wealth has become so highly 
centralized that a very few men now control the whole nation. If they say we will use fossil 
fuels for energy, we use fossil fuels. If they say we will use chemical "fertilizers" and 
poisons on the land, we use chemical "fertilizers" and poisons. If they say we will continue to 
manufacture billions of pounds annually of non-biodegradable organic compounds, we will 
continue to manufacture the non-biodegradable organic chemicals even though the waste 
dumps have already doomed the underground water supply and we have endured untold 
genetic damage and sickness. If they say to build nuclear power plants, H-bombs, and war 
materiel, we build them. 

Clearly, the rule of wealth is diametrically opposed to the survival of humanity. Clearly, 
we must break the power of wealth or resign ourselves to death centered about the year 1990. 


If we had the time, we could start by reforming elections to remove all the influence of 
wealth. Presently, the electoral system attracts the sort of people who will take the corporate 
money and do the corporate bidding, which results in the absurd national decisions above 
described. Unfortunately, there is no time left for election reform which would improve the 
quality of people in government. Therefore we must work with what we have. There is no 
other chance for survival. Two things which can have an effect on Members of Congress are 
the fear of not getting elected and the fear of starving to death when glaciation hits. It is up to 

We the People to impress the facts of glaciation and consequent worldwide starvation upon 
those who are supposed to represent us. What must be done must be done now. 

At one time this nation belonged largely to its people, but as the wealth became more and 
more centralized, the ownership shifted to the centralized pools of wealth whose only 
purpose is reinvestment of earnings in order to acquire more ownership. At this time it is 
probably true that three-fourths of the nation's value is owned by less than 4 percent of the 
population and the investment funds they control. A few hundred people actually make the 
decisions for all of us. The control is exercised in many different ways, from advertising 
propaganda to hired legislators and corporate penetration into the administrative branches of 
government under the heading of political patronage. The rest of us "go along to git along" 
because the guy above us controls our jobs. 

I don't know how many trillions of dollars there are in the investment funds, but I do 
know that the doubling time is now something like 5 or 6 years. Reagan's 1967 dollar, now 
worth about 35 cents, will be worth 17 cents about 1985. The real value of the nation will 
probably be less in 1985 than it is now, but the ownership will be represented by twice as 
many dollars. That is the cause of inflation — other factors in the economy simply play catch- 
up as a matter of necessity. The Carter administration refused to come to grips with the cause 
of inflation, and the Reagan administration is doing an even worse job. With such leadership, 
the dollar will be worthless by the end of the decade and the nation will be in financial crisis. 
Actually, it will happen before that because of the food supply crisis. 

Assuming that we are unwilling to accept the disasters which are set to destroy us, the 
first step to getting a stable monetary unit is to exchange the dollar at 1000 to 1, if need be, 
for a new monetary unit with real purchasing power. The next step is to change all of the 
laws to insure that money is constantly recycled into the economy instead of accumulating 
for unlimited periods of time. According to the mathematics of exponential equations, we 
must abandon the idea that anything will work forever. Right now the C0 2 curve, the 
population curve, and the curve for compound interest (or profits), are all out of control 
because they are all attempting to climb toward infinity. They have reached irrational end 
points and they must be dealt with. To fail to do so means anarchy and death on a broad scale 
from many causes in this decade. 


The U.S. led the world to political freedom. Now that freedom is being abandoned 
everywhere in favor of some type of socialism. That means committee control of everything. 
Nobody has liked what they get from committees because committees aren't smart enough to 
do everybody's thinking for them. Now is the time to show the world that Total Freedom, the 
union of political and economic freedom — a rule of law rather than people — is the one 
system that can bring a peaceful and constructive future to the world. 

The paper, Taxes, Freedom, and the Constitution, is a brief statement of the changes in 
law which will recycle the wealth and make the economy and the government work for all 
the people. It is a time for doing what must be done if civilization is to continue. 

The changes which must be made in the way we treat the environment in order to survive 
imply massive changes in the present economic establishment. Huge investments in plants 
and equipment must be scrapped. That is not going to happen unless the people who want to 
survive put up one hell of a fight in the same kind of a hurry. We must gain control of 
legislative bodies so we can move rapidly to effect the massive changes required. The 
situation calls for generous use of the recall option. It calls for massive demonstrations. The 
Polish "Solidarity" movement is an excellent example of how a people can impress their 
demands on government. The Poles do so at great risk. In this country there is no power 
which can stand against an aroused populace. 

If anyone thinks there is an easy route to the other side of Armageddon, he is just kidding 
himself. Paraphrasing Jesus (Matthew 5:18), "None of the law shall be changed unless it all 
be changed." Nobody said it would be easy. 

J. DM. 


Taxes, Freedom and 
the Constitution 

Fundamental change is required to save this nation from becoming a totalitarian state. 
Decay is evident in every facet of our society, but few understand the cause. The Rightists 
simply blame it all on "communism," which is an effect rather than the cause. The Liberals 
frantically search their first aid kits for palliatives to treat the most painful effects of the 
underlying cause. This essay tells why "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer." It tells 
why centralization of wealth occurs, and it prescribes the only solution possible within the 
framework of a representative democracy. 

In the rush toward industrialization, it became expedient for people to turn toward 
specialization. They forgot that this is an orderly universe and an orderly world which works 
according to scientific, i.e., natural laws which are inviolable. Now the extent of 
environmental destruction has forced us to recognize that everything in the environment has 
an effect on everything else. With that recognition, the first feeble efforts at a 
multidisciplinary approach to problems has begun We have yet to recognize that the design 
of a viable social order can not be accomplished by sociologists who know nothing of 
economics, economists who know nothing of sociology, and lawyers who know only their 
allegiance to the laws of the status quo. Few of them recognize that the social order and the 
environment are completely dependent on each other. 

There is a relationship between mathematics, overpopulation, and poverty which is 
simple enough and startling enough to draw the attention from the trees long enough to see 
the forest. The population problem has forced us to recognize that numbers which increase 
according to an exponential equation become totally incompatible with the finite limits of the 
world. We must, therefore, change our breeding habits to stop the increase and, preferably, 
decrease our numbers. It is not optional. It is mandatory. Those nations which fail to comply 
are doomed to poverty, pollution, starvation, and death. This fact will dominate both 
domestic and foreign policy in the years ahead. 


In the matter of economics, a similar exponential equation is destroying our economy and 
our democracy. It is the rot that runs through the forest. Benjamin Franklin willed $100 to the 

city of Philadelphia. It was to be kept at compound interest until it reached $1,000,000. The 
inheritance paid off in a little less than 200 years. If the million were kept at 6 percent 
compounded annually for 20 years, it would reach 3.2 million; in 40 years, 10.3 million; and 
in 60 years it would reach 33 million. At 3 percent it would be only 5.9 million in 60 years; 
but at 7 percent it would be 57.9 million. Long before Franklin's time many people made 
business investments of much more than $100 and realized more than 6 percent. Those 
investments which were invested in the steady moneymaking businesses, and passed on 
through inheritance, now are valued in the hundreds of millions. Today these fortunes control 
capital now measured in hundreds of billions. Applying the 20-, 40-, or 60-year factors shows 
by inspection that the rate of increase of such vast sums has far exceeded the potential rate of 
growth of the economy. The growth rate of the centralized pools of wealth has exceeded the 
finite limits of the capacity of the economy to support it. This is particularly so now, because 
the growth of population is the primary basis for the growth of the economy. The population 
growth must be stopped. 

One dollar can be plotted as a series of curves (Fig. 7.1) using a different rate of interest 
compounded annually for each curve and plotting time on the abscissa against fund increase 
on the ordinate. The result is the accumulation of a single dollar — the factor to be multiplied 
by the amount of the initial fund to find its present value. It will be noted that the curves bend 
gently upward until half to one million dollars is reached. Then in a 50- to 100-year period, 
the curve breaks upward toward infinitely large numbers. The number of years it takes to 
reach the break point depends on the rate of interest (or profit). At 3 percent it takes about 
450 years, at 6 percent about 220 years, and at 10 percent about 125 years to reach the break 
point. After that point is reached, the rate of increase in funds reaches absurdly large rates of 
increase which have no relation to the rate of increase of real values in the economy. 
Therefore, the only way such fortunes can continue to increase is to expand ownership over 
everything in the economy which makes money. Because of the power of large fortunes to 
buy out or freeze out competition, they take control of the most stable and lucrative 
businesses. The theoretical end result is one fortune in possession of everything in the 
country. In practice, when a majority of people have been impoverished, there is a revolt and 
a wiping out of all debts. Historically, this has occurred every few hundred years, i.e., when 
the large fortunes in a country have reached the break point in the curve and have transferred 
much of the ownership from the people to the pools of wealth. They then have the power to 
reach out for every real value in the economy. The more they take, the faster the process 
works until they have it all. 

One does not argue with the laws of nature. One either conforms or pays the penalty. The 
mathematics of compound interest is natural law. We are in the self-destruct stage. Our 
economy is at the break-point in the curve. If we continue to permit funds to accumulate, we 
are certain to have our economy destroyed and our people in revolt. Money, like everything 
else in the environment, must be recycled to prevent destructive pollution of the economic 

P.l 8 1 























A = 
P = 

money p 

4xX = 

laced at 
3und int< 

irest 1 
atN I 







1 1( 



^ % 




Fig. 7.1 The Irrational Behavior of Funds at Compound Interest 

Specifically, there is now about one and one-half trillion dollars in public and private debts. 
Most of these debts are owed to pools of money which annually grow by the amount of the 
interest (or profit) added to them. In 60 years, at an average of 7 percent interest, the value of 
the funds would be 58 times their present value. The total growth rate has far exceeded the 
real growth rate of the economy. The best-protected funds have passed the break-point. They 
are well on the way to owning the entire country. 

Senator Phillip Hart has said, "200 decision makers control two-thirds of all production." 
Senator Fred Harris has said that centralization of wealth and the question of how to re- 
distribute it will be the major issue of this decade. It had better be, because the claims to 
ownership by those funds are going to try to double in ten years time. An awful lot of people 
and small businesses are going bankrupt. Inflation and government and personal debt will 
continue at high rates of increase. Super- wealth has a counterfeiting machine and a 
government to legalize its product. It can buy us all. 


The excessive rate of growth of large sums of money according to an exponential 
equation is responsible for virtually all the deficiencies of the present capitalistic system as 

1. The constant growth of large pools of money in excess of real growth in the economy 
is highly inflationary. The avidity with which the holders of great wealth seek to multiply it 
leads to over-expansion of industrial capacity, over-extension of credit to consumers, and 
vicious competition for ownership of all income-producing values. 

2. The inflationary "boom" is turned into a "bust" when a significant number of people 
have used up their credit, and when competition caused by over-production has closed out the 
least competitive companies, further depleting the consumer demand. Small savings are 
robbed by inflation. So great is the ever-ready inflationary capacity of large pools of wealth, 
that the cycle of boom and bust has occurred roughly every ten years since 1840. In each one 
there is a transfer of ownership from those who fail to those who have larger funds 
subsidizing them at the exponential rate. Example: In 1935 there were 750 breweries. In 1970 
only 140. The rate of bankruptcy and conglomeration insure that there will be a lot fewer 
breweries after this "bust" period. The power of the major funds now dominates the 
economy. Production has become centralized, leaving behind centers of poverty. 

3. Charity and the government pick up the bill to feed the people left destitute. If all 
present government and private debts were collected from the people tomorrow, most of us 
would be penniless or in debt. Almost everything in the country would be owned by about 
one-half of one percent of the people or the businesses in which they hold a controlling 
interest. Most of the people are broke. The wealth has become highly centralized. Inflation 
eats up the savings of older people, and they are forced on welfare or social security. They 
have relied on fund growth for security. Insurance and private pension funds pay off about 40 
percent and 10 percent respectively, and they pay off in inflated dollars. Social security is not 

an insurance fund. It is a tax on present producers to feed older, less productive workers 
forced off the job by the fixed wage, fixed 8-hour day, maximum profits concept. If social 
security tax payments had been funded at compound interest, inflation of the dollar would be 
far worse than it is, and the government would be well on the way toward ownership of the 
entire country. The 153 billion dollars in private pension plans doesn't help the 90 percent of 
contributors who get nothing back, but it sure helps the big corporations with their 
conglomeration plans. 


4. Because the people of this country have been largely separated from ownership of the 
real wealth, the pressure of the rapidly multiplying huge pools of wealth has moved toward 
exploitation of the people and their resources in less developed countries. To insure those 
investments, large sums have been spent since WW II to insure "friendly" national legislators 
and administrators. The result has been the absurdly hopeless policy of "Containment of 
Communism. " Meanwhile, revolt grows within our nation. 

5. The forced flow of wealth from the people to the funds (directly and indirectly through 
taxation) reduces large numbers of people to poverty and the majority of the working force to 
the insecurity of having only the job between themselves and poverty. These demoralizing 
stresses induce crime, alcoholism, dope addiction, prostitution — all escape mechanisms to 
alleviate the pains, needs, and wants that attend poverty. 

Poverty provides little market demand. The total national product must therefore shrink 
relative to actual need. This contraction means that more people enter the ranks of poverty. 
As the funds increase, poverty increases — "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer." Those 
who still work are heavily taxed to sustain the poor. Ultimately it is the taxpayers who revolt. 
Presently this "Silent American" has refused to raise property taxes and he has heard and 
approved of what George Wallace has been saying. The sleeping giant has awakened. The 
establishment has kept him ignorant of the cause of his dilemma. If he runs true to form, he 
will wind up with a dictatorship on his back. 

We are ruled by an exponential equation. Either we control it or we will join the two- 
thirds of the world's population which have yielded to dictatorship for survival. Sooner or 
later, those who fail to control their breeding will have to be restrained by legal means in 
order that the nation can survive as a human society. Right now is the time to protect 
ourselves from the rule of centralized pools of wealth if we are to save our political freedom. 


This brief, broad view of the economic (and resultant social) problems has served to 
show that the rich get richer and the poor get poorer because of the fact that money "earns" 
money at an exponential rate, whereas the economy expands directly with population and the 
technical ingenuity of the people. The difference between the two rates is the margin of 
power by which the owners of wealth impose poverty on everyone else. 

In a barter economy, the rate of increase of the economy is directly related to the needs of 
the people. The amount of labor and skill in a bartered item is known to all, and the exchange 
proceeds on an equal basis so that the balance of the economy is never upset. The invention 
of money obscured the equality of labor exchange. Starting with the concept that an economy 
is simply a system for exchanging equal units of labor value, we can discover why the 
imbalance in our economy occurs. By considering taxes in the general sense of any burden 
placed on producers, the elements of unequal exchange can be isolated. What are the burdens 
placed on workers? Do they receive equal labor value in return? 

Taxes, in the broad sense, are government-enforced demands for a share of the consumer 
goods. Nothing has monetary value until human labor is applied to it. Thus a tax is forced 
human labor. Whether or not equal goods and services are given in exchange for the tax 
determines whether it is a service institution or a means of enslaving the people. 

We can further simplify taxes if we note that all taxes collected ahead of the consumer 
goods sales tax are added to the cost of goods sold and are therefore sales taxes, i.e., claims 
for a share of consumer goods. The burden of taxation cannot be shifted from consumer 
goods. The graduated income tax passed in 1913 to effect a more equitable distribution of 
income has failed to do so primarily because it can be shifted to the cost of consumer goods. 
Recognition of this fact by outlawing all taxes ahead of the sales tax will return to all the 
people very important increments of freedom. 

Deferment of taxation to the point of consumption of goods makes it much more feasible 
for a frugal person to accumulate funds to start a business. Only when this freedom to use our 
national fund of ingenuity and initiative is established can we expect to eliminate the welfare 
rolls and withdraw workers from government into the productive economy. Then our tax 
burden will be lowered accordingly and this, too, is an increment of freedom. 

A further increment of freedom to be gained by elimination of taxes at the production 
level is that politicians could no longer sell loopholes in exchange for campaign support. This 
practice has resulted in establishing economic advantages for the highest bidders with the 
result that farmers, for instance, can not compete with agribusiness which can lose money on 
farming and make it up elsewhere in the conglomerate where tax loopholes support it. Thus 
the big corporations would be less powerful and the government less corrupt. These are 
important increments of freedom for the people. 


Within the broad definition of taxes, there are three taxes which are included in the cost 
of consumer goods which government says are lawful but which are collected by individuals. 

When the inheritor of wealth goes to the market place for a yacht or a mansion, he brings 
no products or labor to exchange. The same thing is true of a land speculator who does 
nothing to increase the value of land but whom the government allows to collect the 
increased value. The same is true of the stockholder, who by the grace of government and a 

stock split, finds himself in possession of a share of several years of company surplus earned 
by the ingenuity and effort of a good working force. He brings to the consumer market place 
no value which he has earned if it is profit above the true market value (rightful interest) of 
his original investment. These government-sanctioned private taxes have the same effect as 
government taxes. They increase demand without increasing supply and therefore inflate the 
price. They take units of labor without giving units of labor, which is slavery. 

This element of slavery is what makes possible the rapid conglomeration of companies 
and ultimately the centralization of the nation's wealth. Man-hours of labor can be legally 
expropriated from each person' s paycheck to obtain a pool of wealth with which to buy a 
new plant from which to hire people from whom man-hours of labor can be expropriated to 
obtain a new pool of wealth, etc. When slavery is legalized, the anti-trust laws have all the 
effect of a peashooter against an elephant. 

It is these three something-for-nothing deals which, by means of the exponential 
equation, generate sufficient funds to transfer all ownership from the people to the funds. 
They are taxes collected directly by the property class and enforced by the government it 
controls. In Russia, the dictatorship serves the Communist Party which controls all the 
property. In this country it is the Demopublican party that serves the property class. 


Recently one other private tax system has been invented. It is the 2 percent "savings 
stamps" tax on consumer goods. Since private taxes have been given the cloak of legality 
throughout recorded history, there is little basis for objecting to one more such tax on the 
grounds that only government can collect taxes. To argue the point would open up the whole 
can of worms. 

Another general class of taxation consists of taxes on savings, such as property taxes. The 
Demopublican property party has seen fit to levy savings taxes almost exclusively on 
property. The effect has been to drive the older workers with little income (they are thrown 
out of industry when deemed unprofitable) out of their homes. The homes then become the 
property of the mortgage holders. The people are trapped in apartments and in boxes called 
mobile homes. The property tax is an excellent device for transferring ownership from the 
people to the centralized pools of wealth. 

Savings are stored labor. If the individual is to be able to take care of himself, he must be 
permitted to accumulate the results of labor and use it to support himself over unproductive 
periods. The government that collects property or other taxes on stored labor is patently an 
institution of slavery. 

Another class of taxes are those used to control imports and exports. When we have 
obtained economic freedom, we are going to be able to work a four-hour day and have a 
standard of living and a quality of living which is beyond most people's imagination. Other 
nations can and will obtain the same results. But it can not be done if we attempt to compete 

with technically advanced nations overpopulated with wage slaves. We must therefore 
control our foreign trade to protect our own progress. As other nations turn toward freedom, 
we can establish free trade with them and operate as a single economy with a common 
standard of living. Maybe some day it will be one world. Meanwhile, we have yet to establish 
one peaceful nation. 

Finally, there are special-use taxes based on the principle that if government performs a 
service for a particular group, they should pay for it. Gasoline taxes pay for roads. 
Unfortunately, the pressure group that results from the pooling of such funds has not led to 
intelligent environmental planning. Special use taxes are no longer practical. 

One wonders why the people have tolerated these burdens for countless centuries. The 
answer is two-fold. Those who hold power have always been those who have access to the 
unearned values. They have written the laws to suit themselves. Until very recent times they 
have kept the people illiterate. Even to this day, all preachers and most schoolteachers fear to 
discuss the three something-for-nothing deals. It is only because these three causes of the 
centralization of wealth have brought us to the brink of crisis that the great power of wealth 
to perpetuate itself is slowly yielding to the force of necessity. For two-thirds of the world's 
people, these ancient prerogatives of rulers have yielded to the force of bloody revolutions 
led by ostensibly altruistic dictatorships. Hopefully, an enlightened electorate will bring these 
institutions down in this country without the loss of political freedom won with so much 
blood through the centuries. 


What should be done to return these values to those who produced them? 

Inheritance and land rent value must be collected by the government. This will decrease 
the sales tax required. 

The privately collected tax on the earnings of a working force in excess of interest is 
composed of increased technical efficiency, human effort, and product demand. Heretofore, 
this has always accrued to ownership simply because they have hire, fire, and bribe control 
over the management. The unions now contend for this value, while the white collar workers 
who had a good deal to do with the increased earnings sit on the side lines and take whatever 
is handed out. 

Instead of the single inflationary force of profit-taking, we now also have an inflationary 
force from union wage demands. In monopolistic or near-monopolistic necessity industries, 
the reaching for profit and wages is passed on to consumers as inflated price. Of necessity, 
less favored industries and unorganized workers follow along behind. This built-in inflation 
can be slowed by recession. It might be stopped by depression. But after recovering, it would 
start up again. The dollar is depreciating at a chaotic rate because we no longer have any 
semblance of a free market product evaluation. 

In order to solve this problem, we are going to have to redefine the "commodity called 
labor" as human beings and redefine the investor as one enjoying the privilege of investing 
his savings at whatever interest rate the market will currently support. We must transfer the 
management of each company from the ownership board of directors to the working force. 
This will result in companies whose size rests solely on economic factors. No group of 
workers will remain in a conglomerate if it costs them money to do so. The better producers 
will pull out, and the massive pools of wealth that now dictate to government will be 
dispersed among small companies. We will have, for the first time since man left the barter 
economy, free market conditions. Of greatest value is the right of a working force to earn all 
it can earn. Under this incentive, there will soon be an abundance of goods in the market 
place. Since the working force will no longer be bound by the rigid (most profitable) 8-hour 
day, they will work when there is work to do and cut hours back when the demand declines. 
Technical improvements will be used to shorten hours instead of eliminating people from the 
payroll. The security (now based on the total payroll) of the individual and the company will 
both be vastly increased. Interest rates will decline to true market values. Since supply and 
demand are both relatively constant factors and the rigid artificial factors will be gone from 
the economy, the economic cycles will cease. 


Small businesses initiated and managed by one or two persons must be permitted to 
operate as they have been. These are some of the creative geese who lay the golden eggs. 
They probe all the diverse avenues for economic development. They develop products, 
services, and jobs. Of necessity, they must have full control over their initiative. 

Our economic troubles are man-made. They persist to this late day in the history of 
civilization because greed has maintained institutions of enslavement. Even our Constitution 
contained a provision for the return of run-away slaves. In the intervening 200 years, human 
populations have covered and been compressed into the habitable lands. The means of 
destruction of human life have been perfected. We are at Armageddon. Either "good" will 
triumph over "evil" or all or most of humanity will be destroyed. 

Every conceivable economic system except economic freedom has been tried without 
bringing internal peace to any nation, let alone between nations. It is time to test whether or 
not man, freed of his shackles, can find peace. In the United States, the first step toward that 
end is the establishment of Constitutional basis for constructing a free society. 



General Revision of the 

Constitution of the United States of America 


We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish 
justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general 
welfare, establish and preserve the integrity of the laws of creation, provide for equality of 
education, establish a just distribution of earnings, eliminate the perpetual growth of 
accumulations of wealth, insure freedom from taxes on earnings and savings, and secure the 
blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain, establish, and amend this 
Constitution for the United States of America. 

Article I 

Section 1 

All Legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States 
which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, and in a one-house 
Educational Congress, and a one-house Environmental Congress. 

The Congress of the United States shall retain legislative power in all matters not 
delegated to the Environmental Congress and to the Educational Congress. In the event of 
conflict over legislative authority between any two of the Congresses, a nine-person board 
appointed by the third Congress which is not involved in the conflict shall arbitrate the 
matter. If no agreement is reached, the matter shall be decided by the Supreme Court. 

Section 11 

An Educational Congress shall be established to provide equality of educational 
opportunity for all and to maintain educational standards and facilities which will most 
enhance the quality of life for the nation's citizens. In the performance of its purpose, it shall 
establish school zoning laws based solely on proximity to the school, and in all other matters 
every child shall be treated as such without regard to race, creed, or color. 


The Educational Congress shall be composed of one member from each state. The term 
of office shall be four years, with a limit of two consecutive terms. 

All school funds shall be budgeted and submitted to the Congress for approval and 
inclusion in the national budget. No public school shall receive tax funds from any other 

Section 12 

The Environmental Congress shall be composed of one elected environmentalist from 
each state. The term of office shall be eight years with a limit of two consecutive terms. 

It shall be the duty of the Environmental Congress to identify and to establish and 
maintain the integrity of the laws of creation with the object of attaining a perfect 
environment for human habitation. The perfection of the food supply shall be the first 

The Environmental Congress shall have the power to pass all general laws and specific 
regulations as it deems necessary to perform its duty. Where the interest of other units of 
government conflict with the environmental needs, the laws and regulations of the 
Environmental Congress shall be held by the courts to have preference. 

All measures required to implement the planning, research, inspection, standardization, 
etc., necessary to the purpose of reaching for the perfect human habitat are within the powers 
of the Environmental Congress. All Executive Branch agencies may be overruled by and 
must make information available to the Environmental Congress on matters germane to the 

The Environmental Congress shall have the authority to establish its own budget which 
will be submitted to Congress for inclusion in the national budget. 

Amendments to the 
Constitution of the United States 

Article XXVII 

The purpose of this amendment is to provide freedom from oppressive taxation and the 
oppression of unearned wealth. 

No taxes shall be laid on earnings or savings or on any other wealth except as follows: 


1 . Inheritance taxes (including gift taxes) shall be collected in an amount and in a way 
which assures that no able-bodied inheritor except a spouse can live for more than four years 
of adult life at average cost on the savings (or funds earned by them) of the deceased. 

2. All foundation, charitable and religious organizations, any other non-business 
organizations, and all public monopolies shall divest themselves of all income-earning 
property and income-earning money, and in the future operate on the gifts or payments from 
those who support them. 

All businesses which loan other people's money shall make service charges only. All 
interest shall be apportioned among those whose money is used. 

No income-earning funds shall be established by any unit of government. All units of 
government shall retire all debts in not more than 20 years from date of ratification and 
thereafter operate on current taxes. 

3. Land taxes shall be collected by a Federal tax agency to the full rent value. All land 
titles shall be exchanged for land holding grants which are valid only as long as the holder 
pays the current land tax and uses the land for its agreed purpose. Present land owners may 
have the option of selling to the government or receiving the current tax minus the tax paid at 
the effective date for the life of the last surviving present owner or owners. The right of 
eminent domain shall be reserved to the Environmental Congress. 

4. Sales taxes uniformly applied to all retail sales of consumer goods may be applied by 
any governing unit. 

5. Tariffs shall be used as required to establish and maintain a maximum diversity of 
skills and jobs within the nation. All direct subsidies to industry shall be illegal. An 
individual balance of trade shall be maintained with all nations with whom we do not 
establish free trade. Free trade may be established by Congress with those nations which also 
establish economic and political freedom. 

The Congress shall write enabling laws as required to effect the provisions of this 

Article XXVIII 

The purpose of this amendment is to establish merit as the sole basis for the distribution 
of earnings. 


1. The only lawful income from capital goods investments shall be interest as established 
competitively and currently, with the exception of economic units employing less than ten 

2. All capital goods must be financed by invested funds. 

3. The only lawful return for human effort shall be the rated fair share of value of the 
product of the working force, less expenses, with the exception of economic units with less 
than ten persons under the active direction of an initiator of an enterprise and units not 
operating in a competitive market. 

4. Companies which operate under this amendment shall be operated by the working 
force according to democratic practices. Investors shall have no vote in decision-making but 
shall have the right to a hearing at their request. No worker may be laid off except by a two- 
thirds majority of those who know his work record. 

5. All domestic companies shall divest themselves of ownership in all foreign countries. 
All foreign companies shall divest themselves of all ownership in domestic companies. 

6. The Congress shall write enabling laws to effect the provisions of this amendment. All 
provisions shall be met within a period of ten years of ratification. 

The proposed Constitutional amendment provides the increments of freedom previously 
described. In addition, it provides for division of the legislative branch into three units 
according to function. 

Education is a national responsibility. It can be neither adequate nor equal until it is 
funded from a single source. Neither can it enjoy the freedom to teach truth unless it is 
protected by Constitutional law. By separating education from the political pressures of the 
existing Congress and local dominance, perhaps our educators can center education more on 
fact and less on beliefs and propaganda for the status quo. 

The environmental problem centers about the fact that every living thing has both its 
metabolism and function controlled by coded instructions in its nucleic acids. There are no 
instructions for handling biologically active particles never before experienced in the natural 
environment, nor for handling those natural biologically active particles in concentrations not 
heretofore found in the natural environment. In short, the integrity of the natural environment 
for all living things must be re-established. Just stating the problem defines the enormous 
industrial changes that must take place. It can only occur if it is guided by professionally 
competent environmentalists. The present politically strangled legislatures composed mostly 
of lawyers, insurance salesmen, and rich men are technically and politically incapable of 
passing the laws and devising the alternate production methods. They can pass the buck to 
the agencies, but these are so corrupted by industrial influence that they are impotent to 

accomplish their purpose. Witness the scandal of malnutrition and protein shortage caused by 
pollution of the soil and the destruction and pollution of nutrients in food processing. The 
fact that we are said to be within 10 or 12 years of exhaustion of the known available and 
irreplaceable oil and gas supplies and have not yet developed free steam supplies, available 
almost anywhere on the continent below one mile depth, is an arrogant insult to the people by 
a government enslaved by economic powers. We must have a separate environmental 
authority, environmentally oriented, and independent from political influence. 


In summary: 

The capital goods and personal property must be dispersed among all the people if they 
are to attain financial security and the independence of action required to initiate an economy 
of abundance to replace the present hand-to-mouth rat-race economy of scarcity. To 
accomplish this, 100 percent of both earnings and savings must be protected by law against 
the greed of those who hold power. The autocracy of ownership in the corporation must be 
broken to enable the people who work there to become a flexible economic unit of 
production responsive to supply and demand. 

The educational process must be free of all duress. It must be adequately and equally 
funded for all people. 

The physical environment must be decontaminated. It must be planned for the future — in 
some matters, thousands of years into the future. 

The objectives cannot be obtained without fundamental change in the Constitution. 

If wind could solve our problems, the Demopublican politicians would have done it long 

The politicians talk of tax reform as a matter of closing loopholes and/or confiscatory 
taxes at high levels of income. It is nonsense. 


If they taxed 100 percent over $50,000 and closed all the loopholes, it would only 
accelerate the process of conglomeration of companies. Instead of taking profit, owners 
would leave it in the corporation where it can be used to buy more companies. The power of 
wealth, not spending money, is the prize sought. Railroad cars, yachts, airplanes, expense 
accounts, pseudo-retirement plans — all have been used by corporate ownership as private 
property exempt from personal income tax. The bill must be paid in the price of goods in the 
consumer market place. A feudal prerogative can not be effectively restrained by the cynical 
manipulation of a tax which is itself an enslaving institution. 

The politicians talk about inflation as a political argument at election time. Not one of 
them proposes measures which will get at the cause by stopping the flow of wealth from the 
people, and the welfare government that sustains them, to the centralized pools of wealth 
which now own most of us. In between elections they openly acknowledge that the only way 
the inflation rate of the exploitative economy can be slowed is to arbitrarily raise interest 
rates, thus decreasing credit transactions and throwing marginal producers out of work. So 
great is the inflationary pressure from government debt, national corporations, and national 
unions that only a serious depression can significantly slow the rate of destruction of the 

The politicians talk about unemployment at election time. Between elections they talk 
about welfare and make-work. Meanwhile, small businesses fall like dominoes at the rate of 
10,000 a year. The economists in the ivory towers have told politicians that free trade is the 
ideal international trade system. So the politicians have authorized free trade because this is 
what their masters (the owners of the centralized pools of wealth) want. The expropriated 
earned surplus of numerous corporations has been used to ship whole plants, machinery, 
technique, and management personnel to countries where labor is cheap. The low-cost goods 
shipped back to this country have eliminated numerous industries. Even the steel and auto 
industries are finding they are not competitive. There has been a large shift from production 
to service industries. In the process of going out of production, our real unemployment and 
under-employment has soared. The phony government statistic does not give the true figure. 
The true figure includes the forced retirees over 50, and the 40 million under the poverty 
level. The government picks up the check for everything, including the price of wars to keep 
the "free world's" people and resources safe for exploitation by the controllers of our 
centralized pools of wealth. The government, of course, passes the bill to the people who do 
the work. This "free trade" has become one more tool by which the rich get richer and the 
rest of us get poorer. The Communists fan the flames and watch us destroy ourselves. 


The politicians say we can't have a depression again. Establishment economists have told 
them so. The fact is that the only thing which has held a depression in check since WW II 
was an expanding economic system based primarily on electronics, constant war production, 
and an expanding federal and personal debt load. Environmental costs here, and cheap labor 
abroad, move industry and capital to foreign lands where the costs can be evaded. We are fed 
up with the cost of war. Government and personal credit have about run out. So have "good 
times" run out. 

The politicians have no answers because the exploitative economy does not work. As 
long as history has been recorded, nations have failed every few hundred years. Before the 
industrial revolution, inheritance and land speculation were the primary factors in bringing all 
the land into the hands of a few people. Those who owned the land had the power to run the 
government. To protect their ownership, they raised the land rent to raise armies and build 
castles. When the rent rose above 50 percent of the crop value, revolt and redistribution of the 

land always occurred. As trade developed, the profit system was developed and again a share 
of the labor was confiscated by ownership. 

As governments became more complex they, too, learned to take a share of the labor. 
Thus the total tax at the point of revolt is made up of the personal levies by ownership plus 
the taxes levied by the government which serves the ownership class. 

If we add up the total taxes in this country, we have approximately 35 percent taken by 
government plus an inexact amount represented by the burden of inheritors, land speculators, 
and profit in excess of a theoretical free market interest on money. The total tax is probably 
in excess of 50 percent. The Wallace movement is a gut reaction to the fact that most of the 
farmers have been run off the land and the majority of city workers are on a treadmill which 
barely allows them to run in place let alone show progress in savings to secure their old age. 
Which direction will that gut reaction be turned — toward fascism — toward socialism — or 
toward freedom? 


Elsewhere in the world, the trend is toward some form of socialism. In this country, the 
greatest experiment in political democracy ever undertaken was launched with the 
Declaration of Independence. In the following two centuries, we have been sorely corrupted 
by a capitalistic system which included the three something-for-nothing deals, which in 
concert with an irrational exponential equation causes the centralization of wealth and power. 
By the simple expedient of making our capitalistic system honest, we can gradually disperse 
the wealth among the people. In the hands of the people, it will support an excellent standard 
and quality of living. It will never accumulate to sums whose rate of increase reaches toward 
infinite quantity and infinite power — and arrives at infinite weakness in that the whole 
system can be destroyed by a single dollar accumulating its interest for a long period of time. 

All of the industrialized "free nations" which now contain large fortunes and funds 
operating at high rates of interest have the same problem. The bonanza of productivity 
resulting from widespread public education has peaked. The ever-present ability of the pools 
of wealth to accumulate ownership is now the dominant force. Within 10 to 20 years the 
industrialized "free nations" will all either establish economic freedom under law or they will 
be under dictatorship. 

The something-for-nothing deals have brought the funds of wealth in this country to the 
point where they have caused a 60 percent inflation in the last 15 years. If given our 
economic freedom, we can work our way out of this mess. Without economic freedom, we 
are going to lose our political freedom to some form of dictatorship because this economy 
does not work. 

It is pure fantasy to believe that this economy can last for more than a few years without 
redistribution of wealth. Rep. Wright Patman of the House Banking Committee says, "About 
15 U.S. manufacturers receive a total of 88 percent of all business profits. . ." About the only 

moneymaking property left to take is the land, and they are gobbling it up. We mere mortals 
can not compete with fortunes which enjoy the luxury of perpetual life. Nor can the monetary 
system withstand the inflation of funds increasing exponentially to become so powerful that 
they can fix profits and prices of necessities. Taxes must inevitably keep rising to pay for the 
palliatives used to soften the impact of the ever-more-numerous problems which arise as our 
nation and its environment degenerate. The working taxpayers, who inevitably pay for 
everything, will almost certainly be forced to demand radical change before 1980. Whatever 
they demand they will get. 


The working taxpayer has always been deceived. His churches, his schools, his 
government, and the publishers have all played the part of the scribes and Pharisees who paid 
their tithe but ignored the weightier matters of law and justice. History (especially recent 
history) has shown that the alternative to justice under law is dictatorship. That is too high a 
price to pay for the job security enjoyed by the hypocrite. 

It is time to continue the American Dream with a declaration of freedom from enslaving 
institutions. That can only be done by a Constitutional revision. We will probably need a new 
political party to get it. 


The four and a third acres of mineralized soil was planted in the fall of 1980 with a low- 
protein, white wheat developed for pastries. It was the 5th crop grown since the soil was 
mineralized. There was an abundance of soil moisture in the spring, and growth was 
excellent until the heads started forming. During this period the soil cracked open twice for 
lack of rain. I was therefore surprised to find that the yield was 6074 bushels per acre. The 
county extension agent estimated that the average yield in the county was 45 to 50 bushels 
per acre. Because of the cost of testing, I have no comparative data on the elements in the 
wheat. However, I did get a protein analysis of 9 percent. In the case of the comparative test 
between mineralized and chemically grown corn (Chapter 2), the indicated protein (not a 
trace reading for the chemically grown corn) was about the same, but the element analysis 
was far superior in the mineralized corn. The results would no doubt be the same with the 
wheat. In any event, the wheat makes a loaf of whole wheat bread with the good flavor 
possessed by all foods having high mineral content in natural balance. 

Another five and two-thirds acres, which had not been used in the last 13 years, was 
planted to corn in 1981. The farmer who planted the corn used commercial NPK fertilizer. As 
it grew, I came to the conclusion that it was going to be the best corn crop in the area. How 
could this be? I had secured a spectrographic analysis and thoroughly studied that soil 
myself. It was incapable of growing a crop. Thinking is, of course, an agonizing experience 
for all of us. However, I decided some thinking was required. 


I got a handful of the NPK fertilizer used on the corn. By repeatedly stirring up the 
fertilizer in water, allowing it to settle, and then pouring off the solution, the water-soluble 
NPK and the adhesive used to keep the fertilizer granulated were removed. What was left 
was ground glacial gravel dust. I obtained another brand and checked, with the same result. 

The residue from 1 3 poor weed crops was mostly on top of the soil, with some 
penetration into the top inch of soil. At that elevation it was of little use to the soil life 
because it was dried out for most of the growing season. Nevertheless, there was a slow 
change taking place from plant residue to skins (cell walls) of microorganisms, which 
represented a storage of carbon and nitrogen. When this material (sometimes called leaf 
mold) was disked into the topsoil and mixed with the very finely ground gravel dust in the 
fertilizer, a substantial microorganism population was inevitable. The result was a respectable 
yield of corn on a soil which is basically worthless. 

One question which has been bothering me for some time is why people in the same area 
were getting any crops at all, if my 10 acres was of such poor quality. The answer, of course, 
is that the filler in the chemical fertilizer is supplying enough minerals to prevent a collapse 
in the yield. 

The large difference in the yield of various farms varies with the color of the soil. Those 
farmers who have returned the crop stalks to the soil have the highest yields. In so doing they 
have maintained a better reservoir of carbon and nitrogen in the soil to supply the crop. 
Unfortunately, the acid in NPK is constantly dissolving organic matter and inorganic material 
from the soil. With an estimated 30 to 50 percent of the acidic component of NPK winding 
up in the rivers, it is obvious that a lot of the fertility elements are going the same way. 

In the 50' s and 60' s, the agricultural experts were helping the fertilizer industry by 
recommending to the farmer that dumping the barnyard waste into a pond was more 
economical than spreading it back on the land, because the same amount of fertility elements 
could be obtained more economically from NPK fertilizer. They learned the hard way that 
crops won't grow without organic matter. So now they say the organic matter is required to 
"buffer" the soil. Technically, a buffering agent is one that tends to neutralize an acid or a 
base. Crop residue won't do that, but if it is put into the soil and there are any minerals at all 
present, microorganisms will multiply. Obviously, the basic elements in the protoplasm are 
the most available elements in the soil for buffering the acidity in NPK. If the rains are 
gentle, the dissolved protoplasm may be reconstituted into new organisms before it is leached 
or eroded into the river. And that can take place only if there are enough basic elements in the 
soil so the microorganisms can find what it takes to bring order out of chaos. The natural 
mixture of elements is geared to natural conditions — not to the absurd practice of deliberately 
acidifying the soil. Basic elements would have to be added to the natural mix to compensate 
for the man-made acid. 


Nitrogen is the most acidic component. If I can get 60 bushels per acre of wheat without 
nitrogen fertilizer, why should the farmer buy it from the chemical companies? 

Phosphorous should be left where found because those deposits contain large amounts of 
fluorides. The agricultural soils are now badly contaminated with fluorides. Fluoride levels in 
food are increasing. Cattle concentrate the fluorine in their bones. When the bonemeal is used 
in pet foods, fluorosis results. Do we wait until the overt symptoms of fluorosis show up in 
half the population before we stop this nonsense? 

There is plenty of phosphorous and potassium in the natural rock mixture and at a much 
lower price. 

If a farmer uses 200 pounds of a 15-15-15 NPK fertilizer, he gets about 100 pounds of 
gravel dust per acre. That costs no more than 75 cents. The fertilizer costs $25 to $30. What 

the farmer pays for is five paper sacks and some chemicals, neither of which he needs. 
Sooner or later the chemicals will destroy the land. Some bargain! 

The USDA's Conservation Service has finally come to the conclusion that we are not 
going to continue the habit of eating much longer. They base their conclusion on the 
following: We had 18 inches of topsoil a couple of hundred years ago; now we have an 8" 
topsoil. The United States is losing 6.4 billion tons to erosion every year. All of the soils are 
eroding, and a fourth of them are eroding at a destructive rate. 

How widespread is the practice of using gravel dust as the filler in a sack of NPK, I do 
not know. In those areas where gravel screenings or sand has been the most economical filler 
available, the dust has probably been used for years. I suspect that it is now a general practice 
because all soils have been largely stripped of some elements, and there is no cheaper way to 
add them. 


Generally speaking, the biological fertilizers, as exemplified by "Eco-Agriculture," use a 
mixture of minerals in combination with a compost or compost- like material which is high in 
nitrogen and carbon. 

Organic farming, as advocated by the Rodale organization, concentrates on organic 
matter plus specific minerals such as greensand and granite dust. 

The chemical NPK will accelerate erosion. Eco-Ag and organic methods will slow the 
rate of erosion and maintain a better balance of elements in the soil. None of them are applied 
in amounts sufficient to build up the mineral supply in the soil. All of them are partially 
dependent on the dwindling availability of the small amount of gravel and sand remaining in 
the soils. They work best on the strongest soils. 

All three fertilizing methods are dependent on annual applications. If anything were to 
interrupt the production and distribution for one crop year, we would starve to death in large 

None of these will sustain our food supply indefinitely. They will not do the all-important 
job of removing the excess C0 2 from the atmosphere. They are all too expensive. We must 
have a bulk production and distribution of gravel dust. Without it there is no future for 

* * * 

"Hazardous Substances and Sterile Men" is the title of a powerful condemnation of the 
organic chemicals industry in the September, 1981 issue of Acres, U.S.A. Ida Honorof has 
summarized research on this subject. From 10 to 23 percent of American males are sterile 
(very unlikely to father a child). In 1938 only 72 of 1 percent of males were sterile. In 30 
years half of the males will be sterile. From 67 to 83 percent of all birth defects are caused by 

men. The chances of causing a deformed child to be born increase with the quantity of 
chemicals in the sperm. Twenty chlorinated chemicals alone have been found in the sperm. 
Birth defect rates in the United States are believed to be about 6 percent — it seems only a few 
years since that estimate was 3 percent. Many of the chemicals contaminate our food supply. 

So there you have it — a nice painless way to put humanity out of its misery: just keep on 
eating the poisoned foods of chemical agriculture. Quite painless except for the cancers, the 
deformities, the stillbirths, and as many different ailments as there are parts in the body. 
Either we stop the manufacture of organic chemicals which are not readily biodegradable or 
we destroy ourselves. 


"The balance of nature," in part, means that for every living organism there is a predator, 
so that no organism can populate the earth to the exclusion of all others. Our asinine, 
conceited view of ourselves as masters of nature has led us to make a wreck of the balance of 
nature. We are paying a high price and we will continue to pay for a long time, even though 
we turn quickly to a rational conception of our role in the natural order. I have seen radical 
improvements in the ecology on two small plots of land when the poisoning was stopped and 
minerals applied to the land. Perhaps nature can rather quickly reestablish the animated part 
of the balance of nature. 

* * * 

In the pages of this book have been listed many crises, all of which have the potential of 
bringing death to humanity on a massive scale. It has also been shown that there are solutions 
to all of the problems. 

It is obvious that those who make the decisions for all of us have done a rotten job. The 
world needs to come under new management. A change of management is what the various 
forms of socialism are all about — "us instead of them." On the whole, I think it's fair to say 
that management by "us" is no better than management by "them," and generally worse. So 
let's face it: those who have been making the decisions are no better and no worse than you 
and I. We have all acquiesced in and taken advantage of the rotten laws by which we have 
lived. The new management must live by a new code. 

A people prosper or decline according to the code and the supporting law by which they 
live. The Constitution is our code. Laws without end have not been able to prevent this nation 
from arriving at the brink of self-destruction. The authors of the Constitution had a right to 
expect succeeding generations to improve on the code. It is incredible and disgusting that 
200,000,000 of us have sat on our backsides for decades and watched crisis after crisis 
developing with no effort made to improve the code. It must be that there's enough larceny in 
each of us to make us like the system. 


Historians have recorded 6,000 to 8,000 years of riches and poverty, wars and famine, 
side-by-side with spurts of technical progress. Now we have arrived at a point where 
technical progress is destroying us. The social order is unable to control it. So the question 
each of us must answer is quite simple, "Shall we change the social order to make it work for 
all of us, or do we simply await our extinction?" 

I have long felt that the majority of people would do the right thing if given a choice. Had 
I not felt so, this book would not have been written. Assuming that my intuition is correct, 
what must we do to effect the radical changes required? 

The crux of the problem is the Congress. How do we get control of it? How do we do it 
within the time frame demanded by the C0 2 crisis? We have dozens of organizations in the 
nation all devoted to worthwhile objectives. Take it from Julius Caesar: as long as the people 
remain divided, they will never beat the establishment. There must be an overall objective of 
basic reform to which all subscribe, or the establishment will defeat us one by one in the 
Congressional committees which write the laws. What it boils down to is voting power. 

What I am suggesting is a "Survival Movement" on the order and scale of the Polish 
Solidarity Movement. Those organization leaders who favor survival should call a meeting of 
organization heads for planning and action. 

The first requirement would be to analyze the members of Congress with a view towards 
the 1982 elections to insure complete control by that time. With sufficient voting strength, a 
strong majority can be established in the House. Numerous recall actions would probably be 
required to gain control of the Senate. 

The other prime requirement is to get TV time to explain our predicament to a maximum 
number of citizens. It is the only media which can reach the people quickly. The FCC "equal 
time" provision may be one possibility. However, I suspect that, as in the case of the 
Solidarity Movement, massive street demonstrations will be required to get publicity and 
political support. To succeed, the "Survival Movement" must have the same spontaneity as 
the Poles have shown. It has got to be everybody's "do it yourself project. Anything less will 
be too little and too late. 

"People power" is the strongest force on earth when used. It has torn down dictatorships 
by the dozens. It can tear the rot out of this nation, and that in all nations, and it may yet 
insure our survival. 

What matters is unity of action in support of a comprehensive program which has the 
potential of insuring the survival of civilization. 

John D. Hamaker 


"He was a genius and independent thinker, the realization of whose vision could 
contribute to the health of the Earth and all life. John had an extraordinary, uncompromising 
character, and tenacity to continue to urge us on to fulfill our potential in restoring and 
regenerating Earth. 

"Whether you are dedicated to a healthier garden, more productive and fertile farm, want 
to save the dying forests or involve yourself in the larger vision of climate, if you are 
pragmatic or idealistic or both, I' d like to ask you to acknowledge John Hamaker, who has 
changed the course of more than one person's life, and who points the way toward life at its 
most fruitful and truly sustainable for all Earth." 

—Joanna Campe, editor 
Remineralize the Earth magazine 
Double Issue 7-8, Summer 1995 

John D. Hamaker 

John D. Hamaker (1914-1994) was a mechanical engineer, ecologist and practical 
visionary who from 1968 to 1994 tried to awaken the world to the crucial need to 
remineralize the soils and regenerate the Earth's life-support system. His motivations 
included a profound desire to help create a healthy, just and real civilization rooted in 
ecological wisdom, and his realization that malnutrition and disease followed by famine and 
glaciation could be ended by a total human commitment. 

Don Weaver (holding mineralized lettuce) is an ecologist and gardener who, as a student 
of human-and-planetary health, realized the immense importance of John Hamaker's insights 
and Thesis. Since 1978 he has helped Hamaker and a growing worldwide effort to respond to 
Earth's great need for human generosity toward Biosphere Regeneration and climatic 
stabilization. He is assisting in the creation of Earth Regeneration Centers and farms to 
demonstrate a healthy, viable future for humanity and our fellow species. 


Adam, D.P. 1975. Ice Ages and the Thermal Equilibrium of the Earth, II. Quaternary 
Research 5, 161-171. 

Adam, D.P. 1976. Reply to Comment by William L. Donn. Quat. Res. 6, P. 317. 

Adam, D.P. 1976. Reply to Comments by J.G. Lockwood. Quat. Res. 6, 451-53. 

Albrecht, W.A. 1952. Soil Fertility — A Weapon Against Weeds. The Organic Farmer, June. 

Albrecht, W.A. 1958. Soil Fertility and Animal Health. Fred Hahne Co., Webster City, IA. 

Albrecht, W.A. 1975. The Healthy Hunzas, A Climax Human Crop. In The Albrecht Papers. 
Acres, U.S.A., Austin, TX. 

Albrecht, W.A. 1975. The Albrecht Papers. Acres, U.S.A. 

Alexander, G. and the Ambassador College Ag. Res. Dept. 1974. World Crisis in 
Agriculture. Ambassador College Press, Pasadena. 

Allaby, M. 1971. Living Soil. The Ecologist 1:17, Nov. 

Ambler Pennant 1950. Editorial. Vol. 2: 2. 

Andersen, G.W. and Andersen, R.L. 1963. The Rate of Spread of Oak Wilt in the Lake 
States. Journal of Forestry, Nov. 

Andersen, N.A. et al 1967. The Stalactiform Rust on Jack Pine. J. For., June. 

Andersen, S.T. 1961. Interglacial Plant Successions in the Light of Environmental Changes. 
In INQUA Report of the VI International Congress on Quaternary, Vol. II, Warsaw 
(Lodz 1964). 

Andersen, S.T. 1966. Interglacial Vegetational Succession and Lake Development in 
Denmark. The Palaeobotanist 15: 1,2. 

Andersen, S.T. 1969. Interglacial Vegetation and Soil Development. Medd. Dansk Geol. 
Foren. Kobenhavn, Bind 19. 

Andersen, S.T. 1979. Brown earth and podzol: soil genesis illuminated by microfossil 
analysis. Boreas 8, 69-72. 

Anderson, John F. and Kaya, Harry K. (eds.) 1976. Perspectives in Forest Entomology. 
Academic Press, New York. 

Anderson, R.F. 1960. Forest and Shade Tree Entomology. John Wiley & Sons. 

Andrews, J.T. et al 1972. Past and Present Glaciological Responses to Climate in Eastern 
Baffin Island. Quat. Res. 2, 303-14. 


Anonymous 1948. New Disease Threatens Western White Pine Stands. J. For., April, p. 294. 

Anon, 1981. Building stronger bones for old age. Science News 201, Sept. 8. 

Anon. 1981. Reagan budget slashes environmental programs. International Wildlife, 

Aucoin, J. 1979. The Irrigation Revolution and its Environmental Consequences. 
Environment 21: 8, Oct. 

Baker, B.H. and Kemperman, J. A. 1974. Spruce Beetle Effects On a White Spruce Stand in 
Alaska. J. For., July. 

Bakshi, Bimal 1976. Forest Pathology. Delhi: Controller of Publications. 

Banik, Allan and Taylor, Renee 1960. Hunza Land. Whitehorn Pub. Co., Long Beach, CA. 

Barry, R.G. et al 1973. Synoptic Climatological Studies of the Baffin Island Area. In Climate 
of the Arctic, eds. Weller, G. and Bowling, S.A., Univ. of Alaska. 

Baule, Hubert and Fricker, Claude 1970. The Fertilizer Treatment of Forest Trees. 
BLV Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Munchen, Germany. 

Beal, J. A. et al 1964. Beetle Explosion in Honduras. Amer. For., Nov. 

Bear, Firman E. 1962. Earth, The Stuff of Life. Univ. of Oklahoma Press. 

Bell, Marcus et al 1974. Influences of Fertilization on Forest Production and the Forest 
Environment. Biocon Research Ltd., Victoria, B.C. 

Berg, Norman 1981. Comments: From the SCS Chief. Soil and Water Conservation News, 

Bernard, Harold 1980. The Greenhouse Effect. Ballinger, Cambridge, MA. 

Bess, H.A. et al 1947. Forest Site Conditions and the Gypsy Moth. Harvard Forest Bull. No. 


Birkeland, P.W. 1974. Pedology, Weathering, and Geomorphological Research. Oxford 
Univ. Press, London/New York. 

Bloomfield, H. 1979. Elms For Always. Amer. For., Jan. 

Blum, B. 1980 Coal and Ecology. EPA Journal, Sept. 

Bohn, H.L. 1976. Estimate of Organic Carbon in World Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 40, 468- 

Bollen, W.B. 1959. Microorganisms and Soil Fertility. Oregon St. College, Corvallis. 

Bormann, F.H. and Likens, G.E. 1979. Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem. 
Springer- Verlag, New York. 

Bowling, S.A. 1973. Possible Significance of Recent Weather and Circulation Anomalies in 
Northeastern Canada for the Initiation of Continental Glaciation. In Climate of the 
Arctic, eds. Weller, G. and Bowling, S.A., Univ. of Alaska. 

Boyce, J.S. 1948. Forest Pathology. McGraw-Hill. 

Bridges, E.M. 1978. Interaction of Soil and Mankind in Britain. J. Soil Sci. 29, 125-39. 

Bruce, J.G. 1973. A Time-Stratigraphic Sequence of Loess Deposits on Near-Coastal 
Surfaces in the Balclutha District. N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys. 16, 549-56. 

Brown, Lester R. et al 1976. Twenty-two Dimensions of the Population Problem. 
Worldwatch Paper - 5, Worldwatch Institute, Washington. 

Brown, L.R. 1978. Vanishing Croplands. Environment 20: 10, Dec. 

Brown, L.R. 1978. The Worldwide Loss of Cropland. Worldwatch Paper - 24, Worldwatch 
Institute, Washington. 

Buringh, P. 1970. Introduction To The Study of Soils in Tropical and Subtropical Regions. 
Centre for Agriculture Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen. 


Calabrese, Edward J. 1980. The Influence of Nutritional Status on Pollutant Toxicity and 
Carcinogenicity. Univ. of Massachusetts. 

Calder, Nigel 1975. The Weather Machine. The Viking Press. 

Caliendo, M.A. 1979. Nutrition and the World Food Crisis. MacMillan, New York. 

California Dept. of Conservation 1979. California Soils: An Assessment (Draft Report). 

California Div. of Mines 1957. Mineral Commodities of California. Bull. 176, San Francisco. 

Carter, L. 1976. Pest Control: NAS Panel Warns of Possible Technological Breakdown. 
Science 191, Feb. 27. 

CEQ (Council on Environmental Quality) 1978, 1979, 1980. Environmental Quality. (Annual 
Report), Washington. 

CEQ and Dept. of State et al 1980. The Global 2000 Report to the President. Includes Vol. 1, 
Entering the Twenty-First Century; Vol. 2, The Technical Report; Vol. 3, 
Documentation on the Government's Global Sectoral Models: The Government's 
"Global Model", U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. 

CEQ and Dept. of State et al 1981. Global Future: Time To Act. U.S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington. 

Charlesworth, J.K. 1957. The Quaternary Era. Edward Arnold Ltd., London. 

Chaston, P.R. 1980. Snowiest Cities of the Decade. Weatherwise, April. 

Cline, A. 1981. Damage From Acid Rain Could Run Into Billions. S.F. Examiner, Jan. 16. 

Commonwealth Forestry Review 1979. Serious pine disease (Scleroderris canker) found in 
Canada. Vol. 58: 3, 177, Sept. 

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) 1976. Carbon 
Dioxide and Climate Change. Ecos No. 7, Feb. 

Connola, D.P. and Wixson, E.C. 1963. Effects of Soil and Other Environmental Conditions 
on White Pine Weevil Attack in New York. J. For., June. 

Co-ordinating Committee on Pesticides 1981. Pesticides in Your Food. Ecology Center 
Newsletter 11:2, Feb., Berkeley. 

Cornelius, R.O. 1955. How Forest Pests Upset Management Plans in the Douglas-Fir Region. 
J. For., Oct. 

Crutzen, P.J. et al 1979. Biomass burning as a source of atmospheric gases CO, H 2 , N 2 0, NO, 
CH 3 C1 and COS. Nature 282, Nov. 15. 

D' Antonio, M. 1980. The Poisoned Harvest of Acid Rain. San Mateo Times, Sept. 13. 

Day, W.R. 1929. Environment and Disease. Forestry 3:1. 

Day, W.R. 1938. Root-Rot of Sweet Chestnut and Beech Caused By Species of Phytophthora 

— I. Cause and Symptoms of Disease: Its Relation to Soil Conditions. Forestry 12: 2. 

Day, W.R. 1939. Root-Rot of Sweet Chestnut and Beech Caused By Species of Phytophthora 

— II. Inoculation Experiments and Methods of Control. Forestry 13: 1. 

Day, W.R. 1949. Forest Pathology in Relation to Land Utilization. Emp. For. Rev. 28:2. 

Day, W.R. 1950. The Soil Conditions Which Determine Wind-Throw in Forests. Forestry 23: 


Day, W.R. 1950. Forest Hygiene — II. The Imperfection of the Environment and Its 
Importance in the Management of Forests. Emp. For. Rev. 29: 4. 

DeBell, D.S. and Ralston, C.W. 1970. Release of Nitrogen By Burning Light Forest Fuels. 
Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 34, 936-8. 


Delcourt, H.R. 1981. The Virtue of Forests, Virgin and Otherwise. Nat. History, June. 

Delmas, R.J. et al 1980. Polar ice evidence that atmospheric carbon dioxide 20,000 years BP 
was 50% of present. Nature 284. March 13. 

De Villiers, O.D. 1961, 1962. Soil Rejuvenation With Crushed Basalt in Mauritius (Part I & 
II). Int. Sugar J., Dec. & Jan. 

Dimbleby, G.W. 1962. The Development of British Heathlands and Their Soils. Oxford 
Forestry Memoirs No. 23, Oxford. 

Dimbleby, G.W. 1964. Post-Glacial Changes in Soil Profiles. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 161, p. 355- 

Donald, A. 1980. Superoxide Dismutase: A Dramatic New Enzyme Discovery That Protects 
Against Radiation and Prevents Disease. Bestways, Aug. 

Dwinell, L.D. and Phelps, W.R. 1977. Pitch Canker of Slash Pine in Florida. J. For., Aug. 

Eckholm, Erik 1976. Losing Ground. W.W. Norton. 

Eckholm, E. and Record, F. 1976. The Two Faces of Malnutrition. Worldwatch Paper No. 9, 
Worldwatch Institute, Washington. 

Eckholm, E. 1979. Planting for the Future: Forestry for Human Needs. Worldwatch Paper 
No. 26, Worldwatch Institute, Washington. 

Edell, D.S. 1979. Public letter on the current state of trace mineral knowledge from the Univ. 
Hospital of San Diego Co. 

Ellefson, P.V. 1974. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth Infestation: A Challenge to Forestry 
Professionals. J. For., June. 

Emiliani, C. 1972. Quaternary Hypsithermals. Quat. Res. 2, 270-73. 

Environmental Fund 1981. World Food Crisis in 1981? The Other Side, No. 23, Summer. 

Epstein, S. 1979. Cancer and Inflation. The Ecologist 9: 7, Oct/Nov. 

Ermolenko, N.F. 1972. Trace Elements and Colloids in Soils. Israel Program for Scientific 
Translations, Jerusalem. 

Fairbridge, R.W. 1972. Climatology of a Glacial Cycle. Quat. Res. 2, 283-302. 

FAO 1976. Annual Fertilizer Review 1975. Food and Agric. Org. of the U.N., Rome. 

FAO 1979. Trace Elements in Soils and Agriculture. Soils Bull. - 17, UNFAO, Rome. 

FAO/IUFRO 1965. Symposium on Forest Diseases and Insects. Unasylva 19(3): 78. 

Farb, P. 1957. Will We Let Our Elms Die? Amer. For., July. 

Fedde, G.F. 1964. Elm Spanworm, A Pest of Hardwood Forests in the Southern 
Appalachians. J. For., Feb. 

Ferrari, J. P. and Pichenot, M. 1976. The canker stain disease of plane tree in Marseilles and 
in the south of France. Eur. J. For. Path. 6, 18-25. 

Fink, J. and Kukla, G.J. 1977. Pleistocene Climates in Central Europe: At Least 17 
Interglacials After the Olduvai Event. Quat. Res. 7, 363-71. 

Flenly, John 1979. The Equatorial Rain Forest: a geological history. Butterworths, 

Flint, R.F. 1971. Glacial and Quaternary Geology. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 

Flohn, H. 1979. On Time Scales and Causes of Abrupt Paleoclimatic Events. Quat. Res. 12, 

Flohn, H. 1979. Quoted in "Can We Control Pollution?" by E. Goldsmith. The Ecologist, 

Forestry Abstracts 1939-40. Vol. 1, p. 17-18. Imperial Forestry Bureau, Oxford. 

Fosburg, H. 1969. All Is Not Well At Baker. Amer. For., March. 


Fowler, M.E. 1952. Aircraft Scouting for Pole Blight and Oak Wilt. J. For., March. 

Frakes, L.A. et al (eds.) 1977. Climatic Change and Variability. Cambridge Univ. Press, p. 


Fridovich, I. 1978. The Biology of Oxygen Radicals. Science 201, Sept. 8. 

Fry, T.C. 1976. The Myth of Health in America. Dr. Shelton's Hygienic Review 37: 7, 150- 


Fry, T.C. 1981. American Maladies. . . Lack of Fruits and Vegetables. Better Life Jour., Jan. 

Furniss, R.L. and Carolin, B.M. 1977. Western Forest Insects. USDA Misc. Pub. - 1339. 

Godwin, Sir Harry 1973. The History of the British Flora. Cambridge Univ. Press. 

Goldsmith, E. The Future of Tree Disease. The Ecologist 9: 4/5, Aug. 

Goldsmith, E. 1980. Pesticides Create Pests. The Ecologist 10: 3, March. 

Goldthwait, R.P. (ed.) 1971. Till, A Symposium. Ohio St. Univ. Press. 

Gore, R. 1979. An Age-Old Challenge Grows. Nat. Geog., Nov. 

Graham, S.A. 1924. Forest Entomological Problems in the Lake States. J. For., Jan. 

Graham, S.A. 1952. Forest Entomology. McGraw-Hill. 

Grainger, A. 1980. The State of the World's Tropical Forests. The Ecologist 10: 1/2. 

Green, Fitzhugh 1977. A Change In The Weather. W.W. Norton. 

Gress, E. 1981. Canada grows increasingly impatient with pollution from U.S. S.F. Sunday 
Examiner & Chronicle, Jan. 4, p. 15. 

Gribbin, John 1977. Forecasts, Famines and Freezes. Simon & Schuster, New York. 

Gribbin, John (ed.) 1978. Climatic Change. Cambridge Univ. Press. 

Haasis, F.W. 1923. Root Rot As A Factor In Survival. J. For., May. 

Hamaker, J.D. 1976. Life or Death — Yours. Acres, U.S.A., July-Oct. 

Harley, J.L. and Russell, R.S. 1979. The Soil-Root Interface. Academic Press, New York. 

Harley, W.S. 1980. The Significance of Climatic Change in the Northern Hemisphere 1949- 
1978. Monthly Weather Review 108: 235-48. 

Harris, Sydney J. 1980. "Facts" column. S.F. Examiner, date lost. 

Hay, E. 1976. America's 8 Biggest Forest Killers. Amer. For., April. 

Heinrichs, J. 1981. Tragedy of the City Forest. Amer. For., April. 

Heller, R.C. and Bega, R.V. 1973. Detection of Forest Diseases By Remote Sensing. J. For., 

Henderson, Hazel 1978. Creating Alternative Futures. G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York. 

Henderson, Hazel 1981. The Politics of the Solar Age: Alternatives to Economics. 

Henderson, M. et al 1963. The Microbiology of Rocks and Weathered Stones. J. Soil Sci. 

Henderson, M. and Duff, R.B. 1963. The Release of Metallic and Silicate Ions From 
Minerals, Rocks, and Soils By Fungal Activity. J. Soil Sci. 14: 2. 

Hensel, Julius 1893. Bread From Stones — A New and Rational System of Land Fertilization 
and Physical Regeneration. A.J. Tafel, Philadelphia. 

Hensel, Julius 1977. Bread From Stones. Health Research (reprint). Mokelumne Hill, CA. 

Hepting, G.H. 1970. The Case for Forest Pathology. J. For., Feb. 

HEW 1978. Health United States. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare. Hyattsville, MD. 

Heybroek, H.M. 1966. Dutch Elm Disease Abroad. Amer. For., June. 


Hills, L.D. 1979. The Versatile Tree Killer. The Ecologist 9: 4/5, Aug. 

Holdgate, M.W. and Woodman, M.J. (eds.) 1978. The Breakdown and Restoration of 
Ecosystems. Plenum Press, New York. 

Hollin, J.T. 1980. Climate and sea level in isotope stage 5: an East Antarctic ice surge at 
95,000 BP? Nature 283, Feb. 14. 

Holstein, W.J. 1978. Third World Time Bomb: Trying To Survive While Killing the Earth. 
S.F. Examiner & Chronicle, Nov. 19. 

Howard, Sir Albert 1947. The Soil and Health. Devin- Adair. New York. 

Huang, T.C. et al 1973. Atmospherically Transported Volcanic Dust in South Pacific Deep 
Sea Sedimentary Cores at Distances Over 3,000 KM from the Eruptive Source. Earth 
and Planetary Science Letters 20, 119-124. 

Huessy, Peter 1979. The Other Side (publication of The Environmental Fund), No. 16, May, 
p. 1 says — "Even with its present crowding, the developing world is destined to lose 
90 per cent of its agricultural land due to the twin forces of urbanization and 
desertification within the next two decades, according to a UN figure. Two-thirds of 
the tropical forests will disappear as well, as demands for firewood and cropland 
escalate." Estimates based on the report of the Director of the United Nations 
Environment Programme, Mostafa Tolba, to the governing council in 1978. 

Hunt, C.B. 1972. Geology of Soils. W.H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco. 

Hur, Robin 1975. Food Reform: Our Desperate Need. Heidelberg Pub., Austin, TX. 

Hutchison, O.K. and Schumann, D.R. 1976. Alaska's Interior Forests. J. For., June. 

Imbrie, J. and Imbrie, K.P. 1979. Ice Ages, Solving the Mystery. Enslow Pub., Short Hills, 


Iversen, J. 1954. The Late-Glacial Flora of Denmark and its Relation to Climate and Soil. 
Geol. Survey of Denmark, II Series, No. 80, Kobenhavn. 

Iversen, J. 1958. The bearing of glacial and interglacial epochs on the formation and 
extinction of plant taxa. Uppsala Univ. Arsskr. 6, 210, Uppsala. 

Iversen, J. 1960. Problems of the Early Post-Glacial Forest Development in Denmark. Geol. 
Surv. of Denmark, IV Series, Vol. 4, No. 3, Kobenhavn. 

Iversen, J. 1964. Retrogressive Vegetational Succession in the Post-Glacial. Jubilee 

Symposium Supplement to the Journal of Ecology and the Journal of Animal Ecology. 
British Ecological Society/Blackwell Scientific Publications. 

Iversen, J. 1969. Retrogressive development of a forest ecosystem demonstrated by pollen 
diagrams from fossil mor. Oikos Suppl. 12, 35-49. Copenhagen. 

Iversen, J. 1973. The Development of Denmark' s Nature since the Last Glacial. Geol. Surv. 
of Denmark, V. Series, No. 7-C, Copenhagen. 

Jackson, M.L. and Truog, E. 1939. Influence of Grinding Soil Minerals To Near Molecular 
Size On Their Solubility and Base Exchange Properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1939, 

Jackson, M.L. et al 1973. Global Dustfall During the Quaternary as Related to Environments. 
Soil Sci. 116, 135-45. 

Jacobs, J.D. and Newell, J.P. 1979. Recent- Year-to- Year Variations in Seasonal 

Temperatures and Sea Ice Conditions in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Arctic 32, 345- 

Jennings, D.H. 1963. The Absorption of Solutes By Plant Cells. Oliver & Boyd, London. 

John, Brian 1977. The Ice Age, Past and Present. Wm. Collins & Son, Glasgow. 

John, Brian (ed.) 1979. The Winters of the World. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 

Johnson, Hugh 1978. The International Book of Trees. Simon & Schuster, New York. 


Jones, M.J. 1980. The Spruce-Budworm Disaster: An Integrated Approach. Amer. For., June. 

Justus, J.R. 1978. Inadvertent Weather and Climate Modification. 145-91 of Weather 

Modification: Programs, Problems, Policy, and Potential. Committee Print for the 
95th Congress, 2nd Session. Reproduced by the Library of Congress, Congressional 
Res. Serv. 

Kellogg, William and Schware, Robert 1981. Climate Change and Society: Consequences of 
Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Westview Press, Boulder, Co. 

Kerr, R.A. 1977. Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Carbon Budget Still Unbalanced. Science 
197, Sept. 30. 

Kessler, Jr., K.J. 1978. Gnomonia Canker, shoot blight, and leaf spot of Yellow Birch. USDA 
For. Serv. Res. paper NC-152. 

Klemesrud, J. 1980. Parents Band Together To Fight Dangers to Unborn. S.F.Chronicle, Oct. 
2, p. 22. 

Knight, Granville 1975. In Nutrition and Physical Degeneration (the Foreword). Price- 
Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, La Mesa, CA. 

Krasil'nikov, N.A. 1958. Soil Microorganisms and Higher Plants. Israel Program for 
Scientific Translations. U.S. Dept. of Commerce. 

Kubiena, W.L. 1953. The Soils of Europe. Thomas Murby, London. 

Kubiena, W.L. 1970. Micromorphological Features of Soil Geography. Rutgers Univ. Press. 

Kukla et al 1972. The End of the Present Interglacial. Quat. Res. 2, 261-69. 

Kukla, G.J. and Koci, A. 1972. End of the Last Interglacial in the Loess Record. Quat. Res. 2, 


Kukla, G.J. et al 1977. New data on climatic trends. Nature 270, Dec. 15. 

Lamb, F.B. 1973. If Only in Cliches, For Pete's Sake, Tell It Like It Is! Amer. For., May. 

Lamb, Hubert H. 1966. The Changing Climate. Methuen & Co., London. 

Lamb, Hubert H. 1977. Climate: Present, Past and Future, Vol. 2, Climatic history and the 
future. Methuen & Co., London. 

Lamb, Robert 1979. World Without Trees. Paddington Press, New York. 

Leaphart, CD. 1963. Dwarfmistletoes: A Silvicultural Challenge. J. For., Jan. 

Leeper, E.M. 1976. Replace Toxic Pesticides, Says NAS Study. BioScience 26: 3, March. 

Legget, R.F. (ed.) 1961. Soils in Canada. Univ. of Toronto Press. 

Legget, R.F. (ed.) 1975. Glacial Till. Royal Society of Canada, Special Pub. 12. 

Lewis, W.M. and Grant, M.C. 1980. Acid Precipitation in the Western United States. Science 
207, 176-77, Jan. 11. 

Liebig, Justus 1852. Organic Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology. In 
Liebig's Complete Works on Chemistry. T.B. Peterson, Philadelphia. 

Likens, G.E. et all979. Acid Rain. Scientific American 241: 4, Oct. 

Lovejoy, P.S. 1917. Forest Biology. J. For., Feb. 

Lozek, V. 1972. Holocene Interglacial in Central Europe and its Land Snails. Quat. Res. 2, 


Mahaney, W.C. (ed.) 1978. Quaternary Soils. Geo. Abstracts, Norwich, England. 

Marbut, C.F. 1928. Soils: Their Genesis, Classification and Development. A course of 
lectures given in the graduate school of the USDA, Washington. 

Marbut, C.F. 1935. Atlas of American Agriculture, Part III - Soils of the U.S., USDA, 

Marlin, C.B. (ed.) 1965. Insects in Southern Forests. Louisiana St. Univ. Press, p.v. 


Marks, G.C. and Kozlowski, T.T. 1973. Ectomycorrhizas. Academic Press, New York. 

Marshall, V.G. 1973. The Effects of Manures and Fertilizers on Soil Fauna: A Review. Dept. 
of the Environment, Canadian For. Serv., Victoria. 

Massey, H.F. and Jackson, M.L. 1952. Selective Erosion of Soil Fertility Constituents. Soil 
Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc, p. 353. 

Matthews, S.W. 1976. What's Happening to Our Climate? Nat Geog. 150: 5, Nov. 

Maugh, T.H. 1978. The Fatted Calf (II): The Concrete Truth About Beef. Science 199, Jan 


McCalla, T.M. 1939. The Adsorbed Ions of Colloidal Clay As A Factor in Nitrogen Fixation 
By Azotobacter. Soil Sci. 48: 4, 281-86. 

McCarrison, Robert 1936. Nutrition and Health. Faber & Faber, London. 

McClaren, A.D. and Peterson, G.H. (eds.) 1967. Soil Biochemistry, Vol. 1, Marcel Dekker, 
New York. 

McClaren, A.D. and Paul, E.A. (eds.) 1975. Soil Biochemistry, Vol. 4, Marcel Dekker, New 

Mertz, W. and Cornatzer, W.E. 1971. Newer Trace Elements in Nutrition. Marcel Dekker. 

Miller, W.E. et al 1978. Timber Quality of Northern Hardwood Regrowth in the Lake States. 
For. Sci. 24: 2, 247-59. 

Mohr, E.C.J, and Van Baren, F.A. 1954. Tropical Soils. N.V. Uitgeverij W. Van Hoeve, The 
Hague and Bandung. 

Monte, Tom 1980. Is America Going Crazy? East- West Journal 10: 9, Sept. 

Moore, T.R. 1976. Sesquioxide-cemented soil horizons in northern Quebec: their 
distribution, properties, and genesis. Can. J. Soil Sci. 56, 333-44. 

Mori et al 1977. Utilization of Organic Nitrogen as the Sole Nitrogen Source for Barley. 
Proc. of International Seminar on Soil Environment and Fertility Management in 
Intensive Agriculture. Society of the Science of Soil and Manure, Tokyo. 

Morison, C.G.T. and Clarke, G.R. 1928. Some Problems of Forest Soils. Forestry 2:1 

Morris, Richard 1980. The Glaciers Will Come, and Come Quickly. Special to the S.F. 
Chronicle, Sept. 9. 

Morrow, P. A. and LaMarche, Jr., C.C. 1978. Tree Ring Evidence for Chronic Insect 
Suppression of Productivity in Subalpine Eucalyptus. Science 201, Sept. 29. 

Mount, J .L. 1975. The Food and Health of Western Man. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 

Mueller, OP. and Cline, M.G. 1959. Effects of Mechanical Soil Barriers and Soil Wetness on 
Rooting and Trees and Soil-Mixing by Blowdown in Central New York. Soil Sci. 88: 


Myers, Norman 1979. The Sinking Ark. Pergamon Press, New York. 

National Academy of Sciences 1975. Understanding Climatic Change. U.S. Committee for 
the Global Atmospheric Program, Washington. 

National Academy of Sciences 1975. Forest Pest Control, Vol. IV of An Assessment of 
Present and Alternative Technologies, Washington. 

Nicholas, D.J.D. and Egan, A.R. 1975. Trace Elements in Soil-Plant-Animal Systems. 
Academic Press, New York. 

Nichols, J.O. 1968. Oak Mortality in Pennsylvania — A Ten- Year Study. J. For., Nov. 

Neubert, R.W. 1969. Trees With Temperatures. Amer. For., April. 

Painter, R.H. 1951. Insect Resistance in Crop Plants. McMillan, New York. 


Pelisek, I.J. 1977. Changes in the Forest Stands and Soils in Europe. Trees (Journal of the 
Men of the Trees), Summer. 

Perlman, D. 1981. Acid Rain's Worldwide Threat. S.F. Chronicle, Jan. 16, p. 6. 

Petersen, J. 1980. Battling Bugs From Above. Amer. For., April. 

Phillips, David 1977. From Soil to Psyche. Woodbridge Press, Santa Barbara, CA. 

Picton, Lionel J. 1949. Nutrition and the Soil. Devin- Adair, New York. 

Pimentel, D. et al 1976. Land Degradation: Effects on Food and Energy Resources. Science 
194, Aug. 12 (on erosion in Iowa, etc.). 

Pimentel, D. and Pimentel, M. 1979. The Risks of Pesticides. Nat. Hist. 88:3, March. 

Ponte, Lowell 1976. The Cooling. Prentice-Hall, p. 138-39. 

Posner, Barbara 1979. Nutrition and the Elderly. D.C. Heath, Lexington, MA. 

Powers, H.R. et al 1974. Incidence and Financial Impact of Fusiform Rust in the South. J. 
For., July. 

Price, Weston A. 1945, 1975. Nutrition and Physical Degeneration. Price-Pottenger 
Nutrition Foundation, La Mesa, CA. 

Raeside, J.D. 1964. Loess Deposits of the South Island, New Zealand, and Soils Formed on 
Them. N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys. 7, 811-38. 

Raukas, A. et al 1978. Methods of Till Investigation in Europe and North America. J. Sed. 
Petrol. 48: 1, 285-94. 

Rennie, P.J. 1957. The Uptake of Nutrients by Timber Forest and its Importance to Timber 
Production in Britain, Quart. J. For. 51:2, April. 

Rensberger, B. 1977. 14 Million Acres a Year Vanishing As Deserts Spread Around Globe. 
N.Y. Times, Aug. 28 

Richards, Paul 1973. The Tropical Rain Forest. Scientific American 229: 6, 58-67. 

Roberts, W.O. and Lansford, Henry 1979. The Climate Mandate. W.H. Freeman. 

Robertson, J. 1979. The Mountain Pine Beetle: Friend or Foe? Amer. For., Feb. 

Robinson, L.W. 1966. Decline of the Saguaro. Amer. For., May. 

Robinson, W.O. and Edgington, G. 1945. Minor Elements in Plants, and Some Accumulator 
Plants. Soil Sci. 60: 1, 15-28. 

Rodale, J.I. 1948. The Healthy Hunzas. Rodale Press. 

Rode, A. A. 1962. Soil Science. Published for the National Science Foundation, Washington, 
by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. 

Romans, J.C.C. 1962. The Origin of the Indurated B 3 Horizon of Podzolic Soils in North- 
East Scotland. Soil Sci. 13:2. 

Roth, E.R. 1954. Spread and Intensification of the Littleleaf Disease of Pine. J. For., Aug. 

Roth, L.F. et al 1977. Marking Ponderosa Pine To Combine Commercial Thinning and 
Control of Armillaria Root Rot. J. For., Oct. 

Russell, E.W. 1973. Soil Conditions and Plant Growth. Longman, London. 

Sanders, F.E. et al (eds.) 1975. Endomycorrhizas. Academic Press, New York. 

Schauss, Alex 1978. Orthomolecular Treatment of Criminal Behavior. Parker House, 
Berkeley, CA. 

Schauss, Alex 1981. Diet, Crime, and Delinquency. Parker House. 

Schaffner, Jr., J.V. 1943. Sawflies Injurious to Conifers in the Northeastern States. J. For., 

Schell, LI. et al 1973. Recent Climatic Changes in the Eastern North American Sub- Arctic. In 
Climate of the Arctic, eds. Weller, G. and Bowling, S.A., p. 76-81. 

Schoen, R. et al 1974. Argillization by Descending Acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada. 
Clays and Clay Minerals 22, 1-20. 


Schultz, C.B. and Frye, J.C. 1965. Loess and Related Eolian Deposits of the World. Univ. of 
Nebraska Press. 

Schultz, Gwen 1974, Ice Age Lost. Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 

Schutte, Karl H. and Myers, John A. 1979. Metabolic Aspects of Health. Discovery Press, 
Kentfield, CA. 

Schwenke, W. 1961. Forest Fertilization and Insect Buildup. Paper No. 24-21, Proc. of 13th 
IUFRO Cong., Pt. 2, Vol. 1, Vienna. 

Shaler, Nathaniel S. 1891. The Origin and Nature of Soils. U.S.G.S., Washington. 

Shigo, A.L. 1972. The Beech Bark Disease Today in the Northeastern U.S. J. For., May. 

Shotton, F.W. (ed.) 1977. British Quaternary Studies. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 

Simpson, Sir George 1934. World Climate During the Quaternary Period. Quart. J. Roy. Met. 
Soc. 85, 425-71. 

Simpson, Sir George 1957. World Temperature During the Pleistocene. Quart. J. Roy. Met. 
Soc. 85, 332-49. 

Smith, G. 1980. Acid rain killer of forests, too, official warns. Toronto Globe, July 22, p.l. 

Soil Association 1979. Nutrition and Organic Farming. Journal of the Soil Association., Dec. 

Soil Conservation 1975. Vol. 41: 3, p. 22 (on Iowa erosion), Washington. 

Soles, R.L. et al 1970. Resistance of Western White Pine to White-Pine Weevil. J. For., Dec. 

Spaulding, P. 1948. The Role of Nectria in the Beech Bark Disease. J. For., June. 

Speers, C.F. 1958. The Balsam Woolly Aphid in the Southeast. J. For., July. 

Speth, Gus 1980. Reported in San Mateo Times, July 5. 

Stevenson, T. 1976. Plight of the Palms. Amer. For., Oct. 

Stotzky, G. et al 1980. Acid Precipitation — Causes and Consequences. Environment 22: 4, 

Stuiver, M. 1978. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Reservoir Changes. Science 199, 
p. 253, Jan. 20. 

Syers, J.K. et al 1969. Eolian Sediment Influence on Pedogenesis During the Quaternary. 
Soil Sci. 107: 6. 

Taylor, R. 1969. Hunza Health Secrets. Award Books, New York. 

Thompson, L.G. 1977. Microparticles, Ice Sheets and Climate. Inst, of Polar Studies Rep. 
No. 64, Ohio St. Univ. 

Thompson, L.G. and Mosley-Thompson, E. 1981. Microparticle Concentration Variations 
Linked with Climatic Change: Evidence from Polar Ice Cores. Science 212, May 15. 

Tobe, John 1965. Guideposts to Health and Vigorous Long Life. Modern Publications, St. 
Catherine, Ontario. 

Toops, C. 1981. The Stinking Cedar Is In Big Trouble. Amer. For., July. 

Trotter, R.J. 1981. Psychiatry for the 80' s. Science News 119, May 30. 

Turner, C. and West, R.G. 1968. The subdivision and zonation of interglacial periods. 
Eiszeit. u. Gegen. 19, 93-101. 

USDA 1963, 1975. Composition of Foods. Agric. Handbook No. 8, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington. 

USDA 1980. Report and Recommendations on Organic Farming. Washington. 

USDA Bureau of Soils 1906. Soil Survey Field Book. Washington. 

USDA Forest Service 1967. Tioga's Ghosts. What's New In Research. Pac. SW For. Range 
Exp. Sta., March 13. 


USDA Forest Service 1974-78. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States. 

USDA Forest Service 1976. Proc. of First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation 
and the Forest Ecosystem. Gen Tech. Rep. NE-23, Northeastern For. Exp. Sta. Upper 
Darby, PA. 

USDA Forest Service 1980. Effects of Air Pollutants on Mediterranean and Temperate Forest 
Ecosystems, Symposium Proc. Pac. SW For. and Range Exp. Sta., Berkeley. 

USDA Soil Conservation Service 1975. Soil Taxonomy. Agric. Handbook No. 436, 

van den Bosch, Robert 1978. The Pesticide Conspiracy. Doubleday, New York. 

Vilenskii, D.G. 1957. Soil Science. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. 

Voisin, Andre 1961. Soil, Grass and Cancer: Health of animals and men linked to the 
mineral balance of the soil. Crosby Lockwood & Son., London. 

Volobuev, V.R. 1964. Ecology of Soils. Daniel Davey & Co., New York. 

Wallace, J .N. 1980. Is the Green Revolution Over? S.F. Sunday Examiner & Chronicle, 
Aug. 17, p. 34. 

Wallace T. 1950. Trace Elements in Plant Physiology. Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham, 

Walters, Charles and Fenzau, C.J. 1979. An Acres U.S.A. Primer. Acres, U.S.A., Austin, TX. 

Watts, W.A. 1980. The Late Quaternary Vegetation History of the Southeastern United 
States. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11, 387-409. 

Watts, W.A. 1980. Late Quaternary Vegetation of Central Appalachia and the New Jersey 
Coastal Plain. Ecological Monographs 49: 4, 427-69. 

Weatherwise 1980. Vol. 33: 1, Feb. "The Weather of 1979" issue. 

Weatherwise 1981. Vol. 34; 1, Feb. "The Weather of 1980" issue. 

Webster, B. 1980. Tropical Forests: Relatively Youthful? N.Y. Times, Jan 8. 

Wells, G.S. 1965. The Bark Beetle. Amer. For., June. 

West, R.C. and Haag, W.G. (eds.) 1976. Ecology of the Pleistocene, Vol. 13 of Geoscience 
and Man. School of Geoscience, Louisiana St. Univ. 

West, S. 1980. Acid From Heaven. Science News 117, Feb. 2. 

West, S. 1981. Fertilizing atmospheric ammonia. Science News 117: 25, June 21. 

Wexler, H. 1953. Radiation Balance. In Climatic Change — Evidence, Causes, and Effects, 
ed. H. Shapley, Harvard Univ. Press. 

White, Deborah (ed.) 1977. XV International Congress of Entomology. Entomological Soc. 
of Amer., College Park, MD. 

Whittaker, C.W. et al 1959. Liming Qualities of Three Cement Kiln Flue Dusts and a 
Limestone in a Greenhouse Comparison. Soil and Water Cons. Res. Div., USDA, 
Beltsville, MD. 

Whittaker, C.W. et al 1963. Cement Kiln Flue Dusts for Soil Liming. U.S. Fertilizer Lab., 
Soil and Water Cons. Res. Div., USDA, Beltsville, MD. 

Whittaker, R.H. et al 1974. The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study: Forest Biomass and 
Production. Ecological Monographs 44, 233-52. 

Whittaker, R.H. and Likens, G.E. 1975. In Primary Productivity of the Biosphere, eds. H. 
Lieth and R.H. Whittaker, Springer- Verlag, Berlin, p. 305. 

Willett H. C. 1953 Atmospheric Circulation. In Climatic Change — Evidence, Causes, and 
Effects, ed. H. Shapley, Harvard Univ. Press 

Williams Jill (ed.) 1978 Carbon Dioxide, Climate and Society. Pergamon Press, p. 229. 


Williams, L.D. 1978. Ice-Sheet Initiation and Climatic Influences of Expanded Snow Cover 
in Arctic Canada. Quat. Res. 10, 141-49. 

Williams, W.T. 1978. Acid Rain: The California Context. CBE Env. Rev., May. 

Woillard, Genevieve 1978. Grand Pile Peat Bog: A Continuous Pollen Record for the Last 
140,000 Years. Quat. Res. 9, 1-21. 

Woillard, G. 1979. Abrupt end of the last interglacial s.s. in north-east France. Nature 281, 
Oct. 18. 

Wong, C.S. 1978. Atmospheric Input of Carbon Dioxide From Burning Wood. Science 200, 
April 14. 

Woods, F.W. 1953. Disease as a Factor in the Evolution of Forest Composition. J. For., Dec. 

Woodwell, G.M. 1978. The Carbon Dioxide Question. Scientific American 238: 1, Jan. 

Woodwell, G.M. et al 1979. The Carbon Dioxide Problem: Implications for Policy in the 

Management of Energy and Other Resources. (A Report to) Council on Environmental 
Quality, Washington. 

Wrench, G.T. 1945. The Wheel of Health. Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, 

Wrench, G.T. 1946. Reconstruction By Way Of The Soil. Faber & Faber, London. 

Wright, E. and Graham, D.P. 1952. Surveying for Pole Blight. J. For., Sept. 

Wright, Jr., H.E. 1972. Interglacial and Postglacial Climates: The Pollen Record. Quat. Res. 


Yaalon, D.H. (ed.) 1971. Paleopedology. International Society of Soil Science, Jerusalem. 

Yaalon, D.H. and Ganor, E. 1973. The Influence of Dust on Soils During the Quaternary. 
Soil Sci. 116, 146-54. 

Young, A. 1976. Tropical Soils and Soil Survey. Cambridge Univ. Press.