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Full text of "Theology Outline"

OUTLINE OF THEOLOGY 

Revision Aid 




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Compiled & Edited by 
DOMENICMARBANIANG 



OUTLINE OF THEOLOGY 
Revision Aid 

CONTENTS 



Introduction 
Bibliology (Bible) 
Theology Proper 
Trinity 

Christology (J esus Christ) 
Pneumatology (Holy Spirit) 
Creation 

Angelology (Angels) 
Demonology (Demons) 
Anthropology (Man) 
Atonement 
Soteriology (Salvation) 
Ecclesiology (Church) 
Eschatology (LastThings) 



All rights reserved. Progressive Version, 2007, 2009 
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Outline of Theology: Revision Aid 



INTRODUCTION 

The M eaning of Theology 

Theology is a study of Christian doctrine and faith. The Queen of 
sciences, Theology is an attempt towards a systematic exposition of 
and presentation of Christian doctrine. 
The Need of Theology 

1. For a clear understanding of faith 

2. As a rational and articulate defense of faith (lPet.3:15) 

3. For a systematic presentation of God's revealed truths 
(2Tim.2:15) 

4. As a guard against heresy and false teachings (Mt. 22:29; Gal. 1:6- 
9; 2Tim. 4: 2-4) 

5. For spiritual growth and maturity as Christians (Eph. 4:14). 
Divisions of Theology 

1. Biblical (Exegetical) Theology: Often studied as Old Testament 
Theology and New Testament Theology based on an exegesis of 
the Bible. 

2. Historical Theology: Study of the origin and development of 
theological perspectives in the context of their historical 
background. 

3. Systematic Theology: Systems of theology or systematic 
arrangement of an presentation of doctrines. 

4. Practical Theology: Application of Theology. Disciplines: 
Homiletics, Pastoral Theology, Christian Education, Worship 
(Liturgies), Evangelism, Church Polity (Forms of Church 
Organization and Government). 

Different Theologies 

1. Roman Catholic Theology - Authority of the Bible (includes 
Apocrypha) and the Pope's authoritative pronouncements ex 
cathedra (from the chair); saving grace communicated through 
the 7 sacraments; and Mary is merciful mediator between man 

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and Christ. 

2. Lutheran Theology - The 3 fundamental doctrines are sola 
scriptura (Scripture alone), sola gratia (grace alone), and sola fide 
(faith alone). Scripture alone is authoritative and salvation comes 
only by grace through faith. The Spirit uses an infant baptism to 
produce faith in them and bring them to salvation. 

3. Reformed Theology ■ built around the central theme of the 
sovereignty of God. Sola scriptura, the sole authority of Scripture 
in matters of doctrine. Total depravity of all men, Unconditional 
election, Limited atonement, Irresistable grace, Perseverance of 
saints. 

4. Arminian Theology - tries to preserve justice (fairness) of God. 
God's sovereignty along with human responsibility and freedom. 
Conditional election (predestination on basis of foreknowledge). 

5. Wesleyan Theology - is essentially Arminian but has a stronger 
sense of the reality of sin and of dependence on divine grace. The 
ultimate standard for faith and practice is the Bible. Four means 
by which truth is mediated: Scripture, reason, tradition, and 
experience. Salvation is a 3-step process of grace: prevenient 
grace, justifying grace, and sanctifying grace. Prevenient grace 
keeps one from straying very far, and enables one to respond to 
the gospel. Justifying grace produces salvation in those who 
respond positively. Entire sanctification or perfection in love is 
the Holy Sprit's second work of grace. 

6. Liberal Theology - Immanency of God. Unitarianism. Fallibility of 
Bible. Denial of Fall, original sin, and substitutionary nature of the 
Atonement. Christ will not personally return. 

7. Existential Theology - 'Demythologizing' of Scripture - interprets 
everything supernatural as mythical. A statement about God is 
basically a statement about man. The Trinity is a myth. The 
historical Jesus is not very much known. Salvation is self- 
realization. 



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8. Neo-orthodox Theology - Hermeneutical. God cannot be known 
through proofs but only through encounter in revelation. Natural 
revelation, if it exists, is ineffective towards salvation. Revelation 
is personal not propositional. The Bible is human and fallible and 
is reliable only to the eChristent that God reveals himself through 
encounters with Scripture. Historicity of Scripture is unimportant. 

9. Liberation Theology - Theology is not dogmatic but liberatative. 
God is immanent and mutable, the God of the oppressed. Jesus 
was a messiah of political involvement. The Bible is not 
concerned with eternal truths but with specific history (often 
unreliable). The Exodus account proclaims liberation. Salvation is 
social change. 

10. Feminist Theology - 3 Models: Rejectionists - reject Bible as 
patriarchal; Evangelical - The Bible teaches mutual submission 
and roles of women and men are complementary; Reformist 
(Liberation) - Discards Bible and Christian tradition as patriarchal 
and desires to overcome it through 'proper' exegesis. 

11. Pentecostal Theology - Emphasis on the infallibility and finality 
of Scripture, salvation by grace, the baptism of the Holy Spirit 
with evidence of speaking in tongues, restoration of the five-fold 
ministry in the Church, the gifts of the Spirit, baptism by 
immersion, holiness, prayer and fasting, evangelism of the world, 
spiritual warfare, and return of Christ. 



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BIBLIOLOGY (BIBLE) 

I. Revelation 

Strong: {aTtOK&A.ui|jic;} 

1) a laying bare, making naked 

2) a disclosure of truth, instruction 

2a) concerning things before unknown 

2b) used of events by which things or states or persons 

hitherto withdrawn from view are made visible to 

all 

3) manifestation, appearance (Strong) 

a. General Revelation: Pal9: 1-3; Acts 14:15-17; Rom. 1:18-20 

b. Special Revelation: Concerned with the redemptive plan of God. 
Special revelation is both personal and propositional. 

(i) Bible: The Written Word. All historical information 
(genealogies, covenants, law, events), literature (prose, 
poetry), prophecy, exposition (e.g, epistles) connected with 
and necessary for the complete understanding of the 
redemptive plan of God that He desires and intends us to 
have. 

(ii) Visions, Dreams, Prophetic Word. Must accord with the 
Written Word (Gal. 1:8, 9). 

(iii) The Lord Jesus Christ: The Finality of the Revelation of God 
(Heb. 1:2,3) 

(iv) Illumination: The Holy Spirit's revelation of the rhema to the 
human spirit, whereby man comes to an understanding of 
the Truth and responds to it through the help of the Holy 
Spirit's gift of faith. The subjective aspect of Revelation. This 
iliumination accords with the totality of the Written Word 
and the Finality of Revelation in Christ (Jn.14: 26; 16:15). 
Necessary (Lk. 9:42). 



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II. The Purpose of Writing (Woodrow Kroll) 

1. Precision 

2. Propagation 

3. Preservation 

III. The Reliability of Bible 

1. Historical Veracity 

2. Prophetical Accuracy 

3. TeChristual Authenticity 

4. Pragmatic - It works when put to practice. 

5. Scientific Accuracy 

6. Philosophical Consistency. 

IV. Inspiration 
Theories of Inspiration 

1. M echanical or Dictation: The biblical author is a passive instrument 
in the transmission of the revelation of God. His personality is set 
aside to prevent its fallible intrusion. 

2. Partial Inspiration: Only doctrines unknowable to the human 
authors are inspired. God revealed ideas which the writers penned in 
their own words. 

3. Degrees of Inspiration: Certain portions of Bible are more or 
differently inspired than other portions. 

4. Intuition or Natural Inspiration: Gifted individuals with exceptional 
insight were chosen by God to write the Bible. Inspiration is like an 
artistic ability or a natural endowment. 

5. Illumination or Mystical Inspiration: Human authors were enabled 
by God to write the Scriptures. The H.S. heightened their normal 
powers. 

6. Verbal, Plenary Inspiration: Both divine and human elements are 
present in the production of Scripture. The entire teChrist of 
Scripture, including the very words, are a product of the mind of God 
expressed in human terms and conditions. 



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2 Tim. 3: 16 (Theopneustos): God-breathed 

1. Neither mechanical nor dictational inspiration but organic; i.e. 
the personality of the writers was involved. The writers were 
Spirit-borne, led, moved {Phero) (2 Pet. 1:21) 

2. The inspiration is verbal; i.e., it eChristends to the words and not 
just the ideas. 

3. The inspiration is plenary; i.e., full -"All scripture..." equally. 

V. Infallibility: It is open to verification and falsification and is entirely 
perfect in its communication of the revealed Truth. 

VI. Inerrancy: It contains no errors. Complete Inerrancy. The Bible is 
fully true in all it teaches or affirms. Other Views: limited Inerrancy: 
Inerrant in salvific doctrines; Teleological Inerrancy: Inerrant in 
accomplishing its purpose of reconciling man to God; Irrelevancy: 
The doctrine is irrelevant; the spirit or purpose of Bible should be 
considered. 

VII. The Bible is eternal and complete. 

VIII. Canon: Lit. measuring rod, rule. Canonicity, canonical, canonize. 
This word is derived from a Hebrew and Greek word denoting a reed 
or cane. Hence it means something straight, or something to keep 
straight; and hence also a rule, or something ruled or measured. It 
came to be applied to the Scriptures, to denote that they contained 
the authoritative rule of faith and practice, the standard of doctrine 
and duty. {Easton's Bible Dictionary). 

5-fold Criteria: Authorship (Prophet, Apostle, Holy Man), Local 

Church Acceptance, Recognition by Church Fathers, Subject matter 

(Sound Doctrine), Personally edifying. 

The OT canon is accepted as accepted by Christ and the apostles. The 

NT canon is accepted on the basis of apostolic authorship and 

recognition of the same by Church Fathers. 

During the 3 rd Council of Carthage (AD. 397) 27 NT Books were 

declared canonical. St. Athanasius (AD 297-373) in his 39 th Paschal 

letter (AD 367), listed the books of the NT as we know them. 



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VIII. Symbols of it used in the Bible 

1. Sword (Hb.4:12) 2. Hammer (Jer.23:29) 3. Seed (lPt. 1:23) 4. 
M irror (J as. 1:23-25) 5. Fire (Jer.23:25; 20:9) 6. Lamp (Ps. 119:105) 7. 
Food (lPt.2:2) 8. Water (Eph. 5:25-27) 9. M ilk (1 Pt.2:2) 10. M eat (Hb. 
5:12) 11. Bread (Mt. 4:4) 12. Silver (Ps.l2:6) 

IX. Other Names 

The Lord's Book (Isa. 34:16); The Book of Truth (Dan. 10:21); 
Scriptures (Jn.lO:35;Mt.21:42); Holy Scriptures (Rom. 1:2); Sacred 
Books (Dan. 9:2; Hb. 10:7); The Oracles of God (Rom. 3:2); The Word 
of God (Hb. 4:12); The Living Oracles of God (Acts 7:38). 

X. The Bible Influences our: Thinking, Living, Values, Destiny. 

XI. The Bible has Authority over: Human Wisdom, The Church, Our 
Experience, The Christian. 

Reliability 

'As to the question, How shall we be persuaded that it came from God 
without recurring to a decree of the Church? it is just the same as if it were 
asked, How shall we learn to distinguish light from darkness, white from 
black, sweet from bitter? Scripture bears upon the face of it as clear 
evidence of its truth, as white and black do of their colour, sweet and bitter 
of their taste.' (John Calvin, Institutes) 



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THEOLOGY PROPER (GOD) 

I. The Existence of God 

Arguments 

II. The Nature of God 

Westminster Catechism: "God is Spirit, Infinite, Eternal, and 
Unchangeable in His being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, 
goodness, and truth." 

III. Attributes of God 

a. God's Inner Nature (Unrelated Attributes) 

(i) Spirit (J n. 4:24) (ii) Infinite - Immense in relation to space (1 Kgs. 
8:27), Eternal in relation to time (Ex.l5:18; Dt. 33:27) (iii) One (Ex. 
20:3; Dt. 4:35,39; 1 Sam. 2:2; 1 Tim. 1:17) 

b. God in Relation to the Universe (Active Attributes) - (i) 
Omnipotent (Gen. 1:1; 17:1; Job 40:2; Amos 4:13; Mt. 19:26) (ii) 
Omnipresent (Gen. 28: 15, 16; Ps. 139:7-10) (iii) Omniscient 
(Gen. 18:18,19); 2Kgs8: 10,13; Jer.l:4,5; Rom. 8:27, 29; 1 Pt. 1:2) (iv) 
Wise(Ps.l04:24; Pr.3:19;Jer.lO:12; Dan. 2:20,21; Col. 2:2,3) 

(v) Sovereign (Dan. 4:35; Mt. 20:15; Rom. 9:21) 

c. God in Relation to Moral Creatures (Moral Attributes) (i) Holy 
(Ex.l5:ll; Lev.ll:44,45; Rev. 4:8) (ii) Righteous (Ezra 9:15; Ps.ll6:5; 
Rev.l6:15) 

(iii) Faithful (Ex. 34:6; Mic. 7:20; 2 Tim. .2:13; Rev. 15:3) (iv) Merciful 
(Tit. 3:5; Ps. 32:5) (v) Love (Dt. 7:8; J n.3:16; 1J n. 4:9,10) (vi) Good (Ps. 
25:8; 85:5; Acts 14:17) 



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TRINITY 

I. Essential Element s of Trinity 

1. God is One. 

2. Each of the persons of within the Godhead is Deity. 

3. The oneness of God and the threeness of God are not 
contradictions. 

4. The Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) is eternal. 

5. Each of the persons of God is of the same essence and is not 
inferior or superior to the others in essence. 

6. The Trinity is a mystery which we will never be able to 
understand fully. 

II. Natural Illustrations 1x1x1=1 

1. Length x Breadth x Height =Space 

2. Energy x M otion x Phenomenon =M atter 

3. Future x Present x Past =Time 

4. Space xM atter x Time =Universe 

5. Nature x Person x Personality =M an 

III. Scriptural Proofs 

Deut. 6:4; Ps. 2:7; Heb.l:13; Ps. 68:18; lsa.6:l-3;9:6; Gen. 1:2; 
lTim.l:17; lCor.8:4-6; lPet.l:2; Jn.l:17; Phil. 2:11; Mt.3:16,17; Acts 
5:3-4) 

IV. False Views of Trinity 

1. Unitarianism - Father is creator, Son is creature, Spirit is 
impersonal. 

2. Sabellianism - (M odalism) Father (OT), Son (NT), Spirit (Present). 

3. Tritheism - Father, Son, and H.S are three distinct gods. 



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CHRISTOLOGY (J ESUS CHRIST) 

I. Nature 

The Son of God - Deity 

The Word - Preexistence & Activity 

Lord - Sovereignty 

The Son of M an - Humanity 

The Christ - Official Title and M ission 

Son of David - Royal Lineage 

II. Offices 

Prophet- Mk. 6.15; J n. 4. 19; 6. 14; 9. 17 

Priest- Hb. 2. 14- 16; 8.3; Ep. 1.6 

King- Gen. 14.18,19; Hb. 7.1-3; Ps.110.1-4; Zee 6. 13 

III. Work M 1. 1.21; J n. 1. 29; 1 Cor. 15. 1-3 

IV. The 2 nd Person 

Co-Eternal, Co-Substantial, Co-Equal With Each Of The Person Of 

Trinity (Nicea 345 AD) 

Christ's Two Natures: Unmixed, Unchanged, Undivided, Inseparable. 

(Chalcedon451AD) 

V. Christological Heresies (in bold, acceptable) 

1. Ebionism - Denied deity and pre-existence of Christ. 

2. Docetism - Denied His humanity; affirmed His deity; Jesus 
appeared human but was really divine. 

3. Arianism - Denied deity; Christ was the first and highest created 
being homoiousia, not homoousia. He is subordinate to the Father. 

4. Appolinarianism - Denied human spirit of Jesus. The divine Logos 
took the place of the human mind. Affirmed Christ's deity and real 
humanness (not complete humanness). 

5. Nestorianism - Denied union of natures, the unity of Christ's 
person. The union was moral, not organic-thus tow persons. The 
human was completely controlled by the divine. Distinguished 
human Jesus, who died, from Divine Son, who cannot die. 

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6. Eutychianism - Denied distinction of natures; monophysitist; the 
human nature was swallowed by the divine to create a new third 
nature. M aintained the unity of Christ's person. 
VI. Kenosis - Phil. 2: 7: Lit. to empty oneself, KJV: 'made himself of 
no reputation,' i.e., to take the form of servant, of man. The 
conteChrist means that Christ being the Son of God chose to stoop 
down to live a life of a servant, and being tested and found obedient 
in all, is now exalted above all creatures as the One in whom the will 
of God is finally accomplished; He is the embodiment and finality of 
divine will; and, therefore, worthy of rulership and judgement. Christ 
lost neither the divine consciousness nor the divine attributes, 
neither did he withdraw from divine activity in the kenotic event. 
Other Kenotic Theories 

1. Christ emptied Himself of Divine Nature. 

2. Christ emptied Himself of Eternal Form (which He exchanged for a 
temporal one). 

3. Christ emptied Himself of relative attributes, namely omnipotence, 
omniscience, and omnipresence. 

4. Christ emptied Himself of the integrity of infinite divine existence. 
The Logos became assumed dual consciousness at incarnation: the 
divine continued apart from the human, while the human was 
unaware of the cosmic functions of Deity. 

5. Christ emptied Himself of divine activity by turning over all His 
duties to the Father. 

6. Christ emptied Himself of the actual exercise of divine 
prerogatives. He retained His divine consciousness but renounced 
the conditions of infinity and its form. 

Sub-Kenotic Theories 

1. Christ emptied Himself of the use of divine attributes though 
possessing them. He chose not to use them. 

2. Christ emptied Himself of the independent exercise of the divine 
attributes. He worked in submission to the Father. 

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3. Christ emptied Himself of the insignia of M ajesty, the prerogatives 
of deity, the outward form of deity. 
VII. The Person of Christ 

1. Preincarnate - Pre-existence (Jn. 1:1; ljn.l:l; J n. 17:5), 
Participation in creation (Gen.l:26;Pr.8:30; Col. 1:15; 
Jn.l:3;Col.l:16; lCor.8:6). Christophanies (Gen. 18,19; Hos.l:7; 
Gen. 22,31; Ex.3:2; 14:19; Nu.22:22; Judg.6). 

2. Divine Nature - Divine Attributes (eternal-Jn.l:l; 8:58; 17:5; 
omnipresent- Mt:28:20; Eph.l:23; omniscient- Jn.l6:30;21:17; 
omnipotent- Jn. 5:19; immutable- Hb.l:12; 13:8). Divine Offices 
(Creator- Jn.l:3; Col. 1:16; Sustainer- Col. 1:17; Hb.l:3). Divine 
Prerogatives (forgives sin - Mt.9:2; Lk. 7:47; raises dead- J n. 5:25; 
11:25; executes judgement- J n. 5:22). Identified with OT YHWH 
(J n. 8:58; Jn,12:41;8:24, 50-58). Divine Names (Alpha & Omega- 
Rev.22:13; I AM -Jn.8:58; Immanuel- Mt.l:22; Lord-Mt.7:21; Son 
of God- Jn. 10:36; God- Jn. 1:1; 2 Pt.l:l; Tit.2:13; ljn.5:20). Divine 
Relations (Image of God- Col. 1:15; Hb.l:3; One with Father- 
Jn. 10:30). Accepts Divine Worship (Mt. 14:33; 28:9; J n. 20:28-29). 
Claims to be God (J n. 8: 58; 10:30; 17:5- in such case, He is either 
liar, lunatic, or tiie Lord that He claims to be, but never can be 
regarded as merely a good moral teacher). 

3. Human Nature - Human Birth (Mt.l:18;2:ll). Human 
Development (Lk.2:50, 52). Essential Elements of Human Nature 
(Human body- Mt.26:12; Jn. 2:21; Reason & will - Mt. 26:38; Mk. 
2:8). Human Names (Jesus -Mt. 1:21; Son of Man- Mt. 8:20; 
11:18; Son of Abraham- Mt. 1:1; Son of David- Mt.l:l). Sinless 
Infirmities of Human Nature (weariness-Jn.4:6; hunger- Mt.4:2; 
21:18; thirst- Jn. 19:28; temptation- Mt. 4; Hb.2:18). Repeatedly 
Ca//eda Man (J n. 1:30; 4:9; 10:38). 

4. Union of Natures - Theanthropic - The person of Christ is 
theanthropic; He has two natures, divine and human, in one 
person. Personal - Hypostatic union, constituting one personal 

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substance: two natures but one person. Includes the Human and 
Divine Qualities and Acts - Both the human and divine qualities 
and acts may be ascribed to Christ under either of His natures. 
Constant Presence of Both Humanity and Divinity- His natures 
cannot be separated. 
5. Character - Absolutely Holy (His human nature was created holy 
-Lk.l:35; He committed no sin - lPt.2:22; He always pleased the 
Father- J n. 2:22). Possesses Genuine Love (Laid down His life - 
Jn. 15:13; His love surpasses all knowledge- Eph. 3:19). Truly 
Humble - Phil. 2:5-8. Meek- Mt.ll:29. Balanced- 'He was grave 
without being melancholy. He wasjoyful without being frivolous.' 
Prayerful - Mt. 14:23; Lk. 6:12). Incessant Worker - Jn. 5:17; 
9:4). Stern (Mt. 16:33; 23:13-36). Wise (Mt. 22:19; J n. 2:24; 7:1). 
Compassionate (Mt. 14:14; 15:32; 20:34). 
VIII. Impeccability of Christ 

Definitions: Peccability - Christ could sin; Impeccability - Christ 
could not sin. Questions: If Jesus could not sin, how could He be truly 
human? Vs. If Jesus could sin, how could He be truly divine? 
Points of Agreement: Christt temptations were real (Hb. 4:15); 
Christ experienced struggle (Mt. 26:36-46); Christ did not sin 
(2Cor.5:21; Hb.7:26;Jas. 5:6; lPt. 2:22; 3:18). 
Conclusion - Impeccability : Temptation implies possibility of sin in 
general (humans) but not in specific (Christ). For instance, the testing 
of gold implies the possibility of things not being gold in general, but 
not the possibility of pure gold not being pure gold. The end of 
testing gold is to distinguish true gold from false gold. Thus, Christ's 
not falling in sin proves He could not sin. Since, Jesus is God and sin is 
rebellion against God, Jesus could not sin, for it is impossible for Him 
to rebel against Himself, unless His omniscience and omnipotence 
were brought into question. Thus, being human, He was tempted, 
but being divine and undivided in His moral nature, He was 
essentially holy and so could not sin. 

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PNEUMATOLOGY (HOLY SPIRIT) 

I. Nature 
Names. 

Spirit of God - Person, Executive of the Godhead 

Spirit of CHRIST. Ro. 8.9 - Sent in Christ's Name (J n. 14.26; 16.14; Mt. 

18.20; Ro. 8.9,10) 

Comforter- J n. 14-17 

H.S. of the Holy One. Sanctification 

H.S. of the Promise - Lk. 24.49; Eze. 36.27; Gal. 3.14 

Spirit of Truth - Jn. 14.17 

Spirit of Glory- 1 Pt. 4.14 

Spirit of Grace -Hb. 10.29 

Spirit of Wisdom &Kn.lsa. 11.2 

Spirit of Life- Ro. 8.2; Rev. 11.11 

Spirit of Adoption - Ro. 8.13 

Symbols 

Fire-lsa. 4.4; Mt. 3.11 

Wind -Eze. 37.7-10; J n. 3.8; Ac. 2.2 

Water- Eze. 17.6; J n. 3.5; 4.14; 7.38,39 

Seal -Ep. 1.13; 2 Ti. 2.19 

Oil 

Dove 

II. Personality 

3rd person of the Godhead- Mt. 3.16-17; J n. 14.16 
Has knowledge - Isa. 11.2; Ro. 8.27 
Has feeling- Isa. 63.10; Ep. 4.30 
Haswill-lCor.12.il 

III. Attributes 

1. Is Divine (Ac. 5.3-4) 

2. Eternal (Hb. 9.14) 

3. Omnipresent (Ps. 139.7) 

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4. Omniscient (J n. 14.26; 16.13) 

IV. Works 

1. Active in Creation (Gen. 1.2; Job 33.4; Ps. 104.30). 

2. Inspired the Bible Writers (2 Pt. 1.21). 

3. Empowered the conception of Christ (Lk. 1.35). 

4. Convicts of sin (Jn. 16.8; Gen. 6.3). 

5. Regenerates (J n. 3.5-6). 

6. Counsels (Jn. 14.16-17; 16.7,12-14). 

7. Brings assurance of salvation (Ro. 8.15). 

8. Teaches or enlightens (Jn. 16.12-14; ICor. 2.13). 

9. Aids in prayer (Ro. 8.26-27). 

10. Resurrected Christ (Ro. 8.11; 1 Pt. 3.18). 

11. Calls to service (Ac. 13.4). 

12. Seals the elect's salvation (Ro. 8.23; 2 Cor. 1.21-22; Ep. 1.13-14; 
4.30). 

13. Indwells the believer (Ro. 8.9; ICor. 3.16-17; 6.19). 

14. Works in the church (1. Cor. 12. 7-11). 

V. Baptism in the Holy Spirit 

It's a promise of the Father (Ac. 1.3). 

It's a promise of Jesus (J n. 16). 

Baptizer -Jesus Christ (Mt. 3.11) 

Initial Sign - Speaking in Tongues (Ac.2,10) 

M eaning - Anointing, Filling, Being immersed 

Results- Power, boldness, guidance, miracles, gifts of the Spirit 

M eans - Faith (Gal. 3.14), Laying of Hands (Ac. 8) 

Prerequisites- Salvation, Desire, Prayer, Expectancy, Water Baptism 

VI. Gifts of the Spirit (1 Co. 12) 

Gifts of Power - Faith, Healing, M iracles 

Gifts of Knowledge - Word of Kn. W/Wisdom, Discern./spirits 

Gifts of Speech - Tongues, Interpretation, Prophecy 

VII. Fruit Of Spirit (Gal. 5.22-23) 

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VIII. Offences Against the Spirit 

1. Resisting the Spirit (Ac. 7.51) 

2. Insulting the Spirit (Hb. 10.29) 

3. Blaspheming (Mt. 12.31,32) 

4. Grieving (Ep. 4.30,31) 

5. Lying (Ac. 5.3) 

6. Quenching 



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CREATION 

I. Theories of Creation 

Evolutionism, Deism, Dualism, Non-Dualism, Polytheism, Pantheism, 
Materialism, Panentheism. 

II. Origin of Creation 

1. The Six Days of Creation (Gen. 1, 2; Ex. 20:11) 

False Views: Gap Theory, Progressive Creationism, & Theistic 
Evolutionism- None of them have support from traditional 
hermeneutical history nor explicit Biblical support (except recourse 
to jumble of words and out-of-conteChrist interpretations) nor 
authoritative support from scientific discoveries or theories. 

2. Creatio exnihilo - Creation out of nothing (Hb.ll:3). The world, 
therefore, is basically nothing in itself and by itself. 

3. Free Creation - God didn't create the world out of necessity, but 
of His own free and sovereign will. 

4. Creation of Darkness - Darkness is not co-eternal with God and, 
therefore, a created reality (Isa. 45:7). 

5. Creation of Space-time- God is not contained by space, neither 
does He move in time; space and time are physical dimensions 
(conditions) of material objects and are part of creation. It is, 
therefore, false to conceptualize a spatio-temporal God. Creation of 
Time (Ps. 90:2 - 'or ever thou hadst formed fib. Chul- to rotate, spin} 
the earth and the world'). 

6. Creation of life- biological (flora and fauna). Unconscious and 
world-conscious creation. 

7. Creation of Humans- rational, moral, volitional, spiritual. Self- 
conscious and God-conscious. 

III. Nature of Creation 

1. Spatio-Temporality: Linear Time; Space & Time are physical 
dimensions. 

2. Contingency: Dependent on God 

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3. Plurality 

4. Finitude 

5. Uniformity: The Laws Of Nature 

6. Open - the universe is not a closed system but open, and so 
miracles are possible. 

IV. Purpose of Creation (Three Views) 

1. Anthropo-centricity - M an is at the center of creation and all is for 
him, the view of humanism. 

2. Eco-centricity - Life (flora & fauna) is at the center of creation and 
eco-balance is necessary for sustenance of earth as habitat of life. 

3. Christo-centricity - Christ is the center of creation and all is by 
Him, through Him, and for Him (Col. 1:16), 'that in all things He might 
have the pre-eminence' (Col. 1:18), to bring all things under the 
headship of Christ (Eph. 1:10). 

V. M an's Relation to Creation 

1. Man is to have dominion over the earth (Gen.l: 26; Ps. 115:16). 

2. M an is steward of God's creation (Gen. 2:5,15). 

3. After Fall, nature turned hostile to man (Gen. 3:18). 

4. M an was to rule by fear and violence; the age of innocence had 
ceased (Gen. 9:2, 3). 

Non-biblical Relations 

1. Pantheism - M an is equal to all creation. 

2. Asceticism - Physical world is man's enemy. 

3. Utilitarianism - M an exploits nature. 

VI. Divine Providence - The doctrine that God has not only created 
the world but also sustains it. 

1. God is the reason behind the uniformity of the laws of nature (J ob 
38). 

2. God rules over the world and controls its processes by wisdom and 
power (Job. 38: 41; 39; Ex. 3:20; Job 9.10; Ps. 77:14). 



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VII. Problem of Evil - Theodicy - If God is both powerful and good 

then why is there evil in the world? 

Non-dualism - Evil is an illusion. 

Pantheism- Evil is part of the world. 

Dualism - Good and Evil and two eternal forces. 

Evolutionism - Evil is part of the struggle for existence. 

The Biblical Answer- Evil is the result of Adam's disobedience, 

whereby sin and death entered the world, sicknesses and demonic 

forces ran rampant ravaging human lives. God's answer is Christ by 

whom evil is conquered and the Kingdom of righteousness 

inaugurated. This is done through the atonement, whereby men are 

saved, and finalized at the second coming when salvation will be 

complete and justice fully dealt. 



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ANGELO LOGY (ANGELS) 

I. Nature of Angels 

1. Creatures (Rev. 19.10; 22. 8,9; Col. 2. 18) 

2. Spirits (Hb. 1.14) 

3. Immortal (Lk. 20.34-36) 

4. Numerous (Dan. 7.10; Mt. 26.53; Lk. 2.13; Hb. 12.22) 

5. Sexless (Lk. 20. 34-35) 

II. Classification (lPt. 3.22; Col.1.16; Ep. 1.20,21) 

1. The Angel of the Lord (Ex. 23.20-23, 32,34; Isa. 63.9) 

2. The Archangel: Michael (Jude9, Rev. 12.7); Gabriel (Lk. 1.19; Dam. 
8.16; 9.21) 

3. Elect Angels - Stood true during Satan's rebellion (1 Ti. 5.21) 

4. Angels of the Nations (Dan. 10.13,20; Eph. 3.10; Col. 2.15) 

5. Cherubim - Connected with God's retributive (Gen. 3.24) and 
redemptive purposes (Ex. 25.22) 

F. Seraphim - 'Burning Ones' (Isa. 6) 

III. Character 

1. Obedient (Ps. 103.20; J uce 6; lPt. 3.22) 

2. Reverent (Neh. 9.6; Hb. 1.6) 

3. Wise (2 Sam. 14.17; 1 Kgs. 8.39; 1 Pt. 1.12) 

4. Meek (2 Pt. 2.11;Jude9) 

5. Mighty (Ps. 103.20) 

6. Holy (Rev. 14.10) 

IV. Work 

1. God's Agents - Executors of God's decree of judgments (Gen 3.24; 
M 1. 13. 39,41,49; 2 Kgs. 19.35; Acts 12.23) 

2. God's Messengers (angels) - (Lk. 11.20; Mt. 1.20,21; Gen. 28.12; 
Rev. 1.1) 

3. God's Servants (Hb. 1.14; Mt. 4.11; Gen. 16.7; Ps. 103.20) 



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V. Classification 2 

1. Ministering Spirits 

2. Warring Angels 

3. Worshipping Angels 

4. Messenger Angels 

VI. Angelic Appearances (3 Theories) 

1. Simulation - Angels appear in different forms during which they 
reproduce the very nature and functions of the form they take. 
Critique: This is impossible for it would imply the essential 
transformation of angelic nature and confusion in the order of 
creation. Proof: Angels never appear in reality as animals or as 
females. 

2. Restriction - Angels appear in different forms only superficially; 
essentially, however, they are restricted to their own angelic nature. 
Critique: This view assumes that angels use deceptive methods in 
their ministry, which is false. 

Against both the theories, the fact that God neither uses deception 
nor is in short of instruments (when God needed a fish, He used a fish 
and didn't transform an angel into a fish) counts. 

3. Negation - Angels do not assume different forms but appear as 
they are, though in different dimensions of glory (Jdg.l3:3-5). It is, 
then, safe to infer from this that angels look like humans. In fact, 
Jesus said that in the resurrection men would be like angels (Mt. 
22:30). 



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DEM ONOLOGY (Demons) 

SATAN 

I. Origin (Isa 14.12-15; Exe 28.12-19) 

II. Character 

Adversary (Satan), Slanderer (Devil), Destroyer (Apollyon), Serpent, 
Tempter, Prince and God of this world (Jn 12.31; 2Cor 4.4, ljn 5.19; 
2.16); Father of lies (J n 8. 44); wicked one (M 1. 13.19) 

III. Activities 

A. Nature 

1. Opposes God's work (I Thess 2.18; Mt. 13.19; 2 Cor 4.4) 

2. Snares the wicked (Lk 22.3; Rev. 20.7,8) 

3. Presumptuous (Mt. 4.4,5); 

4. Proud (1 Tim 3.6) 

5. Powerful (Eph 2.2); 

6. Malignant (Job 2.4) 

7. Subtle (Gen 3.1; 2Cor 11.3) 

8. Deceitful (Eph 6.11) 

9. Fierce and Cruel (1 Pet. 5.8) 

10. Can cause physical illness (J ob 2:7) 

B. Sphere- Highest Circles (Eph. 2:2) 

C. Motives- Intent on our ruin (J n. 10.10) 

D. Limitations - Only with God's permission - Time Limited (Rev. 
12.12) 

E. Destiny- (Gen. 3.15; Rev. 12.9; 20.10; Mt. 25.41) 
DEMONS 

Gr. Daimon, daimonion - fallen spirits 

I. Description: angels who fell with Satan (Mt. 12:24), divided into 
two groups: one group is active in opposing God's people (Rev.9:14; 
16:14) and another is confined in prison (2Pt.2:4; Jude 6), intelligent 
(Mk. 1:24), know their doom (Mt. 8:29), have their own doctrine (1 
Tim.4: 1-3). 

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II. Pictures: Scavenger Birds (Rev. 18:1,2) - unclean and dirty; Frogs 
(Rev. 16:13,14) -living in dark regions; Locusts and Scorpions (Rev. 
9:2,3,7-10) -torturing men; Serpents and Vipers (Lk. 3:7) - totally, 
morally depraved in character. 

III. Activities: Seek to hinder God's plan (Dan. 10:10-14; Rev. 16:13- 
16); inflict illnesses (M t.9:33;Lk,13:ll-16), possess animals (M k.5:13), 
promote false doctrine (lTim.4:l); influence nations (lsa.14; Eze.28; 
Dan. 10.13; Rev. 16:13-14); possess unbelievers (Mt. 9:32-33; 10:18; 
Mk. 6:13). 

IV. Limitations: Limited by place like unfallen angels (Mt. 17:18; Mk. 
9:25), are used by God for His purposes when He desires (1 Sam. 
16:14; 2Cor. 12:7); may be expelled and return back to the one from 
who exorcized (Lk. 11:24-26). 

V. Destiny: Will be cast along with Satan into lake of fire forever 
(Mt.25:41). 

VI. Expelling Demons 

1. As a believer, you have Christ-given authority to cast demons (Mt. 
10:1,8; M k. 16:17). It is Christ's power, not yours. You're only safe in 
Christ. 

2. Christ cast them out by the Spirit of God (M t,12:28). 

3. Prayer, fasting and total submission to God is required (Mk.9:29; 
Jas.4:7). 

4. Pray for the gift of discerning the spirits (Kor.l2:10). 

5. Do not talk with demons, as a general rule (Mk. 1:24). They are 
deceivers. 

6. Cast them out in the Name of Jesus (Acts 16:18). 

7. Do not close your eyes when casting out demons: you are 
commanding, not praying; demons are sometimes seen to be 
physically violent (Mt. 17:15; Acts 19:15,16). 

8. Do not allow the demon to weaken your faith in God, His Word, 
and the power of Christ's Holy Spirit. 

9. In every deliverance session, there must be order and discipline 

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among the servants of God; let one minister in authority while the 
rest back him/her in prayer. 

10. All amulets, charms, fetishes, and occultic objects must be 
removed before any deliverance can take place. The possession of 
such things provide strongholds for demonic oppression. (Acts 
19:19). 

11. The delivered must be guided into confession, repentance, belief, 
and the infilling of the Holy Spirit to avoid serious consequences of 
demonic return (Mt. 12:44,45). A life of holiness and keeping in the 
will of God is imperative (1J n.5:18). 

VII. Can Believers be Demon-Possessed? 

1. No, for they are ruled by the Spirit of God. 

2. Yes, if they fall from faith and favor with God (e.g., Saul, Judas 
Iscariot); which obviously means they have forsaken faith and are no 
longer believers. Some would choose to say that such forsakers (or 
apostates) were never true believers; either way, a believer is not 
demon-possessed. Forsaking faith refers to making a final, decisive, 
and willful rejection of Christ in a way that repentance is impossible 
(Heb. 6: 4-6). 

3. Christians must guard themselves against demonic wisdom 
(Jas.3:13-16; Acts 5:1-4; ITim. 4:1-5). 

4. Christians must be sober-minded, watch and pray (1 Pt. 5:8). 

5. Christians must resist the devil being steadfast in faith (lPt.5:9; 
Jas.4:7) on the basis of the blood of Christ and the wielding of God's 
Word (Rev. 12:11; Mt. 4:4). Know that Jesus is with you (Mt. 28:20). 

6. Watch your words, temper, actions, and relationships (Eph. 
4:26,27; 2Cor. 2: 10,11). 

7. Live a Spirit-filled life (Lk. 4:1, 14; J ude 20-23; Eph. 6:10ff). 



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ANTHROPOLOGY (MAN) 

I. Origin Gen. 1, 2 

II. Nature 

Body- 2 Cor. 5.1; Dan. 7.18; 2 Cor. 5.19 

Soul- Intellect, Will, Emotion 

Spirit- Nu. 16. 22; 27.16 Intuition, Conscience, Communion 

III. Imago Dei 
Kinship with God 
M oral Character 
Reason 

Capacity for Immortality 
Dominion over the Earth 

At Fall the image of God in man has been marred but not erased 
(Gen. 9:6; lCor.ll:7; Jas. 3:9). Man has not lost his freedom of will 
and power of reasoning. However, they have been severely depraved 
by sin. Therefore, without the work of the Holy Spirit no man can be 
saved. No man can climb uphill to God (Ex. 20:26). God, in Christ, and 
through the Spirit, meets man where he is and reconciles him to 
Himself (Ro.5:8; Gal. 5:16; 1 Cor.l2:3). 

IV. Original Sin 

Pelagianism - Man's soul is created by God at birth and so is free 

from hereditary corruption. 

Arminianism - M an receives from Adam a corrupted nature but does 

not receive Adam's guilt. This nature is corrupted physically and 

intellectually, but not volitionally. Prevenient grace enables man to 

believe. 

Calvinism - 2 Views: Federal Headship (creationist view of origin of 

the soul) - The individual receives the physical nature from parents. 

God creates each soul. Adam was representative of all humanity and 

thus, when he sinned all humanity sinned. Natural Headship 

(traducianist view of origin of soul-Augustine) - The individual 

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receives the physical nature and the soul from the parents. Thus, all 
people were present in Adam in germinal or seminal form. Each 
individual participates in the sin of Adam. Thus, each individual 
inherits Adam's sin. 

Conclusion: Humanity suffers death as physically (naturally) born of 
Adam (natural headship); Christians receive eternal life as a gift, by 
faith, being born, not physically but, spiritually (spiritual headship of 
Christ) (1 Cor.l5:45-50; Jn. 1:13; 3:5, 6; 1 Pt. 1:23). 



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ATONEMENT 

I. OT 

Origin of Sacrifice 

1. Ordained in Heaven. Rev. 13. 8; Ex. 12.3,6; lPt. 1.19,20; Tit. 
1.2; Ac 2. 23 

2. Instituted on Earth. Gen.3;Rev.5.6-10 
M osaic Sacrifices - Law 

OT Sacrifices good; NT Sacrifices CHRIST- Better (Hb. 10.17,18) 

II. NT 

Atonement 'to cover' (Hb. Kaphar; Gk. Katallage) - Exchange, 

reconciliation, ransom, substitute, covering. (JEr. 18.23; lsa.6.7; Ps. 

32.1; Mt. 7.19 

Propitiation 'removal of wrath' Rom. 3.25; removal of enmity, 

Expiation- removal of sins 

Substitution lsa.53.2; 2Co.5.21; lPt. 2.24 

Redemption 'buy back by payment, release from bondage by paying 

a price' (Mt. 20.28; Rev. 5.9; 14.3,4; Gal. 3.13; 4.5; Tit.2.14; 1 Pt.1.28 

Reconciliation 2Co. 5.18, 19; Ro. 5.10; Col. 1.21; removal of enmity 

Efficacy 

1. Pardon.Jn. 1.29; Ep. 1.7; Rev. 1.5;Jn. 5.24; Hb. 9. 22-28 

2. Freedom. Ro. 6.14; Tit. 3.5-7 

3. Deliverance from Death. 2 Co. 5. 21; J n. 11.26; Ro. 8. 10, 27 

4. Ufe Eternal. Tit. 1.2; Ro. 6.22 

5. Victorious Ufe. Rev. 7. 14; Gal. 2.20; Rev. 12.11 



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SOTERIOLOGY (SALVATION) 

I. Nature 
3 Aspects 

1. Justification - Courtroom scene - declaration as righteous. 

2. Regeneration (inward experience) - Adoption (outward 
privilege) - Household scene 

3. Sanctification - Temple scene (Lk. 2.37). 
Subjective and Objective Aspects 

1. Objective Aspect - Provided by the atoning work of Christ - 
Justification, adoption 

2. Subjective Aspect - The work of the Holy Spirit -Effectual 
calling, conversion, regeneration, sanctification. 

On the cross 'Christ procured for us salvation; the Holy Spirit 
produces in us salvation.' Watchman Nee 
II. Justification- Ro. 4.25 

1. Declared (not made) righteous - imputation of Christ's 
righteousness and restoration to God's favor (Ro. 3.22; 5.17; 
13.21) 

2. Change in standing 

3,Removal of penalty. Ro. 4.7; 2 Cor. 5.19; Ro. 8.1 

4. Forgiveness of sins. Col. 2. 12,13 

5,Ground - Blood (Death) of Christ. Ro. 5.9; 4.5;3.25. 

6,Means- Faith. Ro. 3.34-35 

7. Spring- Grace. Ro. 3.24 

8. Proof- Resurrection. Ro.4.25 
III. Regeneration - New Birth 

1. New Creation - 1 Cor. 5. 17; J n. 3.3-7; Gal. 6.15; Ti. 3.5 

2. New & Divine Ufe - Jn. 3.3-7; Ep. 2.15; 1 Jn.5.24; Ro.6.24; Jas. 
1.8; Col. 2.12,13 

3. New Nature- 2 Pt. 1.4; Mk. 2.21,22; ljn. 2.9; Col. 3.10 

4. New & Divine Impulse - Acts. 26.19-22 

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IV. Adoption (Huiothesia - 'placing as son') 
Blessings 

Family Name. ljn. 3.1; Ep. 3. 14,15 

Family Likeness. Ro. 8.29 

Family Love. J n. 13.35 

Family Spirit. Gal. 4.6; Ro. 8.13 

Family Service. J n. 14.23,24; 15.8 
We Receive 

Chastisement. Hb. 12.5-11 

Comfort. 2 Cor. 1.4; Isa. 66.13 

Inheritance. Ro. 8.17; 1 Pt. 1.3-5 
Privileges 

Child-like confidence. Gal. 4.5-11 

Boldness, Access. Ep. 3.12 

Fellowship of the Brethren. Ep. 2.19; 3.6; Col. 1.7; 2.25; Ro. 16.7; 

Col. 4.10; Philem. 1.24 

V. Sanctification. Holiness 'set apart' 
Implications 

Separation from the world 
Dedication to God 
Steps 
Positional. 1 Cor.6.11; Hb. 10.14 

Progressive. Gal. 4.19; 2 Co. 3.18; 1 Pt. 2.2; Ep. 4.15; lPt. 1. 14- 
15; Gal. 3.3 

Prospective. Perfect. 1 J n. 3.2 
Other Views of Sanctification 

1. Wesleyan: Sanctification as 2 nd Work of Grace that is result of total 
surrender and faith in the Holy Spirit and means perfection in love. 

2. Keswick: Sanctification is a distinctive experience that marks the 
point where the defeated Christian is transformed into a victorious 
Christian in a total surrender and consecration to God captured in the 
phrase let Go and Let God.' 

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3. Reformed: Sanctification is growth in holiness through spiritual 
disciplines. 

4. Chaferian: At the point of conversion, Christ is accepted as Savior 
and a natural man becomes a believer, though being a carnal man; at 
sanctification, the carnal man accepts Christ as Lord and becomes a 
spiritual man. 



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ECCLESIOLOGY (CHURCH) 

I. Nature 

1. Name - Ekklesia - an assembly of called out ones 

Kuriake - that which belongs to the Lord 

2. Christns are called - brethren, believers, saints, elect, disciples, 
Christians, those of the Way (Ac. 9.2) 

3. Illustrations 

The Body of Christ (ICo. 10.16; 12.27) 

The Temple of God(lPt.2.5,6;Ep.2.21,22;lCo. 3.16,17) 

The Bride of Christ (1 Co. 11.2; Ep. 5.25-27; Rev.19.7) 

II. Founding 

1. The Rock (Mt. 16.18) - The Confession of Jesus being the Son of 
the living God (His Being) and the Christ of God (His Work - 
Ministerial Title) 

2. Eph. 2.20 - Apostles & Prophets (Christ - The Corner/Cap Stone) 

III. M embership - By faith in Christ and obedience in Water Baptism 

IV. The Work of the Church 

1. Evangelisation - Mt. 28.19-20 

2. Edification - Ep. 4.7-16 

3. Exaltation - Worship - 1 Pt. 2. 5-10 

V. Ordinances 
1. Baptism 

Mode: Immersion 

Formula: Mt. 28.19 

Recipient: Believer (Mk. 16.16) 

Efficiency: Public Acceptance 

Meaning: Pictures of Salvation, Experience of Death & 

Resurrection with Christ, Regeneration 



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2. Lord's Supper 

Commemoration of Christ's Death: New Covenant 
Looking Forward to His Coming 



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ESCHATOLOGY (LAST THINGS) 

I. Key Terms to the Second Coming of Christ 

Parousia - 1 Thess 3.13; 4.15; lit. 'being by' 'presence' 
Apocalypse - 1 Co. 1.7; 2Thes. 1.6-7; 1 Pt. 4.13; lit. 'revelation' 
Epiphany- ITi. 6.14; 2 Ti. 4.8; Tit. 2.13-14; lit. 'appearance' 

II. Rapture: Pre-tribulation- Christ will come for His saints before the 
7-year. trib. period; afterward He will come with His saints. The first 
stage is Rapture; the second, Revelation. 

Other Views: Partial Rapture - only believers who are watching and 
waiting for the Lord will be raptured at various times before and 
during the 7-year. trib. Mid-tribulation - the church is raptured in 
the middle of the tribulation period, prior to the Great Tribulation. 
Post-tribulation - living believers are to be raptured at the second 
coming of Christ, which will occur at the end of the Tribulation. 
Daniel's 70 th Week is the Tribulation period of 7 years (Dan. 9: 24- 
27) 

Signs - Mt. 24: Wars, False Teachers, Persecution, Apostasy, 
Callousness, Return of Jews, Restoration of land (Isa. 35:1); Trees 
plantation (Eze. 36:30); Inhabiting desolate cities (Isa. 54:3); 
Federation of Nations (Dan. 2:44). 

III. Millenium: Dispensational Premillenialism - Christ's revelation 
(2 nd phase of 2 nd Coming) will be followed by a literal 1,000 years, of 
reign on earth during which time the Abrahamic covenant will be 
completely fulfilled in Israel (Gen. 12:1-3). Its outworking is seen in 
the Palestinian, Davidic, and new covenants. The church shares the 
blessings of the new covenant, but does not fulfill its promises 
(Gal. 3:16). Historic, Classical, nnd Nondispensational 
Premillenialism - The rapture will occur at Christ's second coming 
and will be followed by an earthly kingdom of Christ. Church goes 
through the future Tribulation. M illenium is both present and future. 
Christ is reigning in heaven. Millenium not necessarily 1,000 years. 

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Postmillenialism - The kingdom of God is now eChristended through 
teaching, preaching, evangelization, and missionary activities. 
Tribulation is experienced now. The world is to be Christianized and 
followed by a long period of peace and prosperity called the 
M illenium. This would be followed by Christ's return. Amillennialism 
or Realized M illenialism - There is no literal M illenium on earth after 
2 nd coming. The kingdom of God is now present in the world through 
His Word, His Spirit, His Church. Christ's return is a single event. 
Tribulation is experienced in this present age. Church is the new 
Israel. 

Bibliography 

Berkhof, Louis. Systematic Theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1939. 
Berkhof, Louis. The History of Christian Doctrines. Grand Rapids: Baker, 

1937. 
Erickson, M illard J. Christian Theology, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 

1985. 
Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology, Vol. 1, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. 

Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995. 
House, H. Wayne, Charts of Christian Theology & Doctrine (Grand Rapids: 

Zondervan Publishing House, 1992). 
M enzies, William W. & Horton, Stanley M . Bible Doctrines (M adras: 

Bethesda Communications, 1993). 
Pearlman, M yer. Knowing the Doctrines of the Bible (Springfield: Gospel 

Publishing House, 1995). 
Purkiser, W.T. (ed.), Exploring our Christian Faith, Rev. Edn. (Kansas City: 

Beacon Hill Press, 1978). 
Williams, J. Rodman. Renewal Theology, Grand Rapids: Academie Books, 

1988. 



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