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Full text of "Thirty-Five Years of Oil Transport: The Evolution of the Tank Steamer"

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James Dodds 
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THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF 
OIL TRANSPORT; THE 
EVOLUTION OF THE - 



TANK STEAMER. 



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Printed by 
Bradbury, Agnrw, & Co. 

Ld., 
London and Tonbridgr. 




Published at 

22 & 23, Great Tower St., 

London, E.C. 




AUGUST, 1907. 



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THIRTY-FIVE YEARS OF 
OIL TRANSPORT; 

THE EVOLUTION OF THE TANK STEAMER. 




EING A HISTORY OF OLD AND NEW METHODS OF SEA AND 

RIVER TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM AND A SEMI-TECHNICAL 

DESCRIPTION OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF TYPICAL 

TANK STEAMERS, WITH INCIDENTAL NOTES ON 

THE PRODUCING AND COMMERCIAL BRANCHES 

OF THE INDUSTRY, STATISTICS AND A LIST 

OF THE OCEAN-GOING OIL- CARRYING 

VESSELS OF THE WORLD. 

BV 

J. D. HENRY 

* 
(Editor of " The Petroleum World," Author of "Baku: An Eventful History," &c.). 



NUMEROUS HALF-TONE ILLUSTRATIONS, 
DIAGRAMS AND SECTIONS. 



Printed by BRADBURY, AGNEW, & CO. LD., 

LONDON AND TONBRIDGE, 

And Published at 22-23, Great Tower Street, London, E.C. 

1907. 



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TO SHIPMASTERS WHO HOLD, OR HAVE HELD, 

COMMANDS IN THE WORLD'S OIL-CARRYING 

VESSELS 

(Sail and Steam), 

In acknowledgment of the Skill, and, in some cases, the Personal 

Bravery they have displayed in a Business which calls for 

exceptional Seamanship and Nerve, 

This Work is 
e/6X DEDICATED X^k* 

By THE AUTHOR, whose nautical experiences off the British 
coast, in the Gulf of Mexico, and on the Caspian Sea are 
amongst the most pleasant of a long and varied professional 

career. 

(See p. 105.) 




( i-ioui ,1 Photv ;<iir>i /or this :voik. ) 

MR. S. GOULICHAMBAROFK, 

OF ST. PETERSBURG. 



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P 



RE FACE. 



By Mr. S. QOULICMAMBAROFF. 
CoaseMer d'Btat Actuel de S.M. 
VBmpereur de la Russie. Fonction- 
naire pour missions spSciaJes aupria 
du Mlalstre du Commerce et de 
V Industrie. 




AM not yet acquainted with your 
new work, but your knowledge of 
the history and conditions of all 
branches of the petroleum indus- 
try, your ability as an author, 
and your editorial work, which, 
by its variety and character, has 
done much to unite petroleum 
producers in all parts of the world, convince me that 
it will enrich the literature of petroleum, and especially 
the literature of the marine branch of the industry, 
which, I consider, needs it the most 

IT I comply with your request all the more readily 
because I happened to be at Baku in 1876, when the 
great idea of the transport of petroleum and its 
products in bulk was first conceived. I was a witness 
of its inception, and have followed its rapid growth 
and final development with the keenest interest I 
consider the successful solution of this problem of 
transport to be the most important fact in the entire 
history of the petroleum industry, as, owing to 
historical and geographical conditions, the huge 
business of the exploitation of the petroleum fields is 
chiefly concentrated at the two antipodes of the 
world — the United States and Russia, while the two 
greatest consumers of petroleum — Great Britain and 
the Continent of Europe — are in the centre. 

1T A great problem of the early days of the industry 
was the bringing of the producer and the consumer, 
separated by the Atlantic, Pacific and the Indian 
Oceans, nearer to each other. The successful solution 
of this difficult problem was entirely due to Ludwig 
Nobel, brother of Alfred Nobel, who has immortalised 
himself not only in the technical but in the whole of 
the civilised world ; he has done this by sacrificing 
great capital in the way of premiums to the most 
important inventors in the different branches of 



science — to all, in fact, regardless of nationality and 
place of activity. These two brothers, having left 
their Fatherland (Sweden), chose as an arena for their 
activity — Ludwig, Russia ; and Alfred, France. Need 
I say that both of these countries should be proud of 
the brilliant and eminent children of their adoption. 

IT The principal motive which prompted the idea 
of the bulk transport of petroleum products was the 
remoteness of the Baku oil fields from the foreign and 
home markets. Thirty years ago Baku was not 
connected by rail with the Black Sea, and the only 
outlet for the petroleum products was the port of 
Baku (and then only in the summer), whence the goods 
went by the Caspian Sea to Astrakhan and up the 
Volga, there to be distributed in the interior markets 
or sent abroad. 

IT As the liquid cargoes had to travel so far the 
tare question became one of considerable importance. 
The petroleum had to be transported in wooden 
barrels, and as there was no timber or any other suit- 
able material near Baku the staves had to be brought 
from remote parts of Russia, over the Caspian Sea, 
and were, therefore, very expensive. The tare 
amounted to about half of the cest of the petroleum ; 
a barrel of 6-7 English centners cost about £i 9 &*., 
about three shillings per centner. The heavy expense 
could only be met in cases where costly goods were 
transported, but as, owing to the rapid development of 
the production, and with a total absence of export, the 
price on oil began to diminish (during the period 1873 
— 1875 the price fell from three shillings per centner 
to one penny), it was most important to find means 
of cheapening the tare. 

1T At the very outset of his career in this industry 
L. Nobel came into contact with this important 
question. As the price of crude was as low as one 
penny per centner, it was impracticable, of course, to 



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pay three shillings for the tare, and, therefore, quite 
impossible to export such goods from Baku. 

1T The transport of petroleum residuum was in a 
still worse condition. This residuum was quite 
worthless at that time, as everyone did not know how 
to use it as fuel, and owing to its worthlessness L. 
Nobel made the experiment of loading it in a wooden 
barge and transporting it to Astrakhan at the risk 
of losing great quantities through leakage. This 
experiment proved that the leakage was not so great 
as might have been expected, whereas the advantages 
of the new mode of transport were immense ; it was 
cheap, and likewise convenient, as the cargo of the 
barge was easily pumped in and out. The results 
were so convincing that many of the oil men followed 
L. Nobel's example, but it was too obvious that this 
method of transport could only be adopted in the 
case of cheap cargoes. 

1[ L. Nobel had to work hard and spend a great 
deal of money on numberless experiments, which did 
not all prove successful, in order to make the system 
adaptable to the transport of more valuable cargoes. 
At last, in 1878, the first steamer adapted for the 
transport of the valuable products of petroleum 
without tare was constructed. At the beginning the 
oil was poured into iron reservoirs fixed in the 
steamer, and, later on, straight into the hull of the 
vessel itself. 

H Examples are always more convincing than 
theory, and many availed themselves gratuitously of 
the costly lesson given by L. Nobel. At first the 
schooners and barges were constructed only for the 
Caspian Sea, but soon they also appeared on the 
Volga, and, later on, the idea of carrying petroleum 
in bulk spread beyond the limits of Russia and found 
everywhere favourable fields for a vast development. 
Thus the fruitful seed sown by the genius of Nobel in 
Russian soil, thirty years ago, brought forth a brilliant 
harvest in both hemispheres. 

% In 1878 there was only one tank steamer, the 
Zoroaster, in the world's business of oil transport ; in 
the following year there came a second, the Buddah, 
and then the construction of oil vessels went on 
rapidly, these two great names of antiquity being 
followed by a Pleiades of others, the pride of Mankind 
— Bramahy Moses, The Saviour, Socrates, Mahomed, 
Spinosa, Darwin, etc. 

1T The reports of the great advantages of carrying 
oil in bulk when compared with the old system of 
transport in casks spread rapidly abroad and attracted 
the attention of shipbuilders in other countries. 



During the period covered by this history of the 
industry the world's bulk oil-carrying fleet, according 
to one authority, has increased to 276 vessels, of 
which 237 are steam and 39 sailing vessels,* but it 
seems that there are many more, and Lloyd's list is 
obviously not complete. On the Caspian alone there 
are nearly 150 tank steamers. 

IT The first oil steamers were built in Swedish 
shipyards, and, later, their construction was carried 
on at Russian, Finnish, English, German, American 
and other centres. Each shipyard tried to introduce 
some new improvement into the construction of these 
vessels, although they all kept to the type originally 
introduced by Nobel. The English and Swedish 
vessels are famous for their strength and the high 
quality of the material used, while the German vessels 
compete successfully with the English and the 
Swedish owing to the cheap price at which they are 
sold. 

IT The following table shows the development of the 
Russian steam and sailing oil fleets on the Caspian 
Sea for the period of thirty years (1878 — 1907) : — 



Yean. 



1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 

1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 

1903 
1904 

1905 
1906 



Steam Vessels. 



N * ffg.X 



I 
2 

4 
9 
11 
18 
35 
35 
35 
26 

30 
40 

44 
54 
58 
59 
66 

87 
92 

93 
112 
129 

134 
126 
126 
127 
134 
13* 
131 



15,610 
37.66o 

96,545 

228,456 

3i9»«oo 

534.600 

700,500 

700,500 

700,500 

731,400 

808,000 

1,112,800 

1,240,000 

1,578,900 

1,720,825 

1,758,463 

1.993.947 

2,728,217 

3,942,337 
3,998,447 
3,8i4,746 
4,616,702 
4,884,692 
4,690,312 
4,753,658 

4,917,359 
5,328,094 
5,252,410 
5,294,714 



Sailing Vessels. 



No. 



Tonnage 
(cob, ft.). 



212 

156 
157 
155 
153 
151 
149 



Total 



No. 



Tonnage 
(cnb. ft). 



3,822,756 

3,915,859 
3,955,968 
3,971,430 
3,970,438 
3,933,400 
2,886,800 



346 
282 

285 
282 
287 
282 
280 



8,707,448 
7,606,171 
7,609,626 

7,888,689 
8,298,533 
8,185,810 
8,181,594 



H On January 1st, 1907, there were in all 136 oil- 
carrying (tank) steamers in Russia, with a tonnage of 
90455 reg'ster tons and a carrying capacity of 
142,300 tons. 

* Lloyd's Register, 1906-7. 



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IT These steamers are distributed on the different 
seas in the following manner : — 





No. 


Net tonnage 
(in tons). 


Carrying power 
(In tons). 


Baltic Sea 


2 


990 


1,730 


Black and Azov Seas 


6 


7,558 


15,344 


Caspian Sea 


128 


81,907 


125,262 



Total 136 9045 5 142,336 

IF There were 166 tank sailers on the Caspian Sea 
on January 1st, 1907, with a tonnage of 48,975 register 
tons. 



IT The vessels carrying petroleum in bulk in Russia 
numbered 302, with 139,430 tons register. 

1T These few facts do little more than indicate that 
the subject is one of immense interest, and I can only 
express the hope that this history of an important 
branch of the industry will bring to light many things 
which are not now generally known to oil men in 
different parts of the world. 

S. GOULICHAMBAROFF. 




^a 



IRE are, territorially, few points of contact 

(only limited railway and pipe line connections) 

between the widely scattered oil fields of the 

world, and we must necessarily always depend 

on our oil-carrying vessels to maintain the 

system of inter-communication between 

the oil ports and the chief refining and 

distributing centres. 

J. D. H. 



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CHAPTER V. (Page 41.) 



The Transport of Bulk Petroleum through the Suez Canal. 



AN EVENTFUL YEAR IN OIL (1891)— START OF THE SUEZ THROUGH THE CANAL — MESSRS. C. T. BOWRING & CO. ON THE 

CANAL CONTROVERSY — SHIPOWNERS* OPPOSITION TO TANK DANGERS OF THE PROPOSED NEW ROUTE — A QUESTION OF 

STEAMERS— MR. ROCKEFELLER AND THE CANAL ROUTE TO THE RESPONSIBILITY IN CASE OF ACCIDENT IN THE CANAL — SIR 

FAR EASTERN MARKETS— A RUSSIAN TRANSPORT COMPANY WITH MARCUS SAMUEL WRITES TO THE TIMES— THE ADVANTAGES OF 

ROYAL SHAREHOLDERS — LORD SALISBURY AND OIL TRANSIT TANK STORAGE. 



CHAPTER VI. (Page 49.) 

THE BRITISH SUEZ CANAL DIRECTORS ON THE RISKS OF OIL 
TRANSIT — M. FERD. DE LESSEPS AND THE PRACTICE ON THE 
CHIEF WATERWAYS OF EUROPE — BATOUM CASE OIL TRADE : 
OPINION OF THE ACTING CONSUL — LORD SALISBURY AND THE 
BRISTOL SHIPOWNERS — REPORT BY SIR FREDERICK ABEL AND 
SIR BOVERTON REDWOOD ON THE TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM I 
THE CASE FOR THE BRITISH SHIPOWNERS — THE PRESIDENT'S 
CAUSTIC REPLY — IS THE TEMPERATURE OF THE CANAL TOO 



Tank Steamers and the Canal — (continued). 

HIGH FOR THE SAFE PASSAGE OF TANK STEAMERS ?— LESSONS 
OF SOME EARLY CASUALTIES — SHIPMASTERS AND THE RISKS 
OF OIL TRANSIT IN NARROW WATERWAYS — THE MODERN TANK 
STEAMER ONE OF THE SAFEST SHIPS AT SEA — TANK STEAMERS 
OF 1888-89 — LIGHTNING RISKS — THE MERSEY AND MANCHESTER 

ship canal oil traffic— OFFICIAL (SPECIALLY PRE- 
PARED) LIST OF OIL-CARRYING STEAMERS WHICH 
HAVE PASSED THROUGH THE CANAL FROM 1893. 



CHAPTER VIL (Page 59-) 

EARLY WRITERS ON THE PROBLEMS OF STABILITY! PROFESSOR 
JENKINS AND BULKHEADS — WHERE A TANK STEAMER DIFFERS 
FROM AN ORDINARY CARGO CARRIER — LOADING AND DIS- 
CHARGING DIFFICULTIES — MIDDLESBROUGH'S CONNECTION 



Some Problems of Stability and the Arrangement of 
Bulkheads. 

with oil-carrying shipping — mr. craggs on caulking and 
rivetting subjects — pan head versus countersunk rivets 
— Lloyd's and pan head rivets — the skin plating of 
converted steamers. 



CHAPTER VIII. (Page 65.) 

TO ENSURE OIL TIGHTNESS — THE ADVANTAGES OF LAP- 
BUTTING — TRANSVERSE BULKHEADS — THE OBJECTION TO THE 
PERFORATION OF BULKHEADS — EXPANSION TRUNKS — THE BEST 
FORM OF RIVET TO EN8URE OIL TIGHTNESS— POSITION OF 
THE PUMPS — DETERIORATION DUE TO CORROSION — FREEING 
COMPARTMENTS OF OIL AND GAS — CAUSES OF STRAINING — 



The Building of Tank Steamers in the Eighties. 

SOME EARLY TYPES OF TANK STEAMERS— THE SIZE OF THE 
TANKS — BEST POSITION FOR THE ENGINES — THE MIDDLES- 
BROUGH SCHOOL OF BUILDERS — DUAL CARGOES — THE UNION 
OIL COMPANY'S TANK STEAMER SANTA RITA AND HER CARGO 
OF PIANOS. 



CHAPTER IX. (Page 75.) 

THE STEAMERS OF SOME INDEPENDENT COMPANIES — INDIAN 
TRADERS — THE ADMIRALTY'S FUEL OIL-CARRIER PETROLEUM 
— THE ROBERT DICKINSON IN THE CHINA OIL TRADE — FRENCH 
SAILING VESSELS LOAD OIL AT PHILADELPHIA FOR JAPAN — 
MR. C. F. LUFKIN AND THE FAR EASTERN MARKETS FOR 
CALIFORNIA OIL — THE UNION OIL COMPANY'S STEAMERS — 
A GREAT SHIPBUILDING YEAR — BULK OIL BARGE SYSTEMS 
OF AMERICA — THE SMALL OIL-CARRIERS OF THE DANUBE — 
MANCHESTER AND OIL-CARRYING BARGES. 

Append d to this Chapter are lists of vessels built by the 
following :— Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. ; Palmers Ship- 
building and Iron Co. ; W. Gray & Co. ; Hawthorn, Leslie & 
Co. ; Raylton, Dixon & Co. ; W. Dobson & Co. ; Sir James 
Laing & Sons; R. Duncan & Co.; David J. Dunlop & Co. ; 
Union Iron Works; Caledonian S. B. & E. Co.; W. Crichton 
& Co. ; Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson ; Burmeister & 
Waine ; Nuescke & Co. ; Boolds, Sharer & Co. ; Craig, 
Taylor & Co.; Bergsunds M. V. Actieb.; Russell & Co.; 
American Steel Barge Co.; Motala Co.; A. & J. Inglis; 
Bremer " Vulkan " ; Tyne Iron Shipbuilding Co. ; Grange- 
mouth and Greenock Dockyard Co.; W. Cramp & Sons; 



Tank Steamers of the last Seven Years. Trade in the Far 
East and between California and the Orient, and the Oil- 
carrying Barge Systems of the World. 

F. Schichaw; Kette Dent, Elbschiff Gest. Schiffsw.; Chicago 
Shipbuilding Co.; Forges et Cie.; Nord Deutsche 
Schippwerft ; Oswald, Mordaunt & Co. ; Scott & Co. ; Pearce 
Bros.; Caird & Purdie; Columbian I. of Wr. Dry Dock Co.; 
Fordes & C. De La Medit; Hay & Wright; Barrow S. 
B. Co.; Kjobenhavns Flydk. Skbsv. ; Laporte & Cie.; 
Craig S. B. Co. ; C. Keill & Sons; Bath Iron Works; W. 
Lindbergs Aktieb. ; W. R. Trigg & Co. ; Delaware River 
I. S. B. and E. Co. ; Union Dry Dock Co. ; Burlee Dry Dock 
Co. ; A. Sewall & Co. ; J. Roach & Sons ; Superior S. B. Co. ; 
Townsend-Downey S. B. Co.; J. L. Thompson & Sons; 
Barclay, Curie and Co.; Naval Construction and Armament Co.; 
Maats. Fergenoord, New York Shipbuilding Co. ; Ned. Stombs, 
Maats.; A. Stephen & Sons; J. W. Klawitter; W. Pile; 
Rickmers R. R. & S. A. G. ; G. Seeback, A. G. ; Delaware 
River Co. ; Bertram Haswell & Co. ; Act. Ges. Weser ; Gerb. 
Sachsenberg; Lindholmens M. V. Kockums M. V. Actieb.; 
Oderwerke Act. Gest.; Sunderland Shipbuilding Co.; C. 
Olssen Gamla; Stettiner Maschinenb Act. Gest. Vulcan; 
Nederl. Schps. Maats. ; Miff, Mormsly & Co. ; Lobnitz & Co. ; 
J. C. Tecklenborg; Rijkee & Co.; Furness, Withy & Co.; 
Cie. Generate Transatlantique ; Thames Ironworks ; 
T. Roydon & Sons, and Harlam & Hollingsworth Co. 



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(xi) 



CHAPTER X. (Page 105.) 



A Tale of Heroism and a Chapter of Casualties. 



THE LOSS OF THE SHELL STEAMER GBNBFFB; CAPT. MARINE MYSTERIES OP THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY— LOSS OF 

WALKER'S HEROISM — OIL-CARRYING SAILER JAMBS FISH THE LUCIFBR IN THE ATLANTIC AND THE SILVBRLIP IN THE 

STRUCK BY LIGHTNING IN THE ATLANTIC — THE AURORA ON BAY OF BISCAY — DANGERS OF SMOKING ON OIL-CARRYING 

FIRE IN THE HOOGHLY — WILDFLO WBR IN FLAMES AT SUNDER- VESSELS— THE MODERN TANK A SAFE PLACE OF STORAGE. 
LAND — THE PROG RE SO, BULYSSES AND NERITE DISASTERS — 



CHAPTER XL (Page 113.) 



Where Tank Steamers are Docked and Repaired. 
Busitiess on the Tyne. 



A Great 



TYNE RECORDS: FIRST IN TANK STEAMER REPAIRING — REPAIRING JOBS — THE CONVERSION OF THE COLLIER 
HISTORY OF SMITH'S DOCK COMPANY — THE OVERHAULING OTTBRBURN INTO A TANK STEAMER — SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS 
AND REPAIRING OF TANK STEAMERS — SOME HEAVY SHIP- FOR EXTINGUISHING FIRE — IMPORTANT DOCK EXTENSIONS. 

PART II. 

SOME OIL PORTS, WITH A SPECIAL CHAPTER ON OIL PORTS IN THE MAKING, 
BEING A DESCRIPTION OF THE LATEST OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENTS IN 
BRITISH COLONIES. 



CHAPTER XII. (Page 119.) 

SIR JAMBS BRYCE AND BATOUM — THE RUSSIAN OCCUPATION 
— THE BRITISH CONSUL, MR. PATRICK STEVENS, AND THE 
COLONY— DESCRIPTION OF THE OIL HARBOUR — INSUFFICIENCY 
OF BERTHING ROOM — CONSUL STEVENS AND THE DIS- 



Thirty Years at Batoum. 

ADVANTAGES OF THE PORT DURING STORMY WEATHER — PORT 
IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS— CHARGES FOR QUAY SPACE — THE 
TRANS-CAUCASIAN PIPE LINE— SHIP CANAL SCHEMES — EXPORT 
STATISTICS. 



CHAPTER XIII. (Page 123.) 

BAKU'S STAPLE INDUSTRY — ANNEXATION OF BAKU BY PETER 
THE GREAT — EARLY OIL-CARRYING 8AILERS — TRANSPORT 
PROBLEMS — NOBEL BROS. AND THE OIL TRADE OF THE 
CASPIAN — PIONEERS OF BULK OIL TRANSPORT — THE FIRST 
" CISTERN STEAMER" — DIMENSIONS OF THE SPINOZA — 
BRITISH-BUILT TANK STEAMERS FOR THE CASPIAN OIL TRADE 



Baku : The Birthplace of the OiUCarrying Sailer and the 
Tank Steamer. 

— SHIPBUILDING REVELATIONS — SOME "JERRY BUILT " 
STEAMERS— OPENINGS FOR BRITISH SHIPBUILDERS — ANGLO- 
RUSSIAN VESSELS — TYNE-BUILT STEAMER PADDY— HUGE OIL- 
CARRYING BARGES— THE LATEST : MR. SIROTKIN'S MARTHA 
POSBIDNBTZA. 



CHAPTER XIV. (Page 129.) 

TEXAS OIL HISTORY — REMARKABLE RISE OF PORT ARTHUR — 
AN IDEAL LOCATION FOR REFINERIES — THE GULF REFINERY — 
DESCRIPTION OF THE LARGEST GULF OIL-CARRIER: THE 
OKLAHOMA — THE TEXAS COMPANY— OIL PORTS OF CALIFORNIA 
— TRADE WITH THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC AND THE FAR 



The Rise of Port Arthur, Texas, with a Description of the 
Port's Largest Steamer. 

EAST — HONG KONG AND SHANGHAI — CHINESE DETESTATION OF 
MINERAL OIL; "A PRODUCT OF HUMAN BONES " — INDIAN OIL- 
CARRYING "TUBS" — THE KEROSENE STORES OF SHANGHAI — 
CHINESE CUSTOMS AND FLASH POINT. 



CHAPTER XV. (Page 139.) 

OIL FIELDS OF THE EMPIRE — THE THEORY OF OVER- 
PRODUCTION COMBATED — PROFESSOR ZALOZIECKI AND THE 
UNLIMITED EXTENSION OF CONSUMPTION — BRITISH ADMIRALTY 
AND THE COLONIAL OIL INDUSTRY — LIQUID FUEL IN THE 
NEXT GREAT NAVAL WAR— OIL ON THE APPOLONIA COAST IN 
GOLD COAST COLONY — EARLY INVESTIGATORS — HUGE BITUMEN 
DEPOSITS — THE ONE THING NECESSARY : INTELLIGENT AND 
JUDICIOUS DRILLING — DISTILLATION RESULTS — THE LATE MR. 



Oil Ports in the making. Chiefly about Nigeria and Trinidad. 

COLLINS AND THE EXISTENCE OF AN EXTENSIVE OIL ZONE — 
GEOLOGY OF THE COUNTRY — PROSPECTIVE OIL PORT8 — LOCAL 
MARKETS — THE OIL-PRODUCING ISLAND OF TRINIDAD — A 
VALUABLE ASSET IN THE BUSINESS OF OIL PRODUCTION — OIL 
EXPLORATION COMPANY OF CANADA — MR. RUST'S FIRST SEARCH 
FOR OIL ON THE ISLAND — OIL AVAILABLE IN WAR TIME — 
SHIPPING FACILITIES— TWO MAPS (NIGERIA AND TRINIDAD). 



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CHAPTER XVI. (Page 149.) 

THE SHIPBUILDING DEVELOPMENTS OF I907 — GREAT RISE 
IN THE RATES OF FREIGHT — THE OIL-CARRIER IROQUOIS — 
NEW TONNAGE WORTH £"1,500,000— OCEAN-GOING BARGES — 
ANGLO-SAXON PETROLEUM COMPANY AND THE BATAAFSCHE 
PETROLEUM MAATSCHAPPIJ— SIR MARCUS SAMUEL AND THE 



Tank Steamers of the Present Year (1907). Orders for New 
Tonnage. Sir Marcus Samuel and the British Government. 

BRITISH ADMIRALTY — THE ALLEGED UNFAIR TREATMENT OF 
THE SHELL COMPANY — OIL FIELDS OF THE EMPIRE — HIGHEST 
AND LOWEST RATES OF FREIGHT DURING THE PAST NINE 
YEARS — LONDON AND THAMES HAVEN OIL WHARVES, LTD. 



PART IIL 

TABLES AND FORMULA. ALSO RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE TRANS- 
PORT OF OIL AND THE NAVIGATION OF TANK STEAMERS IN THE SUEZ 
CANAL AND RIVERS IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD.' 



CHAPTER XVIL (Page 157.) 

BARRELS — BAUME AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY — BRITISH THERMAL 
UNITS — CONVERTING CENTIGRADE TO FAHRENHEIT — CAPACITY 
OF CYLINDERS — CONVERTING FAHRENHEIT TO CENTIGRADE — 
FOREIGN COINAGE — FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES — 
HYDRAULICS — LATENT HEAT OF STEAM — WEIGHT OF OIL IN 
PIPING — USE OF OIL IN STORMY WEATHER— WEIGHT OF PIPES 



Tables and Formula. 

— FLOW OF WATER THROUGH PIPES — PUMPS — CONVERTING 
REAUMUR TO FAHRENHEIT — CONVERSION OF WATER INTO 
STEAM — LATENT HEAT OF STEAM — SPECIFIC GRAVITY — 
TEMPERATURES BEYOND RANGE OF THE THERMOMETER — RATE 
OF DISCHARGE — FLOW THROUGH PIPES. 



CHAPTER XVIIL (Page 163.) 

THE PETROLEUM ACTS — THAMES CONSERVANCY BYELAWS — 
MERSEY DOCKS AND HARBOUR BOARD— HULL — BRISTOL— SUEZ 



Canal and Port Regulations, etc. 



CANAL REGULATIONS FOR NAVIGATION — NEW YORK- 
PORTS — GERMAN PORTS. 



-AUSTRIAN 



LATE INFORMATION. (Page 172.) 

MESSRS. PETER WRIGHT & SONS, AND THE FIRST VOYAGE OF THE ELIZABETH WATTS— EIGHTEEN NEW TANK STEAMERS 
ORDERED— TRANSPORT FACTS AND STATISTICS BY MR. GOULICHAMBAROFF. 



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ILLUSTRATIONS^ 



PLATES. 

LVDWIG NOBEL AND NARRAGANSETT ....... 

MR. S. GOULICHAMBAROFF ......... 

BAKUIN (DISCHARGING IN THE THAMES, AND ON FIRE IN CALLAO BAY, PERU) 
PURPLEET (ON THE THAMES): TUSCARORA, COL. DRAKE AND STANDARD BARGE 
GENESEE (EX. DARIAL), SUWANEB, AND CUYAHOGA (EX. LUCIGEN) 
ELAX AND CHESAPEAKE ......... 

SIR MARCUS SAMUEL, GROUP OF TANK SHIPBUILDING AUTHORITIES, AND GOLDMOUTH 
TANCARVILLE, ROTTERDAM, AND JOHN BOWES ...... 

OIL FIELDS ON FIRE (TWO COLOURS) ....... 

LUCILINB AND LE COQ .......... 

PHCBBUS AND HELIOS ......... 

SHELL STEAMERS AT GENOA; MANCHESTER SHIP CANAL ..... 

SUNLIGHT, SAN CRISTOBAL, AUREOLE, ETC. ...... 

CAUCASIAN, PINNA % AND SILVBRLIP ........ 

TANCARVILLE (FLOATING OIL DEPOT), LUMEN, ORIFLAMMB, JAMBS BRAND, AND CHIGWELL 
TYPES OF STEAMERS ON THE CASPIAN SEA ....... 

OIL-CARRYING VESSELS AT PORT ARTHUR, TEXAS — LIGONIER AND PECTAN 
THREE TEXAS STEAMERS — CITY OF EVERETT, LARIMER, AND CAPT. LUCAS . 
TRINIDAD OIL FIELDS ......... 

IROQUOIS ............ 

THAMES HAVEN 8TORAGB INSTALLATION ....... 

ROYAL DUTCH STEAMER PALBMBANG ........ 

TWO-PAGE SUPPLEMENTS. 

NARRAGANSETT .......... 

CASPIAN TANK STEAMERS AND VOLGA BARGES ....... 



PRINCIPAL SECTIONS. 



EARLY OIL-CARRYING SAILING SHIP 

VADBRLAND 

FERGUSONS . 

BAKUIN .... 

CHIGWELL . 

CHARLOIS 

HENRI RIBTH 

MBXICANO 

CAROLINE ROBERT DE MASSBY 

NARRAGANSETT . 

METEOR (RIVETS) 

EARLY TYPES OF TANK STEAMERS 

TYPICAL MODERN OIL STEAMER 

VOLGA BARGE VANDAL . 

GULF COMPANY'S STEAMER OKLAHOMA 



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MAPS. 



TEXAS ....••• 

OIL FIELDS OF WEST AFRICA 

ISLAND OF TRINIDAD (OIL SHIPPING PORTS INDICATED) 



130 
143 
145 







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PART I. 



THE WORLD'S OIL- 
CARRYING FLEETS: 



HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE. 



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NTRODUCTORY. 



Being the Author's Explanation of 
the Alms and Scope of this Work, 
with some General Opinions on the 
Present Day Position of the Petro- 
leum Industry. 




E ADERS of this work will probably 
agree that no one connected with 
the literature or the industry of 
petroleum could undertake a more 
interesting task than the one on 
which I have been so earnestly 
engaged for many months. The 
marine transport of petroleum has 
in it that which should produce, if not the most 
romantic and sensational, certainly one of the brightest 
and most fascinating chapters of oil world history. 
By the employment of the almost unique facilities I 
enjoy for the collection of historical data, hard facts, 
and statistics in all parts of the world, I have sought 
to produce a readable and reliable history of the 
progress of the transport systems of the industry, 
with a semi-technical description of the evolution 
of the tank steamer as a chief feature. 

IT Although the subject is obviously one of 
immense importance, full of life and movement, 
and having an element of ocean-created romance, 
it has been neglected to such an extent that I should 
say the published information suitable for this history 
could very well be compressed into a page of the 
Times. This is fair evidence of an opening for a 
work of this kind. On the point of whether I am 
correct in my conjecture that this is the proper time 
to publish this book, I can only say that the oil- 
carriers are this year getting unheard-of freights, that 
they are amongst the most profitable vessels in the 
mercantile marine of any country, and that the 
demand for new tonnage is greater than it has ever 
been since some of the pioneer tank steamers cleared 
themselves by the trips of a single year. 

% This is quite a remarkable year for oil-carrying 

shipping and ship-building, one of unparalleled 

prosperity — the best, in fact, in the history of the 

industry, if it is looked at from the point of view of 

O.T. 



all concerned and not from the narrow standpoint 
of the few who, fifteen and twenty years ago, had 
certain selfish reasons — monetary ones, to be plain — 
for considering it one of the most exclusive and 
mysterious of the world's business monopolies. 

1T My interest in the history of the industry and 
great faith in its future growth, reputation and useful- 
ness give me the assurance that this work will be 
favourably received, both as a record of what has 
been achieved and an up-to-date and important 
description of the considerable changes which are 
taking place in the methods and commerce of oil 
transport in all parts of the world. 

1T A bright future for the industry is assured. 
Exactly why this is the general feeling of oil men 
to-day is scarcely a fit subject for this work, which, 
the title shows, has very little to do with the finance 
of oil or oil field history and events ; but, writing 
generally, let me repeat what I recently said else- 
where that, having regard to the remarkably steady 
expansion of the oil fields, oil ports, and refinery 
regions, and the irresistible growth of petroleum as a 
cheap, efficient and portable light and fuel — trans- 
ported by land and sea to the four quarters of the 
globe — the day is imaginable when we will have 
steamers of still greater tonnage (some of them 
working with twin screws and towing ocean-going 
barges of 10,000 tons), when oil storage installations 
will be as common as coal depots on the lines of 
ocean traffic, and when there will be no port near a 
centre of distribution that will not be in direct touch 
with the chief sources of supply. 

IT The light that is needed everywhere, petrol that 
is becoming one of the greatest needs of the world's 
huge motor industry, and the improvement of the 
engineering and scientific methods of utilisation all 
make for that consumption which ensures for us a 
greater and better world of oil. 

B 



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1T A quarter of a century ago the largest deposits 
were found in territories at the base of, and parallel 
with, ranges of mountains. The oil fields of America 
lay west of the Allegheny Mountains, those of the 
Pacific coast west of the great ranges which fringe 
the Pacific Ocean, while those of Southern Russia lay 
close to the Caucasian range of mountains. 

1T The old-time theories of experts have been 
upset by the discoveries of recent years. The sun- 
scorched and bare prairie, the almost impenetrable 
and swampy parts of uncivilised lands, the ice-locked 
wastes of Northern Canada and Russia are all 
possible sources of supply which will be certain to 
attract the notice of the men who will drill for oil in 
the next generation. Oil is found in unexpected 
places, often beneath a surface that is absolutely 
barren of indications, and where the modern drill 
alone can be depended upon to give us the truth. 
Petroleum pessimists no longer declare that the oil 
world is shrinking; rather have we reached a time 
when the oil men of the world, with a greater hope 
and an increased faith in the industry, may 
conscientiously contend that the sources of our 
future supply will prove illimitable. I believe the 
production of petroleum will increase 50 per cent, 
during the next ten years, and to me it will be 
a matter for regret if the oil interests of the Empire 
do not extend in proportion, nay, increase out of 
all ratio, with the progress and prosperity of foreign 
countries. 

1T The oil men of the world will make a fatal 
mistake if they fail to appreciate the immense scope 
there is for oil field expansion, or if, in the huge 
refinery section, they do not make the most of the 
facilities which exist for the early and rapid multipli- 
cation of the uses to which the numerous products of 
petroleum can be devoted. After all, there are few 
countries which are barren of oil ; no matter in what 
form we evolve artificial light we depend upon it, and 
wherever there is civilised commerce it is one of the 
standards of trade. 

1T Although we find oil in almost every country, 
everywhere, in fact (an allusion to its use and not to 
its production), I am with those who believe that the 
greatest oil sources are still hidden beneath the 
earth's crust, and it is these unexplored territories 
which will, as the result of the bright and never- 
dying hope and hard toil of thousands of oil men, 
and the employment of almost untold wealth, be the 
oil fields of the future — greater than even the prolific 
territories of Bibi-Eibat and Balakhani, which to-day 



stand as records, not only for the Caucasus, but for 
the world.* 

1T The geography of the petroleum world is no 
longer confined to the two first great centres of 
production — Baku and the northern fields of 
America ; the sun never sets on the oil world, 
which, territorially, is greater than ever, and I am 
not surprised that many oil men are displaying an 
increasing amount of faith in the steady multiplication 
of the sources of supply. 

1T In the preface which he has done me the honour 
of writing, Mr. Goulichambaroff + gives an interest- 
ing summary of the history of marine oil transport in 
Russia, and I am pleased indeed that he has thought 
it well to refer to one story which oil men the world 
o'er never tire of reading — I mean the one of the 
struggles and triumphs of the Nobels. Of the 
Nobels I wrote in my book " Baku " : — 

1T "Only a man of rare and remarkable talents 
could have done what Nobel achieved, and we 

* The marvellous oil fields of Russia, although 
they were swept almost from end to end by fire two 
years ago and are to-day being seriously damaged by 
the fierce fights of capital and labour, have not yet 
been eclipsed by the oil fields of any other country ; 
in the matter of possible production they retain 
practically the same position which they occupied 
twenty-five years ago (1882) when Prof. Mendelieff 
put this opinion on record : — " Comparing results 
achieved in the two countries (Russia and America) 
on one side and the average depth and total number 
of wells on the other, it may justly be stated that the 
natural petroleum wells of Baku, as far as our know- 
ledge goes, have no parallel in the world." 

+ Mr. Goulichambaroff has written in the Russian 
language numerous works on petroleum subjects, and 
if these were translated into English they would con- 
stitute, in the aggregate, by far the most important 
individual contribution to the literature of oil. He 
was the pioneer of petroleum authorship, and I have 
been surprised at the frequency with which Charles 
Marvin and later writers turned to his Russian 
records for much of their best and most reliable 
information. A conscientious statistician, a far- 
sighted and thoroughly practical expert, and an 
unostentatious official of the Russian Office of Trade 
and Industry, the uncopyrighted results of his research 
work and original discoveries in Russia and other 
parts of the oil world have always been at the 
disposal of those who have sought to disseminate 
information likely to be of service to the industry. 
This is the first occasion on which he has written the 
preface for a work by a foreign author, and I put this 
fact on record with pride and satisfaction because he 
was the first historian of the modernised petroleum 
industry, and is to-day one of the highest official 
authorities on oil pipe line and marine transport 
subjects. 



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are Anglo-Saxon enough to say that the written 
eulogies of the Nobels are none the less deserved be- 
cause they were Swedes working in a country where 
many of our enterprises have been such disastrous 
failures that they have brought British methods and 
ability perilously near to disrepute. . . . To-day 
the great founders have been gathered to their fathers, 
but the company lives, worked by men who, employ- 
ing genius and honesty, keep it in premier position, 
and make it the popular leader in all movements 
for the improvement and, in the present crisis, for the 
reconstruction of the industry at Baku " 

1T Mr. Goulichambaroff having done justice to 
Russia, I feel that I am free to devote a little attention 
in this introductory chapter to facts relating to other 
parts of the oil world. 

IT Baku, with its huge yield of oil, until three years 
ago half of the world's production, and its dangerous 
oil field life ; the old Campina and Bustenari 
territories, which have done so much to establish the 
reputation of Roumania as an oil-producing country ; 
Boryslaw, which, during three years of unparalleled 
prosperity, threw into the shade and starved the 
Schodnica and other still more ancient oil fields of 
Galicia ; the famous Eastern fields of America, in 
which 150,000 wells have been drilled ; and California, 
Kansas, and other States, each with its substantial 
contribution to the world's annual output of 28,076,297 
tons, have added their chapters to the history of an 
industry to which I cannot pretend to do literary 
justice, and in which we find the records of so much 
true genius, that perseverance which almost inevitably 
leads to successful achievement, and, unfortunately, 
some of that mischievous misrepresentation and 
rascality which it is not humanly possible to eliminate 
from the struggle to reveal the mysteries of the 
earth's mineral wealth and extend the commerce of 
petroleum in all parts of the civilised world. 

11 There is no oil field that is barren of romance, 
and those I have mentioned, and others too, have 
histories to which adequate justice cannot be done by 
the historian, I care not how clever he may be in the 
manipulation and condensation of the stories of the 
terrible realism and hard facts which spring from the 
diversified existence of the men who drill for oil in so 
many different lands. 

1T In " Baku " I have described a series of the most 
awful tragedies recorded in the annals of any industry ; 
but into this work — a serious study of the history and 
problems of our systems of transport — I cannot be 
expected to weave any of the romantic stories of 



those early times when oil, released by the steam- 
driven drill and the pent-up energy of geological 
ages, burst through the subterranean rocks, created 
cities, and gave oil men a huge industry and mankind 
a cheap light I have done the best I could with the 
space at my disposal. 

1T One instinctively turns from Russia to America, 
its old-time and present-day rival, with its marvellous 
systems of production, refining and transport, and 
those statistics which never fail to appeal to the 
imagination and show us what great wealth and 
ability are employed to maintain the progress and 
status of industry in the Western Hemisphere. 

H The following statistics (totals which have been 
specially collected for this work) illustrate better than 
anything I could write the complete revolution which 
has taken place in the methods of American ocean 
transportation of oil to Europe, and the growth of 
commerce partly traceable thereto — 

In Barrels. In Bulk. Total 1 

In American (not Imperial), gallons. 

I885 ... 200,600,000 1,750,000 202,350,000 
1906 ... 1,750,000 484,750,000 486,500,000 

11 I know of no statistics in oil transport — and I 
have certainly not come across any while at work on 
this book — that will compare with these in providing 
simple and forcible proof of the marvellous growth 
of the bulk oil system of transport 

11 The Standard Oil Company* owns or controls 
a fleet of sixty tank steamers with a combined 
capacity of 1,700,000 barrels (71400,000 gallons), 
twelve tank steamers and coasting barges with a 
combined capacity of 260,000 barrels, five cargo (case 
oil) steamers with a combined capacity of 760,000 
cases (7,600,000 gallons), and nineteen sailing vessels 
capable of carrying 2,100,000 cases. In addition to 
giving full employment to its own fleet, the company 
chartered in 1906 tank steamers to carry 57 cargoes 
in bulk, ordinary steamers to carry 94 cargoes of case 
oil, and other vessels to carry 50 cargoes of case oil. 
The company owns the largest quantity of oil-carrying 
sail tonnage, and has added to its many pioneering 
records the one of having been the first to show the 
world what can be done in ocean oil transit in barges. 

IT The history of the Standard is that of a flowing 
tide ; its onward movement has been constant ; and 
its achievements claim for it a conspicuous position in 
the history of any branch of this industry. 

11 I also devote space to the history and work of 



* The shipping department is managed by Mr. 
Philip Ruprecht 



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other leading oil transport companies in America and 
Russia ; I have likewise included lengthy references 
to the Anglo-American Oil Company, the old- 
established firm of Messrs. Lane & Macandrew, and 
a number of others, not overlooking, of course, the 
conspicuous claims which the old Shell Transport and 
Trading Company must always have on anyone who 
undertakes to record petroleum history. Here I 
should like to say that, notwithstanding the develop- 
ments of the past twelve months, I have endeavoured 
to do justice to the reputation and record of the last- 
mentioned company. If I were asked to indicate the 
chief characteristics of its earliest methods of business 
I would say that first came its boldly displayed 
independence and then that indomitable perseverance 
which, if it has not ended in absolutely successful 
achievement, has resulted in the extension of a great 
idea : the one of liquid fuel. The Shell has excelled 
all other companies in the practical advocacy of the 
steam-raising qualities of oil fuel, and it is a matter 
for sincere regret that the consummation of the ideas 
of the founder and head was not witnessed during 
the days of his company's independence.* 

1T The creation of the Shell fleet will always stand 
as a splendid exhibition of British shipping enterprise, 
although to many in this country the fact that some 
of its most successful steamers now fly other house 
flags must be a matter for very sincere regret 

1T I also devote attention to the following subjects 
for the reasons which are given in parentheses — 

T The Oil Fields of Texas (because of their remark- 
ably rapid development and their recent connection 
by pipe line with the once isolated and widely- 
scattered territories of the Mid-Continent regiont), 

* The Company has combined with the Royal 
Dutch. 

t Nothing I have read in oil field history, or, 
indeed, in the history of any mining industry, will 
compare with the marvellous expansion of the oil 
regions which now extend from Pennsylvania down to 
the Gulf of Mexico. Thirty-five years ago, when the 
Parker territory went down into oblivion, the wells of 
McKean County started to flow ; then, to the West, 
there were the fields of Indiana, stretching on to 
Illinois, across the Mississippi and right into the heart 
of the Mid-Continent territory, where we now have 
the pipe lines to take the oil through to tide-water 
at the Gulf. 



IT British Colonial Oil Field Exploitation (because I 
am convinced that the Colonies will produce the great 
oil fields of to-morrow, a statement which specially 
applies to Trinidad and Nigeria), 

1T The Transport of Oil through the Suez Canal 
(because no full and authentic history of the negotia- 
tions for the opening of the Canal for petroleum 
traffic has been published ; the deep interest which is 
taken to-day in the experimental stages of traffic in 
benzine in bulk ; and the serious mishaps to the tank 
steamers Lucifer, Silverlip and Sophie), and 

1T This Year's Additions to the Oil-Carrying 
Fleets of the World (because I find myself able to 
give information which has not appeared in any 
paper or work on oil). 

1T The reader will also find in the lengthy chapters 
on the building of tank steamers references to the 
quality of the work, and no doubt the opinion he will 
form will be this — that although some inferior vessels 
have been placed in the trade, English builders can 
produce the best steamers, provided owners are pre- 
pared to pay the price for the best work. 

IT There is also the subject of oil shipping disasters. 
Here I am in agreement with Mr. George Herbert 
Little, who wrote so ably on the marine transport of 
petroleum nearly twenty years ago, when he pointed 
out that petroleum is not more dangerous than any 
other cargo provided common sense and intelligence 
are used by those who handle it It is just as true 
now, as it was in his day, that every explosion has 
been due to the neglect of those precautions which 
a slight knowledge of petroleum would suggest to 
persons of ordinary intelligence. For the proper 
transport of petroleum it is absolutely necessary that 
the masters and officers of tank steamers should 
possess a knowledge of the elementary principles of 
its chemistry, combustion and safe handling under all 
the varying climatic and engineering conditions of 
long voyages in different seas, and it is satisfactory to 
know that many of those who have command of oil- 
carrying steamers to-day are, in actual practice, real 
experts in their business. Even to these men of 
experience I hope this work will be of some interest, 
if not of real service, for I have a very sincere 
admiration for shipmasters and their most arduous 
and honourable profession. 



WKfiW* 



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HAPTER I. 



Emrly Days of Oil Transport. From 
the Sailing Ship Bra to the 
First Tank Steamer. 




HE Anglo-American business was quietly 
started in i860, when an enterprising 
Pittsburger brought American petro- 
leum in homeopathic quantities to this 
country. That was one year after Colonel Drake 
drilled the famous pioneer oil well at Titusville, 
Pennsylvania,* when oil was selling at four shillings 
a barrel, nineteen years before Roumania started to 
export oil, and twenty-six years before the first cargo 
of Russian petroleum was shipped from Batoum to 
this country, 

Mr. James Young, the first inventor of paraffin 
oil patents (1849), following on the lines of Mr. 
Luther Attwood, a chemist, began the manufacture 
of mineral oil for illuminating purposes in this 
country. It had a large sale and Mr. Young made a 
great fortune. 

Mr. Attwood took a gallon of Mr. Young's oil 
to America, where he expressed the opinion " that it 
was one of the most beautiful oils for illuminating 
purposes he had ever seen or thought it possible to 
produce." 

Mr. Young, in i860, followed this sample of his 
oil across the Atlantic. He had a penny a gallon 
royalty for whatever crude oil his American agents 
produced from shale. In 1861 he made his second 
journey to America, and visited the oil fields in the 
Titusville region. Asked what he thought about 
developments at Oil, Creek, he answered, in broad 
Scotch, " I dinna think it will amount to mooch ; it 
is ephemeral and won't last ; it won't last" He 
added, " We had a lot of petroleum from the Derby- 
shire mines in England when I first began, but it was 
in pockets and limited in quantity." 

* Pennsylvania has produced over 600,000,000 
barrels of oil since Drake discovered this oil well on 
Oil Creek. The total oil production of the United 
States from 1859 to 1906 has exceeded 1,600,000,000 
barrels, and no State has produced as much oil as 
Pennsylvania. 



These two industries, shale oil in Great Britain 
and mineral oil in America, started simultaneously. 
They met a need of the times. The annual catch of 
whales was growing smaller as the chase grew longer, 
the world was being ransacked for animal and 
vegetable fats, and a famine of lubricating materials 
was a serious problem which had to be faced by 
those who were responsible for the management of 
the railways and steamship lines.! 

Westward, Philadelphia pioneered the business 
of ocean oil transit between America and this 
country. In 1861 a five-barrel invoice was des- 
patched, and a few cases and barrels were shipped on 
general cargo vessels, but they were merely samples. 
On November 12th of that year, Messrs. Peter 
Wright & Sons, Philadelphia, chartered from Messrs. 
Edmund A. Sander & Co. the brig Elizabeth Watts 
(224 tons), to load a cargo of oil in barrels for London 
at the rate of eight shillings per barrel and 5 per cent, 
primage. Very little is known about the trip. It 
took several weeks to load the little oil sailer, but 
when she was ready for sea the skipper could not get 
together a crew to work above a cargo of oil. Failing 
to engage sailors in the regular way, men were got 
aboard while under the influence of liquor, and she 
sailed down the Delaware River with a drunken 
crew. She got safely across the Atlantic, and landed 
her cargo in good condition at a London wharf. 

This successful voyage led others into the 
business, and the records of the Philadelphia Com- 
mercial Exchange show that the shipments of 



t As early as i860, owing to the growing scarcity 
of whales in the high seas, there was a serious 
shortage in the supply of sperm or whale oil, and men 
were hard at work on the problem of supplying the 
world with a cheap, safe and efficient illuminant to 
take the place of the tallow candle, the greasy whale 
oil lamp, and the dangerous camphene and burning 
fluids which were then die sources of artificial light in 
general use. 



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petroleum from the port for the next three years 
were : — 

Gallons. 

1862 2,664,280 

1863 4,680,174 

I864 7,666,025 

During 1864 the entire exports from all United 
States ports amounted to 31,745,687 gallons. 

On August 1st, 1863, there was launched from 
the yard of Messrs. Rogerson, at St, Peter's (a place 
on the Tyne where small collier brigs were built), an 
iron sailing vessel named the Atlantic. She was 
designed to carry petroleum in bulk " without the aid 
of casks," and her owners (now unknown) intended 




Pelt 04 



This section (drawn iby Mr. H. Bocler) shows a type of 
the wooden sailing ships which carried oil in bulk 
about 1878. The holds themselves formed the tanks 
as shown above. 



her to run in the Atlantic oil trade, which had started 
to attract the attention of shipowners in the North of 
England. Her hold was separated into compart- 
ments by sheet iron partitions. She was 148 ft. 
long, 28J ft. beam, and 16 ft. 9 in. in depth. 

Mr. Henry Duncan (Bromley, Kent) claims to 
have sent the first oil-carrying vessel to Europe by 
way of the Canadian Canals, the St Lawrence, and 
the Atlantic. Some four years ago he told me that 
as far back as 1863* he purchased a schooner at 

* As early as 1863 oil was burned by the poorest 
inhabitants of Lebanon, Palestine, and in Syria, while 
ten years later nearly 1,000,000 gallons were sent to 
Syria from America. 



Chicago, loaded her with petroleum at Port Sarnia, 
on the River St Clair, Canada, and despatched 
her to Liverpool. That she was lost in the Gulf 
of St Lawrence, just as she was about to enter 
the Atlantic, in no way detracts from his claim to 
be the pioneer of American inter-lake and ocean 
navigation. 

The Atlantic, obviously the most important of 
the two, was specially designed to carry oil in bulk 
and eclipse the barrel carriers then engaged in the 
Atlantic trade. Unfortunately, a diligent search for 
information on the Tyne and at the earliest of the oil 
ports has failed to bring to light anything reliable 
about her career, although the particulars of her 
launch, which I have from an unquestionable 
authority, prove her to have been the first British 
bulk oil vessel built to trade between America and 
this country. 

The Charles was probably the first vessel fitted 
with iron tanks for the transport of petroleum. She 
was employed from 1869 to 1872 in carrying crude 
between the United States and Europe. Her 
capacity was 794 tons, and she was fitted with 
tanks arranged in rows at the bottom of her hold 
and in the 'tween decks — fifty-nine in all. She was 
worked on the separate tank system, and there were 
no pipe connections. There was no automatic 
arrangement for keeping the tanks full, but salt 
water was run into those which were found to leak 
during the voyage. 

One of the most serious disasters to the early oil 
carriers occurred in the case of the ship Joseph Fish. 
How she was struck by lightning when crossing the 
Atlantic in 1876 is described in the chapter on 
casualties to oil-carrying vessels. One of the earliest 
of the wooden vessels placed in the oil trade was a 
small Baltic blockade runner, which was lost on the 
Goodwin Sands. 

Every year up to 1878 wooden sailers were 
adapted to carry oil in bulk, the holds themselves 
forming the^ tanks, and occasionally a trzxhp iteamer 
crossed with barrelled oil. 

These tank sailers wiped out the barrel-carrying 
traders; they were larger, and the fact that they 
could be more economically worked enabled their 
owners to cut down the rate of freight. 

The superiority of the bulk over the barrel 
system of transport may be gathered from the 
following calculations made by Mr. B. Martell, 
Chief Surveyor, Lloyd's, and embodied in his 
lecture before the Institution of Naval Architects, 



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July 27th, 1886, and dealing with the earliest of the 
tank steamers: — 

" A barrel weighs on an average 64 lbs., or one- 
fifth of the oil it contains, and to the uselessness of 
this weight must be added the space wasted in packing 
the barrels in the hold of a vessel. Thus a vessel 
capable of conveying 2,000 tons of cargo, and which, 
if fitted with tanks, would carry nearly that quantity 
of oil, would, if filled with barrelled oil, carry only 
1,030 tons instead of 2,000 tons. Moreover, the 
importer has to pay 4s. 6d. or 5s. 6d. for each barrel at 
New York, and, with the exception of those sent 
back to America, they are sold in London when 
empty for from 3s. 6d. to 4s. each. The depreciation 
of from is. to is. 6d. in the value of the barrel, which 
amounts to as much as from £350 to £475 for one 
voyage, in the instance of the 2,000 ton vessel re- 
ferred to, would be saved under the bulk system." 

Another important advantage was the saving of 
time and labour. A tank steamer of 2,000 tons 
capacity could load or unload in ten hours, the 
operation only needing the supervision of the 
engineer and his assistants. A similar cargo, if 
barrelled, required a week to stow or unstow, and 
large gangs of men had to be constantly employed 
Moreover, when barrels were employed, the leakage 
was considerable, and in a large cargo constituted a 
serious item of loss. As to the objection sometimes 
raised that the early tank steamers had to make the 
return journey empty, it was naturally pointed out 
that vessels laden with empty barrels continually and 
regularly returned to America.* Altogether, there- 
fore, the opinion of Lloyd's chief surveyor appeared 
to be thoroughly sound, that "whether regard be had 
to the amount of cargo carried, to the loss incurred 
in respect to the depreciation in the value of the 
barrels, or to the rapidity with which loading or 
unloading took place, the balance of economic 
advantages was clearly and overwhelmingly in favour 
of the carriage of petroleum in bulk." 

I should mention that the system of carrying 
large quantities of liquids in bulk was employed in 
connection with wine and water twenty years before 

* As fully explained in later chapters, steamers 
now carry oil in one direction and general cargo in 
the other. This is accomplished by means of arti- 
ficial ventilation, by perfectly cleansing the holds, and 
by removing every trace of the oil. Powerful fans 
keep up a continuous circulation of air through the 
holds. Steamers now carry oil from Batoum to the 
East, and bring back the most delicate products of 
Eastern manufacture, foods like rice, and even tea. 



the first bulk oil carrier was sent to sea. For half a 
century in northern Italian ports small coasting 
vessels have carried wine in bulk. The wine, carried 
against the outer skin with nothing intervening, is 
discharged by small hand pumps into barrels or 
pitchers on the quays. The buoyancy of these small 
vessels is preserved by fitting wine-tight wooden 
bulkheads at the two ends. 

The start of the tank steamer in this country was 
something of a mystery. Palmer & Co. of 1872 
(now Palmer's Shipbuilding and Iron Company, 
of Jarrow-on-Tynet) built the Vaderland (2,748 tons) 

t Since this vessel was sent away from Jarrow 
about 150 tank steamers have been built on the Tyne. 
The shipbuilding towns lie in a cluster on both sides 
of the river; they are Jarrow, Walker, Wallsend, 
Hebburn and Howdon. Mr. Malcolm Dillon, 
General Manager of Palmer's Shipbuilding and Iron 
Company, says that, writing more than a century and 
a half ago, Defoe said : " They build ships here to 
perfection — I mean as to strength and firmness, and 
to bear the sea." Since this was written the Tyne 
has well maintained the reputation it possessed in the 
days of Defoe. The annual aggregate of vessels 
launched from her banks has exceeded 300,000 tons, 
equal to about one-fifth of the whole shipbuilding 
output of the United Kingdom. The genius of Lord 
Armstrong revolutionised modern ordnance, and 
Stephenson built and perfected the first locomotive 
which was destined to become so enormous a factor 
in human activity. Palmer's works are on the South 
bank of the river, seven miles from Newcastle and 
three from South Shields. The town derives its 
name from the Saxon word Gyrwy or Gyrvy % meaning 
a marsh or fen, and referring to an extensive pool on 
the east side, Jarrow Slake, where tank steamers 
frequently moor when in the river. Jarrow has about 
40,000 inhabitants, mainly employed in, or dependent 
upon, the Palmer Works ; so completely, in fact, is 
the town identified with the works that it might more 
appropriately be called "Palmer's Town." Within 
the last fifty years a small colliery village has 
expanded into an important industrial town, with a 
busy and thriving population, which, in spite of 
occasional periods of depression, shows abundant 
signs of accumulated wealth and prosperity. It is in 
the Jarrow shipyard, famous for its pioneering in the 
manufacture of iron and steel, the building of every 
class of vessel, and the turning out of engines and 
boilers which have always been abreast of the times, 
where Mr. Malcolm Dillon and two advisers — 
Mr. J. L. Twaddell (a high authority on shipbuilding 
subjects) and Mr. J. W. Reed (well known throughout 
the North as a specialist in engineering and the 
patentee of the " Reed " water- tube boiler — are develop- 
ing an epoch-making idea in marine engines. As it is 
of the internal combustion type, and worked by oil, 
the discoveries of these authorities will have a special 
interest for oil men. The Palmer Company, working 
in conjunction with the Griffin Engineering Company 
of Bath, is conducting a series of experiments which 



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for the Red Star Steamship Company, of Antwerp * 
So far as the actual launch was concerned it was a 
record for the world. There were oil-carrying vessels 
on the Caspian, but no tank steamers, and there were 
small wooden oil-carriers on the oily streams of 
Pennsylvania, but there was no ocean-going bulk oil 
vessel flying the American flag. The Jarrow-built 
Vaderland was undoubtedly the pioneer tank steamer 
launched in this country, and the element of mystery 
to which I have referred only comes in when the 
admission is made that it cannot be shown that oil 
was ever pumped into her tanks. 

I have been told by men who worked on her that 
she had a complete inner skin 26 in. inside the 
outer skin at the centre line, diminishing to 20 in. 
at the bilge, and the beams forming the crown of the 
tank were plated above and below. The double skin 
idea was adopted in the case of several steamers 
launched a few years later, but it was found to be a 
source of danger, as it formed inaccessible spaces for 
the accumulation of explosive vapours. 



definite in regard to this steamer and her first voyage 
has been published) stated that she actually carried 
a cargo of oil, with the result that her third class 
passengers, whose berths were on the 'tween decks, 
protested and certain insurmountable difficulties arose 
at the port of discharge ; but few will conceive it 
possible that she could discharge a cargo of oil with- 
out leaving a trace of the novel and important 
business on the records of some port or the books of 
one of our pioneer oil companies. 

She was followed by the Nederland and the 
Switzerland in 1873 a ^d 1874 respectively; but here, 
again, exactly what these steamers did in the oil 
trade — if, indeed, they did anything at all — it is 
impossible to find out, and it is not believed that they 
were really the vessels which solved the problem of 
oil transport in tanks. 

Of these steamers it was said that " they were 
built with a good tumble home that sailors will 
appreciate, ,, and also " that the arrangement of the 
tanks is good, and, being built on the cellular system, 




The Vaderland. 



The first vessel built to carry oil in bulk. The section shows the tank arrangements of this vessel, the 

Ntderland and Switzerland. 



The tanks were fitted in her hold, but, as I have 
stated, it is not known that they were used for the 
transport of oil, the owners fearing that if it became 
known that the vessel carried petroleum in bulk her 
passenger bookings would be injured. 

The secret of her first cargo was well kept. One 
unofficial and unpublished account (for nothing 

may revolutionise marine engineering and give oil one 
more advantage over coal in the propulsion of all 
kinds of small craft. It is interesting to recall the 
fact that the " Diesel " oil engine has superseded the one 
of the reciprocating type in several tank steamers on 
Russian waters. 

* A Red Star liner, the Kensington, twin screws 
and steaming fourteen knots, was the first Trans- 
atlantic passenger vessel to cross the Atlantic with oil 
for fuel. She did this near the end of 1903, thirty- 
three years after the Constantine had pioneered liquid 
fuel burning on the Caspian, twenty-nine years after the 
Russian fleet on the Caspian started to use liquid fuel 
from the wells at Baku, and just eleven years after 
the tank steamer Baku Standard made her record as 
the first vessel to use oil on the Atlantic. The Red 
Star Company has another Vaderland, one of the 
largest liners running between Antwerp and New York. 



the advantages of water ballast are obtained with 
very much less risk of danger from leakage of oil." 

The drawings of these steamers were destroyed 
during a fire which took place at the shipyard offices 
of the builders. 

In September, 1879, when some forty European 
ports were receiving refined oil from America, the 
Norwegians started a new era in the marine transport 
of oil by sending the Stat to Philadelphia to load a 
cargo of crude petroleum in bulk. She was equipped 
with huge oil tanks. On October 18th she left 
Philadelphia for Rouen with the first cargo of 
petroleum ever loaded in a tank steamer bound east 

Five days after the Stat arrived, the Norwegian 
oil sailer Lindernoer reached Philadelphia, and was 
only one day ahead of the Norwegian brig Jan Mayn. 
These vessels were fitted up in the same manner as the 
Stat, and, like her, loaded crude petroleum for Rouen. 
The Jan Mayn cleared on October 22nd and the 
Lindernoer on October 30th. 

The steamer and the two sailing vessels made 
good passages and discharged their cargoes into large 



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storage tanks at Rouen. Their arrival was an event 
of great interest in the ancient French port. The 
vessels ran without competition in the Philadelphia 
oil trade until 1880, when some French merchants 
fitted up the tank ship Fanny, and sent her to 
Philadelphia, where she arrived on August 30th, 1880, 
and loaded a full cargo of crude oil for Havre. She 
sailed on September 29th, but was never heard of, 
and it was thought that she blew up at sea. 

When Baku oil, nearly a quarter of a century 
ago, started to compete with the American product, 
the tank steamer Petrolea and another ran regularly 
between Libau and the Baltic port of Lubeck in 
Germany. From Baltic ports 10,000,000 to 15,000,000 
gallons of Baku oil found its way into Germany and 
other countries, "underselling and ousting the 
American article." 

Charles Marvin, who first loyally championed 
Baku oil in its struggles against the European 
encroachments of American competitors, and who, 
with his remarkable gift of prophecy, declared that 
one might as well fear an earthquake swallowing up 
London as exhausting Baku of its oil, writing on 
the commercial aspect of the gigantic distributing 
problems of his day, said : — 

"The theory that Baku petroleum will not 
profitably compete with American illuminating oil in 
the markets of the United Kingdom is completely 
upset by this triumph of the Caspian article in the 
Baltic, for if Baku oil can be carried by steamers on 
the Volga, and by railway across the whole Con- 
tinent of Europe, and yet undersell the American 
article in German Baltic ports, how much more 
inexpensive the conveyance of Baku oil only 500 odd 
miles by rail to the Black Sea, and thence by cheap 
oversea bulk transport to this country ! " 

Almost before the era of a rational development 
of the Caucasian oil fields there were a few enterprising 
oil kings at Baku and Batoum with ideas of conquest 
in Eastern countries receiving oil from America by 
way of the Cape. The Russians, experienced in oil 
transport work on the Caspian, had ambitious ideas 
in connection with the Suez Canal. Twenty-five 
years ago, when these men were pouring petroleum 
through the Baltic into Germany and were looking 
forward to the materialisation of the gigantic Baku- 
Batoum railway idea for the transport of Caucasian 
oil, a London paper, Good Words, told its readers 
"that the petroleum in Caucasia was sufficient to supply 
the world for a prolonged period." Then it said : — 
"It will certainly be a marvel, but one which 
O.T. 



may be before long realised, to see a petroleum fleet, 
laden at Batoum with Caucasian oil, pass through the 
Suez Canal without the aid of coal. " 

And again : — 
" This would be an immense gain to the stokers, 
who have a bad time in the Red Sea, one of the 
hottest parts of the world, for petroleum ships require 
no stoking." 

On January 14th, 1885, the following cable was 
received in New York : — 

"The Black Sea Steam Navigation Company 
(Nobel) has given orders for the building of a fleet of 
steamers in Sweden and England. Each steamer is 
to be fitted with petroleum tanks, and will have a 
capacity for 1,500 tons per trip. The design is to 
compete with the vessels in the American petroleum 
trade. M. Trodel, a Russian contractor, is preparing 
to send oil in bulk to London from Libau, on the 
Baltic, next spring." 

"No competition of this magnitude has ever 
before been met with in any foreign market," was the 
comment of an American oil authority. " For several 
years news respecting the large yield of oil at Baku 
has occasionally appeared in the Press, and, from 
time to time, warnings have been heard that, sooner 
or later, the supremacy of American oil in the 
European markets would cease, and that this region, 
in the near future, would become a formidable rival 
for the supply of petroleum. American producers 
and refiners have hitherto affected to ignore the 
claims and statements, but a careful perusal of the 
facts must arouse both the producer and the shipper 
to prepare for the most formidable competition they 
have yet encountered." 

These were the years when Russia and America 
came into conflict for the first time. About that 
time (1885) the export of the American oil in a single 
year was accomplished by over 1,000 vessels, mostly 
foreign sailing ships, carrying from 2,500 to 14,000 
barrels per voyage. 

Thus wrote Marvin in that " Wake-up-England " 
manner that one comes across so frequently in his 
works : — 

"We pride ourselves on being the 'carriers ot 
the world,' yet we have allowed the over-sea traffic in 
oil to be taken possession of by foreigners, and are 
making no strenuous endeavours to prevent the new 
system from passing completely into their hands. 
Otherwise the Sviet and the Gluckauf would have been 
English-owned and English-named tank steamers. 
The trade is not one to despise. If one hundred 



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steamers are required on the Caspian for the 
market of Russia, is there much fear of English tank 
steamers having to lie idle for freights in the Black 
Sea, if prepared to carry to the United Kingdom and 
elsewhere by the bulk system the marvellously cheap 
oil of Baku. Storage arrangements for accommodat- 
ing millions of gallons of oil are being, or have been 
already, erected at Odessa, Smyrna, Fiume, Trieste, 
Genoa, Marseilles, Antwerp, Bremen, and Libau, and 
everywhere in Europe the petroleum trade is begin- 
ning to adapt itself to the new condition. There is 
not a country in Europe to which Baku oil is not 
shipped to-day." 

Mr. Edward Stack, of the Indian Civil Service, 
was at Baku in 1881. " The out-turn of the naphtha 
springs," he wrote, " was about 160,000 tons last year, 
and is increasing yearly. Difficulties of transport 
hinder this trade to a certain extent, but these will 
be largely surmounted if the American plan be 
adopted. ... At present the naphtha is transported 



The Fergusons, built as an ordinary cargo vessel 
by Messrs. Bertram, Haswell & Co., of Sunderland, 
was converted into a tank steamer by Messrs. 
Craggs & Sons, of Middlesbrough, in 1885. Her 
records included the first trip from this country to 
Batoum for oil, and also, it is said, the first run across 
the Atlantic for a cargo of American petroleum. 

Mr. Henri Rieth, who represented Nobel Bros, 
at Antwerp, recognising the immense commercial 
advantages of the bulk oil transport system in vogue 
on the Caspian Sea, pointed out to Mr. J. M 
Lennard, shipowner, of Middlesbrough, and head of 
Messrs. Lennard & Sons, who to-day have their 
London office in Great St. Helens, the importance of 
running a tank steamer in the Russian oil trade. The 
Transcaucasian railway and pipe line had made it 
possible to deliver Baku oil at Batoum, and Mr. 
Lennard was not slow to recognise the value of a 
business connection with Nobel Bros., who had done 
so much for the petroleum-producing industry at 





SECTION IN WAY 
OF AFTER-HOLD. 



The Fergusons. Built in 1880, and converted into a tank steamer in 1885. 



....... I 






w-w y 



chiefly by water. A hundred and fifty vessels lie in 
the harbour, mostly schooners of 90 to 200 tons ; but 
some three-masted steamers belong to the port, the 
largest being of 1000 tons burden. Nobody can 
spend half an hour in Baku without seeing that it is a 
very rich and flourishing place. I envied it for India." 

On his return from Baku, Marvin recommended 
that the bulk system should be adopted by the 
European petroleum trade, but the objection was 
urged (particularly by those who fancied the Caspian 
to be a pond, and not a sea liable to sudden 
tempests and requiring three days to traverse from 
one end to the other) that similar steamers could not 
weather the Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay. One or 
two old sailing tubs, roughly fitted with cisterns, had 
been tried and failed, and, therefore, they thought, it 
was of no use attempting to succeed with properly 
constructed steamers, specially designed to carry oil 
in bulk, and embodying the experience of many a 
voyage in the squally Caspian. 

At last, however, the problem of running tank 
steamers in European waters was solved. 



Baku and the distribution of the oil in many of 
the greatest centres of population on the Continent. 
Mr. Rieth and Mr. Lennard consulted Messrs. 
Craggs & Sons. This combination of petroleum, 
shipping and shipbuilding experience, convinced of 
the commercial advantages of the project, did not 
take long to decide that there were no serious ship- 
building or engineering difficulties standing in the 
way of the adoption of the ideas originally submitted 
by Mr. Rieth. At that time a great deal of prejudice 
was being displayed against the bulk oil trade, but, 
as the head of the Middlesbrough shipbuilding con- 
cern pointed out, " if oil could be held in cases and 
barrels a ship could be made to hold it in bulk." 
They recognised a good margin for economising; 
against the existing system it was urged that there 
was always a leakage from the cases and barrels, 
extra tonnage was required, and questions of cost and 
repair were too serious to be overlooked. 

The conversion of a tank steamer was admittedly 
an experiment, and the builders had nothing to guide 
them in the shape of practical experience or even 



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information from other shipbuilders. There being no 
time to build a new vessel, the Fergusons was taken in 
hand by Messrs. Craggs & Sons, who undertook to 
convert her into a tank steamer capable of carrying 
from 1,500 to 2,000 tons of oil. As her class at 
Lloyd's had to be preserved they were not allowed to 
interfere with the structure of the vessel. 

The full size dimensions were obtained from the 
builders and a number of tanks were constructed to 
fit closely into the holds. The plans show a tier of 
tanks in couples above the beams, and a tier of 
larger tanks in couples below the beams, made to 
conform to the internal moulding of the vessel. The 
tanks were built in the shipyard berths, launched, and 
towed in rotation to the sheer legs on the arrival of 
the vessel 

The deck plate and beams were removed for a wide 
enough space in each hold to admit the largest tanks, 
and these were lowered and launched to their places 
on greased thin iron flats and securely wedged into 
their proper positions by wooden battens and 
blocks. 

It was found that the fit was so tight that a rather 
large rivet head would cause a good deal of trouble 
in passing a beam. Some beams were consequently 
removed and chains with powerful tightening screws 
temporarily used in their place to enable the tall 
tanks to pass fore and aft, where the sheer of the vessel 
gave greater height. 

The lower tier of tanks, up to about middle height, 
were constructed of f in. plate iron, above that of 
^ in. plate ; angle iron stiffeners 3 by 3 by f in. 
were spaced 2 ft. apart over all the plating, and 
the corner bars or frames were the same size. The 
upper tier of tanks were built of J in plate through- 
out, stiffened in a similar manner to the lower ones. 
All the oil-tight joints were closed with f in. rivets 
spaced 2§ in. apart centres. 

The rivetting was very carefully overlooked, and as 
a precaution hardened up cold. The holes were 
carefully spaced, angle iron stays, horizontal and 
vertical, were attached by gussets to every stiffener, 
and the verticals were secured by diamond plates to 
their respective horizontals. Before launching, each 
tank was tested to a head of 1 1 ft. of water. 

Powerful pumps were fitted to each hold. A main 
pipe had branches with valves to each tank. Expan- 
sion was allowed for by connecting by a smaller set 
of pipes each of a group of tanks to a regulator, in 
which a little oil was always kept under the control of 
the pumps. 



When the Fergusons left the Tees as a "con- 
verted " tank steamer she proceeded to Batoum, where 
she loaded her first cargo of oil for delivery at Mr 
Rieth's tanks on the Scheldt. 

A shipbuilding authority of that day expressed 
the opinion that her arrangement of tanks was not 
likely to be copied, and the first time the vessel got 
into heavy weather it was found that there was a 
considerable movement of the oil and that the joints 
between the tanks could not be kept tight. 

She ran in the oil trade for some three years 
(1889), when she was destroyed by an explosion at 
Rouen. She was literally torn to bits by two separate 
explosions ; one report stated, by the accidental pro- 
duction of an electric spark, and another, by a work- 
man smoking in one of the tanks. The first explosion 
shattered a number of the tanks, while the second 
completed the destruction of the hold, and bursting 
the hull, liberated a quantity of burning petroleum. 

The tanks at Antwerp into which the Fergusons 
discharged her first cargo of Russian oil subsequently 
became the property of the Standard Oil Company. 

Before the advent of vessels to carry oil in bulk 
a large trade had grown up in the carriage of 
petroleum — first in barrels, and afterwards in tin cases, 
rectangular in shape. The cases were found to 
facilitate the marketing of the oil, as two cases could 
be slung on the back of a strong draught animal or 
two tins on a weaker one. This obviated the necessity 
of breaking into packages such as barrels of 40—50 
gallons. The cases were considered superior to the 
barrels ; they fitted close to one another and a greater 
quantity of oil could be carried in a given space. 
Even with the most perfect workmanship leakage on 
a large scale took place, and this meant, not only a 
considerable loss of oil, but a serious danger to the 
ship, for the oil gave off explosive gases. To avoid 
this risk and save expense the suggestion was made 
that the vessels themselves should have tanks into and 
out of which the oil might be pumped. The builders 
started with the idea that there must be separate con- 
taining tanks ; but after two or three vessels had been 
built upon the tank system proper the principle of 
separate tanks was abandoned. The tank system in 
its primitive stages proved to be even more dangerous 
than carriage by means of tin cases. With every 
possible care there was leakage, and the escaping oil 
evaporated and filled the spaces beneath the tanks 
and the sides of the ship with explosive gases. It 
was found impossible to properly clear these spaces or 
effect repairs. No naked lights could be used, and, 



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of course, the insertion of hot rivets was out of the 
question. The separate tank system was not only 
more risky than carriage by means of cases and 
barrels, but it proved to be far more expensive. 

As I have said, the next development was to 
utilise the vessel herself as the tank containing oil, 
partitioning off a portion at both ends to secure 
buoyancy, to give room for engines and quarters for 
the crew, and to hold the pumping machinery. The 
'tween decks were used for coal bunkers and storage. 



practical adaptation of the theory of petroleum in 
bulk transport 

The facts of the case of Mr. Riedemann are, that 
the steamers Vaderland, Nederland and Switzerland 
were "passenger boats, with water ballast tanks, 
which some thought might be used for the transport 
of oil, but, the idea proving impracticable, they were 
never used for the transportation of oil." Another trial 
was made with wooden sailing ships, which had their 
oil-carrying compartments formed by wooden bulk- 




The Sviet class. A and 
B show the bulkhead 
arrangement, and 
transverse section her 
tanks. 




With this system there was practically no loss of oil, and 
most of the steamers are now constructed in this way. 
Well before British oil men had got deep into the 
business, German firms had started to display enter- 
prise in the importation of oil from Russia and 
America. One of the first American merchants to 
take an interest in oil-carrying shipping was Mr. 
Heinrich Riedemann, of Bremen,* on whose behalf it 
has been claimed that he was the first advocate of the 

* Connected with the Deutsch Amerikanische 
Petroleum Gesellschaft, Hamburg. 



heads, "but these also proved an absolute failure." 
Then the firm of Nobel had some steamers built to 
transport petroleum up the rivers, " but these could 
hardly be considered tank steamers, as they simply 
transported the loose petroleum in large iron tanks, 
which were put into the boats." 

In 1 884 Mr. Riedemann put his theories to a practical 
test by building into the sailing ship Andromeda 
(3,000 tons) seventy-two steel tanks ; " these were 
built into the ship and formed part of it," and it was 
this vessel, I am assured, which was the first to bring 
a cargo of bulk oil across the Atlantic 

After this trial had proved a success, Mr. 
Riedemann conceived the idea of building steamers to 
carry bulk oil cargoes. His idea was that the hull 
should serve as a receptacle for the bulk oil. Mr. 
Riedemann discovered that there was no British ship- 
builder who wanted to take up the idea, and it is said 
that he met with a refusal at every shipyard where 
he wanted to place the order, with one exception, 
that of the firm of Messrs. Armstrong, Mitchell & 
Co. This firm, especially Mr. Swan and old 
Mr. Mitchell, finally fell in with the idea of Mr. 
Riedemann, so that in 1885 the first tank steamer, 
the Gluckauf, was constructed. 

This steamer discharged her first cargo in July, 
1886, atGeestemunde, and, as she proved " impervious 
to leakage/' it was said "that it did not differ in 
any way from carefully barrelled oil." 

She was built from the designs of Col. Henry F. 
Swan, was a vessel of 2,307 tons (gross register), 
300 ft long, three-masted like an ordinary cargo 
steamer, and steamed about 11 knots. She was 



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practically boiler-rivetted throughout The hold was 
longitudinally divided by a middle line bulkhead, and 
she had a large number of compartments extending 
to the hull itself. Some Caspian tank steamers, built 
six or seven years before, had their oil compartments 
extending right to the outer skin, but Mr. Riedemann 
considers the Gluckauf was the first ocean-going 
steamer in which the system was adopted. In this 
respect she was a success. She had special arrange- 
ments for the expansion and contraction of the liquid 
cargo, the details of which were carried out on a 
system patented by the builders. The water ballast 
tank was conical. Col. Swan's idea was to effectively 
collect all oil that might escape from the cargo tanks, 
and oil flowing into the water ballast section floated 
up the midships trunkway, where it was pumped into 



her length was 286 ft ; depth, 18 ft. and speed 11 
knots. She had a single tank in which she carried 
all her cargo. 

The arrival of this steamer with more than 
half a million gallons of Russian oil in bulk, 
instead of barrels, after a safe and easy passage 
across the Bay of Biscay, reduced the croakers to 
silence. 

During the three or four years preceding 1885, 
when these pioneer tank steamers started to run, 
many sailing vessels were converted into oil carriers. 
For some time there was a difference of opinion as to 
what were the proper principles applicable to the 
construction of these vessels, and especially as to the 
important question whether tanks separate from the 
skin of the ship should be provided, or whether the 



The Bakuin. C and Din the 
longitudinal section show 
the arrangements of the 
expansion tanks. 




The transverse section makes 
these plainer still, and also 
shows the cellular bottom 
principle adopted in this 
steamer. 



the main tank. It was pointed out at the time that 
in the case of illuminating oil it could not very well 
be pumped back without risk of damaging the cargo. 
The pumping appliances could discharge her cargo in 
twelve hours. The engines were of the triple expan- 
sion description, and the vessel was electrically 
lighted. 

After her, Mr. Riedemann ordered the Vorwarts, 
Gut Heily Willkomtnen, Energie, and Minister 
Mayback) and when these steamers started running 
others took up the idea and went on building from 
1888 onwards. 

In the same year (1885) a new factor in the petro- 
leum-carrying trade made its appearance in the shape 
of the tank steamer Sviet, built at Gothenburg for 
the Russian Steam Navigation and Trading Com- 
pany, of Odessa. She was 1474 tons net register; 



skin should form part of the sides of the oil tanks. 
The sailing ships Andromeda (alluded to in my 
reference to Mr. Riedemann) and Crusader were fitted 
with a large number of independent tanks, and 
necessarily so, since the vessels themselves were not 
built for the oil trade, but it is worthy of note that 
the same arrangement was adopted from choice in 
the construction of the iron tank steamer Sviet and 
to some extent in the Bakuin, which was built very 
shortly afterwards. 

When British oil men once realised the immense 
practical and financial advantages of carrying oil in 
bulk, the trade started to rapidly increase, and, while 
in 1886 there were only about twelve bulk oil-carry- 
ing vessels, there were in 189 1 between seventy and 
eighty running from America and Baku to European 
oil importing ports. 



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The oil-carriers of the eighties were in tonnage 
only one-third the size of some of those launched 
during the past few years. Nearly all the essential 
knowledge required for the safe, quick and profitable 
working of the trade was gathered during the first 



three years, 1886 to 1889, by those in charge of 
tankers. Since 1890 there has been comparatively 
little alteration in the form of the vessels, with 
the exception of the placing of the engines amid- 
ships. 




ggk ETROLEUM was used by the in- 
Jr habitants before Columbus arrived 
^ in America. When, in 1629, the 
early Jesuit missionaries reached 
the great inland basin of the tributaries 
of Ohio River, Indians led them to natural 
springs of petroleum. The pits in the 
valley of Oil Creek and French Creek, 
Pennsylvania, and in Ohio and Canada, 
were timbered, and notches in the petrified 
wood show they were cut by stone instru- 
ments. Many of the pits on Oil Creek were 
from six to eight feet square at the mouth, 
and, in some instances, twelve feet deep. 
Many were yielding oil when the first white 
man appeared, and natural gas bubbled on 
the surface of the streams in Ohio Valley. 
Early travellers were guided to these virgin 
oil territories by the Indians, who, setting 
them on fire, viewed the weird results with 
semi-religious awe and veneration. 



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THE BAKU IN. 




DISCHARGING BULK PETROLEUM AT THE THAMES 
HAVEN WHARF ON ONE OF HER FIRST VOYAGES 
TO THE THAMES. 



INSET, VIEWS OF THE DESTRUCTION 
OF THE STEAMER BY FIRE IN 
CALLAO BAY, PERU. 






[To face />. 14. 



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HAPTER 11. 



Ships and Freights of 1886-88, and 
the Inauguration of the Distributing 
System in England. 




[HE Bakuin was an epoch-making steamer. 
Built at Hartlepool by Messrs. W. Gray 
& Co. for Mr. Alfred Suart, in 1886, she 
was the first British-owned tank steamer 
turned out of a British shipyard. On her first voyage, 
when she was commanded by Captain Kortright 
(afterwards killed by an explosion on the Petriana), 
she discharged a cargo of lubricating oil at Hamburg. 
This vessel was considered to be an advance on all 
oil-carrying steamers of the converted type, and one 
expert * considered she carried her cargoes very well. 
She had a cellular bottom, the crown of which formed 
the bottom of the oil tanks. Above the cellular 
bottom, to the height of the 'tween decks, the oil 
extended to the side. In the 'tween decks there were 
a number of additional oil compartments. They did 
not extend either to the side of the vessel or to 
the deck above, and it was claimed for this plan 
that, while the oil in the main hole could never 
reach a high temperature, owing to the immersion 
of the vessel, the tanks in the 'tween decks, 
by being so formed, were kept at a much lower 
temperature in hot climates than if they extended 
to the sides. Her designers claimed that in the 
event of injury to the hull by collision or otherwise, 
the tanks would, under ordinary circumstances, 
escape injury. 

Her engines were aft. A double bulkhead was 
fitted before the boiler space, and another at the fore 
end of the foremost oil compartment. The hold was 
further separated into two distinct divisions by an 
additional pair of adjacent transverse bulkheads. The 
object of this arrangement was to allow oils of 
different qualities to be carried on the same voyage 
without danger of mixing. Arrangements were made 
by which, with oil in the hold, other descriptions of 
cargo could be carried in the 'tween decks. With 

* Mr. Little. 



this object, expansion tanks on the middle deck com- 
municated with the cisterns in the hold, and were 
capable of being closed, air pipes being fitted 
through the cover to the upper deck. Additional 
expansion tanks built on the roof of the 'tween deck 
cisterns, within the area of the upper deck hatchways, 
were for use when both the tanks in the hold and 
'tween decks were filled. 

All valves regulating the filling and emptying of 
the tanks were placed in the engine house, and by 
means of an arrangement of floats connected with 
wires, the level of the oil in each tank could be 
ascertained at the same place. She was electrically 
lighted, and had a pumping equipment to discharge a 
full cargo of 1,950 tons in twelve hours.t Respecting 
her it was said : " Great care appears to have been 
taken in the construction of the Bakuin to avoid all 
possible sources of risk from fire. The cabins are 
heated by steam instead of by coal fires, and the 
cooking was done by steam." She was destroyed by 
fire when in the floating dock at Callao Bay, Peru, in 
September, 1902. 

Lloyd's agents, when they reported her "very 
badly damaged by mixed causes," recommended that 
the wreck should be sold by auction " for the benefit 
of all concerned," adding, laconically, " the sale will 
probably realise £$0." 

A cargo of bulk petroleum was brought to the 
Thames by Messrs. Lane & Macandrew in 1886. 
The steamer was the Petrolea (afterwards the Ludwig 
Nobel), with a Russian in command. It consisted of 
1,000 tons, and was shipped at Libau. On her arrival 
the Petrolea was moored in the Regent's Canal Dock, 
and permission was obtained from the authorities to 
sink a pipe line beneath the streets from the dock side 
to the Atlantic Wharf, Bow, where it was pumped 



t The newest vessels have isolated pump rooms 
in charge of a skilled mechanic. 



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into some lead-lined tanks. That was the start of 
the bulk oil trade in this country. 

The Petrolea arrived at the time when supplies 
were short ; a number of oil-carrying sailers* 
delayed in the Channel by strong easterly winds, 
could not make the Thames, and the landing of 
i,ooo tons of oil in bulk naturally created some 
excitement on the market The oil sold at a good 
profit 

For many years before the arrival of this cargo 
hundreds of sailing craft were employed in the barrel 
oil trade of the Atlantic. They were not of the fast 
clipper type, and their arrival, depending on the 
unbought but uncertain wind, was not regular enough 
to maintain reliable supplies. 

One of the first bulk oil cargoes — I think the second — 
was brought to this country by the converted tanker 
Petriana. Commanded by Captain Davies, she made 
the run from Batoum to Liverpool in eighteen days, 
and encountered her first severe gale in the English 



chartering of steamers to carry case oil to various 
ports of India.* 

Beg Mahomed, an Indian merchant, was early in 
the Batoum- Bombay oil trade, and his success quickly 
brought into the market such well-known firms as 
Ralli Bros., Wallace Bros., James Mackintosh and 
a number of natives. Mantascheff & Co. led the 
way amongst purely Russian concerns for ship- 
ments of Russian oil to India ; that was several years 
before the Standard and Shell Companies appeared 
in these extensive markets. Ninety-five per cent, of 
the oil cargoes were carried in British bottoms. 

The Petriana and Chigwell were converted for 
Messrs. Alfred Suart & Co. in 1886, the Chigwell 
having been built by Messrs. Bertram & Haswell, of 
Sunderland, at the end of 1883. Her dimensions 
were 258 ft. 8 in. by 36 ft 2 in. by 18 ft 7 in. Her 
tonnage was 1,824 gross, and 1,192 net, while her 
engines were 178 h.-p. She was intended for the 
general cargo trade, and her first voyage was 




Lilhuiiimni; uumn iymniTT m ir 




m " m """" 



The Chigwell, one of the first steamers converted to carry oil. Although the tanks were not considered to be a success at 
the start she has proved a good vessel, and even to-day carries her cargoes exceedingly well. 



Channel, when her behaviour proved to those 
interested that a converted tank steamer made a 
good sea boat She started to discharge 2,000 tons 
at Liverpool on December nth, 1886. 

A few weeks before this cargo reached England, 
the Marquis Sicluna had arrived at Fiume, Austria, 
with a cargo of kerosene. 

Messrs. Lane & Macandrew made another inno- 
vation in the same year. They sold the first cargo 
of Russian case oil for shipment to the Far East 
Mr. Lane was in Batoum when he secured the offer 
of a full cargo, and, cabling Mr. Macandrew, an 
arrangement was made with the owners of the New- 
castle steamer Rimpha to carry the oil from Batoum 
to Bombay for 37^. 6d. on the net register. This 
was the first steamer to carry case oil through the 
Suez Canal. To show the amazing rapidity with 
which some of the first deals in the commerce of 
petroleum were put through, I may mention that 
this steamer had scarcely left for the Far East 
when the London firm received orders for 2,000,000 
cases of oil, with the result that there was some brisk 



from the Tyne to Trieste with a cargo of gas 
coal. After running successfully for three years she 
was converted into a tank steamer to carry oil in 
bulk. Her conversion was new work, even for 
Tyne shipbuilders, and the order was given to 
Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., whose shipbuilding 
yard is at Hebburn, half-way between Newcastle 
and the mouth of the Tyne. Mr. Leslie was a 
Scotchman, and a self-made man, famous in his day 
for the way in which he built up his business at a 
time when the Tyne shipbuilding industry was in 
its infancy. When he started, Lord Armstrong was 
beginning his career as a shipbuilder higher up the 
river, while, just two miles nearer the mouth of 
the Tyne, Sir Charles Mark Palmer, referred to 
in the previous chapter, was bringing the town 
of Jarrow into existence, and developing what has 

* Owing to the strikes and political troubles at 
Batoum the Russian case oil trade has been practically 
wiped out, and this firm, instead of shipping 2,000,000 
to 3,000,000 cases a year, has ceased to seriously take 
an interest in it 



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since become one of the largest iron and steel- 
making works and shipbuilding establishments in the 
world. 

Mr, Leslie took a great interest in the work of 
converting the Chigwell into a tanker. Under the 
new arrangement the Chigwell had seven tanks, 
of which four were forward and three aft The 
largest held 420 and the smallest 160 tons. She 
was provided with expansion tanks, and had longi- 
tudinal bulkheads fore and aft She was fitted 
with electric light, and all the necessary pumps 
to empty her tanks at the rate of 50,000 gallons 
per hour. 

The Chigwell arrived at Hebburn in April, 1886, 
and, having been altered, she left on her first voyage 
to Batoum on August 25th, reaching the Black Sea 
port in September. She was chartered by the 
Mineralol Raffinerie Actien Gesellschaft, of Budapest 
(Messrs. Lane & Macandrew, Great St Helens, 
being the brokers). The charter party set forth that 
she was to trade for three or six years principally 
between Fiume and Batoum. The shippers at 
Batoum were the Soci6t6 Commerciale et Indus- 
trielle de Naphthe Caspienne et de la Mer Noire. 
At the Black Sea port she was an object of much 
curiosity. At that time the loading arrangements at 
Batoum were crude, and the Chigwell, during a gale 
of wind, dragged the loading wharf away and did 
damage to the extent of j£ioo. The crew had to run 
out deck lighters between the wharf and the ship, 
and the cargo was loaded over the stern. She left 
Batoum on September 21st, with 1,964 tons of 
crude oil in bulk for Fiume, and when this was 
discharged it was found to be in perfect condition. 
Fiume, even at that time, had admirable accom- 
modation for discharging cargo, and the Chigwell 
had no difficulties with the port authorities. In a 
single year she made fifteen voyages between Fiume 
and Batoum. The quickest was made in twenty- 
eight days. 

In 1887 she crossed to Philadelphia, where she 
made another record, being the first tank steamer to 
load oil at that port. In 1889 she discharged at 
Rouen, after having made a second trip to America. 
In her day she was looked upon as an exceedingly 
strong vessel, and carried her cargoes very well 
indeed 

Messrs. Suart & Co. built most of the early 

British oil-carrying steamers, and all of them, 

with one or two exceptions, are engaged in the 

trade to-day, though they fly the flags of other 

O.T. 



companies. Before 1892 they managed the following 


steamers : — 








Year. 


Tons. 


Baku Standard . 


. 1892 


5,000 


Broadmayne 


. 1888 


4,200 


Luceline 


. 1893 


4,000 


VOriflatntne 


. 1892 


3,900 


Prudentia . 


. 1889 


3,900 


Wildfiower . 


. 1889 


3,900 


Tancarville . 


. 1889 


3,200 


Robert Dickinson (converted) 1887 


2,650 


Vindobala (converted) 


. 1889 


2,350 


Bakuin (built) . 


. 1886 


2,350 


Chigwell (converted) . 


. 1886 


2,150 


Petriana (converted) . 


. 1886 


2,125 


Titian (converted) 


. 1887 


1,700 


Petrolea 


. 1890 


3,900 


Prudence . 


. 1890 


3,900 


Allegheny . 


. 1891 


4,000 



One of these steamers cleared herself after 
making ten voyages ; she got as much as 355. 6d. 
per ton, against 22*., this year's rate, and 10*. or 12s., 
the figure for last year. 

To show the state of the bulk oil-carrying shipping 
trade, I give the following particulars of some early 
charters ; November, 1886, Bakuin, Batoum to U. K., 
25*. for five years ; February, 1886, Petriana, U. K. 
to Continent, 20s . for ten years, option Adriatic, i&r. , 
September, 1886, Chigwell, Black Sea to Adriatic, 
\y 6d. for three years; May, 1887, Charles Howard) 
Batoum to Mediterranean, 145. for two years; 
September, 1886, Titian, Batoum to Mediterranean 
or U. K., Mediterranean, 14*., Continent, 21s. for two 
years and option for another two years ; August, 1887 
to March, 1888, Marquis Sicluna, various voyages 
Batoum to London and Liverpool, 21s. to 22s. 6d.; 
July, 1888, Robert Dickinson, Batoum to Adriatic, 
1 3 s. 6d for three years ; and April, 1889, Rocktight, 
United States to U. K., 27*. 6d. (2s. 6d. higher than 
the rate for 1907, but 12s. 6d. higher than that of two 
years ago). When the Elbruz, Kasbek and Darial 
were built in 1888 (on a contract of 20s . a ton), 
they were chartered at 20s., although the statement 
is made that one was chartered for 45 s. Chartering 
facts of recent years are given in the appendix. 

Among the first vessels built by Messrs. R. 
Thompson & Sons, of Sunderland, for the bulk oil 
trade was the Wild/lower, lost with all hands (Captain 
Stanwell in command) after leaving Philadelphia. 
The Hafis, built by Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., 
Hebburn, in 1886, was a successful tanker of that day 

D 



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She was built originally for the American Cotton Oil 
Company, and her design did not militate against 
her employment as a petroleum tank steamer. 

Later (1887) the Era (re-christened the Apscheron 
when she was transferred to the Soci6t6 Anonyme, 
Antwerp) was built by Palmer's Company, from 
designs prepared by Sir E. J. Read, one of a group of 
tank steamer authorities which included Mr. W. H. 
White, R.N., chief constructor to the Admiralty; 
Professor Jenkins, M.A., of Glasgow University ; 
Mr, B. Martell, chief surveyor of Lloyd's ; Professor 
Tate, F.LC, of Liverpool ; Sir Boverton Redwood, 
F.I.C., F.C.S., D.Sc, F.R.S.E., and Sir Fortescue 
Flannery. 

Like the Oka (now the Broadmqyne), built by 
the same company about fifteen months afterwards, 
the Era was looked upon as a most perfect specimen 
of her type. The Oka was 334 ft. long; 40 ft 
beam ; and 16 ft 9 in. deep. She carried about 
3,000 tons of oil, and when she first started to run it 



Sir Raylton Dixon & Co., for Mr. Lennard, and 
instead of the expansion trunks being fitted on each 
side of the middle line bulkhead they were placed at 
the sides of the vessel, allowing a clear space for the 
stowage of general cargo. This was considered a 
great improvement and specially adapted to meet 
the contingency. 

Near the end of 1888 the Kerosene Company* 
had the small Dundee coaster Valaria converted into 
a tank steamer at the Wallsend Slipway. Bulkheads 
were so arranged that she had three tanks. In 
January, 1889, and on the same day that the Darial 
left the yard of Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. 
the Valaria left the Tyne for Thames Haven, where 
she loaded her first cargo of oil for Portsmouth, 
Exeter and Gloucester. She was the first tank 
steamer to run in the British coastwise trade. She 
carried her own barrelling apparatus, and at each port 
coopers were employed to make barrels into which the 
oil was pumped for storage in corrugated iron sheds. 




The Chariots (designed by Messrs. Flannery & Blakiston), of which it was said that her structure, sub-divided by bulkheads 
into compartments of moderate size, formed the necessary receptacle for carrying the oil. She was an innovation and 
an improvement on the system of building separate tanks mto the ship. 



was said of her that it was doubtful if she could be 
upset — something that could not be said of all the 
early tank steamers. The Oka was larger than the 
Era. Of the Era, Oka and Charlois (built by Messrs. 
Russell & Co., Greenock) it was said that " they fully 
solved the problem of carrying oil in bulk." 

Absolute confidence was not felt in the tank 
steamer business at the start Fifteen years ago 
there were some authorities who considered that the 
oil trade might prove a failure, and they thought it 
wise to build steamers which could be readily con- 
verted into ordinary cargo steamers. This was done 
at a time when the oil trade received a serious check 
through the war of tariffs and retaliatory measures 
adopted by the Russian and German Governments. 
These caused the import of Russian oil into Germany 
to cease entirely, and several oil vessels were thrown 
out of employment. 

The arrangement was to cut down the trunks in 
order to form a hatch in the main deck. An arrange- 
ment of this kind was made in some vessels built by 



She was employed in this trade for fifteen 
months, delivering oil at Portsmouth, Poole, Exeter, 
and Plymouth in the English Channel ; Gloucester, 
Sharpness, Bristol, Swansea and Penarth in the 
Bristol Channel ; Liverpool, Birkenhead, Dublin, 
Newry, and Galway. Cargoes for the Mersey and 
Irish ports were loaded at Barrow-in-Furness, which 
was one of the first oil ports in this country, just as 
it is to-day one of the most important 

When she ceased to fly the British flag she was 
placed under the control of the Paris house of the 
Kerosene Company and started to run between 

* This company was formed in 1887 by Messrs. 
Lane & Macandrew and Mr. Wallace for the distri- 
bution of oil in this country. Out of it grew the 
Anglo-Caucasian Oil Company, afterwards the Con- 
solidated, and now the British Petroleum Company 
(an amalgamation of the Consolidated and General). 
Other distributing concerns were formed, and of these 
the most important is the Homelight Oil Company 
(the important Gukassov-Mantascheff combination) 
for the distribution of Russian oil in this country. 



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Havre and Rouen, while twelve months later she 
carried oil to Spanish ports. 

At that time some of the tank steamers, includ- 
ing the Darial, Elbruz and Kasbek, used to discharge 
at Regent's Canal Dock. The ship's hose was 
attached to a pipe at the dock side and the oil 
was pumped through to the storage tanks on Bow 
Common. 

Messrs. H. E. Moss & Co. (founded by the late 
Mr. H. E. Moss, uncle of the present head of the 
firm, Mr, E. A. Cohan) were prominently 
connected with the oil-carrying trade so far back as 
1886, when the importation of bulk petroleum was in 
its infancy. This well-known shipping house was 
started in 1840, the London office being opened in 
1862 and the Newcastle one in 1889. 

Liverpool had then very poor and inadequate 
storage accommodation ; this consisted of a receiving 
tank used in the barrelling off, which entailed heavy 
expenses and serious detention. In recent years the 
port has secured extensive and up-to-date tank 
installations. 

One of the first cargoes of bulk petroleum dis- 
charged at Liverpool by a specially constructed tank 
steamer came out of the Lux (2,000 tons). That 
was in 1887. She was owned by the builders, Sir 
W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell & Co., and the charterers 
and receivers of the cargo were Messrs. R. Stewart & 
Co., Liverpool, the business being arranged by 
Messrs. H. E. Moss & Co., and the rate paid 42s. 6d. 
per ton. 

This firm, seeing a bright future for the bulk 
petroleum business, induced Messrs. Stewart to build 
a steamer for their own account. This was the 
Phosphor (2,700 tons), and about the same time they 
contracted for a boat for themselves — the Lumen 
(3,200 tons) — which has proved most successful and is 
still running in perfect order. 

This was followed by Messrs. Stewart building 
the Beacon Light (3,700 tons), and Messrs. Moss & 
Co. gave orders for the steamers Lucerna (4,200 
tons), Lucigen (now the Anglo-American Oil Com- 
pany's Tonowanda, 4400 tons), and a still later 
Lucigen, which as recently as May, this year, also 
passed into the hands of the Anglo-American 
Oil Company, and is running under their flag as the 
Cuyahoga. 

In 1889 Messrs. H. E. Moss & Co. became ex- 
tensively connected with the oil trade ; they chartered 
and built tankers, and from then to the present time 
they have acted as brokers in the building of dozens 



of steamers, both for home and foreign account 
Among the number are the 

Tons. Tout. 

Phosphor ... 2,700 Daghestan ... 3,700 

Lumen 3,200 La Campine ... 3,195 

Beacon Light ... 3,700 La Flandre ... 3,600 

Lucerna ... 4,200 Rotterdam ... 5,150 

Lucigen (now American ... 4,500 
Tonawanda)... 4400 7^ 3j200 

Astral 2 *700 Erivan 2,750 

Awl 3»7oo Lucigen (now 

Astrakhan ... 4,500 Cuyahoga ... 6,500 

Azov 2,800 Weehawken ... 3,700 

Clematis ... 4,000 

Besides, they contracted for the tank sailing vessels: 
Hainaut ... 2,500 Unionen ... 2,500 

Villede Dieppe... 1,850 

In those days Liverpool came next to London in 
importance as an oil port. It pioneered the business 
which, in more recent times, was greatly increased in 
volume by the splendid facilities offered by the Ship 
Canal and Trafford Park Estate, and the incidents 
and keen rivalry of those early days would, if 
adequately described, occupy several chapters of a 
work of this description. 

One of the oldest firms engaged in the oil trade 
on the Mersey is the one which is so well known as 
Meade-King, Robinson & Co. This was founded 
in 1867 by the late Mr. Joseph Fletcher Robinson, 
and the present partners, Messrs. Richard Robert 
Meade-King, Richard Robinson and William Smellie, 
joined it at different times since that period. 

The firm commenced business in Liverpool as 
general produce brokers, but from the commencement 
took a prominent part in the distribution of petroleum 
products. At first the trade was confined almost 
entirely to illuminating oil imported in barrels from 
the United States. The sampling and inspection of 
the various imports formed a large part of the 
business, and it was their success in picking out the 
best oils for their friends in the interior that first gave 
them the lead in petroleum distribution from Liverpool. 

The condition of the trade and the prices of 
refined petroleum have greatly altered since the 
seventies. Two shillings and 2$. 2d. per gallon was 
paid for thousands of barrels during the winter of 1 876. 
It was considered quite infra dig. for the brokers in 
Liverpool to do business in less than five barrel lots. 
Refiners who at one time supplied the exporting 
merchants of New York and Philadelphia themselves 
look after the five gallon buyers in the United Kingdom 
and are only too glad to get qd. to $d. per gallon. 



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Petroleum spirit for varnish making and cleaning 
purposes, also for the " sponge " lamps, which have 
now entirely disappeared, was a product to which the 
firm gave early attention. In 1878 they commenced 
the distribution of mineral lubricating oils, which now 
forms a leading feature of the business. Residuum, 
paraffin scale and wax followed. During recent years 
the firm have done a large business in " Giant " and 
" Ariel " motor spirit, and gas oil for the manufacture 
of carburetted water gas has also become a leading 
feature of the business. 

From 1900 to 1905 the firm acted as managers 
for the Consolidated Petroleum Company for the 
Liverpool and Manchester districts, the company 
having taken over Nobel's business for refined 
petroleum and gas oil only ; but, at the end of the first 
period of five years for which the arrangement was 
made, it came to an end and Meade-King, Robinson 
& Co. are now independent importers of Russian and 
American refined petroleum and gas oils. They con- 
trol tankage in Manchester, Liverpool and Birkenhead, 
own their own railway tank cars, and have inland 
depdts for distribution. 

Meanwhile the firm of Nobel had several vessels 
built, the Blesk being one. Some of these were 
transported in sections through the canals in the 
interior of Russia and down the Volga to the Caspian, 
where they were put together and proceeded to Baku. 
These vessels were built from the designs of Col. H. F. 
Swan. The hold was divided by a middle line 
longitudinal bulkhead, and also by a series of trans- 
verse bulkheads, into compartments, each being fitted 
with one or more trunkways or expansion and filling 
tanks. The ballast tank was conical in section, and 
by this arrangement the oil tanks could be most 
thoroughly drained. In the event of there being any 
leakage into the ballast tank, it was filled with water 
and the oil floated up the midship trunkway, from 
whence it could be pumped back into the main tank. 
It was discovered that in practice this was not 
attended with good results, because when the vessel 
carried kerosene cloudiness resulted. CoL Swan 
did not, however, advise the use of ballast tanks, and 
when he designed the Lumen and Lux there were no 
ballast tanks, excepting on the ends. 

Another plan for improvements in the construction 
of "navigable vessels for carrying liquids in bulk, 
including cargoes of a volatile character, such as 
petroleum, turpentine, and the like," was proposed by 
Col. Swan. He divided the hold by a middle line 
longitudinal bulkhead, and further sub-divided it by a 



series of transverse bulkheads into compartments 
bounded at the top either by the vessel's deck or a 
specially fitted platform. As in some of the Caspian 
steamers, the oil extended to the skin of the vessel, 
and to each compartment he fitted one or more trunk- 
ways, either circular in section or of any other 
convenient form, partially filled to ensure the 
corresponding compartment being full, and also 
providing for the contraction or expansion of the oil. 
One feature of the method was an arrangement for 
recording the height at which the liquid stood in the 
trunkway ; it floated on the liquid and a graduated 
rod attached to it passed up through a stuffing box in 
the cover. A small pipe in the cover of the trunkway 
permitted the vapour to escape. By a suitable 
arrangement of pipes each compartment was capable 
of being separately filled or emptied. To provide for 
any leakage through the end bulkhead of the com- 
partments a well was formed on the fore side of the 
boiler space, and arrangements were mad^ to enable 
the liquid to be pumped back into the trunkways. 

In 1889 Mr. Lennard had the Atilla built by 
Messrs. Craggs & Sons, and this vessel is still 
running as the Margaretha. The engines are aft. 
Her builders considered that this ensured continuity 
of structure throughout the main portion of the 
heavily stressed part of the vessel, especially of the 
middle line bulkhead, dispensed with the problem of 
carrying the shaft through the tanks and the weight 
of the tunnel, reduced the number of cofferdams, and 
simplified the pumping arrangements. This type of 
vessel must not have too fine a run aft if a good cargo 
is to be carried, as the machinery, and indeed all 
weights, have to be kept well aft or down the ship 
goes by the head. The important matter of trim had 
to be carefully calculated in the case of the AtiUa, 
and careful designing was most necessary to find 
easy and safe stowing room for the oil (44 to 45 cubic 
feet per ton). It was found that a strong ship was 
obtained by forming between the spar (or upper) 
and main decks central trunk feeders and reserve 
wing bunkers, which ran the whole length of the 
tanks. 

The trunk feeder in this form allowed a certain 
margin in the weight of oil carried, without appreci- 
ably altering the stability, which would, of course, be 
the case if the oil in a tank fell below the main deck. 
This was found to be useful, because the Board of 
Trade required a greater freeboard in an ordinary 
winter than in the summer, and in the North Atlantic 
still less oil could be lifted. (As I point out in a later 



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chapter, this difference in freeboard was counter- 
balanced to a certain extent by the lower specific 
gravity of the American oils, which are about 
2 per cent lighter than Russian, roughly speaking. 
The two trades are thus partially self-regulating with 
respect to the cubic capacity of the tanks.) In the 
Margaretha the sides of the trunk form a continuous 
girder and keep the two decks well connected. Water 
ballast is fitted aft Ballast is pumped in when the 
bunkers are low and keeps the vessel in proper trim. 
The transverse bulkheads are fitted about 22 ft 
apart. At the time of the building of this steamer 
Mr. Craggs said : — 

" I have often been told I put my cross-bulkheads 
too near together. It would be, of course, much 
cheaper to put fewer tanks into the ship ; but I adopted 
this rule after much consideration, and the result has 
fully justified my method. I am of opinion a great 



The Henri Rieth, still running, was very similar 
to the Atilla. She has more space aft, left available 
for permanent bunkers, and, therefore, less trimming 
to do at sea. The accommodation is placed amidships 
in a bridge house, and the addition of a forecastle 
gives a drier ship at sea. Large water ballast pro- 
vision is introduced in the fore-hold, and the pump 
room is also put in that part of the vessel, giving 
much more room. This vessel has a capacity for 
3,000 tons of oil besides bunkers. 

Mr. Lennard's firm subsequently purchased the 
Prudentia^ which was built by the Palmer's Ship- 
building and Iron Company for Mr. Alfred Suart in 
1 889. This is perhaps the most successful of the tank 
steamers launched in the eighties. The vessel is fitted 
to carry general cargo, and has been most successful, 
both when running east with oil and returning with 
general merchandise. She was an expensive vessel 



*« . »•» 




MIDSHIP SECTION. 



TT •— T ' "I ' T 

azix 




Tramntmm 
Plan umi>Kk Hpa* Dkck. 



— 1 fivrirraRrei^^ 



Flam umokm Main One 



^E 




The well-known tank steamer Henri 
? *** , *> r . Ruth, the most successful vessel 

T^v of her year (1892). 



deal of the overstraining which has been found — 
especially in very large craft — is simply due to placing 
the bulkheads too far apart. I know of vessels 50 to 
60 ft. longer than the Atilla having no more trans- 
verse bulkheads." 

A tanker should have a good beam to enable her 
to stand while her tanks are being filled or emptied. 
This gives her a tendency to be rather a heavy roller 
and calls for nice lines to ease her movements at sea. 
The tiers of shelf girders or stringers keep the vertical 
stiffeners up to their work and ensure stability under 
all conditions. 

After the Atilla came the Lux (built in the 
Mediterranean and lost off the coast of Greece in 1891), 
and the Northern Light> which was sold to the Anglo- 
American Oil Company. The Hot ham Newton was 
built for Mr. Lennard by Messrs. Raylton, Dixon & 
Co., and the Henri Rieth by Messrs. R. Craggs & 
Sons in 1892. 



to build, but the work she has done has justified the 
desire of her first owners that she should be the best 
tank steamer of her time. 

The Mexicano was built by Messrs. Laing & 
Co., Sunderland, for the King Steamship Line, of 
Middlesbrough. Her engines are amidships. One 
reason given for this was that in the ordinary tanker 
it is impossible to cross shallow bars with even one or 
two tanks filled. The weight of machinery and coal 
aft keep her always dragging a lot of water as she 
goes down by the stern. 

This vessel can be easily kept on an even keel. She 
will carry oil one way and general cargo or molasses 
the other. The feeders serve also as hatches for 
cargo, a portion of the hatch being movable, leaving 
clear 9 ft. by 7 ft. There is no trunk feeder and 
the oil is carried right up to the weather deck. This 
plan of using the full depth and breadth of the vessel 
near midships keeps the weight from getting pushed 



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too far into the ends of the ship, in which case the 
pitching would be very heavy at sea. This type of 
vessel seems to be exceedingly well suited for the 
purpose of combining the ordinary cargo boat and 
the tanker, as she has good square holds which are 
easily accessible. 

In this vessel, means of rapidly changing the air in 
each compartment are provided. As the objection- 
able gases lurk at the bottom of an emptied tank, 
tubes about a foot in diameter are placed at the small 



bitterness of feeling — how the Standard's representa- 
tives amalgamated some of the most powerful 
concerns on the Continent and purchased the follow- 
ing steamers : Paris, Geestemunde, Heligoland, Europe, 
La Flandre, La Campine, Bremenhaven, Burgermeister 
Petersen, Charlois, Energie, Gut Heil, Chester, Ocean, 
Minister Mayback, Willkommen and Gluckauf, and 
the sailing ship Hainaut* originally built for Messrs. 
Speth & Co., of Antwerp. 

This was a record deal in oil-carrying tonnage, 



The Msxicano. It was vessels 
of this type which enabled 
shipbuilders to contend 
that the danger connected 
with their working had 
been very much exag- 
gerated. It having been 
recognised that the heat of 
the sun's rays striking 
directly upon the oil-tanks 
in hot climates was a 
source of danger, the 
Mtxicano was provided 
with awnings fore and aft. 




SECTION THROUGH 
FORE-HOLD. 



oil hatches, reaching nearly to the bottom of the 
vessel ; a movable cowl, having a reduced mouth, is 
fitted when required, and steam, turned on through a 
nozzle, is directed upwards so that foul air is quickly 
exhausted. 

The design of the shaft tunnel deserves special 
notice. The tunnel is a huge cylinder about 6J ft 
in diameter and built of J in. steel plate, all angle 
stiffening being thus dispensed with. The only com- 
munication is by means of ladders trunked up to the 



and it very naturally created a great deal of interest 
amongst the oil men of that day. 

At that time there was a huge refining industry in 
America, and the gigantic pipe line systems reached 
to tide-water and poured kerosene into oil-carrying 
vessels for transport to all parts of the world. The 
largest works were at Hunter's Point and Newtown 
Creek, Long Island ; Bayonne, New Jersey ; Point 
Breeze, at the junction of the Delaware and Schuylkill 
Rivers, Philadelphia ; Thurlow, on the Delaware 




SECTION THROUGH 
▲FTBR-HOLD. 



The Carotins Robert d$ Massey. Arranged to carry petroleum in bulk. 
Built in 1888, lost in 1891. 




deck. At each end the shaft is bushed and passes 
through close-fitting collars kept tight with good 
glands. The isolation from the engine and boiler 
space is complete. 

About 1888, some of the most brilliant organisers 
of the Standard Oil Company — Mr. Libby, Mr. Bliss, 
Mr. Tilford and Mr. Jameson — appeared in Europe 
for the purpose of extending the markets for Ameri- 
can oil and arranging for more regular and increased 
shipments in tank steamers. It is an old story — and 
one which has been told in some quarters with much 



* This sailing vessel, flying the flag of the Anglo- 
American Oil Company, is still running, and in one 
respect she is unique — she is the only sailer regularly 
employed in the Transatlantic oil trade. She is one of 
the fastest tank sailers, a splendid ship at sea, but an 
unpopular one with those who sail in her on account of 
the rapidity with which her cargoes are discharged. 
So perfect is her equipment that her oil is pumped out 
in as many hours as it takes days to discharge the 
general cargoes of large sailing vessels. She is usually 
a very few days in port, and can make as many as 
four round voyages between New York and Antwerp 
in a year — a good record for sail against steam, and 
one that has certain financial advantages. 



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River, a few miles below Chester, and near Baltimore, 
Maryland. The most extensive and best equipped 
were located at Bayonne, where the Standard Oil 
Company had its own extensive piers and all the 
necessary facilities for loading the largest tank vessels 
afloat. Formerly, the largest refineries were situated 
in the oil regions, or, at least, upon the line of the 



railways. They were usually built upon the sides 
of hills, the storage tanks being placed upon the 
highest points to admit of the crude flowing by 
gravity to the stills. A few large establishments 
were on the banks of the Allegheny River, not far 
from the busy and prosperous oil-made town of 
Pittsburg. 



r 


Jl 


V3 


fm HE yield of oil during 


are entertained that the supply 


t i860, 1861 and 1862, 


■dDLmuN^* 


will be soon exhausted, if 


^0 although small com- 


ft 


something is not done to pre- 


pared with that subse- 


vent the waste." In 1862, oil 


quently produced, was far in 


fraUlT: r J 


sold for ten cents per barrel. 


advance of the actual demand. 




There was practically no ex- 


In the "Derrick's Handbook 




port demand, and the home 


of Petroleum," I find this 


firaTCfr ft 


trade for want of suitable lamps 


memorandum for October, 


CTYmMy ff& 


was in its infancy. From a 


i860—" So much oil is pro- 








variety of causes it was difficult 


duced it is impossible to care 
for it, and thousands of barrels 








in those days to estimate the 
annual yield of petroleum ; 




aBiM ft 




are running to waste in the 








the early methods of trans- 


creek. The surface of the 
river is covered with oil for 






portation in bulk, boats and 
barrels tended greatly to the 


rSn i ft ' jlTIA 




miles below Franklin. Fears 


tf^__"l -^_^*nMlM'9B^9Vfl 


confusion of the estimates. 


UL 




.A 



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sr^ 



^ a %E have watched its 
lfV growth from the 
sale of a few 
barrels to millions of 
barrels. How much it has 
promoted the happiness 
and comfort of the multi- 
tudes upon whom it has 
shed its mild and beauti- 
ful light cannot be 
estimated. 

Benjamin J. Crew, 1886. 



&& 



& & 



DIL is a wonderful 
product of nature. 
No substance under 
the sun yields such a 
number and diversity of 
useful articles. The list 
(nearly two hundred) is 
a revelation. Wax tapers 
at St. Paul's and Brompton 
Oratory, sacred oils on the 
altar at the Vatican and 
candles that nicker in 
countless humble homes 
are the productsof Russian, 
American and Galician 
crude oil. 

J. D. H. 



^^^^ 



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[ To /act: />. 24 



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SjHAPTER III. 



The Anglo-American Oil Company's 
Fleet Some Notable Records* 




| Y this time (1888) there was an increasingly 
keen competition in the commerce of 
petroleum in Europe, and the important 
shipping transaction, referred to in the 
previous chapter, created a great deal of excitement 
at the chief oil-importing ports on the Continent as 
well as in London oil circles. This deal marked the 
advent of a new era in the business of importing 
American oil ; it practically laid the foundation for 
the start of the European-American bulk oil organisa- 
tion which works so satisfactorily at the present 
time. 

This same eventful year — the one in which 
one shipbuilding company alone, Messrs. Arm- 
strong, Whitworth & Co., built a dozen tank 
steamers — witnessed the formation of the Anglo- 
American Oil Company in London. This was just 
two years after the first cargo of Russian bulk oil had 
been discharged in this country. The company 
started business at 16, Great St Helens ; afterwards 
went to Dock House, off Billiter Street; and then, 
moving a third time (1 890-1), all departments went 
over to the present address, 22, Billiter Street 

It has always been acknowledged in the City that 
those who organised the " Anglo " were men of con- 
summate ability; they certainly had business ideas 
which commanded admiration, and it was early seen 
that their enterprise and zeal could only have one 
result — the establishment of a great and prosperous 
business house with influential branches in the 
provinces. 

To-day the company controls the most important 
oil-distributing organisation in these islands, and I 
suppose there are few commercial or industrial con- 
cerns that would pretend to match their systems of 
organisation and administration against those which 
have been so successfully worked by this company. 
The organisation consists of quite a number of dis- 
tinct branches, and, although very little indeed is 
known of the methods of the management, it is 
O.T. 



generally recognised that the huge business of import- 
ing and distributing the different kinds of American 
illuminating oil, petrol, etc., in city, town and country 
is one which comes marvellously near to an ideal 
solution of the ever-changing problems of supply and 
demand, and in every way meets the needs of the 
people. The system ensures continuity of supply ; 
indeed, there is no demand for " the light that fails 
not " which this company cannot meet, so complete 
has the organisation become during the nineteen 
years it has been in existence. 

Like the other distributing companies, the "Anglo" 
has experienced considerable difficulty in establishing 
some of its distributing branches at great centres of 
population. The business has not been built up 
without difficulty. Occasionally there have been 
displays of antipathy to the business by local 
authorities, and in the early days of its existence 
some hard fights had to be fought by the com- 
pany before local prejudices were overcome, and 
public men were convinced that the oil business is 
worth something to the rates, beneficial to the people, 
and quite as safe as any of the local industries. 

Much of its success has been due to the methods of 
the marine transport of the oil — to the vessels in 
which the oil is brought to this country. The " Anglo" 
has the largest fleet of oil-carrying vessels flying 
the British flag, owns the largest tank steamer in 
the world, and holds the records for oil storage accom- 
modation and the number of tank waggons and cars. 

A list at the end of this chapter shows that the com- 
pany has a fleet of nineteen ocean-going steam tankers, 
four case oil steamers, and sixteen sailing vessels. 
The company has always shown a great partiality for 
Clyde-built oil-carriers, both steam and sail. The 
smallest steamers have from six to eight compart- 
ments, each holding about 85,000 gallons; but as 
much as 73,500 barrels in bulk (12,500 tons), of which 
over 11,000 tons is oil in tanks, and 1,500 tons either 
coal or oil fuel, are carried by the Narragansett. 

E 



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In the sailing section there are a number of fast 
and beautifully-modelled vessels, including the four- 
masted sister ships Brilliant and Daylight. These 
crack sailers have tanks which enable them when 
they have discharged oil to take in water ballast, an 
arrangement which facilitates discharging and accounts 
for their exceptional stability when light. 

In a later chapter I give particulars of new oil- 
carrying vessels which are being built at the present 
time, and these show that this company is well to the 
front, both in the matter of new tonnage and early 
delivery. 

The records of the fleet show that those who hold 
commands are men of exceptional ability and 
experience; men who not only know how to navigate 
a ship, but who have a practical knowledge of how to 
handle all kinds of oil in every part of the world. 
Some have splendid records in this specialised work 
on the Atlantic, and it is to the credit of them 
all that not one of their number has lost a tank 
steamer. 

The marine oil-carrying branch of the company's 
business has been built up contemporaneously with 
the chief storage installations at Purfleet, and the 
development of the distribution facilities in the 
metropolis and the provinces. From the start the 
company has adopted the latest methods of handling 
oil ashore and afloat, always keeping well ahead of 
the times, and the entire system is founded on a 
cardinal idea of the directors that the plan which 
ensures safety in storage and dispatch in transport 
guarantees the increasing prosperity of a business of 
this kind. 

The marine part of the company's history is 
uneventful ; it is merely a record of safe and successful 
work. The first tank steamers built were the Bayonne 
and Manhattan. In the case of these steamers the 
far-seeing representatives of the company made it 
plain that they had their own well-defined ideas, and 
refused to be dictated to by any of the shipbuilders 
from whom they secured tenders. They had designs 
well ahead of the times. Competition resulted in 
the order for the Manhattan going to Messrs. J. D. 
Dunlop & Co., while Messrs. Inglis got the order 
for the Bayonne. The work at the yards started in 
1889, and the only remarkable incident about the 
launches was that the Bayonne entered the water 
sideways. 

On their first trips the Bayonne was commanded 
by Capt Payne (who rose to be the commodore of 
the fleet, and died only two years ago, a very short 



time after he took charge of the Narragansett on her 
maiden trip across the Atlantic), while the Manhattan 
was taken away from the Clyde by Capt Leighton, 
also deceased. I may say that I met the late Capt. 
Payne on several occasions, and remember that he 
once told this story. He was in an Indian port in 
command of a sailing ship when a fortune-telling 
tribesman gave him a forecast of his life. "The 
fellow told me," said the Captain gravely, " that the 
day would come when I would command a very large 
steamer in a peculiar trade." And then, quizzically — 
" Now, I would just like to know whether that know- 
ing fellow in India had his eye on the Narragansett 
It really looks very much like it, doesn't it ? " And 
the company laughed heartily, without anyone being 
able to say just in what way the popular old commodore 
expected his story to be taken. 

Of this magnificent type of shipmaster — one of the 
old school that always started in sail — it was once 
said by Mr. James McDonald " that he commanded 
the first vessel the company launched on the Clyde, 
and had gone from one steamer to another as they 
were launched until he finished with the Narragansett? 
his last command, alas ! 

One of the last acts performed by Capt Payne 
before he gave up command of the Narragansett was 
to pick up the French steamer Gallia and tow her 
into Halifax half a knot faster than the disabled 
vessel could steam. 

The ever young and resourceful Capt Scott, 
formerly in command of the Tuscarora and other 
Anglo-American steamers, succeeded Capt Payne, 
and has now had two most successful years in the 
huge oil-carrier. He came into oil in the days of the 
old Kerosene Company, when transport in this 
country was a primitive and unpopular business, 
entered the employ of the " Anglo " when they took 
over some of the vessels of that company, and, 
although well known in most of the world's great oil 
ports, makes no secret of the fact that he favours 
New York, the Thames, and the Tyne — the last named 
because it is his native river and the place where the 
Narragansett bunkers and starts on each round 
voyage. Capt. Scott is more than a commander ; 
like Capt. Brown (of the Caucasian) and some other 
masters who are in the oil trade, he is not content to 
let his duty end with the navigation of his vessel, 
but takes a real practical and constant interest in 
the safe and proper handling of her cargoes. 

To return to the history of the fleet, I have only to 
repeat that I have found it barren of romance ; the 



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record which it possesses is one of safe and successful 
transport, with nothing more in it than an occasional 
stormy passage and a display of clever seamanship. 

The medium-sized tankers have all done splendid 
work. The Delaware a small tanker compared with 
the record carrier of the fleet, was said, when she 
was launched by Messrs. Dunlop & Co. (1893), to 
"exemplify the most modern improvements in petro- 
leum tank steamers." This was owing to her most 
superior system of compartments. 

At least one interesting record has been made by 
the Potomac ; built by Messrs. A. and J. Inglis (she 
left the Clyde on September 8th, 1893) an( ^ a remark- 
ably fine sea boat and an economical and safe oil- 
carrier. When her owners approached the Port and 
Docks Board at Dublin for permission to erect the 
buildings and plant to work the tank system, the 
board undertook to introduce certain improvements 
and let the company have a tract of land on the north 
side of the Alexandra Basin. Six months before the 
arrival of the Potomac with the first cargo of bulk oil, 
the work of putting up new buildings, pumping plant 
and storage tanks (each capable of holding 30,000 
barrels of oil) was commenced, and it was stated at 
the time " that a feature in connection with the new 
installation would be that all barrels used in the 
Irish business would be made in Dublin, instead of 
imported ready-made." The Potomac discharged the 
first cargo of bulk oil at Dublin, and her arrival 
on February 2nd, 1889, with 1,206,200 gallons of 
illuminating oil gave the greatest satisfaction to 
the municipal and port authorities, who were de- 
lighted to witness the inauguration of a new trade 
and the threatened extinction of the old barrel 
system. 

On September 18th, 1903, the Potomac delivered 
her hundredth cargo of bulk oil, having crossed the 
Atlantic two hundred times in ten years, during 
which period she discharged nearly half a million 
tons of oil. Up to the present (June, this year) she 
has completed one hundred and thirty-three voyages, 
keeping up the good average of the runs which she 
made when she was one of the crack oil-carriers of 
the Atlantic. I suppose she has made more Atlantic 
voyages than any other tank steamer. 

In 1899 the company purchased the Kasbek and 
Darial, and in 1900 the Elbruz, sister ship of the 
Kasbek, was also secured. In the new employ these 
steamers are known as Suwanee, Genesee and Ottawa. 
Built by Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., they 
are still running in the American oil trade. 



An example of the quickness with which an oil- 
carrying vessel can be converted into an ordinary 
freighter was provided by the first voyage of the 
company's Seminole, built by Messrs. Furness, 
Withy & Co., of Hartlepool, some five years ago. 
She is 414 ft. in length, her machinery is aft, and 
provision is made under the engines and boilers for 
water ballast, while the fore and aft peaks and 
double bottom under the fore-hold are also available 
for ballast. 

She has fourteen oil-tight bulkheads, with oil-tight 
centre division through oil tanks and expansion 
trunks. There are in all sixteen separate oil tanks. 
Trunks are fitted above each oil compartment to 
allow the oil to expand with the increase of tempera- 
ture. The pump room at the after end of the oil 
tanks is fitted with two separate oil pumps for dis- 
charging the oil cargo. A powerful fan is fitted for 
exhausting foul air from the oil compartments and 
making the spaces thoroughly suitable for the carriage 
of ordinary cargo when required. The construction 
of the vessel throughout received special attention, 
very heavy shell plates, deck plates, etc., being fitted 
to minimise the risk of leakage of the oil cargo. A 
large cargo hold is fitted at the fore end of the vessel, 
and provision is also made for the carriage of cargo 
along the expansion trunks as well as in the poop. 
The engines and boilers are by Messrs. Richardson, 
Westgarth & Co., Ltd., Hartlepool 

She left the Tyne on July 27th, 1904, on her 
maiden voyage to Novorossisk to load bulk oil, a 
cargo of nearly 7,000 tons, for Calcutta, Having 
discharged at Calcutta, she loaded jute for Dundee, 
at which port she finished discharging on November 
2 1st, having done the round voyage well within four 
months. 

The company's successful steamer Tuscarora is 
the prototype of the NarragansetU These vessels 
are built on the same lines, and, as I have already 
stated, the Narragansett is the largest and fastest 
tank steamer afloat. She was completed by the 
Scotts,* of Greenock, in 1903, and was their first 
oil-carrying steamer. 



* The firm was founded by John Scott in 171 1. 
The family has maintained an unbroken connection 
with the shipbuilding industry for 200 years, a record 
that is almost unique in the history of Western 
manufactures. To-day the descendants (sixth genera- 
tion) worthily maintain the high traditions which 
have accumulated during the intervening two 
centuries. 



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THE NARRAGANSETT. 



#» #»»m« *•• SO. 








n 




The building of this huge vessel in that year, 
when the shipping branch of this business was far 
from prosperous (it was one of the years when many 
tank steamers were lying idle, owing to the failure 
of the Texas oil export business to come up to 
English expectations), was not only testimony to the 
enterprise of the London company, but showed in a 
most significant manner the stability of the Anglo- 
American oil trade and its freedom from those com- 
mercial influences which are known to interfere with 
the success of similar companies. 

The steamers of the "Anglo" are named after 
American rivers, and this has led to their being known 
as the "River" Line. The Narragansett is named 
after a watering-place near New York. 

The Nqrragansett is remarkable in several ways ; 
not only is she the largest bulk oil-carrier afloat, but 
she makes a record as the largest vessel built on the 
lower reaches of the Clyde, and stands first for size in 
the dry docking business on the Tyne. 

She has a length between perpendiculars of 
512 ft. and over-all of 531 ft.; the beam is 63 ft 
3 in., and the depth, moulded, 42 ft Her gross 
tonnage is about 11,000 tons, and the dead-weight 
carrying capacity on a draught of 27 ft is 12,500 tons, 
of which over 11,000 tons is oil in tanks, and 1,500 
tons either coal or oil fuel. When fully laden her 
displacement is about 21,000 tons. She belongs to 
Lloyd's A 1 three-deck class, with a complete shelter 
deck, but it is obvious that in many respects she is in 
excess of Lloyd's requirements, which are particularly 
stringent in the case of tank steamers. 

The combination of the great size, and the struc- 
tural arrangements peculiar to oil-carrying vessels, 
presented numerous problems to designer and builders, 
and the fact that these were successfully solved is con- 
sidered most creditable to Messrs. Scott & Co., seeing 
that she was their first order of this description, and 
entitled them to be placed on the list of shipbuilding 
concerns competent to turn out this class of work. 
Owing to the number and arrangements of the sub- 
divisions, she is practically unsinkable under any 
circumstances, and, I should say, the safest vessel 
engaged in the Transatlantic trade. The owners 
spared no expense in securing every advantage that 
their great experience in the building and running of 
this class of ship could suggest 

There are no less than eighteen 'thwartship bulk- 
heads, and these compartments are subdivided by 
longitudinal bulkheads, forming in all twenty-seven 
separate compartments below the main deck — a 



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wonderful guarantee of stability and safety. With 
one or two exceptions, these compartments have been 
made absolutely oil-tight The number of rivets 
used in construction of the vessel was over 1,250,000. 

The Narragansett has her machinery amidships, 
which necessitates the expensive, but most advisable, 
arrangement of a circular tunnel passing through eight 
separate oil compartments astern of the engine-room. 
Access to the tunnel is obtained from the shelter deck 
by two separate trunks, one at each end, both of 
which also pass through the oil tanks. The oil tanks 
proper, sixteen in number, are all below the main deck, 
eight being forward and eight aft of the machinery 
space. Between the main and upper decks are the 
expansion tanks, and four smaller oil compartments, 
to be used when the vessel is loaded down to her 
summer freeboard. There are four cofferdams of oil- 
tight construction, and the bunkers and deep ballast 
tanks are also made oil-tight for use as oil bunkers, 
should it be decided to adopt oil as fuel. Two oil- 
tight pump-rooms are fitted, one forward and one aft 
of the machinery space; these are entered from the 
upper and shelter decks. There are four oil pumps 
capable of discharging the oil at the rate of 900 tons 
per hour, or the whole cargo in about twelve hours, a 
discharging feat which it would be scarcely possible 
for any general cargo steamer in the world to accom- 
plish, no matter how numerous her discharging 
derricks might be. Suctions from the pumps are led 
to all the tanks and cofferdams, and these and all ' 
the discharging arrangements are of the most perfect 
description. There is an excellent pumping installa- 
tion of the "Snow" type on board. Steam pumps are 
fitted for pumping out the tunnel and the various 
ballast tanks, which consist of the double bottom 
under the machinery, the peaks, and a large, deep 
tank forward. 

Any of the oil tanks are, of course, also available 
as ballast tanks, in the event of the ship requiring to 
make a light voyage, and this arrangement guarantees 
safety from many dangers which beset a light ship in 
an Atlantic gale. Most complete arrangements are 
made for turning the vessel into an ordinary cargo 
steamer within a few hours of her employment as an 
oil-carrier. The thorough cleansing of the oil tanks 
from oil and gas is essential, and this was so carefully 
considered that the anticipation of her builders and 
owners that she will be able to make records in quick 
conversions to a general cargo carrier, are certain to 
be justified if ever the change is necessary. Steam 
connections are arranged to all the tanks for cleaning 



and fire extinguishing purposes, and a most elaborate 
system of ventilation has been adopted for clearing 
the tanks of gas. A large fan, fitted in each of the 
pump rooms, is connected to each tank by pipes for 
the supply and suction of air. Large and numerous 
cowl ventilators are fitted on the shelter deck, with 
portable pipes leading from them to the oil tanks. 
The coamings for these pipes on the oil decks are 
fitted with oil-tight removable covers for use when 
the tanks are filled with oil. The cargo gear on deck 
consists of sixteen derricks fitted on " Samson " posts, 
and nine large and specially designed steam winches. 
In addition to the centre line of hatches, which com- 
municate by oil-tight trunks with the oil tanks, side 
hatches are fitted to the upper and lower 'tween decks, 
which are always available for cargo, even when the 
oil tanks are full. She has facilities for a spread of 
awnings, both fore and aft, to prevent the sun heating 
the decks in very hot weather. 

One of the chief characteristics of a most perfect 
installation of voice tubes, fitted by Messrs. Durham, 
Churchill & Co., of Sheffield, is their insulation from 
any part of the vessel which can impart vibration. 
The fittings insure perfect insulation. As a stand-by 
to the mechanical telegraph they are invaluable, as 
not only can they be used if the latter fail, but they 
can be requisitioned for a variety of purposes, including 
the giving of orders which are altogether beyond the 
scope of the mechanical telegraph. A breakdown in 
the mechanical telegraph when such a huge vessel is 
steaming full speed, or being worked in a crowded 
water-way or dock, may be a very serious matter, as, 
before any messenger could be sent from the bridge 
to the engine-room, the ship would have covered a 
considerable distance, or got into trouble amongst 
crowded shipping. Equally, in the event of any 
break-down in the engine-room rendering it im- 
possible to fulfil any order received from the bridge, 
it is of the utmost importance that the navigation 
officer should be informed of it immediately, and this, 
of course, can be accomplished by means of these 
tubes. The patent is the invention of Rear- Admiral 
Henry Rose. 

The Narragansett is an exceptionally fine job on 
deck, where the high finish of everything is obvious 
to those who visit her. Her 'tween decks are lighted 
by side-lights through the ship's side, so that she can, 
if necessary, be readily made available for carrying 
cattle or troops ; indeed, it may with truth be said 
that no vessel in the world is equipped to run in such 
a multiplicity of trades. 



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The engine-room is a huge place, with the light 
penetrating into every corner. The machinery, con- 
structed by the builders, is of very massive design, 
and consists of a set of triple-expansion engines, and 
six large single-ended boilers, capable of generating 
steam to develop over 5,500 i.h.-p., which will propel 
the vessel at a greater speed than 13 knots. The 
cylinders are supported by six " split " columns, three 
of which carry a circular condenser, formed of steel 
plating, of large cooling surface, and supplied with 
water by an 18-in. centrifugal circulating pump, 
driven by two independent engines. There is a com- 
plete installation of auxiliary machinery, including 
two sets of slow-speed boiler feed pumps, feed heater 
and evaporator, feed filters, and one of Crampton's 
Atmospheric Silent Ash Hoists (self-tipping) in each 
stokehold. In a vessel with such a great depth 
of stokehold, inventions like these are not only 
necessary, but they are labour-saving to quite a 
humane extent. 

The boilers have a working pressure of 200 lbs. 
per square inch, and are placed three abreast in two 
stokeholds. They are worked under natural draught, 
and the funnel, which is 15 ft. diameter, rises to a 
height of 105 ft. above the grate bars. The shafting 
is much in excess of Lloyd's requirements, and the 
propeller (20 ft in diameter) is fitted with four 
adjustable bronze blades. 

For the perfectioa and success of the steamer the 
company are much indebted to Mr. Blair, who played 
an important part in the planning and carrying out 
of the work. Anything that Mr. Blair does not know 
about steamships is not worth knowing. In super- 
intending the work Mr. Blair was ably assisted by 
Mr. Morton (the chief engineer of the vessel) and 
Mr. M'Ewan, who superintended the construction of 
this and many other oil-carrying vessels for the com- 
pany. Concerning her, Mr. Blair has said : " There is 
not a finer vessel of her class in the world. I know 
almost every oil vessel afloat. None of them will 
compare with the Narragansett ; they have not the 
accommodation ; they have not the same good 
fittings ; and the owners have not spent the same 



amount of money in order to get the same first-class 
job." 

The anticipations of Mr. R. Sinclair Scott that 
she would have a most successful career, and repeat 
to the fullest extent, when in the actual and peculiar 
service of the company, the excellent results of the 
first day's trial, have been already fulfilled. Steaming, 
she has given uniformly good results with ordinary 
coal, and some of these are shown in the following 
table : — 



o 



£ 



15 
16 

18 

19 
20 
21 



Totals ... 
Averages 



•DO S 

5x1 



lb. 
I "60 

1-58 

1*64 
I '63 
1-50 

153 
1-50 
1-50 

1-44 
143 
1*50 
1*32 

1-56 

1-44 
1-46 



73 « 



Tons. 
918 

923 



924 
847 

837 
780 
846 



I\*>I 



6,075 
868 



1* 

it 



Tons. 
822 

834 



836 

775 
760 
707 
766 



a 6 

"I 



1; 



5.500 
786 



Miles. 
3.447 

3.403 

3.469 
3.441 
3.423 
3.3" 

3.330 



23,825 
3.404 



8.1 



Tons. 
10,298 

10,289 



10,499 
10,563 
10,570 
10,641 
10,651 



73>5" 
10,50! 



> „ 



Knots. 
10-85 

io-8o 



10-40 
ii-io 
10-85 
11-50 
io*6o 



u 



\t 



I.H.P. 

3.713 
3.900 

3.951 
3.775 
3.668 

3.949 
3.796 
3.937 
3.720 

3.909 
3.8i3 
4,107 

3.8i7 
3.909 
3,870 

3.746 



10 



*L 



3,848 



Her best round voyage — the Tyne to New York 
in ballast trim, and back across the Atlantic to the 
Thames with a full cargo of 12,000 tons— occupied 
27 days ; her average one (10 J days) being 12*3, and 
the homeward run (12 days) 1 1*5. Shortly afterwards 
she made 11*9 on an eastward run. She can do the 
round voyage in the shortest month of the year, and 
seldom takes longer than a month if she is given an 
ordinary dispatch. 

The company (with Mr. John Usmar as head 
director) is steadily building and acquiring new 
tonnage, and developing its storage, barrelling and 
distributing facilities to meet an ever-increasing trade 
in all parts of these islands. 




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The same company's steamer Suwanee in an Atlantic gale. She is one of the best sea boats carrying oil. 




This steamer (launched as the Lurigen, the second of that name) was this year purchased and renamed the Cuyahoga 

by the Anglo-American Oil Company. 



5*^ 



A£& 



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V OF 7 



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( 3i ) 



Oil-Carrying Fleets of the Anglo-American Oil Co. 



TANK STEAMERS. 



Steamer. 


Captain. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Depth. 


Oil Capacity. 


I.H.P. 


Narragansett . 


J. D. Scott . 

F. S. Hollinshead . 


5" 


63-4 


32*6 


10,975 tons, 


or 75,600 brls. 


4.500 


Tuscarora . 


420-4 


53'2 


29*1 


7>25<> »* 


„ 49,800 „ 


3*300 


Chesapeake 


W. Gray . 


370 


47-1 


27-8 


5»200 „ 


„ 36,000 „ 


2,500 


Housatonic 


J. B. Henry 




3474 


45*6 


27*2 


4*725 »» 


„ 32,500 „ 


I,8oo 


Delaware . 


C. Cabot . 




345 


44'3 


23*0 


4,680 „ 


„ 32,200 „ 


2,500 


Potomac . 


T. R. Mackay 




345'2 


44*2 


23-0 


4*650 » 


„ 32,000 „ 


2,500 


Lackawanna 


F. W. Gray 




345 


44'3 


23-0 


4»7i5 ** 


», 3 2 i5oo „ 


2,500 


Appalachu 


P. Nicolls 




340 


44'2 


22-1 


4>5oo „ 


11 31*500 ** 


1,800 


Tonawanda 


C. Clarke 




33o 


427 


28"4 


4»3oo „ 


„ 29,800 „ 


1,700 


Weehawken 


G. Harding 




310 


40-2 


28*2 


3*685 „ 


„ 25,400 „ 


1,250 


Ottowa 


R. G. Tait 




3095 


40-4 


28-2 


3,600 „ 


„ 24,800 „ 


1,250 


Suwanee 


L. M. Wright 


310 


40-4 


283 


3*575 »* 


„ 24,500 „ 


1,250 


Genesee 


T. H. Albrethsen . 


3io 


40*2 


28*3 


3»72o „ 


„ 24,900 „ 


1,250 


Tioga 


N. Macdonald . 


2767 


38-0 


257 


2,600 „ 


„ 18,200 „ 


I,000 


Imperial 


L. Morison 


200 


32-0 


I 4 '4 


800 „ 


„ 5*6oo „ 


700 


Osceola 


S. Hall . 


140-5 


26*1 


108 


300 „ 


„ 2,100 „ 


400 


Dakotah 


W. A. Ross . 


35o 


47-0 


27-6 


5»3°o >» 


„ 36,500 „ 


2,000 


Seminole . 


Jas. Whyte 


400-6 


52-2 


30-8 


6,800 „ 


„ 47,000 „ 


2,8oo 


Ashtabula . 


C. E. Harwood 


428 


547 


3o*5 


7*72o „ 


>* 53»2oo „ 


3,000 


Winnebago 


D. Macdonald. 


360 


497 


287 


6,100 „ 


„ 42,000 „ 


I,8oo 


Cuyahoga . 


C. Dyer . 


3703 


48-5 


28-8 


6,000 „ 


*> 


1,900 



CARGO STEAMERS. 

These steamers carry oil in cases, and are of the ordinary freight steamer type. 



Steamer. 


Captain. 


Gross. 


Nett. 


Dead- 
weight. 


Length, 
feet. 


Breadth, 
feet. 


Depth, 
feet. 


I.H.P. 


Hudson 
Seneca 
Kennebec . 
SchuylkiU . 


C. Fenton 
W. Grimes 
C. R. Beynon . 
R. Anderson . 


3,679 
4,848 

5,077 
5.I76 


2,376 

3,171 
3,301 
3,344 


6,000 
7,850 
8,400 
8,400 


356o 
3900 
4050 
411-8 


45'2 
521 
52-2 

52'3 


187 
27-0 
276 
27-6 


1,650 
1,700 
1,900 
2,000 



SAILING SHIPS. 

These carry oil in cases, and are generally employed in the Far Eastern Trade. 



Vessel. 


Captain. 


Gross. 


Nett. 


Dead- 
weight. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Depth. 


Brilliant . 


C. Morrison 


3»765 


3,609 


5,900 


3525 


49-1 


282 


Daylight . 


H. A. Nickersen 


3*756 


3*599 


5,900 


351-5 


49-1 


28-2 


Comet 


W. J. Davis . 


3,OH 


2,890 


5,000 


323-0 


46*1 


26*0 


Lawhill . 




. C. B. Jarvis 


2,942 


2,749 


4,400 


317-4 


45'o 


25'I 


Juteopolis . 
Alciaes 


J 


P. Stewart 


2,842 


2,652 


4,300 


310-0 


450 


251 




. B. Cummings 


2,704 


2,492 


4,120 


312*1 


432 


244 


Kcntmere . 




. C. Amberman 


2,525 


2,347 


3,690 


300*0 


42-2 


24-7 


Lyndhurst 


J 


P. H. Parnell . 


2,3H 


2,249 


3*650 


295-0 


42-1 


241 


King George 




. C. White . 


2,242 


2,057 


3,430 


278-4 


421 


24*2 


Glendoon . 


j 


H. C. Robinson 


1,981 


1,824 


3,120 


266*3 


40-1 


231 


Drumeltan 


L. D. Vance 


1,909 


1,820 


2,770 


266-0 


40*2 


24*1 


Johanna 


C. Mclvor 


1,756 


1,651 


2,680 


239-8 


377 


229 


Calcutta (Tank Sailer) 


H. H. Davies . 


1,694 


i*578 


2,600 


248-0 


40-2 


21*9 


Arrow 


D. McDonnell. 


3,090 


2,971 


5,ooo 


3277 


46-5 


262 


Eclipse 


J. McBryde 


3,090 


2,969 


5,000 


326-8 


46-4 


26*2 


Radiant 


A. Smart 


i,974 


1,845 


3*300 


264-9 


40-1 


23-6 


Alaerita 


J. Thornton 


1,980 


1,823 


3,200 


265-0 


40-1 


23*6 



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i 





ONE company alone— the Anglo-American 
— imports and sells in Great Britain each 
year more than one hundred million 
gallons of illuminating oil—enough to fill 
eight hundred million ordinary lamps. If these 
lamps were placed in line, allowing 7 inches to 
each, there would be 106,660 miles of lamps ; 
more than sufficient to go four times round the 
world ! 

In 1859 the total imports of American oil by 
Great Britain amounted to two million gallons. 
Now they exceed one hundred million gallons. 
Yet nineteen years ago the Anglo-American 
Company did not exist. If the reason for such 
a revolution in the British oil trade be sought 
for, it will be found in the enterprise and readi- 
ness of the company to adopt new and improved 
methods of handling the business in this country. 



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OFF THE TYNE. 





The Elax is one of the medium-sized steamers of the 
Shell Transport and Trading Company. This photo 
was taken as she was leaving the Tyne in April, this 
year, for a trial trip, after having Undergone extensive 
repairs and overhaul, and been co .verted into an oil 
burner I y Messrs. Smith's Dock Company. The work- 
included the renewal of a considerable number of 
shell plates, the overhauling and renewal of the internal 
fittings ot the accommodation, and the hydraulic 
testing of the whole of the oil compartments. The 
whole of the upper and lower decks forming the bunker 
space were renewed, and extra frames and web frames 
were fitted to the main frames on both of these 
decks. Included in her new liquid fuel burning 




equipment were the Rusden-Eeles patent burners and 
the Flannery-Boyd patent system of heating coils and 
gravitation tanks for purifying the fuel before it Hows 
to the burners. 

When the Elax left for her trial, practically a new 
steamer, she was able, with her new steam-raising 
equipment, to easily maintain a speed of n knots on 
a consumption of 14.J cwts. of liquid fuel per hour, 
this being equivalent to a consumption of only 17.} tons 
per day for all purposes, as against 30 tons of coal 
consumed for the same woik on her previous voyages. 

The vessel carries some 5,500 tons of cargo, and is the 
eighteenth steamer of this fleet fitted to bum liquid 
fuel. 



IN THE THAMES. 





The Anglo-American Oil Company's steamer Chesapeake (built by D. J. Dunlop &. Co.) discharging oil at Purflee 




I I'o face /. .?.-, 



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r^ HAPTER IV. 




R fifteen years the founder and head of 
the Shell Company, Sir Marcus Samuel, 
has exerted a powerful and far-reaching 
influence in the oil world. It was during 
the Suez Canal agitation (referred to in the two suc- 
ceeding chapters) that his first company — Messrs. M. 
Samuel & Co. — came prominently to the front 
in the marine oil transport business. About 1892, 
when the Standard Oil Company had adopted the 
petroleum-in-bulk system, and the owners of tank 
steamers on the Caspian had proved it to be success- 
ful, he urged the importance of exporting Russian 
oil on a large scale to the markets of the Far East. 
The transport of Caucasian oil in cases was a huge 
business, but as a system it was out of date and 
expensive, and Sir Marcus, with his vast experience 
as a Yokohama merchant, saw that a cheap product 
like Russian kerosene could only meet the high 
charges of transport and the cost of getting it across 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans when handled in bulk. 
Sir Marcus considered that the engineering difficulties 
standing in the way of sending a tank steamer from 
Batoum to the Far East vid Suez were not insur- 
mountable, and just how enthusiastically and ably 
he put his ideas into practice forms a story which 
has been too frequently told by me elsewhere to be 
repeated in this work. 

Seven years after the start (and just about seven 
years ago), Sir Marcus said — "This company (the 
Shell Company had just been formed) depends more 
largely upon its trade as a carrier than as an oil 
merchant for its earning power; this will be the 
more readily understood when I *ay that we trans- 
port some 350,000 tons of merchandise yearly, and 
that a rise or fall of 2s. 6d. per ton in freight means a 
difference in revenue of £45,000 per annum." 

Sir Fortescue Flannery, in 1899, the year before 
the Bulysses, Cardium and Strotnbus were launched, 
declared that no cargo vessels, and probably no mail 
or passengers steamers, were more thoroughly, care- 
fully and systematically kept than the Shell liners. 



The Stemmers of the Shell Transport 
and Trading Company.* Mr. 
Ooullchambarott and Sir Marcos 
Samuel. 

At that time the largest Shell steamer was the 
Tclcna (4,778 tons), but she carried less than half the 
cargo of the Goldtnouth, the latest addition to the 
fleet 

The history of the concern managed by Messrs. 
M. Samuel & Co. for a period of fifteen years has 
been placed before the public in a number of different 
ways, and in every account it has been shown that 
the enterprising and extensive participation of Sir 
Marcus Samuel in the petroleum transport business 
has been an immense factor in the growth and 
prosperity of the illuminating oil and liquid fuel 
trades of the world. 

There is no greater authority on petroleum 
production and transport subjects than Mr. S. 
Goulichambaroff. Thirty years ago he started 
elaborate official investigations in the Caucasian oil 
fields, and, since then, has frequently represented the 
Russian Government in the chief oil fields of the 
world. On his return from the oil fields of Texas he 
discussed the position of the Shell Transport and 
Trading Company in the markets of the world, and 
the following summary of his opinions will give the 
reader an idea of the position of the company in the 
year of its greatest prosperity : — 

"The founder of this company, Sir Marcus 
Samuel, is an extremely energetic and enterprising 
man. For many years he has carried on an extensive 
trade with the Far East, and his influence is felt over 
an extensive territory washed by the waters of the 
Indian and Pacific Oceans. He is at the head of a 
great trading combine. Eastern goods he obtains 
from Eastern merchants, who, in their turn, are 
supplied with European (particularly English) pro- 
ducts. The exchange of goods, in view of the great 
competition in these important districts, could not 
at the start reach a position of very great importance ; 
but the business of Sir Marcus Samuel began to grow 
quickly after the opening of the Baku-Batoum 
Railway. Sir Marcus Samuel, foreseeing a new way 
of extending his undertakings, came to an agreement 



* Renamed (in July this year) the Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company. 



O.T. 



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with Rothschild to supply him with kerosene. At 
that time the Far East was supplied with illuminating 
oil by the Americans. This market seemed already 
occupied. Sir Marcus did not hesitate; he decided 
to enter upon a struggle with American enterprise, 
and began to export Russian kerosene to places 
where there was no American competition. 

" The first attempts in the export of oil in barrels 
or cases from Batoum showed the profitable character 
of the enterprise ; they also showed him that the 
best way to distribute Russian oil at the ports of the 
Indian and Pacific Oceans would be to transport it 
in bulk. The bulk oil transport in the Caspian Sea 
gave favourable results, and Messrs. M. Samuel & Co. 
built the first tanker to run between Batoum and the 
Far East. With the object of opening up this trade 
he entered into an agreement with the Suez Canal 
Company for the passage of inflammable cargoes, 
and constructed oil stations at several of the most 
important points. Russian oil was shipped there in 
bulk, barrelled, and put into tins, for the most part old 
and chiefly American. This idea turned out to be a 
good one, and he began to order new tankers to 
extend the sale of Russian kerosene in the Far East. 
Thus Messrs. Samuel & Co. were the pioneers of 
this new oil transport route* Ten years afterwards 
Russian oil was sent to the Far East by Mantascheff 
and Rothschild, but neither the one nor the other 
possessed the commercial experience of Sir Marcus 
Samuel, who relied greatly on his knowledge of the 
local merchants. The attempts made by the other 
Russian producers were not successful ; in fact, they 
merely caused a disastrous competition amongst the 
vendors of Russian oil. In view of the rapidly 
increasing business in kerosene, Messrs. Samuel & Co. 
found it expedient to form a limited company. This 
was floated in 1897, with a capital of £1,800,000 in 
£100 shares. After three years the organisation of 
the company was re-arranged, and the capital was in- 
creased to £2,000,000, the shares being reduced to £1. 

" A considerable and valuable experience in the 
Russian kerosene business showed Sir Marcus 
Samuel that it was difficult to guarantee the regular 
arrival of cargoes at any particular port He felt 
that a successful business largely depended on this 
difficulty being overcome. In order to keep his 
tankers constantly employed he began to use them 
not only in the Far East, but also in the West — in 
England, Italy, France and other countries. Besides 

* Query. 



this, Sir Marcus entered into negotiations with certain 
Dutch oil companies for the transport of their produce. 
The kerosene of the Dutch Indies, in order to satisfy 
local demands, was sent to Chinese India, China and 
Japan, while solar and gas oils and benzine, not 
being in demand in those places, were sent to Europe, 
more particularly to England, where they entered 
into competition with Russian and American oils. In 
order to be still more independent in his illuminating 
oil business, Sir Marcus acquired large oil-bearing 
districts in the Island of Borneo, where he commenced 
boring on a large scale. He erected storage 
accommodation and made arrangements for the 
refining and delivery of oil. At the start results did 
not quite justify his early hopes, and, as far as I have 
been able to collect information on this subject, the 
enterprise in Borneo did not meet with that success 
which he expected to secure. It appeared to be con- 
ceived and worked out without a full knowledge of 
the actual wants of the trade. At any rate, the entire 
production of oil in Borneo, although still small, is 
distilled in the Shell Company's refineries.* The 
erection of the storage accommodation for oil and the 
building of the pipe-lines, reservoirs, refineries, and 
tankers for the coast trade cost the Shell Company 
a great deal of money. To cover this the capital of 
the company was increased by the issue of new shares 
to the amount of ;£i, 000,000. 

" A rich oil field was opened up in Texas. This 
produced oil which was cheaper than the products of 
Pennsylvania and the Caucasus, and also cheaper 
than those of Dutch India and Borneo. With a fleet 
of tank steamers he discovered this to be an 
opportune time for the larger distribution of oil in 
the markets of the world. With this object in view, 
he entered into an agreement with the largest Texas 
enterprise, the Guffey Petroleum Company, to export 
their crude oil and its products to Europe. The 
Shell Company, with its agreements with the 
American and Indo-Dutch companies, is a mighty 
power in the transport and production of oil. In 
Dutch India and in Texas it possesses immense 
interests connected with oil-bearing lands, and has 
the necessary equipment for producing and refining 
oil at a low cost ; while in the chief markets of the 
Far East and in Great Britain it has all the necessary 
facilities for the distribution of oil products. Sir 
Marcus Samuel, while he has been at the head of the 
Shell Company, has always taken a wide view of 

* These refineries are now worked by the Royal 
Dutch and Shell Companies combined. 



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business ; he has constantly thought, not only of 
the trade in illuminating oils, but of many other 
important branches of the business, and, looking into 
the future, he has foreseen the growth of extensive 
markets for new products — gasoline, for instance, and 
particularly liquid fuel. Respecting gasoline, it 
should not be forgotten that he took the initiative 
in the carriage of this product in his tank vessels. 
He has also shown that ordinary cargoes can be 
safely carried in his vessels. It has likewise been 
proved that liquid cargoes can be carried more 
economically than ordinary cargoes." 

The pioneer tanker was the Murex, built in 1892 
at West Hartlepool. She has made many records ; 
these include the carriage of the first oil cargo through 
the Suez. Capt Coundon had command on her 
first voyage. The Conch* was also built at West 
Hartlepool in the same year, the Bullmouth being 
launched at the same place a year later, when the 
Trocas (4,129 tons, and the largest of her class) was 
launched at Sunderland. After her came the Elax, 
Clam and Volute, all built at West Hartlepool in 1893. 
The Nerite was launched on the Tyne in 1895, and 
her loss in the Suez Canal is referred to in the chapter 
devoted to tank steamer catastrophes. During the 
first three years the company converted a number 
of cargo vessels into tank steamers, the Euplutela 
(since sold) being one of the most successful 

It was not until 1899, when Borneo started to 
attract attention as a liquid fuel producing island, 
that the company decided to order leviathans of the 
type of the Cardiutn and Bulysses, and three years 
later, record oil-carriers like the Pinna (sold), Silverlip 
(lost) and Goldmouth. From the start it was always 
recognised that wherever and whenever an improve- 
ment was possible in transport equipment and 
facilities ashore or in the steamers the money of the 
shareholders and the enterprise of the directors were 
quickly employed to take advantage of the new ideas, 
particularly when they promised to develop business 
in connection with the transport of oil in bulk and 
the working of oil properties in Borneo. 

* This liner was wrecked in 1903 on the Akurala 
Reef, while on a voyage from Colombo to Madras. 
She had only been a short time on the passage, when 
she encountered heavy weather and drove ashore on 
a treacherous part of the coast Within a quarter 
of an hour of striking her bows were under water, 
and two hours after she broke in two. Owing to the 
tremendous surf breaking on the shore, the boats were 
unable to land, but the natives came to the rescue 
and succeeded in landing the shipwrecked crew, 
eleven Europeans and thirty-four Lascars. 



It is quite impossible to give particulars of the 
numerous experiments carried out on Shell steamers. 
I have, however, attempted to summarise the ac- 
counts of some of their most important performances 
as oil fuel burners and dual cargo carriers ; for it is 
largely, if not chiefly, owing to the experiments of 
this company that shipowners and others have come 
to see that the modern tank steamer can load, carry 
and discharge delicate and even perishable cargoes 
with the same facility and economy as ordinary cargo 

vessels, 

• • • • • 

The Trocas carries 6,000 tons when fully loaded 
with oil. She is fitted with three large single-ended 
boilers, each with three furnaces, and one multi- 
tubular donkey-boiler with two furnaces, all specially 
equipped with liquid fuel apparatus in 1901, eight 
years after she was launched. An obstacle in the 
way of fitting old steamers with liquid fuel burning 
arrangements is the difficulty of constructing suitable 
spaces to carry the oil. Ordinary coal bunkers are 
not suitable, as the rivetting and plating are not oil 
tight With the " Flannery-Boyd " system employed 
on the Trocas, the oil is carried in the ballast tank 
spaces — namely, fore and after peaks, double bottom 
ballast tanks under the engines and boilers, forward 
ballast tanks adjacent to the fore-peak, and forward 
and after cofferdams. The great difficulty in 
carrying liquid fuel in these spaces is that owing to 
imperfect drainage a certain quantity of water is 
always left in the ballast tanks. This water becomes 
mixed with the oil, which, on passing to the burners, 
causes explosions, and generally puts out the flame. 
The " Flannery-Boyd " system claims to get rid of the 
water in the liquid fuel. Two liquid fuel settling 
tanks of large capacity are placed in the 'tween decks 
amidships, immediately adjacent to the boiler room 
bulkhead. These are fitted with all the necessary 
heating coils, drainage arrangements, thermometers, 
and other fittings to enable the liquid fuel to be 
heated to a sufficient temperature to allow of the 
water freely separating. The water then settles to 
the bottom of the tanks and drains off. The settling 
tanks can be filled either direct from the deck or the 
forward liquid fuel carrying spaces by means of a 
pump placed at the forward end of the vessel, or from 
the after ballast tanks and cofferdam by means of 
two special pumps placed in the stokehold. The 
liquid fuel gravitates from the settling tanks through 
suitable filtering arrangements direct to the burners, 
and is, by means of the burners, injected into the 



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furnace with a spray of steam. Each furnace is fitted 
with two burners, and the furnace arrangements are 
such that the complete coal-burning gear remains 
intact when burning liquid fuel ; so that if the vessel 
is burning liquid fuel, and it is found necessary to 
resort to coal it is only a matter of raking out a few 
fire-bricks, disconnecting the burners, and lighting a 
coal fire. This can be done without stopping the 
vessel, and the change in a large vessel can be made 
in less than an hour. Thus coal or oil can be burned 
at will, and an owner has the option, in whatever part 
of the world the steamer may be, of taking either coal 
or liquid fuel on board, whichever he may find to be 
the most economical, provided the latter is obtainable. 

Although the system has been adopted on the 
Trocas and other old steamers of the company, it is 
also applicable to new vessels in which the oil 
is carried in specially constructed bunkers or in the 
ballast tanks, as it is frequently found that liquid fuel 
contains a quantity of water, which must be eliminated 
before it can be satisfactorily burned in the furnaces. 

The Wallsend Slipway and Engineering Company, 
Ltd., are the licensees and makers of the Flannery- 
Boyd system and the Rushden and Elles* burners. 

One of the great oil-carriers of 1899 was the 
StrombuS) built by Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & 
Co., at Walker. Besides carrying a larger cargo than 
any tank steamer then afloat she embodied the latest 
developments of a combined oil and cargo steamer. 
She is arranged on Swan's patent principle, by which 
accommodation is provided for the expansion and 
contraction of the cargo under varying conditions of 
temperature, without in any way limiting the capacity 
of the holds for the reception of ordinary cargoes. 

In many of the Shell liners the system of oil burn- 
ing is that of Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. 
and Mr. E. L. Orde. The liquid fuel is introduced 
into the furnace in the form of vapour. An 
important characteristic of hydrocarbon oils is that, 
in the presence of superheated steam, they can be 
completely distilled without cracking, and the 
explanation of this fact has been stated to be that, in 
the presence of superheated steam, the boiling point — 
or, more correctly, the mean boiling point — of the 
oil is lowered. This distillation, however, does not 
apparently take place with any other medium but 
steam. To ensure distillation, it is necessary that the 
temperature of the oil shall be raised to as near boiling 
point as possible before it is admitted into the 
presence of the steam, and it is in this part of the 
process that the danger of cracking appears. 



In the apparatus fitted on these vessels complete 
vaporisation is secured, a fact which has been 
demonstrated times out of number in the presence 
of experts connected with every branch of the 
shipping and engineering industries. The vapour 
is completely oxidised by the amount of air chemically 
necessary, and it is claimed by the makers that a 
larger quantity of oil is treated in the same furnace 
space than in any other systems. While the specific 
amount of air actually required for complete com- 
bustion is 14*4 lb. per pound of oil, the amount 
recorded in connection with the boilers of the 
Bulysses is 147 lb. At the same time the temperature 
of the waste gases never exceeds 530 F. ; the boilers 
being of the ordinary marine type, 16 ft. 6 in. 
in diameter, by 11 ft 9 in. long, with four corru- 
gated furnaces. The boiler pressure is about 
180 lbs. 

The hydrocarbon vapour is exceedingly unstable, 
and appears to depend for its existence upon its tem- 
perature. The outer service of the jet is at once 
condensed, and forms an oily deposit of very much 
lighter colour than the fuel oil itself. But when 
burned in a boiler furnace over a layer of broken fire- 
brick, it gives a flame of dazzling whiteness, which 
becomes almost transparent as it approaches the 
bridge. The appearance of the flame at a distance 
of a few inches from the nozzle of the burner suggests 
that, at that point, the hydrocarbons are burning in 
the form of acetylene. At the higher temperature 
which prevails in the centre of the furnace, the rest of 
the vapour is probably burnt as carbon monoxide and 
hydrogen. 

The Bulysses, referred to in the preceding para- 
graph, was also built by Messrs. Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co. When she was leaving the Tyne 
for her trial trip on August 21st, 1900, she struck and 
sank the Tyne collier Greenwood. The Bulysses, like 
her sister ship, the Cardiutn, carries oil in bulk, with 
special cleansing and loading and discharging facilities 
for rapid conversion into a grain or general cargo 
carrier. She burns oil fuel. All the vessels of her 
class have been constructed to carry oil cargoes East 
and general cargo home, and conform to the Suez 
Canal regulations. 

The Pinna* a larger vessel than the Bulysses 
when she was launched by Messrs. Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co., in February, 1901, made a 
record for size, and, in addition, was intended to 

* Sold last year to Messrs. Lane & Macandrew. 



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inaugurate a new trade, her oil bunkers and oil- 
burning apparatus being designed for the non-stop 
run from the Far East to this country. The 
expansion of the liquid cargoes is arranged on Suran's 
patent principle, whereby ample range for expansion 
is provided for under the most extreme variations 
of temperature. For the rapid loading and dis- 
charging of cargoes every provision is made. She has 
a powerful steam windlass, warping capstan, steam 
steering gear, and is fitted throughout with electric 
light. The engines, supplied by the North-Eastern 
Marine Engineering Company, Wallsend, are of the 
triple expansion type, with cylinders 28 in. by 
46 in. by 77 in., with a common stroke of 48 in. 
Steam of 180 lb. pressure is supplied by three large 
single-ended boilers. 

There have been two Shell liners named Pectan. 
The first was sunk by a French steamer off Algiers. 
Before she went to the bottom she performed a 
national service. The British battleship Victorious 
was ashore near Suez, when the Pectan towed her off 
after twenty hours' persistent work, and earned Sir 
Marcus Samuel his knighthood. 

When the second Pectan was delivered by Messrs. 
Gray & Co. and the Central Marine Engine 
Works, Hartlepool, in 1902, she was the largest bulk 
oil-carrying steamer afloat. She is running in the oil 
trade to-day, a most successful vessel in every way. 
She takes Lloyd's highest class, and has two com- 
plete decks. The engines are aft, and underneath 
these the vessel has a double bottom, while the 
forward and after peaks and a deep tank in the fore- 
hold are constructed for water ballast for trimming 
purposes. Forward of the boiler room, thirteen 
transverse bulkheads are fitted with a very strong 
middle line bulkhead, from the keel to the main deck. 
The bunker spaces carry either coal or oil fuel, and 
there are eighteen separate oil cargo compartments, 
in addition to cofferdams and other spaces. The 
tanks carry the exact quantity required for winter, 
summer, or Indian summer loading. The scantlings 
are heavy, the rivets closely spaced, and the plates of 
large size to reduce the number of joints. Expansion 
trunks are carried up from each oil tank to allow the 
oil to rise and fall with varying temperatures, and 
hatchways of ample size are fitted to each compart- 
ment to take in ordinary cargoes. Oil pipes, 10 in. 
diameter, fitted with controlling valves, are carried 
throughout the oil compartments, and shore con- 
nections are fitted to each side amidships and over the 
stern. Two powerful pumps amidships are capable of 



discharging 300 tons of oil per hour. The same 
pumps and pipes are used to fill the oil tanks with 
water for cleansing them before ordinary cargoes are 
carried, or when needed as ballast. A powerful fan 
is capable of exhausting air from any compartment 
in ten minutes, and ensures thorough ventilation when 
general cargoes are carried. A complete installation 
of electric light is fitted in all compartments, and 
includes a 20 in, Suez Canal light projector. To 
avoid fire risks the quarters for the crew are heated 
by steam only. 

It was in connection with the running of the 
Pectan that Sir Marcus Samuel said, in 1902, that in 
ten years his company had built and purchased thirty- 
eight steamers, with a dead-weight capacity of 
152,000 tons, and stood fourth in order of all the 
British lines going through the Suez Canal. The 
company had spent in this brief time no less a sum 
than £4,600,000. 

Although there is a distinct similarity between 
the latest of the Shell liners, each one has been an 
improvement on her predecessors, and embodied 
some idea which has made her in her year the largest 
and best of her kind. Just as it is not possible within 
the limits of a single chapter to enumerate the 
improvements which have been carried out, so I 
cannot for the same reason (want of space) undertake 
to give particulars of the numerous interesting records 
made by Shell steamers. There are, however, a few 
which may be mentioned. 

There is the one of the Clam, which, running in 
the East for two years, made an itinerary of 85,000 
miles on oil fuel. The calculation was made that her 
engines worked 32,000,000 revolutions, and the fuel 
burning apparatus, when examined by experts on the 
arrival of the steamer in the Thames, showed it to be 
just as perfect as it was on the day that she left this 
country for the East 

One of .the earliest records by Shell steamers was 
made by the Cowrie in 1900. She was the first oil- 
burning vessel to bring a cargo of oil from Balek 
Pappen to the Thames. The cargo was discharged 
with her own oil-fired donkey engine. 

Just before the Cardium went to load the first 
cargo of Texas oil for England she carried a record 
cargo of 8,200 tons of sugar from Java to Philadelphia. 
It has been found in actual practice on the Cardium, 
and, indeed, on all the largest vessels of the Shell line, 
that they can load cargoes of cotton, rice and sugar 
in competition with ordinary cargo steamers. The 
system of cleansing and purifying the tanks works to 



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perfection, and the opinion is no longer held that an 
oil-carrying vessel is either unsuitable or unsafe in 
a first-class general trade. A few years ago the 
Goldmouth and other Shell steamers ran under charter 
to the Far East for one of the large passenger 
steamship companies. 

While tank steamers go to the Far East vid the 
Canal, some of the Shell liners have been specially 
equipped in the matter of bunker space to make non- 
stop runs by way of the Cape. The Butysses, Gold- 
mouth and other oil-fired tank steamers have made 
non-stop runs from Singapore to Europe, but there is 
still a difference of opinion as to whether, comparing 
the cost of additional fuel and other obvious expenses 
with the saving of canal dues, these long runs have 
any real financial advantage over the shorter ones by 
way of Suez. 

The Murex arrived in the Thames in February, 
1902, after she had made the voyage from Singapore, 
vid the Cape, in less than fifty days, oil-fired through- 
out the run. A large party of shipbuilding and 
engineering experts went to the London and Thames 
Haven Wharf to witness experiments in the burning of 
liquid fuel under ordinary working conditions. The 
party included Sir Marcus Samuel, Mr. Goulicham- 
baroff,* Sir Fortescue Flannery, Sir John Colomb, 
M.P., the well-known authority on naval shipbuilding 
and tactics ; Commander A. R. Hulbert, of the Naval 
Intelligence Department ; Lieutenant Sladen, of the 
Metropolitan Fire Brigade; representatives of the 
Russian and Japanese Governments, and many others. 

The vessel's log books (open for inspection) 
showed that the average expenditure of liquid fuel 
had been less than 16 tons per day, and that through- 
out the voyage a speed of nearly 10 knots had been 
maintained. The party paid a visit to the stokehold, 
where special attention was devoted to the clean and 
undamaged state of the furnaces, which had been in 
use for two years. It was explained by the engineers 
that the vessel had been brought from Singapore with 
three firemen, against some twenty-four necessary in 
the case of a coal-fired steamer of similar tonnage. 

One of the earliest non-stop records was made 
by the Cardium in 1905, when she steamed from 



* Mr. Goulichambaroff said to me on this occasion — 
" Russia, as you know, is in no way behind this or any 
other country both with regard to the oil-burning 
apparatus and the carriage of oil in bulk. I must be 
candid and tell you that I do not see anything 
strikingly new on board the Murex, excepting that 
she has carried benzine in bulk." 



Singapore to Dover, vid the Cape, in fifty days on an 
oil consumption of 32 tons per day. She steamed at 
an average speed of 9§ knots and carried 8,400 tons 
of oil. Later in the same year she went from London 
to Penang, vid Suez. She was thirty-nine days steam- 
ing on a consumption of 29 tons per day, averaging 
9| knots, and carrying 8,400 tons. This vessel on 
a .similar voyage steamed at 8-1 knots on a daily 
consumption of 49 tons of coal. 

The ill-fated Silverlip steamed from Singapore to 
Dover, via the Cape, in forty-eight days on a consump- 
tion of 36 tons per day. Her average speed was 
io£ knots, her i.h.-p. 2,300, and she carried a total 
dead-weight of 10,300 tons. During the entire run 
the main engines and the liquid fuel apparatus worked 
without a stop or hitch of any kind. 

When the Goldmouth, sister ship to the Silverlip, 
made her non-stop runs from Singapore to Rotterdam, 
she took about fifty-two days. 

Years ago this company earned the reputation of 
being an exceedingly lucky one, and few ship-owning 
firms of similar magnitude had sustained so few 
losses ; indeed, the freedom of the fleet from trouble 
was often mentioned in shipping circles, and this 
was all the more remarkable seeing that many of 
the steamers were constantly employed in hot 
countries in what is erroneously considered to be a 
most dangerous trade. 

Recent losses, the Nerite and the Silverlip, the 
first in the Canal and the other just after she had 
reached the Bay of Biscay, homeward bound, have 
somewhat damaged the company's record for freedom 
from serious accidents. 



Whatever may be the future of this company, 
now amalgamated with the Royal Dutch, the name of 
Sir Marcus Samuel must always remain famous in 
the world of oil. 

Sir Marcus is the second son of the late Mr. 
Marcus Samuel, a gentleman who was closely 
associated with the heads of the Jewish community, 
and actively interested in benevolent work for many 
years. He spent his boyhood days between Islington 
and Moorgate Street, I think, in Finsbury Square, 
where, it is stated, his old home is used by the chief 
Rabbi to-day. He received his education at a school 
at Edmonton, and afterwards at Brussels. Later, he 
paid visits to Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, Siam, 
the Philippines, China and Japan. To the know- 
ledge thus gained may be attributed, in a great 



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^f X this picture are Sir Marcus Samuel and some of the leading authorities on tank 
1 steamer building and fuel subjects. From the right, Col, Swan, whose name is 
^M associated with the earliest developments of the bulk oil system in this country ; 
behind, Mr. E. L. Orde. the well-known liquid fuel authority and inventor of the 
"Orde M system of burning employed on many steamers built by Messrs. Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co.. Ltd.; then to the left, Sir Fortescue Flannery, naval architect and 
liquid fuel burning authority, whose firm (Messrs. Flannery, Haggallay and Johnson) has 
superintended the building of most of the Shell steamers: fourth from the left. Sir Marcus ; 
and next to him Sir Andrew Noble, one of the foremost shipbuilders in the North of 
England. With the bouquet : Lady Samuel. 




v 



^>#HK Goldmouih is the largest of the Shell steamers. Besides the ordinary oil 

1 hatches, she has hatches for working general cargo, and these are so arranged 

^M with derrick posts and derricks, that cargo is discharged as quickly as in an 

ordinary cargo steamer. The bunkers are arranged for carrying oil fuel as well 

as coal, and the furnaces burn oil on the Flannery- Boyd system. 



[Tsfiict'fi. ?£ 



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measure, the marked development that the business 
of the firms of M. Samuel & Co. and Samuel 
Samuel & Co., of Japan, have exhibited in this 
country as well as in the Far East. 

When Sir Marcus became the ruling spirit in 
these concerns, new departures were entered upon. 
They were responsible for the launching in London 
of the first Japanese Gold Sterling Loan of £4,500,000, 
and were largely concerned in the placing on the 
market of Japanese Municipal Loans, and in the 
development of the coal trade in Japan. 

Early business relations with high Japanese 
authorities, and his own personal knowledge of the 
trade routine and customs of the country, assisted 



him materially in opening up those channels through 
which the products of the oil fields of Borneo flowed 
into Oriental centres of civilisation. Sir Marcus and 
his colleagues owe much of their early success to 
Japanese sympathy and enterprise. He, however, 
established his companies and made his own personal 
fortune by the untiring industry he displayed in back- 
ing up his proclamations of faith in the future of the 
oil industry, and particularly in the maritime and 
liquid fuel branches of it. 

Sir Marcus is the only oil man who has been 
Lord Mayor of London. His year of office was 1902, 
and his election took place just ten years after he 
started to run his first oil-carrying steamer. 




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( 40) 



JWHE observation that the man who makes two blades of grass 
J grow where only one grew before is a benefactor to his 
^^ race, finds an analogy in the assertion that he who practically 
adds to the span of man's life by increasing the number of hours 
wherein he can labour or enjoy himself is also a benefactor. . . . 
The welcome, cheerful, steady flame of petroleum brightens the 
cabin of the Western emigrant on his trail through the trackless 
forest, and lights up the hut of the Colorado miner. It cheers 
equally the home of the thrifty farmer, and the rough quarters of 
the humblest labourer. Its bright rays lend their kindly aid to the 
thousand homely cares which give zest and happiness to the 
family circle. The sum of human knowledge is increased, and the 
aggregate of wealth added to, by the useful employment of hours 
snatched from darkness and sleep ; man's life has been extended 
and his opportunities for usefulness increased. The circumstances 
which have led up to the present general use of the hydrocarbon 
light are varied. The torch or flambeau of the Russian peasant of 
the Caucasus, or the rude smoky lamp of the Rangoon labourer, 
afforded a small margin to the inventor to hope for improvement 

Benjamin J. Crbw (1886). 



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c 



HAPTBR V. 



The Transport of Bulk Petroleum 
through the Suez Canal. Attitude 
of Lord Salisbury. 




HE year 1891 was an eventful one in oil. 
A crisis was brought about by an attempt 
to get bulk oil-carrying steamers Suez 
v^anal privileges. Reports were circulated 
that the application had been made on behalf of an 
English syndicate, and those who were responsible for 
the initiation of what proved to be a most determined, 
bitter, and excellently engineered agitation declared 
"that an undertaking had been obtained from the 
Canal directors to allow the passage of tank steamers 
under certain conditions." 

Now, when tank steamers trade with perfect 
safety and without opposition on the smallest of con- 
fined waters, inland lakes, and the smallest and most 
crowded of shipping rivers, it is difficult to imagine 
the fierce feeling of hostility displayed by the ship- 
owning classes of these islands in 1891, when this 
controversy was engaging the attention of the Suez 
Canal Company, the British Foreign Office, and 
numerous petroleum concerns in Russia, America, and 
this country. The struggle was a great one, and 
numerous gigantic trading interests, the Welsh tin- 
plate trade amongst others, were concerned. 

Those who were petitioning the Canal Company 
(the Samuel group, with its immense Yokohama 
experience and general trading connections) were not, 
as was generally supposed, the pioneers of the idea of 
canal navigation by bulk oil-carrying vessels. The 
Standard and the Anglo-American Oil Companies had 
organised considerable oil shipping interests, and the 
American office had, some years before, applied for 
permission to send the petroleum products of the 
Pennsylvania and Ohio oil fields and their refineries, 
huge concerns even in that day, through the canal. 
Mr. Rockefeller, then the active head of the Standard, 
wanted to get American oil to the Far East by the 
shortest route ; but, on the ground that serious conse- 
quences must follow an accident to a tank steamer 
in the canal, his application was refused. 
O.T. 



The idea of sending both Russian and American 
oil to the Far East via the canal was considered a 
safe business by numerous practical petroleum men, 
and when the British group took the question up the 
controversy which ensued greatly interested influential 
and wealthy oil men at Baku and Batoum. It was 
also followed with an equally keen interest by a St 
Petersburg shipping concern, the Black Sea Steam 
Navigation and Trading Company, founded by the 
late Grand Duke Constantine Nicolaivitch, with the 
Russian Imperial family as shareholders. The heads 
of this company watched with considerable anxiety 
the result of the application of the British syndicate. 
Subsidised by the Russian Government — so largely, 
it was pointed out, that goods could be carried at 
merely nominal rates of freight, while dues paid to 
the Suez Canal were refunded by the Government — 
their tank steamers were in a position to compete 
with British vessels in the event of their being granted 
permission to go through the canal. Messrs. 
Bowring & Co., who took a prominent part in the 
controversy, published some information about this 
company. 

They owned installations for the storage and 
distribution of petroleum in Odessa, Nicolaieff, 
Sebastopol and Kertch,aswellasin the Danubian ports, 
the latter business being worked in conjunction with 
the Russian-Danubian Steam Navigation Company. 
They were, therefore, perfectly familiar with all the 
operations connected with the carriage and distribu- 
tion of petroleum in bulk. The full influence of the 
company was brought to bear on the French directors 
of the Suez Canal Company through the Russian 
Embassy in Paris. They were in a position, not only 
to monopolise the transport of petroleum in the 
Eastern markets, but to extinguish the budding trade 
in those markets by erecting their own installations. 

Not only was it urged by the opponents of the 
tank steamer that Russian vessels would ultimately 

G. 



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secure a monopoly of the trade, but that, being 
officered by quasi-Russian naval officers and manned 
by Russian naval seamen, these vessels would con- 
stitute a serious menace to British shipping. It would 
be easily within their power to block the navigation 
of the canal at any given time and destroy all the 
shipping in it ; indeed, Lord Salisbury was asked to 
see the importance of opposing the scheme not merely 
in the interests of individuals, or even of the general 
shipping community, but in the general interests of 
the British nation. 

At that time we were continually in disagreement 
with Russia, and, naturally, this argument had consider- 
able influence in shipowning and political circles ; but 
time has proved that Russia has not even attempted to 
secure a monopoly, and to-day we find that the 
oil-carrying vessels leaving Black Sea ports are 
practically all British-owned. In this way did the 
application of the British syndicate become one of 
world-wide interest and lead to the consideration of 
the question of the transport of oil in bulk through 
the Suez Canal by Lord Salisbury, the Right Hon. 
Mr. James Lowther, and other politicians, who 
admittedly favoured the proposed innovation on 
properly regulated and defined lines. 

It was on July 2nd, 1891, that Messrs. C. T. 
Bowring & Co. wrote Lloyd's a letter which passed 
in successive intervals of a week from Lloyd's to the 
Board of Trade, from the Board of Trade to the 
Foreign Office (Lord Salisbury), and from the Foreign 
Office to the Directors of the Suez Canal. 

" Clients of ours," wrote Messrs. Bowring & Co., 
" inform us that they hear with apprehension it is con- 
templated that tank steamers carrying petroleum in 
bulk will be sent through the canal, and they desire 
to bring before the attention of the underwriters at 
Lloyd's the great risk which, in their opinion, there 
would be to their ships and merchandise in the canal, 
in the event of a collision or similar disaster occurring 
to these boats, which, on the assumption that they are 
constructed to carry the oil next the outside plates in 
large chambers, would, in the event of a hole being 
made in their side, discharge the oil into the canal." 

The first communication giving details in a lengthy 
and important controversy was written by Messrs. 
Russell & Arnholz to Lord Salisbury on October 
30th, 189 1, enquiring whether, in the contemplated 
rule which the Suez Canal Company were about to 
make to permit the passage of petroleum tank steamers 
through the canal, a clause would be inserted 
exonerating the vessels from liability in case of 



accident through collision, or otherwise, on payment 
of tonnage dues. 

Lord Salisbury, through Mr. James Lowther, 
answered in a six-line affirmative. Messrs. Russell 
& Arnholz's letter was forwarded by Mr. Lowther to 
the Suez Canal Company, and the British directors, 
Messrs. J. Stokes, C. Rivers Wilson, and H. Austin 
Lee, replied (November 6th, 1891) : — " It is true that 
the Suez Canal Company do not, as a rule, inquire 
into the contents of a ship's cargo, but, considering 
the dangerous character of petroleum if it becomes 
ignited after its escape from a ship's hold, and the 
serious conflagrations that have occurred from burn- 
ing floating petroleum, the exception in this case is 
fully justified. . . . The discussion was adjourned 
for a month to get further information." 

Messrs. Russell & Arnholz, addressing Lord Salis- 
bury four days later, finding that the matter pre- 
sented greater features of peril than were believed to 
exist when they despatched their last letter, called 
attention to the following additional facts bearing on 
the question of responsibility : — 

u (1) It would appear that the tank ships ordered 
for this traffic are to comprise tanks twice as large as 
those considered safe in northern waters. This, as a 
matter of fact, makes it incumbent upon some one to 
assume the responsibility in this respect, as the state 
of our marine insurance laws with their collision 
clause in policies leaves so great a margin of damage 
unsettled, that with the Suez Canal rule the whole 
matter should be defined. (2) The matter rumoured 
in the papers that the nominees of Her Majesty's 
Government on the Board of the canal favoured this 
bulk transit, leads to the conclusion that they must 
have accepted all its consequences, one of which is 
the question of these enormous tanks in the bulk 
petroleum ships. How far the support of the Govern- 
ment directors to the passage of petroleum in bulk, 
which is a disturbance of the regular and safe case oil 
trade, is a violation of the 12th section of the instru- 
ment guaranteeing the neutrality of the canal, and 
also precluding any one of the Signatory Powers from 
seeking commercial advantages on the canal, will, 
no doubt, form a further subject of inquiry in proper 
quarters." 

Lord Salisbury, having received the observations of 
the British directors of the Suez Canal Company, 
explained to Messrs. Russell & Arnholz that the 
payment of dues did not exonerate any vessels from 
liability incurred through collision or other accident, 
and the company could not, therefore, see any ground 



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for making provision in favour of petroleum tank 
ships. " The company," he said, " do not, as a rule, 
inquire into the contents of a ship's cargo, but, con- 
sidering the dangerous character of petroleum if it 
becomes ignited after it escapes from a ship's hold, 
and the serious conflagrations that have occurred from 
burning floating petroleum, the exception in the case 
of petroleum tank ships appears to them to be fully 
justified." 

Messrs. Russell & Arnholz "concluded that the 
responsibility, from the point of view of the Govern- 
ment, rested exclusively with the owner of the 
petroleum tank steamer, and this although by the 
proposed rule he is compelled to pay tolls and dues 
in excess of the ships of ordinary commerce." Con- 
tinuing they said : — 

" The inference is that the passage of petroleum 
tank ships is a matter of privilege purchased by sub- 
mitting to exceptional tolls and regulations. We, 
therefore, beg to state that we do not consider those 
upon whom your directors fix the responsibility as 
furnishing an adequate security for the exceptional 
risks they are made to run from cargoes of liquid 
petroleum in the exceptional climate and on the 
exceptional waters of the canal. In this conclusion 
we think we are more than justified by the observa- 
tions of your directors in pointing out the dangerous 
character of petroleum if it becomes ignited after it 
escapes from a ship's hold. In view of their admission 
of this danger we have no doubt that the term of 
very contract on the part of a carrier implied by law 
that his vessel is tight, staunch, and strong will be 
made absolute, not as in the case of cargoes of solids, 
but as having regard to liquid petroleum, so that 
absolutely no leakage whatever will take place on the 
canal, and, the better to secure this, that the Canal 
Company shall be held strictly responsible for the 
execution of this clause. This conclusion seems all 
the more warranted from the fact that liquid petroleum, 
in the eyes of the British directors, justifies the Canal 
Company in, for the first time, drawing a distinction 
between cargoes and, we may add, making storage 
tender service compulsory, limiting the draught of 
water in particular ships built previously to 1889, and 
otherwise making exceptional the conditions of 
navigation. We are happy to note that the draft 
regulations on the point of exceptional cargo are 
reserved for further discussion, but respectfully submit 
that the British directors should have first considered 
the difficulties before they pledged themselves and 
Her Majesty's Government to support a principle 



which, by their own observations to your lordship, 
they look upon as dangerous from the burning of 
floating petroleum when ignited. We may at least 
hope that the regulations will make impossible any 
danger from this or any other cause which may 
arise to imperil the lives and properties of those using 
the Suez Canal. We still maintain the conclusions 
of the letters we have addressed to your lordship on 
this subject — that the responsibilities and the persons 
to whom they attach shall be accurately described 
and defined, and in view of the fact that the payment 
of dues does not fix the responsibility on the canal, 
by the observations of the British directors, we main- 
tain that the gravity of the circumstance compels us 
to condemn the proposed rules in toto> and humbly 
to submit that the question should be referred to a 
commission of the maritime Powers." 

Lord Salisbury asked Messrs. Russell & Arnholz 
to inform him for whom they were acting in 
the matter. To this interrogation they replied : — 

" With reference to the latter part of the same, 
in view of the opposing commercial interests engaged, 
and the fact that the true promoters of bulk transit 
have not yet declared themselves, we respectfully 
submit that, without pleading the privilege of our 
profession, it would be imprudent on our part to 
permit our clients to disclose their names ; but your 
lordship may rest assured that, at the proper time, 
when the names of the true instigators of this 
dangerous departure shall have been made public, we 
shall consider it our dutiful pleasure to communicate 
to you the names of our clients and their full 
purposes in endeavouring to avert what is honestly 
deemed to be a danger to general commerce." 

Communications of a controversial character 
were then written. Messrs Russell & Arnholz, 
(November 20th, 1891) sent to the ambassadors of 
the Signatory Powers of the Suez Canal Company's 
charter a long criticism of the Canal Company's 
intention to formulate a rule authorising and regulat- 
ing the transit on the canal of steamers carrying bulk 
petroleum "in enormous masses, flush with the 
skin of the ship, in tanks of extravagantly large 
dimensions." 

The proposed rule, they explained, authorised the 
passage of bulk petroleum ships, and this to the 
disturbance of commerce generally and the con- 
venient and safe mode of trading in petroleum for the 
Eastern market in vogue over the canal. The re- 
sponsibility was such, in view of the high temperature 
of the canal and the character of a liquid cargo 



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of petroleum, the liability to leakage, apart from the 
danger of collision, stranding, etc., that responsible 
individual shipowners would not have cared to face 
the consequences attaching to such a mode of trade. 
It appeared, however, that certain influential finan- 
ciers and merchants who, among other things, were 
vendors of petroleum, had combined as a syndicate, 
and prompted the Canal Company to admit in 
principle the passage of bulk steamers, and to shape 
and propound the rules which inhibited every vessel 
laden with bulk petroleum, built before 1889, from 
taking advantage of the authorisation to carry 
petroleum in bulk on the canal. They contended 
at great length that there was no justification for 
disturbing a well-defined system of petroleum trade 
by a loose method, fraught with peril arid involving 
responsibilities which they were assured were never 
accepted by the canal, and could not, in view of the 
conflicting state of marine insurance throughout the 
world, be covered adequately by insurance. The 
exceptional character of the cargo, in view of the 
exceptional climate of the canal, was a matter of so 
much importance that neither the proposed rule, 
which stood condemned by the very arguments 
intended to defend it, nor any rule permitting the 
transit of bulk petroleum, should receive the character 
of finality until it had received the sanction of the 
Ottoman and the Egyptian Governments, and a 
Commission of the maritime Powers specially em- 
powered to take into consideration all responsibilities 
attaching to this method of trading in petroleum 
Under those circumstances they submitted that 
neither the contemplated rule, nor any rule having 
for effect to permit petroleum in bulk to pass on the 
canal, should be allowed to come into force except 
with the consent of the Sublime Porte, after previously 
coming to an understanding with the principal Powers 
interested. 

This letter drew from the British directors of 
the Suez Canal Company a comprehensive and 
vigorous reply. This was sent from Paris to Lord 
Salisbury on December 1st, 1891. I give the 
following extracts : — 

"Messrs. Russell & Arnholz have rather com- 
plicated their inquiry by assumptions not in 
accordance with fact, due no doubt to their being 
imperfectly acquainted with the matters of which 
they write. Their first assumption is that the 
contemplated regulations for the prevention of 
danger to the general navigation through the admis- 
sion of these tank ships will impose additional 



tonnage dues on these vessels. This is not the fact ; 
these vessels will pay the same tonnage dues as 
other vessels. They would, however, only be allowed 
to navigate the canal on condition of being accom- 
panied by a storage tender, for which a daily charge 
would be made. Such a charge is no new thing, a 
similar charge for the services of a tug steamer 
having been recognised from the opening of the 
canal. The second erroneous assumption of Messrs. 
Russell & Arnholz is that the directors named by 
Her Majesty's Government on the council of the 
Suez Canal Company have pledged themselves and 
Her Majesty's Government to support a principle 
dangerous from the burning of floating petroleum 
when ignited. Messrs. Russell & Arnholz are again 
not very clear in their expressions. As your lord- 
ship is aware, we have received no instructions on the 
subject, and we have only taken part in the discussion 
from a general view of the rights and duties of the 
company. The matter was referred to us by your 
lordship in the shape of an inquiry from Lloyd's 
whether proper regulations were to be enacted. This 
great insurance institution did not suggest prohibition 
of the traffic — only the regulation of it — which we 
have endeavoured, in concert with our colleagues, to 
provide for without committing either Her Majesty's 
Government or ourselves to any special responsibility. 

"The London Committee of the Suez Canal 
Council were in favour of allowing these tank steamers 
to pass if they were subjected to special regulations 
and restrictions that would, as far as possible, render 
their passage harmless to other ships ; the London 
Committee holding the view, which is certainly our 
own, that, subject to such conditions, it was not open 
to the company under the terms of their concession 
to refuse admission to the canal to any class of 
commercial vessels complying with the regulations. 

"The third assumption of Messrs. Russell & 
Arnholz is that the intervention of Her Majesty's 
Government, through their nominees on the Council, 
gives rise to the question whether the 12th section of 
the instrument guaranteeing the neutrality of the 
canal is not thereby violated, the Signatory Powers 
being precluded by that instrument from seeking 
commercial advantages on the canal. It is to be 
observed that the regulations under discussion are 
not aimed at the vessels of any particular flag. Her 
Majesty's Government are represented on the Canal 
Council as the largest shareholders of the company, 
but their nominees have never sought exclusive 
advantages for the ships of any one country, though 



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more than four-fifths of the tonnage passing through 
the canal is that of ships under the British flag ; and 
we are, as a matter of fact, without any data as to 
how far the facilitating of the passage of these tank 
ships and the possible curtailment of the trade of 
petroleum in cases will affect one flag or another. 

" Messrs. Russell & Arnholz have further assumed 
that this matter is a subject for reference to the 
Powers of Europe, and have accordingly addressed 
a circular to the ambassadors in London of the 
Signatory Powers to the Suez Canal Company's 
charter, on which we would merely remark that none 
of the Powers were parties to the charter except the 
Sultan of Turkey. 

"So long as the Suez Canal Company complies 
with the stipulation in its concession, which requires 
that the flags of all nations shall be treated on a 
footing of perfect equality, no such intervention as 
these gentlemen invoke would appear to be justified. 
As there is nothing in the proposed regulations which 
infringes the above stipulation, the Canal Company 
would certainly resist any such interference with the 
right conferred by their concession to enact and 
enforce all regulations required for the navigation of 
the canal. 

"There is a striking inconsistency in the letters 
of Messrs* Russell & Arnholz. They complain — 
(i) That the Suez Canal Company are taking a 
new departure in making any inquiry into the 
contents of the cargo of vessels passing through 
the canal; (2) That vessels laden with petroleum 
in bulk should not be allowed so to pass ; 
and (3) That vessels so laden should not be 
subjected to special tolls and exceptional regu- 
lations. 

" If the company did not make the inquiry, how 
could they know which ships to stop or which to let 
pass? If, yielding to Messrs. Russell & Arnholz's 
first complaint, they let every vessel pass unheeded, 
it would surely be more dangerous to public interests 
than subjecting such vessels to restrictions which 
minimise the danger. The same remark applies to 
their complaint that a distinction is to be drawn 
between crude and refined oil. Crude petroleum is 
well known to be most dangerous and very easily 
ignited, whereas refined oil of a certain standard 
is comparatively safe. They complain that the 
exceptional climate of the Suez Canal requires a 
higher standard ; the standard proposed is that in 
force in the port of Bombay, which is certainly not 
less hot than the Suez Canal. Messrs. Russell & 



Arnholz assume that the tanks will be so constructed 
as to be flush with the skin of the ship, and that they 
will be of extravagantly large dimensions. As to the 
first of these complaints, we would observe that the 
fore and aft parts of each ship are reserved for the 
crew and machinery, the tanks being amidships. If 
a collision occurs in the canal it is most unlikely that 
a vessel would be struck amidships, the points of 
contact being either the bow or the stern, where there 
are no tanks. 

" As to the maximum cubical contents of each 
tank, it has not yet been fixed, though it has been 
carefully discussed. Messrs. Russell & Arnholz's 
apprehensions on this point are, we believe, groundless. 
They are also in error in assuming that vessels built 
prior to 1889 are to be excluded from the canal. 
They have also raised the question of marine 
insurance, a point on which the company had decided 
to take further information before any letters had been 
received from these gentlemen. They decline to give 
your lordship any clue for the present as to the 
names of their clients, but an expression in their 
letter of November 10th, which describes the passage 
of petroleum in bulk as a disturbance of the regular 
and safe case trade, leads to the inference that they 
are pleading the cause of parties engaged in sending 
petroleum through the canal packed in cases, and 
whose interests they appear to think may be damaged 
by facilities being given for the more economical con- 
veyance of petroleum in bulk by these tank ships. 
It must, however, be said for them that they plead 
more strongly for the tank vessels, as they challenge 
the right of the Canal Company to deny passage to 
any vessel that has paid dues. Messrs. Russell & 
Arnholz demand that the responsibility of any 
accident occurring should be fixed on certain well- 
defined persons. It appears to us that maritime law 
provides for this." 

The Foreign Office then informed Messrs. Russell 
& Arnholz that Her Majesty's Government could 
not take action in the direction indicated without 
full information as to what British interest they 
represented in the matter. 

In a memorandum to the Foreign Office Messrs. 
Russell & Arnholz discussed the statutes of the 
Suez Canal Company and the contemplated rule. 
Referring to Article XII. of the convention, they 
pointed out that the contracting parties agreed that 
none of them should endeavour to obtain, with respect 
to the canal, territorial or commercial advantages or 
privileges. The British Government were the owners 



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of 179,000 shares ; they had three Government 
nominees on the Board, and these gentlemen were 
parties to the adoption of the principle of bulk transit 
on the canal under a system of contemplated 
exceptional rules, which would disturb the trade in 
Russian petroleum against the wishes of the largest 
dealers and refiners of Russian oil, exclusively for the 
benefit of a syndicate of British financiers and 
merchants, who, by this private arrangement with the 
canal, in violation of its charter, had, in effect, 
obtained commercial advantages and privileges, such 
as could not have been concluded in any international 
arrangements under Article XII. of the convention 
between the nations, that constituted a peril of an 
international character which should be guarded 
against. Manifestly there was no danger in the 
existing mode of carrying petroleum in cases to the 
East, and no appreciable danger in carrying petroleum 
in bulk in the Northern and Western waters. There- 
fore, the danger in the Suez Canal arose from the 
carrying of petroleum in bulk owing to the abnormally 
high temperature of the isthmus, the confined space 
of the water, and the heat of the water itself. These 
constituted such elements of danger that cargoes of 
petroleum in bulk, in the event of war or European 
complications, or internal commotions, would be per- 
force prohibited by the Government of Egypt as 
something calculated to threaten the security or the 
free passage of the canal. 

Merchants and tin-plate manufacturers in Wales, 
and others engaged in the Eastern trades, supported 
Messrs. Russell & Arnholz to the extent of a resolu- 
tion in which they declared that " the perilous and 
precarious system of bulk transit of petroleum would 
wholly extinguish, without any compensating ad- 
vantage to the trade in petroleum, a large section 
of the tin-plate industry, and this, not for the ends of 
legitimate commerce, but in furtherance of the interests 
of mere monopolists." 

I should also say that, just before the report was 
prepared, and, indeed, while Sir Boverton Redwood 
was in Egypt, Sir Marcus Samuel, writing to The 
Titnes, and fearing a statement not altogether favour- 
able to the unrestricted appearance of tank steamers 
in the canal, reminded Sir Boverton that, a short time 
before, he (Sir Boverton) had made the following 
remarks before the Institution of Civil Engineers : — 

"The tank storage of kerosene oil has un- 
doubtedly a great advantage over barrel or case 
storage in the event of fire. A notable example of 
the comparative safety of the system occurred during 



the fire at Dudgeon's Wharf in 1886, when several 
tanks became highly heated, and in certain instances 
the contents were ignited, but in no case was any 
important quantity of oil destroyed, nor was there 
any serious damage to the surrounding property. 
A still more marked illustration of the same thing 
occurred in the fire in Antwerp in 1889. He had 
occasion to go there immediately after for the purpose 
of making a report on the occurrence. It would be 
remembered that it originated from an explosion in 
a cartridge factory. There was a very large tank 
nearly full of petroleum, which was to some extent 
injured by the explosion, but not so as to cause it 
to leak much. The explosion also ignited a store 
containing a quantity of mineral oils in barrels. The 
fire burnt furiously for something like two days, and 
the direction of the wind was such as to carry the 
flames towards the petroleum tank to which he had 
alluded. At a distance of only ten feet from the 
tank stood a telegraph post, which was destroyed by 
the flames, and the tank itself on that side was 
considerably scorched, yet the contents remained un- 
ignited, and the oil was found, after the conflagration 
was extinguished, to be in a perfectly merchantable 
condition. There have been other examples to which 
he might allude, but these were sufficient to indicate 
that there was, as a matter of fact, a great advantage 
in tank storage from the point of view of safety in 
case of fire." 

(There has been a great change of opinion during 
the past fifteen years. The tank steamer is neither 
misunderstood nor maligned. Some shipowners 
who opposed this type of vessel at the start now 
run their own tank steamers, recognising apparently 
that the modern oil-carrier is a safe and profitable 
cargo vessel. Looking back at what took place in 
1892, one finds no difficulty in seeing very good 
reasons why eminent petroleum authorities desired 
that all reasonable precautions should be taken to 
ensure the safety of certain imperfect pioneers of the 
world's ocean-going bulk oil carriers. Anything like 
the onerous regulations they recommended for the 
safe navigation of the first oil-carriers in confined 
waters would not be suggested by them, and if they 
were would not be tolerated to-day, when it is 
acknowledged by the foremost shipbuilding experts 
of the world that not only can bulk petroleum (if 
kept intact and not broken) be safely carried in 
narrow channels, but that it is possible for vessels of 
this type to load oil and the most delicate of general 
cargoes alternately. Obviously, the conditions under 



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which petroleum is exported have improved in almost 
every possible direction, scientific, chemical and 
engineering, and many of the early opponents ol 
tank steamers are now content to agree with oil men 
when they say that it is in the best interests of this 
vast and expanding trade that the transport of petro- 



be carried on under proper conditions and in such 
a manner that, while the owners of oil-carrying 
vessels will have no cause for complaint, the com- 
missioners or companies will have their important 
interests properly safeguarded. Time and science 
have worked out a good case for tank steamers, 



leum through crowded and narrow waterways should which have many enviable records to their credit) 



#*t new day is dawn- 
^T^ tag — a day which 
* is witnessing the 

birth of an idea that 
will give a new direction 
to human thought and 
develop an industry 
which will forever mark 
an era in the progress 
of the world. 

J. T. Henry, 
Author of several works on 
the American petroleum 
industry in its earliest 
days. 



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» 



0THE figures representing the quantity of petrol imported into Great Britain in the past 
~ three years were: — 

Imported in 1904 - - 30,000 tons. 

» » iy>5 - - 60,000 „ 

„ ,, 1906 - - 100,000 „ 

The Motor Fuel Union estimates that the demand in the next four years will be : — 
In 1907 - - 150,000 tons. 

„ 1908 - - 210,000 M 

„ 1909 - - 280,000 „ 

„ 1910 - - 360,000 M 

The tank steamers now building are designed for the transport of the most inflammable 
descriptions of oil, and it will be seen that these— fourteen in number, averaging 8,000 tons 
each, and making six voyages in a single year — will be capable of carrying 672,000 tons, 
or nearly double the estimated petrol needs of Great Britain four years hence. 



*} 



6r 



=^> <w 



lb 



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c 



HAPTBR VI. 



Tank Steamers and the Suez Canal 

— {Continued). 




O hundred and fifty British ship-owning 
firms doing business with the East, and 
largely interested in the navigation and 
traffic of the canal, petitioned against the 
materialisation of the policy of the Canal Company. 
They stated that they had been informed that the com- 
pany were negotiating with a syndicate who desired to 
obtain permission for the carriage of bulk petroleum 
on the canal in steamers fitted to carry abnormally 
large quantities of oil in what were regarded as 
excessively large tanks. They put forward eight 
objections to the privileges asked for. The last 
paragraph of the petition read : — " That provision shall 
in any case be made whereby the owners of vessels 
or cargoes sustaining damage or loss by reason of 
any accident to oil steamers shall be fully indemnified 
by them against such loss or damage."* 

With reference to this petition, the British Suez 
Canal directors observed that it was marked by some 
confusion of ideas which had prevailed throughout the 
letters of their representatives, and, they added, "it 
would be difficult to understand how so large a body 
of intelligent and practical men of business could have 
signed such a document." They pointed out errors 
and inconsistencies in the petition, and added : — 

" The only real danger to the canal and shipping 
frequenting it would arise from a tank vessel taking the 
ground so heavily as to require lightening. In such 
cases ordinary vessels are got off by discharging cargo 
into barges, but such a process in the case of petroleum 
would lead to the oil escaping on to the surface of the 
water, where it might take fire, as has happened in 
certain cases. To guard against such a danger every 

* The P. and O. and British India, their own 
underwriters, and indeed all the great passenger 
steamship companies of that day, held aloof from this 
second agitation against tank steamers. Moreover, 
amongst the memorialists were shipowners who, in 
later years, built tank steamers which they did not 
hesitate to send through the canal. 
O.T f 



tank vessel must have a tender expressly constructed to 
receive the oil without any escape on to the canal surface." 

A circular addressed to the shipowners of France 
(January 29th, 1892) contained the statement that 
applications by the Standard Oil Company and a 
Russian syndicate at Baku for permission to send 
tank steamers through the Canal had been refused, 
but that an English syndicate, connected with the 
house of Messrs. M. Samuel & Co., had "to the 
general surprise " succeeded in obtaining the desired 
permission. The steamers which the syndicate in- 
tended to build, it was pointed out, might consist 
of a single shell and contain cisterns of enormous 
dimensions ; these steamers rather deserved the name 
of floating reservoirs than of cistern steamers. The 
cisterns were made large enough to enable the 
steamers to carry return cargoes, and the new idea 
would interfere unfairly with the legitimate transport 
of petroleum in cases from Batoum, and of which as 
many as 10,000,000 were dispatched in 1892. 

Others claimed to be heard against the adoption 
by the Canal Company of a rule permitting the 
passage of tank steamers on the canal, the chief 
arguments being that it involved exceptional regula- 
tions, compulsory convoyage, and special anchorage in 
excess of the rights and powers of the Canal Company 
under the Act of Concession. The memorialists — 
and they were certainly numerous — pointed out 
that Article IV. of the Convention read:— " That 
no right of war, no act of hostility, nor any act having 
for its object the obstruction of the free navigation of 
the canal, shall be committed in the canal and its ports 
of access," and contended that the appearance of tank 
steamers in the canal could not be legally permitted 
without the formal consent of the Signatory Powers. 

The British Government had the advice of such 
high authorities on explosives and shipping ques- 
tions as Sir John Stokes, Colonel Majendie and 
M. Chevassus. Of the last-named authority, " charged 

H 



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with the investigation of the petroleum question," 
the British directors of the Canal said, " He knew the 
points of difficulty likely to arise from the probable 
conflict of interests of the parties concerned — ship- 
owners, shipbuilders and merchants." 

M. Ferd. de Lesseps, President of the Canal, 
also took an official part in the controversy. In 
the preparation of the proposed regulations he and 
his colleagues had before them the regulations in 
force in some of the most important English ports, 
such as the Thames and the Mersey. So far as 
they were aware, they said, the passage of similar 
petroleum vessels had been freely allowed in the 
chief waterways of Euorpe at that time (1892). 

One of the papers which expressed intelligent 
opinions on the subject was The Economist* 
(January 9th, 1892). 

* That paper said : " The new scheme is one of 
singular boldness and great magnitude. Whether it 
be true, as its opponents insinuate, that it is purely of 
Hebrew inspiration, we are not concerned to inquire ; 
nor does it appear why such a circumstance should 
count against it. If simplicity is an element of 
success, the scheme certainly seems full of promise. 
Instead of sending out cargoes of oil in cases, costly 
to make, expensive to handle, easy to be damaged 
and always prone to leak, the promoters intend to 
ship in tank steamers, viA the Suez Canal, and dis- 
charge wherever the demand is greatest into reservoirs, 
from which it can be readily supplied to consumers. 
There is nothing new in the idea of tank steamers, of 
which there are already a good many ; the novelty is 
rather in the taking of the oil through the canal and 
disposing of it on the large scale contemplated, and 
in this the promoters have secured the paramount 
advantage of a good start The oil, whether from the 
Black Sea or from the States, has been carried in 
cases, through the Canal if from the former, and for 
the most part round the Cape in sailing vessels if from 
the latter. All this is to be altered, and if the sanguine 
anticipations of the promoters are realised the Eastern 
case oil trade must needs become obsolete. It looks, 
indeed, very much as if the tank steamer were destined 
to do for the case trade what Stephenson's locomotive 
did for the coaching industry. Amongst other argu- 
ments used it was, as we remember reading, gravely 
alleged that the smoke from the Rockets and Puffing 
Billies would be death to every bird which encountered 
it. So to-day the tin-plate workers and the shipowners 
have done their utmost to persuade the Government, 
the country, and the Suez Canal authorities that the 
passage of tank steamers through the canal will be a 
blunder and disaster of the first magnitude. For the 
tin-plate workers we feel sympathy. For them and 
their friends the outlook is very discouraging, and in 
a memorial to Lord Salisbury they say so, like men. 
It is true that they also advance various forms of the 
bird-in-the-smoke style of argument, but that it is, 
after all, the tin-plate industry about which they are 
troubled they do not attempt to disguise." 



Lieut. Alexander Murray, acting-consul at Batoum, 
in a letter to Lord Salisbury (February 12th, 1892) said, 
with reference to the advantages or disadvantages 
likely to follow the adoption of tank steamers for the 
transport of petroleum to India and the Far East, 
" Naturally, the opinion of the majority of exporters 
would be adverse, as it would lessen the large and 
lucrative manufacture of cases. In England this 
difference would not be felt, as the oil must be put 
into cases sooner or later, and the tin-plates which 
formed so large an article of import to Batoum would 
be sent direct to India." 

During the war which was waged against the obvious 
intention of the Suez Canal Company to permit the 
transport of bulk oil through the Canal, Lord Salisbury 
made it plain in several of his communications to the 
Shipowners' Association that he supported the action 
of the Canal Company. In one reply, written on 
March 26th, 1892, to the Glasgow Shipowners' Asso- 
ciation, he said that neither the British Government nor 
the Canal Company had power to close the canal to 
any particular class of traffic ; neither had the Govern- 
ment power to interfere with a company in regard to 
the regulation of the traffic, provided that the flags 
of all nations were treated on a footing of equality. 
Later (April 12th, same year), Lord Salisbury, acknow- 
ledging the receipt of a memorial from Bristol ship- 
owners, said : — 

" I am to inform you that Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment are advised that the Suez Canal Company have 
the power under their concession to make such regu- 
lations as may seem to them necessary for the traffic 
passing through the canal, but that they have not 
the power to refuse admission to any class of com- 
mercial vessels which comply with those regulations. 
This country is not a party to the company's charter, 
and so long as the company complies with the pro- 
vision in that charter, that the flags of all nations 
shall be treated on a footing of equality, Her Majesty's 
Government have no power to interfere with the 
company in regard to the regulation of the traffic 
which passes through the canal. The directors, 
being responsible for the safety of the canal and its 
shipping, have taken all the precautions they consider 
necessary for preserving it, and the British directors 
received from Her Majesty's Government the best 
expert advice at their disposal when the regulations 
were under consideration by the Company." 

After this last word by Lord Salisbury the opposi- 
tion sent to the Foreign Office a copy of the report 
prepared by Sir Frederick Abel and Professor 



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(now Sir) Boverton Redwood for the British ship- 
owners. An adequate summary of this report follows. 

Local Conditions under which the Transport of 
Petroleum is conducted.* 

The transport of petroleum in bulk, in specially 
constructed steamers, prevailed very largely in 1892, 
but in no case had it taken place under conditions 
which assimilated to those presented by traffic through 
the Suez Canal, in many respects unique as a water- 
way. Considering it necessary that, before framing 
the report, they should make themselves acquainted, 
by personal observation, with the local circumstances 
under which the petroleum traffic through the canal 
was conducted, one of them proceeded to Egypt, 
where the fullest information was afforded by the 
officials of the Suez Canal Company in reference to 
the canal and the management of the traffic. 

The Suez Canal, as is well known, has a length of 
100 miles. For a portion of this distance, the water- 
way traverses the large and small basins of the Bitter 
Lakes and Lake Timsah ; the length of the canal 
proper is thus reduced to about 65 miles. ... In 
1892 "gares," or sidings, afforded accommodation 
for several vessels proceeding in one direction to make 
fast, so as to allow vessels proceeding in the opposite 
direction to pass them. The large basin of the Bitter 
Lakes presented deep water-way of considerable area, 
while, through the small basin, there was a buoyed 
channel 40 metres in width. In some places the 
canal described somewhat sharp curves, and at some 
parts there were high banks, which limited the range 
of vision. 

Sir Frederick Abel and Sir Boverton Redwood 
wrote in 1892: — 

During February, March, and April sand-storms 
sometimes occur, and during the prevalence of a 
severe storm of this description the air becomes so 
highly charged with sand particles that navigation on 
the canal is either impossible, or can only be con- 
ducted with extreme difficulty and danger. The 
occurrence of sand-storms, moreover, occasionally 
takes place so suddenly, that there is a liability to the 
grounding or collision of vessels before the traffic can 
be suspended. The prevailing atmospheric tempera- 
ture is obviously a point of much importance in 
connection with the exceptional character of this 
water-way. At the request of Sir Evelyn Baring, 
Rogers Pasha, Director- General of the Sanitary and 
Public Health Department of the Egyptian Govern- 
ment, was good enough to furnish tabulated daily 
records of the shade temperatures in Suez, Ismalia, 
and Port Said. These figures show that a high shade 
temperature prevails on the canal during several 
months, but the influence of the climate upon the 
question of risk attending the transport of petroleum 
in bulk through the canal cannot be considered 
solely from this point of view ; thus the absence of 
cloud and the small amount of aqueous vapour in the 

* Report of Sir Frederick Abel and Sir Boverton 
Redwood on the proposed transport of petroleum in 
tank steamers through the Suez Canal. Prepared at 
the request of British shipowners. 



air, especially at the Red Sea end of the canal, are 
also important factors in arriving at a conclusion as to 
the temperature which petroleum may acquire, either 
in the tank ship or if liberated upon the surface of the 
water. According to the superintendent engineer of 
the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, the highest recorded surface temperatures are 
90 F. in the Suez Canal, and 95°F. in the Red Sea, 
the observations having been made in both cases at 
the usual depth. In this connection, it should be 
borne in mind that, during the flowing of the tide at 
Suez, water is passing into the canal from a land- 
locked gulf, surrounded for the most part by a bare 
rocky shore, which, throughout the day, is receiving 
the unobstructed heat of the sun's rays. If the 
difference between the maximum shade temperature 
and the black -bulb readings in Cairo be added to the 
maximum shade temperature in Suez or Ismailia, it 
will be seen that any surface exposed to the sun 
during the warm months must become highly heated; 
and, having regard to the limited area of the water- 
way of the canal and to the character of the banks, 
there can be no doubt whatever that refined petroleum, 
if liberated upon the surface of the water at such a 
season, would very rapidly acquire a temperature at 
which it would give off inflammable vapour freely, 
even if it had not already become sufficiently heated 
to do so while in the tank steamer. 

Present Mode of Transport of Petroleum through 
the Canal in cases. 

At that time (same year) refined petroleum was 
largely shipped from the United States and Russia to 
the East, vid the Suez Canal, in cases. Sir Frederick 
Abel and Sir Boverton Redwood said : — 

A case consists of a wooden box enclosing two 
rectangular tin cans, each of four Imperial gallons 
capacity, the filled cans being hermetically closed by 
soldering. These packages are shipped by ordinary 
cargo steamships. Although neither the tin nor the 
wood employed in their construction is of considerable 
thickness, these petroleum cases have been found by 
long experience to withstand even somewhat rough 
handling without injury, and to be well adapted for 
the transport of the liquid in tropical climates. The 
percentage of leaky cases in a cargo is usually very 
small, and, so far as we have been able to discover, no 
instance is on record of a fire having occurred on board 
a steamship laden with case oil while in transit through 
the canal. During the process of discharging the 
cargo in port, there is obviously increased risk of fire ; 
and the occurrence of such accidents as the somewhat 
alarming fire which arose during the unloading of the 
case oil ship Aurora in the Hooghly does not militate 
against the view that, during transport, the danger of 
ignition of oil shipped in cases is very small. Assum- 
ing a fire to have become well established in a ware- 
house filled with petroleum in cases, it is evident that 
the packages described would not offer very much 
resistance to the flames, and from this point of view, 
the storage of petroleum on land in properly con- 
structed iron or steel tanks must be regarded as 
securing a greater measure of safety ; but there is a 
broad distinction to be drawn between transport and 



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storage. If a fire arose in a full cargo of case oil, 
where the air space between the vessel's hatches was 
small, there is good ground for the belief that the 
combustion of the oil would be quickly arrested for 
lack of air to support it. The instance of the Joseph 
Fish affords a strong confirmation of this view. 
Obviously, what has mainly to be feared in such a 
water-way as the Suez Canal is the escape of burning 
oil on to the water, and in regard to an ordinary iron 
or steel cargo steamship, laden with petroleum in cases, 
it appears reasonable to suppose that if a fire arose a 
freer access of air than could easily exist would be 
essential to a continuance of the fire. A serious 
collision might evidently rupture the hull of a vessel 
carrying case oil, and the stem of a colliding ship 
might penetrate sufficiently far to cut into one or two 
of the vertical tiers of the cases. In this way oil 
might be set free, but the quantity would be limited 
to the contents of the cases thus injured." 

The shipments of kerosene in cases to the East in 
1899, 1890, 1 89 1 were as follows : — 



1889. 
Cases. 



1890. 
Cases. 



1 891. 
Cases. 



From the 

United States . 15417479 13,841,075 10,618,028 
From Batoum . 4,507408 6,548,899 7,547,244 

System of Transport in Tanks. 

F,or the method of carriage in cases just described 
it was proposed to substitute, to a greater or less 
extent, the system of transporting the petroleum in 
bulk in specially constructed tank steamers. . . . 
Between sixty and seventy petroleum tank steamships 
were then employed in the trade, and many of these 
carried from 3,000 to 4,000 tons of oil. 

The possible risks attaching to the proposed traffic 
were classed by these eminent experts under the 
following heads : — 

(a) Fire or explosion occurring on board the 
petroleum tank steamship. 

(b) Escape of petroleum from the tank ship through 
leakage, collision, or grounding, and ignition of the 
liberated oil. 

Accidents of the first class were undoubtedly liable 
to occur under the climatic conditions prevailing in 
the Suez Canal during a portion of the year ; indeed, 
the destruction by fire off the coast of Greece of the 
tank steamer Lux, laden with refined petroleum, 
though attributable to mismanagement and gross 
carelessness, as well as, perhaps, to what may be 
described as faulty construction of the vessel, clearly 
indicated that such a risk was far from an imaginary 
one, and it could not be denied that the probability of 
the occurrence of such a disaster would be increased 
by the climatic conditions prevailing in the Suez 
Canal. 

Assuming a serious fire to have become established 
on board a tank steamer laden with petroleum, the 
character of the injury to other vessels in proximity, 
and to the permanent accessories to navigation of the 
canal, obviously depend largely upon the extent to 
which the burning cargo became liberated ; so long as 
the hull remained intact, little or no oil could escape, 
but in such a water-way the removal of the burning 
vessel would be a matter of great difficulty, if not of 
impossibility, and if the vessel were to founder while 



any considerable amount of the cargo remained 
unburnt, the floating out of the burning petroleum 
which would ensue could not fail to be a source of 
great danger, in view of the narrowness of the area 
over which the oil would extend. Moreover, the 
removal of the sunken vessel would, in some parts of 
the canal, be a difficult and tedious operation, during 
which the traffic might necessarily be entirely sus- 
pended. Apart from the development of a dangerous 
fire on board the vessel, an explosion of a mixture of 
petroleum vapour and air might take place. No 
explosion could, of course, occur in the oil tanks while 
full of oil, and the risk of explosion in the expansion 
trunks would be very small ; but if oil escaped from 
the tanks into the bunkers or other confined spaces in 
the vessel, it would, at the high temperature some- 
times prevailing in the canal, be liable to become 
rapidly converted into vapour sufficient to form an 
explosive gas mixture with the air in those spaces. 

On the return voyage, after the vessel had dis- 
charged her cargo, the oil tanks themselves, if not 
effectually cleansed (a result by no means easy of 
attainment), would also be not unlikely to contain an 
explosive atmosphere while the vessel was passing 
through the canal during the warm months. An 
explosion occurring on board a steamer laden with oil 
in bulk might be followed immediately by very serious 
leakage from the tanks and ignition of the oil ; while 
if the vessel had discharged her cargo, a serious 
explosion in the oil tanks would probably cause her to 
founder. 

Accidents of the second class were undoubtedly to 
be still more seriously apprehended. The normal 
leakage of oil from petroleum tank ships could not 
under ordinary circumstances be regarded as a risk 
worthy of consideration, but if a tank steamer laden 
with petroleum had met with bad weather, it was 
quite possible that she might be leaking to such an 
extent as to be a source of danger when moored for 
any length of time in those parts of the canal where 
there was still water. Moreover, it occasionally 
happened that rivets worked loose and became dis- 
placed, and this might occur while the vessel was in 
the canal. Undoubtedly, however, the most impor- 
tant risk to which tank ships of the ordinary con- 
struction passing through the canal with petroleum 
in bulk would be subjected, was that of injury to 
the skin of the vessel by collision or grounding, and 
consequent liberation of the oil. The ordinary regu- 
lations for the navigation of the canal distinctly 
recognised the possibility, if not probability, of the 
ocurrence of collisions, and it was well known at that 
time that accidents of this character did occur in the 
canal from time to time. The risk was therefore far 
from an imaginary one. Collisions or grounding 
might occur through carelessness or mismanagement, 
through the mistaking of signals or orders, through 
the derangement of steering gear, through the unsatis- 
factory answering to the helm exhibited by some 
vessels at the low rate of speed imposed by the 
regulations, through the failure of the search light, 
through the effect of a strong wind, through the 
sudden occurrence of a sand-storm, or through a vessel 
in a siding being sucked out by a passing vessel, as 
in the case of the collision between the Britannia and 



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the Knight of St. John, Collisions might take place 
either between two vessels passing through the canal, 
or between a tank vessel and one of the dredgers, 
barges, tugs, house-boats, or launches employed in the 
canal service. In the widened parts of the canal 
vessels passed each other anywhere, but the system 
of navigation adopted in these portions appeared to 
be less safe, from the point of view of possible 
collisions, than that which prevailed in the narrow 
portions. It had been asserted that, owing to the 
narrowness of the water-way in the canal, it would be 
impossible for one vessel to deliver a penetrating 
blow to another, except near the stem or stern, or at 
any rate not amidships, where the tanks of a petroleum 
steamer were situated. It was doubtful whether this 
was quite true of even the narrow portions of the 
canal, but it did certainly not apply to the sidings or 
to the widened portion, where there was room for a 
vessel to get across the water-way to such an extent 
that she might be struck amidships by the stem of 
another vessel. Moreover, the oil tanks might be 
injured to such an extent as to cause serious leakage, 
without receiving a direct blow from the stem of 
another vessel, if a tank steamer was subjected to a 
bumping or gliding collision. 

The effect of a comparatively slight collision upon 
a tank steamer laden with petroleum might be to 
cause the rapid outflow upon the surface of the water- 
way of a considerable quantity of the cargo, and if 
this occurred during the prevalence of a high tempera- 
ture, it was scarcely conceivable that an ignition of 
the oil would not occur. The petroleum would very 
quickly become heated to a temperature at which it 
would freely give off inflammable vapour, if indeed it 
was not already in that condition in the vessel, and 
the vapour becoming rapidly distributed through the 
atmosphere to considerable distances, its ignition, 
followed by firing of the oil, would doubtless take 
place. Practical illustration of the destructive effect 
of even a comparatively small quantity of petroleum 
burning upon the surface of the water was afforded 
in the case of the Wildflower at Sunderland. In that 
instance the liquid implicated was, it is true, crude 
petroleum ; but refined petroleum or kerosene at a 
sufficiently high temperature, such as might prevail in 
the Suez Canal, would give practically the same results 
as crude petroleum at a low temperature. In this 
connection it should be borne in mind that, on the 
Suez Canal, vessels could not be turned round, and 
that they could not readily be driven far astern on 
such a narrow water-way. Therefore, in the event of 
a petroleum fire occurring in the canal, vessels in the 
proximity and heading towards the fire could only be 
effectually removed by being towed astern. 

Having considered the provisional regulations 
relating to tank steamers, the experts in their impor- 
tant report dealt with the directions in which they 
considered attempts might be made to minimise the 
dangers attending the transport of petroleum in bulk. 
Under this head they wrote : — 

" The most serious source of danger to be appre- 
hended is the liberation from the tanks of the oil 
through collision or through the grounding of a vessel, 
and although it may be impossible altogether to 
eliminate this danger, it is possible so to construct the 



vessels to be employed as to materially diminish the 
chances of oil being liberated through the above 
causes. Vessels similar to the Sviet and Bakuin, or 
vessels constructed with a double skin, would be 
obviously less likely to suffer such injury through 
collision as would lead to the escape of the oil ; and, 
although, in the case of a double-skin ship, it would, 
of course, be possible that she might meet with a 
sufficiently serious collision to cause both skins to be 
penetrated, there can be no doubt that this form of 
construction would greatly reduce the risk of any 
considerable liberation of oil on to the water. On the 
other hand, the adoption of that system of construction 
is unquestionably open to serious objection ; thus the 
first cost of the vessel would be greatly increased, her 
carrying capacity would be diminished, the repairs 
necessary from time to time would be difficult of 
execution, and the existence of an explosive mixture 
of petroleum vapour and air between the two skins 
would be difficult to guard against, except by pro- 
viding for a very efficient system of ventilating the 
intervening space. The most practicable methods 
of reducing the quantity of oil which could escape 
from a vessel sustaining serious injury through collision 
or grounding appear to be a considerable subdivision 
of the tanks by means of vertical oil-tight bulkheads, 
or the adoption of a cellular system of construction of 
the oil tanks at the sides of the vessel, with the addition 
of a double bottom, of the kind suggested by Mr. Swan. 

" The utilisation of the spaces alongside the expan- 
sion trunks of petroleum tanks as coal bunkers in 
the tank steamers undoubtedly introduces a distinct 
element of additional risk, even if the bulkheads 
forming the after safety space extend to the upper 
deck, for, if these bunkers are to be used, they must 
be furnished with doors through which the coal can 
be trimmed into the stokehold. In our opinion, the 
tank steamships intended to pass through the Suez 
Canal should carry their coal supplies aft of the safety 
space in cross and side bunkers. 

" Assuming that it be practicable to adopt a system 
of construction of tank steamers calculated to greatly 
reduce the risk of accidental liberation of a large 
quantity of petroleum oil upon the surface of the 
water during the passage through the canal, we are 
of opinion that, under any circumstances, far more 
stringent regulations in respect to the navigation of 
the canal by petroleum tank steamers than those 
which have been proposed by the canal authorities, 
would be necessary to ensure the conduct of the traffic 
with reasonable prospects of safety. We would 
suggest that such regulations should include the stipu- 
lations : That all tank steamers should be painted 
white ; that they should, while passing through the 
canal, be protected with fenders of large dimensions, 
constructed of cane or other suitable material; that 
they should be under way only during daylight ; that 
the use of fires, other than the main boiler fires, and 
lights of any description, except signal lights at night, 
should be strictly prohibited ; that, when vessels are 
moored at night while in the canal, they should be 
protected by means of floating booms in the form of 
iron cylinders of large diameter, and that an officer 
of the Canal Company should be responsible for the 
rigid observance of the regulations. 



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"The transport of petroleum in bulk in such 
steamers through a water-way of such exceptional 
character as the Suez Canal must always be attended 
with risk of accident to other shipping, and with risk 
of more or less serious interruption of the unobstructed 
passage of ships ; and we are strongly of opinion that 
such regulations as those which have been issued by 
the Suez Canal Company in the form of instructions 
to captains of vessels using the canal will, of them- 
selves, certainly not suffice to secure prospects of safety 
such as may reasonably be demanded by shipowners." 

The report was sent on to the Suez Canal Company, 
and M. Ch. A. de Lesseps, acknowledging receipt for 
the President, said : — 

"Without entering into the question whether the 
work of Sir Fr. Abel and Mr. Boverton Redwood is 
not merely a criticism of our regulations, bearing too 
exclusively the impression of the anxiety of parties 
interested in the present mode of transporting 
petroleum to the East, we think it right to say that 
we have discovered nothing in it, so far, that had not 
received our whole attention during two years which 
have been devoted to the patient examination of the 
numerous and varied aspects of the question. We 
have, nevertheless, added this report to the other 
papers in the case, and we shall even study it again, 
because we lose sight of nothing that might assist us 
in improving our regulations, if experience should 
show us any necessity for doing so." 

In this way the controversy came to an end. The 
supporters of the movement in favour of bulk oil 
transport in the canal were successful, for the 
directors issued regulations for the inauguration of 
the new trade and steamers started to carry bulk 
illuminating oil through the canal. 

When, in 1892, the Murex, on her maiden voyage 
to the Far East, entered the canal with the first cargo 
of petroleum in bulk, she solved some of the most 
difficult problems of canal navigation. Sailing on 
July 26th from West Hartlepool, she proceeded to 
Batoumtoload Russian oil for Singapore and Bangkok. 
The day she passed from the Mediterranean to the 
Red Sea the Shell Company, her owners, won a great 
triumph — not merely a triumph in the commerce of 
oil, or the triumph of a shipping innovation, but a 
victory for Russian oil. 

Throughout the important correspondence dealt 
with in these two chapters it will be observed there 
are frequent references to the dangerous influence of 
the canal temperature on any oil which may be 
allowed to escape on the water. Against the objec- 
tion put forward by shipowners that the temperature 
of the canal was too high for the safe passage of tank 



steamers, and that the admission of these vessels 
would be fraught with great danger to life and pro- 
perty, it should be pointed out that a physical chart 
of the world shows that during July the oil regions of 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, the port of Philadelphia on 
the west, and the port of Batoum and Suez on the 
east, all lie between the isotherms of 70 and 80 degs. 
E., and that New York, Philadelphia and Batoum 
are much hotter in the summer than the canal. Not 
only can a tank steamer when aground lighten herself 
by discharging part of her cargo, but in a collision in 
the canal the contents could escape without any risk 
of fire, unless it were heated to at least 120 F., 
when, probably, the volatile vapours would be gene- 
rated. The ordinary "tramp" of 1892, laden with 
case oil, was a more likely source of danger than a 
tanker, as the wood in which the cases were enclosed 
formed an excellent medium for starting a fire. To 
prove this contention it has been pointed out that if a 
gallon of oil were emptied on the cases the ship and 
her cargo would be set on fire ; while an incendiary, 
even if he possessed the necessary technical know- 
ledge, would find it nearly impossible to set fire to a 
cargo of refined oil in bulk. 



" The supply and price of American petroleum is 
regulated by the operations of the Standard Oil 
Company — the most powerful trade combination in 
existence. As free traders, we are not naturally 
disposed to regard with favour any monopoly ; yet it 
is but just to say that this great corporation has so 
far used its vast powers with judgment and dis- 
crimination, and it is a wonderful example of trade 
regulation, without doing harm either to the producer 
or to the consumer. The supply and price of Russian 
petroleum is regulated by the Russian house of Nobel 
Bros, and the equally great Paris house of the 
Rothschilds. If the president of the Standard Oil 
Company and the representatives of the other two 
houses could arrive at some permanent agreement the 
world would witness a financial operation of the most 
stupendous magnitude. An agreement has so far not 
been possible, because the interests of Nobel and 
Rothschild are not identical with those of Rocke- 
feller. . . . The reasons for this want of agreement 
are not far to seek. There are three great foci of 
petroleum in the world— the one in North America, 
which extends from Pennsylvania to North-west 
Canada, practically from the Atlantic to the Pacific ; 
one in South America, and one in South-east Europe 



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and Western Asia. Batoum is nearer the Indian and 
Chinese markets than Philadelphia by 120 degs. of 
longitude. A little consideration will show that 
petroleum in the East is much dearer than it need be. 
Tin is carried from Singapore to Great Britain, and 
in conjunction with our native product, it is manufac- 
tured into tin plates, which are sent to South Russia 
and America. At Batoum and Philadelphia the tin 
plates are made into cases, filled with oil, and sent all 
over the world. In the case of America, the tin 
makes two journeys across the Atlantic. It pays 
duty subject to a drawback, and is worked up by 
highly paid American labour. A cheaper method 
would be to send the oil in bulk from the States to 
Great Britain, do the canning and packing on this 
side, and then export the finished article. The 
cheapest of all is to sen* the refined oil in bulk from 
Batoum through the canal and perform the canning 
operations at the ports of distribution in the East 
By this means American oil would be unsaleable in 
the East on account of its high price. Thus, it is 
easily seen that the latter proposal has been received 
with the most intense hostility by the American 
producers, because they will lose the Eastern market ; 
by the Welsh tin-plate manufacturers, because a good 
deal of their trade will be diverted ; and by English 
shipowners, who will lose a source of profitable 
employment for their vessels. 

• • • • . 

"It is not a little curious to note the change of 
opinion that has taken place during the past year with 
regard to petroleum. A year ago, when it was sought 
to inflict a wholly unnecessary measure upon the 
petroleum trade, called the Inflammable Liquids Bill, 
petroleum merchants, shipowners, brokers, et hoc genus 
otnne, testified loudly that petroleum was a perfectly 
safe article under any and all conditions. Now, when 
it is sought to send oil in bulk through the canal, we 
are gravely told that it is dangerous, and one would 
think that certain daring spirits had proposed to line 
the canal with submarine mines ; and all this, as the 
Welsh tin-plate manufacturers so pathetically put it, 
•to the grievous loss of the present safe mode of 
trade, which would be extinguished.' " 

***** 

The above extracts are from a statement written 
by an able and warm defender of tank steamers at 
the time of the Suez Canal controversy. They throw 
light on some of the chief trade features of the con- 
troversy. Half-way through the eighties petroleum 
transport in bulk was little better than a theory; 



there was not a record of success to justify the 
enterprise of the pioneers, and nothing very convincing 
could be said on their behalf, either by those who 
completed the " conversions " or those who took them 
to sea. Vessels of the " converted " class did not 
altogether justify the expectations of their owners. 

Twenty years ago, five years before the Suez Canal 
controversy, the transport of petroleum in bulk was 
in actual practice discovered to be dangerous, but the 
accidents of that time — certainly those of the Wild- 
flower ) Tancarville and L ux— were directly due to 
imperfections in design and workmanship ; and the 
particulars of catastrophes in the running of some of 
the early tank steamers were published broad- 
cast as an argument that oil could only be safely 
handled in tin cases. 

Even when the Standard Oil Company made 
overtures to the Suez Canal Company some of the oil- 
carriers were not safe enough to escape expert 
criticism, and shipowners, easily convinced that they 
were not suitable for canal navigation, had no great 
difficulty in making out a case against a concession to 
the Americans. 

Indeed, remembering what kind of vessels some of 
them were, it says very much for the unceasing 
watchfulness of those in charge that more accidents 
did not occur. The officers were dealing with quite 
a new form of cargo requiring almost as great care as 
gunpowder. With their lack of experience they did 
not know how far the explosive vapours would carry ; 
they did not appear to have grasped the idea that 
the flame-carrying power of petroleum vapour when 
mixed with air is extraordinary. Moreover, several 
of these " converted " ships had notoriously defective 
electric lighting arrangements; on others the engineers 
understood very little about the new system ; while 
there were oil-carriers which were not electrically 
lighted. 

It is also to the credit of the pilots and those 
in command of tank steamers that there have been 
no collisions, and, with a single exception, the 
case of the Nerite, no serious conflagrations in the 
Suez Canal. 

There are tank steamer captains who, even to-day, 
sum up the question of danger in this fashion : In 
confined waters these steamers, in a collision, are more 
dangerous than vessels which carry general cargoes, 
but in the open sea they are all right The risks are 
external; struck by another vessel a tank steamer, 
if she empties any of her tanks on confined waters, is 
a source of danger, but if any accident of this kind 



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occurs at sea the oil spreads and there is an absence 
of danger. But if it is true that the dangerous vessels 
of the oil-carrying fleets were those of the " converted " 
class placed in the trade before 1886, it is equally 
true that the history of the tank steamer, up to the 
present day, proves that bulk oil, properly handled, 
is a safe cargo ; that it is less likely to be fired than a 
cargo of cotton ; and that it is, if anything, less 
dangerous than a general cargo. The modern 
tanker is one of the safest ships at sea — is, in fact, 
the lifeboat of the mercantile marine. 

Opponents of the innovation were only too pleased 
to recall the accidents to the earliest vessels, and did 
not follow the successful employment of a number of 
tank steamers placed in the trade after the Standard's 
application was refused and just before the controversy 
started in this country. Between 1888 and 1892 
some thirty splendid tank steamers (all built before 
the Shell Transport and Trading Company got their 
first vessel, the Murex, in 1892) had been built by 
Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Messrs. 
Palmer & Co., and other shipbuilders, and were 
trading with complete success in all parts of the 
world. The tank steamers built in 1888-9 included 
the Genesee, Ottawa, Suwanee, Russian Prince, Lumen 
and Elise Marie, all employed in the oil-carrying 
business to-day. The records of the few first years of 
these splendid vessels were overlooked by those who 
were anxious to make use of the mishaps to vessels 
of the " converted " class. 

Even the warmest supporters of tank steamers 
while they found little difficulty in proving that oil as 
a fuel and a cargo was one of the most valuable 
liquids of commerce and industry, were not altogether 
successful in their first attempts to show that, when 
properly handled, it was also absolutely safe. 

The tank steamer was exceedingly unpopular. She 
was the first steamer on the shipowner's black list, 
and in the days of the " converted " steamer and the 
pioneer bulk oil-carrier, "old salts" declared that they 
were dangerous. The antipathy of seamen towards 
tank shipping was of the bitterest kind ; for a 
number of years American sailors furiously assailed 
British-owned oil-carrying vessels, and spread abroad 
slanderous reports about their unseaworthiness and 
dangerous occupation. 



By a peculiar process of nautical reasoning, the 
conclusion was arrived at that amongst the manifold 
dangers run by the steamers was the one of being 
specially liable to be destroyed by lightning. Time 
has proved these fears to be groundless. 

An oil tanker might possibly be struck by lightning, 
but there is no ground for the assertion that she is 
specially liable to sustain damage in that way, 
although in the case of oil wells and storage tanks 
cases are by no means uncommon. A steel vessel 
enjoys almost a perfect immunity from lightning dis- 
charges. Sir William Thomson, the great authority on 
all subjects connected with magnetism and electricity, 
says a sheet-iron house is the very safest place in a 
thunderstorm, and advocates that all powder magazines 
should be constructed of iron throughout Considering 
that an oil tank steamer is wholly constructed of iron 
or steel, and that it floats on an excellent conducting 
medium, we may safely dismiss all fear of explosion 
of oil or vapour through the agency of lightning. 

In our only English canal the tank steamer met 
with opposition. When the question of bringing 
petroleum in bulk up the Manchester Ship Canal was 
first mentioned the proposal was regarded in the light 
of a possible forerunner of danger and disaster to 
the water-way and its shipping. There has been a 
great change of opinion at the Mersey and canal 
ports since then. Tank steamers are specially built 
and regularly tested to obviate any possibility of 
leakage, and the only mishap to a steamer of this 
type in the canal would be caused by her grounding 
badly, damaging the hull and causing serious leakage, 
or colliding with another vessel. Thanks to the care 
with which these vessels are navigated, accidents of this 
class are unknown at Liverpool and Manchester, and 
the special training of officers and the precautions 
adopted by the Canal Company are of such a 
character that serious mishaps are practically out of 
the question. 

The same applies to all English ports entered by 
tank steamers. At these legal precautions and 
regulations to prevent disasters are becoming less 
necessary every year, and it is also interesting to 
notice that there are now no onerous underwriting 
and insurance disabilities, the premiums being on a 
level with those of mail steamers. 



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OIL TRANSPORT THROUGH THE SUEZ CANAL. 

The following is an official list of the oil-carrying steamers which passed through the Suez 
Canal from 1892 (when the first steamer, Murex, was allowed to enter) to 1906. 


Names of Steamers. 


1892. 


1893. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


1898. 


1899. 


1900. 


1 901. 


1902. 


1903. 


1904. 


1905. 


1906. 


Total 

No. of 

Voyages 


Appalachee 
Ashtabula 
Astrakhan 
Baku Standa 
Batoum . . 
Bloomfield 
Broadmayne 
Bullmouth 
Bulysses . 
Cardium . . 
Clam . . 
Conch . . 
Cowrie 
Dakotah . 
Elax . . 
Euplectela 
Georgian Pri 
Goldmouth 
Haliotis . 
Hounslow 
Housatonic 
James Brand 
J. B. Aug. R 
Lackawanna 
Meteor 
Mexican Prif 
Mira . . 
Murex 
Nerite . . 
Pectan . . 
Perlak . . 
Pinna . . 
Prudentia . 
Robert Dickii 
Rock Light 
Sabine Rickm 
Salahadji . 
Seminole . 
Spondilus (ol< 
Spondilus (ne 
Strombus . 
Sultan Van L 
Telena . , 
Tioga . . 
Tonawanda 
Trigonia . 
Trocas. . 
Turbo . . 
Tuscarora. 
Vedra . . 
Volute . . 
Washington 
Winnebago 


» • • 
\d\ \ 

nee 

Messier , 

tee. . 
• • • 

tson 
ers 

i) : : 

w) 
angkat 






1 

2 
3 

1 

3 

1 

••1 
2 
3 

1 






2 

3 
2 

2 

2 

3 

z 
2 

2 
2 

2 


2 
•• 

2 

3 
2 

•• 

2 
3 

2 

■ • 

2 
1 

3 

3 
1 

2 




4 

2 

3 
2 

3 
3 

• •• 

4 
3 
2 

2 

2 
3 

3 


3 

3 
2 

2 

3 
3 

4 
2 
2 

2 

3 

2 

•• 

4 




••• 

2 

3 

4 
2 

3 
3 

1 

3 
2 
1 

3 

1 
2 
2 

2 

• •• 


1 

1 
3 

1 

2 
3 

2 

3 
2 

1 

3 

4 
3 

1 
2 

3 

3 

3 


3 

1 

3 
1 

1 

1 

2 

3 

3 
3 

2 

4 

1 
3 

••• 
2 
1 
z 

2 
2 

1 
2 

2 

X 


••• 
3 
4 

3 
3 
1 
1 

2 

4 
3 
2 

2 

1 
1 

1 
4 

2 
1 

1 
1 

3 

2 
1 

3 

2 

1 

2 


X 

1 
2 

1 

3 
2 

4 
2 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 

2 

4 

4 
3 


i 

j 
/ 

] 
] 

] 
1 

] 
] 

] 

] 
] 

3 

'a 

] 


\ 

t 

2 

2 
2 

[ 

2 
[ 

[ 

[ 
2 

[ 
I 

[ 

C 
[ 
\ 

[ 

I 
I 

: 
1 


3 

1 

1 

1 
2 

2 
2 
2 

1 
1 

2 
1 

3 

1 
2 

X 

2 

1 
2 

1 
2 
2 

1 


2 

1 
1 

3 
2 

X 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
3 

1 

X 

••• 
1 


I 
I 

I 
I 
I 

I 

I 
»•• 

I 

X 
X 


5 

X 

2 
6 
8 
1 
1 

30 
8 

7 
20 

25 

20 

2 

30 
27 

7 

X 

1 
1 

5 

xo 

8 

2 

3 

10 

X 

29 

18 

6 

1 

4 
3 
1 

3 
1 

1 

4 
6 
2 

10 
2 

20 

4 
7 
1 

25 

26 

2 

10 
25 

X 

X 


Total . . . 


X 


17 


23 


28 


36 


35 


34 


41 


45 


54 


38 


35 


37 


2X 


10 


455 


Roughly, these steamers transported a,ooo,ooo tons of oil. 



O.T. 



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( 58 ) 





The marine part of the oil business has 
become one of considerable importance, 
financially and nautically. In its incep- 
tion, steady expansion and adaptability 
to the peculiar needs of the industry it 
is acknowledged to be one of the greatest 
successes of the world's mercantile marine. Per ton the 
tank steamer costs more than the ordinary cargo carrier. 
Having a more expensive and complicated equipment, 
the up-keep is greater than that of the ordinary freighter, 
and calls for the display of engineering and scientific 
knowledge unique amongst specialist work in the art of 
shipbuilding. 

It is the heavy expense of fitting up these vessels that 
compels the owners to charge comparatively high prices 
for the transportation of oil. When larger 
fleets are employed and there are more 
complete terminal storage facilities, there 
will be a decrease in the price of oil, but 
this will take time as it must be remembered 
that the transportation 
charges per mile for oil 
i*. exceed the freightage of 



^ 




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TANCARVILLE. 
As she appeared when she was owned by Mr. Suart. eighteen years ago. 



$~ 



ONE of the earliest of the 
^ British tank steamers was 
the Tancarville. We get some idea 
of the life of a steamer of this type 
if we take the career of this vessel. 
In her case launched in iSSy by 
Messrs. Craig, Taylor and Com- 
pany, and converted into a floating 
oil depot by Smith's Dock Com- 
pany in 1905— some sixteen years 
was the limit, although vessels 
like the Broadmayne (1888), still 
trading, show that they can be 
kept in this trade for a longer 
period. The Tancarville was run 
as lon«r as possible in competition 
with the modern steamer. After 
having been laid up in the Tyne, 
her boilers and machinery were 
removed and she was converted 
into an oil depot for permanent 
service at North Sumatra. The 
towing of the hulk out to North 
Sumatra, 8,200 miles, was en- 
trusted to Mr. William Watkins, 
tug owner, London. The vessel 
lelt Shields Harbour in tow of the 
tug Columbia on April 13th, 1905, 
and arrived at Portland on the 
16th. The tug Oceana the largest 
tug in Mr. Watkins' fleet— relieved 
the Columbia and started on the 
17th with her huge charge on this 
long tow. Algiers ( 1 ,500 miles) was 
reached in ten days. The vessels 
arrived at Port Said on May 18th, 
1. 516 miles; Aden on the 17th 
of the same month, 1,4:0 miles; 
Colombo, June 2nd, 2,100 miles; 
Pankalanbrandan.June ioth, 1,212 
miles. The actual time occupied 
in towing was forty-five days. 

If space permitted, I could write 
.several chapters on oil hulks; 
these obsolete craft form part of 
the huge oil storage systems which 
have dotted the world with 
thousands of depots and countless 
tanks. The Kaimiloa, the only 
naval vessel ever owned by the 
Hawaiian kingdom, is an oil hulk 
in the harbour of Honolulu. The 
Kaimiloa was originally a coal col- 
lier running in the English coasting 
trade. She was purchased for 
Kalakaua, and made the flagship 
of the navy, and was. in fact, the 
whole navy. She carried the 
Hawaiian Embassy that went to 
Samoa to negotiate the treaty with 
the Samoan kingdom, which was 
to inaugurate Kalakaua's policy 
of the "primacy of the Pacific*' 
for Hawaii. On her return she 
was allowed to lie in the harbour, 
gathering barnacles. A few years 
later she was sold to the Inter- 
Island Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, which, however, never found 
any use for her until the introduc- 
tion of oil for fuel in the Islands, 
when she was employed to carry 
oil from tHe tanks to vessels in 
the harbour. 

The centre picture shows the tank steamer Rotterdam towing away from the yard of Palmer's Shipbuilding and Iron 
Company. She occupied the graving aock of this company for 137 days after grounding on the coast of Newfoundland. 

The John Bottvs, the first iron screw collier, leaving the Tyne. On the left is Tynemouth Castle. Designed by the late 
Sir Chas. M. Palmer, she was launched at Jarrow on June 30th, 1852, twenty years before his company built the first 
tank steamer Vadcrland. These are two of many notable records achieved by this famous shipbuilder. 




ROTTERDAM. 




JOHN BOWES. 




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r^HAPTBR VII. 



Some Problems of Stability and the 
Arrangement of Bulkheads. 




[OR many years after the first steam collier, 
the John Bowes (1852), was built by Sir 
Charles Mark Palmer, but well before the 
same great shipbuilder launched the tank 
steamer Vaderland (1872), ordinary freighters were 
turned out of British shipyards from designs prepared 
on the rule of thumb principle. There was a time 
when, according to Mr. Little, " any retired tradesmen 
who wish to dabble in steamship owning thought 
himself competent to fix the dimensions and design 
of a vessel," and, unfortunately for mercantile Jack, 
there were builders who cheerfully undertook to 
build these dangerous specimens of primitive naval 
architecture. 

Lloyd's, and a host of original investigators in every 
branch of engineering and shipbuilding, worked out 
the principles of correct and safe construction in 
relation to those forces which act upon a ship at sea. 
Since the first tank steamers were built in British 
shipyards, it cannot be said that any single vessel has 
really been a contradiction of the true principles of 
naval architecture or a reflection on the ability of her 
builders, although some have not given the best 
results. When Mr. Little stated that some of the 
first petroleum vessels were fearful and wonderful 
examples of " how not to do it," he evidently referred 
to the oil-carrying sailers, the Crusader and others, 
which had an elaborate system of cylinders and 
piping arrangements, the object being to divide the 
cargo into small lots and prevent leakage. 

It can be said respecting the modern tank steamer 
that the cattle, lumber and cotton carriers are inferior 
to her if the verdict is given on the value per ton, the 
general finish of the job, and even on the speed. 

The problems of the stability of early tank steamers 
have been exhaustively investigated by Mr. Martell, 
Professor Jenkins, Mr. Little, Sir Fortescue Flannery 
and others, whose writings and opinions are familiar to 
most of those who are interested in the marine branch 



of the petroleum industry. Professor Jenkins published 
the results of some interesting investigations of the 
stresses produced in bulkheads in oil-carrying 
steamers. He did this before continuous expansion 
trunks were adopted, eighteen or nineteen years ago, 
because neither the Bakuin nor any of the con- 
verted vessels of that day were constructed on that 
principle. 

Professor Jenkins said : — " During the process of fill- 
ing or discharging a bulkhead can never have to with- 
stand the pressure of a greater head of oil or water 
than that corresponding with the level of the oil or 
water in the expansion spaces. At sea, so long as 
adjacent compartments are full, the dividing bulkhead 
can have very little stress to bear, as it is pressed 
about equally on both sides. The bulkheads which 
bound the oil hold, having the oil on one side only, 
are subject to considerable stress, and more especially 
the aftermost, on account of its greater breadth. The 
bulkheads which bound the water ballast tanks, when 
these are filled and the vessel is light, are liable to 
strain in the same way. But the pressure due to the 
head of oil or water, as the case may be, does not 
represent the whole pressure which a bulkhead has to 
bear. Let us suppose a vessel laden and about to 
start on her voyage. As she acquires a forward 
motion each element of the cargo has to acquire an 
equal velocity in the direction of motion. Ordinarily 
the force causing the onward motion is communicated 
to the vessel herself from the shaft through the thrust 
block to the hull, and from the ceiling and decks to 
the cargo by virtue of frictional resistance. But with 
liquid cargoes this cannot be so. This will be well 
understood if we take the case of a vessel containing 
free water set in motion. The water will not at first 
partake of the motion of the ship, but will move aft, 
heap itself up against the aftermost bulkhead of the 
compartment, and present to the eye an inclined sur- 
face. In such a case the bulkhead has to supply the 



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necessary accelerating force to the water, and in doing 
so is itself strained. Similarly, in an oil vessel, owing 
to the fluidity of the cargo, nearly the whole of the 
force necessary to cause the oil to acquire onward 
velocity at the same rate as the ship herself has to be 
communicated through the medium of the bulkheads. 
As the vessel begins to move, the oil in each com- 
partment lags and presses against the bulkheads 
which are to some extent deflected, and when the 
increase of stress is just that caused by a pressure 
great enough to communicate the necessary increment 
of velocity to the oil, it yields no more. It might at 
first sight be thought that the pressure on the bulk- 
heads from this cause as we move aft will be 
intensified — that the pressure on the bulkheads on 
the after side of the foremost compartment, for 
instance, in causing it to deflect, would be com- 
municated to the next department, and so on, and 
that there would thus be an accumulation of pressure 
on the aftermost bulkhead. No doubt if the tanks 
were filled and sealed some such action would take 
place ; but since the oil surface in each tank is free, 
the bulkhead is free to deflect, and any such deflection 
is measured by a slight rise in the level of the oil in 
the expansion chamber. Practically, therefore, the 
increase of pressure on the aftermost bulkhead of 
each compartment from this cause is due almost 
entirely to its own contents. The effect in moving 
ahead is to increase the stress in the divisional bulk- 
heads, although the increment is usually not great. 
The aftermost bulkhead is in this way subject to a 
pressure greater than that due to the head of oil in 
the reserve tube, and the foremost bulkhead to a 
pressure somewhat less. When the vessel is being 
brought to rest the bulkheads separating the oil 
compartments are strained in the opposite way ; the 
actual stress on the foremost bulkhead is increased 
while that on the aftermost is diminished. 

" Again, if we suppose an oil vessel to be rolling in 
the trough of the sea, and to partake of the orbital 
motion of the sea water, the effect is to increase the 
apparent weight of the oil when the vessel is in the 
trough of the wave by as much as, in some cases, 20 
per cent, and to diminish it to a corresponding extent 
when the vessel is on the crest. Practically, the effect 
of the alternate increase and decrease in the apparent 
weight affects only the bulkheads bounding the oil 
hold, increasing the pressure in the wave trough 
nearly to an equality with that due to an equal head 
of water, and similarly decreasing it on the wave 
crest In the same way on the return journey the 



bulkheads bounding the water ballast may be subject 
to stress due to the pressure of a liquid of propor- 
tionately greater density than water. 

" But although the stresses due to these causes are 
important in themselves and deserve consideration, 
it is not for the purpose of withstanding these alone 
that bulkheads of oil-carrying steamers need to be 
specially strengthened. A more serious condition of 
affairs would be reached if by any accident a com- 
partment became only partially filled at sea, owing to 
the longitudinal motion of the fluid caused by the 
pitching and ascending of the vessel in crossing 
waves, and it is mainly to provide against this 
contingency that the elaborate arrangements in most 
oil steamers are due. In any case, however, the 
bulkheads which should receive most attention, those 
which should be most carefully strengthened, are the 
two which bound the cargo hold, as well as those 
which bound that part of the hold intended for ballast 
on the return journey. Whatever may be the con- 
dition of affairs the intermediate bulkheads can never 
possibly be subject to straining action to the same 
extent as the ones just mentioned." 

This was written before the desire for cheapness of 
construction led to the introduction of the continuous 
trunk system. There is no doubt this system gives 
the greatest strength consistent with the cheapest 
method of construction. The original idea was that 
the line of the side of the expansion tanks being 
continuous, they formed girders the whole length of 
the oil space of the steamer, but in practice this 
strengthening is largely discounted by the great send 
of the oil when the steamer is working in a sea-way. 
Every time the steamer pitches, the oil is thrown 
forward against the deck and forward bulkhead, and 
if the pitching is very heavy, straining takes place. 
Theoretically, steamers without cofferdams should be 
stronger, as the weight is in one continuous line 
without any break ; but, in practice, steamers with 
cofferdams strain less than those which are without 
them. 

It was the experience of those in command of 
pioneer oil-carrying vessels that in the matter of 
stability they differed from the ordinary type of cargo 
steamer. With ordinary cargoes a vessel's stability 
is most taxed when rolling heavily. She requires a 
sufficient range to provide a margin against the heave 
of the sea, the inclining effect of the wind pressure, 
and the shifting of cargo. While loading or dis- 
charging no great amount of initial stability is 
necessary, and if she does take a list through an 



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unequal distribution of cargo, it becomes so apparent 
that the necessary steps may be taken by regulating 
the stowage to restore her to the upright A tank 
steamer is in a somewhat different position at sea. 
So long as the tanks remain full, shifting of the cargo 
is impossible ; but, on the other hand, if from any 
cause a subsidence in the level of the oil takes place, 
shifting occurs with a rapidity unparalleled in the case 
of non-liquid cargoes. With free oil the slightest 
inclination causes a corresponding change of surface. 
The most obvious way of minimising the danger, next 
to careful workmanship and sufficiently close rivetting, 
is to divide the cargo hold so as to restrict the area 
affected in case of leakage. In the first oil-carriers 
this result was most effectively attained by fitting a 
practically oil-tight middle line bulkhead, which had 
a most important effect in conserving a vessel's sta- 
bility. Numerous transverse bulkheads, while they 
had no such effect as the middle-line bulkhead in 
respect of transverse stability, limited the area over 
which leakage extended and reduced the straining 
effect of a longitudinal motion of the cargo. 

But while the earliest oil steamers were particularly 
safe at sea as regards stability, so long as the level of 
the oil did not fall, and could steam with a smaller 
curve than most other classes of vessels, it was during 
the process of loading or unloading that the need for 
large initial stability and effective longitudinal sub- 
division was most felt,* 

In practice the number of tanks that may be simul- 
taneously filled increases as the loading proceeds, and 
the number that may be simultaneously discharged 
decreases as the vessel rises out of the water. It is 
not difficult in any given case to draw up regulations 
ensuring that a vessel may be loaded or discharged 
with the greatest rapidity consistent with safety. 
Indeed, in this respect, as well as in respect of her 
stability at sea, the problem of the oil steamer is 
much simpler than that of the ordinary cargo-carrying 
vessel. The latter is engaged as the market demands, 
seldom carrying two cargoes alike, and frequently 
shipping mixed cargoes, the scattered arrangements 
of which it is impossible for the naval architect to 
anticipate by calculation in any estimate of stability. 
The tank steamer carries a definite quantity of homo- 
geneous cargo-oil, and is capable of having her 
stability pretty correctly determined. 



* The tank steamer Paula, lying in the Kaiserhafen, 
had a list to port. While some water was being 
pumped into the starboard ballast tanks she suddenly 
fell over to starboard and struck against the quay wall. 



Professor Jenkins, in his day, advised that the follow- 
ing information should be given to the captain by the 
designer of the vessel : — (i) The number and positions 
of the tanks to be simultaneously filled at the loading 
port from the commencement of the loading to its 
completion. (2) The number and position of the 
tanks to be simultaneously emptied at the end of the 
voyage from the commencement of the discharge to its 
completion. (3) The number and position of the tanks 
to be filled with fresh water for the return journey, 
so as to give a proper trim and sufficient stability, 
together with the order in which they should be filled. 
(4) The order in which the fresh water (ballast) tanks 
should be pumped out on arrival at the loading port. 
* * * * * 

Middlesbrough was one of the first shipbuilding 
towns in the north to earn a reputation for record 
achievements in tank steamer building, and to it 
belongs the honour of having sent the first bulk oil 
steamer, the Fergusons, across the sea. 

An early connection with the oil transport business 
led Tees and Wear shipbuilders to make a special study 
of this kind of work. They did this in real earnest 
about 1893, just after the Suez Canal controversy had 
been brought to a close, and it must be acknowledged 
that they put into practice certain theories and 
opinions which must always form important pages 
in any history of oil-carrying shipping. Some of 
these I have secured for reproduction in this work. 

We get some idea of the early systems of construc- 
tion by examining the opinions of such a high ship- 
building authority as Mr. £. H. Craggs. In 1893, 
when there were 100 oil-carrying steamers afloat, he 
was able to give information based on the results of 
the running of the AHUa, Henri Rieth % and other 
steamers built by his company. On the subject of oil- 
tightness — then and now the watchword of the whole 
system of construction — he pointed out "that the 
shipbuilder may design and elaborate, ventilate and 
electric light, introduce the most powerful and complete 
pumping system, and put in cofferdams, and yet fail if 
absolute tightness is not aimed at." Then, speaking 
of the methods of that day, he said : — 

" All edges to be caulked must be brought evenly 
and fairly together, and the distances between rivets, 
centre to centre, honestly measured. The two-foot 
rule, with a piece of round, soft chalk and a wet 
thumb method must be shunned as a plague. Dressed 
wooden pattern laths, having holes laid off in the 
drawing office, and carefully bored to suit all arrange- 
ments of rivetting, should be given out to be applied 



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to the plate edges by the platers, and the marking 
tube must be carefully used. In the oil-tight parts of 
the vessel, the rivets are spaced closer than the parts 
touched by water only (approximately three diameters 
centres against three and a half, or one more rivet in 
six, in chain rivetting). As a general rule, .single 
rivetted laps are avoided. It is important to see that 
the counter-sinking tools and rivet-making does 
correspond. The stiffening of the plating must be 
evenly distributed, to prevent slipping or gaping at 
the caulked edge. In fact, we want sound caulking 
carefully preserved ; rusting up will not come to the 
rescue in dealing with petroleum. It is necessary to 
dispense with all edge to edge butts, and overlap 
all joints including the thick keel stroke." 

Here is his description of the risks of straining : — 
" But we are aboard of a tanker in mid- Atlantic. 
We have 5,000 tons of oil on board, in addition to 
200 tons of coal, and at any given moment we are 
battling with thousands of tons of moving water. 
Now the keel is exposed for a few seconds nearly a 
hundred feet from the stem, and just afterwards out 
comes the propeller whizzing round, and huge masses 
of water fall on the decks forward. For a few 
moments the water seems to leave half the broadside 
of the vessel, with its immense outward pressure due 
to the oil sustained on the rivet heads, and then the 
huge tanker plunges quiveringly into a great head 
sea. This is the picture the shipbuilder must keep 
before him in the drawing office and in the shipyard ; 
it is in a situation like this that he finds himself face 
to face with the real problems of his great calling. 
The structural strains upon the ship in a sea-way must 
be taken up as far as possible by the framework of 
the vessel so that the rivetted joints are not disturbed. 
It will be recognised that the work thrown upon the 
cross bulkheads is of the most severe character, the 
ship's broad sides, the great flat bottom and the decks, 
all call simultaneously for support in their own 
struggles. For this reason they must not be too far 
apart. The horizontal girders, attached to the cross 
bulkheads, should be so arranged as to take up the 
work, whether it is to resist a pull or a thrust between 
the two sides of the vessel, and, to distribute their 
effort, a good connection to the side stringers of the 
vessel is necessary. Similar service is also required 
from the girder plates placed vertically against bulk- 
heads, with relation to the bottom plating and the 
deck. The verticals are worked at their feet into the 
keelsons, which are, in turn, well secured to the floors 
and bottom plating. But, in this direction, the 



longitudinal bulkhead gives great assistance. The 
only way to avoid local movement at the joints, heavy 
shearing strains in the rivetting, or pulling on rivet 
heads which hold oil-tight joints, is to adopt the 
generous principle of binding the whole framework of 
the ship's hull and bulkheads well together, so that 
any strain is at once distributed over such a large 
area of rivets that no single rivet gets seriously tried. 
Where angle iron joins two plates at right angles, 
forming a corner, the angles cannot be left to pre- 
serve the square shape of the corner ; this must be 
done by knees at suitable intervals. Observe this 
arrangement in the various plans. Any neglect of 
this very simple method will be very quickly punished 
by yards of sprung caulking. The most serious of 
all duties imposed upon a tank steamer are connected 
with the proper carrying of her water ballast when 
making for the loading port. To get a good trim the 
oil tanks must be used for this purpose. Various 
methods have been employed, and some experiments 
carried out at sea in bad weather (including carrying 
the huge tanks half full of water for days ; as if a 
stormy Atlantic outside the vessel were not enough 
another stormy sea is created inside) have been most 
disastrous to the structure of the ships, more especially 
where the bulkheads have been very far apart. 

" One very bad method of carrying ballast is to fill 
up the alternate tanks. The irregular and injurious 
strains set up in a rolling ship are very obvious. All 
this, combined with the occasional filling and emptying 
of tanks at sea, either to correct the trim when the 
bunker coal has been shifted or used up, or to improve 
it in bad weather has, from time to time, caused 
enormous and costly repairs to be carried out I am 
confident, however, that the present somewhat un- 
scientific doubling of strengths here and there and 
everywhere, the multiplying of rivets, and increasing 
the size of brackets, until they become vast triangular 
plateaux, will tone down, and I have hopes that a 
more commercial oil steamer than it is possible to 
build to-day will be designed in the near future.* I 
have been urged, by people who ought to know, to fit 
a water-tight flat low down in the vessel's hold so 
that the lower portion of the tanks may be used for 
ballast I have advised owners now to adopt this 
style of carrying ballast Such a vessel would nearly 
roll her decks off in a cross sea. 

" In the first days of building these steamers there 
was a great deal of talk about the sin of cutting away 

* Mr. Craggs was speaking in 1893. 



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all fore and aft stringers and keelsons to admit of a 
good clean collar being carried right round the margin, 
which almost invariably consists of a 5 by 5 steel 
angle, double zigzag, rivetted in both flanges. It was 
also said the ring of close-spaced rivet holes almost 
cut the ship through. But these difficulties can be 
properly met if we do not overcrowd the rivets through 
the shell, and if, in addition to using large knees for 
connecting the stringers and keelson, smaller inter- 
mediate compensating knees are fitted. I have found 
this a most efficient method. Some defects discovered 
in bottom corners of bulkheads, near the keel plate, 
have led to the adoption of a centre keelson carried 
through the bulkhead. I am inclined, however, to 
favour the breaking of the keelson, and to look for the 
cause of the defects I allude to in another direction. 
It has become the practice in some yards to carry two 



between main deck and spar deck was rivetted with 
countersunk rivets. We found on testing the tanks 
that every rivet in this latter portion was perfect, and 
that where we had to overhaul was the portion of the 
bulkheads where pan heads had been used. I must 
admit very few required touching up; but, as I stated, 
none of the other type gave any trouble. If we had 
another oil steamer to build we would have this 
question looked thoroughly into before commencing 
the work. I may add that in the construction of this 
ship we have absolutely dispensed with the use of 
canvas, felt and other similar stopwaters." 

During the progress of this battle of the rivets in 
North of England shipbuilding centres, Mr. W. M. 
Ruthven was one of those who experienced a great 
deal of trouble with the pan heads, but very little 
difficulty with the countersunk rivet. He found that 




Sketch showing rivets in 4 in.X4 in. centre 
bulkhead bottom bars in the tank steamer 
Meteor, built by R. Craggs St Sons. In 
this vessel both countersunk and ordinary 
common rivets were used, whereas in the 
construction of the Fergusons only counter- 
sunk head rivets were employed. 



plate stringers through the bulkheads and fit angle 
collars, thus dispensing with knees. I would rather 
keep these knees. 

" Too much care cannot be taken with the rivetting. 
For any thickness of plating above f in. the pan- 
headed riyet with a swollen neck, set to a certain 
taper, is best and most favoured by Lloyd's. (See 
sketch.) For f plating and under we find nothing 
to beat the countersunk-headed rivet Much care 
must be taken to get the countersunk in the rivet and 
in the plates to be joined to correspond and to ensure 
the holes being well filled. I have known the 
countersunk-headed rivet used with good results." 

In 1893, Mr. J. H. Boolds (Sir Raylton Dixon & 
Co.), said on this subject : — 

" In a vessel we have built pan heads have been 
used throughout all the frame attachments to the 
shell, including the frame angles for the oil-tight bulk- 
heads. The portion, however, of the bulkheads 



in many cases the pan-headed rivet could not be 
driven home, on account of the thick neck or taper 
catching the plate first, while at other times the burr 
on the plate or flogging up split the head. Variations 
in the size of the punched holes made it difficult to 
secure tight fitting in the case of the pan heads, and 
it was invariably the pan head or weaker end of the 
rivet which flew off when the strain came. He found 
that the cone or countersunk rivet was bound to 
come up to its work and could be plied up from both 
sides if necessary, making them preferable for oil- 
tight or water-tight work. 

Mr. John Parry, another advocate of countersunk 
rivets, considered they were better to make tight than 
the pan heads ; they wedged themselves securely all 
round, and the edges of the head could be " taken in." 
If the heads were good the pan heads were the best 
and strongest, and if it was the pan head that flew off 
he considered the reason was to be found in bad 



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workmanship and material. Temperature also had 
something to do with it, "as" he said, " it is the 
experience of shipbuilders that rivets can be cut out 
very much easier when their temperature is a few 
degrees below freezing-point than when it is at 
boiling-point." 

In those early days Lloyd's preferred the pan-headed 
rivets, although numerous shipbuilders favoured those 
of the countersunk-headed type for water-tight or 
oil-tight work. Messrs. Armstrong, Mitchell & Co., 
the most experienced builders of oil-carrying vessels, 
strongly favoured countersunk rivets. 

It was during the days when shipbuilders were 
beginning to see that rivets must not only be tight, 
but water-tight and oil-tight, that they began to 
improve the quality of work put into ships of all kinds. 
Thirty years before Daniel Adamson recognised that 
boilers must be made to withstand higher pressures, 
and he partly accomplished this by the introduc- 
tion of steel as a material of construction. Daniel 
Adamson and others aimed at turning out an 
altogether better class of work, and sought to make 
the boiler as good a piece of mechanical engineering 
as the engine it was intended to drive. Something of 
the same thing was necessary in the construction of 
ships to carry bulk petroleum. 

Mr. J. Head, addressing Middlesbrough shipbuilders, 
said : — 

" All engineers know that petroleum is an exceed- 
ingly searching and insidious thing. If it be desired 
to take off from a shaft a crank or wheel which has 
been there for years, and which has got thoroughly 
rusted on, it is usual to make a little wall of clay and 
pour in petroleum which will soon work its way into 
the joint and act as a lubricant. We know that 
petroleum will find its way through almost any joint, 
and it requires a shipbuilder to be very clever to stop 
it We know also that some terrible explosions have 
occurred through the escape of petroleum, and, 
therefore, it becomes of the utmost importance that 
vessels intended to contain it should be made 



absolutely tight, and that means thoroughly good 
work." 

The skin plating in the earlier petroleum steamers 
was a frequent source of trouble, especially in 
converted steamers. This was not surprising, 
considering that the usual method of shipyard 
construction did not ensure water- tightness, even 
after the caulker had finished his work. Oxidation 
was generally relied upon to gradually prevent 
"weeping" at the butts and lansings. In new 
steamers, unless of the very highest class, a close 
inspection of the floors and frames after a few month's 
service generally disclosed indications of corrosion due 
to weeping, which, while harmless enough in most 
vessels, were very objectionable in the case of 
petroleum steamers. In one or two of the " converted " 
vessels it was found necessary, to prevent straining 
and consequent leakage, to put butt straps inside and 
out. The latter system had the disadvantage that it 
materially increased the resistance of the vessel. The 
better plan, and the one generally followed at that 
time, was the old-fashioned one of overlapping the 
plates longitudinally. Like many other ideas in 
shipbuilding and engineering which have been 
resuscitated and called modern, the system of over- 
lapping butts was well known to engineers and 
shipbuilders two generations ago. 

Petroleum being such a mobile liquid, and one 
which did not readily combine with other substances, 
there was always some little leakage in the earliest 
tank steamers, especially when they loaded refined 
oil. 

During theeighties designers and builders recognised 
the increasing importance of putting only first-class 
work into the oil tanks, the subject of rivetting 
receiving expert attention, and here I may mention 
that in her day the Palmer-built Prudentia was looked 
upon as a perfect specimen of this kind of specialist 
work, being absolutely reliable and oil-tight in every 
single compartment and built on lines which made 
her a remarkably fine sea boat 



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ryiAPTBRVUL 



The Building of Tank S teamen In 
the Eighties. 




\N July 24th, i89i,at the summer meeting 
of the thirty - second session of the 
Institute of Naval Architects — the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Ravensworth, president, 
in the chair — Mr. George Eldridge read a paper on 
the weak points in steamers carrying oil in bulk, and 
the type which experience up to that time had shown 
to be most suitable for the trade.* 

The great importance to the mercantile marine, 
and the country in general, of the importation of oil 
to European ports from the American and Caspian 
oil fields was not fully realised until attention was 
drawn to it in the paper read by Mr. Martell before 
the members of the same institution at the meeting 
at Liverpool in the year 1886. 

Up to that time nearly all the oil sent to Europe 
from America had been carried in casks and tins, and 
the expense attending this mode of its conveyance 
had restricted the quantity imported within very 
moderate limits. When, however, the great saving 
of cost was shown in the conveyance of oil in bulk as 
compared with its carriage in casks and tins a great 
impetus was given to the trade ; and, while at the 
period referred to only about twelve vessels were 
employed, in 1891 between seventy and eighty vessels, 
carrying from 2,000 to 4,000 tons of oil each, were ex- 
clusively engaged in the carriage of oil in bulk from 
America and Baku to various European ports. At that 



* Note to the author (March 25th, 1907): — "Since I 
read this paper I have built a number of steamers 
for carrying oil in bulk. In these there has been a 
modification of the specifications and a number of the 
arrangements suggested in the paper have been 
carried out, with the result that all of these vessels are 
still in the trade, and I am able to say that, from 
reports occasionally received from the different owners, 
they are doing their work in a satisfactory manner, 
with a much reduced expenditure for wear and tear." 
The paper has been summarised, slightly altered 
with die consent of Mr. Eldridge, and given in the 
past tense. 

O.T. 



time many alterations had been made in types and 
sizes of vessels, and sufficient time had elapsed and 
experience gained to enable a review to be made of 
the manner in which the vessels performed their work 
and an opinion to be expressed as to the design best 
suited for the transport of oil. 

In 1872 a contract was made by Messrs. Palmer & 
Co. (of which firm Mr. Eldridge was then manager) 
for the building of three steamerst of 2,748 tons 
gross register each to carry oil in bulk from New 
York to Europe. Although circumstances arose 
which diverted the employment of these vessels they 
were completed and made fit in every respect to 
engage in this trade if the owners had determined to 
run them. Mr. Eldridge's interest in the subject of 
the safe carriage of petroleum in bulk was still further 
increased by his engagement by the Anglo-American 
Oil Company to advise in arranging designs and 
specifications for their first Atlantic bulk oil-carrying 
steamers. Between that time and the year 1891 he 
had been employed in surveying more than one-third 
of the bulk oil-carrying steamers afloat 

In dealing with the points of faulty construction, 
or inefficient arrangement, he first drew attention to 
the fitting of the deep keel plate connected to the flat 
keel plate, the system of construction generally 
adopted for this description of vessel. This deep 
plate, instead of being continuous throughout the 
length of the vessel, was often abutted against the 
transverse bulkheads and connected by a single angle 
bar, insufficient in size and held together with rivets 
which were too small for the strains brought upon 
them. The result was that the flat keel plate butts, 
together with the brackets connecting the longi- 
tudinal plates and angle bars to which the same were 
connected, were strained, the butts wasted, and the 
rivets loose and leaking. This working of the parts 
was transmitted to the adjacent parts, and in some 

t Vaderland % Switzerland^ and Nederland. 



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instances extended to a considerable distance. 
Instead of breaking up the longitudinal vertical plate, 
it should have been made continuous (avoiding a 
dependence upon rivets alone), and should either have 
been lap-butted or have double butt straps, and in 
either case be treble riveted. In some instances, where 
this system of construction had been adopted, no 
working had been found to take place from excessive 
strain brought on the rigid points where the transverse 
bulkheads were fitted, and much subsequent repair 
and additional strengthening were avoided. 

When these vessels left a home port in ballast it 
was customary to fill a portion of the oil compartments 
with water. In an Atlantic voyage under these con- 
ditions, when a vessel was encountering heavy seas, 
exceptional longitudinal strains were brought on 
the bottom, thereby rendering it of the greatest 
importance that, where the continuity of strength was 
obtained by the method referred to, the utmost care 
had to be taken to have, in addition to sound 
workmanship, the brackets sufficiently large and the 
number and size of rivets well regulated. 

Experience showed that of the various methods of 
connecting the butts of the outside plating none was 
so effective for ensuring oil-tightness as lap-butting 
throughout. Many instances occurred where the 
outside strakes had been lap-butted and the butts of 
the inside strakes connected by the ordinary single 
butt straps; the latter proved insufficient for the 
purpose and it was necessary to fit double butt 
straps, the expense of which would have been avoided 
had lap-butting been originally adopted throughout. 
The fitting of independent tie beams in oil compart- 
ments led to very unsatisfactory results. The local 
straining brought on the ends of the beams almost 
invariably led to undue stress on the rivets of 
the beam ends and edge plating in the locality. 
Local ties of this kind, unless longitudinal brackets 
were fitted to their ends to disperse the stress brought 
at this part, caused a tugging on the rivets and 
leakage. To provide for transverse strength within 
each compartment no better method was found than 
to fit substantial web frames from six to eight frame 
spaces apart; where this was done the structure 
remained perfectly rigid. 

Transverse bulkheads forming the oil compartments 
were, in many instances, much too light and had to be 
considerably strengthened. Where leakage took 
place, or there was considerable rising and falling of 
the oil or water in the compartments, undue strains 
were brought on the bulkheads, resulting in panting 



and the heads and points of the rivets breaking off. 
Many of the defects found in bulkhead rivets were 
also due to the slight countersinking, or absence of 
it altogether, either in the plating or in the stiffening 
bars. It was not too much to say that, in some 
instances, where considerable working had taken place, 
involving great expense for repairs, the initial cause 
had been attributable to this negligence, and showed 
the primary importance of sound and careful work- 
manship in the case of oil-carrying vessels. 

The best method of constructing the transverse 
bulkheads was to fit the plates vertically, with an 
additional plate above the deep floor plate with 
lapped edges and butts having a double row of rivets, 
the edges being arranged to be clear of the 
vertical stiffening bars so that they could be 
efficiently caulked. The heads and heels of the 
stiffening bars and web frames should be secured by 
substantial knee brackets kept clear of the caulking 
edge of the bar. The transverse stiffeners or girders 
should be extended in one length from side to side of 
the vessel, and not butted against the vertical middle 
line bulkhead ; these should be connected to side 
stringers with bracket knees not less than 4 ft. long, 
with treble rivetted joints, and the face angle bars on 
the girders should be continued around the bracket 
knee. The absence of continuity of strength led 
to unsatisfactory results. 

In many cases the longitudinal middle line bulk- 
head had been fitted to very slight scantlings — in 
fact, the bulkhead had been regarded as a screen x>nly 
— with the result that they had to be considerably 
strengthened. This bulkhead should be of a sub- 
stantial character and practically oil-tight. Its 
purpose, though not for longitudinal strength, was 
most necessary in preventing the oil or water from 
moving from side to side of the vessel when filling 
or emptying the compartments. It had been the 
practice with some builders to form holes in this 
bulkhead, and also in the vertical keel plate, so that 
the oil might have freedom to move from side to 
side. This was most objectionable and destroyed 
the purpose for which the bulkhead was fitted, viz., to 
prevent the vessel from taking a heavy list, which 
sometimes happened to a dangerous extent 

The only reason Mr. Eldridge had heard given for 
perforating the bulkhead was that it made provision 
for the possibility of a suction pipe in any double oil 
compartment becoming choked or disabled ; but, he 
pointed out, should such a case occur the oil or water 
ballast should be pumped out by the adjoining 



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suction pipe, and in this way the risk would be 
infinitely less than that which was incurred by having 
movable liquid not under control. 

If necessary provision could be made for a disabled 
suction pipe by fitting a plain sluice valve, with rod 
attached for regulating the same, continued to the 
upper deck in each oil compartment ; this would 
give control over the liquid in the event of a great 
inclination of the vessel or a suction pipe becoming 
defective. 

The experience of many captains of oil vessels 
confirms this conclusion, and in several where openings 
had been made they were afterwards covered over. 

The deck beams in most oil vessels were of angle 
bars, and, in some cases, to these were fitted short 
knee-bracket plates connecting them to the vessel's 
sides. Other vessels, again, had plain welded knees, 
which in some cases were found to be broken through 
the welds, and, where not broken, the rivets in many 
beams had worked loose. This was owing to the 
inefficient and slight scantlings of the plates, and to 
reduced thickness in many cases where welding had 
been adopted, whilst the rivets had been of insufficient 
diameter. In oil vessels, carrying from 3,000 to 
4,000 tons of oil, the rivets should not be less than 
f in. in diameter, with six in each beam arm. In 
vessels of this size bulb angles or bulb T form should 
be adopted, even if an iron or steel deck were fitted, 
and the same should have either the ends turned 
down or substantial and sufficiently long knee-plates 
fitted to take the above number and size of rivets. 

Except at the ends of the vessel where the oil 
compartments finished, it was not necessary to have 
the intermediate transverse bulkheads fitted with a 
double row of rivets. This double row of rivets, very 
close to each other, extending around the whole girth 
of the vessel, greatly increased the risk of leakage, 
while in such vessels a single row of rivets connecting 
the bulkheads to the vessel's sides had been found 
sufficient. 

The arrangement of expansion trunks was of con- 
siderable importance, and several systems of carrying 
this out had been adopted. 

1st. In spar-decked vessels an advantage had been 
gained by fitting this trunk continuously throughout 
the length of the oil compartments ; in this way they 
increased the strength of the vessel longitudinally. 
On the other hand, this plan caused contracted, dark 
spaces on each side of the long trunk, and these were 
difficult to ventilate, unless they were provided with a 
number of cowls, which were liable to be carried away 



in boisterous weather. These spare spaces were 
frequently used for the stowage of reserve bunker 
coals, but the labour and inconvenience of conveying 
them to the stokehold in the after part did not 
commend the arrangement to those who had to 
navigate the vessel. 

2nd. Another arrangement was to fit separate 
trunks to suit double compartments. This system 
possessed the advantage of giving a considerable 
amount of support to the structure above the main 
deck or tank top while it afforded better light and 
ventilation between decks. It also enabled the spare 
bunker coal to be nearer the stokehold, economising 
labour and time and saving expense in trimming. 

3rd. The plan adopted in some oil vessels of fitting 
expansion trunks on each side of the middle line was 
open to much objection. It involved considerable 
danger owing to the difficulty, with small openings, 
in making a thorough examination of the oil com- 
partments before loading or after the cargo was 
discharged. This could not be too carefully attended 
to, and difficulties arose in doing it effectually 
where small entrances only existed, which necessarily 
tended to inefficient lighting and ventilation. 

Many differences of opinion existed respecting the 
best form of rivet to ensure oil-tightness. By some 
eminent builders of this class of vessel, it had been 
held that no form of rivet was equal to the plug- 
headed rivet, while others strongly contended that 
the pan-headed rivet had been found, under all 
circumstances, to be most efficient for any purpose 
for which the vessel might be required. A series of 
experiments were conducted in one of the dockyards 
for the purpose of ascertaining the relative merits of 
various descriptions of rivets. Of three kinds which 
underwent crucial tests — the plug-headed, parallel 
pan-headed, and pan-headed with swollen necks under 
the head — the latter description was found to be best 
for all purposes of ship construction. Experience with 
oil vessels had likewise shown that the swollen neck 
pan-headed rivet was not only superior to all others 
for ensuring strength, but also for oil - tightness. 
Dispensing with the pan head certainly reduced the 
weight of the rivet and consequent cost ; but in vessels 
surveyed by Mr. Eldridge he found that the results of 
the Admiralty experiments held good, and that the 
least number of defective rivets were those of the 
latter description. 

The pumps should be placed as conveniently near 
to the boiler as possible, with a view to minimising the 
condensation of steam in the pipes, which, during 



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frosty weather especially, was a source of trouble and 
loss of efficiency. Several ways had been adopted of 
leading the suction pipes from the pumps to the oil 
compartments. In some cases they were laid on the 
top of the floors at the bottom of the vessel and 
connected to the transverse bulkheads, with expansion 
joints in the middle of the compartment. In other 
cases, they were continued along the main deck on the 
tank top, with a branch suction into each compartment, 
the valve rods working from the deck above. Others 
were fitted inside the expansion trunks, and valve 
rods for opening or shutting led to the deck above. 

The most satisfactory plan was to lay the pipes on 
the top of the floors with a branch suction to each 
compartment, and controlled by a valve with rods 
worked from the upper deck. The efficiency of the 
pumps was sometimes found to be much interfered 
with owing to the oil not finding its way readily from 
one frame space to the other. The limber holes 
should not be less in area than that of the suction pipe ; 
instead of this the holes were sometimes formed by 
cutting a small triangular piece off the bottom of the 
floors where they were connected to the middle line 
deep keel plate. Where the oil had not ready access 
to the pumps much delay was caused in draining the 
bottom of the tanks, while racing and injury to the 
pumps frequently resulted. 

Another important point in connection with the 
pipe arrangement was to avoid carrying the pipes 
into any other compartments than those specially 
intended for oil. It had often been the practice to 
employ the oil pumps for filling and emptying the 
foremost deep water ballast tank and fore peak tank 
with the result that the water passed through the 
pumps and pipes with a certain amount of oil, and 
there was an accumulation of gas in the tanks without 
any means of escape. This was a source of danger it 
was well to avoid. The oil pumps should only be 
used for loading and discharging oil, while a separate 
donkey pump should be fitted forward with suction 
and filling pipes for the deep water ballast tank and 
fore peak, and it might, adapted as a fire pump, prove 
invaluable in a case of fire. 

Vessels engaged in the oil-carrying trade were not 
subject to corrosion to the same extent as vessels 
engaged in general trade. Oil had a general preserva- 
tive effect. At the same time, careful attention 
should be given to parts, such as the main deck, where 
reserve bunker coals were stowed. In several vessels 
considerable deterioration took place at this part, 
extending throughout a length of 50 ft, occasioned 



apparently by an accumulation of water mixed with 
small coal and possibly setting up a chemical action. 

As to the original intention of designers and owners 
in fitting double bulkheads on the fore side of the 
machinery space in the after part of oil-carrying 
vessels, these spaces were undoubtedly described in 
the early steamers as water spaces, and the intention 
was that, when the vessel was filled with oil, these 
should, for greater safety, be filled with water. Cases 
occurred where the spaces had not been filled and 
leakage had taken place, oil finding its way amongst 
the bunker coals and occasioning considerable danger. 
Had the space been filled with water this could not 
have occurred, as the oil would have floated on the 
surface and could easily have been removed. The 
space was sometimes made only one frame, or about 
2 ft., between the bulkheads, and left badly ventilated; 
and cases were known where a sea-cock and oil 
suction pipe had been fitted in this space. It was 
evidently very difficult for a man to find his way into 
this space to effect repairs or clean it out, and, doubt- 
less, this was why it was found to be the most dirty 
and neglected part in the earliest of the oil vessels. 
These spaces should not be less than two frame spaces, 
or about 4 ft., fore and aft, and should be kept clean 
and frequently visited. Owners should issue distinct 
instructions — as many at that time did — that when 
the vessel was oil-laden the water space should be 
filled with water as originally intended. 

The question of clearing the oil compartments of 
gas when men had to enter them for examination or 
repairs was one of vast importance. It had been the 
practice with some owners to fill the tanks to over- 
flowing, skimming off the oil as it rose to the surface, 
and then pumping out the water. Although this was 
doubtless the most effectual means of freeing the 
compartments of oil and gas, experience showed that 
it was unsatisfactory in a case where men might find 
it necessary to enter the tanks some time after this 
had been done. There were so many interstices in 
the inside of a vessel that merely filling the hold with 
water would not eliminate all risks of accident ; pre- 
cautions were necessary after this had been done as 
evaporation from heat of the small remaining portions 
went on and explosive gas was produced. A number 
of rivets should be driven out of the bottom for the 
escape of the gas, and there should also be wind-sails 
in every compartment. Early experience showed the 
necessity of going beyond this, and, instead of dis- 
turbing the rivets, three plug-holes, about 1 J in. in 
diameter, should be formed in each oil compartment, 



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and these, with windsails and the open hatches, would 
effectually keep the holds free from gas. No practical 
difficulty prevented the effective closing of these holes 
with plugs, which could be removed as necessity 
arose, and much of the danger which existed in 
visiting the holds of these earlier vessels would be 
obviated. 

Notwithstanding the dissatisfaction expressed by 
many interested respecting the performances of some 
steamers engaged in carrying oil in bulk, the causes 
which gave rise to the dissatisfaction were not far to 
seek. When, in 1885 and 1887, the great impetus 
was given to building vessels for carrying oil in bulk 
very little was known of the risks of damage to these 
vessels. The permeating qualities of petroleum were 
known, and experts were aware that small vessels 
had been successfully engaged for years in carrying 
oil in bulk on the inland seas and rivers in Russia. 
This, however, gave very little indication of the re- 
quirements of strength and local arrangements for 
vessels intended to cross the Atlantic in winter 
seasons. Consequently, it was felt that if vessels 
were built of equivalent strength to those which had 
satisfactorily carried cargoes of varying densities, 
and, in many instances, indifferently stowed, the fact 
of the transverse strength being greatly increased by 
a large number of bulkheads in oil-carrying vessels, 
and the cargo being of a homogeneous nature, should 
add still further to their safety. Something more 
than this, however, was necessary to enable them to 
cross the Atlantic satisfactorily when fully laden with 
oil. Although the additional bulkheads increased 
their transverse strength, the necessity of making 
them water-tight broke up the continuity of strength 
attained by the stringers, keelsons, etc, extending, as 
in ordinary vessels, all fore and aft. These longi- 
tudinal connections had to be discontinued at the 
bulkheads and attached by brackets. The imperfect 
manner in which this was done, in many instances — 
the brackets being deficient in size, and the rivets too 
small and few in number — doubtless led to the ineffi- 
ciency of some of these vessels when they encountered 
heavy gales. Added to this was the inexperience of 
many of the captains. In some instances, when vessels 
were thought to be unduly light and too tender, one or 
more of the compartments were run up in mid-ocean, 
and the effect of this large volume of moving water in 
straining the vessel can be easily imagined. Again, 
some were too deeply laden when crossing the 
Atlantic in mid-winter, and undue straining resulted 
from this cause. It was not a question of additional 



scantlings, but more a question of local connection and 
sound workmanship. In fact, the rivetting should be 
arranged as for boiler work and be equally well 
done. 

" It is thought with the experience now acquired as 
to the best type of vessel for the work, and the 
arrangement of materials and quality of rivetting and 
workmanship necessary for this exceptional trade, 
that the great expense, inconvenience and dissatis- 
faction caused, will be obviated in the future; and that 
while oil-carrying vessels are the safest as regards 
collisions, they will, if the experience gained is 
properly utilised, be found to be equally successful 
when compared with other types in meeting the 
worst descriptions of weather." This was the opinion 
expressed by Mr. Eldridge at the end of his paper, 
and it is scarcely necessary to point out how 
abundantly the tank steamer of to-day has proved 
that his prognostications in 1891 were correct 



=1 



SSBE 




^y 




These designs (drawn by Mr. Eldridge) show types engaged 
in the oil trade fifteen years ago. Some of them are running 
to-day. For description see text. 

No. i. This vessel, 2,748 tons, was constructed 
with two skins about 26 in. apart, and the main hold 
to the height of the lower deck was divided into ten 
separate compartments. A great rise of floor of 
about 3 ft. 6 in. was adopted to raise the centre of 
gravity of the oil and cargo, and thereby reduce the 
initial stability. Early experience showed that by 
adopting the principle of having empty spaces between 
the outside skin of the vessel and the oil tanks much 
danger was incurred from the facility thus afforded 
for gas accumulation. In later designs this system 
was abandoned. 



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No. 2. Shows another design of a spar-deck 
steamer built for this trade. This vessel had a short 
poop, forecastle, and midship deckhouse, not extended 
to the sides of the vessel. Each oil compartment had 
an expansion trunk 5 ft by 3 ft placed at the fore end, 
fitted between decks, extended 3 ft above the spar 
deck and closed at the top with an air-tight lid. A 
short poop or hood is shown fitted at the stern, but 
experience gained in the Atlantic trade showed this 
to be of small benefit in protecting the vessel from 
following seas, and preventing an inundation of the 
engine room at the after part of the vessel. 

No. 3. This is a three-decked vessel with full 
scantlings and a comparatively small freeboard, having 
a topgallant forecastle, a poop extending from the 
stern as far forward as the after expansion tank, with 
accommodation for the officers, etc., and a short poop 
bridgehouse amidships. Above the upper deck a 
hatch 12 ft by 8 ft, with coamings 3 ft in height, is 
fitted, in continuation of the expansion trunks of each 
compartment. These hatchways are fitted with a 
plate-iron cover, secured by nut and screw bolts to 
form the top of the expansion tanks, and have two 
oval manholes to give access to the tanks. To this 
system of fitting the covers of the expansion tanks 
there are great objections ; they do not admit of the 
hatches being readily opened for repairs, and when 
the crew are engaged in preparing for cargo the 
tanks are almost in darkness, thus necessitating the 
use of artificial light at all times. After this type 
of vessel had been engaged in the Atlantic trade for 
some time it was found necessary, in order to prevent 
green seas flowing over the part of the deck between 
poop and bridge, to fill in this space by a shelter deck 
and enclose the front of the bridge by an iron 
bulkhead. 

No. 4. This represents a vessel with one deck laid, 
having a topgallant forecastle for the crew, and a long 
poop extending from the stern to about 1 80 ft forward. 
Below the poop-deck are three cylindrical expansion 
trunks, with hatchways on the deck for entering the 
same. Before the poop, over the remaining compart- 
ment, is fitted a continuous expansion trunk, 4 ft 6 in. 
high and 18 ft, in width, with hatchways over each 
compartment, 6 ft. by 4 ft., all fitted with air-tight 
covers. In this type the upper deck forms the top of 
the oil tank. It was found, owing to the low free- 
board at which this and similar vessels were sailed, 
that the well forward was constantly flooded, even 
in a moderate sea in the Atlantic, and it was 
consequently decided to fill in the space between the 



poop and forecastle as indicated by the ticked line, 
thus forming a continuous superstructure fore and aft. 
This vessel had a patent double bottom, which did 
not prove satisfactory, and, although originally in- 
tended to be an empty space when the vessel was 
filled with cargo, it was afterwards employed as a 
cargo space. Experience, however, showed that such 
confined and dark spaces were extremely dangerous 
in vessels used for carrying petroleum in bulk, as they 
were liable at times to become filled with gas from 
the oil. 

No. 5. A spar-decked vessel, having a topgallant 
forecastle, short midship deckhouse, and a long poop 
covering the officers' accommodation, engine and 
boiler casings, and stokeholds, and with high coamings 
around all the openings on the poop deck, thus pre- 
venting water readily finding its way below, as is 
generally the case where vessels are fitted only with 
casings about 7 ft high above the deck. 

As an instance of this, Mr. Eldridge was once 
informed by a chief engineer of a vessel of this type 
that, during the heavy gales of January, 1890, it took 
the second engineer and a fireman over two hours to 
secure the covering over the air hatch to the stoke- 
hold, whilst he remained below in charge of the 
engines ; and that, with all the pumps going, the 
water rose to 2 ft. above the stokehold floor before the 
covers were securely fixed. The engineer stated that 
if any derangement of the pumps had occurred the 
vessel would undoubtedly have foundered. With 
engines aft it was absolutely necessary in the steamers 
of that year (1890) to fit a poop at least of sufficient 
length to cover the whole of the machinery space. 
Although this vessel had a freeboard considerably in 
excess of vessels of the type shown in Diagram 3, still 
a large quantity of water found its way at times on to 
the deck between the poop and bridge. It was seen 
that it would greatly increase her safety and comfort 
if the poop were continued to the bridge, and also that 
a vessel of this improved type would be most satis- 
factory for the North Atlantic trade, especially during 
the winter months. 

A Tyneside authority,* who has dealt with some 
of the earlier problems of tank steamer building, 
says : — 

" The tanks must be large enough to contain the 
required quantity of oil at the rate of 44 to 45 c. ft. 
per ton, with 2 per cent, added to this for expansion. 

* Mr. H Bocler. 



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American oil requires from 44$ to 45 c. ft per ton ; 
Russian oil about 43} c. ft. per ton. An allowance 
of 2 per cent for expansion provides for an increase 
of about 40 in the temperature of the oil, without 
bringing extra pressure upon the tanks. Double 
bulkheads, about 4 ft. apart, forming a cofferdam, are 
placed at each end of the oil space to prevent leakage 
into the adjacent compartments." 

This is a theory of early days. When tank 
steamers first started, the question of the size of the 
tanks was easily arranged, as the only oils then 
carried were American refined and crude and Russian 
refined. Although there is a considerable difference 
between the gravities (American refined and crude 
having a sp. gr. 795 to sp. gr. 800, and Russian refined 
•820 to '825), yet, owing to the geographical situation 
of the loading ports, the difficulty practically solved 
itself. With American oil the steamers had to take 
about 10 to 12 per cent, of their dead-weight 
capacity as bunkers for the passage from the United 
States to Europe, while with Russian oil they took 
their bunker coal about half-way between the Black 
Sea port and Europe, so that the quantity of bunkers 
required was only 5 to 6 per cent, of the dead-weight 
capacity, which equalised the difference in the weight 
of the cargo. 

Later, as the trade grew and became more complex, 
and the tank system extended, gas oil, lubricating oil, 
residuum and benzine were carried, with gravities 
varying from *68o to '910, and this complicated the 
arrangement of the tanks ; because to obtain the best 
results, from a financial point of view, it is necessary 
that while a steamer should carry her full dead-weight 
capacity of benzine, she should also have some of her 
tanks completely full when loaded with a cargo of 
the heaviest oils. 

The same authority (Mr. H. Bocler) says : — 

M The best position for the engines and boilers is 
aft, for if the machinery is placed amidships two 
extra cofferdams are required, and the shaft tunnel 
has to be made oil-tight through the after tanks."* 

This unqualified support of a position aft is scarcely 
justified to-day, when we have such steamers as the 
Caucasian, Narragansett, Tuscarora, Phoebus, and 
many others, proving in actual practice that there are 
advantages in placing the engines amidships. When 
tank steamers were about 300 ft. in length, it was not 



* Messrs. Craig, Taylor & Co. claim that they 
were the first to build an oil-carrying steamer with 
engines amidships. 



a disadvantage to have the engines aft ; but now 
when the latest vessels carry three times as much 
cargo as those launched fifteen years ago, a certain 
risk of straining is run in the case of a vessel with her 
engines and boilers aft, and never more so than when 
she is steaming in ballast in heavy weather. 

The largest of the Shell liners — indeed the entire 
fleet — have their engines aft, and nothing in the 
experience of the owners has led them to make a 
change. I must also admit that the advocates of this 
type might with very good reason point to the huge 
coal-carriers on the American lakes as evidence in 
support of their contentions, but here it must be 
remembered that there is no comparison between the 
size of the seas in the lakes and those encountered in 
the ocean. 

The expense of placing the engines amidships is a 
little greater, owing to the oil-tight tunnelling required 
under the after tanks, but owners of vessels with 
engines amidships get compensating advantages in a 
vessel which is stronger and easier to handle. Some 
who advocate a position aft make a strong point 
of the possibility of sparks from the smokestack 
amidships falling on the oil space aft of the engine 
room, and declare that it reduces to a minimum the 
risk of oil reaching the fires or bunkers. In actual 
practice it seldom occurs that sparks reach the 
deck; when a vessel is steaming there is generally 
sufficient wind to keep her clear of these smokestack 
dangers. 

When the engines are amidships a steamer can be 
more easily trimmed, and, no matter whether she 
burns coal or liquid fuel, she can be kept on a more 
even keel, will steam faster, and burn less fuel. 

The Middlesbrough school, deeply interested in the 
early problems of tank steamer construction, devoted 
a great deal of attention to the position of the engines. 
Mr. T. Westgarth supported the idea that it was 
better, even in comparatively small steamers of that 
time, to place the engines amidships. With the 
engines amidships he considered they avoided 
trouble and expense in trimming coal, " because with 
engines aft coal was carried along the 'tween decks 
and even in the fore-hold." Again, when a vessel 
with the engines aft was light, she had to be kept on 
an even keel by filling one or more ballast or oil tanks 
with water ; this probably caused very severe strains 
upon the hull in a sea-way, especially when the vessel 
was water-borne amidships. 

Mr. E. H. Craggs, whose firm arranged the 
Fergusons and the Caroline Robert de Massey and 



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built the Afexicano* one of the first specially designed 
tank steamers with engines amidships, was a pioneer 
advocate of this position. He considered that, struc- 
turally, amidships was the best position, and experi- 
ence led him to express the opinion that it was most 
necessary to have them there in cases where trimming 
a ship on an even keel with part cargo or in ballast 
was desirable. 

When the engines are amidships the cofferdam 
arrangements are more perfect. It has been found in 
practice that a steamer with two or three cofferdams 
for separating different kinds of oil is stronger 
and does not strain so much as one which has no 
cofferdams. 

Mr. Bocler has supplied the following information : — 

"When the machinery is situated aft, it will be 
found necessary to place the forward bulkhead of 
the oil tanks a considerable distance aft of the 
collision bulkheads, in order that the steamer may 
not trim by the head when she is laden with oil and 
her bunkers are burned out. A vessel large enough 
to carry a certain dead weight of oil possesses a 
carrying capacity in excess of the cargo loaded, and 
there is, therefore, a certain amount of surplus 
capacity which can be left where most desirable. 
The usual practice is to carry the oil below a second 
deck, except in the 'tween decks, as the oil is then 
more protected from changes in the temperature of 
the atmosphere. The balance of the surplus capacity 
is made up by the contents of the fore-hold, which 
is fitted to secure a satisfactory arrival trim. The 
size of the individual tanks is governed by considera- 
tions of strength and stability, and by the necessity 
of limiting the quantity of oil which would run out 
in the event of a tank being damaged. In the case 
of a steamer carrying about 6,000 tons of oil, the 
tanks would be formed by transverse bulkheads 
about 32 ft apart, combined with a central oil-tight 
division throughout their range. The total number 
of tanks would be twelve, each having a capacity 
for about 500 tons of oil. 

" Some empty spaces must be left in the tanks to 
allow for the expansion of the oil, and at the same 
time it is very important that the free surface of 
the liquid should be limited in extent In order to 
fulfil these conditions, expansion trunks are fitted. 
The form of trunk most commonly met with consists 
of a central trunk fitted in the 'tween decks for the 



* This steamer was specially designed to meet the 
objections of some American underwriters. 



full length of the oil space, having transverse divi- 
sions corresponding to the bulkheads below. In the 
case of vessels intended to frequently carry general 
cargoes instead of oil, a more expensive system is 
adopted in order that the 'tween decks may be easily 
accessible. Small trunks are fitted to each tank, 
combined with an arrangement of hatchways with 
bolted iron covers. The relative capacity of the 
trunk and tank must be such that the minimum level 
of the oil will not be likely to come below the bottom 
of the trunk when the vessel rolls. The critical con- 
ditions for stability in a well-designed vessel do not 
occur when she is fully laden, as then the free surface 
of oil is limited in extent. While loading and 
discharging, however, the free surface will extend 
right across the tank, and care must be taken not to 
have several tanks partially empty at the same time. 
When the centre bulkhead is oil-tight, the loss of 
metacentric height due to the free surface is only one- 
fourth of what it would be if this were not the case. 
The system of construction usually adopted in the 
tanks is to fit web frames and deep beams about four 
spaces apart; the deep beams being supported by 
channel pillars. The intermediate frames are of bulb- 
angle section, and ordinary floor plates extend from 
the centre bulkhead to the bilges. The frames are 
cut at the oil-tight deck, the strength being maintained 
by fitting large bracket knees. The bulkheads must 
be heavily stiffened, as they have to withstand very 
severe stresses. Lloyd's rules require that each tank 
shall be tested with a head of water 12 ft. above its 
crown. The horizontal stiffeners on the transverse 
and longitudinal bulkheads are kept in line with the 
side stringers, and large knees connect them at the 
corners of the tank. The main stresses due to the 
oil cargo are borne by the rivets connecting the 
frames to the shell plating, and not by the floors and 
frames as in the case of an ordinary cargo vessel. 
For this reason, and also owing to the penetrating 
nature of the oil, it has been found necessary to space 
the riveting closer in oil work than in ordinary prac- 
tice. The spacing which has been found suitable for 
the butts and seams of shell plating is three diameters 
from centre to centre. This spacing is also adopted 
in bulkheads and decks where both seams and butts 
are double riveted, while the rivets through the frames 
and outside plating are spaced six diameters from 
centre to centre. It is essential for the successful 
working of a tank steamer that means should be 
provided for the rapid discharge of cargo ; hence a 
special pumping installation is introduced, consisting 

L 



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generally of two pumps, with the necessary piping, 
having sufficient power to discharge the cargo in 
about thirty-six hours.* The best position for the 
pump room is amidships, as the distance the oil has to 
be pumped is reduced to a minimum. The main pipe 
lines are laid on top of the floor, one at each side 
of the centre bulkhead. From the main pipe line, 
branch sections are led to each tank, controlled by 
valves worked from the upper deck. The delivery 
pipes are so arranged that the oil may be discharged 
from either side or over the stern. The pumps are 
arranged to empty the tanks and to fill them with 
water, but they are not usually arranged to pump oil 
on board, t and are shut off by valves from the pipe 
lines while the tanks are being filled from the shore. 
The practice of filling the tanks through the hatches 
has been largely discontinued, as too much vapour is 
given off when loading in this way. A cofferdam is 
fitted below the pump room from the sea suctions 
to the pumps, as these should on no account pass 
through the oil tanks. Twenty years ago the objection 

* The Narragansett generally discharges her 12,000 
tons of oil, bunkers, and sails again in forty-eight 
hours, while some of the smaller tank steamers can 
discharge and get away to sea again well inside 
twenty-four hours. 

t There is a slight error here. The majority of the 
tank steamers of to-day have a pumping equipment 
to load oil. On the Danube where part cargo is 
brought down from Braila to Salina in tank barges, 
the tank steamers pump the barges out without any 
assistance. 



was urged by shipowners that a petroleum vessel 
could not be used for any other cargo. Gradually 
experience showed that they could be most usefully 
employed in ordinary trades. Of course, all traces of 
petroleum had to be eliminated. This was done, in 
the first place, by careful scrubbing down of the holds, 
beams, etc., using a jet of water under pressure, and 
finally a jet of high pressure steam. If all traces of 
oil were not then dissipated, a coat of lime effectually 
rendered the tanks sweet. It was not supposed that 
the vessel would be employed in the tea or coffee 
trade ; but, as one authority put it, if used for coals or 
wood or ore for the first voyage, and then cleaned 
out thoroughly, the vessel could with safety carry 
sugar, coffee and fine goods." 

To-day the oil-stained tanks are cleaned by means 
of steam injection in such a manner that the steamers 
are able to load such delicate cargoes as tea and 
sugar, and, as recently as February this year, the tank 
steamer Santa Rita discharged a cargo of eight 
hundred pianos at San Francisco. 

Before I finish on this subject I should like to say 
that, amongst the many practical men who are to-day 
devoting attention to the problems of ship construction 
is Mr. Isherwood, for many years a Lloyd's surveyor. 
He has arranged a new system of framing for an oil- 
carrying vessel ; it is one in which the numerous 
transverse bulkheads form the oil tanks, and its 
adoption in the case of a new tank steamer would be 
a matter of great interest from the naval architect's 
point of view. 



11 From the arched roof, 
Pendent by subtle magic, many a row 
Of starry lamps and blazing cressets, fed 
With naphtha and asphaltus, yielded light 
As from a sky." 

Milton in " Paradise Lost " 
(The account 0/ the lighting of Pandamonium). 



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< 



Messrs. Lane and Macani>rew's Ste a 
Liu i line and Le Coq. 





> 



i 



> 



this company 
steamers are— 

Caucasian : 
Captain Brown. 

Luciline : — 
Captain Hfi.siiam. 

Or ill am me •- 
Captain Foster. 

Le Coq — 
Captain Peterson. 

Euplcctdit • 
Captain Da vies. 

Ttiek:— 
("apt. Callaohan. 

Pinna : 
Captain Faireiei n. 

Noe Might: — 
Captain Park v. 

Halakhani : — 
Captain Claris ;e. 

Lux :- - 
Captain Greev. 



One of the pictures on this page show how the French three-masted schooner Mots-Nose was lost at 
sea. She was hound out from Fecamp to the Grand Banks, when she encountered a succession of 
severe gales and became water-logged. The Luciline took oft the crew just before she foundered. 
The Luciltne was commanded by Captain Helsham, and Mr. S. 1). Keddie, chief officer, had charge 
of the boats which rescued the crew. 



> 




The Le Coq. 



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m ^y m 



\Tofan 



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HAPTBR IX. 



Tank Steamers of the Last Seven 
Years 9 Trade in the Far Bast and 
between California and the Orient, 
and the Oil-carrying Barge Systems 
of the World. 




HE descriptions in earlier chapters of what 
has been accomplished by the largest oil 
istributing and tank steamer -owning 
companies and those devoted to the 
construction of tank steamers bring this history 
practically up to the present year. In these, however, 
it will have been noticed that I have not referred 
to the steamers of a number of independent com- 
panies, particularly those of the Prince Line and 
Burmah Oil Company, which have vessels engaged in 
the trade. I have only space for brief references to 
the successful Scotch company which has oil properties 
in Burmah, one or two English-owned steamers, and 
the typical modern tankers Phoebus and Petroleum^ 
the first owned at Hamburg and the last named by 
the British Admiralty. 

The sister ships Syriatn and Kokine were built to 
the order of the Burmah Oil Company, Rangoon, 
by the Grangemouth Dockyard Company, for the 
Indian trade, in 1899. They embody a number of 
interesting features. While the larger proportion of 
the cargoes consists of bulk oil carried in eight oil 
compartments, having oil-tight centre bulkheads 
extending the whole length, provision is made for 
dealing with a considerable proportion of oil in cases 
or general cargo. For this purpose the oil compart- 
ments and 'tween decks alongside the expansion 
trunks are fitted with portable ceiling and sparring, 
the latter having the necessary side hatches. 

The hatches giving access to the holds are so 
constructed that when the vessels carry general cargo 
the usual oil-tight hatch covers are removed and the 
whole width of the hatch made available. Each 
hatchway is provided with a derrick and powerful 
steam winch. 

The machinery for dealing with the oil include two 
Snow pumps, each capable of discharging 180 tons 
per hour, and these operate through a double line 
of pipes controlled by an elaborate arrangement of 



valves whereby either or both pumps can deal with 
each compartment, pump from one compartment to 
another, and draw from, and discharge into, the sea or 
overboard. If required, the oil compartments can be 
cleared of vapour, or, in the case of fire, the flames 
extinguished, by steam being admitted to each or 
all of the compartments through the pipe lines. A 
powerful air fan, by the Stirtevant Company, can be 
brought into requisition for exhausting the dangerous 
petroleum gases from the tanks, and for the detection 
of the presence of gases Redwood's patent detecting 
instruments are provided. The whole of the valves 
for manipulating the pumps, sea suction and discharge, 
air fan and steaming out valves, are controlled from 
the pump room. The valves at the bottom of each 
compartment and the end master valves are actuated 
by rods extending to the spar deck. Electric light is 
supplied by a direct-driven dynamo in the after part 
of the engine room, the wiring being on the double 
wire system, armoured cables. Electricity is used for 
masthead, side and anchor lamps, and portable hand 
and accumulator lamps are provided for holds and 
store rooms. 

The Bloomfieldy built by the Tyne Iron Shipbuilding 
Company, Ltd., in 1899, f° r Messrs. Hunting & 
Son, Newcastle, is 350 ft. by 50 ft. by 31 ft., and is 
divided into thirty-two separate oil-tight compart- 
ments, with six separate water-tight compartments, 
besides her machinery space, cross bunker, cargo 
hold and pump room. She has a double installation 
of powerful pumping machinery, a ventilating fan for 
exhausting air in the oil-tight compartments, electric 
lighting throughout, steam winches, direct-acting 
steam capstans, direct-acting windlass with capstans, 
powerful steam steering gear, and steam heating 
throughout 

When the 'nineties were entered, and Texas was 
booming, many large steamers were built. Some of 
the most important were for the Anglo-American 



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and Shell companies and are referred to in the 
chapters especially devoted to them. In 1902 the 
Deutsch-Amerik. Petro. Gesell., of Hamburg, gave an 
order to Messrs. Dunlop & Co. for the Phcebus, one 
of the most useful steamers running in the European- 
American oil trade. Her tonnage and some inte- 
resting particulars are given on one of the plates. 
The hull is divided transversely by bulkheads, 
forming four cofferdams and eight main oil tanks, 
these tanks being again divided longitudinally by a 
fore and aft bulkhead extending right through and 
continued into the hatchways to the shelter deck. Her 
cofferdams are most perfectly arranged ; they are not 
only strongly built, but are scientifically arranged to 
reduce the risks of leakage and explosion to as near 
disappearing point as possible. The shaft tunnel, 
extending from the engine room to the after part of 
the steamer, and absolutely oil and water-tight, 
is of circular form, access being through a trunk 
leading from the shelter deck as no accommodation 
is allowable from this part of the vessel to the engine 
room, owing to the danger that might arise from leak- 
age of oil or gas. A large proportion of the internal 
work on this steamer was done by pneumatic rivetting, 
while the whole of the caulking, both in the shell and 
tanks, was done by pneumatic tools. 

The pumping appliances consist of four duplex 
Snow pumps of special design and construction, a 
large and small pump being placed in each of the 
pump rooms forward and aft of the steamer, the total 
capacity of the pumps being equal to loading or 
discharging a full cargo in twelve hours. 

The photo shows that she is lightly rigged as a 
fore and aft two-masted schooner, with a derrick on 
each mast, and steam winches for handling light cargo 
or barrels. A complete system of ventilation is 
provided and where either oil or gas accumulates two 
large fans, one in each of the pump rooms, are fitted. 

The Cymbeline y built in 1902 for the Bear Creek 
Oil and Shipping Company, Liverpool, by Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co., Ltd., carries her cargo in six 
separate compartments, formed by intermediate 
water-tight transverse bulkheads. The centre line 
longitudinal water-tight bulkhead is carried for the 
full length of the compartments to the height of the 
main deck. She has a complete installation of pumps 
and pipes for dealing with the liquid cargo, steam 
windlass, steam winches, steam steering gear, and is 
fitted throughout with electric light. 

Another important tank steamer is known as the 
Petroleum. She was purchased by the Admiralty 



for the carriage of oil fuel for His Majesty's ships. 
The use of petroleum as a steam-raiser having now 
passed the experimental stage, an increasing number 
of warships are being fitted for burning it This 
steamer is available both for the transport of oil to 
the various naval depots and for supplying the warships 
with liquid fuel at sea, a process which is carried out 
by taking the tank steamer in tow and connecting 
the two vessels by a second hawser, from which is 
suspended a line of hose through which the oil is 
pumped from the tanker into the bunkers of the 
battleship. The Petroleum^ built by Messrs. Swan, 
Hunter & Wigham Richardson, of Wallsend, carries 
about 6,000 tons of oil. 

With the exception of the important reference I 
make later on (see Chapter xiv.) to vessels which are 
being built at the present time, this finishes what I 
have to say on the subject of the leading features 
of British tank steamers. Before concluding this 
chapter I must refer to several special trades in which 
a number of tank steamers and thousands of barges 
and small craft are employed. 

A steadily increasing business in oil, and one 
concerning which very little is known, is carried on 
between America and the Far East It was inaugu- 
rated by sailing vessels, and to-day the largest bulk 
and case oil sailing ships in the world, owned by the 
Standard Oil Company, sail regularly for India, 
China and Japan. 

It is some years since (1899) the British-owned 
tank steamer Robert Dickinson (Capt McDonnell) 
loaded American oil for the Far East, and it was then 
thought that steamers of her class would run the 
sailers out of the trade with the Orient* It was 
considered that she secured advantages over the 
sailing vessels by making the passage via the Suez 
Canal. There was nothing revolutionary in this trip, 
and the sailing ships of America continue to prove 
the futility of the experiment. At any rate, during a 

* When the first tank steamer arrived in China, 
the curiosity of the native labourers was very much 
aroused when they were told that her cargo of 
1,500,000 gallons of oil would be discharged in forty- 
eight hours. Thousands of Chinese gathered alongr 
the wharf where the steamer lay, and astonishment of 
the most intense description was depicted upon their 
usually phlegmatic faces. The ship rapidly rose out 
of the water as the oil was pumped ashore through 
the pipes. The wharf manager, accosting a China- 
man, asked him what he thought of it. " Well," said 
the Chinaman, " I can't make it out at all. Nobody 
pushes ; nobody pulls ; but the cargo is discharged 
like mad all the same." 



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THE PHCEBUS. 



0)H£ Phoebus was built by Messrs. David J. Dunlop & Co. for Messrs. Riedemann (Deutsch Ameri- 
jl kanische Petroleum Gesellschaft), of Hamburg. She has a deadweight carrying capacity of 8,150 
tons on 26 ft. This steamer has been running with American oil to a German port, and it is 
interesting to notice that she has carried on an average 1,250 tons more than would have been permitted 
had she been discharging her cargo in a British port, and this without any damage or loss. A description 
of this successful steamer appears in the text. 

With the exception of the Chesapeake and Phoebus, which have their engines amidships, the other steamers 
built by this company have their engines aft. The midship arrangement has been proved to be less severe 
on the hulls than with the engines placed aft ; this is largely due to the vibration caused by the machinery 
when it is placed aft, more especially in the case of large vessels in ballast trim. 

As I state in the text, this company also built the Manhattan for the Anglo-American Oil Company in 
1889. She carried a deadweight of 4,265 tons on 22 ft. mean draft. Since that date they built the Delawatc 
Lackawanna for the same company. 

In the Delaware, built in 1893, tnev placed all the transverse girders and vertical stiffeners on one side of the 
bulkhead, leaving the other side entirely free for the caulking of the rim bars and landings, and the making 
tight of any defective rivets. This has been found to be a great advantage over the bulkheads which have 

their girders on the one side 




THE HELIOS. 



and stiffeners on the other, 
as this arrangement makes 
it difficult to trace the source 
of any leak. 

They built the Aco in 
1 894, for the American Cotton 
Oil Company, to carry 4,800 
tons on 23 ft. 4m. of refined 
cotton seed oil — a most valu- 
able cargo. This the vessel 
continued to do for some 
years, but later she was trans- 
formed into a petroleum- 
carrying steamer (Helios). 
They also built the Osceola in 
1 897, for the Anglo-American, 
to carry 380 tons on 10 ft. 
draft, for the distribution of 
oil to the depdts in Ireland 
and the South of England. 



1 To face /. 76 



V*^S 



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single month in 1901, when the exports for the East 
broke all records, no less than sixteen sailers and one 
steamer, the case oil-carrier Palgrave^ were chartered 
at New York to carry oil to Japan. Of this fleet nine 
were full rigged ships and six barques, and they 
carried no less than a million-and-a-half cases of oil. 
The Standard Oil Company runs several large case 
oil steamers, including the Kennebec^ built on the 
Clyde, in this trade. 

Formerly oil- carrying steamers returned from the 
Orient in ballast, but experiments have shown that 
general cargoes can be carried on the return journey, 
so that now practically all the tank steamers bring 
back Oriental cargo. 

It is some five years since the first of a fleet of 
French sailing vessels left Philadelphia with oil for 
Japan. They were the result of a boom in French 
shipbuilding caused by the granting of a Government 
bounty. Their French owners sent some full rigged 
ships to the United States to compete for the trade 
to the Far East, then, and still, a monoply of American 
and English sailing vessels. As showing the advan- 
tages of this bounty system in the case of French 
sailing vessels it may be mentioned that one of these 
case oil carriers earned 12,750 francs for merely 
crossing to Philadelphia light. They receive a certain 
sum for every thousand miles covered. 

Some of the companies have met with great 
difficulties in their attempts to popularise petroleum in 
China, and the Russo-Japanese war did not improve 
matters, certainly not in the case of the Shell Transport 
and Trading Company, whose Borneo oil fields, by the 
way, are only six days from China and ten days from 
Japan. China has not reached a state of material 
well-being that makes oil an essential article of 
household use, and the millions of poor people of this 
great Empire, having no knowledge whatever of the 
advantages of mineral oil, are quite content with home 
produced vegetable products. 

The growth of the oil industry of California is one 
of the greatest industrial romances of America. Ten 
years ago the coastal petroleum trade of the Pacific 
was in its infancy ; to-day it is one of considerable 
magnitude, and^alifornia is the]chief producing State 
in America. 

British-owned tank steamers were employed in the 
inauguration of this trade on the Peruvian coast The 
Bakuin was sent out to run on the Pacific coast under 
charter to the London and Pacific Petroleum 
Company, and when she was destroyed by fire the 
Ajbcv and Circassian Prince were placed in the Pacific 



oil trade. Some years before these steamers traded to 
San Francisco and other ports, barges and small 
sailers were employed transporting oil both on the 
Peruvian and Californian coasts. 

Then came the boom days of Coalinga, followed by 
those of Santa Maria Valley and half-a-dozen other 
great oil fields, which have swelled the production of 
California and placed it at the top of the list of 
producing States. The discovery of one petroliferous 
tract after another created a huge trade in liquid fuel, 
led to the employment of a number of tank steamers, 
and started a promising and profitable trade with the 
Far East with all that means in the shape of fuel 
contracts with Japan. 

The Standard has done a great deal for California 
oil. It has organised one of the greatest pipe line 
systems in the world, and done everything possible to 
foster the starting of individual enterprises likely to 
increase the production of the different oil territories 
as they have been discovered. The Union Oil 
Company, well managed and enterprising, has also 
assisted to build up the industry, not only by producing 
oil but by running a fleet of oil-carrying vessels and 
working an extensive system of pipe lines, its greatest 
undertaking in that direction being the laying of the 
pipe line across the Isthmus of Panama for the 
purpose of sending California oil to ports on the 
Eastern coast, and also, it is said, to Europe. 

Take the world's petroleum business in all its 
numerous branches, not even omitting the one of a 
professional study of the extraordinary elements 
which constitute oil field life in a new gusher region, 
and I do not know where you will find anyone to 
equal Mr. C. T. Lufkin in the making of a rapid and 
correct estimate of men, their methods and discoveries. 
There are few acres of this vast oil world which he 
has not examined. I have met him in Texas and 
followed in his tracks through the Carpathians, and I 
know that his reputation as an expert is one of which 
any man might well be proud. He has gone before the 
Standard in more than one country. I recall the fact 
that his forecast in regard to the life of the Spindle 
Top field came true ; there was almost total stoppage 
of production within three years, and it was he who 
first foresaw those openings which now exist for the 
sale of huge quantities of California oil in the Far 
East 

" There will be a great market for California oil in 
Japan and the Orient," he prophesied. 

Mr. Lufkin, some five years ago, talking about the 
market for California oil in the Far East, pointed 



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out that Sumatra produces the finest oil in the world, 
but the difficulties of mining are so great that the 
output is small. It is impossible for white men to 
work any length of time, and there are no roads and 
no lumber, the only supply being the native lumber, 
whipsawed out of the logs on the spot. The oil is 
very high grade paraffin, which comes out of the 
ground so clear as to be almost transparent, and, 
though a market exists, the difficulties encountered by 
the producer are so great that it is next to impossible 
to guarantee supply. The market does not take a 
high grade of refined oil ; what they buy is used in 
open lamps not unlike ordinary oil torches. All over 
the Orient there are millions of these little lamps, in 
which the people burn thousands of gallons of 
second grade refined oil. 

Every year California oil has been sent in increasing 
quantities to the Far East The Standard has some 
of the largest of its oil-carrying sailing vessels trading 
regularly between California and Japan and China. 
Standard case oil steamers are employed in this 
trade ; while two years ago, when the Russian export 
trade absolutely ceased owing to the destruction of 
the oil fields, Mr. Chambers, the representative of the 
Standard, was recalled from Baku, and steamers which 
had been going to Batoum for oil were ordered to 
San Francisco to load California oil for the chief 
distributing ports in China and Japan. 

The Union has a large fleet of vessels in the 
coastal and island trade. Two years ago seven 
vessels did the company's work, but in 1906 it 
purchased three additional tank steamers — Lattsing, 
Santa Rita and Santa Maria — with a total carrying 
capacity of nearly seven million gallons. The Santa 
Maria was formerly the Atlantic liner Minnetonka, 
while the sister ship, Santa Rita, was the Minnewaska. 

The leading companies operating in the oil fields of 
California — the Standard, Union and Associated — are 
increasing their oil-carrying fleets, and quite a 
number of the largest steamers have started to run 
regularly between San Francisco and Japan and 
China. 

The Associated Oil Company has the tank steamer 
IV. S. Porter. Burning oil fuel and carrying 4,000 
tons of general cargo, she made the run of 13,500 
miles from New York to San Francisco with the 
same company's steam tug Navigator in tow. The 
Navigator, purchased by the oil company from the 
Scully Towing Company, was for eight years one of 
the most powerful tugs employed in New York Bay, 
and acted as a committee boat at the International 



Yacht Races. She is employed by the Associated 
towing oil-carrying craft at San Francisco. 

The Graciosa Oil Company, connected with 
California Petroleum Refineries, of London, purchased 
a tank steamer for its Pacific trade from the 
J. M. McDuffer Oil Company, New York, and it is 
stated that other vessels are being built for the 
company and its offshoots. 

The oil business of California is not likely to stand 
still. Rather does it promise to go on prospering for 
many years to come. The oil fields are expanding, 
new refineries are being built, the commercial part of 
the industry, judiciously and carefully fostered and 
protected, goes on improving, and there is every 
indication that in a few years employment will be 
found for many more vessels than are running in the 
oil trade of the Pacific to-day. 

I can only deal with the number of oil-carrying 
vessels in a general way, for directly we leave the 
ocean-going fleets we see how absolutely impossible 
it is to get even approximately near to the number of 
smaller vessels engaged in the petroleum transport 
trade. 

In 1880 there were only eight oil -carrying steamers 
and sailing ships, four of each, and these were only 
employed in local trades. About 1887 some fourteen 
steamers and two sailers were built, and several of 
these were employed in the Transatlantic trade. In 
1888 eighteen steamers, with a gross carrying capacity 
of 42,047 tons, were built by one shipbuilding com- 
pany alone, while a single sailing ship, with a gross 
tonnage of 1,254, was launched. 

Great difficulty was experienced in getting crews 
to ship on these steamers. Sailors regarded sailing 
on them as an act of suicide. Success, however, 
followed the enterprise of oil shippers and the owners 
of the steamers, and the fleet of tankers increased 
with such great rapidity that in 1890, only three years 
after they had started to run, sailers were practically 
driven out of the Transatlantic oil trade. 

In these early years it was found that, like all great 
inventions, the tank steamer gradually deprived 
thousands of men of employment. Gangs of steve- 
dores and labourers who made good wages loading 
vessels with cases and barrels were not needed ; 
the tanker employed her own pumps or loaded by 
gravity from the storage tanks or pipe lines. Coopers 
were no longer in demand for the making of barrels ; 
the tanks were made of iron and were permanent. 
Dunnage wood dealers had no market for their cord- 
wood to prevent cargo from shifting ; the tanks were 



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permanent structures. Ballast was not needed, for 
when steamers discharged the tanks were filled with 
water. 

In 1893, a great shipbuilding year, no less than 
thirty tankers, with a gross tonnage of 94,568, were 
launched. In 1898 there were some 150 ocean-going 
steamers and fourteen sailing vessels carrying oil. 
Only one of each was registered at New York, while 
seventy steamers and two sailing vessels were regis- 
tered at British ports. Hamburg and Rotterdam had 
ten each, while Astrakhan and Baku had twelve each. 
At that time the Tyne had constructed seventy-seven 
out of the total of 121 oil-carrying steamers turned 
out of British shipyards. Sunderland came next with 
ten, while the Clyde, now a foremost tanker-building 
river, followed with eight. 

If we include Caspian tankers — large, full-powered 
vessels not unlike the /. M. Guffey, Col. Drake and 
other steamers running in the Texas oil trade — there 
must be nearly 400 steamers carrying oil in ail parts of 
the world. The largest number, likewise the tankers of 
the largest tonnage, fly the Union Jack. Tank steamers 
move over 90 per cent of the oil in ocean trades. 

In the Far East there are numerous small tankers 
owned by the Shell and Royal Dutch combination, 
and there have for many years been small steam oil- 
carriers on the rivers and lakes of America and 
Canada. One of the smallest tank steamers in the 
world is the Tip- Top, employed in New York harbour 
carrying oil for the Leonard and Ellis Oil Company, 
of Edgewater, N. J. She is equipped with a 300 h.-p. 
Standard gasoline marine engine, made by the 
Standard Motor Construction Company, Jersey City, 
and is 58-3 ft. by 107 ft. by 5*1 ft. Besides carrying 
oil in her own tanks she tows oil barges. 

Then there are the sailers — many of them full 
rigged ships— trading to the islands in the Pacific and 
the Far East, numerous small coasting vessels 
equipped to carry oil, and large sea-going barges of 
the type used by the Standard Oil Company to take 
oil away from ports in the Gulf of Mexico. It would 
be impossible to compute the aggregate tonnage of 
the world's oil-carrying craft 

Nor must we forget the oil-carrying barge systems 
of the world. 

Bulk oil barges have been employed in America 
for nearly half a century. In the exciting days of 
1865* transport by the Allegheny river was improved 

♦At the close of this year the oil pipe lines of 
America measured twelve miles— Van Sickle's pipe, 



by the use of oil-carrying barges. Each barge carried 
from 1,500 to 2,000 barrels, was 100 ft to 130 ft. long, 
22 ft. broad, from 3$ to 4$ ft in depth, and divided 
into eight or nine water-tight compartments. Arrange- 
ments were made with the mill-owners at the head 
of Oil Creek for the use of their surplus water at 
intervals. The barges and different kinds of craft 
were towed up the creek by horses, not by a tow- 
path, but through the stream, to the various points of 
loading, and, when laden, were floated off on a pond 
freshet As many as 40,000 barrels were taken away 
from the creek on a single artificially created freshet, 
but the average was about 15,000 or 20,000 barrels. 

At Oil City the oil was transhipped to larger boats, 
and floated down the river to the refineries at Free- 
port, Pittsburg, Rochester, Mingo, Wheeling, Marietta, 
and Parkersburg. Bulk oil craft also carried oil from 
Burning Springs on the Kanawha River. At one 
time over 1,000 boats, thirty steamers, and about 
4,000 men were engaged in this traffic at Oil City. 
At times, great loss occurred from collisions and 
jams ; during one freshet (May, 1864), a jam resulted 
in the loss of 1,260,000 gallons of oil. 

In some countries barges run in the coastwise 
trade. A number of the half whaleback type carry 
California oil along the Pacific Coast Some of these 
are built of the finest Oregon pine, carry upwards of 
1,000 tons, and have all the requisite machinery for 
the rapid handling of oil, along with the latest systems 
of electric lighting and ventilation. They are curiously 
built, have four masts, no bulwarks, and only a hand 
rail amidships. The Union Oil Company of Cali- 
fornia introduced this new style of oil-carrier. Since 
the oil transportation arrangements of the San 
Francisco oil companies have been brought up to 
date by the employment of numerous tank steamers 
these barges have had to face serious competition, 
but hundreds are still in service. 

One of the best barge systems in the world has 
been adopted in the Gulf of Mexico, where Texas oil 
is loaded for ports as high up the coast as Philadelphia 
and New York. The largest barges are owned by 
the Standard Oil Company, and their suitability for 
the trade and exceptional seaworthiness have been 
demonstrated by several of them being towed across 
the Atlantic by oil-carrying steamers. 

Pithole (then an oil city, to-day a prairie waste with- 
out an inhabitant) to Millar Farm, five miles; and the 
Pennsylvania Tubing and Transportation Company's 
pipe, Pithole to Oleopolis, seven miles. To-day the 
pipe lines of America would girdle the world. 



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The barge system is worked to great perfection on the 
Volga and several other Russian rivers. Included in 
the Volga fleet of oil carriers (referred to in the chapter 
on the Baku-Volga transport trade) are numerous 
miniature tank steamers, some of which use Diesel 
oil engines instead of the oil fuel burning arrange- 
ment adopted on the steamers of the Caspian Sea. 

The Danube is also another great water-way used 
for oil transport, and several of the oil-producing 
countries of Europe, including Russia, make use of it 
in reaching the markets of Bavaria and South 
Germany. Roumanian oil was sold in Eastern 
Europe, the Balkan States and Turkey, but eight 
years ago Russian oil cut down the prices and com- 
pelled Roumanian competitors to search for new 
markets in England and Germany. Five years ago — 
when the International Commission controlling navi- 
gation on the Danube converted the rapids of the 
Iron Gate (Roumanian-Hungarian frontier) into a 
navigable canal — the Roumanians sought to get a 
foothold in the South of Germany ; they sent tank 
barges up the Danube, passing through Hungary and 
Austria, and going on to Bavaria, where the oil was 
stored in huge depots at Regensburg. Roumanian 
oil is now very popular in certain parts of Germany. 
Tank vessels trade regularly between all the important 
towns on the Danube. 



There are many refineries on the banks of the 
Danube, and the oil men of Galicia, working at a 
considerable distance from a convenient seaport, have 
devoted a great deal of attention to the development 
of their export business through the medium of the 
chief rivers of Austria. 

On every great water-way in the world (including 
the Thames, where the Anglo-American Oil Company 
have a fleet of screw tugs and tank barges) there are 
bulk oil-carrying vessels. At Manchester the idea of 
running illuminating and fuel oil-carrying barges from 
the storage installations at Trafford Park all over the 
canal systems of this country — as far as Leeds and 
London — has received support in influential quarters, 
and designs for a good type of tank boat for navi- 
gating the canals through narrow locks have been 
prepared by Mr. Marshall Stevens and Mr. Francis 
Wiswall, engineer of the Bridgewater Canal. Oil- 
carrying barges could navigate the following inland 
canals: — Bridgewater, Leeds and Liverpool, Bolton 
and Bury, Rochdale, Ashton, Huddersfield, Stockport, 
Macclesfield, Calder and Hebble, Peak Forest, Aire 
and Calder, Trent and Mersey, Weaver Navigation 
and Shropshire Union. 

On succeeding pages I give the most reliable 
and complete list of the oil-carrying steamers 
published. 






:X 



IO matter in what form we evolve artificial light, we depend upon petroleum. The 
illuminating portion of gas depends upon petroleum, gas lamps are fed with petroleum, 
~ w candles are made of a form of petroleum, electric lamp carbons are made from petro- 

A leum, the filaments in incandescent lamps are made from petroleum, and, strange as it may seem, 

• these latter are made almost entirely from gasoline. 

♦ Dr. A. W. Bcrreix, Texas. 






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This view of the oil storage facilities on the Manchester Ship Canal was taken from the North, and only shows the 
tanks at Mode Wheel (sixteen in number). These have a capacity of 7,021.671 gallons, out of a total for the port of 
22,141,358 gallons. The British Petroleum Company, Ltd., have at Ecclcs five tanks, capacity 22,000 tons (6,160,000 
gallons), and at Weaste four tanks, capacity 8 600 tons (2.460,075 gallons) ; at Mode Wheel the Anglo-American Oil 
Company, Ltd., have eight tanks, capacity 11,348 tons (3,177.500 gallons) : the Liverpool Storage Company, Ltd., six 
tanks, capacity 10,000 tons (2,800,000 gallons) : the Manchester Corporation two tanks, capacity 4 016 tons (1.044,171 
gallons). In Trafford Park, which is alongside the Ship Canal, the British Petroleum Company. Ltd., have two tanks, 
capacity 7,000 tons (2,059,612 gallons) ; the Homelight Oil Company, Ltd., two tanks, capacity 8,ooo tons (2,200,000 
gallons); and the General Oil Storage Company, Ltd., one tank, capacity 8,000 tons (2,240.000 gallons). The total 
tankage capacity at. or adjacent to, the Docks is now 78,964 tons (22,141,358 gallons). Oil is conveyed to the dep6ts 
through pipes direct from the vessels to the tanks. From these it is reloaded into carts, barges, or railway waggons. 

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* * 

* -^N this work bulk oil-carrying sailers are frequently referred to. They have ? 
never been so numerous as the case oil vessels. In 1892 those carrying ▼ 
bulk oil from the United States were — * 



♦ 



* 

♦ 

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♦ 

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* 
* 

♦ 

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f 



Name. 


Oil-carrying Capacity. 


Dimensions of Vessel. 
(English feet.) 


Flag. 




Gallons. 


Tons. 


Length. 


Beam. 


Depth. 




Einar 


230,000 


665 


154 


33 


19 


Norwegian. 


Hainaut 


870,000 


2.525 


249 


40 


22 


Belgian. 


Patagonia 


500,000 


I.450 


190 


38 


22 


Norwegian. 


Rolf 


430,000 


I.250 


20I 


36 


23 


Do. 


Unionen 


875,000 


2.530 


249 


40 


22 


Do. 


Ville di Ditppe ... 


641,000 


X.860 


217 


36 


21 


French. 



Several have been lost. The Standard lost the case oil carrier Nonpereil in the 
autumn of 1900. Being a new vessel, nothing definite was known about her trim, 
and when at sea it was found she was tender. When only a few days out she 
encountered a south-west hurricane, and, her cargo shifting, she went over on to 
her beam ends. The crew were taken off by the steamer Glenfoil. She was twice 
picked up and cast off by steamers, and the wreck charts of the Atlantic showed 
that she drifted thousands of miles. The end of the Nonpereil is one of those 
numerous blanks which we find in the history of Atlantic derelicts. 

* * * 

The four-masted case oil sailer Sinda, 3,000 tons, homeward bound to New York from 
Japan, ran into a fog off the New Jersey coast, struck the rocks, and was lost. 

* * * 

The four- masted steel sailing ship Astral was the first oil -carrying sailer owned by the 
Standard to fly the American nag. She carries 1,500,000 gallons of case oil. 

* * * 

The Standard ship Atlas is a record maker in the New York and Far Eastern oil 
trade. She has made the run from Hong Kong in ninety days. Like the Astral and 
Acme, she was built by Sewell, Bath, Maine. It was a Standard sailing vessel, the 
Drumeltan, which made a record from New York to the Cape and back. She did 
the round voyage in 125 days. 

* * * 

The Thomas W. Lawson and W. L. Douglass are the two largest oil-carrying schooners 
afloat. The Lawson has seven masts and the Douglass six. The Douglass was 
equipped with oil tanks at the Morse Iron Works, South Brooklyn, while the 
Lawson was prepared for the oil-carrying trade at the Newport News shipyard. 
The following are the chief particulars of the Lawson — Length over all, 395 ft. ; 
moulded depth, 34 ft. 5 ins. ; displacement, 10,000 tons ; deadweight cargo capacity, 
7,500 tons ; height mainmast, step to truck, 182 ft. ; total sail area, 40,617 sq. ft. 
Before they started to carry oil in bulk they were employed in the coal trade. 



♦ 
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#I*HE tank sailer Sunlight 
J (on the right) is small 
compared with the 
huge tank and case oil sail- 
ing vessels which the Stan- 
dard and Anglo-American 
Companies jointly run from 
America to the Far East. 
In some respects she is 
unique. 

She is owned by Messrs. Lever Bros., the world-famous soap concern, and was built by Messrs. Napier & Miller, 
on the Clyde, for the purpose of carrying different kinds of vegetable oils in tanks between Sydney and Liverpool. 
The photo was taken as she was towed down the Clyde on her maiden voyage, and she is now homeward bound from 
Australia with her first cargo. She is 230 ft. in length, 36 ft. wide, and has a registered tonnage of some 1,300 tons, 
with an oil capacity of 2,150 tons. 




The Aureole (1895) and 
three other tank steamers — 
Du field (1893), Oilfield (1896), 
and Bloomfield (1899) — were 
built by the Tyne Iron Ship- 
building Company, Ltd., of 
Willington Quay - on - Tyne, 
for Messrs. Hunting & Son 
(Northern Petroleum Tank 
Steamship Company), of 
Newcastle. 




The San Cristobal was built in 1906 by Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. for Sir Weetman Pearson's Mexican 
Oil Company, of London and Mexico City. She recently ran from Texas to Antwerp for the Continental Petroleum 
Company, Ltd., although she is specially designed to carry the output of the Mexican fields when her owners start 
to export oil. She is a trunk type of steamer: in many respects she is like the Shell oil-carrier Ttigottij, the first 
of her class to run in the oil trade. 




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C^HAPTER X. 



A Tale of Heroism and m Chapter 
of Casualties. 




N petroleum shipping annals I can find no 
nobler act of heroism than the one which 
cost Captain Walker his life. A native of 
Dalkieth, N.B., he served his apprentice- 
ship in the sailing ship Sancko> owned by Messrs. 
John Dent & Co., of Blyth. In 1903 he was in 
command of the small Shell steamer Geneffe, running 
in the oil-carrying trade in the Far East. On 
November 10th in that year the Geneffe was dis- 
charging a cargo of benzine at Palembang, Sumatra. 
Work was proceeding quietly when one of the pipes 
suddenly burst and released huge volumes of benzine 
vapour, which, coming in contact with the galley fire, 
caused a tremendous explosion. There was a flash 
of flame, and before anyone could realise what had 
happened the after-deck was covered with blazing 
benzine. Men made for the shore, but there were 
three who remained to fight the flames ; these were 
Captain Walker, Mr. Cameron, his chief engineer, and 
the chief engineer of the Attaka, another small tank 
steamer belonging to the same owners. The two 
engineers were caught by the flames. The chief of 
the Attaka plunged overboard and was drowned. 
Mr. Cameron was so badly scorched that he fell on 
the deck. Captain Walker, dashing through the 
flames, picked him up and dropped him into the 
water. In this way he gallantly saved the life of his 
chief engineer. This noble act performed, Captain 
Walker did his duty as the master of the doomed 
vessel. He gave orders to let go the shore hawsers. 
These were already on fire, and when they parted the 
Geneffe drifted clear of the wharf. Rushing forward, 
he attempted to drop the anchor, the work of four 
men, and actually got it over the side, but before he 
had time to let go the flames had beaten him, were 
upon him, in fact, and he was compelled to leap 
overboard. As he disappeared over the side the 
decks blew up, and the ship and her brave commander 
went down together. 
O.T. 



The story of Captain Walker's heroic deeds — for, as 
I have shown, he performed more than one — should 
live for all time in the history of an industry which is 
not barren of thrilling incidents at sea and acts of 
personal bravery. 



Naturally, during a period of thirty-five years, tank 
steamers have met with all kinds of disasters. The 
marine branch of the industry has its list of casualties. 
It is a surprisingly short list, and if it were not for the 
accidents of twenty years ago, and the four serious 
ones of the present year (those which were directly 
due to inexperience and carelessness), it could very 
well be put forward as evidence of the safety of the 
bulk oil transport system. It is necessary that I 
should mention these shipping disasters, but there is 
no reason why I should go beyond brief summaries 
of carefully collected information concerning a few 
typical cases from which lessons may be drawn by 
those who are responsible for the control and 
navigation of the oil carriers of the present time. 

One of the earliest disasters on the Atlantic 
happened to the oil-carrying sailer Janus Fish. She 
sailed from New York on September 13th, 1876, with 
a cargo of refined petroleum, spirits of turpentine, 
lubricating oil and wax, bound to London. On 
September 27th, in a heavy squall and thunder- 
storm, she was struck by lightning, smoke being 
immediately afterwards discovered coming up the 
chain lockers. The force pump was set to work 
to keep it down, but, finding the smoke increasing," 
the crew removed the fore hatches and immediately 
replaced them. They kept the pumps and buckets 
working, forcing water down the chain locker hatch, 
and as the smoke still increased, they removed the 
main hatches, which were at once replaced. At 8 p.m. 
all hands took to the boats, fearing an explosion, and 
hung round the ship all night, and at 4 a.m. they 

P 



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were picked up by the Italian barque Cletnenta S. 
At 5 a.m. the captain returned on board in his own 
boat, and found the fire was out; at 6.30 a.m. all 
hands returned and straightened her up. Towards 
the end of the day the weather moderated, 
when all necessary sail was made, and the pumps 
were carefully attended to, large quantities of spirits 
of turpentine and oil coming up with the water. 
When off Dungeness a pilot came on board, and, with 
the assistance of a steam tug, the vessel reached the 
Thames. On October 19th, when discharging, the 
men found barrels scorched and badly burned, some 
of them being also empty, but when she finished dis- 
charging on October 28th, the cargo turned out 
correct with five barrels over. 

The Aurora (1,808 tons), laden with 59,33 2 cases of 
kerosene, was moored at Matiabrooj, in the Hooghly, 
and had discharged about 32,310 cases on February 
20th, 1884. A fire was seen issuing from the port 
lazarette hatch, and spread very rapidly, the vessel 
being quickly in flames, which rose to a height of 
from 50 to 60 ft. The heat was too great to 
allow her to be approached ; it was impossible to do 
more than keep her from getting adrift while the tide 
was running up the river, and she could not be 
beached. The ebb tide gradually forced the vessel 
down, and partially cleared the wreckage, when she 
took the bank and stuck hard and fast. By degrees 
she burned down to the water's edge, and then, as 
she settled down and water flowed into the burning 
hull, a floating mass of burning oil gradually spread 
out and created alarm for the shipping in the river. 
Fortunately, the wind was in a favourable direction, 
and by the exertions of the Harbour Master and the 
police the fire and floating cases of oil were kept 
back. In the official report it is stated that had it 
been a strong flood tide, all efforts would have been in 
vain, and the floating mass of fire and smoke would 
have been amongst the shipping in about a quarter of 
an hour. A strong flood tide and a westerly wind 
would have destroyed the whole of the shipping in the 
port As a matter of fact, little destruction was done ; 
some straw stacks, a Harbour Master's hulk, and the 
police boat were destroyed, but no lives were lost. 
The fire burnt for about nine hours before the vessel 
sank. 

The Commissioner of Police made the following 
observations : 

" Much as the accident is to be regretted, it illus- 
trated most opportunely the extreme danger to the 
port involved in allowing petroleum to be unloaded 



within reach of the shipping. It shows that after a 
vessel stored with petroleum has caught fire it is 
extremely difficult to exercise any control over her 
movements, and if she were to get adrift on a flood 
tide there is no limit to the disaster which might 
ensue, especially if she sank after drifting far into the 
port But, even if controlled and retained at Matia- 
brooj, as in the present instance, the river must 
become a sheet of flame when she at last sinks. In 
the present case, although the ship had discharged 
more than half her cargo, she burnt for nearly nine 
hours before sinking, and the oil which remained 
caused a fire on the surface of the river for half-an- 
hour. Had the wind been a point more to the south, 
and had the quantity of burning oil in the vessel when 
she sank been larger, it is difficult to see how the 
shipping in Garden Reach could have been saved. 
It must be admitted that the distance of Matiabrooj 
diminishes the risk, and in the present instance (owing 
to the wind driving the flames into the left bank, and 
also to the fire not lasting on the water for a longer 
period) proved the salvation of the port ; but looking 
to the stupendous nature of the catastrophe which 
might occur, with a very possible combination of wind 
and tide, and especially to the rapid development of 
the petroleum trade, it becomes a very serious ques- 
tion whether the safety of the port does not demand 
that either Port Canning or Diamond Harbour 
should be fixed upon as the petroleum depot of 
Calcutta." 

In 1886 the Petriana had just discharged a cargo 
of Russian kerosene when an explosion occurred ir 
one of the oil tanks. The accident was due to the 
rapid combustion of petroleum spray. Ten lives 
were lost. 

On the Ville de Calais (1888) an empty tank, from 
which American crude had just been discharged, was 
being filled with water ballast, when a mixture of air 
and petroleum vapour became ignited and an ex- 
plosion destroyed the ship. Several persons were 
killed, and damage was done to property. The 
Ville de Calais was an extremely good specimen of 
an oil-carrying vessel in her day. She was lost 
through the ignorance of those on board, and the 
same may be said of the Austral, which was destroyed 
by an explosion while lying in Sydney Harbour. 

The Wildflower, built at Sunderland (1889), to 
carry petroleum in bulk, had six cargo and five water 
ballast tanks. The cargo tanks extended from the 
skin up to the lower deck ; the sides of the ship 
formed the sides of the tanks, and each tank had an 



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expansion tank with a manhole door. These tanks 
were also capable of being used for water ballast. 

She loaded oil at Philadelphia, and discharged at 
Rouen, the work finishing on January 4th, 1889. 
The tanks were pumped out as far as possible until 
the pumps ceased drawing. There was left in No. 1 
tank about 6J in., in No. 2 tank about 2 in., in No. 3 
tank about 1 in., in No. 4 tank about 5 in., in No. 5 
tank about 1 5 in., and in No. 6 tank about j\ in. . . . 
On January 8th, the vessel got under way, and was 
moored at the buoys off the Manor Quay, on the 
north side of the Wear, with her head up stream. As 
soon as she was moored the master gave directions to 
the chief engineer to straighten the ship, which had a 
list to port. He gave no particular directions as to 
draining the tanks, but left it to his discretioa By 
direction of the chief engineer, pumping from the 
cargo tanks commenced at 9.30 a.m., the forward 
pump of the two in the pump room, which discharged 
into the pipe on the starboard side amidships, being 
used. The tide had been ebb, but a considerable 
eddy was formed by the set of the tide just below the 
end of the Manor Quay. 

Mr. James Brown, master of a ferry boat, stated 
that from daylight he observed oil floating on the 
surface of the water, that it was very thick in the bay or 
bight at the north ferry landing and around the Park- 
fields that a " fearful " smell was given off from it, and 
that his passengers complained of it all the morning. 
He described the oil as being of a yellowish green 
colour. He also observed that the rivetters were 
using forges on board the Parkfield. At 11.45 he 
left the Monkwearmouth side of the river and passed 
close under the bows of the Parkfield. Looking up 
the river, to see if the channel was clear, he observed 
a small body of smoke and flame, about the size of an 
ordinary house fire, upon the surface of the water, not 
more than 4 or 5 ft from the starboard side of 
the Parkfield, in the way of the after-part of the 
engine room, and about 60 ft from his vessel. 

The area of the fire extended, and the smoke and 
flames rushed up into the air and swept by the quarter 
of the Parkfield to the westward, being level with the 
rails of that ship. The flames, carried up by the tide, 
caught a keel lying at the quay between the Deronda 
and the Parkfield. They scorched the quarter of the 
Parkfield, but she was saved from serious damage by 
being hauled ahead by a steam winch on the quay. 
They passed astern of the Parkfield, and enveloped 
the lighter, burning it badly. By this time they were 
rising to a great height, and rushed over the bows of 



the Deronda. There was a boat and a raft of timber 
between the Deronda and the quay. Some of the 
workmen on the Deronda dropped into the boat, and 
got safely to the raft ; but two boiler-smiths were left 
hanging to a rope over the steamer's port quarter. 
Another boat was sent to take these two men on 
board. The flames swept round the vessel's stern 
from the starboard side and enveloped the boat. The 
two men and the men at the oars jumped overboard, 
two of them being saved by getting hold of boathooks 
held towards them from the raft ; but the third man, 
John Thompson, was drowned before assistance could 
be rendered. The surface of the water where he sank 
was a mass of flame. 

The fire was extinguished on the Deronda by a 
hose from the quay and the police hose, but the 
vessel was considerably damaged. The flames then 
enveloped the tug Earl of Dumfries, destroying the 
whole of the bulwarks, paddle-cases, mast, bridge and 
wheel-screen, engine house, and a portion of the 
cabin. 

The flames spread to the Douglas. A witness who 
was on board this vessel, and saw the commencement 
of the fire, described it as being no larger than his 
cap, but it increased in size very rapidly. From the 
Douglas the fire passed to the Wildflower, and was so 
fierce that twenty-seven plates in the latter vessel 
were badly buckled. The fire was extinguished 
partly by burning itself out and partly by the water 
played upon it by various engines. 

The Lux (1 891) was lost in the Doro channel, 
Grecian Archipelago. After discharging a cargo of 
Russian kerosene a fire broke out in the bilges. The 
vessel was abandoned, and during the night the 
officers heard two reports of explosions. She drove 
ashore and became a total wreck. 

The TancarviUe, in 1891, after discharging a cargo 
of oil at Havre, dry docked at Newport, where some 
oil got into a ballast tank in which a workman was 
cutting a thread to replace a defective rivet A 
tongue of flame issued from the hold, and then a very 
violent explosion occurred. Lives were lost The 
accident was due to the ignition of a mixture of air 
and petroleum vapour in the ballast tank. 

While discharging at Braye, near Bordeaux, in 
1892, the Petrolea was struck by lightning, and an 
explosion resulted in the loss of several lives. 

There have been accidents on the other side of the 
Atlantic. I have already referred to the burning of 
the British-owned steamer Bakuin in Callao Bay, 
Peru, and the whaleback oil-carrier City of Everett 



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one of the first steamers placed in the Texas oil 
trade, at Port Arthur. 

The oil-carrying steamer Progrtso was practically 
torn in two at San Francisco, and eleven men were 
killed and many more injured. The oil was a mixed 
Coalinga oil, exceedingly volatile and explosive, and 
flashed at ioi q . Fire-Marshal Towe said : — 

"Its explosive characteristics are apparent, the smell 
alone being sufficient to warn anyone from putting a 
lighted match to even a small quantity. If the oil is 
a true sample of what was put on board the Progreso, 
the cause of the explosion is at once apparent. The 
gas in the tank would explode immediately if an 
exposed light were brought in contact with it. What 
the light was in the case of the Progreso is not, and 
probably never will be, known. Undoubtedly the 
man who held it perished ; but, say those on the 
spot, the accident would never have occurred if 
proper and safe oil had been placed in the tank." 

One cannot very well deal with this subject without 
recalling the mishap to the Shell tank steamer 
Bulysses and the destruction of the same company's 
steamer Nerite in the Suez Canal. On March 13th, 
1902, during a sandstorm, the Bulysses took the 
ground badly in section Kabret (Great Bitter Lakes). 
The Canal Company's tank vessel Progress imme- 
diately went alongside for the purpose of taking in 
some of the oil cargo of the Bulysses and transferring 
it to the storage tanks on the banks of the canal. 
On the 15th the Nerite steamed close to the Bulysses 
to assist in lightening her. It was anticipated that 
when as much oil as was considered safe had been 
put into the Nerite, she would proceed to Suez and 
discharge part of her cargo, and then return to the 
Bulysses to take so much more of her oil out as was 
necessary to enable her to float ; but instead of this, 
those on board the Nerite, in their great desire to 
assist the sister ship, took far more oil than was safe, 
with the result that every space in the ship was full. 
Expansion of the cargo burst the after cofferdam, let 
the oil freely into the stokehold, and set her on fire. 
In this case, where men had to act in an emergency, 
there was an unpreventable violation of one of the 
canons of the safe carriage of petroleum, which is that 
under no circumstances shall petroleum, forming the 
cargo, be allowed to enter the engine or boiler room.* 

* The lessons of this disaster do not finish with the 
loss of the Nerite. The Shell Company built another 
Nerite, and, curiously enough, it was this steamer 
which shortly afterwards demonstrated that, although 
her predecessor failed in the case of the Bulysses^ it is 



Two of the cases I have given — those of the Nerite 
and the City of Everett— conclusively prove that a 
modern tank steamer in flames, provided she has not 
been holed, is no more dangerous to shipping than a 
cotton-carrying steamer on fire. When in flames a 
tank steamer will not blow up. The Nerite acted as 
a lamp until the last drop of her huge liquid cargo 
had been consumed. 

The industry also has its marine mysteries. There 
is the one of the S. V. Luckenbach, lost on a voyage 
from Port Arthur, Texas, to Marcus Hook, with 
26,000 barrels of crude petroleum. A bottle on the 
beach contained this message — "This is thrown 
overboard from steamship S. V. Luckenbach, bound 
from Sabine Pass to Philadelphia with cargo of oil, on 
fire. Ship abandoned about 500 miles south-east of 
Hatteras. Been working two days and nights to 
extinguish flames. — Signed, J. S. Flint, fireman, 
April, I903-" 

Coming to the present year, we have a record list of 
serious casualties ; this includes three total losses — the 
Lucifer, Silverlip and Sophie — totalling, in money 
value, nearly quarter of a million, and several cases of 
serious damage. 

In March the Union Oil Company's Santa Rita 
discharged large quantities of fuel oil into San 
Francisco Bay, and a spark from a locomotive set fire 
to the oil on the water, with the result that the flames 
reached the Beieldieu, owned by the Soctete Nouvelle 
d' Armement of France. 

There was a curious accident to one of the Pacific 
Oil traders a few months ago. While the vessel was 
off the coast the pumps were employed to clear some 
of her tanks of water ballast, when, by an extraordinary 
mistake, they started to discharge large quantities of 
oil cargo into the sea. 

The first serious loss this year was the Bear Creek 
Company's Lucifer. Carrying kerosene, she left New 
York for Dublin, on April 5th, under the command 
of Capt Wilson. When four days out a leak was 
discovered under the stokehold. The steam pumps 
were started, and Capt Wilson felt confident his men 
could discover and stop it The water, however, 
gradually rose in the stokehold. 

possible for a tank steamer to safely remove oil cargo 
from a stranded vessel and enable her to float. The 
Volute was ashore in the Yang-tsze river, below 
Hankau, on November, 1906, and as the water was 
falling in the river the Nerite was sent to pump out 
some of her cargo of 5,200 tons of Borneo kerosene. 
She did this, and in other ways assisted the Volute to 
get off and return to Hankau. 



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On April 12th, a heavy gale sprang up, and the 
leak increased, filling the stokehold and engine room, 
putting out the fires, and rendering the vessel 
helpless. The pumps were kept going by means of 
a donkey boiler on deck, but the water gained so 
rapidly that the crew had to assist by baling with 
buckets. 

Over eight hundred tons of oil were pumped into 
the sea, but, although the Lucifer was lightened, seas 
swept her deck. Seven days after she had sprung a 
leak, the steamer Sagami hove in sight ; but the seas 
were too boisterous to attempt a rescue, and Capt. 
Wilson signalled that he thought he could keep his 
vessel afloat till daybreak. The Sagami consented 
to stand by, and at daybreak the captain called for 
volunteers to man one of the boats. Mr. Wallace, 
third officer, and five seamen responded and per- 
formed one of those acts of heroism which are so 
common in the Atlantic. The work of getting along- 
side the disabled tanker was hazardous, for it was 
feared that the boat would be smashed against the 
steamer, over whose decks waves were sweeping. 

A boatload of the Lucifefs crew were safely trans- 
ferred to the Sagami, and a second trip was made, 
again successfully, amid the cheers of their shipmates. 
One of the Lucifer's own boats took off the remainder 
of the crew. Though the men lost all their belongings, 
they took off three of the ship's cats, and shortly 
afterwards the Lucifer was seen to go down stern first. 
One survivor, a Cornishman, in the course of a 
graphic story, said — " We look upon Mr. Wallace, of 
the Sagami^ as a hero, for only those who saw the 
seas running can realise what risk he ran in launching 
a boat." It is also known that Capt Wilson and his 
own men did their duty; they worked with the 
utmost bravery to keep the waterlogged steamer 
afloat, and only left her when there was absolutely no 
hope of ever getting her to port. 

The next serious disaster was the blowing up of the 
Silverlip in the Bay of Biscay. This first-class but 
unfortunate tank steamer was a sister ship of the 
Goldmouth> and the two, both built on the Tyne, were 
the largest vessels of the Shell fleet 

Commanded by Captain Nathaniel Hocken (fifteen 
years* experience in Shell steamers and seven years' 
in carrying benzine cargoes), the Silverlip loaded 
benzine at Balak-Papan and Singapore, passed through 
the Suez Canal (under the new regulations relating to 
the transit of benzine), and got about halfway across 
the Bay of Biscay when she was destroyed by a series 
of explosions. 



She had seven holds for carrying oil. There was a 
cofferdam right aft on the forward side of the engine- 
room space. Reaching up to the upper deck, it shut 
off the engine-room compartment from No. 1 tank. 
Forward of No. 3 hold there was the pump room and 
another cofferdam, which did not come up as far as 
the main deck. Forward of No. 7 hold was another 
cofferdam, which extended to the upper deck. Each 
of these was fitted with hatchways and expansion 
tanks. The tanks were each divided longitudinally 
by a bulkhead, so that they were really double tanks. 
The expansion tanks were carried up to the upper 
deck, and Nos. 3 and 4 holds up to the bridge deck. 
On the top of the expansion tanks was a screw plug 
about 7£ in. in diameter. There were gas cocks 
fitted into each hatch for the purpose of relieving the 
tanks of vapour. Communication between officers and 
crew was obtained by means of a portable gangway. 

The engineers were berthed right aft on the same 
deck, and the galley was situated right aft The 
ship was lit by electricity, and there were strict regu- 
lations against smoking, which was allowed aft, but 
not on the decks. 

In March this year the vessel was at Balak-Papan, 
and took in 2,576 tons of benzine. This was shipped 
in Nos. 2 and 3 holds or tanks. She proceeded to 
Singapore, and loaded 5,841 tons of the same kind of 
spirit The specific gravity of the benzine varied from 
747 to 760. The tanks were full of benzine, but 
there was no cargo in the 'tween decks. 

She left Singapore on March 25 th with a crew of 
fifty-three hands, bound for St Catherine's Point 
(I.W.) for orders. Off Finisterre on April 30th she 
encountered tempestuous weather, and the temperature 
fell to about 45 °. On May 1st she was about 240 
miles north-east of Finisterre. She was proceeding 
at full speed, steering about N.E. \ N. There was a 
strong wind from the north-west, so that she had the 
wind on her port side. 

It was discovered that the benzine in Nos. 3 and 4 
tanks had contracted, and the master ordered the 
chief officer to press them up with salt water. The 
chief officer proceeded to do this. The screw cap 
was taken off the expansion on the starboard side of 
No. 4 hatch. The gas cocks on the starboard side 
were also opened to get rid of the vapour. A hose 
was laid along the deck to the expansion tank, and 
water was pumped down into No. 4 hold on the star- 
board side. Nothing whatever was done with No. 3. 
Pumping went on for some time, and at about 
1.50 p.m. the chief officer went to his cabin. At this 



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time the carpenter (Creekling) was attending to the 
hose on the starboard side, and the boatswain (Grant) 
was engaged in sounding No, 4 hold. There were 
two firemen on the 'tween deck under the bridge 
deck abreast of No. 3 hatch on the starboard side, 
painting or scraping a bulkhead. The second officer 
was on the bridge, and a quartermaster at the wheel. 
Other members of the crew were right forward and 
right aft. 

Shortly after the chief officer had gone to his cabin 
a terrific explosion occurred in the neighbourhood of 
No. 4 hatch. Other explosions followed. The first 
explosion killed the carpenter and the boatswain 
and the two firemen (Munro, a Scotchman, and 
Abbas, a Turk), who were working under the bridge 
deck. A later explosion killed the chief engineer. 

The master, who was in his cabin, rushed through 
the flames aft, and, with the assistance of some of the 
other officers and the crew, boats were got out and 
taken to the forward part of the ship. The whole of 
the amidships section of the vessel was blazing. 
Those in the forward part of the ship were taken off, 
and the boats pulled away. The survivors were 
picked up by the steamer Westgate and taken to 
Plymouth. 

Capt. Hocken stated at the official inquiry that 
the only flame was in the galley and the 
stokehold, the vessel being lighted by electricity. 
Referring to the regulations as to smoking and the 
non-use of matches, he said that when in the Suez 
Canal matches were supposed to be taken from the 
men. He once logged a fireman for smoking.* 

He was in his room when he heard the first explo- 
sion. He rushed out and found flames on all quarters 
and the boats on the bridge on fire. He gave orders, 
and managed to get the living part of the crew off* the 
ship. There were five men missing. At the time of 
the explosion there was no naked light on the deck 
nor in the galley, and " the only conclusion he could 
come to was that a man must have struck a match to 
have a smoke and that it ignited gas near No. 4 hold." 
He had, however, never detected gas there before, 
" but at the same time," he added, " I knew there was 
a little gas, and it could be detected by the smell." 
There was a certain amount of pressure, and the oil 



* When the crews sign on in Shell steamers there 
is a paragraph in their agreements prohibiting smoking 
and the employment of naked lights, except in places 
appointed by the masters. No matches or anything 
of an inflammable nature are allowed to be used in 
the Suez Canal. 



of this particular tank had fallen. He had never 
observed a leakage before, but there was always a 
smell. 

At the inquiry Capt Hocken was examined by 
Capt J. H. Thomson, Chief Inspector of Explosives 
(with whom was Sir Boverton Redwood). 

When you were pressing it up was there a strong 
order against smoking anywhere in the ship, in- 
cluding fore and aft ? asked Captain Thomson. — Yes. 
The chief officer warned everybody not to smoke. 

Is there any system adopted for periodically super- 
vising the joints of the cargo hatches to see that they 
remain tight ? — Yes, it is the chief officer's duty. 

Supposing the chief officer found a leak in one of 
the joints, would he report to you ? — Yes. 

Have you ever found a leak, or has any leak ever 
been reported to you ? — Not to my knowledge. 

If you noticed a smell of benzine under the shade 
deck, would not that in your mind point to there 
being a leak somewhere ? — I don't think so. 

Where would the smell come from ? — That is a 
question I have never been able to solve. 

Were there any special duties devolving upon any- 
body in connection with the ventilation of the space 
under the shade deck ? — It would be the duty of the 
chief officer to go occasionally and ascertain whether 
there was such an amount of vapour, judging from 
the smell, as to cause danger. 

Can you tell us whether there were any of your 
crew who had not experience of this kind of cargo ? — 
I cannot say. The officers had been in the ship since 
she was new, and they were mostly engineers. 

Mr. Scrutton : Is it your experience that seamen 
and firemen cannot be kept from smoking except 
by somebody standing by them ? — It is very hard, 
especially among firemen. I regard them as the 
scum of the earth. 

Mr. R. L. Allinson, chief officer, thought the explo- 
sion was caused by a man lighting a match under the 
shade deck. He did not attribute the explosion to 
the gas coming out of the tank, but rather to an 
accumulation of gas underneath the bridge deck. 

Mr. G. C. Pearson, second officer, saw no smoking 
on deck before the explosion, and there were no naked 
lights of any sort ; but an A.B. said he had seen a 
man smoking on the forecastle head, and a clay pipe 
sticking out of a fireman's pocket. To strike a match 
under the shade deck would be equal to committing 
suicide. The cook had seen one of the firemen, a 
Turk, smoking a cigarette before this occasion, and 
the boatswain knocked it out of his mouth. 



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The news of these terrible calamities had just 
reached London when the report of the disaster to 
the Sophie (Actien Gesellschaft Atlantic, Bremen) as 
she was entering the Bosphorus came to hand, while 
the middle of the year had not been reached before 
the Shell steamer Turbo got into trouble. This 
steamer was off St. Margaret's Bay, near Dover, when 
she was struck by the White Star liner Medic, bound 
from the Thames to Liverpool, and "the heavy 
muffled sound of the impact as the two vessels came 
into collision brought the residents of St. Margaret's 
running from their houses." 

The liner's bows were damaged, while the Turbo 
had a huge hole torn in the port side One of her 
tanks was pierced, and tons of petroleum escaped on 
to the sea. 

This chapter brings me back to the question of the 
alleged dangers of our storage and transport systems. 
Some of the greatest fires afloat and ashore, and even 
those which have taken place at refineries and storage 
installations, chiefly abroad (at Antwerp, Bombay, 
Calcutta, and other large centres of oil distribution), 
demonstrate that oil is never safer than when it is 
stored or carried in bulk ; although, of course, no one 
would contend that petroleum spirit makes an abso- 
lutely safe cargo once the bulk is broken or a fire has 
broken out. Still, it is a fact, testified to by experts, 
that a perfectly-built steamer like the Narragansett, 



navigated under a system which reduces risk to a 
minimum, is in actual practice one of the safest vessels 
afloat, no matter in what climate or weather she may 
be steaming. 

Properly-built and isolated storage installations 
such as we have on the Thames, the Mersey, the Ship 
Canal, and, indeed, on almost every water-way of 
importance in the world, are no longer considered 
sources of danger by experts. One of the latest con- 
flagrations (Calcutta) proved that oil when properly 
stored in steel or iron tanks does not explode; if 
there is no water to boil and bubble it merely burns 
itself out, and does not run over or spread in any way.* 
Whatever danger there is arises from the storage of 
oil in the godowns of India, the open ambars of 
Russia and certain parts of America, and wooden 
and iron tanks erected in the early days of the 
industry. 

The modern tank, properly protected and isolated, 
is a safe place of storage. 

* At the time of the fire, there were in San 
Francisco 500 fuel tanks, containing from 10,000 to 
30,000 gallons of oil each. Notwithstanding that for 
three days 118 of these tanks were surrounded by a 
mass of flames, not one exploded or took fire. The 
fire marshal, Mr. Charles Towne, in a letter to Dr. 
C. T. Deane, Secretary of the California Petroleum 
Miners' Association, dated June 1st, substantiates 
these facts. 





W^ 



DNE cause of fire is the formation of 
combustible vapours from easily 
volatile bodies, these vapours either 
finding their way through a leaky 
bulkhead to some source of fire, igniting and 
burning back to the source from which they 
sprang, or else forming an explosive mixture 
with the air in the hold. This has been the 
cause of most cases of fire in oil ships. When 
the oil comes from the well it consists of a mixture of a large number of 
w different hydrocarbons, some of them, like petrol or petroleum spirit, being 
excessively volatile, and giving off inflammable vapour well below the ordinary 
air temperature ; while others, again, have to be heated to a certain tem- 
perature before any inflammable vapour is developed. It is the flash point 
which is the factor of danger, as, if ft be too low, vapours capable of yielding 
explosive mixtures with air are given off, and are liable to cause very serious 
trouble. 
One ol iLw 6 iw*4 M * u<U i 6 «a with the vapour of volatile hydrocarbons is that 
the great weight of the vapour as compared with air will cause it to creep along surfaces for very long 
distances, and then on reaching a light the flame flashes back along the vapour to the source from , 
which it sprang. It may be accepted that the transport and storage of refined lamp oils and residuum 
are practically free from danger, the only point to be guarded against being the ignition of the liquids 
in volume during fires, while the real dangers to be guarded against are to be found in the transport 
and storage of crude (containing highly volatile constituents) and petroleum spirit. 

Professor Vivian Lxwbs. 



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XO other branch of commerce has ever 
in so short a time attained such 
enormous proportions. Forty years 
ago the value of petroleum was un- 
recognised, and the vast sources from which it 
was to be derived, although separated from us 
only by a thin crust of rock and soil, were un- 
suspected. With careless feet we travelled 

over hidden treasures more valuable and wonderful 
than the gold mines of California. Now the 
extraction, refining and transportation of petroleum 
form a branch of industry involving the employ- 
ment of vast amounts of capital and millions of 
busy hands. Ships rendered no longer necessary 
for chasing the whale, by the introduction of an oil 
cheaper and more available than whale oil, have 
been freighted with the rival oil, and sent with it 
to the markets of the world. All this has happened 

since 1859. 

W. T. Brannt, 1894. 

(Author of an American Work on Petroleum.) 






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The Caucasian (managed by Messrs. Lane & Macandrew) is one of the largest steamers running 

to Biack Sea ports for oil. 




The Pinna (originally built for the Shell Company, but now managed by Messrs. Lane & Macandrew) 
is trading between California and Japan under a three years' charter. 




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The Silverlip (lost in the Bay of Biscay 
this year) was built on the same lines 
as the Pinna. She, however, carried a 
larger cargo, and was one of the two 
largest vessels built for the Shell 
Company. 



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HAPTER XI. 



Where Tank Steamers are Docked 
and Repaired. A great business 
on the Tyne. 



" I know not where to seek, even in this busy country, a spot or district in which we perceive 
so extraordinary and multifarious a combination of the various great branches of mining, manufac- 
turing, trading, and shipbuilding industry ; and I greatly doubt whether the like could be shown, 
not only within the limits of the land, but upon the whole surface of the globe." 




PPLIED to the two lines of remarkable 
shipbuilding and manufacturing towns 
which lie, linked together, along the banks 
01 trie Tyne between Newcastle and 
Shields (North and South), this is not the language of 
exaggeration. There is no river on which there are 
so many colossal industries standing in two practically 
unbroken lines. If we supply an obvious omission 
in the list, and introduce the great business of tank 
steamer docking and repair work, we complete a 
catalogue of trades and industries which promises for 
generations to come to stand as a record amongst the 
world's industrial and shipbuilding centres for the 
amount of money invested, the number of workmen 
employed, and the extent of the influence exerted by 
an enormous combination of capital and the highest 
type of skilled labour. 

The Tyne is a river of remarkable records in every 
branch of the engineering and shipbuilding industries, 
and I am not in a work of this kind likely to overlook 
the fact that, the birthplace of many great ideas, it 
holds records for tank steamer building and repairing. 
I should say that no district or river could produce a 
list of revolutionary and world-wide inventions to 
match this : — 

Locomotives — Stephenson. 

Wire rope (without twisting the metal), and hence 

first Atlantic cable — Newall. 
Rifled ordnance — Armstrong. 
Hydraulic machinery — Armstrong. 
Electric light — Swan (time and character of 

invention exactly with Edison). 
The lifeboat — Wouldhave. 
First screw collier— John Bowes (Palmer). 
First iron bulk oil sailer — Atlantic (Rogerson, 

St Peter's). 
O.T. 



First tank steamer — Vaderland (Palmer), and 
more oil-carrying vessels and largest tonnage 
— Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Palmers Ship- 
building and Iron Company, and others. 
First in tank steamer repairing — Edwards and 
Smith. 

In previous chapters I have dealt with the building 
of tank steamers at different shipyards on the Tyne ; 
I am devoting this one to the triumphs of this river 
in the almost equally important business of ship- 
repairing. The home of tank steamer repairing work 
is at North Shields. This is an old town of great 
activity and enterprise ; no part of the Tyne has a 
more interesting history, and it stands to-day more 
enterprising than ever, modernised and brought up- 
to-date by its huge fish quays and the shipbuilding 
and ship-repairing yard and docks of Smith's Dock 
Company, Limited. 

The docks of the company are advantageously 
situated near the entrance, well within half a mile of 
the Tynemouth headland (one of the most interesting 
of the historic landmarks on the north-east coast), in 
the heart of the Harbour Boroughs, and close to the 
loading staithes of North and South Shields. They 
are the first graving docks one sees on entering the 
river, and these, with the pontoons and shipyards, 
extend from the Bull Ring to the Albert Edward 
Docks. The works at South Shields are opposite the 
westward position of the latter, and adjacent to Tyne 
Dock, which ships a larger quantity of coal than any 
dock in the world. 

Every day the works are screened from the view 
of the passengers on the river (just as they were when 
I passed up on board the Narragansttt two months 
ago) by a large fleet of vessels moored at the tiers, 
awaiting their turn to go into the docks or on to the 

Q 



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pontoons of the company for repairs or general over- 
haul. The vessels which arrive at these docks are of 
all classes and sizes — sail and steam — and represent 
every mercantile and maritime nation in the world. 
The company docks and repairs nearly 1,000 vessels, 
of a gross register tonnage of over 2,000,000 per 
annum, or nearly 50 per cent, of the vessels which 
enter the Tyne for repairs, and of this number some 
ninety are tank steamers. 

Although the present company was only formed in 
1899, it is one of the oldest of the kind in the king- 
dom, having taken over the shipbuilding and ship- 
repairing undertakings formerly owned by Messrs. 
Thomas and William Smith and Messrs. H. S. 
Edwards & Sons, founded respectively in 1782 and 
1768, and carried on continuously by various members 
of the families right down to the date of the formation 
of the present company. Even to-day, after a career 
of close upon a century and a half, the original * 
families are still represented by Mr. James H. 
Edwards (the chairman) and Mr. George S. F. 
Edwards, both of whom were formerly partners in 
Messrs. H. S. Edwards & Sons and Messrs. Edwards 
Bros. Mr. Launcelot E. Smith (managing director) 
represents the other old firm, whilst the remaining 
members of the directorate are Mr. Henry Eeles and 
Mr. Arthur Scholefield, both well known in North of 
England shipping circles. 

At South Shields, where there are three dry docks, 
325 ft., 305 ft., and 430 ft. in length, what is 
known as the High Docks Department has a com- 
plete equipment of travelling cranes, machinery, and 
all the plant necessary for a business of this descrip- 
tion. Across the road, at the head of the docks, are 
a very fine set of shops, built of steel and glass roofed, 
for the accommodation of the various trades employed 
in ship-repairing. 

The directors have been fully alive to the fact that 
not only is up-to-date plant required, but that to 
secure the full benefit of its employment, as well as to 
get the best work out of their workmen, the shops 
must be well lighted and adequately ventilated. 
Improvements are constantly being effected at the 
High Docks Department, and these have for their 
object the economical and expeditious handling of 
every class of work undertaken by the company. 

At North Shields there are three separate depart- 
ments — the Pontoons Department, the Bull Ring 
Department, and the Shipyard Department. Each is 
under separate management, and fully equipped with 
all necessary plant and machinery. The company's 



long experience has convinced the heads that the 
system of dividing up the docks into small groups, 
each with its separate managers, staff, and machinery, 
is the most satisfactory, for it is only in this way that the 
work can be specialised and vessels undergoing repairs 
receive that constant and undivided attention which 
is so necessary in a business of such large dimensions. 

The Pontoons Department comprises one dry dock 
of 300 ft. length and two floating pontoon docks, 
built on Messrs. Clark & Stanfield's well-known " off- 
shore " principle. The largest will take on a vessel 
up to about 460 ft., and is fitted with the most com- 
plete system of mechanical appliances for the rapid 
and economical handling of vessels. The pumping is 
done by eight large centrifugal pumps, each driven 
by a separate 60 h.-p. electric motor, and so 
rapid and efficient is their action that large vessels 
have frequently been docked and lifted clear of the 
water in twenty minutes. A powerful hydraulic crane 
and two hydraulic capstans are fitted on the top deck 
of the pontoon. The usual mechanical side-shores 
are supplemented by hydraulic side-shores to enable 
a vessel with a list to be docked and pushed upright, 
and to ensure the docking and lifting of vessels with 
the least labour and greatest despatch the sluice 
valves are controlled by hydraulic power from a 
central valve-house. 

The Bull Ring Department, the one which has the 
greatest interest for oil men, consists of two docks, 
complete with all the necessary shops and machinery 
for dealing with overhauls and repairs of the most 
extensive nature to all classes of vessels, together with 
all the most improved appliances for rapidly and 
efficiently completing the overhauling and repairing 
of tank steamers. In this department the company 
have more especially laid themselves out for the 
repairing and overhauling of ocean-going, oil-carrying 
steamers, for which all the most modern appliances 
have been provided. Locomotive cranes circle the 
docks, and in the shops and sheds overhead cranes 
enable the workmen — all tried and trusted men — to 
carry on their work with comparative ease and the 
utmost despatch. Electric power and light are 
employed. 

The docks in this department (numbered 4 and 5) 
occupy the full length of the present available space. 
No. 4 is 347 ft. long, 52 ft. broad, and 23 J ft. deep 
(now being enlarged), and No. 5 dock is 367 ft long, 
50 ft broad, and 20 ft. deep, but, as has been shown, 
great as are the facilities of the company, more space 
is required and will shortly be provided. 



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Owing to the handy size and depth of these docks, 
they are almost exclusively reserved for the docking 
and overhauling of tank steamers. This is a special 
branch of the ship-repairing trade to which the com- 
pany have for many years devoted special attention, 
and for which they have provided exceptional facilities ; 
it demands the utmost care, particularly now that 
benzine and petrol are being regularly carried by some 
of the largest steamers, and it is on record that the 
company have never had a serious accident to any of 
the hundreds of steamers of this description that 
have passed through their hands. 

Many years ago when tank steamers were only 
coming into prominence, and men fought shy of 
working upon them, except at considerably advanced 
pay, the chairman of this company was one of the 
committee formed to deal with the subject, and he 
was one of those who maintained that, when proper 
care is exercised, fire and explosion risks are reduced 
to a minimum. That such care marks the control of 
Messrs. Smith's works is evidenced by that freedom 
from accident to which I have referred. 

In the docks and those departments of the works 
which are allotted to the overhauling and repairing 
of tank steamers it is almost impossible to give an 
adequate idea of the great variety of work under- 
taken by the company. Tank steamer work is 
isolated as far as possible and specialised, the most 
reliable of skilled labour is employed, and every 
possible precaution is taken to ensure freedom from 
accident and the ultimate success of every job, 
whether of the nature of a refit, an overhaul, or an 
absolute conversion. 

On the occasion of a recent visit to these docks I 
obtained a brief epitome of the particulars of some of 
the heaviest jobs undertaken by this company, and 
I give it here to show the varied and extensive 
character of this branch of the business. 

When the Tancarville was converted into a floating 
oil depot, the main engines and boilers were removed 
and the spaces sub-divided and converted into oil- 
tight cargo tanks. A new pump room and boiler 
house were built aft. In addition to a powerful 
pumping arrangement, a large liquid fuel burning 
donkey-boiler was supplied and fitted. In this way 
was the vessel adapted for the special trade to which 
I make a reference elsewhere. 

A heavy repairing job was recently done on 
the Helios. The whole bow of this steamer was 
very badly damaged by collision. The frames, 
beams, deck and shell-plates were so bent and twisted 



into each other that it was found necessary to cut 
away the damage in pieces weighing several tons 
each. The club-foot stem was replaced by a new 
stem bar, which necessitated the altering of the fore 
foot and keel plates to suit. 

When the Elbruz became the Ottawa she had new 
main and donkey-boilers supplied, and a new equip- 
ment of auxiliary machinery and cargo pumps. Her 
engines were thoroughly overhauled and renovated. 
The upper deck plating and part of main deck plating 
in range of oil tanks, the whole of the main deck 
forming bunker space casings, boiler room tank top, 
floors, frames, keelsons, and reverse frames were 
renewed, and the floors under the engines doubled. 
In addition, the whole of the oil tanks were tested 
throughout with hydraulic pressure. 

The main engines and boilers of the Weehawhen 
were lifted out, new main and donkey-boilers were 
fitted, and the main engines were erected and over- 
hauled in the machine shop and refitted with a new 
condenser. She was supplied with new air and 
circulating feed and bilge pumps, shafting and pro- 
peller, auxiliary machinery and cargo pump. In 
addition, the whole of the boiler and engine room 
tank top with frames, floors, and intercostals were 
renewed, also frames and reverse frames and keelsons 
in the boiler room, besides which a considerable 
amount of work was done in the oil tanks, which 
were all thoroughly overhauled and afterwards tested 
by hydraulic pressure. A special arrangement for 
extinguishing fire and ventilating the tanks was fitted 
to adapt the vessel for carrying benzine and naphtha 
cargoes. 

When the fine old Anglo-American tank steamer 
Manhattan was undergoing her No. 3 survey, the 
whole of the upper deck plating, the main deck form- 
ing the 'tween deck bunker, casings, boiler room tank 
top, floors, frames and keelsons were renewed. There 
were also considerable renewals to centre line and 
'thwartship bulkheads. The fore deep and after peak 
tank tops were also renewed, and all the oil and water- 
tight compartments were tested under water pressure 
to satisfaction of owners and classification surveyors. 

During May, 1897, the collier Otterburn was sold 
by Newcastle owners to a Russian firm and put into 
Smith's Dock Company's hands to be made suitable 
for carrying oil in bulk. She was an exceedingly 
light draught so as to get her through the canals 
from St Petersburg to the Caspian. She was to be 
employed in carrying crude petroleum on the 
Caspian Sea, and Smith's fitted her up for this 



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purpose by putting oil-tight bulkheads, trunk hatches, 
pipe installations, etc., into her. This is the only case 
I have come across of a collier being converted into 
an oil-tank steamer. 

Some heavy work was recently done by the com- 
pany on the Tioga (ex Christine). All the oil tank 
hatches were extended and fitted with necessary 
coamings and covers for the carrying of general 
cargo. The internal structural arrangements were 
considerably strengthened by the addition of web 
frames on each side of each compartment. Large 
buttress plates and extra horizontal stiffening were 
fitted to centre line and 'thwartship bulkheads, and 
the whole of the oil tanks were thoroughly over- 
hauled and afterwards tested by hydraulic pressure. 
This vessel was ceiled out with bottom and spar 
ceiling for general cargo. 

The Gut Heil was sent to North Shields when she 
was damaged by an explosion in a foreign port. The 
after bulkhead in No. 2 tank, together with shell, 
stringers, deck, etc., were extensively damaged, 
requiring a new bulkhead complete, with all the 
necessary stiffening angles and buttresses to be fitted. 
The greater part of the internal work in Nos. I and 3 
tanks was renewed, and the remainder of the oil com- 
partments were thoroughly overhauled and afterwards 
tested under hydraulic pressure. 

When the Tonawanda (ex Lucigen) arrived at these 
docks, practically the whole of the deck erections 
were smashed, torn away and strewn about in a con- 
fused mass. The wrecked parts were all cleared away 
and renewed to original plans, and, in addition, a 
number of damaged shell and bulwark plates were 
cut off, faired and replaced or renewed. Owing to 
the exceptional weather experienced by the vessel, 
she was badly strained right fore and aft, and the 
whole of the rivetting had to be overhauled, one of 
the most perfect jobs of the kind ever done on this 
river, which is famous for its ship-repairing work. 

Vessels have been fitted for heating and keeping 
creosote in a liquid state for pumping ; the installation 
including heating coils, make-up evaporator, tanks 
for receiving water condensed in the coils, and special 
strainer for purifying and testing the condition of the 
water before being pumped back into the boilers or 
condenser. A number of tankers have also been 
fitted with a special arrangement for extinguishing 
fire and for ventilating tanks to adapt them for carry- 
ing benzine and naphtha cargoes, and several large 
tank steamers have been altered to enable them to 
carry general cargoes. 



The continually increasing size of vessels coming 
to the Tyne for docking (and on the occasion of my 
visit to these docks I noticed that part of one of the 
dock-heads had been cut away to take in the tank 
steamer Vedra\ convinced the directors some time 
ago that it would be necessary to lengthen the Bull 
Ring Docks, but the execution of the work presented 
a problem of no small importance. The acquisition 
of a large amount of house property and the diver- 
sion of a public street led to protracted and costly 
negotiations ; fortunately, however, all difficulties 
have been cleared away, and a start has been made 
with the lengthening of No. 4 dock, which will, when 
completed, be capable of accommodating any tank 
steamer afloat and practically double the resources of 
the docks. 

In spite of these extensions, however, the company 
find it impossible to keep pace with the demand for 
their specialities, and as it is impossible to further 
extend the shipyard, owing to its position between 
the pontoons and the Bull Ring, the directors have 
decided upon the bold course of removing the ship- 
building department to Middlesbrough, where a suit- 
able site of some sixteen acres has been acquired. 
The site left vacant at North Shields will be used to 
extend the repairing department which deals with the 
tank steamer business. Repairing as well as building 
will also be undertaken at Middlesbrough, for it is 
intended to construct two graving docks of the largest 
size. 

The company possess another department, hardly, 
if at all, of smaller importance to that of ship-repair- 
ing ; I refer to the shipyard between the pontoon and 
the Bull Ring. This business was formerly carried 
on by Messrs. Edwards & Bros., who made a speciality 
of light draught cargo vessels, steam trawlers and 
drifters, steam tugs, ferry boats, and other small 
vessels of special type. 

Smith's docks at North Shields are known to every 
one connected with oil-carrying shipping ; indeed, I 
should say, they are known throughout the shipping 
world, and have a great reputation for specialist work 
in every branch of their extensive business. 

Most of the ship-building companies which have 
made a speciality of tank steamer building also do a 
certain amount of dry docking and repairing work. 
In addition to these, several dry dock companies, 
including the Wallsend Slipway and Engineering 
Company and Messrs. Robert Stephenson & Co., 
Limited, Hebburn, have docks and staffs which are 
suitable for this class of work. 



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At the top, the Tancarville after b2ing converted into a floating oil depot. 

In the centre, on the left, the Moss steamer Lumen, and on the right the 
Orijlammc (Messrs. Lane & Macandrew). 

Below (on the floating dock) the James Brand, and on the left the equally well- 
known steamer Chi <* well. 



Photos takln at Smith's Dock on the Tvne. 



J&f. 





[ To jacc /. 116. 



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PART II. 

SO ME OIL PORTS 

With a Special Chapter on 

OIL PORTS IN THE MAKING 



Being a Description of the Latest Oil 
Field Developments in British Colonies* 



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tKlNSKi DOCK AT I1AKU, WHERE THV: OIL-CARRVlN( \ VESSELS AM) A 
NUMBER OF GENERAL TRADERS IN THE CASl'UN ARE REPAIRED AND 

OVERHAULED. 






OIL-CARRYING STEAMERS IN THE HAY AT BAKU. 



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^HAPTER XII. 



Thirty Yemn mt Bmtoum. 




|EW York and Philadelphia for the old 
oil fields of Pennsylvania, Ohio and 
other States; San Francisco for Cali- 
fornia's unequalled and reliable producing 
territories ; Port Arthur for the phenomenal oil-bearing 
tracts inland from the Gulf of Mexico ; Constantza for 
the increasingly important shipments from the fields 
of Roumania ; Balik-Papan for the mysterious and 
remote oil-yielding jungles of Borneo, and the Indian 
ports to which the petroleum of Burmah and Assam 
is transported, are all competitors of Batoum. 

With perhaps one exception, Baku, Batoum is the 
most remarkable oil port in the world. 

Thirty years ago, and ten years before the Baku- 
Batoum line made it possible for oil men to seriously 
grapple with the huge financial and mechanical 
problems of placing Baku petroleum on the European 
markets, Sir James Bryce, even in those days famous 
as a traveller and mountain otimber, and now British 
Ambassador at Washington, arrived at Batoum on 
his way back from Armenia after his ascent of the 
sacred Ararat It is just thirty years since Sir James 
Bryce entered the Armenian monastery of Etchmiad- 
zin, near the foot of Ararat, and was presented to the 
archimandrite who ruled that illustrious house. The 
Armenian gentleman who acted as interpreter turned 
to the archimandrite and said : " This Englishman 
says he has ascended to the top of Massis " (Ararat). 
The venerable man smiled sweetly. " No," he replied, 
" that cannot be. No one has ever been there. It is 
impossible." 

When Sir James Bryce arrived at Batoum it was in 
the hands of the Turks, " a small town with but little 
trade and only a few vessels lying off it" Concerning 
its future he wrote, " . . . . neither exports nor im- 
ports need be expected," and then, prophetically, 
" In the hands of the Turks it is useless, while, if the 
Russians acquire it, they will make it the terminus of 
the railway to Tiflis, and the outlet for all the Trans- 
Caucasian trade. Its transfer to them would, therefore, 
be really a gain to the world at large, as well as to the 



conquerors, and whatever results the present war may 
have, it is difficult, especially when one has just come 
from Poti, not to hope that such a transfer may be 
one of them." 

The Russians who occupied Batoum on its cession 
to them by the Powers under the Treaty of Berlin 
would have difficulty in recognising in the present 
port, with its oil storages, case-making factories, trans- 
port systems and shipping, the miserable, malaria- 
stricken Turkish village visited by Sir James Bryce 
upwards of a quarter-of-a-century ago. Not that 
malaria is unknown in the town, but all agree that 
each year of improved sanitation makes it more habit- 
able. Really fine buildings have been erected during 
the past few years ; amongst these may be mentioned 
the Russian Orthodox Cathedral, the Georgian 
Catholic Church, and the imposing postal-telegraph 
office on the Mariensky. The esplanade is a fine 
sea-front On this promenade, especially interesting 
to the Western, the representatives of many nations, 
Georgians, Russians, Armenians, Greeks, Turks, 
Kurds, Persians and many others, collect in consider- 
able numbers and converse in their own language or 
in bad Russian. 

During the twelve months of bloodshed, started in 
February, 1905, Batoum played a prominent part in 
the Caucasian revolt When die massacres took place 
at the oil fields at the Caspian end of the Caucasus, 
business was brought to a standstill, oil-carrying 
vessels deserted the port, and fierce fighting took 
place in the streets. Amid the horrors of inter-tribal 
and civil warfare the petroleum business received a 
blow from which it cannot possibly recover for 
several years. 

The town is flat and much of the immediate neigh- 
bourhood is marsh, from which emanates the malaria, 
which every year claims its many victims. There is 
reason for believing that the site of the town has been 
gradually piled up by the sea, for, geologically, it 
differs in a striking way from the surrounding country, 
where the spurs of the Caucasus begin almost 



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immediately. The earthquake shocks, which have of 
late years menaced certain districts in the Caucasus, 
have been felt in Batoum, but, thanks to its distance 
from the seismic centre, no damage to life or property 
has been caused. One shudders when one thinks of an 
earthquake at Batoum. The sea, forced back by the 
upheaval of the ground, would return a wall of water. 
Batoum has, of course, its British colony. This small 
community organises football and cricket matches, 
takes a deep interest in the yacht club, and the British 
Consul, Mr. Patrick Stevens, is the pioneer and chief 
spirit of the volunteer fire brigade. In the British 
Consul the Empire has a valuable servant ; knowing 
Russian like a native, and, what is even more impor- 
tant, understanding the Russian official, he would be 
hard to replace. 

The port, a bay formation, is open on the north. 
On the west it is bounded by the Bouroun-Tabie 
promontory and a mole, and on the east by the 
estuary of the Bartzkhany River, while on the 
western part of the wharves, fronting the town for a 
distance of 4,781 ft, there are from west to east, the 
lighthouse, quarantine station, jetties of the Russian 
Steam Navigation Company, buildings of the Naval 
Department, Trans-Caucasian Railway goods sheds, 
landing stages of the Navigation Company, and the 
municipal and port authorities, a number of shipping 
offices, and a stretch of foreshore used by small 
coasting sailers. 

In the eastern part of the bay is the oil harbour, 
which has a quay 2,695 ft- * n length, and the oil 
mole, which, joining the eastern end in a right angle, 
curves westward and forms a harbour protected 
against north-easterly winds. From the east another 
mole extends almost parallel with the shore and joins 
the oil mole at its elbow. Between this breakwater and 
the shore is the harbour for coasting vessels. Here 
are the Rothschild works with four landing stages. 

Of the structures the oldest are the oil and 
Bouroun-Tabie breakwaters. The first was com- 
menced in 1885 and completed in 1888 ; the second, 
intended to prevent the harbour from silting up, 
was also started in 1885, but it was not finished until 
1899. The western part of the harbour, started 
simultaneously with the breakwaters, was completed 
for a distance of 700 ft. in 1889, and^ the remaining 
part, which joined up with the breakwater, between 
1890 and 1893. 

According to the original project the oil harbour 
was to have a depth of 24 ft., but when the quay 
was finished there was water for vessels drawing 



26 ft., and the authorities, by means of dredging, 
went down another 2 ft in all parts in 1893. 
Resuming dredging operations in 1899, they were 
able before the end of 1902 to increase the depth 
of the harbour to 30 ft., and a recent inspection 
showed that there had been no change in the depth. 

The breakwater for the protection of coasters was 
constructed between 1894 and 1897, an ^ a * ^ e same 
time the depth of water at the quay was increased to 
15 ft. There was an accumulation of silt in this 
harbour, and when vessels in the coastwise trade could 
no longer use it with safety, Rothschild secured it for 
transhipment purposes, and at the present time there 
is only a 12-ft. fairway to the jetties. 

There is an insufficiency of berthing room in the 
harbour, and in busy times steamers have to wait their 
turns. Behind the oil breakwater the swell from the 
sea gives the officers of vessels a great deal of trouble, 
and in rough weather they have either to anchor their 
vessels in the roadstead or steam out to sea. Consul 
Stevens, in his report this year, says : " On occasions 
of this kind, when the harbour is full of shipping, the 
port presents a perfect pandemonium of infuriated 
choppy seas and underground swells, of ships rolling, 
pitching, plunging and ranging at their moorings, 
parting hawsers, wire ropes and cables, and colliding 
with other vessels, doing serious damage to themselves, 
other shipping and the harbour. Steamers, after break- 
ing away from their moorings, have often been obliged 
to proceed to the roads or out to sea to weather a 
storm. Master mariners have repeatedly assured me 
that their vessels are, comparatively speaking, safer at 
sea in a gale of wind than they would be moored 
alongside the stone quays at the port of Batoum." 
In order to remedy this unsatisfactory state of things, 
schemes for the re-formation of the harbour have 
been submitted. The port authorities, who oppose 
these schemes, counting them unnecessary and costly, 
are working out more modest ideas for the improve- 
ment of the port. They state that, at the present 
time, when trade is leaving the port owing to the 
great political and industrial upheaval at Batoum, 
Baku, and the other centres of petroleum activity, the 
turnover does not in any way justify the spending of 
many millions of roubles on the absolute re-formation 
of the harbour. 

Tank steamers are loaded near the petroleum break- 
water, on to which all the pipe lines from the pumping 
stations are laid on to four racks. These racks are 
at different parts of the breakwater and enable four 
vessels to load simultaneously. Each rack is formed 



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in a square excavation, out of which rises a number 
of curved loading pipes fitted with valves and attached 
to the hose through which the oil is pumped into the 
tanks of the steamers. 

The most important group of Government tanks 
connected by pipe line with the petroleum loading 
berths are situated at Kobouletti, some twenty miles 
from Batoum. The reason given for this isolation is 
that in case of an attack on the port by a foreign 
power the tanks would be out of range of the guns. 

The charges for loading, payable by the exporter, 
do not amount to more than thirty copecks per 1,000 
poods of kerosene pumped. 

All other loading and discharging work is carried 
on at the quay of the oil harbour and the Customs 
landing stages. Barrelled and case oil is handled at a 
separate quay in the oil harbour, where some six 
vessels can be loaded simultaneously, and it is in this 
harbour that timber vessels and the steamers of the 
volunteer fleet are berthed. 

While tank steamers in a general way secure quick 
despatches, other traders often experience great diffi- 
culty in getting alongside owing to the shortage of 
quay accommodation, and cases are known where 
steamers have been kept waiting for a month. 

The port records in a good year of business show 
that about 700 steamers and 2,040 sailers arrive from 
foreign ports, along with 723 steamers and 1,763 
sailers engaged in the coastwise trade. Thus in a 
single year 5,226 vessels — and some of these were huge 
tank steamers and vessels of the volunteer fleet — have 
been known to make use of the port. 

There are no port entry dues ; the only real charge 
is for quay space. The authorities collect small 
amounts for anchorage and moorage privileges, and 
also for pilotage, which, however, is not compulsory. 
The poodage import of one copeck per pood on all 
goods loaded is collected by the Customs and goes 
entirely and direct to the Imperial exchequer. Up to 
190 1 a fifth of this impost went to the town. The 
Customs only levy an impost of forty copecks per 
1,000 roubles worth of cargo loaded. 

The subject of Batoum cannot be dismissed with- 
out a reference to the great Trans-Caucasian pipe line 
undertaking completed at the end of 1906. Baku and 
Batoum are joined by a pipe line which follows the 
ordinary railway track for a distance of 560 miles. 
This is the world's greatest and most costly oil pipe 
line. This line ought to have been completed many 
years ago. Extraordinary delays were occasioned by 
the Government insisting that the pipe line material 
O.T, 



and hydraulic machinery should be exclusively of 
Russian manufacture. It is characteristic of the 
native supineness of Russian enterprise and the 
laissez /aire procedure of the higher bureaucratic 
departments that this most important project has 
been desultorily discussed by successive ministers for 
the last fifteen years. For a decade past, at least, it 
has been conspicuously obvious to the Caucasian 
authorities and the Imperial Government that the 
single track tank waggon system from Baku to 
Batoum was altogether inadequate and was every 
year cramping more seriously the export of petro- 
leum to the Black Sea. At the Batoum end the oil 
business has always suffered under one of two evils, 
insufficiency of tank cars when the demand is great, 
and want of storage when the demand is weak. 

The railway and newly completed pipe line will 
give an impetus to the foreign export of Russian 
petroleum, and oil men are hoping that, with the 
general resumption of work at Baku, there will be a full 
and intelligent employment of the improved facilities 
for the transportation of oil across the Caucasus. 

In this connection it should be mentioned that the 
Government has been applied to on several occasions 
— the last time three years ago, when Mr. Wilson (an 
English engineer) and two Russian military engineers, 
Messrs. Oschtschurski and Sarakowski, were the 
applicants — for concessions to construct and work a 
ship canal between the Caspian Sea and the Black 
Sea. The making of such a canal — an engineering 
feat of unparalleled magnitude — could not be without 
an influence on the petroleum transport trade of the 
Caspian and Black Seas. Mr. Markowsky, chief 
engineer of the Baku Mining Department, mentions 
two canal projects— one through the north of the 
Apscheron Peninsula, and the other between the Sea 
of Azov and the north of the Caspian Sea, by way 
of the Manitch River. No concessions have been 
granted. 

The following figures show the remarkably unsatis- 
factory changes which have taken place in the oil 
export business at Batoum : — 

Year. Poods. (Tons.) 

1899 ... 71,202,200 ... (1,148,422) 

1900 ... 65,377,000 ... (1,054,477) 

1901 ... 77,519,700 ... (1,250,317) 

1902 ... 84,234,000 ... (1,358,613) 

1903 ... 82,211,500 ... (1,325,976) 

1904 ... 79,526,900 ... (1,282,692) 

1905 ... 39,592,668 ... (638,591) 

1906 ... 30*710,909 ... (495,337) 

R 



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122 



In addition to the export statistics on the previous page I give the 
figures for the first six months of this year (1907). 
They are : — From Batoum. 

Year. Poods. Tons. 

1907 21,688478 (349,814) 

1906 15,346462 (247,524) 

The oil exports from the neighbouring port of Novorossisk during the 
past seven years were : — 



Year. 


Poods. 


Tons. 


1901 


iS.039.900 


(242,579) 


1902 


10453,000 


(168,597) 


1903 


28,687,200 


(426,697) 


1904 


27,060,300 


(436,456) 


1905 


14,162,906 


(228434) 


1906 


7.214.383 


(116,361) 


1907* ... 


3,558,682 


(57,398) 


1906* ... 


3483.815 
* First six months. 


(56,191) 



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Types of & 
TanK Steamers 
on the 000 
Caspian Sea. 






THESE PHOTOS SHOW STEAMERS WAITING FOR OIL 
CARGOES IN THE BAY AT BAKU. 



To /'act- /. uj.\ 




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S^HAPTER XIII. 



Baku: the Birth-place of the 
Oil- Carrying Sailer end Tank 
Steamer. 




[ROM the splendid tideless bay at Baku to 
Astrakhan, the great oil-distributing port 
at the mouth of the Volga, is practically 
600 miles. These are the two most 
important oil-transporting centres in Russia. At 
Baku there is excellent wharf and dry dock accom- 
modation, better piers than one expects to find for 
the many passenger steamers which run to the chief 
ports in the Caspian, and safe anchorage in the bay 
in all kinds of weather. When Volga navigation is in 
full swing Baku Bay presents a busy scene. 

European passengers for Persia embark at Baku. 
Passenger and cargo vessels leave daily for Astrakhan 
and Petrovsk, for Krasnovodsk, on the Asiatic shore 
of the Caspian, and for Enseli, the chief Persian port. 
The imports from Persia chiefly consist of raw silk, 
carpets, rugs, raisins, and fruit, while the exports are 
oil, textiles, haberdashery, ironware, machinery, sugar, 
and canned goods. Tank steamers and hundreds of 
oil-carrying schooners and general traders of a dis- 
tinctly Welsh type lie at anchor in the bay, from 
Bailov Point, where the navy of the Caspian has 
moorings, right along the city front, almost to the 
loading piers at the great refinery region at Black 
Town. It is from behind this same Bailov Point, 
where the oil field of Bibi-Eibat is situated, and where 
the most prolific petroleum fountains in the world 
have been brought in, that heavily-laden oil barges 
are brought by British-built tugs for their short run 
across the bay to the refineries. Away from the oil 
fields and the refineries the chief business of Baku is 
oil transport ; it is this that keeps the shipping and 
the harbour employed — indeed, without it the shipping 
trade of the Caspian would be of very little consequence, 
certainly to Englishmen. 

The history of the marine branch of Baku's staple 
industry is one of marvellous interest ; connected with 
it are stories of thrilling interest, more romance than 
is generally associated with trade, and countless 



records of high-spirited enterprise and the display of 
an engineering and scientific knowledge quite unique 
amongst specialist work in the art of ship-repairing. 
The tank steamers of Baku were undeniably the 
pioneers of the world's carrying fleets of to-day. 

One hundred and eighty-four years ago, when Peter 
the Great annexed Baku, and, according to a record 
in the archives of Tiflis, " gave special instructions for 
exporting oil up the Volga to Russia," there were oil- 
carrying sailers on the Caspian. In the reign of our 
own George II., when the merchants of this country 
were enthusiastically advocating the opening up of 
the trade route with England and the East, Jonas 
Hanway proceeded to the Caspian to investigate the 
failure of British trading concessions. In his bulky 
account of British trade over the Caspian Sea (1754) 
he mentions that the Persians used to load the oil 
collected on Holy Island (off Baku) into their wretched 
vessels ; as the oil was in bulk and the vessels leaky, 
the sea was sometimes covered with it " for leagues 
together." There is, of course, no written history of 
these early oil-carrying sailers, but that they were the 
first to run in the oil trade in any part of the world 
there can be no doubt 

The earliest experiments with tank steamers were 
carried out on the Volga, where iron was expensive 
and the carrying of oil in bulk had to be done in 
wooden barges. In attempting to prevent the oil 
from escaping it was found that glue, when used in 
the barrels, was easily washed out by water, but it 
was soon noticed that the water itself would prevent 
the oil from escaping. 

The next problem was to adopt some method of 
keeping the barge sunk in water at a certain depth. 
It was observed that as long as the oil in the boat 
was level with the water in the river it could not 
escape, and even if a crack developed it did not flow 
out, but the water flowed in and raised the level of 
the oil. It was impossible for large quantities of 



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water to entei^ there being very little space between 
the oil and the deck. Thus, under the least favour- 
able conditions, these boats were considered a safe 
means of transport 

The last problem solved by a simple calculation was 
how to regulate the levels of the oil inside and the 
water outside. This turned on the specific gravity of 
the liquid pumped in, and when, after heavy residuals 
had been carried, the same barges were loaded with 
kerosene or crude petroleum, both liquids of lighter 
specific gravity, the escape of oil became serious, until 
the sharp-witted peasant owners of the barges con- 
ceived the idea of carrying a deck cargo of stones to 
make up the deficiency of weight due to the specific 
gravity of the oil being less. The same thing had 
happened in America, and prevented the earlier 
adoption of a more economical way of carrying crude 
petroleum, which, being of a very light specific gravity, 
escaped freely, and finally led the Americans to 
abandon the very idea which was satisfactorily worked 
out in practice in Russia a few years later. 

The only reliable historians of the early days of 
the tank steamers on the Caspian were Mr. Gouli- 
chambaroff and Mr. Charles Marvin. From these 
authorities we learn that in 1878, when oil was carried 
in barrels, the Baku refineries produced 1,250,000 
gallons of refined, but many years later (1885), when 
the bulk transport system was adopted, the output of 
the 120 concerns amounted to 120,000,000 gallons. 
Between 1879 (when there was only one tanker, owned 
by Ludwig Nobel) and 1885 (when there were one 
hundred) Russia invested £1,000,000 in the building 
of oil-carrying steamers. Steam navigation for the 
transport of oil grew and flourished amazingly in this 
land-locked sea, and the shipping records of those 
times show that frequently between twenty and thirty 
oil carriers left Baku for the Volga in a single day. 

It was in 1885, the great fountain year, that the 
oil fields were converting poor men into millionaires, 
and when one firm alone, Nobel Bros., found it 
possible to refine 1,500 tons of oil in a day. Nobel 
Bros, suggested to the directors of the Caucasus and 
Mercury Company that they should fit up a steamer 
with a cistern, so that the oil might be conveyed in 
an unbarrelled form to the Volga. In return for 
doing this they offered them a lucrative contract for 
carrying oil for a term of years. The Caucasus and 
Mercury Company, however, notorious for their want 
of enterprise, and making handsome profits by means 
of the State subsidy, had no incentive to act with 
enterprise, and the offer was refused. Thereupon the 



resourceful Nobel Bros, decided to run a fleet of 
oil-carriers themselves. 

They owned engineering works on the Neva, where 
they could have steamers built, engines made, and all 
the pumping apparatus and appliances tested by skilled 
engineers. With the engineer of the family, Mr. 
Robert Nobel, on the spot, Mr. Ludwig Nobel con- 
trolling operations at St. Petersburg, and the talented 
scientific investigator, Mr. Alfred Nobel, to refer to in 
chemical matters, the firm possessed advantages which 
rendered serious rivalry from ill-educated and apathetic 
competitors practically impossible. In building the 
first steamer one or two difficulties were encountered. 
The Caspian is liable to sudden tempests, and it was 
necessary to take every precaution against the 
insecurity of such a lively cargo as oil. Wiseacres in 
Russia asserted that as the Americans had never 
deemed it feasible to bring oil to Europe in cistern 
steamers it was sheer folly for anyone to attempt it in 
the Caspian region. However, Mr. Ludwig Nobel 
was by birth an inventor, and he acted as a draughts- 
man for a steamer in which he arranged that the 
cargo should be kept under control by an elaborate 
and peculiar system of water-tight compartments, 
without in any way interfering with the rapid loading 
or discharging of the vessel. This experimental 
steamer proved a success, and paid for itself during 
the first navigation. Having got the lead, the Nobels 
kept it. They added to their fleet as fast as they 
could, and succeeded in getting some of the steamers 
cheaply constructed in Sweden. The profits were 
relatively enormous. With their steamers they beat 
the barrel transport so completely that the other firms 
had no chance against them, and as the profits were 
immediately applied to the extension of the business, 
the company in a few years became a gigantic 
one. 

The first " liquid transport" or "cistern steamer" 
appeared on the Caspian in 1879, and twenty years 
ago Nobel Bros, owned twelve — the Mahomed, 
Tatarin, Bramah, Spinoza, Darwin, Talmud, Koran, 
Calmuck, Zoroaster, &c. 

The dimensions of the Spinoza will give some idea 
of these earliest steamers. The vessel was built of 
steel, 245 ft long, 27 J ft. broad, and, when laden 
with kerosene, had a draught of 1 1 ft. The engines, 
120 h.-p., sent her along at the rate of 10 knots 
an hour, at that time a good speed, and one 
that was not often done by British tramp steamers. 
She burned oil fuel, the bunkers containing a supply 
to last six days (sufficient for the journey from Baku 



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( "5 ) 



to the mouth of the Volga and back). This steamer 
carried 750 tons of kerosene each trip. Some of the 
other vessels varied slightly from these dimensions ; 
the Koran and Talmud, for instance, were each 2 52 J ft. 
long and 28J ft. broad, and carried passengers as 
well as oil to Petrovsk and the Volga, 

England was slow to recognise the potentialities of 
the marine branch of the Baku oil business, and 
twenty years ago we had built less than half-a-dozen 
tank steamers against something like one hundred 
launched by foreigners to run on the Caspian Sea 
and the Volga. 

Owing to the splendid canal system connecting the 
Neva with the Volga, comparatively little trouble was 
experienced in conveying the Swedish steamers to the 
Caspian. In the case of the larger ones, they were 
despatched in sections, generally in two parts, to 
facilitate the progress through the locks. The open 
extremities were filled with iron bulkheads and the 
vessels put together again at Astrakhan — a plan which 
was adopted when steamers were sent from the Tyne 
in the early days. Early on, Nobel Bros, opened a 
yard at Astrakhan to repair their Caspian oil vessels 
and the flotilla of smaller steamers on the Volga. 
Directly their cistern steamers proved a success other 
firms hastened to purchase similar ones for the Caspian, 
most of them being from 150 to 250 ft in length. 
Some of these were built by Messrs. Armstrong, 
Mitchell & Co. on the Tyne. As many as twenty 
new tank steamers arrived at Baku in a single season. 

The creation of such a fleet is an exploit of which 
any engineer might be proud, and Mr. Ludwig Nobel 
may certainly claim credit for having, by the substitu- 
tion of the steam-propelled 200,000-gallon floating 
oil-tank for the 40-gallon wooden barrel, effected a 
great revolution in the Caspian petroleum industry. 

The growth of Caspian shipping has been particu- 
larly marked during the past ten years. 

The Baku Excise Department reported that the 
total number of steam and sailing vessels built up to 
September 13th, 1899, was 345, with a total capacity 
of 8,644,884 cubic ft Of these, 133, having a 
capacity of 4,821,679 cubic ft, were tank steamers; 
and 212, with a total capacity of 3,823,205 cubic ft., 
were sailers, so that the proportions of the total of the 
two descriptions were 55*8 and 38*5 per cent respec- 
tively. In 1899 it was estimated that eighty-eight in 
number, or 66 per cent., of the tank steamers on the 
Caspian were constructed in foreign countries, 49 per 
cent being built in Sweden and the remainder in 
England, but in later years England took the lead 




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( 126) 



The Baku shipowners also sent orders to Bremen and 
Stettin, where they built the vessels at a cheaper rate, 
and though they were not of such high finish as those 
built in England, they were strong, and, said an 
authority at that time, " they served the purposes of 
the Caspian trade." One reason why early steamers 
built on the Volga were more suitable for the trade 
was that those from foreign countries could not be 
made wider than 32 ft., as the Marinsky Canal, 
through which they had to pass, would not admit 
vessels of greater width. The Tatiana> built in Eng- 
land, had a carrying capacity of 210,000 poods and a 
length of 286 ft, which made her nine-and-a-half 
times longer than she was wide. 

According to the latest statistics, there are 265 
steamers and 549 sailers on the Caspian Sea. The 
aggregate tonnage of the steamers alone is 164,290 
tons, and the original cost runs to about £4,200,000. 
Most of the vessels were built at Russian shipyards. 
This is explained by the fact that Russian shipyards 
are protected against foreign competition by high 
import duties. They also have geographical advan- 
tages over foreign shipyards, which can only deliver 
steamers to the Caspian in sections and with con- 
siderable difficulty. The isolated position of the 
Caspian has unfavourably influenced the quality of 
the fleets, and is accountable for many of the defects 
noticed by experts who have inspected them. 

The officials of the Board of Navigation recently 
published a report which was remarkable for its out- 
spoken criticism of the defects of the home-built 
vessels. The shipyards engaged in the construction 
of vessels for the Caspian do not turn out work that 
is up to the mark. It is only in rare instances that a 
vessel, when she strikes anything or gets into really 
bad weather, does not suffer damage to her hull ; the 
general experience is that her rivets become loose and 
that the iron plates crack and bend. Damage to pro- 
pellers is most frequent, especially during the autumn 
gales. The vibration causes breakage of shafts and 
screws, which, on investigation by the Technical 
Board of Inspection, are generally found to be made 
of unsatisfactory materials. According to some ship- 
building experts, damage sustained by propellers is 
frequently due to other causes. They say the 
materials of which the shafts are made is of the best 
quality, but the work of casting and finishing is 
imperfect, and at some works, at which profit is the 
chief consideration, and where improvements in ship- 
building are at a discount, a great deal of imperfect 
work is turned out. 



Russian shipyards turn their vessels out carelessly, 
and do not appear to trouble so long as they can 
deliver within the contract time. The result is that 
vessels with loose-working machinery are frequently 
met with. Directly a vessel starts work the engines 
develop defects, work loosely, and get out of gear. 
Very frequently one reads officially-confirmed reports 
of damage sustained by new vessels even before they 
have been delivered to the owners. Some develop 
defects on their first run to Baku. 

The vessels built at foreign shipyards for the 
Caspian fleet are also declared by these Russian 
reports to be very defective, although it is known that 
amongst the largest and most modern of the tank 
steamers running out of the bay at Baku are several 
British-built specimens of marine architecture about 
which authorities cannot speak too highly. Generally 
the Caspian shipowners take over vessels built in 
foreign shipyards " for the market " ; these, the experts 
say, are built of plates which have been rejected by 
the superintendents responsible for the building of 
ocean liners for first-class firms. The same thing 
applies to the engines and the general outfit of the 
vessels. It is these "jerry-built" steamers which find 
their way to the Caspian Sea, the builders being under 
the impression that in the Caspian Sea vessels of this 
description will meet the needs of the trade just as 
well as those which have been properly built, because 
the builders are under the mistaken impression that 
the Caspian Sea is little better than a lake. 

Russian shipmasters of experience — men who have 
been in command of vessels trading in all parts of the 
world, and some of them speaking the English tongue 
— told the author that some of the autumn storms 
met with on the Caspian equal in severity anything 
encountered between New York and the Irish coast 
The swell on the Caspian after a long blow is 
aggravated and heightened by an extraordinary 
rebound action of the waves, caused by their breaking 
on the shore and also by the wind sweeping across 
the steppes and striking the Caucasian chain. 

There are openings for British shipbuilders to do 
business on the Caspian Sea. Some first-class vessels 
— the well-known tanker Paddy and others I have 
inspected — have been sent out by British builders, 
and there is no reason why others should not follow 
when the Baku industry has passed through the 
present crisis, and efforts are being made to restore 
the petroleum business along the banks of the Volga 
and in the interior of Russia. 

During the phenomenally prosperous period of 



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1 897- 1 9 01 ) the Anglo-Russian companies owned 
oil-carrying vessels on the Caspian. When the 
Russian Petroleum and Liquid Fuel Company took 
over the Tagieff property (the famous XIX. group) 
in 1897, the tank steamers Bibi-Eibat and Lindberg* 
worth £"27,000 each, were included in the transaction 
and assisted to pay those satisfactory dividends 
which drew so many thousands of investors into the 
earliest of the Anglo-Russian concerns. They were 
built in Sweden, had engines of 1,000 i.h.p., and 
carried 60,000 poods of astatki of a specific gravity of 
•91a So well were they equipped with pumping 
machinery that Mr. Tagieff, their Tartar owner, 
guaranteed them to load in four hours and discharge 
in three. 

The London company also took over the Swedish- 
built steam tug Naptalar % which was capable of 
discharging barges at the rate of 12,000 poods an 
hour; a number of tank barges for the Baku- 
Astrakhan trade ; and a schooner used for conveying 
crude from Bibi-Eibat across Baku Bay to the 
refineries at Black Town. 

The Baku-Russian Petroleum Company, a year 



later, secured the British-built tank steamer Raphael 
from Mr. Arafellov; Mr. Suart sent the Venture 
(built by the Caledonian Shipbuilding and Engineer- 
ing Company, Ltd., Dundee), the Paddy* (Messrs. W. 
Dobson & Co., Newcastle), and other oil-carrying 
vessels from this country down the Volga to the 
Caspian ; and the Schibaieff Petroleum Company 
secured control of several vessels, including the 
successful tank steamer Slava. British capital was 
also interested in the barge oil transport trade on the 
Volga. Most of these vessels have passed under 
the control of Rothschild, and at the present time 
the Anglo-Russian concerns have practically no 
financial interest in the huge business of Caspian and 
Volga transport 



* This Tyne-built and Irish-named steamer still 
trades between Baku and Astrakhan. She is one of 
the largest steamers on the Caspian, and, managed 
by Mr. A. G. Parker, she has proved herself one of 
the safest and most successful vessels in the trade. 
It was on board the Paddy that members of the 
British colony sought safety during the massacres two 
years ago. 




& 



SOME 1,500 wooden barges of a capacity of close on 200,000,000 poods 
are engaged in the oil-carrying trade on the Volga. The majority 
of those built in recent years are of iron and steel, and carry huge 
oil cargoes, some of the largest as much as 8,ooo tons. 

I have just been informed by the well known Volga Trader, Mr. D. V. 
Sirotkin, of Nizhni-Novgorod, that he has had the oil -carrying barge 
Martha Postidtutxa built at the works of Mr. Schorina, of Torochowitz, on 
the Rlizina, a tributary of the Oka. She is no less than 504 ft. in length, 
70 ft in breadth and 12 ft 4 in. in depth, and is one of the greatest 
barges in the world. She has been designed to carry a cargo of 560,000 
poods (about 9,000 tons) of oil, and will be steered by four rudders. 



<& 



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^^^ETROLEUM was gathered upon the Watson Flats near Titusville (the 
4^ location of the Drake well) and McClintockville, just above Oil City, as 
^ early as 1840. Round or square holes, hand dugs of various depths, 

were carried down sometimes more than 200 ft., air being supplied to 
workers by a bellows. Oil was taken out with buckets by hand or a windlass. 
This method has been adopted for centuries in Roumania, Russia, India, Japan and 
other countries. Salt wells which frequently produced oil or gas were drilled in 
China many years before the process of drilling or boring was known in any other 
country. The lever on which the Chinamen "danced" was the forerunner of 
the walking beam which is now universally used, and the principle employed in the 
method of drilling wells in China was the same as that which is practised at the 
present time, 

John Eaton, in " Oil Region Reminiscences," 1907. 



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C^ HAPTER XIV. 



The Rise and Present- Day Position 
of Port Arthur, Texas, with a De- 
scription of the Ports largest Tank 
Steamer. 




|HERE are two oil ports to which, for 
various reasons, I cannot hope to do 
adequate justice here; one of these is 
the smallness of the space which I now 
find at my disposal. The ports are New York and 
Philadelphia. The history of these huge ports, so 
prominently associated with the great and fascinating 
subject of the pipe lines and refineries of America 
and the development of the American export 
of oil, will provide material for use at a time 
when it will be possible and convenient for me to 
do justice to the many facts which I have succeeded 
in collecting. 

I hope to have a better opportunity than the one 
I am now allowing to go by of writing the story of 
the rise of these two ports, and explaining some of the 
numerous ways in which they have advantageously 
influenced the oil export trade in practically every 
part of the world. 

* * * + * 

There are several ways in which Texas differs from 
the other great oil fields of the world. It has no 
secret history, and I attribute this to the fact that 
those who have built up the industry have favoured 
publicity from the start The word " secrecy " has no 
meaning to the oil men of Texas, and this is not due 
to that colossal conceit which was an amazing charac- 
teristic of its pioneer oil men, but rather to the 
multiplicity of interests concerned and the honour- 
able and enterprising character of local petroleum 
journalism. I can never attempt to appreciate the 
potentialities of the petroleum industry, the possi- 
bilities of an adequate augmentation of production to 
meet the steadily increasing demands of consumption, 
without recalling my own personal experience of 
developments in Texas, and remembering that what 
Texas has accomplished during the past five years is 
the strongest possible evidence anyone can advance 
in support of the idea that the day is not far distant 
0,T. 



when the producing branch of this industry will be 
undeniably universal. 

Texas oil history appeals to the imagination. 
Texas as it was eight years ago, with only the 
Corsicana field to entitle it to a position on the oil 
map, was a producing State of scarcely any conse- 
quence ; Texas as it is can claim to be a great figure 
and factor in the industry, the rival of California 
in a keen competition for the position of premier 
producing State in America; Texas as it will be, 
allied with Indian Territory, is to many of us one of 
the most fascinating problems in the commerce and 
industry of petroleum. 

Texas is twice as large as Great Britain or Italy, 
and larger than France or Germany. On its plains, 
stretching between Humble and Beaumont and the 
Gulf of Mexico, one oil town after another has been 
created, until we are led to recall the lines of Edward 
Wilbur Mason — 

" I am the plain : barren since time began, 
Yet do I dream of motherhood, when man 
One day at least shall look upon my charms, 
And give me towns like children for my arms. ,, 

Oil has given Texas one town after another — 
Beaumont, Sour Lake, Saratoga, Batson and Humble : 
to these it has added oil ports, and one of the most 
amazing developments has been the running of the 
pipe lines of other States through its heart to the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

I cannot remember that the writing of any part of 
this book has given me more pleasure than the brief 
description of the remarkable rise of Port Arthur, 
which, if not such a great oil port as Philadelphia, 
New York or Batoum, is, at any rate, one of the most 
progressive in the world, and one which is sending 
large quantities of oil to this country and other parts 
of Europe. 

Texas is the most striking example I can recall of 
the influence of oil in the maritime affairs of the world. 

S 



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Galveston, the premier port of the Gulf of Mexico, 
west of New Orleans, notwithstanding the great gale 
of 1900, still retains its supremacy. The fear of a 
recurrence has, however, brought other harbours to 
the front Port Arthur is one of these. It is 
peculiarly a commercial city — a place where ocean 
and railway meet Time was when neither rail nor 
ocean were there, and if they had not been joined 
Port Arthur would not be on the map. 

When Mr. A. E. Stillwell completed a railway 
from Kansas City to tide-water, a distance of 800 
miles, and christened the terminal Port Arthur, 
something like ten years ago, the location appealed 
to business interests, and now a clean, prosperous 
town is steadily growing and accumulating a 
coastwise and ocean tonnage. 



other canal or artificial channel in the United States, 
being 25 ft. deep, with a turning basis 500 ft. 
across, so that the largest vessels may be loaded at 
the wharves, a few of the largest boats being loaded 
to 24 ft. and the remainder of the cargo lightered 
over the bar. The Government is now excavating 
a 9 ft. channel from the mouths of the Sabine 
and Neches rivers to Port Arthur to permit barges 
loading there and reaching open water. Latest 
available figures will give some idea of the importance 
of the port In 1900 twenty-one vessels, with a 
registered tonnage of 36,734 and a valuation of 
£567,067, cleared from Port Arthur. In 1904 
387 vessels, tonnage 647,555, valuation £3>o63>547> 
cleared. In 1905 and 1906 there has been a steady 
increase, until it is now claimed that the Port 




The Sabine and Neches rivers form Sabine Pass, 100 
miles north-east — more north than east — of Galveston, 
and Sabine Lake, six or seven miles wide and ten or 
fifteen miles long, separates the south-western point 
of Louisiana and the south-eastern point of Texas. 

Port Arthur is situated twelve miles south-west of 
Sabine Pass, near where the lake stretches away into 
the Gulf of Mexico. The harbour is landlocked. 
Several things happened to help Port Arthur to 
make fame and business. Oil was discovered, rice 
farming inaugurated, and great lumber interests 
consolidated. Galveston was not only too far away, 
but its exposure to recurring storms was a menace to 
investment, so Port Arthur was taken in hand by 
business interests and the Government 

A channel seven miles long was excavated from 
the open deep water of the Gulf to Port Arthur. 
This channel has a greater uniform depth than any 



Arthur loading list almost equals that of Galveston. 
Of the vessels registered at Port Arthur (46 in 
number) 14 are tugs used in towing oil barges and 
nine are tank steamers. 

The discovery of oil in Texas and Louisiana made 
Port Arthur an ideal location for refineries, the 
products of which have found convenient and cheap 
transportation to Eastern and European markets. 

The Gulf Refining Company, Texas Company, 
and Security Oil Company have extensive refineries 
at Port Arthur and Beaumont, only twenty miles 
distant, and their business and profits have been 
considerably increased by reason of ocean transporta- 
tion. The Guffey, Texas, Standard, Shell and other 
companies have steamers running regularly in the oil 
trade of the port. The Standard sends Texas oil up 
to Philadelphia and New York, and from there 
across the Atlantic to this country and the Continent. 



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Most of the Shell shipments, under agreement with 
the Guffey Company, are to this country. The Shell 
was one of the first companies to recognise that Port 
Arthur had a great future as a shipping port ; it was 
started by the Beaumont oil discoveries, developed by 
the Guffey (now the Gulf) refinery undertakings, and 
established by a multiplicity of great trading and 
financial interests which aim at bringing Mid- 
continent oil by pipe line to the port 

When I was in Texas in 1902 the Guffey refinery 
was just starting to work an organisation which was 
easily ahead of anything then in existence in these 
parts. Its progress, now that it is worked by the 
Gulf Refining Company, is one of the most remarkable 
facts in the history of Texas oil. Thousands of 
companies were formed in the days of the boom ; 
how very few of them became established concerns is 
well known ; but what is now known all over the 
world as the Gulf Company has prospered — not only 
in the refining branch, but in every branch of the 
industry: producing, refining and transport. It is 
the largest shipper of Texas crude oil and its 
products, and the refinery at Port Arthur is the 
largest independent oil refinery in the country. 

The company is interested in most of the chief 
fields of America ; it has shipping facilities at all of 
the chief oil ports and branch offices in every 
importing country, not the least important of these 
latter being at Paris, where Mr. H. E. Watson has 
his quarters as the European representative. 

The company has just contracted with the New 
York Shipbuilding Company for the construction of 
the largest tank steamer ever built in the United 
States.* The Gulf Pipe Line Company, which has 
the most complete pipe line systems in Texas, is 
constructing five hundred miles of 8-in. pipe line, 
which will connect the Indian Territory oil fields 
with the Port Arthur refinery, and the increased 
business which will follow the completion of this line 
necessitates the addition of this steamer to the 
present considerable fleet, already the second largest 
in the business. This will be the ninth oil-carrying 
vessel built by the New York Shipbuilding Company, 
more than has been turned out by any other 
American shipyard. (I refer to some of their 
steamers elsewhere.) The principal dimensions of the 
new steamer, designed by Messrs. Matteson & Drake, 
of Philadelphia, are as follows: — Length all over, 
441 ft; length between perpendiculars, 425 ft.; 

* The Oklahoma. 



beam, moulded, 55 ft ; depth, moulded to spar deck, 
30 ft ; mean draught, 23 ft 6 in. 

The cargo capacity is 2,520,000 gallons, and besides 
this the dead weight on the above draught includes 
fuel oil, feed water, drinking water, stores and water 
in cofferdams. In size this steamer ranks among the 
largest in the oil-carrying trade of the world, and is 
about 1,800 tons larger than the next largest 
American-built oil steamer. 

The engines are aft. She is of the spar deck type, 
with open forecastle, bridge, and a raised quarter- 
deck aft Two decks run fore and aft, except in way 
of engine space. Oil is carried in sixteen tanks, 
formed by nine transverse bulkheads, and a centre 
line longitudinal bulkhead. Aft of these is the pump 
room, which occupies the centre of the ship on an 
oil-tight flat 12 ft above the keel On either side 
and below this room are the two fuel oil tanks. 

An expansion trunk, 10 ft. wide, extending 
between the main and spar decks, is fitted each side 
of the central line bulkhead and for the full length of 
the cargo and fuel oil spaces. The sides are extended 
down to the flat in the fuel oil space and enclose the 
pump room. 

The main deck spaces abreast the expansion trunk 
are divided into four compartments. The forward 
compartment on each side is for package freight, and 
the other six are summer oil tanks — to be used when 
a cargo of light oil is carried, or in summer when a less 
freeboard is allowed. Each of the main oil holds and 
wing compartments — twenty-four in all — is fitted with 
a hatch 6 ft 6 in. by 6 ft, having a steel oil-tight cover. 

Aft of the fuel oil tanks and pump room and 
separated by a cofferdam, which extends the full 
width and depth of the ship, is the machinery space. 
Coal bunkers are provided abreast the boiler-room, 
and are filled through a hatch 20 ft by 4 ft. in the 
raised quarter or poop deck, and a hatch and saddle 
back 20 ft. by 8 ft. 8 in. in the main deck. In the 
engine room a gallery deck has been built, on which 
is located much of the auxiliary machinery. 

A double bottom is fitted under the boiler room for 
carrying feedwater, and under the forward part of the 
engine room for water ballast. Between the oil holds 
and the fore peak tank, ordinary freight is carried in 
the hold and 'tween-decks, fitted as usual with 
battens and ceiling. Access is made by means of 
hatches 19 ft. 6 in. by 16 ft in each deck. The peak 
tanks extend to the main deck; over the forward 
peak is a store-room, in the after end of which is the 
steel chain locker. 



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The bridge erection is enclosed by steel bulkheads 
at each end. A large store-room is located in the 
centre, extending the full length. 

The scantlings and general construction of the 
steel hull are as required by the rules of the Bureau 
Veritas. The forward part of the vessel is specially 
strengthened to enable her to proceed safely through 
the thick ice that so frequently blocks the northern 
rivers and harbours in winter. Simplicity of con- 
struction and as few parts as possible have been the 
aim of the designers. Light and well-ventilated 
quarters are provided for the officers and crew. This 
is a matter that cannot be overlooked in designing an 
oil steamer. 

Side lights are all of brass; those through the 



insulated chambers is connected with ice pans of 
sufficient capacity to make two hundred pounds of 
ice a day. 

The miscellaneous fittings of the steamer embrace 
everything that can facilitate safe and efficient 
handling of the ship or cargo. Access to all parts is 
by means of metal ladders, those in the oil holds 
being made of ordinary angle bar stringers and bar 
rungs. 

The deck outfit, which conforms to the require- 
ments of the United States Steamboat Inspection 
Laws, includes the necessary number of fire buckets, 
extinguishers, axes, life preservers, and lifebuoys. 
There are three 20-ft metallic life-boats, and a 20-ft. 
wooden launch propelled by a 6 h.-p. gasoline engine. 




3* 






•sr^r 




The above are inboard profile and deck plans of the bulk oil-carrying steamer which the New 
York Shipbuilding Company are building for the Gulf Refining Company. Description in text. 



The steamers of this company have been specially built to carry oil between the Gulf of 
Mexico and Bayonne and other ports on the north-east coast. It is known that further additions 
to the fleet will be necessary shortly as the company are increasing the deliveries of crude and 
the output of the huge refineries at Port Arthur. 



hull sides are 12 in. in diameter in the clear, and are 
fitted with deadlights ; those in the steel houses are 
16 in. in diameter, but without deadlights. Deck 
lights are fitted in poop deck over all rooms below. 
All lights and outside doors are provided with brass 
wire screens, and as a further aid to ventilation the 
lights are provided with air scoops. 

As a large proportion of the stores for the round 
trip are taken on at Philadelphia or New York, the 
refrigerating plant is necessarily large. There are 
three cold storage rooms — two on the main deck and 
one in the poop deck house. Each of these is 
insulated by mineral wool, enclosed air spaces, and 
the usual wooden wall. A 2-ton " Allen " dense air 
ice machine is installed on the gallery deck in the 
engine room ; and besides being connected with the 



Hand deck pumps, in number and size as required 
are provided. Two very important means of com- 
munication are the De Forest Wireless Telegraph 
outfit and the submarine signal system, as manu- 
factured by the Submarine Signal Company, of 
Boston. 

The fire system consists of a 3-in. main with 
connections about 75 ft. apart for 2$ in. hose. 
At each plug is located a rack, with 50 ft. of 
hose. Water from the sea is supplied by the 
following pumps : forward bilge pump, donkey pump 
(12 in. by 6} in. by 12 in.), and the auxiliary feed 
pump. The donkey pump has suction from all 
compartments in the after end of the ship, as well as 
the sea, and thus handles all water ballast. An inde- 
pendent bilge and ballast system is provided forward. 



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A steering station is located on the aft house, as 
well as in the pilot house. From each of these 
places a telemotor connects with the steering engines 
located in the after end of the poop. There are two 
vertical engines arranged so that either may be 
readily thrown into gear. The rudder stock extends 
above the poop deck, and is provided with a spare 
tiller, to be used in case both steam engines are 
disabled. 

The deck machinery includes four mooring engines 
with double cylinders, 8 in. by 8 in., and fitted with 
drums for handling I J in. wire rope ; one deck winch 
with double cylinders, 8 in. by 8 in., provided with 
hoisting drum and two gypsies ; a capstan on the 
poop deck, driven by an 8 in. by 8 in. double cylinder 
engine on the main deck ; and a windlass for a 2^ in. 
chain. The windlass engine, located on the spar 
deck, is of the double reversible, vertical type, with 
cylinder 12 in. by 12 in. ; this engine drives, through 
vertical worm shafts and bevel gearing, the windlass 
and drums of sufficient size and strength for handling 
ij in. wire rope mooring lines. One gypsy lead is 
connected with each drum. 

A towing machine of extra heavy construction is on 
the poop deck aft of the house, and protected by a 
continuation of the house top aft The two cylinders 
are 18 in. by 20 in., and are provided with reversing 
valve and automatic gear, capable of paying out eight 
fathoms of the hawser while opening the valve to its 
full extent The drum of the machine is capable of 
stowing 3,200 ft. of 2j in. wire hawser. An efficient 
foundation is provided between the poop and the 
main deck. 

The cargo oil system is of the latest type, including 
every means available for the quick and safe handling 
of the cargo. The four pumps are of the Snow Steam 
Pump Company's duplex type, two being 16 in. by 
14 in. by 12 in., and two 8 in. by 6 in. by 12 in. 
There is a 12 in. main suction line on each side of the 
centre line bulkhead, with a 10 in. suction in the 
after end of each tank, and a 6 in. suction in the 
forward end. Gate valves are placed close to each 
suction. At each bulkhead the pipe line is provided 
with a cast iron expansion toe and a division valve. 
All valves are operated from the spar deck through 
stems fitted with universal joints and guided in brass 
or lignum vitae bushings. The piping is so connected 
up in the pump room that either main pump can 
pump from or discharge into any tank, or overboard. 
One auxiliary pump is connected with No. 8 tank on 
each side with a 5 in. suction main, and the other 



auxiliary pump is connected with No. 7 tank in a like 
manner. The forward ends of the main suction lines 
are connected above deck with a discharge opening 
and valve for loading, and the discharge from the oil 
pumps is led to a manifold on deck, with connections 
for either discharging or loading. For ventilating and 
drying the oil compartments, a 10 in. by 12 J in. by 
12 in. air compressor is provided in the pump room, 
and connected with the main cargo pipes. The oil 
pumps are also provided with a suction from the sea, 
and discharge into main condenser. Fire extinguishers 
are fitted to all oil tanks and fuel tanks, and are 
controlled by valves in the fidley hatch. 

Electric lighting is used throughout the ship. Two 
10 kilowatt general electric generators are located on 
the gallery deck in the engine room, and are direct- 
driven by "Curtis" turbines. All wiring, except in the 
living quarters, is run in iron conduits. An 18 in. 
search light projector is located on top of the pilot 
house. 

The main engine is of the vertical inverted triple 
expansion type, having cylinders 28 in., 46 in. and 
76 in. in diameter and a 54 in. stroke, developing 
power at 75 revolutions per minute. AH valves are of 
the piston type, one for the high pressure cylinder and 
two for each of the others, and are operated by 
"Stephenson" links. The "Lovekin" assistant cylinder, 
type "A," is fitted to all valves, and by its use a 
considerable reduction is allowed in the size of the 
reciprocating part of this gear. The main engine is 
automatically controlled by an " Aspinall " governor. 
Receiver pipes and main exhaust pipes are of copper 
with steel flanges. The customary by-passes for 
admitting live steam to the intermediate and low 
pressure receivers are provided, the valves being 
operated from the working platform. A single 
cylinder steam reversing gear of the " all round " type 
and a hand reversing gear are fitted — either being 
thrown out of gear when the other is used. Relief 
valves are provided for each receiver and the top and 
bottom of each cylinder. Complete oiling and water 
cooling arrangements are installed. 

Mounted on a suitable structural foundation is the 
main condenser (cylindrical steel plate type), with 
cast iron bonnets and tinned brass tubes. A vacuum 
of 27 in. can be maintained with circulating water at 
86° F. A centrifugal pump with 14 in. suction, 
and driven by either one of two single engines, 8 in. 
by 8 in., will circulate sea water through the 
condenser. A twin vertical single air pump, having 
steam cylinders 11 in. by 18 in., and air cylinders 



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22 in., is provided. The other principal auxiliaries 
are a " Weir " long stroke feed pump, auxiliary feed 
pump, a "Wheeler" auxiliary condenser with combined 
air and circulating pump, evaporator (thirty tons 
capacity in twenty-four hours), feed water heater, 
and " Mandigo " feed and filter tank. 

Main steam pipes are of lap welded wrought 
iron ; auxiliary steam lines and lines to all deck 
machinery are of copper with composition flanges. 
Stop valves are fitted at the boilers and expansion 
joints, traps and "Foster" reducing valves where 
necessary. The exhaust piping is of copper, with 
composition flanges. Leads from auxiliary and deck 
machinery pass to the auxiliary condenser and to the 
escape pipe on the stack. 

The shafting is of the best open hearth forged steel, 
the tail shaft being i6f in. in diameter, and the thrust 
and crank shafts 15J in. The crank shaft is in three 
interchangeable parts. A cast iron stern tube with 
lignum vitae bearings is provided. The propeller is 
of the built-up type, having a cast iron hub and four 
" Parsons " manganese bronze blades. 

Steam is generated by three single-ended Scotch 
boilers, designed for a working pressure of 185 lbs. 
per square inch. Each boiler has four 41 in. inside 
diameter " Morison " corrugated furnaces, flanged 
to independent combustion chambers. The total 
heating surface is 9,900 sq. ft., and the total grate 
surface 235 sq. ft. The ratio is 42*1 to 1. A 
forced draught system of the hot air type is 
installed. 

Oil fuel (the "Lassoe-Lovekin" system) is to be used 
at the furnaces. At each furnace there is one oil 
burner, supplied from the settling tanks. Heated air 
from the forced draught system is delivered to the oil 
burners under low pressure by two rotary blowers, and 
vaporises the fuel. For starting the oil fuel system 
a 10 h.-p. coal-burning boiler is installed. 

Double uptakes and stack are fitted. Boilers, 
engines, and all steam pipes are properly lagged with 
85 per cent magnesia covering, secured by sheet iron 
or other efficient method. 

The list of spare parts for the machinery not only 
includes those required by the Bureau Veritas for a 
long voyage, but also a section of crank shaft, tail 
shaft, complete propeller, and, in fact, everything 
sufficient to make a complete disablement of the 
machinery almost impossible. The machine shop is 
provided with a 6-ft. turret lathe, a radial drill, 
benches and vices, and all of the machine tools are 
driven by electric motors. 



This year the Gulf Company has inaugurated a 
number of new projects for the development of the 
business, and as larger quantities of oil are expected 
to reach Port Arthur it has been found necessary to 
increase the pipe line facilities and the number of oil 
carriers employed on the coast. 

The Texas Company, started in 1901 as the Texas 
Fuel Company, is one of the most conspicuous 
successes in Texas and Louisiana. Brought into 
existence at the time when the most famous wells at 
Spindle Top were being drilled, its organisation was 
cleverly and carefully controlled by Mr. J. S. 
Cullinan, president, and Mr. Arnold Schlaet, vice- 
president In this respect it differed greatly from 
the vast majority of the companies floated at that 
time of intense excitement The fact that it has 
always remained financially sound, steadily grown in 
reputation, and gradually developed into a company 
of practically world-wide influence is directly due to 
the excellent business methods adopted at the start 
by its experienced founders. 

When the Beaumont office was opened Mr. Cullinan 
and Mr. Schlaet decided that a New York branch 
was necessary, and from that time up to the present 
Mr. Schlaet has had charge of the business at 17, 
Battery Place, Whitehall Buildings, New York, where 
the European business has been developed. 

The directors have taken a prominent part in 
all movements calculated to improve the status of the 
industry, abolish company and oil field abuses, and 
secure the passing of legislation for the protection 
of investments. At one time (1904) they publicly 
protested against reckless stock speculation and 
investments which made it difficult to secure the 
capital necessary to handle business on a legitimate 
or conservative basis. Mr. Cullinan told the 
Government " that it was doubtful, unless they had 
the assurance that investments would be safely 
guarded by reasonable legislation, if capital could be 
secured for further investment in pipe lines, refineries 
or oil transportation facilities in Texas." The lines 
on which this company has always been worked are 
indicated in the following statement, made by Mr. 
Cullinan : — 

" It is our firm conviction that the needs of the 
oil business of Texas will not be fully met until 
legislation is secured that will permit of, in some 
manner, concentrating the facilities, energy and 
capital now engaged in senseless competition in 
trying to dispose of this product at tide-water, where 
the bulk of the production is now sold, into compact 



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( 135 ) 



organisations with the necessary facilities and capital 
to husband the supplies and develop markets where 
the product can be disposed of at something like its 
real value. ... I wish to call attention to the rapid 
change in conditions that has taken place in the past 
few years in the extensive development of oil in 
Louisiana, Indian Territory, Oklahoma and Kansas, 
all of which is now, to some extent, in competition 
with us for the surrounding trade. To meet these 
conditions, concentration of capital, facilities and 
experience will become necessary, and new capital 
and facilities must be added, new markets opened up, 
and the business developed on broader lines, if the 
State and thosfe who are interested, producers or 
manufacturers, are to receive anything like reasonable 
prices for this product Considering the short period 
in which this industry has developed, it is not 
surprising that the existing laws are found to be 
inadequate. We are asking for what, in our judgment, 
is necessary, if the business is to be developed and 
extended." 

There is no doubt that the improved conditions 
under which the industry is being developed to-day 
are largely due to the pioneering work accomplished 
by Mr. Cullinan and his colleagues. 

There is no branch of the business that has not been 
taken up by this company, which produces, refines 
and transports by rail, pipe line, barge and tank 
steamer; it has always paid dividends, and has a 
capital of £2400,000 authorised, £2,000,000 paid up, 
£400,000 in the treasury, and a considerable reserve 
to enable it to carry out an elaborate programme in 
its different spheres of activity. 

One of the company's trunk lines is from Sour 
Lake and Humble to Port Arthur; another is laid 
from Indian Territory via Dallas to the same shipping 
port, a distance of 650 miles ; while a third is from 
Jennings to Lake Charles, approximately 100 miles. 
In addition to these trunk lines there are numerous 
gathering lines in the various fields and supplementary 
lines connecting the Port Neches refinery with the 
Port Arthur refinery. 

The remarkable developments in Indian Territory 
have led the company to embark on another refinery 
undertaking which will deal chiefly with the high- 
grade oils of the Mid-continent fields. 

Nothing shows the great confidence which this 
company has in the future of the producing territories 
and the expansion of the world's markets so much as 
the arrangements it is making to turn out special 
grades of oil suitable for different countries. It is 



arranging to put a line of lubricants on the market, 
and its experts are at work extending the new plant 
for the production of something absolutely special in 
the way of asphalts. 

The company is also increasing the number of its 
oil-carrying vessels. At present the fleet consists of 
the Florida, North Eastern, North Western and North- 
town, with a number of steel barges engaged in the 
Atlantic coast trade. It has stations at most of the 
chief distributing centres, the most important being 
at Philadelphia, Baltimore, Delaware and different 
ports in the south. 



Oil ports have been brought into existence by the 
opening up of extensive producing territories and the 
arrival of many new tank steamers on the coast of 
California and Peru. Several years ago, before oil 
was discovered in the Santa Maria Valley, and the 
business of Port Harford was less than one-fourth its 
present volume, a breakwater was started by the 
Government, but for some unknown reason the work 
was suddenly dropped. The port (really the northern 
part of the San Luis Bay) is one of the few deep 
harbours south of San Francisco, which, in ordinary 
weather, is safe, but in stormy weather needs the 
protection of a breakwater. 

It is felt that the marvellous expansion of the oil 
business makes it necessary there should be an exten- 
sion of the wharf which the Government failed to 
complete. Much interest has been taken in the 
announcement that the county of San Luis is about 
to construct another wharf for the accommodation of 
oil vessels on the Union Oil Company's shore line at 
Ovila. The Standard Oil Company and the Union 
Oil Company have pipe lines from the Santa Maria 
fields to this port, where their barges and steamers 
load oil. 

There is an important island trade in the Pacific 
Steamers and sailers trade regularly between oil- 
shipping ports and the Hawaiian Islands, a steamer 
being able to make sixteen round trips a year. Some 
tank steamers tow large oil-laden barges from the 
coast to these islands. For several years the Union 
steamer Whittier has traded to the islands with the 
four-masted oil-carrying barque Fullerton in tow. 
The Whittier (474,000 gallons) and the Fullerton 
(672,000 gallons) carry 1,146,000 gallons in a single 
trip. The Whittier, one of the smallest steamers on 
the coast, has a length of 250 ft and a beam of 
31 ft 6 in. She has ten tanks, and, as she only draws 



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( 136) 



16 ft., can enter coast and island ports where some of 
the largest oil carriers cannot go. 

At Kibei, in the Hawaiian Islands, the water is too 
shallow to allow a vessel drawing as much water as the 
Fullerton to approach the wharf, and when she started 
to run in this trade she had to discharge into lighters. 
After she had made several trips a linen hose (8 in. 
in diameter and covered with waterproof material) 
was taken from the vessel to the wharf, buoyed up 
in the water by floats, which kept it from touching 
the bottom, but allowed it to be sufficiently sub- 
merged to be undisturbed by the action of the waves. 

In this way she was able to lie afloat in the bay.* 

* * * * * 

The two chief oil (importing) ports for the Chinese 
and Japanese markets are Hong Kong and Shanghai. 
Hong Kong supplies all the Chinese towns and 
provinces south of 25 degs. lat. N. and the Philippine 
and Formosa Islands. Kerosene is delivered in bulk 
as well as in tins — in bulk and in cases from Russia, 
Borneo and Sumatra, and almost entirely in cases 
from America.t It is a most difficult matter to 
discover exactly how much oil has been imported 
from the different countries, Hong Kong being a free 
port in which there are no import duties. For this 
reason there are no reliable statistics of a kind obtain- 
able from the British Custom House authorities in 
India, but according to information obtained from 
leading kerosene dealers at Hong Kong — Foo-u, Fat- 
kee, Ian-Cheong and Hoong-Siong — the imports of 
oil in bulk for a single year amount to some 60,700 
tons from Langkat and Sumatra and 2,350,000 cases 
from America and Langkat, the Americans importing 
as much as 2,200,000 cases. The imports of Russian 
case oil have gone steadily down from 400,000 cases 

* Mr. John D. Wardrop, eight years ago, in the 
Thames (European Petroleum Company's wharf), and 
others in different parts of the world, proved that a 
ship can be loaded or unloaded with a hose of this 
description at any point where landing is difficult, 
and it is also an easy matter for one ship to discharge 
oil into another at sea, this plan being frequently 
adopted by the Petroleum when she pumps fuel oil 
into the bunkers of battleships. 

t A case consists of two tins containing 10 
American gallons of kerosene, weighing about 65 lbs. 
To attract buyers the importers of bulk kerosene are 
said to fill up 68 lbs. of kerosene in tins of local 
manufacture. In the retail trade the oil is sold in a 
single case, a single tin, and even in wine bottles. 
The Chinese prefer to buy their kerosene in tins 
bearing Chinese labels. In Southern China the so- 
called low screw tin is preferred. 



in 1899, and in 1901 70,000 cases, to absolutely no 
imports in the last year of which there is a record. 

The chief and practically the sole importers of 
kerosene into Hong Kong for distribution through 
Southern China are the Standard Oil Company, the 
Shell Transport and Trading Company, the Royal 
Dutch Company, and the Langkat Company. Among 
the agents of the chief importing companies is the 
old-established English firm, Messrs. Arnhold, Karberg 
& Co., who have offices at all the treaty ports in 
China. The agents of the Royal Dutch Company are 
Messrs. Meyer & Co., Germans, who act for the Royal 
Dutch in the whole of China. The representative 
of the Langkat Company is Mr. George McBain.* 
At Hong Kong, just as everywhere else, the Standard 
Oil Company has its own offices and agents. 

The larger part of the business in kerosene imported 
into Hong Kong for sale in the interior markets of 
China is carried on by native dealers, of whom the most 
important are the Chinese merchants. Most of the 
case oil sent into the country is sold at Hong Kong. 

Besides tankage at Hong Kong the kerosene- 
importing firms have reservoirs in the coastal towns 
of China, to which the kerosene is delivered in bulk, 
either in small tankers from the Hong Kong tanks or 
direct from Borneo, Sumatra, and chiefly from Singa- 
pore. From the coastal markets it is impossible to 
send the kerosene inland in bulk owing to the absence 
of railways and the difficulties of transport by road. 
The storage installations have case works attached, 
and the " tin boxes " turned out at these places are of 
the same dimensions and appearance as those manu- 
factured in America and at Batoum. 

Mr. Meraboff mentions that, although the distance 
from Batoum to Hong Kong is only about half of 
what it is from New York, the freights differ to the 
extent of j\d. to \\\d. per case from New York to 
gd. to is. 3d. from Batoum. 

Shanghai, the chief treaty port from which the 
greater part of the imports find their way to the 
remotest trading centres and coastal towns of China, 
is sometimes called " the London of the Far East." 
On account of its excellent geographical situation it 
has direct steamship connection, and carries on an 
extensive trade in manufactured goods and raw 
materials with almost every part of the world. It is 
on the river Wan-Poo, ninety miles from the sea. Its 
oil trade is one of great importance. In spite of 

* The formation of the Bataafsche Petroleum 
Maatschappij and Anglo-Saxon companies will lead to 
changes in some of the chief agencies in the Far East, 



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( '37) 



obstructive tactics, some wilfully conceived, the 
consumption of kerosene is steadily increasing. 
Opponents of the inland trade, particularly those 
interested in the vegetable illuminating oil obtained 
from home-grown pea-nuts and beans, circulate 
numerous notices and placards in Chinese in which 
they attempt to stir up the uncivilised masses against 
the use of kerosene, which they describe as " a pro- 
duct of human bones." 

The bulk of the case oil is supplied to Shanghai 
by those countries which do business with the Hong 
Kong markets ; it comes from America, Russia and 
Sumatra, a small quantity from Japan, and the bulk 
oil exclusively from Russia, Borneo and Sumatra. 

The first deliveries of kerosene were entirely in 
cases from America. Russian case oil appeared in 
Shanghai during the second half of the eighties. 
The first appearance of Russian bulk oil from Batoum 
was in 1894. Sumatra oil made its first appearance 
two years later, when it was imported in cases, and in 
the following year it was delivered in bulk. 

Transport is exclusively by the water-ways and 
steamers and sailing vessels, and while there are no 
special tankers or sailing vessels fitted to carry oil in 
bulk there are steamers and junks available for trans- 
porting case oil. On the coast of China hundreds of 
unsuitable vessels are employed to carry different 
kinds of petroleum spirit in cans. Some are old 
wooden sailers, while others are highly unsuitable 
tramp steamers. In some sailers the bulkheads are 
of wood, and when there is a leakage from the tins, 
sometimes as high as 8 per cent, no one need wonder 
that accidents occur. The Indian regulations apply- 
ing to small local traders are not satisfactory. Owing 
to several accidents having occurred, one being on the 
steamer Netkerton, practical men are advocating that 
vessels should not be allowed to run in this trade un- 
less they have (1) a cofferdam between the hold and 
the stokehold, (2) a cofferdam or properly constructed 
oil-tight bulkhead between the forehold and chain 
locker or forecastle ; (3) fine mesh wire screens on all 
ventilators; and (4) no electric wires leading to the 
hold. For the reputation of the industry, and also 
for the safety of those who work on these oil-canying 



tubs, there ought to be no neglect of this subject in 
the chief oil ports of China and the Far East 
generally. This explains why the greater part of the 
oil reaching China in bulk vid Hong Kong and 
Shanghai is re-shipped from these ports to the inland 
and coastal towns in locally manufactured tins. 
Kerosene in bulk is only consumed in small quanti- 
ties at the ports where it is delivered direct from 
abroad ; these are Hong Kong, Amoy, Swataw, and 
Hankow. The Shell Company and the Royal Dutch 
Company import bulk oil from Russia, while the 
Shell Company accounts for all the Borneo oil, and 
the Royal Dutch Company for all the Sumatra oil. 
Langkat oil from Sumatra is exclusively imported by 
the Langkat Company, while American oil is exclu- 
sively imported by the Standard. 

The area at the disposal of foreigners at Shanghai 
is very limited, and for this reason the cost of land 
and leases is very high. The cost increased after the 
China-Japanese war, when, according to the Shimono- 
sekki Treaty, foreign subjects, allowed to import duty 
free all kinds of machinery, started to erect at 
Shanghai cotton mills, silk mills, match works, and 
factories. The kerosene stores are built of stone, 
covered with corrugated iron roofing on wooden 
supports, hold from 50,000 to 200,000 cases each, and 
have a total capacity of 2,000,000 cases. The cost of 
a stone warehouse (corrugated iron roof and capable 
of accommodating 200,000 cases) is about £1,200. 
Stores constructed entirely of iron frames covered 
with corrugated iron, are obtained from England, and 
cost (including transport, freight and duty) about 
£800 in the case of a store capable of holding 50,000 
to 60,000 cases. 

Kerosene arriving at Shanghai is not subjected to 
a flash point test by the Customs, who only determine 
the specific gravity to find the number of gallons on 
which duty must be paid. The oil merchants of 
Shanghai have a very slight idea of what is meant by 
flash point, and even the Imperial Chinese Maritime 
Customs have been known to officially declare " that 
they do not know what is meant by flash point, and 
that they must not be asked to go beyond the deter- 
mination of the specific gravity." 




O.T. 



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( I3« ) 



♦*♦*♦*♦*♦*♦*♦*♦*♦*♦*♦*♦«♦*♦«♦«♦«♦«♦«♦*♦*♦ 




*" 



MOST perfectly organised and successful oil company 
is the well-known Steana Romana, which has 
never lost its position as premier company in 
every branch of the Roumanian industry. It pioneered 
the export trade by erecting tanks at Giurgiu, where oil is 
loaded in barges for transportation to Regensburg, the centre 
of distribution for the markets of Southern Germany and 
Switzerland. The company has huge tank installations at 
Constanza, where it ships oil in tank steamers running to 
ports in the Mediterranean, Norway and England. There 
are very few companies, and there are certainly none in 
Roumania, which can claim such a remarkable record for 
enterprise and success as the Steaua Romana. 



+ 

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* ************** ****** ****** *** + *** + * + #4»4c<f 
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5 



Types of Texas Tank 
Steamers, 




THE 
kiv 



steamers shown below are well 
known in the oil trade. . 
They run between the Gulf of Mexico 
and the refinery ports on the north-east 
coast of America. 



? 




The City of Everett, a whale-back, built on the peculiar lines shown in the photograph, was one of the first tank steamers placed 
in the Port Arthur oil trade. Her destruction by fire in 1903 was one of the most sensational occurrences in the history of 
the Beaumont oil industry; the flames enveloped her from stem to stern, and when they died out she was completely Rutted. 
Her owners, the Standard Oil Company, had her refitted and put back into the trade. This photograph was taken by 
Mr. Trost a few days after her return to Port Arthur. 




The Larimer, one of the large fleet of oil-carrying vessels owned by the Gulf Refining Company, is 360 ft. in length, 46 ft. in 
breadth, and 24 ft. 4 in. deep, with a deadweight carrying capacity of 1,580,000 gallons. She burns oil, and steams from 
10 to 12 knots an hour. The cargo space is sub-divided into eight compartments (one for fuel), while there is a further sub- 
division by an oil-tight centre line bulkhead extending to the top of the expansion trunk between the main and spar decks. 




The Standard Steamer, Captain A. F. Lucas, built by Messrs. \V. K. Trigg & Co., Richmond, Va., U.S.A., in 1904. 



[ To face /. tjS. 



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Q^HAPTBR XV. 



OH Porta in the miking. Chiefly 
about Nigeria and Trinidad. 




|HIS country has some oil ports in the 
making, and these are too important to be 
overlooked. It is becoming more obvious 
every day that the most active and widest 
possible expansion of the oil fields of the Empire is 
a need of the times, both ashore and afloat. In less 
attractive covers I have frequently pointed out that 
the early development of our Colonial oil sources is 
a matter of Imperial importance, and one which 
demands the most serious attention of those depart- 
ments of the Indian and Colonial Offices concerned 
in the development of our Imperial mineral resources. 
New oil fields create new towns and shipping ports. 

Some trade experts say it is possible to have an 
over-production of oil. This is a harmful and foolish 
mistake. There can only be over-production tem- 
porarily, and, only then, locally, but never in relation 
to the constantly growing needs of the world. The 
field is an unlimited one, and if all the oil produced 
were converted into fuel it would only come up to 
5 per cent, of the world's output of hard fuels. 

Professor Zaloziecki recently contended, in a com- 
munication I received from him, that over-production 
is not an evil, but merely " a passing incident in the life 
of the industry," something that can be improved by 
the energetic extension of the use of the endless 
variety of products obtainable from crude. "What 
we want," he wrote, " is an extension of the present 
fields of consumption." Petroleum is a liquid coal, 
and as such its use should be unlimited and the 
extension of its consumption purely an artificial 
business. 

Now that oil as a fuel has been permanently adopted 
by the Admiralty on all kinds of warships, there are 
commercial and national reasons why no time should 
be lost in developing the oil resources of the Empire. 
Important officials at the Admiralty are known to 
favour the development of a Colonial oil industry, 
and it may be taken for granted that, so ar as the 



Government are concerned, everything possible will 
be done to assist legitimate and properly financed 
enterprises to produce liquid fuel for the use of the 
Empire. No one need be surprised if in a few years 
a fleet of oil-carrying steamers on the lines of the 
Petroleum and Kharki are built, or if we witness the 
erection of a complete ring of Colonial oil storage 
installations. So great is the progress made with 
liquid fuel that we may expect to see in the next 
great naval war, not only many vessels burning oil, 
but every fighting fleet accompanied by fast-steaming 
oil-carriers. 

A powerful argument employed to enlist the 
practical sympathy of the Colonial Office is that it 
will be to the advantage of the Empire if it is able to 
rely on a Colonial oil supply, and it is obvious that 
British oil-burning warships on Colonial stations will 
lose nothing in efficiency and reliability if the 
Admiralty can reckon on adequate supplies from 
either English or Colonial companies. 

Many foreign fields, particularly those of Russia 
and Galicia, and even Roumania, are not attempting 
to supply liquid fuel for the British Navy. Borneo, 
California and Texas contribute the largest quantities 
to the maritime needs of the world ; these supplies, 
in no way equal to the demand, can be best and most 
safely augmented by a Colonial output 

The oil resources of the Empire, if we omit those 
of India and Canada, are practically undeveloped, 
but there is a growing expert opinion that the 
Colonial yield of oil will be very considerable in a 
few years' time. The British island possessions, 
which constitute the oil-bearing part of the Empire, 
include the much-troubled and ancient colony of 
Newfoundland, the sister islands of Trinidad and 
Barbadoes, and Australia and New Zealand, while we 
know something of the efforts which are being made 
to develop oil lands in South Africa, the Gold 
Coast, Nigeria and other parts of our possessions. 



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( 140 ) 



In the oil fields of Burmah, British enterprise, led 
by the successful Burmah Oil Company, has com- 
pletely modernised the primitive methods of the time 
of Theebaw and created a great and vigorous industry 
with all the necessary facilities, pipe lines and tank 
steamers for the transportation of a vast production 
of petroleum. In Assam British enterprise has laid 
the foundation of a promising business on lines similar 
to those which have worked so well in Burmah. 

In Canada we find some of the world's best pro- 
ducing fields, and the wells, if they are not great 
producers, cost little and yield for years. There are 
oil fields near tide-water, and in a few years there 
ought to be some oil ports in New Brunswick. 

Holding these opinions, I am naturally anxious to 
devote at least one chapter to developments in several 
parts of the Empire where we have oil ports in the 
making. 



"By night we passed New Town. . . . After my 
departure from the coast it was inspected by Mr. 
Grant, who sent home specimens of bitumen taken 
from the wells." 

"Lastly, the humble petroleum . . . has been 
found in the British Protectorate about New Town." 

These two extracts are from " To the Gold Coast 
for Gold " — the joint work of Sir Richard Burton and 
Commander Cameron — issued in 1883, and constitute 
the first authenticated allusions to the presence of a 
possible oil field in West Africa, the deposits in 
question being situated on the Appolonia Coast in 
the Gold Coast Colony. 

In view of the enormous importance attaching to 
the development of sources of oil fuel under British 
control, it is an extraordinary circumstance that 
eighteen years were allowed to elapse before the 
slightest effort was made to turn these oil indications 
to account Even then, the efforts of those into whose 
hands the Appolonia oil area had passed were of such 
a half-hearted nature that they speedily fell into abey- 
ance, and with them went all hope for the time being 
of finding oil in commercial quantities in that part of 
the African continent 

Fortunately energetic influences were soon at work 
with the same object in view in another part of West 
Africa — Lagos and Southern Nigeria — and it is solely 
to these that the modern inception of the West 
African oil fields is due. 

Some years ago, Mr. Hawkins, while engaged in a 
survey for the erection of a new telegraph line for the 



Nigerian Government service, experienced consider- 
able difficulty in making and keeping intact the 
necessary holes for the encasement of the poles, some 
of these rapidly filling in before the poles could be 
placed in position. This was due to the plastic 
nature of the soil. He promptly secured samples of 
the soil, some of which were submitted by the Lagos 
Colonial Secretary to the Imperial Institute with 
satisfactory results, while others were brought by him 
under the notice of Mr. George Macdonald, who, 
fully realising the vast possibilities of the discovery, 
proceeded to follow it up with alacrity, his efforts 
being ably seconded by his colleague, Mr. Henry 
John Brown. 

The samples from the deposits were first of all 
treated entirely from an asphalt point of view, but in 
the subsequent investigations into their commercial 
value by Mr. R. H. Stanger, Mr. D. A. Sutherland 
and Sir Boverton Redwood, it was Mr. Macdonald 
who looked beyond the asphaltic aspect and was not 
satisfied until repeated experiments in the laboratory 
had clearly indicated oil, thereby prompting the 
inspiration that these deposits were not of purely 
asphaltic origin, but represented the possible overflow 
or leakage of petroleum from subterranean or other 
sources. 

Meanwhile the late Mr. Bernard A. Collins had 
been sent to make an exhaustive examination of 
the Nigerian areas. In all, he framed three reports, 
each succeeding one being more favourable 
than its predecessor, while his views were fully 
endorsed in a report by Mr. A. H. Harrison, another 
expert 

The deposits investigated by Mr. B. A. Collins 
occur about twenty-five miles from the shipping port 
of Lagos, within twelve miles of the Lagoon shore, 
and have been found interspersed over a wide area, 
the oil zone apparently approximating three hundred 
miles in length by fifteen miles in breadth, in the same 
latitude, viz., between 5 and 10 degrees North, as 
the Appolonia area, the Tano region, the great 
asphalt lake of Trinidad, and the bituminous terri- 
tories of Venezuela. 

Summarised concisely, the bituminous grit of the 
Nigerian deposits, where proved by bore holes, lies 
about 20 ft. below the surface, has an average thickness 
of ten ft., and is often prevalent in the semi-liquid tar 
state. 

As late as August, 1906, and just before his 
untimely death, Mr. Collins, while actively engaged 
in developing one of the areas located by him, stated 



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in his reports that he had struck an area, the richness 
of which from a bitumen point of view, far exceeded 
anything he had previously seen in the Colony, and 
that in travelling through the bush he had seen 
enough in all directions to warrant his stating that 
there were millions of tons of commercial bitumen to 
be obtained from one square mile, quite apart from 
the petroleum which he had no hesitation in saying 
would also be found there. 

In 1905 the oil indications were sufficiently 
promising to attract the attention of Mr J. S. 
Bergheim, now one of this oil field's staunchest 
supporters. To effectually clinch matters he sent out 
his own expert, Mr. Frank Drader, who not only 
confirmed Mr. Collins's reports, but came to the 
conclusion that the bitumen originated from an oil 
source somewhere in the immediate vicinity of the 
asphalt deposits. He then started boring with hand 
tools, and, from the indications, formed the opinion 
that he had located both the source of the oil and 
its lay. 

In order to turn the bitumen to account, a number 
of stills, capable of treating thirty-five tons per day, 
were sent out ; while, as to the oil, two of the finest 
drilling rig equipments obtainable were despatched to 
the property. 

In this connection I am aware that Sir Boverton 
Redwood is at one with all the pioneers of the 
movement in believing that the actual location of 
stores of petroleum is only a matter of time, provided 
that the sinking of wells is undertaken in an 
intelligent and judicious manner. 

Some exclusive information as to the nature of the 
Nigerian deposits should prove both interesting and 
instructive in a work of this kind. Authorities 
declare : — 

(a) They are apparently larger in extent than 
those of either Trinidad or Venezuela. (6) The 
bituminous contents of the deposits are greater than 
in the former and less than in the latter. (c) Their 
softening and flowing points are lower and their 
organic matter greater than in the case of the deposits 
of the two other countries, (d) Their inorganic 
matter is less than that in the Trinidad and much 
greater than in the Venezuela deposits ; and what is 
the most important difference of all (*), their 
proportion of sulphur is lower than in either of the 
other two. 

Experiments by some of the best chemists of the 
day showed that the crude Nigerian material consists 
of 35 per cent oil, 36 per cent, coke, 18 per cent. 



water, the remainder representing the loss; while 
results by distillation gave : — 

Per Specific Flash 
cent. Gravity. Point 

Burning oil 88 -841 18O F. 

Intermediate oil 13*5 '897 235° F. 

Lubricating oil 288 -938 350 F. 

The residue containing 6*6 per cent of bitumen, 
38*8 per cent of still coke, plus the loss on distillation. 

The experiments indicate that when the crude 
bitumen can be distilled in quantity in an apparatus 
specially devised for the purpose, improved products 
with crystallisable paraffin will be obtained. 

But quite apart from the bitumen aspect, Mr. 
Collins, in vindication of his belief in the existence of 
an extensive oil zone in Nigeria, reported geologically 
as follows : — 

"(a) The deposits of bitumen are due to the 
horizontal movement from the north of the mineral 
tar resulting from the natural distillation of petroleum. 

(b) The bitumen underlies all the hills in a stratum 
of sand and gravel, and where denudation has taken 
place, the outcrops of hard shale-like bitumen 
invariably cap the more plastic material below. 

(c) It is now a well-known fact that although 
petroleum may be found in all formations upward 
from the Silurian, the two in which it is worked on 
commercial lines are the Silurian (as in Pennsylvania) 
and the Tertiary (as in Russia, Java and South 
America), (d) Taking these facts into consideration, 
and basing a calculation upon the enormous body of 
bitumen existing to the south, which is nothing more 
than the residuum of the distillates (by chemical heat 
or otherwise), I have no hesitation in declaring that to 
the north an anticlinal formation will be found in 
which petroleum of high grade will be encountered. 
(e) I believe that the northern limit of the area will 
approach very closely the formation whence the 
petroleum came in the first instance, and that the 
deposit results from petroleum that has moved, after 
condensation, through a porous sandstone formation 
lying between the upper shales and the lower 
petroliferous rock." 

Let us now retrace our footsteps to the oil region 
in the neighbourhood of Appolonia in the Gold Coast 
Colony, and of that near the Tano River, on the 
French Ivory Coast. 

This is presumably a continuation of the oil zone 
that extends from Nigeria in the east to Liberia 
on the west. It was only in keeping with Mr. 
Macdonald's broad and go-ahead policy that as soon 



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as he had secured proof of the possible existence 
of this extensive oil zone, he should endeavour to 
obtain control of every promising oil property along 
the theoretical oil line. His efforts have been so 
successful that he has now obtained for his group, not 
only the two properties already mentioned, but a 
further area in the Gold Coast Colony, and, in addition, 
has secured the oil rights over a large territory 
now being developed in the important Portuguese 
West African Colony of Angola. 

While he has been the prime mover in this oil 
enterprise, it would have been quite impossible for 
him to have moved so rapidly and to such excellent 
purpose without the invaluable assistance of his 
colleague, Mr. Henry John Brown, and such experts 
as Sir Boverton Redwood, Mr. J. S. Bergheim and 
other oil enthusiasts. To-day, the oil zone is no 
longer in the tentative stage, but has practically 
crystallised into a hard fact. 

The Tano area is situated on the French Ivory 
Coast close to the Gold Coast boundary, and is twelve 
miles from the French port of Assinie. 

The geology of the country is a soft, dark-red 
sandstone, impregnated with oily matter and 
apparently overlaid with limestone, which for the 
most part is full of marine shells, the formation 
generally being somewhat similar to that of Baku on 
the Caspian Sea. Moreover, the lagoons in each case 
partly contain salt water and appear to have been 
formed in the same way. 

Such is the opinion of Mr. D. P. Brown, who has 
had considerable experience on the Baku oil fields, 
and who went out to report upon the Tano property. 
He located bituminous beds, sometimes of a liquid 
tar character, and usually containing roots and other 
decayed vegetable matter, at ten different points, 
covering a frontage of four miles on the Tano 
Lagoon shore. The beds, as exposed on the surface, 
vary in length from ioo ft. to 300 ft, and have an 
average thickness of about 2 ft. They cover a very 
large area, and in Mr. Brown's opinion represent 
the residue of outbursts of petroleum in ancient 
times. 

Although perfectly satisfied with Mr. Brown's 
report, in order to be on the safe side, Mr. Bergheim 
deputed another expert, Mr. Bukojemski, to make an 
independent report. In this he more than confirmed 
Mr. Brown's opinion, stating that the oil proposition 
was a good one, that the oil "shows" were conclusive, 
that the oil line was very broad, and that he had 
located the wells and made all the preliminary 



arrangements with a view to commence drilling 
without delay. 

Chemical analyses of the composition of the oil 
samples obtained from the bitumen by Mr. D. P. 
Brown, were duly made by Dr. J. Lewkowitsch, who 
in his report said : — 

" (a) These oils throughout offer no difficulty in dis- 
tilling and are readily refined, (b) No sulphuretted 
hydrogen was noticed throughout all the distilling 
and refining operations, so that the oils may be con- 
sidered as practically free from sulphur products. 

(c) There is practically no paraffin scale present 
The most remarkable characteristic of the crude 
oil is that it yields lubricating oils of exceedingly 
high specific gravity, such as are not met with in 
the market. These oils should find a ready market 

(d) The absence of petroleum ethers of very low 
specific gravity in conjunction with the absence of 
sulphur would, in my opinion, point to the conclusion 
that the bitumen from which the crude oils have been 
obtained is not of an asphaltic nature, but is the 
remnant of a natural crude petroleum which has 
permeated the sands, whilst the lowest boiling 'spirits' 
have evaporated off by a natural process." 

Sir Boverton Redwood, after making some satis- 
factory investigations, said : — 

"It is evident that saleable commercial products 
could be manufactured from the raw material, but I 
agree with Mr. Brown in regarding the deposits of 
bitumen as of value mainly in regard to the evidence 
they afford of the existence of petroleum in the 
district." 

The Appolonia area is quite close to that of Tano, 
about sixty miles from the Tarkwa banket mines, and 
has much in common with it The report of Mr. 
Brown leaves no doubt as to the value of the area. 
His examination extended over a wide range of 
country, and upon this he found numerous pools 
of liquid tar, connected and joined together by bodies 
of solid bitumen, the whole forming a very large 
bituminous deposit, sometimes smelling very strongly 
of gas. 

Mr. Bukojemski confirmed this. " Formation 
favourable, no sand rock, but clay very promising ; a 
fair oil proposition ; oil line very broad ; shows, both 
oil and gas, conclusive," he recently cabled. 

On either side of this area are the West Africa oil 
and fuel concessions, upon which petroliferous indica- 
tions also abound. 

It was in this neighbourhood that Sir Richard 
Burton first made the discovery that petroleum 



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existed in West Africa, and although Nigeria has so 
far come into most prominence, the inference is that 
the bituminous deposits of both regions represent the 
residues of the same zone of oil. 

It is estimated that one hundred tons of the crude 
material would yield by dry " cracking " distillation, 
the following results : — 

Tons. Value per ton. Gross value. 
£ s. d. £ s. d. 

Burning oil ... 3*3403 7 10 o 25 1 o 

Gas oil ... 139705 3 io o 48 17 10 

Spindle oil ... 17-5000 7 10 o 131 5 o 

B. Cylinder oil, 

No. 1 ... 2*9010 9 10 o 27 11 2 
B. Cylinder oil, 

Nos. 2, 3,4... 29-8445 10 10 o 298 8 10 

Paraffin wax ... 05400 27 o o 14 11 7 

Coke 94500 o 10 o 4 14 6 



77-5463 



£550 9 » 



The above results were obtained by Dr. J. 
Lewkowitsch after subjecting the oil to dry dis- 
tillation with the aid of superheated steam. 

There will always be a market for the oil close at 
hand. The rich and expanding Gold Coast mining 
industry is badly in need of a cheap fuel. Coal is at 
present delivered to the mining centres at an inclusive 
charge of upwards of 40*. per ton, with a much 
higher rate at the more distant mines. 

Although wood fuel is somewhat cheaper, a regular 
supply cannot always be counted upon, owing to the 
uncertainty of the labour employed. Moreover, in 
time, the forests of timber in the mining districts will 
become exhausted, and the farther afield the mines 
have to go for their timber the higher will be the cost 
of obtaining it. 

• It would be easy to lay pipe lines from Appolonia or 
Tano for the conveyance of the oil to Taquah. Con- 
sequently, the enormous advantages accruing to the 
industry from the actual presence of oil in commercial 
quantities on either area will be apparent to the 
merest observer. 

The oil could also be used on steamers and Govern- 
ment railways, and, in fact, in a variety of ways 
obviously conducive to the prosperity of these 
colonies. As it is, the British, French, Portuguese, 
and German West African colonies import coal fuel, 
and notably so in the case of France, which possesses 
an extensive railway system, and uses many thou- 
sands of tons of coal annually. 



As it is only a little more than a year ago since the 
oil fields came into prominence, their development 
will naturally take time. If, however, events move as 
rapidly as they have done since last October, it is 
practically safe to prophesy that in two years the oil 
fields will become a sterling actuality, quite apart 
from the value of the deposits from a bitumen point 
of view. 

Sufficient has been said in proof of the potential 
value of the West African oil fields. No less than 
ten experts — Sir Boverton Redwood, Dr. J. Lew- 
kowitsch, Messrs. J. S. Bergheim, D. P. Brown, 
V. Bukojemski, B. A. Collins, Frank Drader, A. H. 
Harrison, D. A. Sutherland and R. H. Stanger — 
have delivered judgment in favour of the deposits, 
either from their own personal knowledge of the 
country or from the facts and samples submitted to 
them. 

Their position in the matter has, however, been 
distinctly subordinate to the leadership of Messrs. 
Macdonald and Brown, who not only started, but 
have intelligently and skilfully organised, a movement 
which at no distant date is destined to have far- 
reaching results on the civilisation and commercial 
prosperity of West Africa. 



" It is incumbent on every one who has any power 
or influence to do his utmost to see that the oil fields 
of Trinidad are fully and properly developed, not for 
the benefit of the Colony alone, but for the benefit of 
the British Empire." — RANDOLPH RUST. 

Trinidad, already an oil-producing island, gives 
great promise of early taking part in the world's huge 
business of oil transport This is a fact of consider- 
able importance to the British Admiralty, just as it is 
one of interest to all who are concerned in the early 
increase of the world's yield and movement of oil. 
Trinidad is an island of immense possibilities, and I 
am convinced that there are in this small Columbus- 
discovered spot (it is only 1,750 square miles in 
extent) large tracts of oil-bearing territory ; indeed, 
it would be practically impossible to discover a small 
island so prolifically dotted with unmistakable indica- 
tions of the existence of oil and bitumen. 

What makes the island such a valuable asset in the 
hitherto neglected British part of the business of oil 
production is the fact that the work done during the 
past few years has produced most encouraging results. 
In a word, the prospecting programme, so ably 
arranged and energetically carried out by the Oil 



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Exploration Company of Canada, Ltd., of which the 
well known firm of Walker Bros., of Walkerville, 
Ontario, are directors, has proved that oil of a 
very fine quality underlies more than one large 
tract of land on the island. The map which I 
have specially prepared for this book converts 
these few general sentences into matter-of-fact evi- 
dence concerning the extent and importance of the 
discoveries which have been made during the past 
two or three years. The two authorities whose state- 
ments carry most weight on Trinidad oil subjects are 
Mr. Randolph Rust and Mr. Cunningham Craig ; the 
first-named recently delivered a lecture in London on 
Trinidad petroleum, and was able to speak as the 
pioneer of modern developments, while Mr. Craig is 
entitled to be heard on the ground that he is the 
geologist who has conducted the latest surveys on 
behalf of the Government. 

In this work I am limited to a discussion of the 
possibilities of the early exportation of oil, but before 
I go into certain new facts connected with the marine 
advantages of the oil business on the island a little 
history, followed by a few lines of comment on the 
nature of the discoveries already made, may be 
pardoned. 

The story has often been told that the Trinity 
Hills, three in number, which look down upon 
Guayaguayare Bay, were the first land sighted by 
Columbus when he discovered the island on Trinity 
Sunday in 1498, and led him to christen the island 
Trinidad. It is an interesting fact that the only 
properly developed oil field on the island, so far, lies 
at the foot of these famous hills. This oil field — 
the Guayaguayare-Mayaro field, to give it its full 
name — is not the only one on the island; large 
deposits of oil are believed to exist on the west side 
also, and wells are now being drilled at Guapo by the 
Trinidad Petroleum Company, while a trial well 
drilled on "Aripero" estate by the Canadian 
Company struck oil of a similar quality to that 
secured at Guayaguayare, which is forty miles away 
as the crow flies. 

Mr. Rust, when he recently told the story of his 
first search for oil on the island, said : — 

"We found there was a great mud volcano, 
* Lagoon Bouff/ and in the forest we found numerous 
little oil streams; they were running all over the 
place. In a ravine, two or three hundred yards in 
length, the water was covered with oil. We also 
found petroleum gas blowing out in large quantities 
in numerous places throughout the forest I lit 



natural gas in October and it burned until we put it 
out in the following March ; and the oldest hunters 
told me that as long as they could remember they 
had always found the gas in great quantities, showing 
that there must be a huge deposit of petroleum below 
the surface." 

Respecting the western coast, Mr. Craig has stated 
that many of the most promising districts lie on the 
western coast of the Colony, on lands already partially 
opened up by roads and railways, and within easy 
reach of the calm waters of the Gulf of Paria, where 
no considerable engineering difficulties will be met 
with in laying pipe lines, building jetties and shipping 
the petroleum. It is on the west coast that the 
celebrated Pitch Lake is situated. This is merely 
an enormous outcrop of petroleum, from which in the 
course of ages all the volatile oils have been taken off 
by If ature, leaving the heavy residuum of bitumen. 

He has also put it on record — "That it will be 
possible to refine the oils so as to make a large 
percentage of fuel oil, which will probably prove the 
most profitable branch of the industry in Trinidad. 
Situated as the Colony is, with a magnificent harbour, 
it cannot fail to become in the near future a very 
important centre of trade and shipping ; and if, as we 
are assured on all hands, oil fuel is to be the fuel of 
the future for ships, it will be possible to sell every 
gallon of the fuel oil produced in Trinidad without 
coming into competition with any of the great oil com- 
panies of other countries. The demand for petrol 
is steadily increasing, and the percentage of it in 
Trinidad oils should also find a ready sale, while 
lubricating and illuminating oils can be disposed of 
in the Colony, to the neighbouring islands and at 
home." 

The British Admiralty alone would be a very large 
consumer, and the source of supply being on British 
territory the oil would be available in war time, when 
oil fuel from foreign parts would become contraband 
of war. 

From the latest reports published by the Govern- 
ment of the Colony, we learn that the oil fields are of 
great extent — "at a conservative estimate, five 
hundred square miles, according to Mr. Cunningham 
Craig — and are likely in the near future to be a 
considerable source of supply, not only of petrol and 
illuminating oils, but of what is of greater importance 
— fuel oil for the British Navy. 

The island of Trinidad is one of Great Britain's 
most] lovely tropical [possessions. It js [situated 
about 10 degs. north latitude, between the 61st and 



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62nd degs. west longitude, in the Caribbean Sea, off 
the north-east coast of Venezuela, from which it is 
separated by the Gulf of Paria. It is the second 
largest island of the British West Indies. 

Most of the exploration work has been carried on at 
Guayaguayare, in the south-east corner of the island, 
and Guayaguayare Bay will, in all probability, be 
the shipping port for the oil from the Guayaguayare- 
Mayaro oil field. The bay is well sheltered from the 
prevailing east winds by Galeota Point, and a deep- 
water channel (26 ft. deep) runs to within 500 yds. 
of the shore, opposite to the mouth of the Pilote 
River. Several of the wells have been drilled on 
the beach itself, and the furthest inland is not more 
than one-and-a-half miles from the sea, with a fall of 
some 25 ft. from the mouth of the wells to sea level. 

Shipping facilities in the shape of a pipe line 
carried out from half to three-quarters of a mile by a 
pier to deep water is all that is needed to make 
Guayaguayare Bay an excellent loading-place for 
tank steamers. 

The oil from the western and south-western fields 
can easily be pumped to shipping places on that side 
of the island, inside the Gulf of Paria, and when 
sufficient oil for transport is discovered piers will 
have to be run out to deep water ; although when the 
oil deposits in the neigbourhood of Sanfernando are 
tapped, Pointe-a- Pierre, with its deep water channel 
close in shore, should prove an excellent shipping 
place. 



The harbour of Port of Spain will probably be 
employed to some extent for the storage of fuel oil, 
but an ideal spot for this purpose will be Chaguaramas 
Bay, some six miles to the west of Port of Spain, 
where excellent natural facilities exist There is 
deep water close in shore in the bay, which is well 
protected from any winds that blow, while heavy 
guns mounted on the small islands adjacent would 
command the entire bay, making this in every way an 
ideal and safe place for the storage of fuel oil for the 
British naval vessels. 

Geographically, Trinidad is exceedingly well 
situated for the distribution of oil, and, being out of 
the hurricane zone, shipments can be made with 
safety all the year round. When the Panama Canal 
is opened it will be a far more important colony than 
it is to-day, as all traffic going south to Brazil and 
the Argentine will pass that way, and, lying as it does 
at the mouth of the Orinoco River, will still further 
serve as the transhipping port for the interior of 
Venezuela. Finally, Trinidad is certain to be of 
great importance in the production of petroleum, on 
account of its ability, when the fields are further 
developed, to supply fuel oil to the mercantile marine 
and to the war-ships of the Empire. 

As a winter resort its climate is of the finest, and 
the island already attracts large numbers of tourists 
from Europe and the United States. The population 
numbers some 310,00a The chief city is Port of 
Spain, the population of which is 60fiOO, 



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It is my 

firm conviction 

that the birth of the 

new century synchronises with 

the inception of the age of petroleum 

as a source of power in a wider 

and more enlightened sense 

than is commonly 

realised. 

Sir Bovbrton Rbdwood 

(to th$ Author) in 1901. 



1 



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(148) 



JR. JAMES M. ROBERTSON has described a visit to the 
oil wells of Burmah in 1879. In Upper Burmah he 
inspected the "King's Well," which had for centuries 
yielded large quantities of oil. On the voyage up the 
river Irrawaddy he found that the odour of petroleum pervaded 
the atmosphere. At the wells he saw a fleet of small oil-laden 
schooners and barges, and the shore was covered with great 
earthen jars of oil. 




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The TWIN-SCREW OIL-CARRYING STEAMER IROQUOIS. Owners: The A nglo- American Oil Co., Ltd. 




BEFORE LAUNCHING. 




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AFTER LAUNCHING. 



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Q^HAPTER XVI. 



Tank Steamers of the Present Year 
(1907). Orders tor new tonnage. 
Sir Marcus Samuel and the British 
Government. 




HIS chapter, which brings the historical 
part of the British section of this volume 
to an end, has been kept open until 
within three weeks of the day of publica- 
tion, and what I am writing at the beginning of 
August will be read in different parts of the world 
in the early days of next month. 

There are two reasons why I mention this fact. I 
suppose there are few illustrated technical works of 
this magnitude that will compare with this one in 
rapidity and excellence of production, and the fact 
that I am permitted to embody this chapter in the 
month of publication speaks volumes for the up-to- 
date methods adopted in the printing office which has 
given birth to this latest addition to the Anglo-Saxon 
section of the literature of an industry which has been 
contributed to by authors in many different countries. 
The second reason why I refer to the despatch with 
which this book has been produced is this, that I find 
myself able to embody some of the latest information 
about the orders for the delivery of tank steamers 
during the approaching winter. 

The shipbuilding developments of the year are 
evidence that this industry is subject to remark- 
able fluctuations, not only in the employment of 
oil-carrying vessels — the sudden change from a period 
of slackness to one in which it is absolutely impossible 
to supply the demand — but also in the freight rates, 
which, in two years, went up something like 
200 per cent Independent owners of oil-carry- 
ing shipping found the business unremunerative less 
than two years ago, while five years ago as many as 
half a dozen up-to-date tank steamers were moored 
at the idle buoys at Jarrow Slake on the Tyne. 
Notwithstanding the partial destruction of the Russian 
export trade, and the re-employment of Black Sea 
oil traders in other parts of the world, there was a 
decided improvement in the chartering twelve months 
ago, but it was never expected that this would go on 
as it has done right up to the present time ; at any 
rate, there is no evidence that any of the shipowning 



concerns made anything like adequate preparations 
to meet the great demand of to-day. When the I2jr. 
freight of 1906 became the yis. freight of 1907, and 
when, as I have stated elsewhere, three steamers 
were lost, orders were given for the quickest possible 
delivery of new tonnage. 

The fact then came to light that the first concern 
to display enterprise in this direction was the Anglo- 
American Oil Company, which had the great 
oil-carrier Iroquois and a huge oil barge building at 
Belfast.* A word here about this new steamer. She 
is 476 ft. long, 60 ft. beam, and has been specially 
designed and constructed for the transport of about 
10,000 tons of oil in bulk. The vessel has an 
exceptionally complete oil pumping system for load- 
ing and discharging, and all the most perfect 
arrangements for a vessel of this class ; indeed, she 
is the latest word in the specialist business of tank 
steamer construction. The machinery consists of two 
sets of quadruple expansion engines, and her four 
steel boilers are specially arranged for the consump- 
tion of oil fuel. She is the first oil tank steamer 
fitted with twin screws, and has been built, like most 
of her predecessors in the fleet, under the supervision 
of Mr. John Morton. 

Approximately, the new tonnage (vessels building) 

amounts to : — 

Tons. 

Anglo-American Oil Co 35*000 

Messrs. Lane & Macandrew ... 27,000 

Messrs. H. E. Moss & Co 14,000 

Messrs. C. T. Bowring & Co. ... 14,000 

Messrs. J. M. Lennard & Son ... 6,000 

Messrs. Balfour, Williamson & Co. 7,000 

Messrs. Good (Antwerp) 5,000 

Two Texas companies (Gulf Re- 
fining and Texas) 20,000 



128,000 



* Launched by Messrs. Harland & Wolff and 
christened by Mrs. Powell on June 27th. 



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Which at the rate of £i i per ton makes a total in 
money value of £1,408,000. These new steamers 
have an increase of 10 per cent in speed. 

Add 10 per cent, for tonnage (chiefly Californian) 
about which nothing has been made public, and it 
will be seen that the new tonnage to be placed in the 
oil trade during the next six months will be worth 
about £1,500,000. 

Messrs. Balfour, Williamson & Co., with Californian 
oil field and refinery connections, have placed an 
order for a tank steamer with Messrs. Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co. She will carry 7,000 tons, and 
will be equipped with the latest appliances for the 
transport and handling of oil in bulk. The engines, 
of the triple expansion type, will drive her at the rate 
of 1 1 knots. 

I learn from headquarters that the Texas Com- 
pany, to which I have made a somewhat lengthy 
reference in a previous chapter, are building a fifty 
thousand barrel tank steamer at Newport News, Va. 
The contract calls for delivery in the spring of 1908, 
and I understand that she will embody all the latest 
improvements for the expeditious working and safe 
transport of petroleum and its products. The com- 
pany own the following ocean-going steamers and 

barges: — 

Steamers. 

Florida 12,000 barrels capacity. 

Northman 22,000 „ „ 

Northtown 22,000 „ w 

Northwestern 22,000 „ „ 

Barges. 

Dallas 18,000 „ „ 

Magnolia 7,000 „ „ 

San Antonio 1,600 tons „ 

Morse i>900 „ ♦, 

They also own the ocean-going tug Brady, and 
numerous harbour bulk and deck lighters for the 
distribution of petroleum products at their Gulf 
and Atlantic coast terminals. They also operate 
oil-carrying steamers and barges on the Mississippi 
River and its tributaries. 

It is not only in the building of new tank steamers 
that the problem of the marine transport of oil 
is undergoing a change. The progress of ship- 
building science has enabled builders to turn out 
ships on an increasingly larger scale, and they are 
only restrained from further increasing the size by 
the lack of depth in the channels and the length of 
the dry docks. In point of competition it is known 
in this business that the large ships can live best at 



a time of slackness, and that the smallest of them only 
make profits when freights are good. 

For some time it has been felt that means of pro- 
pulsion less costly than steam is necessary, if coasters 
are to continue to live and be useful ; in fact, coasting 
ship-owners are eagerly watching the progress of motor 
propulsion. Crude petroleum, vaporised, has proved 
economical and effective in the case of pleasure 
launches as well as canal barges, and no doubt before 
long it will be applied to coasters. Every mechanical 
device which reduces the cost of handling makes for 
economy and efficiency, and the constant endeavours 
of engineers to cheapen the transporting machines — 
afloat as well as ashore — are being watched with the 
keenest interest by traders. 

I have made several references to the adoption of 
the ocean-going barge system by the Standard, 
Anglo-American and other oil companies. There is 
evidence of its success in the building of the 
10,000 ton barge at Belfast, and one may well ask 
whether it would not be feasible at this time of high 
freights to run steam tugs and barges between the oil 
ports of the Black Sea and the importing centres of 
the United Kingdom. 



Into this part of the book I am able to place the 
important announcement made by Sir Marcus Samuel, 
as recently as July 29th, regarding the completion of 
the transference of the preponderating assets of the 
Shell Company to the new combination brought into 
existence by the directors of his company and the 
Royal Dutch. This is not a work of criticism, and 
in a history of this kind I am only permitted to 
reproduce with a very few words of comment what 
was evidently a most carefully prepared statement 

By the founding of the Anglo-Saxon Petroleum 
Company, Ltd., which has taken over all the assets of 
the Shell Company and the Royal Dutch Company 
properly administerable in England, and of the 
Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, which becomes 
the owner of the whole of the properties under the 
Dutch jurisdiction, the existence of the Shell Trans- 
port Company comes to an end, except the part 
which they play as large shareholders in the other 
companies, taking their share in the direction, but 
being in a minority.* 

" The occasion is a somewhat painful one to me,'* 
said Sir Marcus, " because by the capitulation of our 

* Forty per cent against sixty. 



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( I5i ) 



rights in controlling it, the one territory capable, 
in my opinion, of providing supplies of liquid fuel 
sufficient to meet the naval requirements of this 
country has passed from British hands. We should 
have been willing to make a very considerable 
pecuniary sacrifice to have retained these properties 
had we been able to obtain any assurance from our 
own Government that we should have had their 
support in case of any dispute with the Dutch 
authorities; but not only was such assurance not 
forthcoming, but, I venture to say, never in the annals 
of British trade has so gross a wrong been done to 
any company as that inflicted by the Indian Govern- 
ment, instigated and supported by the Admiralty, in 
classifying the Shell Company as a foreign corporation, 
and refusing them permission to participate in the 
development of the Indian fields. * Great events from 
little causes spring/ and I shall be greatly mistaken 
if, in the future, the folly — nay, I will say the crime — 
of compelling a British company to part with property 
of vital import in the future of naval warfare is not 
bitterly regretted, and for this folly history must fix 
the blame on the right shoulders ; but this I can 
assure you, that neither your chairman nor directors 
have been to blame. Under the circumstances, 
Messrs. M. Samuel & Co. have ceased to be the 
managers of the Shell Transport and Trading Com- 
pany, this being one of the provisions made by the 
Royal Dutch Company ; but I hope the shareholders 
will recognise that it has been under their management 
that the present sound condition of the company has 
been reached, and I heartily congratulate you upon 
being able to state that, in my opinion, a magnificent 
position has now been attained, since, instead of 
having practically all our eggs in one basket, we are 
partners in widespread and well-established productive 
petroleum fields. Instead of being dependent upon 
only one refinery, which would have put us in a most 
serious dilemma in the event of fire, we now have a 
series of refineries within our working area. The 
united companies are on absolute rock bottom, being 
their own producers, and producing oil as cheaply as 
it can be produced in any part of the world ; whilst 
their geographical position gives them an indisputable 
command of the area in which they trade. They are 
their own carriers, passing the oil through their own 
installations, and distributing it through their own 
agencies. I cannot imagine any business, therefore, 
built upon a sounder foundation. This company 
must be represented on the boards of the Anglo- 
Saxon Petroleum Company and of the Bataafsche 



Petroleum Maatschappij, and your directors have come 
to the conclusion that your interests will be best served 
by appointing some of their members as delegates to 
those boards. This will necessarily involve extra 
payments to the members so employed, who will also 
conduct such business as remains to the Shell Com- 
pany, who will now have their separate offices and 
their own staff. A considerable saving will be made 
after the present year in the cost of management, 
since the extensive staff hitherto retained by the 
managers has been taken over by the combine. 
Messrs. Deterding and Dr. A. J. Cohen Stuart have 
been elected to the board of the Shell Company, on 
the nomination of the Royal Dutch, whilst Mr. 
Walter H. Samuel has also joined the board, and, to 
our great regret, Mr. Jardine, who has been associated 
with the company from its commencement, has 
retired. The board has been increased in number by 
these additions to it, and you will be asked to increase 
their remuneration to £6,000."* 

There is no denying the claim of Sir Marcus 
Samuel that the Shell steamers have rendered 
valuable service to the British Admiralty. The first 
supplies of liquid fuel used in British warships were 
brought here in these steamers, and it will always 
stand to the credit of Sir Marcus that his enthusiastic 
and optimistic statements on the advantages of oil 
fuel did more than anything else to awaken a desire 
on the part of the Admiralty to formulate a pro- 
gramme of experiments and establish a system of 
regular supply and permanent storage. Over a 
period of many years, covering fully half the life-time 
of the Shell Company, I have contended that the 
British Government has not been unfavourably 
disposed towards this particular enterprise, and to 
those who hold similar opinions the catalogue of the 
wrongs alleged to have been done by the British 
Government to Sir Marcus Samuel and his friends 
must appear to be one of the most amazing ever 
submitted to a body of shareholders. Oil fields, 
frequently declared to be a reliable and improving 
source of oil fuel supply, have passed under the 
control of a powerful company working under the 
flag of a comparatively insignificant trading country. 
The same thing may be said of the Shell steamers, 
because, obviously, in a time of war they would not 
be at the disposal of the British Admiralty in the 

* Agreed to on the motion of Sir Fortescue 
Flannery, Bart., at the meeting of the shareholders 
on July 29th. 



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( 152 ) 



event of their being wanted to bring oil fuel from the 
Far East 

I, for one, am not satisfied that the question of who 
is to blame for this is finally settled by the statement 
of Sir Marcus. There is something behind all this 
feeling ; and, besides, it is just as well to remember 
that the Admiralty officials are bound by the 
etiquette and rules of their departments to remain 
silent, even on such an important subject as the 
alleged unfair treatment and exile of a company of 
the standing of the Shell. 



No doubt, this loss to the mercantile marine will 
lead the Admiralty to see how absolutely necessary 
it is that everything possible should be done to 
develop the oil fields of the Empire. If the Indian 
and Colonial oil fields benefit we shall not, from a 
national point of view, grieve so deeply about the 
assumption of control of the Borneo fields by the 
Dutch. This is a subject I have frequently dealt 
with in other covers.* 

* Petroleum World for August. 




VENTILATING heads or cowls should proceed as direct as 
possible to weather decks, but should not be too near the 
smoke stack. Cowls should be fitted with fine wire gauze, 
soldered into the cowl opening ; this permits easy exit of 
vapour and prevents any back flash in the vapour pipe due to 
stray sparks from the main funnel or a light on deck. Oil 
ventilation cowls in their necessarily exposed positions are often 
caught by the rush of heavy seas, and it is desirable to goose- 
neck them. 



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^£IGHEST and lowest rates of freight for tank steamers chartered for one 
voyage to carry refined petroleum from Northern American ports to ports 
in the United Kingdom or on the Continent (Ostende- Hamburg). 



Year. 




Highest 
Rate. 


Lowest 
Rate. 




Highest 
Rate. 


Lowest 
Rate. 


1899 


(Steamers of 5,000) 
{ tons and over J 


17/- 


12/. 


(Steamers of 3,000) 
( to 4,000 tons .} 


18/- 


(13/3 

or 
I 13/6 


I9OO 


do. 


25/- 


14/6 


do. 


25/- 


12/6 


1 90I 


do. 


20/- 


14/9 


do. 


«/- 


14/6 


I902 


do. 


12/6 


12/. 


do. 


14/6 


12/6 


I903 


do. 


10/6 


10/. 


do. 


12/6 


10/6 


I904 


do. 


10/6 


10/. 


do. 


1 1/6 


10/. 


I905 


do. 


«/- 


9/9 


do. 


12/6 


10/6 


I906 


do. 


"/3 


9/6 


do. 


12/- 


10/6 


I907 

(up to and 
including 
15th July). 


| do. 


29/- 


12/- 


do. 


30/- 


13/6 



Early in the year, in consequence of the shortage of tonnage caused by the 
disasters to tank shipping, and the transference of a number of steamers to the 
Pacific, rates rapidly increased, and 20/- was paid for the transport of refined 
petroleum from Northern American ports and the Black Sea to the United 
Kingdom for July- August loading. It is known that in some cases as much as 30/- 
and even more was paid. Where 32/- was reached the cargoes consisted of spirit. 






O.T. 



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( '54) 



ONE of the largest oil tank storage businesses in the world is controlled by the London and Thames Haven 
Oil Wharves, Ltd. The directors are Mr. Owen Philipps, M.P. (chairman), Mr. Allen McCall, 
Mr. F. H. Simmonds, and Mr. Alfred C. Adams. The first chairman was Mr. McCall, and when he resigned 
in 1901 he was succeeded by Mr. Philipps. The managing -director, Mr. Adams, has held the position since 1898. 

The business was originally started in 1876, when the British oil trade was in its infancy and the trans- 
portation of oil and spirit in bulk was not thought of. Its rise has been coeval with that of the petroleum 
trade of this country. 

The well-known Thames Haven (Essex) property has many advantages. When it was selected experts 
considered it to be the most desirable site obtainable for the storage of petroleum spirit. Those who considered 
the questions of its accessibility and suitability had to take into account the fact that vessels bringing cargoes 
to the Thames were prevented by the Regulations of the Port from proceeding further up the river than 
Thames Haven. One advantage it has always had: it occupies an isolated position and has the most 
up-to-date facilities for rapid communication with the oil-distributing centres. 

A deep-water pier, alongside which ocean-going oil-carrying sailing ships of the seventies could moor and 
discharge, was provided, and in those early days this was the only wharf at which petroleum ships could lie 
and discharge without the assistance of lighters. 

Extensive underground fireproof warehouses, made of concrete, were used for the storage of petroleum 
spirit and other products of petroleum brought to this country in barrels, and, up to the time of the storage of 
oil in iron tanks, no better storage accommodation was obtainable anywhere. The warehouses were con- 
structed with solid concrete floors 12 inches thick and party walls 18 inches thick. 

The first tanks for the storage of oil in bulk were built in 1885, and from 1887 onwards tanks were added 
to meet the increasing needs of the industry. The records of the company show that all the pioneer tank 
steamers discharged at the Thames Haven. In 1898, when the oil trade commenced to rapidly develop, the 
business of the company became one of considerable importance, and to-day this is the oldest and largest 
independent oil storage concern in this country. 

The company stores petroleum spirit, refined illuminating oils, gas oils, lubricating oils, black oils, fuel 
oils, fish oils, molasses, etc., and the Thames Haven tanks alone have a capacity of over 100,000 tons. The 
plant and installation stand on 22 acres of land. Two deep-water piers, with 30 feet of water alongside at 
low water of spring tides, are capable of accommodating any tank steamer afloat, and vessels lie and discharge 
direct into the storage tanks ashore. The facilities for the safe and quick handling of spirit cargoes, while both 
simple and effective, are the result of expert ability and experience. The vessels lie alongside with all fires 
out, and take their steam from the shore ; in other words, the company provides all the steam necessary for 
the handling of the cargoes, and in this way reduces the risk of accident to a minimum. 

With such a large number of liquids to handle simultaneously and separately, the company keeps its 
up-to-date equipment and organisation in thorough working order, and the risk of accident and contamination 
is entirely eliminated by a most perfect system of isolation. The fire risk has been carefully studied, and the 
tanks stand in sections surrounded by chalk embankments. The demands of the Fire Insurance Companies 
have been met in every particular, and there is an abundant supply of water obtainable at any time from the 
company's fresh water well. 

The pumps which handle the various products are, individually, capable of dealing with quantities up 
to 300 tons per hour. The works are equipped with electric power and light, and the cranes, also worked by 
electricity, are capable of handling several thousand barrels of oil a day. Extensive railway sidings are 
provided for the despatch of oils in tank waggons. 

There are three dep6ts for London delivery. The one at Central Wharf, Bow, London, E., is con- 
veniently and centrally situated to meet the demands of this branch of the business. At this wharf the 
company possess considerable tankage for the storage of bulk oil. Then there is the Manhattan Wharf 
(Silvertown), which also has tankage for the storage of petroleum spirit and oil. These two up-town wharves, 
together with Abbey Mills (a depdt at West Ham, used more particularly for the handling and despatch of 
motor spirit), form the branches through which the huge quantities of the liquid goods stored at Thames 
Haven are distributed. 

The duties carried on by the company are those of public wharfingers, and merchants who store their 
goods at these wharves know that the company has absolutely no interest whatever in the purchase or sale 
of any of the articles for which it provides storage. The record and reputation of the company constitute 
a valuable guarantee of safe and secret storage of every kind of oil imported into this country by British or 
foreign companies and merchants. 



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OIL STORAGE AT THAMES HAVEN. 

(The property of the London and Thames Haven Oil Wharves, Ltd.) 




Cymbelinc. 



ses; 



•«••**— 




Week a when. 



Spondilus. 



FILLING 
TANK CARS. 



TANKS AND 
BARRELS. 



PIPE LINES 
LEADING 
FROM DEEP- 
WATER 
PIER NO. I. 




ENTRANCE 
TO WHARF, 
SHOWING 
RAILWAY 
SIDING. 



GENERAL 
VIEW OF 
SOME OF THE 
TANKS. 



GENERAL VIEWS OF EMPTY BARREL STACKING GROUND. 




LOWER WHARF. SHOWING DEEP-WATER JETTY (NO. l) AND TANKS 



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PART III. 

TABLES AND FORMULAE. 

Abo 
RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE 
TRANSPORT OF OIL AND THE NAVI* 
GATION OF TANK STEAMERS IN THE 
SUEZ CANAL AND RIVERS IN DIFFERENT 
PARTS OF THE WORLD. 



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S^HAPTER XVII. 



Tables and Formulas. 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY, 

Whenever possible, this should be expressed in 
comparison with water at 6o° F., which is taken as 
1*000. For example, a crude petroleum would be said 
to have a gravity of, say, *8oo. 

In America, Baume's hydrometer is extensively 
used, but a comparison between the tables of Baum6 
degrees given by standard authorities shows such 
evidences of inaccuracy that it is difficult to 
understand why this hydrometer is used at all. 

For those who have need to use Baum6 degrees, 
however, the following formula for reducing degrees 
Baum6 to specific gravity is perhaps the most 
accurate. Divide 140 by (°B. + 130). 



Example : 



140 __ 140 __ 



70 + 130 



200 



= 700 sp. gr. 



To reduce specific gravity to degrees Baume, divide 

140 by the sp. gr., and subtract 130. 

140 
Example: —55- = 200. 200 — 130 = 70 B. 

In the case of liquids heavier than water, to reduce 
°B. to sp. gr., divide 140 by (140 — °B). 
140 



Example 



140 - 25 



== 1-2175 sp. gr. 



To reduce sp. gr. to °B., subtract 



140 
sp. gr. 



from 140. 



Example : 140 — I4 ° = 140 — 115= 25°B. 



To reduce degrees Twaddell to sp. gr., multiply by 
5, add 1000 and divide by 1000. 

Example: 15 T. X 5 + 1000 = 1075. 
1075 -f- 1000 = 1*075 S P- g r - 
To reduce sp. gr. to °T., multiply by 1000, 
subtract 1000 and divide by 5. 

Example : 1*075 X 1000 = 1075 — *ooo = 75- 

^ 5 = 15° T. 



TEMPERATURE. 

Formula for converting degrees Fahrenheit (°F.) 
into degrees Centigrade (°C.) : — 

Subtract 32, multiply by 5 and divide by 9. 

Example : To convert 140 F. into °C. : — 

« 108 X 5 ^ nr% 
140 — 32 = 108. — - — - = 6o° C. 



Formula for converting degrees Centigrade into 
degrees Fahrenheit : — 

Multiply by 9, divide by 5, and add 32. 

Example : To convert 84 C. into °F :— 
84 X Q 

e = 121*2 + 32 = 1532 °F. 



Formula for converting degrees Fahrenheit into 
degrees Reaumur (°R.) : — 

Subtract 32, multiply by 4 and divide by 9. 
Example : To convert 140 F. into °R. : — 



140 — 32 = 108. 



108 X 4 



= 48° R. 



Formula for converting degrees Reaumur into 
degrees Fahrenheit : — 

Multiply by 9, divide by 4 and add 32. 
Example : To convert 48 R. into °F. :— 

^ + 3 2 = i 4 o<>F. 



STEAM. 

In the conversion of water into steam, the tempera- 
ture must first be raised to boiling, before the actual 
evaporation takes place. When the water is boiling 
the temperature remains constant, the heat which is 
applied disappearing in the formation of steam. 



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The amount of heat which disappears during the 
evaporation of i lb. of water at 21 2° F. (boiling), 
is 966 British Thermal Units, or heat units. This is 
known as the latent heat of steam. 

To calculate the number of heat units required to 
evaporate water at any temperature to steam, at 
ordinary atmospheric pressure, subtract the tempera- 
ture of the water in degrees F. from 1178. 

Example : To convert 1 lb. water at 140 F. into 
steam : — 

1 178 - 140 = 1038 (B.T.U. required). 



To calculate the number of heat units required to 
evaporate water at any temperature at pressures 
greater than the normal atmospheric pressure, add 
'305 times the temperature in degrees F. to 1082. 

Example: To evaporate 1 lb. water at 298 F. 
(50 lbs. pressure) : — 

'305 X 298 = 9089. 1082 + 90-89 = 1 172-89 B.T.U. 



Insert a bar of iron in, for example, the chimney of 
a steam boiler, heat it to the maximum degree, quench 
it in cold water and measure the rise in temperature 
of the water. 

T = temperature of water after quenching. 
/ = original temperature of water. 
W = weight of cold water. 
w = weight of iron in pounds. 
X = temperature of the steam. 



Xz= i (T-f) X W X9 ) + T 



Example : A bar of wrought iron, 20 lbs. in weight 
is inserted in the chimney of a boiler, and when 
heated, quenched in 30 lbs. of water at 55° F., raising 
the temperature of the water to 93 F. 

( 93°- 55°) X 30 lbs, water X 9 F 

20 lbs. iron. 5 x * 

5i3°F. + 93 F. = 6o6°F. temperature of the 
gases in the chimney of the boiler. 



Table showing temperature and latent heat of steam 
at temperatures above that of the atmosphere : — 



Pressure 


Tempera- 


Latent 


Pressure 


Tempera- 


Latent 


(lbs. per 


ture, 


Heat, 


(lbs. per 


ture, 


Heat, 


sq. in.). 


•F. 


B.T.U. 


sq. in.). 


F°. 


B.T.U. 


O 


212 


966 


100 


338 


876 


5 


227 


955 


I05 


341 


874 


IO 


239 


947 


HO 


344 


872 


15 


250 


939 


"5 


347 


870 


20 


259 


933 


120 


350 


868 


25 


267 


927 


125 


353 


866 


30 


274 


922 


130 


356 


864 


35 


28l 


918 


'35 


358 


862 


40 


286 


913 


140 


36i 


860 


45 


292 


909 


145 


363 


858 


50 


298 


905 


150 


366 


856 


55 


303 


902 


155 


368 


854 


60 


307 


898 


160 


37i 


853 


65 


312 


895 


165 


373 


851 


70 


316 


892 


170 


375 


849 


75 


320 


890 


175 


377 


848 


80 


324 


887 


180 


379 


846 


85 


327 


885 


185 


382 


845 


90 


33' 


882 


190 


384 


843 


95 


334 


879 


200 


388 


840 



WATER. 

To calculate the capacity of cylindrical vessels, 
multiply the square of the diameter in feet by -7854, 
and the product by the length in feet. The result is 
the capacity in cubic feet, which, multiplied by 6-23, 
equals the capacity in gallons. 

Example : Find the capacity of a cylinder, 6 ft. in 
diameter and 20 ft. in length. 

6 X 6 X 7854 X 20 = 565-528 cubic ft or 
35 2 3' 2 4 gallons. 



To calculate temperatures beyond the range of a 
thermometer (approximately) : — 



Formula for calculating the rate of discharge of 
water by gravity from a tank : — 

Q = -82 A \/ 2gh. 
Q = cubic feet per second. 
A = area of pipe in sq. ft 
h = distance in feet from the bottom of the pipe 

to the surface of the water in the tank. 
g = gravity (32 ft per second). 

Example: Find the rate of discharge of water 
through a 3 in. pipe (area -049 sq. ft), 10 ft. long, 
with 5 ft. of water in the tank. 

•82 X -049 V 2 (32 X 15) = "04018 X 30*98 = 
1*244 cu bic ft. per second, or 775 gallons. 



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The maximum flow of water through short lengths 
of piping, for cooling tanks, condensers, etc., is as 
follows : — 



Diam. of pipe 
in inches. 


Gallons per 
hour. 


Diam. of pipe 
in inches. 


Gallons per 
hour. 


I 

2 
2* 

3 


I92 

528 

1086 

1896 

2993 


4 
5 
6 

7 

8 


6144 

10733 
1693 1 

24890 

3476s 



PIPES. 

Formula for calculating the weight of pipes :— 
W = K (B* - d% 
W = weight per lineal foot of pipe. 
D = external diameter. 
d = internal diameter. 
K = co-efficient 
Co-efficient for various metals : — 

Iron, 2*64 ; Cast-iron 2*45. 
Copper, 3-03. 
Brass, 2*82. 
Example : What is the weight of 30 ft. of copper 
piping, 2} in. external diameter, with walls \ in. thick? 

W = 3-03 (2*S a — 2-2S 2 ). 

3-03 (6-25 — 5'o6). 
3*03 X ri9 = 36057. 
30 X 3*6057 = 108-17 >bs. 
Weight of piping, in pounds per lineal foot : — 



Diameter Cast Iron, 
in - * 


Wrought 
Iron. 


Brass. 


Copper. 


in 
inches. 


thick. 


fin. 
thick. 


(Steam.) (Ordinary.) ^ 


i 


4 


— 


— 


I -oo 


0-25 


0-42 


0-94 


I 


— 


— 


1-40 


0'43 


0*62 


i*33 


1 


4-66 


7*35 


2'03 


0*59 


O79 


169 


i* 


7*36 


13-91 


3*1 


IOO 


1-15 


2-44 


2 


870 


16-10 


4-48 


T25 


i-5S 


321 


2* 


— 


— 


— 


I'SO 


1-94 


3*97 


3 


1240 


22*1 


7'56 


1-87 


230 


473 


4 


1610 


28-3 


9'8S 


— 


300 


6-o6 


5 


1980 


34 # 4 


H'44 


— 


3*8i 


775 


6 


23-40 


40*6 


17*32 




4*54 


909 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES USED IN 
FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



A rough rule for finding the weight of oil contained 
in a length of piping is the following : — Square the 
diameter in inches, and the result will be pounds per 
yard, 



Metric System. 



1 metre = 1 yard, 3-37 inches. 

1 kilometre = 1,093 yards, 1 foot, 1079 inches. 

1 are = 100 square metres, or 119*6033 square 
yards. 

1 litre = 1,000 cubic centimetres, or 176077 pints. 
1 kilogramme = 2 lbs. 3 ozs. 4-38 drams. 



Russia. 

Russian lb. = -9028 English lb. = -4095 kg. 
English lb. = 1-1076 Russian lbs. = -4536 kg. 
One kilogram = 2*2046 English lbs. = 2*4419 
Russian lbs. 

One pood (40 Russian lbs.) = 36-114 English lbs. 
= 1638 kg. 

Cwt (112 lbs.) = 1 24-05 1 2 Russian lbs. = 508032 kg. 
Metric centner (100 kg.) = 220*46 lbs. = 244-19 
Russian lbs. 

English ton (2,240 lbs.) = 62*0280 poods = ro6 
metric ton. 

Metric ton (1,000 kg.) = -9842 English ton = 
61-048 poods. 

Measures of Length. 
Russian duim = English inch. 
Vershock = if duims. 

Foot (12 duims) = 1 English foot = '30479441616 
metre. 

Arshin (3 feet) = 7 Eng. yard = 711 1 8696104 
metre. 

English yard = 1*285714 arshin = '914391428 
metre. 

Metre = 32808992 feet = 1*09362355 yard = 
22*49759792 vershocks. 

Sazhen (7 feet) = 2-133291 metres. 

Verst (500 sazhens) = -66269 English mile = 
1*06678 kilometres. 

English mile (5280 feet) = 1*50857 versts = 1*6093 
kilometres. 

Kilometre = -9374 verst = -6211 English mile. 

Russian mile (7 versts) = 4-63883 English miles = 
7*48746 kilometres. 



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Measures of Area. 

Dessiatin (60 by 40 sazhens) = 117,600 square 
feet = 2*6997 acres = 1*0925 hectares. 
Acre = '3704 dessiatin = '442244 hectare. 
Hectare = '9153 dessiatin = 2*2612 acres. 

Measures of Capacity (for Liquids). 

Vedro = 270698 English gallons = 3*249 
American gallons = 12*299 litres (12299 ex.). 

English gallon = '3694 vedro = 1*196536 American 
gallons = 4*5435 litres. 

Litre = '081308 vedro = 228 English gallon = 
'264 American gallon. 

American gallon = '3078 vedro = '8332 English 
gallon = 3785 litres. 



Equivalent Weights and Measures of Caucasian and 
American Oils. 

Caucasian crude of 'SyS sp. gr. 

Vedro = 2634 Russian lbs. 

Imperial gallon = 97 Russian lbs. 

Litre = 2*144 Russian lbs. 

American gallon = 8*1 Russian lbs. 

A pood occupies 11 39 cubic inches = 4123 
Imperial gallons = 18656 litres = 4939 American 
gallons. 



Caucasian Export Kerosene of '825 sp. gr. 

Vedro = 24*75 Russian lbs. 

Imperial gallon = 9*139 Russian lbs. 

Litre = 2*015 Russian lbs. 

American gallon = 7*617 Russian lbs. 

Pood = 4*377 imperial gallons = 19*9 litres = 
5*249 American gallons. 

English ton = 271*49 English gallons. 

(American kerosene of equal volume only weighs 
966 per cent, of Russian export kerosene, *>., the 
American is 3*4 per cent lighter than the Russian.) 



America (United States). 

The English system is used in the United States, 
with the exception that a small ton of 2,000 lbs. is 
generally used and the United States gallon = 0*833 
Imperial gallon. 



Germany. 
1 Meil = 4*68 English miles. 
1 Geo. square mile = 21*195 square miles. 
I Centner =110^ lbs. avoir. 



Denmark. 

1 Geo. square mile = 21*195 square miles. 
1 Tonde (coal) = 4677 5 bushels. 
1 Pfund = 1*1023 lbs. avoir. 

Austria. 
1 square mile = 22*1 square miles. 
1 Centner = 1 10J lbs. avoir. 
1 Cubic Fuss = 1*156 cubic feet 



Greece. 

Ocque = 2*84 lbs. avoir. 
Quintal = 1 10*2 lbs. 



Norway. 

Centner = 109*87 lbs. avoir. 
Tonde (coal) = 3*8 Imp. bushels. 
Pott = -2124 gallon. 
Commercial last = 179*85 cubic feet 



Sweden. 
Skalpund = '937 lbs. avoir. 
Centner = 937 lbs. avoir. 
Kan = '576 Imp. gallon. 



COINAGE USED IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



Russia. 

Copeck (Copper) 

Rouble (Silver) (100 copecks) 
5 Roubles (Gold) 

7a »> »» 



America (United States). 

Cent (Copper) 

Dime (Silver) 

Dollar (Silver or Gold) 



Germany. 



10 Pfennig 

Mark 

Thaler (3 marks) 



Denmark. 



10 Ore 

Kroner (Silver)... 
10 Kroner (Gold) 



5. 




d. 


2 


I* 


IO 


8 


16 





5. 



4. 

Oj 


O 


5 


4 


2 


5. 



4. 


1 





3 





5. 



d. 
1* 


1 


i* 


11 


** 



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( i6i ) 



Austria. 



io Heller 
Krone (Silver) 



5. d. 
o I 

o io 



Norway and Sweden. 



io Ore 

50 „ (Silver)... 

1 Kroner „ 

10 Kroner (Gold) 



5. 

o 

o 

1 

11 



d. 
6f 



One ton of fresh water = 35*905 cubic ft, or 
22376 gallons. 

One gallon of fresh water weighs io*o lbs. 

One cylindrical inch of water = '0284 lb. 

One cylindrical foot of water = 48*96 lbs. 

A column of water 12 ins. long, and 1 in. square 
= -340 lb. 



BARRELS. 



Size of Barrels.— An ordinary barrel is 33 ins. long, 
and 25 ins. in diameter at the shivehole. When full, its 
weight is roughly 400 lbs., the barrel itself weighing 
about 64 lbs., or roughly one-fifth of the weight of the 
oil it contains. According to the rules of the New 
York Produce Exchange, petroleum barrels should 
be made of well seasoned white oak, and bound by 6 
or 8 hoops. When 6 hoops are used, the head hoop 
should be if in. wide No. 16 gauge (English), the 
quarter hoop 1 J in. wide No. 16 gauge, and the bilge 
hoop 1} in. No. 16 gauge. When 8 hoops are used, 
the head hoop should be if in. No. 17 gauge, the 
collar hoop ij in. No. 17 gauge, the quarter hoop 
1 J in. No. 18 gauge, and the bilge hoop 1 J in. No. 18 
gauge. All old barrels, the gross weight of which is 
less than 395 lbs., may be hooped with 6 hoops 1 Jin. 
wide, excepting the chime hoop, which should be 
if in. wide. Barrels are classified according to the 
use to which they are put First class— all barrels 
capable of carrying refined petroleum or naphtha. 
Second class — those which are not fit for such 
purpose, but are suitable for carrying crude petroleum ; 
and, third class — those suitable for holding residuum. 

Kerosene is frequently carried in tins, holding about 
4 Imperial or 5 American gallons. Two of these tins 
are contained in a wooden case of the following 
dimensions— 20f ins. long, 15 ins. high and 10J ins. 
wide, externally. The total weight, when both cans 
are filled with oil, is about 80 lbs. For transport the 
cans are hermetically sealed and are provided with 
screw caps for subsequent use. 



Pumps. 
Useful numbers for pumps : — 

D = Diameter of pump in inches. 

5 = Stroke in inches. 
IPS X 7854 = cubic inches. 
IPS X -002833 = gallons. 
IPS X -02833 = lbs. water. 
IPS X -0004545 = cubic feet 

To find the net diameter of a single-acting pump : — 

L = length of stroke in feet. 
G = number of gallons to be delivered per minute. 
F = number of cubic feet to be delivered per 
minute. 
D = diameter of pump in inches. 
N = number of strokes per minute. 

F = -00545 IP LN 

G = -034 IP LN 



»-J. 



'Oi^LN 



00545 I N 



(MOLESWORTH). 



HYDRAULICS. 

One cubic foot of fresh water weighs 62-32 lbs. and 
contains 6.23 gallons. 

One cubic inch of fresh water weighs -03616 lb. and 
contains -003616 gallon. 
O.T. 



The use of oil in stormy weather is a recognised 
subject in standard books on seamanship, and one of 
exceptional interest to those who are responsible for 
the navigation of oil-carrying vessels. At a recent 
Board of Trade inquiry it was shown that the 
Harwich steamer Berlin might have been saved if, 
just before she struck the pier head at the Hook of 
Holland, oil had been freely released forward. The 
International Marine Conference at Washington has 
recommended Governments to require sea-going 
vessels to carry suitable apparatus and sufficient 
quantities of oil for this purpose, and I am aware that 
on the Narragansett and a number of tank steamers 
there are arrangements for the proper use of oil in 
cases of emergency. 

Y 



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Thick and heavy oils are best. Cocoanut and 
some kinds of fish oil congeal in cold weather and 
are useless, but may be mixed with mineral oils to 
advantage. Probably the best temporary or impro- 
vised method is to fill the closet bowls forward with 
oakum and oil, and allow the oil to drip slowly 
through the waste pipes. Another simple way to 
distribute oil is by means of canvas bags, I ft. long, 
filled with oakum and oil, pierced with holes and held 
by a lanyard. Running before a gale, oil should be 
used from bags at the catheads or from forward waste 



pipes ; if yawing badly, and threatening to broach-to, 
use forward and abaft the beam, on both sides, 
while, when lying-to, distribute from the weather bow. 
With a high beam sea use bags at regular intervals 
along the weather side. In a heavy cross sea have 
bags along both sides. When steaming into a 
heavy head sea use oil through forward pipes. Oil 
can be advantageously used when lowering and 
hoisting boats, riding to a sea anchor, crossing 
rollers or surf on a bar, and from lifeboats and 
stranded vessels. 









. . . Schuylkill, where the oil floats 
down from Point Breeze to the Delaware, just 
where the city of Philadelphia disperses itself into 
straggling suburbs. Here are the great refineries 
of the Standard Oil Company, overhanging 
wharves where the big ships of all the world lie up 
to take in case oil, generally for Japan and the 
other markets of the Far East. The tank steamers, 
with their funnels and deck-houses crowded aft 
over their rumps, throng the stream, and often 
one may see huge sailing ships filling up ... . 
Pbrceval Gibbon. 










1 






1 

















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r^ HAPT ER XVIII. 



Canml mad Port Regulation*, Ac 




THE PETROLEUM ACT, 1871. 
ECTION 4 of this Act provides as 

follows : — 

" Where any ship or cargo is moored, 

landed, or otherwise dealt with in con- 
travention of any byelaw for the time being in 
force under this Act in any harbour, the owner 
and master of such ship or the owner of such 
cargo, as the case may be, shall each incur a 
penalty not exceeding fifty pounds for each day 
during which such contravention continues, and it 
shall be lawful for the Harbour Master, or any other 
person acting under the orders of the Harbour 
Authority of such harbour, to cause such ship or 
cargo to be removed at the expense of the owner 
thereof, to such place as may be in conformity with 
the said byelaw, and all expenses incurred in such 
removal may be recovered in the same manner in 
which penalties are by this Act made recoverable." 

THAMES CONSERVANCY BYELAWS. 
(Under the Petroleum Acts, 1871 and 1879.) 

The Conservators of the River Thames direct as 
follows : — 

No petroleum ship entering the Thames shall be 
navigated, lie in, or be moored, and no part of the 
cargo of such petroleum ship shall be discharged, in 
any part of the Thames above or to the westward of 
the Mucking Light at Thames Haven * 

All petroleum ships and barges shall, when moored 
or anchored, lie singly, and there shall be a clear space 
of not less than 100 ft* of water-way kept between any 
such petroleum ships or petroleum barges. Provided 
that this byelaw shall not apply in the case of a 
petroleum barge lying alongside a petroleum ship for 
the purpose of being laden or discharged, nor to 
petroleum barges when lying alongside a quay and 
actually discharging, nor to a tug and petroleum 



* A movement has just been started to secure the 
abrogation of this byelaw in order that tank steamers 
may be towed to, and discharge at, storage installa- 
tions higher up river. 



barges moored or anchored on account of fog or other 
exceptional cases. 

The master of every petroleum ship shall, on 
entering the Thames, and during the time that such 
ship remains in the Thames, display at the masthead 
by day a red flag not less than 3 sq. ft., with a white 
circular centre 6 in. in diameter, and by night a red 
light on the masthead in addition to any navigation 
lights which may be required by any other byelaws 
or rules. 

Whenever a petroleum ship enters the Thames 
the owner shall forthwith give notice to the Harbour 
Master at his office at Gravesend of the quantity of 
petroleum in such ship and of the manner in which 
such petroleum is stowed. Such notice shall be 
deemed to be the notice to the Conservators required 
by Section 5 of the Petroleum Act, 1871. 

The master of every petroleum ship shall anchor or 
moor his ship below or to the eastward of the 
Mucking Light at Thames Haven, and in such 
position as the Harbour Master shall from time to 
time direct, and shall not remove therefrom except 
in accordance with the written order or permission 
first obtained of the Harbour Master, or for the 
purpose of forthwith leaving the Thames. No petro- 
leum ship shall be discharged except at a place pre- 
viously approved in writing by the Harbour Master. 

The following rules in respect of the discharge of 
petroleum within the Thames shall be in every case 
complied with : — 

(a) Before any petroleum is discharged the owner 
shall give notice to the Harbour Master of the 
district in which such discharge is to take place 
of the time and place of such discharge, and no 
petroleum shall be discharged during any day unless 
such notice shall have been given before the hour of 
ten in the forenoon of that day. (£) No petroleum 
shall be landed at any quay other than such quay as 
the Harbour Master shall from time to time direct. 
(c) Before any petroleum in barrels, drums, or other 
vessels is discharged from a petroleum ship, the holds 
of such petroleum ship shall be thoroughly ventilated, 
and after all petroleum has been removed from any 



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petroleum ship the holds and tanks shall be 
thoroughly cleansed. Provided that this byelaw 
shall not be deemed to require the cleansing of the 
tanks of a tank steamer which leaves the Thames 
immediately after the discharge of the cargo of 
petroleum, and of which the tanks are closed up 
immediately after such discharge, (d) From the 
time when the holds or tanks of a petroleum ship 
are first opened for the purpose of discharging 
petroleum until such time as all petroleum shall have 
been discharged from such ship and the holds or 
tanks shall have been thoroughly cleansed, as 
required by this byelaw, there shall be no fire or 
artificial light on board such ship. Provided that this 
byelaw shall not prevent the use of a safety lamp of 
a construction previously approved by the Harbour 
Master, (e) No person shall smoke, nor shall the 
master permit any person to smoke upon any 
petroleum ship when its cargo is being discharged, 
nor shall any person engaged in the discharge of any 
petroleum ship carry matches or other means of 
producing ignition. (/) When the discharge of 
petroleum has been commenced such discharge shall 
be proceeded with with all due speed and diligence, 
and should it be impracticable to complete the 
discharge of any petroleum ship or petroleum barge 
before sunset on any one day, all tanks and holds 
shall be securely fastened immediately such discharge 
is discontinued, and all the same precautions taken as 
though bulk had not been broken. Provided that 
tank steamers which shall have commenced discharge 
before sunset shall be permitted to continue such 
discharge into reservoirs on shore or into tank barges. 
(g) Petroleum shall not be discharged in the Thames 
after sunset or before sunrise except as provided in 
sub-section (/). (A) Petroleum contained in barrels, 
drums, or other vessels which are not staunch and 
free from leakage shall only be discharged on shore 
at a duly licensed wharf, and not into a petroleum 
barge or any other vessel, (i) No petroleum shall be 
landed at any quay until the petroleum ship or 
petroleum barge, or carriage by which the same is 
to be removed therefrom, shall be at the place in 
readiness to receive the same, and all petroleum 
discharged in the Thames shall be forthwith removed 
therefrom, or to some duly licensed place of storage. 
(/) No petroleum shall be discharged or allowed 
to escape into the Thames. (k) The owner shall 
take ail due precautions for the prevention of 
accident by fire in the discharge of petroleum in 
the Thames. 



No imported petroleum shall be conveyed up the 
Thames above or to the westward of the Mucking 
Light at Thames Haven except in a petroleum barge* 
and no petroleum shall be conveyed in any barge on 
the Thames other than a petroleum barge. 

No petroleum ship shall be navigated on or lie 
in the Thames except the same be constantly in 
charge of a competent person on board such ship 
until all petroleum on board shall have been dis- 
charged, and the master of every petroleum ship 
shall at all times be responsible for the carrying 
out of and giving effect to the provisions of these 
byelaws. 

The master shall, when so required by the Harbour 
Master or by any police constable, show to such 
Harbour Master or constable all petroleum under 
his control upon the petroleum ship or petroleum 
barge, and shall afford every reasonable facility to 
enable such Harbour Master or constable to inspect 
and examine such petroleum and such petroleum 
ship and petroleum barge, so that he may ascertain 
whether the provisions of these byelaws are duly 
observed. 

When any petroleum ship, petroleum barge, or 
cargo is moored, discharged, or landed or otherwise 
dealt with in contravention of any of the above 
byelaws, the owner and master of such petroleum 
ship or petroleum barge, and the owner of such 
cargo, shall each incur a penalty not exceeding £50 
for each day during which such contravention 
continues, and it shall be lawful for the Harbour 
Master to cause such petroleum ship, petroleum 
barge, or cargo to be removed at the expense of the 
owner thereof to some place at or below the Mucking 
Light at Thames Haven, and all expenses in or 
incident to such removal may be recovered in the 
same manner in which penalties are by "The 
Petroleum Act, 1871," made recoverable. 



MERSEY DOCKS AND HARBOUR BOARD. 

Vessels containing petroleum of any kind as cargo 
are prohibited from entering any other docks than 
those adjoining the quays where the landing of 
petroleum is permitted under the byelaws, and the 
limits of mooring in the River Mersey, for vessels 
carrying over 200 gallons of " dangerous petroleum," 
are fixed as northward of a line from Victoria Tower 
to Egremont Ferry, or south of a line between New 
Ferry Pier and Dingle Point 



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The landing of " dangerous petroleum "* must be 
effected between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. from March to 
September inclusive, and between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. 
from October to February. No fires, lights, or 
matches, other than safety-matches, may be used 
either on such vessels or on the quays where the oil 
is being landed or stored, and both ships and quays 
must be under the supervision of a competent watch- 
man. The same regulations apply also to the loading 
of vessels with " dangerous petroleum." During the 
loading of vessels containing over 200 gallons of such 
oil, and their stay in dock — which, however, must in 
no case exceed twenty-four hours — a police constable 
must be present Steamers about to leave dock are 
allowed to use such fires and lights as may be neces- 
sary for four hours after leaving. All casks containing 
" dangerous petroleum " brought to, or placed on, any 
quay for shipment, must be distinctly marked as 
dangerous. 

HULL. 
(Byelaws, May ist, 1902, which apply to all 
parts of the harbour known as the 
Old Harbour at Kingston-upon-Hull.) 

The owner of every petroleum ship on entering the 
Old Harbour shall, without delay, inform the Harbour 
Master and Petroleum Inspector of the quantity of 
petroleum on his ship and of the manner in which 
such petroleum is stowed, and this shall be deemed 
to be the notice to the Harbour Authority required by 
Section 5 of the Petroleum Act, 1871. 

The master of every petroleum ship (except the 
river craft) shall (unless the ship shall proceed direct 
on the same tide to a destination above the Old 
Harbour) place or moor his ship only at the wharf 
situated on the west side of the Old Harbour, and 
known as Sand South End Wharf, and shall not, 
without the written order or permission of the Harbour 
Master, remove his ship therefrom, except for the 
purpose of proceeding direct into the Humber. Any 
such ship, if bound to any place above the Old 
Harbour, shall, after the giving of such notice as 
aforesaid, proceed to her destination without delay. 
No petroleum ship shall be anchored or moored at 



* " Dangerous petroleum " includes all such petro- 
leum and all such oil derived from petroleum, coal, 
schist, shale, peat, or other bituminous substance, and 
any product of petroleum, or any of the oils above- 
mentioned that gives off an inflammable vapour at a 
temperature of less than 100 of Fahrenheit's ther- 
mometer, when tested in the manner set forth in the 
schedule to " The Petroleum Act, 1871." 



any place other than the said Sand South End Wharf, 
whether for the purpose of landing or shipping petro- 
leum or otherwise, except river craft having on board 
as cargo not more than five tons of petroleum con- 
signed from any dock at Hull to some other port or 
place on the Humber, Ouse or Trent, or on a naviga- 
tion connected therewith, which river craft, if waiting 
for the tide or to be towed to their destination, may 
be anchored or moored at such place and for such 
period as the Harbour Master shall, after receiving 
such notice as aforesaid, direct, provided that the 
above-mentioned limit of five tons shall include all 
petroleum (whether within the meaning of the Petro- 
leum Act, 1879, or not), which may also be on board 
the ship. 

The following general rules in respect of the un- 
loading of petroleum within the Old Harbour shall 
be duly observed: — (a) Before any petroleum is landed 
the owner shall give due notice to the Harbour Master 
and the Petroleum Inspector of the time and place of 
such landing, (b) No petroleum shall be landed at 
any quay other than the said Sand South End Wharf. 
(c) Before any petroleum contained in barrels, or 
other vessels, is landed, the holds of a petroleum ship 
shall be thoroughly ventilated, and after all petroleum 
has been removed from any petroleum ship, the holds 
and tanks shall be thoroughly cleansed. Provided 
that this byelaw shall not be deemed to require the 
cleansing of the tanks of a tank steamer which leaves 
the Old Harbour immediately after the discharge of 
the cargo, and of which the tanks are closed up 
immediately after such discharge, (d) Petroleum 
shall not be landed except between the hours of sun- 
rise and sunset, (e) From the time when the holds 
or tanks of a petroleum ship are first opened for the 
purpose of landing petroleum until such time as all 
petroleum shall have been removed from such ship, 
and the holds or tanks shall have been thoroughly 
cleansed as required by this byelaw, there shall be no 
fire or artificial light on board such ship or at or near 
the place where the petroleum is being landed. Pro- 
vided that this byelaw shall not prevent the use of a 
safety lamp of a construction approved by the Petro- 
leum Inspector. (/) The owner shall not allow any 
smoking at or near the place where petroleum is being 
landed, nor shall he allow any person engaged in such 
landing to carry fuzees, matches, or other appliances 
whatsoever for producing ignition, (g) No petroleum 
contained in casks, barrels, or other vessels, shall be 
landed in the Old Harbour, unless such vessels are 
staunch and free from leakage, and are of such 



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strength and construction as not to be liable to be 
broken or to leak, except in case of gross carelessness 
or extraordinary accident (A) When the landing of 
petroleum has been commenced, such landing shall 
be proceeded with with due diligence, (i) No petro- 
leum shall be landed at any quay until the ship or 
carriage by which the same is to be removed there- 
from shall be at the place in readiness to receive the 
same, and all petroleum landed in the Old Harbour 
shall be forthwith removed therefrom, or to some duly 
licensed place of storage, (/) No petroleum shall 
be discharged or allowed to escape into the waters of 
the Old Harbour, {k) The owner shall take ail due 
precautions for the prevention of accident by fire in 
landing petroleum. 

Two or more petroleum ships shall not, except for 
purpose of transhipment, lie within ioo ft. of one 
another, unless, in the opinion of the Harbour Master, 
it is impracticable to maintain such distance. 

Every petroleum ship shall be watched by a 
competent person on board such ship until all 
petroleum on board shall have been landed, or until 
such ship shall have left the Old Harbour, and every 
petroleum ship shall at all times have on board a 
responsible person to carry out and give effect to the 
provisions of these byelaws. 

The owner shall, when so required by the Harbour 
Master, or by the Petroleum Inspector of the Local 
Authority, or by any police constable, show to such 
officers or constable all petroleum under his control 
or upon his ship, and shall afford every reasonable 
facility to enable such officers or constable to inspect 
and examine such petroleum so as to ascertain 
whether these byelaws are duly observed. 

These byelaws do not apply to any ship employed 
by any Lighthouse Authority. 



BRISTOL DOCKS COMMITTEE. 

Previous to the discharge of any petroleum, a 
certificate must be produced by the importer stating 
that the oil does not flash under 73 F., and, if 
possible, also stating the temperature at which it 
does flash. 

An application in writing must be made by the 
importer to the Harbour Master for permission to 
pump the oil from the vessel into the pipes leading 
to the storage tanks, or into tanks placed on the 
quay, and the applicant must indemnify the 
Corporation of Bristol against all losses, damages, 



costs, or expenses which they may incur or become 
liable for by reason of the granting of any such 
permission. No oil shall be allowed under any 
circumstances to leak or flow into the dock, or on to 
the quay. 

No fires or lights shall be allowed on board the 
vessel during the time of discharging, except such 
necessary fires in the engine-room for generating 
steam for pumping the oil as the Harbour Master 
may from time to time permit; and no smoking 
shall be allowed on board the vessel, or any lying 
alongside, or on the quay during such time. 

Every possible precaution must be taken, both by 
the master of the vessel and by the importer, to pre- 
vent risk of fire or explosion ; and also to prevent 
any oil being spilled on the quay, or leaking or 
flowing into the dock. Notice in writing must be 
given by the master of the vessel to the Harbour 
Master previous to water being pumped into the 
tanks of the vessel. 

The vessel shall not, whilst in the dock, be left 
without a sufficient crew on board. No persons, 
other than the crew and such other persons as shall 
be employed or engaged by the importer, or by the 
master or owner of the vessel in connection with the 
discharge of the cargo, shall be allowed on board the 
vessel or on the quay alongside. 

For the safer discharge of the cargo, an officer will 
be sent by the Harbour Master to superintend the 
carrying into effect of these regulations, payment 
being made of the expense of such superintendence 
by the master or owner of the vessel ; and the 
payment of such expense of superintendence shall 
continue until the production to the Harbour Master 
of a certificate under the hand of such officer that 
the cargo has been duly discharged. 

An application in writing must be made to the 
Harbour Master for permission to ventilate the tanks 
after the oil has been pumped therefrom, an intima- 
tion being given at the same time as to the mode 
in which it is proposed to effect such ventilation; and 
the Harbour Master may, in his discretion, either 
withhold or grant such permission, and subject to 
such special regulations and arrangements as he 
may deem necessary. 

No lighter or other craft shall, except with the 
permission of the Harbour Master, lie alongside any 
vessel during the discharge of her cargo. 

Every vessel having petroleum on board shall keep 
conspicuously exhibited from sunrise to sunset a red 
flag. 



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©Miners 

Royal Diafclk Coffipsnmy 




oQp 



T^HE Kon. Nederl. 
Maats. tot Ex- 
ploitatie van Petro. 
Bronnen in Nederl. 
Indie (Royal Dutch) 
has now a gre^t inte- 
rest for British oil men 
and the shareholders 
of the Shell Transit 
& Trading Company. 
Before the amalgama- 
tion with the Shell 
Company, the Royal 
Dutch had a fleet of 
medium-sized tank 
steamers running in 
the Far East ; they are 
now being run in con- 
junction with some of 
the Shell steamers. 

One of the latest 
of the Royal Dutch 
vessels is shown in 
the photograph — the 
Palcmbang, built 
and cngined by the 
Nederl. Schps. Maats., 
Amsterdam, in 1905. 
Her dimensions are : 
240 ft. x 42 ft. x 20 ft. 
A complete double 
pipe installation, fitted 
with two powerful oil 
pumps, is capable of 
dcalingsimultaneously 
with two kinds of oil. 
She is one of the latest 
and best of her class in 
the Far East. 



<1Qo 




[To/aii 



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SUEZ CANAL (WORKING DEPARTMENT) 
REGULATIONS FOR NAVIGATION. 

(Appendix for Ships laden with Petroleum 
Oil in Bulk. Issued January, 1907.) 

Any ship laden with petroleum in bulk, arriving 
before any port of access to the canal, must make 
herself known by flying at the mizzen one of the 
following signals : — 

By day : A red flag above one ball. 

By night : A white light beneath two red ones. 
**- When the ship goes through the canal she must keep 
the above signals flying during the whole of her transit. 

Before the ship enters the canal the captain must 
sign and hand to the officials of the company the 
following declaration. 

Declaration. — I, the undersigned, com- 

manding the ship laden with petroleum oil 

in bulk and belong to owners, do hereby 

declare, on behalf of the said owners, as follows : 

1. This ship is especially classed for the carriage of 
petroleum oil in bulk in class (i). 

® 100 A 1 at Lloyd's in London ; 

9 © 3/3 1. 1. in the Bureau Veritas ; 

® 100 Jji in the Germanic Lloyd (Berlin). 

2. No single tank in the ship has a cubic capacity 
greater than 500 tons measurement (being tons of 
2*83 cubic metres, or 100 cubic ft. English), nor can 
discharge its contents into any adjoining tank through 
any aperture or want of continuity whatever of its 
walls. 

3. The petroleum contained in her tanks is solely 
refined petroleum of an uniform quality, no sample 
of which taken at the port of loading shall have 
given a flashing point below 23 C. (73 degrees of 
Fahrenheit's thermometer), this temperature having 
been ascertained conformably with such process of 
close test as may be recognised and made use of in 
the petroleum oil trade, as, for instance, the Abel test 
or any other close test of a not lesser degree of 
accuracy. 

4. No part of the ship, other than her tanks, con- 
tains any products, whether petroleum, or by-products 
of petroleum, such as gasoline, benzine, etc., having 
a flash point below 66° C. (150 R), tested as 
prescribed in paragraph 3. 

Rules for Burning and Carrying Liquid 
Fuel. 

The following rules for steel vessels have been 
approved by Lloyd's : — 



1. In vessels fitted for burning liquid fuel, the 
record " Fitted for Liquid Fuel " will be made in the 
register book. 

2. Compartments for carrying oil fuel must be 
strengthened efficiently to withstand the pressure of 
the oil when only partly filled and in a sea-way. 
They must be tested by a head of water extending to 
the highest point of the filling pipes or 12 ft. above 
the load-line, or 12 ft. above the highest point of the 
compartment, whichever of these is the greater. 

3. If peak tanks or other deep tanks are used for 
carrying liquid fuel, the riveting of these should be 
as required in the case of vessels carrying in bulk. 
The strengthening of these compartments must be to 
the Committee's satisfaction. 

4. Each compartment must be fitted with an air 
pipe, to be always open, discharging above the upper 
deck. 

5. Efficient means must be provided by wells and 
sparring or lining to prevent any leakage from any of 
the oil compartments from coming into contact with 
cargo or into the ordinary engine-room bilges. 

6. If double bottoms under holds are used for 
carrying liquid fuel, the ceiling must be laid on 
transverse battens, leaving at least 2 ins. air space 
between the ceiling and tank top and permitting free 
drainage from the tank top into the limbers. 

7. The pumping arrangements of the oil fuel com- 
partments and their wells must be absolutely distinct 
from those of other parts of the vessels and must 
be submitted for approval. (If it is intended to 
sometimes carry oil and sometimes water ballast in 
the various compartments of the double bottom 
of the valves controlling the connection between 
these compartments and the ballast donkey pump, 
and also those controlling the suctions of the special 
oil pump, must be so arranged that the suctions for 
each separate compartment cannot be connected at 
the same time to both pumps.) 

8. No wood fittings or bearers are to be fitted in 
the stokehold spaces. 

9. Where oil fuel compartments are at the sides of 
or above, or below the boilers, special insulation is to 
be fitted where necessary to protect them from the 
heat from the boilers, their smoke boxes, casings, 
etc 

10. If the fuel is sprayed by steam, means are to 
be provided to make up for the fresh water used for 
this purpose. 

11. If the oil fuel is heated by a steam coal the 
condensed water should not be taken directly to the 



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( 168 ) 



condenser, but should be led into a tank or an open 
funnel mouth, and thence led to the hot well or feed 
tank. 

12. The above arrangements are applicable only 
to the case of oil fuel, the flash point of which, as 
determined by Abel's close test, does not fall below 
I50°F. 

The foregoing alterations and amendments also 
apply to the rules for iron vessels. 

Subjoined is a translation of the latest circular 
issued by the Suez Canal Company with reference to 
the new rules for ships laden |with petroleum in bulk 
and other products of that nature : — 

SUEZ MARITIME CANAL UNIVERSAL 
COMPANY WORKING DEPARTMENT. 

Regulations for the Navigation for Ships 
laden with petroleum oll in bulk. 

Any ship laden with petroleum oil in bulk, 
arriving before any port of access to the canal, must 
make herself known by flying at the mizzen one of 
the following signals : — 

By day : A red flag above one ball. 

By night : A white light beneath two red ones. 

When the ship goes through the canal she must 
keep the above signals flying during the whole of her 
transit. 

Before the ship enters the canal the captain must 
sign and hand to the officials of the company one ot 
the two declarations herewith : 

1. Declaration A, if the ship's cargo is composed 
exclusively of petroleum oil having a flash point 
below 23 C. (73° F.). 

2. Declaration B, if the ship contains any products, 
whether petroleum or by-products of petroleum, such 
as gasoline, benzine, etc., having a flash point below 
23° C. (73° F.). 

In this latter case the ship has to comply with the 
following special regulations : 

i. The ship must be under tow of one of the 
company's tugs during the whole of her transit 
through the canal ; 

2. The ship is prohibited from navigation at night. 

Declaration A, 

This declaration gives a form to be signed by the 
captain, specifying the name, tonnage, etc., of the 
vessel, as well as her special registry class, and 
then proceeds : — 

No single tank in the ship has a cubic capacity 
greater than 500 tons measurement (being tons of 



2*83 cubic metres, or 100 cubic ft. English) nor can 
discharge its contents into any adjoining tank through 
any aperture or want of continuity whatever of its walls. 

The petroleum oil contained in her tanks is solely 
refined petroleum of an uniform quality, no sample of 
which, taken at the port of loading, shall have 
a given flashing point below 23 C. (73 degrees 
Fahrenheit's, thermometer), this temperature having 
been ascertained comformably with such process of 
close test as may be recognised and made use of in 
the petroleum oil trade, as, for instance, the Abel 
test or any other close test of a not lesser degree 
of accuracy. 

No part of the ship other than her tanks contains 
any products, whether petroleum, or by-products of 
petroleum, such as gasoline, benzine, etc., having a 
flash point below 66° C. (150 F.), tested as pre- 
scribed in the preceding paragraph. 

Declaration B. 

This declaration is on the same lines as Declara- 
tion A, but refers to petroleum products with a lower 
flash point than 23 C. The statement includes the 
following : — 

No single tank in the ship has a cubic capacity 
greater than 2*83 cubic metres (or 100 cubic ft. 
English) nor can discharge its contents into any 
adjoining tank through any aperture or want of 
continuity whatever of its walls ; 

All products having a flash point below 66° C. 
(150° F.) — this temperature having been ascertained 
conformably with such process of close test as may 
be recognised and made use of in the petroleum 
trade, as, for instance, the Abel test or any other 
close test of a not lesser degree of accuracy — are 
contained in the ship's tanks ; 

The ship has aboard non-dangerous matters (water, 
coal, liquid fuel, etc.) admitting of easy unloading, in 
such quantity as shall suffice, in case of need, and at 
any time during her transit, to reduce the ship's 
draught by 1 ft. 8 in. by unloading same. . . . 

The ship shall be provided, during the whole of her 
transit, with two mooring boats in constant readiness 
to be instantly availed of. 

NEW YORK. 

Regulations governing Vessels lying in 
Petroleum Docks in the Counties of 
New York, King's, and Queen's. 
Captain must report arrival of vessel. No fires or 

lights are allowed on board without written permission 



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( i6g) 



of the wharfinger, who will supply cooking conveniences. 
No fires, smoking, or lights of any kind allowed on 
boats or vessels — except steam tugs and fire engines in 
the discharge of their duties — lying within 150 ft. of 
any place where petroleum, or its products, is kept for 
export, or in quantities exceeding 10,000 gallons, 
unless by permission in writing of the owner, lessee, 
or superintendent of such store, specifically stating 
the kind of light or fire, and the purpose and place 
for which it is required. 

Port of New York Harbour Master's 
Regulations. 

These rules relate to the position of vessels lying 
at wharves, and, generally, to the control of vessels 
while in the port, without particular reference to 
petroleum ships. The heating of pitch, tar, or other 
combustibles on board vessels lying at wharves, etc., 
in New York or Brooklyn, is prohibited. 

AUSTRIA. (TRIESTE.) 

Regulations of the Petroleum Harbour at 
S. Sabbia, 1 89 1. 

Tank steamers have precedence over all vessels for 
stations in the harbour, and rank amongst themselves 
in the order of their arrival. Sailing vessels or other 
steamers, lying at the wharf for loading or unloading 
barrels or cases, must give place to tank steamers 
when required. Vessels must be so moored that they 
can be cast loose. No reduction may be made in the 
number of hands on board until unloading is com- 
pleted and the vessel has left her moorings. Tank 
steamers may use steam pumps, worked by steam 
from the boilers, for unloading ; other steamers may 
use cranes or winches for the same purpose, provided 
the boiler for generating the steam is in the usual 
boiler room. The only light allowed on board petro- 
leum vessels is that approved by the Harbour Authori- 
ties. On steamers, a lamp is allowed in the galley, 
and cooking may be done on board if water is kept at 
hand for use in case of fire ; but for sailing vessels, 
the cooking must be done on shore in an appointed 
spot, unless the Harbour Officials are satisfied that it 
may be safely conducted on board. No stoves may 
be lighted so long as the vessel remains alongside the 
wharf. Smoking is forbidden, both on board and 
within the limits of the petroleum stores on shore. 
Unloading or loading must proceed at the rate of 400 
barrels, at least, per diem, Sundays and bad weather 
excepted. For this purpose, five cases are considered 
as the equivalent of one barrel. The oil must be 
O.T. 



taken away by the consignees as it is landed. Admis- 
sion to the petroleum stores is only allowed under 
special permission in the case of private persons not 
working therein. Foremen must be provided to 
superintend by day and night, and it is part of the 
foreman's duty to see, after the cessation of work for 
the day, that all lights and fires are properly ex- 
tinguished. Pumping out steamer tanks between 
sunset and sunrise is only allowed in exceptional 
cases, and by the special permission of the harbour 
authorities, and similar permission is necessary for 
the filling of tank cars, barrels, or cases. The storage 
of full or empty cases or barrels, or of easily inflam- 
mable substances, in the open, is forbidden. In sheds 
and boiler houses, a supply of water must be kept at 
hand, in case of fire, together with hand pumps strong 
enough to force a jet up to the ceiling. No fuel or 
inflammable substances may be placed on boilers or 
near the fire doors. So long as the boiler is in use, a 
qualified person must be present in the boiler room, 
and the pumps and boilers may only be left unattended 
when all fires and lights are extinguished. The 
soldering of petroleum tins may only be effected in a 
place set apart by the authorities, containing a 
plentiful supply of sand or ashes and shovels ready 
to hand. No open light is allowed in the precincts 
of the stores, nor are petroleum lamps allowed in 
closed rooms. 

Regulations of the Captain of the Port, 
May 15TH, 1879. 

Petroleum may be loaded in small quantities, and 
under the supervision of the Harbour Authorities, into 
lighters in the old port. Such boats, having petroleum 
on board, must remove from the shore at sundown, or 
if prevented by bad weather from so doing, must be 
guarded by a watchman. No fires, open lights, or 
smoking allowed while petroleum is on board. All 
petroleum lying on the quay, waiting to be loaded, 
must be under guard, but can only be allowed to so 
remain under exceptional circumstances. Steamers 
of the Austro-Hungarian Lloyd Company, lying at 
the quays, are allowed to take petroleum on board, 
provided this is effected on the day of departure and 
completed by sunset, and that the vessel is under the 
surveillance of two watchmen, as in the case of 
lighters detained at the quay. 

The Danube. 

The increasing traffic of kerosene and benzine 
carrying tank vessels between Passau and Ratisbon 



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( 170) 



and the inflammability of the products carried have 
led the Austrian Ministry of the Interior to issue 
special police regulations with reference to the trans- 
port, lighterage, and unloading of tank vessels on the 
Danube. The greater part of the oil, largely of 
Roumanian origin, is transhipped at Passau into 
smaller tankers, which generally go up as far as 
Ratisbon, where their cargoes are discharged into 
huge storage installations. 

According to the latest regulations, crude petro- 
leum and its products may only be carried in bulk on 
the Danube if the specific gravity at 17'S C. 
exceeds *68o. The tanks must not be filled up 
beyond 98 per cent of their respective capacity. On 
these vessels fires and naked lights are not allowed 
and smoking is a punishable offence. The regulations 
prohibit the use of engine fires, but there is no objec- 
tion to the benzine motors fitted with electric ignition 
and adequately water-jacketted. In order to render 
oil-carrying vessels more conspicuous, the river laws 
stipulate that they must have above the water line a 
30 centimetre wide pale blue belt of paint. At least 
six " Labbosch " fire extinguishing grenades must be 
carried on each vessel while she is being towed, and 
no other vessel is allowed to steam close astern. In 
the river, as well as on the banks, tankers must not 
load, lighter, or unload except at points allotted by 
the river police, and it is stipulated, in addition, that, 
except in case of accident, such vessels must not 
moor or anchor less than 50 metres from inhabited 
places. 



GERMANY. (BREMEN.) 

Loading, Landing and Storage 
Petroleum and Solar Oil. 



of 



Masters of vessels arriving are to give notice to the 
Harbour Authorities, stating what quantities of crude 
or refined oils are on board, and to moor their vessels 
according to directions. No loading, discharging, or 
removal of petroleum vessels is allowed without 
special permit. Fires, lights, and smoking are pro- 
hibited on petroleum vessels. 

PORT OF BREMERHAVEN. 

Harbour Board Regulations for the Dis- 
charging, Loading, and Storing of 
Petroleum and Solar Oil. 

Vessels carrying these oils will, as a rule, and 
provided that their admission is consonant with 
the harbour regulations, be allowed to enter the 



Kaiserhafen only. The captain must report to the 
Harbour Authorities the nature of his cargo, and the 
number of barrels which it comprises, before entering 
the dock, the maximum penalty for omission being 
20 marks per barrel. Watchmen are appointed, at 
the ship's expense, to ensure the absence of all lights, 
fires, and matches, and to prevent smoking. Cargo 
must be discharged immediately the ship is at the 
berth, care being taken to avoid blocking up gang- 
ways on board or on shore. Storage is effected in 
the manner prescribed by the regulations of September 
1 8th, 1874. Vessels loading must leave immediately 
the cargo is all on board. Vessels discharging must 
be thoroughly cleansed, dunnage wood stored or 
disposed of by direction of the Harbour Authorities, 
and all rubbish taken ashore at once. The Harbour 
Authorities are empowered, in certain circumstances, 
to refuse admittance to the harbour, or to expel from 
the harbour ships already admitted, and to impose 
fines for breaches of these regulations. 

For tank steamers importing petroleum in bulk, the 
following regulations are in force : — 

Tank steamers about to discharge their cargo in 
the Kaiserhafen with their own steam must get up 
steam in the roads. In putting out the boiler fire, 
it must not be raked out on to the floor-plate, but 
allowed to burn out in the fire-box. Sampling the 
oil and driving out the vapour from the tanks must 
be carried out in presence of the official watchman, 
and in the roads. While the vessel is in the Kaiser- 
hafen, no tank hatches may be unscrewed, except of 
those tanks actually being pumped out, and these 
covers must only be raised sufficiently to admit 
air for the prevention of rarefaction in the tank. 
Hatchways may only be completely open during 
daylight, and when the tanks are empty, and the 
covers must be replaced without loss of time. The 
boiler arrangements must conform to the Imperial 
Regulations, and be open to examination by the 
inspector of boilers. The pump boiler chimneys 
must be provided with spark catchers. Due notifica- 
tion to the authorities of the arrival of a tank steamer 
is compulsory, and the consignee is responsible for 
the conveyance of the necessary watchman on board 
while the vessel is lying in the roads. 

HAMBURG. 

Vessels carrying crude petroleum and its lighter 
products, refined petroleum, or turpentine, must 
report on arrival to the officer of the guardship at 



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the Ionas, and a declaration must be made by the 
captain of the quantities he has on board. Ships 
having crude oil or the lighter products on board 
must anchor at a safe place in the lower part of the 
Elbe, near Twielenfleth, and may only discharge with 



under conditions imposed by them. Vessels laden 
with refined petroleum or turpentine may discharge 
in the petroleum harbour only. No lights or fires, 
are allowed on board, no smoking is permitted, and 
the hatches must be kept open to prevent the 



the sanction of the Harbour Police Authorities, and accumulation of explosive vapour. 







•««««««««»««««««««»««««««««»«««««««««««««««««««««««*««««««*««««*«««««««««««• 



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( 172 ) 



rHE refineries of the Burmah Oil Company, 
the successful Scotch concern, are on the 
river a short distance below Rangoon. The 
company commenced its own transport in tank 
steamers in 1900, and now owns a fleet of vessels ; 
it has ocean bulk oil installations at Rangoon, Chittagong, Calcutta, 
Madras, Bombay, Marmagoa, and Karachi, and, for distribution purposes, 
a network of smaller installations all over India. 
Burmah exports very little fuel oil, though this is 
used in the refineries and on the tank steamers 
of the company and on several of the Irrawaddy 
Company's steamers. 



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J ATE IN FORMATION. 



Messrs. Peter Wright 4 Sobs mad 
the Eiizmbeth Wmtts. New Tmnk 
Stemmers; orders for eighteen. 




RECEIVED, as recently as August 
15th, an interesting communication from 
Messrs. Peter Wright & Sons on the 
subject of the first cargo of petroleum 
transported across the ocean. It refers to the voyage 
of the oil-carrying brig Elizabeth Watts to this country 
in 1 86 1 (see first page of Chapter I.). Along with the 
letter the company sent a photographic facsimile of 
the original charter party (" struck off from our plate 
for the purpose of complying with your request," 
says the writer of the letter), and I very much regret 
that time does not permit me to give anything 
more than the following type reproduction of the 
interesting document: — 

(Copy of the first charter party for the Ocean 

Transport of Petroleum.) 

PETER WRIGHT & SONS, 

Shipping and Commission Merchants, 

No. 115, Walnut Street, Philadelphia. 
This charter party, made and concluded upon in 
Philadelphia, the 12th day of November, in the year 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty one, between 
Capt. Charles Bryant, master and agent for owners, 
of the brig Elisabeth Watts of Camden, of the burthen 
of 224 tons, or thereabouts, register measurement, 
now lying in the harbour of Camden of the first 
part, and Peter Wright & Sons, merchants, of the 
second part, witnesseth, that the said party of the 
first part, for and in consideration of the covenants 
and agreements hereinafter mentioned, to be kept 
and performed by the said parties of the second part, 
doth covenant and agree on the freighting and 
chartering of the said vessel unto the said parties of 
the second part, for a voyage from Philadelphia to 
London, England, vessel to proceed to Shippen St 
wharf at once on the terms following, that is to say, 
dangers of the sea excepted :— 

First — The said party of the first part doth engage 
that the said vessel, in and during the said voyage, 
shall be kept tight, staunch, well-fitted, tackled and 
provided with every requisite, and with men and 



provisions necessary for such voyage. Second — The 
said party of the first part doth further engage that 
the whole of said vessel (with the exception of the 
cabin and the necessary room for the accommodation 
of the crew and the stowage of the sails, cable, and 
provisions) shall be at the sole use and disposal 
of the said parties of the second part during the 
voyage aforesaid ; and that no goods or merchandise 
whatever shall be laden on board, otherwise than 
from the said parties of the second part, or their 
agent, without their consent, expressed in writing. 
Third — The said party of the first part doth further 
engage to take and receive on board the said vessel, 
during the aforesaid voyage, all such lawful goods 
and merchandise as the said parties of the second 
part, or their agents, may think proper to ship. 

And the said parties of the second part, for and 
in consideration of the covenants and agreements to 
be kept and performed by the said party of the first 
part, do covenant and agree, with the said party of 
the first part, to charter and hire the said vessel as 
aforesaid, on the terms following, that is to say : — 

First — The said parties of the second part do 
engage to provide and furnish to the said vessel a full 
and complete cargo of rock oil in barrels. Second — 
The said parties of the second part do further engage 
to pay to the said party of the first part, or the agent, 
for the charter or freight of the said vessel during the 
voyage aforesaid, in manner following, that is to say : 
eight shillings sterling per barrel delivered with 
5 per cent, primage, payable cash on right delivery 
of cargo without discount. Vessel to take bills of 
lading in settlement of this charter. It is further 
agreed between the parties to this instrument, that 
the said parties of the second part shall be allowed 
for the loading and discharging of the vessel at the 
respective ports aforesaid, lay days as follows — that is 
to say: ten working days for loading, and twelve 
working days in London for discharging, and in case 
the vessel is longer detained, the said parties of the 
second part agree to pay to the said party of the 
first part, demurrage at the rate of twenty-five dollars 



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( 174 ) 



per day, day by day for every day so detained, pro- 
vided such detention shall happen by default of the 
said parties of the second part, or their agent 

It is also further understood and agreed that the 
cargo or cargoes shall be received and delivered at 
the ports of loading and discharging according to 
the custom. Vessel to employ charterer's stevedore 
at customary rates. Vessel to be consigned to 
charterer's friends at London, paying them 2J per 
cent, commission on amount of charter. It is under- 
stood and agreed that a commission of 5 per cent 
on amount of charter is due Peter Wright & Sons on 
the signing of this charter. To the true performance 
of all and every of the foregoing covenants and 
agreements, the said parties, each to the other, do 
hereby bind themselves, their heirs, executors, ad- 
ministrators, and assigns (especially the said party of 
the first part, the said vessel, her freight, tackle, and 
appurtenances, and the said parties of the second part, 
the merchandise to be laden on board), each to the 
other in the penal sum of estimated amount of freight. 

In witness whereof, the said parties have hereunto 
interchangeably set their hands, 

Charles Bryant. 
Peter Wright & Sons. 

Delivered in presence of 
Theodore Wright. 
C. A. Griscom. 

(The company's present address is 318J, Walnut 
Street, Philadelphia, while the New York office is at 
Morris Building, Broad and Beaver Streets, and the 
representatives in this country are Messrs. Hill & 
Cassap, 8, 9, and 10, Great St. Helens, E.C.) 

♦ • * * * 

Prior to the time mentioned, and for quite a 
number of years, Messrs. Peter Wright & Sons had 
been shipping out of Philadelphia, over their sailing 
vessel lines to Liverpool, London, etc., small parcels 
of twenty-five to fifty barrels of refined petroleum. 
The barrels were stowed forward of the fore hatch, 
where, in case of leakage, the oil could not injure any 
of the general cargo. 

Against the 8s. freight paid in 1861 for small 
parcels, 12s. 6d. was frequently paid, and in the case 
of the Elizabeth Watts it will be noticed that she 
carried 1,329 barrels. 

In recent years the rate of freight has declined to 
is. gd. per barrel, but the size of the cargoes has 
increased to 3,500,000 gallons in a single craft, equal 
to, say, 87,500 payable barrels. 

An interesting feature of the charter party is that 



it was witnessed by a young clerk— C. A. Griscom— 
who subsequently (in 1870) was the prime mover in 
the construction of the first tank steamers — the 
Vaderland and her associates — intended to carry 
liquid cargoes across the Atlantic. 

***** 
At the end of August it was known that orders for 
eighteen new tank steamers had been given out 
Messrs. Balfour, Williamson & Co. added another 
to the two with which they are credited in my 
estimate (page 149), while Mr. Gukassov (one of 
the principals of the great Baku oil-producing and 
refining house, and connected with the Homelight 
Oil Company, of London) placed an order for the 
earliest possible delivery of an oil-carrier of 7,000 
tons. The two vessels referred to are being built by 
Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. 

Others desirous of securing new tonnage are 
waiting for a drop in the shipbuilders' prices, and 
further orders are certain to be placed before the end 

of the year. 

***** 

I hear that the Iroquois and several other new 
steamers intended for the American oil trade will 
be equipped with Howden's well-known patent 
forced draught, which has proved so successful in 
all types of steamers, considerably over 2,300 
steamers now being fitted with this system. It is 
adapted in the case of these steamers for burning 

either coal or oil fuel. 

***** 

I have received the latest available information 
about the oil-carrying shipping business of Russia. 
This includes a table showing the number of bulk oil 
vessels (steamers) employed on the Baltic, Black, and 
Caspian Seas : — 





Baltic Sea. 


Black Sea. 


Caspian Sea. 


1896 


2 


4 


89 


1897 


2 


4 


91 


1898 


2 


4 


I02 


1899 


2 


4 


128 


1900 


2 


4 


129 


1 901 


2 


5 


127 


1902 


2 


6 


128 


1903 


2 


6 


132 


1904 


2 


7 


.. 133 


1905 


2 


7 


129 


1906 


2 


8 


131 


1907 


2 


6 


128 



These figures are official, but they differ from those 
produced by Baku authorities, who do not agree as 
to the numbers in any single year. 



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I am told that at the beginning of this year the 
oil-carrying sailers on the Caspian numbered 166 
(48,975 tons capacity). 

The following table shows the countries in which 
the tank steamers of the Caspian were built : — 

England. Russia. Germany. Sweden. 



Up to 1896 


•• 


, 8 


... 


33 


... 


37 


... — 


In 1896 


.. 


. — 


... 


— 


... 


1 


... — 


» 1897 


.. 


. 7 


... 


2 


... 


3 


... 5 


» 1898 


.. 


2 


... 


7 


... 


1 


... 6 


» 1899 


... 


2 


... 


— 


... 


3 


... — 


„ 1900 


.. 


. — 


... 


— 


... 


— 


•• . «^— • 


„ 1901 


.. 


— 


... 


2 


... 


— 


. . • "■"■ 


„ 1902 


.. 


. — 


... 


3 


... 


1 


... — 


» '903 


.., 


1 


... 


3 


... 


2 


1 


» 1904 


... 


— 


... 


— 


... 


— 


... — 


» 190S 


... 


— 


... 


1 


... 


— 


... — 



Total ... 20 ... 51 ... 48 ... 12 
From 1882 up to the present time twenty-eight 
tank steamers have been built in this country to 
trade under the Russian flag. One of the Russian- 
built vessels launched in 1902, the year in which 
peace was declared in South Africa, was christened 
the President Kruger. 

The following are the largest owners of tank 
steamers on the Caspian : — Nobel, 12 ; M. B. 
Ousseinoff, 6 ; Soctett d'Orient, 6 ; G. A. Dadacheff, 
6 ; Mazout, 6 ; Zak-Naroff and Skrepinsky, 4 ; Ch. 
A. Dadacheff, 5 ; Rassouloff, 4 ; and KachtchlefT, 5. 
Below I give a table showing the fluctuations in 
the rates of freight earned by the bulk oil-carriers 
trading between Astrakhan and the following ports : — 





Distance 

in 

Kilometres. 


Copecks. 


1906. 


1905. 


1904. 


1903. 


1902. 


1901. 


Tzaritzin 


504 


1*0 


I'O 


0*92 


08 


175 


11 


Saratov 


935 


230 


roo 


175 


r6 


2*4 


238 


Samara 


1.398 


3*45 


2*94 


278 


250 


3'6 


315 


Kazan 


1.883 


45 


4*o 


37 


3*25 


47 


44 


Nizhni-Novgorod 


2,319 


575 


475 


46 


4*00 


5*50 


538 


Jaroslawl 


2,740 


68 


575 


55 


4*85 


67 


6'5 


Rybinsk 


2.834 


7'i 


59 


575 


500 


To 


69 



At the end of the month in which this book is 
published one of the most important oil contracts 
ever entered into will come to an end ; I refer to the 
one made some eight years ago between the Gulf 
(late Guffey) Refining Company and the Anglo- 
Saxon Petroleum Company (late Shell Transport 
and Trading Company), which gave the last-named 
concern first claim on all oil shipments to this 
country. This has always been a good contract for 
the British company, which, I should estimate, has 
received from the refineries of the Gulf Company 
an average of 70,000 or 80,000 tons of oil a year, or, 
roughly, 600,000 tons on the contract With the 
termination of the contract the large steamers of the 
Anglo-Saxon Company will call less frequently at 
Port Arthur, but this does not mean there will be 
a diminution in the quantity of oil shipped by the 
Gulf Company to this country, because (I am able to 
state on good authority) a new contract has been 
made with the British Petroleum Company (the 
General-Consolidated combination) working in con- 
junction with what is known as theEuropean Petroleum 
Union, This arrangement will result in a number of 
new steamers being placed in the Anglo-Texas oil 
trade. While the Shell steamers loaded Texas oil, 
I understand those of the British Petroleum 
Company will bring away Indian Territory oil 
pumped to tide-water and there refined by the Gulf 
Company. 

***** 

On page 74 I refer to a new system of framing for 
oil-carrying vessels invented by Mr. Isherwood. I am 
pleased to conclude this work with the announcement 
that, leaving Lloyd's Register, he has just become an 
active director of the old-established firm of Messrs. 
Craggs and Sons, the Middlesbrough builders of a 
number of tank steamers. Messrs. Craggs and Sons 
will not exclusively build the Isherwood type of 
vessel, but it may be taken for granted that his 
presence on the board means that the construction of 
tank steamers on his new model will be encouraged 
and advanced. 




Bradbury, Aomiw 6 Co. Ld„ London and Tonbmpoi. (1702—9^7,) 



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HOLZAPFEL'S 

Anti-Gorrosive & Anti-Fouling Compositions 



ARE THE BEST. 



SPECIALITY FOR PETROLEUM INSTALLATIONS: 

HOLZAPFEL'S PETROLEUM 
RESISTING COMPOSITION. 



REGISTERED 




Shell Steamers VOLUTE {on the left) and EL AX (on the right) in Dock at Genoa, being coated uith HOLZAPFEL'S 

INTERNA TJONA L COMPOSITION. 
As used by — 

M. SAMUEL & CO., ASIATIC PETROLEUM CO., LTD., 

KON. NEDERL STOOMBOOT MAATS. 



HOLZAPFEL'S COMPOSITIONS Co., Ltd 

headoffice: NEWCASTLE^ON-TYNE, 



(r 



BRANCHES: 

42. MOUNT STUART SQUARE, CARDIFF, 
SO, CHAPEL STREET, LIVERPOOL, 
12, WATERLOO STREET, GLASGOW, 
57, FENCHURCH STREET, LONDON. 



ALSO AT 

WEST HARTLEPOOL, SUNDERLAND, HULL, 
NEW YORK. HAMBURG, COPENHAGEN, 
GENOA, SEBASTOPOL, Ac. 



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SMITH'S DOCK Co., Ltd., 

Amalgamated in 1899 with R S. EDWARDS & SONS. 

Head Office : HIGH DOCKS, SOUTH SHIELDS. 




. And at . 

Guildhall, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
17, Qracechurch Street, London. 



1 



. Telegraphic Address . 

SMITH'S, North Shields. 
EDWARDS, South Shields. 



•* DOCK OWNERS, SHIPBUILDERS, 



A World's Record 

in the Docking of 

Tank Steamers. 



The following is a list 
of the Tank Steamers 
docked by Messrs. Smith's 
Dock Company, Ltd, 

1880. 

October . . Rocklight 



January 

February 

March 

June 

July '.' 
August 



March 
May .. 
April .. 

May .. 

July •'■ 

Septemiier 
November 



January 



May .. 

August 

September 
November 
Deceiiili«r 



Frhruary 
Man.h .. 



April 



to June 



July .. 
August 



Octolwr 
November 



. . Kasbek 

1890. 

. . Darial 

Lumen 
. . Elbruz 
. . Darial 
. . Lumen 

Darial 
. . Rocklight 
.. Kasbek 
. . Darial 

Lumen 

1891. 

.. Kasbek 
. . Enerfrie 
.. Elbruz 
.. Astral 

Geestemundc 
.. Kasbek 

Elbruz 

Darial 

1892. 

.. Kasbek 
.. Elbruz 

Darial 

.. Aral 
.. Elbruz 

Astral 

laiiLirville 

Darial 

1893. 

Elbruz 
Hr<hi<lmayne 
.. Kasbek 
Astrakhan 
Luccrna 
Hakuin 
I .uini-n 
Darial 
Astral 
LiKitfrn 
Wt-.lnwken 
Astrakhan 



Engineers, Boiler Makers, 

Brass Founders, Copper-Smiths, 6c. 



PJflLJnr LARGE DOCKS & PONTOONS, 

^^ A VJ XXX Situated close to the River Mouth and all the 



Situated close to the River Mouth and all the 
Principal Loading Docks. 



Important Alterations and Extensions in progress. 



SPECIAL ATTENTION given to REPAIRS and ALTERATIONS to 

OIL TANK STEAMERS. 

VESSELS CONVERTED FOR BDRNINC Oil FOEL. 

AJ1 Docks are fitted with Portable Electric Lamps and Special Pumps for 
the rapid Filling and Testing of 

OIL TANKS. 

A Large Jtaff of Men, specially trained and constantly employed 
on Oil Work, always available. 



> 



1894. 



January 



April 
May 

July 



September 
N..M-n.lM-r 
December 



L 



James brand 

CiiitfweU 

I-lbruz 

Haku Standard 

Kasbek 

Orirlamme 

Prudentia 

Astral 

Darial 

Haku Standard 

llroadinayne 

Lucerna 

Luciline 

Azov 

Suram 

I-lbruz 

Max 

Dutluld 

fames brand 

Luciline 

Lu.i W en 

l-up'.ect.-la 

Petriana 

Astrakhan 

l.i.L.-rna 

Orirlamme 




List of Oil Vessels 


Docked, 


&c— Continued. 




1895. 


January 


Lumen 


i* 


. . Manhattan 




.. Aral 


»» 


Luciline 




Petriana 




. . James Brand 
. . Baku Standard 


February 




J ames Brand 


March .. 


. . Prudentia 


•« 


. . Outfield 




. . Elbruz 


April .. 


Lumen 


May . . 


.. Bq. I^awhill 


M 


.. Hot ham Newton 


»* 


. . Suram 




. . Broadmayne 


June 


Batoum 




.. Christine 


July .. 


Oriflamme 




. . I aimen 


August 


Pet riana 


.. 


.. Outfield 


„ to Oct. W'cehawkcn 


November 


.. Aral 


»» 


.. Chifprell 


»» 


Prudentia 


December 


Basu Standard 



■< 



Vii.w <>r nit lMi k-KiK <>i run Mmxi. Sii<m>. 

linriPPI-.il VY1IH IHH Most MoDIKN M.UHINIKV ASH Al'PI.I ANCPS. 



January 
February 

March . . 

May 
June 

juiy : 

August 
September 

Octooer 
November 
1 eccmber 

January 

February 

March .. 



April .. 
June 

July '.'. 



August 
September 

October 

November 
December 

January 



1896. 

Luciline 

Chijrwell 
. . Outfield 

Aureole 

Suram 

Luciline 
. . Ween. iw ken 
. . DuMield 

Lumen 
. . Telena 

Prudentia 

Baku Standard 
. . Azov 
.. Astral 

Petriana 

Aureole 

( lilfield 

Christine 

Chiewell 
.. Kasliek 
.. Oilfield 
. . Dufheld 

1897. 

Luciline 

Wc-ehawken 
. . Manhattan 
. . Vedra 

Baku Standard 

Prudentia 

U'eehawken 
.. St. Helens 

Broadmayne 
. . Elbmz 

Astrakhan 
.. Aral 

Aureole 

Lucigen 
.. Astral 
.. Kura 
.. Aral 
. . DufTield 

Aureole 
. . Darial 

Petriana 
. . Dufheld 

Lucerna 

Azov 

Astrakhan 

Batoum 

James Brand 
. . ( Hlfield 

Aureole 

Luciline 
. . Chi^well 
. . Delaware 

Baku Standard 
.. Elbruz 
.. Aral 
. . Outfield 
1898. 

Beacon Eight 

Aras 

Phosphor 

Rion 

Circassian 
Prince 



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April 



May 



June 



List of Oil Vessels 
Docked, Ac—Continued. 

1893— Continued. 

February .. St. Helens 

„ Broadmayne 

March . . .. Luciline 

Aras 

.. Weehawken 
.. St. Ik-lens 
.. K.isliek 
.. Duffidd 
.. Aral 
.. TVtri.il 
.. Titian 
Lucerna 
I..i< kawanna 
Kura 
.. kinn 
.. Baku Stindard 

Aureole 
.. Az.j% 
.. Vedra 
.. Dum.lcl 

Baku Standard 
. . J. lines Brand 
.. Flhruz 
. . t hltield 
.. Aral 

Minoco 
.. Astrakhan 

.. Dumi-ld 
. . I .uccnva 

1890. 

.. Baku Standard 
.. Aureole 
.. Aral 

lames Brand 

Batoum 

Luci^en 
. . ;( >il Bur^cfe 
.. Vedra 

Broadmayne 
. . Klbrua 

TancarviUe 

Kaslwk 
.. Aras 

Astrakhan 
.. Aral 

I )ranje Prin:c 

A/ov 
. . ( Hltield 
.. Outfield 

Weehawken 

Darial 

James Brand 

Batoum 

TancarviUe 

Pnidcntia 
. . Luci^en 
.. Aureole 

Bro.n1ui.iyne 
.. James Brand 

( ieesteinund* 
.. Astrakhan 

Rion 
.. blbruz 

I .ticitfen 

1900. 



THE 



July .. 
Septemtier 



January- 



February 

March . . 
April .. 



May and Julv 



June 

July 



Smith's Dock Company 

Is the modern representative of two of the oldest and best known firms 
of the kind founded during the Eighteenth Century. Commenced by 
Mr. Thomas Smith, the business of Messrs. Smith's Company, 
which embraced everything connected with the maritime industry, was 
carried on continuously by members of the family until the present 
Company, which includes the firm of Messrs. H. S. Edwards & Sons 
(founded in 1768), was formed. 

The Machinery and Appliances of the Docks, Pontoons and Workshops are 
of the most modern and complete description- 

Electricity is used for Lighting as well as for Mechanical Power, and 

the Company have Special Facilities for the Docking and 

Repairing: of Tank Steamers. 

The Shipyard, like the Docks, is complete in every department; the 

Shops and Sheds being provided with all the latest Machinery driven 

by Steam, Hydraulic and Electric Power, the latter being generated 

in the Company's own power station. 

The yard is partially covered, and the present space admits of the 
building of vessels of large size. 

The Store Rooms contain everything required in the business of Ship- 
building and Ship-repairing, so that there is no delay in the execution 
of the work in hand, whatever its character. 

I Vessels are equipped to burn Oil Fuel and adapted to carry Creosote. 



Noveml>er 
iKxenibcr 



January 



February 



> 



September 



November 
Deceml>er 



< 



Jan. to Feb. 



February 
Man l» .'. 



it emu; 
nenjie 



Ap il 



May 



JuVy 



September 



Gee*t 
Fnen. 

Kura 

Fnertfie 

Astrakhan 

Saxoleine 

VcvIm 

Aras 

Aral 

V.ilute 

Lucerna 

Balakani 

I .ucilme 

Mexican Prince 

Mm o 

Orirlainine 

Astrakhan 

Luciline 

LuceriM 

I u.-itfen 

A/ov 

BUontneld 

Baku Standard 

Tancarv.lle 

Broadtuayne 

Standard 

<.ut Heil 

Trrek 

Batoum 

lames Brand 

Vedra 

C.enesee 

Mannheim 

Savleine 

L,.ci C en 




SUM!-: (>F TI1L COMPANY'S DOCKS. 



List of Oil Vessels 
Docked, Ac— Continued. 

1903— Continued. 

September . . Vedra 

Balakani 
.. .. l.ucillne 

October .. Kura 

.. . . Suwanee 

„ .. Turlio 

11 James Brand 

Pennou 
Aral 
(.hi held 

1904. 

I.umen 
.. Henri Keith 
.. Housatonic 
. . « tranje Prince 

Appilacheu 
.. Aral 
.. Astrakhan 
.. Saxolelnu 
.. 1 .111 
.. Turlio 
.. l-uplectela 
.. lames Brand 

Broadmayne 

Tunawunda 
. . Genesee 

oriflamme 
.. Aureola 
. . Terek 
.. lux 
.. Brilliant 
. . Weehawken 

Lumen 

Astrakhan 
.. Aral 
. . Terek 
.. Mar^'.iritha 

Luciline 

1905. 

. . Tincarvillw 

.. Luciline 
Astrakhan 
I>eutschUnd 
. Tam.inlllc 

.. Manhattan 
TancarviUe 
Broadmayne 

.. Baku standard 

.. Ftelka 

Weehawken 
Beacon 1 JgUt 
Lackawanna 

. . Vedra 

Broadmayne 

.. Aral 
Lumen 

. . Weehawken 
< irirlaiiimc 
Astrakhan 

. . Wcehawken 
Batoum 
Beaton Light 
Russian Prinze 
Liuenia 
llousatoiiic 

'.'. Araf 
. . Ting-a 

Lackawanna 
. . Mexican Prince 

1906. 

Oral StroganorT 
.. Astrakhan 
.. Aureole 

Baku Standard 
.. Iain's Brand 
.. niamant 



April 



July 



November 
December 



January 



February 



April 
May 



June 



July 



August 



<epteml>er 
Nut cm t>er 



January 



I el.ru a ry 
March . . 



> 



January 



. Bl.M.inneld 
. Dutiield 

1901. 

.. (•resteiimnde 
.. LiKerna 
Lumen 
ir^rrtnr -irr Petersen 
.. Krilliant 
. Lumen 
.. Balakani 
.. tint Heil 
.. Kn-Hi.in Prime 






April 

May 
June 
July 



Auffu«t 
Sept em tier 



List of Oil Vessels 


List of Oil Vessels 


List of Oil Vessels 


Docked, 


Ac — Continued. 


Docked, 


dec. — Continued. 


Docked, 


dec. — Continued. 


1901 


— Continued. 


1901 — Continued. 


1903— Continued. 


April .. 


I.ucigen 
.. Northern Litfht 
. . Helios 


OctoU-r .. Vedra 

.. to Dec. Minoco 
November Balakani 


July .. 
August 

Septemlter 


Broadmayne 

. . Tum any 
. . Saxoleine 
. . Le Coq 


May .. 


.. fclbru* 


• » 






A xov 




TancarviUe 








. . Terek 


»» 


. . Terek 




t >ntl. inline 


October 


.. Mannheim 




l.uci^en 


»» 




Lucerna 


June .. 


.. Llbruz 
Au reok* 




1902. 


Novenil>er 


.. Aral 
.. Lucline 




.. Outfield 


January 


.. Pure Oil 


Decern! *r 


l >ranje Prince 


July 


(krnesee 


*» 


.. I.iChi 




.. Ttis.. any 




.. Northern Light 




.. Oilfield 


,. 


limbeiino 


„ Burv<*nneister Petersen 
, Potomac 


bebruary 


Lumen 

.. Siiram 




1903. 


„ 


.. Northern Litfht 




.. Vedra 


January 


.. Astrakhan 




.. Ottawa 


March . . 


. . lames Brand 
Lucerna 




.. Mura 


August 


Ottawa 




February 


Ottawa 




Potomac 




.. Lucifer 


March . 


( ienewe 




Tioga 


April . 


Weehawken 


May 




. . Le Coq 




Russian Prince 


May .. 


.. LiiK-rua 


June 




.. Saxoleine 


.« 


Tiova 




.. Bilakant 






.. Aral 


,, 


I .ucerna 


.. 


.. Tonawarda 


t< 




Broadmayne 




. . Saxol.ine 


June 


.. Astrakhan 






Pennoil 




. Ilotham Newton 


,. 


.. Suwanee 






.. Lmifer 


September 


. . Tio-a ' 




.. Pi.toiinc 


, 




. . Suwanee 




Kussian Prin' e 


J"iy •• 


.. M.ra 


July 




Lumen 




.. Aral j 


»• 


.. Oilfield 






.. K.on 


Octolxr 


.. J aim-. Brand 1 


" 


.. Lumen 


» 




Baku Standard 



Broadmayne 
. . lames Brand 
Baku Standard 
Batoum 
.. Lux 
( tenesee 
1 .ucerna 
.. Let.K, 

W illkommen 
Cheviprake 
Oriflamme 
.. Lucerna 
.. Aral 
.. Astrakhan 
.. San t'hristnbal 

Oranie Prince 
. . t hlhehl 
.. Aras 
Romany 

RossJi.i 

.. tieorgian Prince 

Luciline 
1907. 

Broadmayne 
Lumen 
Astrakhan 
Batoum 
h. 3rd to Mar. lit h Fla* 
February . . Ilaku standard 

„ . . Batoum 

Feb.?7thtoMar.»trd Aral 
February 24th floiisatonic 
April .. Fuplectcla 

Lumen 



January 
February 



In addition to the vessels 
docked the Company have 
done a considerable quan- 
tity of other descriptions 
of work to oll-carrylng 
vessels afloat. 



•X- 



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Gulf Refining Company, 



REFINERS OF 

INDIAN TERRITORY & 
TEXAS PETROLEUM. 

. We make a Speciality of . 

Superior Lubricating Oils 

Of High Viscosity and Low Cold Test. 



PROMPT SHIPMENTS FROM - 
NEW YORK, PHILADELPHIA, 
BOSTON, NEW ORLEANS, . 
and PORT ARTHUR (Texas). 



SPECIAL PRICES TO LARGE . 

JOBBERS AND REFINERS. . 
Jff 

CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 



General Sales Offices : 



FRICK BUILDING ANNEX, PITTSBURGH, PA., U.S.A. 

European Representative : 

H. E. WATSON, 10, RUE THIMONNIER, PARIS, FRANCE. 




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Galizische Karpathen Petroleum A. G. 




- VORM ALS 

BERCHEIM 



AND 



MACGARVEY. 



Establishul 1883. 




)T*HE CATALOGUE of this 
1 Company is one of the 
most complete published. It 
shows the types of Rigs, 
Pumps, Engines, and Boilers 
which the Company has sent 
to all parts of the oil world — 
Russia, Roumania. the Dutch 
Indies, the British Colonies, 
and, of course, Galicia and 
Germany. 

The workshops at Mariam- 
pole have been enlarged, and 
the Company is in a position 
to execute orders with the 
greatest care and promptitude. 



:w 



"So 



Glinik Maryampolski, 
Galicia, Austria. 



Manufacturers and Dealers 



ib 



pertaining to DRILLING for and 



of Petroleum by the 

CANADIAN SYSTEM. 



Canadian Drilling Rigs, 
Oil PCinjps # Boilers. 

BERGHEIM AND MacGaRVEY'S DOUBLE 

and Single Cylinder Special . . 

Drilling Engines. 

MacGarvey's Patent Eccentric Bits. 

In order to effect a saving on freight and duty on orders for Oil Fields outside 

Austria, we have Special Arrangements with Manufacturers in Germany, 

England and America, whereby certain parts of the Outfits are furnished 

in these countries and shipped direct to their destination. 



< \ I A! OGUI S vm> I STIMA 11 S 
FREE ON APPLICATION. 



EXPERT GALICIAN DRILLERS 
ENGAGED FOR CUSTOMERS 



In asking for estimates for Complete Drilling Outfits, kindly state depth 
to he drilled and diameter of first casing intended to be used 





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OIL WELL SUPPLY Co., 

PITTSBURG, PA., U.S.A. 

Manufacturers of Everything required to DRILL, EQUIP, and OPERATE 



L 



*» PETROLEUM PRODUCING PROPERTIES. € 



The Company Manufacture a Full Line of 



PIPE and PIPE FITTINGS (Wrought, Malleable and Cast), also 
BRASS VALVES of all descriptions for fitting up Tanfc 
Steamers, or for any other purpose where similar goods are used. 




Estimates and 

Specifications 
Furnished Free 

. to . 
Correspondents 

in any part 
of the World. 




OIL STORAGE. —TANKAGE OF ANY SIZE, from Small 
Portable Tanks to the Largest Storage Tanks of £0,000 Barrels Capacity. 



d- 
er 



CABLE- 
EATON, PITTSBURG. 



Export Department. 

t FITTER- S 

OIL WELL SUPPLY. Pittsburg, P»., D.S.A. 



CODES- 



A.B.C.. A.I., LIBBERS. 



CREDIT 4t * 
PETROLIFER 

Soclete Anonyme pour favoriser 

le developpement de Industr ie 

petrolifere en Roumanie. 



I Ik ad Okkick: 



Bucharest (Roumania) 

STRADA LIPSCANI 10. 



Branch (Hhres: 1'i.oisn, Biminaki. Camiina, 



Cr 



Ki stkni>jk and Bkaii / 



. Exports of • 

BENZINE, LAMP OILS, GAS OILS, MOTOR 
OILS, LUBRICATING OILS, LIQUID FUEL. 

F.o.b. Kustendje or Braila in CargO'Lots, shipments in bulk, 
in Barrels and Cases. 



^9 



General Agents of the "Vega," Societe Anonyme Roumaine 
pour le raffinage du petrole. 



Telegrams : " Credipetro ' Bucharest ; A. B.C. Code, 4th and 5th Edition, Liebers' Code. 

Bankers: Direction der Diseonto-Gesellscbaft, Berlin ; S. Bleichroder, Berlin ; Banque 
Generalc Roumaine, Bucharest. 

Agents kok Great Britain : 

HENRY FUNCK 6 Co., 

101, Leadenhall Street, LONDON, E.C. 

<4> 



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A. F. CRAIG G CO., LTD., 



Engineers, Machine Makers, 



* 



Ironfou nders a nd 'B oiler Makers, 
Caledonia Engine Works, PAISLEY, Scotland. 

The Firm of A, F. CRAIG & CO., established in the year 186S, was converted into a private limited 
liability company in i8c>5. Beginning in a comparatively small way, the business has gradually extended, until at 
the present time the works cover over six acres and give employment to seven hundred hands. 

The class of work turned out is extremely varied in character, consisting as it dots of Textile Machinery 
of the finest and most delicate workmanship, Steam Engines. Sugar Mills and other heavy work, Marine Engine 
Castings (up to thirty tons), and Marine Steam Boilers (up to sixty tons in weight). 

The Firm commenced the manufacture of Oil Distilling and Refining Plant in the year iJ$8o, and 

was the first to erect the Young and Beilby Patent Retorts, which made quite a revolution in the mineral 
oil trade in Scotland about that year. 

Since then, the Company has erected Retorts and Oil Refining Plant of various kinds for every 
Mineral Oil Company in Scotland, and has also sent a large quantity to the Continent and other place > abroad. 

The view given below, represents a bench of eighty '* Young and Fyfe's " Patent Automatic Discharging 
Retorts, and the Atmospheric Condenser in connection therewith, capable of treating three hundred tons ot 
shale in twenty-four hours. These were erected in the Hopetoun works of Messrs. Young's Paraffin Light and 
Mineral Oil Company, Ltd. The order was received on August 30th, 1906, and the retorts were in full work on 
January gth, 1907. 




A l MOSl'HKKIC CONDKNsKK. 



photographs from which these illustrations are produced were taken on December 25th 

show the work all but completed. 



KKN'CII OK KICIIIV *' YOl\N<; AM' FYKK " KKIOKIS. 

906, and 







Messrs. A. F. CRAIG 6 Co., Ltd., 

ARE MAKERS OF :- 

Steam Kngines and Steam Boilers of everv description ; Sugar Mills and Sugar Kenning Plant, Oil 
Distilling and Oil Refining Plant, Paraffin Wax Refining and Sweating Plant, Sulphate of Ammonia Plant. 
Oil Washers, Storage Tanks, Hydraulic and Filter Presses, Oil Coolers, &C, &c. 

They are also makers of Shearing md Clipping Machines for all kinds of Textile Fabrics, Patent 
Kipping Machines for Spot (toods, and Carpet Looms up to three yards wide. 

IRON CASTINGS for Marine Kngines and other purposes can be produced up to thirty tons, and 
Marine Steam Boilers up to sixty tons weight. 

Plans prepared and Estimates given tor every description ot Machinery Iron and Steel Work. 



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- >-^->-^->-^Sr>-^->^^^^i^-^^: I'-T-efc 



Meade-King, Robinson, t Co., 

11, Old Hall St, LIVERPOOL, and 18, Exchange St., MANCHESTER, 

Petroleum Products 



Importers 
of - - 



AGENTS for the sale of 

NOBEL'S RUSSIAN 
LUBRICATING 0IL5. 



Distributors in this Country for the Stronoest 
. . . Independent American Refiners . . . 



In barrels or railway-car loads ex stores in 
Liverpool and Manchester, and from the 
following centres by road. Cart deliveries 
within usual cartage radius:— 
LIVERPOOL, MANCHESTER, BIRMING- 
HAM. CANNOCK, DERBY, DUDLEY, 
NOTTINGHAM, OLDHAM. 

Other centres for road 
deliveries in contemplation. 



Specialities : 

CYLINDER OILS of every description. 
PETROLEUM SPIRIT of ail kinds. 
PALE and RED ENGINE OILS. 
BLACK OILS of all kinds. 
PARAFFIN SCALE and WAX. 
SPINDLE and LOOM OILS. 
GAS OILS. LIQUID FUEL. 



Sole Importers of 



"GIANT" MOTOR SPIRIT, 

" SWANSDOWN " 
WATER-WHITE PETROLEUM, 
and No. 1 T.S. 



Stocks held at * * 

Liverpool, Manchester, Hull, Newoestle, Glasgow and Bristol. 

Represented by Messrs. W. A. LEWIS & CO.. Scottish Widows' Buildings, Baldwin-Street, BRISTOL: 
Mr. JOSEPH St. LUDGER. 39. Corporation -street, BIRMINGHAM ; 
Messrs. JOHN WATTS O CO., 120. Alfred Gelder-street, HULL; 
Mr. JAMES V. SMELLIE, 25, Gordon-street, GLASGOW. 



I 

l 



a 

IS 









a 



88 



%BBaSBBBBK3BBESEl BEREBBBSHSBEEBIBaBBEgBEgEBBSHBBKgBBi Z BBBLHSZBBBaW 



I John H. Walton & Co., " 

ft Telegrams-' 'Walton." *BAKU (Hltl HA. TOUM . A B C and Moreing'and Neals Mining 

| General Commission Agents. HH Import and Export Merchants, 



^ Dealers in all kinds of Oil Field and 
i*j Mining Requisites. 




^>£ 



i\C1 



K Oil and other Mining Properties offered. 



R9 



^ Properties Inspected and Reports Made. 

§8 Foreign Companies Managed. ^ 



I 






Producers of and Dealers in Bitumen. ^ 

Sole Caucasian Agents for the KERMODE ' 
LIQUID FUEL SYSTEM. 

Sole Russian Agents for the JAPANOL | 

ENAMAL CO. g 



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Google 



IX 




Tlje 
Dest Centre 
ii) England 

for tye 
Distribution 

- of - 
all Classes 

of Oil. 



MANCHESTER DOCKS 

ARE CONNECTED BY RAIL 

WITH ALL THE SYSTEMS OF 

<^ THE COUNTRY. r^> 



Direct Communication with all 
-£e the Inland Navigations. 36- 



CHEAP THROUGH DISTRIBUTING RATE8. 



RAILWAY LINES INTO EACH DEPOT. 



Stcanws Discbargc aloogSi<f< TaokS. 



EXCELLENT SITES FOR 
TANKS ARE AVAILABLE. 




Situate in 

and Serves 

tlje inost 

Densely 

Populated 

District 

in 

England. 



A. MATTIEVICH 

Co. — 



'BATOUM. 



Telegrams: « MATTIEVICH." 




• • 



Steanjsliip, . 
General Conjinission 

AND 

Forwarding Agents. 
Jff 



INSPECTORS OP OIL CARGOES. 



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LONDON & THAMES HAVEN OIL WHARVES, Ltd., 

Leadenhall House, 101, Leadenhall Street, LONDON, E.C. 



WHARVES:— 

Thames Haven, Essex. 
Central Wharf, Bow. 
Manhattan Wharf, Silvertown. 

DELIVERY DEPOT .- 

Abbey Mills, West Ham. 

TELEGRAMS :— 

" Oleometro, London." 

TELEPHONES :— 

4098 Central. 

2 i?°, \ London Wall. 
2461 1 




! 




RAILWAY SIDINGS AND TANKS AT CENTRAL WHARF, 
BOW, LONDON, E. 

Expert Investigations 
of Petroleum Oils and 
Products by Own 
Chemists. & 

M M M 

Specialists in Blending 
and Compounding and 
Cleaning Oils. M 






STORAGE AND BARRELLING DEPARTMENT 
AT MANHATTAN WHARF, 



TANKAGE CAPACITY OVER 100,000 TONS. 
PETROLEUM SPIRIT 

(PETROL), 

ILLUMINATING OILS, 

GAS OILS, 

LUBRICATING OILS, 

OILS FOR GREASE- 
MAKING. 

LIQUID FUEL, 

MOLASSES and 

FISH OILS, 

Stored and delivered in bulk, 
barrel, drum, or can as required. 




KIVER FRONTAGE AND SHEDS AT CENTRAL WHARF, BOW, LONDON, E. 



I'hoUi^iuphs of lite whaivti <ind inxtalliitions o'this Company arc it-froiluceit on the [-late facing ptigc 154.— Ay ihor. 



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XI 



F 



Anglo American 
Oil Co.. Ltd. t 



js& 



SOLE IMPORTERS: 





finest ^meriean Carrip Oils: 

WHITE ROSE and . 
ROYAL DAYLIGHT. 



M M M 

PRATT'S 
MOTOR 
SPIRIT 



PACKED IN SEALED 
TWO-GALLON CANS. 



Universally used by all leading 
Motor Manufacturers, Motorists, 
Railway and Motor 'Bus 
= Companies 



\ 



te 



In use ana for Sale euerpiolxre. 



QUALITY TELLS. 



^i& 



To Dealers Only. 



J 



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xu 




^^^^^jO^^BSSS^jmbLsSSBSSSS^ 



DAVID J. DUNLOP S CO., 

Shipbuilders, Engineers, arjd Boilermakers, 
& PORT GLASGOW, N.B. 



n 



BUILDERS OF PASSENGER & CARGO STEAMSHIPS. 




BULK OIL CARRYING STEAMERS. 

Cable Laying and Repairing 
Stealers. 

Liglit Draught Paddle, Stern- 
wljeel, and Twin Screw Stealers. 

Steain Yachts. Hopper fiarges. 

Floating J)ocks. Caissons, etc. 

Makers of all Types of ttarine 
Engines, including Quadruple, 
Triple and Compound Screw and 
Paddle Engines. 



\ 



Engines adapted for running at 
i Higl) Speed for Ligfyt Draught 
\ Fast Stealers. 

PUMPING ARRANGEMENTS for all 
DEPARTMENTS connected with 
f CARRYING OIL IN BULK. 

Boiler rtaRinfl in all its 
departments. 

Makers of " DUNLOP' 8 " PATENT STEAM fe 
and PNEUMATIC GOVERNOR for 
MARINE ENGINES. 



Telegraphic Address— " INCH, PORT OLA SGOW. 



mKBr^GBESB^ a anna 



Telephone- 44 No. 8, PORT GLASQOW." 



fe 




^wiftlfilwft 1 " 



™m«mm.^,t-mmm^tr&mm®i£ i 



iBesesesssi 

GEORGE TWEEDY 8 Co., 32 - 6n,at st - " , "" 18 ' "■ 



Agents for the Sale of 



i 



Kerosene, Lubricating, a a 
Liquid Fuel, and Solar Oils. 



CHARTERING BROKERS. f.o.b. Batoum in Cargo Lots. 

Telegrams: " TWEEDY, LONDON." 

rODDrODOB 



■HBBBmHBBESBnHBSBSH^ 



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Xlll 



Steaua Romana. II Steaua Romana 



Capital 30,000,000 Francs, 

FULLY PAID. 

Rentiers or Petroleum and Its products, 
CAMPINA, BUCHAREST. 






Makers of Tin Cases and Cans, 

CONSTANTZA. 



(Society A nony me pour T Industrie du Pet role). 

Capital Social Fes. 30.000,000, 

ENTIbRKMENT VERSUS. 

Fabriques de Petrole et de Derives, 



Exporters of & 

'BENZINE, PETROLEUM. 
SOLAR OIL, RESIDUUM, 
LUBRICATING OIL, & # 
GOUVRON, PARAFFIN, &c. 



Address — 



i 



h 



Fabriqua de Caisses et de Bidons en fer blenc, 
CONSTANTZA. 



®- 



Boulevard Carol L No, 5, 
BUCHAREST. 



Exportation de BENZINE. PETROLE. IIUILE 
SOLAIRE, RE'SIDUS DE PAROLE. IIUILE 
A GRAISSER, GOUDRON, PARAEEINE. &c. 




Direction : 

Bucarest, Boulevard Carol I. No. 5. 



s=sp 



•>» 



£><• 



Continental Petroleum Co 



ANTWERP, 
BELGIUM. 



PctrokCirp Products. All Grades of Lubricating Oils. 



Water White. 
Gasolene. 



Prime White. 
Engine Naphtha. 



Fuel Oil. 
Gas Oil. 



Liquid Asphalt. 
Paraffin. 



Hard Asphalt. 
Vaseline, &c. 



Large Storage Plant 



Shipments in Bulk, Barrels and Cases. 



Telegraphic Address : 
CONTOLEU/W, ANTWERP. 



Head Office: 13 1 RUE DES D0UZE-M0IS. 



-« 



i 



DELIVERIES CAREFULLY SAMPLED /~J 

AND TESTED BEFORE SHIPMENT. W 



}» FOR LOWEST PRICES ON 

I Tinplates for Oil Cans f 

l APPLY to L. H. LUCY «S CO., 

j» t '"'c^ollo, losdos." "Botolph House," 10, Eastcheap, London, E.C. 



Tinplate, Metal, Oil, Chemical, Gc, Agents and Brokers. 



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n:v 



Palmers & 
Shipbuilding 
& Iron Co., 
Limited, /&* 



JARROW-ON-TYNE. 



1 



* 



/ 



Shipbuilders. Engineers, - - 
Steel and Iron Manufacturers. 




OIL TANK 
STEAMERS 

A SPCCIALITY. 



-BUILT FOR- 



* 



The Anglo-American Oil Co., Ltd. t §j 
The American Petroleum Co.' 
The Deutsch-Amerikanische 
Petroleum Ges., and others. 



geess§iiBg^ggsagg^^iiig^^§a§^^ag§iifs » 



!S^^3ssg^^sssg^^ssss^^ssss^^§sa 



Cable Address: "Romanic, London." 




LANE 8 MACANDREW, 



26, Great St. Helens, London. 

Oil Merchants and *BroUers. 



no 
CD 

i« 

as 
BR 



Also Brokers for Building, 




gjS Purchasing, Selling and 

SIS 



Chartering 



OIL TANK STEAMERS. 



Managers of the following Tank Steamers: 

"LE COQ," "ORIFLAMME," 
"LUCILINE," "LUX," "TEREK," 

"BALAKANI," "CAUCASIAN," 

" EUPLECTELA," " ROCKLIGHT," 

"TURBO," "PINNA." 



818 

S3 
SB 




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\v 



J)eep Well Jbol <$ goring Co., 

M,„ u f«.u«r, of ^» ST. ALBANS, ENGLAND. 

COMPLETE PLANTS for DRILLING and EQUIPPING WELLS 

for OIL, GAS, SALT, and other Minerals. 



CANADIAN SYSTEM. 

Combination Rigs for Drilling with A. Experienced Canadian Drillers 
Poles or Wire Cable a Speciality. T "^^r^^^ arranged for. 



Cable Address: "BORING, ST. ALBANS." A B C and Lleber's Codes. 



* M 






H. E. MOSS A Go. 



FOR 
THE 



& 

& 
«* 



BROKERS 
r BUILDING, 
PURCHASING 



-AND- 







© 



CHARTERING 
OF OIL TANK 
STEAMERS. 

Managers of the 
Tank Steamer " Lumen/* 3,200 tons Oil Capacity. 
STEAMER8 BUILDING. 

JTUo Brokers /or the Ja/e, purchase, 
Construction and Chartering of 
Steamers and Sailing J/r/>j. 

18, Chapel Street, LIVERPOOL; 
43, St. Mary Axe, LONDON, E.C.; 
and Quayside, NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. 

Telegrams: " Hkmoss, LivkixMool." 

" Moss, T.onpon anp Newcastle." 

- 00 0— 














9 



• •00»0 <*•€> <**0 <*•€> <*•€> <*•€> <*•€><-* 







mu. ^£] 



^8ffiaBP*5PfBl 



& 



ekssbs.:; 




v T. 1 u ILLU5TRATI? 



TEurnoit- 

>!35 flOLBORH. 



B90K 
IlLUSTRATItNS 





KsTIMATFS FOR THK RKPRODrCTlON OF 
OII.-FIKI.D PHOTOGRAPHS, TANK STKAMKRS. &c. 



W^^SS^SSSF^SS^. 



m^M 



mx£shg%m& 



to 






jfi^Sc^^ 



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XVI 



f* 



*? 



TYNE IRON SHIPBUILDING C°- L™ 

WILUNGTON 3UAYJJN-TYNE. 

STEEL AND IRON SHIPBUILDERS, 



Builders of OIL-TANK STEAMERS 

FROM 1,000 TO 7 ,000 TON*S DEADWEIGHT. 



fc 



Tkliorapnic Address. SHIPBUILDER," WILLINQTON QUAY. 



Tklkphonk No.i 668 Q.P.O., NEWCA8TLE. 



r 



H. C. BAULY, 

Wagon Builder. 




^ EVERY DESCRIPTION OF VEHICLES 
SUITABLE FOR THE OIL TRADE. . 



Speciality :— 

ROAD OIL-TANK WAGONS. 



I 



Works :— 

131a, Bow Road, 

LONDON, E, 



TELEPHONE NO.: 725 EASTERN. 



E. A. GIBSON g C° " 

Brokers for Tank . 
Steamers and Tank 
Sailing Vessels. 



^ 

^ 



Also. 



Agents for Sale of 
Petroleum and its 
Products. 



96 8 98 Leadenhall Street, 

= LONDON, E.C.= 



MEMBERS OF THE BALTIC. 



Telephone: 4072. 



Telegrams: " BLUERIBBON.' 



4 



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xvu 



1 



TEES DOCKYARD. 
MIDDLESBROUGH. 



R. CRAGGS t SONS, Limited, 

London Office: 23, ST. MARY AXE, E.C. 

Shipbuilders, engineers $ Repairers. 

OIL TANK STEAMERS, 

Cargo and Passenger Vessels of the Largest Size. 

T.C.C. tiraVios Pock $70 ft. LoQg. 
BOildios B*rtbS aod AppliaoctS for Vessels Op to 700 ft. Loos. 



Telegrams: 



'CRAGGS, MIDDLESBROUGH." Middlesbrough Telephones: Nat. No. 160; P.O. No. 5. 



•SNAPHEAD, LONDON." 



London Telephones : Nat. No. 2363 (Wall). 



If 



1 C 



*) 



Homelight Oil Coy.,ud. 



ProdOccrs, RcfiocrS, 
exporters aod Distributors of 

'HOMELIGHT.'' 



Priocipal loStallatiooS: 
^ LONDON, MANCHESTER, 
HULL, CARDIFF, 
LIVERPOOL, &c. 



HEAD OFFICES: 

14, 16, 18 & 20, 
St. MARY AXE, 

LONDON, €.C. 



Sellers of Cargoes 
f.o.b. fiatourrj r 

NovorossisK. . . 



• • • 

Telegraphic Address: 
"L4MPLIQHT, LONDON." 

Telephone Nos. : 
2463, 2464, LONDON WALL. 



u 



4 



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XV111 



JAMES HOWDEN & Co. 

Head Offices <* Works: 

Scotland Street, 
GLASGOW. 



ALL THE 



LEADING 
STEAMSHIPS 

Of the World, 

Carrying: Passengers, Cargo, 



OR 



Are Fitted with 
HOWDEN'S PATENT 



FORCED DRAUGHT 

Many having 

HOWDEN'S PATENT 

OIL BURNING APPARATUS 

Fitted in Conjunction, thus obtaining the 

Highest Possible Results 

By reason of the 

Unequalled Efficiency 

Which it ensures. 

75600Q0 

I.HP. NOW FITTED. 



2,350 

Installations 
in all. 



Branch Offices in Great Britain. 

LONDON: 

Billiter Bldgs., 22, Billiter St., EX., 

AND 

Caxton House, Westminster, S.W. 

MANCHESTER: 

39, Arcade Chambers, Deansgate. 



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XIX 



9™ 



SILLEY'S PATENT 

Airtight $ moke Rox Door 




CENTRE HINGED DOOR. 

/f/jo Fitted and being Fitted . . 
The British Navy 
Peninsular \- Oriental Co. 
British India Steam Navigation Co> 
Hamburg American Co* 
New Zealand Shipping Co. 
Dutch American Co. 
Atlantic Transport Co. 
Royal Mail Mciim Packet Co. 



Many Tank Stea Tiers now building are being 
fitted with the Specialities of this Firm. * 



Patentees of a New System of Oil-tight Hatch Cover. 

Particulars on Application. 

The Company is prepared to supply com) 
of fittings to suit any shape of door. Working 
drawings submitted. Apim.y to - 

THE AIRTIGHT SMOKE BOX DOOR 

— SYND., LD„ .. 

155. FENCHURCH ST., LONDON, E.C. 

American Agent: 
W. C. WALLACE. 15-25, Whitehall St., NEW YORK. 



(Wedge and Girder Principle). 

1,800 Doors Fitted during 1906. 



ADVANTAGES:- 

Increases Economy, 

Keeps Smoke Door Perfectly Tight. 

Absolutely Prevents Buckling. 

Easily Opened and Closed. 

Increases Efficiency under Natural and 

Forced Draught. 
No more Repair Bills for Buckled Doors. 



Especially Valuable for Tank Steamers and Vessels 
In the Tropics. 



Fitted throughout in . . 

CUNARD LINE Lusitania, Mauretania. 
WHITE STAR LINE -Adriatic. 
AMERICAN LINE St. Paul. 

Standard Oil, Anglo-American, and other 
Oil Companies. 



itCALC or Ftcr 




««mm%m%xx%*»«»«V**«««»«Xv%**«*r; 



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XX 



"POLARITY GLASGOW" Telephones- 4454 Corporation. 

Codes A.B.C. (5th Edition) and W.U.T. Cables and Telegrams -J ^ .„, ' A l/ , MMilll T/ . .I55*A Apgy,e " 

' "POLARITORA, LONDON." Telephone— 1643 Avenue. 

FERGUSON 6 TIMPSON, 

ENGINEERS, 
Merchants, Oil Importers, Ship. Yacht, Colliery, and 

Mill Furnishers, 

BALTIC CHAMBERS, MUSCOVY HOUSE, 

50, WELLINGTON STREET, /£/ 6, TRINITY SQUARE, 
GLASGOW. * LONDON, E.C. 



ENGINEERS, DON'T WORRY ABOUT LEAKY JOINTS ! 

Write for Particulars of Ferguson & Timpson's Patent Jointing 
" Tauril," suitable for Superheated Steam, Ammonia, Alkali ; also 
used with very great success by Motor Car Builders. 

Ferguson & Timpson's Ohsollte Asbeffto Metallic Packing is an excellent Packing for 

Marine or Stationary Engines and the glands of Boiler Mountings* even where steam is superheated. Has 

been in use for 18 months without Renewal in Steering Engines. Steam Pressure 180 lbs. per sq. Inch. 

FERGUSON 6 TIMPSON, 

. Agents for . 

Luther Bros; CARBORUNDUM TOOL GRINDER. 

SUITABLE FOR EVERY PERSON. 

Write for Particulars, as this grinds Twenty Times Faster than an Ordinary Grinder. 
The " Saturday Evening Post, " 10th May, 1902, says of Carborundum :— 



5 Machines in! 



1 RAPID TOOL 

SHARPENER 
3 POLISHER 



2 FINE TOOL SHARPENER 
4 BRASS* NICKEL A: 

METAL BUFTOt 



" Who among ordinary laymen would dream that 
Carborundum is entitled to be called an epoch-making 
product ? Yet it is so put down by the world's engineers. 
There is practically no division of human life in which it 
does not figure to-day. It is the Greatest Abrasive Ever 
Known, and is used alike for polishing the egg-cup on the 
breakfast table, and shaping the piston rodof the great 
on an greyhound. It hones the razor, puts an edge on 
the sword, polishes the diamond, points the tool that 
punch- s rivet holes in the armour of the great battleship. 
It polishes the shoe sole, the kid glove, and smoothes 
down the angles of the great telescope lens. Mr. Achejon 
served six years under Kdison, in America and Europe, 
and thoroughly mastered the science of electricity. One 
day. as if by inspiration, he recall* d that in one of his 
experiments that the fusing of clay and carbon produced 
a substance harder thfan anything then known. Com- 
paring it with emery, corundum, and other abrasives, the 
fact was forced upon Mr. Acheson that he had a fortune 
within his grasp. How well he mastered the situation is 
demonstrated in the fact that while Carborundum, to-day, 
is sold at a nominal figure, the first consignment was 
for 2oo carats, at is. Gil. a carat. 

"A Steak often seems tough or tender according to the keenness of the knife It Is under."— Dr, Johnson. 

AND REMEMBER ! It is the Only Wheel that will not draw Temper with a Light Impression. 

All kinds of Hemp and Cotton Packing kept in Stock. Genuine Oarlock Packing, suitable 

for Steam Hammers, Hydraulic Machinery, and Ammonia Freezers. 
Bishop's Adamant Gauge Glasses. Valoric Feed Heaters. (Write for Circulars.) 
Princeps Metallic Packing and Rings. One of the Best in the Market. 
Woven Cotton Waste. One Roll equal to two bales of the finest White Waste. 





tTIt 



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XXI 



r 



Worthington . . . 



t 



and Boler 



Telephone: 2289. 
Telegrams: "LUCENT, LIVERPOOL. 



OFFICES i 



30, Chanel Street, 



70, Gracechurch Street, . . . 

XrOKDOK, B.C. 



Telephone: 5573 Avenue. 
Telegrams: "LUCID, LONDON." 



&. 



Petroleum Products of E«ry Damn™. 



4 



BRUNN-KONIGSFELDER 
MASCHINEN FABRIK, 

110, FENCHURCH STREET, E.C. 



I 



The Shipbuilder 

(With which is incorporated " The Mid-Tyne Link"), 
AN ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE 



DBVOTKD TO THE 



Manufacturers of COMPLETE PLANTS for 

Petroleum Refining 

(PERIODICAL & CONTINUOUS SYSTEM). 

Paraffin Wax Extraction and Refining, 
Rectification of Benzine, 

Steel Petroleum Tanks, 
Tank Waggons, 

And all Accessories appertaining to the Petroleum Trades. 



Shipbuilding, marine engineering, 
and Allied Industries. 



EDITORIAL AND PUBLISHING ADDRESS 1 . 



Townsville House, Heaton, Newcastle on- Tyne. 



Plants designed on Customers Samples of Crude 

Oil, and, where desired, Advisers and complete 

Working Staff supplied. 





EDITED BY A. G. HOOD 



Oil Investors 9 Journal. 

The only Publication in America 
. devoted exclusively to the . 

PETROLEUM INDUSTRY. 

BEAUMONT, TEXAS. 

EDITED BY HOLLAND S. REAVIS. 

Pr HUSHED ON THE FlFTH AND NlNETEKNTH OF EACH MoNTH. 

92.40 a Year, Semi- Monthly. 
Single Copies, Ten CenU. 



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XX11 




□ 



To Motor Gar Owners and Probable Purchasers. 



"DEFORE ordering your car, consider the body * work details first, 
as proper selection in this respect ensures personal comfort and 
convenience, and the elegant appearance of the complete car. Our 
experience in above and all other matters appertaining to motoring 
is at your disposal. 

^ ' 1 El I m n i=^fe=i nni= 



□ G 



an 



i 
j 



8- 



H. P. PARNAN & Co., 

37, LkiME Street, 

London, E*e. 



»m 



PETROLEUM OILS, 
LUBRICATING OILS, 
CYLINDER OILS, 

TURPENTINE, WAXES, dfco., 
OF a. 11 Desopiptiona. 




(Eclr0rapl)ic <A&&rcss: 

"OSOBRITE, LONDON." 
KtUvbont flo. : 12864 CENTRAL. 



»' 



-« 



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XX111 






^!4S^!^^ 



T/te Ba/f/c Trading Co., L*d., 

4, LIME STREET SQUARE, LONDON, E.C., 

?rodueers' Agents for 5<A* °l 

KEROSENE, LUBRICATING, SOLAR 

and BLACK OILS. 



Brokers for the Sale and 

Chartering of Tank Steamers. 
Tolophono: 2605 AVENUE. 



General Import and Export 

Merchants and Agents. 
Tolograms: " BALTISKOE, LONDON." 






^m^aHssg^^asssgegE 



PATENTS !!» INVENTIONS. 



4^'sgge*! rt' ■ 4 ^ss-sgssa- ^ • 



People of Ingenuity, with ideas, and requiring good 
sound Advice, should apply to 

CctSSCll <$ Co., Registered latent Agents, 
Jessel Cabers, 88 & 90, Oiaqcery Lane, 

Who Will send their New Boo* /r«« o/ charge. LONDON, W. C. 

Confidence assured to all Correspondents and secrecy guaranteed. 

patents negotiated and floated ; Cand and other properties Developed and financed, Inspected, $c 

DC 



!S8§3Sra3BBgffi 




J ii-+-^itiitKSfc-4-^ 



WBMBmsmewsMBBBSBm ibbbbbh 



J)evoteB to t/je World-wide Jn te- 
res ts of tt)e petroleum Jndustry 
and jGllied Jrades, and ttje . . 
acknowledged Representative . . 
British Authority on all £ ranches 
of the Jfusiness. 

It gives a Complete and Impartial 
Epitome of the News of every Branch 
of the Oil Industry. 

11 s 23. 6rcat C ciocr Street, Condon, €.C. 

INSI 

SEVEN SHILLINGS <fi SIXPENCE (7f. to.) per Year, 

Pos/ Free. SIXPENCE per Copy, 



ETROLEUM 
WORLD. 



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XXIV 




$**- 



A LAST 
WORD. 



I 



Car 



0i AM writing this note on the day that the 
\ Third International Petroleum Congress 
^ finishes at Bucharest. Three months ago 
I refused an invitation to contribute a paper 
on the Marine Transport of Oil. I did so for two 
reasons. First of all, I am opposed to the 
presentation by proxy of papers contributed by 
absentees, and as I fully expected that business 
connected with this work and the journal which I 
control would keep me in this country during 
September I was reluctantly compelled to refuse. 

I should say that my second reason is the 
more important of the two. I desired to keep my 
information exclusively for those who honour me 
by reading this work. Whatever weakness the 
book may have— and I am conscious that it has 
faults — I do not think anyone will say that it lacks 
originality ; not only is the subject admittedly 
important, but it is entirely new, and, on this last 
day of the congress, I am not surprised to find that 
amongst the hundreds of speeches made and 
papers read not one touches on the subject of 
the maritime branch of the great business of oil 
transport and distribution. To this extent I break 
new ground in the literature of petroleum. 

My many friends in all parts of the petroleum 
world will not require to be told that I have not 
been led to write this book for selfish or vain- 
glorious reasons : they, at any rate, will know that 
it is a humble attempt to truthfully tell the story 
of the growth of one of the leading branches of our 
industry : the fascinating one of the ships which 
carry the oil, the enterprising men who own them, 
and the reliable and brave men who navigate and 
work them. 

Author. 

September 14th, 1907. 

Kxpi.anatory Note. — The month given on the hack of 
the title page— Augustus the one in which the final proofs of 
the book proper were passed for the press. The pagts of " Late 
Information," inserted while the book was on the machines, are 
supplementary. 



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=AUTHOR'S= 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 



UiMutAiA 



^yOR assistance received and encouragement given, I 
^1 am, first of all, under obligation to Mr. S. Gouli- 
^ chambaroff. I share his great faith in the early 
rejuvenation of the Russian oil business, and have 
long admired his broad-minded opinions on the most difficult 
petroleum subjects of the world's foremost producing 
countries. 

Mr. Herbert J. Hull, F.C.S., one of the most able anil con- 
scientious of the younger school of specialists in petroleum 
chemistry, has given assistance in the compilation of 
technical information in Part III. 

Mr. F. J Trost, the most successful oil field artist I 
have met, holds the copyright of some of the best photo- 
graphs which I reproduce. 

Elsewhere I acknowledge having made quotations from 
an excellent technical work written by Mr. Herbert Little, ot 
Liverpool, at a time when the earliest tank steamers were 
starting to run. 

Otherwise, so far as individuals are concerned. I hue 
thought it wise, this l>eing a new subject on which very lit le 
has been published, to depend on my own numerous and 
widely-scattered professional sources of information. 



My responsibilities in connection with the business side 
of this work have been reduced to a minimum by the 
generous support I have received for the advertisement 
section. I consider this is a case in which business is not 
inconsistent with good and impartial authorship, and I 
frankly acknowledge that it is owing to the advertisement 
pages that I am in a position to produce a work which, 
at the price charged, easily makes a record in the literature 
of this industry for typographical bulk and artistic finish. 

The time has come when shipbuilding and engineering 
advertising ought to be a special business . in this work there 
is evidence that some of the best and foremost concerns 
connected with oil-carrying, shipping, and transport, see 
the benefits of publicity in an attractive and specialised form. 





Below is an Index of the Advertisers : — 



I. Holzapfel's Composition Company. Ltd. 

II. and III. Smith's Dock Company, Ltd 

IV. Gulf Refining Company. 

V. Galizische Kakpatiien Petroleum A G. 

VI. Oil Weil Supply Company (Pittsburg). 

VI. Credit Petrolieer. 

VII. A. F. Craig <* Co.. Ltd. 

VIII. Meade -King, Kopinson <.v. Co. 

VIII. Jons H. Walton & Co. 

IX. Manchester Ship Canal Company 

IX. F. A. Mattievich & Co. 

X. London & Thames Haven On. \Vii\kvk\ Ltd 

XL Anglo-American Oil Company. Ltd. 

XII. I). J. Dun-pop \ Co. 

XII Geo. Tweedy «.y. Co. 

XIII. Steal- a Roman a. 

XIII. Continental Ph rpopi r\i Company. 

XIII. L. H. Lucy .v. Co. 

XIV Palmers Siiiphuildino A: Ikon Co., Lid. 

XIV. Lane iV Macandrew. 

XV. Deep Well Tool cV Poking Company. 

XV. H. K. Moss cS: Co. 

XV. Fred Catling <S: Co . Ltd. 

XVI. T\ne Iron Shipiu ildino Company. Ltd. 

XVI. H. C Hauly. 

XVI. E. A. Gibson & Co. 

XVII. R. Cragos & Sons, Ltd. 

XVII. HoMELiGtui Oil Company, Ltd. 

XVIII. James Howden & Co. 

XIX. Airtight Smoke Hox Door Syndicate. Ltd. 

XX. Ferguson <fc Timpson. 

XXI. Worthing. ton & Holer 

XXL Hrcnn-Konigseelder Ma-chinen Faiirik. 

XXI. "Shipbuilder." 

XXI. "Oil Investors' Journal." 

XXII. Sayers & Co. 

XXII. H. F. Farnan & Co. 

XXIII. Baltic Trading Company, Ltd. 

XXIII. Cassell & Co. 

XXIII. "Petroleum World." 

XXIV. A Last Word. 



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