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VOL. 80 

MAY, 1957 





Price: Two Pounds Two Shillings 


byH. K. Fry 


The present paper is an extension of the paper read before the Society in 1950 in which 

genealogical patterns of aboriginal kinship system were presented and the thesis maintained that 

one dominant type of system prevailed throughout Australia. 

A more closely reasoned basis for the development of this system and for the origin of the Class 

Systems is presented. 

Miss McConnefs data concerning the Wikmunkan system are used to explain the elaborate kinship 

terminology and the unusual class terminology of the Murngin tribe. 

A genealogical interpretation of Miss McConnel's data concerning the Yaraidyana and Nggamiti 

tribes is submitted, and the conclusion reached that these systems are entirely anomalous and not 

prototypes in the development of the social organisation of Australian tribes in general. 


by H. K. Fry 

[Read 12 April 1956] 


The present paper is an extension of the paper read before the Society in 1950 in which 
genealogical patterns uf aboriginal kinship system were presented and the thesis maintained 
that one dominant type of system prevailed throughout Australia. 

A more closely reasoned basis for the development of this system and for the origin 
of the Class Systems is presented. 

Miss McConnel's data concerning the Wikmunkau system are used to explain the elaborate 
kinship terminology and the unusual class terminology of the Murngin tribe. 

A genealogical interpretation of Miss McCoimel s data concerning the Yaraidyana and 
Nggamiri tribes is submitted, and the conclusion reached that these systems are entirely 
anomalous and not prototypes in the development of the social organisation of Australian 
tribes in general. 

Eight members of an Adelaide University Expedition visited Hermanns- 
burg in 1929, The Western Aranda people there allocated each member of the 
group to one of the eight named subclasses (subsections) of their tribe. 

Our newly-acquired mutual kinships were difficult to comprehend, and t 
hit upon an arrangement of the subclass names in the following pattern where 
son is charted below father and daughter below mother: 

PANAXKA panauka PURULA purula 

BANG ATA kamam KAMARA hanguta 

PANANKA knuxaia PURULA ngala 

BANUATA mbitjana KAMARA paltara 

PANANKA panauka PURULA purula 

The subclass names in capitals represent male members, those in small case 
female members. I adopted the converse representation originally, but changed 
to the above to conform to the generally accepted convention. 

It was then realised that this genealogical pattern could be reproduced in 
a generalised form using eight symbols of an algebraical character representing 
the four subclasses of each of two moieties A and B. The symbols adopted at 
first were these moiety letters, numbers, and asterisks. The numbers and asterisks 
proved to be inconvenient and the convention adopted was a numeral prefixed 
to the moiety letter to "distinguish alternate generations and a post-fixed numeral 
to distinguish subclasses of each generation. 

The Aranda pattern can therefore be expressed in generalised symbols as 






























2b I 




2b 2 


2a 2 














2b I 











The pattern is simplified if the prefixed numeral bo placed at the begin- 
ning of each line and Is taken to apply to each symbol of that generation. 

If any two symbols representing brother and sister, e.g. 1A1 and lal in the 
third generation line, be taken as Ego, man-speaking and woman-speaking re- 
spectively, all the genealogical interpretations of each Aranda kinship term can 

be followed on the pattern and each kinship term will bo located on the pattern 
in constant association with one symbol. Tliis is a simple demonstration of 
the tact that subclass terminology is merely a variant form of kinship terminology 
with the great advantage that the subclass teim is a constant in regard to each 
individual, whereas the kinship term is variable in its application, being related 
to a variety of Egos. 

Following out the genealogical interpretation of kinship terms is simple ws 
brother and sister arc the same symbol in different case lettering in one hori- 
zontal line; father and mother are vertically above brother and sister respectively 
and arc also husband and wife in that generation line. 

The vertical lines of male descent represent clans. Hie Aranda pattern 
can be interpreted as the expression of a system of marriages between clans in 
accordance with the following diagram using the symbol = to represent marriage; 

L&l»lt)i lBl=tal IA2-=Jb2 lB2 = Ja2 
2AI ^2b2 2Bl = 2a2 2A2-2bl 2D2— 2«1 

The same system of marriages can also he represented in particular refer- 
ence to marriages of brother and sister as follows; 

Ai lbl 

IA2= !i»a 


2A2 2b I 

al -IB! 

I»2 = 1B* 



By postulating a hypothetical diagram of marriages the corresponding 
genealogical puttern can be constructed. The moiety symbol of son and daughter 
will fallow that of the father in a patrilineal society that of the mother in a 
mairiliucal society. 

1 have spent many hours since 1929 experimenting with genealogical pat- 
terns constructed in this way, and plotting on these patterns the kinship ter- 
minologies of the various tribes. When the genealogical interpretations of the 
kinship terms of a tfibe fall into consistent association with the symbols of a 
certain pattern. 1 have presumed that one has a realistic representation of .some 
faetnal groupings m that society. Conversely, when the kinship terms of a 
tribe will not conform reasonably well with any genealogical pattern expressing 
a certain marriage role, 1 have considered that "the marriage rule in question 
is not a dominant factor fa the marriage customs of that society. 

These studies have led me to the conclusion (Fry. 1950) that the 
marriage system customary iu a tribe of eight subclass divisions was aUo customary 
in the great majority of Australian tribes, both patrilineal and mafrilincal, and 
whether named class divisions or even moieties were recognised m not. 

This uniformity is understandable in view of the homogeneous nature of 
aboriginal societies, whether patrilineal or matrilincal, presumably for thousands 
of years. These societies were basically patriarchal familv groups of hunto* 
and food-gatherers. Each family group had its own definite homo territory, hut 
had widespread associations with oilier groups. Totemio ceremonies provided 
die most important of these contacts, others were walk-abouts. hostile forays, 
and trade. Every known person was a kinsman or kinswoman, unidentifiable 
strangers were killed. Uniform social stresses in such societies tended to establish 
euslrmtfuy intermarriages between oerhun groups, and consequently kinships 
tended to conform to a more or less uniform pattern, Ibc development of such 
a palleru is analogous to the growth of crystals under uniform conditions of 
intcrmolccular and environmental stresses. 

Tlte stresses which have determined the dominant type of marriage inter- 
relations and kinship terminology in Australia arc considered to be founded in 
the general principle that the existence of human societies depends upon the 
elimination or mitigation of the disrupting influence of individualistic drives uf 
which sexual competition is the most potent. 

The following analysis of these stresses is suggested: 

(1) Elimination of sexual competition within the family group is a first 
necessity, hence the custom of exogamy. Many theories have been advanced to 
explain the almost universal horror of incest in human societies. This appears to 
he the most realistic one. 

(2) Toternism appears in Australia to have been the basis of the extension 
of the incest prohibition to include the totemic dan. aud f by identifying parallel 
cousins With brother and sister, to have made marriage between cross-cousins 
the proper custom. 

(3) The undesirability of sexual competition between father and son re- 
presents a strong tendency to make women of the son's generation ineligible 
to the father, and vive verm. 

(4) The custom of taboo against the mother-in-law debars the son-in-law 
from her camp fire. If the established custom should be bilateral marriages 
between first cousins in a society where every known person is akin, very many 
women would have the status of mother-in-law. The social stress therefore is 
for marriages hi be between cross-cousins "not too close up", who therefore may 
he classified as "second" cousins under a kinship term othci than that applied to 
"first" cousins. 

An will be discussed later, the main variant from the dominant type of 
marriage and kinship occurs in Northern Australia where marriage with a 
unilateral first-cousin is the rule. Greater dilution of the mother-in-law problem 
is attained there by requiring the potential wives to be of junior status. 

(5) The most satisfactory solution of the practice of exogamy is the amicable 
exchange of women between groups. The normal system in Australia was the 
exchange of "sisters" between groups of opposite moiety,, and exchange of 
women by men of the same moiety resulting in marriages with women of the 
grandchildren's generation. In patrilineal societies; the latter type of marriage 
was arranged by exchange of "sister's daughters' 1 , so that one partner in the 
exchange married his sisters daughters husband's sisters daughter (Radcliife- 
firown, 1930). In matrihneal societies (he wife of the junior generation bad the 
status of "daughter's daughter" (Howitt, l ( J04a). This rould be the result of 
two men exchanging "daughters * The dominant genealogical pattern of kinships 
is asymmetrical in regard to lines of male and female descent. In both types 
of society if Ego be 1A1 wives of both generations will be lbl, so conforming 
to the dominant genealogical pattern (Fry, 1934). 

Where patrilineal and matrilineal societies are contiguous and their mem- 
bers intermarry, a simpler type of kinship terminology tends to appear as a 
compromise between the two asymmetrical versions of the genealogical pattern 
(Fry, 1934). 

The dominant type of marriage custom and kinship sodal structure through- 
out Australia is considered to be a purely natural consequence of tie operation 
of the above factors. A consciously motivated systematisation of the kinship 
groupings resulting from the genealogical pattern determined by these factors 
is considered to be responsible for the appearance of named moieties, of (am 
named classes, and of eight named subclasses in eerhun tribes. An analogy is 
suggested between the mental processes underlying this sysremalisation of kin- 
ships and the systcmatisation of speech into grammatical forms. 

It is because of this achievement of olnssifieation that 1 consider the older 
terms class and subclass preferable to the terms section and subsection. The 
latter terms were introduced by R, H. Matthews (IS97) and at present are 
generally adopted The fact that the term chm has other meanings in other 
societies is no more ft reason for seeking another team than is a possiblv similar 
objection to the use of the term class in regard to a school population. 

The tempting hypothesis that existing Australian societies represent stages in 
evolution from first-cousin marriages systematised in four named classes to 


vecoud-eousin marriages systematised in eight named subclasses is not credible. 
For example, the identity of procedure in arranging betrothals in tnatrilincal 
four-class societies in New Soulh Wales (Matthews and Everitt. 1000) and in the 
patrilineal eight-subclass societies of Centra! Australia is typicaL 

That totcmism has played an important part in moulding the Australian 
kinship systems is supported by the practice of the matrilineal tribes of New 
Soulh Wales. Their normal marriage rules conformed to four class divisions, 
but marriages between totemle clans of one and the same class were also pcr- 
misible. T. G. H. Strchlow (1947) has established that the clan in Central 
Australian tribes, in spite of conceptual , toteinisrn, is still a Lolemic clan. In 
sham contrast to this view is Malmowski's article on Kinship in the Encyclo- 
paedia Britanniea 192ft. Schoolcraft (1853) writing of the North American 
Indians stated "where there is a lapse of memory or tradition, the totem is con- 
fidently appealed to as the lest of blood affinities, however remote''. The same 
is true of the Australian aborigines. 

Irregular marriages of certain types are always permissible iu Australian 
societies. The consequent difficulties in kinship terminology are overcome simply 
by a readjustment of kinship leims. This 1 believe was first recorded by Howitt 
(1904b). The mental altitude involved is well illustrated by the aboriginal 
who had been baptised and given a Christian name. When the priest reproved 
him for eating beef on Friday, he protested thai it was aJl in order as he had 
sprinkled water on the beef and called it fish. 

The most important variation from the dumiuant type nf social pattern 
Occtus in certain tribes of Arahcm Land and Cape York Peninsula. Marriage 
with a woman who is a mother's brother's dauglitei but not a father's sisters 
daughter is the rule. The simplest genealogical pattern which will express tliis 
custom in a society with moiety divisions is one based on a diagram of marriages 
>uch as At— 1£ B2=h* A±- hi BI^hI iu all generations. 

The corresponding genealogical pattern is as follows: 









































Warner (1930) has recorded the Mumgin kinship terminology which is of 
Uiis type, and it is not a simple one, I have shown (Fry. 1950) that 41 genea- 
logical, pattern based on a marriage diagram of 

Al^bU B2 -u2 A2=b3' B3=«3 A3=n4 B* -at A4 Id Ml-ftl 

is neoessary to meet the demands of this complex terminology, There arc also 
eight named clasps, two in each generation for four consecutive generations. 

The reasons for this complexity are apparently the demands ol junior and 
senior status considerations as will be dheussed under I he Wikrnonkan system. 

Miss MeCuimel lias carried out detailed investigations of the social structure 
nf the tribes of Cape York Peninsula where considerations of senior and junior 
status arc major factors in marriage and kinship She has recently published 
a summary of her researches (MeConncI. 1950). 

Tlw» Wikmunkan (b) system which she ha* described is founded on the 
rule tfwt a man marries his "mothers younger brother's daughter, a woman her 
father s older sister's sou. The rule therefore debars a man from marrying his 
fathers sister's daughter as she is of senior status. 

The apparent simplicity of this new principle is delusive. Age grades in a 
society are definite "distinctions, the status of each individual being recognised 
uniformly by all the- members of the community. The distinctions of senior 
and juiuor status are, however, indefinite, being based on the dependent variables 
ol the relative ages of the individual* whose status is under comparison, 

if Wikmuiikan have kinship terms distinguishing senior and junior status 
lor kindred ot their own, their fathers, and their children's generations with the 
exception of fathers sisters. The kinship terms of other generations are undif- 
ferentiated. There are three general principles governing the determination of 
relative seniority. 

(1) Marriages with the mother's younger brother's daughter and the latters 
younger sisters (the junior sororatc rule) determine that wife and motlwr 
signify junior status. Each time one of these relationships occurs in the genca- interpretation of a kinship term, an augmentation of junior status is" indi- 
cated. Conversely, husband, sister, and daughter are significant of an augmen- 
tation of senior status. 

c^V ®**&*$* jttoiGf levirate rule a man inherits the wives and children 
ot his deceased older brother. As Ego is a living person and passes to his father's 
younger brothers camp, father is ranked with father's younger brother Con- 
vtTsely, as older brothers children pass to Egos camp, E«os children rank 
Willi those of older brother. 

I&) Each step up in generation level signifies an increase in seniority, and 

The effects of these principles frequently are conflicting. 
In the Wikmunkan system kindred of near and distant relationship arc 
denoted by the .same kinship term. Nevertheless, a distinction between near 
and distant km is made on the basis of the relative seniority of certain recognised 
lines of descent, Miss McConncl in interpreting the Wikmunkan system has 
adapted the conventions of indicating a relationship which is reJativelv remote 
by enclosing the relationship designation in inverted commas, or by prefixing to 
the translation of the kinship term the qualification of V or "outside'* appro- 
priate to remoteness of blood relationship or locality. Accordingly, "fathers 
older brother fathers younger brother", "mothers older brother" and "mother'* 
younger brother are recognised as representatives of clans differentiated from 
one another and from the clans of father and mother's brother by virtue of the 
relative seniority of their lines of descent 

. The Wikmunkan social organisation is therefore more complex than the 
kinship terminology suggests. 

The following abbreviations will be employed in illustrating and dkcussinz 

genealogical patterns in this paper: 

f. lather |j. brother <> r -m. ecmaiu-motlior 

m. mother *r. sutcT (joking relationship) 

S- son Ji. lnmbrttttl ,,. old^r 

d. daughter w. ty& y . youngar 

Terms enclosed in brackets refer to a female-speaking Ego. 

The question now arises whether these Wikmunkan clansman be correlated 
with a conventional genealogical pattern of kinships. The simplest possible 
pattern .which could meet the requirements is that given previously on page 4 
Ihe following result then appears ' 

Al rtl 

Al bl 

Al a2 


















' m.*> 

This pattern finds no provision for the lines T.O.B* and "M Y B M The 
pattern must therefore be extended by at least one more pair of symbols. The 
result is as follows: 





A3 a2 




*3 KS 







A2 b2 




W B3 







A3 al 






a2 B3 


This pattern in which six genealogical lines are represented conforms with 
the six lines of descent which Miss McConnel has identified. 

Referring back to the Murngin system, it will be remembered that the kin- 
ship terminology of that society demands a genealogical pattern in which yet 
another pair of'symbols is included, A4 and B4- In that pattern A4 represents 
the line "F.O.B.", whose women marry men of the B4 line. The Murngin system 
t h ere f ore distinguishes a "M.O.B." line B4 which is senior to that of the sister's 
husband Bl. The term dumnngur of the B4 line is an augmentative of the 
kinship term due of the Bl line. Marriages of men of the A3 hue are with 
women of the B4 line, and the A3 women marry men of the "M.Y.B." line B3, 

The recognition of senior and junior status in addition to tfiat of kinship 
provides a sufficient reason for the curiously complex Murgin kinship terminology. 

The Wikmunkan kinship terms -are charted on a genealogical pattern in 
Diagram I. It will be noted of the B3 clan that the men marry women of the 
senior line A3, and the women marry men of the junior line A2. A similar 
circumstance has been remarked upon in regard to the A3 clan in the Murgin 
system t 

This apparent anomaly can now he explained. 

Marriages between the Wikmunkan clans can be interpreted as a continuous 


Al=b2 A2-b3 

al=Bl «3=B3 


R3 is at the opposite pole of the cycle to Al. If Al be Ego as in Diagram 
I ? B3 is the end member of a series of wife's brothers of progressively increasing 
junior status, and also the end member of a series of sisters husbands of pro- 
gressively increasing senior status. In the Murngin system A3 aecupies this 

If Ego be selected as a representative of each clan in succession, other clans 
will be found to assume senior or junior status as follows; 






:i M.Y.B ; 




































So the B3 men and women from their own standpoint marry normally, which, 
of course, one knows by the definition of the pattern, but which one can lose 
sight of in the complexity of the system. 

But there is yet another complication. These clans do not have the stable 
identity of purely kinship clans. Being differentiated by assessments of rela- 
tive seniority, new clans originate in the senior and junior branches of the elans 
in senior generations. These new clans must be assimilated in the social system 
in categories other than those of the elans from which they have stemmed. 

Miss McCounels only mention of an exchange marriage in the Wikmunkiui 
system is that Ego's wife's father's father exchanges his son's daughter for Ego'* 
"older sister". Following my diagrams, this means that a B2 man marries an 



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A3 woman belonging to his "M.Y.B." clan which is a deviation from the ordin- 
ary rule. 

Miss McConnel considers that the marriage systems of the Wikmunkan 
and neighbouring tribes follow a downward spiral. I dp not agree with this. 
The downward trend of junior marriages in any one generation is countered 
by the operation of the levtrate rule under which women of* senior status are 
taken in marriage. Also, her description of a downward spiral of marriages 
requires that only the most junior men in a generation marry women of a 
younger generation. That older men would surrender this privilege to their 
juniors would be a most unusual event in Australian societies. Her reasoning 
is based on her diagram which shows that men of the most junior line (corres- 
ponding to that of BS in my Diagram I) marry women of a senior line (A3 in 
my diagram) in a lower generation. As has been shown above, a 113 man 
marrying a woman of an A3 line is marrying a woman of his mothers brother's 
clan, which is not a senior line. If, however, he marries a woman of that clan 
who is of his grandchildren's generation, she can be of senior status in that 
generation. This is surely the normal rule which all men are entitled to follow. 

Wikmuukau kinship terms differentiate alternate generations. Diagram I 
therefore shows the generation lines numbered 1 aud 2 alternately, However, 
the use of the terms pinyawa for husband's older brother, kata kalana for 
"jn.o.b.d." and ptnya lor the latter s. husband indicates a tendency to rank these 
kindred of senior status in Ego's generation with father and mother. 

Class nomenclature, as stated previously, is a stabilised form of kinship 
tCTrninology. the respective terms remaining constantly associated with each 
individual in ibe society. Aboriginal kinships implicate social functions of which 
marriage is the most important. Earlier authors therefore have described classes 
iuid subclasses as "marriage classes". 

The systematisation of kinships by some tribes into eight subclasses repre- 
senting alternate generations of four types of clans was a great achievement 
The Murngin society incorporates eight types of clans^ which are differentiated 
by a recognition of relative seniority status superimposed upon that of kinship. 
Such clans* as we have seen, cannot be represented by a stabilised, kinship nomen- 
clature. The Murngin named classes therefore distingish only moieties in each 

Marriages between clans in accordance with the Murngin marriage diagram 
theoretically could be between men and women of any generation. The Murn- 
gin kinships differentiate alternate generations so that father and .son do not 
compete for the same women. The Murngin class system reinforces this differen- 
tiation, and also provides die advantages of the stabilised kinship identifications 
of an eight-class system by the ingenious device of having named classes to 
represent the individuals of the two moieties in four successive generations. 

N. W< Thomas (1906) ascribed the evolution of eight-class divisions tu a 
distinction between older and younger sisters. Miss McConnel has suggested 
that the tribes of Cape York may represent relics of the original aboriginal 
immigration into Australia and that the junior marriuge customs in that region 
may be prototypes of aboriginal systems of kinship and marriage, A close con- 
sideration of these Northern (.hiocnsknd systems is therefore indicated. 

lire Wikmunkan (b) system has been discussed and is related to the Arnhcm 
Land systems only. It appears to differ fundamentally from the dominant Aus- 
tralian system 

Miss McConnel has also described: 

(1) A Wikmunkan (a) system of junior marriages with mothers brother's 
daughter or father's sister's daughter. 

(2) A Kandyu system of marriage with fathers sisters daughter not mother's 
brothers daughter. 

('&) A Yaraidyana system of marriages with father's sisters daughter's 
daughter not mnthrrs brother's daughters daughter. 

(4) A. iSJggamiti system of marriage with father's sister's daughter's daughter 
and mother's brother's daughter. 

The Wiknmnkan system (a) requires the coexistence of two apparently 
incompatible provisions, marriage with the mother's younger brother's 
daughter- or the father's sisters daughter. As wife's mother is normally a 
member of a 'TYYJV* elan, in other words she is a "father's younger sister", marriage 
vyrth a father's sister's daughter A not close Up is a normal occurrence. A special 
emphasis on tlu's paternal kinship could represent an approximation of the bilateral 
tow hsmge of second cousins which is a feature of the doniinant system of aboriginal 

Miss McConnel has interpreted the Kandyu society as a system of junior 
marriages with a lather's sisters daughter, mother's brothers daughter being 
taboo This is the only instance of the operation of this marriage rule of which 
I am aware. jfbevmusty (1950) I have denied its existence. The genealogical 
pattern of such a system is based on a marriage diagram of the type: 

JA1 - Ifcte Initial 1A2-lbl IB* = 1*3 

2A 1 - 2b I L'B I = 2a J 2 A2 -- 2?>2 2B2 =2<j I 

Kandyu kinship terms arc plotted on such a pattern in Diagram T[, A minor 
deviation from the pattern is that Miss McConnel identifies w.f.m. (a2) with (al) In her genealogical table un page 125. Alma is shared between 
Al and A £ lines, but by description is a generalised term. Important poinls 
are diat wife's mother may be pima or p'mya; that wife's father may 
be Icala f.m,y.b.s TJ, or Jam.y.b., or muka &, or ^; 
that the daughter of muka and pimja cannot be married; that the daughter of 
muka and pima or of kala and pititja may be married, in which case kinship 
terms art adjusted to those of a proper marriage with the daughter of kola and 
pima. Therefore die taboo against the mother's brothers daughter only operates 
if she h> "too close up", indicating a possible transition to second-cousin marriages. 
Contrasted with the Wikmunkan (by system, the Kandyu has the important 
difierence that father and son marry women from alternate groups, a charac- 
teristic of the uuirriages of the dominant system. 

MisS McConnel has recorded that in a Kauclyu exchange marriage Ego 
gives Ins ngama ( to his wife's ngama (her and Ego> "o,b") and 
in return his wife's brother gives his ngama ( Ego'.v sr.) to his wife's ngama ( Ego's 
m.b.s.). The same transaction would be accomplished if Ego gave his sister to 
his m.b.s.. who in return gave his sister to Ego'.v "older brother*. Miss McConnel 
(1952) has suggested this rfghl of a man to dispose of his m.h.d. in marriage 
may be a survival from a time when he had the right to marry her himself 
Mis* McConnel also records exchange marriages where the senior partner ap 
parently marries his wife's brother's sons sons daughter, a woman of the third 
Tower generation. 

This marrying outside a man's own generation or that of his grandchildren 
is described by Miss McConnel as a characteristic feature of the Yaraidyana 
ami Nggamiti societies who have the custom of marriage with the lathers sister's 
daughters daughter. These tribes are stated to be patrilineal. The Ungarinyin 
(Elkin, 19.32) and the Womra (l,nve ; 1950) in the Kimberley distrlrt of W.A 
have the custom of marrying the sister and daughter of a man of their own 
generation. This custom in a patrilineal society at least assures that the wives 
are of the right moiety. Fathers sister's daughter's daughter in a patrihucal 
society with moiety divisions must belong to (lie same moiety as the man 
speaking. A mairilineal system wonlrl retain the daughtei in the same moiety 
as her mother, but the marriage rule in question in a matriiiueal society U not 


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amenable to the dictates of moiety divisions. (Vide appendix.) Therefore, the 
Yaraidyana and Nggamiti societies cannot conform to moiety regulation. 

A genealogical pattern which conforms with the Yaraidyana kinship ter- 
minology is based on the marriage diagram: 

lA = lo IB 2c K1 = la 

2A=2b 2B^3a 2C = Ib 

or, expressed in the form representing sister exchange, 

lA=lo lB^2e 2A = 2b 

la-10 3b-2C 2a=2B 

This genealogical pattern takes the following remarkable form; 
1A la 2b 2c IB 3 b 2a lc 10 

2B \c lb 2* 20 

1R 2«, lc Jb tC 

2B lb 2a lc 2C 

The Yaraidyana kinship terms are charted on this pattern in Diagram III. 
There arc three lines of male descent and two lines of female descent, tie 
latter being repeated three times. Father and son marry alternately into these 
two female lines, and women in three consecutive generations take their husbands 
in regular rotation from the three male lines. The female lines arc repeated 
because each woman must appear in One generation as a daughter, and as wife 
and mother in another generation level. The three repetitions are necessary in 
order that the sister and the wife of each man of the three clans may appear on 
the horizontal line of his own generation. 

It will be noted that the kinship terms upunga, ibatha, and itamu are shared 
between the A and C lines, and that the terms ukufa and amitha in the senior 
generations of the B and C lines appear in the junior generations of the C and 
B lines, as ukuka and amuka. 

This genealogical pattern expresses marriages by exchange. Ego exchanges 
sister's daughters with ahjuwin (; or sisters with mauwara (fm.b.s.s. or 
m.m.b.s.), apithu (m.mi.y.b.), or apulca ("o.bxfd.s."). Miss McConnel, how- 
ever, records that the Yaraidyana marriages usually follow the junior marriage 
rule w T hereby brother and sister marry apart the brother to a junior and the 
sister to a senior mate. She also states that observance of the m.b.d.d. taboo 
debars exchange marriages in successive generations. These conditions indicate 
that the pattern of Diagram Til at least should be doubled. 

The genealogical pattern of Diagram III can be reproduced in six lines 
of male descent and four Hues of female descent by exposition of the following 
marriage diagram (a): 


1A2 --1n2 



101 = lal 



2A2 = 2b2 



201= J bl 


This diagram presents three groups of two pairs with marriage by exchange 
of sisters between the members of the pairs. The system of marriages can Be 
re-arranged in each of these groups in two ways: 

( 1 ) Tf die marriages be alternated, exchange of sisters will not occur. Foj 
example the system 

lAt-lel 1A2-Ic2 lAl-lcl JA2— 1«2 

1uI = 1C1 la2=lC2 wilt become ial — IC2 U2-101 

(2) If the marriages be inverted the above systems will become: 
iai--1c2 iA2=:ua 

Ial =102 U2-1C1 and ZAl*lo2 1A2-U«1 



*i fcq 

- < ■ 




3 .^ 
53 *, a 







P3H - 

8 IN 

$ a §3 










Ci a Si £ *= — 

5 P *. • 


H. " 

tE K 

g * 

S 3; 

t>. _; 3 


m-51 a 

« .8 s 3 . 

o— ^ 

w 8 S 


iff *■« 3 

«i ■ 



CM !fi 0-1 . ■ 



H kJ 5d 











Mm : 



r fi 





« W 


II 'I 






















1 — ! 





II 11 










r-( (>l 













fH C^ 


i— I r- ( 




^H CI 






rH t£ V - 

3 e 

"5 -r,D0 


r-t-lj Kj 





The marriage diagram (b)t 

(At-leL lA2=1r*J lKl~2e2 lHB~2cl lOl^lal ICJ ia2 

2Al=2l*2 gA£-£H 2BI -2*1 U132 =2»2 2C1 = IM 2Cl=lb2 

expresses alternated marriages in the 1B-2C. and the 2A-2B groups, hut r<f*ains 
sister exchange in the 1A-1C group. 

The genealogical pattern of this marriage diagram is illustrated in Diagram 
IV in a partial form, the four lines of female descent being given only once. 
The pattern shows the three generation cycle of female descent seen in Diagram 
III. Ynraidyana kiuship terms arc ehaited <m the pattern in relation to Ego 1A1. 
The plotting ol these kinship terms can be followed if a mans sister Ls located 
to identify his mother, and a man's $Oyft sister located to identify daughter and 
her mother who is his Wife, Generations become so mixed in this pattern that 
brother and sister may be separated hy one or two generations and merge- Willi 
km of analogous status of more remote generations. 

The pattern of Diagram IV provides a threefold conformity with kinship 
requirements iu that wife may he f.m.b.s.d., m.m.b.d., and Lsr.d.d. without incur- 
ring the tabood kinship of m.b.dab This will hold good if Ee,o be 1A1. JA2* 
1C1 or 1C2. 

Jf Ego be 1B1, 1B3.. 2H1, or 2B2, confonnity is only twofold a* m.m.b.d. 
becomes identified with rn.b.d.d. 

If Ego be 2A1> 2A2, 2C1. or 2C2 t and will be found to 
be also rn.b.d.d., and m.m.b.d. to he the wrong line. Son's wife arid daughter's 
daughter's husband are therefore shown with the prefix !i in Diagiam IV. 

A marriage diagram ol typo (b), but in whkh the group 2A-2B retains 
sister exchange, will provide a genealogical pattern which will give threefold 
conformity it EgQ be a member ol" one ni the pairs of this group, twofold eon- 
formitv if Eko be of the pairs 1C or 2C. and no eonformitv if Ego be of the pairs 
1A or IB. 

An analogous marriage diagram in which the group 1B-2G retains sister 
evchmige will give a pattern with threefold contormity if Ego be of this group. 
twofold if Ego bo of the pairs 1A or 2A, and no conformity if Ego be of the 
pairs 2R or 1C. 

Tf the marriages of any two of the groups in the above type (l>) of mar- 
riage diagram be inverted the pattern will be unchanged. If the marriages of 
one or three of the groups be inverted, a pattern with a six generation cycle of 
female descent will appear which will not conform to tbc Yaraidyana terminology. 

If the marriages of all three groups of marriage diagram (a) be alternated, 
the genealogical patterns give a six generation cycle of descent in two of the 
four lemale lines. These patterns provide threefold conformity if Ego be a 
member of one of the pairs 1A, 2B, or 2G or alternatively if Ego is a member 
of one of the pairs 2A, IB, or 1C, A pattern expressing conformity when Ego 
is a member of one of these series ol pairs has no conformity when Ego is a 
member of one of the other series. If a marriage diagram for one type of 
pattern be re-nrranged so that the marriages of one or of three of the groups 
of two pairs be inverted, a pattern will emerge which will be ol the alternate 

Marriage diagrams, in which the marriages of only one group of diagram 
(a) arc alternated, and sister exchange retained by two groups, provide genea- 
logical patterns which do not conform to die Yaraidyanu terminology, 

Therefore, so far as I can determine, no single genealogical pattern can 
be found to represent the social organisation of the Yaraidyana. 

Miss McConnel (1952) has informed me that elans play no part in marriage, 
arrangements, and that the system is kept "straight" by the use of the terms 
mu;cm and imalgan, which are applied to sister's husband and brother's wife 





^ t£rt 

3 ^ 


IS oo 






h . . 






ST * 


> ^ 




rt <N r-t 

C3 p-H 





rt en *s o 

£ = £ 




W ■ 


when these are "outside" persons. The above discussion indicates that much 
compromise and readjustment must be necessary to make the system workable. 

The Nggamiti system is not described in detail by Miss McConnel. Diagram 
V shows that the kinship terms will conform to a genealogical pattern based on 
I. he marriage diagram: 




2 A 2b 

2B 2c 

2C la 

or, in the form representing marriages of brothers and sisters, 


U»2C 2b=2A 

The pattern of Diagram V represents exchange marriages in which Ego 
gives his sister to aujuwin ( or irun.b.s.) in return for the lattcr's sister's 
daughter, or gives his sister's daughter to athakin (m.b.s.) in return for the 
latter s sister. The terms ukuta. atitha and amitha in the Nggamiti system 
appear in the alternate lines in junior generations as uhtka, atnkan and amukan. 

The description of the Yaraidyana and Nggamiti systems is a tribute to 
Miss McConners patient research, and has set a problem for those who are 
interested in kinships. These systems appear to be quite anomalous, and with- 
out .significance in regard to the development of the dominant type of aboriginal 
marriage and kinship. 

The Wikmunkan (a) and the Kandyu systems have been seen to approxi- 
mate to the dominant type, but it would seem to be more probable that this 
approximation is due to a compromise between the existing Wikmunkan (b) 
system and the dominant type rather than representing a stage in the evolution 
of the latter. 

The following conclusions are therefore presented. 

There is one dominant type of aboriginal marriage and kinship in Aus- 
tralia. Typically, marriages are arranged by an exchange of second cousins. 
The consequent kinship pattern has a patrilineal and a matrilineal form. 

A. simpler kinship terminology is common in borderland regions where 
members of patrilineal and matrilineal societies intermarry. Detribalisation has 
u similar result. These simpler kinship terminologies have suggested that a 
custom of bilateral first-cousin marriages was prevalent in such regions. 

This led to the hypothesis that descriptions of existing systems of aboriginal 
kinship terminology and class (section) nomenclature are evidence of an evolu- 
tion of marriage custom from that of first-cousins to that of second-cousins. 
Tins hypothesis is discredited. 

The systems of unilateral first-cousin marriages of junior type in Northern 
Australia are fundamentally different from the dominant system, and the complex 
social organizations of the former are not prototypes of those of the latter. 

The complexity of these junior-marriage systems is realised when diagram- 
matic presentation is attempted. Diagrams of the marriages of brother ami 
sister occupy two dimensions. Successive generations represent a third dimen- 
sion, Representation of senior and junior status requires yet another dimension. 
Therefore, attempts to create a picture of the social organization of one -of 
these tribes have to contend with a four-dimensional problem. 

Finally, it Is of interest to note that these aboriginals of Australia in dealing 
with the practical issues of their social organization had to cope with genealogical 
problems in which the mathematical abstractions of relativity and Your dimen- 
sions were concealed. 



The simplest genealogical pattern to express marriage with the fathers 
sister's daughter's daughter in a matrilineal society is one based on Diagram II 
with a reversal of sex symbols. 

If generation lines be numbered consecutively the following pattern will 










2a 1 


2b I 






3b 1 




4a 1 




















7a 1 







Men of generations numbered 4 and 7 are sons of men of generations num- 
bered 2 and 5, and of women of generations 3 and 6 whose brothers can find no 
representation in the pattern, 


Elkin*. A. P. } 1932. Social Organization in the Kiinberley Division. North Western Australia 

Oceanian (3), p. 313. 
Fhv, H. K., 1934. Kinship and Descent Among the Australian Aborigines. Trans, Rov Sou 

S. Airtft, 58, p. 14. 
Fhy, H. K., 1950. Aboriginal Social Svstcms. Trans. Rov. Soe. S. Aust., 73 (2) p 282 
Howitt, A. W., 1901, The Native Tribes of S.-E. Australia. London, (a) p. 163; (b) p. 107. 
Love, J. R. R. 1950. Worora Kinships. Trims. Roy, Soe. S. Aust.. 73 (2), p. 280. 
Malinow&ju, R. 3 1929. Kinship. Encyclopaedia Brit., 14th Ed. (13), p. 403. 
Matthews, R. IL, 1897. The Totemic Divisions of Australian Tribes. ]ourn. Hov. Soc, 

N.S.W., 3L p. 156, 
Matthews, R. IL, and Everitt, M. M., 1900. The Organisation. Language, and Initiation 

Ceremonies of the S.-E. Coast of N.S.VV. Journ. Roy. Soe. N.SAV., 34, p. 203. 
McConnf.t., V, H., 1950. Junior Marriage Systems; Comparative Survey. Oceania, 21 (2), 

p. 107.* 
McConnei., IX H., 1952. Personal communication. 

"Vide Corrigenda. Oceania, 1950, 21 (4), p. 310. 

Also 1952. Page 110 of original paper, line 33, for read 
PaUe 110, line 38, for latter read former. 
Page. 124, line 30, for Ego's sister's d. read Ezc's daughter. 
Radojffe-Brown, A. R., 1930. The Social Organization of Australian Tribes. Oceania, 1 

(3), p. 336. 
ScHOOLCJiAi-T, 1853. Indian Tribes. Philadelphia. Part L p. 420. Quoted by McLennan, 

,J, h\, 1876, Studies in Ancient History. London, p. 365. 
Stbehlow, T. C. IL, 1947. Aranda Traditions. Melbourne, p, 139. 
Thomas, N. W., 1906, Kinship Organisation and Group Marriage in Australia. Cambridge, 

p. 100. 
WAHNEn, \V. Lloyd. 1930. Morphology and Function of the Australian Murngin Type of 

Kinship. Airier. Anthropologist N.S., 32, p. 207. 





byN. H. Ludbrook 


Part IV of the study of the mollusca from borings into the Dry Creek Sands consists of a revision of 
the gastropod superfamilies Cerithiacea, Scalacea, Pyramidellacea, Hipponicacea, Calyptraeacea. 
The nomenclature of 48 species has been revised, 1 new genus, 2 new subgenera and 16 new 
species have been described. 

The occurrence of a very thin remnant of the Dry Creek Sands outcropping in the River Light is 
placed on record as the most northerly exposure of the Pliocene in the Adelaide Basin. 



by N. H. Lupbrook 

[Read 12 April, 1956] 


Part IV of the study or the mollusca from borings into the Dry Creek Sands consists of fl- 
ic vision of the gastropod superfamilius Ccrithiacea, Scalaoea, Pyramidellaeea, Ilipponicacea, 

The nomenclature of 48 species lias been revised, 1 new genus, 2 new subgenera and 
IG new species have been described, 

The occurrence of a very thin remnant of the Dry Creek Sands outcropping In the River 
Light is placed ou record as the most northerly exposure of the Pliocene in tile Adelaide Basin. 


Late in 1955, a very thin remnant of Pliocene calcareous sandstone overlying 
Oligo- Miocene yellow fossiliferous limestone was observed in an outlier at Red- 
bands, on the River light, 3M miles east-south-cast of Mallala, Section 5, Hun- 
dred of Grace. Although the total rock exposure is very small, an assemblage 
characteristic of the Dry Creek Sands has been identified from moulds, easts 
and chalky shell remains. Species include Glycymeris convexa (Tate), Chlamys 
antiaustr nils (Tate), Miltlia hora (Cotton), Dentalkan lalestdcatum Tate, Tur~ 
ritella acricuJa adelaidensis Cotton & Woods, Dimtoma provisi Tate, Thericium 
torri (Tate), PoUnices substolida (Tate). Conns (Floraconm) sp. nov. 

Opportunity is taken of placing this occurrence on record as relevant to the 
present study. It extends considerably to the north the occurrence of the 
Pliocene Dry Creek Sands in the Basin. 

The methods employed in describing the fauna have been outlined in Parts 
1 (this Journal, vol. 77),* II (vol. 78), and 111 (vol. 79). Part IV includes the 
Pyramidellaeea, the systematic position of which is not yet firmly established. 

Modern zoologists tend to place them with the Opisthobranchia. 


Genus Turritella Lamarck, 1799 
TuniitAhi Lamarck, 1799, Mem. fcioo. Hist. Nat, Paris, p. 74. 

Type species (o.d.) Turbo terebra Linne 

Subgenus Gazamkda Tredale, 1924 
Gcizameda tredale, 1924, Pioc. Linn. Son. N.S.W., 49 (3), 197, p. 247. 

Type species (monotypy) Turritella gunnii Reeve 

TurriteJla (Gazameda) acrieula adelaidensis Cotton & Woods 

Turritella {Cazameda) acrieula adelaidemk Cotton & Woods, 1935, Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 5 (3), 

jp 376, text fi«. 2, 
Gammedu adelaidensis Cotton & Woods, Cotton, 1952, Geol. Sorv. S. Aust. Bull, 27, appendix 

4 S p. 245, 
Turritella (llattstator) acrieula adelaidensis Cotton & Woods. Ludbrook, 1954, Trans. Hoy. 

Soc. S. Aust., 77, p. 59, 


Diagnosis— Acutely lanceolate, with turrcted apex of 2 narrow convex turns, 
cphebie whorls smooth and sharply carinatcd at the middle. Adult whorls tend- 
ing to uncoil with resultant deep excavation at the anterior suture. Sculpture 
very variable, rough, generally of about 12 subequal spiral threads, of which the 
medial 2 to 4 are the stronger and more widely spaced, and secondary inter- 
stitial spiral threads all crossed by medially arched growth axials oi' almost equal 
strength to the spirals, producing rhombic cancellation or pxmctatlon. 

Dimensions— Height 37, diameter 7 nun. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide, 

Legation of Holotypc—'i'ixte Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T16S1. 

Observations — The species aciicula (senm lalo) is very variable and it is 
difficult to decide whether adelaidensh should be separated' from it specifically 
or subspecifically. Adelaidensis is generally more coarsely sculptured than 
acncula s. str., particularly in the strength of the axials and resultant cancella- 
tion. The early whorls are identical with those of acrkula, and many specimens 
are inseparable from the typical species. 

Ill ihe opinion of Dr. J, Marwiek (personal communication ) Gazameda 
should he separated from Hatts tutor under which the writer listed the spectas 
(1954, p. 59). l 

Material — Numerous specimens Ilindmarsh Bore, 28 specimens Weymouth's 

Stratigraphkal Range—Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Turritella (Cnzameda) subacriculu Cotton & Woods 

Turritt-lh (Cuzumcda) suhacricul/i Cotton & Wood*, 1^)35, flee. $, Ausl. Ma, 5 (3) u, 376 

frxt iig, 2. " ■ 

Cammciiu sulmcricuh Cotton & Woods, CuUoii, 1052, Geol. Sum S. Au&t. Bull., 27, appewdU 
4, p. 245. 

TurrUelht (Haustutor) suhacricula Coltoo & Woods, Lud brook, 1954, Trans, Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 

Diagnosis— Sharply turreted, whorls markedly convex, sculpture of 4 major 
spiral ribs and indistinct secondary' rib.s crossed by marked axial growth striae, 

Dimensions — Height 40-5. diameter 7-8 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of IIolotype—T&tc Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 1686. 

Materia! — 4 incomplete specimens, Hindmarsh Bore. 

Stmt (graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution— Abattoirs and Ilindmarsh Bores, Adelaide. 
Subgenus Ctknocolpus Tredale, 1925 
Ctanocolpus Trrdale, 1925, Ktc. Aust. Mus.. 14. pp. 249. E$& 

Type species (monotypy) TurriieUa uustralis Lamarck 

Turritella (Cleuoeolpus) trilix Cotton & Woods 

Turritella (Ctriwe-otput) trilix Cotton & Wood 1 ;, ftSR. Kisc, S. Aft*. Mm. u H>. n 377 IrAt 
IIjt. 4 ( LitJbruuk, J.931, Tra™. Roy. Soc. S. Aiwl." 77, p. 50. l ' 

Vtimocoltnix trilix Cotton ft WoutU, Cotton, IS52, Ool .Stitv. S. Aust. Hull. '27 amjenclix 
4, p. 24.1. ' 

Diagnosis — Small, whorls flattened, prntueoneh oblique. Sculpture of 3 
distinct major spiral ribs with wide, smooth interspaces. One secondary sub 
sutural spiral 

Dimt/mions — Height 6*5, diameter 2-5 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of Uohtype — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 1675. 

Material- 3 specimens, Weymouth's Bore. 

Strati graphical llange — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs and Weymouth's Bores, Adelaide. 


Subgenus Colpospiba Donald, 1900 
Colpospira Donald, 19CW). Proc, Mai. Soc, 4 (2), P# 51. 

Type species (o.&) Turritelia mncinata Watson. 

TunitcJIa (Colpospira) platyspiroides sp. nov. 

pi. 2, figs. 1, 2. 

Tutritetk i sp. 6ft pkttjspira T. Woods, Ludbxook, 19-11, Trans* Roy. Sue. S. Aust.. 63 (A). 

Diagnosis— A rather small Colpospira with protoccrach of one-and-a-half 
smnuth globose turns. Adult whorls smooth, shining, flattish, rather constricted 
posteriorly and in the earlier whorls slightly earinate in the anterior quarter. 
Later adult whorls with a second carina developed at the posterior one-quarter 
with a flat, smooth area between them. Periphery sharply annulate, base flatfish. 

Description of H oloty pe—Spirc broken, adult whorls smooth, shining, nearly 
flat at first carmate in the anterior and posterior one-quarter, with a flattened 
medial area between them. Periphery sharply angulate. Surface smooth except 
for fine axial growth lines revealing a deep, broad median apertural sinus and 
occasional spiral threads. There is a small cord on each carina and on Che 
periphery. Base flatfish, with 6 fine spiral lirae. Aperture subquadrate. outer 
lip with a broad median sinus. 

Description of Paratype— Immature shell, showing the early whorls. Pro- 
tocotirh o! oue-and-a-half smooth globose turns, adult whorls at first flat with 
an anterior carina developing at the fourth adult whorl. Whorls gradually in- 
creasing, spue sharply tapering. 

Dimensions— Total estimated height IS 5, diameter 5 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Location of Holottjpe—Tnte Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F 15156. 

Observations — The four examples of this species were previously referred 
to plalifspira Tenison -Woods, from which the species differs in being larger and 
thickets with a wider spire more gradually tapering than that of pktt/spim. The 
sculpture also differs. 

Material — Holotype and 3 paratypes, Abattoirs Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution— Abattoirs Borc : Adelaide. 

Subgenus Maoiucolpus Finlay ; 1927 
Maoricolptti Fm%, 1927. Trans. N.Z. Inst;. 57, p. 389. 

Type species (o.d.) Turritelia rosea QuOy & Gaimard. 

Turritelia (Maoricolpus) murrayana subrudis Cotton &: Woods 

Tinrttrtlti {Muorholjms) mumtyotm subrudis CotNm & Woods, 1935, flee. S. Autf. Mn*_ 

(3), p. ,171. 


WaB^Wjrtobty&i Cotton & Wooda, Cotton, 1952, Geol. Surv. S. Aust. thill. 27> appendix 

TunirAh (Petjrtitw) murwyana mlnndi* Cotton & Woods. Ludbrook, 19.51 Tram; Bov .W 
S. Aust., 77, p. 59. ........ 

Diagnosis— Fairly large, whorls 12 to 14. flat and medially depressed. Apical 
angle 15 deg. Anterior suture slightly earinate. Early spire whorls only slighilv 
mllated and earinate at the anterior one-third. Sculpture strong aud coarse of 
about 12 primary spiral lirae with fine secondary lirae between; lirae stronWr 
in the median depressed portion of the whorl. 

Dimensions— Height 49, diameter 12 mm. 

Type. Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of Holotype— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1688. 

Obseruatwns—lAke T. (Gazameda) acricula adelaidemis, the present sub- 
species (9 a coarsely sculptured form of the typical species. In view of the range 
of variation in the sculpture of viurrayana. one hesitates to separate the Dry 


Creek .Sands variant specifically, particularly as strengthening of Hie sculpture 
seems to bo common to several species of this formation. The species murrnyaw 
may be long-ranging and widespread, but the amount of material available for 
comparison is small. 

Material — Holotype and 19 paratypes. Abattoirs Bore. 
St ru ( (graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 
Geographical Distribtrtion — Adelaide District 

Cenus Valsantia gen. nov. 

Cmrrlr Characters — Shell very small, imperforate, solid. Protoconch small, 
paucigyrate, slightly inclined, immersed at the origin and smooth for one whorl 
followed by a brephie. whorl with sharp, narrow axials. Adult whorls strongly 
Eklld conspicuously cancellated Aperture with outer lip expanded, channelled 
within corresponding to external spiral ribs, and conspicuously denticulate. 
Columella straight, with two median plaits. Inner Jip slightly effuse at base. 
Type species Vacantia spfictahilis sp. nov. 

Valsantia speclabilis sp. nov. 

pi 2, fyr. 3. 

Dia^nosk— Protoconch small smooth and immersed at tip, followed by 
oik* post-nuclear whorl with 10 sharp, narrow avials. Adult whorls four in a 
beiuht itf 4 mm. Sculpture of 3 strong spiral ribs, the median of which is on a 
carina, and one weaker subsutural rib, all crossed by axial costae narrower than 
the spirals but strong, elevated and laterally compressed. Interspaces deep, 
ihoiubic, intersections tuberculate. Base with 2 tuberculate spiral ribs. Colu- 
mella with two median plaits. 

])(seri})tion of Ilolotupo — Shell very small, solid, turreted, spire fairly low 
tor thr family, whorls relatively few. Apex small, pancigyrute, immersed at 
rip, slightly inclined, first whorl smooth, first post-nuclear whorl with .10 brephie 
avials. Adult whorls Four, sculptured with 3 strong spiral ribs, die median of 
wbith is stronger and supported by a keel and one weaker subsutural rib all 
cixTsseil cbliquely and tubrrculated* by axial costae narrower than the spirals 
but elevated anil compressed laterally. Interspaces deep and rhombic, Suture 
deep, canaliculate. Body whorl a little less than half the height of the shell, 
aperture about half height of the body whorl Base convcxly oblique with 2 
spiral lubercnlate ribs and a third inconspicuous tuberculate rib bordering the 
columella. Aperture sub-elliptical with outer lip well-rounded and expanded, 
canaliculate within corresponding to the external ribs which are produced ex- 
ternally beyond the axial margin, and inconspicuously denticulate with lort& 
Hat denticles. Columella straight, oblique, with two plaits well-spaced medially. 
Inner lip reflected over columella and slightly effuse anteriorly. 

Dituvmions — Height 4, diameter 2, height of body whorl 2-5 mm. 

Ttfpc Locality— Hhulmarsh Bore, 430-487 feet 

Location of llolohjpt'— Tate Mus. Coll,, Univ. uf \dclaidc, 1? 15157. 

OhwrvMtiom — This is a very elegant and interesting shell, Without the 
protoconch and columella features, it is reminiscent of Mathilda (Opitnilda) 
drrorata Medley. However, the plaits on the columella are distinctive, and are 
possessed by no other genus, so far as can be determined, in the family. In 
apical characters, the genus comes closest to Gefj/inia Jeffreys; the heterostrophie 
strongly tilted apex of Mathilda fa not present, the apex being only slightly tilted 
and immersed at the origin. The apical characters and the sculpture suggest 
the subgenus Tttbcna Marwiek created for Gegawa {Tub&m) viola Marwick 
horn the New Zealand Awamoan, Both Geaania s. str. and G. (Tuhcna) are 
Ihin shells; ValMOitia is solid for its size. 


The species was inadvertently listed (Ludbrook, 1954, p. 59) as Glyplozaria 
spectubilis sp. nov. 

Materia! — Holotype : llindrnarsh Bore; 8 paratopes, Weymouth's Bore. 
Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Hindmarsh and Weymouth's Bores, Adelaide, 
Cemis Aucuitkctonica Rodin g, 1798. 
■\rchilcctotiica Ending ex Bolten, 1798, Mus. Bolt.. 2 r p. 78. 
[Solarium Lamarck, 1799, Mem, Soc, Hist. nat. J&riK, l t p. 71.) 

Type species (s.d. Gray, 1847) Tr<HJuis perspectiva Lirme. 
Subgenus Discotectonica Marwick, 1931 
Discotcctonwu Murwick, 193L, N.Z. &&]. Surv. Pal. Bull.. 13, p. 101. 

Type species (o.d.) Architect onica balcomhenm Finlay. 

Architectonica (Diseotectonica) wannonensis (Tenison Woods) 

pi. 2, furs. 4, S, 
Soifirittm uiannoncrisis Teuison-Woods, 1870, Praia LmtK S,x\ N-SAV., 3 (3). iv 237; A 2L 

fitf. 30. ' 

IJcUofus icanuonenm Tcnisou-Woods sp. Hiirm, 1897, Cat. Tert. Moll. Wrir. Yip*., ],, p, 245; 
Dcnnant & KHV)D 5 1903, VtiQ. CvjyL Hnrv, Vic, 1 (2), p. 112; CoUoti, 19-5ii, Cuof. Surv, 
S. Ausc Bull, 27. uppcuch'x 4, p. 215. 
Architectonica u an none nuts- , T.-Woods, Uxlbrook, 1941, Ti\ins. Rov. Soc. S. AUsL 63 (I), 
p. mi 

Architectonica (Diseotectonica) irmmrmcnsis (TciiisonAVrnxIs), T.udbrook, 1354, Trans- Hoy. 
Soc. S. Aush, 77, p. 59. 

Diagnosis — A Diseotectonica which is flatly convex above and convex bt-low; 
whorl}, sculptured with granular spiral oords 3 increasing in number from 3 on 
the first adult whorl to 5 on the penultimate whorl, of which the iiifrasutural is 
stronger with fewer and larger granules, followed by three cords with smaller 
and more numerous granules equal in number to those of the previous three 
cords. An additional small cord shows at the suture, representing the incom- 
plete embracing of the peripheral cord by the aperture. Peripheral cord strong 
and ovatcly-granular. Base convex with 6 cords with small grannies followed 
by -3 cords of hxjjp and less numerous granules bordering the umbilicus. 
Aperture round within; inner lip angularly expanded at the junction with the 
peripheral cord and similarly expanded below at the position of the umbilical 

Dimensions of Ifypotypr — Height 2, diameter 6 mm. 

Ttjpe Local iff/— Muddy Creek, Victoria. 

Location of liolotypc — Australian Museum. Sydney : F 1818. 

Location of IIijp{>tijpe—~7nte Mus. Coll., F 15158. 

Observations — The hypotype is twice the size of the teletype, and has hewn 
compared with authentic topotypes. 

Material — Hypotvpe, Weymouth's Bore. 310-330 feet, 2 topotvpes. Muddy 
ttadq Victoria (B.M, Coll.). 

Strati graphical Range — PBalcombian; Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, to Adelaide > South 

Genus Tenacodus Guetlard, 1770. 
Tcna^othts CiiettanL 1770, Mem. riiflf. Sri., 3, p. 128. 
(Siliqtiarui Bru^merc. 1739, "Encv. Mem. (Vers.), 1, p. In.) 
('J'etnmoiha V. Fischer, 1885, Man. do Connh., p. (392.) 

Type species (monotypy) Serpula anguinus Linn6 
Subgenus Tenagodus s. str. 

{Montiortui Delia Campuna, 1S90, Atti Soc. Lii^sh, 1, p. 139, n>n Kt?cluz, 1843.) 
(llcmltcnaguties Rovercto. 1 tt09, id., 10, p. 108. nom. nov. for Montfortia) 


Tenagodus australis (Quoy &: Gaimard) 

Siliquarw amtrulh' Quoy & Gainiai'd. 1834, in d'Uiville, Voy, l 'AstroUrm M Zuol., 3, p. UQZ; 
Cotton & Godfrey, 1931, S. Aust. Nat., 12 (4), p. 63. pi. 2, fig. 13; Lndbrook, 1941, 
Trans. JKoy, Sue. b. Aust, 65 (1), Q, 100; Cotton, 1652] Gcol. Surv. S. Aust. Bull. J7, 
appendi* 4, p. 245. 

Tenagodcs umiralis Q, & G., 'late, 1800, Trans. Roy. Soc\ S. Aust., 13 (2), p. 177; Deiui>i..t 

& Kitson, 190,1, Rcc. Cool. Surv. Vic, 1 (2), p. 141. 
Tenagodus austndix (Qi & G.), I-udbtonk, 1054, Tran;s. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 77, p. 53, 

Diagnosis — Fairly large, vermiform, whorls about 5 at first spiral then 
irregularly coiled, angnlated behind. Growth lines prominent, slit at first closed> 
followed by open, round holes, then a conspicuous, open and denticulated slit. 

Dimensions — Length 105, greatest diameter of the tube at the base, 17 mm. 

Type Locality — Wcstcrnport, Victoria; Recent. 

Location of Ilololijpe — Mus. d'Hist. nat. Paris. 

Material— Portions ot lubes, Hindmarsh, Weymouth's and Kooyonga Bores; 
numerous specimens, Abattoirs Bore, 

Stmtigraphical Range — Pliocene to Recent. 

Geographical Distribution— Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. 


Genus Diastoma Deshayes, 1850. 

Diastoma Dcshayes, 1S50, Truite ekun, ConeK Atlos, p. 46. 

Type species (monotypy) Diastoma coslcllata Dcshayes = Mclania 

tostellata Lamarck. 

Diastoma provisi Tate 
lit l P fig, 4. 

Diustoma provisi Tfttoi 1894, Jmirn. Roy. Soc. N.S.W. for 1893, 27, p. 177, pi. 10, fig. B: 
ITavriK, 1897, Cut. Tert. Moll. Brit. Mus., 1, p. 232: Dennant & Kitson. 1903, Bou Gcol. 
Surv. Vic, I (2), p. 13fi, 144; Ludbmok, IW54, Trans. Roy. S^. S. Aust., 77= p. 59. 

<\ 7 eCt4iiiMi>ma prooifii Tato, Ludhrook, 1941, Trans. Hoy, Soc, S. Aust., 65 (1), p, JiOftj Cotlon, 
195iT, CJeol. Stuv. S. Aust. Bull. 27, appendix 4, p. £$S. 

Diagnosis — Adult whorls about 10, sculptured with about 18 axial costae 
per whorl, both costae and interspaces bearing fine axial growth striae, crossed 
by fine, frequent spiral threads, generally alternating in strength. The axial 
costae are iuterrupted at the posterior four-fifths of each whorl by a narrow 
impressed channel. Suture impressed, whorls overlapping. Whorls rnorc or 
less varicate. Aperture loop-shaped, columella with a single plication; callosity 
reflected behind columella ridge. 

Di7nensions — Height 46, diameter 14, length of aperture 15, width of 
aperture 7 mm. 

Type Locality — Dry Creek Bore, Adelaide. 

Location of Hololypa — Tate Mus. Coll, Univ. of Adelaide, T1541. 

Observations — Diastoma provisi Is a restricted and typical fossil of the 
Dry Creek Sands and their equivalents. In the opinion of M. Chavan (per- 
sonal communication) it is a true Diasloma and not related to Neodiasiomu, tyjje 
species Mesalia metanioldes lloeve. 

Material — Holotype and puralypes, Dry Creek Bore; numerous specimen* 
Abattoirs Bore; 10 specimens Kooyonga Bore; 6 specimens Hindniarsh Bore; 3 
specimens and fragments, Weymouth's Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range— Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution— Adelaide District, Hallctt Covc r Eyre Pcuinsula. 

Cemis Ortortio llcdley, 1899. 
Obloiih Hedtey, 1890, Mum. Aust. Mus., ;i (3), p. 412. 

Type species (monotypy) Rissoa pyrrliacme Melvill & Standen. 


Obtortto liratus Ludbrook 

Oblutthi hfulus Ludbrook-, 10-41, Trans, Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 65 (1), p, 90, pi. 4, fitf. 24; 
Cotton, 1952, Geol. Surv. S. Aust. Bull. 27, appendix 4, p. 245; Ludbrook. 1054 V Tcua*. 
Hoy. Soc. S. Au*t, 77, p. 59. 

Diagnosis — Small, 7 adult whorls in a height of 5-2 mm., angulatc at pos- 
terior one-third. Sculpture of 14 curved axial eostae per whorl, crossed by pro* 
minent spiral lirae, absent or obsolete posterior to die angle. Base spirally 
lirate. aperture subovate with a short anterior canal. 

Dimensions — Height 5-2, diameter 1-7 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

location of tfo/off/pe— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 1656. 

Observations — Obtortio is an Indo-Pacifie genus, here represented by the cne 
species, occurring in small numbers iu Abattoirs and Weymouth's Bores. 

Slraiigrapliical Range — Dry Creek Sands, 

(xcograpldcal Distribution — Abattoirs and Weymouth's Bores, Adelaide, 


Subfamily Batillariinae. 
Genus Baiillahia Benson, 1842. 
n<Utlluri«- Ttenson, 1842, Ann, Mag. Nat. Hist, 9, p. 488. 
(Uwtyimia Cray, 1847,, Froc. Zool. Soc, 15, p. 153.) 

Type species (monotypy) Batillaria zonalis — Cerithium 

zonal is Bruguiere. 

Subgenus Zeaccmantus FirJay, 1927. 

'/.WMnumtJiS Finlay, H>27, Trans. N.7. Irish, 57, r>. 3S0 

Type species (o.d. ) Cerithium suhedrinatum Sowcrby. 

Batillaria (Zeacurnantus) diemenensis (Quoy &: Gaiinard) 

Crritfiium dwmcncmiH Qoov & Gahmrd, ]H'M, Vov, Astrolabe, ZnoL, 3, p. 128, pi. 55, figs. 

T.rttrftnmntttH diemfmemte Q. & C, Ludbrook, 1041, Trans, Roy t Soc. S. Aust., 05 (1), p. 100: 

Cotton, 1952, Ool. Surv. S. Aust. Bull. 27, appendix 4, p. 245. 
Batillaria (Zsucumanttts) dhvnenemis (Q. & C,) t Ludbrook. 1954, Trans. Rov. Sue, S, Au&ch, 

77 : p. 59. 

Diag7}0sis — Total of 9 whorls in a height of 18 mm., axially plicate-, with 
about 10 plications on the penultimate whorl and four spiral striae on each 
whorl. Aperture subovate, oblique, with a short recurved anterior canal. 

Dimensions — Height IS mm. 

Type Locality — Tasmania, Recent, 

Location of Holotype — Mus. d'Hist. nat. Paris. 

Material — One worn specimen, Hindmarsh Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands, and Recent 

Geographical Distribution — Southern Australia. 

Batillaria (Zeacurnantus) bivaricata (Ludbrook) 

Chjpcomorus bivaricattis Ludhrook : 1941, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aubt t , 65 (1). p. 89; Cotton, 

1952, Ccol. Surv. S. Aust. Dull. 27, appondlv 4. p. 245. 
Batillaria (Zeactitnantti?;) hivartnata Ludbrook, 19o4, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Ansh, 77, p. 39. 

Diagnosis — Protoeonch of one-and-a-half whorls and nine adult whorls in 
a height of 11 mm. Whorls angulate at the posterior third, almost vertical in 
anterior two-thirds. Angulation more pronounced in early whorls, body whorl 
convex. Sculpture of curved axial eostae, about 15 on the penultimate whorl, 
tnberculate at the angle, crossed by about six strong spiral brae in the anterior 
two-thirds and four much weaker, more closely set lirae above the shoulder; 
the number of lirae increases by intercalation from two on the earliest whorls. 
Six fine spiral lirae on the Two varices on each whorl. 

Dimensions — Height 11, diameter 3-1 rnm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 


Location of Holtttrjpt'—TnU' Mus. Coll, Univ. of Adelaide, T 1629. 

Observations — This species does not belong to Chjpcomorus where it was 
originally described. Although its aperture has some features in common with 
that genus, the shape, texture and sculpture are very distinct. It is difficult 
to obtain a specimen with a mature or complete aperture: two, including the 
holotype, among the numerous specimens from Abattoirs Bore, have complete 
apertures- The affinities are with B. (Z.) sttbcarhiaUitn Sowerhy- Immature, 
shells show similar features in both species. 

Materia! — Numerous paratypes. Abattoirs Bore; 30 specimens Weymouth's 
Bore; 8 specimens Hindmarsh Bore. 

Strati&raphical ftongc — Dry Creek Sands. 

Ccograplilcat Distribution — Adelaide District 

Bntillnria //eaeumantus) rnultilirula (Ludbruok) 

Cl'iitt'ntmmts tmtlllUmtm Tmlbrook, 1941, Trans. Hey. SSue. S. Aust.. 65 (1], p. «9. pi. !, 

fiK. ^2. Cotton, 11)52, Ool. Jhh\. S. Au*l. Bull. 27, appendix 4. p. 215. 
BtiU'thiiu iZcachmaiitus) multtllmta I.udhmok, 1954. Trans. Roy. Hoc. S. AiU&, 77 T p. 59. 

Diagnosis — IV-olotonch of three relatively large, convex whorls. Adult 
whorls sculptured with curveo 1 a\ial costae increasing from seven in the first 
whorl to eleven in thr bodv whorl, crossed by numerous fine lirac, wider than 
interspaces, about fifteen iu number on the penultimate whorl. Three varices 
per whorl, 

I) hue us ions— Height 9*7 T diameter 3'6 mm. 

Type /.o'7//»7//— Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of iloloUjpc— late Mus. Coll, Umv, of Adelaide*, T1633. 

Oltsrrvatious— -Like the preceding species, multilirata should not have been 
placed in Clf/juvmorus. It is readily distinguishable from bivaricafa by the 
abst nee of angulation in the earh whorls and die 3 varices on each whorl. No 
complete specimens have as yet "been found, and apertural features arc still 

Material— IS paratopes. Abattoirs Bore; 28 specimens. Ilindmursh tfore; 
9 speumens. Weymouth's Bore. 

Xtraligraphical Uau^c — Dry Creek iSands. 

(Irtuvvjttiical IMsfribution — Adelaide "District. 

Subgenus Bai ni.AJuiiLt a Thiele ; 1929. 
butUkuhtto Thick 192<X Band)). Svst. WVicht. 1. p. 2C*. 

Type species (monotypy) BUlium estuarhram Tale 

Batillarift (BaUllariella) estuarina (Tate) 
Uilttum cst'tfitinmn T>in-> 18^3, Trans. Bo\ . Snc. S. Aitst., 17 (t). p. 190, ni. 5, -fig. & 
tiatillarla ilMtillarUflht) cstwnim (Tale/, LiuU*rool% 1951, Trans. Hoy. S6f, S. Anst, 77, i>. o9. 

Dia^aosis — Twelve whorls in a height of 22 mm., early spire whorls medially 
angulale: sculpture of slightly arched axial plicae, about 12 on the penultimate 
whorl, and about siv primary spiral lirao on the penultimate, whorl, alio fine 
secundaiy brae rising between them. Interspaces and plicae hne } axially striate 
with crowded lines of growth. Aperture .subeircular. somewhat eliuse at the 
base and obliquely angulatcd. 

Dimensions — Height 2% diometer 5 mm. 

Type Locality — Fort Adelaide Creek, between tidemarks; Recent. 

Location of Ilolvtypc — S. Ausl. Mus. 

Observations — The only fossil example of estuarina is* small and possibly 
juvenile. It is doubtfully conspecific with living topotypes from JPort Kiver, but 
is comparable with specimens from Western Australia which are smaller and 
more strongly sculptured. 

Material — One specimen. Abattoirs Bore; 12 speeimens. Western Australia; 
15 specimens. Tort River, Adelaide (B.M. Coll.). 


Snatigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands and Recent. 

Geographical Distribution — South Australia to Western Australia, cstiiariue, 
between lidemarks. 

Genus Mamjlona Ludbrook, 1941. 
Xfwofana LuclbnK.k, 1041, Turns. Huy, Sofe. $, Aiitt, 65 (1) ? p. 91. 

Type species (o-d. ) Manuinna arrttgosa Ludbrook. 

Mamilona arrugosa Ludbrook 

Manulansi anu^oHU Lmlhrouk, 1041, Tr.ins Hoy. Stir. S, Amt . 65 (I), p. 01, pi, 1, fi w< JO: 
Lutlbrook, lf)51, id., 77. p. 59. 

Diagjtosis — Adult whorls 10 in a height of 8*7 mm.; conspicuously sculp- 
tured with a supra-sntural thread above which is a prominent band with about 
12 elevated tubercles; above the band three flattened beaded lirae. the beads 
being about twice as numerous and very much smaller than the tubercles. Suture 
linear, irregular, anterior canal short and slightly reflated. 

IMmensions — Height 8*7, diameter 2*2 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of HoioUjpe — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide. T1B35. 

Material — 9 paratopes, Abattoirs Bore; i specimens, Weymouth s Bore. 

Sti at i graphic id Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs and Weymouth's Bores, Adelaide. 

Manulona lirasuturalis Lud brook 
Motudona iirasuturalk T.mlbiwV, 1041, Trans, Hoy. Sot\ S. Aust., 65 (1). p. 91. pi. L fig. 27, 
Cotton, J952. Guol. Surv, S. Att&t. Hull. 27, apx>eadi.\ 1. p. $H; TAillbrWfci I0r>i, 'I r.\m, 
iloy. Soo. S, Aust., 77, p. 59. 

Diagnosis — Adult whorls 11 in a height of 91 mm. Whorls more or less 
smooth, faintly axially and spirally striate, with a row of about 9 tubercles above 
the suture giving a carinate appearance to the whorl anteriorly Immediately 
above the suture^ below the suture an inconspicuous row of fine, numerous beads. 
Suture slightly undulating with a single fine lira imbricating above. 

Dimensions — Height 9-1, diameter 2-2 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoir? Bore. 

Location of Hololype—Tate Mns. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 104;?. 

Material — Seven paratypes, Abattoirs Bore. 

Strati 'graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Subfamily Ataxocertthunae, 
Genus Ataxocewtuium Tate, 1894. 
Atuxocnlthium Tate, 1894 ; Joum. 1W. ftfe N.S.W, 27, p. 179. 

Type species (o.d.) Cerilhium scrotinum A. Adams. 

Alaxocertthium bidenticulutum xp. nov. 
pi. 2 ? 8Jgr, fi, 7 

cf. AtuxoccrHkium sp. I.urlhroofc, 194 l y Trails, hoy. Soc. S. Aust., 63 ( I ), p. 100. 

Diagnosis — An Ataxoccrithhnn with about 2fi a\ial eostae on the penultimate 
whorl crossed by strong spiral cords increasing from three on the first adult whorl 
to from five to eight on the body whorl. Five on the penultimate whorl. Inner 
lip with 2 denticles on the columella and one posterior denticle continuing within 
the aperture as a fairly thick rib bordering a slight posterior canal. 

Description of Holotype — Shell of moderate size, apex broken, seven adult 
whorls remaining; whorls slightly convex, suture deep, canaliculate. Whorls 
sculptured with narrow axial eostae, about 26 on the penultimate whorl, which 
arc crossed and slightly tubcrculated by strong spiral cords with straight sides. 
The (fords arc not regularly spaced, and on the penultimate whorl the two 
posterior cords are equal, with interspaces of equivalent width, wliilc the next 


two cords are nearly contiguous; the anterior cord Is spaced as the two posterior 
cords. The interspaces are sub-rectangular and not very deep or sharplv out- 
lined. Base c.onvexly oblique with five spiral cords, the lowest uf which only 
nurtly embraces the anterior canal; there are in addition faint axial growth 
striae. Aperture quadra tely ovate, outer lip broken in the holotype, inner lip 
thin ami recurved over columella with two small denticles on the anterior half 
■and one denticle at the posterior, which continues within Lhe aperture as a 
fairly thick rib bordering a canal, visible within but not cutting through the 
outer lip. Anterior canal of moderate length, tubular. 

Dimensions — Height 11 ? diameter 4 mm. 

hwaiype a~ Specimen consisting of last two whorls with aperture 

Faraiype b — Juvenile with protoconch undamaged. Frotoconch sharp and 
prominent, of one-and-a-half smooth, high convex turns followed by a half turn brepbic axials. 

Type Locality — Weymouth's Bore. 

Location of Hololijpe—T-atQ Mus. Coll, Univ. of Adelaide, F 15159. 

Observations — Finlay (1927, p. SS3) has noted that both Australian and 
New Zealand examples of Ataxocerithium occasionally possess a rudimentary 
plait. The slight denticles which are a distinguishing feature of this species 
would appear to be a specific character. 

Material — Holotype and paratypc a, Weymouth's Bore; paratype b and 24 
incomplete paratypes, Abattoirs Bore. 

Stratigraphicat Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Ceagruphical Dislrihuthm — Hindmursh and Abattoirs Bores. 

Ataxooerilliium sp, 

Alnxoociithium amcaltrrwlimi Tate, Lmlbroofc, 1041, Trans. Roy. Soe. S. Aust, 65 (1), p. 100. 

Ol.'.wrvfitions — One incomplete specimen from Abattoirs Bore is distinct 
from bidenticulatum. Sculptured with about 30 axial costae per whorl crossed 
and h.iberculatcd by regular spiral cords of which there are 7 on the penultimate 
and 9 on the body whorl. The sculpture is finer and more even than in bidenll- 
etdatuni and differs from concatenatnm with which the shell was previously 
identified in that the spiral and not die axial sculpture is dominant Shape of the 
shell is also distinctive. Whorls are convex and the suture is impressed but nut 
canaliculate as in bidenticulatum. 

Genus AntXACERiTiiruM Ludbrook, 1941. 
Addawithium Ludbrook, 1941, Trans. Boy. Sac. S, Aust., 65 (1), p. 90. 

Type species (monotypy) AddacerUhiutu mendtum Ludbrook, 

Adehieerithfum mcrultmn [.udbrook 

Adckairithiwn mendtnm liurlbroolc, 1941, Trans. Ivoy. .Site. S. Aur.t., fi5 (1), ». 90, pi, 4, 
fa; 2d; ColUui, IU5», t.^yl, Sun. S. AmU null. 27, ^pondi* 4, p, 2-15; Lmlbmuk, L9$£ 
Tnui». .K<iy. Sue. 5. Aust., 77, p. 5ft, 

Diagnosis— 14 adult whorls m a height of 9*5 mm. Whorls flattened, 
sculptured with fine, prominent curved axial costae, 24 on the r^enultimate 
whorl, crossed by approximately equidistant spiral Jirui\ 5 on the penultimate 
whorl; intersections slightly granulosa Number of costae per whorl rapidly 
increasing at about the seventh whorl and decreasing in strength towards the 
aperture. Spiral sculpture variable in later whorls. 

Dimensions — HeighL 9-.J, diameter 2-2 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of Holotype— Tale Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1630. 

Observations — The genus Adclacerithktm is closely related to Tctxoma Finlay 
which is restricted to the Nukumaruan in New Zealand. The sculpture in 


Adelacerithium U finer, there being 4 to 5 spirals instead of typically three in 
Taxouia. The base of Taxonia appears to be less convex than that of Adela- 
ti'rithhirn, so far as one can tell in the absence of the type species of Taxonia, 
Material — Holotypc and 14 paratypes, Abattoirs Bore. 
St rati graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 
Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Subfamily Litiqpi&ae. 
Genus Diala A. Adams, 1861. 
Diala A. Adams, 1861, Aon. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser, 3 ? b 9 p. 242. 

Type species (s.d. Fischer, 1SS5) Diala varia A. Adams. 
Subgenus Mereldia Ludbrook, 1941. 
Mereldia Ludbiook, 1941, Trans. Boy. Soc:.. S. Awst, 65 (1), p. 92. 

Type species (monotypy) Mereldia incommoda Ludbrook. 

Diala (Mereldia) incommoda (Ludbrook) 
Aft'Ttlrlia incommoda Ludbrook, 1941, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 65 ( L), p. 92. 

Diagnosis — A Mereldia differing from Diala in having a dome-shaped 
protoconch and persistently striated whorls. Protoconch of two flattened whorls 
And nine adult whorls in a height of 10 mm. Whorls sculptured with about 16 
fine, spiral striae per whorl, unequally spaced, 

Ditficnxiow — Height 10, diameter 3-6 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of 1 1 'olatype— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 1638. 

Observations — Introduced with full generic rank. Mereldia now appears on 
examination of a wide range of Diala to warrant no more dian subgeneric dis- 
tinction from Diala s. str. The shell is a good deal larger than typical Diala. and 
the striatums are persistent over the whole shell. 

Materwl — Holotype and 4 paratypes, Abattoirs Bore; 1 specimen, Hindmarsh 

btratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Saucls. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs and Ilindmarsh Bores. 

Subfamily Cerithiinae. 
Genus Bittium Leach* 1847. 

Bittium Leach in Gray, 1847, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 20, p. 270. 
(CetithiolHm Tibcri, 106^ Bull, Malue. ttal., 2, p. 263.) 

Type species (s.d. Gray, 1847) Mttrex reticulatum Montfort = 

Strombifornm reticulatus Da Costa. 

Subgenus SK\nBrrm:\T Cossmann, 1896. 

Semibiitiura Cos.suumn, 1896, Ann. Soc. Malac. Bcig., 31 a Mem,, p. 29. 

(Oirozelia (fertile, 1924, Proc. Linn. Soc. NSW. 49, pp. 183. 246, non. Grote, 1878.) 

(Cacozefiana Strand, J 928, Arch. Naturgesch, <)2 V A.S, p. bU) 

Type species (s.d. Cossmann, 1906) Cerithium canceJlatiwi Lamarck, 

Bittium (Scmibittium) subgranarium sp« now 
pL % iffg; s. 

Cavo&cliuna cf. winaria Kienei\ Ludbrook, 1941, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 05 (l) r p. 100 
Cacozctkina granatin. Kiener, Cotton, 1^5% Gc-ol. Surv. S. Aust, Bull. 27. appendix 4. p. 245. 
Diagnosis — Protoconch of three narrowly convex, smooth turns and 8 adult 
whorls iu a height of 4 mm. Diameter one-quarter height. Whorls decreasing in 
convexity anteriorly, Sculpture on the whorls of five Hat spiral cords separated 
by narrow linear interspaces and about 14 narrow axial costae per whorl. Asia! 
costae cross and tuberculate the posterior three of the spiral cords and fade out 
on the anterior portion of each whorl so that the anterior two cords are not 
tuberculate. Four plain spiral cords on the base. 


Description of ilolott/pc — Shell very small, Acutely conical. Protoconch 
somewhat damaged in the holotype, of three narrowly convex turns. Adult 
whorls 8, feebly convex and decreasing in convexity anteriorly from the early 
spire whorls to the body whorl. Sutnre deep, Body whorl about one-third 
height of shell, suhangular at the periphery. Aperture obliquely and narrowly 
ovate with a short anterior eanal t slightly curved to the left. Posterior canal 
absent. Onter lip somewhat coucavely curved, not varicose, but there is a van* 
behittd the. lip, about one-quarter way round the body whorl. Ornament on the 
whorls of five flat spiral cords separated by narrow linear interspaces, and 
about 14 narrow axial eustae per whorl. The axial costae cross and tuber- 
eulale the posterior three of the spiral cords and fade out on the anterior portion 
of each whorl so that the anterior two cords are not tubcrculato. Base oblique 
and slightly convex, with four plain spiral cords. 

Dirnensions — Height 4, diameter 1, height of body whorl 1-3 mm. 

Tijpe Locality — Hindmarsh Bore, 450-4S7 feet. 

Location of ilolottjpe— Tate Mus, Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F 15160. 

Observations — This species is closely related to the Recent B. (St) granarium 
Kiener, with which it has previously been compared. It is much smaller than 
granmium which has all the spiral cords on the whorls tuberculalc; in sub- 
granarium the axial ribs fade out on the anterior portion of the shell where the 
cords are simple. The posterior three, cords only are tuberculated by the axials. 

Material — Molotypc and three paratypes, Tlindmarsh Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Qr.oiiraphical Distribution— Abattoirs and Hindmarsh Bores, 

Genus Monterosato, 1890. 

Therwium MouU'iosato, 1890, Nat. Sk-il., 9, p. 163. 

(Vulgocerithium Cossmann, 1N95. in Saccc>. Moll. Terr, lerz., 17. n. 7.) 

{PithiHwrilhhMi Sacco, 1895, thuL, p. 28.) 

{r'iiocertthinm Mnntcrtwato, l$ll, Cioru, Sci, M;H. Kcon. Palermo, 28, p. 67.) 

(Glatlioceriihium Munterns^tn, 1911, ihnf.> ]>. OS,) 

(DfillowtUhium Monterosoto. 191 1, ihhl., p. 71.) 

{WrtoccritJiium Montcro^utu, 1911, ihuL, E>, 7*3. ) 

( UtfwccrUhium Montnrosato, 1911, ibkl., p. 75.) 

Type species (o.d.) Mufex alacastritm Brocclu — Cerilhium vulgatum 


Subgenus THERicrcM s. str. 

Therichim (Thericium) fallax (Ludbrook) 

pi. 1. 6tf 5. 

Tm-hxdiu t'olhn Lu.lliroolc, 1941, Tun*. Kov. ftb S. Anst., 63 (1). p. 91, pi. L Bj& £ll r 
Cdttcw, 1952, Geol. Surv. S. Au&t. Bull. Z1, uppf-mJi\ 4, p. $&- 

Diagnosis — Protoeoneh of two .small gluhn*e whorls followed by six convex 
whorls, very finely and conspicuously cancellated posterior half more finely can- 
ccllate than anterior half of each wliorl, Whorls pliuwle from about sixth wliorh 
plications about seven pet whorl and increasing in prominence anteriorly. 
Spiral sculpture becomes dominant from .seventh whorl and cancel la Hon (3fe* 
appears. Tn later whorls plications and interspaces crossed by fine spiral threads 
which are at first rounded and in the later whorls become flattened, each sup- 
porting a median striatiou. 

Ditncnsionfi — Height 31. diameter 11-5 mm. 

Type Loct&ittj— Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of liolotijpe — Tale Mns. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 1621, 

Observations— One specimen (pi. I, fig. 5) complete except for the apex, 
was recovered from a bore put down mi Feeze's property, Section 4251, Hundred 
of Munno Para, in 1955. 

Material— Portions of about 70 paratvpcs, mainlv juveniles, Abattoirs Eore- 
6 specimens, Weymouth's Bore, hypotype, Sec. 4251, Hd. Munno Para, at 23S to 
256 feet. 

Stmtigraphkal Range — Dry Creek Sauds, 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Subgenus Chavanickhithium subgen* nov. 

Subgetwric Characters— - Shell witb true varices, generally one stroa^g varix 
on the body whorl opposite the aperture. Aperture oblique, ovate, with a short, 
pointed posterior canal and a pariptal tubercle below it. Anterior canal oblique 
and slightly recurved. Columella concave, without plaits, as in Thericium. 
Shell differs from that genus in having the axial sculpture suppressed in the early- 
whorls and developing into convex, rounded axial ribs or folds in the later 
whorls, Whorls with a snbsntnral band which commonly interrupts the axial 
ribs. Outer lip characteristically inllexed. Columella generally with one or 
two spiral furrows extending on the base below the periphery and visible par- 
ticularly in younger shells. 

Type species TerehmJia adetaidenste Howchiu & Cotton. 

Thericium (Chavanicerithium) adelaidcnsc (Howehin & Cotton) 

pi. 1, fig. 3. 
iercbralia ttdrhrUinmis Hnvvchin & Cotton, iM.'if?. Iran?, Roy. Soe. N. Anst 60 n 131 pL 1 

fi«s. I. 2; Ludbrnok, 1041, Tram. Rov. Sot . S, Aint, 65 ( I ). p. lUf). 
Campanile mlckudvnm Ilowchin & Cnttiii. Cotton. iy,>2, Oul. Smvv S, Aust. BnlL 11. 
appendix 4. p. 245. 

Diagnosis— E^v\y whorls flat to concave, later whorls convex. Sculpture 
comparatively line and inconspicuous in the early whorls with a suhsurural 
band supporting 2 or o spiral striae; anterior three-quarters of whorl, which h 
medially constricted, .sculptured with about 8 somewhat irregular spiral cords, 
some or which are surmounted and divided by spiral striae; interspaces linear, 
much narrower than cords, and deeper anteriorly so that the cords appear to 
be imbricating. Whole whorl crossed by concave, growth striae and numerous 
axial costac; costae decrease hi number and increase in strength to about 12 on 
the penultimate whorl. Strong costae in anterior whorls of adult shell are inter- 
rupted or effaced posteriorly by a constriction in the posterior third of the. whorl. 

Dimensions — Height 85, diameter 27 mm. 

Type Locality— Clanvillc Bore, 375-400 feet. 

Location of Holotypc—S. Aust. Mns. 5 Reg, No. D 12852. 

Dcsx-ription of thjpolype (Hindmarsh Bore, pi. 1„ fig. 8) — Shell large, 
solid, elongate,, conical, early whorls Hat to concave, later whorls convex. Suture 
imbricating, undulating in later whorls, straight in early whorls. Sculpt ore com- 
paratively Unc and conspicuous in the early whorls, with a subsutiiral band, 
somewhat more than one-quarter width of the whorl, supporting two or throe 
spiral striae, the rest of the whorl, which is medially constricted, sculptured with 
about eight rather irregular spiral cords, some of which are surmounted and 
divided by the spiral striae; interspaces linear, much narrower than cords and 
deeper anteriorly so that the cords appear to be imhricating. Band and cords 
al! crossed concavcly by giowth striae and by numerous gradually developing 
aval costae, which tend to tubercnlatc the spirals. Axial costae decrease in 
number and increase in intensity to about twelve on the penultimate whorl. 
In (he anterior whorls of tho adult shetl the strong costae are interrupted or 
effaced posteriorly by a constriction in the posterior third or" the whorl. 

Aperture oblique, ovate, with a short, pointed posterior canal and a pos- 
terior tubercle below it on the inner lip. Inner lip reflexed over the arcuate 
columella. Anterior canal short and strongly rcflexed with a twist at the anterior 
end of the columella. Outer lip expanded and slightly produced anteriorly, 
concave posteriorly, and convex anteriorly in profile. Lip not > r aricate, but 


there Is a strong varix on the body whorl between one-half and two-thirds the 
distance from the outer lip. 

Observations — This is one or' the most typical and restricted gastropods of 
the Dry Creek Saods. its superficial resemblance iu shape and sculpture to 
Terehrafia pahtstris Linnc, an estuarine lodo-Faeifie species, led the original 
authors to locate it in Terebratia. The i^semblanec, however, is entirely super- 
ficial and appears to be a case of homeomorpby; the columella as revealed in 
eroded specimens lacks the diagnostic plaits of Terebralia, while the strong varix 
on the body whorl identities the shell with the Ceritfmdae. In almost all respects 
(lie shell is a typical Thericiwn. However, the sculpture lacks the angulato 
axial costac of fherieium s. str., the early whorls are natter and the subsutural 
hand is characteristic. The anterior canal is short in the adult but appears 
loader in the juvenile, is oblique and slightly recurved; the tooth-like tubercle 
is recognisable only when the aperture is completely preserved, but there are 
generally one or more strong cords below die periphery on the base, not neces- 
sarily related to the tubercle. Those are very conspicuous in the tropical C. (T.) 
opporh.tnum and in the Adelaide species.. 

The subgenus is therefore created, named for Monsieur Andre Chavan of 
Seysseh France, who lias studied the classification of the Cerithtidae. Into the 
subgenus fall, in addition lo the type species, Cerithmm torri Tate, C, prilehardi 
Harris, as well ;as the Jndo-Facihc opportnnum Baylo and the common Italian 
sp*-e»es varicosum Brocchi. The Parisian Eocene wmico&tainin and fiUfenon, 
belli nf Deshayes, may possibly belong to the same lineage. 

Materia 1 .— Hypotype and 1 broken specimens, Hindmarsh Bore- 2 speci- 
mens, Weymouth's Bore; 1 broken specimen, Kooyonga Bore. 

hitraUgrirphical Range — Dry Creole Sands. 

Geographical DirtriLnttion—Mvhklc District. 

TltericKim (Chavanicerithiuoi) lorn (Tate) 

Cettthlum torri Tut*. 1809, Irm-.v Hoy. Hoc. &, Ail*fci 3il (I), p. WDj 0] i\ Pi, i 

Diagnosis — A fairly knee Cluivanicerilhhwi sculptured with conspicuous, 
distant, raised, moderately oblique, more or less nodulose axial costac, conspicu- 
ously interrupted in the posterior of each whorl and continuous in ihe anterior 
part of the whorl only, at least on the penultimate whorl. In yoiuig shells entire 
whori covered with close, irregular spiral striations generally Wronger on the 
costae. and fainter axial growth lines concave to the aperture, 

Dimensions— 'I<Ai\\ est hunted length 180 mm., diameter 24 mm. 

'I'ifpe Locality— "Murray Desert"? - Tnreena, N.S.W. 

Location of i/o/ofypc-Tate VIus. Coll., Xjniv. of Adelaide. TS32, Hypo- 
lypcs, F 15175, F 1517G t Tate Mus, Coll. 

Observations — Juveniles of this species are difficult to separate from juveniles 
ut' T. (C.) pritehardi (Harris), and closely resemble the Recent T (C.) oppar- 
tunum (Bavle) (lerithkim polygonum Sowerby IVom Northern Australia. The 
interruption of the axial costae and their nodulose character in the adult serve 
In distinguish the species. The holotypc is a larger shell ihan the Dry Creek 
Sands relatives which attain an estimated total length of between 80 and 90 mm. 

Material — Holotypc; hypotype and 11 other specimens, Abattoirs Bore; 7 
specimens, Bore, See. 4251, lid. Muimo ftwOj 1 specimen, Jones's Bore; 5 speci- 
mens, Weymouth's Bore, 

Strati&uiphiaH Rang? — Dry Creek Sands nn<\ unnamed formation, Murray 

Geographical Distribution— Xdchidc District; pTarwn.% N.S.W. 


Genus Semivehtagus Cossmann. 1SS9. 

SvinitwrUigux Cosxmarm, 1S89, Ann. Soc. ftoy. Mai. Belg., 24, p. 28. 

Type species (o.d.) Cerithium unisulcatum Lamarck. 

Semivertagus capillatus Tate 
pi 2, fig. 9. 
SnnHthitlf^Ufi copilfattts Tate, 1394, Journ. Hoy. Sor. N.S.W., 37, p, 11V>, pi. iii, fi*. I; 
Demiant & Kitson, 1903, Rcc. Geol. S»urv. Vic., 1 (2). p. 144: Ludihvook, 1041, Trans. 
Hov, Sue. S. Aust, 65 <J }, p. 10(1, Cotton, 1052, Geo]. Surv. S. Auii Hull 27, appendix 
4, p. 245. 

Diagnosis — Twelve whorls in a length of 17 mm. Suture conspicuous : im- 
bricating. Sculpture or* about 20 .spiral striae per whorl, narrower than inter- 
spaces which increase in width towards the anterior suture, crossed fay weaker 
arched growth striae. Columella without plication, anterior canal short, inner 
lip callous and reflected over columella, with a posterior tubercle. 

Dimensions — Height 17, diameter 5 mm. 

Type Locality — Dry Creek Bore. 

Location of H olotypc—Tate Mns. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 1539c. 

Material — Hypotype and 2 specimens. Hiudmarsh Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District- 
Genus Hypovhochcs Cotton, 19*32. 
tfyiiotrochm Cotton, 1932, Hec. S. Aust. Mus., 4 (4), p. 540. 

Type species (o.d.) Cerithium monachus Crosse & l'ischcr. 

Jlypotrochus semiplicatus sp. nov. 

pl. 2, &%, 10. 

cf. JhjpotmchuH penct ric'mvtns Cotton, Liulbmok, 1041, Trans. Hoy, Sqc. S, Aust., 65 (1). 

p. 100. ' 

HtjfHtlmclms prnefririHcbi* Cutton. 1952, Oo!. Surv. S. Aust. Bull. 27> appendix 4, p. 245. 

Diagnosis — Whorl* slightly convex, angulute above the suture; -eight adult 
whorls in a height of 6 nun., sculptured with axial plicae, 9 per whorl, obsolete 
oji the posterior part of the whorl, broadening and increasing in strength to- 
wards the anterior suture immediately above which they meet a suprasutural 
cord which is undolated on its anterior side by the anterior limit of the plicae. 
t'lieae become obsolete on the body whorl. Spiral sculpture of four deep and 
clear cut striae and the flatfish suprasutural cord which is bordered above by 
the anterior striae and undulated below by the axial plicae on all the whorls 
but the body whorl where it is represented by a wider band between the striae. 

Description of Holotypc — Shell small, elongate-conical, surface smooth and 
rather polished, Whorls slightly convex and augulatc above the suture; suture 
linear, with a tendency to undulate. Apex small and elevated, of two smooth 
turns, adult whorls eight, of which the first is sculptured with one strong brephie 
spiral, the next six whorls with nine axial plicae per whorl, obsolete in the pos- 
terior part of the whorl, broadening and increasing in strength towards the 
anterior suture above which they meet a suprasutural cord which is undulated 
on its anterior side by the lower edge of the plicae. Plicae become obsolete on 
the body whorl and die out over the whole of the whorl. Spiral sculpture of 
four fairly deep and clear-cut striae and the suprasutural cord bordered above 
by the axial plicae on all the whorls but the body whorl, where it is represented 
by a wider band between the striae Four cvcnly-plaeed slriae from the peri- 
phery, which is subangular, over tlit base to the columella. Aperture suhovatc 
and oblique, columella gently arched, anterior canal short and turned to the 
left. Outer lip with a varix beliind it 

Dimensions — Height 6, diameter 2, height of budy-whorl 2*7, height of 
aperture 1 • 5 mm, 

Type Locality— Weymouth's boic. 310-330 feet, 

Location of Hololype—Ttfc Mus. Coll.. Uiiiv, of Adelaide, F 15161. 

Observations — This small Hypotroehus is distinguishable from the Recent 
pentHricwcltts by the absence of fcews, There is a suggestion of carimition at 
the cord above the suture, but it can scarcely be described as a keel, and is 
not present on the body whorl, 

Material — Ilolotype and 12 paratypes, Weymouth's Bore, 18 paiatypcs, 
Abattoirs Bore, 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Weymouth's and Abattoirs Bores, Adelaide. 
Genus Ckiutuuslla Verrilh 1882. 
CeritUk'lk Vcrrill. L£Bg» Trans. Connect. Acad., 5, p. 522. 

Type species (o.d. ) Cerithium meiula Loveji. 
Subgenus Goxftxarta suhgen. nov. 

Sitbgcneric Characters — Shell very small and very elongate, subulate, shin- 
ing and solid. Whorls flat. Protoconch large and elevated, multispiral, tip 
hctcrostrophic, first 2 whorls only partially in contact. Smooth apical whorls 
fallowed by one-and-a-half brephic turns with close concavely-curving axials, 
Adult whorls ornamented with flattish thick spiral ribs which cross and tu her- 
eunto the. fairly numerous axial ribs. Axial ribs nearly straight, not curved as 
in CerUhieJIa s. str. Aperture subquadrate. outer lip nearly perpendicular irt 
ntnfilt* instead of concave as in Ceriihiella s. str. Anterior canal strongly twisted. 
Base Hut. 

Type species Cerithiella trigemmata Chapman & Crcspin. The subgenus 
is uamed in honour of Dr. L. K. Cox of the British Museum (Natural History). 

Cerithiella (Coxellaria) Irigemmata Chapman tk Crespin 

pi 2, jj& 11 

CerithU'llt* triizenwwtn Chapman & Crespin. 1928, Ree. Geo!. Surv. Vic, 5 (1), p. 110, pi. S, 
ha, 18: Lutlbrook, 1941, Trans. Hoy, Hoc. S. Austi, C3 (1), p, 100; Cce.spin, 1943, Amt. 

Mm. fl*ft, Snrv. Bull, ft, ii- ftfl (mimeographed). 
Ct'rthivlh { lapsus calami for CerilhieUa ) trigemnmttf Chapman & Ciespio, Cotton, 1052, 
Gi-oT. Snrv. $*■ Ansr. Bull. 27, appendix <!, p. 2-43. 

Diagnosis — 16 whorls in a height of 8 mm. Protoconch large and elevated, 
tip pointed and heterostropuic, apical 3 whorls followed by onc-and-a-half turns 
with brephie axial s. Adult whorls flat, ornamented with ten straight axial costae 
per whorl, crossed and tuberculated by tliree flattish spiral ribs about equal to 
the interspaces. Interspaces rectangular, smooth. Suture linear, excavate. 
Aperture sinVpiadrate, outer lip straight and x>erpemlienlnr in profile. 

DUnvmiom — Height 5-75, diameter 1 mm. 

Type? Locality — Mitchell lUver, Victoria; Miocene. 
• Location of Holotijpe — Demtant Coll., Nat. Mus., Melbourne. 

Qhseri alinns — Kor this long-ranging and widespread species and the two 
succeeding species, the new subgenus Coxtilariu is created. Compared with the 
type species, (Cerithiella mettdahoven from the. North Sea, species of C. (Coxe.1- 
latin) arc different iu texture: (he whorls are shining and solid and the growth 
lines are not visible. The whorls are typically flat, the shell is very elongate- 
snbuiale. The sculpture is coarser and flatter and not so sharply cancellate as 
iu CLrithiella s, str The axial sculpture of Cerithiella is markedly curved; it is 
straight or nearly so in Coxellarid- The protoconch is large, resembling some 
members of Tnphora. The subgenus is related to or includes two species from 
iht* Pans Basin Koecne. Ceriihiella clava Lamarck and C. multispirata Deshayes. 
In addition to the type species, the subgenus is represented by one closely re- 


lated species, and one In which the .spiral sculpture is absent, from Brown Coal 
Shaft Altona, Victoria, m the British Museum Collection. 

Material— 5 specimens, Abattoirs Bore; 2 specimens. Brown Coal Shaft, 
Altona, Victoria, H..M. Coll. 

Stratigraphical Bange — "Tertiary". 

Cat graphical Distribution — Gippsland, Vie, to Adelaide, $,A. 

Cerithiella (Coxellaria) perelongata (Ludbrook) 

Certthiopsts pcrehmgatus Ludbmok, 1U41, Tntiia. Roy. So^ 5. Aust.. 65 (1), p. 90, pi. 4, 
ficj. 23 (in pun). 

Diagnosis — Protoconch elevated, three carinate, large, .smooth, tapering 
whorls; tip heternstrophic. Adult whorls S in a height of 6 mm,, flattened! 
sculptured with three equal spiral eostae crossed by about 16 axial costae per 
whorl less conspicuous than the spirals which aie flatly gemmulate at the inter- 
sections. At first the whorls are carinate at the anterior but rapidly flatten. 
The median spiral fiends to be more gernmulate than the anterior and jiosterior 
which arc flattened. 

Dimensions — Height 6 1, diameter 1-1 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Location of Holotype — Tate Mus. Coll. 3 Univ. of Adelaide, T1651. 

Observations — One perfect specimen was obtained from Weymouth's Bore. 
The elevated protoeonch with a large second whorl, strongly carinate, and a 
smaller third whorl is followed by adult whorls at first carinate near the suture 
at the position of the anterior of the. three spiral ribs. 

The suture and interspaces are linear, in the later whorls the suture being 
distinguishable from the interspaces between the spirals only by being more 

Material — Holotype. and 2 paratypes, Abattoirs Bore; 2 specimens, one 
perfect; Weymouth's Bore. 

Stratigraphieal Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs and Weymouth's Bores, Adelaide. 

Cerithiella (Coxcllaria) supersptralis sp. nov. 

pl. 2, iig. 12. 

Corithfopsis perehnxatitft Ludlmmk, 1941, Trans. JV»y S<x\ S. Aust., 65 (1), p. 90 (in past). 

Diagnosis — Shell large for the subgenus; anrl extremely elongate. Sculpture 
on the flat whorls of about 18 relatively inconspicuous axial ribs crossed by 
three strong spirals of which the anterior and median are narrower and more 
roundly gemmulate at the functions with axials, the posterior broader and flatter 
and only obsolctcly gcininulate. 

Descriplion of Holotype — Shell incomplete, early whorls missing, nine adult 
whorls remaining; large for the subgenus, solid, very elongate-subulate. Whorls 
flat, suture linear, and inconspicuous unless viewed from the apex towards the 
aperture, when it is seen to bo imbricated by the posterior spiral rib. Whorls 
sculptured with numerous axial ribs, eighteen on the penultimate whorl, crossed 
by tliree strong spirals with two equal interspaces between them. The anterior 
and median spirals are narrower than the posterior anrl are more distinctly and 
roundly gcmmulatc. The posterior rib borders the suture, is flat and only 
obsoletely gemmulale. All the ribs are steeply terminated on the posterior side 
and gently slope anteriorly. The. contrast is shown by viewing from apex to 
aperture. Aperture broken, outer lip indeterminable, columella concave; re- 
mains of anterior canal shown by twist n( (he end of the columella. Base flat, 
smooth except for concave axial growth striae- crowding in towards the columella. 
Periphery angulatc with two smooth cords. 

Dimensions — Length of 9 whorls S-5, diameter 2-5; total estimated length 
12 nun. or greater. 


Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of Holotype — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F 15162. 

Observations — In the original description of Cerithiopsis perelongatus (Lud- 
brook, 1941, p. 90) a para type was cited as a much larger shell with sculpture 
consistent with that of the holotype. The two specimens of pereloniratus from 
Weymouth's Bore have now enabled the species to be more accurately diag- 
nosed, and it is realised that the large specimen is not conspecific with perelon- 
galus. The sculpture is not, as stated previously* consistent with that of 

Material — Holotype only. 

Strati graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution— Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Genus Seila A. Adams, 1861. 
Sella A. Adams. 1861. Ann. Mag. Nut, Hist., ser, ;\ 7, p. 131. 

Type species (s.d, Dah\ 1889) Triphoris dexfvovcrsa Adarns & Reeve. 

Subgenus Notoseila Finlay, 1927. 
JSiotosaiht Finlay, 1927, Trans, KZ. Inst., ST, p. 382. 

Type species (o.d.) Cerithiurn terebetloides Huttoii. 

Seila (Notoseila) triplanicincta sp. nov. 

pi. % figs. ia 14. 

Sviia (\oioaella) vrocm Angus, T.udbrook, ly4l T Trans, Koy. Soc« S. Aust., 65 (I), p, (00. 

Diagnosis — Shell very elongate-subulate, with a total of 15 whorls in a 
height of 12 mm. Sculptured with three flat equal spiral ribs on each whorl, 
approximately equal to the interspaces. Ribs smooth, with flat upper surface 
and sides at right angles to the upper surface. Interspaces flat, marked by 
axial growth lines. Suture linear or marked by a fine thread. 

Description of Holotype — Shell of moderate size for the genus, very elongate- 
suljulate. Protoconch large and elevated, tip broken but 2 whorls remaining, 
smooth and convex. Adult whorls flat, gradually increasing, sculptured with 
three flat spirals on each whorl of equal sue and approximately equal to the 
interspaces. Upper surface of ribs smooth and flat, sides at right angles to 
the upper surface. Interspaces crossed by flue axial striae of growth. Suture 
imperceptible but indicated by a fine spiral lira. Aperture broken in the holo- 
type. Columella concave, with a very strongly recurved short anterior canal. 

Dimensions — Height J 2, diameter 2 mm. 

Type Loealitij — Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of Hololype-~Ta.te Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F 15163. 

Paratype — A portion of a specimen consisting of the body and penultimate 
whorls shows the nperture as subquadrate with the outer lip perpendicular when 
viewed in profile. The base is fli»t and smooth, except (or 2 lirae, finer than the 
spiral ribs, on the an go late periphery. 

Observations — S. (;V.) iriphwrthtcfa is noL eonspeeffic with S. (TV.) crocea. 
The ribs are quite, flat, the. whorls are not at all convex except for the protoconch, 
iiiid ihe shell is more attenuated. 

Material — Holotype, Abattoirs Bore; 2 paratypes\ Hindmarsh Bore. 

Sfratigraphical Range— Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs and Hindmarsh Bores, Adelaide- 
Family TMPIIOiaDAE, 
Genus Tripitora Blainville. 1828. 
Triphow BlttinvilK 1828, Diet. Sei. NaL, 55, p. 31-i. 

Type species (o.d.) Triphora genunata, Blainville. 


Subgenus IsoTiuraoRA Cotton & Godfrey, 1U31. 
UcMphora Cotton ft Godfrey, 21)31, S. Aust. Nat, IS (4), p. 52. 
Type species (o.d.) Triphora tasmunica^ Triforis tasmanica Teiusou-Woodx, 

Triphora (Isolnphora) salLsburyensis sp. nov. 
pi. 2. fig. 15. 
Triphora sp. Ludbrook, 1041, Trans. l\ny % Soc. S\ Aust,, G5 (1), p, 92. 

Diagnosis — Protoconch of S gemnuilale whorls, blunt at tip. Adult whurlb 
11. making a total of 14 whorls in a height of 7 mm. First two adult whorls 
with two rows of granules; on the third whorl a thread rises between them and 
gradually develops into a third row of granules. The granules are produced at 
the intersection of the axials by three equal spirals, which are steeply termin- 
ated on their sides, and the interspaces tend to be rhombic. Suture canaliculate. 
Base with two keels, one on the periphery and one less than halfway between 
it and the base of the cobunella. 

Description of Holotype — Protoconch broken. Adult whorls ten, of which 
the first two have two rows of granules. On the third a thread rises between 
them and gradually develops into a third row of granules. These granules are 
produced at the points of intersection of the radial costac, about 20 per whorl, 
and the three equal spirals which override the axials. Spirals steeply cut off 
on their sides, interspaces tending to be rhombic. Suture linear, deeply set in 
a channel between two rows of granules. Base smooth except for axial growth 
lines with two keels, one on the periphery and one less than halfway between 
the periphery and the base of the columella. Outer lip, when viewed in profile, 
is at first convex then nearly straight, effuse at the base and upcurved to meet 
the base of the columella. Anterior canal strongly retroflexed and almost 

Dimensions — Height 7, diameter 1-5 mm. 

Type Locality — -YVey mouth's Bore, Adelaide. 

Location of Holotype— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F 15164. 

Observations — Compared with the type species of the subgenus. T. (i, ) 
tamanica, the present species is smaller" and more attenuated. There art? 14 
whorls in a height of 7 mm. as contrasted with 18 whorls in a height uf 9 mm. 
in tasmanica. The sharp termination of the edges of the spirals is distinctive, 
together with the disposition of the keels on the base. 

Material — Holotype and paratype, Weymouth's Bore; one fragment, 
Abattoirs Bore. 

S-tmt (graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

(Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs and Weymouth's Bores. Adelaide. 

Subgenus Notosintster Finlay, 1927. 
NotowiUcr Kin by, 1927, Trans. \.Z. Inst, 57, p. 384. 

Type species (o.d) Triphora faseelina Sutei. 

Triphora (Notosinister) praegnmifera sp. nov. 

pl. 2, Eg. 16. 
TrijihtiM up. Litrihwok 1011, TrauS. Roy, Soe. &. AusL, 05 (1). p. 92. 

Diagnosis— \ Notosinister with protoconch of two smooth turns followed 
by three turns carinate in the anterior one-third; adult whorls nine making total 
of 14 whorls in a height of 4,4 mm. First four whorls sculptured with 2 rows 
of about 16 granules per whorl, a third row developing between them at the 
fifth whorl. Suture linear, inconspicuous. Base smooth, with three spiral cords. 

Description of Holotype — Shell e]ongate>turreted> solid, somewhat pupi- 
form, Protoconch large, elevated, poly gyrate, of two smooth turns followed by 
throe turns carinate in the anterior one-lhird and carrying about 20 biephic 
axials per whorl. Adult whorls 9, of which the first four are sculptured with 


two rows of about 16 granules per whorl, a third row rising between them at 
the fifth whorl and increasing gradually in strength vrutil on the last whorl 
(here are three approximately equal rows, the posterior being somewhat stronger 
than the other two. Suture inconspicuous, linear, Base smooth with three 
spiral cords. Outer lip broken in the holotype. 

Dimensions — Height 4-4, diameter 1-5 mm. 

Typ£ Locality — Weymouth's Bore. 310-330 feet. 

Location of Holotype — Tate Mns. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F 15165, 

Observations — Z\ (A7 ( ) granifera Brazier appears to be the nearest relative 
to the present species. 

Material — Holotype and one paratype, Weymouth's Bore; 13 paratypes, 
mostly broken, Abattoirs Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands, 

Geographical Distribution — Weymouth's and Abattoirs Bores, Adelaide. 

Supcrfamily SCALACEA. 

Genus Amaea H. & A. Adams, 1853, 
■Annate II. $ A. Ad\mjs, 1S53, Ceti. Rec. Moll, 1, p. 223. 

Type species (s.d. Fischer, 1885) Scahria magnifica Sowerby. 
Subgenus Amaea s. str. 

Amaea (Arnaea) triplieata (Tate) 

pi 3. $gi 1. 

Hcataria (Eglitia) triplieata Tate 1890, Trans. Tiny. Soc. S, Aust, 13 (2), p. 231. 

Sctdoriu triplieata Tate, 1SU2, Ui-, Sxiftb* pi 9. fig. 2. 

EtiUMa triplieata TVtt*\ Tlflrtfc, 1897, Cat. Tert! Moll Bril. Miis., 1, p« 270; T-)etm;<Tit & KitSOu, 

1903, Rec, Ceol b'urv. Vie. 1 (2), p. 138: Ltirlbrook. 1941, Trans. Roy. Soo. S. Aust., 

65 (1% p. 100. 

Diagnosis — An Amaea with 15 whorls in a height of 25 mm. Sculptural 
with about 25 thin, more or less elevated costae per whorl, which are curved 
forward and decurrent at the posterior suture; axials cither crossed by or crossing 
three prominent elevated rounded spiral cords which are a little to the anterior 
of the whorl. Body whorl with four strong spiral cords, one on the periphery. 
Base with about 10 spiral lirac crossed by fine radials corresponding to the 
axial costae on the whorls, 

Dimensions — Height 28, diameter % height and width of aperture 5 aim. 

Type Locality — Muddy Creek, Victoria; Pliocene, 

Location of Holotype— -Tate Vlus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T790D, 

Observations — The species triplieata belongs to Anuiea s\ str. which is re- 
stricted to the Judo-Pacific in Recent times, the nearest species to the fossil 
being A. heneri (Canefri) from Dainley Island. The varix on the outer lip. 
cited by Wenz (1940, p, S04) as a generic character is not diagnostic as it is 
freqi ip i tly absent altogether. A. triplieata has also been recorded from Abattoirs 
and Croydon Bores. 

Material — One broken specimen, Hiudrnarsh Bore. 

Strat (graphical Bunge — Kalimnan to Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Cippsland, Victoria, to Adelaide. S.A. 

Amaea (Amaea) sp, 
A single broken specimen, congeneric with triplieata, occurs in Hindmarsh 
Bore, with four sharp and narrow equal spiral cords and a smaller posterior 
cord, crossed by about 24 axial costae per whorl. Sufficient material is not 
available for comparison and accurate diagnosis, The number and character of 
the spiral cords distinguish the specimen from triplieata. 


Genus Qbsotrjema Morcli, 1852. 
Cirsottema Morch, 1852 t Cat. Conchyliol., 1. p. 49. 

Type species (monotypy) Svalaria varicosum Lamarck, 

Subgenus Dannevigena Ircdalc, 1936. 
Dannevigena Jredale, 1936, Kec. Aust. Mus., 19, p.. 303. 

Type species (o.d.) Dannevigena murtijr Ircdalc. 

Cirsotrema (Dunnevigenn) sp. 

A fragment of a Dannevigena, consisting of most of the body whorl and 
portion of the penultimate whorl. The species appears to be very close to the 
type species Dannevigena martyr Iredaie. The genus, so far as is known, is 
restricted to southern Australia. 

Material — One broken specimen, Weymouth's Bore. 

Genus Scala Kruguiere, 1792. 
Scaia Brujmiere 1792, Enoyc, mcth, Vers,, 1 (2), p. 532. 
(F.piUmium Rocling, 1798, Mus. bolt., 2, p. 91.) 
(Cycloxtoma Lamarck, 1799, Mom. Soc. Hist, nat. Paris, p. 7-i.) 
(Scalaria Lamarck. 1801, Syst. Anim., p. 88.) 
(Scahrus Montiort, 1 810, Couch. Svsl., 2. p. 294.) 
(Ariona Leach, 1815, Zool. Miscell., 2, p. 79.) 
Sr-ala Bruiruiere, 1792, Wr-nz, 1940, Handb. Palaoz. Gastr., 4 3 p. S06 (synonymy). 

Type species (s.d. Thiele, 1929) Turbo scalaris Linn£. 

Subgenus Hirtoscala Monterosato, 1890. 
Hirtoscala MonrcroSato, 1890, Natur. Sicil. 9, p. 149. 
{ Linctoscula Monterosato, 1890, ihitt. ) 
(Fovcoscala Boury, 1909, Town, de Conch., 57 p. 257.) 
(Aculiscah Boury, 1909, ihid,) 

(PrudentiscnJ-n Tredalc. 1930, Ree. Mas., 19, p, 299,) 
Hirtoscala Monterosato,. 1890, WVw, 1940, Handh. Faliioz. Gust., 4, p. 808 (synonymy). 

Type species (o.d.) Scalaria cantrainei Weinkauff. 

Scala (Hirtoscala) sp. 

Diagnosis— A small Hirtoscala with a large aud elevated protoconch of 
three globose turns. Adult whorls sculptured with about 14 elevated oblique 
axial ribs per whorl, somewhat extended and angulate posteriorly. Interspaces 
smooth. Suture deep. Aperture subovate, entire; outer lip without varix. 

Observations — In view of the fact that only one juvenile specimen is avail- 
able of this apparently new species, it is not here described in full. The first 
whorl of the apex is missing, there are 2 subsequent globose embryonic whorls 
and three adult whorls. The species is closest to S. (H.) deUcatnh (Crosse & 
Fischer). Recent South Australia, from which it differs by comparison with the 
holotypc in the British Museum, Ifl having a larger protoconch and fewer axials 
in the early whorls. 

Both the present species and delieatida are readily comparable with can- 
tramei, the type species of Hirtoscala with which Acutiscaki is considered by 
Wenz (1940, p. 808) to be synonymous. The South Australian species are closer 
to cantrainei than to philippinannn Snwerby, the type species of Acutiscala. 
The subgenus Hirtoscala appears to have a wide distribution in warm seas. 

Materia] — One juvenile, with broken lip, Weymouth's Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range— Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Weymouth's Bore. 310-330 feet. 

Superfamily PYKAM1DELLACEA. 

Genus Melanella Bowdich, 1822. 


Mehnella Bowdioh 1822, Elcm. Conch., 1, p. 27. 

(MeUinrella P. Fischer, 1S87, Joum. de Conch.,. 35, p. 193, nrni. L. Pfciffer, 1857.) 

Type species (ujonotypy) Melane'lla dufresnii Bowdich ? = Eulima arcuata 


Subgenus Majicjixeulima Cossmann, 1888. 

Marghwulirnu Cossmann, JB68, Ann. Soc. Malac. Belg M 23, Mom. p. 117. 

Type species (o.d,) Eulima fallax Deshaycs. 

Mclanella (Margineuiima) longieonica (Ludbrook) 

Eulima longieonica .Ludbrook, 1941, Tr;ms. Hov. Soc. S. Aust.. 65 (1), p. 93. pi. 5. n&. 4: 
Crcspm, 1943, Min. Jlr-.H. Smv. Bull. 9, p. 95. 

Diagnosis — A small Marginetdima with prorocooch of one inconspicuous 
flattened turn and eight slowly decreasing adult whorls in a height of 5 mm. 
Suture slightly impressed. 

Dimensions — Height 5, diameter 2 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of Holotype — Tate Mus. Coll.. Univ. of Adelaide, T 1654. 

Material — Holotype. 

Stratigraphical Range — Kalimnan (Jemmy's Point Formation )-Dry Creek 

Geographical Distribution — Gippsland, Vic, and Adelaide, S.A. 

Melanella (Margineuiima) minutieoniea (Ludbrook) 

Eulima minutieoniea Ludbrook-, 1911. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., G5 (1), p. 93, pi. 5, fig. 5. 

Diagnosis — A minute Margineuiima with protoeoneh consisting of two con- 
spicuous turns followed by 7 adult whorls in a height of 3-1 mm. Body whorl 
with an obscure angulation. Aperture pyriform. 

Dimensions — Height 3-1, diameter 1-0 mm. 

Location of Holoiype — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 1634. 

Oh taxations — No further examples of this species have been recovered 
since it was described from Abattoirs Bore. The subgenus is represented in the 
European Eocene-Miocene, and has lingered till recent times in Australia and the 
Indo- Pacific. M. (A/.) roegcrac is the closest ally in South Australia. 

Material — Holotype and 5 paratypes. Abattoirs Bore. 

Strati graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore. 

Genus Leiosihaca IT. & A. Adams, 1853. 
Lciostraca II. & A. Adam*, 1853, Gen. Rcc. MoIL, l c p. 237. 

Type species (s.d. Suter. 1913) Turbo mhulata Donovans 
Stromhiformis glabra Da Costa. 

Subgenus Lkiostkaca s, str. 

Lciostraca (Lciostraca) aeutissnrna Sowerbv 
pi. a %, % 

haiostrnca ucittus->irnu Sowerby, ItSfifJ, in Heeve Conch. Icon., 15., J.vlostmca »»p. 10, pi. il 

fi£. ffl.r b; Hcdlcy. 191^ Proc. T/ihm. Snc. IS.SAV., <J4S, p. 295, 
Lc'wxttvcu li-abia Atiges, 1871, I'ruc, Zool. Soc:., rt. Iffi pi. i. fig. t4. 
Stromhiformis acutt&slma .Sowerby, Hc.dlcv, 1 01S. Joiuji. Kuv« Soc. N.5.W.. 51, supp. p. IPO; 

Cotton & Godfrey, 193S, Mul. Soc. ft Aust, Pub. 1. 

Diagnosis — Shell very small and acuminated, 8 whorls in a height of S mm.? 
last whorl one half height of shell. Aperture narrow, sharply angled posteriorly; 
columella long and straight, 

Dimensions — Height 8, diameter 1-5, height ol body whorl 4 ; height of 
aperture 2 mm. 

Type Locality — Sydney Harbour; Beeent. 

Location of Holotype — B,M. Coll, 


Observations — Compared with the holotype, the fossil from the Adelaide 
Pliocene h a little more slender. 

Material — Holotypc, one specimen Muddy Creek (Upper), one specimen 
Altcna Coal Shaft, all B.M. Coll.; one specimen and one fragment, Hindmarsh 

Stratigraphical Range — Balcombian to Recent. 

Geographical Distribution — N.S.W, and southern Australia, 

Genus Nrso Risso, 1826. 

Nho Kisso, 182.0, Hist. Nat Europe McrirL, 4, p. 218. 

(Bftncllia Dcshaves, 183S, in Lamarck Hist. Nut. Anirn. s. Vert., ed. % 8, p. 286. nan. Rolando, 

(janetta Crateloup, 1838, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, 10 (52), p. 191.) 

Type species (monotypy) Niso cburnea Risso. 
Subgenus Niso s. str. 

Niso (Niso) psila Tcnison- Woods 

pL 3, iig. 3. 

WW psila TenismvAVonds, 1880, Proc. Linn. Sac. N.S.W.. 4, p. 18. pi. 1, fit*. 6; T;tti; & 
IMiuunt, 1893, Trans. Rov. Soe. S. AusL. 17 (1), p. 222; Harm, 1897, Car. Tert. Moll. 
Hrh\ Mns., t, p. 272; Drmiaut & Kitsrm, 1903, Rec. Ool. Surv. Vic, 1 (2), pp. 115, 138, 
Uulbrook, 1941, Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Aust.. 05 (1), p. 100. 

Diagnosis — A Niso of moderate size, height a little less thau three times 
diameter. Proloeonch of IS radrer high dome-shaped turns followed by 8 narrow 
flatly increasing adult whorls in a height of 8 mm* Suture linear; impressed. 
Periphery roundly ungulate, umbilicus keeled at the margin. Aperture angulate 
in front. 

Dimcnsums — Height 7, diameter 3 mm. 

Type 7,ocaliitj — Muddy Creek, Victoria. 

Location of Holotypc — Aust. Mus. : Sydney, F1708. 

Observations — Of the scanty material available Adelaide examples appear 
all to be small; a maximum height of about 13 mm, is indicated. The holotype 
is apparently juvenile', adult specimens reach a height of over 20 mm. 

Material — 1 juvenile, 1 incomplete example, Abattoirs Bore; 1 ephebic speci- 
men, Weymouth's Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Balcombian to Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Gippsland, Vic- Adelaide., S.A. 

Genus Syrnola. A. Adarns, 1860. 
Stjrnala A. Adains, i860, Ann. Mag, Nat. Hist.., ser. 3, 5, p. 405. 

Type species (monotypy) Symola gracillima A. Adams. 

Subgenus Syilvola s. str. 
Syrnola (Syrnola) tincta Angas 
pl. 3, fig. 4. 
Sumrda tincta Anuius, 1871, Jfroc. Zo«l Soc, p. 15, pl. 1, iig. 11; Hedley, 1918, Journ. 
Koy. Soc. RS.W., 51, sirpp. p. 98; May, 1921, Check List, p. US; ill. Ind„ p. 93. pl. 
44, fig. U\ Chapman, Crespin & kcblc, 1928, Bee. Gcol. Surv. Vic, 5 (1). p. I61j 
Cotton & Godfrey, 1932, S. Aust. Nat., 14 (1), p. 22; Ludbrook, 1941, Trans, liny- Soc 
S. Aust., 65 (1), p. 100. 
Syrnola nVwhadi Tenison-Woods, 1877, Troc. Hoy. Soc. Tas. for 1876, p. 150. 

Diagnosis — A rather solid Symola, whorls 10, in a height of 6 mm. nearly 
flat with deeply impressed suture. Protoconch heterostrophic, elevated, early 
whorls relatively large, body whorl fairly small, subangulate at the periphery. 

Dimensions — Height 6, diameter 1 mm. 

Type Locality— OS Sow and Pigs Reef, Port Jackson, N.S.W.; Recent. 

Location of Holotype — B.M. Coll. 


Observutiojw — Except for its occurrence in Abattoirs Bore, only one speci- 
men, a small one of length 3*5 nun. and here figured as hypotype, has been found 
m the Dry Creek Sands. It has been recorded from the Balcombian of the 
Sorrento Bore ( Chapman, Crespin & Keblc r 1928, p. 161). The record needs 

Material — Hypotype, Weymouth's Bore, 310-330 feet; 3 specimens, Abattoirs 

SOatizmphlcnl Range — Dry Creek Sands to Recent; (?) Balcombian. 

Geographical Distribution — New South Wales to liottnest Island, Western 

Subgenus Agatha A. Adams. 1S6D. 
Amttut, A. Adams, 1860, Ann. Mug. Nftt, Hist., stV, 3, 0, p. 422. 

(Amttifm, A. Actum*, (8B1, "/•. *. i>. &03r) 

Type species; ( monotypy ) Agatha v>irga A. Adams. 

Syrnc»la (Agatha) praefasciata sp. nov. 
pi. 3, fig. 3. 
Syruofa l>tfunclata T. Woods, Lwlln-ook, Jylb turns Kuv. Jiw. Si Atist., 05 (1), p. 100. 

Diagnosis— An Agathu of moderate size, spire relatively short, body whorl 
large, more than hall* height of shell evenly convex from posterior suture over 
periphery and base. Aperture elongate-ovate. 

Description of Holotype — Shell of moderate size for the genus, spire rela- 
tively short, whorls four, outlines convex. Proroconch hctcrostrophic, pauci- 
spirah coiled in a low heheoid spiral. Nucleus small and about one-third Im- 
mersed. Adult whorls Jive, smooth but for axial growth striae, convex; suture 
strong, linear, impressed. Body whorl large, more than half height of shell., 
evenly convex from posterior suture over periphery and base. Aperture elongate- 
ovate, not expanded anteriorly; outer lip gently concave, somewhat oblique ui 
profile, slightly incurved at posterior angle before attachment to previous wliorb 
Columella slightly oblique, nearly straight, plait small but distinct and situated 
about one- third of length from insertion, Base depressed near columella, lead- 
ing to narrow umbilicus. 

Dimensions— Height M£ diameter 2-5, height of body whorl 3*5, height 
Oft aperture 1-8 mm. 

Tijpv Locality — Weymouth's Bore, 310-330 feet. 

Location of Holotype— Tate Mus. Coll., F 15166. 

Obiirvaiiom — Compared with hifasciata with which it was previously iden- 
tified, the present fossil species has fewer whorls; the body whorl is much 
longer (in htfasciata it is less than one>third height of shell); the aperture is 
narrower and more elongate and the posterior angle is not acute as in hifasdata 
but joins the previous whorl with a slight inward curve. There is a very close 
resemblance between praefasciata and the type species, A. i-irgo, which has a 
small proroconch almost entirely immersed The subgenus is confined to the 
Pacific, and is well represented in the Xew Zealand Tertiary (Laws. 1940, pp, 
150-153). The genus Agatha, was introduced monotynically by Adams for 
A&uthu viriiOy which he later (Ann. Mag. Ser. 8, 7, p. 295) transferred to \Ujon\a 
(introduced prior to Agatha, and preoccupied by Dana) then (ibid.) to 
Menesthis, again (Ann. Mag. ser. 3, H, p. 1 12) to Myvnw, finally (iff. ft p. 304) 
erecting lb'- genus Amathis, naming tMyonia uirgo as type. Amuthis is thus a 
direct synonym of Agatha, but although A. Virgo has been referred to Myonio 
which was changed to Adclaetavon by Cosstnaun (1S95, 1, p. 54.) Mtjonkl and 
Adetaciacon are not synonyms of Agatha, They were introduced for a different 
group of shells, and are considered by Wen/ (1940, p, 850) to be synonymous* 
with Actacopyramis P. Fischer, 1885/ 

Material — Holotype and 2 paratypes, Weymouth's Bore. 


Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Ceogwphical Distribution — Abattoirs and Weymouth's Boxes. 

SyiTiola (Agatha) jonesiana (Tate) 

pi. 3. fig. 6. 
Qdontostamia ionvsuma Tate, 1898a, Trans, Kay, Soc. S, Aust.. 22 (1), p. 70. 
Odoutoatomia {Syrnolu) jonemim Tate, LS98b, fcf* (2). ft, 83, text. Jig. 
Pyrain'uidla jonesiana Tittc, Chapman, Crcspin & feeble, J 928, Kei% Gferjl. Surv. Vic, 5(1), 

0. 161. 
St/mola iouwiana Tate. Cotton & Godfrey 1932, S. Aust. Nat, 14 (1), p. 23; 1938, Mai. 

Soc. S. Aust., 1, p. 17. 

Diagnosis — A small Agatha with eight whorls in a height of 6 mm, flat and 
Of moderate width. Suture linear, impressed; base regularly convex; body whorl 
less than half height of shell, subangulate at the periphery. Columella plait 
strong and elevated. 

Dimensions — Height 6-25, diameter 2-0 mm. 

'1 ype Locality — Tintinarra Bore, 26-154 feet. 

Location of Holotype — S. Aust. Mus., D 13466. 

Material — One specimen, Weymouth's Bore. 

S trad graphical Range — (?) M id-Tertiary to Recent. 

Geographical Distribution — Port Phillip Bay, Victoria-Adelaide, S. Aust. 

Syrnola (Agatha) infrasulcata (Tate) 
pL 3, fig. 7. 

Odontoxtomia (Sijrnola) infrasulcata Tate, 1898b, Trans. Rov. Soc. S. A\isl. T 22 (2), p, 83, 

ph 4, fig, 5. 
Syrrwta mjraxukata Tate, Cotton & Godfrey, 1932, S. Aust. Nat., 14 (1), p. 22; 1938, Mai. 

Soc, & Aust,, 1 ? p, 17; Ludbrouk, 1941, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 65 (1), p. 100. 

Diagnosis — An Agatha of moderate size, with nine whorls in a height of 
11 nun. Body whorl subangulate at lire periphery, nearly half height of shell, 
sculptured with about six incised grooves below the periphery and sometimes 
one or more above the periphery continuing medially on the spire whorls. 

Dimensions — Height 11, diameter 3-5 mm. 

Type Locality — Holdfast Bay, S. Aust. 

Location of Holotype — S. Aust. Mus., Keg. No. D 13465. 

Material — The figured hypotype, Weymouth's Bore; one specimen. Hind- 
marsh Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands to Recent 

(Geographical Distribution — Beachport to Spencer Gulf, S. Aust. 

Subgenus Puposyhnola Cossmann, 1921. 

Pitnnsfjrunto Cossmann, 1921, Ess. Paleoeonch., 12, p, 229. 

Type species (o.d.) Auricula acivvla Lamarck. 

Svrnola (Puposyrnola) lasmanica (Temson Woods) 
pi. 3, fig. S. 
Xttjtopltjgma tarmanfca Tenison Woods, 1677, Proc. Roy. Sot;. Tas*., 1876, p. J.31, 
Si/mola taamonica Teuisou Woods, May, 1921, Check List, p. 93: 111. Ind., p. 93, pi. 44. 
rt£. 13; Lucllvrout, 19-11, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 65 (1), p. 100, Crcspin, 1943, Aust, 
Mm. Ros. Surv. Roll. 0, p. 98. 

Diagnosis — A somewhat elongate Puposyrnola with 7 adult whorls in a 
height of 4 nun.; whorls rather tumid, obsoletcly striate. Suture almost hori- 
zontal, impressed. 

Dimension* — Height 4, diameter 1 ram, 

Type Locality — Blackmail's Bay, Tasmania; Recent. 

Location of Holotype — Hobart Museum. 

Obsetrations — No further examples of this species have been recovered 
since it was recorded from Abattoirs Bore, It has been recorded from the 
Kaliuman of Gippsland (Crespin, 1943, p. 98) and a specimen from the Kalim- 


nan of Muddy Creek, Victoria, in Ihc British Museum collection, here figured 
(pi. 3, fig. S) is inferred to tasnuinica by comparison with the figure of 
tcismanica (May, 1923, p. 44 } fig, 1.3). Xo authentic specimens or iasmanica 
have been available for comparison. It is rare in Tasmania and the fossil 
species may possibly not be identical although it agrees in size and general 

Material — Oue specimen, hypotype, Muddy Crock, Vie,; B.M. Coll. 

Strafigraphical Range — Kulmman- Recent. 

Geographical Distribution — Recent, Tasmania; Tertiary, Gippsland, Vie.; 
Adelaide, S. Aust. 

Symola (Puposyrnola) acriseeta Ludbrook 
^linutla ucrhevta Ludbrook, Bill, Trims, ttuy SlWL S- Vust., 65 (L), p. 92, pi. 5, fig. 2. 

Diagnosis — A very small Fuposyniofa sharply pupiform, with six adult whorls 
in a height of o*3 mm. Fairly broad with flattened whorls separated by chan- 
nelled and impressed suture. Body whorl Hat above the periphery which is 
subangulate. Aperture elongate, pyriforrn, columella nearly straight with a small 
fold near the origin. 

Dimensions — Height 3-3 : diameter 1*1 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of *Holatypc— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 1637. 

Observations — 5. (P.) acriseeta is the most commonly occurring Syrnolid 
in Ihe Dry Creek Sands, although like other members of the gemis it is not 
iuimcr».us. The subgenus Puposyrnola is well represented iu the New Zealand 
Tertiary (Laws. 1937, pp. 307-309) although New Zealand species are all very 
sliougjy pupiform. The species acmccta is more like the Paris Basin type species 
S. {¥,) acicula than the rVew Zealand species. 

Materia] — Four specimens, Weymouth's Bore; one specimen, Hindmarsh 

Strut igrnphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Dislribulion — Adelaide district. 

Subgenus Evra/YNiaa.A Laws, 1^40. 

LvctiwMt Laws. 11)40. Trims. Hoy. Soc. N-"/., 70 (2)„ p. 153. 

Type species (o.d.) Evelynella canastas Laws. 

Syrnola (Evelynella) adelaidcnsis sp. nov. 
pi & ng, 9. 

Diagnosis — A fairly large Evelynella with six adult whorls in a height of 
4-S mm, Whorls flatly convex, fairly wide with linear, impressed suture. Body 
whorl nearly half height of shell, subangulate at periphery. Outer lip arcuate 
with several lirations deeply within. 

Description of Ilololype — -Shell fairly large for the genus solid, conical, 
smooth except for faint axial growth striae, shining. Protoconch small, of about 
IK turns, hetcros trophic, tip immersed. Adult whorls six, flatly convex, fairly 
wide; suture linear, impressed. Body whorl large, nearly half height of shell, 
■subangulate at the periphery, llatly convex above the periphery, base convex 
below the periphery, with an umbilical chink. Aperture subovatc, expanded 
below and annulate -above. Columella vertical, arcuate, with a strong horizontal 
plait near the origin. Outer lip thin, straight when viewed in profile, arcuate, 
wi(h about ten lirations deeply within visible only in reflected light. 

Dimensions — Height 4*8, diameter 2, height of body whorl 2 mm. 

Type Locality — Ilindmarsh Bore, 450-4S7 feet. 

Location of Ilololype — Tate Mus. Coll., F 15167. 

Observations — It is interesting to find this New Zealand Tertiary subgenus 
among Adelaide specimens. As Laws points out in his diagnosis of the genus 


(lfMO, p ; 153), the form of the body whorl with somewhat disproportionate 
width of die aperture in addition to the very characteristic lirae within the 
outer lip, servo to distinguish the subgenus from other Syrnolids. 

Material— Holotype, Hindmarsh Bore: 2 para types, one broken, one juvenile, 
Weymouth s Bore. 

Strafigmplucal Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Iliudmarsh and Weymouth's Bores, Adelaide. 

Genus Turbonilla Bisso, 1826. 
Vurhrmilla, 1826, Hist. Kat. Europe morid., 4, p. 22.1, 
Type species (s.d. Dall & Bartsch, 1909) Turbonilla It/pica Dall & Bartseb^ 
T, plicatuta Kisso non. Brocchi. 

Subgenus Turbonuj.a s. sir. 

Turbonilla (Turbonilla) mariac Teuison Woods 

pi. % fig. 10. 
Turh,millu mariae Teuison Woods, 1876, Procv Kov. Sue. Tas., 1S75, t> 144; May, 1921 

Clieck List, p. 99; Miiy, 1923, 111. lull, p. 03, pt. 44. fig. 29: Colton & Godfrey, 1931 

S. Aust. Nat., 14 ( J ), p. 30. 
Turbonilla cf. marine T. Woods, Ludbrook, 1941, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 65 (1), p. 100. 

Diagnosis — A Turbonilla with a large protoconch of 1% heterostrophic turns 
followed by one-half turn with brephic axials. Twelve wborls in a height of 
10 mm. with 16 axial ribs on the penultimate whorl. Ribs become obsolete on 
the periphery but the interspaces are not abruptly terminated at the periphery. 
Base smooth. 

Dimensions — Height 10, diameter 2 mm. 

Type Locality — Xing Island, Bass Strait; Recent. 

Location of Holotype — Hobart Museum, Tasmania. 

Observations — Adelaide specimens are conspecific with specimens of T. 
mariac from Tasmania in the British Museum. All of these specimens are small 
as compared with the holotype, and have 10 adult whorls in a height of 7 mm. 

Material — Throe specimens, one juvenile, Hindmarsh Bore: four specimens. 
Recent, Tas7nania, B.M Coll. 

Slratigraphical Han^c — Dry Creek Sands, 

Geographical Distribution — Tasmania to MacDonald Bay, S, Aust, 

Turbonilla (Turbonilla) sp. 

An immature Turbomllu with a large protoconch and 3 adult whorls more 
finely sculptured than T. (1\) muriae. 

Material — One specimen, Weymouth's Bore. 

Subgenus Chemnitzia d'Orbigny, 1839. 
Chcnxnitzia d'Orbigny, 1839, in Webb & Berthclot Hist. Nat Canaries, p. 77, 

Type species (monotypy) Melaniella campanellae Phib'ppi 

Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) mappingae sp. nov. 

pi. 3, fig. n. 

Diagnosis — A Chemnitzia of moderate size, stout and thick with nine adult 
whoils in a height of 5-25 mm., shouldered at the posterior summit and slightly 
medially deprftssed. Sculptured with strong axial ribs, 13 on the first and second 
whorls, 14 on the succeeding wborls. Ribs practically continuous from whorl 
to whorl. 

Description of Holotype — Shell of moderate size, elongate-conical, stout and 
thick. Protoconch missing, adult whorls nine in a height" of 5-25 mm.; whorls 
shouldered at the posterior summit, somewhat contracted at the periphery, and 
slightly medially depressed. Sculpture of strong axial ribs, slightly narrower 
than the interspaces increasing from 13 on the first and second whorls to 14 on 

the succeeding whorls; ribs practically continuous from whorl to whorL Inter- 
eoslul spaces wider djan ribs, fairly deeply simk and abruptly terminated on 
the periphery. Base short only slightly rounded; aperture small, broken in the 
holotype, but apparently subquadratc. Columella shod, Straight slightly oblique. 

Dimensions — Height 5*25, diameter 1*5 : height of body" whorl, 1-8 mm. 

Type Locality — Weymouth's Here, Adelaide," 31 0-330 reel. 

Location of Hololype— -Tate Mus, Cull, Univ. of Adelaide, F1516S. 

Material — Holotype and last 3 whorls of one paratype, a larger shell than 
lh«- holutype, Weymouth's Bore; paratype. Abattoirs Bore. 

Strut (graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

(l**o£raphi<:al Disfrihidion — WeymonrrTs and Abattoirs Bores. 

Turbontlla (Chemnitzia) wurongae sp. nov. 

i-l. 3, fry. 12, 

Diagnosis — A slowly tapering Chemnit^ia with eight adult whorls iu a 
height of 6-2 mm. Whorls flat to slightly convex, sculptured with 12 axial 
ribs per whorl, 14 on the body whurl; intercostal spaces much narrower than 
ribs, elongate triangular with apex at the posterior extremity and nut very deep. 
Aperture subquadratc; outer lip vertical, columella straight, vertical, 

Description of Holotype- — Shell of moderate si/.e, elongate. Conical, slowly 
tapering, stout and thick. Protoeonch missing, adult whorls 8 in a height ol 
6 '2 nun. Whorls flat to slightly convex, suture linear, impressed. Sculpture 
of 12 flatly rounded axial ribs per whorl, 14 on the body whorl. Intercostal 
>pi(^ much narrower than ribs, elongate-triangular with apex at the posteriur 
extremity, and not very deep, terminated abruptly just above the periphery. Base 
smooth, of moderate height, slightly rounded. Aperture- subquadrate; outer 
Jip vertical, columella straight, vertical. 

DhncnsiO)is — Height. 6*2. diameter 15, lieight of body whorl 1-35 mm. 

Type Locality — fiindmarsh Bore, 450-4S7 feet. 

Location of Holotype— Tate Mus. Coll., Shift of Adelaide, F 151G9. 

Observations — This species is distinguishable bom |hs previous species, 
T. (C.J mappingac, by its more tapering shape, flatter whorls, not shouldered 
b^Iavv ihe suture, ancl fewer ribs with relatively narrow interspaces btl < j aeh 
whorl. The aperture also differs principally in the orientation of the columella. 

Mai trial — Holotype and one pamtype, Hindmarsh Bore. 

$tmii<j,wphical Bangc — Dry Creek Sands, 

Qt'ograp) hicat Distribution — Hindmarsh Bore, Adelaide. 

Turhonilla (Chcmnitzia) subfusca f.udbrook 
'rurbtuiiUu subfuxm Tjidbronk, 1941, Trans. Hoy. Soc. 5. ;\n,sl, 83 ( I), p, UA ,,1, 5, fig, 7, 

Diagnosis — A very small Cheuutitzia with a protoeonch of 2 globose helieoid 
turns set at righl angles to the. rest of the shell and partly immersed. Seven 
adull whorls in a height of 5-1 nun, First two adult whorls convex and with- 
out sculpture, except lor inconspicuous axial striae, third whorl with axial 
costae developing, 14 in number, 16 on the penultimate whorl, somewhat oblique 
and equal (o the interspaces. Aperture subquadrate, outer lip and columella 

Dimensions -Height 5*1, diameter 1-0 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Location of Holotype— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 166S- 

Observations — No further examples of this species have been found since it 
was described from Abattoirs Uore. It is readily distinguishable by the smooth 
and convex large whorK together with the protoeonch, if it is preserved., o! 2 
separately globose helieoid turns laterally situated at right angles to the rest 
of the shell. 

Material — Two paratypcs> Abattoirs Bore^ one specimen, Hindmarsh Bore. 


Siratigraphical Bangc — Dry Creek Sands. 
Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Turbonilla (Chemnitzin) adclaidensis si), nov. 
pi. 3, Eg* X3. 

Diagnosis— An elongate Chcmniizia> Mowly tapering, with 13 adult whorls 
and protoconch in a height of 10*5 mm. Adult whorls slightly convex, particu- 
larly in first 8 whorls, sculptured with numerous slightly'obUque axial costae, 
rounded and about equal to interspaces, 17 on the first 2 whorls. 14 on wliorls 
3-.S, 15 on the 9th whorl, 17 on the 10th and 11th, and 20 on the penultimate 

Dr\t:ripHon of Holotijpe—SUfU fairly large, moderately thick, elongate- 
subulate, slowly tapering, Protoconch prominently heterostrophic of 2 globose 
helicoid turns tilted at about f>0 degrees to the axis, Nucleus projecting with 
suture of first whorl tangential to it Adult whorls 13, slightly convex, more so 
iu the first 6' whorls; sculptured with numerous slightly oblique axial costae, 
rounded and about equal to the interspaces, extending from suture to suture on 
the spire whorls and terminated fit the periphery of the body whorl. There 
are 17 costae on the first 2 whorls, 14 on whorls 3-8, 15 on the 9th whorl, 17 on 
the 10th and 11th and 20 on the penultimate. Interspaces abruptly terminated 
just above the sutures and on the periphery on the body whorl, suture linear, 
impressed. Base smooth, moderately convex, aperture subquadrate, columella 
and outer lip parallel and vertical; outer lip slightly broken in the holotvpe. 

Dimenmom— Height 10 -5, diameter 2, height of body whorl 2-1 mm. 

Type Locality — Weymouth's Bore, 310-3:30 feet 

Location of rYo7otypr— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F 15170. 

Observations— This is an elegant and elongate Chcmnitzla somewhat re- 
sembling 7\ (G.) suhhtsm, It is readily separable by its greater length and 
sculptured early whorls and greater number of costae. 

Material — Hololype, Weymouth's Bore; one paratypc (incomplete), Hind- 
marsh Bans; 3 paratyprs, Abattoirs Rore. 

SnnligranhiraJ Ban^f* — Dry Creek Sands. 

iieograpnical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Turbonilla (Chcmnitzia) currongao sp. nov, 

pi. a, fig. |4 

Diagnosis — A very small Chemmtzia with protoconch and 7 adult" whorls in 
a height of 3 '75 mm, Protoconch high at about 75 degrees to the axis with 
nucleus lateral, globose and partly immersed. Adult whorls shouldered at the 
summit with strong oblique axial ribs narrower than interspaces, increasing from 
12 on the first to 20 on the penultimate whorl. 

Description of Holotype — Shell very small elongate, conical. Protoconch 
heterostrophic, high and fairly large, of 2 hclieoid turns set at about 75 degrees 
to the axis; nucleus prominent, lateral and slightly immersed. Protoconch fol- 
lowed by one-hnlf turn with brepfiic a rials. Adult whorls 7 faudy rapidly in- 
creasing, shouldered at the summit and Hat. sculptured with strong, sharply 
defined axial costae .slightly narrower frum the interspaces,, which are flat anil 
obliquely set across the whorls at an angle of 60 degrees; there arc 12 on the 
first, 11 on the second, J 6 on the third,, IS on the fourth and fifth, and 2(1 on the 
penultimate and body whorls- Interspaces extend from suture to suture on the 
spire whorls, but are abruptly terminated on the periphery of the body whuih 
15ase smooth, convex, steeply inclined. Aperture subquadrate, slightly efbise 
anteriorly; columella almost vertical, outer lip slightly oblique. 

Dimensions — Height 3-75, diameter 12, height of body whorl T2 mm. 

Type locality— Hindmarsh Fore, 450 -487 feet 

Location of H olotypc— Tate Mus. Coll., F 15171. 


Observations— Vhe number of costae. set noticeably obliquely, and the 
shouldering of the whorls separate this species from other species of Chcmntlzia 
h-rcin described. 

Malarial — Holotype and one fragment of paratype, Hindmarsh Bore; one 
paratypc. Abattoirs Bore. 

Strati graphical Range — Dry Creek. Sands 

Geographical Distribution — T I had marsh and Abattoirs Bores, Adelaide. 

Turbonillo (Chemnitzia) widningac sp. nov. 

£rl. %&#, 14, 15. 

Diagnosis — A Chcmnitzia of moderate size, with moderately convex whorls 
sculptured with 16 axial ribs per whorl. Interspaces subrectangular, not termin- 
ated above the suture, but terminated on the periphery of the body whorl. 
Uase oblique and flatly convex. Aperture subquadrate, columella slightly oblique 
to the left, outer lip not parallel to columella, vertical. 

Description of Holotype — Shell of moderate size, clongatc-tapering ? solid, 
fairly thick. Froloeoiieh and early whorls missing, 7 adult whorls remaining, 
moderately convex, sculptured with flatly rounded axial ribs, slightly wider than 
interspaces, oblique to gently curved, 16 per whorl. 18 on the body whorl. Inter- 
spaces subrectangular extending from suture to suture in the spire whoris and 
terminated abruptly on the periphery of the body whorl. Base short, smooth. 
oblique and ilatly convex. Aperture small, base of columella and outer lip 

Dimensions — Weight 5-6' (estimated total height 9), diameter 1*5, height 
of body whorl 1-8 mm. 

Paraiype — Portion of shell with body whorl and aperture complete. Aperttue 
suhquadratc; columella oblique to the left: outer lip vertical, lip slightly effuse 

Type Locality — Hindmarsh Bore, 450-487 feet. 

Location of Holotype— T at m Vlos. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F 15172. 

Observations — This species is dose to IP, (C.) wurongae from which it 
dillers in the number of costae per whorl and the shape of the interspaces. In 
wuronvae the interspaces arc elongate-triangular, with the apex of the triangle 
below the suture; in wuhungae they arc reetanguiae and not torminatod above 
the mi hi re. 

Material — The holotype and 2 paratypes. 

^tratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Hindmarsh Bore, Adelaide. 

Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) sp. 

It is impossible fullv to describe this small Chcmnitzia from Hindmarsh 
Uore of which only the three last whorls remain. The whorls arc flatly convex 
and finely sculptured with 22 axial costae per whorl. The costae are oblique, 
extend from suture to suture and are separated by narrower interspaces. The 
interspaces are continuous from suture to suture, but are abruptly terminated at 
the periphery of the body whorl. The aperture is broken but appears to be 
snbquadrate, the columella vertical. The base is smooth, flatly oblique. 

The subgenus Chemnitzia lias been recorded and the species described 
■above for the first lime from the Australian Tertiary. All of the species of which 
the prntoeoneh is preserved fall into "Croup A" of Laws (1937a, p, 407; 1937b. 
p. 49) in which the protoeonch is helicoid and ihe intercostal grooves abruptly 
terminated at the periphery. Chcmnitzia "Croup A", with 2 doubtful exceptions, 
does not appear in New Zealand before the Nukumaman, although Clicmnitzia 
including "Croup Fl rf characterised by a planorboid protoeonch appeared as early 
as the Hutchinsonian. It &£ impossible to state at this stage whether Chemnitzia 
is represented in die Australian Tcrtiaiy before the Pliocene; so far as can he 


determined from figures of poorly preserved specimens described under Tur- 
banilla, it is not represented. 

Subgenus Pykuoi.ampros Saeeo f 1892. 
Pyr&ohimpros Siteco, 1892, Moll. Ton-. TVr*. Pieni. 11, p. 65. 

{Pltrgatamprus Oo*sin*nn f 1021 (emend, pro. rtjr^otainpros Sacco) Ess. P*Ieo. Cumpr, 12. 
p. 28?.} 

Type &$spies (ad») Pyr^olampros mioperpUcahdus Sacco. 

Turbonilla (Pyrgolampros) vixcostata Ludbrook 

Turbonilla vlxcvstata Ludbrook, 1941, .Trans. Hoy. Soc S. Anst., 05 (1), p. 92, pi. &, fig, ft. 

Diagnosis— A Pyrgolampros fairly large, solid but thin, 12 adult whorls in 
a height of 13 mm. sculptured with about 14 axial costae per whorl ou the early 
whorls. Costae become weaker and gradually obsolete after the sixth whorl 
and disappear altogether. Aperture elongate quadrate, columella slightly plicate; 
aperture somewhat effuse anteriorly. 

Dimensions — Height 9-8; diameter 2-2 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide, 

Location of Holofyne—T&te Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1659. 

Observations — The nolotype is a young shell, a typical if incomplete example 
reaches a height of 13 mm., diameter 3-5 mm. The species is numerous and 
common, and is readily distinguished by the absence of sculpture except for 
growth hues iu the later whorls. 

Material — About 55 paratypes, mostly broken, Abattoirs Bore; 10 specimens, 
Ilindmarsh Bore; 3 specimens,, Weymouth's Bore. 

Stratigraphica] Rangx — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Turbonilla (? Pyrgolampros) sp. 

JTurhMtilin sp. Lodhmok, 1941, Trans, Hoy. Soc S, Anst, 65 (1), p. 8$ 

Ohsctxations — No further examples of this species have been recovered.- and 
the precise location is still indeterminable. 

Subgenus Pyrciscus Philippi, 1S4L 

fyfg&tut Philippi, 1841, Arch. N.iturKe.seh,, 7 (1), p. 50. 

(Ftjr£(>.<itfdi& Monterosato, 1884, Nbffl. Cm, Spec, p. &9. ) 

(Ortoxtflix Aratfas and Magi-ion?, J843, Atti. Acad. Giov. Catania, 20, p. 118.) 

Type species (s.d. Dall & Bartsch, 1909) Melanin rufa Philippi. 

Turbonilla (Pyrgistus) "liraecostata" Tcnisou Woods 
Turhonitla limecofitata Tenisnn Woods, 1877, Troc Hoy. Soc. Tas., 1876, p. 101. 
Turhonilla luvecostatu T. Woods, Dcnnant & k'irson, 1 90.3. Kec Geol. Surv. Vic, I \ 2 | % p. lift. 
Turbonilla liravcottntu T. W. Chapman, Cresptn & Keblc 1928, fiec Hen! Sirtv. Vic. S{1). 

p. 160. 
Tmhondla UraecosUta TJ Woods, Ludbrook, VJA\ f Trans. Hoy. Soc S. Anst., 65 (1 ) t p. Inn, 

Diagnosis — A small Pyrgiscits with S adult whorls and a small protoenneh 
in a height of 5*5 mm. Whorls flattened with 20-24 straight rounded ribs; inter- 
costal spaces narrower than ribs and closely spirally grooved. Base roundly 
convev and spirally lirate. 

Dimensions — Length 5 5, diameter 1-5 mm. 

Type JjOcaVity — Table Cape, Tasmania; "JajqrfUfctelj 

Location of Holotype — ? Hobart Museum, Tasmania. 

Observations — The identification of this species is based on the description 
only. Present study is limited to one juvenile with 5 adult whorls which must 
be regarded as doubtfully Hraccostata. The species has previously been recorded 
from the Xalimnan of the Sorrento Bore (Chapman, Crespin fit Kcblc, 192K, p, 
MO), but all identifications of this species in Victoria and South Australia need 
further study and comparison with the type for confirmation, 


Material — One juvenile specimen, Hindmarsh Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — "Tertiary". 

Geographical Distribution — Fort Phillip Bay, Victoria, to Adelaide, S. Aust; 

Turbonilla (Pyrgiscus) radicans Chapman & Crcspin 
Turbonilla miUcans Chapman $ Crcspin, 1928, Rcc. Geol. Siirv. Vie., 5 (1), p, 100, pi, '1, 
fit!. 35; Ludbrouk. 19 U. Trans. Rov. Snc, S. Aust., 65 (I), p. 100; Crespin, 1943, Aust. 

Min. lies. Surv. Ball. 9, p. 9ffi 

Diagnosis — A very small Pyrgiscus with six flattened adult whorls and a 
small protoconch of 2 tunas in a height of 3-7 rnm. Sculpture of 14 axial costae 
per whorl, with iutereostal spaces narrower than ribs> transversely striated, I he 
striae passing over the ribs. 

Dimensions — Height 3 7, diameter 1*16 mm. 

Type Locality — Sorrento Bore, Victoria, 670 ft, Kalimnan. 

Location of Halottjpca — Gcol, Surv, Vic, Coll. 

Material — One example, worn, Tcnnant's Bore; one worn example, Wey- 
mouth's Bore. 

Stral (graphical Range — "Tertiary". 

Geographical Distribution — Gippsland, Vic-Adelaide, S. Aust. 

Turbonilla (s.l.) spp. 
Two fragments each consisting of the body and portion of the penultimate 
whurl were obtained from Hindmarsh Bore. It is possible that they belong to 
the subgenus Pyrgiscilla (Laws., 1937c, p. 172). The intercostal grooves are 
stopped at tire periphery as in Ghemnitzia and there is a suggestion of spiral 
srviations on the intercostal spaces. However, sufficient material is not available 
for confirmation. The two fragments differ in the number of costae, and arc 
not coospeeifte. 

Superfamily HIPPONiCACEA. 
Genus Cheilea Modccr, 1793. 

Cheilea Modeor, 1793, K. Vortms. A< »<l. Hindi., 14, p. 112. 
( Mimdurht SelnuaavlttM\ ISi7„ Kss. Vers. t«st.. pp. 5ti ; 183.) 
[Lithvdapiius Owen. 1&42, Proo. Zoul. Src. p. 147.) 
{Cahjvtrti Jl & A. Adam*, 1654, Ge& Hec, Moll, I, p. 304.) 

Type species {s.d. Woodring, 192S) Patella equestris Linne. 

Cheilea adela.'densis Ludbrook 

Chuilea tuh-hiiilensiii LudhmoL, 1941, Tnuis. Kov. See. S. AusU 65 ( I /. (}, 94, pi. 5, JUgd, 8, $j 
1941, ihid., p. 100. 

Diagnosis — Apb& anterior, sharply curved in two turbinate whorls; shell 
smooth in the neighbourhood of the apex., central portion forming a cap with 
steep sides, rest of shell flattened and irregular* Sculpture from edge of smooth 
portion surrounding apex to adult area uf lunueruus, very fine, waving, radial 
lirae wider than interspaces broken by irregular concentric lines of growth and 
crossed irregularly by diagonal radial grooves. 

Dimensions {of cap) — Height 4. diameter 6 mm. 

Pandype — The internal appendage of the paratypo is semi-circular in basal 
outline, convex in front, fairly wide and showing irregular growth lines. 

Observations — No further examples of this species have been obtained 
since il was described from Abattoirs Bore. The genus is widespread in wanner 
waters. The species was inadvertently listed as C. pliocenica (Ludbrook, 1041, 
p. 100). plioeenica being a nomen nudum. The species was described (p, 94) 
under the name adelaidensis, 

Material — Holotypc T 1(3(5(3, and paratypc T 1007. 

Stratigruphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical. Distribution — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Genus HxproNix Defiance 1519, 
Jlipptmix Dcrxanee, 1819. Dull. Sci. Sac PhJloro. Palis, fai;. f p. 8. 
(Hipponux Crosse. 3 862 Juuin. de Conch., 10, p. 17.) 
(Corhtolepas H. & A. Adorns, 1&54, Ccji Rlu. MOll. 1. p. 373.) 

Type species (s.d. Gray, 1847) Patella cornucopia Lamarck. 

Subgenus Sabia Gray, 18*17. 

Sabiu Gray. 1847, Proc. /ool. Sac. p. 157. 

(Amattheu Schumacher, 1S17, Ess. Wis test, wu, 30, ISl, RON Rufinosrmi'. 1815) 

(&&«tt Zlftel, 1882 (en. pro Sabia Crav) Handb. Pal, 2, p. £Tfi) 

(Caputonix Irrdale, 1929a, Mem. Old. Mus., Pi. p. ?77,J 

(Saptodanta l J rushud & Rao, I934 : Rec. Iml Mus., 36, p. 1.) 

Hipponix (Sabia) conicus (Schumacher) 

pi. 4, figs. 1-4. 

Awalthea conica Schumacher, JS17, Kss, Vers, test, p. DM, pi. '21, fig. 4. 

Vntflia ttHMtalh- Lamarck, Hfltt Hist. Nut. Anim. s. Vert., 6 (1), p. .335; Delessert, 164 L 

Ret. Coo.., hi. 23, flg. 1L 
Iltppontx mi\lfalis Lamarck, Quoy and Gaimard, 1H35 7 Vov. Astrolabe Zoo]., 3, p. 434, pi, 72. 

fiys. 25-31; Crosse, 1862, Journ. dr. CWk, p, £> 1 j furr, Truii*. Roy. Socr. S. Aust.. 17> 

p. 330; Drmiant & Kitsou, 1003, Kec Grol. Surv. Vic, 1(2), rip. 138, 144. 
iUpponyx cotiictis .Schumacher, Crnsae, fbfcL, k>, 34; Codirev, J93Ui, S. Aust. Nat, 12 (2), 

p. 3T,, pi, fip. 12. 
Amtihhai oouica probably - Amalthca an&ttatis Qiioy, Angas, I8rv>h, Trot-. Zuol. Sou,, p. 175. 
Scri-ia arnica Sclnuuachc-r, Cotton & Godfrey, 1938, ' Mul. Soe. S. Aust. J. p. IS: Lndhinnk, 
1041, Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Au«r, i# (!), p 100 

Diagnosis—A Sabia of variable shape, generally high, shell thick, apex pos- 
terior and directed posteriorly, smooth, sharp and incurved at tip. Sculpture of 
irregular radia) ribs with narrow interspaces. 

Description of Holotype — Shell small, rather elevated, conical, convex; apex 
high, smooth, posterior, directed backwards over the margin, eroded in the holo- 
type. Exterior surface coarsely sculptured with irregular, wide, flat radial ribs, 
with narrow sublinear interspaces., bifurcating towards the apertural border. 
Aperture subcircular in the holotype; interior smooth with a long, horseshoe- 
shaped posterior muscular impression near the margin, 

Dimamiom— Height 10, antero-postcrior diameter 12, lateral diameter 
12 mm. 

Type Locality (here designated) — Tasmania; Recent, 

Location of flotoii/pe — Zoologiske Museum. Kohcnhavn, Schumacher, 181, 
No. 107L 

Ohscriaihms — The synonymy of this species and that of the species re- 
corded as Cupulas australis arc confused in Australian literature; There appears 
to lie lailnre to recognise that the species redescribod by Quoy and Gaimard was 
Lamarck" s Fidelia attstrahs, figured by Delessert. Lamarck's original description 
was lepnblished together with Quoy and Gaimard's more detailed description 
of the ^Astrolabe* hypotypes, Godfrey (1931a, p, 31) has synonymized Hipponyx 
nnstmlis Quoy & Gaimard (sic) with Amalthca conicn Schumacher, and later 
(lU31h, p. 44) has used Capuhts australis Lamarck for the species of Capuhis 
previously knmvn \n South Australia as Capuhts danidi Crosse. This shell is 
uot Lamarck's Patella amtralw. It is a. tffcftfc, somewhat irregular shell with a 
recurved apex, unci lias very weak and fine radial sculpture visible in oblique 
light in contrast with Lamarck's species ot which the radial ribbing is clearly 
shown in Delessert'.s figure, Angas (1665. p. 173) considered it identical witn 
Cttptilux danidi Crosse; one example only and four topotypes of C. danidi are 
available in Ihe British Museum Collection so that exact comparison is difficult 
but there is close resemblance between the two. Lmle-ss morphological ch'ilcr- 
euees are established, the Recent species recorded in South Australia as Capultn 
australis- should be identified with Capulm danieli. 

The fossil Hipponix (Sahiu) conica is small, like the holotype which the 


writer has been privileged to see by the courtesy of the Zoologiskc Museum, 
la>benhavn. The species is very variable in form" and sculpture of the shell. 

The holotype of Patella ausiralis cannot be located (Merntod, 1950, p. 700), 
hut is considered by Mermod to be probably a Sabia. 

Capulonix Ircdale has been included above in the synonymy of Sabia. This 
name was introduced by Ircdale for the Queensland shell listed by Hedley as 
Capulus calyptra Marlyn. No specimens of the Queensland shell are available 
for present study, but Martyn's figure appears to be that of a Sahla, The specific 
determination of Ihe Queensland species may be erroneous, as Martyn's figured 
specimen (Martyn, 1784, 1, pi. 18) was recorded by the author as from the 
north-west coast of America. 

Muterial — The holotype : figured hypotype (worn), Hindmarsh Bore; numer- 
ous specimens, Recent, South Australia. B.M. Coll, 

Shatigraphical Range— Dry Creek Sands-Kecent. 

Geographical Distribution — Southern Australia, 



Subfamily TmcuoTiioPL\AE. 

Genus Conrad. I860. 

Cctithiorierma Couxiul 1860, Jourti. Acad. Nat. Set, Pliilud., see C, i. p. 2ft3, 

(Me$o$tojna Doshayes, ]S64, Desur_ Anim. s, Wrt. Bhss. Paris, Supp. 2,' p. 416 [nan 

Dti^rdin, 1930).) 

Type species (monotypy) Cerithiodermu prima Conrad. 

Cerithioderma accrescens (Tate) 
rnchotmph^cvrcsciTm 'late, l#90h Trnns. Rov. Sue. S. Aus*t. 1:5 (2). p. 189, pi. 12 fig. » \, 
I>anunt & Kitson, 1903, Rec. Ceul. S'arv. \ic. I (2). n. Ill: Ludbrook, H>H. Tioiis. 
• Roy. Sac. S. Aust. 65 (1), p. TOO. 

Diagnosis — A fairly large Cerithioderma with seven whorls in a height of 
1] 5 mm. Whorls rapidly increasing, body whorl large, Sculpture of five 
equal and equidistant elevated spiral lirac, with a sixth at the anterior suture, 
crossed by strong high axial lirae, approximately equal to the interspaces, ten hi 
one mm. on the penultimate whorl Base with 10 raised sharp lirae crossed by 
axial arcuate striae. 

nitneiniom— Height 11-5, diameter 5-3, height of aperture 4-5 mm. 

Type Locality — Muddy Creek, Hamilton, Victoria; Miocene. 

Location of Holotype— Tate Mm. Coll., Univ, of Adelaide, T763A. 

Observations — No further examples of this species have been found since it 
was recovered irom Abattoirs Bore. The species is an undoubted Cerilhioderf/w; 
Tate (1890b. p. 185) recognized its affinities with Deshnyes's Mesostoma, which 
he considered a synonym of Trichotcopis, Ceritftiodermal with which Deshayes's 
Me.sostoma is synonymous, is well represented in (he European Eocene, and 
C. (tcrrcsccm is very like C. reticnlatum Wrigiey from the Braekteshaiu Beds. 
The genus is distributed in the Upper Cretaceous to Oligoceuc of Europe and 
North America, and appears to have lingered on in Australia through Miocene 
and Pliocene times, 

Material — Holotype. 

Zirttti^rooiitatl Rang*- — Miocene-Dry Creek Sands, 

Geographical Distribution — Muddy Creek. Vicluria-AUolutdc, S, Aust. 

Subfamily Catoukae, 
Genus Cavuj-us Montfort, 1810. 
Ca)tu!ux Montfort, LH10, Conch. Sy>=U 2, p. 54. 
(Vilcnpsrs LaTiu.rA IH'22, Hist. Nat. Auiin. s. Vert.., C (2), p. t(S.) 

Type species (monotypy) Patella hungarica Linu6» 

Subgenus Capulus s. str. 

Capulus (Capulus) circinatus Tate (?) 

pi. 4, %s. 5, 6. 
Capuias cirdnatus Tate, 1893b, Trans. Floy. Soc S. Aiwt, IT, n. 1:14, pi. 7. fig. S; Deunuut 
vV Kittson, 1903, Rec. Ccol. Surv. Vic, 1 (2), p. 113; Ludbrook, 1941. 'ttmt r. Roy. Sou. 
S. Ausr.,. 65 ( 1 ), p. 100. 

Diagnos-h— A small, high Capulus with a spirally recurved apex overhang- 
ing the posterior border of the aperture. Aperture roundly ovate sides slightly 
compressed. Sculpture of fine radial threads crossed by concentric folds and 
threads which arc arched anteriorly. 

Dimensions— Height 3-25, greatest diameter 2-5, lesser diameter 2 mm. 

Type Locality— Adelaide Bore; Eocene, 

Location of Ilolatype— Tate Mus. Coll., Uuiv. of Adelaide, T1445. 

Observations— Three examples referred to this species, from Abattoirs Bore, 
are all worn. The species depends on the unique holotype from the Eocene of 
the Adelaide Bore and appears to be a true Capulus. The apex is not laterally 
curved as hi Krebsm (with which Tempelasus Iredale is synonymous) and the 
shell is similar in shape and in the curvature of the apex to young examples of 
the type species, C. hungaricus; adult himgaricits is more circular in shape, 
and the apex is less strongly curved in the later stages. Capulus danieli Crosse 
h also a Capttlus s. str. Australian fossil species recorded under this name need 
re-examining with a view to establishing their exact identity. 

Material — 3 specimens, including figured hvpotype, Abattoirs Bore. 

Siratigraphical Range— Eocene- (?)Dry Creek Sands, 

Geographical Distribtdion — Adelaide. South Australia. 

Genus Calyptraka, Lamarck, 1799. 
Cultjptvaea Lamarck 1799, Mr™, S\x\ Hist. Nat. Paris, o IK 
(Milrula day, 1821, Loudon Mai. Repos., 15, p. 232.") 
(Mllrlta Leach, 1817., in Cray Ann. Mag. Nat. TTfst, 20, p. 27 1.) 

Type species (monotypy) Patella chinerms Linne. 

Subgenus Sicapatella Lesson, 1830. 
Sitlapu/t'tlfi Lessom 1830, Voy. Coquillc. Zool , 2(1), p, 389. 
(tfaliotidea SwainMm, 1840, Treat. Malar n 354 ) 
(Trochdla Cray, 1867, Proe. Ztxil. Soc, p. 735.) 

Type species (s.d. Gray, 1S47) Calyptraea (Sigapatella) novaezetandiue 


Calyptraca (Sigapatella) crassa Tate 

pi, 4, fig*. 7, S. 
CaltjDtrtwu cmsta Tate, 1893tx Trans. Hoy, Soc. S. Ausi.. 17, p. 333. pi. 7. fiiis. 2, 7; Denmint 

& kitsoa, 1903, Rec. GeaL Sutv. Vic. 1 (2), p. 138, 
Sigapatelki rraasa late, Ludhrook, 1941, Trans. Rov. Sue. S., 65 (1). ». 100; Crospin, 

1943, Dopt. Supp. & Ship, Min. Res. Surv. Bull 9 : p. 98. 

Diagnosis — A rather stout Sicapatella with an elevated subcentral spire, 
rapidly increasing. Apex prominent, small, oblique, circinatelv coiled. Body 
whorl flatly convex; sculpture of fine, lamcllose growth lines. Edge of septum 

Dimensions— Height 1L diameters 27 and 25 mm. 

Type Locality— Gippsland Lakes, Victoria; Kalimnan. 

Location of Holotype— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1432A. 

Observations— A\\ material available from the bores consists of young thin 
shells as compared with type specimens. The species occurs in some numbers 
in Hindmarsh and Abattoirs Bores. 

Material— The figured hypotype and 19 specimens, Hindmarsh Bore; 5 
specimens, Weymouth's Bore. 


Strtiiigraphicat Range — Kalinman-Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Gippslamh Victoria-Adelaide, Scmth Australia, 

Cronus Chkvti>oi,a Lamarck, 1799, 
Crupidttfa Lamarck, 1799, Mem. Son. Hist. Nat Wuln, p. 7&. 
I l-'nmaenuht ™ty, 1-SU. Gonc-li,. pi, 53/) 

{Hardulium Sclrmrrndter, 1817, Vers, tost., p. 183. von Okvn. 1815.) 
I hrnmuh Fernssao, 18:20, Jmim. de PKvMqim, f(0, p. 285.) 
(dypta G*&y, 1847, Proc. Zool. Soc, p, 157.) 

Type species (monotypy) Vutella fornicafa Linne. 

Subgenus 'Zeacrvita Finlay, 1927. 
ZfaWypitf i^nlj.v, I<J27, "liiuis, N.Z, hifit,. 57, p, 06ft 

Type species (o.d.) Crepidula mnnoxtjla Lesson, 

Crepidula (/.eucrypta) immersa Angas 
pT. 4, figs. 0-11. 
CrcpidiiLa inmtivwa AnmiSij l-SOSa., Proc. Zool, &■«•., p, S*7, jil -, Hg. 12. 

Crt'iutfakt unuuiformis Lanuirck, Tate, 189.3b, Trans. Hov. Soo. S. Alitfh, 17. p^ 330; DoiinarU 
& Kitson, ly(«, Ree. fcem. Surv. Vic, 1(2;, pp. 144. f pp. 113, 138: Ludtuook, 11)41, 

Tfaa*. ftOy. Ste S. Aust, G5 U), p. 100, 
Zenav}tt(j ivmunrsa Angns, GovKrew IWilb, S, Anst Nat 12 (5), p. 43; Cotton fie OoflffOyi 

[Wk, Mai. Soc. & AusU 1, p. IS. 

©&§«£$* — Shell irregular iu shape but generally flatly oval, thin, large iu 
size, apex snbcentral generally immersed, small, not prominent. Septum tbiu 
with straight margin. 

Dimensions — Length 27 3 width IS, height 5 mm, 

Type Locality — Port Lincoln, S. Aust, on dead Pinna; Recent. 

Location of Halotypc — Brit. Mus. (Natural History). 

Ohscrvaliam — The habit, shared by several species of Crepidula, of assum- 
ing a flat or backwardly curved shape principally when inhabiting the outer lip 
of other shells, has led to the assumption that C tmguiformis Lamarck is a 
cosmopolitan species. Jt has been thus identified throughout Australian Tertiary, 
and it must be admitted that it is difficult if not impossible to separate the flat 
forms from nn^utfonnis without the supporting evidence of the convex forms, 
which generally grow on the external surface of dead shells and adjust their 
shape lo the species to which they are attached. 

The SUtjECnuS Janavus Moreh (type species Crepidula plana Say) is retained 
by Wen/ ( 19KX p. 905) for the flat shells. 

Finiay (1927, p. 393) created Zeacrypta, as a subgenus of Maori cry ptn, for 
"the series of slipper limpets that live inside dead shells 7 ', naming Crepidnta 
mommjln. as type species with the added generic diagnosis of a "brephic stage 
which forms a slightly raised ellipsoidal cup (with the flatly coiled smooth 
embryo at one of Ihe foci) ornamented all ovci with fine threads radiating from 
the umbo". For the first criterion, that of habit, the name Janacm is already 
available; for Ihe second, the habit of forming a cap, scon in some specimens 
only, has been observed by the writer without any very dose study of the genus 
in the species (I. fomlcala Linne. C. aspera Danker, C. tmguiformis Lamarck, 
(7. nortiMatrum Williamson, C plana Say, C. oryx. Sowerby. ft does not then 
appear to be subgenerically diagnostic. However, Zcacnjpta is separable from 
Junncns by the fact that the septum has u straight Or but slightly curved margin 
while iu Janacus there is usunlly a definite notch on the left. side. 

Adelaide specimens include both the convex and flat forms, .ouch of wlucb 
is figured (pi. 4. figs. 9-11), The species attains a large size, one broken specimen 
from Hindmarsh Jiore having an estimated total length of 55 mm,, width 40 mm. 

Matericd — Nine specimens including the figured hypotypes, Hindmarsh 
Bore. Iwo specimens. Kooyongu Bore; one specimen, Te.nnaut's Bore. 

Shatigmphical Range — Dry (Jrcck Sands. 

Ce<igraph\eal Distribution — Southern Australia. 


Crcpidula (Zeaerypta) dubttabilis laic 

pl 4, fig. 12. 
Crcptdula chihitabilis Tate, 1893b, Trans, Kov. Soc. S. Aust., gl, 9, £■*. 5; Dennrmt & Kitsnn, 
1903, Roc. Gefcl Saw. Vic., 1 (2), p. 113, 138; Lud brook, 1941. Turny Kov Soc. S. 

Aust,, 65 (1), p. 100. 

Diagnosis— A small Crcpidula, thin elongate-oval in shape, generally convex. 
Apex spiral, submarginal, 

Dimensions— Length 25, width 16 : height 8 mm. 

Type Locality— Gippshnd Lakes, Victoria; Kalinman, 

Location of Uolotijpe— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T 1424. 

Description of Hypotype— -Shell rather small, thin elongate-oval in shape, 
sides contracted, irregularly sculptured with concentric growth lines and irre- 
gular curved radial ridges which, however, are not present on other specimens. 
Apex pronouncedly spiral, subcentrab small separated from the margin, and 
curved to the left. Septum small, deeply set, margin broken in hypotvne but slightly concavcJy curved. 

Dimensions— Length 18, width 9, height 6 mm. 

Locality— Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of Hypotype— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F 15173. 

Ohservatiom— Three specimens are available from Adelaide material and 
all show the conspicuously spiral apex which is set in from the margin slightly 
to the left of the centre. ^ J 

Material— The hypotype and one specimen, Abattoirs Bore; one specimen 
and three juvenile specimens, Weymouth s Bore. 

Xtrarigraphieal Range — Miocene-Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution— Cippsland, Vic.-Adelaide, South Australia. 

Crepiduhi (Zcacrypta) hainsworthi Johnston 
P i. -J, figs, in, m„ 

( rcinclutd hainsworthi Johnston. 1885, Proc. Roy. Soc, Tas. for 1884, n, 233 ul fics 
JfifiS, GfeC m, p]. 33, fi& 13; Tate, 1893b. Trans. Nov. ft*. £ Aust*, 17, p 
Dormant & Kitsou, 1903, Rec. Ccol. Surv. Vic.'. 1 (2), p.* 113, Uul brook 1941 1 


Hoy. Soc. S. Amt.;65 (1), p. 100." " *~" X " ~ "* N " Hl TraUS ' 

Diagnosis— A narrow, high Crepidula, with basal outline ckmgate-oval. 
Apex strongly hooked, posterior, projectinc beyond the posterior margin. 

Dimensions— Length 14, breadth 8, height 5-5 nun. 

Type Locality— 1 able Cape, Tasmania. 

Location of Hohtrjpe—? Hobart Museum. 

Observations — This is a very distinctive species with its high apex down- 
wardly recurved outside the posterior margin. None of the Adelaide examples 
show any evidence of there being a Qat form of the species, but according to 
die author, "The younger examples differ very much in appearance from die 
mature forms, being relatively shallower and scarcely beaked", from which it 
may be assumed that the natter variety docs occur. 

Materia!— The figured hypotype and 6 specimens, Abattoirs Bore; five speci- 
mens and one fragment, Weymouth's Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range—? Oligocene and Dry Creek Sands*. 

Geographical Distribution— -Table Cape, Tas- Adelaide, South Australia. 


Genus Tvi^seiRA Harris, 1897, 
Tyiospira Harris. 1897, Cat. Tcrt. Moll, tttil, Mus.. 1, p, 2*22, 

Type species (o.d.) Buccinum scutulatmn Martyn. 

Tylospira coronaLa marwieki (Fin lay) 
pi, J,.ft&r. 6. 7. 
PMicano cororuiki 'late, 1890a, Tram Roy. Roe. S. Aust., 13 (Z), p. 176'. 
'tylospira coronatn T»rr ; TVmrnnt & Kittson, lflO.3, H^c. Geol. Surv. Vfo> 1 (2), p. ]44 


t'ekaaria numcivki Kinky, i9.'il. Tuuitf, N% Iltf**j 2 (1). 1?- 17- 

Fdlcarla hnwchtni Cotton, 1034, S. Nut., 16 (1), p, 7, 

J'ylonpiru ciH'Otwta numotckt (Finlay), Ludbrook, 1941, Trans. Roy. S<u.\ S. Atial., 65 O ), P ***>. 

Diagnom — A Tylospira with a somewhat short spire, generally two-ninths 
of total height of shell Spire whorls convex to subangulate at first, becoming 
annulate by the third whorl. Early whorls sculptured with nine spiral lirae, with 
a row of" small peripheral nodules developing on the angle or the whorl. Aper- 
tnral eallus thick, spreading over body whorl and up to three-quarters of penul- 
timate whorl. 

Description of Hypofype — Shell acuminately ovate, with a moderately acute. 
relatively small spire. Protoeoneh missing, adult whorls six, moderately rapidly 
increasing^ convex to subangulale at first, but angulate by the third whorl; body 
whorl large, seven-ninths total height of shell, slightly depressed between suture 
and shoulder. Suture widely but not deeply canaliculate. Sculpture on early 
whorls of about nine spiral lirae and a row of small peripheral nodules gradually- 
developing on the angle of the whorl, Callus enamel spreading over body whorl 
and three-quarters of penultimate whorl. Aperture elongate-oval, angulate both 
posteriorly and anteriorly. Outer lip thickened but not variccd, broadly V- 
shaped in profile, arched to the left medially. Columella smooth, concave, 
strongly arcuate. Growth lines on callus strong and sigmoid, following the 
profile of the outer lip but terminating at the pad of smooth, thicker callus 
spreading back from th« columella. 

Dhnnisims— Height 45 3 diameter 31, height of body whorl 35. height of 
-aperture 24 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. 

location of ilolottjpc — Finlay Collection, New Zealand. 

Location of Hypotypes — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide. F 15174. 

Observations— The 'writer (also 1941, p. 89) considers this a geographical 
subspecies of the restricted Kahmnan Tijlospira coronala (Tate), The subspecies 
lias never been completely described or figured. Friday (1931, p. 17) differen- 
tiated it as a separate species on differences exhibited by what was evidently an 
incompletely developed shell, aud Cotton based his species hoxvehini on an eroded 
shell, also rather immature, on which the sculptured features were almost un- 
i ecognizable, Figured here (pi. 1, fig. 7) is the bypotype described above, of 
the same size and approximate dimensions as Tares holotype of T. coronatn 
s. sir. Figured also (pi. 1, fig. 6) is a younger specimen showing the features 
on which the Adehude shell was separated specifically by Finlay aud later by 
Cotton. The adult specimen is less conspicuously sulcate than caronuiu s. sh\ 
and the later spire whorls are less angulate and nodulose, but the early spire 
whorb are the same in both species and there is no difference til the body whorl: 
the growth lines and outer lip are not, as stated by Fiulay, "far more sigmoid"- 
Tbe measurements of the adult shell aie so nearly like those of the holotype that 
one cam>ot aecur:ifely describe it as "more squat". 

M&tcrial — Nine specimens. Hindmarsh Bore; for comparison, \) topotypes 
of toronata s. str., Muddy Creek, Victoria; 4 specimens:, Gippslanrl, Vicuna; 
RiM, Collection. 

Situ! {graphical Hange (of species) — Kalunnan-Dry Creek Sands 

Geographical Distribution — Gippsland : Vic-Adelaide. South Australia 


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Zvtn.r., K. A., 1881-85. Handbueh der Palsontolo^ie, 


Fi& 1.- TheHclum (Ctuivumccrithium) torti (late), Hvpotvpe, juvenile, F1517o, xl*3. 
Fig. 0.,-Thtmcium (Chnvanicerithium) tarri (Tate), llyporypc, FJ3I7G, Aballoirs Bore, 

x 1*3. 
Fig. X—L hvricium ( Chavtmieettthhim ) udelaideiisis ( Howcbin <* Cotton ) . Hypotype, 

Ilindmansk Bore, 450-485 feet, F 55178, xl-3. 

Fig* 4.— Diaxtoma provhi Tate. Holotype, Dry Creek Bore, T 1541, x£. 

Fig. 5.—Theri<:uim (Thericium) Influx ( Ludbrook ), Hvpotvi^e., Bore Hundred of MtifhAO 

Pm'a See. 4251, 2S&356 feet, a-3. 
fig, b.—'l'ijlnspua enmnafrf mariiicki Fiulay. Hypotvpe. immature specimen, Hindmarsh 

Bore,. 450-185 feet, s 2/3. 
Fig, 7—Tylo$pira voronata mamwki Finlay. Hypotype, Hindmarsh Bore, 450-485 feet, \2/3. 


Fig. 1 .—TwrUcUa {Cotpospira) platanpiroidex sp. now Holotypo, Abattoirs Bore, x3. 
Fig, l.—Tunitclla {Culpuspiru) platysptroides sp. nov. Paratype, Abattoirs Bore, x 3. 
Fig. 3—VahuiUia spectahilix sp. nov. Holotype, Hindmarsh Bore, x 10. 
Fig. 4.— ArrhilecUmicu uannonctms . T, Woods*). Hvpotvpe. Wevruouth's Bore, apieal view, 


Fig, 5.— Literal view, x7. 

Fig. G-Ataxocerithium bidrntiaidatum sp. uuv. Holotvpe, Weymouth's Bore, x 4l protoconch, 

v 12. 
pSfc 7 ,—Ataxncrrithiwn bithntlcidatum- Sp. nov. Paratypc a. k 4; protoconch o[ paratypc b, 

$ 12. 
Ff<r. 8—ftUtium (Semihltthim) subgranarium sp. nov. Holotype., Hindmarsh Bore, x 10. 
Ej& 9.— Setniverifttiufi eupiUalus Tate. Hypotype, Hindmarih Bore, .\3, 
Fig. lO.-Uypottochux Momiplii-.atu.'i sp. nov. Holotype. Weymouth's Bore, x 5. 
Fig. IL-CentfutnV (Coxelltiria) trigv-mmrrta Chapman & Crespin. Hypotype, Brown Coal 

Shaft, Alton;'. Victoria, x G. 
Fig. 12 — Cerithlelh (Voxelfaria) supi-r-spiralis sp. nov. Holotype, Abattoirs Bore, x5. 
Fig. 13 — SeSfl (NntowiUi) liiplanicincta sp. nov. Holotype, Abattoirs Bore, x3-3. 
Fig. 14.-Se./ti (Sotoseilu) triplaincincta sp. nov. Paratypc, Hindmarsh Bore, x 5 t 
Fig. 15.— Triphoru (Isotriphma) Salisbury ens is sp. nnv- Holotype, Weymouth's Bore, x 

a. Protoconch of paratype. v 4t>. s 

Fisr. 1G .-Triphoru {Nutosmittcr) prafgranifem sp, nov. Holotype, "Weymouth s Bore, v 10. 

a. Protoconch x 20. 


Fig. 1— Amum (Amaea) triplicate (Tate), Hypotype, Hindmarsh Bore. x3. 

Fig. 2. Lxioxtraca (Leiostraca) acutixsunu Sovverby. Hindmarsh Bore f x4. 

Fig. 3.-Aw'.vc» rtstfo; T. Woods. Hypotype, WevTiiouih's Bore, x 4. 

[fjg. 4.— Synwiu I'mitu Angas. Hypotype, Weymouth's Bore, x6. 

Ktg. 5.— -SyrrmZ*. {Agatha) praeiasewta sp, nov. Holotype, Weymouth's Bote, x6. 

Fitf. b.— S//ruoM (Agatha) pmesiana (Tate). Hypotype, Weymouth's Bore, x6. 

pjg, 7_,Syt7ie-n/ (Agatha) infrastdcutd (Tate). Hypotype, Weymouth's Bore, x 4 

Fig. S.— Syntohi (Vuposymola) tawnanica T. Woods. Hypotype,, Muddy Creek, x 10. 

Fi£, S.Syrnola {Evely'tu-Ua) adehvdenxis sp. nov. Holotype, Hindmarsb Bore, x7. 

Fig. lO.-Tttrbortitta (TurhnuHa) mariae'i. Woods. Hypotype, .Hindmarsh Bore, x 10. 

Fi<j- 1 L— Tarhohilla {Chemniizia) mapyrinzac sp. nov, Holotype, WcyrmmtlVs Bore, xJJ. 

Fig. VZ—TurbnniUa iChemnUzia) tvurwn&ac sp. nov. Holotype, Hindmarsh Bon-, x 7. 

Fig- llj-Turbutiilla (Chemnitzia} adeiahlnnavi sp. nov. Holotype, Weymouth's Bore, x 5. 

Protoconch, x 15. 
Fi£, \4.— Turb<millu (Chemnitdn) tcidninsac- sp. nov. Farstypc, x 6. 
Fi|r. i5.-Turbomttu {CJninnilzia) widninwe sp. nov. Holotype, Hindmarsh Bore, x 6. 
Fig, 16.— Turbordlla {Cdiewmtzia) curwngac sp. nov. Holotype Hindmarsh Bore, x 2. 

Protoeoneh, x 20. 

Fig. 1.- Hippomx {Snhia) f'wrlloW (Schumacher). ITolotypi , Recent. xl 5. British 

Mnsenm photo. 
Fig. 2. .... x 1 5, British Museum photo. 

Fi£. 3.— Wpprniix (Sabia) coj\irus (Schumacher). Hypotype, Hindmarsh Bore, xl 
l*j£ 1.-. . . . x b 

FiR S.-Capulus circmnlus Tate, Ilypotyrpe, Aljaltoirs Bore, x4. 
Fig. 0.—. . - > x4. 

Fig- 7.- Ctiluptraea I Sigaputdhi) crrma Tate. Hypotype, Hindmarsh Bnrc, x 3. 
^i<4. 8.-. , . . x3. 
l-i"g. l 3.—Crepkhda (Zearnj)>ta) imttttrm Aiigas. Hy-pntypc, cimvex variety, liindmar<n 

Boro t x 1. 
Fig. 10— Crcpiduh (7,?aertjpta) imrtwrm An£as. Hypotype, Mat, curved variety, Hindmaish 

Bore, x 1. 

Fin. u.-. . . ; xi. i . .. . 

Fig. 12.— Lrcpidafa dubitabUh' Tate. Hypotype, Abattoirs Bore, x 1 v>. 

Fi$, ]3.^C.repidula {Zeacrypta) hairmcoithi Johnston. Hypotype, Abattoirs Bore, xl 3. 

Fig. 14.-. ... v 1-3. 


N. H. Lucbeook 

Plate 1 


>f vti: 9 

Pi .ATI 





Plate 4 











byB. G. Forbes 


Between Grey Spur and Port Elliot, South Australia, is a faulted and folded sedimentary sequence 
with a possible stratigraphic thickness of 29,000 feet. The succession overlies an Archaean inlier 
along an unconformity partly obscured by dynamic metamorphism. 

In the main area investigated the succession dips steeply in a direction about 130 degrees east of 
north. Four subdivisions are distinguished. The oldest subdivision most resembles the Adelaide 
System. It is in part folded and appears to be separated from overlying slate and metamorphosed 
subgreywacke by a structural break. Conformably overlying the subgreywacke is a thick sequence, 
chiefly meta-arkose. The youngest subdivision is composed of metagreywacke and slate and may be 
correlated lithologically with the Kanmantoo Group. 


by B, G. Fohbes • 
[Read 10 May, 1956] 


Between Grey Spur and Port Elliot, South Australia, is a faulted and folded sedimentary 
sequence with a possible strati graphic thickness of 20,000 feet. The succession overlies ail 
Archaean inlier along an unconformity partly obscured by dynamic tnetamorphisin. 

In the main area investigated the succession dips steeply in a direction about 130 
degrees east of north. Four subdivisions arc distinguished. The oldest subdivision most 
resembles the Adelaide System. It is in part folded and appears to be separated from over- 
lying slate and metamorphosed subgreywacke by a structural break. Conformably overlying 
die subgre^vaeko is a thick sequence, ehieHy rneta-arkose. The youngest subdivision is 
composed of metagreywacke and slatr. and may be correlated lUhologieally with thr. Kan- 
mantoo Croup. 


Rocks of Protcrozoic age in South Australia have been extensively inves- 
tigated on the western scarp of the Mount Lofty Ranges and in the Flinders 
Ranges. Knowledge of the sedimentary succession to the east of the Archaean 
inlicrs is not as advanced; this paper is presented as a contribution to that 

The area investigated occurs mainly on the Milang Sheet and partly on 
the Encounter Ray and Yankah'lla Sheets (1:63.360 military survey). Spring 
Mount, the centre of field operations, is about 3S miles almost due south of 
Adelaide. The area extends from a little west of Spring Mount to about two 
miles north-west of Port Elliot. 

The region has been investigated previously by a number of workers, 
including Howehin, King, Guppy, Sir Douglas Mawson and more recently by 
Campana and Wilson. Campana and Wilson's paper of 1955 may well be 
referred to for an account of regional topography, including glacial phenomena. 

Field and laboratory study was marie in 1952 during the tenure of a 
Junior Research Scholarship at the University of Adelaide. I am indebted 
to Sir Douglas Mawson for suggesting the problem and for help during the 
year's work. 

Acknowledgment is due also to senior students and members of the 
Geology Department staff for assistance and advice. 


Structural geology of Fleurieu Peninsula may be found ,very broadly 
summarized hi Campana's paper on the Mt Lofty-Olary Are (Campana, 1955; 
in particular Plate 2, section 2-2). 

The area described here extends eastward from the eastern margin of 
the Myponga Archaean inlier. This inlier is broadly anticlinal and overturned 
to the west. Successively further east of the inlier are the following groups 
of rocks: 

Grey Spur beds (Proterozoic), 

Strangway Hill beds, 

Inman Hill formation, 

Brown Hill beds. 

° Department of Geology, University of Adelaide 

There is a structural break between the Grey Spur beds and the succeeding 
three groups, which arc conformable. 

The groups in their structural aspects are discussed in order below: see 
also the map and Figure 1. 

M ' 1 


Fig. 1 -Sketch section AA. Abbreviations are as follows: A, Archnenm GSB, Grey 
Spur beds; SHB.. Str;ui^way Hill beds. 

Archaean — Photf.kozoic Boundary 

Both the western (near Myponga Ilill) and eastern margins of the 
Archaean inlicr are zones of differential movement. This is inferred from the 
fact that both the marginal conglomerate and the Archaean gneiss have been 
dynamically metamorphosed to produce augen gneisses and schists of similar 
appearanee (mctamorphie convergence). 

Outcrops near Myponga Hill are poor in the zone of movement but the 
sequence of (1) unmodified Proterozoie slates and quartzites, (2) augen gneiss 
(modified conglomerate) and schists, (3) unmodified Archaean pegmatite, 
gneiss and calc-silicate hornfels may be traced. The slates dip beneath the 
Archaean gneisses approximately parallel to the sehistosity conferred by the 
movement' The sehistosity has the attitude; strike 50 degrees east of north, 

dip 50 degrees south. . 

Grey Spur provides the best exposures ot the eastern margin. Jn the 
upper coarse arkose phase, of the conglomerate, quartz and feldspar phenoclasts 
are extended most in the bedding-plane parallel to the dip-trace. The intensity 
of dynamic metamorphism, as indicated by elongation of cobbles within the 
conglomerate, increases as the Archaean contact is neared. The pink granitic 
gneiss (A57.57) occurs about forty feet from recognizable strongly sheared 
conglomerate in which some cobbles have dimensions I&x20 inches, 1x15 
inches, Between "stretched" conglomerate and Archaean gneiss is a sencitic 
gritty schist. 

Grey Spun Bjois, Strangwav Hill Bfos, Inman Htix Foumation 
A central member of the Grey Spur beds has been tightly folded and 
from a first glance at the accompanying map it would appear that the whole 
succession is a synchne pitching at a shallow angle to the north. If this is 
so there must exist between the. Grey Spur beds and the Ionian Ilill formation a 
major break, since the lop of the Strangway- Inman Hill succession lies to the 

An alternative and not so spectacular interpretation is that the tightly 
folded quartzite marks the anticlinal portion of a large drag-fold pitching south- 
west paralleled by a synclinal axis a short distance west. Reasons for this are: — 
( 1 ) There is no symmetry about the axis of folding; 

(2) About one mile north-north-east of Spring Mount the Grey Spur beds 
appear to be younger to the east, as indicated by crass-bedding; 

(3) A small (drag?) fold about half a mile north-west of Spring Mount 
simulates this mode of folding, 

There is a disturbed zone in the Grey Spur beds about one mile south- 
w*M of Spring Mount but paucity of outcrops renders interpretation difficult. 
The thin Hexed quartzite and the elongate hill of quartzitc may be a reflection 
of tin- folding revealed more clearly further south-west in 'the Inman Hill 

Bjiown Hill Beds 

Within the metagreywacke-slate succession there is a marked cleavage 
treuding about 45 degrees east of north and dipping at a steep angle. The 
average strike and dip of bedding planes, which are rarely seen in a single 
outcrop, are 35 degrees east of north and 70 degrees cast, respectively. 

Undoubted anticlinal folding occurs west of Rrowu Hill with pitch (aboul 
30 degrees?) to the north-west. 

Archaean Complex 
Gneisses and schists of Archaean age occur west of the marginal con- 
glomerate and have been investigated for a short distance from the con- 
glomerate. The common rock types are gneisses of a granitic character inter- 
spersed with simple nueroclme-quartz pegmatites and in one locality, a cak- 
siheate hornfels. Where the mineral association is diagnostic, the albite- 
epidote-amphibohte fades of metamorphism is indicated Superimposed on 
this in some rocks is a more recent retrograde metamorphism of the bioHte- 
ehlorite sub-fadesu 

Gkey Spot Beds 

Although alternating quartzite and schist characterize this succession, con- 
glomerate and arkose are included. The western and stratigraphically lower 
boundary is marked by the junction of Archaean gneisses and schists with a 
marginal conglomerate. The conglomerate is best known at Grey Spur, from 
where it stretches north-east widi few breaks to Edinburgh Swamp. The' thick- 
ness of individual units and that of the whole succession increases gradually 
toward the north. The formation more than doubles its thickness for the three 
miles mapped along the strike. In the centre of the part mapped the beds have 
a total outcrop width of about one mile, with a possible stratigrapbic thickness 
in the neighbourhood of 3,000 feet, 

The marginal conglomerate outcrops well only in a tew places along its 
strike The best locality for examination is on the north-east side of Grey 
Spur. However, it may be followed readily even where there is no outcrop, 
ht-canse of the distinctive rounded cobbles lying on the surface. 

The upper part of the bed is an arkose (A57.56) and £s probably rep- 
resentative of the congloxncrate matrix as a whole. Feldspar constitutes 30 p.c. 
and occurs mainly with quurtz-hornfcls as pbenuelasts. Both microclinc and 
acid are present. The matrix is rcciystajlized quartz with chlorite, 
striate, and accessory iron ore, tourmaline, zircon and apatite. The arkose 
exhibits cross-bedding, indicating that the top is to the south-cast. 

Schists with some slates comprise nearly two-thirds of the Grey Spur 
Wfc They are commonly finegrained grey rocks. The sehistosity planes 
sparkle with mica, which is mainly biotite. Besides quartz the schists contain 
a little feldspar and sericite with accessory tourmaline. Biotite shows a maiked 
preferred orientation. 


These beds arc poorly outcropping. 

^car Grey Spur is a series of alternating bands of oicra-arkose, schist and 
fme-grajned metagreywacke, arkose being predominant, The meta-arkosc is 
massive or banded and cross-bedded, or" Q pale grey to white colour, It is a 
compact hard recrystalhzed fine-grained rock composed of quartz, about thirty 
p.c. feldspar and a little accessory seneite, tourmaline, pyritc and apatite. Asso- 
ciated metagreywaeke is finer grained, richer in biotite and of a dark grey colour. 

About liali the quartzites typifying the formation are orthoquartzite.s (to use 
PeCtijolm's 1949 terminology), the remainder being bMspatlvic quartzites. They 
arc all compact, light-coloured recrystallized rocks, the feldspar content ranging 
from almost nil to about ten p.c. Grain-size is chiefly fine, but individual 
rounded grains of quartz and feldspar may reach a diameter of 1 mm. Tour- 
maline, zircon, and pyrite are occasional accessories. In the quartzites possess- 
ing a "fused" appearance reerystallization has been more intense. The quartzites, 
including the fused variety/ show occasional cross-bedding., though generally 
not clearly enough to establish (he facing of the beds. 

Oil© calcareous horizon was observed, and that in only one place — Inn 
bottom of a narrow deep valley about one mile north-<-ast nf Grey Spur. Here 
a siliceous marble grades upward into quartzite, 

Sou noway Htm. Bkds 

The southernmost extension of this formation is composed of about 1,2110 
tVvt of blue-grey slate overlain by 2,800 feet of metamorphosed subgrcywacke, 
some schist and rare beds richer \n quartz. The upper limit is marked by 
alternating meta-arkose and metagreywaeke passing conformably upward into 
the Inman Hill formation. This boundary may be mapped and its approximate 
position appears on the accompanying plan. The lower limit, save in the south, 
is poorlv exposed. 

The poorly outcropping equivalents of these beds, forming part ot hV range 
to the south of the Upper Hindmarsh Valley, are subgreywacke and spotted 
schists with interbedded quartzite. 

The rot 'k termed metamorphosed subgreywacke is a grcy> fine-grained 
slightly schistose quartz-biotite rock of subgreywacke composition. The average 
grain diameter of 0-09 mm. is on the border of sand and silt. The massive 
outcrops possess a smooth, dark-grey surface. Variations due to change in 
gram-size or proportions of constituents give rise to interbedded quartzite. 
schists and spotted schists. 

Interbedded quartzite is more prominent to the north, possibly indicating 
a slight change in fades. 

Jntvtan Htll Fokmation 

Meta-arkosc predominates in this formation, but minor thicknesses of 
metagreywaeke also occur within it. The outcrop width is just over three miles. 
The formation extends from the River Inman south west of toman Hill !o a line 
bearing about 30 degrees just cast of Peeralilla Hill. Further cast the chamo- 
teristic rock-type is mtftngroywackc. 

[u view of a variation in dip from 25 degrees to vertical the calculated 
thickness is only approximate. The thickness of the formation based on an 
average dip of 50 degrees is 14,300 feet 

The is similar maeroscopically to the average* quartzite. The 
massive variety is u hard, compact light grey to light brown ruck. When 
streaked with thin biotite-rieh bands the composition js still that ot an arkose 
but mav grade into greywacke by an increase in the proportion of micas. 

In "thin section these rocks arc seen to be largely recrvstalli/.ed, perhaps 
with the exception of feldspar and some aci*»ssory minerals. Average grain 


diameter varies from about 0,13 to 0.28 mm. The measured feldspar content, 
acid plagioclase and mierocline, ranges from 33 to 50 per cent, by volume. 
Biotite and sericite show a preferred orientation. Accessories are the common 
iron ore, apatite, zircon and tourmaline. The composition of meta-arkose and 
other rocks is plotted in Figure 2. 


MICAS < *-> * X * * FELDSPAR 

Fig. 2.— Composition of representative meta-scdimentary rocks, in terms (if volume- 
percentage of tliree major constituents (measurement by microscope, using integra- 
tion stage). Numbers represent specimens as follows; 1,2— quartzite of Grey Spur 
beds; 3— nieta-arlvose of Grey Spur beds; ji— metasubgreywacke of Strangway Hill 
beds; 5, 6. 7— ineta-arkosc of Ionian Hill formation; 8, 9— metagreywacke of Inumn 
Hill formation; 10— rnetagrevwacke of Brown Hill beds. (Subdivision of diagram 

after Pettijohn, 1949, p. 227.) 

Bander] arkoses exhibit a variety of sedimentary structures. The most useful 
is cross-bedding, all observations on which indicate that the top of the formation 
is to the east. These observations are in my opinion sufficiently widespread 
to indicate thai there is little, if any, repetition by folding within the formation. 
It is possible, however, that there has been repetition by strike faulting. Slumps 
arc another common structure. Overturnecl slump folds generally have an 
amplitude of six to twelve inches, but in one instance more than five feet was 
measured. The slumping has mostly taken place on surfaces sloping down to 
the south. Truncated slump structures are present and serve to confirm the 
conclusions from cross-bedding. Small scale pene-contemporaneous faulting 
also occurs within the formation. 

Brown Hill Beds 

Conformably overlying the Inman Hill formation arc beds, predominantly 
metagreywacke, of about 7,000 feet thickness, overlain in turn by slates. 

The metagreywackes vary from light to dark grey and possess a strongly 
developed schistosity, Granularity also varies, but is chiefly fine. Microscopically 
the metagreywacke A57-83 is made up of lens-shaped grains of quartz with 
longer axes parallel Interstitial to quartz and feldspar are micas with a 
parallel orientation. Accessary minerals are epidote, zircon, tourmaline, apatite 
and iron ore. 






— T — 

o a (a 
o n 


Z w 



Both ihe mterhedded and overlying slates aire chiefly dark-coloured, 
Tlie upper boundary of the xnetagreywacke beds has been indicated only 
tentatively on the map. 


The rock-types described represent three phases of sedimentation: 

1) Stable shelf; 

2) Sharp uplift with corresponding slow subsidence of the basin of 

(3) Sharp uplift with corresponding rapid subsidence, 

Evidence of condition (1) is supplied by tho Grey Spur beds. The cobble 
component of the marginal conglomerate is oligomictic in character, while the 
arkose component is presumably a M basal" arkosc. The formation represents 
marine transgression over the stable continental shelf accompanied by slight 
fluctuations in level. The source area, in view of the well-sorted nature 
of the deposits, possessed probably a mature or senile topography. This 
sequence is the one which most resembles the Adelaide system. 

The Strangway Hill beds possibly represent conditions transitional between 

The Imnan Hill formation is considered to be tectonic arkosc, reflecting 
rapid uplift of a neighbouring granitic area. The frequent cross-bedding 
encountered in this formation suggests shallow-water accumulation, hence a 
slowly subsiding area of deposition is postulated. 

The post-arkose interbedded greywackes and slates represent original 
muddy sandstones and dark muds deposited rapidly below wave-base. They 
therefore suggest gcosynclinal or unstable shelf conditions (3), 

The shape of the area investigated allows very little enquiry into facies 
change. Such time markers as tillite or fossils are not present hi the sequence, 
hence an age cannot be assigned. 

The Brown Hill beds may be correlated lithologieally with the Kaninantoo 
Croup (Sprigg and Campana, 1953). The position of the Imnan Hill formation 
is less clear. It is perhaps a local variant within the Kanmantoo Group, 
Between the Grey Spur beds, lithologieally similar to the Adelaide System, 
and the Strangway Hill beds, there \» a disturbed zone where outcrops are 
poor. This zone may Avell represent the faulting-out of part of the succession. 


Three occurrences of altered dolerite are indicated on the map. The 
dolerites are all uralitized and considerably altered, but show nphitie texture 
under the microscope, 


*ilie post-Archaean rocks are low grade metamorphic. the sub-facie* of 
metaniorphism being the biotite chlorite subfacics of the green-schist facies. 

ilie general metamorphism is dynamo-thermal widi, in some localities, a 
marked stress factor. Within the Strangway ITill beds certain spotted schists 

(A57 -66) may represent deficient stress. 


Campana, 11., 1955. The structure of the eastern South AusLrali.ui the. Mt I.olrv- 

Olary arc, J. Geol. Soc, Aust., 2, pp. 47-62. 
Campana, B., and Wilson*. R. B., 1055. Tillites and related glacial topography of Saudi 

Australia. Eelngae ceol Heh% 48. pp. 1-30. 
Guppy, D. J.» 1944. Thesis for Honours Decree B.St\, University of Adelaide*. 


Howchin, W., 1906. The geology of the Mt. Lofty Ranges, Part II. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. 

Aust, 30, pp. 227-262. 
King, D. s 1947. Thesis for Honours Degrees E.Sc, University of Adelaide. 
Pettijohn, F. J., 1949. Sedimentary rocks. Harper & Brothers, New York, 
Spricg, R. G, and Campana, B., 1953. The age and facies of the Kanmantoo Group. Aust. 

J. Sci., 16, pp. 12-14. 



byH. Womersley 


Three new species of mites belonging to two new genera of the family Laelaptidae and to the genus 

Neomyobia of the Myobiidae are described. The genus Notolaelaps with type nova guinea sp. nov. 

is erected for a species parasitic on a small fruit-eating bat Syconycteris crassa papuana Matschie 

1899, from the Jimmi Valley, Western Highlands of New Guinea. 

Plesiolaelaps gen. nov. is proposed for the type miniopterus sp. nov. from bats Miniopterns 

schreibersi (Natterer, 1819) and Nyctophilus geoffreyi Leach, 1821; the first from Joanna, S. Aust., 

10th Dec, 1932, and the second host from Sutherlands, S. Aust., 23 rd August, 1955. 

Neomyobia luzonensis sp. nov. is described from many specimens of both sexes as well as nymphs, 

from a bat from Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 25th March, 1945. 


Text Fig. .1-3. 

[Read 14 June 1956] 


Tlirce new species of mites belonging to two new genera of the* family Laelapudae aud 
to the genus 'Neamyohia of the Myobiidae are described. The genus Notolaelaps with type 
nova guinea sp. nov. is erected for a species parasitic on a small fruit-eating hat Sifconycteri^ 
crassu pupuana Mutschie 1899. from the Jimmi Valley, Western Highlands of New Guinea. 

Ple&iolaelaps gen. nov. is proposed for the type miniopterus sp. nov. from bats Miniop- 
tertip schreibersi (Natterer, 1819; and Nyctophilus geoffreiji Leach, 1821; the first from 
Joanna, S. Aust., 10th Dec, 1932, and the second host from Sutherlands, S. Aust., 23rd 
August, 1Q55. 

Neomyohia luzonensis sp. dov. is described from many specimens of both sexes us well 
as nymphs, from a bat from Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 25th March, 1945- 

Subfamily Laelaptinae Berlese, 1892 
Genus Notolaelaps nov. 
Allied to Neolaeiaps Hirst in having only 3 pairs of genito-ventral setae in 
the female, but differs in the more oval shape, in lacking the stout spines on the 
maxillary coxae and on coxae I, the internal posterior of the latter being repre- 
sented only by a boss, and in the less expanded gciuto-vetrtral shield which is 
not so widely separated from the anal shield and on which the 3 pairs of setae 
are all marginal 

Type Notolaelaps nova-guinea sp. nov. 

Notolaelaps nova guinea sp. nov. 
Fig. 1 A-C 

Female Holokype. — Shape broadly oval. Length of idiosoma 520//.. Dorsal 
shield entire, not completely covering dorsum but separated marginally by a 
fairly wide band of cuticle; dorsal setae simple, to 40/i long. Ventrally; pre- 
endopodal and jugular shields wanting; sternal shield small, about as wide as 
long, slightly narrower posteriorly, with 3 pairs of setae and two pairs of pores; 
metasternal sluelds only represented by the setae; gemto-ventral shield flask- 
like with 3 pairs of marginal setae and not very* widely separated from anal shield; 
anal shield shortly pear-shaped with the usual 3 setae; between the anal and 
genito-ventral shields with only one pair of setae and on each side eleven setae; 
a pair of shortly elongate metapodal shields. Legs slender but not very long, 
I 325/i, II 260/j, 111 260/i, IV 390/u.; no strong spines on maxillary coxae, a 
pronounced boss and a slender seta on coxae I, an anterior strong spine and a 
slender seta on coxae TT and III and one seta on coxae IV; tarsi all with short 
caruncle and paired claws. Perilreme fairly thick with stigmata between coxae 
III and IV. Chelicerae simple without distinct teeth. 

Locality and Host. — Described from the holorype and one paratype female 
from a small fruit-eating bat, Syconycteris crassa papuana Matschie, 1899, from 
the jimmi Valley, Western Highlands of New Guinea, 1955 (coll. J. S. 

* South Australian Museum. 


Remarks. — The types of this species are in the South Australian Museum. 
Fur the identification' of the host I am indebted to Mr. Ellis Troughton of the 
Australian Museum, Sydney. 

fati L A-C-iV atolaetaps iwwgttinea g. et (jpi uov. Female. A, dorsum; B s vonler; C 


Genus Plesiolaelaps nov- 
Tn adults dorsal shield entire and completely covering dorsum. Labial 
cornicles slender. Female without pre-endopodal or jugular shields; sternal 
shield wider than long with 3 pairs of setae; mctastcrnal shield only represented 
by seta and pore; gcnito-ventral shield drop-shaped with 5 setae; anal shield 
rounded; chelicerae without teeth, fixed finger hyaline and thumb-like, movable 
finger slender and slightly hooked; no specialised armature on coxae or legs. 
In male with all ventral shields coalesced, moderately expanded behind coxae 
TV; chelicerae with fixed finger as in female, movable finger hoot-like, wilh a 
long similarly hook-like spermatophore carrier; legs as in female. 

Type Fletiohehps nnniopterm sp. nov, 

Plesiolaelaps miniopterus sp. nov. 
Fig. 2 A-l 

Female Holotype (as mounted in P.V.A.), — Shape oval with slightly flat- 
tened sides. Colour light yellowish. Length of idosoma 364^., width 240/a. 
Dorsal shield entire, covering the whole dorsum, with light transverse markings 
and short, 2dfi to 32^ long spiniform seiae. Venter; as figured, no pre-endopodal 
or jugular shields; tritosternum lightly chitmised with paired laciuia; sternal 
shield wider than long, with 3 pairs of slender spiniform setae to 39/* long and 

2 pairs of pores; metasternal shields absent, only represented by seta and pore; 
genito-ventral shield flask- or drop-shaped, rounded apically, with 5 setae (two 
pairs and a single seta at posterior end), widely separated from anal shield 
with ea. 3 pairs of setae between these shields; anal shield as figured with 3 

Fig. 2, A-I. —Pleslolaelaps tniniopterus g. and sp. nov. A-D Female; A, venter; B, dorsum; C, 
chelicerae; D, dorsal seta. E-G Male: E, venter; F, chelicerae; C, labial cornicles. H-J Pro- 

tnnymph: H, dorsum; I, venter. 

setae of which the post-anal is the longest; no metapodal shields could be seen 
in this sex. Mouth parts small, gnatnosoma ventrally with 4 pairs of setae; 
labial cornicles slender as figured; fixed finger of chelicerae a hyaline thumb-like 
lobe, movable finger rather slender without teeth. Legs I and II stouter than 
III and IV, I 227^ long, II 26(V III 227,*, IV 286/x, without specialised setae 


or armature, all tarsi with caruncle and paired claws. Pciitrcmc narrow, extend- 
ing to co.xae I. 

Male Allotype. — Shape as in female, but in mounted specimen slightly larger. 
Length of idiosoma 422^ width 280/t. Legs; I 273,,. long, II 234/*, III 
247^, IV 292ju, leg II is the stoutest hut has no special armature. Dorsal shield 
as in female, but the setae arc rather shorter to 20/a long. Ventrally, all the 
shields are coalesced, the genilo-venlral portion of tho holovcntral shield is 
widest just behind coxae IV; a small lightly sclerotised metapodal shield lies 
posterior of coxae IV; the seiue on the sterno-genital portion of the holoventral 
shield are 26,i long, while the others on the vcntri-aual portion, as *u*e those on 
the cuticle, are ca, 2<V long, evcept for a posterior fringe of 7 pairs of long 
slender setae lo 100,* long. Chcliccrae as figured, movable finger a strongly 
chitinised hook with a longer hut similarly booked spcrmatuphorc carrier, fixed 
finger a byaline blunt thumb-like lobe as in female, 

Protonymph. — Shape as in female, but weakly chitiniscd. Idiosoma 370**. 
long, 240/* wide. Dorsum with divided shield, anterior part 16'2/t long by 143*x 
wide, reaching posteriorly to level between coxae III and IV> its posterior margin 
widely truncate, posterior part 4Sf* long and 97/x wide, separated from anterior 
by about 4 times its own length; dorsal setae 26/i long, except the posterior pair, 
which are 39u. Sternal shield as figured, }23» long by I1<V wide, extending to 
nearly the middle of coxae IV; leg I 272u long, II 25.V, III 23V. IV 286,*. Peri- 
treme very short, 39^ long, and not reaching beyond enxae IV, 

Locality and Hosts. — Described from the holotype ? and allotype A and 
para type of each sex from a bat Mimoptems sckreibersi (Natter^r, JJ9I9), from 
Joanna, S. Aust, KHti Dec. t 1932 (coll. J. Hood). Other specimens from a bat 
Nyctophilia gnnffreifi Leach, 1821, from Sutherlands, S. Aust, 23rd Aug., 1955 
(coll. E. F. Boehm/. 

Rtnnarks. — All the specimens are in the South Australian Museum. 

This genus differs from all the others in the Laelaptinae in that the female 
geiuto-venlral shield has 5 setae arranged in 2 pairs and a single posterior one. 
It is perhaps nearest to Radfordiluclaps Zuinpt. 1950, which has 3 genito-vcutral 
setae and a strong knife-like seta on coxae I (not present in Flesiolaekips). 

Family MVOBIIDAE Mcgnin, 1S77 

Cenus *\Vo\rYoniA Kadford, 19tS 

Ncomyohia Iuzonert&is sp. now 

Ftg. .3 A-J 

female Holotifpe, — Elongate specJe-s. Length of idiosoma 520^, width 
290/., Dnrsnm; lateral and siihmcdian setae moderately exijanded and longitu- 
dinally striated, acuminate, without barbs; lengths, laterals 1 07/1, II 102/t, III 195/*, 
subuiediao I 6>V, 11 B7a *** 6 *V. Venter: as* in Fig. B, with (he inner members 
of each row of setae slender and much longer than the outer members: there 
are two other pairs of setae near the caudal margin of which (he outer members 
are long and slender; caudal pairs of setae SGQ/i long. Legs: 1 78/1 long, TT ]30/>, 
III 162/t, IV 175/x; 1 with 4 segments. termiTud one with 2 minute claws, other- 
wise as in genus (Figs. CI, D), II-JV with paired claws, one thinner and slightly 
shorter Lhan the other {Fig. A, E). 

xXlale Allotype, — Length of idiosoma 890/a, width 2(H)//. Dorsum: lateral 
and submedian' setae as in female, but the third submedians only slightly 
behind the second and nearer to each other; lengths of Intends T 97/*, TI J62/*, 
III Jf>2,*; of submedians. I 84/*, II 63>^ ITI t@8#* Venter: as in Fig. 6 with all 
the setae short and inconspicuous, between coxae IV with a pair of stout thick 
.spines, 5S,l, long, arising from large bosses (in another specimen the right hand 
spine is duplicated), canrlal setae 3(fy. long. Tenis slender, reaching lo coxad 
TIT and apieally recurved. Legs: I 78/* long, II 162^ 111 195/t, IV 182/*; leg I 

as in female; II as in female with subequal paired claws; III (Fig. H) with only 
one longer and stronger claw and with two stout spurs on tibia; IV with paired 
unequal claws. 

r 7 \ SH 



Fig. 3,—Neomyobia luzonemte sp. nov. A-E Female: A, dorsal; B, venter; C, leg I dorsal; 
D, leg I ventral; E, claws of ieg II, F-H Male: F, dorsal; G, venter; H, leg III. I-J Nymph; 

I, dorsum; J, leg I ventral. 

Nymph Morpliotype. — Length of idiosoma 540/t, width 225/*. Dorsum as 
in Fig. I; lateral and suhmedial setae only slightly expanded basally; length of 
laterals, I 32/x, II 32/x, III 65 M ; of submedian I 65/*, II 32/*, III 30/*; of caudals 
130/t. Legs: I 70 p long, II 84^ III 91 /Al IV 97/*; leg I as in Fig. J apparently 
widiout terminal claws; II with paired tarsal claws, III and IV with only a 
single tarsal claw. 


Locality and Host. — The types and many paratypes from a bat, No. 21a, 
from Manila, Luzon, 28th March, 1945 (coll. C, B. Philip), 

Remarks. — All specimens in S. Aust. Museum. Paratypes later to be dis- 
tributed to other centres. 

In the pair of pronounced stout spines between coxae IV on the venter of 
the male this species is related to Neomyobia poppei (Trouessart, 1895), the 
type host and locality for which are Pipistrettus nathusiL Keys and Blasius, and 
Marseilles, France. In the male it also differs from poppei in that tarsi II and 
IV have paired claws; according to Radford (Bull. Mus. d'Hist Nat. Paris (2), 
24 (4): 379) poppei has but a single claw on tarsi II, III and IV. The tibia 
of leg III of the male also differs from poppei in the presence of the two strong 
spurs. In the female, luzonensis differs little from Radford's figure of poppei 
except in the lesser expansions of the lateral and submedian dorsal setae. 




byH. Womersley 


A new species of Tuckerella Womersley 1940 belonging to the recently erected family 
Tuckerellidae (Baker & Pritchard, 1953) is described from Phyllota litter from Keith, S.A. A 
revised key to the three known species is given. 


by FL Womersley* 

[Read 14 June 1956] 


A new species of Tncherelln Womersley 1940 belonging to the recently erected fumily 
Tuckerelliduc (Baker & Pritermrd, 1953) is described from Thyllota litter from Keith, S.A. A 
revised key to the three known species is given, 

Baker & Pritchard (Ann. Ent. Soe. Amer., 1953, 16; 243-258) have recently 
removed the genus Tuckerella Womersley 1910 from the Tetranychidae and 
erected the new familv Tuekerellidae to include the two species pavoniformis 
(Ewing, 1922) and omata (Tucker, 1926). 

Jn 1940 Womersley recorded pavoniformis wrongly under the name of 
omata Tucker, as pointed out by Baker & Pritchard. The genus Tuckerella, how- 
ever, was based essentially on Tucker*s description and figures, and his species 
is the nominal type. 

In their paper Baker & Pritchard separate the two species pavoniformis' and 
omata on the number of pairs of whip-like filamentous caudal setae and also 
on the last row of four palmate setae on the dorsum. 

No further occurrences of pavoniformis in Australia have been recorded. 
but a third and new species described in this paper has recently been found. 
Tn many respects it is intermediate between pavoniformis and orntlta as is shown 
in the following key. 

Key to Known Species of Tuckerella Worn. 

1. Tarsi III and IV with a dorsa! sensory rod similar to those on I 
and IT. With 7 pairs of caudal filamentous setae. The four posterior 
hysterosomal palmate setae small and equal in size. 

T. spechtae sp. nov. 
Tarsi ITI and IV without such sensory rod 2 

2. With 6 pairs of caudal filamentous setae. Outer members of 
posterior row of hysterosomal palmate setae larger than the inner 

T. pavoniformis (Ewing). 

With 5 pairs of caudal filamentous setae. All four members of 
posterior row of hysterosomal palmate setae small and equal in size. 

T. omata (Tucker). 

N,B. — In both omnia and spechtae the two distal sensory rods on tarsi I are 
about equal in length; in pavoniformis the anterior distal sensory rod is very 
short compared with the posterior distal rod. In the last species tarsus II bears 
a short antero-distal peg, and leg TV has large, strongly serrate setae dorsally. 

* South Australian. Museum. 


Tuckerella spechtae sp, nov. 
Fig. A-D. 

Iloloiijpe. — Female. Size small. Colour in life red. Length of idiosoma 
23G>. width 150/x, Body roundish oval, widest in line of propodosonial-meta- 
podosomal suture. Dorsum strongly reticulated and with suture lines between 


gf « life 

-V-;- JwuL* SilCs 



wppi- ^ - : ^ T ^ fe: -^ 


— v^^5>' 

Tr.nt Fig. A-D.— Tuclicrdh spcclitae sp. nov. A, dorsal view; B, palp; C, tibia am] 
tarsns of leg tr A^p some of log I LI IV. 

propodosoma and metapodosoiua and between the latter and the opisrhosoma. 
Mouth gfttts elongate with piercing styliform mandibles. Palpi as figured, 
elongate, four-segmented, tibia with well-developed claw; tarsus cylindrical arid 
barely reaching tip of claw, apparently with 3 setae and two sensory rods. Eyes 
2 on each side. Dorsum with 42 palmate or fan-shaped setae as in other species 
but the four members of the posterior hystcrosomal transverse row are all 
smaller and subequalj with 7 pairs of long, to 2(X)//, filamentous, shortly ciliated 
caudal setae; legs short, I 112/t long, IL III and IV 84/*; furnished with smaller 
palmate setae; claws strong, furnished with 4 tenent hairs; tarsus I with a pair 


of cylindrical sensory rods and 4 simple setae, tarsi II, III and IV each with one 
such sensory rod. Venter as figured for pavoniformis (sic. ornatus) Womersley 

Location.~A single female, the type, in the South Australian Museum, col- 
lected amongst Phyllota litter at Keith, South Australia, July, 1953 (Mrs. M. 
Specht ) . 

Remarks. — Distinguished from the other known species as in the key. 



byS. 7. Edmonds 


Specimens of Pseudoporrorchis bulbocaudatus (Southwell and McFie), Pseudoporrorchis 
centropusi (Tubangui) and Gordiorhynchus hylae (Johnston and Edmonds) have been re-examined 
and are considered to be synonymous. The species becomes Pseudoporrorchis hylae (Johnston). A 
new species, Pseudoporrorchis hydromuris, is described from the water at, Hydromys chrysogaster. 
Bolbosoma capitatum (von Linstow) is recorded from Globiocephalus melaena and an 
acanthocephala from Canis familiaris dingo assigned to the genus, Oncicola. 


by S. J. Edmonds* 
[Read 14 June 1956] 


Specimens of Pseitdoporr<}rcliL$ hidhovandtitux ( Southwell WnJ McFie), P-sviidoporroichi& 
ccntropwi (Tubangui) and Cord (orhynchu.s lujlae (Johnston and Edmonds) have been re- 
examined and are considered to he synonotnous. The species becomes Pseudoporrorchis Jiyhte 
(Johnston). A new species, Pseudoporrorchis htjdromiin.\ t is described from the water rut, 
Ifijdromys chrysogasier. Bolbosontu capiUitttm (von Linstow) is recorded from Cdohiove- 
phaluz indacna and an acanthoccphala from Cauls familiaris dingo assigned to the genns t 

This paper deals with four acanthoeephala, one of which is new. 

Parasite Host 

n . 7 . j 7 /T , a i f Ccniropus phasianinus (Latham) 

Pseudoporrorchis hylae (Johnston) j Po(lar ^ m ^ rigoides (LaWni) 

Pseudoporrorchis hydromuris n. sp. Hydromys chrysogaster (GcofFroy) 

Bolbosoma capiiatum (von Linstow) Glohioccphalus melaena (Traill) 
Oncicohi sp. Canis familiaris dingo ( Blumenbach) 


1. Pseudoporrorchis hylac ( Johnston) 

EchinorhyHchus Jnjhw Johnston, 1912, 

Pseudoporrorchis hulhocaudutwi (Southwell and McFie, 1§25|. 
Pseudoporrorchis ccnliopuai [ Tubangui, 1933), 
CnrdiorittfuiJius hifliit} (Johnston nnd Edmonds, 1948). 


Johnston and Edmonds (1918) identified an aeanthocephalan parasite from 
Podargns strigoides as Gordiorhynchus hylae. This was an error; it should have 1 
been assigned to the genus, Pseudoporrorchis Joyeux and Raer, 193-5. The 
authors were misled by the facts (1) that both male and female worms possessed 
internal p.scudose^meutation. and (2) that a small appendix was present near 
the female genital aperture — both characters of the genus. Gordiorhynchus 
Meyer, 1931. The authors did state that because the receptaeulum did not 
divide the introvert into two parts the conception of the genus would have to 
be enlarged to include the specimens from Podargus. At the time internal 
pseudosegmentation hud not been described for any ol' the species of Pwudo- 

During 1U52 the present author had the opportunity of examining at the 
British Museum of Natural History some of Southwell and McFies specimens 
of Pseudoporrorchis hulbocimdatus from Ccntropus phasifjnhius- At once it was 
obvious that (1) this species possesses internal pseudosegmentatiori, a tact not 
recorded by Southwell and McFie, and (2) Gordiorhynchus hylac is synonymous 
with P. hidhocaudatus, Further through the kindness of the late Professor Jl. 

* Zuulupy Department, Lniveirfity of Adelaide. 


Van Cleave, five slides of Pmuloporrorchis crntropusi (Tubnngm, 1933)— all 
named by Tubangui— were made available for re-esamination. A study of 
these specimens showed thaL the range of measurements of same organs and 
structures of P. ccntropn.n eould be extended, e.g. (1) the length of the male 
mav be as long as 21 mm. and (he female 28 mm,, (2) the introvert is armed 
with 2fi longitudinal rows of 8-10 hooks per row. and (3) ripe eggs about 
5u> xi3,/ arcpie.sent in one female. In addition, internal pseudnsegmentatiou 
js presi-ntand the female aperture is subterminal. This extra information brings 
Tubanguis specimens from Ct'titropus rdridw into the synonomy of P, bulbo- 
rattdtdu.s. ' 

Johnston and Edmonds (1948) identified the parasite from Podar^us 
afl/S3f&» i BB the adult of a larval Form encysting hi the mesentery of u number 
Al ) S ,ni^ n fro ^ s ( H V laa W- a,td Limnothjnasu* sp. ) and named by John- 
ston JVJ12) as Eohinorhtjnvhm fijflw A further examination of die introverts 
ol d taiga number of larva** from fro^s has confirmed this fact. If (lie rules 
cri priority m nomenelalure are followed, the parasites from Ccntropus viridis 
l.entwpm phaMuninm and Podar&ts Mlnoideu beeome Psriuhponorclm hthtv 
( Johnston ). J 

PscudoporrorrMs houdmeri Joyeux and Bacr. 1935, die type-species of the 
genus, Irom Ccntropus .s/ncn.v/.v intettwdiut ib a closely related species tt i* 
armed with 22-21 longitudinal rows each of 11-12 hooks. 

The occurrence of intcrnul pscudosegmentatiou has now been recorded Jo 
atlcast three diflcient genera oF (he Acanthocephala; (1) Gordinrlujnchus Meyer 
jyjl, (2) m the present paper in some species of Psmdoporwrchi^ and (i) in 
some species of iWqifiifntmgnchui by Van Cleave (1916, p. 171 and fig. H) 

2. PscudopcuTorcliis hydromuris n sir 

fins, l-i, 

Seven female and two umlc specimens were found in the small intestJnc 

i w * 5? ™ water rat !] y ih o™ys &irt&0m*t&< at Inni.slaii, Queensland 

by Mr. N. C. Elliot (1U/10/55) and forwarded for identification by Or | M* 

Mackerras oi the Institute of Medical Science, Queensland 

DLwrlption,— The length of the males is 1*47 mm. and of the female 
12-1M mm. The trunk is cylindrical but tends to taper slightly towards the 
autennr and posterior extremities. The maximum width opttjir&s in the 
anterior third <,t the trunk, fe 1*1-15 mm. in the male and 1-5-2-2 mm in the 
r> !!. % J W is ***£#* small and almost spherical in shape. It is 
V -i i EPS 5 d,amc 'l I c :f and is «nned with about 26 longitudinal rows each 
ol ,-S hooks mt WW, The second or third hook of each "row is largest and 
possesses a well developed postenorly directed rooting process. The lentrth of 

K- 5%58$ port j° n t nt [ h °J a ^ st lK !°t \ s (4 °- 5 °) '< and of &> rooting process 
fi WTO /'• J" !**b 5, 6. 7 and 6 the posteriorly directed rooting process 
progressive y decreases m size and an anteriorly directed process appears and 
progressively increases in si/e. A similar condition has been described for 
Isrndapmrorcl^ liylacjxy Johnston and Edmonds (UHH) and for rVWmw- 
SR& JS?" ^ V * n Q feW X*W» is a tendency lor the extrern ties 
ot the lootmg processes of P. hydromum to be, swollen slightly. Detieatc vvW 
processes, however, like those so carefully described by Van Cleave for P. tfftJr 
could not be d,s mgmshed. There is a short neck about 0-2 mm. W which 
m all specimens lies within the anterior end of the trunk. The mtmw*rt°shenfh 
\ nan. long and 0-35 mm wide, is double walled and arises just posterior to 
the last whorl of introvert hooks, K 

Two ellipsoidal testes, 1- 1-1 -8 mm. long and 0-0-0-5 mm. wide lie in isanrfam 
wrthm «A anterior third of the trunk There are six long WiSSS^B 
pressed closely together. The posterior extremity of the female fc rounded bS 


not swollen and does not hear an appendix like P. hylae, The female aperture 
is terminal. Ripe eggs are ellipsoidal Jo shape and their outer shell is thick, 
They arc rjg-75 /* long and 32-3fc p wide and do not possess polar prolongations. 
Longitudinal sections" of both nude and female reveal that internal pscudoseg- 
mentation, hke that of P. fcyte?, is present in both sexes. 

Systematic Position. — This species is morphologically very close to and was 
at first thought to be identical with Fseudo port orchis hylae from the bird* Ccn- 
tropm tirhtii, and C. phmianinus. It differs, however, in a number of respects. 
The mlioveit of P hytlromuris is globose or subspherical and slightly smaller 
than that of V. hylae, which is clavate, The number of hooks in each longitu- 
dinal row is less in V.htjdwmnris than P. hylae. Further, the posterior extremity 
of the females of P, hylae Is swollen into a bulb-like structure which bears a 
small appendiv. ThjV condition does not occur in any of the specimens of 
P. hijdwrnuris, 

i'his is the second record of a mammal as a definitive host of a species Ut 
Psevdoporrorchis, a genus usually found in birds. Van Cleave ( 1949) described 
P. teller from a mongoose, Herpestes javamem and from Frffs minutus javonicm. 
P, ledger and P. hydromims, although closely related, differ significandy in the 
number of hooks on the introvert. 
Type specimen. — S.A. Museum, Adelaide. 

3. Bolbosoma capitatum (von LinstoWv 1880) 

Four female and one male specimen of this parasite were obtained from the 
intestine of GlobiacephalHS melaena stranded at Prime's Reach, St. Vincent Gulf, 
S.A., by the late Professor T. II. Johnston, on 7/10/44. 

Description. — Hie females are 6-0-8-S cm. long and £-3 mm. wide and the 
male is 3-2 cm. lone and about i-8 mm, wide. The anterior region of the trunk 
tapers to a fine neck 2-4 mm long and less than 1 mm. wide. Anteriorly, the 
neck ?s surmounted by a prominent swelling or bulb, rather flattened in must 
.specimens and about 1-5-3-0 mm. wide and 1-2-21 mm. in length. Arising 
from die bulb is a small cylindrical introvert which is expanded, and then not 
quite fully, in one specimen only, It is 04 mm. wide at its base and would he 
about 0-7-0 -8 mm, long. It is armed with 14-16 longitudinal rows of hooks. 
Each row contains probably 8 hooks. The anterior — most hooks are stoutest, 
largest and most curved; those posteriorly are more pointed and less curved. The 
bulb itself is covered with stout, deadly packed spines, laigcr than those on 
the introvert. 

The neck and bulb in most specimens is curved ventrally to the long axis 
of the trunk and the posterior extremity dorsally to some extent. This condi- 
tion is shown for L< capiUUum in Meyer's monograph (Meyer, [852, fig. 66). 
"The posterior region fjf the trunk of all specimens forms an introvert 

The testes of the male are in the anterior fourth of the trunk just behind the 
region of the neck. They are ellipsoidal in sha£xs about 2*5 mm. long and 0'8 
mm. wide. Ripe eggs are spindle-shaped and measure (140-162) p x (28-31) ja 
They possess long polar prolongations of the middle shell, 

Syrtenurtic Position, — These specimens are considered to be B. capitatum 
described from Globiocephalust melas by von Linstow (1880). The bulb of the 
South Australian specimens is not quite as extended as those described by von 
Linstow. The eggs in the female arc considerably larger than those described 
for the species by Porta (Meyer, 193], p. 90). Otherwise the correspondence 
wilh Linstow's details is close. The specimens differ from B. humUioui Baylis, 
1U29 in the armature of the inhwert where tire number of longitudinal rows 
is 26, nearly double the number hi B, capitatum. 

4. Oncicola sp. 

Five acanthocephalan specimens, four of which were decapitated, were 
Imwarded for identification from the Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, 
Adelaide. The parasites were obtained from Cunts familiaris dingo from Central 
Australia and have been recorded as Oncicola sp. by Banks (1952) in a list of 
parasites from the Northern Territory. Some descriptive details are given in the 
present paper. 

DcscriplUm, — The length of the trunk of (he females is 10-14 mm. and the 
maximum width in the anterior third of the animal \s 1'2 mm. The body tapers 
gradually towards the posterior extremity which is curved dorsally to some ex- 
tent. The trunk of the only male is 5 mm. long and stouter than the females. 
The introvert (belonging to a female) is rounded or globular, 0-55 rum long and 
with a maximum width of 0*5 mm. At the base it is about 0-4 mm. wide, tt is 
armed with 6 spiral rows each of 6 hooks. The anterior hooks arc largest aud 
strongest and possess anteriorly diretled rooting processes. The testes lie side 
by side and the cement glands arc pressed closely together into a compact 
mass. Ellipsoidal-shaped eggs, with a slightly irregular-shaped outer membrane, 
are present in the body cavity of two specimens; they measure (97-105) a X 
(55-60) ,/. 

Systematic Position. — Several species of acanthocephala have been reported 
from Canidaa in other parts of the world; (1) Oncicola Canix (Kaupp) from 
Cams f am Maris from K. and S. America (summarized by Filho, I*)40) and from 
Canis lat7Utts t&xensis (Price, 1928): (2) Oncicola sp. from "native clog," Philip- 
pine Is. by Tuban^ui (1933); (3) Pachysentis canicola Meyer from Cams sp. r ( Meyer, 19*2); (4) Pachijseniis proctimbens Meyer front Cirwfe mdpcctda, 
Egypt ('Meyer. 1932); (5) Pachysentis ehrenbergi Meyer from Canis indpectda, 
Egypt (Meyer, 1932); (6) Echinopardalis atmta Meyer from Canis uilpcttda, 
Egypt (Meyer, 1932); and (7) ?Rchinorhynchm pachyacanthus Sonsino from 
Canis aureus, Egypt (Meyer, 1932); and "(8) Macracanthorhynchus caitdinus 
Kostylew irom Canis familiaris, Turkestan (Meyer, 1932). Of all these species 
the specimens from the dingo resemble most Oncicola sp., as described by 
Wittenberg (1938). Consequently, they have been assigned for the time to the 
genus, Oncicola, 


Hanks,, A. \Y\, 1952. ftnrte Animal Parasites of the Northern d\. AwJ \V( lemrti 

p. KM*. ' **■"», 

Rayi.wi, II. A. T 1929. Parasitic Nctnjtnda and AcunLhocephal* collected in 1925-1927 Dis- 
covery ReporU, 1, pp. 511*560. 
Fti.ho, M, D. A., 1940. Oeorrcj»c1r* tic 'Oncicola can tV no BcuBL Mem. lust. O.waldo tirtu 

35 (3), pp. 311-315. 
Johnston, T. II., 1912. Notes on some Rufotepft Proc. Hoy. Sue. Qld,, 24. pp. 0ii-9l. 
IOUN*'iON. T TI„ oiid EdMOWJWi S, J„ iyifcl. Australian AeotUnocrphula, No. 7 Tram Hov 

Soc. S. Aust. 72 (1), pp. 60-76. 
Jovfcitx, C. 7 and Barti, J. u,, 1035, Etude de uuelqnes Aconthoee.ilndes d'lndnrhine. Ana 

Mns. Hist. Nat. Marseille, 27 (2), pp. t-14. 
^t-TO, A., 1931. Gordifrtluffiehu^ ani neues Acanthoecphnlen Ccmis itiit iuuerer uvnriaJer 

lVudo-seEinentieruuy. Zool. Jahrb.. 60 (1), pp, 437-470 
Mtn-r.u, A., 1932. Aeanthoeepliah*, m nronns kluSSfrO nnd Orrhumcren de\ Tuimdchs. H*i. 

IV, 2 Abt, 2 Buch, pp. 89-00 and 234-251. 
Fmcrc, E. VV., 1028. Notes in Proceedings of Helminths Sue, Washington, loom. PaftttL H 

(3). p. 19Y. 
Southwki.l, T., and StcPrEi J. W. S. t 1925. On a collection of Aeanthocephata in cI.l 

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Ann. Trop. Med. P^rnslt., 19 (2), pp 141-1H4. 
Tuijangui, M. A.. 1933- Ae^nthncophala. Philippine JOot. Scieuw, SO (2)^ pp. 115-128. 
TuriA^cxn, M, A,, 1935. Additional Notes on Philippine Aeanthneeplmta. FnilippinR ftfun 

Science, 56 (1), pp. 13-19. 


Van Cleave, H. J. ? 1916. A Revision of the Genus Arhythmorhunchus. Tourn. Paras. 2 pp. 

167-174. ' ' 

Van Cleave, H. J., 1949. Pseudopon orchis teliger, a new species of Acantliocephala from 

Java. Parasit, 39 (3), pp. 214-217. 
Wittenberg, G., 1938. Studies in Acantliocephala. 3. The Genus Oncicola in Livro Jubilar 

Prof. Travassos, Brazil. III. 

f (r 

U 4 I 

0*1 mm 


' 8U<X 

0-05 mm. 


Fig. 5 —Oncicola sp. Introvert. 

Figs. 1-4.— Tseudaporr orchis hydromuris. 1. Hooks from introvert, 2. InLrovert. 3. Male, 

4. Eggs. 



by Helen M. Brookes 


This paper brings together previously published records of scale insects that have become 
naturalized in South Australia; it does not consider indigenous species. It also includes species 
identified by the author, but not previously recorded as occurring in the State. Of these, Odonaspis 
ruthae Ehrhorn, Pseudococcus malacearum Ferris, Tridiscus distichlii (Ferris), and Eriococcus 
coccineus Cockerell, are reported from Australia for the first time. A list is also given of species 
identified from material submitted by quarantine services in this State. 


By Helex M. Brookes* 
[Read 14 June 1956] 


This paper brings* together previously published records of scale insects that have be- 
come naturalized in South Australia: it doe.s not consider indigenous species. It also includes 
species identified by the author, but not previously recorded as occurring in the State. Of 
these, Odanmpis ruthae Ehrhorn,. Psevdococcus malacearum Ferris, Trldiscus distichlii 
(Ferris), and Erivcoccus cucci7ietw Coekcrcll, are reported from Australia for the first time. 
A list is also given of species identified from material submitted by quarantine services in 
this State. 


Towards the end of the 19tli century several workers made collections of 
Australian Coccoidea and described many new species. The first catalogue of 
the Australian scales was published by Maskell (1895), which was followed by 
that of Lidgctt (1899). Froggatt (1914-1921) produced a series of papers in 
the Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, which contained descriptions of 
new species and also referred to some exotic scales known to be established in 
Australia. This monograph was reprinted, with sonic additions, as Science 
Bulletins No.s. 14, 18 and 19 of the Department of Agriculture of New South 
Wales. Few specific references exist in the literature to scales occurring in South 

This paper lists the introduced scales identified by the writer in the course 
of several years' work with the group. Most p| these had not been reported 
previously from South Australia, and four species appear to be new to Austra- 
lian records. In addition, some earlier published references have been included. 
Notes on hosts and economic status are given. A list is also appended of scales 
upon imported plants and fruit, and which were submitted for identification 
by quarantine authorities. 

The classification used is that of Ferris (1950a, 1955a), Where available, 
the following citations are given for each species: the original description; its 
first recorded occurrence in Australia; the first recorded occurrence in South 
Australia; and the most recently used synonym in the Australian literature. The 
common names are those used in Cay's list (1955). 

Specimens were examined after treatment with 10 per cent, aqueous potas- 
sium hydroxide, and staining with hasic or acid fuchsin; they were mounted in 
"Sira" a neutral synthetic medium, or in Muhr and Wehrle's medium. 

Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, 1879) 

Aspidiotus aumntii Maskell, 1879. Trans. NX Inst., 11, p. 199. On oranges and lemons 

imported into New Zealand from Sydney, 
Aspidiotux uuruntii Mask. Anon., Rep. Minister of Agrie., S. Anst., 1912-1913. 
Chrymmpkafm aurantii Mnskell. Davidson, J., 1931. J Dtp. Agric., S. Aust. 34 p. 744 

Heeorded ut Herri in 1929, 

° Waite Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide. 


Red Scale* 


AonidieUa aurantii (Mask.) is the commonest scale on Citrus spp. in this 
State. It occurs on the leaves and fruit throughout the year. In coinmercial 
orchards of the irrigated areas of the Lower River Murray Valley it has become 
a serious pest. In some of these orchards a few isolated trees of Juglans regia L- 
(walnut) and Frunus domestica L. (European plum) at Younghusband, and 
Pyrtts t:ommwii$ L. (pear) at Mypolonga have become heavily infested with 
A uurantii. In the citrus orchards of the Upper Murray Valley red scale is coo- 
fined to restricted outbreak areas by means of regular, drastic control measures 
(Uotham, 1955). 

A, uurantii has been identified from the following additional hosts in South 
Australia: Coprosma rctusa Pctric (lookiug-glass plant), Foenxculum rndgare Hill 
(fennel), Ilex a<ivifoUum L. (English holly), Laurus nobilis L. (laurel), Rosa 
spp. (cultivated roses) Fyrus malus L. (apple), and Vitis vinifera L. (grape- 

AonidieUa citrina (Coquillett, 1891) 

Aspidhttw aurantii var. citrina Coquillett, 1891, U.S.D.A.* Div. Ent, Bull. 23, pp. 19-36. 
Aspidiotus citrina Coquillett. Anon. ; 1940. Agrie. Gaz. N.S.W., 51 (6), p. 34ft. 

On Citrus in thu coastal regions of New South Wales where it has bwin known for 

several years :v; a form of A. aurantii. 

Yellow Scale. 

AonidieUa citrina was first recognized in South Australia in 1946 at Waikeric, 
on the River Murray. It was found on leaves and fruit of Citnts grandis Osbeck 
(grape fruit) and Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Valencia orange). The leaves of a 
grape-vine that were in contact with the orange were also infested. At Beni, 
Loxton and Mypolonga it occurred on the leaves and fruit of orange. After 
treatment of these localized outbreaks A. citrina was not seen in South Australia 
until June, 1956, when specimens were identified from an occurrence involving a 
single orange tree at Waikerie. 

Aspidiotus hederae (Vallot 1829). 

Chcrmcs hederae Vallot, 1829. Mem. Acad. Dijtm, pp. 30-33, 1829. [Not sccn.I 
Axpidintw nerii Bouche. Maskell, W. \f., 188B. Trans. N.Z, Last, 14, p. 217. On Citrus, 

oleander and Acacia from all States or Australia. 
Aspidiotus hederae Vallot. Froggatt, W. W., 1914. Agric. Ca?_ N.SAV., 25 (4), p. 314. 

This species was reported to infest all kinds of plants, shrubs and forest tress, Although 

lemons imported from Italy into Sydney were heavily infested, Frugtfatt had never .seen 

Ai hederae in an orchard. 

OlkaNTieh Scale. 

In South Australia this scale is commonly found on Citrus spp., both in 
commrrcifd orchards and home gardens; C. grandis Osbeck (fruit), BctpJ find 
Wiiikeriej (7, sinensis Osbeck (fruit), Berri, Holder and lienmnrk. Other ob- 
served hosts include Olea curopaea L. (olive), Clen Osrnoud* Nerium oleander 
L, (oleander), tiifttf Osmond; Klht's rutmwi L. (red current), Stirling West; 
Ceraioniu silkiua L. (carob), Waikerie; Morns nigra L. (mulberry), llenmark. 

A. hederae is not regarded as a .serious pest. It may cause persistent green 
patches around scales on ripening citrus fruits. 

Aubcaspis rosae (Bnuehe, 1834) 

AwhUolus fume Boucliu, 1834. Naliirgeachichtc- tier Insekteo. Erste Lieferun^, 1-5, pp. 1 216. 

Nicolai, Berlin. fNot seen. J 
ijfysm ( Aulawnte) toxae PfluejuE. Fi'Oggatc. W. W. t 1914. Anfe Gaz. N.S.W, 25 (10) 

p. m. 


Rose Scale. 

Rom spp. On cultivated roses (stems) in the Adelaide district, but appears 
to cause little, if any, damage, 

Diaspis boisduvali (Signoret, 1S69) 
DiaspLs boisduvali Signoret, 1S69. Ann. Sort. Eut Fr. (4), 9, p. 432. 

Diaspis boMuvali Simioret Maskcll, Wi M„ 1S95. Trans. N.7. Inst,, 27, p. 44. On Caltlaya 
sp. and Dendrohium sp. in a hot-house at Adelaide. 


On orchid bulbs at Adelaide* 1951. 

Ischnaspis longirostns (Signoret, 1882) 
Mtftiluspis lonqirostris Signoret 1882'. Bull. Soc. ent. Fr., pp. 35-36. jNol seen ] 
Ischna&pis filiformte Doufiias. Maskell, W. \L, 1895. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 27, p, 52, On palms 

in hot-houses at Adelaide. 

This appears to be the only reported occurrence of this scale in South Aus- 
tralia; it has not been seen by the author. 

Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman, 1869) 
Coccus heckii Newman, 1869. Entomologist, 4, p. 217. [Not seen.] 

Mtjtilaspix atricola Packard. Green, E. E., 1914. BuO. ent Res., 5 3 p. 233. On Citrus acida 
Ravb. (lime) at Botanic Gardens, Darwin, Northern Territory. 

Purple Scale. 

This species occurs mainly on Citrus spp. in New South Wales and Queens- 
land. Froggatt (1914b) states that Maskell identified purple scale as Mytilaspis 
citricola on Cretan sp. from Adelaide. It has not been found by the writer. 
Croton is grown in Adelaide as a hot-house plant. 

Lepidosaphes toldonls (Kuwaua, 1902) 

LftpidfhsfipJLes tten&ieadi var. Lokionis Kuwana, 1.902. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci, ('3) 3 (2) rm 
43-98. [Not seen.] V *.-*•»■ 

Mxjtilaspis auriculata Green. Froggatt, W. W« 1914 Agric. Gaz. N.S.W., 25 (7). p, 606. 
On Croton sp. in the Botanie Garden, Adelaide. Recorded from South Australia only 
on the basis of this report; not seen by the writer. 

Lepidosaphes ulmi (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Coccus ulmi Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat. Ed. 10, 1, p. 455. [Ferris (1937) states dial the 
synonomy of this species is much confused; briefly., it is Coccus ulmi of Linnaeus; Avjj/\ 
diotus poviorum of. Bouchp, which became Mytilaspis pomarum (BoneV\) of Signoret 
and later authors.] 

Mylilasins pomorum (Bonehe), Fuller, C, W., 1899. Trans, ent Soc. Lond., 1899, pp. 435- 
473. On apple, Mt, Barker, Western Australia. 

Lepidosaphes ulmi Linn. Davidson. J., 1931. J. Dcp. Agric. S. Anst, 34, p. 744. Re- 
corded on old apple trees in the Mount Gamhicr district 

Missel Scatjs. 

Ftjrus malus L. (apple). Froggatt (1914a) implied that mussel scale was 
present in South Australia when he stated that it was tV all over the orchards of 
Australia, found usually upon the bark or trunk of the tree or the young 
branches ..." In July, 1954, L. ulmi was identified from Crafers, Mt. Lofty 
Ranges; this was a heavy infestation of the fruit of one tree. Mussel scale is 
reported to be confined to a few gardens in the cooler districts, where is is not 
a pest (Anon., 1940.) 

Odonaspis rutliae Ehrhorn, 1907 
Odonutpis nttfaie Ehrhom, 1907, 2nd. Bienn. Rep. Ilort. Calif., p. 26. [Not seen.] 
Odonaxpis ruthae Ehrhom. Balachowsky, A. S.. 1953. Les Cochenilles, 7, p. 21 Hermann 


Cijnodon daetylon (L.) (couch grass), Adelaide (J 952); Wallaroo. The 
scale is distributed over the sheatlring leaf-bases, stolons and roots, Sorgltum 
ItaHpeme (L.) (Johnson grass), Adelaide. 

This is the first record of O. ruthae in Australia. 

Quadraspidiotus ostreaeformis (Curtis, 1843) 

Atipiilipttffl oHtreuvformiii Curtis, 1843, Garcl. Chron., 3 ? P- K05. [Not seen.] 
AitUilkitu* nstrcnefnnnis. Evans, J. W. f 1912. Tumd. J. Agile. 13 (4), p. 15&. On apple 
unci other hosts hi TuMiiar»ts<, 

Oystf.h-hhf.kt, Scale. 


Fi/nt.s malus L. 

Qttadraxpidiotus ostreavformi.s was identified for the first time in South Aus- 
tralia from Cudlec Creek in May, 1948; field observations indicate that it is well 
established and presumably has been present for many years. It was later seen 
to be lightly but widely distributed on the bark of apple trees in commercial 
orchards in the Mount Lofty Ranges. In 1954, a heavy infestation was seen at 
Balhannah; this was confined to the older limbs of two trees (Granny Smith 
variety) about twenty years old, and had apparently killed the affected limbs. 
0: ostreaeformis occurs occasionally on twig-growth and fruit, but principally ou 
old trees, sheltering beneath surface bark. 

An allied species, Quadruspidiotus perniclosus (Comstock), the San Jose 
scale, is not known to occur in South Australia although references have occa- 
sionally been made in the Australian literature to its presumed occurrence, here. 
Froggatt (1914c) inferred its presence in this State when he recorded Aspidloluf} 
pemiciosus as a serious pest on bark, foliage and fruit of pome and stone fruits. 
He stated that it "lias been spread all over the Australian States with nursery 
stocks" Maskell (1896) recorded a heavy iufestatiou of A. pemieiosm on twigs 
of Eucahfptiis corynocalyx collected at Adelaide. However, Cockerel! (1897) 
stated, with reference to South Australia that he was "quite convinced that the 
supposed variety of perniciosus recorded by Maskell as on Eucalyptus in Aus- 
tralia is not that insect; the description reads more like A. jorbesi, but it is very 
likely something else". A comprehensive bibliography of San Jose scale in Aus- 
tralia between 1892 and 1893 is given by Tryon (1898). 

Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus* 1758 

Carat* hcNpcmlam Liiutauu.s, 1758. Syjjfc, Nut. 10th E<I.« p. 4BSi 

Uxunhun hctpiUidum Linnaeus. Muslell, W. M., 1S93. Trans. N.7.. Inst., 27, p. lo On 

Citrus and Luimm iu Australia. 
I.c.ctmlmn hespcrkhim Linn. Duvklsuu, J., 11*31.. J. \$r\<\ S. Au.;t., 04, p 7-14. On <>niuu<; 

trees at Guwlei, South .Australia, in l.92f)j 

Son' IJikwx Scalk 


Cofcus hcxperidum is widely dislributed on Citrus spp. in South Australia. 
It has a wide range of hosts, especially cultivated plants. It has been identified 
on SidcToxtfloa oustralis Benth. et Hook (scrub crab-apple) at the Waite Insti- 
tute Arboretum. Green ( 190 J 1 ) considers that his species Lecanhtm signiferum. 
differs from C hesperidum principally in coloration and may be merely a well- 
marked variety. This form of C. hesperidum was identified on Eugenia penduUt 
DC. (lilly-pilly), Laurus nobilis L. and Hideroxylon atistralis at the Waite In- 


Eucalymnatus tcssellatus (Signoret, 1873) 
Lecanium tessellatwn Si^noret, 1873. Ann. Soe. Pint. Fr. (5) 3, pp. 395-448. 
Lecanium tewdlutum Signoret. Maskell. W. M„ J 893. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 25. p. 219. On 
Laurus nohiiis at Sydney, Now South Wales, Maskell, VV. M., 1895. Trans. NX Inst,, 
27, pp. 35-75. On palms in hot-houses., Adelaide, South Australia. 


In the Adelaide district E. tcssellatus has been identified from Brachi/chiton 
spp., Ilex at/uiUfolium L., Sterculia sp.. and on Phoenix hwnilis Royle'at the 
Botanic Garden, Adelaide. It is of no economic importance under South Ausira- 
Iian conditions. 

Eulccanium persicae (Fabricius, 1776) 

Lecanium berbendix Schrank. Maskell, W. M., 1897. TrunS< NX Inst., .29, p. .Ml. On 
grape-vines at Melbourne,. Victoria. 

Lecanium persicae F. Anon-, 1940. J. Dep. Agric, S. Au*t. 43 (9). p, 610. On grape- 
vines in South. Australia. 

Vine Scams. 

Of widespread occurrence on Vitis vinifera L.; Parthenocissus tricuspidata 
I'lanch (Virginia creeper) and Hedcra helix L. (ivy) at Adelaide. The adult 
female scales of E. persicac are usually found to be heavily parasitized by wasps. 

Eulecanium pniinosuin (Coquillett, 1S91) 
Lecanium pruintxntm Coquillett, U59JU Insect T-ife, 3. pp. 3S2-384, 
Lecanium pruihnxum, Anon. : 1935. Aerie. Gaz, N.S.W., 46 (6). p. 328. 
F.ukcuuium pruinomm. Anon,. 1918. Insect Pest Survey for 1948, N.S W. Dep. Aerie., 

pp. 5, 7, y, 

Frosted Scale. 

Host-plants: The soft stone-fruits. 

Tiiis species was identified in South Australia for the first time in October, 
1954. Jt was found on the wood of plum trees in several orchards in the Mount 
Lofty Ranges. At Balhannah at least three trees in one orchard were heavily 
infested, there being about 2,5 adult females per foot of branch. In the Barossa 
district north of Adelaide, the scales were densely clustered along the spurs of 
apricot trees during November when eggs were being laid. E. pnnnosum was 
not reported as a pest from these areas during the following year. 

Snissetia hemisphaerica (Targioni-Tozzetti, 1867) 
Lecanium heumphacricum Targioni-To^etU, 1&67. ' Mem. Soe. iUliuna Sci. Nat. 3 (3) on. 

1-81 [Not seer,.] iX 

Lecanium kemi.sphaericum: Maskell, W. M, 1895. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 27, p. 59. On Erun- 

themurn variegutum at Adelaide. 
Sntesctia enffeae Walker. Anon., 1951. Insect Vest Survey for 1951, N.S.W. Dep. Agric 

HEMispiu;mcAi Scale. 

Asplenium sp., Eranthemum vatiegatum. at Adelaide, Cyaas mvaluta Thunb. 
at the Botanic Garden, Adelaide. In this Slate S. hemkphaerica is principally a 
pest of ferns in shade-houses. 

Saissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861) 
Lecanium nigrum Nielner, 186']. Cevlon Times, p. 9 (1861), [Not seen,} 
Lecanium nigrum Nietner var. depwdum. Maskell, W. ft,. 1894. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 26. p. 73. 
Sumctia nigra. Simnionds, H. W-, 195!. J. Dep. Atfrfc. S. Aust, 54 (8). p. 398. 

Nigra Scale. 

Daphne odora Thunb. and Nerium oleander L. at Adelaide; Ilex aquifolutm 
L. in the Adelaide district and Mt. Lofty llanges; Osteospermum moniliferum 
K ? National Park, Behiir. 


Saissctia oleae (Bernard, 1782) 
Chrtm** oleae Bernard, I7S2. Mem. d'Hist. Nat. Acad., Marseille, p. 108 (1732). [Not seen. J 
Lecanium oleae Be.m, Froggatt, W. W., 1897. Agrie. Gaz, K.S.W., 8, p. 532. Recorded as 

a common species in Sydney gardens 
Saissetia (LceatHum) otean Bern. Quinn, G., 1U16. J. DCp, Agric. S- Aust. 19 (11), j> 979. 

On orange in South Australia. 

Black Scalk. 

Citrus spp. Quinn (lac. cit.) first recorded S. oleae in South Australia as a 
pest on the leaves and woody parts or' orange trees. It may become numerous 
enough to cause loss of fruit in commercial orchards. In the Adelaide district 
small, localized outbreaks, sometimes severe, may occur from time to time. 

Siminonds (1951) described the life-history nf S. oleae in South Australia 
and discussed the part played by predators and parasites in limiting the numbers 
of black scale on CUrus and Olea europea Linn, (olive). 

Black scale has been identified in the Adelaide district on Nerium oleander 
L., Durania plumicri J acq. (sky-flower), Crataegus sp. (hawthorn). Erica sp t 
(heath), Stereulia sp.,* Hettera helix L., Calodendrum cape use Tlmnb. (Cape 
chestnut), Solanum nigrum L. (nightshade), and Wahhnbergia gracilis (Forst. 
f.) A.D.C. (Australian bluebell). 

Planococcus citri (Risso, 18.13) 
Uurthvsia citri Kisso, 1813. Essai Hist. Nat. des Oranges, etc., Puns, 1S13. [Not seen.] 
JVWofwras citri (Hisso). Carter, W, ? 1942. J, won. Enl., 35 <1)_, p. 14. On Ananas 

comasu? (L.) (pineapple), Queensland. 
f'Umoeoccus citri (Risso). Ferris. G. F., 1950- Atlas of the Scale Insects of North Ami-nca, 
5 p. lfio. Standford Univ. .Press, Calif. 



Coleus sp. D Croton sp M Clerodendrum sp., and Enjthriim sp. growing ia a. 
hot-house at the Botanic Garden, Adelaide; Cerattmla ailiqtta L. (leaves and 
fruit) and on the inflorescence of Veronica sp., botli growing in the open, 

In this State Planococcus citri is a serious pest of plants grown in hot-houses 
and shade-houses, but has been found living in the open only once. 

Pseudococcus adonidum (Linnaeus) 

Dactiflopim- adonidum L. NUiskelL W. M., 1806. Trans. Proc. K7. Tnst., 28, p. 3V>tf l>n 
Xcacia linifnlia it Sydney, New South Wales. This is the earliest published record ol 
this species* occurrence in Australia, hut it is likely thai the specimens were misidenlifiVd 
lieeausn Maskell himself uoted some reservations about their identity. 

twudw&xua lutiiitipinux Tnnrioni. llalhday, O. E.,. 1040, t Dep. A^rie. S. Ausl., 43 ( 12), 
p. M47. On Citrus in die Kiver Murray .settlements. This is the first published reem.,1 
of this species in South Australia. 


I lost-plants: 

In South Australia Pseudococais adonidum occurs on a wide range of hnst* 
plants growing both m the open and in hot-houses, 

P$ adonidum is the mealy bug most commonly found on Cilms spp., pears 
and grape-vines in the commercial orchards of the River Murray irrigation areas, 
where it is a serious pest. The damage is caused by species of fungus that 
develop in the honey dew secicted by the insects. In navel oranges the mealy 
bugs aggregate at the navel end of the fruit. Oranges grown for the local market 
are sometimes rendered unsaleable due to an unsightly deposit on the rind 
caused by development of sooty mould. More serious loss may be caused by 




development 0} a grey-green mould at the navel end of apparently clean fruit 
during storage and transport. The market value of Valencia oranges, which 
grow in bunches, is affected by development of a sooty mould on the rind 
whore one fruit is in contact with another. In pears a grey-green mould develops 
when a drop of honey dew is secreted at the calyx end of the fruit, causing 
breakdown. The stickiness of honey dew on the surface of grapes hinders the 
drying process. 

Ps. adonidum has been identified on the following additional hosts in die 
Adelaide district; Achillea millefolium L. (milfoil) and A&phmimH sp.; Cebera 
and Erythrina sp. grown in a hot-house at the Botanic Garden; ISierium 
eandcr L. and Traaescantia vAr^iniana L. (spiderwort) at the Waite Institute; 
near the core of a rotting fruit of Cydonia ohlon&a Mill, (quince); Vitis vinifera 
L. (/.ante currant). 

Pseudococcus malaceamm Ferris. 1950 

Pwudococcux muhjvvarum Fuiris. 11150. Atla* uf the Scale Insects of North America. 5, p. 135. 

Stanford Univ. Press, Calif. 


CucttrhUa jtepo L- (pumpkin) at Wnik^rie (coll. T. O. Browning), Pump- 
kins which had been harvested and stored in a shed were found to be heavily 
infested with all stagey of this mealy bug in October, 1955. This is a 'long- 
tailed' species, the posterior wax filaments being half as long as the body. The 
females produce an ovisac that is loose and fluffy at first, but which becomes 
compact and elongated by the time all the eggs have been laid. 

Passiflora edulis Sims ( passion-fruit) and Passiftora mollissima Bailey 
(banana passion-fruit) at Adelaide. A heavy infestation killed the vines of both 

Tragopogon parrij "alius \,. (salsify) at Adelaide. Adult females were living 
on ths roots in December, when large numbers of eggs were being laid. 

The specimens from Pa$si flora and Tragopogon from Adelaide, together with 
some living on thft roots of Medicago sat'wa L. (lucerne) and Metilotus alba 
Desr. (Bokhara clover) from Cardross, Victoria (coll. W. J. Webster), were 
identified by Dr. Harold Morrison as Pseudococcus mafucearum Ferris, with 
certain reservations, lie did not have for comparison the type of Ps. malaceartttn, 
but in his opinion these specimens appeared to be identical with presumed holo- 
typps in the United States National Collection of Coccidae at Washington, D C, 

These specimens represent the first record of Pseudococcus mahcearum 
Ferrfs in Australia. 

Tridiseus distichlii (Ferris) 

FwK, C t F . [fiS0, Atfcw oE the Scale Insect? of North America, 5, p. 249. Stafford Utiiv. 
Press, Calif. 


Triticum vulgare Vfllars (wheat), Adelaide. In March and April* 19S2, all 
stages of this mealy bug were found among the sheathing bases of the leaves of 
wheat which was being grown for experimental purposes in a glass-house at the 
Waite Institute. The eggs are laid in quick succession so that one egg adheres to 
the one preceding in "string of beads" fashion. An amorphous, fhifiy ovisac is 

This is the Erst record of T. distichlii in Australia. 


Asterolecauium variolosum (Ratzeburg, 1870) 

Coccus turiolosus Kalxeburp. 14JT0. Tbmandter Foist. Jahrb. 20, pp. 187-194. [Not seen.] 

AxteriilmmUum mrinlasum (Wsttz.), IWsclL T.. M., 1941 U.S.D.A, Misc. Tubl., 424, p, 219. 

Ou Querous sideroxyla at Botanic Garden, Sydney. (Specimen* from W. W. Froggatt, 

No. 18.) 


Goumzn Oak Scale. 

I lost-plants t 

Quercux spp. 

A, variolosum was identified on Quercus' sp. from Mr. Lofty in 1940. 


Erioeoccus araucariae Maskell, 1879 

EHuvum-'us umiicariuis Maskell, 1B79» Trans. N.Z. Inst. ]1. 21S. 

F.riocaccus mmicariae tfaggrfe, W. W.. IttlB. Aptffc. Haz, N.S.W., 27 (G), ft 427. 

On Araucatki exceku K. Br. (Noilolk Island pine? ut Sydney, and A. urauvurma var. 

minw Maskcll on Kunzla capitnta at Sydney. 


E. araucariae was identified on Ataucaria cunning] uuuii Aiton (hoop-pine) 
at the Waile Institute in J95G. 

Erioeoccus coccincus Cockcrell 1894 
Zriocvctw coccincus Coelerelk 1891. Fat. News. 5 fp), 43. [Not fiftriV-J 


This species has been identified from several spceies of Caetaceae growing 
in a home-garden at Adelaide in 1952. The female scales adhere to the spines 
of the host. 

This is the first record of E. coccincus from Australia, 

Dactylopius iitdicus Crcen, 1908 

Corruff indivm Creen. 190S. Mem. Dep. As*nY\ Ind ii r 2, p. 28. [Not seen.] 

Dticttftoftius (Coccus) itulicus. Anon., 1925. J$£ Aim. Rep, Qd. Prickly Fear Laud Commias., 
1924-25, pp. 19-28. Recorded as having given effective control of Opuntia spp. in 
Queensland during the previous IoliT years. 

Dart'ilopiu.'i ccylonirus Green, iniliciu Green. Anon., 19*36. J. Dcp. A.o;ric. S. Aust.j 40 (5), 
pp< 404-410. Introduction ot Ddctylopim intlicns to South Australia in 1931+ 

Davti'Mnm imiiais. Tough, W. A., 19^8- S. Aust. Nat., i\) (i), pp. 7-9. Recorded the 
successful eradication of Opuntia vulgaris by D. huticm at Pooraka, South Australia. 

Daetyjvpitis ccylon'tcua. Dockk A. P., 1940. The biological campaign against prie'dy-pr-ar. 
Coimii. Prickly Pear Board, Brisb- The most recenl arrount of all aspects of the bio- 
logical control of prickly-pcar by r-oehtueal insects. 



Opuntia spp. 

Several species of Opuntia that have been grown as garden ornamentals 
or hedge plants have escaped locally From cultivation to form thickets at various 
places in South Australia. Opuntia has nowhere become naturalized other than 
as smalL isolated patches of this kind. Cochineal insects obtained from Queens- 
land through A. P. Dodd, Officer- in-Chargc of all Investigations of the Com- 
monwealth Trickly Pear Board, have been used by the Department of Agricul- 
ture to control these occurrences. The species principally used has beeu D. 
imlictts Crrecu. hut a second species (near confums Cockerel!) has also been 
identified from material obtained from the same source. 

A sample of mealybugs taken from Opuntia uf&ggrifi Miller (=0. mona- 
cantha Haworrh of Black (194S)) at McLaren Flab March, 1956, was identified 
us Dot lylopius intlicus Green. This species was first used to control O. vulgaris 
in 1934, when a colony was obtained from Queensland (Auou., 1930, loc, clt.) 
and liberated upon a stand one-quarter mile long, which had originally been 
planted as a hedge. Within four years it had been completely killed (Tough. 
I93S, loc. dr.). Since that time, P. indicus has been distributed to other small 
localised escapes of O. vulgaris. 


Dactylopius .sp. (near confusu.s Coekerell, 1893) 

Material collected on Opuntia nwgacantlw Salm-Dyck from Yathia, Soiith 
Australia, March, 1956 (coll. G. Young), closely resembles D, confmus Coekerell 
as defined by Ferris (1955b). The original introduction was made with material 
obtained from the Commonwealth Prickly Pear Board, Queensland. 


The author is greatly indebted to Dr. Harold Morrison of the Insect Identi- 
fication and Parasite Introduction Section. Agricultural Research Service, United 
States Department of Agriculture, for identification oi the mealvlmg Pseudo- 
corrMfi malacr.arum Ferris. Mr. E. II, Zeck, Entomologist Department of Agri- 
culture, New South Wales, identified the diaspidid scale Quadmspidlolm 
ostreaeformis (Curtis). She would also like to acknowledge her appreciation 
of discussions with the following: Mr. A. Musgrave, Entomologist. Australian 
Museum, Sydney, on matters of nomenclature; Miss C. M. Eardley, Systematic 
Botanist University of Adelaide, identity of host-plants; Mr. D. T. Kilpatriek 
and Mr. II. E. Orchard of the South Australian Department of Agriculture, on 
field observations on some of the scale insects and on cochineal insects 



At,nidie!la orientalis (Newstead) on fruit of Ashnmu triloba Dunal (mwpaw) from Darwin 
Northern Territory, 194S- 

As)udh>tuu hederue (Vallot) on leaf of Mum paradisiaca L. var. sapientum Kuntze (b'm.ina) 
from Queensland. 

As}iidioLus Jwderuu (Vallol) tin loaf of Ashnina triloba from Queensland, 1950 

Chn/sornphalus ficus A.shmerui on fruit of Citrus sp. from Melville Jsl'-md Northern Terri- 
tory, 1950. 

Diasph bromeliaa (Kerner) on fruit of Ananas amiosus Men-, ('pineapple) from northern 
New South Wales, 1054. 

U'pklo.saphcs beckii (Newman) on fruit of Citrus limonia Osbeck (lemon) front Qu^easl u.J 
3948. J 

Lcpkbtsaphcs beckii (Newman) on fnu't of C. rtiiculata Blanco (mandarin) front Om-nis- 

lanci, 1048. 
Lepidosuphcs bvckii (Newman) on fruit of C. sinensis, Osbeek (orunat:) from Malta, 1953 
Lepidosaphes gtovcrd (Packard) on fruit of Citrus spp. from Darwin. 1950. 
Plu-itucuspte sp. on leaves and fruit of Manglfera imbca L. (mango) troui Darwin, 1949. 

family COCCI DAE 
Ccroplastt-s rubom Maskell on loaves of Citrus sp. from Victoria, 1048. 
Comts licsperidum Linn, on leaves of Citrus sp. from Alice Springs and Harrow Cronk 

Northern Territory, 1046. 
Comix hesperidnm Linn, on leaves of Firm carica Lfun. (fig) from Alice Springs, 19 1>J. 


IhfsmimccKx btvtipcs Cuekert-'H (- Pseud ococcm brevipes (Coekerell)) on fruit of Anumis 
comctsus Merx. from Magnetic. Island, Queensland, 1954. 


A\v>v., 1 010. Some common insect pests of fruit lives and vines in South Australia. l J urt 2 

J. Dep. of Agrie. S. Aust, 4tf (9), p. U40. 
Black, J. M, ? 1<MS. Fkuu of South Australia, Part 2 (see. esd.) ; p- 344. Omt. Friutej. 

T.ortiA*i, J. R t , 1955. Citrus red scale— a waniia« f . J, Dep, Agric, S. Aust. 50 (5) no. 

203-205. ' ' ' y 

Cockkiu-i.i, T. D. A., lSy?. The San lose softie and its nearest allies, U,S.1XA. 3 Div. Krvt.. 

Tech. Ser., 6. 

Ferris, G. F., 1937. Atlas of the scale insects of North America. Series 1, No. 76. Stanford 
Univ. Press, Cal. 

Ferris, G. F., 1950. Atlas of the scale insects of North America, 5, p, 17. 

Ferris, G. F., 1955a. Ibid., 7, pp. S, 69. 

Ferris, G. F., 1955b. Ibid., 7, p. 88. 

Froggatt, W. W., 1914a, Descriptive catalogue of the scale insects ("Coccidae") of Aus- 
tralia. Agric. Gaz. N.S.W., 25, p. 682. 

Froggatt, W. W., 1914b. Ibid., 25, p. 608. 

Froggatt, W. W., 1914c. Ibid., 25, p. 316. 

Gay, F. J., 1955. Common names of insects and allied forms occurring in Australia. C.S.I.R.O. 
Bull. 275. 

Green, E. E., 1904. The Coccidae of Ceylon, Part 3, p. 197. Dulau, London. 

LrDGETT, J., 1899. A catalogue of Australian Coccidae. Wombat 4 (3), pp. 37-64. 

Maskell, W. M., 1895. Synoptical list of Coccidae reported from Australasia and the 
Pacific Islands up to December, 1894. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 27, pp. 1-35. 

Maskell, W. M., 1896. Further coccid notes: with descriptions of new species and discus- 
sion of points of interest. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 28, p. 386, 

Simmonds, H. W., 1951. Observations on the biology and natural control of black scale of 
Citrus (Saissetia oleae Bern.) in South Australia. J. Dep. Agric. S. Aust., 54 (7), pp. 

Tryon, II., 1898. Pernicious or San Jose scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus Comstock). Qd. 
agric. J., 2 (6), pp. 494-510. 





Rocks of Archaeozoic, Proterozoic, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary ages outcrop in 
the area east of Deep Well, Northern Territory. Fault-folding (the term being used in Stille's sense) 
was favoured by the shallowness of the basement, and by the widespread occurrence of incompetent 
strata, which acted as semi-mobile material. Faults trending west-north-west, north and north-west 
are prominent. Thrust faults trending east-north-east occur in the central part of the area. The 
hydrogeological conditions of the area are discussed, the best rock type for the occurrence of 
subsurface water being Ordovician and Cambrian sandstones. 


J. Rade, MSc. 
[Road 12 July 1956] 


Rocks of Archaeozoic, Proterozoic, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary ages 
outcrop in the area east of Deep Well, Northern TWritory. Fault-folding {the term being 
used in SUlle's sense) was favoured by the shallowness of the basement, and by tin.- wide- 
spread occurrence of Incompetent- strata, which acted as semi-mobile material. Faults trending 
w^st-noi'th-wcst, north and north-west arc prominent. Thrust faults trending east-north-east 
occur in the central part of the area. The hydrogeologicul conditions of the area are dis- 
cussed, the best rock type for tire occurrence of subsurface water being Ordovieiaa and 
Cambrian sandstones. 


This paper deals with the urea cast of Deep Well, which is located approxi- 
mately 75 miles south-east of Alice Springs, Northern Territory. The area com- 
prises about 2,500 square miles, and is hounded on the east by the Hale River, 
and on the west by the Alice Springs-Port Augusta railway line. 

The country is composed in general of wide valleys separated by resistant 
ridges, the latter usually consisting of sandstone. The ridges in the southern 
part of the area arc separated by wide, sandy plains where many sand dunes 
have accumulated, representing the disintegration products of the surrounding 
ridges. These plains usually provide only poor grazing couutry for cattle. The 
limestones surrounding the prominent ridges in the central and northern parts 
of the area are much more easily removed by erosion, forming low ridges and 
plains which provide good grazing land. 


Formations of the following ages are encountered in the area; Pleistocene to 
Recent, Tertiary, Cretaceous, Ordovieian, Cambrian. Upper Proterozoic and 

1. Pleistocene to Recent 

The deposits on the. plains where the creeks have their flood-out areas* and 
river gravels, belong to the Quaternary Era. The sand dunes extensively de- 
veloped in the vicinity of the sandstone areas and covering the plains in the 
southern and south-eastern parts of the area arc Pleistocene and Recent. 

2. Tertiary 

Lateritic products are encountered in the area, but where the country is 
dissected by streams the laterite has been removed by erosion. Ferruginous 
material, representing lateritic products, fills the dominant fractures in the Cam- 
brian limestones 8 miles east-north-east of Deep Well, and in the Phillipson 
Creek area at St. Teresa Mission Station Eight miles east of Deep Well these 
fractures trend N 70° W, but in the Phillipson Creek area at St. Teresa Mission 
Station they strike north-south. 


3. Cretaceous 

The grey shales in the eastern part of die area are of Cretaceous age. They 
dip at less than 5° to the south. 

L Ordovician 

Madigan (1932, p. 81) observed the presence of whitish Ordovician sand- 
stones forming the northern and southern limbs of the anticline between Deep 
Well and Mary vale, The present author has found that the sandstone extends 
further east to Pulya Pulya Creek, where it is dislocated by faults, in a ridge 
miming east-west about 35 miles east of Deep Well the sandstone dips at 10° 
to the south. Apart from w T ormtraeks, no fossils have been found in it. The 
sandstone is classified as Ordovician only on lithological and stratigraphical 
grounds, tbe lithology being very characteristic of Ordovician sediments in 
oth^r parts of Central Australia. 

5. Cambrian 

The Cambrian is represented by the following rock types in descending 

Limestones, with intercalations of shales, in places intricately drag-folded as 
incompetent beds between competent sandstone layers. 

Purple sandstones and conglomeratic sandstones forming the prominent 
ridges of the area. During folding these beds acted as competent layers. Most 
of them are strongly disturbed by faults and only scattered remnants of them 
are left in the area, mainly ia the central part The same sandstone occupies a 
larger area in the northern part of the area south of the Todd River, where it 
is horizontal or only slightly folded. 

6. L'ppek Proterozoic 

The Upper Proterozoic rocks consist of the following, in descending order: 
Limestones ami clolvmitic limestones. Collenia was found in these IS miles 
east-north-east of Deep Well. 

Heavitree Quartzitcu which overlies the Archeozoic rocks in the eastern part 
of the area at Hale Kiver. There it is partly represented by quart/itic sand- 
stones with gritty bands. These include purplish bands, and in appearance 
resemble tie Cambrian sandstones. However, dicir quartzitic habit and their 
stratigraphie position — almost horizontally overlying the Archeozoic rocks with 
strong angular unconformity — suggest that they arc of Proterozoic age. The 
angular unconformity between the Upper Proterozoic and the Archeozoic can 
be observed very well in the canyon-like river valley 78 miles east-north-cast 
of Deep Well Upper Proterozoic rocks partly foiui the tilted sides of the 
Archacozoic block occurring in the eastern part of the area. 

7. Amchaeozoic 

A block of Archacozoic schists protrudes into the eastern part of the area 
at Hale River: the block trends south-east, and has been affected by vertical 
epeirogenetic movements which are discussed in the nnxt section. 


The area described belongs to the Amadous Ceosyncline. Partial regenera- 
tion of geosynclinul conditions'ticcurred here during the Upper Proterozoic, when 
the Amadeus Oeosyncline was filled with shallow water deposits showing distinct 
cycles of sedimentation. . 

The Taeonic phase of the Caledonian orogeny terminated deposition m the 
"eosyucline, The orogeny was there gcrmanotype, and no igneous intrusion 
occurred. The author has detected fault-folding of the type described by Still© 
in the urea. This was caused by the following factors: 


1. A shallow, rigid and possibly faulted basement; 

2. The occurrence of technically weak incompetent beds intercalated with 
competent beds. The incompetent beds permitted intense folding and 
Sliding, and tlie competent beds favoured strong faulting. 

The presence of a shallow and rigid basement underlying the central part 
of the area east of Deep Well is indicated by the considerably smaller thicknesses 
Of the Cambrian purple sandstone with conglomeratic sandstone at its base than 
« found Jn the northern part of the area. It is clear that the water of the 
.shallow Cambrian sea was more agitated in the middle part of the area, which 
would aamint lor the conglomeratic character and the smaller thickness of the 
Cambrian purple sandstone there. The same is true for the Upper Proterozoie 
limestones, which in this area contain many sbaJe us well as sandstone inter- 
calations. 'Phis indicates the quickly changing character of the deposits, such 
as commonly happens in very shallow seas. ErBiii Ihe above it can be concluded 
that the Cambrian sea was very shallow in (he central part of the area as a result 
of the shallow basement. The very shallow basement explains the fault-foldiug 
which is seen paitieularly well in the middle part of the area. During the 
fault-folding the Upper Protero"/oic Ilcavitree Quartette, the Cambrian purple 
sandstone and the Ordovician sandstone acted as competent beds, with the lime- 
stones and interbedded shales which form the upper parts of the Upper Pro- 
terozoic and Cambrian deposits in the area acting as incompetent beds. 

It is known that the salt deposits belonging to the Permian Zechstein played 
an important role in the Saxonian fault-lolding in Germany, where the author 
has had an opportunity of investigating it closely. There the salt deposits formed 
a highly mobile material. It is clear thai die incompetent limestones interhcdtled 
with shales have played a somewhat analogous part in the fault-foldinu in the 
Amadeus Geosyncline oast ol Deep Well, forming a semi-mobile material 

It may be mentioned that Hills (1946, p, 77) has already suggested the possi- 
bility of fault-folding in Stille's sense in Central Australia. The present author 
has proved its existence in the Amadous Geosvncline in the area east of Deep 

The area mapped can be divided into three districts according to the type of 
folds encountered, as follows: 

(1) The western and southern portion from the Alice Springs-Port Augusta rail- 
way hue to the Todd River, where folding along an east-north-cast axis is 
found. A syncline is located north-north-east of Deep Well, and a small 
faulted anticline approximately 17 miles north-east of Deep Well, The 
main, strongly distuihed anticline which dominated this part of the area 
is located south-east of Deep Well. Its core is formed mainly of Upper 
Proterozoie and Cambrian rocks, and its northern and southern limbs of 
Ordovician sandstone. The Cambrian purple conglomeratic sandstone acted 
in the folding as competent beds : and the Cambrian and Upper Proterozoie 
limestones as ^competent beds. This applies especially to the CamlHan 
limestones where they were intricately folded, as is well seen about 20 
n i tics cast of Deep Well. 

(2) The eastern part of the area Mrrvimding the Archaeozoic block tit Hair 
River. The geological history of this area began with the epciro^enetic 
uplirt ui the Archaeozoic block, because of its vertical uplift, this block 
has played an important role in the folding and faulting processes of the 
area. The folds exhibited in the eastern part of the area trend smith-south- 
Bftfe and therefore at right angles to the main trend uf the folds iu the 
western and southern parts of the area. The folds surrounding the Archueo- 
voie block at Hate Hiver are parallel to the margins of the block, and it is 
clear that they were caused by the vertical uplift of the block. Similar 

foiling lias already been describe by Vonsey (1939, p. 170) on the eastern 
margin, of the Macdonnell Banjos, and aeconliug to Hills (1946, p. 76) it is 
characteristic of uplifted blocks in Central Australia. It may be men- 
tinned that Condon, Johnstone and Perry (1958, p, 34), discussing the 
folding of the .strata at Cape Range, Western Australia, consider the cpeiro- 
genetic uplift of the Australian stable block as being one possible explana- 
tion ol the folding phenomena encountered at Cape Range* 
(3) The vritklle of the northern part of the area,, where roughly meridionally 
etuugatcd Hat domes and basins are found south of Todd IUver. There 
structures are affected by faults originating in the epeirogenetic uplift of the 
An haeozoie block at Hale River, 

'Ihe author assumes that compressive forces in the Aniadeus Ceosyneline 
acted in it noith-south direction and were not active in an cast-west directum, 
II is clear that ihc Hat elongated Homes and basins originated because the north- 
snutb compression in the Amadeus Gcosynchne was hindered by the rigid 
concave frame of the southern margin of the Aiuntfl complex, The southtnn 
part of this frame was formed by the Arehacozoie block at Hale River. Such 
doming is a characteristic effect where folding forces encounter arcuate frames. 
Tin- following CAM be taken as examples of such domal features in Central 

(i) The Ordovician dome of the Gosse's Range, 100 miles west of Alice 

Springs, on the northern margin of the Amadeus Ceosyneline. In this 

case the rigid frame is the southern margin of the Arunta shield, which 

is COncaVe against the Amadeus Ceosyneline. 
( It) The basin structure at Wauchope, 78 miles south-east of Tennant Creek. 

discovered by Sullivan (1.952. p. 15). Wauchope is situated in the. 

Warrumunga Ceosyneline; the concave, rigid, southern margin of the 

Sturtian Block lying to the north hindered the folding, causing the 

formation of basin structures. 


Very strong faulting is exhibited in the area, which the author refers partly 
tQ the fault-folding. In the western part ot the area, two sets of faults are 
dominant, one trending slightly north of west and the other roughly north-south. 
The fust set is arranged partly en echelon. 

The central part of die area is characterised by thrust-faults trending east- 
north-east, which are responsible for the repetition of the Cambrian sandstones 
and Ihc thrusting of the Upper Troterozoie limestones over them. 

The eastern part of the area is characterised by long north-west trending 
faults which the author believes to be closely connected with the vertical uplift 
of tiro Arehaeozoie block on the eastern margin of the area. These faults call 
for further description, The Arehaeozoie block has suffered repeated vertical 
uplifts; pari of the evidence lor this is the tilting of the Upper Profero/nic 
quartzites on its margins. The north west treudiug faults are parallel to the up- 
lifted block, and have the greatest length and horizontal displacement of any 
of the faults in the area; they can lie traced as far as 34 miles south-west of 
the block. The fault which is closest to the western margin of the Arehaeozoie 
bluckon the map area arid which partly separates it from the younger formations 
le> the. south-west probably trends approximately along Pulya i J ulya Creek; this 
is inferred from the strata found to the west of the creek. The next north-west 
trending fault towards the south-west runs along the Todd River, and shows 
horizontal displacement. This fault is of considerable length, and its north- 
western continuation is found in the northern part of the area, where Upper 
Proterozoie limestones and Cambrian purple sandstones are displaced. The most 


distant fault of the set lies 34 miles south-west of the Archaeozoic block and 
displaces the Upper Proterozoie, Cambrian and Ordovieian rocks 44 miles east- 
north-east of Deep Well. 


Three main factors govern the hydrogeologieal conditions in the area east of 
Deep Well: 

1) Topographic relief; 

2) Type of rock 

(u) Its influence on the water stored along the bedding; 
(b) Storage capacity governed by porosity and fracturing; 
(3) Geological structure. 

The topographic relief plays an important part in determining the quality 
of the water. In mountainous areas the run-off is quick and the quality is good, 
bril hi plain country the water tends to be salty, In the mapped area in the 
vicinity of Todcl River the water is salty; for example, that in the Bulldust bore, 
50 miles north-east of Deep Well, carries 13,414 parts per million of total solids, 
while that in the Soakage bore, 1 mile south of Bulldust bore, eontains about 
18,000 parts per million of total solids. 

Water with a high total solids content is found in the Cambrian limestones, 
where shale intercalations in the limestones form an obstacle to the free circu- 
lation of the water and favours "salting". Bores' in these limestones are charac- 
terised by their sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate content. 

Water in the widespread Upper Proterozoic limestones is suitable for stuck; 
for example, the water iu Twin bore, 43 miles north-east of Deep Well on the 
Todd River block, contains 1,934 parts per million of total .solids. 

The Ordovieian and Cambrian sandstones are of great practical value 3n the 
area because they are characterised by large storage capacities and good quality 
water; the former supplies good drinking water, and the latter good stock water. 

The geological structure is important in determining the yield of bores*, it 
is sigm*6cant that those bores which are located in the gaps due to faulting Of 
the resistant Cambrian purple sandstone give a good yield; this is because" the 
creeks How along the shattered fault zones and replenish the water supply iu 
the sandstones. The Phillipson Creek stock- route bore No. 1, 15 miles east- 
north-east of Deep Well, is an example of this type of bore; it is 122 feet deep 
and yielded 12,000 gallons per hour, with a total solids content of 2,972 parts 
per million. It is drilled in a faulted gap of Cambrian purple conglomeratic 

The bore drilled for Allambi Station, 20 miles east-south-east of Deep Well. 
provides an example of water with a high content of total solids; it contains 
21,336 parts per million and cannot be used for stock since its total solids 
content is twice as great as the allowable maximum in the Northern Territory, 
viz., 10,000 parts per million. The "bore lies oil the northernmost boundary of 
the great plains ol the Simpson Desert, and is drilled in Cambrian limestones. 
The quality of its water is determined by two factors, the topographic relief, 
and the formation of the rock. 

The following analysis, kindly supplied by the Animal Industry Division, 
Alice Springs, Northern Territory, indJcales the quality of the water found in 
the various formations: 


RESULTS IN PARTS PER MILLION* 6250 p.p.m. = approx. 1 oz. pe 

v gallon. 





Hardness {Calculated as CaC0 3 ) 

Hardness Total 




Hardness Temporary 




Hardness Permanent 




Free Alhall (Calculated 'as CaCC).,) 









1 080 


Fluoride ^ - , . . + . * 

1 30 

1 08 






65 . . 











Magnesium . . . . . . 




Silica. Iron, and Aluminium Oxides 




Total Dissolved Solids 





Hypothetical Compounds 

{Results in parts per million) . . 

Calcium Bicarbonate 




Magnesium Bicarbonate* 


Calcium Sulphate 



Magnesium Sulphate 




Sodium Sulphate 


Magnesium Chloride 



Sodium Chloride 




app. 12,000 

I'ottas-ium Chloride 


►Sodium Fluoride 




Silica, Iron and Aluminium Oxides 




Total Salts 2972 



L Phi I Upson Stock Route Bore No. 1. located 15 miles east- north-east of Deep Well, 122 feel. 

dee}), drilled in Cumbrian purple sandstone. Water for analysis received on 0/2/1954. 
•2. Alova Bore, 55 miles north-oast of Deep Well on Todd River Block. The here is 92 ft. deep 

and drilled in the Cambrian sandstone. Water for analysis received on Ij 1 2(l9oZ. 

3. Twin Bore, located 43 miles east -north -east of Deyp Well on Todd River Block. The bore is 
96 ft. deep and drilled in Upper Proterozoic limestones. Water for analvais received on 7/9/1903. 

4. Bore, located on Allambi Station. 20 miles cast-south-east of l>ep Well. Water for analvsis 
received on 20/10/1953. 


Condon, M. A,, Johnstone, D., Pebbv, W. J t , 1953. 'The Cape Range Structure, Western 

Australia" Bur. Min. Res. Bull. No. 21, Part 1. 
If ills, R. S., 1946. "Some* Aspects of the Tectonics of Australia", T- noy. Soc. N.S.W., Vol. 

79, p. 07. 
NUmGAN, C. T., 1932. "The Oology of the Macdoimell Ranges and Neighbourhood, Central 

Australia", Rep. Aqafe Ass. Adv. Sci., 21, 75. 
Suli.tvan. C, 1., 1952. "Wnuchope Wolfram Field, Northern Territory*', Bur. Min. Res. Bui. 

No, 4, 
VVusky. A. II.. 1939. "A Contribution to the Geology ol the Eastern Macdojuiell Ranges 

(Central Austria)'', J, Roy. Soc, N.S.W., Vol. 72, p. 160. 

J. Rade 

Plate 1 


Fig. 1. —Cambrian purple sandstones in the northern portion of the area 44 miles north-east of Deep Well. 

Fig. 2.— Ordovician sandstones, 36 miles ENE of Deep Well. 

Fig. 3.— Upper Proterozoic limestones and Cambrian purple sandstones (in the background), 30 miles NE of 

Deep Well. 

E § 




by P. M. Mawson* 

With text figures 1-26 

[Read 12 July 1956] 


A full account is given of Anticoma similis Cobb, hitherto insufficiently described; Proon- 
cholaimus megastoma (Eberth) is re-described; new records and additional descriptions are 
given of Polygastrophora hexahulha ( Filipjev ) , Halichoanolaimus robastus ( Bastian ) , 
H. avails Ditlevsen, and Spiliphera dolichura de Man; new species proposed are Metoncho- 
laimus brevispiculum and Steineria pulchra. 

The marine freeliving nematodes of Australia have hardly been investigated 
up to the present. The only records are those by Cobb (1890, 1893, 1898) and 
Allgen (1929, 1951), apart from a short recent paper by the present author 
(1953). It is proposed to describe the local species from time to time as suffi- 
cient specimens of each become available. The majority of those described 
below are from inter-tidal levels, a few from material washed up by storms. All 
the places mentioned are in St. Vincent's Gulf, with the exception of Encounter 
Bay, which is on the South Coast. 

Anticoma similis Cobb 

Figs. 1-4 
Cobb, 1898, 383, Sydney. 
de Man, 1904, 13, Tierra del Fuego. 
Allgen, 1930, 248, Staten Island (Tierra del Fuego). 
Micoletzky, 1930, 24, Sundra Island. 
Allgen, 1951, 330, Port Juckson. 

In South Australia, from the Outer Harbour, on wharf piles ( sublittoral ) , 
and Brighton beach, on sponges, etc., cast up by the tide after a storm. 

9 (5x) L 1-5-1-8 mm.; a 30-7-34-8;/? 4-3-5-1; v 5-9-7-5; V 42-45-5 p.c. 

i (2x) L 1-5-1-65 mm.; a 31-7-47; ft 4-7; y 7-5-7-8. 

In spite of the list of records given above, this species is not well known. 
The descriptions given by Cobb and by Micoletsky are unfigured and of 
females only; that of de Man is of a juvenile of which only the tail is drawn; 
Allgen describes briefly females and juveniles from Staten Island, and records 
without drawing or description males and females from Port Jackson in "Aus- 
tralia (Type locality). 

It was suggested by Wieser (1953, 16) that the species may be a synonym 
of A. acuminata. It is certainly very close to that species and to A. profunda, 
.differing from the former in the shorter absolute length of the spicule, the longer 
tail (measured in anal diameters), and rather shorter cephalic setae, and from 
the latter in the position of the preanal organ, in the more forward position of 
the excretory pore and amphicl, and in the slightly shorter cephalic setae (mea- 
sured in cephalic diameters). These differences are all very slight, and it is 
probable that when further data is to hand the two species, and probably some 
others, may be synonymised. 

University of Adelaide. 


The lips are quite distinct, but labial papillae were not seen. The cephalic 
setae are all of nearly equal length, a little less than the head breadth. The 
slit-like amphids are wider in male than in female ( a third and a quarter of the 
head breadth respectively). The cephalic setae are half a head breadth from 
the anterior end, and the amphid one head breadth. The row of five to six 
cervical setae extends for 6-10/a, and the most anterior is about 2*8-3 head 
breadths from the anterior end; the setae are not all of the same length, 
the longest being 4/a. 

Plate 1. 
Figs. 1-4.— Anticoma similis. 1 and 2, head, lateral and ventral views. 3, male tail. 
4, female tail. Fig. 5—Polygastrophora hexabulba, head. Figs. 1, 2 and 5 to same scale. 

Figs. 3 and 4 to same scale. 

The excretory pore lies at the same level as the amphid or slightly behind 
it, and opens on a slight elevation of the cuticle. The ventral gland reaches to 
the posterior end of the oesophagus. The female tail tapers very gradually, the 
posterior half is cylindrical and the whole length 8-4-9 anal breadths. The 
male tail tapers rapidly just behind the anus then more gradually, its whole 
length 6-6 • 6 anal breadths; there is a very slight terminal swelling in both sexes. 
The spicules are 30-38/j, long (equal to the anal breadth), with narrowed proximal 
ends. The gubernaculum is 15-20/x long; the preanal organ is 10/a long, and 
lies about 1-3 anal breadths in front of the anus. 

Polygastrophora hexabulba (Filipjev, 1918) 
Fig. 5 

From wharf pile at Outer Harbour, jetty pile at Brighton, and among algae, 
etc., from reefs at Pt. Willunga and Pt. Noarlunga, and in algae washed up on 
beach at Brighton. 

$ L 3-8-6 mm.; a 45-58; /3 5-5-7; y 24-28; V 52-56 p.c. 

The species agrees in all essentials with earlier descriptions. The main 


dimensions are as follows: the cephalic setae are nearly half of the cephalic 
diameter and the amphids a sixth of the corresponding body breadth. The 
labial papillae are setiform. The buccal capsule is 23-26/a long, and the teeth 
extend to within a third of this from the mouth. The ocular pigment is formed 
of six longitudinal components and is most strongly developed at the anterior 
end of the oesophagus, near which are the lenticulate bodies. 

The excretory pore is at about the same level, or anterior to, the amphids, 
although the "ampulla" lies more than twice the length of the buccal capsule 
behind the anterior end. The eggs are 160-200/* by 80-90/x. The tail is 4-2-5-2 
times the anal breadth. 

Prooncholaimus megastoma (Eberth) 
Figs. 6-8 

From wharf piles, Outer Harbour, sublittoral. 
$ (2x) L 2-7 mm.; a 27; /3 5-7-6-3; y 21. 
9 (2X ) L 3-1-4-2 mm.; a 29-35; £ 7-8-7; y 17-21; V 74-77 p.c. 

Prooncholaimus megastoma, originally described by Eberth (1863, 26) was 
partly re-described, without drawings, by Micoletsky from various places in 
the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Schuurmans Stekhoven (1943, 6; 
1943, 343 ) proposed a new species, P. mediterraneus, for his own specimens from 
Alexandria, and placed Micoletsky's P. megastoma as a synonym of this, giving 
as the distinction from Eberth's types a greater size in the new species. A copy 
of Eberth's paper is not available to me. Micoletsky quotes the length of 
Eberth's specimen as 5-6 mm.; Schuurmans Stekhoven quotes them as 5-9 mm. 

P. aransis Chitwood (1951, 626) is very close to P. megastoma and is sepa- 
rated from it by the shortness of the gubernaculum. 

The proportions given by Micoletsky, Chitwood and Stekhoven are close 
together, and those of the South Australian specimens agree in some points 
with one, in some with another. The main points are given in the table below. 
Spicule length and anal breadth are expressed as percentages of the tail length, 
the width at end of the tail as percentage of anal breadth, and the gubernaculum 
as a fraction of the spicule length. In the South Australian specimens the 
proximal part of the gubernaculum is thinner than the distal part, so that it 
was only after close inspection that its total length was realised. 

Table L 


P. megastoma 

P. mediterraneus 


P. aransas 


P. megastoma 





South Australia 

Length^ (?) 
a <? (?) 

PS (?) 
y o* (?) 




2-26(— ) 













spicule length 
anal br. $ (?) 
br. tip tail 6* (?) 









Metoncholaimus brevispiculum n. sp. 

Figs. 9-12 

Brighton, on jetty piles among Galleolaria caespitosa and algae. 

$ (6X) L 2-8-3-3 mm.; a 34-48; p 5-3-6-3; y 17-19. 

2 (7x) L 3-4-7-4 mm.; a 33-39; f3 5-5-6-4; y 17-5-19; V 66-71 p.c. 

The six lips are deeply separated, each with a small labial papilla. The 
ten cephalic setae are short, about 1/6-1/7 of the head breadth. The amphid 
is between a quarter and a fifth of the corresponding body diameter, and lies 



Plate 2. 

Figs. 6-8.—Prooncholaimus megastorna. 6, head, lateral view. 7, female tail. 8, 

male tail. Figs. 9-12.— Metoncholaimus brevispiculum. 9, head, lateral view. 10, 

male tail. 11, female tail. 12, posterior end of female. Figs. 7, 11 and 12 to same 

scale; Figs. 8 and 10 to same scale. 

level with the midlength of the buccal capsule. The buccal capsule, more heavily 
chitinised and somewhat narrower in the posterior half, is 35-40/* long and 
20-25/a wide in the anterior part. The dorsal tooth and one subventral reach 


just anterior to the middle, and the other subventral to about three-quarters, of 
the length of the buccal capsule. The excretory pore lies between 1-5-2 times 
the length of the buccal capsule from the anterior end. 

The unshelled eggs are 110 X 50/i, the shelled ones 120-150/a X 60-70/*. The 
two external openings of the demanian system are somewhat dorsal, 130-140/* 
in front of the anus, in which region the body is distinctly constricted; the 
uvette (or rosette organ) about twice this distance from the anus, is an ampulla, 
as figured by Cobb (1930) for Oncholaimium appendiculatum, and simpler than 
that of Metoncholaimus pristiurus; the osmosium is about 400^ from the anus. 
Cobb (loc. cit.) observed that a demanian system is apparently less prevalent 
among Oncholaims living in thoroughly oxygenated water; this species is an 
exception to this, as the worms occurred on the part of the piles exposed only 
at low spring tides and below this, in clear unpolluted water on a sandy bottom. 

The tail of the female is about 4-2-5 times the anal breadth, tapering in 
the proximal half, cylindrical in the distal, with a slightly enlarged tip. The 
male tail is 4-4-5 times the anal breadth; the body narrows sharply at the anus, 
the proximal third of the tail is tapering, and the rest cylindrical with slightly 
swollen tip as in the female. There is a slight papilliform thickening of the 
cuticle of the anterior lip of the anus, associated with some subcuticular develop- 
ment, but without setae. The two rows of small submedian setae, 5 preanal and 
3 postanal, are not seen except under high power. The spicules are 40-45/x long, 
only a little more than the anal breadth. They are straight and tapering. A 
small gubernaculum 12fi long is seen in some specimens. 

This new species is the Enoploid found in the greatest numbers on the Brighton 
jetty piles. Only females with eggs in the uterus (not necessarily shelled), but 
males of varying development, were measured. The species is assigned to the 
genus Metoncholaimus because of the presence of a single ovary associated with 
a complex demanian system, and the type of tooth arrangement, one subventral 
and the dorsal being equal in length and shorter than the other ventral. The 
spicules, however, are shorter than in other species, reaching only a quarter of 
the tail length. In this character and in the form of the demanian system, the 
species resembles those of the genus Oncholaimium, from which, however, it is 
sharply differentiated by the absence of a mid-ventral caudal papillae in the 
male. It is distinguished from other Metoncholaimus spp. by the shortness of 
the spicules. 

Genus Steineria Micoletsky, 1921 

Micoletsky proposed Steineria as a subgenus of Monhystera to include M. 
polychaeta Steiner 1915, M. pilosa Cobb 1914, and M. horrida Steiner 1915. His 
diagnosis of the genus is brief, little more distinction being made than that there 
are very numerous setae (36-40) at the anterior end. No species is selected 
as the type of the subgenus, the three being quoted in the order given above. 
Stekhoven and Coninck in 1933 elevated Steineria to the level of a genus, and 
added S. setosissima (Cobb), syn. Monhystera setosissima Cobb 1893, and a 
new species, S. mirabilis. They stated that Steineria is "characterised" by its 
distinct 8-fold symmetry in the distribution of labial and cephalic setae", and 
therefore exclude Monhystera horrida Steiner as it possesses a 6-fold symmetry. 
They also stated that Steineria setosissima becomes the type species of the 
genus, presumably as it was described earlier than any of the others ascribed 
to the genus. The validity of this is, however, doubtful, as the species was not 
mentioned by Micoletsky in his account of Steineria. More recently, Gerlach 
(1951) re-described S. mirabilis, from fresh material and finds that the labial and 
cephalic setae are a symmetry of six while those further back, nuchal setae, 
are in one of eight. Gerlach added at the same time a new species, S. poly- 
chaetoides, and in 1955 (pp. 294, 296), two more new species, S. paramirahilis 
and S. punctata, and in all of these a similar condition is present. 


In descriptions of all the species, if labial papillae are mentioned, there are 
six, setiform or'papilliform. In most descriptions the cephalic and nuchal setae 
are, collectively referred to as cephalic setae, and usually as occurring in a 
symmetry of eight However, in the figures given of S. pilosa and S. polychaeta 
there is a ring of setae which are anterior to or on a level with the anterior most 
nuchal setae, or which are out of line, in a longitudinal sense, with these, one 
set being distinctly lateral instead of sublateral; it seems at least possible that 
these are the true cephalic setae and that they are in six groups. These species 
would then agree with S. horrida, S. mirabilis, S. polychaetoides, S. paramirabilis, 
S. punctata, and S. pulchra n. sp. & 

S. polychaeta was the first in the list given by Micoletsky of species belong- 
ing to his subgenus, and so might strictly be regarded as being the type species. 
No figure is given by Cobb cf S. setosissima, and the description of the setae 
at the anterior end is ambiguous. 

B, G. Chitwood (1950, 65, fig. 60, 11, JJ) describes Steineria as having 
an internal circle of 6 papillae and an external circle of 10 or 12 setae according 
to the species, as well as numerous somatic setae grouped anteriorly in eight 
longitudinal rows, 4 submedian and 4 sublateral. Chitwood's original drawings 
are of "Steineria sp", locality not given. 

Gerlach (1955) describes additional cephalic setae in the male (as in the 
new species described below), and his figures show these arranged somewhat 
as in Chitwood's figure of Steineria sp. 

A key to the species so far allotted to the genus is given. In it the question 
of symmetry is ignored, distinctions being made on other characters. For con- 
venience the labial sense organs are referred to as lso, the nuchal setae as ns, 
the body setae as bs, caphalic setae as cs, and cephalic diameter as cd. 

1. Setae other than ns, absent on body 2 

Body setae present 3 

2. Length cs less than half cd; lso papilliform S. horrida 

Length cs nearly equal to cd; lso setiform S. pulchra 

3. Length bs more than 4 X body width S. mirabilis 

Length bs less than 2 X body width 4 

4. Centre of amphid about 2 X cd from anterior end 5 

Centre of amphid 1-5 X cd or less from anterior end 6 

5. p 6-2; spic. 56/x long: gub. 2/3 spic. L S. setosissima 

P 3-9-4-3; spic. 23-24/.*; gub. about % spic. L S. paramirabilis 

6. Longest ns 2-5-3 X cd; lso setiform S. pilosa 

Longest ns 1 ■ 5-2 X cd; lso papilliform 6 

7. Cuticle with transverse rows of punctations S. punctata 

Cuticle finely striated 8 

8. Amphids 1/2-3 of cd S. polychaeta 

Amphids % cd S. polyclmetoides 

Steineria pulchra n. sp. 

Figs. 13-16 

From weeds on a jetty pile. Outer Harbour, and among holdfasts of Hormo- 
sira sp. and Ulva- sp., Encounter Bay. 

a (2X) L 1-9 mm.; a 19, 24; p 5-1, 4*2; y 6-6, 8-2. 

$ (2X)L 1-5, 2-17 mm.; a 23, 31; £3-8,4-3; y 6-2, 7-4; V 66 p.c, 67 p.c. 
J (3X) L 0-85-1-85 mm.; a 28-3; p 6-3-6-8; y 4-15-4-6 (?). 

e When this paper was read the author had not seen the description of S. parapolychaeta 
Gerlach 1953, nor a discussion of the genus Steineria by Wieser 1953, 74, in which two new 
species S. cobbi and S. pectinata are added; Wieser considers the genus should be redefined 
and exludes S. horrida and S. mirabilis. Wieser also, erroneously, quotes S. setosissima as the 


The cuticle is ringed, without setae except near head, at tip of tail and 
on male tail. The head bears six lips each with a 4/a long setiform papilla, and 
six pairs of cephalic setae, the longer of each pair 20>, the shorter about 2/3 this 
length. Behind this are nuchal setae arranged in eight longitudinal rows, in 
sublateral and submedian positions. In each of these rows the three (sub- 
median) or four (sublateral) setae are long and stout, and increase in length 
from before backwards, the anterior ones being about 50-60/x, the posterior 
75-80^. Behind these in each row are two more shorter setae separated from 
them by a short distance in the sub-median rows and a rather longer space in 
the sublateral. In the two male specimens there is also a short, slender seta in 
each row in front of the stout setae. Submedian and sublateral setae are of 
similar lengths in corresponding positions. 


Plate 3. 

Figs. 13-16.— Steineria pidchra. 13 and 14, lateral views of heads of female and male 
respectively. 15, female tail. 16, male tail. Figs. 13 and 14 to same scale. 

The buccal capsule is wide and unarmed, with a narrow undulating cuticu- 
larised ring around its base. The circular amphid is 9-10^ in diameter in the 
male, 7/a in the female, these being a quarter and a fifth of the corresponding 
head width respectively. It lies just behind the longest nuchal setae, except 
in one male in which it is a little more anterior. 

The nerve rings surrounds the oesophagus at a third of its length from the 
anterior end. The excretory pore was not seen. 

The tail tapers in the anterior 2/3, the distal third is cylindrical with a 
swollen tip bearing two pairs of strong setae. The tail is 4*6-5-2 X the anal 
breadth in the male, 5-8-6 X in the female. The male tail bears on the sub- 
ventral surface numerous long, slender hairs. In front of the anus are three 


median papilliform preanal organs, between them several slender setae. The 
stoutly built spicules are 60> long, with expanded proximal ends; the guber- 
nacular pieces are rather more than half this length, and are of similar shape. 
This form of the gubernacula differs from that described for most other Steineria 
spp., as there is no backward prolongation. 

The species is closest to S. horrida, from which it differs in several small 
features. As S. horrida is known from females only, a complete comparison is 
not possible. The South Australian specimens are now considered as represent- 
ing a new species. The collection of more material of both species may widen 
the diagnosis of each and bridge the gap between them. 

Spiliphera dolichura de Man, 1893 

Figs. 17-21 
From Port Willunga among coralline algae (lower littoral) and Brighton 
among algae washed up after storm. 

S (4X) L 1-4-1-7 mm.; a 26-6-35; £ 7-8-2; y 2-7-3-6 (?). 
$ (5x) L0-85-l-9mm.;a28-3-33-3; / 86-5-8-5; 7 3-4-4-6 (?); V39-4-53p.c. 
These specimens are small, stout worms with a long filiform tail. The 
cuticle bears coarse punctations; slender setae are borne in submedian positions 
throughout the body length, and are more numerous, and longer, in the oesopha- 
geal region and on the male tail. Labial papillae were not observed. The six 
setae in the first cephalic ring are about Sfx long, the four submedian setae just 
behind these are 3Q> long. Just behind the amphids are four pairs of slightly shorter 
setae (25/*.) in submedian positions, the most anterior of the body setae. The 
amphids are transversely oval, in VA turns. 



Plate 4. 

Figs. 17-21.— Spilif era dolichura. 17, oesophageal region. 18, head, dorsal view. 
19, female tail. 20, male tail. 21, spicule. Figs. 17 and 20 to same scale; Figs. 

18 and 21 to same scale. 

The anterior cup-shaped part of the buccal capsule is 12/a in diameter, 7/a 
deep, and is followed by a strongly chitinised more or less funnel-shaped part 
embedded in the anterior end of the oesophagus, and with one large dorsal and 
two shorter lateral, teeth at its base. The anterior slightly wider part of the 
oesophagus in which the structure is more homogenous, has a strong cuticular 


The anal breadth of the male is 40-45/a, the spicule length 30-35/x. Close 
examination of these males, in which the spicules are very clear does not bear 
out de Mans interpretation of the shape of the spicular apparatus. What he 
called the gubernaculum, a lateral flange ending distally in an enlarged half 
funnel, appears to be a part of the spicule itself. It was not possible, however, 
to get a ventral view of the apparatus. 

The females contained but a single egg, the largest of these was 60 X 26/x. 

The measurements and morphology of these South Australian specimens are 
comparable with those described by de Man; the greatest difference is in the 
greater length of the first paired post-amphidial setae; this is the main difference 
also between them and those recorded by Wieser from the coast of Chile (Wieser 
1954, 117). The species is widespread, having been recorded from the North 
Sea (de Man 1893, 94); the Mediterranean (de Rouville 1903, ?; Allgcn 1942, 
48); Pacific coast of Chile (Wieser 1954, 117); Tierra del Fuego (Aiken 1930, 
29), Campbell Is. (Allgen 1932, 126), Kerguelen Is. (private record, unpub- 
lished), South Australia (above). 

Halichoanolaimus robustus (Bastian) 

Figs. 22-23 

From wharf piles, Outer Harbour, among weeds, etc. Sublittoral. 

9 (6x) L 2-2-3-3 mm.; a 25-30; f3 5-7-7; y 17-30 (?); V (5x) 44-52 p.c; 
(IX) 63 p.c. 

Plate 5. 

Figs. 22-23. —Halichoanolaimus robustus. 22, anterior end, lateral view. 23, female 

tail Figs. 24-26— H. ovalis. 24, head, lateral view. 25, female tail. 26, male tail. 

Figs. 24, 25 and 26 to same scale. 


Six female worms are referred to this cosmopolitan species; the measure- 
ments and appearance correspond with those assigned to the species by other 
authors. There is also a close resemblance to H. hinemoae Ditlevsen 1930 from 
New Zealand, and it is possible that this species is a synonym of H. robustus. 

The exact position of the anus is in doubt in many of the specimens. The 
oesophagus and anterior part of the intestine are heavily pigmented. The habit 
of the worms is to lie in one or two coils, so they are readily picked out, living 
or in pickle, by their appearance, This pigment was mentioned by Bastian. 

Halichoanolaimus ovalis Ditlevsen, 1921 

Figs. 24-26 

From limestone reef near Edithburg, in sand pockets among Zostera sp. 
$ (7x) L 3-35-4-2 mm.; a 21-2-28; p 6-3-7; y 20-28. 
9 (2X) L 3-6-4-35 mm.; a 24-24*1; p 6-7-6-8; y 18-25-6; V 51-52. 
Ditlevsen 1921, 8 (Auckland Island): 
(2X) L 1-8 mm.; a 18; ,3 7-5; y ?. 
Allgen 1928, 271 (Campbell Island): 

(2x) L 1-3 mm.; a 17-3;^ 5-2; y 7-2. 

It will be seen from the measurements given above that the South Australian 
specimens assigned to Halichoanolaimus ovalis are larger than those from the 
Auckland and Campbell Islands. They also differ in having fewer spirals in the 
amphid, and the absence of any great degree of pigmentation in the alimentary 
canal. The male differs from that described by Allgen in the shape of the tail 
and y value. In spite of these points, the similarity in shape and proportions 
between these and those described by Ditlevsen is so great that they are referred 
to the same species. 


Allgen, G-, 1928. Freilcbcnden marin Nematoden von der Campbell und Staten Inseln 

Nyt, Mag. f. Naturvidensk., 66, pp. 249-309. 
Allgen, C., 1930. Freilebende marine Nematoden von der Staten Inseln (Feuerlend Archi- 
pelago), Pt. 1, Zool. Anzeiger, 89, pp. 246-258. Pt. 2, Zool Anzeiger, 90, pp. 27-38. 
Allgen, C, 1951. Papers from Dr. Mortensen's Pacific Expedition 1914-16. 76. Pacific 

freeliving nematodes. Vidensk. Medd. naturh. Foren. Kbh., 113, pp. 263-411. 
Cobb, N. A., 1898. Australian freeliving nematodes, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 13 (3) pp 

Cobb, N. A., 1930. The demanian vessels in nemas of the genus Oncholaimus, with notes on 

four new oncholaims, J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 20, pp. 159-161. 
Chitwood, B. C, 1951. North American marine nematodes, Texas Journal Sci., 3, pp. 

de Man, J. C, 1893. Cinquieme note sur les nematodes libres de la mer du Nord et de la 

Manche, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. 6, pp. 81-125. 
de Man, J. G., 1904. Nemotodes libres. In Resultats du voyage du S.Y. Belgica en 1897-1899 

sous le eommandement de A. de Gerlache de Gomery, Zoologie, 55 pp., Anvers. 
Ditlevsen, H,, 1921. Papers from Dr. Mortensen's Pacific Expedition, 1914-16. 3. Marine 

freeliving nematodes from the Auckland and Campbell Islands, Vidensk. Medd. Dansk, 

naturh. Foren., 73, pp. 2-32, 
Ditlevsen, H., 1930. Marine freeliving nematodes of New Zealand. Papers from Dr. 

Mortensen's Pacific Expedition, 1914-16. 52. Vidensk. Medd. Dansk. naturh. Foren., 

74, pp. 201-240. 
Filipjev, I. N., 1918. Freilebende Nematoden aus der Umgebung von Sebastopol, Trav. 

Labor, zool. et de la Stat. Biol. Sebastopol pres de Tacademie des sciences de Russie (2), 

4, 614 pp. (Russian; German translation by H. A. Kreis in Arch. Naturges., 91, pp. 

94-180, 1925.) 
Micoletsky, H., 1921. Die freilebende Erd-Nematoden, Arch. f. Naturges., A, 8, 650 pp. 
Micoletsky, H., 1924. Weitere Beitrage. Zur Kenntnis freilebender Nematoden aus Suez, 

Sitzungsber, Akad. Wissensch. Wien, Math.-naturwiss., 132 (7 and 8), pp. 225-261. 
Micoletsky, H., 1930. Papers from Dr. Mortensen's Pacific Expedition, 1914-16. 53. Freile- 
bende Nematoden von der Sunda Enseln (Kreis, H. A.). Vidensk. Medd. naturh. Foren., 

87, pp. 234-339. 


Schuurmans Stekhoven, J. H., 1943. Einige neue freilebende marine Nematoden der 

fischereigrunde vor Alexandrien. Note 1st, Biol. mar. Rovigno, 25, pp. 1-15. 
Schuurmans Stekhoven, J. H., 1943. Freilebende marine Nematoden der Mittelmeeres. IV. 

Freilebende marine nematoden der Fischereigrunde bei Alexandrien, Zool. Jahrb. Jena. 

(Syst.), 76, pp. 323-380. 
Schuurmans Stekhoven, J. H., and Conninck, L., 1933. Diagnoses of new 'Belgian marine 

nemas, Bull. Musee Roy. d'Hist. nat. de Belgiquc, 9 (4), 13 pp. 
Steiner, G., 1916. Freilebende Nematoden aus der Barentsee, Zool. Jahrb., 44, pp. 195-226. 
Wteser, W., 1954. Freeliving marine nematodes. II. Chromadoroidea. Chile Reports 17. 

Lunds Univ. Arsskrift, N. F. Avd. 2, 50, No. 16, pp. 1-148. 
Wieser, W.j 1955. Freeliving marine nematodes. HI. Axonolaimoidea and Monhysteroidea. 

Chile Reports 26. Lunds Univ. Arsskrift, N. F. Avd. 2, 52, No. 13. 



by Norman B. Tindale 


This paper records the finding, at Caps Martin, South Australia, of an aboriginal campsite of the 
Tartangan Culture which has been dated, by a Carbon 14 test at the Dominion Physical Laboratory, 
Lower Hutt, New Zealand, as having been occupied in 8700 ±120 B.P. 

Evidence is produced suggesting that the terra rossa soils in which this, and some other Tartangan 
relics on the Woakwine Range at Section 8 Hundred of Symon were found, were already in 
existence prior to this date and therefore before the period of the Mid-Recent High (10 ft. Terrace). 
The theory that they were only formed at the later date and thus were evidence for a "Great Arid 
Period" at that time (Crocker and Wood, 1947) is discounted. Instead, the evidence may tend to 
support another view, first put forward by Tindale (1947) which suggests that these soils were 
developed more particularly during periods of high rainfall, as residuals, following the solution of 
the surface layers of the lime sands originally forming the surface layers of the dunes on which they 
are still perched. 

The paper gives a table indicating the cultural succession, as so far established in the Murray Valley 
and vicinity, in South Australia. 



[Read 12 July 1956] 

This paper records the finding, at Cnpr* Marin* South Australia, of an aboriginal camp- 
site oi the Tartarean Culture which has been dated, by a Carbon 14 test at the Dominion 
Physical Laboratory, Lower llutt, New Zealand, as having been occupier) in S700 =t 120 B.P. 

Evidence is produced suggesting that the terry. ro.SMi .'oils in which this, and some other 
TaTtiuigan relies on the Woakwine Range at Section 8 -Hundred of b'yuton were found, were 
already U\ existence prior to this date and therefore before the period of die Mid-Recent 
Ri«h "(10 ft. Terrace). The theory that they were only formed at the later date and thus 
were evidence for a "Croat And Period" at that time (Crocker and Wood, 1947) is dis- 
counted. Instead, Die evidence may temd to support another view, first pot loivvard by 
Tindale (1947) which suggests that these soils were developed mote particularly during 
periods of high rainfall, as residuals, following the solution of the surface layers of the lime 
sands originally forming the surface layers ot the dunes on which thoy arc still perched. 

The paper gives a table indicating the cultural succession, us so far established in. toe 
Murray Valley and vicinity, in South Australia. 


During a holiday visit to the south-east of South Australia and to Western 
Victoria, Til December 1946, and January 19471 archaeological sites of the 
aborigines were examined between Cape Hridgewater and Kingston. Cape 
Martin, one of the sites, provided data which, after study again in November 
1955 and upon comparison with information from other sites, has resulted in 
the following paper. The first mention of the site and of the carbon 14 date asso- 
ciated with it, is by Tindale ( 1956) in the Report of the South Australian Museum, 

On the first visit the author was accompanied by Mrs. D. M. Tindale. On 
the second occasion Mr. H. Burrows of the South Australian Museum furnished 
much appreciated help in searching for implements, and 1 am indebted further 
to him for assistance in the preparation of some of the diagrams illustrating this 

During the earlier visit a site at Cape Northumberland was examined. This 
also is referred to in the paper. Cape Northumberland was visited a second time 
in company with a larger group of anthropologists, including E. C. Black, T. D. 
Campbell,, 'D. Casey, J. B. Cleland, P. HossfeU R. Keble/S. ft Mitchell, and 
C Walsh, who attended working conferences at Millicent in February 1947 
and February 1948. On the 1947 occasion, a site at Section 8, Hundred of 
Symon, was examined; this site also proved of significance in the development 
or the history of the Cape Martin site. It also is particularly mentioned in this 

Indirectly and directly I am indebted to my many colleagues for the stimulus 
which comes from discussion and comparisons of data. However, the observa- 
tions recorded herein ate ones made by myself and any errors or misinterpreta- 
tions of the evidence are my responsibility. 

* Curator of Anthropology , Smith Australian Museum. Adelaide, 


Cape Martin is a narrow-necked peninsula standing out to sea in a southerly 
direction at the western end of Rivoli Bay, and forming an outlying eastern 
portion of the Hundred of Rivoli Bay. The headland is just to the south of 
Beachpart (140° 01' East Longitude X $t° 31' South Latitude). This is a 
fishing village and summer holiday resort. Text figure 1 gives a sketch map of 
the area. 



Rivoli Bay 





dunes forming 



\ mite 

Fig. l.-Skclch map of the vicinity of Cape Martin, South-East of South Australia. 

Cape Martin headland and a number of outlying islets and reefs are parts 
of a platform of consolidated wind-blown lime sand of very Early Recent or 
possibly Late Pleistocene Age. It is what is left of a line of earlier coastal dunes 
wliieh once stretched along the shore line. These residuals resisted the sea when 
it broached the dunes to form Rivoli Bay. According to some views there may 
be a core of still older dune rock within these dunes which at one time may 
then have been part of a group of small islands and reefs olF the Pleistocene 
coast line during a late interglacial phase. Underlying all to the south is Terliary 
limestone. Perched on these foundations is a mass of much newer and in large 
part unconsolidated white lime sand pf Late Recent Ago (Post 10 ft. Terrace) 
which in places reaches a height of sixty feet. This sand covers the soft lime 
rock of the earlier dune series. When doing so it sealed down also an old red 
soil horizon which is found at various heights from about twenty feet above 
sea level down to several feet below present sea level. The red soil follows the 
\ ontonrs of the older dunes and is thicker in the swales than it is on their 
heights. On the highest parts of the peninsula there is evidence that this soil 
cover, a term rossa, had in part been stripped before being covered by the Newer 
Lime' Sands. Text figure 2 is a section of Cape Martin Peninsula at die site 


about to be described. Et is in part diagrammatic and is in two portions., the 
western section being drawn in a NAV.-S.E. direction and the balance in an 
E.-W. direction. The cliff which bounds the peninsula on three sides is being 
attacked very vigorously by the stormy waters of the Southern Ocean. Huge 
sections of it are being undermined by the sea and destroyed. Text figure 2 
was drawn as the section appeared in ]947. By 1955 some 25 feet of the cliff 
edge on the ocean side had foundered and is now present only as large blocks, 
of some six to fifteen feet in diameter, which have slumped into the sea. fn a 
few more years time the whole site may well be destroyed. The root of Cape 
Martin Peninsula lias been breached in recent storms and at high tide a few 
seas now cross right over into the Bay, so that in a matter of ynars the peninsula 
will become an island. 


tig. 2.— Section across Cap*; Martin Peninsula; ocean side to the left, showing curlier ttnd 

later occupational horizons, 

When the site was first noticed a discoidal flint implement was found in 
the B horizon of the terra rossa firmly imbedded in kunkar lime. Other examples 
were found in the A horizon of this soil. 

Stratigraphically from twenty to thirty feet above the camp site in the 
terra rossa soil, was found a later aboriginal occupational horizon with fresh- 
looking flint implements, indicating a separate and seemingly much later period 
of human occupation at Cape Martin. 

At this point it is as well to indicate that in the original field notes the 
several beds to be discussed herein were labelled as A, B and C, the oldest being 
called A. In this paper standard terminology of the Soils Division is adopted in 
describing the situations of the finds. 

On physiographic grounds it was deduced that the earlier land surface 
indicated by the terra rossa must have been in existence since at least Early 
Recent times and that the site must have been occupied prior to 10 ft Terrace 
time ( Mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum) at a period when the foreshore at 
the nearest point was of a sandy nature, since the predominating shell of the 
food shell assemblage in the camp was a species of Cldone, with some Mytilus 
shells indicating also the presence of sheltered and somewhat muddy, brackuh 
water. The shell fauna of the more recent site above was made up predomi- 
nantly of rock shells, of which Turbo wululatus was by far the most common, 
as it is today among the rocks of the present clifFs. This fauna was considered 


\u be Post — 10 ft. Terrace in age, since it w<v> in a shell sand still actively being 
deposited at the present day. 

More (Mailed work was possible on the second visit and it was thou passible 
to demonstrate that a Pew Turho shells were present also among the charcoal 
and ash material of the hearth in the tana r<mn from which the sample of 
carbon was taken for Cll analysis. Thus the people did have access to rocky 
shores, although the general picture of a change in local availability of types 
of* shell food was con in mod. 

\ possible, source for the quiet and muddy water faunal remains was indb 
catcd by a thin bed of black mud with a brackish-water suite, of shells which 
a lillle to the north of the section, appears just at present low tide mark. This 
extends through the base of the peninsula from the ocean beach coast to the 
hay and underlies (he slighdy consolidated basal layers of the Newer Dune Sands. 

The Woakwine Range is a line ol consolidated limestone considered to be 
ol Late Pleistocene Age (Tindale, i l J47; fiossfeld, 1950; and Spngg 1952) and 
to represent the dunes of the shoreline of the 25 ft. Terrace. On its crest and in 
swales between ridges on the wide undulating top ol the crest of the dune belt, 
which locally is up to a mile or more in width, are red sandy soils of lerra rossa 
type In places present day erosion has exposed limey pillars of a B horizon in 
this soil. This stripping is seemingly being brought about by clearing of the 
emer of vegetation, by overstocking with sheep in times of drought, and by 
depredations of introduced rabbits. The sandy reddish soil appears largely tn 
l*e the residues from the leaching away of the upper [avers of shell time sand 
during the copious winter rains. It contains also the quartz sand residues, which 
in part at least seem to be the silica derived from the mechanical abrasion of 
the flint boulders ol the Tertiary Marine Beds on the seashore immediately in 
trcnt of the Woakwine Range. 

The 1>low-onts ? exposing the lower layers of the soil and aboriginal camping 
sites extend into Sections 10A and 10 B in the same Iluudrcd. Campbell, Cleiand 
and Hossfeld (1940) have given a map which shows the general area of these 
sites on the crest of the Woakwine Range. At some places" in the. district micrn- 
lith implements of types we have elsewhere established to be associated with 
the Mudukian culture have been found on the surface and which, by dalu 
established elsewhere, are indicated to belong to u period several thousand 
years later in time. The main site at Section 8, which is of particular interest 
U> us for the present purpose*, lacks the microlith suite of implements. Instead, 
the only implements present arc flint ones, staiued a bright orange red., and of 
l he same tynes as are present in the lower stratum at Cape Martin, Erosion 
has revealed these implement flakes in some profusion on the stripped surface 
whilf other specimen*, uro still in situ in the sandy red earth. 

A site at Cape Northumberland had been visited by T). M t Tmdule aud 
myself a few days before the discovery Of the Cape Martin site. Existence 
of this site had been reported to me some years previously by Mr. H. L, Sheard. 
Knowledge of its stratigraphy was of considerable help in the preliminaries of 
understanding the Cape Martin site. At Capo Northumberland the older laud 
surface seemingly had been entirely strippecf of an upper soil horizon at some 
phase of its history, implements wete found lying on the eroded surface of 
rru 1 very indurated knnkar horizon. They appeared to he ones which had been 
exposed before: being buried again under the Newer Lime Sands now perched 
on the top nf (he cliff. Figure 3 gives a sketch section, from west to east, at a 
Jargc occupation mound of the aborigines immediately north of the Point on 


. JO 

■IV Jtti 

high wakr 

Aim bauTi fefei— 



rttftW fcuniur 

pfjgf. 3.— Sketch section of Cape Northumbedand .showing earlipv and later implement 
horizons at Section D, Hundred of MaeDonnell 

Section D, Hunched of MacDormell, This mound, of about one-half an acre in 
extent, is situated immediately above the only practicable present day path of 
access from the northern beach to the cliff top. Tin's shell mound had formed 
as a result of aborigines living there not 50 long ago. The presence of the 
rapping of shells had delayed the stripping away of this upper sand in Post 
European times. Thus it still forms a definite mound of the type known in 
Victoria as Ynyrniong", perhaps more correctly called ['marniong], On parts of 
this mound some of the sand set in motion in Post European times is perched. 
Mint implements of the mound surface are freshly worked and even those of the 
blue-black flint from the underlying Tertiary beds, which are very liable to 
bleaching, have retained all or most of their original colour. The shells of the 
campsite are predominantly those of the rocky footings of the present clilf, wjth 
Turbo imdukttus as the most common species. The implements of the mound 
lypologieally are tl it— same as those of the upper site at Cape Martin, and are 
identified as of the culture phase we call Murundian, The kunkar hori?on 
yielded, loose on its surface, older kinds of implements such as are in the 
terra roxm soil at Cape Martin, and comparable with Tartangan ones. 


At Cape Martin the first implement discovered in the red soil layer was a 
diseoidal Hake *Uuck oif on the long axis, 6*8 cm. in length, 4-S em. in width 
and 1 '7 cm. in general thickness. The material from which it had been maun* 
factured probably was blue-black flint, such as is derived from marine sediments 
of Tertiary Age. The Cambier Limestone, wliieh contains this Hint as angular 
masses, underlies portions of the area to the south as boulders on a planed-off 
marine platform. Upon it the Pleistocene and Recent dune limestones arul 
shallow estnarine muds have been deposited. 

This implement, now specimen A .39664 in the collections of the South Aus- 
tralian Museum, was included in the highly calcareous B horizon of the soil, 
with a small portion projecting from the lime layer. Only after considerable 
development in situ was it determined to be an implement. It had been 
bleached white, and so much of the original silica had been removed by chemical 
alteration, that it could be said to be merely a "ghost" in chalky lime of a flint 


implement. Figure 4 shows three views of it. A portion of the cutting edge 
was injured in removing it from the kunkar. The implement was buried when 
fresh as is evident from the sharp cutting edge persisting on that part which 
remains intact. The prepared striking platform is at an angle of about 110 deg. 
to the flake face of the implement. The removal by the maker of primary, 
secondary and tertiary flakes had produced an evenly rounded profile on the 

i i_~ l 


Fig. •!,— Three views of flint implement m B horizon of rent soil at Cape Martin, numbered 
as A. 39664 in South Australian Museum (scale registers centimetres). 

implement, of a style characteristic of implements of the Tartaugan culture in 
many other places in South Australia. This feature is also found on many im- 
plements of the recently extinct Tasmanians (Tindale, 1937; Campbell and 
Noone, 1944, p. 384) as well as on some gum haftcd general purpose knives 
made by present day aborigines of the Pilbara district and inland from La 
Grange in North-Western Australia (Tindale, 1957), 

Fig. 5.— Three views of portion of an implement found in the A horizon of red soil nt 

Gape Martin. 


The butt half of an implement (Fig, S) closely similar to the first example 
was found in situa iu the A horizon of the same soil, a few yards off in a part 
where recent erosion had not yet stripped away this horizon. Although only a 
few centimetres higher in the soil profile,, the process of chemical change had 
not so completely reduced the specimen to chalk and this proved to be the 
case generally with others found in the A horizon. Where implements occurred, 
tlie red soil usually appeared slightly more limey than elsewhere, there were 
particles of charcoal in the soil, and the implements occurred among food 
shells. The dominant member of this shell suite was Chione, with some Brachy- 
Qdprvttt&j, as also PaJudina shells of large size (suggesting that they might have 
been used as food). At first there, appeared to be an entire absence of rock- 
frequenting types of shells, but one or two fragments of Turbo undulatus were 
subsequently found when washing blocks of hearth to float out carbon fragments. 

On the second visit many further flint clippings, as well as several useful 
examples of implements, were found in situ. Figure 6 shows four views of a 
rather crudely trimmed block, which except for its slightly larger size, closely 
matches one of the original Tartangan specimens figured by Hale and Tindale 
(1930, fig. 21). In some ways it resembles also the cuttiug stone of a kodj axe 
(Tindale, 1950). Forming part of the hearth from which the tested carbon 
sample was removed, were several slones of the type called oven stones. These 
are roughly tabular and spherical pieces of sandy rock which have been burned 
and blackened in fire. Similar stones were used by present day aborigines as 
foundation stones of hot hearths on which to lay food for steaming. 


K»g- 6,-Fnnr views of a diseoidal implement, made on a block, found in the A Lori*.>r. 
of red soil, beside the dated hearth, at Cape Martin. 



Figure 7 (middle) shows a typical example, broken before it came to be 
deposited in red soil now lying between the summits of pillars of lime of the 
B horizon of this soil. The indications are (hat the: implement came to rest 
in the red soil when this was the surface of the ground and during a phase when 
rain wash from the surrounding lime sand rises was increasing the depth of soil 
in the swale at this campsite. It could be inferred that the implement was 
in position before the kunkar pillars had grown so high as they are at present 
and that the implement, like others found nearby, seemed to belong to the 
same culture phase as the. Cape Martin implements, These types of implements 
are highly characteristic of the older sands, occurring in and appearing commonly 

Ft#, 7.— Top; llut^ views of a Tartarean long blade from a surface site 2 nii!o* inland from 
RIackfoJtow Cave, collected hy H. L. Sheard ( A.28240 in South Australian Museum '). Middle: 
Three views of snapped Hint Made foimcl within the A horizon of Qjp ivd soil nr Station o\ 
Hundred or Svmon. (A. 39649.) Bottom: bout views of a short blade, a surface find by 
jf. D, Cumyboll, in Lho Hundred of KontfoTong. {A.0GRJ9t| in SsOojft Australian Museum.) 

on eroded campsites at least as fur to the east as Cape Bridgwater in Victoria 
and to the north-wesi in the- Murray Valley. At Hoods Drift (Section Sfl, 
Hundred of Koiigorong) this implement suite occurs in great abundance in the 
corresponding red sancl layers, with a microlilh industry in an overlying sand 
of later date (Tindale, 1957). 

Figure 7 (top) and Fig. 7 (bottom) show typical surface finds of Tartangan 
knives, one from a place two miles inland from Blackfellow Cave and the other 
from Kon^orong for comparison with the example from Symon. Campbell and 


iV)One (1.944) and Campbell, Cleland and Hossfelrl (1946) have given details 
ot these and numbers of other sites on which such implements occur. They 
have not drawn particular attention to the stratigraphy or cultural successions 
evident at the sites, being in general more interested 'in the microliths of the 
Vludukian horizon which occurs overlvmg the Tartarean sites at many places, 
Some details of the stratigraphy of these sites are being given in a separate 
paper (Truckle, 1957), ! 

The implements of the upper site at the Cape were rare, there being many 
more waste ilakes than finished implements, perhaps indicating that the main 
camp was elsewhere and that the site was used chiefly as a temporary hatting 
place near the sea while engaged in cooking the very abundant Turho food shells. 
Among the living aborigines this shell-gathering and cooking task fell to 
women folk. Among the Tanganekald and Fotaruwutj, women generally were 
not jii the habit of using knives, instead they used as a domestic knife the edge 
oi their thumbnail, which they kept well sharpened. Even m Post-European 
times some women could not be induced lo use European knives because of 
the influence of this prejudice. 


Fife ft -Implements m llw Upper or Munindian laver at Cap* Martin. Ton: Three 
tipm of h.«h-bacJced seraph <A.39fl67 part). Bottom: Three- views of acL s ne 

(A..39867 part). 

Two main types of implements were present. The more common were 
adze stones, made on flakes struck off from a prepared core leaving a striking 
platform almost at right angles to the flake surface. Figure 8 (bottom) shows a 
typical example It can be matched with hafted specimens obtained from the 
living people of the area in the early days of settlement, and with ones in the 


uppermost tvr> feet of deposit in the Devon Downs Kockshelter (Hale and Tin- 

The second type is the so-called high-backed scraper, of winch a typical 
example is given ia Figure 8 (top). These are made indifferently on thick flakes 
and on blocks of flint The high-backed scraper seems to occur in all of the 
culture horizons back at least to the Pirrian, 

The flints from this upper horizon are only slightly patinated, generally 
to the extent that the dark flint has become paler and assumed a faint bluish- 
white bloom; some pieces look quite fresh. 

The implements from the mound at Section D, Hundred of MacDonnen, 
include the same two types as are present ia the Upper campsite on Cape Martin. 
Some of the adze stones show a notched cutting edge and others a somewhat 
more pointed profile, but by viewing the cutting edge of the stone from the 
plane in which the adze meets the work it can be seen that both types would 
have made a rather flat, chisel-like cut on the wood, and the differences are 
those which arise casually in the course of repeated resharpenings when m use. 
Figure c ) contrasts the two adze-stone forms which seem to have originated in 
this manner. Harnmerstones and edgeground axes of igneous rock, traded from 


Fig 9.— Implements in the Upper 01 Muruiidmn layer of tUc marnimg mound aj 

Section D. Hundred of MacDpnfirft. Cur* NoilhumbcrUnd. Top; Four views v \ 

notch-ed^cd ad/.n sfnne. Bottom: Four views or another udzc stone (munbejeJ as 

A.30537 in Smith Australian Museum). 

the stone mine at Mt William in Central Victoria and from the site near Chata- 
worth on the Hopkins River, have, been reported from (he mound and its 
vicinity which is so frequently visited that such objects tend to be picked up 
and curried away 35 soon as they are revealed at the surface by wind erosion. 

From the juxtaposition nf trie mound to the only track down lo the North 
Beach, the fact that marine erosion, though rapid, has not had time to remove 
the path, and the knowledge that this was one of the sites in use by the 
aborigines in the earliest days of white settlement, it seems likely that Murvmdian 
Culture implements continued to be made and used on the site until within 
less than one hundred years ago. Pieces of European elaypipc stem and early 
coins have been found. 


The implements from die surface of the kuukai, presumptively ot the 
older Tartangan culture, include typical blades like those at Cape Martin, and 
a broken portion of a tabular piece of flint which is worked rather poorly on 
the two opposite faces. 


We axe indebted Lo Mr. G. R Fcrgusson of the Dominion Physical Labora- 
tory at Lower Hutt, New Zealand, for makiug a Carbon 14 determination of the 
age of the hearth in the A horizon of the Ted earth soil at Cape Martin. When 
the Carbon specimen was sent for study the following description was given; 
"A.4S257. Wood carbon from ('ape Martin near Beachport. South Australia, 
collected by N, B, Tindale, 16 November 1955. At this site implements or 
Tartangan facies are present in a red earthy horizon, with a predominantly 
e^tuarine shell fauna. It was overlain by a great thickness of white sand dime, 
on which there is a Viurimdian culture horizon with a suite of reef shells similar 
to ones occurring on the shores of the present Cape. This carbon sample was 
broken out and separated by washing from the ash and charcoal layer at the 
same* horizon [A] as the suite of classifiable implements, It might give a date 
as early as or even earlier than GOOO B.P/ J 

Mr- G. F. Fcrgusson's reply was; c *Age with respect to modern wood 
standard = SJOQ-t 120 years". 

Two other Carbon 14 elates axe available which seem to confirm the early 
date for the Cape Martin site. At Lake Menindee Unio shells from Horizon 
B in Area L collected, at the author's request, by Mr. L. F. Marcus, and also 
tested by Mr. Fcrgusson, have yielded the date of G,570 ± 100 B.P. The imple- 
ments in this bed were assessed by Tindale (1955) as Tartangan and established 
to he in association with a suite of extinct species of mammals (Tedford, 1335)* 
Full details of this C 14 date are given in Tindale (1957) where a C 14 date 
{if 6.020 ± 150 B.P. based on Unio shells tested at Columbia University is re- 
corded for a late phase (Layer C) of the Tartangan beds at the type site on 
Tarbinga Island, iu the River Murray, South Australia (Hale and Tindale, 1030), 


From the data at Cape Martin given in this paper and that learned from 
work reported previously it is possible to draw up the accompanying table. 
Figure 10, showing the succession of cultures in the Murray Valley and sur- 
rounding areas. 

As a result of the obtaining of C 14 dates it has been possible to replace a 
time scale based purely on geological data with one given in years, without 
materially disturbing die pattern and general ideas on time range which had been 
developed by the study of the cultures themselves and their relationships to suck 
geological phenomena as the eustatie terrace of the Mid-Recent (10 ft. Ter- 
race) and other shoreline structures associated with late phases of the Pleistocene 

By contrasting the Tartangan of Lake Menindee (6-500 B.P.) with the 
similar culture at Tartanga (6020 B.P,) wc seem to get an indication that the 
critical centuries when the great Pleistocene assemblage of Australian mammals 
was declining towards extinction fell after 6500 B.P The only unusual species 
present at Tartanga after about 6000 B.P, were a Macro pus with a fourth molar 
differing in that its width exceeded by IS p.c. the value characteristic of modern 
M. atgantcus, and a species of Sarcophilus which persisted until Mid-Mudukian 
tim«s before becoming extinct. 

It is of interest to note that inauunal bone does not preserve well in the 
dune sands of the South-East of South Australia so that even in Mudukian sites, 


deduced to be only about 2000 years old. bones are virtually absent. No mammal 
bones of any kind have been found in the red beds at Cape Martin, and so far 
they have not been reported from any other sites in the area which might 
be termed Tartangan, It can be expected that when a suitable shelter or cave 
is discovered containing Tartangan remains which have been protected from 













and earlier 

— Western Europeans 

MURUNDIAN culture 

MUDUKIAN culture 

PIRRIAN culture 

rirrian Culture (mid point) in Devon Downs Cave (42501 180 B.P.) 

-* ^MID-RECENT HIGH (!0ft. terrace). 

TarUngan at type site (6020"£ 150 BP.) 


Tartangan at Lake Mcniiwlrc (f»570±lon B P 

TARTANGAN culture 

Tartangtin site at Cape Martin 
(S700 * 120 HP. ) 





KARTAN culture 

Kartao ot Ftilhnm, Hal Lett Cove, Kangaroo Island and Tasmania. 

PSg; 10.— Diagram indicating culture Sequences and dales in ihe Murray Valley ami 

vicinity. South Australia. 

weathering a rich fauna of extinct Pleistocene mammals should be found in 
association since it is unlikely that all the fossil species would have disappeared 
from the coastal areas by 8700 B.P., since .some are shown to have survived at 
Lake Mcnindee until after about 6500 B.P. 


The evidence afforded by the terra rossa soils, seemingly perched nn otiS 
lime sand dunes, points to thf formation of soils by the carrying down, into 
the depths of the dunes, pf the. surface lime, leaving the siliceous and iron 
residues at the surface, the whole indicating the existence of periods of high 
rainfall when extensive leaching would occur. Under present day conditions 
with a winter rainfall pf. around 30 inches, iL is a matter of observation that suffi- 
cient lime is dissolved and re-deposited near the surface to cause calcareous 
cementation of (he dune sands and formation of slightly indurated layers up to 
one inch in thickness hi the course of a single season. Such crusts occur in the 
mobile sands almost down to storm tide mark. In other mobile sands, several 
hundred yards and more inland, for example on Cope Buffon Peninsula, where 
new sand h constantly being added,, harder and softer horizons appear bus 
varve -like alternations of indurated and soft sand. They may either be the 
record of periodic rainstorms or of the annual succession of dry and wet seasons. 

lu geneial, red .soils me found as a covering on each nf the inland dune 
ranges ol (he South-East of South Australia. Those on the older lime sand 
ranges are deeper Mian those at, for example. Cape Martin, where the soil must 
be relatively young, it would .seem that the ml .soils are of several ages nod 
all are In sitit and that it is the greater lapse of time since the formation of the 
earlier dune ranges that has permitted leaching away of the lime to greater 
depths, hence yielding greater thicknesses of terra nma soil. 

Under summer conditions in the South-Rast of South Australia, upward 
moisture movements have been observer! in the limestone pillars, forming art 
aura of dampness in the soil about their snmmiLs > which suggests active vertical 
growth of the tips of the limestone pillars within the red soil coven 

The view that the red soils may be an expression of wet climate, expressed 
in the above paragraphs, seems to be at variance with some current ideas, which 
appear to demand arid periods at important stages of the formation uf the 
jvd sfiils r 

To Mr. B. E, Butler who has studied the red ^nifs of South-Eastern Aus- 
tralia (Butler, 1956)., I am indebted lor examining samples of the stnls from 
Section S. Hundred of Symoiu und from Cape Martin. His comments in a letter, 
under date of 6 June 1956. are as follows; 

"Our present thinking supports fairly clearly three phases of aridity: the 
most recent bemg least severe and comprehensixc. There may be earlier arid 
phases, tno. These mid phases were separated by wcl phases during which the 
soils were leached and broadly one may say that the earlier of these phases was 
also more intense and of a longer duration than the later phases. The struti- 
grapliie relationships and the depdis of leaching can be used to distinguish the 
materials of one phase from those of another. Of the samples you have senf\ 
the first, an A horizon from Cape Martin, is probably to be related to the latest 
aridity because it contains discrete particles of lime. We find evidence of this 
phase uf aridity extending from the south-west towards Swan Iljll (Victoria), 
but not extending very far fuither eastward. Its chief manifestations were 
instability of dune crests and hinette building. Your second sample is not clearly 
indicated as to xvhether surface or .sub-surface sample: it is non-rnlcarcous, 
more clayey than sample no. 1 and might be older. Both samples could be wind 
distributed material* and arc similar to the materials we encountered at Swan 
Hill where a study of these phases is being done by Mr. H. M. Churchward. 
\VV have still to finalist* the criteria for distinguishing these arid phases especially 
in the cases where the record Cs Incomplete We have reached no finality as 
to the dates of these arid phases: all we propose is their relative intensities and 
the duration of the intervals. The figure nf 6-8,000 years for the most recent 
anility would not be in discord with our existing evidence." 


CMfl UfiBS) has postulated afresh an Australian 'Arid Period' connected with 
the mid-Holocene Warm Phase, or Thermal Maximum, called the 10 ft Terrace 
period »n this paper* and fp Europe called die Climatic Optimum. The mid- 
point of this time he places at about 5000 13.P. The presence of loess duue 
formations is used as evidence of the dry conditions. 

The present author (Tindale, 1947, 1952, 1953, and 1955) had drawn atten- 
tion previously to zoological data which seemed to deny the existence of a Mid- 
Holticeoe arid period in Southern Australia, such as was first pronounced by 
Crocker and Wood (1047). Their theory had leaned heavily ou soil evidence. 

Cill did not accept the zoological data as affording sufficient evidence to 
warrant abandonment of the 'Great Arid' theory, although Condon (1954) and 
Cross- ( 19!>5) had shown by additional zoological data that it was relevant. 

The C 14 dates now available for the Tartan gan culture horizons discussed 
above, and in particular die minimum date, of 8700 B,P. for the terra rossa soil 
at Cape Martin destroys the loess basis on which the dieorics of a Mid-Holoeenc 
ami period were conceived. It may be pointed out that the C horizon of the 
red soil in the swales at Cape Martin tan be many feet thick and the hearth in 
the A horizon indicates that it must have already been in process of develop* 
uivnt Iflftg before the date when the most superficial layers of it afforded space 
for the camp of Tartangan men. 


The author is indebted to Mr. G. F. Fergusson of the Dominion Physical 
Laboratory* Lower Hurt, New Zealand, for tbe age determination for Cape 
Martin as also for those from Lalce Menindee incidentally referred to herein. Mr, 
H. Muxrows prepared from my field fetches the several diagrams and the map 
illustrating this paper. 

The names of colleagues, with whom discussions uf the subject have been 
most profitable, arc given in an earlier section of the paper. 

It should not be forgotten that the group uf workers interested in archaeology 
at; Adelaide all profited greatly from the stay among them of Mr, H. V. V. 
\oonc, -whose recent death is a loss to all. He was a fellow of the Royal Society 
of South Australia and a contributor to its Transactions. 


Bi luai. B. F.., 1950, Parrui— an aeolian clay Au&tr. Journ. Science, Sydney-. IS. pp. 14f> 151. 

CAMentLL, T D. ? and Nuo.m* H. V. V. ? 1944. Some aboriginal campsites in the: Woakwlw 

R&agc region of the South-East of isuuth Austiulia. Ht?c. S. \ Mus., Adelaide, 7. pp. 

Cam^utm-. *« D . I.'trT.AKn, J. B.. and HQfesTfcLQ, k>, b>, lyjti. Ahoriginos of HV* Lowe* 

3miih-£fl*1 of South Au«Uat>u, Brie, S. Anst. Miw., Adelaide, 8, pp. M5-#l& t 
Contjov 11. T,. 10^54. Involution of Australian buds. South Aust. Otnitholotfist, Adelaide, 

21. pp, 17-27. ^ 

C-ROCKrr., K. JL, and Wood. J. G., 1917. Sunn; historical inlluenee.s on the development of 

tlic South Au.struliuii vegetation eomnmnities and their bearing on concepts and classi* 

l.'earion in ceolorry. Trans. Kuy, Sue. 8. AoSt, Adelaide, 71, pp. 91-1 3G. 
C/ici £. D. 1(155. AuMialtan 'Arid Period'. Anst. Journ. Scwnee, iSyujiwv, Vt. pp. 2Q\-2J)Q, 
Cno**. C. K„ 10SS. flSfc. S. Aust, Mua.. Adelaide, 11, pp. -119 '122. 
Halu. IT. M.. uthI 1'i:sualu. N. B., tft30L Notes on BOttltf luunuu romotn? In thu Lower 

Murrav Valley, South Australia, Bee 5. Amt. MtisLp Adelaide, 4, pp. 115 218. 
Ho«mn P S Iwtf. Late Caino/.oie lustoiY of tl»* Soulh-East of South AusrudM. Tivm*. 

Ro». Soc, S. Am.t., Adelaide, pp. 2.12-279. 
Si'Brce, n. C;„ lU&i. Geology of the Sutitu-Ea>t Frnvuiee, South Australia. .S. Aust, Mines 

l&ptfl Cool. Surv. Bull. 29. . 

Tmroniy. R , UOO. Report on tlw extinct jtiii.nmnlian remains at Luke Meuindeo. New 

S<»tlli Wnles. lite. & AusL Mus., Adelaide, 11. pp. 200-305. 
TrxnAi.k. N. B.> 1037. liclationslnp of the extinct Kangaroo Island eiutuie with cultures m 

Australia, Tasmania and Molnya. Hec. S. Aust. Mos., Adelaide, 6, pp. 39-60, 
Timimu£ N B> 1047. Snhdivlskm of Pleistocene time in South Australia Hec. S. AuA, 

Vtiis., Adelaide, 8, pp. 61EM352. 


Tindale, N. B., 1950, Palaeolithic kodj axe of the aborigines and its distribution in Australia. 

Rec. S. Aust. Mus., Adelaide, 9, pp. 257-274. 
Tindale, N. B., 1951. Palaeolithic kodj axe of the aborigines— further notes. Rec. S. Aust. 

Mus., Adelaide, 9, pp. 371-374. 
Tindale, N. B., 1952. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., Adelaide, 75, p. 75. 
Tindale, N. B., 1952. Rec.S. Aust. Mus., Adelaide, 9, p. 143. 
Tindale, N. B., 1953. Rec. S. Aust. Mus., Adelaide, 11, p. 63. 
Tindale, N. B., 1955. Archaeological site at Lake Menindee, New South Wales. Rec. S. 

Aust. Mus., Adelaide, 11, pp. 269-298. 
Tindale, N. B., 1956. Anthropology, in South Australia. Report of the Museum Board, 1955- 

1956, p. 7. 
Tindale, N. B., 1957. Culture Succession in South-Eastern Australia. Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 

Adelaide, 13 (in press). 



by Helen Goldthorp Clark 


This paper deals with six species of cestodes from South Australian cormorants. It was found on 
examination of the type material that Goss (1940) had confused two species in her description of 
Paradilepis minima. These two species are redescribed and identified as Paradilepis scolecina 
(Rudolphi 1819) and Paradilepis minima (Goss 1940, in part). Paradilepis sp. is recorded but not 
named, as the material was inadequate. Dilepis maxima Goss 1940, Hymenolepis cormoranti 
Ortlepp 1938 (Woodland 1929) are redescribed from fresh material. 


by Helen Goi.dthorp Cuuuc 

[Read 12 July, 1956] 


This paper deals with six species of eestodes from South Australian cormorant's- It was found 
un examination of the type material that Goss (.1940) bad contused two species in hjj*r descrip- 
tion of Paradilepis minima. These two species arc redescribed and identified as Paradileyk- 
ttvolevim (Kiwjolphi 1819) and Paraclilcpiz minima (Goss 19'JO, in part). Paradilepis yp. 
is: recordcci but not named, as the material was inadequate. Vilepis- maxima Goss 1940, 
fiymennfepis cormorantl Ortlepp 193S (Woodland 1929) arc redescribed from fresh material. 

From the one bird found in Adelaide, a little pied cormorant, Mwrocarha 
mclatwleucus (syn. Fhalacrocorax ater) we obtained a specimen of Dilepis 
maxima Goss 1940, two fragments recorded as belonging to a species of Para- 
dilepis; and numerous specimens of Hymcnolepis phalacrocorax. The latter also 
occurred in four little pied cormorants collected at Tailem Bend, together with 
numerous specimens of Paradilepis minima (Goss 1940). The latter were also 
found in two little black cormorants, Phalacrocorax sulcirostris. In another little 
pied cormorant from Tailem Rend we found thirteen specimens of Hymenolcpis 
carmaranti Ortlepp 193S. Many specimens of Paradilepis scolccina (Rudolph! 
1819) were obtained from one black cormorant {Phalacrocorax carbo var. novae- 
hollandiae) . 

This work was started under the direction of the late Professor T. Harvey 
Johnston, with the intention of producing a joint publication, which was unfor- 
tunately prevented by his deadi in 1951. 1 should like to express my gratitude for 
his great help with the paper, while making it clear that the opinions expressed 
are the sole responsibility of the author. Thanks are due to Messrs. G. G,, Fred 
and Bryce Jaensch of Tailem Bend, and the late Mr. L. Ellis of Murray Bridge 
for obtaining the birds from Tailem Bend for us. f. also wish to thank Miss 
Goss, formerly of University of Western Australia, for very kindly allowing me 
to re-examine her slides of Paradilepis minima, The work was done with the 
assistance of the Commonwealth Research Crant to the University of Adelaide. 

Paradilepis seolecina (Rudolpht 18.19) 
Figs, 1-9 

Syn. Paradilepis duhaisi Hsu 1935; Paradilepis brevis Burl 1910; 
Dilepis minima Goss 1940 (in gad!}. 

Numerous specimens were obtained from Phalacrocorax carho var. nomc- 
ftvllandiae shot at Tailem Bend, S.A. Those with eggs measure 3 -5-4 -5 mm. 
long with a maximum breadth of 0-32-0 -44 mm. and have about 80 segments, 
all broader lhan long. 

The sculex is 0*42-0-48 mm. (average 047 nrm.) in diameter. The broad 
muscular rostellum, 0-17-02 mm. iu maximum diameter when everted, has 20 
hooks arranged in a double crown, the two series alternating and with hooks 
differing in shape and size (Figs. 2 and 3). The anterior hooks measure 0-111- 
0114 mm,, average 0-112 mm,, in total length, the posterior 0*075-0 -081 mm. 
(average 0-079 mm.) in total length; all have a long dorsal and a short ventral 
root. These hooks are readily lost and hence were not present in much of our 
material. The large rostellar sac extends back almost to the level of the posterior 


Plate 1. 
Figs. l-9,-Faradilepis scolccina. 1, mature cestode; 2 and 3, rostellar hooks; 4, ventral view 
oi segments with mature testes; 5, transverse section of same; 6, ventral view of segments 
with mature ovaries; 7, transverse section of same; 8 and 9, younc forms. Fit's 2 and 3 to 
same scale; Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7; Figs. 8 and 9. cm. circular muscle: cs, cirrus sac- csp cirrus 
sac from preceding segments; in, outer ring of longitudinal muscle; ex, excretory' vessel- lm 
inner ring of longitudinal muscle; o, ovary; rs, reeeptaculum seminis; s, shell gland; sv, sphincter 
of vagina; t, testis; vd, vas deferens; yg, yolk gland. 

margin of the suckers. The latter me hemispherical or slightly olipsqid and 
measure 0*1-0-14 mm. in diameter or 11-0 12 by 01 1-0*15 mm. The soolex 
merges into a neclc varying in length and width according to the state of Con- 

Segments just behind the neck are 0-32-0 44 mm. broad by 0*02 mm. lung. 
They narrow slightly (to 0-25-0'2fi mm.) aud gradually lengthen as Ihey mature, 
becoming 0>Q8 mm* long at sexual maturity, 04 mm. long in segments with a 
developing uterus, increasing to 0*12 mm. in those, with a gravid uterus. Sumo 
strobilae show a sudden increase in width when the uterus is fully developed. 

Calcareous corpuscles are. elliptical. The outer longitudinal muscle ring 
consists of a few scattered fibres iu the cortical region. The inner ring contains 
much larger fibres. The genital ducts pass outwards dorsally to both excretory 

In our specimens the testes tend to become displaced so that the organs 
may overlie in such a way as to make it difficult to distinguish them in whole 
mounts. The cirrus snc. is so large that it occupies a considerable part of the 
segment at male or female maturity. The four testes develop before the ovary 
and have disappeared by the time the latter is fully developed. One testis lies 
porally -and veutrally to the cirrus sac, the other three being on the aporal side. 
When mature they measure 0-026-0*037 mm. The vas deferens is very long, 
its numerous coils lying dorsally io the three aporal testes. The duct is also 
thrown into loops in the inner, part of the cirrus sac but seminal vesicles were 
not recognizable. The cirrus is armed with small spines and must be rela- 
tively very long, about 0*06-0-07 mm. when fully everted. The cirrus sac may 
measure 0T2-0T5 by 03 mm., but is somewhat smaller in gravid segments. 
The genital atrium may be deep and narrow (0- 026-0*083 mm. in length)- 

The aulage of the female system can be recognized in segments with mature 
testes, lying vcntrally between the pond and aporal groups. When mature the 
compact ovary measure 0-06-0-07 by 0-035-0*045 and lies ventral ly below 
the inner end of the cirrus sac. The small yolk gland, about 0*026 mm. in 
diameter, is somewhat dorsal to the ovary. The small thin-walled receptaculuVn 
seminis lies on the aporal side of the vitellarimn. The wide vagina travels 
inwards just behind and parallel with the cirrus sac to enter the seminal 
receptacle. Near the female pore it has well-developed muscle fibres, 

The uterus develops ventral ly and extends gradually till it occupies most of 
the segment, Eggs are about 29-35,*/- in diameter; the onehospheres about 16-20,* 
in diameter and their booklets ®'5jx long. 

immature forms, Several were recovered from the intestine of the same 
cormorant. One (Fig. 8) had not advanced much from the eysticcrcoid stage 
and measured 0*67 by 0*i3 mm., with rostellar hooks 0*11 aud 0'078 mm. In, 
totyl length. The only one of the remainder still possessing hooks (Fig. 9) had 
already begun to Form a strobila and measured 0-95 by 0*33 mm. with hooks 
0T1 and 0-08 mm, long. Both contained numerous calcareous corpuscles. 

Since tins species seems to have been confused in Australian literature with 
P. minima, the systematic position of the two is discussed later. 

Paradilepis minima (Coss 1910) 
I'Hgs. 10-16 

Syn. Diicpis minima Goss 1940 (iu part). 

Numerous specimens of this small cestode were obtained from the stomach 
and intestine of three Microearbo iHelanoleucitS) syn. PhatacrocorHx alct and from 
two Pliutacrocontx Milciwsfus, all taken at Tailcm Bend. 

Egg-bearing worms measure 1-52*3 mm, in length and 0-26-0 38 mm. in 
maximum width. Youngest segments arc 0*26-0-3 mm. broad and about 0*02 


mm. long. As they mature they reach their maximum width and their length is 
about 0*037 mm. ? but they continue to lengthen as they become gravid when 
the dimensions may be 0-26-0-28 mm. in breadth and 0*15-0 -17 mm. in length. 
Sometimes these latter tend to separate partly from their fellows so that the 
posterior part of the strobila may resemble a string of beads. 

Plate 2. 

Figs, 10-16.— Paradihpis minima, 10, mature cestode; 11 and 12, rostellar hooks; 13, ventral 
view of mature segments; 14, transverse section of same; 15 and 16, young forms. Figs. 11 
and 12 to same scale; Figs. 13 and 14; Figs. 15 and 16. c, cirrus; cs, cims sac; m, outer ring 
of longitudinal muscle; lm, inner ring of longitudinal muscle; o, ovary; rs 3 recex^taculum semmts; 
t, testis; n, uterus; v. vagina; vd, vaS' deferens; yg, yolk gland. 


The scolcx is not well marked off from the neck jegton. When the rostcllum 
is tully everted the scolex is 0-44-0-49 mm. long by 033-11 -34 mm, broad, the 
rostellum being 0167-0-2 mm. loug by 0-15-0-16 mm. wide. The rosteUar 
sac is large and extends back almost to the r>osteriur margin of the suckers.; when 
the mstcllurn is retracted, the sac measured 0-22-0-33 nun. long by 0-15-0'19 
mm. broad. The well-developed musculature associated with the sac and 
mstellum closely resembles that present in P. sculecina. There is a double 
crown of 28 alternating hooks, the anterior 14 being fl* 18-0*19 (average 0-184 
mm.) hi total length, the posterior smaller hooks beins fl'125-0*)3 rum. (average 
0127). These hooks seem to become dislodged readily since few worms have 
retained the full number. The suckers are 0- 11-0* 155 mm. by 0" 13-0 155 una. 

The musculature of the segments is arranged as in P scolecina. The excre- 
tory cdiials were not recognized. 

The four testes develop a little before the ovary and attain, their maximum 
size in segments containing developing ovary and yolk gland. One testis is 
poral and lies ventrally to the large cirrus sac, one is median and dorsal to the 
ovaxy and the other two are aporal, When mature they measure 0-04-0-05 
by 0- 02-0 -03 mm. The vas deferens is very long and thrown intu coils dursally 
in the anterior region of the segment, in front of the genital glands. On enter- 
ing the cirrus sue it becomes somewhat coiled as an inner vesieula scminalis. 
The thin-walled sac lies in the autcrior part of the segment, parallel with the 
front border, and may extend to the middle of the segment. Its size is 0-11-0-13 
by 0-03-0*04 mm. in mature segments. The genital atrium is narrow and deep. 
The cirrus is very long, about f>il5 mm. in length. Its proximal region bean 
numerous rose-thorn spines, about 5^ across the base and 5^ from tic base to 
the tip these spines becoming smaller and less numerous towards the free end 
of the organ where only fim* hairs are present. Segments containing mature 
ovaries also possess degenerating testes. 

Thu mature ovary has two lobes connected by a relatively long isthmus. 
The yolk gland and the receptaculum lie ventrally between the lobes and in the 
posterioi region of the segment. The yolk gland is about 0- 037-0* Qi by 0-026 
nun,: and the receptaeulum 0-03-0-04 by 0*02-0*03 mm. The latter is more 
dorsally placed than the yolk gland. The vagina lies just ventral to the cirrus 
sac and travels inwards from the atrium in a winding course more or less 
parallel with it to reach the roccptacidum. The uterus develops as a bilobed sac 
which enlarges to occupy most of the gravid segment. Eggs measure 31-35 4 u. in 
diameter: the onchospherc 20-30/», in diameter and the hooklets ft*5ji in total 

Immature forms (Figs. 15-16) were also recovered from the stomach aud 
tire intestine of one of the cormorants. The hnoks measured 12-0J3 mm. 
in total length: the suckers 0* ltt-0-15 mm. in diameter; and the scole.v 0-31-0-34 
mnv broad. Some were almost cysticcrcoids, while hi others segmentation had 
lost commenced. The«? young forms were from 0-4-0-4 mm in length Since 
Mkrocorbo melanoleucm feeds on freshwater fish and yabbies (Parachaeram 
tivxtrtvtnr), the eysticercoids of P scolecvyi and P minima -recorded by ns prob- 
ably developed in either the fish or the crustacean. 

Relationship of P. water. inn and P. mininut 

VJks Coss very generously permitted ns to re-examine some of her slides 
ot Paraililrpis minima. We find that two small species have been confused under 
that name and that her material from Micwcarbn mehnoleucus contains the 
same two species that we have described above. One has at least 26 hooks 
measuring about 017 and 012 nun. in tutal length, and cirrus with large rose- 
thorn spines suggestive of P. minima* the other has about 20 hooks measuring 
about 0*09 and 0-07 mm. in total length, arid a cirrus armed with short hair-like 


spines as in P. scolecina. In the original account of D, minima the larger hooks 
are reported as Oil mm. long and the smaller as 0*10 mm., but in the sculex 
figured by Miss Coss and rc-exarnined by me. they measure about 0*16 and 
0*11 respectively, while a figured hook is 12 mm. 

Since most of the original account refers to the species with the larger hooks 
we have taken that as representing P. minima, and to it we assign Miss Goss* 
figures 23, 26-32; figure 25 might refer to either species. Though D. minima was 
t&portecl to possess only three testes, a fourth was detected by us adjacent to 
and just in front of that figured as occurring on the aporal side of the segment. 
The account of the cirrus with backwardly directed spines 5(x long, the two- 
lobeif ovary and the position of the testes (one of which is median, unlike the 
condition in P. scolecina where three are aporal and one poral, none central) 
indicates P. minima. The possession of four testes in the segment and of two 
rows of rostcllar hooks places the two species in Paradilepis Hsu 1935. Joycux 
and Baer (1950, p. 91) regard the genus Paradilepis as comprising only six 
species, which thev list, together with their synonyms. They consider Para- 
aifi'pis scolecina (Rndolphi 1819), P. duboisi Hsu 1935, and P. brevis Burt 1940 
to be synonyms, and consequently we have identified our cestode as Paradilepis 
scvhvwa Using the key they suggest P. minima (not included in their paper) 
is differentiated by its small size (strobila less than 10 mm.) from P. macracanfiui 
Joycux and Baer 1936, P simom Rau.vch 1949, P. kempi (Southwell 1921) and 
P. detachauxi (Fuhrman 19U9). P. urccus (Wcdl 1S53) and P. scolecina 
(Rudolphi 1819) both measure Jess than 1(3 mm., hut both have 20 hooks, while 
P. minima has 28, and its hooks are larger. 

Paradilepis sp. 
Figs. 17.20 

Two fragments of a eestode were obtained from a cormorant (Microcnrho 
mcfanoleucits) collected from the Adelaide Botanical Gardens iu 1923. The 
length of the larger is 1 cm., and Its maximum breadth 0*2 rnrn,; in its most 
mature segments the testes and cirrus sac are defined although still immature. 
The second specimen is only just beginning to segment. 

The scolex measures -34-0-47 mm. in diameter and 5 mm. in length. 
In both specimens the rostelltnn is retracted; it carries 27 hooks arranged in two 
rows, the larger hooks measure 0-173-0 -ISO mm. total length, and the smaller 
0-124-0-138 mm, total length. Their shapes are showu in figures IS and 19, 
Of the 27 hooks, there are 13 large and 14 small ones; probably the complete 
number is 28. The rostellar sac measures about 0*16 mm, iu diameter and 
26-0 31 nun. in length; it extends back behind the posterior level of I he 
suckers. The suckers are round (0 167 mm. in diameter) or elliptical (0-14 X 
0*11-0-13 mm.) in shape. 

There are four, occasionally five, testes situated on cither side of. and 
behind, the developing female glands. Those iu the ripest segments measure 
0*03 mm. in diameter, but it is doubtful if they have reached their greatest size. 
The cirrus sac is not yet fully differentiated; it lies across the anterior part of the 
segment reaching a little beyond the middle of the segment. In the most mature 
segments it measures 0-1 mm. long by 0*03 mm. broad. 

The female glands are indicated by an aggregation of cells between the 
testes, but they are not differentiated. No excretory cawds could be recognized. 

This species belongs to the family Dilepididac Fuhrmann 1907, because ui 
its four testes and double row of hooks. As there are no gravid segments wc 
cannot be sure of its correct position, but record it as Paradilepis sp. Using the 
key suggested by Joyeux and Baer (1!J50, p. 91) it then belongs to the group 
of species exceeding 10 mm. in length, but can be distinguished from them by 
the. number and size of its hooks, 


Plate 3. 

Figs. 17-20.— Paradilepis sp. 17, scolex; 18 and 10, rostellar hooks; 20, immature segment 
Figs. 21-25— Dilepis maxirjia. 21, scolex; 22, dorsal view of segment with developing uterus; 
23 and 24, dorsal view of segments with branching uterus; 25, dorsal view of segment with 

ovigerous capsules. 

Figs. 17, 23, 24 and 25 to same scale; 21 and 22 to same scale; 18 and 19 to same scale. 

cs, cirrus sac; ec, egg capsules; o, ovary; ts. rcceptaciiluin scminis; t, testis; u, uterus; vex, 

ventral excretory canal; yg, yolk gland; o , anlage of female organs. 


Dilcpis maxima Goss 1940 
Figs. 21-25 

A specimen of Dilcpis ?nuxima Goss (1940) was recovered from a small black 
and white cormorant, MicrocarlM) mdanoleucus, collected In Adelaide, South 
Australia, in 1923. Its total length is uncertain (at least 5 cm.), but its maximum 
breadth is 1-2 mm. The scolex has a diameter of 0-36 mm. The rostetlum 
carries a double crown of 26-28 hooks, die larger of which measure 0-153 mm. 
totaf length, and the smaller 0-108 mm.:, jo shape thev are .similar to those figured 
by Miss Goss (1940). The four suckers measure 0-13 * 0-11 mm. 

In our specimen the anterior end is contracted and there is no distinct neck 
before segmentation begins. The genital ducts pass dorsally to the excretory 
canals. The unilateral genital pore lies in the anterior third of the margin of the 

The four testes measure each 0-07-0 08 mm. in diameter; two are situated 
on the aporal side of t\\c female glands, one in front of the other; the other two 
are poral one to the side of the female glands, and the other behind (hem. 
They persist in segments with well-developed uterus. The vas deferens coils 
before entering the cirrus sac. The pair of spines at the base of the cirrus, 
referred to by Miss Cass, could not be seen, but the cirrus itself is spiny. The 
carta sac is large, extending from the genital atrium across the anterior part 
Of the segment; it measures 0-30-0 37 mm. long x O-03 mm. broad. 

The ma lure ovary is median, and measures 0-07 mm. maximum diameter; 
the vitelline gland, situated directly behind it, measures 0-07 mm. in diameter. 
The vagina opens into the deep, narrow genital artriurn just ventral and posterior 
to tho opening of the cirrus sac; it runs parallel with the cirrus sac to the reeep- 
tacuJum seminis, which is situated dorsally in front of the ovary. At its largest 
it measures about 0-08 X 05 mm, The uterus develops as two lobes which 
become branched, and iinally break down into numerous egg capsules, extend- 
ing laterally beyond the excretory canals, and containing each 1-20 egss. 

Our specimen is obviously Dllepis moxinui Goss 1940* differing significantly 
from the original description only in the number of hooks (tvpe specimen ha* 
20) and in the size of the yolk gland (that of die type specimen measures 0*035 
mm. in diameter). The lyuc specimen mav easily have lost several of its hooks, 
so that our number may be taken as more correct. The yolk gland in our 
specimen was measured from segments with developing litems, which may 
account for its greater size, However, if the uterus really breaks down into 
ovigenous capsules, as it appears to do, this species dors not belong to the genus 
Dilcpis, which has a sac-like or lobed uterus, but to one of the genera of the 
subfamily Dipylirliinae- (The family Dilepididae Fuhrmann 1907 is divided into 
tluw subfamilies on the nature of the uterus; of these, the subfamily Dilepuliinae 
Fuhrmann J907 includes those genera in which the uterus is sac-like, lobed or 
ramifying, and die subfamily ITipylicliinae ( Stiles 1896) those in which the uterus 
breaks down into uterine capsules. (Fuhrmann 1932).) As we were not able 
to make certain that the appearance of the egg capsules k not due to a greatly 
ramifying and divided uterus, we have for the time left this species m its original 

Ilymenolepis cormorant! Ordepp 1938 
Figs 26 and 27 

Thirteen very small ccstodes were obtained from a cormorant (Microcarbo 
mrtmiofeHCus) collected near Tailem Bond, South Australia, in March 1948. 
Unfortunately, none of the worms arc mature, so that only a limited description 
of them can be given, The specimens measure up to IS mm. long, with a m*xi- 
mmn width of 0-3 mm. The scolcx(Fig. 26) has a maximum diameter of 


U 11-0-14 mm, It has a long rostellum ending in a bulb which carries the 
hooks, when fully everted the rostelhrin may be 0-44 mm. long. There is u 
singlo ru\v of 10 hook* of similar shape and size, measuring 022 mm. total 
length, 'ilieii shape is shown in Figure 27. The four elliptical suckers measure 
0- 04-0 05 x 0* 055-0 065 mm. The'scolcx narrows slightly to the neck. In the 
most mature segments present which are 0*037 mm. long, some of the organs 
AT* foreshadowed by aggregations of cells, but nothing of their number or 
arrangement can be determined 

These specimens resemble in general form, and in number and size of their 
hooks, three species which have been described from cormorants elsewhere. 
These- are Hymenalepis cormoranii Ortlepp 193S, from Microcarbo africam 
africanoides, whoso 10 hooks measure 0-024-0*025 mm,; Hymcuolepis childi 
Bint 1940 from Fhalacwcorux nigcr of Ceylon, whose 10 hooks measure 
0-021-O 022 nuu. and Hymenolepis gijogonka Johri 1941 from Fhalacrocorax 
javtinicus from Burma, whose. 10 hooks measure 0*018-0 -026 mm. All three 
ccstudos are thin and delicate, and the arrangement and measurements of their 
internal organs do not differ significantly; none has such a long rostellum R£ our 
specimens, which may be because in none it is fully extended, Their hooks 
as figured, and those of our specimens, are all similarly shaped. Joycux and 
Haer 1950 in a note to their paper consider that the tliree are synonyms. The 
Sooth Australian specimens contain no mature segments, but in view of the 
close resemblance of the scolices to those of this group, they are provisionally 
identified, as H. carmorantl 

Hymenolepis phalacroearax (Woodland 1929) 
Figs 28-31 

Numerous specimens of this species were found in three little pied cormo- 
rants (Microcarbo ttwhmoleucuti) collected at Tailern Bend between 193S ami 
1913 and one from the Adelaide Botanical Gnrdeus collected in 1923. Unfor- 
tunately none lias a scolex. The largest worms measure about 100 mm., with a 
maximum breadth of 1*14 mm, 7 found in gravid segments, 'flic unilateral 
genital pores arc situated in the anterior third of the proglottid. All the segments 
aTe broader than long. 

The muscular system is similar to that described by Woodland, the inner 
ring ot longitudinal muscle fibres consisting of eight large bundles, four dorsal 
and four ventral. Immediately external to these is the outer ring of longitudinal 
muscle fibres, which is strongly developed, Both these riugs he within the ring 
of circular muscles, arid are therefore medullary in position. There are the usual 
two parrs o( longitudinal excretory vessels; the ventral ones are large (external 
diameter up to 4'V) and the dorsal narrower with thicker walls (external 
diameter about 11/*). No transverse excretory canals were observed. The genital 
do<Ts i>ass dorsal ly to I he excretory vessels. 

There are three testes, one poral and two aporal. As the segments aie very 
short, they are usually transversely elongate, measuring 0*08-0*13 X 0*07-009 
mm. Their position with reference to tire excretory vessels appears to vary. 
Usually (he mature poral testis fills the dorso-vcntral space behind the rimis 
sac, most of it lying laterally to lire excretory vessels, lioth of the two aporal 
l.estes are crossed vcntrally by the excretory vessels, the outer of tire, two being 
practically lateral to it, and (Ire inner, practically median. All three testes he 
between the longitudinal nerve cords. In segments with mature ovaries, the testes 
arc completely lateral to the excretory canals, as figured and described by Wood- 
land. There is; an external seminal vesicle which may become extremely large; ui 
segments with developing uterus, in which it is filled with sperms, it may measure 
0*09-0 11 mm. wide, and fill the central portion of the segment, ft begins 



Plate 4. 

Z$* f ^^•-^tmwnolepis cormoranti, 26, scolex with rcwteUirm everted; 27, rostellar hook. 
Fm. 2b-3l,-Hymenolem phalacTocorax. 28, dorsal view of segment with mature testes; 
gtf, transverse section ot Same; 30, dorsal view of sequent with mature ovary; 31 dorsal 
view of segments with developing uterus. Figs. 26. 28, 29 and 30 to same scale, cm 'circular 
muselc; dex, dorsal excretory canal; m, outer ring f longitudinal muscle: esv, external seminal 
vesicle; isv, internal seminal vesicle; lm, inner ring of longitudinal muscle; vex, ventral excretorv 

canal; yg s yolk gland. 


abruptly below the cirrus sac and runs across the segment to the apnral excre- 
tory vexsel, whei« it turns and comes back to enter -the cirrus sac us vas det'ere-ns. 
Within the cirrus sac the vas deferens widens into an internal seminal vesicle 
which fills the cirrus sac when full of sperms. The cirrus itself is short (0-03- 
0-04 mm. long) and docs not appear spiny. The genital atrium lis shallow. The 
cirrus .uc extends nearly up to or slightly beyond the poral excretory vessels. 
It measures 0- 15-0* 21 x 0-02-0 -05 mm. in mature segments. 

The bilobed ovary is large, measuring up to 0*20 mm. across when fully 
developed, extending between the excretory vessels that is, filling about one-third 
of rim segment Each lobe is subdivided into several smaller Jobes. The 
slightly lobed yolk gland (0-048-0-055 X 0-02 mm.) is situated behind the 
ovary in its concavity. The receptaculuni seirunis is ino>nspicur>ii,s 3 appearing 
usually as a dilation of the vagina in the region of the ovary and dorsal to it. 
The vagina runs obliquely from the genital atrium to the region of the ovary. 
It opens into the genital atrium immediately ventral to the cirrus sac in the same 
transverse plane. The uterus develops as two transverse lobes on either side 
of the ovary, extending well beyond the excretory canals and behind the cirrus 
sac to the edges of the segment. In gravid segments the uterus appears as one 
large sac which fills the segment in which all the organs have degenerated 
except die cirrus sac and the large external seminal vesicle. Occasionally there 
arc marginal uterine swellings similar to those described by Woodland. The 
eggs measure 23-25/* in diameter and the onchospheres 12-1 5/*, with small bonks 
measuring about 7/* long. 

As can be seen, the description of this species differs in certain respects from 
that uf Woodland. We were not able to observe the detail of the cirrus sac 
described by him, The testes of our specimens are completely lateral to the 
excretory vessels (as described by Woodland) only in segments that are past 
their maturity. Biter 1933 in Ins description of specimens of this species also 
seems not to have found the testes lateral in position in young or immature 
segments. Again, the uterus of our specimens occasionally had lateral swellings, 
but they are not a constant feature, as they are in Woodland's specimens. How- 
ever, these differences may in part be due to the state of contraction of the 
wewms, and do not seem to justify the creation of a new species, so we prefer 
to record our specimens as ilrpncnohpis phttkicrocorax (Woodland 192fl) 


Baeh^ I. G., 1933. Contribution u J'ctudo de l.i fiione helmfnthol*ie:litncv afik-uinc, Hev. 

&j$D Zool., 10 (1), pp. 31-81, 
Bvpt, D. H., J.940. New Spedfcfl of eostodes from Charuclniformes, Ardoifonorjt and talicoiu- 

fonncs In Ceylon. Spoliu Zei'lauica, 22 (I), pp. 1-63. 
Fumhmann, O.. J 932, Los Tenuis des Oiseuux, Mem. Univ. \i:uch;itc*l t xviii, 18 pp. 
Codi, <** M-i WW**- ylatvhelminth utid AcanLhoccphalan Parasites of Local Shatfs, Jour. Roy. 

Soc. W. Ausl., (tt (J), pp. M* 
H&t' H. F M 1935. Contributions a Fetoifr do* r-cstodo* flo Chine, Rev. Suisse 7ool., 42, pp. 

jfOBRT L. JflL 1941. On two SpujtKrfl of the family llymenolepididue I'uhrnmun 1VM>7 (CW.oda) 

fi'.uii a Tiiioitffio cormorant Fhalucruuurax jaftmfcm ( 'TTorsHcM ^921 ), Fhilipp. Jour. Soi., 

74 (2), pp. M-88. 
fOkti'x Gfe. and Baku, J. G., 1U5U, 'JV. SMfaW of the Cotude Genus McxtiiUklhi J.i'p^- 

Neyra 1342; 1'ruc. Helm. .Soc. Wash., 17 (2), pp. 01-04. . 

Owixbrx' R. J.) 1938. South African Helminth*, Rut IV. Cwtodes lioui Coli..>»Mform^ 

Onderstepoort Jr., 11 (I), pp. 63-104. »• ,i 

Wouuianu W, N. l'\, 1929. On Some -New Avian Cestoden froni Iticliu Fm*sito! CnrnhnMge, 

21, pp. 168-179. 







The examination of a small collection of mites from New Caledonia has shown a species of 
Trombidiid mite answering to Erythraeus {Ctenerythraeus) trombidioides Berlese 1918 (from New 
Caledonia), which was placed by its author (and subsequent writers) in the family Erythraeidae. 
Although Berlese's type is at present inaccessible, the correspondence of the adult mite to Berlese's 
account (allowing for some obscurities in the latter's Latin description), both in descriptive and 
metric data, is. excellent, and there appears no reason to doubt the identity. The mite also 
corresponds to Spathulathrombium Womersley 1945, which becomes a synonym of Ctenerythraeus 
Berlese 1918. 

Ctenerythraeus trombidioides is redescribed from the new material, both adult and nymph. The 
species comes nearest to Gteneiythraeus myloriensis (Womersley 1945) from South Australia. 
Distinguishing characters between these two species are given. Apart from these two species the 
genus contains C. southcotti (Worn. 1934) (the genotype of Spathulathrombium), C. queenslandiae 
(Worn. 1942), C. maximus (Worn. 1945), and C. fulgidus (Worn. 1945). All except the genotype are 
from the Australian mainland. 




by R. V. Soimicxm* 
{Read 9 August 1956] 


The examination of a small collection of miles from Now. Caledonia has shown a Npeties 
o( : Trombidiid mite answering to Erythraetus {Ctermr\ithraena) tr t _r/nhidioides Berlese 191# 
(from New Caledonia), which was placed by its author (and subsequent writers) In the 
family hjylhrueidat:. Although BerJese's type is at present inaccessible, the correspondence 
of the adult mite to IVrleses account (allowing for some obscurities in the Litter's* Latin 
description), both in descriptive and metric data, is excellent, and there appears no reason, to 
doubt the identity. The mite also corresponds to Spathulatlinnnbium Womersley 1945, wiiich 
becomes a synonym of CtnnerythnuHts Berlesc 1918. 

C.t.tmt-rythraeus tromhidlokles is rcdescribed from the new material, both adult and 
nymph. The species conies nearest to Gtenenjihraeus myloriensis (Womersley 1945) from 
South Australia. Distinguishing characters between these two species are given. Apart 
from these two species Die genus contains C. smtthcoffl (Worn. 1934) (the senotvpe of 
Sltnrhutathrombium), C. queenshnrfiuc (Worn. 1912). C. tJiaximus (Worn. 1915), and C. 
fttltiidus (Wrnn. 15145). All evcept the genotype are from the Australian mainland, 


In 1918 Berlcse described Eryfhwens (Ctenerijthraeus) tramh'ulundrs as a 
new subgenus and species of Erythraeid mite, of Trombidiicl fades, from New 
Caledonia, where it had been collected by the expedition of "Sarrasin ct Roux*\ 
Although listed by Baker and Wharton (1952) among the Erythraeidae, up to 
the present no subsequent worker has made any contribution to our knowledge 
of that mite, 

Berlese had stated that in Ctenenjthraeus there was a comb-like row of 
spines along the dorsal border of the palpal tiba, as in the Trornbidiidae ("from- 
bidiorum more"). Although such a comb is a common feature in many Trom- 
bidiid mites (particularly among the subfamily Microtrombidiinae Thor 1935), 
for an Erythraeid the mite must have been very unusual indeed. In certain 
genera of Erythraeid mites, e.g. the European Erythraeus Latreille 1806 and 
the Australian Varenjtliraem Southcott 1946, there *is a row of a small number 
of conical spines along the inferior border of the palpal tibia (and also the 
genu), but nothing similar had been observed along the dorsal border of the 
palp in any known Erytiiraekl mite. 

For some time the present writer has been attempting to clarify the systema- 
tic* of the Erythraeidae, and in an attempt to clarify the status of Cienerylhrtieus 
he wrote to Mr. L. J. Dumbleton, entomologist to the South Pacific Commis- 
sion, asking for acarinc material from New Caledonia. In the first batch uf 
alcohol-preserved specimens from New Caledonia, from Mt. Mori, at 4000 ft., 
theie were two reddish mites of Erythraeid or Trombidiid fades. These 
corresponded to the genus SpatkuJathrombium Womersley 19-15. One specimen 
was an adult, the other a nymph, but clearly the two specimens were of tne same 
species. The spiky (longer) setae over the dorsum was, however, a feature 
seen in certain of die Erythraeidae as well as in some of the Trornbidiidae. 

Ou comparing these two mites with Berlese's Latin description of Ctenery' 
thraexis trombidioides it was found that the latter corresponded in all major 


details with the adult specimen, -with a good cwresiiondence to the metric data 
supplied by Herlese. Unfortunately, it is net possible for the writer In compare 
the specimens with Berlcse's type, as no facilities are available at the institution 
which houses the Bcrlcse collection in Florence. 

As few modern students of the Acarina read Latitt with any facility, and 
as in places Bcrlcse s account is somewhat obscuw, the following translation of 
fterlese's account is offered, with explanatory comment (the writer is indebted 
to MTi J. L. Gough for aid with the translation ) : 

"Subgenus Ctcnerythraeus Berl. n. subgen. From (ex) the genus Eruthraem. 
The penultimate segment of the palpi with a great comb, armed, as in tho 
Tronibfdiidac. The anterior legs with the tarsi dilated, but below rather pro- 
jecting (prominent)j as occurs in the Trombuiiidae; the other tarsi elongatc- 
eyliudricai, of the same thickness as the tibiae (metatarsi, R.V.S.). Crista 
metopicn very short, not produced further back than the line of the second 
coxae. Type E. (C) trombidioides Berl, 

"Ertjlhraeus (Ctcnt'rtjthmcm) trombidioides Berl. 1918 n. sp.— Ciimibar, 
elongatcly heart-shaped, the whole trunk densely clothed with red papillae, 
compressed I y clavate, all of these being thickly aciculate (i.e. covered with 
little needles, li.V.S.), to 50/i long, between which, equally and densely scattered, 
are cylindrical sebie, three or four times as long as the foregoing, i,e, 150-2UU^ 
long, curved back in the shape of a bow, and finely needle-like. Crista metopica 
3IX>/a long. Eyes paired on both sides (the anterior the larger), placed a little 
above (i.e. before. R.V.S. ) the level of the posterior area of the crista, and quite 
close to the crista. Patpi long and slender, the penultimate segment cylindrical, 
12&A long, 30y. wide, provided witii a most beautiful comb occupying the whole 
of the dorsum of the segment, nevertheless bent inwardly. The comb is com- 
posed of spines, about 25 in number, decreasing in thickness in order from 
the apical one, to which tho palpal claw is adpressed, and (the apical one) 
scarcely feebler (than the claw), There are also on the inner side, basally, in 
I his segment, 10 setae, longer and thinner, arranged in a transverse series which 
is close and parallel to the posterior margin of the segment, r l1ie most posterior 
segment, that is (sive) the tcntaculum (Pfemur, R.V.S.) is elongatcly almond- 
shaped, very much thinned out toward the apex and produced to the line of 
the base of the (?) foot (unguis) of the preceding segment; the whole provided 
with evenly scattered hairs, longer, thin. The skin of the palpi and legs (padex) 
is piovided with areolae, and not with papillae, as occurs in the trunk, but all 
segments of the legs are provided thickly with only the cylindrical setae, similar 
to those on the trunk, but smaller, and with other slender hairs of simple fmm, 
but very short. The anterior tarsi tire about twice as thick as the tibiae (meta- 
tarsi, R.V.$.) and are neaily straight doisally, even slightly concave, little 
heightened; ventndlv strongly arched and prominent. Tarsal length 50G>. 
width l!J0y. Tibia (metatarsus) 500>. long, fjJOj* wide, i Animul) 2at%t int\y 
1650/* wide. Leg T 2200/, long. 

'"Habitat in 5scw Caledonia ('Vrony' ). Una example, collected by 'CI I. Sar- 
rusiu et Ruu*7~ 

The above account may be compared with rhe following description liom 
two Iresh specimens from Xew CaledOma. considered hy the present wHIer to 
belong to the same species. 

Red(weriptwn of Ctcnerythraeus trombidioides (fierfese 1918) 

Fig*. 1-4 

Adult (Figs, i A-C, 2) (from ACB 608): Colour (m alcohol) reddish. 
Body ovoid, 1965^. long to tip of month cone, 1250// wide. The dorsum is pro- 
vided with a crista which hears a single son.sillary area, at its posterior end- 


The sensillary area is typical of" the Trombidiidae (see Fig. 2), pyrifomt, strongly 
chitinized, with eaeh of" the two sensillary setae set in a projecting boss. Sensil- 
lary setae about 220// long, filiform, nude. Sensillary pits 4m. apart (distance 
between centres). The anterior end of the crista tapers to a blunt point, ending 
somewhat obscurely, but without any sign of a sensillary area. Total length 
of crista 395ft Sensillary pits (centres of) 20> ahead of posterior end of crista. 
Each sensillary boss is surrounded by a lanceolate group of reticulations, the 
axis of this reticular pattern lying obliquely forwards and medially. 

Fi£. I.-Cttmrrifthrneus trombidwules (Berlese, 1918). Adult. A, entire, memnted specimen, 

by transmitted light, with setae omitted (ventral structures stippled); B, inner face of li^ht 

palp; C, outer face of right palp. ( Figs, 1 B, C to scale on right. ) 

Eyes two on each side, on a distinct ocular shield. Anterior eye the larger, 
circular, 6% across. Posterior eye circular, 3fy. across, placed rather medial to 
the anterior eye. 

Dorsum thickly clothed with setae of two distinct types, which are so 
dense as to obscure underlying structures, e.g. the eyes and the crista, The 
longer dorsal setae (rnacrosetae) are long, stiff, bent, needle-like or slightly 
lanceolate with adpressed minute rasp-like serrations, which latter are scarcely 
visible even along the edges of the setae; these setae arising from large setae 
bases, and arc from 77-190;* long, increasing gradually in length towards the 
posterior part of the dorsum. The shorter setae (microsctae) are leaf-like, 
arched dorsally, and with their dorsal aspects covered with rows of strong 
projections, these being eiliations in the proximal half of the seta, and becoming 
blunter in the distal half, and often terminally the seta has two conical denticles; 


veotruUy there is a median keel, along each side of which is ft row of long, 
strong-pointed eiliations; le-af-like setae 34-42/* long. The seta bases of these 
smaller setae are weakei than in Hie long, sword-like setae, The sctation of 
the body is so dense that it is, in the intact mounted specimen, difficult to see setae 
suitable for measuring the lengths; this being more so vyiOi the leaf-like setae 
than with the sword -like macrosctae, 

The ventral surface is not available for measurement and description in the 
mounted specimen; this applies also to the genitalia. 

The legs arc for the most part clothed with setae similar to the sword-like 
Sftfifc of the trunk, but these setae rather more slender, and on the dorsal surfaces 
oi the legs, more Curved, in fact, on the dorsal surfaces of the legs these setae 
arc thicker, blunted at die lip, and nut quite suuinth in their contour, giving the 
impulsion of having faint adpressed serrations. This appearance is also seen 
on the other setae. The thicker of these setae have a faint suggestion of a keel, 
and down each side of this keel is a scries of fine-pointed eiliatioas, Among 
these setue ure smaller, more sleuder, simple, curved spiiiiforni .setae, which are 
present also on the other segments, particularly on the genu and metatarsus 
/tibia). On the end of each tarsus is a pit into which the tarsal claws can be 
folded bark (the dorsnteiminal fossa). Tarsal claws 11, II f and TV strong; on 
I weaker. Tarsus i appears rather inflated, particularly infcriurly, and is covered 
with short, tapering, ciliated setae* interspersed among which are numerous fine- 
pointed, simple spiniform setae, as well as a few longer setae, the latter spiniform 
with faint adpressed rasp-tike roughening and about twice as long as the other 
setae. The setae on tarsus 11 arc almost all ciliated, somewhat coarser than on 
I. Legs robust Tarsus I 420^ long by 175^ high; tarsus JT 338^. long by 
104/- High, tarus 111 370,* lone; by l]$i high, IV 47&i long by 12&t high. 
Metatarsus I 360/;. long> II 280^ Til 32(V, IV 4S)/l 

The chcliccral fangs are typically Trombidiid. curved, convex downwards, 
pointed for grasping and piercing, articulated (hinged) normally The fang 
about SG/* long, with a faint row of dorsal denticles, similar to that: of the nympH 
(rj.v. — those in the adult are a little obscured in the preparation). 

The palpi are rather slender, and provided with setae as figured. The palpal 
trochanter nude. Palpal femur dorsally and laterally with Ion g, strong, blunted 
setae with adnate eiliations, to 135fA long, At the distal end of the dorsum of 
the palpal femur there is a long outstanding spiniform seta. 217/a long (which 
is very faintly indented, fndieating its origin as a modified normal type seta), 
clearly of a tactile function. The superior edge of the palpal femur (and genu) 
tends to be rolled inwards, at least in the mounted preparation. The medial 
and inferior surfaces of the palpal femur with long-pointed, lightly ciliated setae, 
to 112/;, long. Palpal genu dorsally provided with a group of stilT spmi'funn 
setae along its more distal part, about 20 in number, to 7<V long, arising along 
the dorsal border. Elsewhere the palpal genu is provided with pointed some- 
what more flaccid ciliated setae, to SO/* long. At the distal end of its dorsum, 
rather laterally,, is a long outstanding tactile spine, as in die paFpal femur, 173,* 
long. The palpal tibia is also provided proximally on its medial surface with 
an irregular row of rather stiff spinifonu setae, 11 in number, roughly parallel 
fen the posteromedial border of the tibia; elsewhere the nvdhd surface of the 
palpal tibia is baic of settle. Along the dor-sal border of the palpal tibia is a 
pectinate row of 27 stiff, blunted spines, bent inwards (medially), and over- 
lapping each other in medial view, so much so they arc difficult to count (.sec 
Fig. 1 !$)• In the middle part the free eclge of the spines lifts up to reveal 
the bases of the spines. The terminal (most anterior) spine is the largest, and 
is -30/* lung; it is alongside the palpal tibial claw. Palpal tibia with a large 
normal claw. The palpal tibia carries no thick external spine (a feature of some 


Palpal tarsus tapering, with many setae, some tapering and spioiforrn. some 
ciliated along one side (see Fig. 1 13). On tile dorsal border of the palpal tarsus 
is a linear group of setae,, long, ciliated along one side, forming almost a pectinate 
array; these are clearly tactile in function, to aid the grasping of the palpiis. 


Fip. Z-C tromhidioUles (Berlese, 1918). Adult. Crista and eyes, and part of 

dorsum and pnlpL, to show setation. 

Description of Nymph 
Fig. 3 




Fig. 3,-Ctenerijthraeu$ tromhUlinidcx (Bttf&se; 1918). Nymph. Tart of propo- 
dosoina and adjacent structures. 


profusion of the outstanding longer doreal setae, which, however, arc rather 
Jess numerous than in the adult 

Crista as in the adult with a single sensitlary area, forming an expanded 
posterior bulb 4G/t across. Centres of sensilJac bases 22/x apart Sensillae fili- 
form, nude, 173/.. long. Anterior end of crista pointed, ending a little indis- 
tinctly behind a dome-like projection (which evidently corresponds to the tectum 
of e.#, the Leeuwenhoekiinae, but carries no setae), overhanging the eheltcxyae 
bases (see Fig, 2). Total length of crista 138,*. Sensillae bases 15/* in front 
of posterior end fa posterior sensillary area. The reticular patterning around Lire 
sensillae bases, which is so prominent a feature in the adult, i.s only very slight 
in the nymph. 

Eves as in the adult, 2 + 2, each lateral pair on a distinct obliquely placed 
ocular shield, sessile. AuLerior eye 21ju across, posterior 14^ across. 

Dorsum of* body thickly clothed with two types of setae, us in the adult, 
but with the setae loss chithu/cd. and somewhat sparser, Longer setae 53-146/* 
long; the shorter leal-like setae 30-39/a long, pretty uniform, with blunt points 
over their distal half, ciliated in the proximal halt" and along the lateral edges'. 
the seta somewhat flattened, though with a curved dorsum. Both types of seta 
arise horn large seta bases, as in the adult. 

The ventral surface of the body is piovided similarly with two types of 
setae, the one spinifrmn-luuceolatc and the other shorter and leaf-like as fa the 
dorsum, but in each case the setae arc mther weaker. Cenital aperture 91a 
long, with the usual two pairs of nymphal genital suckers. 

ttt J&P similiir to ™g aclult M " a lialt ' ,lll,re slender. I W8tk long. U 760a, 
III 805/r, fV 1095/i. (all lengths including coxae but exclusive of tarsal claws). 
The setation of the legs is similar to thai of the adult, there being hristlc-like or 
lightly ciliated setae, the latter pointed or blunted. No leaf-like scUmj on the 
cgs. Claws on legs as in the adult. Tarsus I rather swollen interiorly 230> 
lagg by 94., high. Other tarsi cylindrical. II imp. long by 4n> high III 
ffl &» ^ 237/i * 15 ' 1 ' Mclatarsus C' bia ) l 151/* lo »"g, II 115,/, III 13.V 

CJieUceral fangs normal for the Trombidiidac. and are similar tu those of the 
adult The movable chela (fang) 45//. Ions, with a dorsal row of 10 minute 
denticles, increasing in size posteriorly, the anterior verv small, tile posterior 
pointing back in saw-teeth. 

Palpi as figured, similar to the adult, but Jess heavily chrtinized (see Fie 3) 
The setation of the palp is similar to the adult, but the setae tend to before 
pointed (see Fig. 3). Palpal tibia carries 13 stout spines along its dorsomcdial 
border; the anterior spines almost straight; the spines are directed antcrio- 
medially, and are almost parallel, except that the more posterior spines tend to 
be a link rctroflcxed and spreading. The dorsal edge, of the palpal tibia is rolled 
over to carry these spines. The antenormost spine die stoutest, 26u long and 
is alongside the tibial claw (Fijr 3 shows the comb more oleariv than does 
Fig. i fi for the adult). PalpaL tibial claw stout, 3$u long. 

Palpal tarsus as figured (Fig, 3), slender, with numerous setae, ciliated 
fieneWly or unilaterally; one solenoidal (striate) seta present, arising about 
hallway along the tarsus as figured; terminally tl«j tarsus has u group of curved 
spini/nim setae, the terminal the longest, and 66^ long, 

/ \n¥wS¥ r The vTx?^!? nS p ™™? ed arC: aJult (ACB 60 §) ^d nymph 
OSS S& 'T M V , M °[ r ' ?*!? Q&toti* * **» feet, among leaf mould, 
March jUSo, collected by L J, Dumbletou, in authors collection 

The Systetnatic Position of Ctenerythraeus 

xt £ S * l tfe*^ above, a comparison ot* the two fresh specimens received from 
Mr. Dumbleton reveals no significant point of difference from Beriese's uccoimt 


Apart from some of the minor description of the palpi, where Berleses account 
.s obscure (commented on above) the correspondence is obviously good- The 
writer therefore sees no reason to doubt that Ctcncrijlhraciis Bcrlese 1918 is 
the same as Spathulnlhrombimn Womersley 1945. Womersley s (1945) defini- 
tion of Spatlwtathrombhtm reads as follows: 

"As in Echinothmmbium* with the larger dorsal .setae long and spine-lik*. 
but the smaller setae spathulate with filiations or setules. The posterior arm 
of the crista very evanescent, almost invisible, so that the sensillary area appears 
to be posterior, In all known species the palpal tibia without any external 
tottte, distal portion of tibia slender, almost twice as long as basal part. 

^Genotype NL (iewtromhidium) southcotti Worn. 1934". 

The specimens described in the present paper answer to Womersleys defini- 
Liou of SpalhulathTombium, 

Apart from the genotype (C. trombidioidcs ( Berl. 1918) ) the genus Ctenery- 
thracw now contains C." auuthcolii (Worn, 1934) (the genotype of Spathula- 
thrombhan Worn. 1945), C. maximus (Worn, 1915), C. qtieenslundkie (Worn. 
1942), C. fulgidus (Worn. 1945), and C. myloriemis (Worn. 19-15). All these 
species of Womersley are Australian. C southcotti was captured by the writer 
near Karlcar, National Park, Belair, South Australia, 1st February 1934 (and 
not as shown by Womersley (1934) (1945)), lu 1945 Womersley described "S. 
qttceitslavdiae n. sp " from CJympie. Queensland, April 27th 1940, collected by 
D. 1- W. Smith overlooking' the fact that he had described tliis species as 
Ecltinothvombium queenshmdiac in 1942. C, fulgidm (Worn. 1945) came from 
Robe, South Australia, 13th October 1943 (coll. II. Womersley), and C 
myloriensis (Worn. 1945) from Myior, South Australia, 14th September 1935 (coll. 
H! Womersley). Of these species C, trombidioides (Berl. 1918) comes nearest to- 
C mijloriditm. The differences between the adults of these two species can be 
seen from the tabular data below. 















0. n i \ loricnsis ( Worn.. 

L 2 -riorum 

in 120/1 



1945) (after Womers- 

VV I -35mm 

VV 9fy 

ley 1045) 

C. trombidioidcs ''Berl. 

J. P97mm 



l tort 



19 IB) (ACT tm) 

VV 1 25nmi 

\V 175^ 

C. iron i hid loiritfS (Berl. 

1, 2-nmm 


In SO/i 

L SOO/i 

W() f i 

!91fl), type NphtMtrien 

W \ -fl'mim 

W 12% 

(*n<T Rerlese #JB] 

As can be .seen from the foregoing table, the easiest character by which the 
two species may be separated is on the lengdi of the niacxosctue: in C. 
mylorumsis I hey' arc to 120,/ long (according to Womersley 1015); in C. tram?- 
bkl'toirlvfi they are longer, to 200//, - 

*'Uw Ktfpifl I'chinuthnnihium Womersley 1037 (with typn OtUmia apinoaa Oanestrini 
IMS from Europe (nor 1877, as Womorslry stutnd in 1937 und 1945)) is the adult of Hit-, 
genus EUmiiHeria Oudenians 1911, the latter tfemu therefore having priority. TMs &pim^i 
by thC writer is based on his rearing on a number or occasions o£ the brva of the- Australian 
species Uicrotromlndinm willunr,ac Hirst 1931 = Echmothtoml>\nin willun^te (Womersley 
1VM5) (adult forms) = r.ttmiilkTui cf. nbscuta, Womersley 1936 (larval). This species should 
therefore he re-named EUmiilleriu willun«ue (Hirst 1931). These experiments will h* de- 
Ron'hed in :\ Liter paper, 



Baker, K, W., and Wharton, G. W., 1952. An Introduction to Acarology, the Macmillan 

Company, New York, pp. 1-465 and xiii. 
Berlese, A., 1918. Centuria quarta di Acari nuovi, Redia 13 (1), pp. 115-192. 
Canestrini, G., 1885. Prospetto deH'Acarofauna Italiana (Part 1), Atti 1st. Veneto, 6 (3), 

pp. 319-354. 
HmsT, S-, 1931. On Some New Australian Acari (Trombidiidae, Anystidae, and Gamasidae), 

Proe. Zool. Soc., 1931, Part 2, pp. 561-564. 
Oudemans, A. C., 1911. Acaxologische Anteekingeii XXXV, Ent Ber. Nederl. Ver., 3 (57), 

pp. 118-126. 
Soutucott, R. V., 1946. Studies on Australian Erythracidac, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 

71 (1-2), pp. 6-48. 
Thok, S., 1935a. Obersicht und Einteilung der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814 in 

Unterfamilien, Zool. Anz., 109 (5-6), pp. 107-112. 
Thoh t S., 1935b. Anderung des Namens einer Unterfamilie der Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 

1814, Zool. Anz., 110 (1-2), p. 47. 
Womersley, H., 1934. A Revision of the Trombid and Erythraeid Mites of Australia with 

Descriptions of New Genera and Species, Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 5 (2), pp. 179-254, 
Womersley, H., 1936. Additions to the Trombidiid and Erythraeid Acarine Fauna of Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand, J. Linn. Soc. Lond., Zool., 40 (269), pp. 107-121. 
Womersley, H., 1937. A Revision of the Australian Trombidiidae (Acarina), Rec. S. Aust. 

Mus., 6(1), pp. 75-100. ■ _. 

WoxrERSLEY, H., 1942. Additions to the Acarina of Australia (Trombidiidae and Calypto- 

stomidae), Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 7 (2), pp. 169-181. . 

Womersley, H., 1945. A Revision of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Trombidiidae) of 

Australia and New Guinea, Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 8 (2), pp. 293-355. 



byR. Melville 


by It Melvuxk 

[Read 3 August 1956] 

Among a small collection of Franhenias received in 1953 from Mr. E. H, 
Islng, two plants were found that represented an undescribed species. These 
came irom Evelyn Downs, about 00 milra south-west of Oorinadatta, South 
Australia. As the original .specimens were somewhat fragmentary, a request 
fcr further material was made, and it is a pleasure to acknowledge the ready 
co-operation of Mr. ising in obtaining the fine suite of specimens from the same 
aroa oil which the accompanying description is based. 

fr'rankenia plicata Melville, sp. nov\; F densue Summerhayes affinis sed folds 
ani^ustioribus, glabris, marginibus contingentibus revolutis, calycibus elegaxiter 
plicatis ct scminibas glabris differt. 

Caules erecti vcl prostrati, nvultiramosi, ad 25 cm. longi, intcrnodiis 5- 
3-7'6 mm. longis, pills brevibus erectis dense induti. Folia linearia obtusa vel 
Mibaeiitn, 1-5-4-0-6-0 mm. longa, supra glandulipunetata, glabra vel interdum 
hispidula, marginibus contingentibus revolutis; petiolus 0*6-1 *5 mm. longus. 
Klores solitarii, hractcolis foliis similibus. Calyx oblaneeolatus vcl fusiformis, 
5-5-7 0-8*0 mm. longus, 5-plicatus, Jiris applanatis glabris et sulcis pubeseen- 
tibus* lobi acuti, marginibus scariosis brevitcr ciliatis, apicibus solidis. Pctala 5. 
pallid*' carnea vel fere alba, 7-9-11 mm. longa, cuneata, apicibus sinuato-deuta<i>; 
unguis squama anguste clliptica acuta iustcuctus. Stamina 6> 3 cxtcriora fila- 
mentis applanatis Iinearibus circa G mm. longis, 3 intcriora filamentis lineari- 
lanecolaris plicatis circa 7*5 mnt longis. Ovarium 2-0-2'5 mm. longuin, tri- 
merum, stylus circa 8 mm. longus, ramis stigmaliferis 3, circa 1 mm. longis; 
stigmata subcapitata vel clavata; ovula B-i rare-6, funiculis supcrnc refractis, 
basi ad valvas =t adnatis. Capsula 3*5-4*0 min. longa- semina 1-4, circa 1-7 
mm. longa (imbibita), glabra, ellipsoidca, leviter applanata. 

South Australia: Evelyn Downs, 90 ml. S.W. of Oodnadatta, E. H. Ising no. 
3610, 22.9.1953, Holotvpe in Herh. Kew. 'Hie following numbers are from the 
same collector and locality; E.41, Oct 1950; 3582, 10.10.1952; 3601, 3602,, 3603, 
3605, 3611, 3C12, 12.9.1953; 3604, 36()6 ? 3609, 22.9.1953; 3607, 3608, 21.10.1953; 
3768. 23.10.1954; 3769. 28.10.1955. 

Stems to £5 cm. long erect or prostrated, densely branched, densely short 
pubescent with straight hairs, iutentodes 0*5-3^0-7-0 mm. long, Leaves linear 
nhltise lo subacute^ 1*5-4*0-60 mm. long, grey green glabrous and gland dotted 
above or sometimes hispidulous, tightly enrolled and hiding the midrib below, 

Ketioh'te, basal sheath ciliate. Flowers solitary near the tips of the branches, 
ractcolcs like the leave*?. Calyx obluneeolate, to fusiform, 5*5-7-8 mm. long, 
plicate into 5 glabrous ir flat-topped ridges with sides of the grooves puberuleot, 
lobes acute with a scarious short ciliate margin and solid tip. Petals 5, 7-9-11 
mm. long pale pink to nearly white, cuncate with a siuuate-dentate apex aud 
the claw with a narrow elliptic acute scale about half as long as the petals. 
Stamens 6, 3 outer with linear flattened filaments about f> mm. long, 3 iuner 
with linear lanccolatt\ flattened plicate filaments about Ti mm. lone, authers 
red. Ovary about 2-0-2 5 mm. long, trimcrous, style about 8 mm. long with 
3 stigmatic arms about 1 mm. long, stigmas sub-capitate to clavate, ovules 3-4 

° JioUmic Gardens, K«**«\ England. 


or rarely up to 6 pendulous on long funicles, parietal from shortly above the 
base. Capsule 3-5-4-0 mm. long, seeds usually 1-4, about 1*7 mm. long 
(imbibed), smooth, ellipsoid, slightly flattened with an obscure rounded ridge 
along one margin (raphe) ending in a small rounded protuberance at the 
micropylar end. 

The plants are usually erect but are sometimes laid prostrate by the rush 
of water and soil in the small hillside channels in which they grow. They are 
restricted to such situations that take die first run-off ofter rains. 

Fig. l.—Frankenia plicata Melville. 1, entire flower; 2, tip of calyx lobe; 3, petal: 
4, pair of stamens, outer the shorter; 5, ovary; 6, ovary dissected, one ovule re- 
moved; 7, seed, two views; 8, group of leaves. 1, 3-5, 8, scale A; 2, 6-7, scale B. 

All from the holotype. 






Three new species of the genus Acomatacarus Ewing 1942 are described from the Trinity Bay area 
of north Queensland -A. cooki n. sp., A. mathewi n. sp., and A. langani n. sp. These are compared 
with the previously known Australian species. 

Some comment is made on tracheation within the genus. In A. cooki n. sp. and A. langani n. sp. the 
tracheal system does not differ from certain previously described species. In A. mathewi n. sp. there 
is a more defined supracoxal loop above coxa I, and also there appears to be a collection of tracheae 
in the posterior gnathosomal region, in the midline. 




by R. V. Southcott 
[Read 13 September 1956] 


Three new species of the genus AcomatacartJs Ewing 1942 are described from the Trinity 
Ray urea trf north Queensland — A. cooki n. sp., A, mathnwi u. sp.* and A. tangani n. sp. 
These are compared widi die previously known Australian species. 

Some comment is made on tracheatjon within the genus. In A. cooki n. sp. and A. 
langani n. sp. the tracheal system does not differ from certain previously described species. 
In A. mathewi n. sp. there is a more defined supracoxal loop above cova I, and also there 
appears to be ;i eolieetion of tracheae in the posterior ^natho^omal region, in the midline, 


In a study of the Trombiculid and other mite fauna collected by the writer 
in the vicinity of a scrub typhus focus at Dead Man's Gully, Trinity Ray, north 
Queensland, in 1943 and 1944 (see Southcott, 1947), a small number of mites 
of the genus Acomatacarus Ewing 1942 ( Troinbiculidae ) was found. These 
have been found to belong to three species, described as new in the present 
paper, and named A. cooki n. sp. ? A. matheioi n. sp., and A, langcmi u. sp., after 
three students of the epidemiology of scrub typhus in north Queensland. 

At the present time there is no evidence that this genus of Trombiculid mites 
is of any significance in the epidemiology of the typhus <liseases in Australia- 
The only reference known to the writer suggesting a connexion between Acoma- 
tacarus and a Rickettsial infection is a report by Churnakov (1955) that Coxictfa 
(Rickettsia) burneti (the causative agent of Q fever) has been isolated in central 
Asia from "mites of the genera Leeuwenhoekia and Dermamjmts". That article 
has been seen by the present writer only in abstract form. Presumably by the 
term ''Leeuwennoekia" the more restricted sense of the genus Acomatacarus 
Ewing 1942 is intended, as at the present time Lceuwenhoekiu Oudemans 1910 
has been restricted by most workers to the genotype, L. verduni (Oudemans 
1910) from Brazil, and the genus Acomatacarus covers species ranging from 
Nortn America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australasia (Wharton and Fuller, 1952). 

Desciuftion ok Thkee New Species 

(i) Acomatacarus cooki n. sp. 

Figs. 1, 2 

Description of Tmtvo, ( from Type specimen ACB 199A ) : Colour not re- 
corded. Length of idiosoma (moderately engorged specimen) 645yn, width 47(V 
(animal 730/... long to tip of mouthparts, the chelae). The shape of the moder- 
ately engorged Type specimen is typical of the larval Trombiculidae in a mod- 
erate state of engorgement, a constricted ovoid. 

Dorsal scutum moderately broad. AM setae slightly tapering, 45/a long;, 
with barbed dilations, and with bases 13,u apart (AMR). AL setae similar to 
AM, 55/* lung; PL setae similar, 72^ long. Sensillae (from ACB 199B, paratype; 
missing in Type specimen) moderately ciliated, there being 10-12 ciliations, in 


the distal half of the seta, seta 53/a long. The standard data for the Type and 
paratype specimen as follow: 














ACB 199A Type 
ACB 199B Para- 

















Dorsal abdominal setae similar to the PL scuta) setae, 41-49,* long, arranged 
approximately 2 9 6 7 10 10 8 4 3, total 59, 

Fig. l.-Acomatacarus coqH n. sn M larva, A, dorsal view, partially engorged; B, dorsal 
scutum. (From the Type specimen, except the sensillae.) 

Eyes 2 + 2, well clear of the dorsal scutum. Anterior eye 20u across, pos- 
terior 14/* across. 

Ventral surface: a pair of tapering pointed strongly ciliated setae between 
coxae III, 36u long. Behind coxae III are numerous tapering pointed strongly 


ciliated setae, arranged as figured; the anterior short, 27-31/.1 long, the posterior 
longer, to 46/a long. 

Tracheal system as figured. 

The legs are all 6-segmented. Leg I 440/x. long, II 370/*, III 450> (all 
lengths inclusive of coxae and claws). Chactotaxy of legs as figured. Coxa I 
with 2 setae, tapering, pointed, strongly ciliated, situated as figured, the lateral 


l*ig, •Z.^Acomutacarus cooki n. sp,,, larva. Ventral view, partially engorge;!, showing externa] 

morphology, and the tracheal system. Posteriorly the part of the trachea nearer the dorsum 

is shown in stipple. ( From the Type specimen.) 

seta 55 f x long, the medial seta 55V long. Coxa II with a similar seta 61^; IIT 
seta similar 55/*. Each trochanter with one seta. Tarsus I 110^ long (to origin 
of claws) by 34/* high; metatarsus 1 68/i long. Tausus III with 1 (?2) whip- 
like setae; metatarsus III with 2 whip-like setae. Claws and empodium of the 
tarsi typical, falciform, slender, ciliated. 


Capitulum as figured, Chelicerae norma l> with 4 ventral bent-over den- 
ticles {retention denticles), and dorsally with about 5 saw teeth, the first 3 of 
tttefeQ minute, increasing in size posteriorad. Chcliccral fang 42/t long. Galea! 
seta 34/,. long, nearly nude, with only a few small ciliations. Palpal setal formula 
(Audys notation) R B, B N(b) N(b). Dorsal palpal tibial seta strong, curved, 
strongly ciliated, 2tyi long. Palpal tibial claw with two weaker dorsal accessory 
pxuugs; main prong 27^ long. 

Loadity: Two specimens, type specimen ACB 199A and paratype speci- 
men ACB 199B, parasitic in the ear of a domestic cat, in the "posterior pinna 
pocket" placed at the rear of the edge of the pinna, the animal being a pet in 3 
military camp near Palm Beach, Trinity Bay, north Queensland (map reference 
612878 (Cairns 1: 63,360)), 20th December, 1943, along with a small Ixodid 
tick ACC 159 (unidentified). Specimens collected by the writer; in writer's 

The locality concerned was a camp-site about a mile north of the scrub 
typhus focus at map reference 614863 (Cairns 1: 63,360); that camp-site was 
in the writer's experience, free of the disease, 

Biology of the Mite: An attempt was made by the writer to rear these two 
mites to the nymphal stage, using the technique recorded by the writer (J946) 
tor the Erythraeid mites, but with the atmosphere rather damper. The attempt 
Jailed, as the technique required had not been mastered. Since then the writer 
has reared larvae of another species of Acomafammv—A. adelaideae ( Worn. 
1944)— to nymphs, using a customary wet tube and paper rearing technique 
(these experiments will be described elsewhere), Quite wet conditions are 
necessary for success. 

— iifag spec. 

systematic FozimrU Ihis species comes nearest to A. longifws Worn 1945 
from Now Guinea, but has significantly .smaller SD, A-P and AL by which it 
may be separated if Womcrsley's (1945) kev is used. Both A. cooki n, sp. and 
A. favgipes have two whip-like setae on metatarsus HI. 

Nomenclature; This species is named in honour of Dr. C. E. Cook, whose 
epidemiological researches were responsible fur defining the focus of scrub 
typhus at Dead Man's Cully, Trinity Bay. 

(u) Acomatacarus mathewi n. sp, 

Figs. 3. 4, 

Description of Larva (from type specimen ACB 607): Colour red. Length 
nf idiosoma (unengorged) 190^ (the animal is 270a Jong from tip of chelae to 
posterior pole of body), width V!5fx Shape roughly globular. 

Dorsal scutum of the typical shape for the genus. AM setae tapering, ciliated 
(barbed), 29,* long, with bases ty* apart (= AMB); PL setae similar, with ad- 
prcsscd ciliations, 34/r long; AL setae similar but more prominently ciliated, SQp 
long Scnsillae delicately ciliated clistally, with about 9 ciliations, and about 
69/i long. The standard data of tlie specimens available are: 













ACB 607 Type 
ACB I39A Para- 













ACB IB9B Para- 























26 29 






Fig. 3.-Acoma(acanis mathewi n. sp., larva. Dorsal view, unengorgcd. The 

tracheae ncurer the dorsum are shown; these connecting at the points marked "X" 

to those nearer the venter, shown in Fig. 4, q.v. (From the Type specimen.) 


Dorsal abdominal setae lanceolate with adpressed cil tat ions, 29-32** long, 
numbering 5S la all, arranged somewhat irregularly in rows of up to 10. 

feyes 2 -r 2, as figured; flic anterior eye flic larger, 19*t across, posterior 
eye 13/t across. 

Ventral Surface: A pair of tapering, pointed, ciliated setae between coxae 
J II, 31,* long; behind coxae III are rows of similar setae, these becoming stronger 
posteriorad, 24-3(.V l^S tod about 40 in all. 

Tracheal system as figured. This will be commented on further below. 

The legs arc all B-segmented; I 350/* long, 11 340/*, III 38-V (all lengths 
including coxae and claws). Chaetotaxy of legs as figured. Coxa 1 with 2 setae, 
tapering, pointed, strongly ciliated, lateral 4%x long, medial Ai) f u long. Coxa II 
wilh a similar seta, 37^. long, coxa 111 seta similar, 38/* long. Each trochanter 
with a single seta, arising ;mteroventrally. Tarsus [ 96/.. long (to origin of 
claws) by 26/i high; metatarsus 1 61/i long. On tarsus HI is one long whip-like 
seta, with a single ciliation as figured; no such seta on metatarsus III, only the 
normal spmitorm seta being present Claws of tarsi falciform, ciliated along 
their sides, empodium thinner, also lightly ciliated along its sides. 

Capttulum as figured, Chelieerae normal, each blade with 5 maiuillate 
recurved retention teeth on the inner (ventral) side, bent over dorsomedially; 
aft the outer (dorsal) side ol the blade are 3 hooked saw-teeth, decreasing in 
size anteriorad. Cheliceral blade about 44,u long. Calcal seta pointed, with 
adpressed eiliations nlong the outer side, 2Bp long. Palpal setal formula W( b), 
B(b), B b b(?N). Dorsal palpal tibial seta rather slender, tapering, lightly 
ciliated, pointed. 22>< long. Palpal tibial claw typical of genus> with two dorsal 
accessory teeth. 

Localities: Type specimen ACJ3 61)7 collected free at Dead Man's Cully. 
Trinity Bay, north Queensland, 2nd January, 1944, at map reference 614S63 
(Cairns 1: (33,360) (the site of the scrub typhus focus indicted by C. E. Couk)- 
Paratypes ACB 1.S9 A and B, collected at Trinity Bay, map reference (same 
map) 6483, a military camp-site free cf the disease, 29th November 1943, 
parasitic in the left external auditory meatus of a small skink, Ltjgawma 
(Sphaenomorphus) spaldingi (Number JK5S, R.V.S. — South Australian Museum 
Register Number R2953 ( presented ) — lizard identified by F. J. Mitchell. South 
Australian Museum). Specimens collected by writer; in writer's collection. 

Comment on Tracfcation As the figures indicate, there appear to be some 
differences in the tracheal system of this species from C. g. A. cooki. In A. 
mathewi there is a loop of trachea overlying coxa I; this appears to be more 
defined in posrtiou than has liitherto been described in all, or nearly all, species 
of this genus. Thus nothing comparable is described or figured by Andre (1943 
a, b) for A. paradoxus (Europe), or by Bretmau (1949) for A, arizonensis 
(North America). Hoffmann (1948) figured a highly convoluted trachea for 
the Mexican A. chiapunemis, and also (1951) for another Mexican species, A. 
bakeri. In both of these Mexican species there is some tendency for a loop to 
form in the trachea above coxa I, but In neither case is it xrlaccd as far laterally 
as In A. mathewi. 

In A. niatht'wi there also appears a collection of tracheae — a "gnalhcaotnal 
nexus" — in the region below the AM scutal setae, ie. above the posterior part 
of the gtmthosoma fsftft figure), but owing to difficulty hi resolution this is hard 
to define clearly. 

Systematic Position: This species, like the preceding, comes nearest to A. 
longipc-s in Womcrsley's {1945 J key. From the latter, however, A. mothfswi 
differs in having a sigoiflcantly smaller AW, FW, SD. AL and PL. In fact, the 
PL in A. mathewi are only half the length of those in A. lungi]tes. Also, in A. 
mathewi the metatarsus (tibia) III lacks whip-like setae; in A. langipes there are 
two such. 


Fig. 4.—Acomatacuru$ mathewi n. sp., larva. Ventral view, unengorced. The 

tracheae nearer the venter are shown connecting al the points marked "X ' to those 

more dorsal shown in Fig. 3, q.v. (From the Type specimen.) 


yiomendature: This .species is named after H. V, Mathew, a previous student 
of the epidemiology of scrub typhus in this area. 

(iii) Acomatucarus Iangani n. sp. 
Fig. 5 

Description of Larva ( from type specimen ACB 197 A6, somewhat damaged, 
hot quite a distinct species). Colour not recorded. Length of idiosoma (parti- 
ally engorged) approximately 4()0^ ? width approximately 300,1. 

The dorsal scutum small, with shape and structure as figured. AM scuta! 
setae slightly tapering, blunted at tip, finely ciliated: AL and AVI setae similar, 
Sensilla as figured, typical, with about 10 dilations. The standard data as 























Dorsal abdominal setae tapering, blunted, ciliated, to 22/;. long, the dilations 
slight, bractate, pointed, a little outstanding; complete arrangement and total 
number of setae not available, but the setae are not unduly numerous, and 
are arranged in rows of mostly about 8-10. 

Byes 2 + 2, anterior 8/a across, posterior S-5/», across. The eyes in the speci- 
men are well clear of tho shield (46/t away, indicative of moderate engorge- 

Ventral surface as figured. Setae between coxae 111 tapering, pointed, 
dilated, 24//. long. Area behind coxae III not available for description. 

Tracheal system as figured; this appears comparable to that of e.g. A r cooki 
and A. arizonensis. 

Legs all 6-segmented. Leg I 250/* long, II 220^, III 250,* (all lengths in- 
cluding coxae and claws). Chactotaxy of legs as figured. Coxa I with 2 setae, 
tapering,, pointed, ciliated, lateral 30/* long, medial 29/x long. Seta on coxa II 
similar, 22/t long; on III similar, 25$ long. Each trochanter with one seta. 
Tarsus I 67/a long (to origin of claws) by l&V high. Metatarsus I 3S/.i long. 
Tarsus III with one whip-like seta; none on metatarsus III. Claws and em po- 
dium of tarsi normal. 

Capirulum as figured. The chcliccral fang carries only a single ventro- 
cxternal tooth, a little away from the edge (retention denticle), as figured. 
Dorsal edge of fang with the usual row of saw-teeth, increasing in size pcslc- 
rierad, 6 in all Gafeal seta lightly ciliated, 15//. long. Palpal setal formula B, B> 
!$ b b. Dorsal palpal tibial seta moderately slender, curved, ciliated, 13/t long. 
Palpal tibial claw typical, with two dorsal accessory teeth. 

Locality. Palm Beach, Trinity Bay, north Queensland, 18th December, 
1943, parasitic in the external auditory meatus of a small sldnk, Lygosoma (Leio- 
lopuma) hicarinata Mad (No. R 67, R.V.S.= South Australian Museum Number 
R29S0 (donated) (identified by F, t Mitchell, South Australian Museum)), 
along with several specimens of Trombicula (Euiromhicula) tovelli Worn. 1952 
(ACB 197 A 1-5, B 1, 2) and a single female Mesosttgmatid mite, HaemolaelajM 
rnegaventralis (Strandtmann 1947) (number ACC 160); the lizard also para- 
sitized by 2 axillary T. (E.) tovelli (ACB 197 C, J3). Specimens collected by 
the writer, in writer's collection. 

Systematic Position: This species fits into caption (3) of Womersley's (1945) 
key, which includes A. adelaideae (Worn. 1944), A- longipes Worn. 1945, A, 


australiensis (Hirst 1925), A. nova-guinea (Worn. 1944), and A. barrinensis 
Woin. 1945, but differs from these species, as well as from A. typhi n. sp, and 
A. matheivi n. sp. in the much smaller scutal dimensions. The presence of a 
single ventral denticle on the cheliceral fang of A. langani n, sp, is also possibly 
significant, and this character might repay further study from a systematic 
viewpoint; usually there appear to be about 5 denticles in this situation, where 
this has been studied. 

Nomenclature: 'this species is named after A. M. Langan, who studied the 
epidemiology of scrub typhus in this area, in company with R. Y. Mathew. 


Fi^. B.-Acomatacarus lempani n. sp., larva. A, ventral aspect, anteriorly, partially engorged, 

without chelieerae, and showing dorsal aspect of pulp on left: B, dorsal scutum; C, right 

ehelieera, detached, lateral aspect; D, dorsal abdominal seta; E, K, G, dorsal aspects of right 

legs I, II and III respectively. (All figures to scale shown, from the Type specimen.) 


Andre, M.. 1943«v Une espeee nmiyellc de Levuwenhoekia (Aearien) parasite dc scorpions, 

Bull Mus. nat. Hist. nat. Paris (2), 15 (5), pp. 204-208 

jiratoire du Leeuwenhoeh 
TkmmhuTiidae ( Ac* 
pp. 400-409 

Andre, \L r 1943b. L'appareil respiratoirc du Le&uwenhoehia paradoxa M. Andre [forme 
larvaire de Thrnrnhhtiidae, (Acarhms)], Bull. Mus. nat, Hist. nat. Paris (2), 15 (0), 

Bkennan, J. M. 1949. Traeheation in Chiggers with Special Reference to Acomatxcarus 
arizonenste FAving (Aearina, Trornbieulidac), J. Parasitol,, 35 (5), pp. 467-471. 


Chumakov, M. P., 1954. [Queensland Fever-A Zoonotic Rickettsiosis of Man and Animals 
(in Russian)], Vetermariya, Moscow 31 (9), pp. 26-32. [Summary from Rev. Applied 

nt0 ^ L ^ S c e i' B > 1955 ' ° ct " 43 (10) > P- 147 ' P* Tr °P- Dis - Bull. 1956, March, 53 (3), 
pp. 305-306.] » \ /> 

Cook, C. El 944. Observations on the Epidemiology of Scrub Tvphus, Med. 1. Aust. 2 

pp. 539-543. _ J ' " 

Hoffmann, A., 1948. Dos especies nuevas de Trombiculidos Mexicanos, Rev. Inst Salubr 

Enferm. Trop., Mexico 9 (3), pp. 177-189. 
Hoffmann A, 1951. Contribuciones al conocimiento de los Trombiculidos Mexicanos 3a 

parte, Ciencia 11 (1-2), pp. 29-36. 
Southcott R. V 1946 Studies on Australian Erythraeidae (Acarina), Free. Linn. Soc. 

N.S. Wales, 71 (1-2), pp. 6-48. 
Southcott R. V 1947. Observations on the Epidemiology of Tsutsugamushi Disease in 

North Queensland, Med. J. Aust, 2, pp. 441-450. 
Wharton, G. W. and Fuller, H. S., 1952. A Manual of the Chiggers. The biology 

classification, distribution and importance to man of the larvae of the family Trombi- 

culidae (Acarrna), Mem. Ent. Soc. Washington, Number 4, pp. 1-185 
Womersley, H., 1945. Acarina of Australia and New Guinea. The Family Lceuwen- 

hoekndae, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 69 (1), pp. 96-113. 







The systematic s of the genus Neotrombidium Leonardi 1901 are reviewed critically. 

The larval genera Monunguis Wharton 1938 and Cockingsia Womersley 1954 are synonyms. 

A new species of the genus-N. tridentifer n. sp.-is described from north Queensland. 

This is compared with the other species of the genus. Reference is made to the presence of 

N. barringunense Hirst 1928y the other Australian species, in north Queensland. 

The biology of the larvae is referred to briefly; generally it appears that these are ectoparasites on 




by R. V. Southcott 

[Read 13 September 1&56] 


The systematic* of the genus Neotrombidium Leonard] 1901 are reviewed critically. 
The larval genera Manunxuis Wharton 1938 and Cockin^ia Womersk-y 1954 arc synonyms. 

A new species of ihe genus -N. tridenlifer n. sp. -is described from north (,>urensland. 
This is compared with tfm other speetefl of jhtj gemis. Reference is made to the presence of 
N. barringunense Hirst 1928, the other Australian species, in north Queensland. 

The biology of the larvae is referred to briefly; generally it appears that these are ecto- 
parasites on Coleoptera. 


In the first paper of this series the writer (1954) described the larva of 
Neotrombulium harringuneme Hirst 1928 r obtained from eggs laid by adults in 
captivity. This correlation enabled the larval genus Mommguis Wharton 193S 
to be synonymised with the adult Neotmmhidium Leonardi 1901. Since then a 
further species of the genus has been reared in North America — N. tricuspidum 
Borland 1956 — by Borland (1956), confirming the correlation of these two 
genera . 

In a study of the acarine fauna collected by the writer in 1943 and 1944 in 
the vicinity of a focus of scrub typhus at Dead Man's Cully, Trinity Bay, north 
Queensland (see Southcott 1947), a few specimens of the postlarval stages of 
the genus Ncolromhidium were found. Some of them belonged to N. barrin- 
gunense, and were referred to earlier by the writer (1954, loc+ cit.). There were 
also, either on their own in the field, or in company with the preceding, a few 
specimens of an undescribed species of Ncotromhidiiwi. This, the second Aus- 
tralian species to be described, differs from all other known species in the 
.structure of the dorsal setae. It is described below as A 7 , trhlcntifcr n. sp. 

The opportunity will also be taken here of reviewing critically the knowledge 
of the systematica of the genus. 

The Systematic Vosition of Ncotroinbidium 

Womersley ( 1 £ J45 ; 1951 ) removed Nvalramhidium from the subfamily 
Mierotmmbidiinae. Thor 1935 to his family Leeuwenhoekiidae. However, the 
systematic position of the genus is b} r no means generally agreed upon. Thus 
Borland (1956, loc* tit.), in the most recent article on the genus, stated, "There 
appears to be ample argument for placing Neotrombidiwn in any one of three 
families. Woniersley (1954) placed the genus in tue family Leeuwenhoekiidae 
(Trombiciilidac; Leeuwenhoekiinae of authors). Wharton (1947) 1 1947b— 
R.V.S.] retained the genus in Trombidiidae but rioted some affinities with Troni- 
biculidae. Neotrovibidiitm was placed in Trombidiidae by Baker and Wharton 
(1952), but in the key given by these authors it will fall into Trombiculklae on 
the character of the paired tectal setae " He continued by saying that he pre- 
ferred to "leave the genus unassigned until the taxonomy of related genera o£- 


comes better known, and until family levels are drawn along more definite 
lines' , 

Womersley (1945) had founded the family Leeuwenbockiidae with the 
following commeut; "In 1944 .... the present writer erected the subfamily 
Lceuwenhoekiinae for the larval genus Leeuwenhoekxa Ouds. 1U11, on the 
discovery of a true srigmal opening situated on. each side between coxae 1 and 
the gnathosoma, from which tracheal tubes ramify* through the body, in this 
feature the species of Lefrnvenhavkia s. 1. differ from the other genera of the 
Trotubiculidae . 

Andre (1943a, b) had independently and earlier described the stigrnal 
openings and tracheae in a species described from Europe as Leeuwenhoefaa 
pavadoxa Andr6 1943. These reports, however, were not available to Wornerslev 
at the time. 

Whaitou (1947a) erected the subfamily Apoloniinae for the genera Apolonia 
Toires and Braga 1938 and Womersia Wharton 1947 Although Wharton re- 
corded the presence of stigmata and tracheae in the Apolouiinae, he considered 
that within the Trombiculidae the leg segmentation was of greater significance 
from a systematic point of view, and preferred to use the presence or absence 
of stigmata and tracheae as a lesser character. Thus in his key to the sub- 
families ho stated that in the Lceuwenhoekiinae the leg segmentation formula 
bf WhttB is 6, 6, 6 (i.e. that legs 1, II and III have 6\ 6, 6 segments lespec- 
Hvcly). in the Apoloniinae, as in the Trombiculinae, the leg segmentation 
formula is 7, 7, 7. By Wharton's key (1947a; largely repeated in Wharton and 
Fuller 1952, page 41) the larval Neotromhidium, with its segmentation formula 
of 7 6. G> would come down to the Walchiinae, but its affinities clearly lie 
elsewhere. Thus it does not fulfil the other two characters given for the 
Wakhiinae (Wharton and Fuller 1952. page 91): that of expanded sensillae in 
the larva, and the presence of a papilla or a group of papillae on the dorsal 
surface of tarsus I in the nymph and adult. 

Lawrence (1949, page 467), in describing the South African parasitic Trnm- 
bicuhcl fauna,, accepted Wharton $ classification, with minor modification He 
commented that the genus Saurucclla Lawrence 1949, with its expanded sensillae 
and teor .segmentation formula 7 T 7, 7, could equally well be placed within the 
Trombiculinae or Lecuwcnhoekiinae. In discussing the systematics of these 
two subfamilies he commented that "Even the presence or absence of stigmata 
and tracheal trunks between (he first coxa and the gnathosoma, which should 
from all considerations be a character of deep-seated significance no longer 
retains its former importance, since none of the three new Leeuwcnhoekiine 

On the who c therefore, it would appear that the best decision is to allot 
the Lecuwennoehinac no more than subfamily status, a view to which most 
students of these mites at present subscribe (for the sake of consistency how- 
ever, then- iamily name has been retained in the title of the present paper). 

The Synonymy of Neotromhidium 
Womersley (1954) gave an account of six larva! genera belontfw to (he 
Trombithojdea, among which were Neotromhidium Leonardi 190l"anc] Cock 
ingsiu Womersley 1954. The following comment was made on these mites- 
fhls m a heterogeneous assemblage of genera, but on larval characters Ihev 
would be included in an expanded subfamily Apolouiinae, a concept which th© 
writer believes to be useful at the present state of knowledge A clear line 
cannot at present be drawn between the Leeuweuhoekiidae, a family largely 
• This term wbs possibly used Foowwkit loosely by Womersley, 


founded on larval characters, and the TrombkliiOae, largely founded on adult 
characters . , . ." and that "placing tl*em in the Apuluminae soma lato must 
h<- regarded as no more than tentative'". He retained the family Leeuwenhue- 
kiidae, and in it he placed the Apolouiinae, but no modified definition of the 
latter was proposed, 

CockhVyZsia tenuipes Womersley 1954 was described in that paper as n new 
genus and species front Malaya. lf : however, it is compared with the descrip- 
tion ifind figures given by the- present writer (1954) for die larva of Ncotrom- 
hitlitmi bairln^tncnsc, from reared specimens, as well as those given by Borland 
(19561 for larvae similarly reared of N, trkuspiibtm, it will he observed that 
Cockiiigsia is practically identical with larval Neotromhidium, Womersley 
(he, lit., pages 108, 109) stated eironeously (presumably deriving Ins data from 
Wharton, as lie refers to personal correspondence with the latter writer) that 
the tegs of the larval Neotrombldium are all 7-segmented. Actually, as stated 
above, in the larval Neotromhidium the leg segmentation formula is 7, 6, 6, as 
both the present writer (1954) and Borland (19o6) have described, and as 
Womersley himself described in gsfcfc The only .significant point of differ- 
ence between the description by Womersley of Cttek'mzsia and the descriptions 
by mvselF und Borland of larval Neolrombklium is VVomcrsley's statement that 
in Cockinzsia tenuipes tlral "Spiracle between gnadiosoma and coxae 1 present, 
but only beginning of tracheae observed". The present: writer hrfS re-esarnuied 
ins own specimens of the reared larvae of N. barringtmenw (bred as described 
earlier) and has been unable, as he has been previously, to find any stigmata 
or tracheae between the gnatliosoina and coxa I irf each side, and is convinced 
that such are not present! Nor does Borland refer to any, or figure any algQ of 
them in his obviously carefully drawn figure of the larva of SI tricusphlum. 

Jti an attempt to claritv this problem the writer has examined the type 
series (16 specimens) of CbCxingm teimtpex m the collection oF the South 
Australian Museum, Tie has been unable to see any stigma or trachea in the 
position figured by Womersley. Occasionally in that situation the skin has 
tended to fold, and this could account for Womersley's description and figure, 
ft may be commented that in the genu* Acomatacams, which is widespread in 
Australia and elsewhere, d)at the spiracle can be recognized without difficulty 
even in old mount*. 

In the writer's opiuicu, therefore, Cockingsia Worn. 1954 is a synonym of 
Neotromhidium Leonardi 1901, and Womersley's species is allotted the name 
Nfotwmbidium tenuipes comb. nov. In that species, in hV lateral parts nf coxa 
1 and III, there is a reticular pattern described by the writer ( 1954) and Hnrland 
(1956). reminiscent of the reticular pattern of the coxae of the pustlarval tfages, 
in their lateral parts, N, tenuipes is, however, quite a distinct species, and 
may be separated on binmetric data quite easily horn the other specie*, as 
recorded belnw, 

With regard to Monunguis Wharton 1938, Borland (he. rr'r.) v following 
advice fitmi Wharton, suggests that Montwzute may <*ventual1y have fo be re- 
vived as B separate genus. Various morphological characters are given as evi- 
dence? in support of that viewpoint one such being that the larval Mtmunguis 
stfebtkla Wliailon 1938 has upon its dorsal scutum an ^incipient crista \ of which 
only faint traces can be made out in Neotrombidwm trieuspidttni Borland 1056. 
However, Borland himself destroys the force of that argument widi the admis- 
sion that ^therefore, with respect to the scutum* M. streblida differs from Neo~ 
ttombidiwn [trUvspidum] larvae in degree only* Borland continues by stating 
that other characters by which these two species differ are the greater number 
of dorsal setae and the greater pkunusity of the dorsal setae in Moiiunguh; and 
the fact that the body (idiosorna) is pear-shaped while the other larvae assigned 
to Neotromhidium arc of ovoid body form. With regard to the last character the 


present writer is not prepared to concede at the present time that it is even 
of specific value, even m unmounted unengorged specimens. The other 
characters quoted to do not appear to the present writer to he of much signifi- 
cance generically, as they are largely differences of degree, and as aearologists 
customarily use these setal characters for the separation at the species level. 

There arc three discrepancies between Wharton's ( 193S ) account of 
Afnnimguis and the characters of larval Neotrombidium as described by both 
the piesent writer and Borland. The first of these lies in the fact that Wharton 
claimed in his original account that coxa I and coxa II arc separated on each 
side (and on that account suggested that Monunguis and Rofmultia Ouds, 1911. 
occupied an intermediate position between the families Trombidudae and 
Erythracidac). Although the present writer made this point in his article in 
1054, Borland (toe. cit.), although lie quotes that article, has not seen fit to 
deal with it in his recent examination of a cntypc of M. strcblida. The second 
discrepancy is also of importance, Wharton (1938) stated that Morwnguh 
resembled Bohaultia in another character, that of having "divided femora" 
Presumably this means that the legs are all 7-segmented ; as Womersley stated 
(see above). The third discrepancy lies in Wharton's statement that in 
Monunguis there is a single seta to each coxa. In larval Neotrombidium there 
are two setae to coxa T, and one to each coxa II and III (Southcott 1954, Borland 
1956). These second and third discrepancies likewise are not dealt with by 
Borland. It is quite clear that Wharton S M. stnMida badly needs a critical 
rc-examination, and description. Until such tinje as that is done, however, the 
present writer can see no reason against accepting the view proposed earlier by 
the writer (1954) and Borland (1956) that Nevtwmhidium and Monwigtas are 

The following synonymy is therefore proposed: 

Neotrombidium Leonardo 1901 

Tromhidium Rorlcse, J 888 (part). 

Neolromf'idium Leonard* 1901, berlcsc 1912. Hirst 1928. 1929. Wojnetsley £KM. 1936, IBS?, 
1945 HJ54 (p.*r-lnrvul &XFfflij, Tiro 1935, 1936. Thor utk! Willimrm (1947), Wluutoa 
1047\\ Baker and Wharton 1950, Andy 1954, Southcott 1954, Borland 1956. 

\ia,m,igui$ WhstttCn 193S (larval). 

Cockin&ta W«rime«lcy l!j,*>4. Andy 1954 (larvall 

Neotrombidium tWdentifer a sp. 
Fig 1 A-tt 

Description of Adult (mostly from mounted specimen, Type, ACB 194) 
(¥i& 1 AH): Colour vermilion in life. The body of the usual elongate shape for 
the genus, with it* constricted middle (''figure of eight") (the type specimen 
is probably .slightly swollen by the mounting), Body 135G> long by 570jlc wide; 
densely clothed with coarse 3-prongcd setae as figured (Fig, 1 F-H), which 
are mostly directed posteriorly, the setae near the "shoulders* being an exception, 
Doisal setae 40-50/1, long by 20-24/a wide across the prongs. The lateral prones 
arc coarsely barbed and pointed. The central clement of the seta is expanded 
distally, and is club-like, with projecting or sessile bract-lilce or bead-like dila- 
tions; below the central prong has a double row of fringing, sharp-pointed dila- 
tions. The dorsal seta* become coarser postcriorad. * On the. ventral surface 
of Hie idiosoma the investing setae are similar to the dorsal, but are slightly 
smaller and more delicately fashioned, 

Fyes cannot be seen in any of the type series. It cannot be decided 
definitely whether they arc present or absent from these specimens, owing to 
the density of the dorsal sctation (in N. harringutmue each lateral pair of 
lenses ts but lightly chitinised). 

Fig. 1 AAL—Neotwrnbidium tndenttfer n. sp. Adult. \\ entire, setae omitted, to scale on 
left; B; crista; C: right chela; D: left palp, external view; F: left palp, internal view; F, G, II; 
dorsal setae, F, G. dorsal views, H ventral view; I Neotrombidiitm harringunense Hirst 192cS, 
adult: piece of skin of the dorsum with -setae, U> surne scale as F, G, H ( B-I all lit snmft 

scale, that on right of figure). 


Dorsal crista as figured, about 165/* long, provided with a single sensillary 
area., large, at Its posterior end; an area 43// across by 34/t lung, with two filiform 
vciy finely barbed sensillary setae l50/i long. In the type specimen the anterior 
end of the crista and tectal area arc obscured by distortion and the heavy inves- 
titure, but in specimen ACB 263A (paratype) tne pair of tectal setae arc visible, 
.vfrong, pointed, strongly ciliated, 64/a long, 

Legs as figured, 1 80% long, 11 5l5 M , HI S25/>, IV 725/* (all lengths includ- 
ing coxae and claws). The legs are clothed with a normal type of Tioinbidiid 
setation, there being no trifureate setae present. Proxhiuilly on the legs th£ 
setae are lanceolate or lanceolate-clavate, with coarse, pointed eiliatioris; distally 
tlie setae are fine, pointed, with hair-like ciliations. The lateral (distal) half 
of the coxa nf each leg is patterned with punetae in each leg, similar to that 
of N, barringiweme, but with the spaces smaller owing to the coarser reticulation 
septa. Tarsus I is 200/* long by 80m high (exclusive of claws ): metatarsus I 12S<* 
long by 76p high; Larsus IV l'SO/t long by 40ju high (exclusive of claws); meta- 
tarsus IV 122/i long by 50/x high- 
Palpi as figured, The palpal tibia carries a strong claw witli a basal coarse 
barb or peg, and one aites.sory tooth ventromedial^ dorsally there Is also a 
row of 4 stout accessory spines to the claw, as figured The palpal tarsus is 
slender, with fine spiniform setae. 

Chelicerae as figured, with a fairly strong falciform, pointed movable chela 
with a distal dorsal row of fi minute denticles. 

Genitalia of adult are as previously recorded for this genus, with the normal 
labia majota, each provided with two long suckers and with a row ol,' ciliated 
tapering setae. The genital aperture is surrounded by rows of inwardly pointing, 
elongated and ciliated 3-pronged setae. 

Localities: Specimens ACB 194A (type) and ACB 194B (paratype) were 
found among leaf litter at the base of Eucalyptus sp., Palm Beach, Cairns, 

Sueensland, on 12th December, 1943. Specimen ACB 263A (paratype) was 
>taiucd under bark of Eucalyptus sp„ along with 4 specimens of EL harrin- 
gnwnse Hll* 1828 (ACR 263B-E), at Dead Mans Gully, Cairns, Queensland, 
at Map Reference- (Cairns 1:63.360) 614863. 29th November 1943. (All speci- 
mens collected by writer; in writc/s collection.) 

The Systematic Position of Neotrombidium tridenttfer 
This species (known only from the adult) can be distinguished quite easily 
from the only other adult Neotromhidium described from Australia, zV. harrin~ 
guntmsc Hirst 1928, on the. .structure of the dorsal setae. In N, iridentiftr the 
dorsal setae are nf a coarse structure, to 50/i long, with unequal prongs. Id N. 
bnrriiigtitiwze the dorsal setae are smaller, to fjtjfu long, and consist of three 
delicate and nearly equal, flexible, finely ciliated prongs. These differences are 
illustrated, in Fig. 1 CI, 

Neotrombidium barringunense Hirst 1£)28 

6l# 1 1 

Six specimens of this species were collected by the writer in the Trinity 
Bay area of north Queensland. The dorsal setae on a piece of the intcgumcut 
of one of these (ACB 200) are shown in Fig, 1 I. The following is a Jisl of 
the- specimens and localities: (1) One specimen, ACB 200, under bark of 
Eucalyptus sp.. Dead Mans Gully, Map Reference (Cairns 1:63,300) 617863, 
31st December 1943; (2) Four specimens, ACB 2G3B-E, along with specimen 
ACB 263A, a paratype of N. tridentifcr n. sp. . under bark of Eucalyptus sp., Dead 
Man* Gully, Map Reference 614863, 29th November 1043; (3) one specirncn* 
ACB 5S1, same locality, Map Reference 614Sn\% 2nd January 1<J44. (All sped* 
mens in writer's collection.) 


The Species of Neotrombidium 

The species of the genus known at the present time are now: 


N. furcigerum Leonardi 1901, genotype, Argentine. 
N. ophtalmicum (sic) (Berlese 1888), Paraguay. 
N. tricuspidum Borland 1956, N. Carolina, U.S.A. 
TV. barringunense Hirst 1928, Australia. 
iY. tridentifer n. sp. ; north Queensland, Australia, 


N. tricuspidum Borland 1956, as above (reared and collected free). 

N. streblidum (Wharton 193S) ( — Monunguis Wharton 1938). Mexico. 

N. sp. unclescribed, Borland 1956, N. America. 

N. barringunense Hirst 1928, as above (reared). 

N, tenuipes (Womersley 1954) ( — Cockingsia Womersley 1954), Malaya. 

The Systematic? of the Larval Species 

Of the larval species described, there is no difficulty in separating the 
Mexican species, N, streblidum, on the characters of die setae. Below are given, 
in tabular form, the Standard Data of A 7 , barringuneme for die specimen de- 
scribed by the writer in 1954, and compared with the other species for which 
these data arc available, N. tenuipes and N, triempidum* 

Standard Diila (in micra) for Larval Neotrombidium. 

N. tricuspidum 

A", tenuipes 

after Borland 1956 

after Womersley 
1934, from 13 

JV. barrin- 


specimens; means) 


Mean of 

9 spec. 


44-6 ; 




























































32 to 42 



to 2(5 

* The distance between the two AM setae. 

As can be. seen from the above, these three species differ significantly in a 
number of biometric data. Thus N, tenuipes has longer dorsal setae and AL 
setae than the other two species; N. tricuspidum has larger dimensions for SB, 
ASB, SD; N. barringunense has smaller PW, A-P, AM and Sens. 


A Note on the Biology of the Genm 

Neotrombidium strcblldum (Wharton 1938), known only from the larva, was 
captured parasitic on the Strcblid Ares Pterelllpm aranme Coquillett and 
Trlchobius ttuftedi Townsend parasitic on the bat Artibem jamaloemis Uuctt- 
tamcus (Allen) from a cave in Yucatan, Mexico. Womereley (1954) recorded 
N. tcnuipes (Worn, 1954) "from specimens taken from the wings of a giant 
longicorn beetle- fiom Sungei BuTob, Sclangor, Malaya, 17.viii.1948 (J. R. Audy)". 
Rc.rUind (1956) recorded Neotrombidkim sp. (an undescribed new species) 
collected by Werner and Nutting on Cymatodera peninsular^ ( Culeoptcra: 
CJeHcjae.) in Brown's Canyon [,] Baboquiveri Mts., Arizona, July IS, 1949", 
and also that larvae of N. tricuspidum Borland 1956 were collected "parasitic on 
Mowchamus cawlinenxis Oliv, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Borland re- 
corded also sonic inconclusive experiments to get reared larvae of N, tricuspidum 
to feed on some other species of beetles of the families Staphylinidae and Cara- 
bidae. On one occasion some of the larvae disappeared under the elytra of 
one species nf Carabid, and were not recovered. 

Thus, apart from the case of N. fttrfkihlwn, the available evidence suggests 
tliat Coleoptera act as the hosts of the larvae, and possibly that the family 
Cerainbycidac play an important role. Although the utilization of such hosts 
would account tor a number of puszljunj features in the biology of these miles 
it is apparent that further investigation is required for firm conclusions to be 


(Tho following ;s a part bibliography only; the further roicteuces listed under tlio 
synonymy or Nentnmibtdium wilL be found in the papers marked by an asterisk (*) bel'/w j 

ANimti, M., iy-13a. Une ospeco nonvelle dc Leewvnhaekia (Aitarien) pur.asltc de sa.TrKOTih 

Bull Mns. n«r. TTfst. ml. Paris (2), 15 (5 J, pp. 294-2W. su'ipt**. 

Atsa&k Mi, ip&b. L'appareil MSpiPu/hiire dii Leeuwcmhoekio puradoxa M. Andre" [forme 

];nwrtrc de ThnyndHdiidae (Acariens)], Bull, Mns, nat. Hist, oat Paris ffil IS IJI1 

pp. 40<M09. K h S U/ " 

Audy, J, R., 1954. Notes on tin; Taxonomy of Trombiculid Mites with Description of a 

New Subgenus, Stud. Inst. med. Res.. Malaya, 20. pp. 123-170. 
Bakik, E. W., and Wharton, C. W., 1952. An Introduction to Acarolo^-, The M.tcmillan 

Company, New York, pp. 1-465 and xiii, 
fl Bojii_.ANP, J, C, t$5ft The Genus Neotrombidium (Acariua; TrombidLoidoa) En the United 

States, J. Kansas Ent. Sac., 29 (1) ? pp, 20-35. 
Lawrence, R. F (( KH& The Larval Trombiculid Mffea of South African Vertebrates, Ann. 

Natal Museum, 11 (3), pp. 405-486. 
Soitthcott, R. V., 3047. Observations on the Epidemiology tjf Tsutsugatrntslu Disease in 

North Queensland. Med. j. AnWfc, 2, pp, 441*450. 
"Soutiicott, R. V., 19.54, The Genua Neotromhtdinm (Acariua: LceuwcnhoeltuJav-), 1, 

Description of the Ovum and Larva of Neotrombidium harringunenw Hirst 1928, with 

an Account of the Biology of the Genus, 'Trans. Roy. Soe. S., 77, bp. 80-97. 
*Tjion. S., and Wiumann, C, 1047. Trombidiidae. Lftr, 71 b. Fp. 187-511 and xvk-^vi 

Das Tie.rroieh, Berlin. 
Torres, S., and Biiaga, J. W., 19.1ft. Nova parasitise em pinlos, Trombiculinose nodular 

eausada por Apohnin (n. g.) tizipwvmi.i (n. spo.) (Nota previa), Bol, Soc. BivsOcira 

Vied. Vet., 7 (-)„ pp. 171-172. 
TQAHfts, S., and Bha<:a. \V. (sic). l'^30. Apohmia ttijjpidnmis, g. et ip. n. (TrnmMrnli.v,.; ) 

MrwtO c\r Ctdluv guJuto ffom. Nova cbuvc para determiitncao -:d* ffcmvcoa. Hoi. Sue. 

Hrasileira Med. Vet., 9 ( 1 ), pp. J -7. 
Vrry-nnuM, IT., IfiM, Acuii in VV. Kukcnthfll and T, Krumhach: TTonrihneh dcr KttoJtJffk 

I'.inr Natur«eschichte der des Tierreiches, Bd. 3, Hiillte 2, Lfe, 1, pp. 1-lftO 

(1913 in my pfevtoufi oaper \&u a misprint). 
Wwarton, G. W„ 1938. Acarinr4 of Yucatan Caves. ArtiVtr: X i n Fauna of thr: Cnvftf nf 

\ueatan, EflAM Mr A, S. Ptarse, pp. 137-152. Caine^ie Institution of Washiugiou, 

PifWicatiou No. 491. ' 

Whakton, G. W., 1047a. Studies on North American Chictfers. 2. The Snbfaniili« and 

Womeniu strandtmani n.c. f n. *».. J. Parasilol., 33 (4), ttJn-384. 
Wi&un-ON, G. W.*. HJ47b. lite HeLtionship brtwnrn IWnbieiJid and TrombUlU Vh'ew. 

J. Parnsttol, f 33 (Suppt. Sccuon 2), pp. 15-16. 


Wharton, G. W., and Fuller, H. S., 1952. A Manual of the Chiggers. The biology, classi- 
fication, distribution, and importance to man o£ the larvae of the family Trombiculidae 
(Acarina), Mem. ent. Soc. Washington, Number 4, pp. 1-185. 

"Womersley, H., 1945. Acarina of Australia and New Guinea. The Family Leeuwenhoe- 
kiidae, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 69 (1), pp. 96-113. 

Womersley, H., 1954. New Genera and Species, Apparently of Apoloniinae (Acarina, 
Lceuwenhoekiidae), from the Asiatic-Pacific Region, Stud. Inst. med. Res., Malaya, 26, 
pp. 108-119. 





A hitherto undescribed acarine is described, from New Caledonia, remarkable for being 

endoparasitic within the respiratory passages of a sea-snake (Laticauda laticaudata (L.)), with 

maggot-like modification of the body shape. It is named Vatacarus ipoides n. gen., n. sp. Only the 

larva is known. Within the superfamily Trombidioidea, where this mite is placed, it shows the most 

complete adaptation to endoparasitism that has so far been observed. 

Some account of the biology of the mite is given, from the observations of its discoverer, 

Mr. J. Rageau. 

The affinities of the mite are discussed, and a new family Vatacaridae (or subfamily Vatacarinae) is 

erected within the Trombidioidea, and defined. The classification of the superfamilies of the 

Prostigmata is discussed. The superfamily Trombidioidea Banks, 1894, is redefined. A superfamily 

Anystoidea nov. is defined tentatively, and discussed briefly. 

The term "ipomorphy" is proposed for a worm-like or maggot-like adaptation of form, of animals 

not normally so. Within the Acarina such modification of body shape appeal's in general to be a 

response to endoparasitism, and is seen in various suborders. Endoparasitism within the Acarina is 




by R. V. Southcott 
[Read 13 September 1956] 


A hitherto uodescribed acurme is described, from New Caledonia, remarkable for being 
endoparasitic within rite respiratory passages of a sea-snake {haticauda laticaudata (L. ) ), 
With maggut-lilce modification of the body shape. It is named Vafacarua ipoides n. sen., 
n. sp. Only the larva is known. Within the superfarnily Tromhidioidea,, where tliis inite is 
placed, it shows the most complete adaptation to endoparasitism that lias so far been observed. 

Some account of the biology of the mite is given, from the observations of its dis- 
coverer, Mr. J. Rageau. 

The annuities cif the mite arc discussed, and a new familv Vatacoridae (or subfamily 
Vatacarinae) is erected within the Trombidioidea, and defined The classification of the 
snperfamilies of the Prostigmata is discussed. The superfarnily Tromhidioidea Banks. 1894, 
is redefined. A superfarnily Anystoidea now is defined tentatively, and discussed briefly. 

The term "ipoinorphy" is proposed for a worm-like or maggot-like adaptation of form, 
of animals not normally so. Within the Acarina such modification of body shape appears in 
general to be a response to endoparasitism, and is seen in various suborders. Endopara- 
sitrsin within the Acarina is discussed. 


Recently, Mr. J. Rageau, entomologist to the Institut Francais d'Oceanie, 
Noumea, New Caledonia., has sent die writer some specimens of a maggot-like 
endoparasite of the respiratory passages of a sea-snake, from New Caledonia, 
recognizing that they were acarinc in nature. Examination of these specimens 
by the writer has shown that they are larval Trombidioid mites of bizarre ap- 
pearance. Although endoparasitism has been described in certain instances in 
some of the Tromhidioidea (see further below), such complete adaptation of 
the parasite, to the host, both in the site used (the tracheal passages), and in 
the form affected by the parasite, has not hitherto been recorded for any 
Trombidioid mite. Only the larva of this form is known, and its life-history is 
largely unknown. It is proposed to describe it here as Vatacarus ipoides n. gen., 
n. sp.. and to discuss its affinities. Comment will also be made on endopara- 
sitism within the Acarina. 

The writer is greatly indebted to Mr. Rageau for the opportunity of study- 
ing this mite, and for permission to incorporate his observations- 

Descriptive Account 

(a) Vatacarus n> gen. 

Definition (larva only): A Trombidioid mite with the body capable of in- 
cmising considerably in size, to several millimetres long; shape maggot-like, 
with conical or mamillary projections, these more prominent posteriorly, and 
arising underneath the normal idiosomal setae. Coxae I and II separated. 
Urstigma present. Gnathosoma not greatly modified. Chellceral fangs recurved 
dorsally, hinged, weakly bicuspid. Palpal tibial claw with two hooks, bent ven- 
trially, and placed vertically to each other (i.e. sagftally). Eyes apparently 
absent. Dorsal scutum trapezoidal, widest anteriorly, with a single anteromedian 


seta, two anterolateral setae, and a pair nf filiform, scnsillary setae arising later- 
ally, between the levels of the anterior and posterior non-sensillary scutal setae. 

Genotype Vataconts ipokies n. geu., n. sp. 

(b) Vatacrirn* ipoides n. gen., n. sp. 
Figs. 1-1° 

Description of Latva (Figs. 1-4): Colour in life a bright reddish-orange, in 
alcohol-preserved specimens a dirty cream. Length of type specimen (ACC 
335A). one of the larger specimens, 4-5 mm., width 1-5 mm. (smaller specimens 
were 2 mm. lout; or more, and other idiosornal dimensions in proportion). The 
animal is muggoVlike in shape, the idiosorna swollen, and with the hysterosoma 
greatly prolonged, the latter accounting for three-quarters of the length of the 
animal. In addition, the idiosorna is studded with a number of maroillae or 
conical projections, these being more prominent dorsally and posteriorly, giving 
the body the appearance of a mace or studded club. The anterior part of the 
body is produced to a large boss, but is free from the idiosornal projections. 
Eacn idiosornal projection is developed under a normal idiosornal seta, which 
is short, spiniform or nearly so with adpressed ciliations, and with a slight bulge 
at the base of the seta. The dorsal setae are 34-62/a long, and are regularly 
arranged in rows across the dorsum as figured, theve rows becoming less 
regular posteriorly (see Fig. 1 A-D). The dorsal seta arises from the summit 
of the projection, "or a little way down its anterior fuee. The ventral projection* 
are smaller, rather more mantilla te, and arranged somewhat irregularly, as 
figured, nevertheless eaeli carries a normal idiosornal seta, The cuticle is finely 
.striate under the higher magnifications of the microscope; probably distension 
has made the striae less obvious. 

The dorsal scutum is carried at the anterior pole of die animal, in a slightly 
recessed area, It is finely punctate all over, quadrangular (trapezoidal) with 
rounded corners, widest anteriorly, with projecting anterolateral angles, a sinuous 
anterior margin, concave lateral margins and a .slightly convex posterior margin. 
It carries a pair of filiform sonsillary setae, 87 t u long : arising in srnsillae placed 
close to the lateral bur ders of the shield, and with an aperture partly occluded by 
an eye-like transverse slit. Lip across by 6> high, at about the level of the middle 
of the shield. The scutul non-sensillary setae are stiff, somewhat constricted 
at their bases, then expanding and becoming elongate-lanceolate, and finally 
filiform; almost simple except for some adpressed ciliations as figured. With 
one AM. tw T o ALs and two PLs, and thus of Trombiculid faciei. There arc 
somu chUinisations in the sldn near the shield (see Fig. 2B). Using the custom- 
ary terminology for the Trombiculid mites the standard data of the dorsal 
scutum of a paratype specimen (ACC 335B) are, in micro; 

92 S3 58 35 41 76 40 58 55 62 90 1 • 09 

Eyes are not visible, and apparently are absent, although this point may nut 
be finally decided until unen gorged specimens are available. 

The legs arc of normal si/o among the Trombidtoidea, but appear small 
when compared with the bulk of the larva; lengths T 370,*, II 35G> ? 111 370w 
(including coxae and claws). All legs of 7 segments, including the coxa, and 
with ehaetotaxy as figured. Each coxa is set in a space set between the rounded 
bulging? in the idiosorna; this is most marked in leg III, where the leg arises 
from a large boss. JCaeh coxa carries a single seta, placed as figured, and 
similar to the scutal uon-sensillary setae, The majority of the normal leg setae 

* Vi^, I A-E, -2 C are trtJrtl ACC 335A (Type); Figs. 2 A. B, D, K, 3 A. B. 4 A, B 
from p&ratype ACC 335B; 3 C> D from paratype ACC 335C. 


are simple or almost so, except terminally on the leg, where the eiliations are 
prominent. Tarsus I and TI and metatarsus I and II each carry a single 
solenoidal (striate) seta. Short spiniform setae and famuli (— "mierosensory 
setae") are present as figured. Tarsi of legs with two simple claws and an 
empodium; the latter tending to be retroflexed. Tarsus I 104/* long (to base 

3 J 




Fig. L-Vatacarus ipoides n, gen., n. sp., larva. A, B, C entire, to scale on left. A, dorsal 

aspect; B, lateral aspect; C, ventral aspect; D, anterior part of larva, further enlarged; E, 

lateral aspect of gnathosoma and adjacent part of idiosoma, to scale on left. 


of claws) by 25/a high; II 83/x long, measured similarly, by 25/i high; III similarly 
83/x long by 24/a high. Metatarsus (tibia) 1 66p, long, II 56/x, III 58//. 

An urstigma is present in front of coxa II, and in front of this is a pro- 
jecting spur (see Fig. 4). Coxa I and II are well separated. Radiating around 

Fig. 2.— Vatacarus ipoides n. gen., n. sp., larva. A, anterior part of ventral surface, somewhat 
distorted in mounting, from compression, to scale on right; B, dorsal scutum and adjacent part 
of idiosomn, flattened specimen; C, lateral aspect of anterior pole of body, undistorted, with 
dorsal scutum hidden in its small recess, but with the scutal setae showing; D, gnathosoma 
from above; E, gnathosoma from below (B, C, D, E all to scale on left). 


the coxae are fine lines beneath the cuticle in specimens mounted in lactic acid 
or in polyvinyl alcohol-lactophenol mountant, and between coxae I and II, and 
around the dorsal scutum; these do not appear to be muscular as elsewhere 
muscles are seen in these preparations which are easily recognized from the well- 
marked cross-striations. No evidence has been found of a true trachea and 
stigma (as eg. occurs in Acomatacanis, family Trombiculidae). 


Fig. S.-Vutacarus ipoides n. gen., n. sp., larva. A, dorsal aspect of legs I and II; B dorsal 
aspect of leg III (same specimen); C, D, Literal aspects of legs I and II respectively of another 

specimen. All to scale shown. 


The gnathosoma is fairly heavily ehitinized, and is carried underneath the 
projecting anterior pole of the larva, lying level with the first pair of coxae. 
The palpi and chclicerae bases stout and rather compact. The cheliceral digit 
hinged, recurved dorsal ly, the blade without ventral teeth, but dorsally with a 
weak cusp set a little behind the terminal cusp, Galeal seta nude, 12//. long. 
Palpal setae nude. Seta on palpal fcrnur and on basis capituli ("palpal coxal 
seta") stiff, elongate-lanceolate, similar to scutal non-sensillary setae; other palpal 
setae more slender, except the dorsal palpal tibial seta which is a stout simple 
pointed peg. Palpal femur, genu, tibia, tarsus with 1, 1, 3, S setae respectively. 
The palpal tibial claw with two vcntrally curved sharp hooks, set sagitally to 
each other (sec Fig. IE). 


Fig. 4.— Vatacarus ipotdes n, gen., n. sp,, larva. A, ventral aspect of logs I and II, mounted 
specimen., same as in Fig. 3 A; 13, ventral aspect of leg III, same specimen. All to scale shown. 

Locality. In respiratory passages ("trachea and lungs"; see below) of a 
sea-snake T Lalicauda (=Platvrus) laticaudata (L.)> at Anse Vata, Noumea, 
New Caledonia, 22nd September, 1955, collected by Mr. J.^Rageau; 15 speci- 
mens forwarded, number ACC 335. All specimens in writer's collection. 


Biology of Vatacarus jpoules 

The followiag account of various aspects of tbo biology of tliis larval mite 
has been received from Mr. Rageatu 

Voiei les reponscs a vos questions SUP la biologie Je ces aeaaens; 

(1) Localisation chez Fhote; truchcc-artcre ct pouimnt. remontant jusqu' 
au.x narines ct au pharynx apres la moil du serpent. 

(2) Mouvements: tres hrnites. Les aeariens sc dcplaeaient lentemeut par 
des mouvements do reptatiou sans Utilise?' leurs pattes. Leur corps etait con- 

(3) Effet pathologique stir Thdtc: apparomrnent aucnn effet. Le serpent 
capture sur la plage "etait tre.i vigourcux el jje setnblait avoir de difficultes 
respiratoircs. En dissequant )appareil rcspiratoire, je n'ai pas observe des 
lesions, II n y avait pas de sang h rinterieur du tube digestif des aeariens. Aussi 
est-il probable qu'ils se nourrissent de mucus et de eel In les epithellales (sec the 
comment below — K.V.S. ). 

(4) Biologie de rhoto; Lalicauda laticaudafa (L.), Hydruphiidac Latieau- 
diiiac, est une espece marine Ires frequente au voisinage des cotes de la 
Nouvelle-Calodtmie et qui vient souvent a terre, en particulier la nuit. Ainsi 
< lie est ahonclante dans les ilnts au voisinage de la Grande Terre ct a meme 
I'habitude de se rcfugier dans lc.s teates des campeurs. Elle est attiree par la 
chaleur et lorsqim Pfco dort sur la plage, il arrive que Ton retrouvc no de ces 
serpents cnroulc autour dc soi ou dans les vetements au matin. Leurs e^ailles 
vcntrales devdoppecs pcimeltent aux Lathmirfa de se deplacer facilement sur 
le sol et dc parcourir des distances importantes. Ces serpents sont tres 
apathfques et not l;i reputation d'etre inoftensifs: les pecheurs et meme les 
enfants les prennent a. la main, san.s precautions, lis vivent uniqucmcut de 

fmissons. lis penelrent dans l^s estuaires mais ne semblent pas rernonter dans* 
es caux douces* On pent done siipposer que leurs parasites sont apparent^ a 
des formes teue>tres plutot qu'a des formes d eau douce, Une espece voistne.. 
Lutkuuda t'oluhvina Schneider, est egalement tres commune sur les cdtes 
caledoniennt\s et a une biologie similaire. 

"Vous trouverez des dessins de ee serpent et des details :>ur sa biologic dans; 
R. Buurret (1934) Les serpents marins de lludnchlne francaise, Institut oceano- 
graphique tie Vlndochirie, 25e note,, pp, I2-1S et planchc II. Hanoi, 

"Enfin, les aeariens out une coloration orange vif, tirwnt sur le rouge. 
lorsquils sont vivants- cette pigmentation disparait en alcool. fen ai rccucilli 
nne ciuquantamo d'exemplaircs sur luuique Laticanda disseque mais il esl 
probable que le serpent en avait deja rejete un certain nombrc au cours de son 
agonie car j'ai trouve les premiers exemplaires dans 1 eau du bassin ou venait de 
inuurir le serpent". 

From the observations of JVh\ Ragcau, and the extreme adaptation of form 
ot the larva, there need be no doubt that this mite spends the greater part of its 
liWV&l stage in the respiratory passages of tbe .snake. From the structure of its 
mouthparts and its affinities, to be discussed below, the present writer concludes 
that it feeds upon tissue Unid obtained from the host, in the usual maimer of the 
Trombidioidea. There need not necessarily be a tissue reaction to such feeding 
in k* vertebrate, as e.g, in many cases iu Tmmbieulid mite biting in birds and 
mammals, as well as in reptiles, there is no apparent reaction to ordinary obser- 
vulion (without histological study, i.e.). 

At the present time the remainder of the life-history of this mile is con- 
jectural. Presumably the post-larval stages uf the mite arc fi*e-livujg, and are 
to be sought in the soil at situations where the snakes come ashore. 


Comment on tht Supetjamihj Trombidioidea 

In attempting to place Vatacarus systematically it is necessary to re-examine 
and rc-define the superfamily Trombidioidea. Such a procedure will also be 
Lksiiul ill other directions, for systematic purposes. As fax as the writer has been 
able to determine, the superfamily term Trombidioidea was introduced as such 
by Banks (1S94). hi his classification nf the Acarina (1904, 1915) Batiks used 
rit tarns Mesostigmuta Cane.sttini 1891, Prostigmnta Kramer 1877 and Crypto- 
strgmaU Canestiiui 1S96 as suborders, as he stated. In the Prostigmata he in- 
cluded the superfainilies Eupodoidea, Trombidoidea (sic) and Ilydrachnoidea. 
The hut of these constitutes an ecological rather than a morphological group. 
In the opinion or the present writer it is unfortunate that these relatively simple 
suggestions of Banks were almost completely ignored by European workers, who 
prefcricd to set up a complicated system of groupings given the names of cohort*, 
subcohorts and phalanges within the Prostigmata. The possibility offered by 
Hunks' schema of providing a useful basis for superfamily classification was 
overlooked or ignored. 

Banks (1915) included in the superhunily Trombidioidea the families 
Caeculidae. Ti umbidiidue, Anystidae ( - Erylhnteidac Banks 1894 ), Erythraerdae 
(=: Rhyncholopfudae Banks 1894). and Tetranyehidae. The determining mor- 
phological criteria for die Trombidioidea (as against its nearest superfamily in 
the key, the Eupodoidea) was stated in the key (1915) as "Last Joint [segment] 
of palp forms a thumb to the preceding, which ends in a claw (a few exceptions) j 
body often with many hairs" — tin's referring principally to the adult forms. 

In 1909 Renter proposed the Suborder Trombidiforrnes, the definition given 
(p, 246) (in a footnote only) being: *'= Prostigmata + Heterosrigrnata Berlese 
(1889).. violleicht ruit Einsehluss So* LahidasUmtidua (Nicoletiellidaey- The 
Tiombidoidea (sic) was the only superfamily placed in that suborder, which 
was considered as consisting of the four families Trombidiidae, Tarsoncrnidae, 
llyiiraehnidae and Halaearidne. The family Trombidhdae was used in a wide 
sense, even for that time, as it was stated elsewhere in that paper (p. 243) that 
It was "mit melueren Untcrfamiliem anch dcijcnigen der Bdetlime\ 

In 1909 Ondcmans revised the classification of the Prostigmata Kramer 
1S77, introducing the system of cohorts, subcohorts and phalanges referred to 
above, all of these with suprafamilial status. The term Trombidioidea was not 
used This scheme was used later by Ondemans (1923) and by Vitzthum (1931, 
1940-1943), with certain modifications. 

At the present time the status of the superfariiilies among the Prostigmata at 
least needs clarification, as Baker and Wharton (1952) have pointed out in their 
excellent textbook of acurology, In fact, among the Trombidiforrnes these 
authors found it in general necessary to omit the superfamiUes from the classi- 
fication. Some clarification has been made by the introduction of the concept 
of th»* superfamily TcU*anyehoidea by Baker and Pritchard (1953). Grandjcan 
(1914) introduced the superlamily term Raphignathoidea, virtually without de- 
finition This appears to be a valid group, and the present writer has attempted 
to define this coueept in another paper (1957a)- Another useful suggestion 
\v;i> mtwle by Gtandjoan (1947) ; that the "Supcreohort" Apobolnsligmata. Onde- 
mans 1909 be replaced by Erythraeoidea Grandjcan 1947- The present writer 
has runrnrred with this suggestion elsewhere (1957b). Acting along tlve same 
[foe$ it appears to the writer that the superfamily term Trombidioidea could 
usefully take the place of Ondemans 5 (1909) "Supereohorr Engonnstlgmata. 
The. following restricted definition is therefore proposed; 


Trornbidioidea* Banks 1894 (restricted) 

Definition: Trornbidiforrues ( Prostigmata ) in which the larva has an 
urstigma. f Chelieera with a hinged blade, not styliforru (exserHle), Post-larval 
stages with genital suckers. 

From the "Cohort" Elentherengona Oudcmans 1909, Vitzthum 1931 the 
supcWamilies TetTanychoitlea, Raphignatkoidda and Demodieoidea have been 
separated. Among the remaining families arc four which form a fairly precise 
group, these being the Aiiystidac," Fterygnsomidac, Pseudochcylidae and Tenexif- 
fiidae, These mites are mainly predatory, but the Pterygosowidac are ectiv 
parasitic on reptiles. For this group a superfnmjly Anystoidea nov. is proposed, 
With the following tentative definition: 

Anystoidea n, stiperfam. 

Definition: Peritrcmc prominent, transverse, placed anteriorly on idiosoraa. 
and may be protruding. Chelicerae hinged (not extrnsile), Coxae in one or 
two groups on each vide. Parasitic or predatory. Larva lacking urstigma. similar 
to adult. 

The systematics uf the Trowbkliformcs will be considered further in later 

The Systematic Position of Vatacams 

On morphological grouuds there is no doubt that Vatacams should be. 
placed in the Trombidioidea. A typical urstigma is present, and the chelicerae 
are hinged The .spur near the urstigma appears tq belong to the latter, and is 
possibly or some morphological interest, but no importance can be given to it 
systematically The mouthparts are typical of the Trombidioids, and appear 
tu resemble those of seme of the water mites. 

However, among the Trombidioidea the genus Vatacarus is unusual in 
having coxa I and II separated on each side. It docs not appear reasonable to 
ascribe this separation to the distention of the larva, although this is extreme, as in 
oJher members of the Trombidioidea, considerable distension of the larvu may 
occur Withntit the coxae separating, these being in fact fused together The 
separation of the coxae is in fact more suggestive or' the Erythraeoidca. Hitherto 
the only mites placed in the Trombidioidea (as defined above) for which separ- 
ated coxae 1 and 11 have been recorded are Rohatdiia Oudemans 1911 and 
Monungnis Wharton 1938. The present writer has proposed reasons elsewhere 
for believing that the description by Wharton (1938) of this feature fa 
Vlonunguis (- Neotrombidium Leonardi 1901) is erroneous (Southeott 1984a 
1957c), With regard to Rohauttia, Vilathnm (1931) stated that that genus was 
the larva of Johnsloniana George 1909, but as the writer (1954a, 1957c) has 
pointed out. experimental proof of that claim has not been furnished by any 
writer. To the present writer Rohatdiia is rather suggestive of some of the 
water mites, Its habit of parasitizing Tipnlkl Hies is of interest; and docs not 
conHret with the last suggestion. However, u study of the morphology of 
Rohaidtia does not shed much light on the systematic position of Vatar.atvs as 
these genera do not appear lo be closely related, 

The systematic is in fact here placed su the dilemma of ueccptiitg the 
apparent affinities of Vatacams with the Tronibieulidae on the one hand which 
would logically lead lo the founding of a new subfamily Vaurearinae' of the 
Irombiciihdae, or of accepting the importance of the separation of the coxae, 

*FHrlcr C l J^L^j r ^^;^wfii4^^ (sic) n. snjv..fam~ this term Ifttas ikmI 
k i the mm o TmmhirhKhw Lwieh ffltS us usod by most authors; aWaflty m SEE* 
t>F the kut that this term hfl* \lam current tor ow CO yttow, 

t In one m^nee-that of Mirmtmmhklium himttnm Womerstey 1045-lhr larval sr>« c 
of th* mite w omitted from the lite history (Southeott, 194fi). but it is* on other 
gi omuls trwit this mite is a member of the Microtronmidiinac. 

and of founding a new family, the Vatacaridae. The discovery of the adult 
forms of Vataearus will not necessarily aid in the problem, as amongst com- 
parable mites tht classification at the present time is based largely on larval 
characters. Roth in morphological and biological leatnrcs Valtwams is one 
of the most aberrant of I he Trombidioidea, and the writer favours the latter 
course, and proposes; 

Vatacaridae n. fain. 

Definition; Trombidioid mites with maggot-like ( *ipomorphic ' ) larvae. 
Coxae 1 and I! widely separated. Dorsal scutum present, with one pair uf 
sensillae. Endoparasilie in the respiratory system of sea-snakes* 

The inclusion of a biological character in the family definition is in keeping 
with previous practice among comparable mites. Thus Ewing (1944) included 
SUCh HI WUittltag dtC family trombieulidae, and separating it from the Trombid- 
iidae. Such a procedure among the Acarina was advocated by eg. Banks ( 1915. 
p. 17) at the generic level of classification. 

Respiratory Endopuntrtihm oj Hnakex by Acarina 
Various rriltbs have exploded the respiratory passages of snakes as a bio- 
logical niche. Turk (1947), in a review nf,* lias listed mites uf the families 
Liponyssidue, Ixodovhynehidac, Entonyssiclae and Pneumophionyssidae. All 
of tte$P, however, belong to the suborder Mesostigrnata. 

Vatwurxis is so far the only Trombidioid mite winch has been found 
to use this niche. Some comment on the genus Hcmilromhicula Ewing 1938 
will be made below. 

Kndoparnsitism Among thi Tromhldioidca 

Among the Trombidioidea there are many species parasitic on vertebrate, 
the majority of these belonging to the Trombieulidae. Among such parasitic 
mites various moves toward endoparasitism may be noted. At one end of the 
scale vve may list e.g. Bahmn^ia htdhifcra Southcott 1954, which appears to show 
the beginning of such a process of host adaptation by hiding complete!}' under a 
scale of its lizard host, and by having a flattened body (we may note in passing 
some similarity between the dorsal scutum of B. btdhi.fc.ra and Vataearus 
ipohtvx). We may next refer to Schoiv4asliu ( Schon^astki) ocidicolu VVomersley 
1952. obtained from the eniijimelivaf sac of Lcf&ada boodnga fiwidivcntns 
(iilyth) (Mammalia) from Ceylon, Andy (1954," p. 159) commented on the 
habitat of this mite, which he placed in the genus Dolaixia Oudemans 191U 
(Andy. 1954), and referred to other Trombieuhd mites which have assumed an 
intranasal site of parasiHzation. These have been recorded also by Fain and 
Vercammen-fhandjean (1953). Vemtmmeu Crancljciin ( 1953), Andy and 
Vereammcn-Grandjeau ( 1955) and Fain ( 1955), The group is still under study, 
but apparently a number of species have utilized this niche. 

Nevertheless, it Ls apparent lhat in Vatacarus the endoparasitism recorded 
is the .most complete that has been observed among the Trombidioidea (ihe 
skin endoparasites iii the family Uemodicidue being placed in the Domodieoidea 
banks UJ94 (nom. emend. Bancs' pro Dcsmodieoidea Banks i.894, restricted). 

One further utile may be mentioned here. Ewing (1938) described Uemi 
twnihicida simplex as a new genus and species (monotypie) an unusual mite 
with two unequal Uirsul claws- later (1944) he made th'is genus the type of a 
subhomlv ilemitrombieulinae. placed in the Trombieulidae. This mite was 
iccorded us pamsilie within the mouth of a North American snake, Eluphe 

1 According Ml will (H)5tt) Laticawh is ll»; only bAMtt of sea-snake which in lutul- 
jguin* -'"il prolmbly tti«*forc VoUtcmus- is imlikoly to hv found in other &eft-&nakrs. 


ohtioleta obsolefu (Say), where (he mite larvae were "attached between the rows 
of teeth on the upper jaw only"; this was* the only record for this mite- In 
1JJ47 Wharton rejected the genus from the Trombicuh'dae, but did not re-assign 
it &» Lawrence 1 1949) pointed out. and such only occurred in 1952,. when Baker 
and \V\va rtr. n (' he. cit. ) synonym iscd Hendlromhicula with Limnocftares 
LaliiMile 1796. These latter authors made no comment on the parasitLzation of 
the snake by the larval mite, which must bo very unusual for a Limnocharcs. 
The synonymy proposed should he confirmed by a rcdescription of Exvinft's 
U. simpkx. 

Jpomorphtj and Endopamsitism Within the Acorina 
The term "ipotnorphy* is proposed here to denote a modification of an 
animal to a worm -Me or maggot-like .shape, in groups not normally mj. The 
writer is of the opinion that this word will fulfil a definite need, and has not teen 
able to find any existing noun available, from consultation with a number of texts 
on zoology and parasitology. Reference to the great "'Oxford English Diction, 
ary ' shows no appropriate noun derived from the Greek roots, & and M^nf a 
which appear to be the best to use, nor from the Latin vermis. The term scolex 
has now mostly taken on a special meaning in zoology, and the writer favours 
"ipomcrphy" as being in line with current terminology in morphology. 

Ipemorphy is seen among various of the Ac-aiina, in groups apparentlv un- 
related, When present, the idiosoma also shows often a degree of annulation. 
Thus within the endoparasitic Eriophyidac (Tctrupodili, Trombidiformcs), 
which are plant parasites, and the Demodicklac { Demodicoidea, Trornbidi- 
formes). as well as the free-living genus Nemutalycus Strenzlce 1954 (Ncmata- 
lycidae, Trombidiformes), such is" die case. Within the Tetranvchoidea (Tiom- 
hidiformes) a similar modification has been recorded bv Baker (194$) for 
Tenniptdpus eriophyoides Baker 1948. Within the Mcsostigraata similar ipomor- 
phie forms are seen, e.g. among the Halaraclmidae. whicfi are endoparasitcs of 
the respiratory passages of mammals, and the Entonyssidae, which utilize a 
similar niological niche in the land snakes, and the Riunonyssidae, which use 
birds similarly. A recently discovered group of mites, the Gastronyssidae (Sar- 
coptiformes), which are endoparastes of bats, also show ipomorphy. These 
have been recorded from either the stomach or the nasal fossae of 'the hosts 
(Fain 1956). 

Generally speaking, the presence of ipomniphy within the Acarma appears 
to go with the adoption of endoparasitism, There are, however, a number of 
mites which have made a partial or fairly complete move towards endopara- 
silisin, in which ipomorphic forms have not as yet been observed, e.g. the genus 
RiccardoeUa (Ereyuetidae) and the various Speleognathiclae. It would appear 
that among the Aearina the development of ipomorphy must be considered as a 
polyphylctic character. Although useful therefore in an ecological classifica- 
tion, it cannot be used as a major systematic character. 


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W-nr-AMvJN-GnlNo T KAv! , l\ a/l95o. Bcv. 7uol. liot Atr., 4S (1-2), p_ 17; cptuUd hi Fain 

Vit/hil'^ H 1031. Acari hi \V. KiiVenth:.! and T. Ktumbach: HaiidbHeli cfer Zftfjftoe 
Etac NaUiruiesehichte dor Stamme des Ticrreirhc.s. Bd 3, Halhr X Ll^. 1. pp I-i<-Jt> 

ViT/citoM, H. 1940-1913 Acoiina (B TT. C Bnums Klnssm nnd OrdniiDiv^ de.t Ticrrnelr., 
Bd. 5, Buch 5, pp. I-|rtfl and tCl . . . 

W„a.uov G. W., 193S- Aearma of Yucatan Caves. Article \ f/l hauna of the C.c,.-5 of 
Yucatan. Edited bv A. S. Pea^e, pp. 137-1-^2, Carnegie Tn.stitutmn of WAslon^hT* 

WflAtntW*, C^ W, to 19*t Studi.s mi North American Chicgers, 2. C(ti SuWfflrflwtt mid 



by Patricia M. Mawson 


An unusual larva of Thynnascaris sp. is described from Chaetodon sp. and Cattydon sp.; 
Procamallanus sp. is described from Sigmanum nebulosus y and Metabronema magna (Taylor) from 
the swim bladder of Caranx speciosus; some variations from the type are recorded in this last 



by Patricia M. Mavvson* 
[Read 11 October 1956] 


Ail unusual larva of Thyunascaris sp. is described from Vhaetodon sp. and CaWjdon sp.; 
ProcmrmUantis- ap, is described from Sitfiuanum iiebulast/s? and Mftubrcnivma -magna (Taylor) 
from the swim bladder of Cttranx speciomx; some variations from the type arc recorded in 
this last species. 

This small collection of nematodes was made at Heron Island, off the Queens- 
land eoasl, by my colleague, Mr. S. J. Edmonds, while on an excursion with the 
Zoology Department of the University of Queensland. I am most grateful to him 
for the opportunity of examining these worms. 

Metabronema magna (Taylor) 
(Figs i-'i) 

Metabronema magna is now recorded from the golden trevally, Caranx 
apeciosus. The species is apparently common in the swim bladder of' these 
fish, of which a large number were examined by Mr. Edmonds. About six 
worms was the usual number present in each fish. The description agrees 
generally with that giveu by Taylor (1925, pp. 60-66) and although there are 
slight variations it seems certain that the same species is present 

The longest female is 100 mm., the longest male 35 nun. The shortest 
female, about 15 mm. long and without ( eggs. is in copula with a male of about 
30 nun. 

Taylor describes broken longitudinal srriations on the cuticle of the female. 
In those from the trevally, the cuticle anterior to the vulva is transversely striated, 
and posterior to it the longitudinally elongated bosses appear; in older females 
these are further ornamented with smaller ridges, almost resembling fingerprints. 
The wide lateral alae commence at the level of the base of the oesophagus and 
continue past the anus; for most of their length they bear oblique as well as 
transverse striae. 

In en face view only the two pairs of sublateral papillae described by Taylor 
were seen; in dorsal (and ventral) view, a very small lateral papilla can be 
seen on each side, with a minute arnphiclial opening anterior to it (Fig. 2). 

The vestibule is rather shorter than the type, especially in the male; it is 
440/i by BO/* in the female, 290/.* by 4Qi» in the male. The cervical papillae, nerve 
ring, and evcretory pore are as described by Taylor, lying, in a young female in 
which the vestibule is 4W# ItttttL 160/a, 510> ? and 850/a, respectively, from the 
anterior end of the worm. 

The tail of a large female specimen is 460^ long, very different from the 
1 00-21 0/t given by Taylor. The vulva is marked by well-developed muscular 
lips as described by Taylor; these lie lateral to one another, with a deep S-shaped 
groove between them. The eggs arc 39-41/t by 20-22/t, and contain each a coiled 

f University of Adelaide. 


In the male the shape of the spicules is exactly as described by Taylor; the 
length of the longer is 1-6-1*7 mm., and of the shorter 0-5-0*6 mm. (1-7-1-8 
mm. and 0- 39-0-45 mm. in the original description). In the copulating male it 
is the shorter spicule which has entered die female. No gubcmaculum was seen, 
although it was described in the type. The male tail is 500/- long (270-310/* in 
type). The number and arrangement of tho caudal papillae is similar in bodi 
collect i (3ns. 



Figs. 1-3.— Metalnonema manna, lateral, dorsal and en fove views of head; Fig. 4- 

VrocamaUunus sp. anterior end. Figs. 5-Cx-Thynnoncaria sp., 5, anterior end: 6, tail 

of malt; larva, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4 and G all jri same scale. 

Procamallanus sp. 

(Fix. 4) 

Several female worms belonging to Hip genus Procamaflanns were taken 
from the black-spincd bream, Higmanum ncbuloms, The species is' dose to 
P. sphacroconchus- Tomquist in which the tip of the tail is, however, bifid and 
in which the buccal capsule is more elongate, and to P. si»ani Yamaguti. The 
vulva is further forward in the Australian species than in either of these. In 
the absence of males no specific determination has been made. 

The worms are up to 19 mm, long. The buccal capsule, is nearly as wide 
as long, without spiral thickenings or other ornamentation, the base 120> from 
the anterior end, and the equatorial diameter 110/j, including the 15/a thick 
walls. The anterior muscular part of Lhe oesophagus is 430> long, the posterior 
part 750/./., The excretory pore is 40G> from the anterior end. The tail is 2SG> 
long, conical, and directed dorsad, and it ends in a simple rounded lip. 

The region around the vulva is strongly cliitiniscd, but does not project 
noticcablv; it lies at aboul the end of the first third of lhe body length, 5-3 mm. 
from the head in a specimen 15-3 mm. long. No shelled eggs were seen; lhe uteri 
contain a coiled slender-tailed larva, about 4o0>. long. 

Tbynnascaris sp. 

(Figs. 5-0) 

Larval worms, all of which appear very similar, were taken from the tusk 
fish, Chaetodon sp., and from Catlydon sp, They are ascarids, with three low 
lips', short oesophagus, with small ventrieulus, and long appendix and short intes- 
tinal caecum. The tail is conical with short digitiform tip without spines. They 


have been assigned to the genus Tkynnascaris because of the presence of a ventn- 
culus. A gonad is present as a well-developed tube in two specimens, and in one 
uf them is obviously a testis, leading back to the anus; in this specimen there is 
structure lying dorsal to both reproductive duct and rectum, which is presumably 
the anlage of the spicules (Fig. 8), The worms were recorded as from the intes- 
tine, but might have been on the outer wall; with them is the larval stage of a 
Irypanorhynch cestode. The nematodes are enclosed in a loose outer sheath 
within which are dark granular masses. It is presumably a 3rd stage larva, as 
4th stage in this group show distinct lips and interlabia and a spinous tail. 

The developmental stages of Contracaecum spp. and Tkynnascaris spp. 
larvae in the 2nd intermediate host, and their enclosure in a cyst containing 
much granular matter, has been described by Johnston and Mawson (1945 
p. 126). V 


Johnston, T. H., and Mawson, P. M. Parasitic nematodes. In Reports B.A.N.Z. Antarctic 

Research Expedition, 1929-31, Series B, vol. 5, part 2. 
Taylor^ E. L., 1925. Notes on some nematodes in the museum of the Liverpool School of 

Tropical Medicine IT. Ann. Trop. Med. and Parasit, 19, pp. 57-69. 
Tornquist, N., 1931. Die nematoden farnilicn Cucullanidae und Camallanidae nehst weitere 

Beitragen zur Kenntnis der Anatomie und Histologic der Nematoden. Goteborgs Vetensk. 

Samh. HandL (5B), 2 (3), pp. 1-441. 
Yamagutt, S., 1935. Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Pt. 9. Nematodes of fishes 

1. Jap. Joura. Zool., 6 (2), pp. 337-386. 



by T. Z). Scott 


A new genus and species of Blenny, Brachynectes fasciatus, and a new species of Pipefish, 
Corythoichthys flindersi are described and figured. A key is given to the genera of the 
Tripterygiidae of Australia. 


by T. D. Scott 4 
[Read 11 October 1956] 


A new genus and species of Blenny, Brachyncctcs- fanciatuH, and a new species of Pipe- 
fish, Conjthoichthjs flindarsi are described and figured. A key is given to the genera of the 
Triptery.niidae f Australia, 


During the past few years, the Museum has received several excellent collec- 
tions of shallow water, weed-living fishes from Pelican Lagoon, Kangaroo Island, 
South Australia. The collections were made by Mr. H. M. Cooper, Assistant 
Anthropologist at the South Australian Museum. 

A small mesh net was towed over the weedy bottom, in approximately two 
fathoms of water. In alh five collections were made during different periods 
of the year, resulting in a comprehensive sampling of the area. 


A group of blennies with three dorsal fins and 
moderate to large scales. 

Key to thk Genera of the Triptehyg]U)al oir Australia. ! 

1. Lateral line single ... 2 

Lateral line of two parts ~~ 3 

2. Lateral line continued to caudal peduncle Lepkloblennius 

Lateral line ending in middle of side _ .. - Helcogmmma 

3. Head sealy .- Cillias 

Head naked ...... ... . 4 

4. Second dorsal shorter than third dorsal . „ Bradujneciefi gen. nov. 
Second dorsal longer than third dorsal 5 

5. No scales between lateral line and back .... N 'otoclinaps 

Several rows of scales between lateral line and back _ 6 

6. Mouth large, reaching posterior border of eye Verconecten 
Mouth smaller, reaching anterior half of eye 7 

7. Dorsal fins close together; no produced rays ... Vauclmella 

Dorsal fins more separated; some rays produced _ Triptcrygion 


Body short, not much compressed. Covered with ctenoid scales of moderate 
size, extending on to the breast and belly. Head naked with numerous pores. 
Lateral line of two partSj the firsl short, formed of simple tubes, and separated 
by two rows of scales from the second, consisting of incised scales. Three 
dorsal fins, close together, the number of spines in the second less numerous than 
the number of rays of the third. Mouth large, extending to hind border of 

5 South Australian Museum, 


eye. Patches of villiform teeth in both Jaws, becoming narrow laterally. No 
eulaiged leehV Vomer with patches of similar teeth. No teeth on palatines. 
Pectoral rays all simple. Ventral* of two simple rays. Caudal rounded. 

Separated from other Australian genera in having the second dorsal fin 
shorter than the third. 

Brachyncctes fasdatus sp, no v. 

D.iii.x.13 P.1S A.20-21 V.2 C.13 Hr.6 

Lat line 10 f 21. Lat. trans. 2 : 7. 

Fig. 1 

Head length 12 mm. (3-9), body depth 10 (4-7 h bodv width S ( 5-S ) in the 
total length 47 mm. Snout 3 (4-0), eye 3 (40) in the head. Interorbiril space 
less than eye. First dorsal spine the longest, length 5 mm., spines decreasing 
ui s;/e posteriorly. 

Head large, naked. Several rows of pores below and behind the eye, 
across the nape, and on the prcopercular margin. Anterior nostrils with a simple 
tentacle. A broader supra-orbital tentacle. Lips thick, mouth oblique, maxillary 
extending to hind-border of eye. A broad hand of villiform teeth anteriorly in 
each jaw, narrowing laterally. No enlarged teeth. Similar teeth in patches on 
the vomer. Palatines toothless. 

Gill membranes united, free from isthmus. Upper opercular margin incised. 
Scales ctenoid, moderate. Lateral line of two parts, a short upper part with 
Simply tubes, ending below the seventh spine of the second dorsal fin, and a 
longer inferior part, consisting of incised scales. Two rows of scales between 
the two lateral lines. Thirty rows of scales between the shoulder and tjhc 
caudal fin. 

DoTsal fins close together, but not connected at their bases. Second dorsal 
shorter than the third. First dorsal commencing over hind margin of pre- 
opcrculum. Pectoral long, reaching to end of second dorsal fin. All lays simple, 
the middle ones produced. Ventrals inserted below the preopercular hind 
margin. Caudal rounded, length 10 mm., none of the rays bifurcate. 

Colours (iu spirit): Head and body fawn. Body with five to six dark bars, 
extending down to the row of incised scales. Dorsal fins lightly spotted with 
black. Two black ocelli on the second dorsal. Anal fin dusky, the border white. 
Described from a specimen measuring 47 mm. total length, taken August, 1956, 
in Pelican Lagoon, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Type in South' Australian 
Museum, Reg, No. F.2921. 

Material Examined: 31 specimens, range in length 29 mm. to 54 mm 



Genus Cokythchchthys Kaup. 

Canfthoichthy* Kaup : 1853, p 231. 

Whitley, 1918 (h) T p. 2G8, designates Sytiguuthux jusewtm Gray,. 1830 (non KJiw>), 
as genotype. 

Corythoichthys flindersi sp. nov. 

"Iff? It If ¥glTinf ^ ■■ , ,' "'■ ;■'-'. ; - 


Fig. 2 

D.21 0$ P-12 A.4. 

Rin^s 15 I -40. Female, no brood pouch. 

Head 10 mm. (3*0) in the trunk and (91) in the total length 91 mm. 
Eye 2(50), snout 4 (2-5) in the head. Trunk 30 (2-0) in the caudal Body 
depth 4-5 (20), body width 3-2 (28) in the total length. 

Snout rather short, almost equal to the post orbital part of the head. Oper- 
culum with two distinct keels, which join immediately behind the eye. Head 
with a sharp median ridge extending from the tip of the snout to the anterior 
interorbital region. A similar median ridge extending from the hind border of 
the eye on to the first body ring. Supraorbital ridges sharp, not quite reaching 
the dorsal body ridges. A distinct lateral ridge from the angle of the mouth, 
ending below the eye. 

Trunk with 7 angles, caudal with 4. Lateral trunk ridges not continuous 
with upper tail ridges. Lower lateral ridges continuous. Pectoral fin small, 
length 2 mm. Dorsal fin short, length from origin to insertion 7 mm. Anal fin 
minute, with 4 rays. Caudal fin small, length 2 mm. 

Colours; Body light fawn. Brown bands on the trunk, a bright blue spot 
at the top of each band, the space between these spots orange coloured, A 
small white spot on the edge of the ventral keel between the brown bands, 
marking the separate body rings. Ventral surface yellow to vent, white poste- 
riorly. Head brown, with two white stripes on the cheeks, joining below. 
Snout yellow below, reddish above. 

Type in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. F.2922. 

Affinities: Similar to C. vcrcoi (VVaite and Hale, 1921, p; 19S), but separ- 
ated by possessing 4 aual rays, absence of ridge from snout to first nostril, two 
ridges on operculum and differing in the colour pattern. 

Material. Examined: Two specimeas measuring 91 mm, and 94 mm. total; 

Ncuned alter Captain Matthew Flinders, TLN., who discovered and named 
Pelican I ,agoon on April 4th, 1802, 

Three species of the genus Coryihoirkthtjs are now recognised from South 
Australia, and may be separated as follows; 

1. Length of snout equal to half length of head phillipi 

Length of snout less than half length of head ,1 2 

2. Two opercular ridges; 4 anal rays; no ridge from snout to first 

nostril - flmclersi 

One opercular ridge; 2 anal rays; a ridge from snout to first nostril .., vtircoi 


A further species, Parasyngrmthus poecilolaemus (Peters, 1869) which was 
placed previously in the genus Corythoichthys by McGulloch (1929), has now 
been included in the genus Parasyngnathus by Whitley (1948, a). " 


Kaup, J. J., 1853. Arch. Naturges, 19, p. 1. 

McCulloch, A. R., 1929. Check-list fishes recorded from Australia 

Peters, W. G. H., 1869. Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 

Waite, E. R., and Hale, H. M., 1921. Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 1, p. 4. 

Whitley, G. P., 1948a. Fish. Dept. Western Aust., Fish. Bull. No. 2 

Whitley, G. P., 1948b. Aust. ZooL 11. 







April 12 — J. Thomas: Illustrated talk on "Growth problems associated with Firms 
I. M. Thomas exhibited a living specimen of fresh- water medusa, Cras- 
pedacusta sotverbii and explained its life-cycle. 

May 10 — I. M. Thomas, deputizing for Sir Douglas Mawson, discussed the pro- 
gramme for the International Geophysical Year. 
S. B. Dickenson: Illustrated talk on "The outlook for uranium". 

June 11 Prof. L. G. H. Huxley: A talk on "Current research problems of the 

Physics Department of the University of Adelaide". 

|uly 12— H. G. Andrewartha: A talk on "Current problems in animal ecology". 

Aug. 9— Prof. E. A. Rudd: A talk on "The current Australian search for oil". 

Sept. 13— F. W. Moorhouse: A talk on "The fishing industry in South Australia". 

Oct. 11— C. G. Stephens: Presidential address, "The phenology of Australian 

Nov. 8— H. B. S. Womersley: Illustrated talk on "The uses of seaweed". 
I. M. Thomas exhibited some new Australian Enteropneusta. 




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MEMBERS, ETC., 1956 



1929 Prof. Walter liowciiuv, F.G.S. 

1930 John McC. Black. A.L.S. 

1931 Prof, Sm Douclas M.\\\son ; O BE,, D.Sc, B.E., K.K.S. 
3 933 Prof. J. Bunxox Ctkt.ano, M.D. 

1935 Phofv 'J'. IIauvky Jounston : M ( A., D.Sc. 

1938 Efifcft J. A Puksoott. D.Sc, F.A.CJ. 

1943 HVimKiYT Wo&ikksley. A,L.S\, F.R.E.S. 

1941 Pkoe. J. G, Woon, D.Sc, Ph.D. 

1043 Cr.ciL T. Maj>ican% M.A., B.E., D.Sc., F.G.S. 

1946 Hmmert M. ITai.c, O.B.E. 

1955 L. Kfjju Wabo. LS-O., B.A., B.E., D.Sc 

1956 N. B. Tindamc, B.Sc 


AS AT 30th SEPTEMBER, 1950. 

Those marked with an asterisk (*) have contributed papers published hi the Society s 

Transactions, Those marked with a dagger ( i ) are Life Members. 

Any change in address or any other changes should be notified to the Secretary. 

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Date of _ 


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Verco'MeduL 1933: Council, 1921-26, 1932-37; President, 1927-26, 1940-41; Vice- 
T resident 1926-27, 1941-42. p - 

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1946. Arbil, Prof. A. A., M.D., D.Sc, Ph.D., University of Adelaide. 
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1918. Kdmonds S J. t B.A., Mfc Zoology Department, Univx ,-rsity ctf Adelaid.'-CY-unrtf. 

inrt . ,_ l954-o5; Programme Secretary. 1955-50; Sctifefen 1956-57 Wl ' 

Jg2g' *W"S^ A. G 19 Kartell : Street, Cknelg, S.A.--Crwi/, 1949-1953. 

19o6., Hi, Dr.rer.rut., Botanic Gardens. Adelaide 

.1927. •Fjxi.ayson, H. 11. , 30.5 Ward Street, North Adelaido-CoK/iH/ 1937-40 

1951. Fisinrn, H. H., 265 Goodwood Knad. Kiii^s Far'< S A 

3923. •Fnv IL K D.S.O.. M.D B.S. B.Se_, F.R.A.CP./ Town Hall, Adelaide-CouncA 

^, 1033-37; Yuc-PrcHdcnl, 193 i-38, I9,j(9-10; President, 1938-39. 
1955; Giles, E. T. (Dp..), Ph.D., M.Sc, D.I.C., S.A. Museum, North Terraee Adelaide 
195't. CrinsoN, A. A.. AAV.A.S.M,, Geologist. Mines Department. Adelaide 
I9l>3. Gla^sts^, M. F., D.Sc, c/o Geology Department, University of Adelaide-Co^-c//, 

1927. GooFniiv, F. K'., Box 951 H. G.P.Q., Adel.jide. 

1935. IGolusmk. IT. t Coiomande! Valley, SA. 
1951. Gnvzx, J. W., 6 Bedford Avenue, Suhiuco, VV\ st AuslraiiL 
1904. Griffith. l\. D.. 13 Dujirobin Road, Brighton, S.A. 

1946. Guass r (;. F., M.Se., South Australian Museum, Adelaide-Soert-for?/ 1950-5^ 

aio- .S&F^JP- I? B 2?%^ /W WA t : f etr ' j| ^ lim Co 251 Adelaide T,rr.,cc, P,ad^ W A. 
192„. Hale, HM. O.B.L., cyt> S.A. \kisciun-lW tftff&A XMfli Cfl»rtdiL 1931-34 

I93s"-r' i ^^^^^ e ' TxSs ^ m *^^ : ' WMBj PMfr« l93fl-37i fi^rauf&rj 

19^9, Hall. D. k, Tea Tree Cully, S.A. 

1930. I-Hancock, N. L., 3 Bewdltry, 66 Bere^ford Bo:id, ftoja Bay, K.SW. 

1953. *Hansex, I. V , B.A.. 34 Herbert Road, West Croydon, S.A. 

1916. * Hardy,. Mils. J. E. (nee A, C. Bcckwth), M.Se., Bov 69, Smitliton, Tn:3. 

1944. HAJiisi*. J. K., B.Sc, c/o Waite Institute (Private Mail Hag), Adelaidr 

UH4. HEnroor, R. F., B.Ac;r.Sc., 49 Halshurv Avenue, Kinyswood, S.A. 

1&54. Hilton. F. \l. t B.Aur.St., 17 Kav Avemio, Bcrrt, $X, 

193). Hocking, L. J,, The School, Seott'.s Grcrlc, S.A. 

1<>24. °HossFrLD 3 P. S., Ph.D., 132 Fisher Street, Fulla. too, S.A. 

I'IJ1 HiAiuLE, D S \V., M.P.S.. J.P., 23S Payoclmm Road. Payneham. S.A. 

1917- HorroN, J. T., B.Sc, 18 Emily Avenue, Clapliam. 

192.S, Ifotjcd, P., 14 Wvntt Rnnd. B'urnsidc, S.A. 

IMS. •Jessup, H. W., M.S*c, c/o C.S.I.B.O.; Canberra, A.C.T. 

1950. Mohns. R. K. 3 B.Sc. Department of Mines, Flinders Street, Adelaide, S.A. 

1954. Kla-js, A. I.., B.E., c/o North Broke.) Hill Ltd,. Broken Hill, 

1939. fKHWLAn, H. M., Ph.D., M.B.. F.R.G.S., Khakhnr Buildings. C.P. Tank Road. Bom- 
bay, Lidiii. 

1949. 'King, D. s M.Sc, c/o Department of Min.-.x, Flinders Street, Adelaide- 

1933. °Ki>:el\£an, A. W., Ph.D., University of Ai\eUlde-Secretary % 1945-48; Vice-President, 
194S-49. 1950-51; President 1949-50. 

Dulc of 

1922. Ki:ni>o.n, G, A. k M.D.. B.S., F.K.C.F., A.M.?. Building King William Street, Adelaide. 
194H Lothian, T. Si N., N.D.II. (NX), Director, Botanic Carders Adcbide Trvtcsurer, 

' 1952-53; Council 1953-57. 
1931. ^LxmmiooK,' Mas. N, H,, M.A., Ph.D.., DJ.C, F.C.S., Department of Mines, 3J 

Flinders Street, Adelaide:. 
193S, MM,nEHN, C. B., B D.S., DD.Se., Shell House, North Terrace, Adelaide. 
1953. MaklzeH, D. A., B.Se. (Hons-h Waite Institute. Adelrtlde. 
1939. Marshall, X, J„ M .Atfr.Sc,, Ph.D., Waite Institute (Private Mail Barr), Adelaide- 

Council, 1948-52. 
1920 Mayo Sin Huu«mu, LL.B.. Q.C., 18 Miulbomuuh Stfttft, College Park. S.A. 

1950. Mavo C. M. E.„ B.As.Sc, FfrO*, 140 Melbourne Street, Worth Adr.laide. 
1943! McCaiviuv. Miss D. F.„ B.A., B.Se,. 70 Halrou Terrace, Kensington Park. 

1953. Mi:Cm»tm:y, J. K., M.D., D.Sc. (Edin.), Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, 
Frume Bond, Adelaide . »_ _ 

19TS. MrCor.i.ncn, R. N., M.B.E., B.Se v B.Ayr.Sc, Ruyj'AOrtliy Agricultural Collets Unsc- 
worlliv. S.A. 

1915 | 4, k. it.. D,Sc- F.G.S.. 11 Church Bnad, MiL/ham, S.A. 

1951. VhlM J. A. ft., M.A.. B.Chii\ (Cant.), University of GtuSCr, V.V:. 
1952 Mom:, K. L., KCA., 14 Burlington Street, \V;dJverville, S.A. 
FMB. MiNtJi^M. V. II., 7 Lewthwiutu Street, Whyalla West, SA. 

LfliaS, IMrrcTiiM..., Pnoi, Sm W.. K.C.M.G., M.A., D So., Fit/roy TtyflACfe Prospect SA 
1933. MtivHiiM., Prior. M. L., M.Sc., c/o Flder's Trustee and Exwttrft WW- Ucjta ,T? Curnc 

Street. Adehiide. „ . . _ t , , . , 

1951, MirOHKU,. F. !., c/o The South Australian Me^ot.u North Terrace, Adelaide, 
193a; Moouitoc&K. P. W.. M.Sc., Chief inspector or. Fisheries Simeon JMWl&Sfo Oawln 

Place. Adelaide. 
[9.Ui. c AJocNTrouiJ. C. P., 25 First Avenue, St. Peters, Adelaide. 

1911 MmwEix. J.' W., KngfneeTfttg and Water Supply Dopt., Vifitflriu S<|uan\ Adelaide 
I944! Nin.nls, A. B., B.A.. H.D.A., 02 Sheffield Street, \hdvciu, S.A. 
1052. .Vione," H. V. V„ e/o Union Bank oi Australia, Adelaide. . 

1.445 p \oiu"ikxyii.% K. H., B.Ajn-.Sc, ATA.S., Waite Institute t Private Mad Bag), Adelaide. 
1930 ()* .KhXBEN,b. P.. B A., School House. Bov ffl, Kimba. S.A 
19.^0- O'DnescoiX, E. S. t B.Se, V ioali SflOTft; Dover Oii.dcns S.A. 
1937 "Paiucin, L. W, M.Sc, A.S.T.C.. e/o Mines Dept., Adeh»ide-Stv:ret«n/, I1to3-a0. 

Vice-President. 1930-5?. 
1949 Pahkinsqn, K< J., B.Se., Whitwaita Koad, Baliildav-.i, S.A. 
1929 Pv»u A. C, M.A., R-SV„ 10 Milton Avenue, 1'ullartrtn Fstate. S.A. 

■Pjni-'C S-, D.Se., Waite Imtilule (Private Mill] Bdu)< Adclaide-C^in/-!'/, HMl-4;>, 

V tct:~PrL>si(h;nt, LSWfS-SS) H)-UM7: Prtsmknd. 194o-4ri, 
194S. Powhik, ]. K,, B.Se. r CS.l.K.O,, Kdiii, S.A. 
1919 PnMiT., H. C, 81 Park Trrraee. North Unley, S.A. 
19">5 ^PiU'-seoar Paor. ]. A.. C.B.F.. D.Se., F.R.A.C.f., I'.H.S., HZ UrtiRia Hoad, Mwtl- 

U;mk SA.-Yerro Medal 193$; p(7WJTC« a 1927-^0, H).T5^9 : Vi/^r^i//^.;. 

1930-32; Vro.Kidtmt y 1932-33; Editor, 1055-57. 
L9-15 *PKVoa, L. D. T M.Sc., Diii.For., 32 La Pcroasc Stn-t-l, CailRth, Cauherr;). A.Ci.T. 
1959. °\Iki iicak. J. IT., M.Se.. West Austtaliau Petroleum Co,. Perth, \V A. 
1951 B-syson P. B.Se., e/u Botany Depaitinent, L'jnversttv oi Adelaide. 
1944* Bia'MAN., D. S., M.Sc, 13.A^r.Se. ? C.S.I.B.O., Division of N'nfrilioo, Adelakln- 
1947 lluna, W. B., B,Sc, c/o Seripps JiiMi'olioo of (>eeain<«raphv t LVpt. of Palaron- 

b>k>gv; La Jolla,. California. U.S.A. 
1947, R»x, C. K.. 42 Wavmouth Avenue, Cd.tndoro, S.A. 

1953. Booms, Pnor. S. W. P., Ph.D., ZooIorv Depro-tment, University oi Adelaide. 
|9:*>1. Bowk. &> A., 22 Shelley Sheet, Fnle : , S.A, 

1951. BrAvn', S. E., B.Se^ Cordon In.sUlute oi Technology C.relonr^ Vietori.e 
l95o! Bvun, Pnor. E. A.. B.Se., A.M., University ot Adelaide, S.A. 
1951. Russia. u. L. IX. e/o ttiffli Seliuol, Foil Piiie, S.A. 
1945 Bymit.t., J. B.. Old Pennla F.slate, Pfinolrt, S.A. 
193.V SiwrfCUiER, M f7 MB., B.S.. 17-5 Nodh iVrrnce, Adelaide 
1951 *SOGrTT T. D., M.Se, S.A. Mnseuut, XSoilh "Ir.iTiKf, Adelaide, S.A. -2 ro^wiinnf 

Secnitnv, 1953-54, 1950-37. 
HP4 *§ur,vi_r R. W., M.A., B.Se., Entfineeriuu; Dfjfl Water Supplv Dep;\ Victoria 

Square, Adcldde-Se-cvrfar^ W&Mfii Council 1037-38; VicM-Pr^idcmt, \y2fy% 

1940-41; Preshfrnt, 1939-10. 
1925. ^Sim-Ann, H-. Tort Klliot. S.A, rn ^ rT . , 

1930. °Sm,ARn, Dk. K., M.Se M l'iiher»es Br.^nreh Div., C.SXB.O., University ot W-A 

Nedlands, W.A. , . , _ ■ 

19. K »4 Stiki'hl;ri>, K, CSif B.SV., c/o Department of Mines, Adelaide. 

1931. SMTN-rFrEiA K. C„ 57 Canterbury AvenuC> Trinity Cardeus, S,A. 



Date of 
Elect* Cm 

Jfej t?? 4 ^ ^^^ Mn - B.S., T)ie Manor House, Grtfai Haselev, Oxfordshire, England. 

1925. tSMiiH, 1. E. Bahr. B.A., 2o Currie Street, Adelaide. 

1941. °Smtth, T, L., B.Se., Dcpt of Geography. University of Sydney N S W 

1941. *Southcot;i\ R. V*, M.R, &S,, D.T.M. ik I!., 13 'jasper Street, Hyde Purl, S.A.- 

Council 1919-51. 1952-53; Treasurer, 1951-52: Vice-President, 1953-54, 1955-50 

President, 1954-55. 
K8& t ^ ,mw °o n ' T A ' & M.D, M.S. (Add.), M.R.C.P., 170 North Terrace, Adelaide 
JSE* T J » ( SllECJIT '„ R ^ L \ lJ| ' l ' D ' Bolil »> 7 Department, University of Ado!aJde-0,:.uw-;7, !«Sl. 
J 936 | Swucc, R. C„ M.Sc. ; 5 Baker Street, Snmorton Pads. 
1951. Steadman, Rev. W. R., S Blairgowrie Road, St. Georges S A 

1947. Sfurling M. B., B.Arf.Sc, Horticultural Branch, Department of Agriculture Bun. 

901 E, C.P.O., Adelaide. 

1949. *Sphy, A. II., M.Se, Geology Department, University of Tasmania. 

1938. "Stephens, C. G., D.So., Waite Institute {Private' Mm! Bag), Adelaidr--C.wmd/ 

1952-54; Vice-resident, 1954-55, 1956-57; President, 1955-56 
1955. Swaiisk, G. D., M.B., B.S., Repatriation Sanatorium, fiajftif S A, 
1932. .Swan. D. C., M.Se., Waitc Institute (Private Mail fcttg), Adelaide - Seeretaru 
wwo r- IPW ^;**?*^' 1 SS J- 946 " 4 " JWS-49; President, 1947-48; Couttctf, 1953-57 

1948. S**fsftj F. J. W., Box 156, P.O. lkiruie. Tasmania, 
1951. Swikske P., M,Atf.Sc, 618 Seaviuw Road. Grunge, S.A. 

1934. (Wo«Cs 9 £ C, 35 Murray Street, Lower Miteham, S\A. - Editor^ 1947-55: Council, 

J.Ji3u>-t) * . 

1929. Tayeoil J. K., B.A., M.Se.. Waitc Institute (Private Mail Bay). Adeluide-Comic// 
1940-13, 1917-50; Librarian, 1951-52, Vir.r-F resident, 1952-53, 1954-55: President 
!4o3-54j Council, 1955. 

1955. Tiiaicueh, D., B.Se., Department of Minos, Adelaide. 

194-S. 'Thctmas, I, M., M.Se. (Wales), Department of Zoology, University of Adelaidr- 
w-,o * ZecreUmj, 1948-50; Council 1950-53; Vice-President. 'i 955-56; President. 1956-57. 
}Hi .IWttfc Waft- 1- M- (nee P. M. Maw-son), M.Se., 36 king Street, Brighton, 
1940 " Thompson, Cxn\ f. \L, 1.35 Militan HnacJ. Semaphore South .S.A 
1923. TjtoHtie, N. B., B.Se.., South Australian Museum. Adolaidc.-VVreo MrJnl 1956- 
Secretary, 1935-36; Council. 1946-17; Vtee-Fwsidcnt 1917-48, 1949-50: President 
194.S-49: Ubrarknh 1952-57. ' * 

J 955. ^Tucker, B. M., B.Se., Sfi Baler Street, Gkngowrio, S.A. 
1925. Tubkeiv D, C. Brookman Buildings, Grcnfell Street, Adelaide 

1950. Veitcii, J. I Box 92, Port Lincoln, S.A. 

1953. Waieiuew, R, A., B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Northwestern University, EvnnsLon, Illinois, 

1954. WkbuVb. R, M.Se, Radium Hill, S.A. 

1954. Weles, C. B., B.Atf.Sc., Bro.t.lkes, Waverby HMge, Crafers, S.A. 

1956, Whateey-Daj^, E. E.,, 6 Lansdmvne Terrace, North Walkerville $.A, 
J 954. *WrifTir, A, R., B.Se, c/o Geology Depart., Kind's College, Strand, W 7 .C.2, Loudon ' 
1946. "Wmiii,i:, A. ty« G., M.Se.. Mittja Department Flinders Street. Adelaide. 

1950. Wri mams. L. E. T "Dumosa," MernYujie, S A. 

1946. *Wn.scw, A. b\. M.St:., University of W.A.. Nedlands, W.A, 

1933. ^WoMmsEtY. H., F.P..K.S., A.L.S. (Hon. causa J. S.A. Museum, Adelaide - Wren 

Medal, 19-13; Secretary, 1936-37: Editor, 1937-43, 1945-47; President, 1943-44; 

Vice-President. 1944-45; Rep, Fauna and Flora Protection Committer, KM5; 

Treasurer, 1950-51, 1956-57. 
1954. nVoMFrm.hY, H. B. S. T Ph.D., Botany Department University of Adelaide. 
10-1 1, WoAfFRsuY, J; S., B.Sc, Lac New Guinea. 
1923. nVooo, \htisr& T. G.. D.Sc, Ph.D.. Bolanv Dc:parrment. (T n i\ersitv of Adelaide.-Y'fi*ro 

Wafer, 1944; Council, 193S-40; Vice-President. 1910-41, J942-43; Rep. Fauna and 

Flow Board, 1940-; President. 1911-42; Council 1944-48, 
1950. MVoooarp, G, D.. B.Se., 1 Rrigalbw Avenue, Kensington Gardens, S.A. 
1953. Woodhouse. L. B. 15 Robert Street, North Unlev, S.A. 
1944 Zimmeu, W J„ Dip.For., E.L.S. (Lon.), 7 Rupert Street, Footscray West, W.I2, Vhlt 





Names printed in italics as separate entries indicate that the forms- are new to seienci\ 

Aboriginal Marriatre and Kinship: 

H. K, Kry ... 1-16 

Acanthocephala (Australian) No. 10: 

S. J. Edmonds ... 76-80 

Acarina (New Genera and Species) 
from Bats from Now Guinea, 
Philippines and Australia; II. 
Womcrsley ,., ,.. _. -67-72 

Acaniutucurtts (The Genus) I. De- 
scription of three New Species 
from Trinitv Bay, North Queens- 
land: R. V. Sru.rhcoiL 146-155 
Acomatacams cooki ... . 140" 
Acomalacartts langoni __ , 153 
AcomatiicaTttx rnatheu-i 1 49 
Afaxorerithlum bldenticulatwn 25 

BUlitnn (Semihittium} snhpmparium 2? 

Blenny (a new) and Pipefish from 
Kangaroo Island. South Australia: 
T. D. Scott 180-183 

Brachyttretes fuseiatus 181 

Brookes, H. M>; The Cuceoidea 

Naturalised in South Australia . ft 1-90- 

Cerithidlu ( Coxrllaria ) supenpiralis 33 

Costodes from Cormorants front 

South Australia: H. G. Clark 124-131 

Clark:, H. G,: Cestodcs from Cor- 
morants from South Australia 124-134 

Coceoidea ( Uomoptera) Naturalised 

in South Australia: II. M. Brookes 81-fJ0 

Corijthoickthys flindersi ... ,., 182 

Dated Tartarian Implement Site from 
Cape. Martin, South-Rust of South 
Australia: \\ B. Timlule ... 109-123 

Edmonds, S. J.: Australian Aeantho- 

ecphala No. 10 76-80 

L'orhes, B. G.: Stratigraphic Succes- 
sion East of Grcv Spur, South Aus- 
tralia , 59-66 

Fmtikvnea (anew) from Soulh Aus- 
tralia: R. Melville , ,144-145 

trattkenia plimta 

Fry, H, K: Concerning Aboriginal 
Marriage and Kinship 

Geology and Subsurface Waters of 
the Area ftafft u f Deep Welh Alice 
Springs District, Northern Terri- 
tory: J. Rade f , 

Hyp'ftmchus semiplieatus 

Lud brook, N. H. 
Fauna of the 
Underlying the 
Part IV 

The Mnllusoan 
Pliocene Strata 
Adelaide Plains. 



















Marine freeliving Nematodes from 
South Australia, Tart 1: ft M. Maw- 
son r 9S-108 

Maw son. p. M.: Marine freeliving 

Nematodes from South Australia 98-108 

Mawson, F. M.: Some Nematodes 
from Fish from Heron Island, 
Queensland 177-179 

Melville, R.: A new Frankenio from 
South Australia __ 144-145 

Mctimcholtiinius hrt&i&p.tcurti ... 101 

Mnlhisean Fauna of the Pliocene 
Strata underlying the Adelaide 
Plains, Part TV: N. H. Ludbrook 17-57 

Nematodes from Fish 

Island, Queensland: 

Neojriyohia iuzoncnsh 
N?otro?nhidiutu tridentifer 
Nalohtelaps novo guinea 

Vlasiolarfaps mlniopterus 
Pseudoponarchix lujdnmntrvi 

Rade. J.: Geology and Subsurface 
Waters of die Area East of Deep 
Well, Alice Springs District, 
Northern Territory .,. 91-97 

Scott, T. D.: A New Blenny (Trip- 
terygiidae) and Pipefish (Syngna- 
thidae) from Kangaroo Island, 
Soulh Australia ._ 180-183 

Seila (Notoseilu) triplantcincta 34 

Sontheotr, R. V.: Rediscovery of 
Ctenefythracus Berlesc ( 1918 ) 
with r e d e s cr i p t i o n, arid its 
svnonomy with Spathulathwmhium 
VVomersley 1945 _. 135-143 

Southcott, R. V.: The Genus Acoina- 
tac.aru.Sy 1 ? Description of Tliree 
New Species from Trinity Bay, 
North Queensland .. ' 140-155 

Suutheott, K. V: The Genus Nw- 
tromhidlum, II, Further Notes on 
Systematica with a Description of 
a New Species from North Queens- 
land ... « 156-164 

Southcott, R. V.: On X'ataearm 
Ipoirfes. a New Respiratory Eudo- 
parasite from a Pacific Sea-snake 165- 17(3 

Steinerui patchra . 

Slrati^rapbic Succession East of Grey 

Spur, South Australia: B. G. 

Symolu (Agatlm) pracfasciata 
Sumofa (Evefynella) adclaidensis ... 

Tindale, N. B : A Dtir&tl Tartangan 
Implement Site from Gape Martin, 
South-East 6f South Australia 109 

Trvphora (Isotriphora ) Salisbury ens-is 





Triphora (Notosinister) praegranifera 35 
Tuckerella. (a New Species of) from 

South Australia: H. Womersley ... 73-75 

Tuckerella spechtae ... 74 

Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) adelaidensis 45 

Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) currongm ... 45 

Turbonilla ( Chemnitzia ) mappingae 43 

Turbonilla (Chemnitzia) widningae .. 46 

Turbonilla {Chemnitzia) wurongae 44 

Turritella ( Colospira ) platyspir aides 19 

Valsantia spectabilis 
Vatacarus ipoides ... 

Womersley, II.: New Genera and 
Species of Acarina from Bats from 
New Guinea, Philippines and 
Australia ... 

Womersley, H.: A New Species of 
Tuckerella (Acarina) from South 
Australia ,. 







H. K. Fry: Concerning Aboriginal Marriage and Kinship 1 

N. H. Lupbrook: The Molluscan Fauna of the Pliocene Strata Underlying 
the Adelaide Plains. Part IV — Gastropoda (Turritellidae to Struthio- 
lariidae) 17 

B. G. Forbes: Strati graphic Succession East of Grey Spur, South Australia 59 

H. Womersley: New Genera and Species of Acarina from Bats from New 

Guinea, Philippines and Australia 67 

H, Womersley: A New Species of Tuckerella (Acarina, Tetranychoidea, 

Tuckerellidae) from South Australia 73 

S. J. Edmonds: Australian Acanthocephala No. 10 78 

H. M. Brookes: The Coccoidea (Homoptera) Naturalised in South Aus- 
tralia: an Annotated List 81 

J. Bade: Geology and Subsurface Waters of the Area East of Deep Well, 

Alice Springs District, Northern Territory 91 

P. M. Mawson: Marine Freeliving Nematodes from South Australia. Part I 98 

N. B. Tindale: A Dated Tartangan Implement Site from Cape Martin, 

South-East of South Australia 109 

H. G. Clark: Cestodes from Cormorants from South Australia 124 

B. V. Southcott: Rediscovery of Ctenerythraeus Berlese 1918 (Acarina, 
Trombidiidae), with Redescription, and its Synonomy with Spathula- 
thrombium Womersley 1945 135 

B. Melville: A New Frankenia from South Australia 144 

B. V. Southcott: The Genus Acomatacarus (Acarina : Trombiculidae). 
I. Description of Three New Species from Trinity Bay, North Queens- 
land 146 

B. V. Southcott: The Genus Neotrombidium (Acarina : Leeuwenhoe- 
kiidae). II. Further notes on Systematics, with a Description of a 
New Species from North Queensland 156 

B. V. Southcott: On Vatacarus Ipoides, N. Gen., N. Sp. (Acarina : Trom- 

bidioidea ) . A New Bespiratory Endoparasite from a Pacific Sea-snake 165 

P. M. Mawson: Some Nematodes from Fish from Heron Is., Queensland 177 

T. D. Scott: A New Blenny ( Tripterygiidae ) and Pipefish (Syngnathidae) 

from Kangaroo Island, South Australia 180 

Abstract of Exhibits and Lectures, 1956 184 

Balance Sheet, 1956 „ 185 

Awards of the Sir Joseph Verco Medal and List of Fellows, Members, 

etc., 1956 ... ' 186