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Full text of "Transactions and proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia (Incorporated)"

TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

(INCORPORATED). 



VOL. L. 

[With Fifty-three Plates, and Thirty-nine Figures in the Text.] 



EDITED BY PROFESSOR WALTER HOWCHIN, F.G.S., 
Assisted by ARTHUR M. LEA, F.E.S. 

[The Editor of the Transactions is directed to make it known to the Public 

that the Authors alone are responsible- for the facts and opinions contained in 

their respective Papers.] 




PRICE, TWENTY-ONE SHILLINGS. 

Adelaide : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, ROYAL SOCIETY ROOMS, NORTH TERRACE, 

DECEMBER 23, 1926. 



Printed by Gillingham & Co. Limited, 106 and 108, Currie Street, 
Adelaide, South Australia. 



Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Australia from the United States 
of America can be forwarded through the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



• 


1 


ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 





(incorforatkd). 



Patron: 

HIS EXCELLENCY LIEUT. -GENERAL SIR G. T. M. BRIDGES, 
K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O. 



OFFICERS FOR 1926-27. 

President: 
PROE. F. WOOD JONES, D.Sc., K.R.S., etc. (Representative Governor). 

Vice-Presidents: 
PROF. T. G. B. OSBORN, D.Sc. PROF. J. B. CLELAND, M.D. 

Hon. Editor: 

PROE. WALTER HOWCHIN, F.G.S. 

Hon. Treasurer: Hon. Secretary: 

B S. ROACH. R. H. PULLEINE, M.B., Ch.M. 

Members of Council: 

L KEITH WARD, B.A., B.E. 

C. FENNER, D.Sc. 

ARTHUR M. LEA, F.E.S. 

EDGAR R. WAITE, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S. 

SIR JOSEPH C. VERCO, M.D., F.R.C.S. 

PROF. T. HARVEY JOHNSTON, M.A., D.Sc. 

Hon. Auditors: 
W. C. HACKETT. H. WHITBREAD. 



. < 



Page 
1 

17 

25 

31 

36 



CONTENTS. 

Howchin, Prof. W. : The Geology of the Barossa Ranges and Neighbourhood in relation 
to the Geological Axis of the Country. Plate i . . . 

Mawson, Sir D., and P. Hossfeld: Relics of Aboriginal occupation in the Olary District. 
Plates ii. and iii. .. 

Mawson, Sir D. : Additions to the South Australian Mineral Record .. 

Madigan, C. T. : Organic Remains from below the Archaeocyathinae Limestone at 
Myponga Jetty, South Australia. Plates iv. to vi. 

Jones, Prof. F. Wood: Some Observations on the Flight of Sea-Birds . . 

Lea, A. M. : Notes on some Miscellaneous Coleoptera with Descriptions of New Species. 

Part VI ' 45 

FIoldaway, F. G. : A Note on the Occurrence of the Rat Mite, Liponyssus bacoti, in South 

Australia, together with Descriptions of certain .Stages . . . . . . , , . . 85 

Howchin, Prof. W. : The Geology of Victor Harbour, Inman Valley, and Yankalilla 
Districts, with special Reference to the great Inman Valley Glacier of Permo- 
Carbomferous Age. Plates vii. to xvi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 

Turner, Dr. A. Jkfffris : Studies in Australian Lepidoptera .. . . .. .. *.. 120 

Tindale, N. B., and C. P. Mountford ; Native Markings on Rocks at Morowie, South 

Australia. Plates xvii. and xviii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 

Mawson, Sir D. : Varve Shales associated with the Permo-Carboniferous Glacial Strata 

of South Australia 160 

Chapman, F., and I, C. CoQKSON : A Revision of the "Sweet" Collection of Triassic 

Plant Remains, from Leigh's Creek, South Australia. Plates xix. to xxiv. . . . . 163 

Pulleine, Dr. R. : Cylindro- Conical Stones from Arcoona, Pimba, South Australia .. 179 

Pulleine, Dr. R. : Rock Carvings ( Petroglvphs ) and Cave Paintings at Mootwingee, 

N.S.W. Plates xxv. to xxix 180 

Campbell, Dr. T. D., and Dr. A. J. Lewis; The Aborigines of South Australia: Anthro- 
pometric, Descriptive and other Observations recorded at Ooldea. Plates xxx. 
to xxxii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 

Mawson, Sir D. : The Wooltana Basic Igneous Belt. Plates xxxiii. to xxxv. .. .. 192 

Hale, H. M. : Review of Australian Isopods of the Cymothoid Group. Part EI, Plates 

xxxvi. and xxxvii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 

JOHNSTON, Prof. T. Harvey: Remarks on the Propriety of Introducing Insects to Control 

Prickly Pear in Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 

Askby, E. : Ecological Notes and Description of Previously Unrecorded Features of 
Onithochiton ashbyi, B. and M. Acanthochiton crocodilus, T. & A., together with 
Definition of a new Callochiton (Polyplacophora) .. .. .. .. 241 

Samuel, G. : Note on the Distribution of Mycorrhiza .. .. .. .. .. .. 245 

Baker, W. H. : Species of the Tsopod Family Sphaeromidae, from the Eastern, Southern, 

and Western Coasts of Australia. Plates xxxviii. to liii. . . . . . . . . . . 247 

Elston, A. H. : Australian Coleoptera. Part V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 

Black, J. M. : Additions to the Flora of South Australia. No. 24 283 

Hossfeld, Paul S.: The Aborigines of South Australia: Native Occupation of the Eden 

Valley and Angaston Districts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 

Dodd, Alan P. : Australian Hymenoptera Proctotrypoidea. No. 5. . . . . . . . . 298 

Broughton, A. C. : Further Notes on Radio-Active llmenite near Mount Painter . . . . 315 

Miscellanea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 

Abstract of Proceedings .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 321 

Annual Report . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 

Balance-sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . 332 

Donations to Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 

List of Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 

Appendix — 

Field Naturalists' Section : Annual Report, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 

Index 347 



j 



Transactions 

of 

The Royal Society of South Australia (Incorporated) 



VOL. L, 

THE GEOLOGY OF THE BAROSSA RANGES AND NEIGHBOURHOOD IN 
RELATION TO THE GEOLOGICAL AXIS OF THE COUNTRY, 

By Professor Walter TIowcjux, RG.S. 

[Read November 12. 1925.] 

Plate I. 



CONTENTS. 



II. 
III. 



IV. 
V 

VI. 



Introduction 
The Houghtonian o 
Adelaide Serie 
The Eastern Section- 



The 



i. 



(1) 
(2) 

(3) 
(4) 

(5) 



Fundamental Complex . . 
(Proterozoic or Lower Cambrian) 

and Grits 



The Basal Conglomerates 
The Lower Schists 
The Lower Limestones 

The Thick Quartzite 

Mount Crawford 
The Upper Limestone 
The Upper Schists and Ouartzite 
Correlation 
2. The Adelaide Series in the Western Section— 

(1) In the South Para 

(2) In Waterfall Gully and Tenafeate Creek 
Note on the Country to the Southward of Williamstown 
Some Tectonic and Strati graphic Features 
Bibliographical Hoferenees 



3 
4 

5 
6 
C 
8 
9 
o 

Cl 

10 

10 
12 
14 
14 
16 



I. INTRODUCTION, 

The most important geological horizon in the structure of the Mount Lofty 
and associated ranges is a highly complex series of rocks of Lre-Cambrian age. 
These rocks in their lithological types and slratigraphical structures are so different 
from all other associated rocks' that they cannot well be confused with newer 
formations. They are the oldest rocks known in Australia and they form the 
geological axis on and around which the newer geological systems have been laid 
in succession. 

One of the oldest tectonic folds in the structure of South Australia gave these 
fundamental rocks an axial elevation, and subsequent denudation has brought 
them near the surface or exposed them at the surface in many places. This sunken 
ridge of oldest rocks can be followed at intervals, in a north-easterly direction, 
from Yankahlla, following the eastern side of the Inman Valley, by Mount Com- 
pass, Aldgate, the River Torrens near Castambul, Houghton. Miiibrook, Gumer- 
acha, Mount Cawlcr, Humbug Scrub, and the South Para near Williamstowu ; 



outcrops of these rocks sometimes showing a width of several miles. Here we 
possess a geological datum of first importance, and the whole geological structure 
of the country must be viewed with respect to this definite horizon. 

The geological succession as it occurs on the western side of this axis near 
Adelaide is perfectly clear [(13) p. 341, fig, 262j. Newer beds that are strongly 
unconformable to the basement series follow in regular order with a general dip 
towards the south-west, the newer members of the series form the cliffs and sea 
platforms on the shores of Gulf St. Vincent at Marino and further south, and 
extend westward to Yorke Peninsula. 

The order of succession of the rocks on the eastern side of the 
main geological axis is not so clear as it is on the western side. This arises 
partly from the contrast in the topographical features in the two areas. 
On the western side of the axis there is a rapid descent from the maximum height 
to sea level, which is reached in a direct line in 12 miles. The country on the 
eastern side, on the other hand, forms a dissected peneplain in which the outcrops 
of the respective beds take in a wider spread and, in the hilly country, are not so 
easily followed. 

A still greater difficulty confronts the geological observer in the country to 
the eastward of Mount Lofty on account of the regional metamorphism that the 
rocks have undergone in that direction, which has transformed most of the sedi- 
ments to a degree that places them beyond recognition as to their original form, 
litis metamorphism increases in intensity the further we go eastward, until the 
whole sedimentary series becomes interpenetrated and transformed hy a great 
igneous belt. It has followed, that this part of the country has been considered 
the most difficult of determination of all the geological fields in South Australia. 

The late Professor Tate failed to recognise the presence of a divisional axis 
in the Mount Lofty Ranges, or the change of dip on the western side as compared 
with the eastern. In his Inaugural Address at the Adelaide Meeting of the Aus- 
tralasian Association for the Advancement of Science, in 1893, he says: "The 
grandest exemplification of the Archaeans is in the Mount Lofty Ranges of South 
Australia. These rocks occupy there a vast monocline, with a dip to the south- 
east, of not less than 10 miles in thickness/' Tate was correct in his statement 
of a general dip to the south-east of the beds on the eastern side of Mount Lofty, 
hut that any series of beds could be 10 miles in thickness is an impossibility. In 
reality we have to deduct from his 10 miles of thickness all the beds that occur on 
the western side of Mount Lofty, which reduces his figures by one-half, and at 
the same time some allowance must be made for the rolling of the beds which 
reduces their true thickness still further. 

Dr. Woolnough fell into the same error in his "Notes on the Geology of the 
Mount Lofty Ranges" (9). In his section tig. 1 (p. 126) lie takes no account of 
the great dividing line, between west and east, made by the older rocks which form 
an inlier two miles in width on the eastern side of Mount Lofty. The mount, in 
his section, forms a part of the eastern series with a corresponding dip with that 
series; whilst, in fact, the beds dip westerly in accordance with the western limb 
of the section. 

In 1907, the writer (7) summarized the evidences in favour of the view that 
the beds on the eastern side of the Mount Lofty Ranges are a repetition of those 
on the western side. The chief points thus stated, briefly put, are:— 

1. The general dip on either side of the Pre-Cambrian axis of elevation is 
complemental in its direction — on the Adelaide side to the west, and on the other 
side to the east. 

2. The basal conglomerates and ihuenite grits of the Inman Valley and other 
places have a dip to the south-east, and exhibit in superposition a series of 



3 

quartzites and slates which become more schistose ifi their upper members 
as they approach the great granitic zone of the coasts. • x ■ \ 

3. In other instances known horizons of the Proterozoic (or [ ?] Cambrian) 
rocks can be traced from their unaltered condition into the region of contact 
where they are powerfully affected and altered, as east of Kapunda, Olary, 
Umberatana, etc. 

4. The most distinctive horizons of the lower beds of the Proterozoic (or 
[?] Cambrian) on the western side can be correlated with those on the eastern., 
up to a certain horizon. 

5. The highly altered character of the beds on the eastern side can be ex- 
plained by the great extent of the igneous zone and associated regional meta- 
morphisin as a consequent of their former deep-seated condition. 

It is proposed in the present paper to offer confirmatory evidences on this 
point in a section taken through the Barossa Ranges and adjacent country. The 
line of section is in a direction E.N.E. and W.S.W., a little to the southward of 
the township of Williamstown. 

Dr. Woolnough, in his paper referred to above (9), suggests the name 
"Barossian" for the beds on the eastern side of Mount Lofty, which he assumed 
to be an older scries than those on the western side of that mount, which is known 
as the "Adelaide Series." But the name "Barossian" is entirely inappropriate, 
inasmuch as the beds he thus named are a repetition of the Adelaide Series as 
they occur on the eastern side of the axis. The name is equally inappropriate if 
applied to the Barossa Ranges, as these ranges also consist of the Adelaide Series. 
The Archaean, or Fundamental Rocks, are most extensively developed in the 
Talunga and Para Wirra Hundreds, and are only seen in the Hundred of Barossa 
in a narrow strip, a few chains in width, on the northern bank of the South Para. 
To avoid misunderstanding and confusion, it is desirable to adopt some other 
term than that suggested by Dr. Woolnough for the Fundamental Series of South 
Australia. 

Dr. W. N. Benson has described (10) in some detail the stratigraphical and 
petrographical features of these oldest i"ocks of South Australia as they occur in 
the Houghton District, situated about 12 miles north-eastward of Adelaide. He 
described from this neighbourhood a new variety of pegmatite, which he named 
yatalite, and also recognised certain distinctive features in the intrusive rocks of 
this and other districts which led him to name the particular type, the "Houghton 
magma." As the locality is easily accessible and quite typical of the Fundamental 
Rocks of the State, I would suggest the name Houghtonian as a convenient and 
appropriate name for the Series. 

II. THE HOUGHTONIAN OR FUNDAMENTAL COMPLEX. 
The gold rushes that took place about 40 years ago in the Hundreds of Para 
Wirra and Barossa led to some detailed geological mapping of the country in 
which the gold-fields were situated (2), (3), (4), (8). The principal centres 
were known, respectively, as the Gumeracha, the Humbug Scrub, and the Barossa 
Diggings. The gold was obtained mostly from alluvial ground, but a number of 
shafts were sunk in the bed rock. 

Messrs. Brown and Woodward, in their "Geological Map of Gurneracha 
and Mount Crawford Goldfields" (3), describe the two older series in the districts 
named as : — 

"Lower Silurian ? (Bed rock), micaceous, chloritic, and clay slates, sand- 
stones, and quartzites." 
"Highly Metamorphic (Bed rock), mica schist, and gneissic rock with 
granite dykes." 



4 

The upper of these systems can be classed as the Adelaide Scries, which may 
be either of Proterozoic or Lower Cambrian age; and the lower, as Archaean or 
Fundamental Complex (Houghtonian). 

The rocks belonging- to the Fundamental Series cover a considerable area in 
the district under consideration. They follow the gorge of the South Para, starting 
from a point, about "one mile and a half below Ivlount Crawford, they continue in 
outcrop on both sides of the river for about ?| miles, by direct measurement 
(11 miles as the river runs), and come to an end, in a westerly direction, a little 
below a prominence in the south bank, locally known as the "devil's nose," form- 
ing part of Section 3230, Hundred of Para Wirra. At the southern extremity of 
the Barossa Waterworks Reserve (Sec. 177) there are quarries close to the river 
in massive augen gneiss, the stone from which was used in building the weir for 
the Barossa Reservoir. 

On the northern side of the river (Hd. of Barossa) the Fundamental Rocks 
have an average width to the river of about half a mile, much of which is obscured 
by a covering of the older alluvium. 

On the southern side of the South Para (lid. of Para Wirra) they cover a 
large area. They go southwards, by Horse Gully, and cross into the Hundred of 
1 alunga, extending southwards by Forreston and Gumeracha. 

To the westward (Hd. of Para Wirra), they take in the Plumbug Scrub (so 
named from its inhospitable character) and run out before reaching the Tena- 
feate Creek, which forms the boundary between the Hundreds of Para Wirra 
and Munno Para, but are continued southwards by Mount Gawler, Millbrook, 
and Houghton to the River Torrens. 

The lithological features of these oldest of South Australian rocks are 
extremely varied. The felspar constituent is usually very abundant in the form 
of Aplites, Syenites, and Pegmatite. Rocks of a sedimentary origin are repre- 
sented by schists and quartzites. The schistose varieties are frequently penetrated 
along the laminae by pegmatitie intrusions or segregations. Augen gneiss covers 
large areas. Quartz veins often carry primary ilmenite and other accessory minerals. 
Silicates and oxides are very common, among which beryl and rutile are character- 
istic. In the neighbourhood of the Para, from the bridge (now submerged) at the 
(former) Recreation Reserve and for one and a half miles down the stream, as well 
as in country south of the river, there is a remarkable development of foliated and 
contorted schists with reefs and blows of pegmatite. The late Captain Warren 
developed several rutile mines in the neighbourhood; those in Section 17 (Hd. 
Para Wirra) were in kaolin, carrying a variety of serpentine and also magnesite ; 
while those in Section 674 were chiefly in talc. [For more detailed lithological 
descriptions see Bibliographical References (6), (10), (11), (14). J 

III. THE ADELAIDE SERIES (PROTEROZOIC OR LOWER 

CAMBRIAN). 

1. The Eastern Section (pi. i., fig., 1). 

The type district for this series lies between Aldgate and the shores of Gulf 
St. Vincent. The series consists of conglomerates, quartzites, slates, shales, tillite, 
and limestones. On the western side of the axis the lower beds are more altered 
than those in the upper parts of the series; while, on the eastern side, the meta- 
morphism becomes more marked in the upper members as they pass under the 
mfluenceof the regional metamorphism and igneous intrusions which operated 
on that side. The Barossa geological succession shows a general likeness to that 

of the beds which form the western limb of the fold up to a certain horizon 

the Upper Phyllites and Slates— winch follow in an ascending order on the 



5 

Glen Osmond and Milcham quartzite, beyond which observations have not been 
carried. The main divisions in the series are considered below. 

(1) Tite Basae Conglomerate and Grjts. 

These occur in the Barossa district, as elsewhere., resting unconformably on 
the Houghtonian Series in a marginal zone around the latter. Near the base the 
rock is usually conglomeratic with the pebbles somewhat irregularly distributed 
through the matrix," which is often more or less micaceous, very highly charged 
with clastic ilmcnite. The included stones are mostly worn t& a nearly spherical 
form, and are sometimes flattened under pressure into lenticles. The pebbles 
consist almost entirely of one class of rock, quartz or a very siliceous quartzite. 
The sameness of composition and irregular distribution of the pebbles through 
the matrix mav have arisen from the metamorphic action by winch the less 
siliceous stones became simultaneously changed with the argillaceous portions ot 
the matrix and absorbed into the latter. 

This horizon is strongly marked by current bedding, the lines being brought 
out with greater distinctness by the black layers of ilmenite grains. The upper 
portions of the basal beds consist of grits and sandstones, and as they have been 
derived from the breaking up of pegmatites and quartz veins, the rock partakes 
of an arkosc character which, when coarse, is not always easily distinguished 
from the granitic rocks from which it has been derived. The tiner grained sand- 
stones of the upper layers are usually light coloured, closely resembling the 
Aldgate "freestone," and usually show fine threads of ilmenite on the planes of 
the current bedding. 

The greatest exposures of the basal conglomerate that I know anywhere 
occur near Wiiliamstown. On the western side of the main road to Birdwood 
(Blumberg) these beds rise in a series of scrubby ranges, fully three-quarters oi 
a mile wide. They are very rich in clastic ilmenite, which is sometimes present 
up to 50 per cent, of the mass, and gives the rock a black colour. They can be 
traced to the margin of the older rocks which, in foliated and gneissic schists. 
overlook the gorge of the South Bara at about a quarter of a mile distance, 

On the eastern side of the Birdwood road the basal beds have the character 
of light-coloured grits. In Section 120, there, is a Stone Reserve in these beds 
by the side of the road showing typical features [dip E. 10° N. at 40° j. In one 
of these small quarries there is a pegmatite vein 2 feet in width with selvages of 
felspar, about 1 inch in width, whilst the greater part of the vein consists of 
coarse aggregates of mica, quartz, and felspar with primary ilmenite. A smaller 
vein, 4 inches wide, is seen to strike off from the main vein, and is again split 
into two, each branch being 2 inches in width. 

Further down the road, and shortly before coming to the bridge [since 
these observations were made (1913) this part of the road has been submerged 
in the Warren Reservoir and a new road opened further to the cast] that crosses 
the South Para, a gate on the western side of the road leads into a_( ? woodman's ) 
track that goes up to the summit of a ridge in which the proximity of the basal 
beds to the lower unconformable series can be studied. About 100 yards in from 
the gate on the Birdwood road a vein of greison is seen penetrating the basal 
grits' The greison is very coarse and greatly contorted in the grain, and weathers 
with the mica exposed in prominent edges. At the bridge, just mentioned, the 
older rocks occur on both sides of the stream. 

To the eastward of the Birdwood road the quartzite, in Sections 3101, 942, 
etc., is penetrated with pegmatite in larger or smaller veins. One such pegmatite 
intrusion in these beds is 60 yards wide and seems to have a considerable 



extension, as it is seen on the Victoria Creek road, one and a half miles to the 
northward., and passes southwards to the South Para River, covering a distance of 
about two and a half miles in all. It is uncertain how far the basal sandstones 
(or quartzitcs) go in this direction. At Mr. Mauser's farmstead, situated to the 
eastward of Springfield (Sec. 951), there is a white sandstone, with dip E. 
20° N., and in the bed of the South Para, three-quarters of a mile 
to the westward of Mount Crawford, there is a white siliceous sandstone 
containing specks of a green-coloured silicate [dip N.E. at 38°). At the bridge 
over the river, on the western side of the mount (Sec. 639), there is a light- 
coloured, variegated, sandy to argillaceous rock with numerous concentric and 
contorted lines in it, similar to stones of a like kind in the Mount Lofty and 
Aldgate beds. 

On the northern side of the Archaean iniier, at Williamstown Recreation 
Ground (now resumed by the Government), the ilmenite sandstones are seen in 
the Victoria Creek, where there is a distinct anticline in these beds with a strike 
N. 10° W. The same beds occur on the range at the back of the old Recreation 
Ground. Up the Victoria Creek there are more folds with a dip N.E. 

(2) The Lower Schists. 

Next in succession superior to the basal grits is a series of beds that are 
in the main of a schistose character. The most characteristic mineral is biotite, 
with other varieties, as spotted schist, knotted schist, tremolite schist, actinolite 
schist, and amphibolite schist. These can be studied in their outcrops between 
Lyndoch and Williamstown, the track being mostly on the line of strike; also 
from near Williamstown, in an easterly direction, where the route is at right 
angles to the strike. In places, the scales of mica have imbibed moisture and have 
run together, forming a hydro-mica; in other cases the micaceous structure 
passes by gradation into a translucent greenish variety of serpentine. Inter- 
stratified with the mica schists are beds of limestone and thin quartzites. It 
seems perfectly clear that these schists which overlie the ilmenitic grits represent 
the lower phyllites, chloritic, and sericitic schists, which occupy a similar strati- 
graphical position to the basal grits in the Adelaide Series on the western side 
of the primary geological axis. The Hthological difference is only in the degree 
of metamorphic action that the respective beds have been subjected to. 

In these Lower Schists is a zone of pegmatization which outcrops a little 
lower in the series than the limestone which begins near Mr. Hammond's house 
(Sec. 1521) and continues on the same geological horizon up the gully to its 
head and over a ridge down to the Birdwood (Blumberg) road, a distance of 
two miles. The pegmatite occurs as lenticles in mica schist varying in width up 
ro ,10 feet by 12 feet. Near the head of Hamilton Gully, on the eastern side, the 
mica schist carries a good deal of the green variety of serpentine (pinite, from 
hydro-mica) in layers, varying in thickness from a thin film up to several inches. 

The flaggy quartzite that forms a scarp ridge above the limestone (men- 
tioned above), and has been quarried for long distances, shows a dip of 55° 
easterly. 

{ 3 ) Th e 1 x)\v Eii Li m estones. 
Two miles north of Williamstown there is an outcrop of a- white schistose 
marble containing lath-shaped crystals. The marble occurs in Section 511, in a 
small creek, near an old copper ^pi^psf^i/ 1 about a quarter of a mile from the 
main Lyndoch road and on the north side of the cross roads, going east, which 
forms the southern boundary of the Section named. Hie strike is N. 20° W., 
dip E. 20^ N. at 30°. The rock is intensely folded, several acute folds occurring 
within a few yards. The rock is divided up into numerous small beds, separated 



by earthv beds or partings. A little further to the east, in the same paddock, 
there is much surface travertine, hut no parent rock was visible, although it is 
probable that the limestone is below the surface. 

At a well in the adjoining farm yard, the sandstone thrown out in sinking 
the well contained dark lines suggestive of the stone being an ilmenite, or^ basal, 
sandstone. The strike of the beds at this point would harmonise with thai of 
the basal grits two miles to the southward, near Williamstown. 

Limestones on the same line of strike occur on the eastern side of the north- 
eastern road, one and a half miles from Williamstown. At Mr. John S. Ilam- 
mit's there are two kinds of limestone (marble) outcrops, one close to the house, 
in Section 3053. At a short distance, north, from the house, on the hillside. Is 
the old (copper) Enterprise Mine. At the surface, near the shaft, the country 
consists of laminated slates, somewhat micaceous, with a strike N. 20° Yv "., dip 
E. 20° N. at 65°. I was informed by Mr, J. S. Hammit that marble was met 
with in the shaft at a depth of 120 feet and was penetrated 90 feet without 
reaching the bottom of the bed. The lode was running north and south and was 
capped by a strong quartz reef. Mr. Hammit also stated that the marble was 
found in sinking a gate posthole at his apple shed, and is also seen in the adjacent 
orchard, and can be traced up to the top of the hills on the southern side, showing 
a strike S. 20° E. This line of strike was not followed, but the outcrop of the 
limestone coulcl be seen for about a mile ahead. 

The other limestone, also a marble, near Mr. Hammit's, is in Section 974. 
It ends abruptly at a steep hill, facing north, where the land in that direction 
sinks to a low, broad valley, and all rocks are obscured by alluvium. To "die 
southward the limestone strikes south with a little easterly trend, in Section 973. 
where it is partly obscured on low ground. It then rises on the other side of 
the valley (Section 967), passing over the ridge to Victoria Creek, and is seen 
on the Mount Crawford road, near the bridge which crosses the creek, also on 
road that goes north-easterly between Sections 966, 967. After passing the 
Mount Crawford road, the limestone seems to just pass into Mr. George Ham- 
mond's orchard (Section 1521), as the latter told me he had got some evidences 
of it in sinking a hole for one of his trees. Beyond this point it is not seen in 
the same line of strike, as the beds appear to be thrown by a dip fault a little 
to the eastward (as described below). At the termination of the limestone the 
latter is crushed and has a somewhat nodular structure, probably caused by the 
faulting. 

Just above the bridge, near Mr. Hammond's, an outcrop of marble is 
exposed, in Section 966, and crosses the Victoria Creek in a widtb of about 
100 feet. It seems to begin where the other outcrop of marble ends, having a 
lateral displacement, by faulting to the east, but continues on the same line of 
strike. A little higher up the stream the marble occupies the west bank of the 
creek, in a steep dip-slope, where the creek comes close to the road (dip N.E. 
at 70°). The stone is coarsely crystallized and highly charged with silicates in 
the form of bladed crystals. From its position at the creek the marble passes 
in a south-easterly direction through Sections 1521 and 965; then, for about half 
a mile, the ground is low and the marble obscured, but in Section 959 it once 
more forms a surface feature, and follows the rise on the western side of Spring- 
field, the residence of the late Capt. Warren, and passes through Section 958, 
where it is 100 feet in width and has a strike N. 20° W. ; it then crosses the 
district road and enters Section 3101, where it is cut off by schists. A strong 
outcrop of micaceous flags forms a conspicuous scarp-ridge on the eastern side 
of the limestone, the lowest portions of which are very siliceous and have been 
quarried in shallow pits all along the ridge for building purposes. 



A small exposure of marble occurs ou the eastern side of the last described 
outcrop of marble, near the late Capt. Warren's woolshed, but does not seem 
to go far. Its exact relation to the main line of marble is not very evident. 

It is a little uncertain as to whether the respective outcrops of limestones 
(or marble) m this neighbourhood belong to the same geological horizon, or 
whether there are more than one limestone in the section. The break in the 
continuity of the main line of outcrop, near the bridge over the Victoria Creek, 
can no doubt be explained by the occurrence of a dip fault which has thrown' 
the bed a little out of line. The more westerly limestone at Mr. J. S. Hammit's 
may possibly be a repetition of the main limestone outcrop by strike faulting, 
or the two parallel outcrops in that locality may represent distinct limestones 
at different geological horizons. In the latter case they would correspond to the 
Lpper and Lower Torrens River limestones, as found in other districts. The 
more isolated outcrop on the western side of the main limestone, at Springfield, 
referred to above, cannot be placed in its true stratigraphical position at present. 

The limestones of this district, especially near Springfield, and down to the 
district road on the southern side of Section 958, are greatly silicified, largely 
by metasomatic replacement of the calcium carbonate by silica and silicates. 
Opal, in white, brown, and yellowish-green varieties, occurs in abundance. It 
sometimes occupies the place of the limestone, and, at others, occurs along the 
borders. The_ limestone is sometimes intimately penetrated by silica in very fine 
reticulated veins, which, when the limestone is dissolved by weathering, appears 
as a delicate network, and so light as to become a float-stone, as occurs also with 
some of the marble beds at Angaston. 

In the siliceous slates that overlie the limestone there is a small bed of 
quartzite, a few feet in thickness, which has been quarried along the line of 
outcrop from near the road to a position south of Springfield, where it swings 
round in dip from E. 20° N. to S.E. This occurs when in close proximity to 
important pegmatite intrusions. 

(4) The Thick Quartzite. 

The road from Williamstown, going eastward, passes the southern end of 
the Barossa Range, about three miles from the township. On the north-eastern 
side of Victoria Creek the ground rises through grass paddocks to a high ridge 
of quartzite which terminates abruptly on its eastern side in a steep and craggy 
face with large blocks of stone known as the "blue rocks," used locally for road 
metal. This is probably a fault race. The beds in the creek at the base of the 
hill showed a dip E. 20° N. at 35°. A quarrv of similar stone, but not so strong, 
is seen on the opposite side of the creek, on the road, with a dip E. at 20°. 

Ihe main range bifurcates near the head of Tweedie's Gully, in Section 1104. 
1 he western ^limb passes south for two miles with a slightly eastern trend and 
ends at the "blue rocks" as described above. The eastern range, which forms 
the highest ground in the district, follows a course about 20° east of south, and 
is m alignment with Mount Crawford. In Section 50 there is a peculiar conical 
lull that rises, near the base of the main range, very abruptly to a height of 
about 100 feet above the common level. It is broken into immense blocks of 
stone composed of a medley of angular and sttbaugular pieces of quartzite united 
by a terrugmous cement, it is probably a fault breccia connected with the fault- 
ing and bifurcation of the range. The ground between the two ranges consists 
of slates, or, rather, fine-grained mica schists, and is occupied bv a creek and its 
tributaries. On^the eastern side of the main range the dip was found to be 
E. 10° N. at 45°. The quartzites of the range are verv similar in appearance to 
those near Adelaide. Clastic felspar (kaolinized) could be seen in some specie 
mens, but on the whole they seemed to be somewhat more siliceous than the latter. 



Moumt Crawfokd. 

The main range runs out a little to the southward of Mr. Murray Dawson's 
orchards, and there is hroken country between it and Mount Crawford. On the 
eastern side of the main road, going southward to the mount, there are bold out- 
crops of rocks consisting of mica schists, often pegmatised. Mount Crawford 
is evidently an outlier of the main Barossa Range. It is a steep, conical, and 
isolated hill, with the South Para running at its base on three sides. The stone 
is a coarse, gritty quartzite, very siliceous, with much secondary silica introduced, 
which, in places, especially on the south-eastern side, converts the stone into a 
quartz rock. On the western side, near the base, the rock is brccciatcd. About 
half-way up the mount, on the western side, is a limited exposure of a speckled, 
schistose rock, carrying greenish and yellowish silicates, interlaminated with 
gritty bands. There is probably more of this rock than is visible, as there have 
been extensive landslides. On the southern side of the mount a similar speckled 
schistose rock is extensively developed in the bed of the river and its banks, 
showing a dip (or foliation) of E. at 30°. 

The mount seems to owe its existence to the hard siliceous stone of the 
summit resting on softer beds. The latter have been cut into by the river, which 
has undermined the harder overlying beds, which, from inadequate support, 
have slipped down in extensive slides, leaving steep faces above and forming a 
kind of collar around most of the hill. 

On the north-western side of Mount Crawford is an old saw mill, and not 
far from the east and west road is a very striking outcrop of rocks, like a wall, 
about 6 feet in height. This natural wall consists of a greenish quartzite, very 
hard and. weather-resisting. Strike S. 10° E. 

(5) The Upper Limestone. 

A limestone, higher in the series than those already described situated to the 
westward, outcrops on the eastern flanks and near the base of the greater Barossa 
heights. It has been proved when sinking drains in the orchards of Mr. Murray 
Dawson, *'Wirra Wirra"; also on the road in front of his house (Section 674). 
and also in the adjacent grounds on the eastern side of the road, lite limestone 
is of a highly siliceous .composition, being more opaline than calcareous, but, m 
places, it takes the form of a marble carrying more or less silicates. The 
geological position of this bed in the series can be correlated with the blue-metal 
limestone which overlies the thick (Black Hill) quartzite in the Adelaide Series. 

(6) The Upper Schists ami Quartzitc. 

Overlying the limestone mentioned in the last paragraph is a thick develop- 
ment of mica schists and quartz-mica schists with minute black specks distributed 
through the stone. Small lenticles of pegmatite occur, occasionally, along the 
folia. At a distance of one mile eastward from the north-south road on which 
the limestone occurs, the road crosses the South Para in the bed of which fine- 
grained schists are well exposed in a strike S.S.E. and dip easterly at 45°. 

At one mile eastward of the bridge (on the boundary line separating the 
Hundreds of Barossa and Para Wirra) the road divides, the right-hand branch 
goes to Mount Pleasant and the. left, to Springton. At half a mile beyond the 
junction of the two roads, on a slight rise, an outcrop of quartzite crosses the 
two roads in a north and south direction; the position is indicated on the map 
by the word "stone" in each case. The ground has not been opened out and 
tbe bed seems to be of no great thickness. 

Eollowing the road to Springton and taking the road to the left, which 
forms the dividing line between Sections 167, \6$ (Hd. Psina Wirra), the ridge 



10 

road was reached which divides the Hundreds of Para Wirra and South Rhine. 
A quarry in quartzite occurs on the left-hand side of the road, immediately or 
the houndaries of Sections 169, 170 (lid. of Para Wirra), marked "stone" on 
the map. The stone is a white and soft quartzite and has been used for building 
purposes in Wilhamstown. [Mr. M. Dawson's house was built of stone from 
this quarry.] The stone can be followed from the quarry to the top of the ridge, 
where it is marked by very large surface stones. The dip of the beds is to the 
eastward, apparently at a low ang]e. Examined macroscopically the rock is seen 
to be a metamorphic quartzite, the granular portion having passed largely into 
flow structure and the mass frequently penetrated by line quartz veins. 

CORRELATION. 

Adelaide Series in Type District. Adelaide Series at Barossa. 

Basal Conglomerates and Grits. ±» Basal Conglomerates and Grits, 

Lower Phyllites ) 



Lower Mica Schists, etc. 
Crystalline Limestones 
Lower Mica Schists, etc. 



Lower and Upper Torrens-River | = 

Limestones j 

Lower Phyllites J 

Thick Quartzite at Black Hill, ^ _ f Thick Quartzite at main Barossa 

Stonyfell, etc. J \ Range 

Upper Phvllites with Blue-metal j f Upper Mica Schists, etc. 

Limestone .= \ Limestone with Opal 

Upper Phyllites J " I Upper Mica Schists, etc. 

Glen Osmond and Mitcham j f Metamorphic Quartzite at Eastern 

Quartzite } ™ I Borders of Hd. of Para Wirra 

Thick Spates = Thick, fine-grained Mica Schists 

2. The Adelaide Series on Western Side of the Axis, 

(1) In the South Para (pi. i., fig. 2). 

The junction which the Older (Houghtonian) Series makes with the Ade- 
laide Series can be studied at its north-western limits in the South Para, near the 
deserted Barossa Gold Diggings, situated nearly due south from the Malcolm 
Barossa Gold Mine. The spot is reached by following the old track down to the 
former Menzies Barossa Gold Mine and the old crushing floors in G.S. 429 and 
G.S. 430, set back a little from the right bank of the river. 

The track going down to the "floor" is close to the junction of the two series 
of rocks mentioned. The older is on the eastern side, and, on the western side 
of the track, is the ilmenite sandstone of the basal beds of the Adelaide Scries 
sloping down to the creek on that side, bordered by granitoid rocks and, in 
places, penetrated by small granite veins. 

At the crushing "floors" the Older Series is felspathoid and much decom- 
posed. In the bed of the river these beds occur as highly metamorphosed schists, 
passing, at higher positions in the river bed, into granitoid rocks and thick 
augen gneiss with contorted structures, the latter quarried in Section 177, as 
already stated. 

Ttte Basal Grjts are exposed on the western side of the "floors" in a 
very massive outcrop. The rock is rather fine in the grain and shows numerous 
layers of clastic ilmenite laid down by current-bedding. The strike is nearly 
north and south, and the dip, near the western side of the exposure, W. at 40°. 
The lode, or perhaps a series of lodes, of the Menzies Barossa Mine, appears to 



11 

be in these grits near the junction which they .make with the Older Series. The 
grits have a face of about 1 50 feet to 200 feet in width and can be followed down 
to the river. In the bed of the river the dip is westerly, at 52°. On the southern 
bank the grits form a very strong and bold face, making a prominent spur jutting 
into the river, and is locally known as the "devil's nose," a name that seems to 
have been suggested by the profile of the crags when viewed from a little distance 
down the river. The grits on this side appear to be' disturbed, and arc almost 
vertical, in part. There is a sunken area near the centre in the direction of the 
strike which may be caused by the lode formation. 

Quartzite, Phyllites, and "Blue Metal." Going westerly the grits are 
overlain by a fine-grained siliceous quartzite with a dip W.S.W. at 46°, which is 
probably the upper members of the basal beds. These, again, are overlain by a 
thick series of phyllites, much contorted, with a dip, taken near the base of the 
beds, of W.S.W. at 64°. The phyllites continue up to the outlet of a small creek, 
on the right bank of the river, about half a mile distant from the "devil's nose." 
The creek, just mentioned, 4s the same as seen on the right hand of the track 
going down to the mine. Shortly before reaching the outlet of this creek there 
is an acute anticline in a "blue-metal" zone in the slates. Going up 'the small 
creek, at a distance of about one-eighth of a mile from its outlet, the "blue-metal" 
rock forms a cliff on its eastern bank 20 feet in thickness. Outcrops of what is 
probably the same rock occur higher up the creek in the form of an impure blue 
limestone, 6 feet in thickness, followed by a calcareous rock consisting of impure 
siliceous limestone and dolomitic limestone. Rising from beneath the limestone 
are the slates and quartzites that are exposed in the river below. Tn Section 109 
the quartzite has a dip S.W. at 76°. 

More Quartzites, Phyllites, and Limestones. The small tributary 
creek, just referred to, marks the division in the direction of the dip. On the 
eastward side of its outlet the dip is westerly, which is normal; from this point, 
to the westward, the dip is easterly, or inverted, at a high angle. After passing 
the outlet of the small creek, on the eastern side of Section 111, a coarse-grained 
quartzite follows in the section with a strong rocky face, 150 feet in height, 
having a dip E. at 40°, and about 200 feet in thickness. This quartzite is followed . 
by more contorted phyllites containing a smaller quartzite. Near the southerly 
bend in the river, in Section 111, there is another "blue-metal" zone in the phyllites 
with a dip easterly up to a high angle. Before reaching the district road that 
forms the western boundary of the same section, another quartzite makes its ' 
appearance, about 80 feet, or more, in thickness, with a local dip (in part) W. at 
80°. The latter passes on its western side into a soft whitish quartzite with 
reversed dip E. at 20°. Quartzites are on the district road referred to above, and 
these make conspicuous outcrops on the road that defines the northern boundary 
of Section 110, forming the slopes down to the river in Sections 107 and 111, 
with a strike N.N.W. Underlying the quartzite is a calcareous slate and crystalline 
limestone streaked by veins of calcite. The limestone is nearly vertical, with a 
slight easterly dip, and shows a steep face to the river, on its northern bank, 
having a thickness of about 40 feet. This limestone can be traced, at intervals, 
in a north-south direction to the Tenafeate Creek in a distance of nearly four 
miles (see p. 14). Phyllites underlie the limestone to the westward, and at 
150 yards from the latter another "blue-metal" zone occurs, following which the 
phyllites, with a general dip to the eastward, continue to the great bend in the 
river in Section 1787, Hundred of Munno Para. At one place in the phyllites, 
not far from the "blue-metal" zone, a very black rock occurs with included frag- 
ments of a thin-bedded blue limestone. The matrix is earthy-calcareous, and the 
rock, as a whole, autoclastic. 



12 

(2) In Waterfall Gully and Tenafeate Creek (pi, i, s fig. 3). 
The section is taken 3| miles to the southward of the South Para and parallel 
with the latter. It begins on the western margin of the Humbug Scrub, about 
the centre of Section 101 (Hd. of Para Wirra), in a small watercourse known 
as the Waterfall Gully, on the property of Mr. JI. II. Blackham, of Trevilla, 
near One Tree Hill. The Waterfall Creek is a tributary of Tenafcate Creek, 
which it enters on its right bank. As in the South Para the beds are at a high 
angle, and mostly inverted by a dip to the east instead of to the west, which 
latter would he their normal inclination. The rocks (particularly the slates) are 
greatly contorted, giving evidence of crush, which sometimes takes the form of 
a crush-breccia. 

The Fl'ndamental Rocks have a close lithological resemblance to beds of 
this age as they occur in the South Para, described above. They form a part 
of the western limits of the greatest exposure of these rocks known in South 
Australia, and at the point where our present section begins they have a width 
of four miles. Along its western margin the rock is a fine micaceous schist, 
intimately penetrated by thin and scarcely discernible laminae of pegmatite. 
Going eastward the pegmatite constituent becomes more marked and the rock 
takes on a pinkish colour from the presence of coloured felspar. In places there 
is so little mica present and so much felspar that it is near to a syenite. The 
pegmatite element in the rock gradually increases to the eastward in the form 
of distinct intruding veins, some of which are of considerable size. The line of 
junction with the newer (Adelaide) series can be traced, northwards, across 
Mack's Creek to the South Para River, a little to the eastward of the "devil's 
nose" [Section 3280, Hd. Para Wirra]. 

The Basal Grits of the Adelaide Scries rest unconformably on the Older 
(Houg'htonian) Series, and. although they do not contain large rounded pebbles, 
are quite characteristic. Near the base the grain is coarse and of an arkose 
character containing very distinct crystals of felspar, which are often angular 
and as large as a pea, or larger. Quartz is abundant in detached grains and is 
sometimes waterworn. Clastic ilmenite occurs in dark-coloured streaks often 
accompanied by current-bedded structure. There are no prominent surface 
features to mark the division between the Basal Grits and the Older Series, the 
creek having worn the two sets of beds down to a common level, but the lith- 
ological features are distinctive. 

Slightly above the waterfall is a slate, a few yards in width, which separates 
the coarser grits from a rock of finer grain. This bed of slate is not well seen, 
as it is mostly covered with soil. 

At the waterfall there is a white, softish, felspathoid freestone, very similar 
to the Aldgate freestone which forms the upper portions of the basal beds in that 
neighbourhood. The stone is massive, current-bedded, and much jointed. The 
dip is somewhat obscure but, apparently, a little to the south of east at 35° or 40°. 
This freestone is classed as the upper member [reversed] of the Basal Grits. 
The creek has cut its way down from a great height in these beds, which from 
their relative hardness have held up the stream in a waterfall about 18 feet in 
height. It has already receded in these beds to a length of 90 feet, and the 
beds, with the "grits/" continue above the falls to a further distance of 230 feet. 
A few yards above the falls are two deep potholes in the bed of the stream. 

Lower Thick Slates or Pliyllites. Immediately below the white free- 
stone is a thick set of slates which, measured by stepping, shows an exposure of 
325 yards, At the plane of contact with the freestone mentioned, these slates 
have a dip of 35° easterly, which gives the appearance of their dipping under 



13 

the latter, which, indeed, they do, but only in consequence of their inverted posi- 
tion. At a distance of abut 100 yards from the waterfall the slates become much 
disturbed and contorted. (1) They are bent into a small anticline with a nearly 
vertical dip. In a further 50 feet,, in cross section, the dip rciurns to E.S.E. 
at 65°, and shortly before reaching the junction which the Waterfall Creek 
makes with the Tenafeate Creek the dip is 40° in the same direction. 

At the place where this small creek joins the Tenafeate Creek, the latter, for 
a distance of about 200 yards, runs parallel with the strike. On the right bank 
of the creek is an interesting rock that may be described as a white, saccharoidal, 
calcareo-siliceoiis rock, having a thickness of about 90 feet. It is seen in section 
at the junction of the two creeks, and also at the sharp bend of the Tenafeate Creek, 
where the latter once more takes a westerly direction across the strike. When 
tested by HC1 the removal of CaCO ;1 leaves behind a skeleton of SiO = which is 
transparent in small pieces, feebly held together, and easily crushed between the 
fingers. The rock gives evidence of metamorphic action. Tn correlation with 
the South- Para Section this bed is represented by the "blue-metal" limestone in 
the small creek on the western side of the Menzies Barossa crushing floors. 

On the western side of the calcareo-siliceous rock the slate beds reappear in 
the section with a further exposure of 80 yards. 

Middle Quartzite. The slates on their western side pass gradually into 
a fine-grained siliceous quartzite at a high angle of dip that reaches the vertical 
with a local variation (in part) that gives a dip to the west at about 80°. In the 
bed of the creek it is laminated and divided up into bedding a few inches in 
thickness. It has a width of 90 yards. 

Second Thick Seates wrrrr Two Zones op ''Reue-metae" Limestone, 
Between the quartzite just described and the thick slates thai follow is a quartz 
reef, mottled with a pinkish colouring, and, about, from 2 feet to 5 feet in width. 
The slates are of a uniform character for 250 yards, when a "blue-metal" lime- 
stone, 8 yards in thickness, occurs in the series; the beds are vertical and much 
contorted. Then follow 40 yards of slate, also much contorted, and another 
"blue-metal" zone, 7 yards in thickness, situated at the outlet of a small creek 
on the right bank of the main creek! On the opposite, or southern side of the 
main creek, the "blue-metal" rock is exposed in the bed of a narrow gorge for a 
considerable distance up the hill on that side, the gorge having been eroded 
directly on the strike of the beds. 

Second Thick Quartzite. Following on the "blue-metal" zone, at the 
outlet of small creek, a quartzite puts on at the western side that has a spread 
of 1.30 yards. Near its western limits it is a white felspathoid rock with a dip 
E.S.E. at ( ?) 35°, which passes into a fine-grained and siliceous quartzite. The 
same stone is on the opposite bank of the Tenafeate Creek, where, in Mr. Black- 
ham's quarry [Section 5666], it has been worked lor buikling stone; dip easterly, 
at 80°. 

State with "Blue-metal" Limestone. To the westward of the quartzite, 
last described, the valley of Tenafeate Creek widens out and carries more alluvial 
cover, so that the geological succession becomes less distinct. The rock exposures, 
although weathered at surface, are better seen on the southern side of the valley 
than on the northern. The quartzite is succeeded by slates that include a "blue- 
metal'" zone, which latter passes up the southern bank of the stream, through 



< l ) A specimen showing the remarkable contortions in this rock was lor warded to the 
University of Adelaide by Mr. H. H. Blackham. 



14 

Mr. Westley's herb garden, in Section 312, the slates and blue-rock combined 
having a thickness of about 300 feet. 

Grey-coloured "Marble." Following the slates, just described, a light- 
coloured dolomitic limestone outcrops on the roadside going down to Mr. 
Westley's residence. The stone, which is estimated to be about 50 feet in thick- 
ness, varies in colour, usually either white, grey, or buff. The lighter-coloured 
examples have a porcelain-like appearance, are much jointed, and are often 
marked by dendrites. It can be traced to the southward of this spot in isolated 
blocks on Mr. Blackham's property, and can be traced northward, at intervals, 
to the South Para, where it crosses the stream from Section 1026 (Hd. Para 
Wirra) to Section 107 (Hd. Barossa) [see ante, p. 11 J. In Section 1701 (Hd. 
Para Wirra) it has been subjected to several successive overthrusts, at right 
angles to the normal strike, which are well seen in the face of the hill to the 
westward in the Section mentioned. In this Section a fragment has been thrown 
h^Uy a quarter of a mile to the westward of the main body of limestone, and 
occupies the slopes down to Tenafeate Creek, where the latter forms the boundary 
between the Hundreds of Munno Para and Para Wirra. The marble on Westley's 
road dips, apparently, E.N.E. at 50°. 

Further Slates and another "Blue-metal" Limestone. To the west- 
ward of Westley's the bed-rock is, within a short distance, obscured by alluvial 
deposits, but, succeeding the "marble'' bed, grey slates can be noted, and near the 
bottom of the hill-slope some slight indications of another blue limestone bed 
show through the surface soil, shortly before reaching a natural spring in the 
bank side. 

Mr. Gavin Scoular has recorded the occurrence of several limestones in the 
Hundred of Munno Para, which carries the section still further in a westward 
direction from the point where the present section ends (1). 

IV. NOTE ON THE COUNTRY TO TPIE SOUTH OF 

WILLIAMSTOWN. 

The main north road from Gumeracha, through Forreston, is in the Older 
Rocks, mostly in aplites. The same rock continues through Horse Gully, where 
there has been much alluvial prospecting. A change in the geological features 
occurs in the Blockers' Sections, situated a little to the north-west of Horse 
Gully (a central position in the Hundred of Para Wirra). On the top of the 
hill, on road situated to the southward of the Blockers' Sections, there are out- 
crops of the iimenitic grits of very characteristic type. They occupy the spur 
going north and appear on the opposite side of the valley beyond the Blockers' 
settlements [strike N. 20° W.]. The hills on the right consist of the Older 
Series, but 1 have reason to think that the basal grits and conglomerates are 
present to the north-east in Section 116 (Hd. of Para Wirra). This outcrop 
of the iimenitic grits is situated about two miles to the southward of the South 
Para and almost due south from Williamstown. 

V. SOME TECTONIC AND STRATIGRAPHICAL FEATURES. 

The geologic succession on the eastern side of the main axis, from near 
Williamstown to the eastern boundary of the Hundred of Barossa, can be 
correlated with the Adelaide Series as seen on the western side of the ranges 
near Adelaide. The sediments in their leading characteristics and bedding are 
similar, and the dip in each case is normal, being directed away from the main 
axis. The main difference is in the eastern section being more highly meta- 
morphosed and intruded than the western. 



15 

The succession on the western side of the axis, as seen in the South Para 
and several creeks, while agreeing in a general way with the type district, further 
south, is somewhat aberrant. In the South Para section the beds show a normal 
dip in relation to the axis, dipping to the west for about half a mile, beyond 
which the beds arc reversed and dip easterly. In the Waterfall Creek and 
Tenafeate Creek the beds are reversed throughout, having the appearance of 
dipping under the Older Series. The cause of this reversal is not easy to deter- 
mine. The push evidently came from the east and forced the beds first into a 
vertical position, and was then carried a stage further, when the beds became 
more or less inverted. It is possible that there were two factors concerned in 
this movement: the first in the form of a thrust from the east, which raised the 
beds on end, and then, possibly, this movement may have been followed by a 
gravitational pitch over to the westward, from lack of support on that side, there 
being a steep fault slope on that side at the verge of the great rift valley. The 
movements have been attended by great dislocations and crush phenomena 
involving, probably, a repetition of beds, which, on account of the high dip and 
inversion, is not easy to recognise. In Mack's Creek, about midway between 
Tenafeate Creek and the South Para, there is a thrust-plane in the slates, near 
the bottom of the scries, which has entirely broken up the slate into angular 
pieces forming a thrust-breccia. 

A special feature of the beds on the western side is the repeated occurrence 
of impure calcareous zones in the slates. They are for the most part of a dark- 
bluish colour and not very sharply defined in the bedding. They have for 
convenience been called "blue-metal" limestone, on account of their similarity 
to a bed, so called, that has been extensively worked in the face of the foot hills, 
near Adelaide, and used for road metal in the eastern suburbs. This bed occurs 
in the Upper Phyllites, between the Black Hill quartzites and the Glen Osmond 
and Mitcham quartzites. There is also a very similar stone in the Lower Phyllites 
described as the Upper Torrcns-Hmestone [see llowchin (12), p. 6. and (13), 
p. 356], in which there is a good deal of chert. It is probably with the latter 
rather than with the blue-metal limestone of the Upper Phyllites that the beds 
so designated in the present paper should be correlated. 

Typical examples of the "blue-metal" limestone from the Tenafeate Creek 
section were treated with HC1 by which the calcareous content was removed by 
solution. The residue was a black-coloured skeleton that could scarcely be 
handled without it falling to pieces. This was subjected to the blow-pipe flame, 
and the black colouring matter, which is evidently carbon, was discharged^ leaving 
a white skeleton of silica indistinguishable from that left by a similar treatment 
of the white saccharoidaf ealcareo-silieeous rock in the Tenafeate Creek described 
above I p. 13 |. 

A sample of the white dolomitie "marblc'Mike limestone that occurs at the 
western end of the section, on Mr. Westley's road, was similarly treated, and 
with similar results; the chief difference being a higher percentage of calcium 
carbonate with a corresponding lower proportion of silica that is very slightly 
coherent. 

Acknowledgments. 

I am indebted to Mr. H. II. Blackham, whose knowledge of the country 
around Tenafeate Creek has been of much service to me ; also to Mr. H. J. 
Spencer, headmaster of Williamstovvn Public School; Mr. Murray Dawson, 
"Wirra Wirra" ; and Dr. Pulleine, for motor facilities in examination of the 
country around Williamstown. 



16 

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES. 

(]) ScouLAR, G., 1880 — ''Geology of the Hundred of Mtmno Para/' Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. iii., pp. 106-128, pis. v., vi. 

(2i Brown, H. Y. L., and Woodward, II. P., 1885 — ''Geological Map of 
Barossa and Para Wirra," Bar!. Bap. No. 178. 

(3) Brown, H. Y. L., and Woodward, H. P., 1886 — "Notes on Geological 

Map of Gumeraciia and Mount Crawford Goldfields," Bad. Pap. 

(4) I>rown, II. Y. L., 1889— "Geological Map of the Tertiary Deposits of 

the Hundred of Barossa with Explanatory Notes/' Pari. Pap. 

(5) Tate, R., 1893 — "Inaugural Address," Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. v. p. 47. 

(6) Howchin, W., 1906 — "Geology of Mount Lofty Ranges, Pari: II., Trans. 

Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxx., pp. 227-262, pi. xii. [pp. 257-260]. 

(?) HowcHfN, W., 1907— "A General Description of the Cambrian Series of 
South Australia/' Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. xi., pp. 421, 422. 

(8) Brown, H. Y. L., 1908— "Records of the Mines of South Australia" 
Govt. Print. 

(9 1 Woolnough, W. G., 1908 — "Notes on the Geology of the Mount Lofty 
Ranges," Trans, Boy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxxii., pp. 121-137, pis. i., it. 

(10) Benson, \V. N., 1909 — "Petrographical Notes on Certain Pre-Cambrian 
Rocks of the Mount Lofty Ranges, with Special Reference to the 
Geology of the Houghton District,' 5 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. 
xxxiii., pp. 101-140, pis. iii. -v. 

(11 } Mawson, D., 1909 — -"Notes on Gem-bearing Gravels at Barossa," Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxxiii., pp. 141-144, pi. vii. 

(12) Howchin, W., 1915 — "A Geological Sketch Map with Descriptive Notes 

on the Upper and Power Torrens-Limestone in the Type District/' 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxxix., pp. 1-15, Geolog. Map. 

(13) Howcuin, \V., 1918— "Geology of South Australia/' Education Dept., 

Adelaide. 

(14; llossFELD, P. S., 1925 — "The Tanunda Creek Granite and its .Field Rela- 
tions/' Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., voi. xlix., pp. 191-197, Geol. Map. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. Sketch -section on eastern side of the Geological Axis in the Hundreds uf Barossa 
and Para Wirra. 

Fig. 2. Sketch- section on western side of the Geological Axis along the northern banks 
of the South Para River. 

Fig. 3. Sketch-section on western side of the Geological Axis from Humbug Scrub via 
the Waterfall Gully and Tenateate Creek. 



'Trans, and I'nc, Row Soc. S. Austr.. V.)2(). 



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17 



RELICS OF ABORIGINAL OCCUPATION IN THE OLARY DISTRICT. 

By D. Mawsox, Kt., D.Sc. F.R.S., and 1\ S. Hossfeld, B.Sc. 
[Read April 8, 1926.J 



Plates IT. and III. 
CONTEXTS. 



37 
18 



1. Introductory Remarks 

2. Rock Paintings . . 

(a) The Castle Rocks Cave .. .. .. "," " { 

(h) The Bimba Rock Shelters ' ! " 20 

3. Camp Sites . , . . . . . , _ 2 ? 

4. Pebble Monads 

5. Addenda 



23 

23 



6. Description o! Plates .. .. ] [',24 

1 . Introductory R km arks. 

These notes refer to the neighbourhood of Oiary, a point on the Adelaide 
to Broken Hill railway line in the north-eastern portion of the State. The exten- 
sive broken country of the Outalpa Hills and the Boolcoomata Hills, northward 
of the railway in that vicinity, offer, to primitive races, special attractions such 
as water facilities in the nature of unfailing springs and rock-holes ; also abundant 
shelter-caves and plentiful game. Thus it is that there are numerous relics of 
aboriginal occupation, though the natives themselves have disappeared. 

In the year 1892 there were still about 50 natives camped near Diary/ 1 - 1 Their 
chief was known as Outalpa George, a notice of whose death appeared in the 
Adelaide papers some time later. About the date mentioned they all migrated to 
Poolamacca Station, in the Barrier Ranges, some 45 miles north of Broken Hill. 
For many years, and until quite recently. Poolamacca Station, under the regime 
of the late owner, Mr. J. Brougham, constituted a sanctuary for the last remaining 
aboriginal inhabitants of the Barrier Ranges and adjacent areas. 

From the granite summits of Boolcoomata Hills, the Barrier Ranges, in New 
South Wales territory, and a half-way stage to the Darling River, can be ciearly 
observed rising above the eastern horizon beyond the intervening saltbush plains. 
From the northern Barrier Ranges, the rugged ridges of the ranges extending 
from Mootwingee (2 > to Gnalta can be seen to the east. Communication between 
the native inhabitants of these several rocky ranges could be easily effected. From 
the Barrier Ranges and the Mootwingee area the gum creeks, natural courses of 
native migration, lead to the Darling River. 

To the west of Olary, on the other hand, there is little break in the hilly 
topography right across to the Flinders Range. Thus one would naturally expect 
also some relationship between the natives of the Flinders Range and the area 
under consideration. From evidence to hand, however, it would appear that the 
natives of the Outalpa and Boolcoomata Hills actually belonged to the Darling- 
River tribes, and to that part of them which spoke the Marowra language. (3) 

U) [information communicated by Mr. W. Coulston, of Bimbovvrie Station. 

('^ Sec paper by R. Pullcine on "Native Paintings at Mootwingee," Proc Rov Soc 
S. Austr., vol. 1. ....... 

<■*> Curr. "The Australian Race/' vol. k., pp. 173-185 and pp. 226-241. 



18 

This is indicated by such locai place names as the following, the interpretation 
of which in the Morowra language < 4) is that appended herewith:— 

Taltabooka (dead kangaroo) Pimpena (big pine) 

Yerka (thirsty) Kalabity (one egg) 

Mutooroo (grass snake) Bimba (pine tree) 
Kalkaroo (war spear) 

The relics of native occupation [hat have come under review are of three 
forms, namely, first, rock paintings in cave-shelters; second, vestiges of camp 
sites; 'third, piles of loose stones of ceremonial significance. 

2. Rock Paintings. 

Though some fine examples of native art occur thereabouts no reference ( "° 
to such can be traced in print, excepting a mention of intaglio rock carvings 
reported in the year 1902 in a letter to the South Australian Museum, written by 
Mounted Constable Waterhouse, as existing near Mannahill, which adjoins 
Outalpa on the west. Details of Waterhouse's letter, which is still preserved m 
the S.A. Museum, arc given in a recent article < 6) by Hale and Tindale. From this 
letter the following quotation is taken :— "i am sending part of a native tatoe 
of a kangaroo track, which I obtained whilst on my leave near Manna Hill, where 
I know of numerous tatoes, or rock carvings, of the natives, some of which are 
very well done/' It appears that the late J. G. O. Tepper examined the slab of 
carved rock sent down and erroneously attributed < 7) and reported the pitting ot 
the rock to be the "effect of certain algae and lichens." Though we have not seen 
examples of this intaglio work in the Olary district, we have had several examples 
of rock painting brought under our notice by Mr. W. Coulston, a description oi 
which follows herewith. 

(a) The Castle Rocks Cure. 

The most accessible of these is within two miles of Old Boolcoomata Head 
Station in a cave shelter uniquely situated in a boldly outcropping jumble of 
rocks, several acres in extent, which we named Castle Rocks when executing a 
geological reconnaissance of the district. These rocks stand up in strong relief, 
to a height of 100 feet or more from the bottom of a narrow valley depression 
eroded along the south side of the gigantic granite mass of Binberrie Hill 

Castle KiOcks are themselves composed of sedimentary rocks crushed and 
metamorphosed by the granite intrusion. The valley in which this pile of rocks 
occurs is a convenient and natural pass, now occupied by a road, leading through 
the rugged granitic country of the neighbourhood. The castellated pile of rocks 
(pi. if, fig. i ) stands sentry dominating the pass. 

Situated in the heart of the mass, at a point below the summit, is a rock 
shelter, so well hidden away that it is possible to climb over the rocks without 
observing its presence. This is so because it opens, not on to the exterior face 
of the pile, but is situated on the southern face of a deeply eroded narrow groove, 
which runs from the eastern extremity of the rocks into the centre of the mass 
and there terminates abruptly. The ascent to the cave by any way but along this 
o-roove is a matter of steep climbing. On the other hand, the rocky floor of the 



(-DP. W. Schmidt, "Die Gliederuiig dcr Australischen Sprachcn," pp. 45-47 and 51-57. 

(5) Still further to the west, at Yimta, Dr. H. Basedow has described a case. Sec "The 
Australian Aboriginal," Preece & Sons, Adelaide, 1925, pp. 303-306. 

(6) The Records of the South Australian Museum, vol. in., No. 1, p. 52. 
■ /•> Rov. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxvi., 1902, p. 326. 



19 






D 




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groove ascends as a natural ramp. The location as a fortress could not have been 
better selected. Improving its natural advantages in this respect is the existence 
near the summit of one of the larger rocky heads and directly above the cave 
itself, of a natural rock pool into which runs all the rain water falling upon a 
considerable area of rock face nearby. 

The cave, a view of which appears as pi. ii., fig. 2, faces north and is about 
25 feet in width and 12 feet high in front, tapering inwards to a depth ot about 
10 feet. It is floored with a bed of river sand, evidently carried there by human 
agency with a view to making it more comfortable to lie upon. On the south or 
back wall are the drawings executed in colours. 

A camera-lucida drawing of a photograph of these appears as text fig. 1 here- 
with. By this method a very good record has been obtained, drawn to scale. 
Included amongst the forms represented are tracks of emus and other birds (items 
G to J), of kangaroos (item E), and rock wallabies (item F). The partly barred 
circle (item BB), and the double semicircle (item C) occur in other localities, and 
were evidently of significance to the natives. 

In this rock shelter, as in all others examined by us in the district, a number 
of different colours were emploved in the designs, but in every case each separate 
drawing was executed in a single colour. Further, no background colour was 
employed as reported (8) of the native practice in certain portions of Central Aus- 
tralia.' Our observations show that in the Olary district different colours were 
used bv successive artists or at successive periods by the same local artists. The 
overlapping of design in one colour upon those of another clearly define the rela- 
tive period of execution. In this superposition of colours, each colour appears to 
have been used at some definite period and never again. The succession of colours, 
however, varies in each cave, and may thus have depended more upon individual 
choice than accidents of supply. 

A feature indicated by these drawings is that the designs as a whole appear 
to have definite meanings, and are probably to be regarded as more than a 
fortuitous collection of separate drawings. At Castle Rocks the dark-red, the 
light-reddish-brown, and the yellowish-brown colours each occupy a separate 
portion of the wall. Each colour doubtless represents the work of a different 
artist, and it is verv likely that the whole of the drawings were executed at four 
sittings only, either by the same or, more likely, by different artists. On each 
occasion the artist appears to have selected a part of the wall large enough to 
allow his drawings the spacing which they require. On this assumption a certain 
definite distance apart of the items in the design was necessary to convey the 
group meaning, a feature which appears more particularly to be shown by the 
white drawings. These latter are executed across the previously existing drawings 
even in cases where (as in items C, K, P, and Q), there was ample wall space to 
place them elsewhere. 

(h) The Bituba Rock Shelters. 

Two other rock shelters embellished by native artists were examined on the 
slopes of Bimba, a magnificent granite hill about 10 miles north-west by north of 
Castle Rocks. The hill is elongated in a north and south direction, its summit 
stands quite 500 feet above the neighbouring lowlands, and its sides are of the 
nature of very steep slopes. So steep are they that enormous weathered slabs and 
boulders of granite have slid down from above and notably encumber the lower 
slopes. Arid 1 weathering has developed extensive shallow caves under some of th 
jarge platy exfoliations of the rock, particularly noticeable on the western slope? 

<8J See Spencer and Gillen, "The Native Tribes of Central Australia," MacmiUan & Co., 
London, 1899; Basedow, Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxviii., pp. 12-52. 



e 



22 

On the eastern side weathering has gone on under many of the large rolled, tor- 
like, granite masses, particularly on their eastern and south-eastern sides (pi. if*., 
fig. 1). These rocks have become case-hardened above, where the heat of the sun 
is felt; but on the shaded, and consequently damper, side, disintegration has gone 
forward with the development of cave-like shelters. In two instances the walls 
were noted to be covered with an intricate network of designs superimposed one 
upon the other. For wealth of design the Bimba shelters far transcend that at 
Castle Rocks. 

One of the former is located not far above the valley floor in a run of 
enormous granite boulders which were found to measure up to 40 feet by 24 feet 
by 24 feet. This cave is well stocked with drawings, but is not so interesting as 
another situated about 100 yards further up. A camera-lucida drawing of a 
portion of the decorated wall of this upper shelter constitutes text fig. 2. Here 
many of the forms represented in the Castle Rocks cave appear once more; but 
in addition are several others of distinct and suggestive design such as the human 
foot tracks of the group, items Q to T. It is possible that the forms A, B, C, D 
are intended to symbolise the Calitris pine trees which are a distinctive feature 
of the upper slopes of Bimba, and so strikingly different from the usual acacia 
and eucalypt vegetation of the region. 

The number of drawings on the wall of this cave are so numerous and some 
of them so faint through age and superposition that only the more outstanding 
ones have been figured. Here, as in other caves, care must be taken to eliminate 
adventitious drawings and script contributed by sundry visitors in recent years. 
There is no difficulty in distinguishing such defacements. 

A wider range of colours has been employed in this Bimba cave, amounting 
in all to about nine distinct colours. The succession of colours is as follows: — 
1, various shades of bluish-grey; 2, white; 3 ? purple; 4, red; 5, reddish-brown; 
6, light brown; 7, dark brown; 8, light grey; 9, buff. 

In the Bimba Caves, also, each drawing was executed in one colour only,^ and 
the particular colours were used in each case exclusively at one definite period. 

The drawings such as have come under our notice in the Olary district, when 
compared with those in the Flinders Range to the westward, are very primitive, 
as is shown by the use of a single colour for each drawing, by the objects depicted, 
and by the rough execution of the designs. This appears to suggest no close 
relationship with the tribes of the north Flinders Range. 

3. Camp Sites. 

The remains of native camp fires are known in various localities in the dis- 
trict. They are well illustrated over an area of several acres of alluvial, red clay 
fiat at a bend in the gum creek a mile below Maldorky Well. This is some 
17 miles due south-east of Olary. The sites of old camp fires show up as pebble 
mounds, somewhat weathered out in relief, along the flat on the southern bank of 
the creek. This was evidently a favourable camping place, as indicated by the 
quantity of remains thereabouts. It appears not unlikely that a main native traffic 
route from the north-east to the vicinity of the Burra passed by here, for its 
geographic features make it an easy line of communication. Indeed, this fact has 
located the main track for vehicular traffic to the north-east along these plams 
somewhat to the south of this old native encampment. 

The stones used by the natives in their cooking operations have protected the 
clay-loam from deflation under arid aeolian conditions, causing the various old 



23 

fire sites to stand out in relief above the general level. Usually some charcoal can 
be found by scratching away the soil between the stones. Occasionally this char- 
coal layer is as much as an inch in thickness. Lumps of white reef quartz,, abundant 
everywhere in the Olary district, occur amongst the fire stones. A feature of 
special interest, likely to be useful in future as a criterion of fire stones, is the 
fact that the heat to which they have been subjected has cracked the quartz 
pebbles in an intricate fashion, rendering them quite distinct from the normal, 
uncracked, shoaded, quartz fragments so commonly occurring in the neighbour- 
hood. Dust and oxides of iron have penetrated the cracks, strongly outlining them. 
The low coefficient of expansion and the homogeneity of the quartzes have saved 
them from entirely bursting asunder as must happen in the case of many other 
varieties of rock. 

4. Pebble Mounds. 

In his letter (9) Mounted Constable Waterhouse refers to the occurrence of 
pebble mounds in the Outalpa area, but gives no details thereof. We had our 
attention drawn to two examples by Mr. W. Coulston. An old and somewbat 
dilapidated one is to be seen about half a mile to the north of the Old Roolcoomata 
Station buildings, on the right-hand side of the track to the Yerka Well. A much 
better example is on the divide between the valley just west of the Binbcrric "Road 
at the turn off to Old Boolcoomata Station, and the Ameroo Springs Valley, 
which lies just north of the former. It is distant about 2 miles in a south-west 
direction from the turn off mentioned. The photograph ('pi. in., fig. 2) gives a 
good general view of the conical moitnd. Its average heigh: is about 3 feet 
10 inches, and diameter at the base 24 feet. It is composed of stones of all sizes 
up to about a foot in length, but the average size appears to be about 18 cubic 
inches. The number of stones if the entire mass were solid would therefore be 
about 55,488. An allowance of about one-third for spaces between the pebbles 
should suffice. There is, therefore, represented in round numbers about 37,000 
pebbles. We were told that such mounds are not infrequent m the district and 
that they were built up by the natives, each throwing a stone on the piles, which 
are always situated on the cols between two valleys, as they passed from one 
valley to another, the idea being to allay the evil spirits from following them 
across from one valley to the next. 

Addenda. 

We find that there are a few native relics from this district preserved in the 
South Australian Museum. Included are three cylindro-conieal stones, two unhafted 
stone axes, and a boomerang. 

Since the reading of this paper, we have received the following reports of 
further native relics in that neighbourhood. From Mr. W- Coulston:- — "1 know 
of several big camps in a fair state of preservation, also drawings in small caves 
in a creek about 1^ miles north-west from Binberrie Hill. ... I have been told that 
there are several caves with drawings at what is locally known as Picnic Springs. 
These springs are about 3 miles from Bimbowrie, on Outalpa run/' 

From Mr. II. E. Ding, of Olary: — "I am informed that there are rock carv- 
ings near Outalpa Springs, consisting of emu and kangaroo tracks." Mr. Ding 
also remarks that the painting of a man in a cave high up on Bimba Hill is not 
the work of natives, but of a local prospector. 



( 9 -> Letter referred to by Hale and Tindale. Sec 6. 



24 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES II. axi> III. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. A general view of the more central part of Castle Rocks viewed from the north. 
As giving some idea of the scale oi this mass it should he mentioned that the speck on the apex 
of the triangular block of -rock on the sky-line in the centre of the picture is Mr. Hossfeld. 
The cave is situated directly behind the triangular block well hidden away in a deep, blind- 
ended groove opening only to the east. 

Fig. 2. View of the Castle Rocks cave shelter, seen opening on to the deeply-cut groove. 

Pi.atk III. 

Fig. 1. A run of enormous rolled boulders on the eastern slopes of Bimba Hill. The 
Bimha rock-shelters with paintings are situated in and under these gigantic masses. The 
scale of the picture is indicated by the figure of M-r. Hossfeld standing on the summit of the 
smaller boulder which stands in front of the largest block in. the view (with a dark cave 
showing up on its lower side) seen near the left-hand top of the picture. 

Fig. 2. A pebble mound on a col between the Ameroo Springs valley and the next valley 
to the south, Outalpa run. 



'rans. and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L„ Plate 11. 




Fig. 1. General view of Castle Rocks from the North. 







Fig. 2. Rock Shelter at Castle Rocks, 



dillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



I rans. and Proc Roy- Soc. S. Austr., 1920. 



Vol, U Plate 111 




normous rolled boulders on the slopes ftf Bimba. The locus of several 
decorated Cave Roek Shelters. 




Em*£. J. P.ebbk mound <>i" em monial significance, near Amoroo Springs 

(iilliiililiam tV t'n. I. i mi in I, I'nnU'rs, .Vk'Umk*, 



25 






I 



ADDITIONS TO THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MINERAL RECORD, 

By Douglas Mawson, Kt v D.Sc, RR.S. 

[Read May 13, 1926,] 

Reference is here made to certain important occurrences of minerals which 
have tome under my notice during recent field geological work. In several cases 
the importance is not as much due to their appearance in quantity or in striking 

form, as to the fact that the record is the first for such mineral in the State, 

Antjalusxte; Ouiafpa Hilts, north o£ Olary. 

A particularly interesting occurrence of this mineral is to be met with in a 
locality about 2 miles due west of the Perryhumuck Well, which latter is some 
12 miles due uorth-nurth-west of Olary, on the Bimbowrie track- It is developed 
in pegmatitic quartzose reefs intersecting a series of older Pre-Cambrian sedi 
mentary rocks, which in this locality is highly metamorphosed by lVe-Cambrian 
granite intrusions. The pegmatitic reefs are apophyses o£ the granite bathylith. 
Where best developed, the centre of these reefcs is massive quarts, whilst at the 
margin? there is an, outer selvage, of coarse black mica and tourmaline. Between 
the two is a zone, several inches wide, ot coarsely crystalline andatusite. It is of a 
pink colour and quite fresh. It is usually in the form of an interlaced mass of 
crystals, each several centimetres in length. 

Chiastolitk: Girialpa Hills, 

In the same locality as the already-mentioned andalusite several belts of 

argillaceous schist carry abundant ehiastolhe crystals up to five centimetres in 
length. These weather out and are to be found loose, scattered about on the 
surface. 
Chtastolite: Telichi. 

On a low rise near the wuolshed on Telichi Station, some 30 miles due north 
by east of Olary, very good samples of chiastotitc are abundantly distributed 
over the surface weathered out of an underlying schist. In. many of these, an 
internal pattern is well defined and occasional excellent representations of the 
cross are presented, For the most part, however, the markings are jumbled and 
the cross not. clear. Externally they are dominantly square and sub-square in 
shape, thus recalling the "irnwdcnitcs" described m some years ago. The par- 
ticular locality "Foothlaringla" mentioned in that report is only some 3 miles 
!to the west of Telichi Head Station. 
Chiastqlites; Koolcoomata Station. 

At the. Dome Rock Copper Mine, situated 22 miles due north-west of Min- 
gary railway station, Fre-Camhrian slate rocks are traversed by a fracture zone 
in which a pyritic copper lode t3> is located. Along the low rise a chain or two 
to the west of the lode the schistose argillaceous sedimentary rocks are shedding 
abundant chiastohtes which were collected up to 9 cms. in length and 2 r S cms. 
acrosa. Many of these exhibit, in section, a good white cross. In this locality 
the chiastoHte crystals themselves evidence very definitely that mechanical forces 
operated in the beds after the formation of chiastolites. The effect has been to 

to "ChUstolitea from Bimbowrk, Sooth Australia," by D. Mawstm, B.E,, D.Sc, Memoirs 
Roy, Sot, S, Aiuitr., r&L m., p,irt 3, 

( 21 "Report on tfee Dome Roclc Copper Mint," bv L, J. Winton, TC.K., Dept. Mints. S. 
Austr,. Mining Rev. h No. 2°, p. 45. 



26 

round off the outlines, to produce fish-tail forms and to bend the arms of the 
cross as seen in cross section ; features referred to the same cause in the case of 
the Mount Howden locality (lac. cit.). Most of the Dome Rock chiastolites have 
suffered change to greasy-looking aggregates of pinite. Some show intermediate 
stages in the conversion ; the central unaltered pink zone being surrounded by 
greasy white piratic material. 

Four miles to the south of the Dome Rock Mine, on the low hills facing the 
plain, several well-defined belts of chiastolite schists were located in which the 
crystals reach 5 cms. long and 2 cms. square in cross section. Such an outcrop 
is well seen about half a mile south-west of a large quartz blow and near-by the 
Old Boolcoomata Copper Mine. Here the majority of those lying weathered-out 
on the surface are square in cross section. A few only have rounded outlines j , 

as at Mount Howden. There is a marked tendency in the development of the 
ligure to that of a well-defined white cross in a crystal of square outline. Cases 
were noted of alteration from without to coarse flakes of muscovite extending 
inwards perpendicular to the crystal faces. Here again, these occurrences have 
arisen by the metamorphic effects of a Pre-Cambrian granite intrusion into 
argillaceous sediments. 

Columbite : Binberrie Hill, 14 miles due north of Olary. 

About a half mile east of the Old Boolcoomata homestead the granite slopes 
leading to the great granitic cupola of Binberrie Hill are greatly seamed by coarse 
granite pegmatites, in which quartz and pink felspar are the dominant features. 
This is a great crushed zone through which pegmatitic solutions have circulated. 
Besides quartz and felspar, occasional tufts of plumose muscovite appear. Where 
the formation becomes more quartzose, beryl crystals in well-defined hexagons 
up to 25 cms. in length have been secured. In one of these beryl crystals a frag- 
ment of columbite is embedded, indicating its prior crystallization. But it is 
rarely that the mineral is seen in the rock, it being best collected from the residual 
detrital matter lying on the surface, which is associated with fragments of 
iimenite. It is scarce and would ordinarily be overlooked but for the vigilance 
of Mr. W. Coulston, of Bimbowrie Station, who first drew my attention to the 
existence, thereabouts, of a black mineral with the general characters of columbite 
or tantalite. As represented by material collected from this locality, it is an 
opaque, iron-black mineral of uneven fracture. The fragments range downwards 
from about the dimensions of a finger-nail, but Mr. Coulston advises that several 
much larger pieces were got in the first instance. A qualitative chemical examina- 
tion showed it to consist almost entirely of oxides of iron, tantalium, and 
niobium. Beyond these constituents only manganese oxide was in sufficient quan- 
tity to give a definite reaction. Specific gravity determinations on three fragments 
gave the following values, respectively: 5"70, 5*83, 6*23. Although a separation 
of the tantalic and niobic oxides was not undertaken, the low specific gravity of 
the mineral determines it as columbite and not tantalite. 

Plumose Muscovite: Boolcoomata Hills. 

In the pegmatites in the vicinity of the columbite occurrence fine examples 
of plumose mica may be seen. In this, the small flakes of muscovite are arranged 
in bouquet-like form. On careful examination these aggregates are seen to be 
graphic intergrowths of muscovite and quartz. These plumose forms are distri- 
buted through a matrix of graphically intergrown felspar and quartz. A similar 
occurrence was encountered in the Barrier Ranges several miles north of Silverton. 

Vesuvianjte : Boolcoomata Hills. 

On the low ridge of altered sedimentary rocks at the back of the woolshed 
at Old Boolcoomata Station, two belts occur rich in this mineral. In places, almost 



27 

the entire rock, for a few inches in width, is solid vesuvianite of a brownish-grey 
colour. In the same locality there is a general development of this mineral over 
belts many feet in width. The development of vesuvianite is most intense adjacent 
to a pegmatite quartz reef which forms a central feature of one of these belts. 
Evidence is clear that the solutions producing the quartz reef have been active 
agents in developing the vesuvianite. One mile and a half to the east from here 
a long outcrop of carphosiderite (3) is flanked by vesuvianite rock in which blue 
nuorite is a feature in places. The mineral here is of a lighter brown colour than 
that near the woolshed. 

Piedmontite : Boolcoomata Hills. 

Within quarter of a mile to the north of the sphene locality, just described, 
and adjacent to the track leading past Binberrie Hill to the Apatite Mine, is an 
interesting occurrence of piedmontite. The schistose sediments thereabouts are 
lying at a very steep angle. In several patches, each extending over a width of 
one or three metres, and continuing longitudinally for many metres, a notable 
proportion of this manganese epidote has been developed therein. Much of the 
rock is of an even, fine-grained nature, and of a colour of a general red tint with 
a suggestion of puce. This rock is so close textured that the piedmontite cannot 
be distinguished with the naked eye. However, in most of the outcrops there is 
a central coarse vein-like stringer of reef quartz and piedmontite in which single 
crystals over 5 cms. in length appear. This massive piedmontite has a dark reddish- 
brown appearance in the hand specimen. It is along such stringers evidently that 
the siliceous and manganiferous solutions responsible for the development of this 
mineral have invaded the strata. 

Under the microscope the section is seen to be composed almost wholly of 
granular quartz showing strain features, and highly pleochroic piedmontite. The 
colours exhibited are very strong, being deep red, puce and yellow in the principal 
optical directions. 

Cyanite : Radium Hill, Olary. 

For some years past the occurrence of cyanite and staurolite in certain work- 
ings to the east of Radium Hill mining field has been known through collections 
made by the Government Geologist, Mr. L. K. Ward. Recently, during detailed 
examination of the lode area a strong formation of cyanite gneiss was met with 
several hundred yards to the south of the southern workings on the Radium Hill 
lode. The elongated blades are as much as 5 cms. in length and exhibit a general 
orientation in the direction of foliation. The character of the gneiss, as judged 
from a macroscopic examination only, suggests the reconstruction of a granitic 
rock along a shear zone. On the other hand, the cyanite and staurolite schists 
from the region further to the east exhibit features which indicate a meta- 
sedimentary origin. 

Chrysocolla: Dome Rock Mine, north of Mingary. 

In the more arid areas of South Australia the silicate of copper, chryso- 
colla, not infrequently appears in the weathered zone of copper lodes. No better 
example has come under my notice than is met with in the shallow workings of 
sections of the Dome Rock Mine copper lode, between the surface and about 
30 feet. It is of a beautiful blue colour, and much of it is enhanced by being* 
embedded in a jet-black base, the latter being pigmented by manganese oxide 
with some copper and cobalt oxides. One specimen of the chrysocolla recovered 
from the spoil head exhibits a tiny flake of native gold embedded in it. 

< 3 > Dept. Mines, S. Austr., Mining Rev., No. 41, p. 79. 



' 



28 

Sphene: Giant's Head, near Illinawortina, Flinders Range. 

Roughly-shaped crystals of a grey-brown colour occur embedded in an acid 
felspathic igneous matrix at the eastern end of the outcrop. The crystals are not 
numerous, but have been got as much as 7 cms. in length. When collected its 
general appearance suggested the mineral cyrtolite. However, Mr. R. G. Thomas 
has analysed it qualitatively and found it to be a calcium titano-silicate. The 
igneous rock with which it is associated intrudes a sedimentary series with a 
tillite horizon, which latter is assumed to be Sturtian in age. 

Sphene: Boolcoomata Hills. 

Intrusive massive quartz reefs rich in blocks of ilmenite are a feature of 
certain residual roof pendants in connection with the Boolcoomata granite bathy- 
lith. At a spot about 3 miles directly east-north-east of the Old Boolcoomata 
homestead, a large block of mixed sphene and ilmenite was found in such a reef. 
This is exceptional, as these pegmatites are normally free from sphene. Further- 
more, about 20 yards away to the south, an inconspicuous and irregular stringer 
extending parallel to the large quartz-ilmenite formation, was located consisting 
largely of a clove-brown coloured sphene. The width of this stringer is variable, 
but not exceeding about 30 cms. It is partly quartz and partly sphene, the whole 
width in places being composed of the latter. A little ilmenite is met with at 
intervals along the length. Some of the sphene collected represents portions of 
single crystals at least as much as 15 cms. in length. 

Albite : Tourmaline Hill, 8 miles east of Illinawortina. 

An acid pegmatitic intrusion in this locality, consisting largely of quartz with 
abundant tourmaline, is also notable in containing large masses of albite felspar. 
It is of a snow-white to faintly greenish-white colour. On breaking across, it is 
seen to be a mass of parallel and sub-parallel, elongated crystal cleavage plates. 
A partial analysis by Mr. R. G. Thomas combined with optical measurements 
identifies it as a fairly pure albite. 

Biotite : Ameroo Springs, Outalpa. 

In the vicinity of Ameroo Springs, a series of metamorphosed sedimentary 
rocks is further intruded by a basic magma which is now largely epidotised. 
Adjacent to this basic intrusion is a pegmatitic outcrop which, at one extremity 
is massive biotite, composed of massed plates as much as 30 cms. in diameter. A 
pot hole has been sunk in it by prospectors, for traces of oxidised copper ores 
occur in conjunction with it. 

Biotite : Hot Springs region, Flinders Range. 

Coarse pegmatites in the granite and gneissic rocks to the west of the Hot 
Spring frequently have conspicuous biotite developed in them. Commonly the 
plates reach about 5 cms. in diameter and are black with a bright lustre. Some 
years ago the late Mr. W. B. Greenwood brought to the South Australian Museum 
plates of this biotite as much as about 60 cms. in diameter. A recent effort to 
locate this unusually coarse pegmatite was not successful, but since our effort, 
further information recently acquired indicates that Mr. Greenwood obtained 
the specimens referred to at a spot in the neighbourhood of about 4 miles north- 
west of the Hot Spring. 

Allanite : Hot Spring Creek, Parallana. 

This occurrence is in the neighbourhood of the Hot Spring which is situated 
two miles west of Parallana head station buildings and North Flinders Range. 
Following the creek, at a point a couple of miles above the Hot Spring there is 
met a broad belt of acid gneiss which contains abundantly distributed through it, 
perfectly obvious and conspicuous allanite. Nearby a gneissic pegmatite was 



29 

observed to carry several pieces of what appeared to be the same mineral, allanite, 
as large as the thumb-nail. 

The gneissic rock has a streaked appearance and represents a moderately 
crushed rock of syenitic to granitic composition. Besides felspar and quartz the 
rock is seen in microscopic sections to contain a small quantity of bluish-green 
hornblende, allanite, notable amounts of sphene, a little zircon and black grains 
of iron ore, either magnetite or ilmenite. In the hand specimen the allanite is of 
a deep chocolate-brown to black colour ; but where weathered, at the surface, it 
may present a bleached border zone. It is of a pitchy to resinous lustre and shows 
no cleavage. The individuals are somewhat flattened and reach a centimetre in 
length. In microscope slide it shows as a mineral of high double refraction and 
refractive index, and with a marked pleochroism in brownish-grey to greenish- 
grey tones. The smaller particles and the border zone of the larger individuals 
are somewhat changed, exhibiting in the slide a bright yellow colour. In some 
cases zoned colour bands were observed following the outlines of the mineral. 
A chemical test made on a fragment of the mineral resulted in a copious precipitate 
of rare-earth oxalates. 

What is known as the Four-Mile Creek enters the range several miles to the 
north of the Hot Spring, and crosses a very similar allanite gneiss to that to 
which reference has just been made. The occurrence is at a point between one- 
quarter and a half-mile in from the scarp of the range. Evidently a belt of this 
rock extends in this locality for some miles in a general north and south direction. 

Hyalite: Mount Painter Radium Field. 

From the slopes of Mount Gee, which is adjacent to Mount Painter, 
several specimens of typical hyalite were collected. Mount Gee itself is a belt of 
crushed granitic and other rock which has been firmly cemented and, in part, 
metasomatically replaced by silica chiefly in the nature of quartz but occasionally 
in chalcedonic forms. Drusy vughs are abundant. Rarely, hyaline quartz is to be 
found coating the interior of cavities. 

Sagenite: Willouran Range. 

In the bank of a creek bed a quarter of a mile north-north-west of Brcaden's 
Hill Mine, in the Willouran Range, which locality is 8 miles west of Mundowdna 
railway siding, a mass several feet in length, of sagenitic quartz was noted in situ 
amongst Pre-Cambrian calcareous slate rocks, adjacent to a basic doleritic intru- 
sion. The long needles, which are distinctly seen to reach fully 2 inches in length 
are, however, not rutile as is normal in sagenite, but are elongated hexagons of 
apatite. These are set at random in the mass of transparent, somewhat smoky, 
quartz. 

Volbortiiite: Breaden's Hill Copper Mine, 8 miles west of Mundowdna. 

The copper deposit is in fractured calcareous and dolomitic sediments which 
are fairly certainly of Proterozoic age. Some iron and copper sulphides are show- 
ing in the shallow workings, but the bulk of the ore consists of oxidised lode 
matter, principally red oxide of copper. The ore has been introduced as fracture 
fillings and metasomatic replacements. 

From the surface to a depth of 6 or 8 ieet there appear coatings and stains 
of a yellow earthy mineral which on chemical examination is found to be a vana- 
date of copper and calcium. 

Another line of lode several hundred yards to the south, south-west of the 
main workings, shows in places bluish vanadiferous stains in the weathered zone. 
Volborthite has been recorded by the Mines Department at two locations in the 
adjacent Flinder's Range. In each case it is in the weathered outcrop of copper 
lodes. 



30 

There appears to be a definite tendency for vanadium to be stabilised as a 
vanadate of copper and calcium in the surface strata under the arid climatic con- 
ditions prevailing in that region. In this connection, it is interesting to further 
record that certain yellow-stained patches in the outcrop of the lode of the Dome 
Rock Copper Mine, in the arid region north of Mingary, were also found to be- 
notably vanadif erous. Another vanadate stable under the climatic conditions of 
the arid north is carnotite, the uranium potassium vanadate appearing in the 
weathered portion of the Radium Hill lode and detected in traces at several other 
localities in northern South Australia. 

Aventurine : Eyre Peninsula. 

A water-worn boulder, several inches in diameter, of an interesting reddish- 
brown colour, was collected from amongst detrital material in the hills about 
8 miles to the west of Tumby Bay. The rocks in situ thereabouts are Pre-Cambrian 
sediments invaded by acid intrusions. When cut and polished the specimen proved 
to be aventurine quartz, the quartz being loaded with reddish-brown micaceous 
flakes. 

Aragonite: Brighton Cement Company's Quarry, Field River, Reynella. 

During quarrying operations, a series of caves and passages in the limestone 
were, a short time ago, unexpectedly revealed. Though the passages are largely 
choked with residual cave earth and blocks fallen from the roof, one is able to 
scramble through a succession of chambers for what appeared to be a 
length of at least over 100 yards. No opening to the original surface exists. They 
represent old solutions chambers through which, perhaps, some part or the whole 
of the water of the Field River passed at some time in the past, when the valley 
floor was 50 or 60 feet higher than it is to-day. Some of the chambers, which are 
several yards in length and width, have a fine white crystalline encrustation on the 
walls. The acicular character of some of these encrustations suggested aragonite. 
The application of Meigen's test proved this to be the case. The occurrence is 
worthy of note as the circumstances of the case are rather unusual for aragonite. 

Sillimanite: Torrens Gorge. 

In the case of a number of rock specimens collected along the Torrens Gorge 
for a short distance, at about a half-mile to one mile above the junction of 
Kangaroo Creek, sillimanite is noted to be present in several. It is best illustrated 
in a fragment from a large boulder in the creek. The rock illustrated in this latter 
case is a uniformly-coloured, dark-grey, crystalline schist composed of quartz 
grains showing strain features; deeply-coloured biotite in small flakes; garnet of 
a faint pink tint ; sillimanite in pearl-grey prisms ; granules of black iron ore and 
much interstitial, minutely crystalline, sericitic mica. The occurrence of sillimanite 
in this locality is worthy of note, as it has not previously been known in the 
vicinity of Adelaide. 

Leucoxene: Houghton. 

The coarse pegmatite of the Houghton magma described by Benson, (4) and 
named "Yatalite," is to be met with in the quarry near the cemetery. In some 
cases the yatalite is altered by weathering or other agency so that although the 
epidote, felspar, and amphibole remain fresh the ilmenite has been converted 
wholly to leucoxene. As the ilmenite has been present in large individuals, the 
occurrence yields splendid examples of leucoxene in patches up to 5 cms. in length. 
It is of a dull appearance and ochreous-yellow colour. 

(4) "Petrographical Notes on Certain Pre-Cambrian Rocks of the Mount Lofty Ranges, 
with special reference to the Geology of the Houghton District," by W. N. Benson, B.Sc, Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol xxxiii., p. 101. 



31 



ORGANIC REMAINS FROM BELOW THE ARCHAEOCYATHINAE 
LIMESTONE AT MYPONGA JETTY, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By C. T. Madigan, M.A., B.Sc. 

[Read May 13, 1926. J 

Plates IV. to VI. 

In a former paper by the author (1 ), attention was drawn to some remarkably 
prolific organic markings discovered in beds below the Archaeocyathinae limestone 
at Myponga Jetty. These beds have since been more closely studied, with the 
results embodied in the present paper. 

A photograph of the locality appears as fig, 2, pi. xvi., in the above-named 
paper, and a map of the Fleurieu Peninsula as pi. xx., showing the major rock 
formations. 

A closer examination of the limestone, on the hillside to the west of the jetty 
disclosed Archaeocyathinae lower down than previously noted. The junction of 
the Archaeocyathinae-bcaring bed with the underlying "mottled" limestone is seen 
in a shallow depression on the flank of the hill, and another 150 feet is added to 
the thickness of the Archaeocyathinae limestone at this point, bringing it up to 
700 feet. A careful measurement of the thickness of the Archaeocyathinae beds 
in a steep gully entering the sea, a half-mile west of the jetty, gave 707 feet. From 
the headland on the west side of the jetty the coast runs W. 28° S. in a straight 
line for half a mile along the strike of the rocks, with cliffs 150 feet high above a 
narrow rocky shoreline. The strike, N. 59° E., and dip 47° S.E., are constant in 
the neighbourhood. The Archaeocyathinae beds begin a short distance inland 
from the cliffs, which are themselves of the underlying "mottled" limestone, slate, 
and arenaceous limestone. These underlying beds arc exposed to a thickness of 
427 feet at the headland, and 283 feet at the gully half a mile west, passing under 
the sea in each case. These beds correspond to the 1,800 feet of dark slates below 
the Archaeocyathinae limestone at Selliek's Hill, where they contain the phosphatic 
nodules, referred to in the above-mentioned paper (1), in their higher zones, but 
at Myponga Jetty the beds are more varied in character, with arenaceous and 
flaggy fades. 

CONULARIIDA. 

The "mottled'' limestone, with characteristic serrated weathering, occurs 
immediately below the Archaeocyathinae beds, as described by Sir Douglas 
Mawson (2) at Selliek's Hill, but the mottled effect extends to a much greater 
depth at Myponga Jetty, occurring at intervals among arenaceous and flaggy lime- 
stones and calcareous shale down to a depth of 340 feet below. At this horizon 
occurs a ferruginous band up to 4 inches wide, which is first seen at the headland 
at water level, and may be traced along the bottom edge of the cliffs for half a 
mile to the westward. It can be recognised by the dark red surface of the 
upturned slabs of rock, the bed itself being a natural parting plane. These rock- 
surfaces are covered with the remains of "pteropods," and it is from this horizon 
that the specimen first found by Miss M. U. Pitt (1) must have come. The 
fossils are crowded together in places, sometimes lying in contact. They are of 
black limestone completely soluble in hydrochloric acid, and show out strongly 
against the grey or yellowish matrix, the bed itself is of "mottled" limestone, 
consisting of small dark-blue lenticular masses of limestone, half an inch thick by. 



32 



usually 1 inch to 3 inches in length and width, though often several of the masses 
join up into quite large slabs of limestone, embedded in a yellowish calcareous 
silt The silt is in places crowded with the fossils, but the limestone masses when 
broken across are also seen to contain them, though more sparingly This militates 
against the limestone masses being considered solely due to algal growths. 

The fossils are of average length, 0-3 inch, some were 0-4 inch, and two 
reached 07 inch. The ratio of length to greatest diameter is 7 to 1. lhey are 
very slender tapering, conical tubes, acutely terminated posteriorly, with circular 
section smooth and straight. Many specimens show a cone-m-cone structure, as 
many as four cones being distinguishable in one example. There are no signs ot 
surface ornamentation, and no opercula were seen. 

They correspond closely with the genus Salterella (Billmgs), from the Lower 
Cambrian of North America, and may with that genus be placed m the family 
Torellellidae, of the suborder Conulariida (Miller and Gurley) of the Gastropoda, 
rather than among the Pteropoda. No other fossil remains were found among 
the Conulariids. 

In the cliff face immediately above the Conulariid bed there is seen a huge- 
scale variation of the "mottled' ' limestone, pi. iv., fig. 1. Here the limestone masses 
are up to 10 feet in diameter, and are seen as the dark areas in the yellowish 
calcareous slate. The limestone contains a certain amount of carbonaceous matter. 
The bedding planes cross indifferently the black limestone and yellow slate, as 
may be seen in the photograph. 

Annelid Trails. 

Below the Conulariid zone, the beds become much more arenaceous and 
flaggv This phase continues out under the sea, and has a visible thickness ot 
87 feet These beds are shown in pi. iv., fig. 2, a view looking eastwards along 
the strike The surfaces of the slabs are, in places, covered with intricate mark- 
ings standing out in remarkable relief. These markings arc found through a 
thickness of 63 feet below the Conulariid zone, fading out m the neighbourhood 
of the water's edge. They are visible on all weathered surfaces in the zone, to a 
o-reater or less extent, but on some slabs they are specially well shown. These 
slabs are often as large as a table top. One piece, measuring 6 feet 6 inches by 
1 foot 4 inches by \$ inches thick was brought in, and pi. v. shows portion 
of the surface of this slab, one-half natural size, and pi. vi. a section of the side 
of the slab, full size. PI. v. is typical of the appearance of the surface of the slabs, 
which is seen to be made up of short interlaced tubes of varying sizes, straight or 
slightly curved, without any apparent system or orientation, and scattered flattened 
nodules which seem to be distinct from the tubes. The tubes are unbranched and 
never enter one another, but pass under and over. Owing to their interlaced 
nature, the tubes cannot be traced for any great distance; 4 inches is the greatest 
length and 2 inches the commonest for the larger tubes, as far as can be ascer- 
tained. The tubes are ail somewhat flattened. Their greatest diameter is '27 inches 
(7 mm. ) , and there are all sizes down to *04 inch (1 mm.) . The flattened nodules 
show a maximum dimension of -8 inches, the commonest width across being about 
a half-inch. The tubes do not radiate from or appear to bear any definite relation 
to the nodules. 

PL vi., a photograph of the side of a slab with portion of the surface, shows 
that the markings are in layers, and are in the nature of surface deposits, not 
penetrating the beds. 

The general penological nature of the slabs is arenaceous limestone. The 
tube-like markings themselves are specially arenaceous in appearance, the sand 
grains standing out on their somewhat pitted surfaces. The whole surface is 



33 

yellowish-brown in colour. The tubes have been surrounded by and embedded in 
less arenaceous limestone of a bluer colour, and occasional small areas of light- 
blue limestone are scattered over the surface, one being visible near the top 
of pi. v. The tubes have been covered by a thin layer of black carbonaceous 
limestone, which has weathered off the surfaces, but is seen at the sides, scaling off. 

Though pi. v. is typical of the great majority of the markings, some special 
types were noted where they were less crowded. The most notable of these is 
shown in pi. iv., fig. 3, which is a little larger than half-size. The general nature 
of each short tube-like mark is still the same, but they show an obvious arrange- 
ment, branching alternately left and right of the main direction of the trail. A 
very distinct large track of the same nature was noted on one slab. It was 2 feet 
6 inches long, and was in the form of a gentle curve. The individual marks 
averaged 1 inch long by a quarter-inch wide. 

Several microscope slides were made of the rock, including horizontal and 
vertical sections from the slab, a section of a nodule, and longitudinal and cross 
sections of the tubes. The structure of the rock is fine granular, with clear angular 
quartzes forming about 50 per cent, and calcite 50 per cent. There are also scat- 
tered muscovite and biotite, and a very few crystals of twinned plagioclase, and 
throughout a brown staining of carbonaceous matter, with, in places, little clusters 
and rows of opaque-biack specks only distinguishable under high power. These 
appear to be carbonaceous matter, probably graphite. 

The sections of the rock show dark flowing lines and areas and lighter areas. 
The darker areas represent the calcareous mud and the lighter areas the tubes, which 
show up as ridges on the slabs. The light areas are coarser grained, with larger 
and more numerous quartzes. The darker areas contain more calcite, arc finer 
grained, and contain most of the biotite and little grains of carbonaceous matter. 
The carbonaceous matter is specially concentrated as a border round the lighter 
areas. 

No special features could be observed in the sections of the nodules. They 
are merely granular aggregates of quartz and calcite. The longitudinal and cross 
sections of a tube from the surface showed the interior to be coarser and richer 
in quartz, with a narrow, dark, and very carbonaceous border. 

A sample of the rock was analysed for phosphate by the author, and showed 
0-7 per cent. P 3 5 , rather a low figure for a limestone, and of no special signifi- 
cance. After dissolving the original sample in concentrated nitric and hydrofluoric 
acids, there was a considerable black residue of carbonaceous matter, Avhich was 
destroyed on ignition. 

Conclusions. 

The conclusion finally arrived at is that these remarkably well-preserved and 
abundant markings are mainly the castings and borings of annelids. This was 
the author's first impression, but a hope arose subsequently that they might be 
algal remains, a hope that must be abandoned in the light of further study. Dr. 
Charles D. Walcott, the great authority on Cambrian fauna, kindly wrote, 
"Judging from the photographs, the surface of the slab is covered with casts of 
large and small annelid trails and borings," an opinion he has not altered on 
receiving a specimen. 

As the tubes never appear to enter, but only to lie across one another, and 
also all appear to have been horizontal, there is no evidence of burrows penetrating 
the mud, and little of trails. Most of the markings are borings deposited on the 
surface, sometimes in the form of pellets, but more often in cylindrical shape. 

The type of marking shown in pi. iv., fig. 3, is more like a trail, possibly that 
of a crustacean. 



34 m 

Literature. 

Worm trails and markings are known in rocks of all ages from the Algonkian 
(Belt Series of Montana, Walcott) to the present. These markings are very 
common in the Potsdam sandstone of the United States and Canada, of Upper 
Cambrian age, and various names were assigned to different types of markings 
before their true nature was understood, names which there seems little value in 
retaining. 

Various writers have ascribed the markings to tracks of molluscs, or of 
crustaceans, or to remains of fucoids or of algae. Dr. C. D. Walcott (3) ascribes 
Protichnites (Owen) with finality to trails of trilobites. These are quite unlike 
any of the Myponga Jetty markings. In the same paper Climactichnites (Logan) 
is referred to annelid trails. These latter are up to several inches in width, and 
again cannot be compared with the Myponga fossils. 

A remarkable occurrence of the remains of annelids themselves from the 
Burgess shale, of Middle Cambrian age, from near Field, British Columbia, has 
been described by Dr. Walcott (4). 

It is unfortunate that, generally, where the trails and borings are best pre- 
served, the remains of the annelids themselves are absent. The trails are usually 
in arenaceous beds, which are unsuitable for the preservation of organic remains. 

Markings of doubtful origin are fully dealt with in a paper by Sir J. William 
Dawson (5), and the Myponga Jetty specimens are closely comparable with 
Scolithus (Haldimand), as depicted in that paper. Fig. 7, p. 603, "Slab with 
castings of Scolithus, Perth, Ontario," a specimen from the Potsdam sandstone, 
bears a strong resemblance to the Myponga slabs. The markings are described as 
rounded pellets and ridges of hardened sand. In the Myponga specimens there is 
no evidence of tubes descending downwards, as illustrated in fig. 8 of the same 
publication. 

Scolithus linearis (Hall) and S, canadensis (Billings) are considered by Sir 
J. W. Dawson to be of similar origin to the specimen illustrated by fig. 7, that is, 
worm burrows and castings. 

Fig. 15, from a specimen of the Potsdam sandstone of St. Anne's, Island of 
Montreal, entitled "Worm burrows seen in section, owing to manner of pre- 
servation and weathering," shows cylindrical forms in a network, very similar to 
the Myponga slabs. Planolites (Nicholson) and Arenicolitcs (Salter) are referred 
to this specimen, which is said to differ from Scolithus only in their more tortuous 
character and in their being casts of trails on the surfaces of beds rather than 
burrows or tubes penetrating them. 

This is the first record of worm burrows, or of any animal remains other 
than obscure traces of radiolarians (7), from below the Archaeocyathinae lime- 
stone in the Cambrian of South Australia. Professor W. Howchin (6) has 
recorded burrow holes, casts, and tracks of annelids in the Eastern Flinders 
Range, near Wirrialpa, in a thin impure limestone in the Obolclla and Girvenella 
horizon, above the Archaeocyathinae. Trilobite remains are abundant in that 
zone. 

REFERENCES. 

(1) Madtgan, 1925 — "The Geology of the Fleurieu Peninsula, Part I.: The 

Coast from Schick's Hill to Victor Harbour," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. 
Austr., vol. xlix., p. 199, et seq. 

(2) Mawson, 1925— "Evidence and Indications of Algal Contributions in the 

Cambrian and Pre-Cambn'an Limestones of South Australia," Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlix., p. 189. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L„ Plate IV. 




Fig. 1. 







Fig. 2. 



* .*•• 





~ ■ ■/■■ . * 






>/ 







■^A«l 



. mi 



Fig. 3. 



Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 






Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L., Plate V. 




GilHnghatn & Co. limited, Printers, Adelaide. 






Vans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L, Plate VI. 



\ 




HEX' /C, . -;-;-.■ i<;l..\Mti) 




; ■) .■ 

I f 'if . 



Hi 



■\^# % 



\/v 




■ 










Surfa 



*2= — Side— 



(iillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



35 

(3) Walcott, 1912 — "Cambrian Geology and Palaeontology, New York 

Potsdam-Hoyt Fauna," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 
57, No. 9. 

(4) Walcott, 1911 — "Cambrian Geology and Palaeontology, Middle Cambrian 

Annelids," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. 57, No. 5. ' 

(5) Dawson, 1890 — "On Burrows and Tracks of Invertebrate Animals in 

Palaeozoic Rocks, and other Markings," Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. of 
London, vol. 46, p. 595, ct scq. 

(6) IIowchin, 1918— "The Geology of South Australia," p. 372. 

(7) David and Howchtn, 1896 — "Note on the Occurrence of Casts of Radio- 

laria in ( ?) Pre-Cambrian Rocks, South Australia," Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S. Wales, 1896, p. 571. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES IV. to VI. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Masses of dark limestone in yellow slate, a large-scale variation of the "mottled" 
limestone, Myponga Jetty. 

Fig. 2. Looking north-east along the strike of the arenaceous limestone beds containing 
the annelid castings, Myponga Jetty, below the cliff shown in fig. 1. 

Fig. 3. A rarer class of trail in the arenaceous limestone slabs, Myponga Jetty. One-half 
natural size. 

Plate V. 

Portion of the surface of a slab from the arenaceous limestone at Myponga Jetty, showing 
the annelid trails and castings. One-half natural size. 

Plate VI. 

The side and portion of the surface of part of the same slab as shown in pi. v., showing 
the stratified nature of the markings in the side or sectional view, which is the left-hand darker 
portion of the photograph. The line down the picture separating the darker and lighter por- 
tions is the edge where the side meets the surface of the slab. Natural size. 



36 



SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE FLIGHT OF SEA-BIRDS. 

By Frederic Wood Jones, D.Sc, F.Z.S., F.R.S., 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Adelaide. 

[Read June 10, 1926.] 

It has probably struck every observant ocean traveller that there is a well- 
marked distribution of those more or less thorough-going pelagic birds that are 
encountered upon any protracted sea trip. This sharpness of the definition of 
distribution is far more pronounced when we travel from Pole to Pole than when 
the voyage is made more or less along one of the parallels of latitude. It must 
be a very remarkable experience for anyone to note the birds encountered on 
an ocean trip from, say, 40° S. latitude to 50° N. latitude. A repetition of the 
voyage only serves to make the wonder the greater, for there is thrust upon the 
observer two very obvious facts: (1) that there is a very definite zoning of 
distribution which is normally but little transgressed, and (2) that there is a 
repetition of general morphological type at latitudes roughly equidistant north 
and south of the Equator. If we make such a journey from south to north we 
first encounter, as the most conspicuous of the pelagic birds, the giant Albatross, 
and, by a succession of smaller species and the Mollyhawks or Mollymawks of 
sailors, the passage is made to the larger Gulls; these in their turn drop out and 
smaller Gulls are encountered until the Equator is passed. Having passed the 
Equator small Gulls are again encountered, then larger Gulls, and finally Razor- 
bills, Guillemots, Puffins, and Awks. This is only a very rough summary of the 
types observed on an individual journey. The first question that must naturally 
arise is: Why do the Albatrosses desert a ship sailing northwards from southern 
latitudes? During my service on a cable ship, more than twenty years ago, I 
watched these birds for days on end. They would follow the ship when she 
steamed about, or sit on the water around her when she was on cable ground. 
They would glide all day regardless of the speed of the vessel, and, so far as I 
could learn, regardless of the direction of the wind ; moreover, they would do 
this without altering their elevation or without, as far as one could see on close 
observation, moving any part of their wings. Save for the projection of their 
otherwise closely adpressed feet, when they wished to drop to the water to pick 
up food, their flight appeared to be merely an ability to slide ahead with no other 
power than their own weight and a presumably instantaneous ability to auto- 
matically readjust their planes and alter their cant and poise — largely by move- 
ments of the head. 

As an Albatross is watched gliding ahead over the deck of a ship steaming 
fifteen knots, it seems as though the whole bird were rigid ; save its head and 
eyes. It passes ahead and cants its whole body and wings, seemingly without 
any wing movement, but with a definite, and apparently purposeful, alteration 
of its head poise, and passes astern in a wide semi-circle high in the air. Almost 
gliding to sea level astern it comes round in another wide semi-circle — again 
without apparent wing movement — and overtakes the ship, gliding level above 
its decks, only to repeat the manoeuvre. In all this there is no flap of the wings — 
no visible wing movement. To one unskilled in aeronautics it seems as though 
the bird were a completely satisfactory and vitally adjusted plane, which 
dictated its planing activities largely by body poise, in which head and neck, 
rather than wing movements, played the greater part. But it is a thing anyone 
who has travelled northwards from the "roaring forties" must have noted that, 



37 




Diagrams to show the proportion of body to plane area of — A : a Southern Albatross 
(Diomedia exulans). B : a Northern Albatross (D. nigripcs). C: a Man- 
o'-War Bird (Frcgctta aquilla). The body length of each diagram is reduced to the 

same scale. 






r- 



i 



38 

though when in southern latitudes the Albatross seems to be so completely 
adapted and so entirely master of its element, it appears to lose its mastery as 
progress is made northward. One day on a northward journey there will be 
a dozen Albatrosses planing astern of the ship in perfect mastery of the air, 
the next there will be fewer, the next morning there will be, maybe, two, or a 
solitary individual making rather laboured flight. At about the latitude 34° S., 
before Fremantle is reached, the solitary individual is left flapping behind. 

Now it must occur to anyone to ask : Why does the last Albatross desert in 
this latitude? Why does a straggler, or so, hold on and fly in a laboured fashion 
and then fall astern? In the first place, it is obviously not because its food 
supply is lacking. Even if the bird is only depending on the ship as a source 
of food, it is just as prolific north as it was south of that latitude. Nor can it 
be the loss of its habitual pelagic food, for, so far as one can see, it has as good 
a diet from ocean flotsam on the Equator as it has at 40° S. Again, it cannot 
be that it is getting unduly far from home. Already it is probably thousands of 
miles from what may be considered its home, and, within the limits of its southern 
latitude, distance seems to be no object. It seems as though it were merely the 
travel northwards that was prohibited: there appears to be some factor which 
forbids it to enter Equatorial regions. 

There appears to be a perfect mastery of aerial conditions in the south, a 
lessening mastery further north, and a positive disability when the journey is 
made towards the Equator. The last solitary flapping representative seems to 
tell the story of an inability to adjust flying conditions to an Equatorial 
environment. 

The same facts hold true with regard to the northern representatives 
(Diomedia nigripes, D. albairus, and Talassogeron culminatus) of the 
Albatross, for these birds will follow a ship sailing southwards in the 
Pacific in the same way that the southern Albatrosses follow from the 
south in the northward journey. But there is this difference, that the northern 
representatives range nearer to the Equator. These birds roam along the western 
coast of North America, and great colonies have their nesting sites on Laysan 
Island, in latitude 25*40° N. Some species, it is said, notably D. nigripes, even 
range as far south as the Tropic of Cancer, and one (D. irrorata) even resorts 
to the Galapagos Islands for its breeding grounds. 

Just as the Pacific Gull of the south (Gabianus pacificus) affords a most 
remarkable parallel to the greater Black-backed Gull (Larns marinits) of the 
north; so does the northern Sooty Albatross (D. nigripes) show the most striking 
general similarity to the southern Phoebctria fuliginosa. 

Here, however, there is a remarkable distinction, for whereas in the southern 
Albatrosses the tail is almost absent, in the northern members (especially in 
D. nigripes) it is of considerable length, and, moreover, this bird carries its 
feet projecting behind the tip of its tail. 

In my observations upon the gliding birds that may be observed from the 
deck of a steamer, I have been unable to confirm a great many statements that 
have been made from time to time concerning the method and conditions of 
flight. In particular I have been quite unable to detect certain "wing adjust- 
ments" mentioned by Dr. Hankin (On observations of transiently visible move- 
ments, "Aeronaut. Journ.," July-Sept., 1915, vol. xix., No. 75, p. 104), and this 
inability, as I have previously stated, extends to the recognition of the "wing 
flapping" he has recorded in connection with what I have termed the planing of 
flying fish. Dr. Hankin has made an effective plea that this power of observing 
such movements is a matter of highly trained practice ; and it is, therefore, easy 
to assume that other observers have not had sufficient practice or do not possess 
sufficiently acute vision. Be that as it may, it can hardly be due to any lack of 




39 

training or acuity of vision, that I have been quite unable to detect any evidence 
of the presence of the "soarable air," possessing some special physical quality, 
which Dr. Hankin has discerned as existing in the wake of a ship. Of this 
"soarable air" he says (On the Flight of Sea Gulls, "Aeronaut. Journ./' Supra, 
p. 84) : "With rare exceptions, Gulls are only able to soar near sea level in a 
curiously restricted area on the leeward side of the stern of a steamer. The 
passage of the steamer has caused some change in the air in virtue of which 
air otherwise appearing as "unsoarable" now behaves as "soarable air." 

I quite agree with Lilienthal ("Zeitschrife fur Flugtechnik und Motorluft- 
schiffahrt," June, 1914, p. 196) that observations made at sea do not tend to 
confirm the existence of any specially "soarable" area in the neighbourhood of 
the wake of a ship, and the fact that sea birds glide about in the wake is merely 
evidence that they are following a ship in search of food. Indeed, when Dr. 
Hankin cites as a demonstration of the existence of this "soarable area" the fact 
that a Gull gliding around the flagstaff of a moving ship, perched on the staff 
when the ship slowed down, and glided off again when she gathered way, he 
seems to me to draw an entirely unwarranted inference from his simple observa- 
tion. In this behaviour of the Gull I see no more evidence of the existence of 
any specially "soarable area" in the wake of a ship than could be inferred for 
the existence of a "walkable" area behind a cart because the carter's dog sat 
down in the road when the vehicle stopped. 

From experience gained in a cable ship when lying on cable ground and 
watching Albatrosses gliding over the sea in all directions without special rela- 
tion to the stationary vessel, I am forced to agree with Lilienthal in his objection 
to Hankin's conception of a special "soarable area" in the lee of a moving ship. 
I am far from denying that birds may take advantage of eddies caused by the 
wind striking any impediment, but I think that if Hankin's thesis were to be 
accepted, and the explanation of the gliding of pelagic birds were to be looked 
for in the presence of specialised air currents, ascending or descending, caused 
by the ship, the investigation of the question as a whole would be seriously 
hampered. 

Indeed, it may be urged that even Barstow has dismissed the question of 
bird flight in rather summary fashion when he says, "The smaller birds fly with 
ease and with a very rapid flapping of the wings ; larger birds spend long periods 
on the wing, but general information indicates that they are soaring birds taking 
advantage of tip currents behind cliffs or a larger steamer" ("Applied Aero- 
dynamics," 1920, p. 8). To this statement it might be objected that ease of flight 
is not necessarily expressed by the great expenditure of muscular energy in the 
rapid flapping of the wings, and that to presuppose the presence of a steamer 
or anything else in the open wastes of the ocean as necessary to the soaring of 
the Albatross is manifestly incorrect. 

I shall therefore regard the soaring and gliding flight of pelagic birds, as I 
have observed it, as a phenomenon due rather to the morphological adaptation of 
the bird as an adjusted plane, than to any special and chance condition of "up 
currents" or "soarable air" caused by impediments to the passage of air across 
the open ocean. 

Regarded in this way, the zoned north and south distribution of the different 
morphological types of sea birds and the failure of the Albatross to follow the 
ship into the tropics, must be investigated from the point of view of the 
mechanics of bird structure correlated to the environment to which it appears to 
be adapted. 

The great Southern Albatross is an extremely heavy bird, weighing as much 
as 12-7 kilos. (Pettigrew), and it is a bird of rather peculiar form, having wings 




40 

which, though long, are very narrow (with a long span but a short chord) ; more- 
over, it has practically no tail. It is, in fact, a bird that has a large heavy body 
and a small plane surface. Indeed, were an Albatross to have the same proportion 
of plane surface to body weight as has a Swallow, it would need wings with a 
span of about 40 feet and a chord of 3 feet. 

It has repeatedly struck me that the desertion of a ship Hearing Equatorial 
latitudes was accompanied by, if not indeed directly due to, a lessening mastery 
of the air on the part of the Albatross. It, therefore, appears to be worth 
inquiring if an Albatross, as a morphological avian type, possesses a ratio of 
body weight and plane area which makes it adapted to planing flight in what 
may be termed, in the language of aerodynamics, a definite standard atmosphere. 
In this case the standard atmosphere would be constituted by a relatively very 
low temperature and a pressure at about sea level. 

Under such conditions the atmosphere is of its maximum density, and there- 
fore has the greatest sustaining power for any body planing in its medium. Is 
it possible that an Albatross as an adjusted plane is of necessity confined, as far 
as its planing activities are concerned, within the limits of distribution of its 
peculiar standard atmosphere, which is characterised by a maximum of density 
and, therefore, of sustaining power? For the present we may neglect the factor 
of absolute or aneroid height, for we are dealing only with those pelagic birds 
which plane at or about sea level, and the temperature of the air need, therefore, 
alone be considered. With rise of temperature there is a very rapid decrease of 
density, and therefore a very rapid decrease in the sustaining power of the 
atmosphere. For a simple statement of this principle I am indebted to Professor 
Kerr Grant : "The density per unit volume is equal to the weight per unit volume. 
This varies inversely as the absolute temperature. Thus, the weight at 38° C. 
( = 100° F.) : the weight at 0° C. (=32° F.) "273+0° :273+38° =273:311. Thus 
the buoyancy at 100° F. is diminished, as compared with that at the freezing 
point, by approximately 4 parts in 31, or 13 per cent. The effect of the higher 
percentage of water vapour in warm air over the ocean will be to produce an 
alteration of density in the same direction as that due to temperature. If the 
air be saturated at both the above temperatures, the loss in buoyancy at the 
higher temperature may be shown to be approximately 2\ per cent." It is 
therefore obvious that at the Equator the buoyancy of the atmosphere may suffer 
a diminution of more than 15 per cent, when compared with the conditions pre- 
vailing in colder latitudes ; and this diminution is, of course, a very considerable 
one. 

In order to carry the investigation a stage further, it is necessary to have 
some data concerning the body weight and the plane areas of different types of 
birds, and, fortunately, a very great deal of information upon this subject was 
gathered by Col. J. D. Fullerton in the First Report of the Aeronautical Society 
of Great Britain in 1911. Throughout this report wing area is alone given as 
plane area, and thereby the plane area of the tail is omitted from the calculations. 
This is an important point. Supposing a bird of a definite morphological type 
were to be more or less restricted to its zone of standard atmosphere by the rela- 
tively small plane area of its wings in proportion to its body weight, it would be 
possible to increase its plane area by increasing the size of its wings. But with 
increased size of wings there must be increased musculature for the movement 
of the wings, and increased musculature entails increased body weight. The 
flight muscles of a bird constitute a very considerable proportion of its body 

Weight of body W 

weight, averaging about \ (Borelii) : the formula — — — - = — 

Weight of flight muscle M 



4. 

varying from 13 '88 in the Black Kite (Milvus migrans) to 3*21 in a Ring Dove 
(Cahtmba palumba), according to Winter. The data for estimating the value of 
this formula in the Albatross are not available, but for the Common Gull (Larxis 

W 
canusj — =110*55, according to Legal and Reichel. It is, therefore, obvious that 

M 

birds cannot indefinitely enlarge their wing area and that the size of a flying 
bird must be limited. But though a bird cannot increase the plane area of its 
wings without increasing its body weight, it can add the very considerable, and 
adjustable, plane area of the tail, with the involvement of only a very small 
amount of musculature for its regulation. It would seem likely that this is one 
of the great purposes of the avian tail. We know that the tails of birds are 
adapted to many ends : they function — like the feet of the Albatross — as elevators 
or depressors of the flying bird ; it is possible that they are used to a slight extent 
in lateral steering ; like all parts of the plumage of a bird they may be modified 
as secondary sexual ornaments ; but I think it might well be argued that the 
primary purpose for which they are developed is the provision of an extra plane 
which may be adjusted in its area and which does not require a great mass of 
musculature for its adjustment. The omission of the tail plane area in the data 
available is, therefore, a serious factor, and the results would be rendered far 
more striking were this factor included in the estimation of the plane area. 

In order to arrive at some sort of formula to express the morphological 
form of a bird as a mechanical aeroplane, we may employ a method adopted by the 

Weight of bird in kilos VV 

Bird Construction Committee and take or 

Area of wing planes in sq. metres W.A 

Weight of bird W 

but it must be remembered that the full expression would be ~ 

Total plane area P. A 

for the presentation of which we have as yet no data. In the case of the 

W W 

Albatross the value of is practically equivalent to since the plane area 

W.A P.A 

of the tail is almost negligible, but in the case of the Gulls, and especially so with 

W 

the smaller members, we must remember that the ratio is considerably larger 

w W - A 

than 

P-A w 

Taking those cases for which we have sufficient data, the formula in 

various pelagic birds is shown below. W.A 



Species. 



Table I. 

W 



W.A 

Albatross (Diomedia exulans) . . 16*73, average of 3 observations 

Giant Petrel (Procellaria gigantea) 9'6, simple observation 

Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) . . 4*81, average of 8 observations 

Common Gull (Larus canus) . . 4* 67, average of 5 observations 

Black- headed Gull (Larus ridibundiis) 2*84, average of 3 observations 



42 

It is therefore obvious that, even neglecting the tail plane area present in the 
Gulls included in the list, the plane area of the Black-headed Gull is vastly larger- 
relative to the body weight, than is the plane area of the Albatross. I do not 
doubt that could the data for the whole series of pelagic birds encountered in a 

W 

direct line from Pole to Pole be collected, we should see a fall in the value of — — 

W.A 

from South Pole to Equator and a rise from Equator to North Pole; the altera- 
tion being due in these birds that plane at sea level to the temperature and, 
therefore, the density of the air of the zones which they frequent. 

It will be at once objected that there are many birds, which fly at or about 
sea level, that do not have a very remarkably restricted geographical range, even 
when that range is considered in the terms of temperature zones. 

The answer to this criticism is that, although a bird may have, relatively to 
its weight, too small a plane area to sustain itself in gliding or soaring flight in 
a warm, and therefore less dense, atmosphere, a bird with a relatively large 
plane area will be able to use both warm and cold atmospheres at or near sea 
level. It is the small-planed, heavy bird that will show limitations of distribu- 
tion. It must be remembered that the analogies between a bird in soaring or 
gliding flight and an aeroplane cannot be carried to extremes. In an aeroplane 
the ratio of body weight to plane area is fixed — it cannot increase its plane area 
when it encounters a less dense atmosphere, caused either by altitude or tempera- 
ture ; but it can increase its "lift," and so compensate for the loss of density, by 
increasing its speed by virtue of the added revolutions of its air screw. A bird 
cannot do this. If adjusted as a plane to a dense standard atmosphere it must 
cease to act as a plane and resort to laborious flapping in a rare atmosphere ; or 
if it be a bird which possesses a sufficient tail it can increase its plane area by 
spreading its tail. For the practically tailless birds like the Albatross of the south 
or the Puffins, Razorbills, Guillemots, and Awks of the north, it is easy to see 
how their inadequate plane area and their relatively large heavy bodies have 
dictated a restricted range in southerly or northerly regions of cold air. 

The question of size in birds, when it is thus considered merely as a part 
of a necessary relation between body weight and plane area, becomes a very 
interesting one. A rapacious bird must necessarily be a bird of some size in 
order to overcome the smaller kinds, and it is fortunate, that among the class of 
pelagic gliders there has been developed a group of rapacious birds of very 
considerable size and of very wide tropical range. In the Frigate or Man-o'-War 
Birds (Fregetta) we have birds large enough to overcome the smaller pelagic 
birds that live in the presumably rarer air of the Equatorial zone, and which, 
moreover, need to soar at considerable altitudes. Unfortunately, I have been 
unable to obtain any data concerning the weight and plane areas of the Frigate 
Birds ; but I have been compensated in this by the opportunity of seeing the very 
instructive exhibition of flying birds in the Bird Hall of the New York Museum 
of Natural History. In this hall there are exhibited, suspended from the lofty 
ceiling, various birds with their wings extended in the natural position of flight. 
No more instructive exhibit could be made to demonstrate the small, light body 
and vast wing and tail plane areas of the Frigate Birds of the warm tropical airs 
and the large heavy body and restricted wing, and absent tail plane areas of 
the Albatross of the cold southern seas. 

Again, other things being equal, a bird that habitually conducts its planing 
operations at great altitudes will need a larger plane area than one that is fitted 
to plane at sea level, and the contrast of a Condor with an Albatross is instructive 



43 

in this respect. A Condor (Sarcorhampns grypus) of the same weight as an 
Albatross has, according to the data given by Loughreed, a wing area twice as 
large, and an additional tail plane area into the bargain. 

So far, only those birds that carry out most of the evolutions of flight by 
planing, soaring, or gliding have been considered, and it is not proposed to carry 
the inquiry into the more complicated questions of the adjustment of those birds 
which progress by varied forms of wing flapping. 

Nevertheless, there is sufficient data to indicate that what might be termed 

W 

a general utility bird, which progressed by some method of flapping, has the 

W.A 

ratio in the region of 4, and the additional benefit of an adjustable tail: such a 
combination is seen in the common Sparrow. Again, several very interesting 
problems arise in connection with members of avian families which inhabit 

W 

extremely different temperature zones. In the Northern Whooper Swan the 

W.A 

ratio is as high as 21*3, and here it is very evident that an instructive comparison 
could be made with the Black Swan of Australia ; but, unfortunately, no data are 
available for this bird. In the northern Ducks, again, the ratio is high, averaging 
about 12, and it is possible that in the Ducks of the warmer parts of the world 
some "diminution of this ratio might be found. 

These and other problems of avian structure must, however, await future 
investigation, since at the present time there are no data upon which conclusions 
could be justly based. 

There is, however, one very remarkable phenomenon that cannot be dis- 
missed in this way. We have seen that in passing from the Equator towards 
either Pole very much the same series of avian types is encountered as suc- 
cessive zones of temperature are traversed. One of the most astonishing features 
of this north and south parallelism is the extraordinary similarity of certain 
(kills of comparable northern and southern latitudes, and of the most striking 
pairs of parallels I would instance the Great Black-backed Gull (Lams marimts) 
of Northern Europe and the southern Great Black-backed Gull or Pacific Gull 
(Gabiamts pacificus) of the Australian coasts. There is surely food for reflec- 
tion in the development of these two similar species, representatives of different 
genera in similar habitats. Both Larus marimts and Gabianus pacificus are on 
the road to what may be termed the heavy-bodied polar birds, but both have 
ample wing plane area. Towards the Poles, in the dense colder air, the wing 
plane area relative to the body weight diminishes, the birds still being efficient 
gliders in their standard atmospheres with considerably reduced planes. The 
large-bodied birds have relatively smaller wings, and the curious fact is that this 
tendency for wing area to decrease relatively to body weight culminates at both 
Poles in the production of flightless birds— the southern Penguins and their 
extraordinary parallels, the northern Awks. 

At the present time it does not seem possible to go beyond mere speculation 
in this matter; but it would appear, at first sight, to be a remarkable train of 
events that could lead to a reduction of plane area owing to the increasing density 
of the supporting medium, and finally to such a degree of reduction as to render 
flight impossible. We seem to be face to face with a definite trend of morph- 
ological adaptation — the diminution of plane area relative to body weight, which 



44 

culminates in the loss of such an important and distinctive avian function as 
flight. 

It may, indeed, be legitimate to carry these speculations beyond the limits 
of avian morphology and inquire if other flying creatures show any similar 
tendency. Do other volant creatures show the reduction of plane area and 
increase of body weight when the conditions of their environment include a 
cold dense standard atmosphere? It might be suggested that the large- winged, 
small-bodied butterflies, which fly in the warm sunshine, and the small-winged, 
heavy-bodied moths, which fly in the cooler night air, are examples of the same 
general principles. Possibly the light day-flying and heavy night-flying beetles 
might be studied to advantage, and even it might be worth while to enquire if 
all the large-winged insects of the tropics are in reality the expressions of tropical 
luxuriance rather than evidences of the relative low density of the hot tropical 
air in which they fly. 

Bibliography. 

Bairstow, Leonard — "Applied Aerodynamics." London, 1920. 

Borelli, Giovanni — "The Flight of Birds." 1685. Aeronautical Classics, 
No. 6. Reprinted by The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. 1911. 

Fullerton, J. D. — "First Report of the Bird Construction Committee." 
The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. 1911. Contains good 
bibliography of data compiled by Harting, Mouillard, Mullenhof, Legal 
and Reichel, and Winter. 

Hankin, Dr. E. H. — Various papers in Aeronautical Journal. For bibli- 
ography and references, see Vol. xix., No. 75. 



45 



NOTES ON SOME MISCELLANEOUS COLEOPTERA, 
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. PART VI.O> 

By Arthur M. Lea, EE.S. 
(Contribution from the South Australian Muscmu.) 

[Read June 10. 1926. j 

IIYDROPHILIDAE. 

Hydrochus. 
Specimens of this genus, when in perfect condition, are usually polished 
and some times beautifully metallic, but they are frequently so coated with mud 
Sat he colour and sculpture are obscured, and it is difficult to separate the species 
vithtrtainty. When dried the mud clings so closely to the derm that the , ceptahe 
grooves, prothoracic foveae, and the punctures general y, appear to be greatly 
feduced in size, and it is difficult, it not impossible, to clean the speamens ^so a 
to bring the derm back to its untarnished condition. >( Blackburn considered the 
coating of one species to be "some kind of exudation. 

Hydrochus horni, Blackb., and H. interioris, Blackb. 
In the original descriptions of these species H. harm was noted as '*W*f' 
and 1* lines in length; H. interioris as "obscure viridis" and 1± lines m length. 
There are in the South Australian Museum cotypes of both species from Paisley 
Bluff but the cotype labels were accidentally reversed, this is rendered quite 
clear bv the descriptions of colour and size and also by the numbers attached to 
the specimens; in his note-book No. 5488 was entered, when described as hornu 
but later on the specimens were labelled as interioris; similarly No. 548 u was 
noted in the book as interioris, and on the specimens as hornt. The mistake is 
to be regretted as Blackburn subsequently commented upon horni under the name ot 
interioris < 2 > and wrongly placed both species in the table ; thus on page £17 
interioris should be read for horni, and on page 228 horni for interwris. 

Hydrochus serricollis, u. sp. 

Black elytra dingy reddish-brown, parts of antennae and of palpi, and legs 
(except knees and parts of tarsi) paler; under surface velvety-black and grey. 

Head rather coarsely granulate-punctate, the punctures somewhat smaller 
on middle of clypeus than elsewhere; with three somewhat shallow but fairly- 
distinct inter-ocular sulci; clypeal suture curved and well defined. Prothorax 
much wider at apex than at base, about as long as the basal width ; densely 
granulate-punctate, with seven shallow impressions or foveae: four subbasal, 
three mbmedian. Elytra with regular rows of large, subquadrate punctures, 
those in the sutural row smaller than the adjacent ones; fifth interstice feebly 
elevated almost throughout. Length, 3-4 mm. 

Hub —Tasmania : East and West Tamar, Georgetown, Launceston (Aug. 
Simson), Strahan (H. J. Carter and A. M. Lea). Devonport (Lea). South 
Australia: Lucindale (F. Seeker). Type, I. 15514. 

O) Part V. was published in 1919. 

(2) Blackb., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Au-tr., 1898, p. 223. 



45 

The colour and size of- the larger specimens are as described in H. regitlaris, 
but that species was tabulated as having "Head not trisulcate between the eyes." 
The elytra vary from a rather bright brown to almost, if not quite, as black as 
the prothorax, the darker specimens as a rule being smaller than the others, on 
an occasional specimen there is a very faint metallic gloss on the head and pro- 
thorax; the palpi are almost entirely black on some specimens. The subfoveate 
impressions of the prothorax are much more distinct on some specimens than on 
others, occasionally the two medio-basal ones become feebly conjoined and 
scarcely traceable; the sides of the prothorax, when a specimen is laid on its 
back, appear to be serrated throughout, but from above this appearance is less 
conspicuous. 

On this as on most (if not all) Australian species of the genus, there are 
very large punctures on the abdomen, but they are greatly obscured, or sometimes 
quite concealed by the velvety indumentum of the under surface; the seventh, 
eighth, and ninth elytral interstices are also slightly curved and irregular about 
the middle, with the ninth slightly thickened or elevated there. 

Hydrochus brunneonitens, n. sp. 

Piceous-brown and shining, elytra obscurely paler, antennae, palpi, and legs 
still paler; under surface velvety-brown and grey. 

Head moderately coarsely punctate ; clypeus convex in middle and with 
smaller punctures than elsewhere ; with two rather shallow inter-ocular sulci ; 
clypeal suture wide in middle. Prothorax about as long as the basal width, 
which is much less than that of apex, sides finely serrated ; with four subbasal 
and three submedian shallow impressions or fovcae; densely and rather coarsely 
punctate. Elytra with rows of large, subquadrate punctures, those in the sutural 
row smaller than the others ; third, fifth, and seventh interstices feebly elevated. 
Length, 3*25 mm. 

Hab. — Queensland (Blackburn's collection). Type, I. 15513. 

About the size and general appearance of the preceding species, but cephalic 
impressions different, and antennae, palpi, and tarsi entirely pale (the femora, 
however, are somewhat darker than the tibiae and tarsi) ; it is also about the 
size and with somewhat similar outlines to those of //. horni } but the odd inter- 
stices are more noticeably elevated, the prothoracic foveae are larger and the 
cephalic impressions different ; the f oveate head is apparently as in H. 
obscuroaeneas, but that species was described as but 2 mm. in length. On the 
head the subiaterai sulci are fairly we'l defined, but they open out inwardly into 
the clypeal suture, which between them appears as a rather large fovea, engulf- 
ing the median sulcus, and bounded posteriorly by an obtuse carina. From some 
directions the median fovea of the submedian Vow, and the two medio-basal ones 
on the pronotum, appear to be bounded by obtuse costae. 

Hydrochus multicolor, n. sp. 
Brightly metallic, under surface velvety-black and grey; antennae (club 
infuscated), palpi (tips infuscated), and legs (knees and tips of claw-joints 
blackish) more or less flavous. 

Head with large punctures, smaller and denser (but quite sharply defined) 
on clypeus than elsewhere ; with three ill-defined longitudinal impressions between 
eyes; clypeal suture deep. Prothorax almost as long as the apical width, which 
is much more than that of base, sides finely serrated; with seven subfoveate 
impressions or areolets : three submedian, and four subbasal, the lateral ones 
shallowly connected with each other and separated from the median ones bv 



47 

feeble ridges ; with rather dense and coarse punctures. Elytra with regular rows 
of large punctures, parts of some of the interstices conspicuously elevated- 
Length. 3-5-4 mm. « . . 

Hoi— Victoria: Macedon (H. W. Davey). South Australia: Adelaide 
(Blackburn's collection). New South Wales: Forest Reefs (A. M. Lea), 

Type, I. 8286. 

The strong partial elevation of some of the elytral interstices is more pro- 
nounced than on anv other species before me ; on H. victoriae they are much less 
pronounced and the general surface is very different ; the third interstice is 
strongly elevated near the base only, the fifth strongly at about the apical fourth, 
and less strongly elsewhere, and the ninth moderately almost throughout, m the 
middle between the fifth and ninth the surface is somewhat depressed. The head 
and prothorax are coppery-green or coppery-blue, or almost entirely golden, the 
elytra are brightly metallic, but less coppery than the prothorax and head ; the 
Forest Reefs specimen has the head and prothorax purplish-blue, with golden or 
coppery-green reflections; the Adelaide specimen is like the one from Forest 
Reefs, except that it is less brightly metallic. On several specimens the median 
sulcus of the head is scarcely traceable, and the others are not much more dis- 
tinct, but on the most brilliant specimen all three sulci are quite well defined. 

Hydrochus simplicicollis, n. sp. 

Bright metallic bluish-green, elytra with coppery and violet reflections; under 
surface "velvety-black and" grey ; antennae, palpi (tips infuscated), and tarsi 
reddish-flavous. 

Head with three distinct longitudinal impressions between eyes; punctures 
irregularly distributed, becoming denser on clypeus. Prothorax about as long- 
as the basal width, which is much less than that of apex ; with sharply defined 
but somewhat irregularly distributed punctures, somewhat larger than those 
between eyes; without subfoveate impressions or arcolets. Elytra with regular 
rows of punctures; the interstices regular, except for the slight curvature of the 
seventh, eighth, and ninth about middle. Length, 2-25 mm. 

//ofc— Queensland: Cairns district (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 8287. 

The colour is apparently as in H. laeteviridis, but the head on the two speci- 
mens before me is quite distinctly longitudinally trisulcate. The clypeus is gently 
convex throughout instead of rather strongly convex in the middle. 

A specimen from New South Wales (Jenolan, J. C. Wiburd) probably 
belongs to the species, but its upper surface is less brightly metallic, the longi- 
tudinal impressions on the head are less distinct, the usual seven impressions on 
the pronotum are faintly indicated, and part of the fifth elytral interstice is feebly 
elevated above the adjacent ones. A specimen from Queensland (Eowen, Aug. 
Simson) possibly also belongs to the species, but is larger (2*5 mm.), its pro- 
thorax and elytra are somewhat reddish, with slight metallic reflections, cephalic 
sulci indistinct (traceable only from a few directions), and prothorax with denser 
and coarser punctures, with a fairly distinct submedian fovea and others very 
faintly indicated. Quite possibly, however, additional specimens would indicate 
that it should not be referred to this species. 

Hydrochus scabricollis, n. sp 

Black, shining, parts of appendages reddish, under surface velvety-black and 
grey. 

Head with three short, conspicuous inter-ocular sulci, clypeal suture deep; 
clypeus rather strongly convex, and with dense but not very large punctures. 
Prothorax much wider at apex than at base; coarsely granulate-punctate; with 



seven fairly large and rough foveae : three submeciian and four subbasal, the two 
medio-basal ones partly conjoined. Elytra with regular rows of large, subquadrate 
punctures, the odd interstices feebly elevated, but the elevation of the third 
scarcely traceable. Length, 2-25-2"5 mm. 

Bab. —South Australia: Parachilna (H. M. Hale), Lucindale ( F. Seeker). 
Type.. I. 15511. 

A minute black species, with prothoracic sculpture unusually coarse; it is 
slightly smaller than the average size of the species identified and tabulated by 
Blackburn as II, australis, and the prothorax with decidedly coarser sculpture, 
elytra shining black, etc. ; the original description of australis, however, is but a 
brief comparison with an ex-Australian species, and there is nothing to prove 
that Blackburn's identification was more than a guess. Parts of the antennae 
are obscurely pale, the palpi are almost entirely dark, the legs are more or less 
reddish or obscurely flavous, with the knees and tips of claw joints blackish, 
occasionally the femora are almost entirely inf uscated ; the head appears to have 
four short costae between the eyes, owing to the deep sulci, clypeal suture, and to 
the depression at the neck. 

Hydrochus obsoletus, n. sp. 

Black, with a faint purplish gloss; under surface velvety-black and grey; 
antennae (club slightly inf uscated), palpi (tips infuscated), and legs (tips of 
c'aw joints infuscated) flavous. 

Head with moderately dense, sharply-defined punctures, smaller and denser 
on clypeus than elsewhere ; clypeal suture narrow and ill-defined, inter-ocular 
impressions very feeble. Prothorax more convex in middle of apex than usual, 
apex much wider than base, sides finely serrated ; with rather- dense and coarse 
punctures and shallow subfoveate impressions. Elytra with regular rows of large 
punctures ; third, fifth, seventh, and ninth interstices feebly elevated in parts. 
Length. 2*5 mm. 

Bab. — New South Wales: Albury (Blackburn's collection). Type, I. 8255. 

The inter-ocular sulci are traceable from some directions, but well defined 
from none, the median one is particularly weak The prothorax is more convex 
in the middle of apex than is usual, it has three feeble but traceable subfoveate 
impressions, slightly in advance of the middle, but of the subbasal row the outer 
ones are feeble, and the median ones scarcely traceable from any direction. It 
is not very ciu.se to any other species before me, but approaches H. simplicicollis. 

Hydrochus granicollis, n. sp. 

Piceous-brown, head black with a dark metallic-green gloss, under surface 
velvety-brown and grey; antennae (club slightly infuscated), palpi (tips infus- 
cated), and legs (knees and tips of claw joints slightly infuscated) pale castaneo- 
flavous. 

Head coarsely granulate-punctate, punctures smaller and more crowded on 
clypeus than elsewhere; clypeal suture curved and well defined, three inter-ocu'ar 
grooves shallow and faint, but traceable from some directions. Prothorax much 
wider at apex than at base, sides rather strongly rounded near apex, finely 
serrated throughout ; coarsely granulate-punctate; with seven subfoveate im- 
pressions: three submedian and four subbasal, of the latter the two median ones 
are less defined than the others. Elytra with regular rows of large punctures, the 
odd interstices slightly but distinctly elevated. Length, 2*25-4 mm. 

Bab. — New South Wales: Wahroonga (H. J. Carter). Type, I. 15515. 

The prothorax has the rough granulate appearance of that of B. victoriae, 
bur the head is wider, the elytral punctures more sharply defined, and the alternate 



interstices more evenly elevated. The larger of the three specimens taken by Mr. 
Carter has the prothorax almost as dark as the head (but not metallic), and the 
elytra not much darker. 

Hydrochus insularis, n. sp. 

Black, with a slight purplish gloss; under surface velvety-brown and grey ; 
antennae, palpi (tips infuscated), and legs (knees and tips of claw joints infus- 
cated) of a rather dingy flavous or testaceous. 

Head rather coarsely granulate -punctate,, punctures somewhat smaller and 
denser on clypeus than elsewhere; inter-ocular sulci feebly defined, clypeal suture 
rather wide but shallow. Prothorax much wider at apex than at base, sides finely 
serrated; rather coarsely granulate-punctate, with seven more or less obscure 
subfoveate impressions: three submedian and four subbasal. Elytra with regular 
rows of large subquadrate punctures; odd interstices somewhat eWated. Length, 
2'25-2'S mm. 

Hab.— Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type. I. 15512. 

A small, obscurely metallic species, about the size of H. inierioris, but punc- 
tures not quite as coarse, and third interstice of elytra elevated as well as the 
other odd ones; in some lights the scutellum has a metallic-green gloss. It is 
smaller than the species identified by Blackburn as II. australis, and the alternate 
interstices are slightly but distinctly elevated. It is about the size of H. 
obsenroaeneus, but the cephalic and prothoracic impressions are not as in the 
description of that species. Even when the head has been carefully cleaned its 
longitudinal impressions are rather indistinct, and when at all dirty the head 
appears to be without inter-ocular sulci ; mud also obscures the prothoracic im- 
pressions on most of the (live) specimens obtained on the island. 

PSELAPITTDAE. 

Palimbolus incisus, n. sp. 

$ . Reddish-caslaneous ; head, prothorax, and antennae (except apical joint) 
darker. Rather densely clothed with short, pale pubescence. 

Head rather elongate, with two small inter-ocular foveae and a longitudinal 
impression in front; with dense and small punctures. Eyes prominent. Antennae 
elongate, first joint cylindrical, as long as three following combined, second to 
seventh slightly longer than wide, eighth subgiobmar, ninth and tenth larger, their 
combined length about equal to that of the eleventh, and with it forming a club. 
Palpi large, apical joint as long as first joint of antennae, and somewhat stouter 
in middle. Prothorax strongly convex, slightly longer than wide, widest at apical 
third; with three small foveae near base, one in middle and a larger one on each 
side; punctures rather small but sharply defined. Elytra about one-fourth longer 
than prothorax, and at widest (near apex) almost twice its greatest width, with 
a narrow complete stria on each side of suture, and one extending to about the 
middle from the base, half-way between suture and shoulder, each stria starting 
from a small fovea; punctures somewhat larger than on prothorax, Abdomen 
with upper surface of subapical segment carinated along middle, and with a large 
fovea on each side, its under surface with a series of shallow depressions. Meta- 
sternum with a large horse-shoe shaped impression, bounded by a narrow carina. 
Legs long; front trochanters and base of front femora acutely dentate, middle 
femora moderately dentate in middle, upper surface of hind femora deeply incised 
at basal third; tibiae thin, hind ones each with a thin spur marking the base of a 
notch at about the apical fifth on the under surface, upper surface with two narrow 
ridges. Length, 2*75-3 mm. 



50 

9 . Differs in having somewhat shorter antennae, subapical segment of 
abdomen simple, metasternum with depression shallower, not horse-shoe shaped, 
and open at both ends, hind femora not incised, hind tibiae unarmed and without 
ridges on upper surface. 

Hab. — Queensland: National Park in December (H. Hacker). Type in 
Queensland Museum; cotype, I. 12293, in South Australian Museum. 

Distinct from all previously named species by the hind legs of the male; the 
armature of the front legs is alike on both sexes. 

Palimbolus metasternalis, n. sp. 

*■( Reddish-castaneous, elytra, legs (knees excepted), and palpi paler. 
Clothed with short pale pubescence, and with more or less erect darker hairs. 

Head rather elongate, with an interrupted longitudinal impression in middle, 
a small fovea near each eye; with sparse, irregularly distributed punctures. 
Antennae moderately long, first joint slightly curved, as long as two following 
combined, second to sixth about as long as wide, seventh and eighth subtrapezi- 
form, ninth and tenth larger, and forming a club with the still larger eleventh. 
Prothorax strongly convex, slightly longer than the greatest width (at apical 
third) ; with three foveae at basal third, filled with golden pubescence and con- 
nected with the base, and one on each side at apical third, the latter invisible from 
above; with sparse and small punctures. Elytra with a narrow stria on each side 
of suture, and an oblique impression near each shoulder; punctures minute. 
Abdomen widely depressed in middle of under surface, subapical segment with 
a large excavation, bounded on each side by an oblique ridge, four of the seg- 
ments with a fascia of golden pubescence on each side. Metasternum largely 
depressed in middle, each side between coxae with a subacute tooth. Legs moder- 
ately long; hind trochanters acutely dentate; hind femora much stouter than 
the others ; hind tibiae with a conspicuous V-shaped notch at apex. Length, 3 mm. 

Hob. — New South Wales: Dorrigo (W. Heron). Type (unique), I. 12295. 

Allied to P. mirandus and P. victoriae, but spur to hind tibiae differently 
placed and causing the apex to appear to be notched like a V, the hind trochanters 
are armed, but not the middle ones, and the metasternum also is armed. 

Palimbolus unguiculatus, n. sp. 

$ . Reddish-castaneous; elytra (except suture and apex), legs (except 
knees), and palpi paler. Clothed with pale pubescence and suberect hairs. 

Head rather elongate, with a deep narrow impression in front, a fairly large 
fovea near each eye; punctures irregularly distributed. Antennae rather elongate, 
first joint cylindrical (except for a slight incurvature near base on upper surface) 
and as long as second and third combined, second to eighth about as long as wide, 
ninth and tenth larger, their combined length about equal to eleventh, and with it 
forming a club. Apical joint of palpi stouter and longer than basal joint of 
antennae. Prothorax about as long as greatest width, subangularly dilated near 
apical third, at about basal third with three foveae, the median one connected 
with the base, each lateral one also connected with the base, and rather obscurely 
with a small apical fovea, which is invisible from above; punctures sparse and 
small. Elytra with a narrow stria on each side of suture, and an oblique depression 
near each shoulder; punctures sparse, small, and irregularly distributed. Abdomen 
wide, under surface widely depressed in middle, subapical segment with a large 
depression. Metasternum widely and shallowly depressed in middle. Legs long ; 
hind trochanters acutely dentate ; hind tibiae twice notched on the inner side ; 
inner front claw acutely trifid. Length, 2*75 mm. 



51 

Hob — Victoria : Alps (Blackburn's collection). Type (unique), 1. 12294. 

Of the notches on the hind tibiae the first is at the middle, and its outer end 
is marked by a small acute projection, the second is smaller and slightly nearer the 
apex than the first; in P. leanus there are two processes on the hind tibiae but 
they are considerably larger, truncated, and differently placed; the middle tibiae 
on the present species are also much longer, thinner, and conspicuously curved, 
the antennae are longer and thinner and the palpi are stouter. The notch on each 
of the hind coxae is so placed that, from some directions, it, as well as the 
trochanter, appears to be armed. 

In addition to the present species, one of the front claws is trifid in the male 
in P. dimidiahis, elegans, frater, leanus, mirandus, and victoriae, and probably 
in others. 

SILPHIDAE. 

Clambus semiflavus, n. sp. 

Black and flavous. Upper surface glabrous, under surface finely pubescent. 

Prothorax and elytra with minute punctures, a very faint stria on each side 
of suture. Length, -75 mm. 

//aft— Northern Queensland (Blackburn's collection). Type, L 15985, 

The type has the head, prothorax, antennae, and legs bright flavous, the 
other parts being intensely black; a second specimen differs from it in having the 
prothorax flavous at the apex only, but otherwise agrees well with it. Under a 
microscope the elytra are seen to have numerous small punctures, and a very fine 
stria on each side of and very close to the suture, but the punctures are just 
discernible under a lens, and the striae not at all. 

SCARABAEIDAF, 
Ataenius latericollis, n. sp. 

Black, shining, sides of clypeus, palpi, and legs reddish, antennae paler. 

Head strongly convex, with moderately dense, sharply defined, but rather 
small punctures at base, becoming very small in middle, and coarser or sub- 
granulate in front ; sides of clypeus shining, and almost inipunctate. Prothorax 
about twice as wide as long, sides feebly rounded, front angles rounded and 
slightly produced, hind ones obtuse, lateral and basal margins moderate; with 
numerous sharply denned, but rather small punctures* becoming very small in 
front, but moderately large and crowded on a distinct depression near each front 
angle ; between depression and base a shining, almost impimctate space. Elytra 
parallel-sided to near apex, shoulders very feebly armed; striate-punctate, inter- 
stices evenly convex, wider than striae, crenulate internally, but on apical slope 
narrower than striae. Metasternum with a narrow median stria, deep at each 
end but shallow in middle, no punctures near it, a shallow oblique impression 
almost without punctures near each hind coxa, sides with sparse punctures, but 
becoming dense near base. Mesosternum with a very narrow ridge on intcr- 
coxal process. Length, 3-3*25 mm. 

Hob.— Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type, L 15449. 

A small, strongly convex species, of which twelve specimens were obtained on 
the island; the general outlines are somewhat as on A. parvus, but that species 
has much sparser prothoracic punctures, and its head is not subgranulate in front. 
On several specimens the sides of the prothorax, tips of elytra, and their epipleurae, 
are obscurely reddish, on two the elytra and under surface are entirely reddish, 
and a greater portion of each side of the prothorax. From some directions the 
shining impunctate space on each side of the prothorax appears subtuberculate, 
somewhat as in A. tweedensis, and A. mtdus, but it is much smaller than those 



52 

species, and the head is subgranulate. The median stria of the metasternum can 
usually be traced throughout, but from some directions it appears to vanish in 
the middle. 

A specimen from Connexion Island and one from Normanton probably 
belong to the species, but are larger (3*5 mm.), sides of clypeus narrower and 
less shining, shining space on each side of prothorax less defined, and with rather 
large and conspicuous punctures. 

Heteronyx insularis, n. sp. 

Dark castaneous-brown, parts of legs somewhat paler, antennae, and palpi 
still paler. Densely clothed with short, depressed pubescence ; sides, under surface, 
and legs with hairs or bristles. 

Head with frons and clypeus on an even plane, and similarly densely 
granulate-punctate; clypeus with apex moderately incurved to middle, the lahrum 
concealed from a slightly oblique point of view. Antennae eight jointed. Pro- 
thorax not twice as wide as long, sides strongly rounded,, front angles acute and 
somewhat produced, hind ones almost rectangular; with dense and small, but 
not confluent' punctures. Elytra with punctures much as on prothorax, sub- 
sutural and sublateral striae fairly distinct, the others very faint or absent; apical 
membrane short. Pygidium with somewhat sparser and larger punctures than on 
elytra. Hind coxae at sides the length of metasternum; claws appendiculate. 
Length, 10-10-5 mm. 

Hob — Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type, T. 154S5. 

At first glance this species somewhat closely resembles II. xanthotrichus 
(Group 8), but it is quite certainly a member of Group 2, although it appears to 
have no close allies in it; in Blackburn's table of that group it could be placed in 
A, BB, C. Of the two species of C, it differs from H. torvus in not being black, 
in the incurvature of apex of clypeus, prothoracic punctures much smaller and 
denser, apical membrane of elytra much shorter, etc. ; from H. hispidulus it differs 
in being smaller, with much smaller, denser, and very different punctures, in the 
clypeus, clothing, etc. There are no erect hairs on the disc of the prothorax or 
elytra, the prothorax has a rather long fringe on each side, and a few hairs 
(abraded from most of the specimens) across the apex; the lateral fringe on each 
elytron becomes shorter posteriorly, and terminates level with the side of the 
pygidium, on the pygidiurn there are a few erect setae in addition to the 
pubescence; the hairs on the metasternum are fairly dense and soft ( contrasted 
with the stiff bristle-like ones about the shoulders). The appendix to each claw- 
is large and more or less membraneous, a narrow notch intervenes between it and 
the hooked tip; on the front tarsi of the male the membrane is larger and more 
conspicuous. Two females are much paler (rather pale castaneous) than two 
other females and a male. 

Heteronyx irrasus, n. sp. 

Dark pieeous-brown, almost black, the elytra obscurely paler than the rest 
of the upper surface, legs obscurely reddish, antennae somewhat paler. With 
rather long, sloping, and not very dense pubescence, interspersed with numerous 
erect hairs, lateral fringes rather long. 

Head with frons feebly separately convex; with dense (but not confluent) 
large punctures, the interspaces with minute ones; clypeus with crowded and 
smaller granulate punctures; labrum (as seen from behind) scarcely half the 
width of a lateral lobe. Antennae eight jointed. Prothorax more than twice as 
wide as long, sides moderately rounded, front angles slightly produced, hind ones 
gently rounded off; punctures (for the genus) rather sparse, nowhere confluent, 
much smaller than on head. Elytra with large rough punctures, the interspaces 



53 

with minute ones, subsutural and sublateral striae only fairly distinct; apical 
membrane rather short. Pygidium shagreened and with fairly large but rather 
indistinct punctures. Hind coxae at sides longer than metasternum ; claws acutely 
bifid. Length, 7 '5-7 -75 mm. 

Hah- — Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type, I. 15486. 

The claws are distinctly bifid, so the species can only be referred to Black- 
burn's Group 5, and there it would be associated with H. cap Hiatus and H. placidus, 
from both of which it is distinguished by its much smaller size; its prothoracic 
punctures are somewhat as in placidus, but the sides of the clypeus arc more 
rounded, and the punctures on the frons are less crowded. There are specimens 
in the Museum of all the species referred by Blackburn to Group 5, and it is 
not close to any of them. The clytral punctures are larger than those on the head, 
but sparser, many of them are squamose (as defined by Blackburn), and a few 
in places are feebly transversely confluent. Two specimens were obtained. 

Heteronyx glaber, n. sp. 

Paie castaneous and shining, elytra, abdomen, antennae, palpi, and parts of 
legs flavous, or pale flavo-castaneous ; suture, extreme margins of prothorax, 
knees, and some narrow parts of legs dark (occasionally almost black). Pro- 
thorax and elytra fringed, rest of upper surface glabrous. 

Head gently convex between eyes, with small and sharply defined punctures, 
nowhere crowded together ; clypeus roughly granulate, suture rather strongly 
arched backwards in middle ; labrum almost or quite as wide as a lateral lobe. 
Antennae nine jointed. Prothorax more than twice as wide as long, sides evenly 
rounded, front angles moderately produced, hind ones gently rounded off; punc- 
tures somewhat sparser, but otherwise much as on head. Elytra with sharply 
defined punctures of moderate size, and nowhere crowded, although denser about 
apex than elsewhere ; subsutural and lateral striae distinct ; apical membrane 
very short. Pygidium with punctures much as on head but more crowded. Sides 
of hind coxae distinctly longer than metasternum, and with somewhat larger and 
sparser punctures ; claws acutely bifid. Length, 5-6*5 mm. 

Hob. — Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale)- Type, I. 15487. 

A small, pale, highly polished, glabrous species, which in Blackburn's table 
of Group 7 would be associated with H. vidnus, to which it is certainly very close, 
but from which it differs in being of a smaller average size, in having smaller 
punctures on the prothorax, and the third tooth of the front tibiae smaller (almost 
reaching the vanishing point, although acute). The smooth frons in strong con- 
trast with the granulated clypeus is as in H. vidnus, and several allied species; 
H. pauxillns, which also occurs on the island, differs in having considerably larger 
punctures on the prothorax and elytra, and the clypeal suture not angularly 
drawn backwards in the middle. Most of the metasternum is glabrous, each of 
the visible abdominal segments has a row of stiff setae, continuous across the 
middle in male, interrupted there in the female. The labrum when viewed 
obliquely from behind appears to be slightly elevated above the clypeus, when 
viewed at a right angle from above its front face appears to be very feebly 
incurved to the middle. Nearly fifty specimens were obtained, and they vary 
slightly in colour, but the elytra are always paler than the rest of the upper surface. 

Heteronyx minimus, n. sp. 

Flavous and shining, elytra slightly paler than the rest of upper surface. 
Upper surface glabrous, except for straggling lateral fringes. 

Head with sparse and small punctures on frons; clypeus roughly granulate, 
suture almost straight; labrum almost as wide as each lateral lobe. Prothorax. 



54 

elytra, pygidium, hind coxae, and claws as described in preceding species. Length, 
3*5-4 mm. 

#a&— Northern Territory : Groote Eylandt (N. B- Tindale). Type, I. 15488. 

The smallest known species of the genus. In Blackburn's table of Group 7 
it would be associated with H. pauxilhis, from which it differs in its much smaller 
size and finer prothoracic punctures; although only three specimens of that species 
were known to Blackburn, I have seen over a dozen, and the differences noted 
are constant ; H. lividus is not much bigger, but has much coarser punctures on 
the frons and pronotum. Structurally it is close to the preceding species, but is 
paler, the size is consistently smaller, and the clypeal suture is almost straight. 
The clypeus usually has a slightly more reddish appearance than the froins. 
Nineteen specimens were obtained. 

Heteronyx distortus, n. sp. 
'i . Of a rather dingy, pale flavo-castaneous, elytra, abdomen, and antennae 
paler. Prothorax and elytra with straggling lateral fringes, rest of upper surface 
glabrous or almost so. 

Head with frons gently convex and subopaque; with small but sharply defined 
punctures; clypeus granulate-punctate in middle, with sparse punctures at sides, 
suture almost straight ; labrum about three-fourths the width of a lateral lobe. 
Antennae nine jointed. Prothorax opaque, more than twice as wide as long, 
sides strongly rounded, front angles slightly produced, hind ones rounded off; 
punctures minute, only the piliferous lateral ones at all distinct. Elytra with 
sharply denned and mostly rather small punctures, fairly dense about apex, but 
sparser elsewhere ; subsutural and lateral striae distinct, faint remnants^ of others 
traceable. Pygidium subopaque and sparsely punctate. Sides of hind coxae 
about as long as metasternum, and with much sparser punctures; third tooth of 
front tibiae very small ; claws appendiculate, front ones enlarged and asymmetrical 
Length, 6-7*5 mm- 

2 . Differs in having denser and somewhat coarser punctures on head, 
abdomen more convex, front claws normal, and hind tarsi differently setose. 

Hab .—Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type, I. 15489. 

Belongs to Blackburn's Group 8, and has remarkable claws much as on 
H. scutatus, but is a consistently much smaller species (9 of the present form and 
26 of that one are before me) and narrower, with the prothorax (unless greasy) 
quite opaque. It has the general appearance of H. pauxilhis (Group 7). At 
first glance the elytra (except for the fringes) appear to be glabrous, but when 
viewed from the sides remnants of pubescence may usually be seen on the apical 
slope ; on several specimens, however, the disc is certainly glabrous, but probably 
owing to abrasion ; there are a few hairs on the metasternum and a row of bristle- 
like ones across most of the abdominal segments. The appendix to each claw is 
large and its apex is not far from rectangular (from some directions, however, 
the claws appear bifid), but on the male the front claw joint is ridged along- 
middle, the ridge appearing subspinose at apex, its outer claw is somewhat larger, 
but otherwise much as those on the other tarsi, but the inner one is greatly 
enlarged, set at a different angle, suddenly bent backwards, and with a large 
and differently formed appendix; the hind tarsi of the female has, proceeding 
from the upper apex of the third and fourth joints, two or three stout curved 
bristles (much stouter than those on the under surface), the claw joint usually 
has one, so that it appears to have one simple claw and two appendiculate ones. 
Five specimens were obtained on the island, and Mr. J. Clark sent for examination 
four others taken by Mr. W. Crawshaw at Wyndham- 



55 

Haplonycha longipalpis, n. sp. 

Dark castaneous-red with a slight pruinose gloss, elytra flavous and slightly 
iridescent, suture and margins darker. Sterna and base of abdomen with rather 
dense pale hair, prothorax with a lateral fringe of long hairs ; pygidium with 
rather sparse long setae, or short hairs, and an apical fringe. 

Head with dense, sharply defined punctures, coarser near clypeal suture 
than elsewhere, the intervening spaces with minute punctures; clypeus with 
sparser punctures than on rest of head, and coarsest near its suture. Antennae 
nine, club three jointed, joints of the club slightly longer than five preceding 
joints combined. Palpi unusually long, apical joint thin, about as long as basal 
joint of antennae, with a narrow, distinct impression on its upper surface near 
base, penultimate joint slightly shorter than antepenultimate. Prothorax about 
thrice as wide as the median length, sides strongly rounded, front angles acute 
and moderately produced, hind ones rounded off; with sparse and small punctures ; 
lateral gutters rather wide and filled with pilif erous punetures ; apical membrane 
rather long at the sides., short in middle. Elytra with sides rather strongly 
rounded and widest at about the basal two-fifths ; punctures rather small ; each 
with four distinct but feebly elevated discal costae, marking the positions of 
geminate striae, containing not very closely placed punctures. Pygidium unusually 
wide, strongly convex in middle, thence moderately ridged to apex. Basal joint 
of hind tarsi slightly shorter than second. Length, 32 mm. 

Hab. — Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. H. Tindale). Type, I. 15475, 

The lateral gutter of its pronotum "filled with closely-packed setiferous 
punctures (especially round hind angles)" renders it certain that this species 
should be referred to Blackburn's Group 2; the lateral fringes on the prothorax 
of the type are somewhat abraded, but the species is very distinct from H- latebri- 
cola, H. Irkhopyga, H. crassiventris, and H. pimctulata by the apical joint of its 
palpi, this is unusually long and thin, with a basal depression; from all the pre- 
viousiy described species of Group 3 (apart from the prothorax), it differs in its 
much greater size. In general appearance it resembles H. laiebricola (Group 2), H. 
colossa (Group 4), and H. gigantea (Group 5). The elytra have a complete 
downward projecting fringe of very short golden setae, and an outward projecting 
one (not traceable across apex) of longer, reddish setae, becoming rather short 
posteriorly. 

Haplonycha tindalei, n. sp. 

Pale recldish-castaneous, head somewhat darker, elytra (sides and suture 
narrowly excepted) and abdomen flavous, some marginal parts of legs blackish. 
Sterna moderately pilose. 

Head with fairly large and dense punctures, more crowded about clypeal 
suture than elsewhere, the latter distinctly bisinuate. Antennae nine, club four 
jointed, fifth joint acutely produced internally; club about as long as three basal 
joints combined. Palpi with apical joint rather long and cylindrical, ante- 
penultimate joint slightly longer and stouter than penultimate. Prothorax scarcely 
more than thrice as wide as the median length, sides strongly rounded, front 
angles acutely produced, hind ones rounded off; punctures close behind the sub- 
apical furrow about as large as the inter-ocular ones, but shallower and sparser 
elsewhere; apical membrane moderately long at sides, very short in middle. 
Elytra widest at about basal two-fifths; with fairly dense, sharply defined punc- 
tures, the geminate rows well defined, the space between each pair very feebly 
elevated and impunctate or almost so ; suture briefly mucronate. Pygidium rather 
strongly convex, ridged posteriorly, surface faintly wrinkled, and with small and 
very small punctures ; propygidium shagreened and opaque, but shining and with 



56 

distinct punctures near suture. Basal joint of hind tarsi distinctly longer than 
second. Length, 20-23 mm- 

Hab. — Northern Territory : Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type, I. 15478. 

In Blackburn's table of Group 5 belongs to AA, BB, CC, but I cannot follow 
his D and DD (the edging to the basal and lateral gutters on the pronotum is 
practically even throughout, although the gutters themselves are wider at the 
front angles and position of the hind ones than elsewhere) ; of all the species 
he referred to DD there are specimens in the Museum, and it is certainly different 
from all of them ; if referred to D it would probably be associated with H. arvicola 
(its prothoracic punctures are certainly much sparser and somewhat smaller than 
on H. riistica) from the description of which it differs notably in its constantly 
bicoloured upper surface. The prothorax has a few hairs in the lateral gutters, 
but they are so sparsely spaced that they could not be regarded as forming a 
fringe; on the apparent basal segment of abdomen there is a row of setiferous 
punctures, that extends across the segment, each of the three following segments 
has a remnant only of a row on each side; the fringe on each side of the elytra 
is composed of reddish, rather distantly placed setae; the pygidium, except for a 
few apical hairs, is quite glabrous ; the hind coxae have sharply defined and 
mostly setiferous punctures. The sexes differ but little externally, in the male 
the joints of the club extend backwards to well beyond the middle of the basal 
joint of antennae, in the female they scarcely pass its tip. Specimens were taken 
abundantly at lights, during the wet season, and relished by a flying phalanger in 
captivity. 

Haplonycha bidentipes, n. sp. 

Pale reddish-castaneous, elytra (suture and margins excepted) and parts of 
under surface of a rather dingy flavous. Sterna (for the genus) sparsely pilose, 
a feeble fringe of hairs on each side of prothorax, elytra with outward projecting 
fringe of setae rather distantly spaced, the basal setae fairly long, becoming short 
posteriorly; downward projecting fringe very short and inconspicuous; four 
segments of abdomen each with a transverse row of setiferous punctures ; pygidium 
with fringing hairs only. 

Head rather convex and with sparse and minute punctures; clypeus rather 
shorter than usual, middle of base obtusely elevated (the part of the head immedi- 
ately behind it depressed) ; punctures very sparse and small, suture strongly 
bisinuate; front face very short (only about half the length of labrum) and with 
isolated, setiferous punctures. Antennae nine, club three jointed. Apical joint 
of palpi rather thin, penultimate joint slightly shorter than antepenultimate. 
Prothorax scarcejy four times as wide as long, sides strongly and evenly rounded, 
front angles produced and somewhat acute, hind ones rounded off; punctures 
small and rather sparse; apical membrane rather short near eyes, very short 
elsewhere- Elytra somewhat dilated to beyond the middle; punctures (including 
those in the geminate rows) well defined and rather numerous; suture unarmetl. 
Pygidium with dense and minute punctures, or somewhat coarsely shagrecnccL 
Front tibiae strongly and acutely bidentate ; hind tarsi with two basal joints 
almost equal. Length, 9* 5-1 1 mm. 

Hab. — Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B, Tindale). Type, I. 15483. 

Almost the smallest of the genus, and looking somewhat out of place in it. 
but by Blackburn's generic table of the Melolonthides <3) it could only be referred 
to Colpochila (=Haplonycha) ; the complete absence (even of a faint undulation 
at its position) of a third tibial tooth, may be regarded as a generic feature. 

<3) Blackb., Trans. Roy. Sue. S. Austr., 1898, p, 32. 



although in many species of the genus it is quite small. (4) There are but few 
punctures across the front face of the clypeus, and as they are not confused by 
other punctures there need be no hesitation in referring' the species to Blackburn's 
Group 7, where it would be associated with H, lesiaceipcnnis, to which, however, 
it is not at all close. The prothorax, scutellum, and elytra are finely and evenly 
shagreened, and moderately shining, the head behind the clypeal suture is less 
evenly shagreened and slightly more shining, the clypeus is non-shagrcened and 
polished. The obtuse median elevation, of the clypeus, is rendered more con- 
spicuous by a depression on the head immediately behind the suture. The joints 
of the club are slightly longer' than the three basal joints of antennae in the male : 
in the female they are slightly shorter than those joints; these apparently being 
the only external indications of sex. Numerous specimens were obtained. 

Haplonycha minuta, n. sp. 

$ . Reddish-castaneous and with a slight pruinosc gloss ; elytra and abdomen 
paler, but suture, sides, and base of the former coloured a? scutellum. Sterna 
with fairly dense pale hairs. 

Head with dense and moderately large punctures, sparser on clypeus than 
between eyes. Antennae nine, club three jointed, joints of club as long as rest 
of antennae. Apical joint of palpi rather long, flattened and subopaque on upper 
surface near base, penultimate joint shorter than antepenultimate. Prothorax 
between three and four times as wide as the median length, sides inflated and 
strongly rounded towards base, front angles slightly produced, hind ones widely 
rounded off; punctures considerably sparser and smaller than on head, a row of 
sparse piliferous punctures in each lateral gutter; apical membrane very short, 
even near eyes. Elytra with well-defined geminate rows of punctures, the inter- 
stices, except between the geminate pairs, with fairly numerous ones, but becom- 
ing irregular and somewhat crowded posteriorly; subsutural stria rather deep. 
Pygidium rather strongly convex ; with fairly numerous, but not very sharply 
defined punctures. Two basal joints of hind tarsi subequal. Length, 10 mm. 

9. Differs in being larger (10'5-11 mm.), somewhat wider posteriorly, 
joints of club shorter than rest of antennae, and pygidium with an obtuse, shining, 
median elevation. 

Hah. — Northern Territory : Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type, I. 15484. 

The ocular canthi cutting well into the eyes, and the base of prothorax nar- 
rowly margined throughout, exclude this species from Peihiopus and Neso } so at 
present it can only be referred to Haplonycha, despite its small size- It differs 
from H. bidenlipes in being more convex, darker, front tibiae tridentate, head with 
larger and crowded punctures, etc. The front face of the clypeus has a row of 
large, distinct, piliferous punctures, but on the sides there are many others, the 
front face also has numerous smaller, but sharply defined punctures ; so that the 
characters given by Blackburn for his Groups 6 and 7 do not exactly apply, and 
in fact very few of the species that quite evidently belong to F, of his table, 
exactly fit either 6 or 7. The outward projecting row of setae or hairs on each 
side of the elytra is distinct, but there is no trace of a downward projecting 
fringe, or fine membrane; the propygidium is rather densely pubescent, and there 
are remnants of pubescence on the pygidium ; the tip of the latter is conspicuously 
fringed. Seen obliquely from behind, the base of the clypeus appears con- 
spicuously elevated above its suture, especially in the middle. The sixth joint of 
antennae is very short, and could easily be overlooked. The elytra of the male, 



labrum 
C 



(4) In Glossochcilifcr bidentahis the front tibiae are also bidentate, but on that species the 
m is produced, this being its only generic distinction from Haplonycha. 



58 

as viewed from above, appear to be parallel-sided to near the apex, but from the 
sides they appear widest at the basal third, and thence rather strongly narrowed to 
apex. The pygidium is opaque, and as a result its punctures are somewhat 
masked. Five specimens were obtained on the island. 

Form 2. Six specimens from Melville Island (W. D. Dodd) probably 
represent another form of the species ; they differ in having the elytra somewhat 
darker, so that the bicolourcd appearance of the upper surface is less conspicuous, 
the head has more crowded punctures, the clypeus is less conspicuously elevated 
at the middle of its base, the pygidium of the female is without a distinct sub- 
median elevation, and is shining and with distinct punctures throughout; the 
smaller punctures on the front face of its clypeus are very few in number (so 
that it could fairly be regarded as belonging to Blackburn's Group 7). and the 
coarse lateral ones are larger. 

Form 3. Five specimens from Darwin (N. Davies), probably represent 
another form of the species. They are smaller (8'5-9'5 mm.), and somewhat 
darker (although the elytra are still not quite as dark as the rest of the upper 
surface) ; the clypeus is not at all elevated at the base, although its suture is deep 
and weil defined; the elytral punctures, both in the rows and on the interstices, 
are somewhat larger than on the other forms. The pygidium and the front face 
of the clypeus are much as on Form 2- 

In Blackburn's generic table of the Sericoides 15) the character "Elytra 
geminate-striate" needs some amplifications on some species of Colpochila 
(—HaplonycJia), and occasionally in other genera, the elytral punctures are 
sometimes in double rows, but the rows are not necessarily in striae, the punctures 
being separately impressed at more or less regular intervals; on some species the 
striae are well defined, but contain no punctures. On the present species the 
rows of punctures are quite well defined (although the distance separating the 
rows of each pair is more than is usual in the genus, rendering the gemination 
less conspicuous), but the striae (except the subsutural one) are very slightly 
impressed in parts, and not at all elsewhere. 

Lepidiota fiavipennis, n. sp. 

Dark brown, almost black, shining, antennae, palpi, and legs castaneous, 
abdomen paler, club of antennae and elytra rlavous, suture infuscated. Clothed 
with snowy-white scales, front part of metasternum, in addition, with long pale 
hairs ; legs with rather sparse hairs and white scales. 

Head with rather large punctures, somewhat unevenly distributed, the inter- 
vening spaces with minute ones. Clypeus short, rather feebly bilobed, margin 
moderately upturned. Club of antennae rather small. Apical joint of palpi rather 
long, tip not hooked, upper surface with an elongated, flat (but not concave), 
opaque space. Prothorax rather long, sides almost acutely dilated slightly nearer 
base than apex, obtusely crcnulated, front angles slightly obtuse, hind ones more 
strongly so, front and hind margins not elevated; with large, irregularly distri- 
buted punctures, and a few minute ones. Elytra almost parallel-siclcd to near 
apex, suture narrowly raised and slightly produced at tips; punctures almost 
evenly but sparsely distributed; derm in places feebly wrinkled. Propygidium 
with a bisinuatc depression marking the tips of elytra, beyond this with dense and 
small punctures; pygidium with sparser and larger punctures and some minute 
ones. Front tibiae strongly tridentate. median tooth very slightly nearer third 
than first. Length, 19-20 mm. 

Haft— Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale)- Type, I. 15472. 

<S) Blackb., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1898, p. 33. 



59 

Structurally close to L. darwini, but the propygidium has a conspicuous 
impression, continuing the line of the junction between the upper and lower sur- 
faces of abdomen ; the hind parts are also much less densely clothed ; on that 
species they are so plated with scales that it would be difficult to put another 
one on without its overlapping others, on the present species their clothing is 
more of the nature of depressed setae, which are rather thinly scattered over the 
surface ; the palpi also differ. Few of the scales are quite circular ; on the head 
each is contained within a large puncture, on the prothorax they are larger than 
elsewhere, dense on the sides and parts of the base and apex, crowded in the hind 
angles, and sparse elsewhere, much of the discal portion being glabrous ; they are 
rather sparse but almost evenly distributed on the elytra, dense and small on the 
propygidium, much sparser and thinner on the pygidium, whose tip has a few 
hairs or thin setae, closely cover the sterna and hind coxae, and are dense on the 
abdomen, except adjacent to its sutures; the outer edges of the elytra are fringed 
with thin white scales or short setae, giving them, in some lights, a finely 
serrated appearance. The large punctures are almost absent from the middle 
of the clypeus, and from some other parts of the head. Three specimens were 
obtained. 

Lepidiota lepidosterna, n. sp. 

Blackish-brown, some parts quite black, parts of elytra obscurely paler, 
antennae, palpi, and parts of legs castaueous. With snowy-white scales, moder- 
ately clothing the upper surface, denser on the hind parts, and completely plating 
the sterna, hind coxae and most of the abdomen; legs with sparse hairs, the 
femora with rather dense scales, and almost hairless. 

Head with coarse, crowded punctures, but almost absent from middle of 
clypeus, where, however, the surface is finely wrinkled and with dense and 
minute punctures. Club of antennae rather small. Apical joint of palpi rather 
long and thin, its tip not hooked, upper surface with a feeble, elongate, sub- 
opaque space. Prothorax rather long, sides strongly dilated and widest slightly 
nearer base than apex, obtusely crenulated, front angles acutely produced, hind 
ones obtuse but not at all rounded off, basal and apical margins not elevated; 
with fairly dense punctures, becoming crowded towards sides. Elytra with sides 
moderately dilated about middle; with rather dense and fairly large punctures, 
many of which are obliquely or transversely confluent, owing to wrinkling of the 
derm. Hind parts with dense punctures; pygidium faintly shagreened. Front 
tibiae strongly tridentate, middle tooth slightly nearer third than first. Length, 
17 mm. 

Hab — Northern Territory: Creole Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type, 1. 15473. 

With the general appearance of L. rothei, but on all the many specimens of 
that species before me, the propygidium is clothed only on its lower part ; on the 
present species it is conspicuously clothed throughout; it differs from L. graia in 
being smaller, clypeus less strongly bilohed, punctures of pygidium not quite so 
crowded, and clothing of propygidium changing from scales to setae quite close 
to base, instead of near apex; L. degener is a smaller species, with sides of pro- 
thorax strongly crenulatecl, and less angularly dilated in the middle. There are 
no hairs on any paxt of the sterna, on which the scales have a beautiful pearly 
lustre, they are rather wider there and on the abdomen than on other parts, but 
few of them are quite circular; on the left side only of the abdomen, and on parts 
of the pygidium of the type, some of the scales have a yellowish stain. The 
punctures on the head are unusually coarse, especially adjacent to the clypeal 
suture, but on the clypeus itself there are less than thirty of them; on the type 
part of the normally concealed base of head is exposed, and is seen to be highly 
polished and with small sparse punctures. 



60 

Liparetrus simulator, n. sp. 

Black, prothorax with a slight metallic gloss; elytra flavous, base, apex, 
suture, and sides black or blackish ; antennae (club partly infuscated), palpi, 
most of front legs and pygidium reddish. Under surface with dense whitish 
hair, propygidium and other parts of abdomen with dense white pubescence as 
well, head between eyes and prothorax with rather dense hair, somewhat darker 
than on under surface. 

Head with crowded and fairly large punctures, becoming longitudinally 
confluent both in front of and behind clypeal suture. Clypeus feebly diminishing 
in width to apex, which is gently incurved to middle, and with angles moderately 
rounded. Antennae nine jointed. Prothorax with front angles moderately pro- 
duced, hind ones rounded off, sides subacutely produced, median line absent; 
punctures rather inconspicuous. Elytra very short. Hind parts with rather 
dense asperate punctures, almost concealed by pubescence on the propygidium. 
Front tibiae unidentate, the apical process long and acute; hind tarsi with first 
joint conspicuously longer than second. Length, 6-5-7*5 mm. 

Hab .—Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N- B. Tindale). Type, I. 15464. 

Belongs to Blackburn's Group 12, and would be there associated with 
L. sericeipennis, which was described as having the front tibiae "rather strongly 
bidentate"; in general appearance it is strikingly close to L. discipennis, and 
L, cancsccns (of Group 11), but the elytra are quite glabrous; in appearance it is 
very close to L. occidentalis, which has the even curve of the front tibiae inter- 
rupted by a small tooth, and the two basal joints of the hind tibiae almost equal 
in length ; L. cinciipennls is similarly coloured, but has prothorax and hind parts 
very differently clothed; L. biniacuiat-us has the hind parts very differently 
clothed, and much less of elytra pale. Of four specimens taken on the island 
one has the elytra opaque from every point of view, one has them opaque from 
most directions, but from almost directly above they have a beautiful golden 
gloss; on the third they are shining (even the black parts) from almost every 
point of view; the fourth specimen was badly damaged by grease; when they 
appear to be shining their punctures are also sharply defined, and are seen to 
be in geminate rows with numerous scattered ones on the interstices; but when 
the elytra appear to be opaque, their punctures are scarcely visible. The pro- 
thoracic punctures on two specimens are scarcely visible, although they are 
not particularly small, but on the other two they are rather sharply defined. 
The clypeus is but feebly concave, as the sides are only slightly elevated, and 
the apex not at all. 

Pseudoryctes bidentifrons, u. sp. 

g . Deep black and shining, most of under surface, parts of legs, and of 
antennae reddish. Under surface and legs with long stramineous, or reddish 
hair, in places changing to bristles. 

Head small and impunctate between eyes ; clypeus with suture feebly- 
elevated, sides and front acutely margined; with rather coarse punctures; canthi 
with rather coarse punctures. Antennae ten jointed, three joints of club as long 
as the rest combined. Prothorax strongly transverse; with a wide and deep 
cavity occupying most of the surface, the cavity glabrous and with numerous 
transverse scratches ; in front with two small triangular teeth, each side of cavity 
in middle with a strong elevation, feebly bilid at its summit, just below each of 
these a small projection. Scutellum with a few punctures. Elytra slightly wider- 
than long, slightly narrower than prothorax; feebly wrinkled and with a few 
inconspicuous punctures; with a distinct stria on each side of suture, and a 
feeble marginal one. Length, 15-18 mm. 

Hab. — Northern Territory: Borroloola, three males (G. F. Hill). Type in 
National Museum. 



61 

A jet-black species, readily distinguished from all previously recorded from 
Australia bv the. two small and rather widely separated projections in front of 
the prothorax, these not being in any way conjoined, but separated by an incurved 
space almost equal to the distance between the eyes. The elytra have a close-set 
posterior fringe; and the pygidium is crowned with a longer and looser one. 

OEDEMERIDAE. 

Pseudolycus laticornis, u. sp. 

9 . Black, in parts with a slight coppery gloss; elytra brick-red, the suture 
and sides to near apex narrowly black; checks in front of eyes, most of ninth 
joint of antennae, and base of tenth, dingy whitish. Densely clothed with short 
pubescence, similar in colour to the derm on which it rests, except that there is a 
small oblique golden spot on each side of prothorax. 

Head obliquely flattened in front; with small, dense, partially concealed 
punctures. Antennae moderately long, third to seventh joints wide and flat, 
third triangular, fourth and fifth with sides more rounded towards base, sixth 
narrower, seventh still narrower, but at least one-third as wide as long, the others 
much narrower, eleventh semidouble. Prothorax about as long as the greatest 
width (across the apical third), with three shallow depressions: one at base and 
one on each side at apical third; punctures as on head. Elytra much wider than 
prothorax, parallel-sided to near apex, each with four discal costae, of which 
the second and fourth terminate slightly nearer the apex lhan the others ; with 
small crowded punctures. Length., 8-10 mm. 

jj a t> r — xjevv South Wales: Dorrigo (W. Heron). Queensland: Glen Lam- 
ington (Dr. E. Mjoberg). Type, I. 12238. 

In general appearance like the variety rufipcnnis of P. haemorrhoidalis, but 
shorter and more compact, prothorax with two small, oblique, marginal spots 
of golden pubescence, part of the cheeks and of the eighth joint of antennae 
whitish; in P. bivitticollis the prothoracic markings are almost parallel, and 
extend from base to apex; P. haemopterus is a narrower species, with deeper 
prothoracic impressions, etc. The black part of the suture is very narrow on the 
basal half and at its widest part does not quite extend to the subsutural interstice ; 
the black margin is widest at its base, and is narrowed posteriorly, they all 
terminate slightly before the tips of the costae. 

Pseudolycus megalops, n. sp. 

I . Black, in parts with a slight coppery gloss, elytra flavous, the suture 
and sides narrowly black, seventh and eighth joints of antennae partly whitish. 
Densely clothed with short ashen or white pubescence. 

Head obliquely flattened, and gently concave between eyes, these unusually 
large and prominent; with small dense punctures. Antennae rather long and thin, 
third to sixth joints somewhat flattened, eleventh semidouble. Prothorax slightly 
longer than the greatest width (near apex), with three large and fairly deep 
impressions: one basal, one on each side near apex; punctures as on prothorax. 
Elytra much wider than prothorax, parallel-sided to near apex, each with four 
discal costae, of which the third is scarcely traceable beyond the middle; with 
small crowded punctures. Length, 7-8 mm. 

Hab. — New South Wales: Dorrigo (W. Heron). Type, 1. 12237. 

The antennae are thinner than in P. hilaris and P. carteri, and the eyes are 
larger and more prominent, the antennae are about the thickness of those of the 
male of P. haemopterus, but the eyes are much larger, the width across them 



62 

being equal to that of the base of the prothorax. On the type the base of each 
tibia and of the basal joint of antennae is very obscurely diluted with red. 

Pseudolycus basiflavus, n. sp. 

Black : inter-antennary space and base of head, prothorax, scutellum, basal 
sixth of elytra, presternum, part of mesosternum, and parts of legs flavous. 
Densely clothed with short pubescence, dark on the dark parts, white on the pale. 

Head gently convex ; with small dense punctures ; muzzle rather long, the 
jaws notched at apex. Antennae rather long, second to ninth joints cylindrical 
(the others missing). Prothorax about as long as the greatest width (across 
apical third), with a shallow depression at base, and another on each side near 
apex; punctures inconspicuous. Elytra much wider than prothorax, shoulders 
strongly rounded, sides parallel to near apex; each with two discal costae : 
punctures dense and small. Length, 6 mm. 

Flab. — Queensland: Cairns district (F. P. Dodd). Type (unique), 1. 12239. 

The markings are very different from those of any other known Australian 
species of the family. This species would possibly have been regarded by Black- 
burn as belonging to a new section of Copidita, but he appeared to be unaware 
of the great variation in the antennae of Pseudolycus, to which genus I think 
the present species should be referred. The front and middle coxae and base of 
front femora are brightly flavous, the hind coxae and parts of middle and of 
hind femora obscurely flavous. The type is probably a female. 

Pseudolycus fasclatus, n. sp. 

Black and flavous. Rather sparsely clothed with short pubescence, except 
on elytra, where it is dense. 

Head moderately convex, a small fovea each side near eye; with small and 
rather dense punctures; jaws notched at apex. Antennae rather long and thin, 
third to tenth joints cylindrical, eleventh semidouble and slightly shorter than 
tenth. Prothorax slightly longer than the greatest width (near apex), with a 
shallow transverse impression near base, and a deeper one on each side near 
middle; punctures as on head. Elytra much wider than prothorax, parallel-sided 
to near apex, each with two feeble discal costae, and traces of still more feeble 
ones ; with small and very dense punctures. Legs long and thin. Length, 5*5 mm, 

Hab. — New South Wales: Acacia Creek (H. J. Carter). Tvpe (unique), 
I. 12240. 

Strikingly different from all other known species of the genus, and at 
first glance much like some species of Tclcphorus and Sclevurus, of the Mala- 
codermidac; it would probably have been referred to a section of Copidita by 
Blackburn. The flavous parts arc the parts of the head about the base of each 
antenna, prothorax (except for a wide, black, submedian fascia), elytra (except 
for narrow spaces at base and apex, and a fascia near apex — the space between 
the apex and subapical fascia more brightly flavous than elsewhere, the part 
between the subapical and basal black markings clothed with rusty-red 
pubescence), parts of prosternum and of mesosternum, four basal segments of 
abdomen, coxae, half of middle femora and less of the others, and base of tibiae. 

CURCULIONIDAE. 
Leptops mirabilis, n. sp. 
Black. Densely clothed with light-brown substrarnineous scales, and, in 
addition, with numerous setae. 

Head somewhat flattened between eyes; inter-ocular fovea very narrow. 
Rostrum stout, with aberrant sculpture. Prothorax slightly longer than wide. 



03 

■sides feebly rounded ; with numerous obtuse tubercles, with a shallow medio- 
frontal impression and a feeble median node. Elytra with shoulders oblique, 
sides feebly increasing in width to about middle; with large but (except on 
>ides) mostly shallow and ill-defined punctures; suture, third, fifth, and seventh 
interstices obtusely tuberculate. Legs long; front tibiae conspicuously flattened, 
grooved on each side and lightly denticulate. Length, 19 mm. 

Hal?. — Lord Howe Island. 

One of the most remarkable species of the genus; m the 1906 table it would 
be associated with those referred to G, from all of which it is very different ; it is 
one of the very few species whose prothorax, by measurement, is seen to be 
actually a trifle longer than wide. On the elytra most of the setae are confined 
ro the tubercles, which they cause to appear almost like small fascicles, and they 
arc comparatively short there, as also on the prothorax and head; but on the 
muzzle, legs (femora as well as tibiae), and abdomen they are rather dense and 
decidedly long (almost hair-like). The rostrum is very peculiar, the median 
carina is" entirely absent, the intermediate ones are short and much closer together 
lhan usual; the sublateral sulcus on each side becomes a wide excavation (at its 
widest fully half the distance between the eyes), bounded behind (but not 
closed by same), by an obtuse elevation (but this could not be regarded as a 
tubercle), and open in front, where the intermediate carina vanishes; the scrobes 
are deep in front and at the middle, and are then directed towards the lower half 
of the eyes, but vanish before reaching them. The scape is moderately long and 
somewhat thickened at the apex, all the other joints (except the basal one of the 
funicle) are missing from the type. The elytral tubercles are all small, but a 
few about summit of apical slope are fairly conspicuous ; they mostly have the 
appearance as of being flattened backwards, A specimen recently taken by Mr. 
R. Baxter is in perfect condition, and is so densely clothed that the derm is almost 
everywhere concealed; its prothorax is slightly wider than long, and antennae 
somewhat longer than usual. Type, K. 15050, in Australian Museum. 

Howeocis, n. g. 

Head moderately large, almost concealed from above. Eyes small, lateral, 
coarsely faceted. Rostrum rather short; scrobes narrow and deep, front portion 
visible from above, posteriorly obliquely directed towards and reaching front 
margin of eyes. Antennae thin; scape lightly curved; basal joint of funicle 
elongate, the others short; club briefly ovate. Prothorax lightly transverse, 
ocular lobes almost absent. Scutellum absent. Elytra subovate, seriate-punctate. 
Prosternum feebly incurved to middle at apex. Metasternum short. Abdomen 
with two basal segments large, intercoxal process very wide, third and fourth 
very short, the fifth small. Legs moderately long; front coxae touching, middle 
pair lightly separated, hind pair about as far apart as the femora are long; femora 
moderately stout ; tibiae long and rather thin, dilated at apex ; tarsi thin, third 
joint moderately wide and deeply bilobed, claw joint thin, as long as the rest 
combined, with free claws. 

The only known species is a small, conspicuously setose weevil, with some 
parts densely clothed, but the abdomen and sides of elytra highly polished. The 
narrow deep scrobes, clearly cutting into the rostrum to the front of the eyes, 
are practically the only features distinguishing it from M andalotits (near which 
it should be placed in catalogues), although on account of several of its specific 
features it would appear out of place in that genus. Three specimens were 
obtained from fallen leaves; I have not broken one of them to be certain, but 
believe the body to be apterous. 



64 

Howeocis setosus, n. sp. 

Black, appendages and apical segment of abdomen reddish. Densely clothed 
with muddy-brown scales, but sides of elytra for the space of about three inter- 
stices, and abdomen, highly polished and with a fccb 1 e bluish gloss ; with numerous 
long, stiff, upright setae on prothorax and elytra, and a few between eyes. 

Head with sculpture normally concealed. Rostrum with apical portion 
polished but scarcely in the form of a triangular plate. Prothorax with rather 
strongly rounded sides ; with dense small punctures, and some of larger size, but 
all more or less concealed before abrasion. Elytra with sides rather strongly 
rounded, widest at about basal third; with regular raws of large, rounded punc- 
tures, partially concealed by clothing except on sides, where they are very con- 
spicuous, although somewhat smaller. First segment of abdomen about as long 
as second and third combined, fifth as long as third and fourth combined. 
Length. 2*5-3 mm. 

L Hab.— Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea and wife). Type, I. 5801. 

A small dingy weevil, but of exceptional interest. 

Laemosaccus brevipennjs, Pasc. 

The type of this species was a female. The male differs in having the 
rostrum slightly shorter, wider, opaque, and rough throughout, with subgranular 
elevations. The median fascia of the elytra is composed of short dark velvety 
pile, margined with ochreous, and is usually very distinct, but is occasionally 
broken up into irregular spots. The eyes are unusually widely separated, their 
distance apart being about equal to the diameter of an eye. The species occurs 
from the Manning River, in New South Wales, to Cairns, in Queensland. 

Laemosaccus rivularis, Lea. 
This species is not a variety of L. hilahus, as I thought possible when 
describing it; but its type is an immature female. Six specimens from Queens- 
land (National Park, and Bunya and Tambourine Mountains) are evidently 
mature, and in perfect condition. The general colour is piceous-brown or black, 
the elytra obscurely paler, the prothoracic spots are as described on the type ; on 
each elytron there are numerous small spots; one on the third interstice at base, 
several forming an oblique row commencing at the scutellum, the row becoming 
irregular till it joins an irregular postmedian fascia of spots, a spot common to 
the second and third interstices at apex, and one on the eighth about middle. 
The male differs from the female in having the rostrum shorter, stouter, opaque, 
with coarser punctures, and a well-defined median groove to near the apex. 

Laemosaccus argenteus, Lea. 

The type of this species is a female. The male differs in having the rostrum 
much shorter, stouter, opaque, and with decidedly coarser punctures (almost as 
coarse as those on pronotum). The length (excluding rostrum) varies from 
2*5 mm to 4*5 mm. Queensland specimens now before me are from Kuranda. 
Brisbane, and Bribie Island. The specimen from the island has reddish legs 
and is probably immature. 

Laemosaccus hausteliatus, n. sp. 
$ . Black or blackish, antennae and legs more or less reddish. Upper 
surface with yellowish pubescence, becoming whitish on under surface. 

Head long and with crowded punctures. Eyes large and almost touching. 
Rostrum long (about the length of front tibiae), slightly curved, fairly wide in 
front, jiarrowed between insertion of antennae (almost in exact middle) and 



65 

base; with a small inter-antennal fovea, and with rather crowded punctures. 
Prothorax with the median lengih slightly more than the greatest width, apex 
about two-thirds the width of base; with crowded punctures, slightly larger 
than on head. Elytra with narrow striae, containing deep-set punctures ; inter- 
stices granulate and densely punctate. Femora dentate. Length (excluding 
rostrum), 5-6"5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum much longer and thinner, with smaller 
and sparser punctures, and antennae inserted distinctly nearer the base, the elytra 
arc slightly wider, and legs and c : ub of antennae somewhat shorter. 

Hab.— Northern Territory (J. P. Tepper), Darwin (C, Dayies), Mary 
River (G. F. Hill). North -Western Australia; Wyndham (J. Clark). Type, 
I, 16014. 

Allied to L longlceps, and with the eyes almost touching as in that species, 
but rougher, rostrum of female slightly longer, and femoral dentition much less 
distinct ; L. dapsilis and L. ocularis have eyes less close together, and the rostrum 
of the female wider, and with coarser punctures. As on many other species, the 
prothoracic clothing forms a more or less distinct cross. Of the eight specimens 
before me five are coloured as described, except that on two of them the femora 
arc deep y inf nscated ; on two others the elytra arc obscurely reddish at the tips, 
and along part of the suture; the other is entirely of a dingy red. The yellowish 
pubescence forms a narrow line between the eyes, beyond which it is continued 
(but "wider) to the base of the head; on the prouotum it forms a median line, 
but is dilated to and interrupted at middle, with a small spot on each side of the 
interruption (on some specimens, owing to partial abrasion, there appear to be 
four submedian spots), the front and hind angles appear to be spotted from 
above, but the spots are joined to the lateral clothing. On the elytra the 
pubescence is dense on the basal half of the sutural region, and four more or less 
feeble fasciae may he traced: one basal (usually feeble), another before the 
middle (connected with the dense sutural patch), the third postmedian (on some 
specimens appearing as a double transverse row of spots), and the other apical 
(this usually feeble). The front femora have a small but acute tooth, becoming 
smaller on the middle pair, and aimost vanishing from the hind ones. 

Laemosaccus bidentatus, u. sp. 

S . Black, antennae and legs more or less reddish. With whitish and pale 
yellowish pubescence. 

Plead long. Eyes large and almost touching. Rostrum rather long (slightly 
shorter than front tibiae), slightly curved, slightly dilated in front of antennae 
(these inserted about one-third from apex), and with rather coarse crowded 
punctures. Prothorax slightly longer than wide, with the remnant of a median 
line in front. Front legs long, their femora conspicuously bidentate. Length, 
5 mm. 

Hab .—Queensland : Endeavour River (C. French). 

The eyes are as close together as on the preceding species and on 
L. longlceps, but from those species,, as also from L. dapsilis, it is readily dis- 
tinguished by the bidentate front femora; the largest tooth is subbasal, acute, 
and about as long as the tibiae arc wide, the. other tooth is close to it, about 
half its size and less acute. The type is possibly somewhat abraded, as there 
is no clothing on the upper surface of its head and on the pronotum (except on 
the angles and middle of the base of the latter) ; on the elytra there is a fairly 
large X -shaped patch on the basal half of the sutural region, an interrupted 
fascia at the apex, and small spots elsewhere. The punctures and elytra! granules 
are normal. A_ specimen, from Cairns (J. A. Anderson), is in the Queensland 



66 

Museum; it agrees closely with the type, except that it has somewhat darker 

antennae. 

Laemosaccus subcylindricus, n. sp. 

i , Dull red; head, extreme base of rostrum, scutellum, and most of under 
surface black. Moderately clothed with white or stramineous pubescence, form- 
ing spots on elytra, and becoming dense on sides of prothorax, and on under 

surface. 

Eyes large and fairly close together. Rostrum moderately long (slightly 
shorter than "front tibiae), feebly dilated to apex, very feebly curved; with a 
feeble median line; punctures fairly coarse and crowded, but mostly concealed 
behind insertion of antennae (about one-third from apex). ^ Prothorax with 
median length almost equal to greatest width, apex about one-third less than base 
and feebly bisinuate, with a vague median line, containing a feeble and abbreviated 
carina; densely and minutely granulate-punctate. Elytra rather long and sub- 
cylindrical, slightly wider than prothorax; with deep-set punctures in narrow 
striae, interstices densely punctate or granulate-punctate. Eront femora strongly., 
middle moderately, hind ones feebly dentate. Length, 4*5-5 mm, 

2 . Differs in having the rostrum slight, y longer and thinner, more 
cylindrical, with sparser clothing and smaller punctures; antennae inserted nearer 
the middle of rostrum, and front legs slightly smaller. 

Rob.— Victoria (National Museum), Keweil (— Hill). Type, L 16032. 

In general appearance close to L. cossonoides, but eyes closer together and 
clothing of upper surface more concentrated into spots, these forming a loose 
fascia just beyond the middle of elytra. L. ocularis is larger, has rostrum longer 
and more curved, fascia of elytral spots nearer the apex, the basal clothing 
different, and femora edentate. On the upper surface the pubescence is sparsely 
but evenly distributed, except that it is fairly dense behind the scutellum, forms 
a transverse series of spots beyond the middle (they appear to be always present- 
on the second and third interstices and usually on the fifth and sixth, but the 
latter are easily abraded), and a feeble fascia at apex; on the pronotum it forms 
a rather wide median line, which is dilated, and sometimes maculate, about the 
middle ; on the head it is dense between the eyes and on the sides ; on the male 
it is continued to the middle of the rostrum, but not so far on the female. The 
distance between the eyes, at their nearest approach to each other, is about half 
the width of the rostrum in the female, somewhat less in the male. The elytral 
granules are minute and rounded, without the jagged appearance as on most 
species of the genus. 

Laemosaccus marmoratus, n. sp. 

Dull red and blackish-brown. With more or less yellowish or ochreous 
pubescence. 

Eyes large and rather widely separated. Rostrum slightly longer than front 
tibiae, rather thin, straight and cylindrical; with crowded and well-defined punc- 
tures ; with a feeble median carina behind antennae (these inserted about two- 
thirds from base). Prothorax slightly wider than long, with a feeble median 
carina on basal half, on each side of which at base is a feeble elliptic depression 
or fovea. Elytra short, depressed in middle towards base; with narrow punc- 
tures, in deep striae. Eront femora stout and acutely dentate, the others smaller- 
Length, 4*5 mm. 

Hab.— ^cw South Wales. Unique. 

r [ he upper surface has a mottled appearance, somewhat as on many speci- 
mens of L. siibsignatus, but the pubescence forms a conspicuous V on the elytra. 
The rostrum is long, straight, and clothed only at the extreme base, but as it is 
subopaque and rather coarsely punctured, the type is possibly a male. The 



67 

head and' rostrum are blackish, as is most of the pronotum, on the elytra there 
are five or seven dark patches, most of the abdomen is black, the rest of the 
under surface and the legs are reddish. On the pronotum the pubescence is 
dense on the sides, and forms a median line with a cross-piece at the basal third; 
on the elytra the sides of the V commence on the shoulders and are conjoined 
on the suture near the apex. The distance between the eyes, at their nearest 
approach, is about half the width of the rostrum. The punctures on the head 
and prothorax are crowded and small, (he elytra! interstices arc densely granulate- 
punctate, the granules round and inconspicuous, but there are a few coarse ones 
about the apical third. The sutural interstice on each elytron is terminated at. 
the scutellum (which is twice as wide as long), the base of the second is slightly 
curved around it. 

Laemosaccus tenuirostrls, n. sp. 

9 . Black, antennae, front of prothorax, most of elytra, tarsi, and parts 
of tibiae reddish. Irregularly clothed with somewhat yellowish pubescence- 
Eyes large and well separated. Rostrum long, thin, straight, and cylindrical ; 
with dense and moderately large punctures towards base, becoming small and 
sparser towards apex. Antennae inserted about two-fifths from base of rostrum. 
Prothorax slightly longer than wide, rather strongly constricted near apex; with 
a feeble median line in front, altering to a carina towards base; with two well- 
defined foveae at base, and two feeble impressions in middle. Elytra strongly 
depressed about suture near base. Femora acutely dentate. Length, 5 mm. 
Hub.— Queensland: Mount Tambourine (H. J, Carter). Type, L 16015. 
The elytral markings simulate those of pale specimens of L. qucrulus, L. 
sub si gnat us, etc., but the rostrum is much longer than hi those species, and is 
decidedly longer than in any species in which it: is straight; it is distinctly ionger 
than the front tibiae and is quite as long as in L. longiccps, in which it is curved. 
The type differs from that of the preceding species in having a much longer 
rostrurn (it is, however, certain to be sexually variable), the prothoracic foveae 
more conspicuous, elytra without a pubescent V, the dark markings differently 
disposed, most of the legs, and all of the under surface black. The punctures 
and the elytral granules are much the same. From above the elytra appear to 
have live black spots: a round mediosutural one, and two on each side, of which 
ihe first is triangular and before the middle, the other beyond the middle and 
transverse, but the lateral spots arc joined on the margins. The clothing is 
probably partly abraded, the pubescence is rather dense on the sides of the pro- 
thorax and forms a cross in the middle (the cross-piece nearer base than apex; on 
the elytra it is pale on the red parts, and blackish on the dark parts. The distance 
between the eyes is slightly more than half the width of the rostrum. At a glance 
the front femora appear to be bidenlate, but this is due to the unusual prominence 
of the trochanters. 

Laemosaccus cylindricus, n. sp. 
Black, antennae, tarsi, tibiae, and parts of femora reddish. Irregularly 
■clothed with golden pubescence, becoming whitish on under surface. 

Eyes krge and close together. Rostrum long (slightly longer than front 
tibiae), thin, cylindrical, shining, and feebly curved; with dense and fairh coarse 
punctures about base, becoming smaller and sparser in front. Antennae inserted 
about two-fifths from base of rostrum. Prothorax siightlv longer than wide 
sides feebly rounded, slightly constricted near apex, which is not much narrower 
than base, median line feeble; with small crowded punctures. Elytra long, 
cylindrical, scarcely wider than widest part of prothorax; striatc-punctate, inter- 
stices with small crowded punctures, the fifth with a few granules Femora 
feebly dentate. Length, 2-5-3 mm. 



tf a& —Victoria: Dividing Range (Rev. T. Blackburn). Iype, I 16016 
A narrow cylindrical species, with outlines approaching those of Magdahs, 
In -eneral appearance it is close to L. festivus, but is longer and thinner, the 
rostrum is decidedly longer and thinner, and is not straight ; as it is alike on six 
specimens, taken bv Mr. Blackburn, they arc probably all females Ihe golden 
pubescence is dense on the sides of the prothorax, and irreguiar about me 
middle on the elytra it is fairly dense in the sutural region, and about apex, 
just beyond the middle it has a subfasciate appearance, owing to fine lines on 
most of the interstices. The distance between the eyes is less than one-third the 

width of the rostrum. 

Laemosaccus biseriatus, n. sp. 

Black antennae and tarsi reddish. Rather sparsely clothed with short, rusty, 
or golden-red pubescence, the elytra with two transverse series of go den spots. 

Eyes large, round, and moderately separated. Rostrum slightly longer than 
front tibiae/ and slightly shorter than prothorax, subcyhndncal, moderately 
curved ■ with rather coarse crowded punctures about base, smaller and sparser, 
but sharply defined elsewhere. Antennae inserted in middle ot rostrum, tro- 
thorax moderately transverse, sides gently rounded, and constricted near apex, 
which is feebly trisinuate ; a feeble remnant of a median carina m middle; punc- 
tures crowded and small. Scutellum small and round. Elytra rather long and 
cylindrical, scarcely wider than widest part of prothorax; stnate-punctate, inter- 
stices densely punctate and gently ridged along middle ; without distinct granules. 
Front femora acutely dentate, the others less distinctly so. Length, 4*5 mm. 

Hab— Victoria: Dividing Range (Rev. T. Blackburn). Type, I. 16017. 

A cylindrical species, with outlines approaching those of Magdalis ; no 
closely allied one has previously been named from Australia. The type is thinly 
clothed with short depressed pubescence, usually inconspicuous, but from some 
directions it appears of a beautiful golden-red; the golden spotson the elytra- 
are in two series, one at the basal third on the second to fourth interstices, the 
other at the apical third on the second to sixth interstices, but on the second 
series the spots on the third and fourth interstices are posterior to the others. 
The distance between the eyes is about one-third the width of the base of the 
rostrum. The type is probably a female, but was described, as its clothing is 
evidently in perfect condition; two somewhat smaller specimens (3'5-4 mm.) 
arc probably partly abraded males of the species, their pubescence is as on the 
type, but is sparser, and on the elytra the series at the apical third is very feeble 
and no trace remains of the series at the basal third; they have the 
rostrum somewhat shorter (although longer than the front tibiae) and wider, 
but with similar punctures, and with the eyes slightly closer together. 

Laemosaccus imitator, n. sp. 

Black, elytra almost black, antennae (club darker) and legs more or less 
reddish. Sparsely clothed with depressed, inconspicuous pubescence. 

Eyes large and round but widely separated. Rostrum moderately wide, 
slightly longer than front tibiae, distinctly curved and shining; with rather dense 
and coarse punctures at base, becoming smaller in front; with a shining impunc- 
tate line from base to antennae (which are inserted just perceptibly beyond the 
middle), where it terminates at a feeble longitudinal impression. Prothorax with 
outlines, punctures, and remnant of a carina as in the preceding species. Scutellum 
small and round. Elytra subcylindricai, scarcely wider than prothorax. Eemora 
each with a small acute tooth. Length, 3 mm. 

Hab. — South Australia: Port Lincoln (Rev. T. Blackburn). Type, I. 16024. 

A Magdalis A ike species, with curved rostrum, and widely separated eyes, the 



69 

distance between them almost equal to the width of an eye. The outlines arc # 
somewhat as in the preceding species, from which it differs in having shorter 
elytra, with sparser clothing, wider rostrum and more distant eyes; the seriate 
punctures on the elytra are much the same, but the interstices are less convex, 
and have sparser punctures. L. magdaloidcs is a smaller species, with eyes much 
closer together. The type, which is probably a male, has the general appearance 
of Magdalis stenotarsus, but the club is much shorter, and the third tarsal joint 
is wider. 

Laemosaccus quadriseriatus, n. sp. 

Black, antennae pale reddish, the club and tarsi darker. Upper surface with 
ochreous spots and markings. 

Eyes large, round, and well separated. Rostrum moderately long (slightly 
longer than the front tibiae), feebly curved, not very wide, sides slightly incurved 
to middle ; with crowded and moderately large punctures at base, becoming 
smaller but still dense in front. Antennae inserted slightly nearer base than 
apex of rostrum. Prothorax about .as long as wide, sides rather strongly rounded, 
median carina feeble but traceable on basal half. Elytra slightly wider than 
widest part of prothorax. Front femora acutely, the others more feebly dentate. 
Length, 4 '5 mm. 

Hab. — Tasmania: Cradle Mountain (H. J. Carter and A. M. Lea). Type 
(unique), I. 16018. 

The prothoracic outlines and punctures, and the elytral striae, punctures 
and granules, are as on most species of the genus ; but the markings should be 
distinctive, they are: a median line on the head from base to base of rostrum, 
a fairly large spot in middle of apex of pronotum, a longer one at base, and two 
small spots in middle (remnants of a cross), and some feeble spots at sides;, 
on the elytra the spots form four distinct transverse series, one at the base of 
rather long spots on the third and fifth interstices, with one on the margin 
(invisible from above) ; the second before the middle, on the first and second 
interstices ; the third beyond the middle, on the second to fourth and sixth to 
eighth interstices; and one on the third interstice at apex. The distance between 
the eyes, at their nearest, is about half the width of the base of rostrum. 

Laemosaccus niveonotatus, n. sp. 

I . Dark brown, antennae paler, parts of under surface black or blackish. 
Clothed with white and ochreous pubescence. 

Eyes large, round, and well separated. Rostrum not very long (slightly 
shorter than front tibiae), feebly curved and rather stout ; with dense and coarse 
punctures, somewhat smaller and sharply defined in front, but still dense; with 
a short median line. Antennae inserted about one-third from apex, in scrobes, 
parts of which are distinct from above. Prothorax slightly narrower than the 
median length, with a feeble median line, becoming feebly carinate at base, on 
each side of which is a feeble depression or fovea. Elytra depressed behind 
scutellum (which is within a conspicuous depression) ; the interstices with 
numerous small, flat, shining granules, but with many larger angular ones on 
apical third. Femora, especially the front ones, strongly and acutely dentate. 
Length, 5-6 mm. 

$ . Differs in having the rostrum smoother, subcylindrical, clothed only at 
extreme base, with smaller and more sharply defined punctures, nowhere eon- 
fluent, and clothed only at extreme base; the front legs are also shorter. 

Hab. — Queensland: Dalby (Mrs. F. H. Iiobler). 

Allied to L. tropicus and L, rivularis, from the former distinguished by the 
more numerous spots on elytra, and absence of a large patch of pubescence about 



70 

the scutellum; from the latter by the absence of an oblique row of spots on each 
elytron commencing at the scutellum (the two forming sides of a wide angle). 
The white pubescence is dense on the under surface, including sides of prothorax, 
but there are five ochreous spots on each side: two on the prosternum, two on 
the metasternum, and one at base of abdomen, but they are not sharply limited. 
On the elytra it is rather sparse about the base, and is condensed into numerous 
small spots in three posteriorly curved series, of these the first is at the basal 
third, on the first to fourth interstices (on two specimens present only on the 
second and third), the second is beyond the middle, irregularly extending from 
the suture to the margins (but on one specimen represented only by spots on the 
third and eighth interstices), the third is close to apex (on one specimen it is 
represented by three spots on each side, on another by one spot on each side, but 
it is absent from a third specimen) ; there arc also a few irregular spots between 
the two submedian series on two specimens. The ochreous pubescence is dense 
on the head between the eyes, and extends well on to the rostrum of the male; 
on the pronotum it forms a rather feeble cross, the long piece interrupted at the 
basal third, where two spots represent the cross-piece. The prothoracic punctures, 
and the elytral punctures and striae, are much as on many other species, but the 
elytra! granules are more numerous and conspicuous. 

Laemosaccus triseriatus, n. sp. 

Black, front of prothorax, elytra, legs (front ones partly black), and antennae 
more or less reddish. Clothed with pale ochreous or somewhat golden pubescence, 
dense on front of head and between the eyes, on the sides of prothorax, on 
scutellum, and on under surface, forming a cross on pronotum, and rhree trans- 
verse series of spots on elytra. 

Eyes large and subelliptic, separated about half of the width of base of 
rostrum. Rostrum slightly longer than front tibiae, somewhat curved, sub- 
cylindrical ; with fairly coarse but partially concealed punctures about base, 
becoming smaller but sharply defined in front. Antennae inserted slightly nearer 
apex than base of rostrum. Prothorax with a feeble median line in front, and a 
feeble median carina at base, on each side of the latter a shallow depression. 
Elytra with dense and minute granules, but becoming numerous and conspicuous 
beyond the second series of spots, a few on the third and fifth interstices else- 
where. Femora strongly (the front pair very strongly) and acutely dentate. 
Length, 5 '25 mm. 

Hah. — -Northern Queensland ( Blackburn collection). Type (unique), I. 16019. 

Allied to L. rivularis, tropicus, kilobits, and the preceding species, from all 
of which it is at once distinguished by the rostrum. On those species on the male 
it is wider, rougher, and grooved; their females have it shining, glabrous, and 
with small punctures. The sex of the type is doubtful, but it is probably male; 
its rostrum is long, slightly curved, subopaque but not rough, clothed from base 
to insertion of antennae, and its punctures are fairly coarse. The arms of the 
cross on the pronotum are represented by a spot on each side of the middle at 
the basal third; on the elytra the first series of spots is just before the basal 
third, on the second to fourth interstices, the second is somewhat sinuous, beyond 
the middle on the second to ninth interstices, and the third is near the apex. 

Laemosaccus microps, n. sp. 

Reddish-castaneous, prothorax and elytra with dark markings. Unevenly 
clothed with pale ochreous pubescence. 

Eyes round, comparatively small, and very widely separated. Rostrum 
short, wide at the base and rather wide at apex, straight, shallowly grooved along 



71 

middle and with dense punctures, sharply denned in front, but more crowded and 
partially concealed about base. Antennae inserted slight!)' nearer apex than base 
of rostrum. Prothorax about as wide as the median length, median line thin and 
traceable throughout; punctures normal Elytra striate-punctate, with numerous 
minute granules, and some larger rough ones beyond the middle, especially on the 
fifth interstice. Front femora strongly but somewhat obtusely dentate, the others 
each with a smaller but acute tooth. Length, 4 mm. 

flat. — Queensland: Cairns district (A. M. Lea). Type (unique), L 16020. 

The eyes are unusaliy wide apart, the distance between them being about' 
equal to twice the diameter of an eye. L. brevipennis, which has somewhat 
similar eyes, is a larger species, with a considerably longer rostrum, prothorax 
less convex (especially in front), elytra more concave about the suture, and very 
different clothing. The dark markings on the pronotum are due to rather slight 
infuscations, which form a distinct circle on each side of the middle at the basal 
third, the circles connected with other thin infuscations ; on the elytra, in addition 
to some feeble spots, there is a distinct oblique line front each shoulder to near 
the middle of the fifth interstice. There are three scminude spots on the head. 
As the rostrum is feebly grooved the type is probably a male. 

Laemosaccus latirostris, n. sp. 
S . Black and reddish. Clothed with pubescence varying from whitish to 
ochreous, and on the elytra forming three transverse series of feebly defined, 
elongated spots. 

Eyes fairly large but widely separated. Rostrum short, wide, and straight, 
slightly dilated to apex; with coarse punctures. Antennae inserted almost in 
middle of rostrum. Prothorax distinctly transverse, strongly convex, median 
carina traceable almost throughout, a distinct fovea on each side of its base ; 
densely granulate-punctate. Elytra short, with a few small granules on fifth 
interstice, elsewhere inconspicuous. Femora, even the front ones, rather feebly 
dentate. Length, 2 mm. 

Hob, — Queensland; Cairns district (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 16021. 

A very small species, with unusually wide rostrum, this, except for the 
jaws, being quite as wide as long. The elytra! markings are suggestive of un- 
usually small and pale specimens of L. sitbsignatus and L. queralits ,but the smallest 
specimens of those species before me are considerably larger than the largest one 
of the present; the eyes are also more widely separated (the distance between 
them is slightly more than the diameter of an eye). The four males taken vary 
in intensity of the colours. The prothorax is black or blackish, with the apex 
reddish; on the elytra there is a curved blackish mark from each shoulder to 
about the middle of the fifth interstice (sometimes represented by spots), and an 
irregular subapical fascia (on one specimen appearing as five isolated spots) ; 
the under surface is mostly blackish, the front femora (or ail of them) and parts 
of the head are infuscated. The inner margins of the eyes are accentuated by 
strips of pale pubescence. 

Laemosaccus scutellaris, n. sp. 

Black; prothorax, elytra, and antennae, except club, reddish. Sparsely 
pubescent. 

Eyes large and rather close together. Rostrum about the length of front 
tibiae, straight, cylindrical, and highly polished ; with sparse and minute punctures. 
Antennae inserted about basal third of rostrum. Prothorax slightly longer than 
wide, median line traceable throughout; densely granulate-punctate. Scutellum 
equilaterally triangular. Elytra moderately long and subcylinclrical ; narrowly 
striate-punctate, interstices with very fine granules and some of larger size, but 



none rough and conspicuous. Front femora moderately, the others feebly dentate. 
Length, 4' 5 mm. 

Hab.—Kew South Wales: Jindabyne (H. J. Carter). Unique. 

A red and deep-black species, with a short, straight, cylindrical \ rostrum, 
readily distinguished from all other species with red elytra by the comparatively 
large and conspicuously triangular scuteilum. The elytra, at the apical third, 
have a transverse series of thm spots of stramineous pubescence, fairly distinct 
on the second to fourth interstices, and traceable on others, the scuteliar region 
is slightly pubescent; the pronotum is glabrous, except about the base and apex, 
which are very feebly clothed. 

Laemosaccus cylindrirostris, n. sp. 

Black and reddish. A strip of pale pubescence along the inner side of each 
eye, elsewhere very feebly pubescent. 

Eyes large and separated almost the width of that of rostrum. Rostrum 
rather short, thin, straight, cylindrical, and shining; with sparse and minute 
punctures, becoming larger at base- Antennae inserted at base of rostrum. Pre- 
thorax slightly wider than long, strongly convex, sides strongly rounded, base 
much wider than apex; with a narrow median carina distinct from base to apex; 
punctures crowded' and rather coarse. Elytra rather long, parallel-sided except 
at base and apex; strongly striate-punctate ; interstices without distinct granules. 
Front femora acutely dentate near base, the others feebly dentate. Length, 
2*5-3 mm. 

Hah.— South Australia: Quorn (Rev. T. Blackburn), Morgan (A. M. Lea). 

Type, I. 16022. 

A small variable species, distinct from most of the genus by the continuous 
carina of pronotum and insertion of antennae. Two specimens have elytra 
coloured as on L. riifipennis, but that species has no carina on the pronotum and 
its rostrum is stouter; L. instabilis has similar rostrum and insertion of antennae, 
but is more coarsely sculptured, and has a groove instead of a carina on the pro- 
notum ; L. nifipes, with a similar rostrum, has the pronotum bifoveatc; L. varia- 
bilis and L. melanocephalus have the rostrum curved. The black parts of the 
type are the head, prothorax (except for a fairly wide vitta on each side), 
scuteilurn, sides and apex of elytra (rather widely), under surface, coxae and 
parts of hind femora. A second specimen has a large black spot in the middle 
of the pronotum (touching the base but not the apex), sides of the elytra but not 
the tips, black, and the hind legs entirely reddish, the rest as on the type. A third 
specimen has the pronotum and elytra entirely pale (its hind and middle legs are 
missing). They are probably all females. 

Laemosaccus nigrirostris, n. sp. 

Black; prothorax, elytra, antennae (the club more or less infuscated)^ and 
legs (the femora sometimes excepted) reddish. Sparsely pubescent, but with a 
transverse series of feeble pale spots, at the apical third of elytra. 

Eyes large and separated about half the width of base of rostrum. Rostrum 
short, rather stout, cylindrical, straight and shining; with sparse and minute 
punctures, but larger ones at base. Antennae inserted about one-third from base 
of rostrum. Prothorax rather strongly convex, about as wide as long,^ sides 
rather strongly rounded; with a short and feeble carina in middle, ending in 
front in a shallow median line; densely granulate-punctate. Elytra subcylindrical, 
the width of prothorax at its widest; strongly striate-punctate, interstices with 
dense punctures, and a few granules. Front femora rather feebly dentate near 
base, the others still more feebly. Length, 2 -75-4 mm. 



/a 



Ha&.— Victoria: Sea Lake (J. C. Goudie, No. 600). South Australia: Leigh 
Creek (Rev- T. Blackburn), Mount Lofty Ranges. Type, I. 1602o. 

Structurally close to L. rujipennis and L. ater, and with a similar rostrum, 
tat the ten specimens examined have the elytra uniformly coloured, except that on 
two from Mount Lofty Ranges, the ninth interstice is feebly miuscated about 
its middle; on ail the specimens I have seen of L. rufipennis the sides and apex 
of elytra, and most of the prothorax and legs are black ; on L. ater all parts are 
black, except the antennae and parts of the legs and the clothing. L. mclano- 
ccphalus, L. venlralis, and some, specimens of L. variabilis arc somewhat similarly 
coloured, but have the rostrum curved. The rostrum is stouter than m the pre- 
ceding species, and black or blackish, with the antennae inserted less close to the 
base There are a few distinct granules on the fifth interstice beyond the middle, 
and usually one or two on the fourth and sixth; but the specimens from I .eigh 
Creek are without any, although they are not otherwise aberrant. 

Laemosaccus pubicollis, n. sp. 

B'ack- apex of prothorax, elytra (except extreme base), antennae (the 
club somewhat infuscated) and legs reddish. In places rather densely clothed with 
stramineous pubescence. 

Fyes Wg<& and close together in front. Rostrum rather long (slightly 
Shorter than prothorax and distinctly longer than front tibiae), slightly curved, 
and subcylindrical; with numerous sharply defined but rather smaU punctures, 
becoming larger and more crowded towards base; with a thm shining median 
line from near base to near apex. Antennae inserted just perceptibly nearer 
ba-e than apex of rostrum. Prothorax slightly transverse; with a short, shining, 
median carina ; with crowded partially concealed punctures, Elytra with normal 
punctures, striae and granules. Front femora moderately, die others very feebly 
dentate. Length, 4 mm. 

Hab. -Victoria (C. French). Unique. 

To a certain extent resembles L. carinicollis, but the rostrum is somewhat 
shorter and less curved, and the eyes are closer together. The pubescence is dense 
on the front parts of the head (it appears as a very narrow line between tne 
eyes) on the pronotum (on which no cross is indicated, although the median 
carina is very conspicuous), covers a large subtrianguiar space at the base ot 
the elytra, and forms a fascia of elongated spots at the apical third; the ^apex 
and sides are rather sparsely clothed The third tarsal joint is wider, witn the 
claw joint less produced than is usual. 

Laemosaccus rufirostris, n. sp. 

Reddish; head, scutellum, and parts of under surface black. Moderately 
clothed with pale ocbreous pubescence, becoming stramineous on head and unriei 
surface. 

Eyes large, separated about one-third of the width of rostrum Rostrum 
almost straight, the length of prothorax, and distinctly longer than front tibiae, 
sides very feebly incurved to middle ; with sharply defined but not very large or 
crowded punctures. Antennae inserted about two-fifths from base of rostrum. 
Prothorax about as wide as the median length, sides feebly rounded but rather 
suddenly narrowed at apex ; with a shining median carina, almost traceable to 
base but terminated some distance from apex; densely granulate-puna ate. 
Elytra moderately long, not much wider than prothorax; striate-punctate nuei- 
stices densely punctate, the fifth and sixth with a few large granules, hemora 
almost edentate. Length, 375 mm. 



74 

Bab— Western Australia: Pmjarrah (A. M. Lea). Unique 
Readily distinguished from L. carinicollis, apart from colour, bv the almost 
straight rostrum. It is close to the preceding species, from which it differs in the 
red rostrum, more dilated at apex (this may be sexual), eyes slightly more apart 
pronotum entirely pale and with the usual cross-shaped pubescence and third 
tarsal joint less dilated. The clothing is fairly dense on the front o'f the head 
on Ac sides and apex of prothorax, and forms a cross on its middle ; on the elytra 
it is iairly dense on some of the interstices about base, forms long strips on 
most ot them m a transverse series beyond the middle, and is moderately dense 
on the tips. 

Laemosaccus semicrudus, n. sp. 

$ . Head, base of rostrum, scutellum, and under surface black elsewhere 
reddish. Sparsely pubescent. 

_ Eyes large and moderately separated. Rostrum short, stout, straight and 
with iainy coarse punctures about base. Antennae inserted near base of rostrum 
I rothorax slightly transverse, with a continuous median line, a small fovea en 
eacn side of its base; with crowded punctures. Elytra parallehsided except at 
base and apex, slightly wider than prothorax; striate-punctate ; interstices with 
crowded punctures, and a few rather inconspicuous granules. Front femora 
rather leebly dentate, the others still more feebly. Length, 2 mm. 

Hab.— Western Australia: Swan River (A. M. Lea). 

A female is represented by a head and prothorax, with their appendages ■ its 
rostrum differs from that of the male in being thin, cylindrical, and Mehiy 
polished Ihe species is near L. inslabilis, but the sculpture is not quite as coarse- 
the basal fovea* of the pronotum are smaller, and no median ones are traceable 
(they are sometimes iceble on that species) ; I have seen no specimen of 
mstabms with entirely pale elytra. The distance between the eves is about half 
the width ot the rostrum. 

Laemosaccus calotrichus, n. sp. 

3 . Black and reddish. Irregularly clothed with white and golden pubescence. 

Eyes large and round, their distance apart less than half their diameter 
Rostrum short and stout; with a shallow median groove, opening in front to a 
space where the surface is shining, and with sharply defined punctures. Antennae 
inserted snghtly nearer apex than base of rostrum. Prothorax about as lono- as 
wide, sides evenly rounded; with a feeble median line slightly elevated at base 
ana apex, with a conspicuous fovea on each side of the middle of base and a 
smail one on each side of middle (the latter usually containing a spot of' golden 
pubescence) Elytra distinctly wider than prothorax. Femora acutely dentate- 
Length, 4-5-o mm. J 

9. Differs in having the rostrum longer, thinner, smoother, and shining, 
with the punctures less crowded and more sharply defined. 

i/ofe.— Queensland : National Park (H. Hacker). Type in Queensland 
Museum; cotype, I. 16112, in South Australian Museum. yueensiaua 

r, ar i;t b , ea " tiflt ? , sp f j"' ? med \° L - tropicus, rwularh, and nivconotatus, bW 
readily distinguished by the markings. Regarding red as the ground colour the 
black (ot deeply mfuscated) parts are the back part of the head, muzzle a tri- 
angular space on pronotum (narrow at apex and dilated— but with incurved 
sl de S — tn it occupies almost the entire base), sides and apical fourth of elytra 
(but not the extreme tips;, most of under surface, pygidium, and front femora 
he white pubescence is dense on most of the under surface, forms a large basal 
patch on the elytra extending to the third (inclusive) interstice on each and to 



75 

about the middle of their length, with a short extension on each corner of the 
patch- many spots form an interrupted fascia at the apical third, and there are 
some at the apex itself ; on the pronotum there is a long spot between the basal 
foveae The golden pubescence is fairly dense in the front of the pronotum, 
and between and adjacent to the eyes. The pubescence, however, appears to he 
easily abraded. The punctures of the upper surface and the stnae and gr&rates 
of the elytra are as on many other species. 

ANTHRIBIDAE. 

There are before me hve beautiful species of this family, scarlet with black 
markings, or blackish and scarlet. In Blackburn's table of the family W they 
could either be referred to Epargemus or to new genera. In all of them the 
scrobe is turned obliquely under the rostrum, but in addition to the true scrobe 
there is a shallow depression on each side, that is directed below the lower edge 
of the eye. In two of them the rostrum is very wide at the base, being there but 
little narrower than the head, and it is feebly dilated to just before the jaws ; their 
colours are very different from those of the typical species of Epargemus, but I 
provisionally refer them to that genus. In the three others the rostrum is 
decidedly narrower at the base than the head, and is noticeably inflated m Iront, 
for these a new genus is proposed. 

Epargemus crucifer, n. sp. 

Black, elytra scarlet with a black cross ; parts of muzzle, basal joint of 
antennae, front of prothorax, abdomen, and metastcrnum reddish, parts ql legs 
obscurely reddish. Rather sparsely clothed with golden or whitish pubescence, 
nowhere forming fascicles. 

Head wide, densely longitudinally strigose and with a few punctures, hyes 
elliptic, the length of two basal joints of antennae. Rostrum wide and flat, at 
base scarcely narrower than base of head, slightly dilated in front, where it is 
slightly wider than long (excluding the mandibles) ; with crowded punctures in 
front, becoming strigose at base; with a thin median carina. Antennae with base 
concealed by edge of rostrum, first joint slightly longer than second, but apparently 
shorter, the others gradually decreasing in length to eighth, ninth to eleventh 
dilated,' and forming a conspicuous club. Prothorax slightly transverse, sides 
gently undulated to base, which is distinctly wider than apex; with a strong carina, 
rather- close to base in middle, sinuous and produced forwards on sides to near 
the middle ; with crowded and rather coarse punctures, suddenly becoming much 
finer about apex. Elytra not much wider than prothorax, about one-fourth wider 
than long; with rows of large punctures in feeble striae, the interstices with 
minute punctures. Under surface with rather coarse, irregularly distributed 
punctures, and with some minute ones; basal segment of abdomen with two small 
tubercles close together at middle of apex, and two much smaller ones similarly 
placed on second; apical segment with a small elliptic fovea. Length (excluding 
rostrum), 4 mm. 

Hah. — Queensland: Mount Chalmers (C. French), Unique. 

Tbe upright part of the cross extends to the first stria on each elytron for 
part of its length, about the base it is slightly dilated, but near the apex (which 
it does not reach) it is suddenly dilated to cover four interstices on each elytron; 
the transverse part is submedian, near the suture it is about one-fourth the length 
of the elytra, but is dilated to each side so as to extend to about one-fourth their 
length. 

(6) Rlackb, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr.. 1900. p. 142. 



76 ■ 

Epargemus bicolor, n. sp. 

Blackish-brown; front of prothorax, elytra (some blackish markings ex- 
cepted), metasternum, and abdomen more or less scarlet- Sparsely pubescent. 

Head wide, densely longitudinally strigose. Rostrum much as in preceding 
species, except that the surface is rather more coarsely sculptured. Prothorax 
slightly transverse, wider at base than at apex, with a strong carina fairly close 
to base in middle, diverging to the sides, where it is abruptly terminated; with 
crowded and rather coarse punctures, suddenly becoming much smaller in front. 
Elytra not much wider than prothorax, about once and one-half as long as wide ; 
with rows of large punctures, wider than interstices, but becoming smaller 
posteriorly. Under surface with large and small, irregularly distributed punc- 
tures; basal segment of abdomen slightly notched in middle of apex; apical seg- 
ment with a conspicuous fovea, shallowly connected with each side. Length. 
3 mm. 

Hab. — Queensland: Gayndah (G. Masters). 

The type has now lost the clubs of its antennae, but these when examined 
were similar to those of the preceding species; from that species it is distinct 
by its smaller size and incomplete cross. Parts of the muzzle and legs, and the 
two basal joints of antennae are obscurely reddish; on the elytra the suture is 
slightly infuscated, the infuscation near the apex having a cross-piece that extends 
across four interstices on each ; on each side, about the middle, there is a trans- 
verse black mark, beginning at the second stria, and dilated to each side so as to 
cover about one-fourth of the length. From directly above or below, each end 
of the prothoracic carina appears as a subtriangular tubercle. 

Allochromicis, n. g. 
Rostrum much longer than wide, base much narrower than head, sides 
strongly dilated in front. Other characters as in Epargemus. Type of genus, 
A. coccincus. 

A genus of three beautiful species that may be distinguished as follows: — 

Apical joints of antennae black bifasclahis 

Two apical joints of antennae pale. 

Prothorax with four black spots . . . . . . . . . . picticornis 

Prothorax without black spots . . . . . . , ; . . coccineus 

Allochromicis coccineus, n. sp. 

Scarlet, third to ninth joints of antennae black, two apical ones reddish-white, 
elytra with a faint spot near the scutellum, and four brownish ones across middle' 
Rather densely clothed with golden-red pubescence, variegated with small white 
spots; the under surface more sparingly clothed. 

Plead moderately convex, densely longitudinally strigose, but surface partially 
concealed. Eyes large and elliptic. Rostrum (excluding jaws) almost twice as 
long as the basal width, between antennae fully once and one-half the width of 
base; with a distinct median carina from base to apex, and a thinner one on each 
side from base to about the middle; with crowded and partially confluent punc- 
tures. Antennae with base concealed by sides of rostrum, first joint apparently 
shorter than second, but really longer, third slightly longer than second and fourth, 
sixth to eighth transverse, ninth to eleventh forming a loose club. Prothorax 
about as long as the greatest width (near base), subbasal carina strong, fairly 
close to base in middle, more distant on sides; with a shining median line from 
carina to about middle; with rather coarse and crowded, but partially concealed 
punctures, suddenly becoming smaller in front. Elytra slightly wider than pro- 
thorax, with a shallow impression across basal third; with rows of large punctures 
in feeble striae, the interstices with dense and minute punctures. Under surface 



71 

with minute punctures, and with a few large ones scattered about, but becoming 
numerous on prosternum, and between the eyes. Length, 4-3 mm. 
;^1> .—Queensland: Kuranda (R. P. Dodd). Type, I, 16008. , 
The club is loosely articulated, and subcontinuous with the preceding joints. 
The submedian spots on the elytra vary in size and intensity, the inner one is 
almost in the exact middle of each elytron, the outer one is slightly nearer the 
base. The abdomen on the tour specimens under examination is non-foveatc. 

Allochromicis picticornis, n. sp. 

Scarlet; prothorax with four, the elytra with seven black spots; second to 
ninth joints of antennae black, the two apical ones creamy-white. Rather densely 
clothed with golden or golden-red pubescence, becoming sparser and paler on 
under surface. Length, 5-6 mm. 

Hab.—'New South Wales: Richmond River (type m British Museum). 
Queensland; National Park, in December (Queensland Museum, from H. 
Hacker). 

The spots are alike on the seven specimens under examination, except thai 
they vary slightly in size and intensity; on the pronotum two round ones are 
placed in line with the eyes at the apical third, and two at the basal third some- 
what more apart, owing to the greater width there ; on the elytra one spot is on 
the suture at about the basal fourth, a transverse one is on the middle of each 
elytron, extending across two or three interstices, the others are on the sides : a 
large one at the basal third, the other slightly before the apical third. Structurally 
close to the preceding species, but larger and more robust, antennae stouter, with 
the ninth joint much larger, median carina of rostrum not quite extending to apex, 
shining median line of pronotum replaced by a feeble but longer ridge, which is 
not shining, and transverse depression on elytra more conspicuous. The abdomen 
is shallowly depressed along the middle, and the apical segment is conspicuously 
foveate, but all the specimens may be males. 

Allochromicis bifasciatus, n. sp. 

Scarlet and blackish-brown, elytra bifasciate. Moderately clothed with 
pubescence varying from whitish to brown, and in places somewhat golden. 

Head and rostrum much as in A. coccmcus, except that there are fewer punc- 
tures between the carinae. and that the median one of these, is somewhat shorter. 
Antennae comparatively thin, second joint slightly longer than third, and 
apparently (owing to the overlapping of the base) longer than first, the others 
smaller, ninth to eleventh dilated, and forming a conspicuous club. _ Prothorax 
with outlines, carina and punctures much as in coccineus. Elytra distinctly wider 
than prothorax; with rows of large punctures, becoming smaller posteriorly, and 
not in striae; interstices with small and rather dense punctures. Under surface 
with numerous minute ones, and some fairly large ones scattered about, and 
becoming dense on prosternum and apical segment of abdomen. Length, 3-3*5 mm. 

Hab. —Queensland: Brisbane (H. J. Carter); West Burleigh (Queensland 
Museum, from O. W. Tiegs). New South Wales: Sydney (H. W. Brown). 
Type, T. 16009. 

The club, although a rather loose one, is more conspicuously separated from 
the preceding joints than in the two other species, although owing to the flattening 
of its joints this is less evident from the sides than from above, where their full 
width is evident. The elytra are scarlet, with the suture infuscated to the basal 
fourth, where it joins a complete and rather narrow fascia (which is within a 
shallow depression), just beyond the middle there is another and somewhat wider 
fascia, which touches the sides at a less distance from the first than it is at the 
suture, beyond it the suture is also infuscated ; the median part of the suture is 



78 

not at all or but feebly inf uscated ; the metasternum and abdomen are almost as 
bright as the paler parts of the elytra, the apex of prothorax, parts of the muzzle 
ana legs, and two basal joints of antennae are somewhat reddish On one of the 
specimens the pronotum Is obscurely reddish, with darker zones near' the apex 
and Dase; on another specimen the scarlet of the elytra has faded to a reddish- 
orange. All three specimens have the abdomen non-foveatc, and are probably 
females. ' r - 

CHRYSOMEL1DAE. 
Rhyparida mlcrosticta, n. sp. 

t Flavo-testaceous, under surface somewhat darker, parts of slk or seven 
apical joints of antennae infuscated, elytra with four or six small black spots 

Head subopaque, a short median line connected with the faint clvpeal suture - 
ciypeus with distinct but rather sparse punctures, elsewhere without distinct 
punctures. Eyes prominent and widely separated. Prothorax subopaque and 
reeb ; y convex; punctures v^ry feeble; front angles acutely armed, the hind ones 
jeebiy so. Elytra about one-fourth wider than prothorax; with rows of rather 
large punctures, becoming smaller (but still quite distinct) posteriorly Flanks 
ot presternum smooth and shining. Femora unarmed. Length 4-5-5 mm 

Hob.— Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type, I 15553 
Structurally very close to R. flava, but elytra with four or six spots (some- 
what approaching those of R. brevilineata, but the prothorax of that species is 
very diiterent; ; on each elytron they are placed as follows : one (about the length 
ot the scutcLum) at the basal fourth between the sixth and seventh rows of 
punctures one (twice the length of the scutellum or slightly more) between the 
turd ana fourth rows (disregarding the short subscutellar row) at the summit of 
the apical slope, and one, slightly in advance of the second spot, between the 
seventn and eighth rows; the third spot, however, is not always present The 
elytra (except for the spots; are paler than the rest of the upper surface the 
knees and tarsi are slightly darker than the rest of the legs. Three specimens 
were obtained. 

Rhyparida rufoparva, n. sp. 

Iveddish-castaneous, antennae and legs paler. 

Head subopaque, a deep median line between eyes; with rather dense and 
sharply defined punctures on ciypeus, smaller but also well-defined about base. 
Eyes large, the distance between them scarcely one-third the diameter of each 
Prothorax subopaque, more than twice as wide as long, flattened in middle, front 
angles unarmed; punctures larger on sides than in middle, where they are rather 
small. Elytra at base not much wider than prothorax; with rows of moderately 
large punctures, becoming smaller and less regular at apical slope. Sides of pro- 
sternum striated from base to apex. Femora unarmed. Length, 2*75-3 mm 

//a&— Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type, I. 15556. 

A small dingy species, about the size of R. mcgalops, and with similar eyes, 
but there is a conspicuous impression between them, and the prothorax is wider 
and subopaque ; m proportion the eyes are much as on the varieties of R apici- 
penms, from Connexion and Woodah Islands, but the prothorax is subopaque 
and the size is consistently less; the eyes are much closer together than on 
R apicahs, and all its varieties. The elytra are slightly paler about apex than 
about base, but the shades are not sharply defined. Four specimens were obtained. 

Colaspoides cariniventris, n. sp. 
S . Black, upper surface with a slight coppery gloss, under surface in parts 
with a coppery-green gloss, parts of legs dull red, palpi and four or five basal 
joints of antennae flavous, the others partlv or entirelv infuscated. 



79 

Head with numerous sharply defined punctures of moderate size, denser on 
elypeus than elsewhere; with a small inter-ocular fovea, and a small shining space 
near the base of each antenna. Eyes large and prominent. Antennae long and 
thin. Prothorax with sides strongly rounded and not dentate about middle, base 
distinctly wider than apex, hind angles feebly dentate; with rather large punc- 
tures, dense on sides but irregular about middle. Elytra about one-fourth wider 
than prothorax; with rather coarse punctures, more or less confluent behind 
shoulders, confined to striae between costate intervals on apical slope. Flanks of 
prosternum with some large punctures. Abdomen with small and moderate 
punctures, becoming coarse on intercoxal process; fourth segment twice the length 
of third, a shining flat ridge along middle, on each side of which is a depression; 
fifth segment short, the middle of its apex widely notched for the intrusion oi 
pygidium; the latter with an acute median ridge. Legs rather long; front femora 
feebly but acutely dentate. Length, 5 mm. 

9 . Differs in being shorter and more convex, antennae shorter, with fewer 
joints pale, prothorax more transverse, abdomen more convex, with sparser 
punctures, those on the intercoxal process smaller, fourth segment simple, no 
longer than third or fifth, the fifth gently and evenly incurved at apex, and the 
legs shorter, with the basal joint of the front and middle tarsi smaller. 

Hob. — Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. R. Tindale). Type, I. 15557. 

Evidently belongs to the second section of Colaspoides, but has more the 
appearance of C. hoblerae of the first section, from that species it differs in being 
more compact, in the front femora and in the abdomen of the male. It has the 
general appearance of Geloptera armiventris, but the sides of the prothorax are 
unarmed (except for the basal angles), and the abdomen of the male is very 
different. Owing to the irregularity of its punctures the pronotum appears to 
have five feeble elevations, on "the elytra there are also some feeble elevations, 
due to the irregularity of punctures. The abdomen of the male has two irregular 
rows of long dark hairs. Three specimens were obtained. 

Colaspoides excaviventrls, n. sp. 

$ . Black, with a coppery or coppery-green gloss, legs reddish, in parts 
infuscated, palpi and four or five basal joints of antennae flavous* the others 
partly or entirely infuscated. 

Head with rather dense, sharply defined punctures of moderate size; with a 
faint inter-ocular depression, and a small shining space near the base of each 
antenna. Prothorax with sides strongly rounded and unarmed, except for the 
basal angles (which are very feebly produced) ; with dense and rather coarse 
punctures near sides, becoming smaller and irregular about middle. Elytra 
rather elongate; with strong punctures, frequently transversely confluent, but on 
apical slope mostly confined to striae between well-defined costae. Flanks of 
prosternum with large punctures. Abdomen with sparse and inconspicuous 
punctures, except for some rather large ones on intercoxal process ; fourth seg- 
ment almost fiat in middle, more than twice the length of third, and widely 
excavated for the reception of fifth segment ; the latter excavated to receive the 
pygidium. Legs rather long, especially the hind tibiae, front femora minutely 
dentate. Length, 4-4*5 mm. 

9 . Differs in being slightly wider and more convex, abdomen more convex, 
fourth segment no longer than third or fifth, and not excavated at apex, inter- 
coxal process with sparser and smaller punctures, and antennae and legs shorter, 
with the front femora unarmed. 

Hab, — Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. B. Tindale). Type, I. 15561. 

Referred to Colaspoides for the same reasons as for the preceding species, 
from wdiich it differs in being smaller and less robust, with a more distinct 



so 

greenish gloss, and in the abdomen of the male. The tooth on each front femur 
of the male is very small but quite distinct from some directions. Six specimens 
were obtained. 

Tomyris antiqua, n. sp. 

6 . Of a rather dull coppery-green, becoming bright on parts of upper 
surface, labrum, antennae (except extreme tip), palpi, and legs (except claws) 
flavous. Upper surface densely clothed with short, depressed, uniform, pale 
pubescence. i 

Head wide; with small crowded punctures, with a small shining space near 
the base of each antenna, and with a small median carina. Eyes large and pro- 
minent. Antennae long and thin, extending beyond hind coxae. Prothorax with 
punctures much as on head. Elytra with slightly larger punctures than on pro- 
thorax. Fifth segment of abdomen with a small median fovea. Length, 3 mm. 

9 . Differs in being slightly wider, upper surface coppery, parts of under 
surface coppery-red, antennae shorter with five or six apical joints partly or 
entirely infuscated, abdomen more convex, non-foveate, and legs shorter. 

Hab. — Northern Territory: Groote Eylandt (N. E. Tindale). Type, I. 15559. 

The prothoracic pubescence from some directions appears to be parted in 
the middle, but rather less distinctly than on T. mediana, from which it also 
differs in being smaller and more compact, and with more of the antennae of the 
female dark ; ^ passing that species in my table it would be associated with 
T, qiieenslandica, which is smaller, narrower in proportion, and much darker; 
the only other species known from the Northern Territory is T. longa, which 
is a much larger and otherwise very different species. The elytra! punctures, 
although larger than the others on the upper surface, are not individually distinct, 
they cause the derm to appear very finely granulated. One male and nine females 
were obtained on the island. 

Sphaeroplryma annipes, n. sp. 

Flavous, a discal spot on pronotum, most of sterna, base of abdomen, and 
apical half of antennae more or less deeply infuscated. 

Head minutely punctate. Eyes large and rather close together. Antennae 
rather long, very close together at the base, first joint about as long as the three 
following combined, five apical joints conspicuously flattened. Prothorax at base 
about four times as wide as the median length, sides strongly narrowed to apex, 
narrowly margined, but margins slightly dilated at apex; with dense and sharply 
defined punctures; with three small f oveae : a medio-basal one, and a smaller one 
almost midway between this and each of the front angles. Elytra rather wide, 
sides evenly rounded ; with almost regular rows of fairly large, sharply defined 
punctures, the interstices with numerous smaller but also' sharply defined ones. 
Abdomen with an elongate-oval elevated space on inter-coxal process, apical seg- 
ment longitudinally impressed. Hind femora very wide and subtriangular ; hind 
tibiae conspicuously grooved along upper surface, outer edge subtriangularly 
notched near apex, inner edge rather strongly incurved there, apex strongly 
incurved, with one side acutely produced, in addition with a strong stout spur 
fully as long as two basal joints of tarsi; basal joint of hind tarsi slightly longer 
than two following joints combined. Length, 2*5 mm. 

Hab.— Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 7625. 

Having taken but a single specimen on the island, it does not appear desirable 
to break it to be sure of the front coxal cavities, but placed side by side with a 
specimen of Sphaerophyma simoni it appears to have the same kind of sterna 
(the intercoxal process of the mesosternum appears as a narrow transverse line 
on both), similar elytra! epipleurae, the same curious abdominal elevation, and 



81 

very similar hind legs. From siwoni it differs in being much smaller, narrower, 
punctures more pronounced, pronotum with three small foveae, and hind tibiae 
with longer spur. The colour is probably not to be depended upon. The type 
appears to be a male. 

Crepidodera fuscitarsis, n. sp. 

Castaneo-rlavous, legs rlavous, the iarsi infuscated, antennae with basal half 
(or less) flavous, the rest infuscated. 

Head rather large, base strongly convex, a narrow carina in middle separating 
bases of antennae ; almost impunctatc. Eyes rather large, moderately prominent, 
rather coarsely faceted. Antennae rather long and thin, first joint about as long 
as second and third combined, third slightly longer and thinner than second, the 
others subequal. Prothorax strongly convex, about once and one-half as wide 
as long, apex truncate, base lightly bisinuate, margins very narrow, subangulate 
in front, near base with a light bisinuate impression; with dense but small and 
inconspicuous punctures. Scutellum small and strongly transverse. Elytra sub- 
ovate, widest near basal third, shoulders strongly rounded ; with rows of rather 
large punctures in light striae, both punctures and striae becoming feeble pos- 
teriorly, interstices almost impunctatc. Legs rather short ; hind tibiae feebly 
mucronate at apex, not longitudinally grooved ; claws each with a stout basal 
appendix. Length, 3 '25-3* 75 mm. 

Hab.— Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea and wife). Type, I. 7624. 

The front coxal cavities are seen (with the presternum separated from the 
mesostcrnum) to be conspicuously closed behind, hence, according to Blackburn's 
table of the subfamily/ 7) the species, as it agrees with other characters of that 
tabic, could only be referred to Crepidodera, unless to a new genus (and this I 
am not prepared to propose). In several British species of Crepidodera (in the 
Museum) the transverse impression of the pronotum abruptly ends in a longi- 
tudinal one, some distance from each side; in the Queensland C. indicica, the 
longitudinal impressions are shorter but still well pronounced ; but on the present- 
species the longitudinal impressions are but vaguely indicated and the transverse 
impression is feebly continued beyond them. The base of the head is vaguely 
infuscated, and on one specimen there is an infuscate spot on the pronotum; 
some specimens have the under surface considerably darker (almost black) than 
the elytra; the suture is usually lightly infuscated at the summit of (he apical 
slope, and there is usually a vague infuscation extending backwards from each 
shoulder to about the middle of the elytron, Eive specimens were beaten from 
ferns from the summit of Mount Gower. 

Two specimens, obtained under similar circumstances to the others, are 
somewhat smaller, more brightly castaneous, with the post-humeral infuscations 
more pronounced, and the prothoracic punctures larger and more sharply denned. 

Crepidodera instabilis, n. sp. 

Castaneous, elytra maculate or not; under surface black or blackish, antennae 
flavous, becoming infuscated towards apex, legs rlavous, the hind femora 
castaneous. 

Head much as in preceding species, except that the eyes are slightly larger ; 
antennae shorter but otherwise much the same. Prothorax with outlines much 
as in preceding species, but the transverse bisinuate impression more sharply 
defined, and the punctures larger and more sharply defined, although still small. 
Elytra distinctly wider than prothorax at base, sides dilated to beyond the middle ; 
punctures and striae much as in preceding species. Length, 2-25 mm. 

Hab. — Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea and wife). Type.. I. 7622. 

(?) Blackb.. Ante, 1896, pp. 40, 41. 



82 

Certainly congeneric with the preceding species, but still more aberrant from 
Crepidodcra, by the entire absence of longitudinal impressions from the disc of 
the pronotum, and by the transverse impression continued without interruptions 
to the fine lateral gutters. On breaking off the prothorax, and examining the 
front coxae directly from above, their cavities appear to be open behind, but on 
examining them from behind a narrow depressed ridge is seen to connect the 
intcr-coxal process with the outer portion, although less noticeably so than on 
the preceding species. Of this species twelve specimens were obtained: nine by 
beating ferns on the summit of Mount Gower, and three from tree-ferns on 
Mount Ledgbird ; six of the former are of uniform size (2 - 25 mm.), and of these 
two, A, have a large blackish isolated median spot on the disc of each elytron; 
two, B (including the type), have each spot extended to the shoulder and 
side, so as to occupy a large subtriangular space; one, C, has the spot similarly 
extended but not so deeply iufuscated, and the sixth has the spots scarcely indi- 
cated. The three from Mount Ledgbird are slightly larger (2*5-2*75 mm.) ; two, D. 
arc entirely pale, except for a slight infuscation of the antennae, and the third, E, 
has spots as on A, and in addition an infuscate spot on the pronotum. The other 
three from the summit are still larger (2*75-3 mm.) ; one, F, is entirely pale, except 
that the antennae are deeply infuscated towards the apex, and that the head and 
prothorax are of a brighter castaneous than the elytra; one, G, has the elytra pale, 
except for a slight infuscation of the suture and punctures, but its under surface 
and apical two-thirds of the pronotum are rather deeply infuscated; the other 
specimen, H, has the black markings extended to cover most of the elytra, leaving 
only a bisinuate space on each side, and an obscure spot close to the suture pale, 
it has a deeply infuscated spot on the pronotum, and most of its under surface is 
black, with the hind femora partly infuscated. 

Goweria, n. g. 

Head moderately large. Eyes moderately large, prominent and coarsely 
faceted. Antennae rather long and thin, rather close together at base. Apical 
joint of maxillary palpi conical, not much longer than the subapical one. Pro- 
thorax strongly convex, widely transverse, margins very narrow, without discal 
sulci. Scutellum very small. Elytra strongly convex, with rows of large punc- 
tures in light striae. Legs rather short ; hind femora very stout ; hind tibiae lightly 
mucronate; basal joint of hind tarsi as long as two following joints combined, 
claws each with a stout basal appendix. 

\n Blackburn's table of the Ilalticides, would be associated with AA (on 
breaking oil the prothorax the front coxal cavities appear to be widely open; on 
looking at them from behind a narrow ridge, considerably below the level of the 
inter-coxal process, is visible, exactly as on Sutrea, given in the table as having 
the cavities open behind), BE, CC, D, E, F, G, II, I, J, KK—Phylloirela; from 
which it differs in the shape of its head and prothorax, and in the striation of its 
elytra. In its head and elytra it approaches the two preceding species, but the 
complete absence of discal sulci from the pronotum would appear to forbid its 
reference to Crepidodcra. 

Goweria obscura, n. sp. 

- Black or piceous, some parts paler. 
Head with a bisinuate impressed line from eye to eye, a narrow carina 
between bases of antennae; almost impunctate. Antennae slightly passing base 
of abdomen, first joint slightly longer than second and third combined, second 
slightly shorter and stouter than third, the others to tenth subequal in length and 
slightly increasing in width, eleventh distinctly longer than tenth. Prothorax 
about once and one-half as wide as the median length, but more than twice the 



83 

length of the sides, apex truncate., base lightly bisinuate; margins very narrow 
and oblique but subangularly dilated in front; punctures very minute' Elytra 
widest at about basal third, shoulders strongly rounded; with regular rows of 
rather large punctures in light striae, becoming smaller posteriorly. Basal seg- 
ment of abdomen slightly longer than three following combined. Length, 
2 -5-2 *75 mm. 

Hah.— Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea and wife). Type, T. 7623. 

Seven specimens were obtained on the summit; of Mount Gower; they are 
all very dark, but only one specimen could be regarded as having most of the 
upper surface really black; the type (and several specimens agree well with it) 
has the head and prothorax of a very dark castaneous, the prothorax with a black 
(but not sharply defined) fascia across its middle, and the apex of elytra (and 
base to a less extent) diluted with castaneous; the legs and basal half of" antennae 
are more or less obscurely castaneous; the abdomen is usuallv obscurely pale at 
the Lip; one specimen has the hind femora infuscated. * - 

Three specimens, obtained at a much lower elevation, probably also belong 
to the species, but differ from the types in being smaller and differently coloured. 
One is castaneo-flavous, with a sharply defined black fascia across the prothorax, 
and a large black post-humeral blotch on each elytron, its under surface and 
tarsi are infuscated; the second is of a rather bright castaneous, with the elytra, 
legs, and abdomen pale fiavous, and on each elytron an infuscate post-humeral 
blotch; the third is still paler, with the post-hurneral blotches not traceable; all 
three have the antennae pale at the base and dark at the apex. 

Adimonia fugitiva, n. sp. 

Of a dingy livid fiavous, a mcdio-basal spot on head and three large spots 
on pronotum black; antennae blackish, bases of the joints, and under surface of 
the basal ones pale. Rather densely clothed with very short pubescence. 

Head with rather small but crowded punctures; with a narrow median carina. 
Antennae moderately stout, passing base of abdomen, first, joint slightly shorter 
than second and third combined, second distinctly shorter than third, fourth 
slightly longer than fifth, and distinctly longer than third, the others slightly 
decreasing in length, but eleventh slightly longer than tenth. Prothorax more 
than thrice as wide as long, sides rounded, basal angles rounded, the front ones 
acute; surface shagreened, and punctures usually not: sharply defined; with 
five shallow depressions. Elytra distinctly wider than prothorax* almost parallel- 
sided ; with crowded and sharply defined but not very large punctures, the inter- 
spaces minutely punctate; epipleurae moderately wide at base, disappearing well 
beyond the middle. Legs rather short and stout ; tibiae acutely carinated ex- 
ternally ; claws bifid. Length, 5-7 mm. 

Hab— Lord Llowe Island (A. M. Lea and wife). Type, I. 4462. 

The species belongs to Adimonia as defined by Blackburn (Ante, 1896, p. 86), 
except that the third joint of the antennae is distinctly shorter than the fourth, 
instead of longer; it is about the size of A. elegmis and A. richmondensis, but has 
the prothoracic impressions much less pronounced and punctures smaller, four 
basal joints of antennae very differently proportioned, etc. The colour is now as 
described, but living specimens are of a beautiful pale green. Of the spots on the 
pronotum one is round and near the base at the middle, the others are suhmarginal 
and vary somewhat in shape. The cephalic carina is sometimes sharply defined 
from the base to the clypeus (just before which it is interrupted), on some speci- 
mens it is feeble towards the base, but it is always conspicuous (and usually 
thicker than elsewhere) on the clypeus. 



84 

The species occurs also in Northern Queensland (Blackburn's collection), 
Cairns (E. Allen, J. A. Anderson, and A. M. Lea), and Port Denison. (Macleay 
Museum). 

Brontispa castanea, n. sp. 

Castaneous and shining, legs slightly paler than upper surface. 

Head produced in front of eyes, then rectangularly narrowed, and with a 
conspicuous grooved median projection; with coarse punctures between and in 
front of eyes, smooth at base. Antennae rather stout, slightly longer than head 
and prothorax combined. Prothorax about as long as wide, sides gently incurved, 
but near apex suddenly and strongly narrowed, and lightly notched, basal angles 
notched, near base with a narrow impression, deep across two-thirds, but traceable 
to the sides; with fine punctures, almost evenly distributed, but large and deep 
on sides. Elytra very long and thin ; each with eight rows of large, deep punctures 
on basal half, and near apex, but ten between these parts, interspaces with minute 
punctures, suture and second interstice carinated posteriorly. Under surface with 
minute punctures. Legs short and thick; tibiae suddenly curved at base and 
again at apex. Length, 8-9 '5 mm. 

Hah.— Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 7628. 

Structurally rather close to B. froggatti, but uniformly coloured, projection 
between antennae wider and slightly dilated to its truncated tip, prothorax with 
different punctures and angles, a narrow deep impression near its base, and 
elytral punctures not so closely spaced. A single specimen was beaten from a 
Kentia palm, there was another (damaged) specimen in the Australian Museum, 
and Mr. A. Musgrave recently took three more on the island. 



85 



A NOTE ON THE OCCURRENCE OF THE RAT MITE, LIPONYSSUS EACOTI, 
IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA, TOGETHER WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF CERTAIN 

STAGES. 

By F. G. Holdaway, M.Sc., F.E.S., 
Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide. 

[Read June 10, 1926.] 

The rat mite, Liponyssus (Leiognathus) bacoti, Hirst, first came under 
notice in South Australia, in February last, as a result of a communication from 
the city medical officer, who stated that shop assistants in a stationery establish- 
ment, in Adelaide, had complained of being bitten by tiny "insects," which on 
examination were found to be mites and were provisionally identified by me as 
Liponyssus bacoti. 

It was reported that rats were common in the building, and with a view to 
ascertaining if they were the sources of the infestation a request was made for 
rats, preferably alive, from the premises. Specimens of the grey rat, Radius 
norvegicus, both half-grown and adult, were found to have large numbers of 
these mites on them. They were in the nymphal and adult stages and a few 
engorged females, and some nymphs left the rats while the latter were still alive. 
Specimens of the mites were forwarded to Mr. Stanley Hirst, of the British 
Museum, who confirmed the identification as Liponyssus bacoti, Hirst. 

It was first described as Leiognathus bacoti by Flirst, in 1913 (4), from 
specimens from Egypt, and is now known from many parts of the world. 

This is the first record of the mite from South Australia, though it was 
recorded from Western Australia as long ago as 1908, and it does not seem likely 
that it is a newcomer to Adelaide. 

The earliest discovery of it appears to have been at Fremantle, Western 
Australia, in 1908, referred to by Dr. E. W. Ferguson (3), when Dr. J. B. 
Cleland reported that it was attacking human beings working on the wharves. 
Ferguson (3) has also recorded that in January, 1914, it was found attacking 
workers in a boot factory in Sydney. In this case the occurrence was traced to 
rats. In March, the same year, mites caused similar trouble in a shop adjoining 
the boot factory. In this case mites were numerous in the building and traces 
of rats were common. 

Although L. bacoti has never been recorded from South Australia before, 
it seems quite probable that it was the same species which was mentioned as 
attacking human beings in Adelaide in 1912. Dr. Cleland (2) states that "the 
employees of a manufacturing stationer were much bothered by small mites 
getting on their persons." On this occasion "rats, Mus decumanus (Rattus 
norvegicus) , were present in large numbers, even nesting among old papers," 
and "in such situations mites were in abundance and easily crawled on to those 
turning over the litter." Some of these mites were submitted to Dr. T. Harvey 
Johnston, who found that they ''approximated to Laelaps agilis' } though they 
differed in certain marked characteristics. L, bacoti at that time had not been 
described, so that it seems quite a reasonable possibility that the mite in question 
was L, bacoti. 

In addition to Australia it has been obtained from Egypt, the type locality, 
Abyssinia, and Argentine (4), also the United States of America (1) and South 
Africa (6). 



86 

Although L, bacoti was found on Rattus rattus and Acomys cahirinus m 
addition to Rattus norvegicus, in Egypt, the last-named seemed to be the prin- 
cipal host. This seems to be borne out both in America and in Australia. Bishopp 
(1) states that in United States of America all infestations investigated by bin] 
were "shown to have been associated with Rattus norvegicus." The initial out- 
break of the mite as a pest of man at Dallas, United States of America, "was 
coincident with a tremendous increase of rats in the city." 

The problem of controlling the mite is thus one of controlling the rats. 
Speaking of the American outbreak. Bishopp states "when the rats are driven 
out, the mite trouble soon subsides." The same has been found to be the case in 
Adelaide, where the dual task of reducing the rat population and spraying the 
building to destroy any mites which were still running about, has abated the 
nuisance. 

As far as is known at present no more serious consequences have arisen 
from attack by these mites other than intense irritation and inflammation which 
may last for some days, but with rats acting as the carriers of disastrous dis- 
eases the occurrence of these blood-sucking mites is one which should always 
have immediate attention. 

No adequate reason seems to have been advanced yet as to why the mites 
leave the rats in such numbers as to become an annoyance to humans. Bishopp 
says "it was thought, at first, that the scattering of hungry mites might be due 
to the destruction of their normal hosts, the rats^ but later observations did not 
substantiate this, as mites were found in great numbers where the rats were 
abundant and had not been disturbed." The presence of mites in the Adelaide 
shop was not due to the destruction of their normal hosts. Bishopp also sug- 
gests that "comparatively few mites found on the bodies of rats when running 
about away from burrows indicates that mites feed largely on young or adult 
rats while quiet in nests and hiding places, and that they detach themselves and 
remain in such situations/' This may be a partial explanation. I have had live 
rats (R. norvegicus) under observation and have observed engorged female 
mites leave them and crawl away. These females were confined in tubes and 
eggs were deposited by the following day. Hence, it would appear that one reason 
for mites leaving their host is the desire to oviposit. Moreover, the mites col- 
lected in the shop were adult females with, very little ingested blood, and this 
lends support to the idea. However, this cannot be the sole reason, as younger 
mites have also been observed leaving the rats. It is possible that, in the case 
of the nymphs, they leave in order to moult, but at present there is no evidence 
in support of such an idea. However, it was noted that such nymphs were fairly 
well fed and red with ingested blood. 

Engorged females are deep blood-red, but when deprived of food they 
assume a sooty colour, after a day, and on the second day are straw coloured with 
sooty markings, due to the blood in the caeca of the alimentary canal. Mites 
found free in a building are usually of this colour owing to the lack of ingested 
blood. On the third day, the body, which has decreased in size, is flatter and 
inclined to be slightly pyriform rather than elliptical in outline. 

The eggs are relatively large for the size of the mite, and as many. as nine 
may be laid without the female taking additional food. In one case four eggs 
were laid on the first day, four on the second, and one on the third. This par- 
ticular mite lived for five days after the last egg was laid, and during that time 
fed on blood serum W which was provided for it. This suggests that, normally, 
females will feed again after laying a batch of eggs, and may possibly lay more 
than one batch. 



CD Loffler's blood serum culture medium. The blood used in the manufacture of the 
medium was horse blood, 



87 

The Ego. 

The egg is elongate with rounded ends, smooth and shiny white, measuring 
•35 mm. to '36 mm. in length and "22 nun. across. 

Of those laid in captivity, all except one were deposited on or just under 
the cotton wool forming the plugs of the tubes in which the mites were confined. 

In less than a day more than three-fourths of the contents of the egg is seen 
to have become more dense than the remainder, which is clear and glassy white 
and occupies one end. The eggs batch in two days (dry summer weather). 

Lakva. 

The larva is white with the body bluntly elliptical in outline. The body 
measures '33 mm. to *34 mm. long and *21 mm. wide, and measured from the 
posterior of the body to the tips of the extended palpi is "41 mm. The hairs on 
the legs are short and those on the body very sparse and short, except on the 
posterior of the abdomen, where they are much longer. A very striking feature 
of the larva is the presence of three pairs of long hairs on the posterior of the 
abdomen and curved as in fig. 1, B. 



/ 



\ 




Mg. 1. A. Egg; of Li/wnyssus hacoti, Hirst, greatly enlarged. 
B. Larva of L. bacoti, drawn to the same scale. 



The larva moves about very sluggishly. In the cases under observation 
they moulted after a day without having partaken of any food. It would appear 
that there is some physiological reason for such a remarkable fact, but at present- 
it is difficult to advance one. The nymph which succeeds the larva is much more 
active. 

PliOTONYMPH. 

The stage following the larval stage is the protonymph in which the fourth 
pair of legs appears. 

It has been described in detail by Hirst, and, in addition to his description 
of its structure, the following notes made from live, freshly-moulted nymphs 
are added :— 

Just after emergence from the previous stage and before partaking of any 
food the protonymph is practically equal in size to the larva. It is '34 mm. long 
and *21 mm. wide. The nymph is white and the outline of the body is not quite 
so nearly elliptical as that of the larva, the sides being more nearly parallel. The 
hairs on the body are more conspicuous than those on the body of the larva and 



S3 

those on the posterior of the abdomen are relatively shorter than on the larva, 
the pair nearest the middle line, however, being slightly more prominent than 
the others. 

The spiracles are situated between the third and fourth coxae on the ventral 
surface. 

The mite in this stage moves more actively, running rather than crawling, 
as is the habit of the larva. However, it often progresses on the posterior three 
pair of legs, at the same time holding the first pair out in front and waving them 
from side to side as if they were sensory in function. (2) 

Nymphs of this stage have remained alive in glass tubes without food or 
moisture for eight days in hot dry weather. One nymph which was measured 
after five days' imprisonment was *32 mm. long and "20 mm. wide. 

Prctonymphs may be as large as "50 mm. long and '27 mm. wide and '60 mm. 
from the posterior of the body to the tips of the palpi. 

I am indebted to Professor J. B. Cleland for certain of the references to 
the occurrence of this mite in other parts of Australia, also to Professor Harvey 
Johnston for reading through the proofs of this paper. 

Summary. 

The rat mite Liponyssus bacoii, Hirst, is recorded tor the first time from 
South Australia and notes on the occurrence are given. 

The egg and larval stages are described. The larva moults without par- 
taking of food. 

Notes on the prolonyrnph are also given. 

Literature referred to. 

1. Bisiiopf, F. C— 1923, "The Rat Mite attacking Man." U.S.D.A. Dep, 

Circ. 294. 

2. Cleland, J. B. — 1912, "Injuries and Diseases of Man in Australia 

attributable to Animals (except Insects)." Anstr. Med. Gaz., 
xxxii., 12. 

3. Ferguson, E. W. — 1915, Sixth Report of the Microbiol. Lab. (Gov, Bur. 

of Microbiol.) for 1915, p. 253. (Extract from Rep. of the Director- 
General of Public Health, N.S. Wales, for 1915). 

4. Hirst, S. — 1913, "On three New Species of Gamasid Mites found on 

Rats." Bull. Ent. Res., iv., pp. 119-124. 

5. Hirst, S. — 1914, "On the parasitic Acari found on the species of Rodents 

frequenting human habitations in Egypt." Bull. Ent. Res., v., pp. 
215-229. 

6. Hirst, S. — 1925, "Description of new Acari, mainly on Rodents." Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Loud., pp. 49-69. 



(2) Adults which have been prevented from obtaining food have a similar habit. It would 
appear that sitotropic receptors may be present on the tarsi of the front legs, as has been found 
to he the case in certain ticks. 



89 



THE GEOLOGY OF THE VICTOR HARBOUR, INMAN VALLEY, AND> 

YANKALILLA DISTRICTS, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE 

GREAT INMAN VALLEY GLACIER OF PERMO-CARBONIFEROUS AGE. 

By Professor Walter Howchin, RG.S. 

[Read June 10, 1926.1 

Plates VII. to XVI. 



CONTENTS. 

I. Introduction 
II. Physiographical 

III. The Glacial Floor . . 

Archaean Rocks or Fundamental Complex (the '. 

Series) 
Adelaide Series ( [?] Proterozoic) 

IV. Glacial Features 

The Hindmarsh Valley 

The Inman Valley 

Crozier's Hill 

The Inman River Reds 

Back Valley Creek 

"Selwyn's" Rock and Neighbourhood 

The Upper Inman Valley 

Strangways Hill and Inman Hill 

Duck's Nest Greek 

Grossman's Road and Martin's Hill 

Bald Hills Water Parting 

Westward of the Bald Hills 

Second Valley and Rapid Bay 
V. General Remarks 
VI. Bibliographical References for South Australia 
VII. Description of Plates 



I. 





Page 


. t 


.. 89 




.. 91 




.. 94 


loughtoi 


i 




.. 94 




.. 94 




.. 99 




.. 99 




.. 100 




.. 102 




.. 102 




.. 103 




. . 104 




.. 105 




. . 107 




. . 108 




.. 110 




.. Ill 




.. 112 




.. 114 




. . 114 




.. 116 




.. 119 



INTRODUCTION. 

Of late years the evidence has been gradually strengthening that near the 
close of the Palaeozoic Era a period of intense glacial conditions prevailed over a 
large portion of the earth's surface. Whether both hemispheres shared in this 
refrigeration of climate to the same degree is not very clear, but the remains of 
this glaciation in the Southern Hemisphere, both with respect to its geographical 
extent and the low latitudes to which the ice was carried suggests that it was a 
period of unexampled severity. 

The Talchir and the Salt Range beds of India, the Dwyka of South Africa, 
and the Tillite of the Permian beds of the Falkland Islands f Halle], arc among 
the best known localities outside Australia. Other localities are: Parana, 
Brazil, (1 > Argentina, and, with less definite evidence, the Kinta District, Perak, 
Federated Malay States, < 2 > and, more recently, what appear to be important 
evidences of Permian glaciation have been obtained from the neighbourhood of 
Boston, U.S. of America. (3) 



O) J. B. Woodworth, Bull. Mus. Gomp. Zoology, Harvard College, vol. lvi., No 1 Geolog 
Ser., vol. x., Shalcr Memorial Series, No. 1 (Nov. 1912). 

(2) J. B. Scrivenor, Geologist to Fed. Maiav States, Geol. and Mining Industries of the 
Kinta Dist., Perak. Govt. Printer, 1913. 

O) R. W. Sayles, The Squanturn Tillite, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoology, Harvard College, 
vol. Ivi., No. 2, Geolog. Scr. ( vol. x. (1914). 



90 

It is a remarkable fact that these glacial beds of the Southern Hemisphere 
synchronize with a complete change of flora. The typical and very characteristic 
plants of the Carboniferous Period entirely disappeared and a new flora, destined 
to be characteristic of the Mesozoic periods, took their place. It seems probable 
that very great modifications of climate over large portions of the earth's stirface 
occurred at that time, which wiped out most of the older vegetation and pre- 
pared the way for new forms that were more suited to the altered conditions. 
While this is particularly true of the glacial areas, in other parts of the world 
the two floras, to some extent, overlap and commingle. 

The first evidences of ice-marks on the Australian continent were obtained 
in the Inman Valley, by A. R. C. Selwyn, Government Geologist of Victoria, 
who, in 1859, made a hasty examination of the geological features of the country 
from Cape jervis to Mount Serle, in the northern Flinders Ranges. This ex- 
perienced field geologist was quick to note a small patch of an ice-smoothed and 
striated pavement exposed by the wash of the River Inman. In his official report 
he states : — 

"At one point in the bed of the Inman I observed a smooth striated and grooved rock 
surface- presenting every indication of glacial action. The bank of the creek showed a section 
of clay and coarse gravel or drift, composed of fragments of all sizes, irregularly imbedded 
through the clay. The direction of the grooves and scratches is east and west m parallel lines, 
or nea-riy at right angles to the strike of the rocks ; and though they follow the course of the 
stream, I do not think that they could have been produced by the action of the water, forcing 
pebbles and boulders detached from the drift, along the bed of the stream. This is the first and 
only instance of the kind I have met with in Australia, and it at once attracted my atten- 
tion—strongly reminding me of the similar markings I had so frequently observed m the 
mountain valleys of North Wales." (1) 

Selwyn offered no suggestion as to the age of the glaciation nor did he 
correlate the polished pavement, he discovered, with the great thickness of glacial 
till and large erratics which overspread the whole of that country. 

In 1877 the late Professor Ralph Tate discovered a glaciated pavement aL 
Hallett's Cove, and at a meeting of the Philosophical Society of Adelaide, held 
on the 5th of February, 1878, it is recorded that he "exhibited a piece of rock 
from Hallett's Cove which showed a polished and scratched surface indicative 
of glacial action," (2). 

In 1885 Mr. R. D. Oldham, the Superintendent of the Geological Survey of 
India, obtained a glacially striated boulder from the upper marine beds, at 
Kranxton, New South Wales, which he regarded as the equivalents of the Talchir 
beds of India, thereby defining an Australian glaciation during the Permo- 
Carboniferous Period (Mem. Geo. Sur. India, vol. xix., p. 44). 

In 1887 Tate read a paper at the first meeting of the Australasian Association 
lor the Advancement of Science (Sydney) in which he gave particulars^of his 
discovery of glacial remains at Hallett's Cove, and considered that it was "highly 
probable" that the glaciation was of Post-Miocene age, (8). 

At the Adelaide meeting of the Australasian Association, in 1893, a small 
committee was appointed, assisted by a financial grant from the Association, to 
carry out excavations at Hallett's Cove to determine the stratigraphical relation- 
ship of the glacial till to the outcrops of the marine Miocenes of the neighbour- 
hood. It was then demonstrated that the till occupied a position inferior to that 
of the Miocene [Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. vi. (1895), p. 315]. 

In 1897, Professor T. W. Edgeworth David and the present writer visited 
the Inman Valley for the purpose, if possible, of finding the polished pavement 
mentioned by Selwyn. A fine example of the kind was discovered in the bed of 
the stream, a little west of the seventh mile-post from Victor Harbour, with others 
of less size, as well as large numbers of erratics encumbering the river channel 
and scattered over the adjoining slopes, (19). PI. ix., fig. 2. 



91 

Subsequent discoveries, of a like kind, were made throughout most of the 
country lying to the southward of the Willunga Ranges, including the valley of 
the River Finniss, Mount Compass, Waitpinga to Cape Jervis, the eastern side 
of Kangaroo Island, and the southern half of Yorke Peninsula, references to 
w T hich will be found in the Bibliography at the end of this paper. 

II. PHYSIOGRAPHICAL. 

The Inman Valley forms a part of a physiographical block-unit that can he 
defined by the Willunga Ranges, on the north; Gulf St. Vincent, from Sellick's 
Hill to Cape Jervis, on the west; Cape Jervis, Victor Harbour to the Murray 
mouth, on the south; and the mouth of the River Finniss to near Strathalbyn, 
on the east. This area, in its superficial features, is dominated by Permo- 
Carboniferous glacial remains. 

The surrounding highlands are the residuals of a Pre-Cambrian peneplain, 
more or less broken by earth fractures and river dissection that have operated 
through long ages. The conspicuous heights are Mount Compass, Mount Jagged 
(1,230 feet), and Mount Cone, on the eastern side; the Ilindmarsh Tiers, form- 
ing the watershed of the Hindmarsh River, on the north-eastern side ; Spring 
Mount, Scrub Hill, Moon Hill, and Kemmiss Hill, on the northern side. The 
southern barrier to the valley is formed by the Mount Desert and Mount Robinson 
range, at the head of the Back Valley Creek, and follows the watershed of the 
left bank of the River Yankalilla, making the dividing ridge between the Hun- 
dreds of Encounter Bay and Waitpinga. The Bald Hills form the watershed of 
the peninsula — the River Inman finding its exit to the eastward, near Victor 
Harbour, into the Southern Ocean; and the rivers Bungala and Yankalilla, 
flowing to the westward, have their outlets into Yankalilla Bay, in Gulf St. 
Vincent. 

As the Permo-Carboniferous glacial beds are relatively soft and yielding, 
they give way to the denuding agents much more quickly than the hard, crystalline 
and siliceous rocks on which they rest, the consequence is that the region is 
gradually resuming the physiographical features it presented at the time when 
the ice-sheet passed over it; or, in other words, there is being restored in the 
present day the main outlines which the locality presented in the late Palaeozoic 
time — a true "fossil landscape." 

There are three factors wdiich greatly influence the physiography of the 
district and produce strongly contrasted soils of a local character: — 

1. The inliers of older rocks, when they consist of slates and schists, weather 
down to a strong and rich soil that grows forest trees and is excellent for purposes 
of cultivation. These soils occupy the slopes of the greater heights. 

2. The upper beds of the glacial series are chiefly of a sandy nature and form 
a very light and poor soil that grows only a scrubby vegetation. This is seen in 
the secondary hills of the Inman and Hindmarsh valleys, and more particularly 
in the Mount Compass country where most of the ridges are of this kind. The 
line of division between the loose shifting sand of the glacial waste and the sedi- 
mentary soil of the older rocks is often very sharp. Thus in passing from Mount 
Compass township up the rise to Mount Jagged, we suddenly step from an almost 
worthless dune-like sand to rich garden and orchard soils which form the slopes 
of the higher ranges. 

3. The lower beds of glacial origin are, typically, tenacious blue clays which 
are highly retentive. These are seen in the valley bottoms where the erosion has 
cut down to this level. Seepage from the surrounding porous sandstone finds 
its way down to the clay and flows out on the valley floor, which develops a 
swamp. Hundreds of these swamps of various sizes are found throughout the 
district, more particularly in the Nangkita, Mount Compass, Hindmarsh Tiers, 



92 

and Myponga localities. The swamps of the flats, the white sand of the lower 
heights, and the dark-brown soil of the ranges, make very striking contrasts both 
when viewed at their lines of contact and when viewed as a whole. 

The deposits as originally laid down were powerfully influenced in their 
nature and extent by the local topography, as well as from the kind of rock 
which formed the floor of the ice-sheet. The greater heights received relatively 
small coverings of glacial waste while deep valleys with irregular outlines received 
correspondingly more. The ice-flood in scouring soft country reduced its trans- 
ported material to sand and mud, carrying only a small proportion of erratics; 
but in ploughing through hard and resistent rocks, such as quartzite and granite, 
its path would be marked by trails of large boulders. It is under the last-named 
circumstance that we find the most impressive evidences of the extinct glacial 
phenomena in South Australia. A wide granite belt — remains of which are still 
left along the coast from the Murray to Kangaroo Island — lay within the zone 
of glaciation and paid an enormous toll to the ice-plough as it crossed this area. 
The old granitic barrier was deeply scoured, broken into fragments, and trans- 
ported. The marvel is that, notwithstanding the inconceivably remote period in 
which this occurred and the geological changes that have swept over the country 
since then, so much of the old records have survived to tell their tale. 

The valley of the Inman was probably pre-glacial and fluviatile in its origin, 
but it could scarcely have been a main line of drainage. The pre-glacial drainage 
being from south to north, the Bald Hills, which form a transverse ridge of the 
older rocks, and encloses the head of the valley, would have proved a barrier to 
a north-flowing stream until cut through in the process of river grading. It 
might, however, have formed the head waters of a lateral stream, the bed of 
which subsequently underwent extensive erosion and was otherwise modified by 
the ice-flow. 

The Inman Valley, proper, has an average width of about five miles, but in 
its lower part, where it joins on to the Hindmarsh Valley (measuring from the 
head of the Back Valley Creek to the Hindmarsh River), it has a breadth of 
about ten miles, The deeper contours of the valley are still choked and obscured 
by glacial deposits. Its greatest depth is unknown, but a bore put down in the 
Back Valley Creek, within a mile of the south-western boundary ridge, showed a 
thickness of glacial sandstone and boulder clay of 964 feet, at which depth bed- 
rock was reached. This depth is about 800 feet below present sea level [H. Y. L. 
Brown, Record of Mines, S, Austr., 1908]. 

The River Inman has reached base level for some distance up from its 
mouth. The tidal area is more than a mile in length. Above this area the bed 
of the river is for the most part sandy, and in summer is largely dry, with a few 
waterholes where the water is borne up by glacial clay or a bar of old rocks. 
The river, within recent times, has cut for itself a small canyon in a wide river 
valley. The flood area, in the lower portion, is sometimes a quarter of a mile 
in width, there being a number of intricate waterways in scrub country. There 
appear to be two well-marked levels in the form of river terraces, the lower, at a 
height of 9-12 feet, and the upper, at 20-30 ft. The present valley, as a whole, 
has been excavated in glacial sands and clay. In a few places the old rocks 
show in the bottom of the stream, and in Section 173 the river has cut a deep 
gorge in these rocks. 

Within the tidal area the cliffs consist of a bottom set of beds of old con- 
solidated sand-dunes which weather into shelf-like ledges and are sometimes 
covered with travertine. Whilst the river is almost blocked at its outlet there is 
deep water on the inside of the bar. The broken edges of the indurated sands 
can be seen passing down almost vertically to deep water. Resting on these 
older consolidated sands is a bed of clay, about 6 feet in thickness, and this is 



93 

covered by blown sands that are red at bottom and white near the surface. The 
river is choked by the rapid waste of the country within the drainage basin. 

The physiographical features of the Hindmarsh Valley are closely similar 
to those of the Inman. Alternations of level are indicated in both cases — of 
deepening by base-levelling, and of elevation, by raised sea beaches. Examples 
of the latter arc seen in the banks of the Inman, and also at the mouth of the 
Hindmarsh River, in a small railway cutting at the viaduct that passes over the 
stream. These are estuarine beds that occupy a gutter of erosion in the glacial 
till. 

A submerged shelf, or reef, of glacial sandstone gives rise to the shallow 
water of Encounter Bay. It extends for about a mile from the shore and is 
largely covered by Serpula growths that often take a circular "atoll"-like form. 
[Sec Howchin, Geological Memoranda (Sec. Contribution), Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Austr., vol. xlv., 1921, p. 25, pi. v.] 

Economic qualities of the Soil. Speaking generally, the morainic material 
is of an argillo-arenaceous character. A yellowish sandstone that goes down 
readily to loose sand and, in places, includes a considerable proportion of gravel,, 
is very typical. The sand is often coarse and sharp. Its chief constituent is 
quartz with a small proportion of felspar. In some localities, as, for example, 
on the ridge going from the Inman Valley to Grossman's and the Grey Spur, the 
material is a coarse granitic sand which is used for road making. This is the 
debris that would naturally result from the scour of a granite floor and the dis- 
integration of innumerable granite erratics. In wet places the sand sets into a 
toughish floor, but on the slopes it is loose and white, and on the top of rises in 
the ground is often cemented by iron oxides into a hard, flaggy, red sandstone. 
This class of country is typically represented by white, incoherent sand, while 
the surface soil is of very low grade. The silicates, set free from the igneous 
rocks by disintegration, are not in a condition to yield plant food; indeed, a 
humus soil scarcely forms except as a thin surface layer with a hungry subsoil. 
The soluble ingredients, as well as the decaying vegetation, are oxidised and pass 
away in the drainage, leaving a leached and poor soil behind. The evidence of 
this process can be seen when after partial stimulus (as, for example, where a 
household with its back-yard refuse and shecp-pen have existed) a local oasis of 
grass and weeds is established, but if the place be deserted, in a few seasons the 
vital stimulus in the soil is lost and the patch returns to a state of nature which 
is often even worse than before. 

Under certain conditions this glacial sand may become very productive, as, 
for example : — 

(a) In a zone of junction with older diversified rocks on a hill side, the dis- 
integrated elements of the latter are washed down to the sandy ground, which is 
thereby enriched and becomes a productive loam. 

(b) Along river flats, as in the case of the River Inman and the Myponga 
River and their tributaries, which bring down in their flood waters glacial clay 
as well as sand, and these are intimately mixed in building up alluvial flats. 

(c) Where the ground has been bared to the glacial clay a strong stiff soil is 
formed which is retentive, and as this clay generally carries pockets and layers 
of sand, a good workable soil is often the result. 

(d) If these clay flats are situated in the lines of drainage, water gathers 
on the surface producing a swamp herbage, and, in the course of time, thick 
beds of carbonaceous matter accumulate, making a light, spongy, and turfy soil, 
which, when drained and properly cultivated, becomes highly productive. 

The natural herbage on the sandy ridges is proof of the poverty of the soil 
which is almost destitute of grass or other succulent plants. The Grass Tree 



94 

(Xanthorrhoea) is a very characteristic plant on these soils. With respect to the 
arboreal flora, according to Mr. Crossman, Blue Gum and Pink Gum show a 
preference for glacial clay, Stringy Bark grows chiefly on sandy ridges, and 
Peppermint on the slates and quartzites of the Adelaide Series. 

III. THE GLACIAL FLOOR. 

Archaean Rocks or Fundamental Complex (the Houghton Series). 

The north-western portions of the Hundred of Encounter Bay are occupied 
by the beds that form an Archaean Complex. These are bounded on the eastern 
side by the Basal Grits of the Adelaide Series., and on the southern side by glacial 
deposits through which inliers of the Adelaide Series protrude in places. The 
fundamental rocks are typically granitoid in their nature. In most places they 
take the form of a biotite granite, with a great preponderance of pinkish ortho- 
elase. Aplites, formed by quartz and felspar; and syenite, often banded and 
carrying epidote, are also common. Pegmatizcd schists with the pegmatite form- 
ing, sometimes, fully half the stone. Other varieties are biotite schists, often 
weathered to a dull, earthy-reddish, slate-like rock. Dark-coloured, heavy, and 
sometimes speckled basic dykes occur. A dyke of this kind, 35 feet wide, is seen 
in the upper portions of the Grey Spur Creek and can be traced for more than 
a mile in a north-easterly direction. 

In following the creek which comes in from the westward to the Grey Spur, 
through Sections 84 and 139, aplites are a leading feature; inferior to which are 
phyllitic schists and hydro-mica schists with sporadic developments of aplite and 
metamorphic quartzites with developments of biotite. Higher up the creek is 
a metamorphic argillaceous quartzite having a dip S.E. at 70°, penetrated by veins 
and bosses of aplite. Near the north-eastern corner of Section 139 is a large granitic 
mass, 13 feet by 8 feet, by 7^ feet high, isolated, and resting on the surface, which 
might easily be taken for an erratic, but by a careful comparison it is seen to be 
identical with the rock on which it rests. No glaciated surfaces were observed 
on these old rocks. Whatever may have existed in the past, the present condition 
of disintegration of the surface of these highly felspathoid rocks renders such 
glacial features an impossibility. 

The Fundamental, or Archaean, rocks which are continuous from the Grey 
Spur, westward, to the western limits of the Hundred of Encounter Bay, by way 
of Barn Hill, Sugarloaf Hill, and Town Hill, pass into the Hundred of Yankalilla 
by Moon Hill and Kemmiss Hill, situated on the northern boundary of the last- 
named hundred A range of these Archaean rocks comes southward from Kem- 
miss Hill, near to the main road east of Yankalilla, just behind the cemetery, 
where they end in a scarp face. The rock is of complex structure consisting of 
augen mica schist with intrusions of epidote syenite, lenticles of quartz, and 
veins of pegmatite. 

The Adelaide Series ([?] Proterozoic). 

Beds of this age formed most of the floor over which the great ice-sheet 
moved within the area under notice, and are mostly limited to the lower members 
of the series. 

The Basal Grits and Conglomerates make a prominent feature. The main 
outcrop forms what was locally known as the "Dog Hill," and later, as the "Grey 
Spur" [pi. viii., fig. 1], so named by the late Mr. D. H. Cudmorc, of "Adair." 
The spot is reached by crossing the Inman by the bridge known as "Crossman's 
Crossing," seven and a half miles from Victor Harbour, and following the road 
to Mr. J, J. Crossman's (two miles from the bridge) who lives within half a mile 
of the outcrop. (4) The "spur," which is 150 feet in height, consists of a coarse 

(4) Most of the observations recorded in this paper were made prior to 1911, so that 
some of the local references may have become obsolete. 



95 



conglomerate formed of pebbles of very hard quartzite, quartz, aplite, etc., up to 
18 inches in diameter, held together in a coarse arkose grit with much clastic 
ilmenite. The stones in the upper part of the bed are intensely worn and rounded, 
but towards the lower part the bed has been powerfully sheared and the pebbles 
gradually assume a flattened form and become drawn out in the direction of the 
shear plane, until reduced to lenticular cakes, and, finally, to horizontal quartz 
veins. [(35) Howchin, W., 1918, p. 343, fig. 267.] 

This basal conglomerate rests unconformably on the Archaean Complex, but 
is cut off by a strike fault on the northern side which brings in the overlying 
laminated slates, and, further on, the quartzite, into contact with the older rocks. 
The fault has a north-east strike with a downthrow on the eastern side. The line 
of fault is marked by quartz at the surface. The beds on the north-western side 
of the conglomerate are intensely broken and quartz-veined with a peculiar open 
structure. [See figs, in text.] 



The : 'Grky Spur 




B S 

Fig. 1. Vertical Section. 

A, Archaean. B, Basal Grits. 




A B S Q 

Fig. 2. Plan of Fault. 
S, Slates. Q, Quartzite. 



The conglomerate is seen again along the fault plane, at the south- 
western angle of Section 93, and can be traced, in a north-easterly direction, through 
Section 93, and the north-western angle of Section 94, to the ridge-road (as 
marked on the map, but is, really, covered by scrub) which follows the watershed 
that divides the Inman Valley from the Gum Tree Gully. The latter carries a 
swampy stream that empties into the large Edinburgh Swamp. The conglomerate 
trends across the Gum Tree Gully and forms the western banks of the Edinburgh 
Swamp. Throughout much of this line of outcrop the rock has been much dis- 
integrated and the pebbles occur loose on the surface. The rock is intimately 
penetrated by quartz veins which may have contributed to the breaking up of the 
rock. Whenever the bed passes near the head of the gullies the disintegration is 
not so evident and the rock outcrops in huge blocks similarly to that seen at the 
Grey Spur. In all cases the junction between the conglomerate and underlying 
older series is sharply defined. The outcrop is in a direction N.N.E. from the 
Grey Spur, and covers a distance of three and a half miles. 

There are two other outliers of the Basal Conglomerate, situated, the one 
two miles and the other two and a half miles to the south-westward of the Grey 
Spur. One of these is in Section 279, on the south-eastern flanks of the Barn 
Hill, on the right bank of a creek which is a tributary to the chief north and 
south creek known as Charley's Creek. In the bed of the creek, on the northern 
side of the outcrop, is a good exposure of the older series in the form of peg- 
matised schists with large folia faces showing a dip S. 20° E., at 37°. The grits 
and conglomerates are on the right bank, just above the stream, and run in a 
nor'-west by west direction exposing very large blocks and faces of coarse con- 
glomerate near the top of the hill. The beds can be traced across a small steep 
creek and are then lost to view, probably cut off by a fault. Lower down the 



96 

small steep creek, just mentioned, the overlying slates can be seen with a dip S.E. 
at 57°. The strike of the conglomerate bed is 20° S. of W., and on the ridge 
S.W. and N.E. For aboiit half a mile further to the south-westward, the con- 
glomerate is replaced by the Pre-Cambrian schists and quartzites, but in Sec. 280 
the conglomerate reappears in a strike 35° E. of N. This ridge goes down to the 
south-west corner of Sec. 280, in a direct line with Mr. II. T. Martin's house, 
where the rock passes out of view under the cover of the plain. Sugarloaf Hill, 
which succeeds on the western side, consists of the Pre-Cambrian slates and 
quartzites, and these continue in a westward direction. 

On the northern flanks and towards the centre of the valley of the Inman 
the bed rock is a very hard siliceous quartzite which was well adapted to receive 
and retain the glacial polish and striae. Wherever this rock was seen exposed 
contiguously with the morainic material it was highly glaciated. 

The Mount Robinson Range, wdiich forms the southern boundary of the 
valley, is composed of fine-grained laminated quartzite. At the head of the Back 
Valley Creek the rock showed a zone in which the stone was brecciated, dip 
S. 10° W. at 45°. Near the Raid Hills, above Miss Mayfleld's house [Sec. 348], 
the stone is a laminated micaceous quartzite, dip S. 20° E. at 58°. In a quarry 
on the ridge, a vein of quartz, two and a half inches wide, in the quartzite showed 
a selvage of quartz and felspar with small crystals of felspar in the quartz vein 
itself, approximating to a small intrusion of pegmatite. The slaty portions of 
the section are extremely contorted, being crushed into close folds and acute 
curves. 

The bed rocks of the south-eastern portions of the Inman Valley (including 
the islands off the coast) differ considerably from those further inland. The 
coastal islands and the seaward portions of Rosetta Head [the Bluff] form part 
of a great granite belt of unknown width. The granite intrudes a sedimentary 
series which, as superior in position to the Basal Grits, can be no other than the 
Adelaide Series. Unfortunately, on account of the mantle of morainic material 
that covers most of the intervening space, a continuity of the rocks cannot be 
followed between the Grey Spur and the coast. The River Inman, in its lower 
portions, is choked by sand, except where it cuts through the rocks in a spur from 
Glastonbury Hill, and is therefore useless for the purpose. An attempt was 
made to find an order of succession by following up the Freshwater (or Deep) 
Creek which flows past the Grey Spur, but the course of the creek is at a rather 
low angle, as opposed to the strike of the beds, which did not give the best results. 
It was noted that, for some distance, the stream followed the strike, with phyllites 
(wmich follow next in order to the conglomerate) on its right bank and a fine- 
grained quartzite on its left. The dip slope of the phyllites to the creek gave the 
reading of E. 20° S. at 55°, increasing in places up to 80°. These phyllites vary 
in colour from light-grey to black, are sometimes finely laminated, and frequently 
contain quartz veins parallel with the folia. A few examples of a white to creamy 
coloured fine-grained marble were found among the gravel of the creek that 
closely resembled the Lower River Torrens-Limestone which occurs above the 
Basaf Conglomerate in the Torrens Valley, but the rock was not seen in situ. A 
few specimens of a bluish calcareous rock and one or two examples of a black 
cherty rock w r ere also picked up that were suggestive of the Upper River Torrens- 
Limestone. These beds are no more altered than are those that overlie the Basal 
Conglomerate near Adelaide. 

On nearing the coast, by Glastonbury Hill, the evidences of metamorphic 
action become more apparent in the dark-coloured quartzite, known as "blue- 
stone," which is quarried to obtain metal for the roads. 

The granite of the coast is quite distinct from the Archaean granitoid rocks 
(that underlie the Basal Conglomerate) and of much later age. It is an intrusive 



97 

rock, and is therefore younger than the rocks which it intrudes. On the assumption 
that the latter belong to the Adelaide Series, the granite must be newer, at least, 
than the Proterozoic Age — possibly Cambrian. 

On the beach road, going to the Bluff, the bed rocks are highly schistose and 
show anticlinal folds. They first dip S.E. at 45°, then N.W. at 50°, and then S. 
at 30°, Near the granite intrusion the schists are intimately penetrated by the 
granite and have undergone intense contortion. 

Going up the road from Encounter Bay, over the rise to Hall's Creek (Sec. 
179), there arc quarries in hard siliceous schist-quartzite, similar to that at the top 
of Glastonbury Hill, with dip E. 20° S. at 65°. On the hill going up the Waitpinga 
Road the schists dip W. 30°' N. at 75°. Along the coast, going west, the slates 
(or schists) dip to some point to the south-east, usually at a high angle. At the 
long line of cliffs, going to Newland Head, the slates have their dip slopes to 
seaward— dip E. 20° S. at 80°. The slates often show lamination, and, 
apparently, false bedding. The schistosity and bedding planes seem to be 
coincident. 

Two igneous basic dykes occur on the landward side of the Bluff. One of 
these is situated on the shoulder behind the Bluff and is recognised from frag- 
ments turned up by the plough. Another much weathered dyke outcrops on the 
road going up the hill in the direction of Hall's Creek, on the eastern side 
towards the highest portion of the road. The dyke is about 20 yards wide [strike 
(.?) S.W.] and has a vein of pegmatite, about six inches wide, near the middle. 

In Section 6, just over the fence on the southern side of the road which 
comes down to the beach nearly opposite Wright's Island, there is an outcrop 
of coarse-grained crystalline marble, much resembling the Angaston marble. 
It occurs on the hillock which carries numerous erratics, near the beach road. 
The outcrop is in a slight hollow, on ploughed land, with the ordinary "blue- 
stone" not far distant. Several good-sized boulders of the marble have been 
rolled on to the road near the fence, one of which measures 2 feet 6 inches in 
length. The proprietor of the land stated that several others had been carted 
away and broken up for road metal. One block of marble could be seen in situ 
where the others came from, and from the lie of the country the strike seemed 
to be S.W., with a S.E. dip. No other outcrop of the limestone was known to 
the owner of the field. There is just a possibility that these marble fragments 
may have been ice carried, but it scarcely seems probable, as in all the countless 
groups of erratics occurring in the district not a single example of a marble 
erratic has been noticed. 

At the western end of the area under description the rocks that formed the 
bed of the glacier take on new features and arc of more than one age. Within 
two miles of Yankalilla there is an outcrop of the Sturtian Tillite, one of the 
most distinctive horizons of the Adelaide Scries. It occurs on the road to 
Myponga Jetty and is exposed in a cutting on the road, on the northern banks of 
the Carrickalinga Creek, in Section 445 (Hd. Myponga). This occurrence is of 
more than ordinary interest, as the tiKite had not. been previously proved in a 
southerly direction beyond the River Onkaparinga. Its presence in the Carricka- 
linga Creek is rendered remarkable, inasmuch as the newer (Permo-Carboniferous) 
tillite occupies the opposite bank, which is surely a unique occurrence that two 
great glacial formations, separated in time by many millions of years, should 
face each other in this way. 

The area in which the Sturtian Tillite is included is greatly disturbed. The 
dip has a tendency to be vertical with alternations in direction, most frequently 
in an easterly direction. The slates are highly contorted and the rocks, generally, 
much intruded by quartz veins, especially the quartzites. The order of succession 
is a little obscure. On the eastern side of the tillite there is a succession of slates 
and quartzites, but these are more or less obscured by grass land. The beds, as 



98 

a whole, are suggestive of the slates and quartzites of the Glen Osmond and 
Mitchani Series. On the western side of the tillite there are dark-coloured 
laminated slates with a sericitic sheen on the laminae. These are well seen in a 
gully on the western side of the road, where they are much contorted. In the 
cuttings on the road they are capped and inlaid by superficial travertine. 
Following the Carrickalinga Creek in a westerly direction the slates have a 
banded structure (ribbon-slate), resembling the Tapley's Hill slates, and probably 
represent that formation, and if so, whatever their angle of dip they must be 
placed as superior in position to the tillite. It is a difficult region to interpret, 
geologically, and may include both reversions and faultings in its larger structures. 

Two miles to the southward of Normanvilie is another exposure of pre- 
glacial rocks which cannot be easily correlated with other rocks in the neighbour- 
hood. They form a bold ridge with Yankalilla Hill, a trig station, as the most 
prominent point. Two creeks intersect the ridge, the public road passing through 
the more southerly gap, which is known as the Little Gorge. The ridge forms a 
nearly perpendicular cliff facing the sea, from which it is set back for about 
200 yards. The rocks had their origin in argillaceous sediments, but by meta- 
morphic action they were altered to micaceous schists and subjected to hydro- 
thermal injections in the form of quartz veins and layers, lenticles of a 
feispathoid character and pegmatites, which were developed sporadically, forming, 
in places, large masses. In some parts of the area, syenites, often coloured by 
epidote, and other igneous rocks occur. (5) 

It is difficult to determine the geological position and age of these beds. They 
occupy an isolated position in consequence of the blinding effect of the Pernio- 
Carboniterous Tillite which almost surrounds them. In some respects they 
resemble the Fundamental Archaean rocks that form the ridge situated about two 
and a half miles to the eastward, near the Yankalilla Cemetery. On the other 
hand, there are certain features about them which strongly suggest that thev 
represent the metamorphosed equivalents of the lower members of the Adelaide 
Series. The discovery of the Sturtian Tillite, a little northward of Yankalilla, is 
an important point, especially as the strike of these beds is such that, if carried 
across the valley, would junction with the beds at the Little Gorge. A still more 
important factor for comparison is, that on the beach, a short, distance to the 
southward of the Little Gorge, and apparently underlying these beds, is a very 
typical exposure of the Ilmenite Grits and Conglomerates which commonly form 
the basal beds of the Adelaide Series. Still further, these basal beds at the Grey 
Spur, in the Inman Valley, have been subjected to such an extraordinary degree 
of sheer-pressure that the large stones of the conglomerate, in its lower portions, 
have been rolled out into flat cakes. The same thing has happened to the pebbles 
in the bed at the base of the section at the Little Gorge. The Ilmenite Grits and 
Conglomerate continue southwards along the coast to Poole's Flat, near Second 
Valley, where limestones and other sediments put on at higher levels. There is 
a high probability that these beds represent the succeeding members of the Adelaide 
Scries. t6 ^ 

Ihe metamorphism and igneous intrusions in this isolated ridge may, pos- 
sibly, be an outlying apophysis from the igneous magma that intruded the sediments 
on a much grander scale in the neighbourhood of the Bluff, Encounter Bay, Mr. 
R. G. Thomas (loc, cit,, p. 259) describes the presence of "bluish quartz" in the 
rocks at the Little Gorge. This is also a feature of much of the quartz at Port 
Elliot, etc. 



(5) For more detailed descriptions of the mineralogical features, see R. G. Thomas on 
"A Monazite-bearing; Pegmatite near Normanvilie," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol xlv'ii 
(1924), pp. 258-268, pis. xxiii., xxiv. 

(6) For another view of this subject see C. T. Madigan, "The Geology of the Fleurieu 
Peninsula, Part 1." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlix. (1925), pp. 198^12, pis. xvi.-xx. 



99 

IV. GLACIAL FEATURES. 

The Hindmarsh Valley. 

Standing on the highest point of Granite Island, an excellent view can be 
obtained of the general outline of the old Palaeozoic valley. To seaward, 
Seal Island, Wright's Island, and West Island, are ice-smoothed promin- 
ences which rise above the water as remnants of the ancient valley to the 
southward — now submerged. The whole of the sea frontage in the coastal curve, 
from Port Elliot to the Bluff, consists of low cliffs of morainic material. Between 
Port Elliot and the mouth of the Hindmarsh River, the cliffs are deeply cut by 
washouts which, in some cases, have a depth of 20 feet.. The walls show fine 
to coarse sandy deposits, sometimes passing into clays which carry most of the 
erratics. At the bottom of one of these washouts a large granite boulder was 
observed and several well-marked glaciated stones were obtained. 

Strongly cemented sandstones of glacial origin occur on the beach, as well as 
indurated sands of Recent age. The former can be distinguished from the latter 
(1) by their greater solidity, (2) absence of calcareous material, (3) presence of 
joint planes, (4) difference in weathering, (5) difference in bedding. The glacial 
deposits pass below sea level. In the same stretch of beach several large granite 
erratics occur — one measured 12 feet. With the exception of some superficial 
fluviatile deposits, laid down by the River Inman, these till beds continue to form 
the shore line quite round to the Bluff. 

The eastern boundary of the Hindmarsh Valley is formed by the schists and 
quartzites of the Adelaide Series which rise with very steep faces abruptly from 
the valley floor to a height of 800 feet or 900 feet. Two secondary valleys branch 
off in a north-easterly direction. One a closed valley of glacial material, a mile 
wide, lies between Brown's Hill and Peeralilla Hill [910 feet] ; the other, divided 
into two by Mount Billy as a central ridge, lies between Peeralilla Hill and the 
Hindmarsh Tiers, and opens out into the great Nangkita glacial field to the north- 
eastward. The depth of these valleys cannot be estimated, but they carry the 
features of U-shaped valleys. The hills maintain an even face towards the 
valleys and are destitute of spurs. Some have their sides cut by small streams 
which have a direct course. Peeralilla Hill is particularly steep, which has given 
rise to land slides that have formed talus terraces in places. 

Large granite boulders were observed on the eastern side of the Ilindmarsh 
River in the following situations: in Section 84 (Hd. Goolwa),near the brink of 
the river; in Sections 117 and 143, between the river and Brown's Hill; two 
large boulders are perched on the western face of Peeralilla Hill, near the bridge, 
where glacial sandstones are in the banks of the river; a glacial sandstone is also 
exposed on Mr. A. Gray's property, near the head of the valley, in Section 59, 
where it forms a cliff 15 feet high.* 7 ) [For further information concerning the 
geology of the Hindmarsh River Valley, see (22) Howchin, W., 1898, pp. 12-17.] 

An interesting combination of glacial features occurs in the angle of the road 
where the north road joins that between Port Elliot and Victor Harbour. 
Within half a mile of the junction, in Section 21 (Hd. Goolwa), and about 
200 yards in from the north road, is a group of large erratics. From this point 
two ice-rounded hillocks (roches mo-nt ounces) arc seen in the near distance, and 
the much larger ice-smoothed Crozier's Hill makes a conspicuous object three 
miles to the westward. The two roches moutonnees in the near distance, mentioned 
above, are on the property of the late Mr. D. H. Cudmore. The most easterly of 
the two is on the boundary between Sections 20 and 21. It is, perhaps, 100 yards 
in diameter, perfectly smooth, and is almost bare. The stone is a hard micaceous 
quartzite | dip S. at 80°], and has been quarried on two sides. There is a granite 

(?) These observations were made before the reservoir was constructed. 



100 

boulder, measuring 3"§ feet, perched near the top, and two others on the western 
side of the hill are, respectively, 3^ feet by 2| feet. In a paddock on the south- 
eastern side there is a group of 20 boulders measuring up to 5 feet in length. 

The second roche montonnce, situated a little to the westward of the one just 
described, is composed of similar stone and is larger than the other. Mr. Cud- 
more's residence, "Adair," is built on the western side of the hill. On the northern 
side of the hill, near the base, is a collection of huge erratics embedded in 
morainic material — one has an exposed surface 9 feet in length. Between these 
two dome-shaped rocky hills is a valley of glacial drift which widens out in all 
directions. 

The Inman and the Hindmarsh rivers really occupy the same ancient valley. 
The two streams have cut their beds in the same great stretch of morainic sands, 
gravels, and clays which occupy the depression between the Waitpinga highlands 
on the south and south-west, and the Hindmarsh highlands on the north and 
north-east. The Hindmarsh Valley ends abruptly at Section 40, on the eastern 
side of Block A, where the older rocks meet the plain. Above this point the 
Hindmarsh River flows through a rocky gorge, and at a distance of one and a half 
miles up, makes a waterfall ; and at three-quarters of a mile higher up, the 
interesting outlier of a fossiliferous Miocene limestone is seen in its banks 
[(34) Howchin, W*» 1911, pp. 55, 56]. This elevated plateau goes by the name 
of the Hindmarsh Tiers, and makes a curve southwards, as far as Sections 197 
and 200, where it ends abruptly in a promontory-like scarp that is locally known 
as the "Tower of Babel." 

The country between the Hindmarsh and the Inman valleys forms a low, 
broad ridge, the surface of which consists mostly of loose sand and carries a 
characteristic scrub vegetation. A large granite boulder occurs on the line of 
fence separating Sections 205 and 218, situated about three-quarters of a mile 
from the Hindmarsh River. In making the fence it was found necessary to 
reduce the boulder by blasting, with the result that the portion above ground was 
shattered into six pieces, the largest of which measures 4 feet by 3 feet, by 3 feet 
high, leaving the remainder level with the ground in a length of 7 feet. 

About midway between the Hindmarsh and Inman rivers there is a saddle- 
back hill of old rocks, about three-quarters of a mile long, that rises above the 
glacial beds in Sections 435, 436, and a small portion of 430. One of my students, 
Mr. J. R. Russell, drew my attention to some glacially-smoothed faces on this 
exposure. The ridge, which consists of finely laminated quartzite, runs in a 
roughly north-west and south-east direction, and is a splendid example of a 
roche motitonnee elevation. Many smoothed faces can be recognised, but some 
of these have lost, through long exposure, their glaze and finer striae. The south- 
easter^ face is bared, and by carefully removing the soil a fine fresh example 
was obtained, measuring 5^ feet by 4£ feet, which showed high polish and 
numerous grooves and striae — direction of striae, 20° N. of W. [see pi. viii., fig. 2]. 
This particular face is on Mr. R. T. Sweetman's property, Section 152, near the 
angle of Section 435, on the Green Hill Estate, held by Mr. 11 M. Parsons. The 
hill is locally known as the "Stone Hill." 

The Inman Valley. 

Immediately behind Victor Harbour is a low range of hills which curves 
round from the River Inman, on the north-western side of the township, to the 
mouth of the Hindmarsh River. The range is about 60 feet high, and sections 
of the beds can be seen in road cuttings. The deposits are more or less irregular 
in the bedding and consist of coarse sands, conglomerates, and bedded sands, 
with a general dip to the N.W. at 48°. The beds carry abundant pebbles, mostly 
water worn, and some are ice-marked — facetted and polished or striated. On 



101 

the north-western side of the ridge the deposit is more clayey and contains 
boulders up to 2\ feet in length. One of the latter size is a smoothed example 
of ilmenite grits. On the western side the ridge is cut by the river where the 
glacial beds take the form of a freestone (somewhat irregular in hardness) and 
has been quarried in several places. The stone is much jointed and the joints 
filled with harder material (probably sand cemented by iron), which gives the 
joints a darker colour than the body of the stone and causes them to weather in 
relief. The bedding here, as in the road cuttings, is irregular, but there is a 
general dip to the N.W. at 20°. In one of the quarries there is an irregular 
stretch of clay, interbedded with the sands, and in this clay a sharp-edged, 
irregularly-fractured quartzitc occurs, one foot of which is exposed from the 
matrix. This ridge, which forms part of the great morainic sheet that extends 
inland almost indefinitely, has been shaped by the River Inman cutting out an 
extensive terrace on its left bank having a semicircular contour. It is on this 
ridge that the late Alexander Hay's residence stands [Mount BreckanJ. On the 
slope of the hill, facing the town and not far from the house, there is a consider- 
able field of erratics. About 12 could be counted within one range of sight, 
the largest measuring 6 feet by 5 feet. Several occur in groups. One erratic 
possessed sharp angular outlines. 

On the western side of the mouth of the Inman (Encounter Bay to the Bluff) 
the cliffs, which by recent uplift have been placed beyond reach of the waves, 
contain very large stones sticking out of the clay, while the waste of the cliffs has 
yielded hundreds of large erratics of great variety that crowd the shore and 
shallow water in all sizes up to 23 feet in length [(31) Howchin, W., 1910, 
pis. vii.-ix.]. 

The Bluff is an ice-contoured headland [Howchin, loc. cit., pis. iii., iv.], 
325 feet in height. In the lee of the Bluff a ridge of moraine runs northwards, 
skirting the slopes of Glastonbury Hill, and passes into the Inman Valley. In 
its course the paddocks are strewn with large boulders, a group of which, in 
lineal order, can be seen near the fence at the turn where the main road from 
Victor Harbour begins to rise in passing over the spur of Glastonbury Hill 
[Howchin, loc. cit., pis. v., vi.]. 

The trend of the moraine deposits at the Bluff goes not only northwards but 
westwards, forming a layer on the top of the cliffs in a breadth of about half a 
mile, as far as King's Point, the next headland to the Bluff in a south-westerly 
direction, and at a distance from it of one and a half miles. The ground on the 
top of the cliffs is dotted with numerous large erratics, as, also, along the shore. 
The glacial deposits are bordered on the north and west by slaty ridges. King's 
Point is a typical moraine which, with the ice-smoothed West Island, lying off 
shore, make a very striking combination of glacial features [Howchin, "loc. cit., 
pis. x.-xvii.]. 

The Encounter Bay glacial field is limited on its western side by a low range 
of older rocks which is continuous from the coast to Glastonbury Hill. This ridge 
was originally covered by the glacial sediments, as patches of moraine and erratics 
scattered over its surface testify. On the. westward side of the ridge the glacial 
beds are seen again. At their southern end they are separated from King's 
Point moraine by an interval of older rocks, 20 cha : ns wide ; the latter continuing 
to within a short distance of Newland's Hill, which is included in the g'acial 
area, From here, the glacial sandy country stretches in a westward direction, 
indefinitely, south of the trig, station "West of Sheaoak Hill," and, according to 
a local resident, it covers the back country from the coast, practically, all the way 
to Cape Jet-vis. In a northward direction, it crosses Hall's Creek in Section 
388S. A little to the eastward of this position, in Section 180, and on the north 
side of the public road, a small outlier of morauie material occurs resting on 
slates. About 12 large erratics were noted scattered over this patch in an area 



of about two acres. Some of these measured 7 feet by 4 feet, and 5 feet by 
4 feet, and a group of three or four together covered a space 12 feet by 9 feet. 
The beds continue in a northerly direction and pass into the main deposits of the 
Inman Valley. 

The road from Victor Harbour crosses the Inman and follows the flats in a 
westerly direction for a little over a mile, and then takes a rise to Glastonbury 
Hill. At the sharp turn, groups of erratics, from the Rosetta Head moraine, 
occur on the left-hand side of the road, as already mentioned, and on rising to 
the hill the glacial clays are exposed by washouts on the right-hand side. The 
road crosses the ridge of older rocks near the quarry, and within half a mile it 
passes within a short distance of the southern end of Crozier's Hill. 

Crozier's HilL 

Crozier's Hill makes one of the most conspicuous and striking glacial features 
of the district [pi. ix., fig. 1], It is a huge roche moutonnec, nearly a mile long 
and 520 feet in height. The hill is very precipitous on all sides except that to 
the southward, which latter has a gentle slope. The steepest face is to the north- 
west, where the hill is suddenly truncated in a craggy and broken scarp that 
descends precipitously to a dry gap that separates the hill from a glacial sand- 
ridge, which is continued in a north-westerly direction. From long exposure the 
hill has lost its definite smoothness, but all the features indicate its glacial origin. 
It has the general outlines of an ice-smoothed hillock with its gentle slope on the 
Stossseite and its abrupt and craggy face on the Leeseite (the crag-and-tail of the 
British geologists), features which are generally present in ice- worn prominences 
throughout the district. The hill is surrounded by glacial drifts, and the gap 
which separates the hill from the glacial sand-ridge in front has not been cut by 
a creek but by rain-wash acting on the relatively soft material that has been 
banked up against the sides of the hill, which, probably, at one time was quite 
covered by the moraine material. Near the base of the scarp a small quarry 
has been worked, where the stone is a hard siliceous quartzite, having a dip of 
25° S. of E. at 50°. Some interbedded thin shales are flexuous. The River Inman. 
flows round the southern extremity and south-eastern face of the hill. 

The sandy ridge on the north-western side of Crozier's Hill rises to a height 
of 200 feet above the level of the Inman. It consists of loose sand at the surface, 
the grains of which are sharp and sometimes coarse. Towards the top and at 
the summit of the ridge there is a good deal of rounded gravel, made up of a 
considerable variety of stones. Large erratics arc apparently scarce or absent, 
as the largest seen was from 2 feet to 3 feet in length. These larger examples 
consisted of a siliceous quartzite that were probably plucked by the ice in its 
passage over Crozier's Hill. On the north-eastern side there is another sandy 
ridge, parallel to the one just described, which has a height of about 300 feet above 
the bed of the Inman. 

The Inman River Beds. 

In many places the river has cut its bed down through its own alluvium into 
the underlying and tmdisturbed glacial sandstones and clays. In these com- 
paratively soft materials the stream has sculptured deep gutters, caves, grotesque 
prominences, pot holes, and ridges [(35) Howchin, W., 1918, p. 81, fig. 65], 
with rapids and small waterfalls at intervals. An excellent illustration of this 
can be seen just below the junction of Adey's Creek (the chief northern tributary 
creek) with the River Inman. 

A peculiar feature sometimes present in these glacial sandstones is the 
appearance of large globular masses which weather out from the matrix. Good 
examples can be seen in the northern bank of the Inman just above the bridge 
on the road that connects the Inman Valley with the Hindmarsh — the next bridge 



103 



below the one at Grossman's Crossing. At the place mentioned there is a com- 
siderable exposure of glacial sandstone in the cliffs of the river. The sandstone 
varies in colour — whitish, yellowish, or reddish — and contains large spherical 
forms up to several feet in diameter. A zone of imperfectly cemented sand- 
stone generally surrounds the globular mass of harder stone. The surrounding 
softer material washes away, leaving a ball which is separated from the parent 
mass by the space of a few inches to a foot. Some have the appearance of large 
cauldrons placed upside down, the rim of the supposed vessel being carved out 
at the base. Similar concretionary forms also occur, although less perfectly, in 
the sandstones of the washouts between the mouth of the Hindmarsh and Port 
Elliot ; also, as rings, on the beach between tide marks at Encounter Bay. They 
were also noted in a road cutting in similar material on the road between Norman- 
ville and Second Valley, close to "Anacotilla," the late residence of Mr.E. C. 
Kelly. These peculiar formations have attracted the attention of local residents. 
Those in the Inman, referred to above, are spoken of as "giants' boilers and 
kettles," and those in the washouts near Port Elliot, were considered to be 
"fossil pumpkins." The interior of these bodies does not differ much from the 
matrix in general, the hardening is chiefly confined to the periphery. 

Back Valley Creek. 
The Back Valley Creek is the longest and most important affluent of the 
River Inman. It takes its rise on the Mount Desert-Mount Robinson Range 
which forms the dividing ridge between the Hundreds of Encounter Bay and 
Waitpinga, and runs, approximately, parallel with the Inman with a slight north- 
easterly trend. The valley is three miles wide and six miles long, and discharges 
its water into the Inman on the north-western side of the Aboriginal Reserve, 
about a mile higher up the valley than Crozicr's Hill. The valley consists of 
sandy and scrubby ridges with lateral creeks at low grades, having flat bottoms 
and narrow swamps. The surface is monotonous, consisting entirely of glacial 
or subglacial deposits. Boulders are scarce. Mr. Russell, who had his residence 
near the head of the valley, stated that he only knew of one such, which was 
on the top of a low sand-ridge in Section 565, not far from the place where the 
bore, mentioned below, was put down. 



&«%r* 




^^^.V.v.y;;. •.-;:.;:-> 



Fig. 3. Geological Section across the Inman Glacial Valley; eight miles. 



The chief interest pertaining to this valley is in the 
drill boring for the purpose of testing the country for coal, 
a third attempt, in which the bore was put down near 
the south-western corner of Section 415 (completed m 
rock at a depth of 964 feet. "From 600 feet downwards t 
sandstone and boulder formation" [Record of Mines, S. A 
1908, p. 349]. As already stated, this is the deepest known 
Valley and is 800 feet below present sea level. 

A ridge separates the Back Valley from the Inman Vallt 
on its northern side. Mr. Arthur May field's house is on the 



Government diamond 
After two failures, 
Wilkins* Crossing, at 
1895), reached bed- 
he strata consisted of 
ustr., Fourth Edition, 
portion of the Inman 



:y, and was examined 
public road (Section 



104 

266). The sandy hills rise immediately in front of his house on the southern 
side of the road. In Section 598 there are several large erratics. Three of these 
in different parts of the paddock measured from 7 feet to 8 feet in length. There 
are also numerous examples of less size, many of which have been gathered off 
the land and placed in heaps. The summit, in Section 308, is a rounded hill of 
hard, laminated quartzite. A public road passes over the summit of the hill in an 
east and west direction, and on its southern side, in Section 302, a large granite 
boulder is situated. A great thickness of glacial clay surrounds this inlier of 
older rocks. Creeks and washouts have cut deeply into the soft flanks of the 
ridge, suggesting a resemblance, on a small scale, to the "bad lands" of North 
America ; but in no place was it seen that this rain and stream erosion had cut 
down through the moraine to bed rock. 

"Selwyn's Rock" and Neighbourhood. 

At seven and a half miles from Victor Harbour, and about half a mile 
above the bridge that crosses the Inman on the road to Hindmarsh Valley [wSection 
254], is the historic polished pavement [pi. ix., tig. 2] that for some years became 
associated with the name of the late A. R. C. Selwyn. In 1897 Prof. T. W. E. 
David and the writer discovered this rock-face in the bed of the Inman, and as 
it was the only instance known at that time of such an occurrence in the neigh- 
bourhood it was assumed to be the identical glaciated rock reported by Selwyn 
in 1859, and was at once designated "Selwyn's Rock" [(19) David and Howchin, 
1897, p. 61]. 

Since, then, however, many other similarly polished faces of rock have been 
discovered in the bed and along the slopes of the river, which raises the question 
as to which particular one it was that Selwyn discovered. Mr. Joseph J. Cross- 
man, who has lived in the neighbourhood all his life, informed the writer that this 
exposure could not have been the one that caught the eye of the geologist in 1859. 
Mr. Grossman's father came into the Inman in 1854. In 1873 he held the land 
in which the so-called "Selwyn's Rock" is situated. At that time the River 
Inman had no denned bed, but ran in a series of small waterways which in flood 
time became a broad stream and had a course nearer to the main road than the 
present river bed. Drays carting wood passed over the present site of the river. 
In 1877 the Crossman family cut a ditch to confine the waters. This excavation 
was made a little lower down the stream than "'Selwyn's Rock," but the river cut 
its way back, up stream, until it reached the bar of rock which carried the polished 
pavement, and thus the present canyon of the river bed was formed. This dis- 
poses of the possibility of the rock referred to being identical with the one men- 
tioned by Selwyn. A much more likely spot for this historic observation made 
by Selwyn occurs a little higher up the river and will be referred to presently 
[see p. 105]. 

The bed of the Inman, being mostly in soft material, local features are con- 
stantly changing under the influence of floods. As an illustration of this : In 
1897 [loc. cit., David and Howchin] "Selwyn's Rock" was described as "situated 
on the north side of the stream, within the limits of the flood waters, and passes 
under a bank of recent river silt. There is a continuous, highly-polished floor, 
measuring 20 feet by 6 feet, with a surface slightly sloping towards the stream. 
It is deeply grooved and striated, the striae having a direction of W. 9-2° N., con- 
forming to the general trend of the valley. The stone which has taken the polish 
is a hard dark-coloured quartzite, very favourable for recording the effects of 
ice action." When the writer visited the spot in 1910, most of the face, as 
described above, was covered by the sand of the river bed ; but the bank at the 
back of "Selwyn's Rock" had caved in and exposed an additional piece of the 
smoothed pavement, 5 feet in length, passing to an unknown extent under the 



105 



cover The face showed two facets of erosion at an angle of several degrees 
to each other. At the same time, situated about 200 yards lower down the 
stream than "Selwyn's Rock," another glaciated pavement, 15 yards m length, 
not previously known, was observed. This face of rock had evidently been 
previously exposed to the weather, as the polish and striations were dulled and 
less distinct than the example higher up the river. After having been covered 
for an unknown period [it was not exposed in 1897 j it had recently been 

uncovered. , „ 

The hillsides on the northern side of the Intnan, near beiwyn s Kock, 
exhibit some remarkable glacial features. A very juvenile creek, which rises m 
Section 196, flows through Sections 194 and 193. This creek, which has cut 
deeply into the glacial clay, exposes large granite boulders, and, withm recent 
years, has reached bed rock in the lower part of its course, revealing a succession 
of polished faces of rock. On the right bank of this creek, and within a quarter 
of a mile of "Selwyn's Rock," a small rounded hill of older rocks shows above 
the surface of the glacial sediments, and in the latter extensive washouts have 
exposed the original glacial floor [Welch's property] [pi. x., figs. 1 and 2 ; pi. xi., 
fig. 1]. When this discovery was made in May, 1906, there were parallel wash- 
outs having a combined width of 100 yards over all. The highest in position 
is 100 yards in length; the second, showed an exposed face of 12 yards; and 
the third, a somewhat smaller one. The rock was very strongly glaciated with 
striae directed to W. 10° N. According to Mr. Grossman, who was with me, 
these washouts were started during a heavy rain that occurred fiv<t years pre- 
viously. The exposures in the main creek have occurred since then. [For 
particulars see (30) Howchin, 1907, p. 268.] 

On the rising ground, a little to the north-west of "Selwyn's Rock," there 
are immense blocks and groups of granite boulders scattered over the sides of 
the hill, some of which are so massive and closely packed together that they mignt 
easily be mistaken for granite rocks in situ [pi. xi., fig. 2]. A conspicuous example 
is a great mass, 17 feet" by 10 feet by 13 feet high, enclosed in sandy till m a small 
creek at the south-west corner of Section 194. 

At the next bridge over the Inman, just past the eighth mile-post, a very 
fine and extensive glacial pavement occurs at a sharp turn in the stream, just 
above the bridge [pi. xii., fig. 1]. The river cuts in close to the public road from 
which the outcrop of the older rocks in the river banks is clearly visible. This 
smoothed pavement was uncovered, in modern times, during a flood m the river 
in 1913. The present writer had examined this outcrop several times before the 
date mentioned without suspecting its existence, as the glaciated rock was 
obscured by a bank of sand laid down on an inner curve ot the river. It is almost 
beyond question that this was the glaciated rock that Selwyn saw. An outcrop 
of older rocks near the road, in a valley of monotonous sand, was sure to arrest 
his attention, while the glacial surface can be easily seen from the bridge, inc 
rock is so situated that it must have been repeatedly covered and uncovered by 
the vagaries of the flood waters, and was most likely exposed to view at the time 
of Selwyn's journey through the valley. Circumstantial evidence points to this 
being the genuine Selwyn's Rock. 

The Upper Inman Valley. 
From the bridge, near the eighth mile-post from Victor Harbour, the glacial 
drift is seen at intervals in the banks of the river [pi. xii., fig. 2\. Between the 
ninth and tenth mile-posts large granite boulders are extremely common m the 
Inman, in some places almost choking the bed of the river. One hundred large 
examples were counted within the distance of a hundred yards. An interesting 
group occurs in the river bed near Mr. Prouse's [Section 144, pi. xni., hgs. 1 



106 

and 2]. One of these, a great monolith, is in situ resting on older rocks and 
surrounded by a strong, sandy till, some of the contained boulders showing 
glacial striae. The big boulder stands 11 feet high and is 8 feet wide. It has 
been much larger, as the face next the stream shows recent fractures and scat- 
tered around are large fragments that have fallen from the mass. It is said by 
local residents to owe its present shattered condition through having been struck 
by lightning. Other masses, measuring 8 feet by 7 feet, are within a few yards 
of the one just described and smaller examples in profusion. There is also a 
typical blue boulder clay near the spot containing angular erratics. This galaxy 
of erratics occurs at the southern extremity of Martin's Hill [see p. Ill], where 
it ends in the river cliffs. The bed rock here is a hard, slightly banded quartzite 
with a dip south at 50°. The surface, in many places, gives evidence of roche 
moittonnee features. Half a mile higher up the river, near the residence of Mr. 
A. Mayfield, some excellent exposures of the glacial beds can be seen in the bed 
of the stream. 

At the township of Inman Valley some further interesting features can be 
studied. On the left bank of the stream, just below the bridge over the Inman 
[Sec. 269], there is an oblong ridge of the bed rock which shows the usual "crag- 
and-tail" outline of glaciated hillocks. The slopes on the eastern side (the 
advancing side of the ice-sheet) show rounded and smoothed surfaces with striae 
in places ; while the western face is steep and broken, giving evidence of having 
been "plucked" by the ice movement. On the southern slope of the ridge is a 
deeply scooped-out furrow, 6 feet wide, which, with the striae, shows a direction 
of 10° N. of W. The northern side of this inlier is entirely obscured by glacial 
drift. At the bridge this older rock (quartzite) has a dip S.E. at 45°. The large 
erratic, situated just above the Inman Bridge, that was photographed by Professor 
David in 1897 [Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. vik, 1898, p. 114, pi. iii.], was found by 
the writer, in 1910, almost covered from sight and a bush of prickly acacia grow- 
ing on the top of it, with its roots following the joint cracks. 

Above the Inman Bridge erratics are particularly plentiful, both in the bed 
of the river and on either side of the valley, extending for over a mile in width. 
On the northern side of the river, in Mr. Lush's paddock [Section 326], 50 fairly 
large granites were counted within a short distance of each other. Two of the 
largest were photographed. No 1 is a large tabular mass 11 feet by 10 feet by 
SJ feet high, surrounded by eight or nine smaller examples [pi xiv., fig. 1 J. No, 2 
is pyramidal in shape, 10 feet in diameter and 6 feet in height, tapering towards 
the top. A still larger example, 13 feet long, but more buried in the moraine 
material, is situated a little further to the east of those just described. 

On the same side of the river there is a high-level patch of glacial clay with 
erratics on the western side of the Town Hill road. Small boulders occur along 
the slopes, but near its most northerly limits, in Section 89, at a height above the 
valley of about 250 feet, and at a distance of about 16 chains to the westward of 
the Town Hill road, is a large granite boulder 12 feet in diameter and 7 feet out 
of the ground, with many cast-off fragments around it. The quartz of the granite 
shows the bluish opalescent colouring, common in the Victor Harbour granite. 
Within the limits of this high-level patch is a rounded hill of hard quartzite, much 
broken up, but some of the large slabs of rock still show highly smoothed and 
polished surfaces. 

The highest up granite, of large size, found in the bed of the river (which 
takes its rise on the eastern slopes of the Bald Hills) occurred near the northerly 
bend of the stream, in Section 327, and was 6 feet in diameter, and another on 
the southern side of the road, just over the fence from Section 328. 

On the southern side of the Inman, in the same locality, there is also a large 
held of erratics. In Mr. James Yates' property [Section 413] there are several. 



107 

up to 7 and 8 feet in length, spreading into the adjoining sections, where two were 
measured, one 9 feet in length and the other 12 feet. To the west of these, in 
Section 319 (Mr. Stone's property), there is a characteristic stony moraine with 
hundreds of erratics of all sizes up to 8 feet in length. From this point, south- 
wards, the field of erratics can he traced to Mr. Thos. Mayfield's [Section 338J, 
where several large examples were observed. 

Strangways Hill and Inman Hill. 

In the preceding pages we have confined our attention principally to the 
glacial features that are seen more immediately in the bed and on the flanks of the 
River Inman. At higher levels on the northern side of the valley the glacial 
features are on an equally grand scale. The high plateau that goes under the 
name of the Hindmarsh Tiers comes to an abrupt termination with a steep and 
prominent scarp facing the south-east, known as the "Tower of Babel" [see ante, 
p. 100]. Two miles to the westward, Strangways Hill (together with the Inman 
Hill) form a high precipitous ridge of older rocks that juts out into the valley 
having an elevation of nearly 1,000 feet. The two projecting headlands (Tower 
of Babel and Strangways Hill) formed a V-shaped cul-de-sac in the path of the 
glacier, and in this confined space between the headlands some of the most 
powerful ice-planing was done while large erratics were left behind m great 
.profusion. 

The northern boundary of the Inman Valley is much more broken and 
irregular than the south-western side. The ice-sheet coming in from the south- 
ward would meet a formidable barrier in the southern scarps of the Tiers plateau, 
which it faced diagonally and surmounted. The result was a jagged outline. 
This is seen in a series of marginal ridges and rounded hills consisting of older 
rocks. These, beginning with the Strangways and Inman ridge, are continued 
by the "Stony Hill" and other inliers on Grossman's Road, Martin's Hill, and 
the low spur, to the westward of Martin's Hill, that comes down almost to the 
banks of the River Inman. 

In approaching this field from the eastward, Mr. Grossman's hut, in Section 
122, is situated on a moraine flat with scattered erratics up to 8 feet in diameter. 
These include a glaciated quartzite 3| feet in diameter, and, over a slight rise to the 
southward, amongst several is a fine-grained granite 6 feet by 6 feet by 4 feet 
high, containing segregations of tourmaline crystals in masses of a black colour. 
2 inches up to 5 inches or 6 inches in diameter. A little further to the westward 
the most remarkable assemblage of granite boulders in the Inman Valley 
occurs. On Mr. J. J. Crossman's land [Section 122] there are hundreds 
of these of all sizes up to 20 feet in length, or even more. A ridge of immense 
erratics occupies the base of Strangways Hill, on its eastern side, where they seem 
to have been stranded on the recession of the ice-sheet when it was unable to 
carry them over the steep face of the transverse ridge in its course. Another 
conspicuous example is a granite mass 17 feet by 10 feet by 13 feet high enclosed 
in sandy till in a small creek at the south-western corner of Section 194. This 
field of erratics can be followed to the south end of the Inman Hill where large 
boulders arc seen in the creek in Section 191. 

Strangways Hill, together with the Inman Hill, is the most prominent ridge 
within the Inman Valley, It consists of a hard, thick quartzite which runs out 
as a spur from the Hindmarsh Tiers in a south-westerly direction, about, a mile 
and a half in length. The ridge is very precipitous and rough on its north- 
western side, facing the Duck's Nest Creek, while its south-eastern side is of 
somewhat lower gradients and has grassy slopes, especially on the eastern or 
Strangways Hill portion. 



108 



, lie strong quartzite rock of the ridge is connected by a moraine-covered coi 
with the mam plateau of the Hindmarsh Tiers, forming an angle with the east 
and west escarpment of the plateau. In this angle one of the most striking 
features of the locality is situated in, what is called, the "Falls Gully" [Section 
124] A deep gorge has been cut in the hard quartzite. The present fall is occa- 
sioned by the bed rocks exfoliating along the dip slopes at a high angle The 
gorge is m two sections. There is a U-shaped valley in its lower end and a 
higher, narrow valley at its head. Waterfalls occur at the heads of both the 
lower and the upper valleys. At the lower waterfall there are two vertical faces 
of quartzite 150 feet m height. From this height the upper part of the aoree 
slopes more gradually for another 200 feet before the level of the plateau is 
reached The features are very suggestive of a "hung-up" valley retreating by 
a waterfall. ' 5 y 

The outline of the Inman and Strangways ridge is most peculiar. Notwith- 
standing its prominence it has developed but few water channels. On the south- 
eastern side a few small and steep watercourses run during torrential rains but 
on the north-western side this great scarp has no streamlets, which is evidence 
of the juvenility of the topographical outlines. The base, on its north-western 
side, is washed by the Duck's Nest Creek, which will be described at a later stage. 

1 he occurrence of several exposures of the glaciated pavement at the base 
of Strangways Hill, on its south-eastern side, is of great interest as proving that 
the ice-sheet took a direct course over this high and steep ridge. The situation 
is in Section 122, near the apex of the V-shaped valley, mentioned above and 
not tar from the track. A small runner from a spring has cut through the glacial 
clay and bared the underlying rock surface. An edge of rock was seen exhibiting 
striae protruding for an inch or two from under the cover. The glacial clay was 
carefully removed until a face, 9 feet by 3 feet, was uncovered revealing the tool 
marks of the glacier m their original features [see pi. xiv., fig. 2]. The position 
is SbO feet, by aneroid, below the col on the northern side of the main ridee but 
taces the highest portions of the ridge. Three other bared portions of the" pave- 
ment were recognised within 100 yards, the direction of the striae in each case 
being 20° north of west. 

In a small creek near the base of Strangways Hill the stone is a laminated 
slaty quartzite with a dip W. 10° S. at 57°. " 

The Inman Hill, wdiich forms the end of the spur towards the Inman Valley 
has been truncated, benched, and smoothed over in a rounded contour at its 
southern end. 

Duck's Nest Creek. 

The Duck's Nest Creek flows through an old ice-eroded valley which until 
recent times had been choked by moraine material. The creek has in its upper 
reaches, followed, mostly, the northern side of the valley where the glacial till 
abuts on the older rocks of the Tiers plateau. The western and southern sides 
of the valley are for most of the way, filled with glacial sands and clay, a section 
of which, as a finely lam.nated sandstone, in horizontal layers, can be seen in 
Section 86. 1 he sides of the old rocks that make the boundary of the original 
valley are very steep, and the drainage down the sides is undeveloped, features 
that combine to make a U-shaped valley, which, if cleared of moraine, would 
be a typical ice-sculptured valley. 

lhe creek, after running a course of about three miles, joins the Inman on 
the eastern side of the bridge at Crossman's Crossing, and can be best approached 
irom its southern end. With the exception of a few roches moutonnees which it 
passes in its course, it is in glacial beds from its source until it reaches the southern 
limits of Section 86, where it enters a narrow gorge that it has cut in a bench of 
old rocks at the base of the Inman Hill. The walls on the western side are 



109 

vertical for about 60 feet, above which the ground slopes upwards to the road 
leading to Crossman's. At the point where the creek leaves the glacial beds and 
enters the gorge there is a very large granite boulder near the stream that measures 
12 feet by 10 feet, with three other smaller boulders by its side. The stream is 
comparatively small but is impetuous in flood. The gorge has evidently been cut 
out by its erosive agency and may be regarded as a gauge by which to estimate the 
age of the stream. 

Going up the creek for a distance of about half a mile — just over the fence 
into Section 120 — a rounded rock of very hard quartzite makes a prominent 
feature. It is oblong in shape (60 yards in length ) with nearly vertical walls in 
a height of about 18 feet from the lower side of the valley. It is much covered 
by lichen growths and has suffered some exfoliation by scaling, but its roche 
moutonnec origin is very evident. At one spot on the upper surface, towards 
the eastern end, a space of about 18 inches square still retained the original polish 
and striation of the quartzite floor, the striae giving a direction of 20° N. of W. 
A large granite boulder, measuring ?-| feet by 5 feet, is perched on the top of 
the rock with several large blocks of similar stone lying by the side which have 
evidently broken away from the main mass. 

Along the same hill face numerous conspicuous boulders occur. One granite 
example, with inclusions of a metamorphic rock, measured 8 feet by 6^ feet by 7 feet 
in height ; another 8 feet in length, and eight others almost as large. Still further 
up the valley, a 10-foot example, was nearly obscured by loose material; and 
another, 16 feet by 10 feet, was much covered by drift and exfoliating [pi. xv., 
figs. 1 and 2]. 

When approaching the saddle of the range, a little to the northward of 
Strangways Hill, laminated quartzite comes near to the surface with a slight 
cover, in places, of glacial sands. At the saddle the Duck's Nest Creek takes its 
rise in two branches. The most southerly of the two has a very rocky bed, and 
near the source is a very fine glaciated face that is 36 feet in length and 6 feet 
in width which is deeply grooved and striated ; direction, W. 5° S. [pi, xvi, fig. 1]. 

Within a few feet of the top of the saddle are two large boulders resting on 
each other giving a combined measurement of 7^- feet by 6 feet by 5 feet high. 
The division between them has probablv arisen from fracture, as in the case of 
"tors" [pi xvi, fig. 2]. 

The summit at the head of the Duck's Nest Creek, in the form of a saddle 
or col, is composed of a remarkable deposit of clay, sand, and stones in an undis- 
turbed condition which has the form of innumerable hills and hollows like graves 
in an extensive graveyard, locally called the "Bay of Biscay." These curious 
mounds and depressions, which have a difference of level of from 6 inches to 
12 inches, are strikingly suggestive of the "kettle holes" left by retreating glaciers. 
With reference to these remains Prof. G. F. W right says :— " We may get some 
assistance in approximating to a correct chronology of the Glacial Age by studying 
the smaller kettle holes which constitute so marked a feature in the kames and 
moraines of the glaciated region. As already shown, the most satisfactory explana- 
tion of these curious depressions is, that they mark places where masses of ice 
were buried in the debris of sand and gravel brought down by the streams of the 
decaying glacier ; and where, upon the melting of the buried ice, a cone-shaped 
depression was left with sides as steeply inclined as the nature of the soil would 
permit" ['Tee Age in North America," 4th Ed, 1902, p. 471]. 

From the head of the Duck's Nest Valley an excellent view is obtained of 
the glacial gutter that has been excavated in the older rocks. The northern faces 
of both Strangways Hill and Martin's Hill have been sheared by the ice, andthe 
valley, after a course of about four miles and widening out to over two miles, 
curves round to the southward and joins the main valley. 



110 

Grossman's Road and Martin's Hill 

Grossman's Road, which crosses the Inman bv a bridge a little beyond the 
eighth mile-post from Victor Harbour, leads to some of the most interesting 
glacial features of the district. In the river bed, to the left of the bridge, is the 
large glaciated pavement already described fp. 105], which is supposed to' be the 
genuine Selwyn's Rock. As the road rises to the ridge, in front, glacial sands 
and clays are on either side. The Inman Hill is to the right hand and Martin's 
Hill, at a little distance, to the left. At the first rise in the road, Miss Grossman's 
new house stands on the outer slope of a rounded rocky knoll, on the left, sur- 
rounded by glacial material. A little higher up a similar knoll appears on the 
opposite side of the road, and a still more conspicuous hill on the western side, 
which is also rounded in front and ice-plucked on its north-eastern side which 
from its broken surface is known as the "Stony Hill." At about 100 feet below 
the summit of the hill is a shoulder of glacial material on which are some large 
erratics. 

In passing over the ridge the scrub on the left hand side of the road con- 
tains some very large erratics. The first to attract attention is one situated by the 
side of the road, set in moraine material, nearly 20 feet in length. Following, at 
a short distance, is an angular block, 10 feet by 9 feet by 6i feet, which takes' its 
quadrangular shape by loss of large fragments that have fallen from the parent 
mass along the joint planes. Other erratics, single or in groups, also occur near 
the road and many others back from the road. The ice in making the curve 
between Stony Hill and Martin's Hill seems to have cast ofT a large number of 
erratics on the inside of the curve. A group of 16 lie near together, the largest 
of the group measured 16 feet by 15 feet by 8 feet high, and must have been much 
larger from the smaller pieces dislodged from it. Another, more on the slope 
into the gully, in Section 148, was 9 feet by 8 feet by 9 feet high; yet another, 
deeply sunk in glacial till, 9 feet by 8 feet by 3-J- feet high. The largest erratic 
seen in the Inman Valley occurred here and measured 19 feet by 16 feet by 10 feet 
high, much exfoliated. The sand and stones on this ridge are much waterworn, 
but many of the pebbles have been subsequently polished, striated, or soled by ice 
action. The latter include white and black quartz, quartzites, and a variety of 
igneous rocks. 

The descent on the northern side of the ridge is into a valley which is in line 
with the upper portions of the Duck's Nest Greek, but has been forsaken by the 
latter. It is evident that this was the original course of the stream and that its 
sudden diversion from a westerly course to a southerly one has been by capture. 
The main valley still continues in a westerly direction, the Grey Spur Range form- 
ing its northern boundary and Martin's Hill the southern. In this valley, about 
midway between the Grey Spur and Martin's Hill, Mr. Crossman has his house 



an 



property [Section 404]. A large erratic can be seen in a small swamp 
situated on the south-eastern side of Mr. Grossman's house. 

The white sand and clay, seen on the road that passes over the ridge, is 
continued into the valley. The Deep (or Freshwater) Creek which comes into 
the valley by the Grey Spur carries on the drainage and has modified the valley 
floor to some extent by a rearrangement of the morainic material. In Section 361. 
this creek makes a^sharp turn, or horseshoe, to the south and has cut into the undis- 
turbed till beds. The bottom of the creek exposes yellow, grey, and white clays 
with sands, in which the stream has cut ruts and pot holes, and on one side is a 
clirT of glacial beds 20 feet in height. The clays are irregularly deposited in 
heaps and vertical bands and carry a few erratics. 

Martin's Hill is a ridge of quartzite that has a direction north-east to south- 
west, closely parallel with the Strangways and Inman ridge. It occupies nearly 
the whole of Section 145 and is about one and a half miles in length. This ridge 



Ill 

would be in the direct course of a glacier going down the Duck's Nest Valley and 
would have the effect of dividing the ice-flow in its deeper portions into two 
streams, one going over the shoulder of the Stony Hill, on Grossman's Road, into 
the lnman Valley, and the other, swinging round the western flanks of Martin's 
Hill, would join the main valley higher up. 

The northern side of Martin's Hill, near the summit, has been strongly 
glaciated which has left the upper portions rounded and smoothed. No clear 
evidence of striation could be detected, probably the result of weathering from 
long exposure. The hill, by aneroid, is 200 feet above Mr. Crossman's house in 
the valley below. The northern slopes of the hill are banked up with moraine 
which extends across the valley to the opposite ranges. Drainage along the slope 
has cut deeply into the material and developed transverse ridges and flats. Where 
clay has been laid bare the ground is swampy. 

Further along the valley, going westwardly, the moraine forms a long grassy 
ridge on the southern side of the creek, and a spur of the older rocks, in the form 
of slates and argillaceous quartzitcs, crosses the valley from the northward, with 
scores of large granite erratics besides numberless small ones. This locality is 
most conveniently approached from the southward, by Adey's Creek, the chief 
affluent of the River lnman, coming in from the north, which joins the latter a 
little to the eastward of the lnman Valley township. Adey's Creek is in glacial 
clay with broad river flats at the surface. On the eastern side are well-grassed 
hills having phyllites with a sericitic sheen on their planes, as bed rock [dip 
S.E. at 30°], which is covered with a thick chocolate-coloured soil and subsoil of 
stiff glacial clay. In places, the slatj^ rock is calcareous, and on top of the ridge 
there is a thick limestone crust which is burnt for lime. This slaty country slopes 
down to the "Deep Creek," near where the latter, coming in from the east, 
junctions with Adey's Creek. In Sections 273 and 76, on the south-eastern por- 
tion of this ridge, facing to the glacial valley that was eroded on the north-western 
side of Martin's Hill, is the important trend of erratics mentioned above. These 
occur in places in groups from 10 to 20 near together and up to 7 feet or 8 feet 
in length. The largest single erratic was 18 feet in length and only partially 
exposed. The lower part of this trend is just below the District Council's 
quarry, in Section 76. The lower part of the ridge, on the south-eastern side. 
shows a somewhat stronger stone, approaching a quartzite. 

For description of beds to the westward of Adey's Creek see p. 105 — "Upper 
lnman Valley." 

Bald Hills Water Parting, 

The Bald Hills, situated about 15 miles from Victor Harbour, on the one 
side, and seven miles from Normanville, on the other, form the water parting 
between the sea coasts on either side of the Fleurieu (Cape Jervis) Peninsula. 
The Rivers lnman and Hindmarsh with their tributaries drain the country to the 
eastward, and the Bungala and Yankalilla Creeks to the westward. The main 
road crosses the watershed at a height of 640 feet (aneroid) above sea level. 
The deeper portions of the old glacier valley lay more to the eastward, while the 
Bald Hills formed a high-level rocky ridge that crossed the valley transversely 
but was over-ridden by the ice-sheet. The Bald Hills watershed is still, in the 
main, a ridge of moraine material through which the older rocks are exposed in 
places. The old glacial slopes are steep and the moraine deposits abut against 
the sides of the glacial valley walls in an approximately horizontal position. 

Here, as elsewhere in the district, wherever there is a moderate slope of the 
surface, washouts in the glacial beds are common and are a source of trouble to 
the owners of the land. On Miss Mayheld's grounds (Section 348) there is one 
of these a third of a mile long, 60 feet deep, and 3 chains wide. It had not yet 
reached bed rock. Similar deep washouts occur in the surrounding paddocks. 



112 

There is a general resemblance between them in having white sandy clay in their 
upper layers, washed and sliding material on the lower slopes, and, near the bottom, 
undisturbed clay with stones, varied by gritty sandstones, sometimes irregularly 
stratified with clay bands. 

Near the summit of the Bald Hills a ridge road goes northward to Mr. 
Arnold Mayfield's. The country on both sides is covered by glacial drift with 
occasional granite boulders, and, on the westward side, a very large washout 
occurs. A creek towards the ranges was followed. Numerous large granite 
erratics, up to 9 feet in length, were scattered over the sides of the hills and in 
the creeks. The Archaean rocks are exposed in a creek near the base of the 
range and also on side of the hill. The rock is very complex — gneissic, quartzitic, 
aplitic, schistose, etc., and weathers irregularly. 

Much of the country on the Bald Hills ridge, especially on the high ground, 
is covered with a dark, almost black, tenacious clay soil. This feature attracted 
the attention of Seiwyn [Austr. Assoc. Ad. 3c, vol. viL, 1898, p. 119], who sup- 
posed that it had resulted from the decomposition of crystalline limestones asso- 
ciated with hornblendic and micaceous rocks. This, however, is not likely, as no 
such rocks are known to occur in the neighbourhood. The black soil is probably 
the remains of old swampy ground before the valleys became so deeply incised as 
at present. Glacial country in the swamp stage can be found covering wide 
areas around Mount Compass, on the Hindmarsh Tiers, and in the Myponga 
district. 

Westward of the Bald Hills. 

That the ice crossed the barrier of the Bald Hills, in its passage westward, 
is abundantly evident not only from the thick deposits of drift and glaciated 
stones that occur on the summit of the ridge, but also by the glaciated contours, 
and, in some cases, polished and striated rock surfaces that occur on the western 
flanks of the watershed. Near the summit of the ridge a small inlier of the older 
rocks is exposed by the cutting down of a valley in Section 356 (Hd. Encounter 
Bay), situated on the southern side of the road near the western boundary of the 
hundred. On the Yankalilla side of; the boundary a similar outlier is seen in 
Section 1606 (Hd. Yankalilla), on the northern banks of the River Yankalilla, 
also another in Section 385, and in the adjoining Section, No. 384, an outcrop is 
seen under the bridge on the district road which unites with the main road near 
Mr. Edward Mayfield's (late Stevens _) house. Near the same house is a cutting 
on the public road exposing glacial till with erratics. 

An interesting group of erratics occurs near the main road a little to the 
eastward of Mr. Ed. Mayfield's (Section 384). The erratics in this case, and 
some others in the neighbourhood, differ somewhat from the Inman Valley type 
and are of a more varied character, having a lithological resemblance to the 
greatly altered rocks that form the cliffs near the Little Gorge on the Second 
Valley road. There is a direct connection by glacial drift and erratics between 
the two points, and it might be that an easterly curve of the major glacier of the 
Gulf Valley swept the flanks of the Bald Hills; or, possibly, the curve came in 
from the north sweeping the flanks of the Moon and Kemmiss Range where 
similar rocks occur. I gathered from the spot about a dozen glaciated 
stones, including gneisses, aplites, and dark-coloured quartzites similar to the 
stone quarried on Glastonbury Hill. 

A little to the south-eastward of the group just described is a large boulder 
of granite on Mr. Nosworthy's land which measures 9 feet by 5 feet 9 inches by 
3 feet high. A little further to the southward, in Section 368, in Mr. George 
Mitchell's ground, is another granite erratic, showing above ground 12 feet by 
10 feet by 4 feet high, but as it is wider below it is probably much larger. It 
has given the name of the "one-stone paddock" to the field in which it occurs. 



113 

On the northern side of the main road, in Section 383, there is a wash out with 
two conspicuous erratics. 

A little lower down the western slope, two polished rock surfaces, a foot or 
two square, have been cleared of the overlying glacial drift by a small head- 
water stream of the River Bungala, situated not far from the public road. The 
pavement is a hard, dark-coloured, siliceous quartzite, the striae have a direction 
W. 24° N. [Glac. Res. Com., Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. vii., 1898, p. 120]. 

The most important iniier of the older rocks on the western side of the Bald 
Hills is a large, almost circular and rounded hill, known as Cockatoo Hill. It 
extends from the main road, in Section 387, almost to Torrens Vale (or Dairy 
Flat) ; the branch road to the latter place goes round the base of the hill. It has 
the usual crag-and-tail outline of the glaciated hills of the district, with a pre- 
cipitous face towards the west. The opposite or sloping side is obscured by drift. 
The scarp face carries a remarkable excavation of semicircular outline that is 
strongly suggestive of a cirque. There is nothing in its present surroundings to 
account for its existence, as there is no drainage that might have caused a 
retreating waterfall. It appears to be a glacial feature caused by the plucking 
and sapping produced by ice movement acting on a high and steep ridge, probably 
in the later stages of the glaciation. 

The ancient ice-filled valley, after passing the Raid Hills, opened out con- 
siderably. The main flat was in the direction of Normanville, and from this 
the ice-sheet spread to the westward, in the direction of the present gulf, withi 
branches to the northward and southward. In this low country the Rivers 
Bungala and Yankalilla have removed, or covered, much of the glacial drift and 
built up extensive flood plains over the area. The Bungala, near Yankalilla, 
has entrenched its bed from 15 feet to 20 feet, which has been accomplished since 
the settlement of the district. Near the river the glacial beds are obscured by 
newer sediments, but on the higher ground they can be seen in many places, 
sometimes under considerable erosion. 

Near the confluence of Wood's Creek with the River Bungala, about three- 
quarters of a mile from the township of Yankalilla, the glacial sandstones out- 
crop in the creek at the bridge on the Inman Valley road. Also, a short distance 
up the creek there is an old Government quarry in the glacial sandstone that has 
been long worked for road metal. The quarry face is 150 yards wide and 50 feet 
in height. The stone is a white, yellow, and grey sandstone that decomposes 
at the surface but, at depth, is a compact grit-stone, as shown in sections under 
the microscope. The bedding is indistinct but the stone is strongly jointed and 
crowded with erratics of great variety; the largest seen was a granite boulder. 
18 inches by 10 inches. Some of the granites contained the opalescent variety 
of quartz which seems to indicate their origin as having come from the Port 
Elliot district. The glacial beds rest unconformably on the syenite which is the 
bed rock of the neighbourhood. No glaciated surface could be detected on this 
rock. 

The hill facing Yankalilla on the northern side is capped by a loose white 
sand. In places, on the slopes and also on the hill road on the summit of the 
ridge, moderately hard red and white glacial sandstone crops out and follows 
the main road to Myponga. Going west, the Cambrian limestones outcrop on 
the northern side of Section 1031, and these are covered on the western, southern, 
and south-eastern sides by disintegrated glacial material. In Section 1019 
(facing the beach road) the glacial sandstone has been quarried in two places. 
On the northern side of Yankalilla and Normanville glacial deposits can be seen 
in most of the creeks and also in the valleys intersecting the Cambrian limestones. 
Several washouts in these beds occur in the valley slopes. 



114 

The country to the southward of Yankalilla, for some miles, is chiefly com- 
posed of glacial drift. Approaching Mount Robinson from Miss Mayfield's 
(Section 348. Hd. Encounter Bay)., on the southern side of the Bald Hills, the 
ground continues sandy over the intervening rise and up to the lower slopes of 
the mount. The same class of country continues to Torrens Vale and Hay Flat 
and down to the main road on the eastern side of the Little Gorge. In Section 
1103 (Hd. Yankalilla) there is a washout in the glacial beds three-quarters of a 
mile long and 30 feet deep, with hard sandstone at bottom and clay sides. In 
the latter, erratics of various sizes occur, one of which, a granite boulder, 
measured 3 feet 6 inches. 

Second Valley and Rapid Bay. 

The main road between the Little Gorge and Rapid Bay passes through 
several cuttings in glacial clay. About nine miles from Yankalilla and one mile 
to the southward of Mr. E. E. Kelly's (Anacotilla) water-trough is a clay bank 
with erratics. One of the latter, a subangular red-coloured quartzite, highly 
polished and striated, measuring 18 inches by 11 inches, was secured. On the 
southern side of Fowle's Hill, just past the 59-mile post from xAxlelaide (13 miles 
from Yankalilla), a section of glacial drift with striated pebbles is seen in the 
road cutting, near top of hill. The glacial clay occurs as a pocket in a depression 
in calcareous shales and extends for 33 yards and is 12 feet high with base not 
exposed. Erratics are numerous, a striated greenish quartzite measured 12 inches 
by 6 inches. 

From near the coast, at Second Valley, to the marble knob near the hotel, 
the superficial beds are glacial drifts exposed in washouts. In the western angle 
of Section 1568, near the old district road parallel with the coast, are two large 
boulders, one, a granite, 3 feet by 2^ feet, and a rounded boulder of smooth 
dolonhtic limestone 2 feet in diameter. The glacial clay passes over the saddle 
into Poolers Flat, where there is an extensive washout containing striated 
pebbles, which continues to the slope of the hills on the eastern side, with more 
washouts. The washouts on the northern side contain many large erratics, 
chiefly granites and quartzites. On the road to Rapid Bay, a patch of glacial 
moraine occupies a coastal valley up to a mile from the beach. At about that 
distance from the beach a group of granite boulders occurs by the side of the 
road. The largest gave a measurement of 6 feet by A\ feet above the surface. 
Nearly opposite Mr. Crozier's gate another group occurs, on rising ground. One 
granite boulder, 5 feet by 4 feet, w T as of a different type from the Victor Harbour 
granite. The group also included several large quartzite erratics that were 
foreign to the locality in which they occur. Speaking generally of the Second 
Valley district, the valleys are choked with glacial waste while the greater heights 
have been cleared of such. 

For a description of the glacial features of Cape Jervis, see Howcbin, Glacial 
Report, Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. vii., 1898, p. 124. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

The Form of Glaciation. The ice-flood within the area herein described 
was exclusively terrestrial in its form. This is apparent, not only from the 
absence of marine or lacustrine sediments that might suggest floating ice, but 
the continuous roche moutonnee surface of the floor over which it moved is 
definite proof. 

The Direction of the Ice-flow. The following observations in relation to 
the direction of the striae with reference to magnetic north may be quoted : — 



115 

The Stone Hill (Sweetman's, situated on the low ridge 

between the limcimarsh and inman Valleys) 
At base of Strangways Hill, on south-eastern side . . 
The col, at the head of Duck's Nest Creek 
Roche moiitonnee, near angle of Duck's Nest Creek 
"Selwyn's Rock" (as first named) 

Welch's washout, near to the last-named (Section 193) 
Inman Valley Bridge 
Western side of the Bald Hills 



W.20°N. 
W.20°N. 
W. 5°S. 
W. 20° N. 
W. W N. 
W. 10° N. 
W. 10° N. 
W. 24° N. 



The extreme range in direction amounts to 29°. If the apparently aberrant 
reading at the head of the Duck's Nest Creek be eliminated the range is between 
9^-° and 20°, or about 10°, which in the case of a wide valley, with strong diversity 
in relief, is a remarkably uniform reading. The direction of the striae at Hallett's 
Cove may be given, for comparison, as follows :— On the purple slates at Black 
Point the main direction is N.W. with a few intersecting striations that have a 
more northerly trend; at Tate's Rock the direction is N. 20° W., and the same 
direction is maintained on quartzite, a little further to the north, on both sides of 
the rocky creek in that direction, supported by five distinct readings. Considering 
thc distance separating the Inman Valley and Hallett's Cove and the somewhat 
different directions of the respective valleys, the close agreement in the readings 
from the two localities is remarkable. 

The Source of the Ice-sheet. — lu South Australia the trend was, practically, 
included within the quadrant between west and north. In Victoria, in the 
Bacchus Marsh district, the glacial striae have a direction from S.W. to N.E. 
[Sweet and Brittlebank, Austr. Assoc. Adv. Sc, vol. v., 1893, p. 378]. A similar 
direction is indicated at Wynvard, Tasmania, viz., from S. 30° W. towards 
N. 30° E. [David, Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol xi., 1907, p. 277]. These respective 
readings point, conjointly, to a region to the southward, somewhere in mid- 
distance between the extremes of the localities mentioned, as the centre of radia- 
tion. We may assume that this was to the south-westward of Tasmania, and 
included the eastern slopes of Jeffrey's Deep, an extraordinary sunken area that 
is now, at its deepest part, nearly four miles below the normal level of the ocean 
floor. The foundering of this part of the ocean bed, extending from the western 
shores of Tasmania to Albany, may stand related to the submergence of that part 
of the Australian continent which, in Permo-Carboniferous times, was the centre 
of dispersion of the ice-flood that overspread the southern portions of the 
continent. 

The Thickness of the Ice. It is only when the original surface contours 
of a glaciated country have been preserved that any evidences are available for 
estimating the probable thickness of the ice-sheet. South Australia, by reason 
of the preservation within its limits of the topographical features that existed 
at the time when the glaciation occurred, as already explained, has the advantage- 
in this respect. The glacial floor in the Inman Valley at its greatest known depth 
(obtained by boring in the Back Valley Creek) is 800 feet below present sea level. 
At Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, the floor was reached at 1,000 feet below present 
sea level. These figures indicate that at the time of glaciation the land stood 
considerably above its present elevation. 

The full depth to the glacial floor, as proved by the Back Valley Creek Bore, is 
964 feet. The Inman Hill is 897 feet above sea level, while the adjoining Strang- 
ways Hill, is somewhat higher. The Bald Hills are probably somewhat 
lower. Glaciation has been observed either to the summit, or nearly so, on all 
these heights. Estimating that the Back Valley Creek Bore is about 200 feet above 
sea level, to allow of the ice-sheet overwhelming the surrounding heights of the 



116 

valley, it must have been something like 1,700 feet, at least, in thickness. There 
were, apparently, no heights within the region that rose above this ice level, so 
that the latter must have been more than a mere local valley glacier, and can 
only be described as a true ice-cap, such as at present occurs within the Arctic 
and Antarctic circles. To supply such an enormous ice-flood would require an 
adequate gathering ground and an elevation sufficient to maintain a gravitational 
force equal to the over-riding of no inconsiderable hills in its course. 

The Erratics. As is usual with most glaciers of a terrestrial kind, the 
erratics are, largely, of a relatively local origin. By far the largest number of 
erratics in the Inman Valley district have been ploughed from the granitic zone 
bordering the coast. Close to the Bluff they exhibit a more diversified character 
haying been transported from a region further to the south, now submerged. In 
inland situations, such as Ilallett's Cove, whilst some conspicuous examples are 
far travelled, others have been plucked from localities near at hand, including 
very large blocks of impure limestone, quartzites, the Sturtian tillite, and Tapley's 
Hill slates, which are found in situ in the neighbourhood of the Onkaparinga 
River. An interesting field of enquiry is awaiting workers in the petrographical 
description of the erratics in relation to their origin, and particularly such as occur 
on the immediate seaboard which, it may be expected, would give interesting 
evidence bearing on the nature of the rocks that are submerged to the southward. 

VI.— BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES FOR SOUTH 

AUSTRALIA. 

(1) 1859— Selwyn, A. R. C, "Geological Notes of a Journey in South Aus- 

tralia from Cape Jervis to Mount Serle." Pari. Pap., Adelaide, 
No. 20, p. 4 

(2) 1878 — Tate, R., Exhibited a glaciated rock from Hallett's Cove at Ordinary 

Meeting of the Philosoph. Soc. of Ad. Trans. Philosoph. [Royal] 
Soc. S. Austr. Ad., 1877-78, p. 1. 

(3) 1879 — Tate, R., Anniversary Address. Trans. Philosoph. [Royal] Soc. 

S. Austr. Ad., 1878-79, pp. lxiv.-l.xvi. Describes glacial features 
at Plallett's Cove and reports r aches mouionnces surfaces at 
Kaiserstuhl and Crafers. [The latter two observations have not 
been confirmed.] 

(4) 1879 — Scoular, G., "Geology of the Hundred of Munno Para." Trans. 

Philosoph. [Royal] Soc. S. Austr. Ad., 1878-79, p. 65. [Expresses 
doubts as to the glacial features of Plallett's Cove and comments 
on the absence of glacial phenomena in the geology of Munno 
Para and the hills around Gawler. | 

(5) 1881 — Tepper, J. G. O., "Geological and Physical History of Hundred of 

Cunningham." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. iv., pp. 61-70. 
Suggests that the mottled clays and rounded knobs of sandstone 
at Ardrossan are glacial effects. [These are of alluvial and not 
glacial origin.] 

(6) 1885 — Scoular, G., "Past Climatic Changes with special reference to the 

Occurrence of a Glacial Epoch in Australia." Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Austr., vol. viii., pp. 36-48. [Doubts that a glacial age has 
occurred in South Australia and explains the striae on the rocks 
at Hallett's Cove as having been caused by atmospheric agents 
and running water.] 

(7) 1885 — Tate, R., "Post Miocene Climate in South Australia." Trans. Roy. 

Soc. S. Austr., vol. viii., pp. 49-59. [A reply, in part, to Mr. 
Scoular's criticism.] 



117 

(8) 1887 — Tate, R., "Glacial Phenomena in South Australia." Austr. Assoc. 

Ad. Sc., vol. i., pp. 231, 232. [Includes further descriptions of 
Hallett's Cove accompanied by exhibits.] 

(9) 1887— Cleland, W. L., "Caroona Hill (Lake Gilles)." Trans. Roy. Soc. 

S. Austr., vol. x. ; pp. 74-77. [The author refers certain smooth 
surfaces on Caroona Hill to glacial action. These deductions 
have not been confirmed.] 

(10) 1891— Jack, R. Prof. Tate reported that Mr. Jack, Government Geologist 

of Queensland, had visited Hallett's Cove, and by examination 
of the striae on the glacial pavement concluded that the ice had 
travelled in a northerly direction. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 
vol. xiv., p. 360. 

(11) 1891— Pritciiard, G. E., "On the Cambrian Rocks at Curramulka." [The 

author adds a Note on glaciated rock surfaces at Curramulka. 
This determination has not been confirmed. See Howchin, Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlix., 1925, p. 8.] 

(12) 1892 — Priestley, P. H., "Notes on Glacial Phenomena about Mount 

Gambicr." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xv., p. 123. [Not 
confirmed.] 

(13) 1893 — Ethertdge, R., jun. Professor David reported that Mr. Etheridge, 

after having examined the Hallett's Cove section, stated that he 
considered it not improbable that the glaciated rocks extend 
under the marine tertiaries at Hallett's Cove,. Austr. Assoc. Ad. 
Sci., vol. v., p. 231. 

(14) 1893 — Tate, R., Inaugural Address. Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. v., p. 31. 

[The author affirms the Post-Miocene age of the glaciation.J 

(15) 1895 — Howchin, W., "New Facts bearing on the Glacial Features of 

Hallett's Cove/' Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xix., pp. 61-69. 
[Deals with the age of the glaciation at Hallett's Cove and Tnman 
Valley.] 

(16) 1895— David, T. W. E., "Evidences of Glacial Action in Australia and 

Tasmania." Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. vi., President's Address, 
Sec. C, pp. 60-98. [Gives an extensive Bibliography of the 
subject.] 

(17) 1895— Tate, R., Howchin, W., and David, T. W. E. "Report of Research 

Committee on Glacial Action in Australasia. " Austr. Assoc. Ad. 
Sc, vol. vi., pp. 315-320. [Excavations at Hallett's Cove, by 
grant from the A.A.A.S., which proved the Pre-Miocene Age of 
the glaciation.] 

(18) 1896 — David, T. W. E., "Evidences of Glacial Action in Australia in 

Fermo-Carhoniferous Time." Ouart. Jour. Geol. Soc, vol. Hi., 
pp. 289-301. [Hallett's Cove, p. 294-5.] 

(19) 1897— David, T. W. E., and Howchin, W m "Notts on the Glacial Features 

of the Inman Valley, Yankalilla, and Cape Jervis District." 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxi., pp. 61-67. [Discovery of 
the supposed Selwyn's glaciated rock.] 

(20) 1897 — Tate, R., "On Evidences of Glaciation in Central Australia." 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxi., p. 68. [Yellow Cliff on 
the Finke.] 

(21) 1898 — Glacial Research Committee, "On the Occurrence of Glacial 

Boulders at Yellow Cliff, Finke Valley, Central Australia." 
Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. vii., pp. 109-113. 
"On the Evidences of Glacial Action in the Port Victor and Inman 
Valley Districts." Ibid, pp. 114-127. 



118 

(22) 1898 — Howchin, W., ''Further Discoveries of Glacial Remains in South 

Australia." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxii., pp. 12-17. 
[Deals with the Hindmarsh Valley District.] 

(23) 1899 — Howchin, W., "Notes on the Geology of Kangaroo Island with 

Special Reference to Evidences of Extinct Glacial Action." 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxiii., pp. 198-207. 

(24) 1900 — Howchjn, W., "Evidences of Extinct Glacial Action in Southern 

Yorke Peninsula." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxiv.. 
pp. 71-80. 

(25) 1900 — Howchin, W., "Evidences of Glaciation in Hindmarsh Valley and 

Kangaroo Island." Glacial Research Committee. Austr. Assoc. 
Ad. Sc, vol. viii., 1901, pp. 172-176. 

(26) 1901 — Howchin, W., "On the Origin of the Salt Lagoons of Southern 

Yorke Peninsula." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxv., pp. 1-9. 
[Illustrates the part which the glacial clays have played in the 
origin of these salt-pans.] 

(27) 1902 — Howchin, W. Glacial Research Committee. Austr. Assoc. Ad. 

Sci., vol. ix., pp. 194-198. [The Report deals with the Southern 
Yorke Peninsula District.] 

(28) 1902— Greenway, T. C, and Phillips, H. T., "Notes on the Geological 

Features of Southern Yorke Peninsula." Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Austr., vol. xxvi., pp. 268-277. [The paper deals with the 
glacial evidences and gives a geological section of the beds. J 

(29) 1903 — Howchin, W., "Further Notes on the Geology of Kangaroo 

Island." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxvii., pp. 75-90. 

(30) 1907 — Howchin, W. Glacial Research Committee. Austr. Assoc. Ad. 

Sc, vol. xi. (Permo-Carboniferous), pp. 267-272. 

(31) 1910 — Howchin, W., "The Glacial (Permo-Carboniferous) Moraines of 

Rosetta Head and King's Point." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 
vol. xxxiv., pp. 1-11. 

(32) 1910— Howchin, W., "Description of a New and Extensive Area of 

Permo-Carboniferous Glacial Deposits in South Australia." 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxxiv., pp. 231-247. 

(33) 191 1— Howchin, W., "Cambrian and Permo-Carboniferous Glaciation." 

Glacial Research Committee. Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. xiii.. 
pp. 203-208. 

(34) 1911 — Howchin. W., "Description of a Disturbed Area of Cainozoie 

Rocks in South Australia." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. 
xxxv., pp. 47-59, pis. x.-xix. 

(35) 1918— Howchin, W., "Geology of South Australia." Govt. Printer, Ade- 

laide. Pp. 400-414. [Inman Valley.] 

(36) 1920— Howchin, W., "Past Glacial Action in Australia." Official Year 

Book of Com. of Austr., No. 13, pp. 1133-1146. 

(37) 1923 — David, T. W. E., and Howchin, W. Glacial Research Committee. 

Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. xvi., pp. 74-94. [Official Report on 
visit to Yellow Cliff, Old Crown Point. River Finke, financed by 
grant from the Association.] 

(38) 1924 — Howchin, W., "Further Discoveries of Permo-Carboniferous 

Glacial Features near Hallett's Cove." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. 
Austr., vol. xlviii., pp. 297-302. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



"■I 1027 10-28 r 



GEOLOGICAL MAP OF THE INMAN VALLEY AND NEIGHBOURHOOD. 



Vol. L., Plate VII. 



By Professor Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 



ADELAIDE SERIES 



DIRECTION OF GLACIAL STRIAE 




H I. NWEIl, a(WEBh«PtI fllOIOVim«MfH(a. tOLUIDC 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L., Plate VIII. 




Fig. I. View of the "Grey Spur. 



MB 







. ft-?-.*?**,*-' ^»,^ ; " ' gf*:' .■ 



v& 



. , , 



Fig. 2. Glaciated Floor (Sweetman's) between the Hindmarsh and Intnan Rivers. 



Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



Trans, and Proc, lioyi Sue. S. Austr., \92(i. 



Vwl. U Hate IX. 





Fife. 1. ("rozier's Hill: a gryal rochc nioiiioiuirr. 




Fig. 2. Glaciated Floor in the toman River. The first -named "Selwyn's Rock.' 



I itlKilg"h{Ul1 lV Co. 1 .VHliteti, Printers, Adelaide. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L„ Plate X. 




Fig-. 1. Glaciated Floor exposed in Welch's "Washout.' 






mm 







-.-;, . ,: . 



4^ 




$ w 



:.. 



■ 




>■■■ 4I 



Fig, 2. Glaciated Floor as in fig*. 1. Near view of portion. 



Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L., Plate XI. 




Fig. 1. Glaciated Floor as in pi. x. Near view showing ricochetting. 










r ig. 2. Group of large granite Erratics near Welch's "Washout. 



Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



Trans, and Proc. Koy. Sue. S. Austin 192& 



Vol. u rnatr xii. 




-. f 



Ik ; 




^■■- : m- '-' 



„ 



- „ : ,j*8£* -HaiHjriMHp^v 



■■,..,.. 



i ; 






•-,-•-, - , 



Pig ; 1. Glaciated Floor in the innrnti Riwr described by Selwyn. 




1%, 2. Section <>f undisturbed Bmildtr Clay in bed rcf the Innun River. 

( ifLLiiighftiU ft CV>. l-i'intcil, PrfnUra. ^S < I l-l.'iii It 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L, Plate XIII. 




Fig. 1. Large Krratics resting' on glacial sandstone in the Inmaii River. 




!&::■ "* :- ^ - ■'■■■: ^3ta . ^ # -. 




Fig. 2. A large group of Krratics in bed of Inman River. 

GilUngliam & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



Trans, and Proc. Kov. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L.» Plate XIV 




Jm£, 1. Large Erratic in Mr, Lush's paddock 




Kit;, 2. Strongly striated Glacial Flour at the base 0{ Stran^way's Hill. 



(SiHniehuni & <-"■ IJiiiiiril, Printers, Adelaide. 



'raiis. and Proc. Roy, Sac. S. Anstr.. \92U, 



VrtI I... Plate XV 




Fig. 1, Great thickness of Tillite in Duck's Nest Creek. 
Note presence of Krratics on ridge. 




Trans, ami I'rnc. Rt>y, Sue. S. Austr., l'Jid, 



Vol. I.., PlatG XVI. 




Fig. 1. Glaciated Floor near tin- head of Duck's Nest Creek. 




Fig. 2. Two large granite Erratics on summit of col behind Strangway's Hill. 



I tilUtl-ghum Si Co, t .illWterl, Printers. Adelaide 



119 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES VII. to XVI. 

Plate VII. 
Geological Map of the Inman Valley and Neighbourhood. 

Plate VIII. 
Fig. 1. View of the "Grey Spur." Photo. W. Howchin. 

Fig. 2. Glaciated Floor (Sweetman's) on ridge between the Hindrnarsh and Inman 
Rive-rs. Photo. W. Howchin. 

Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Crozier's Hill; a great roche mo-utonnee. Illustrates the "Crag-and-tail" 

outline of glaciated hillocks. Photo. W. Howchin. 
Fig. 2. Glaciated Floor in bed of the Inman River. The first-named "Selwytrs Rock." 

Photo. T. W. E. David. 

Plate X. 

Fig. 1. Glaciated Floor exposed in Welch's "Washout." General view. Photo. W. 

Howchin. 
Fig. 2. Glaciated Floor as in fig. 1. Near view of portion. Photo. F. Noetling. 

Plate XT. 
Fig. 1. Glaciated Floor as in pi. x. Near view showing ricochetting in glacier move- 
ment. Photo. F. Noetling. 
Fig. 2. Group of large granite Erratics near Welch's "Washout." Photo. J. Greenlccs. 

Plate XII. 
Fig. 1. Glaciated Floor in bed of the Inman River, supposed to be the one described by 

Selwyn. Photo. W. Howchin. 
Fig. 2. Section "of undisturbed Boulder Clay in bed of the Inman River. Photo. W. 
Howchin. 

Plate XIII. 
Fig. 1. Large Erratics resting on glacial sandstone in the bed of the Inman River, near 

Mr. Prouse's. Photo. W. Howchin. 
Fig. 2. A large group of Erratics in bed of the Inman River, near Mr. Prouse's. Photo. 
J. Greenlccs. 

Plate XIV. 
Fig. 1. Large Erratic in Mr, Lush's paddock. Photo. W. Howchin. 
Fig. 2. Strongly striated Glacial Floor at the base of Strangways Hill. Photo. W. 
Howchin. 

Plate XV. 
Fig. 1. Great thickness of Tillite in Duck's Nest Creek. Note the presence of Erratics 

near top of ridge. Photo. W. Howchin. 
Fig. 2. Near view of Erratics seen on top of ridge in fig. 1. Photo. W. Howchin. 

Plate XVI. 
Fig. L Glaciated Floor near the head of Duck's Nest Creek. Photo. W. Howchin. 
Fig. 2. Two large granite Erratics on summit of col behind Strangways Hilt Photo. 
W. Howchin. 



SOME REFERENCES TO THE LITERATURE CONCERNING THE 
EXTINCT EMUS OF KANGAROO ISLAND AND ELSEWHERE. 

By Professor Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 

[Read April 8, 1926.] 

[This Paper, by the request of the South Australian Ornithological Associa- 
tion, and by the consent of the Author and the Council of the Royal Society 
(S.A.), was published in "The South Australian Ornithologist/' vol. viii., part 7, 
pp. 244 to 253, July 1, 1926.] 



120 



STUDIES IN AUSTRALIAN LEPIDOPTERA. 

By A. Jefferis Turner, M.D., F.E.S. 
[Read June 10, 1926.] 

Fam. ARCTTADAE. 

Phaos aglaophara, n. sp. 

ayXaocfxipos, in splendid apparel. 

$ , 34-38 ram, Head blackish; centre of face whitish. Palpi blackish. 
Antennae blackish ; pectinations in male 1J. ■ Thorax blackish, anterior margin 
and edges of patagia whitish. Abdomen on dorsum crimson, with a blackish 
median band interrupted on apical segments ; tuft ochreous ; underside whitish 
barred with dark fuscous. Legs whitish; anterior tibiae and tarsi dark fuscous 
on inner surface; femora crimson on dorsum; posterior tibiae without middle 
spurs. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa straight, sinuate towards apex, apex 
rounded, termen bowed, oblique ; orange-ochreous, paler on margins and veins : 
a crimson subcostal streak from base to \\ costal edge whitish-ochreous ; a basal 
dorsal spot, and larger, triangular, subbasal, median spot, blackish ; an outwardly 
curved, broad, blackish line from \ costa to \ tornus; a large, somewhat reniform, 
blackish, discal spot beyond middle, connected with costa ; a blackish line from 
mid-dorsum obliquely outwards to beyond lower part of discal spot ; a blackish 
terminal band containing eight longitudinal whitish bars; cilia blackish, apices 
partly whitish. Hindwings broad, termen gently rounded ; 4 and 5 separate ; 
orange; extreme base, a large diamond-shaped discal spot, and a terminal band 
blackish ; cilia whitish, bases blackish, on dorsum orange. Underside orange ; 
forewings with a crimson subcostal streak from base to \\ discal spot and terminal 
band on both wings blackish, band on forewings barred with whitish. 

Nearly allied to two Tasmanian species, but certainly distinct. 

New South Wales: Mount Kosciusko (5,000 to 6,000 feet), in December 
and January; five specimens received from Dr. G. A. Waterhouse and Mr. G. M. 
Goldfinch. 

Fam. NOCTUIDAE. 

Agrotis poliophaea, n. sp. 
TfoAto^aios, dark grey. 

$ , 38 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax grey with some fuscous and whitish 
scales. Antennae fuscous ; pectinations in male 2, apical | simple. Abdomen 
grey, becoming fuscous towards apex. Legs fuscous ; tibiae and tarsi annulated 
with whitish. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa straight, apex rounded- 
rectangular, termen slightly sinuate, slightly wavy, not oblique; grey; a large, 
grey-whitish, subdorsal spot near base, its anterior and posterior edge blackish ; 
dark-fuscous costal dots near base, at f and §; claviform faintly indicated by a 
very slender blackish loop; orbicular grey-whitish, longitudinally oval; reniform 
larger, kidney-shaped, grey-whitish, partially and very slenderly outlined with 
blackish; a slightly dentate, doubly sinuate line from third costal dot to dorsum 
at f, curved outwards in middle, inwards above dorsum; ground-colour beyond 
this line paler; a fine, blackish, terminal line, into which run very short, blackish, 
inter-neural streaks ; cilia grey-whitish with two pale fuscous lines, bases 
brownish tinged. Hindwings with termen sinuate, wavy ; fuscous-grey ; veins 
fuscous; cilia whitish with a pale fuscous antemedian line. 



121 

Nearest A. poliotis, Hmps,, but darker, especially the hindwings, which in 
that species are nearly white. 

Western Australia : Merredin ; one specimen received from Mr. L. J. 
Newman. 

Caradeina loxosema. 

Proteuxoa loxosema, Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1908, p. 55. 

Ariatkisa ophiosema, Turn., Annals Q'land Mus,, x., p. 66 (1911). 

These appear to be the same species. There is some variability in colour and 
markings. I can find no spine on posterior tibiae, and probably mistook some 
hair-scale for a spine. 

Victoria: Melbourne, Wandin, Gisborne. 

Sarrothripus indica. 

Sarrothripa indica, Feld., Reise Novara, pi. 106, f. 19 (1874). 

Clctthara pallesccns, Hmps., 111. Heteroc, Brit. Mus., ix., p. 108, pi. 163, f. 25 (1893). 
Sarrothripus symmtcta, Turn., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1902, p. 92. 
Sarrothripus abstrusa, Turn., I.e., 1909, p. 344. 

Species of this genus are often very variable, and I believe that these are all 
forms of one species. The ground-colour varies from grey to brown, and dark 
blotches, dots, or spots are frequently developed on forewings, sometimes a dark 
line on submedian fold connects the antemedian and postmedian transverse lines. 
I have now a good series for comparison. 

North Queensland : Cairns, Herberton. Queensland: Yeppoon, Gayndah, 
Brisbane, Mount Tambourine, National Park (3,000-3,500 feet), Toowoomba. 
New South Wales : Lismore, Port Macquarie. Also from Malay Peninsula and 
Ceylon. 

Gen. Hypolispa, nov. 

t>7roXtcr7ros, somewhat smooth. 

Frons fiat. Tongue strong. Palpi slender, upturned, not reaching vertex, 
smooth-scaled; terminal joint short. Thorax smooth-scaled; a small, bifid, pos- 
terior crest; smooth-scaled beneath. Abdomen with small dorsal crests on first 
three segments. Posterior tibiae smooth. Forewings with 2 from f, areole small 
and short, 10 approximated to 8, 9 at origin. Hindwings with cell ^-, 3 and 4 
connate from angle, 5 approximated to them at base, 6 and 7 connate, 12 
anastomosing with cell to middle. 

Near Bryophilopsis, Pimps., which has the areole long, and two small median 
crests on thorax. 

Hypolispa leucopolia, n. sp. 

XevKorroXws, whitish-grey. 

9 , 28 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax whitish-grey with a few dark-fuscous 
scales. Antennae fuscous. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs whitish ; anterior tarsi 
fuscous with whitish ambulations. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa slightly 
arched near base, thence straight, apex rectangular, termen bowed, scarcely 
oblique ; whitish-grey, more whitish towards costa ; a short, oblique, blackish 
streak from costa at \, sometimes connected by a fine line from its apex with a 
very small, irregular blackish mark about middle, on lower edge of cell ; reniform 
whitish-grey, kidney-shaped, surrounded by a whitish suffusion ; cilia pale grey. 
Hindwings with termen rounded; white; some of the veins and a narrow terminal 
suffusion fuscous ; cilia white. 

Queensland : Yeppoon, in October ; one specimen. 

E 






122 

Earn. LARENTIADAE. 

HoRISME CRIST ATA. 
Coremia cristata, Wlk., Cat. Brit. Mus., xxxv., p. 1683. 
Cidaria dccrc'a, Wlk., ibid, p. 1692. 
Kncymatoge peplodes, Turn,, Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1903, p. 247. 

I am indebted to Mr. L. B. Prout for the identification of Walker's types. 

North Queensland : Eungella. Queensland : Caloundra, Brisbane, Too- 
woomba, Roma, Warwick, Stanthorpe. New South Wales : Mittagong. Western 
Australia : Geraldton. 

Melitulias oriadelpha, n. sp. 

o/>aa8eA$<*s, a mountain brother. 

£ , 9 , 28-32 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous. Palpi in male 2j>, 
in female 3 ; fuscous, towards base beneath white. Antennae fuscous ; in male 
simple, ciliations minute. Legs fuscous ; tarsi slenderly annulated with whitish. 
Forewings broadly triangular, costa nearly straight, slightly arched before apex, 
apex pointed, termen bowed, oblique, wavy ; a fuscous basal patch, outer edge, 
sharply defined, wavy, from -J costa to \ dorsum; there follows this a brownish- 
white transverse fascia, containing two line darker lines, inf uscated on costa ; 
central band moderate, grey, with three anterior and three posterior wavy trans- 
verse lines and a median discal dot fuscous; anterior edge wavy, from § costa 
to f dorsum ; posterior edge from -f costa to i dorsum, wavy, slightly more pro- 
minent beneath costa and above middle ; there follows a brown-whitish band, 
inf uscated towards costa, containing four fine darker lines ; a narrow grey 
terminal fascia ; a fuscous terminal line ; cilia pale grey with a darker median line. 
Hindwings with termen rounded, crenulate in female only ; grey ; in male with 
a small, oval, whitish spot of altered scales just before middle; cilia grey. Under- 
side of forewings grey with a fuscous discal dot on end of cell ; of hindwings 
grey with a discal dot at J, and three rows of minute dots on veins beyond middle, 
fuscous. 

Very like M. glandulata, but the discal mark on hindwings of male is much 
smaller. It also differs in the discal dot on underside of forewings, and the sexes 
are much more similar than in that species. 

New South Wales: Mount Kosciusko (5,000 feet), in December; seven 
specimens received from Mr. G. M. Goldfinch, who has the type. 

Euphyia symphona, Meyr. 
E. symmolpa, Turn., is a synonym. 

Euphyia persimilis, n. sp, 

persimilis, very like. 

$ , 9 , 35-40 mm. Head ochreous-whitish mixed with fuscous. Palpi in 
male l-£, in female 2; fuscous; basal joint ochreous-whitish. Antennae grey; in 
male laminate with short ciliations (-^). Thorax fuscous mixed with whitish. 
Abdomen grey mixed with whitish; several, obscure, paired, fuscous, dorsal, 
segmental dots. Legs ochreous-whitish irrorated with fuscous; anterior pair 
mostly fuscous. Forewings triangular, costa slightly arched, more so at base and 
towards apex, apex pointed, termen bowed, oblique ; whitish ; markings and some 
irroration fuscous, brownish tinged; a moderate basal patch, edged by a convex, 
transverse, fuscous line ; following this a whitish band containing three, suffused, 
wavy, transverse lines; median band fuscous, moderately broad on costa, con- 
stricted from beneath middle to dorsum, containing four, wavy, transverse, dark- 
fuscous lines, the two central coalescing below middle, and enclosing a paler space, 
which contains a minute, median, discal dot ; antemedian line from ^ costa to mid- 



123 

dorsum, dark fuscous, nearly straight, or slightly wavy; postmedian from § casta 
to f dorsum, at first wavy and transverse, rather sharply angled outwards in 
middle, then concave ; a double white line succeeds this, then a narrow fuscous 
line ; a fuscous brown terminal band, containing a triangular, whitish, apical spot, 
from which proceeds a wavy, whitish, subterminal line, preceded by some darker 
fuscous spots ; a dark-fuscous terminal line ; cilia fuscous, apices whitish. Hind- 
wings with termen rounded, wavy ; pale grey ; a grey terminal line ; cilia pale 
grey. Underside grey, with slight fuscous discal dot and postmedian lines on 
both wings. 

Previously confused by me with E. vacuaria, Gn., some forms of which it 
closely resembles. That species has similar antennal structure, but with much 
longer ciliations (I2) >" shorter palpi (male 2, female 2^) ; antemedian line of fore- 
wings twice indented. 

New South Wales: Mount Kosciusko (5,000 feet), in January. Victoria: 
Mount St. Bernard (5,000 feet), in February. Six specimens. 

Euphyia cnephaeopa, n. sp. 

KV€<f>atu)7ros, dark, gloomy. 

3,9, 32-34 mm. Head fuscous. Palpi in male 2-^, in female 2\ ; fuscous, 
on lower edge towards base mixed with ochreous-whitish. Antennae pale grey ; 
ciliations in male minute. Thorax and abdomen fuscous. Legs dark fuscous, 
irrorated, and tarsi annulated, with ochreous-whitish. Forewings broadly tri- 
angular, costa straight to near apex, apex round-pointed, termen bowed, slightly 
oblique, wavy; fuscous, with numerous, fine, indistinct, wavy dark-fuscous and 
pale-fuscous transverse lines; a dark-fuscous discal dot beneath mid-costa; no 
distinct antemedian line ; postmedian sometimes traceable, slightly waved or 
bisinuate without projection, sometimes marked by minute whitish dots on veins; 
a very obscure, slender, grey-whitish, crenulate, subterminal line ; a dark-fuscous 
terminal line ; cilia fuscous, bases dark fuscous, with a very fine pale median 
line. Hindwings with termen scarcely rounded, crenulate ; as forewings but with 
lines more distinct, and a rather narrow, darker, median band indicated. Under- 
side similar. 

A very obscure species, similar to but larger than Horisme mortnata, Gn., 
and scotodes, Turn. ; the palpi longer and without sharply defined white ba^al 
patch. There are no defined abdominal crests, and only a vestigial thoracic crest 
as in some other species of Euphyia. 

New South Wales: Mount Kosciusko (5,000 feet), in December; four 
specimens received from Mr. G. M. Goldfinch, who has the type. 

Dasyuris phaeoxutha, n. sp. 

<f>aLo£ov9os, darkly tawny. 

$ , 9 , 24-25 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous with scanty 
white irroration. Palpi 5 ; fuscous mixed with whitish hairs, especially beneath. 
Antennae dark fuscous ; ciliations in male minute. Legs fuscous, irrorated, and 
tarsi annulated, with whitish. Forewings triangular, costa slightly bisinuate, 
apex subrectangular, termen bowed, slightly oblique, wavy ; tawny-fuscous with 
irroration and markings white and brownish-ochreous ; a slender, curved, trans- 
verse white line at i, preceded by a dark line; a more or less double, curved, 
transverse line at £, partly white, partly ochreous ; a fuscous 'discal dot in a pale 
halo beneath midcosta ; a double postmedian line at f , with an angular subcostal 
and double median projection, not prominent, sometimes dentate, variably white 
and ochreous; a fine, white, crenulate, subterminal line; cilia fuscous with a few 
indistinct whitish bars. Hindwings with termen gently rounded, wavy ; fuscous- 
brown, paler towards base; several, fine, transverse, darker lines; cilia as fore- 



124 

wings. Underside fuscous-brown with darker transverse lines and discal dots 
on both wings. 

The markings vary in detail. 

New South Wales : Mount Kosciusko, in December ; eight specimens received 
from Mr, G. M. Goldfinch, who has the type. 

Fam. STERRHIDAE. 

Eois perdulcis, n. sp. 

perdtikis, very sweet. 

? , 20 mm. Head grey ; face and collar fuscous. Palpi pale fuscous. Antennae 
fuscous, towards base whitish-grey. Thorax and abdomen whitish-grey. Legs whit- 
ish, anterior pair fuscous. Forewings triangular, costa straight to near apex, apex 
round-pointed, termen slightly curved, moderately oblique; grey-whitish; a fine, 
wavy, outwardly oblique, fuscous-brown line from \ dorsum reaching half across 
disc; a fuscous-brown subterminal line, broadly suffused in disc, three times 
sinuate, with angular slight projections posteriorly; a moderately broad terminal 
grey suffusion; cilia whitish-grey. Hindwings with termen rounded; grey-whitish; 
a broadly suffused, median, transverse, fuscous-brown band, with posterior angular 
projections above and below middle ; a broad grey terminal suffusion ; cilia grey 
whitish. Underside whitish-grey. 

Exceptionally distinct. 

Queensland : Dalby, in January ; one specimen. 

Eois trissorma, n. sp. 
TpLo-aopfws, with three chains. 

8 , 22 mm. Head and collar fuscous ; face and palpi dark fuscous. Antennae 
fuscous ; in male dentate, dilations 1-J. Thorax and abdomen brown-whitish. 
Legs brown-whitish; anterior pair fuscous ; posterior tibiae in male without 
spurs, rather short, smooth, somewhat dilated before apex, tarsi §, Forewings 
triangular, costa straight to middle, thence gently arched, apex rounded, termen 
slightly curved, oblique; brown-whitish; costal edge before middle fuscous; three 
transverse series of dark-fuscous dots ; first at \, represented by three dots, one 
subcostal, one on lower edge of cell, and one subdorsal; second median, repre- 
sented by minute dots on veins ; third at -f , dots on veins rather more distinct ; a 
pale subterminal line very faintly indicated towards costa, preceded by slight 
fuscous suffusion; some dark-fuscous dots on termen; cilia brown-whitish. Hind- 
wings with termen strongly rounded so as to project somewhat in middle, but not 
angled; as forewings. Underside similar, but markings on forewings and first 
line on hindwings obsolete. 

New South Wales: Ebor Scrub, in January; one specimen. 

Somatina euryrnitra, n. sp. 
evpvfiirpos, broadly girdled. 

9, 34 mm. Head fuscous; lower part of face whitish. Palpi ochreous- 
whitish, upper part of external surface dark fuscous. Antennae grey. Thorax 
and abdomen whitish-grey. Legs ochreous-grey-whitish ; anterior pair fuscous. 
Forewings broadly triangular, costa straight to §, thence arched, apex pointed, 
termen slightly bowed, slightly oblique, wavy ; whitish-grey ; costal edge ochreous ; 
an ochreous-fuscous subbasal spot; a fine angulated transverse line shortly beyond 
this, not reaching costa ; a very large discal blotch, not reaching costa, ochreous- 
grey finely irrorated with fuscous, edged anteriorly by a fine fuscous line from 
beneath -| costa to mid-dorsum, posteriorly by a line from § costa obliquely out- 
wards, angulated posteriorly beneath costa, approaching termen below middle, 



125 

then bent inwards to § dorsum; an interrupted closely parallel line, thickened and 
dentate beneath costa and with three large teeth below middle, their apices almost 
touching termen; a dark-fuscous terminal line; cilia grey. Hindwings with 
termen rounded, wavy, tornus rather prominent, pointed ; as f orewings, but with- 
out basal markings. Underside grey-whitish. 

Queensland: Toowoomba, in September; one specimen received from Mr. 
W. B. Barnard. 

Fam. GEOMETRIDAE. 

Pingasa calliglauca, n. sp. 
tcaAkiyk&vKQ'Si beautifully bluish-green. 

8 , 2 , 38-44 mm. Head and thorax pale olive-green, irrorated with dark 
fuscous. Palpi in male 1^, in female If ; ochreous- whitish, towards apex dark 
fuscous, with some whitish scales. Antennae dark fuscous; pectinations in male 6, 
apical -J- simple. Abdomen with lateral scale-tufts ; colour as in thorax, occasion- 
ally also some brown scales on dorsum towards base ; underside whitish. Legs 
fuscous ; tibiae and tarsi annulated with whitish ; anterior coxae reddish ; posterior 
pair whitish, or nearly so. Forewings triangular, costa gently arched, apex round- 
pointed, termen bowed, oblique, crenulate ; 1 1 anastomosing with 12 and 10 
(3 males, 6 females), 11 anastomosing with 12, 10 free (1 male), 11 connected 
with 12 and anastomosing with 10 (2 males, 1 female), 11 connected with 12, 10 
free (1 male, 1 female) ; pale olive-green irrorated with dark fuscous, especially 
towards base and termen ; costa with numerous dark fuscous and sometimes also 
white strigulae; a dark-fuscous line from -I; costa to § dorsum, variable in form, 
often three times looped or rarely angled posteriorly; a short, outwardly oblique, 
linear, somewhat blurred, dark-fuscous, median discal mark, rarely edged with 
brownish ; a dark-fuscous line from f costa to f dorsum, at first outwardly curved, 
then bent inwards, dentate throughout; an interrupted, wide, dentate, subterminal 
line edged posteriorly with dark fuscous ; a terminal series of dark-fuscous dots ; 
cilia whitish barred with fuscous. Hindwings with termen rounded, dentate; as 
forewings but without first line; a transverse, antemedian, dark-fuscous shade; 
rarely some brownish suffusion in basal area. Underside whitish; forewings with 
an interrupted dark-fuscous costal line, a large round discal spot, a broad terminal 
band containing a row of white dots, a suffused orange subcostal streak from base 
rarely absent ; hindwings with discal dot and terminal band dark fuscous. 

Queensland: Crow's Nest, near Toowoomba, in October, March, and April; 
Stanthorpe, in November and February. New South Wales ; Ebor, in January. 

Pingasa viridicata. 

Hypochroma viridicata, Luc, P-roc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1889, p. 1094. 

$, 9 , 48-50 mm. Head green; face with a transverse fuscous line below 
middle. Palpi 2; green, fuscous, and brown variably mixed; lower surface and 
base whitish. Antennae grey speckled with dark fuscous; pectinations in male 5, 
apical \ simple. Thorax green, mixed anteriorly with brown. Abdomen green 
more or less mixed with ochreous; beneath pale ochreous. Legs pale ochreous; 
anterior coxae in male brown; anterior tibiae and tarsi dark fuscous annulated 
with pale ochreous. Forewings triangular, costa nearly straight, apex round- 
pointed, termen bowed, oblique ; pale green finely dotted with darker green, the 
veins dotted with white, and sometimes a little white suffusion; costa strigulated 
with dark fuscous and brown; three, slender, transverse, dark-fuscous and brown 
transverse lines ; first subbasal, incomplete ; second from a spot on \ costa 
to \ dorsum, strongly curved outwards beneath costa; third from \ costa to 
| dorsum, slightly dentate throughout, at lirst transverse, with two acute project- 
ing teeth in middle, thence inwardly oblique; a median discal spot of raised 



126 J- 

brownish and fuscous scales outlined with green ; cilia green mixed with whitish 
and obscurely barred with fuscous-brown. Hindwings with termen rounded, 
crenulate ; as f orewings but with postmedian line only. Under surface of both 
wings whitish-ochreous with fuscous discal spot and suffused reddish subterminal 
fascia, sometimes mixed with dark fuscous, sometimes preceded on hindwings 
by a reddish, angulated, postmedian line. 

Queensland: Bunya Mountains (3,000 feet), in May; two specimens in good 
condition received from Mr. W. B. Barnard; previously recorded from Brisbane 
and Nambour. 

Fam. BOARMIADAE. 

Hyperythra metabolis. 
Callipona metabolis, Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1904, p. 236. 

Mr. L. B. Prout informs me that this species is distinct from rubricata, 
Warr. 

North Queensland : Townsville. 

Hyperythra rubricata. 

Hyperythra lutca rubricata, Warr., Nov. Zool., 1898, p. 35. 
Hyperythra rubricata, Swin., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1902, p. 612. 

I have not seen this species, but Mr. Prout informs me that it is more nearly 
allied to the Malayan H. lutea, and, like that species, has a hair-pencil on the 
hindwing, though not so strongly developed. 

North Queensland: Claremont Island, InnisfaiL 

Idiodes ischnora, n. sp. 

? Idiodes primaria, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1891, p. 642, nee Wlk. 

? Idiodes tenuicorpus, Prout, Nov. Zool., 1916, p. 49 (nomen nudum). 

Idiodes ischnora, Turn., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1919, p. 219 (nomen nudum). 
o , 2 , 34-42 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen grey, sometimes more 
or less reddish; palpi 1-|. Antennae whitish on dorsum, grey beneath; dilations 
in male minute. Legs grey with some fuscous irroration ; posterior tibiae of 
male dilated. Forevvings triangular, costa slightly arched, in female nearly 
straight, apex pointed, slightly produced, more so in female, termen rather 
strongly bowed, slightly wavy; 11 arising separately, anastomosing with 12, and 
then approximated to 10 (2 males), arising separately and anastomosing with 12 
and 10 (1 female), connate with 7, 10, anastomosing with 12 and 10 (1 female) ; 
grey, with a few fuscous strigulae, sometimes more or less reddish, sometimes 
purplish; an outwardly curved, somewhat dentate, antemedian fuscous line from 
\ costum to | dorsum, sometimes faint or obsolete ; a median, subcostal, fuscous 
discal dot; a fuscous line from -£ costa, slightly bent inwards on costa, thence 
straight to § dorsum, with a series of minute whitish dots on veins, or more 
rarely edged with whitish posteriorly, or double; an extremely slender, dentate, 
subterminal, pale line sometimes perceptible; costal edge fuscous, interrupted 
by whitish ; cilia concolorous, apices barred with white. Hindwings with termen 
slightly rounded, wavy ; as f orewings but without first line, and usually without 
discal dot, cilia mostly white at apices. 

Readily distinguished from /. apicata and 1. prionosema by the partly white 
cilia of both wings. The thorax and abdomen are also more slender than in 
apicata, but this character if exclusively relied on may lead to error. Walker's 
type of /. primaria is an example of apicata. Prout's name and my own were 
published without , description. 

North Queensland : Eungella. Queensland : Coolangatta, National Park 
(2,000 feet), Bunya Mountains (3,000 feet). New South Wales: Bulli. My 



127 

Mount Tambourine locality was based on misidentification, but the species will 
probably be found there. 

Idiodes prionosema. 

? Idiodes prlmaria, Meyr., nee Wlk. 

? Idiodes tenuicorpus, Prout. 

Idiodes prionosema, Turn., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1919, p. 291. 

Recent captures, and especially a series received from Mr. Geo. Lyell, show 
that this species is more variable than previously suspected. The postmedian 
line of forewings may be represented only by a series of fuscous, or of whitish 
dots, or by a continuous whitish line or by a continuous fuscous line edged 
posteriorly by whitish. The subterminal line may be obsolete, or a fine whitish 
dentate line, and the fuscous dentations, which precede it in the Ebor specimens, 
are absent in those from other localities. 

New South Wales: Ebor (4,000 feet). Victoria: Monbulk, Lome. Tas- 
mania : Strahan. 

Idiodes fictilis. 

Idiodes fietilis, Turn., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1919, p. 292. 
Idiodes argillina, Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1922, p. 289. 

A second example (female) taken in the Queensland National Park shows 
no trace of the large fuscous blotch on forewings of the type of /. argillina. 
Both these examples agree also structurally with /. fictilis; in the forewings 10 
and 11 arise separately from the eel!, 11 anastomosing first with 12 then with 10, 
10 anastomosing with 9; the posterior tibiae of the male are not dilated. 

Queensland: National Park (2,500-3,500 feet). New South Wales: 
Gosford. 

Angelia platydesma. 

Amelora platydesma, Low., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1901, p. 65. 

Angelia platydesma, Low., I.e., 1903, p. 194. 

Angelia mesophaea, Turn., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1919, p. 299. 

I think these are identical, though, if so, Lower's description is inexact. 
Queensland : Charleville. New South Wales : Bourke, Broken Hill. Vic- 
toria : Birchip, Sea Lake. 

Smyriodes carburaria, Gn. 

Also from Western Australia: Dowerin (L. J. Newman). 

Smyriodes gale aria, Gn. 
Nearly allied to the preceding. My genus Symmiges should be dropped. 

Fisera halurga, Turn. 

Queensland: Gayndah, Toowoomba, Charleville. Four examples from the 
last locality, including both sexes, have the hindwmgs rather paler than the type. 

Smyriodes adelosticha, n. sp. 
dSv/Xod-r/.vos;, with inconspicuous lines. 

$ , 34 mm. Head pale grey. Palpi 1 ; pale grey. Antennae pale grey ; in 
male with short pectinations (1) to apex, each pectination with short apical cilia. 
Thorax and abdomen pale grey with scanty dark-fuscous irroration. Legs 
whitish irrorated with fuscous ; anterior pair mostly dark fuscous. Forewings 
triangular, costa uniformly and rather strongly arched, apex pointed, termen 
bowed, oblique; pale grey; markings fuscous; a fine line from ■£ costa, very 
acutely angled outwards beneath costa, then strongly oblique inwardly to dorsum 
near base ; a very fine sinuate line from § costa to f dorsum, acutely dentate on 
veins ; a suffused, inwardly-oblique streak from apex to second line ; a terminal 



128 

series of small blackish dots ; cilia pale grey. Hindwings with termen strongly 
rounded; whitish, with some fuscous irroration towards termen. Underside 
whitish; both wings with fuscous discal dot, and postmedian line of fuscous dots. 

Dissimilar to previously described species, but structurally a true Smyriodes. 

Western Australia : Merredin ; one specimen received from Mr. L. j . 
Newman. 

Capusa chionopleura, n. sp. 

XtoyoTrAeupos, with white costa. 

9 , 42 mm. Head fuscous, with some whitish points ; face with a strong 
rounded prominence. Palpi 2\ ; fuscous. Antennae white ; towards apex fus- 
cous. Thorax fuscous. Abdomen grey-whitish; beneath fuscous. Legs fuscous; 
anterior tibiae with a strong apical hook. Forewings rather narrowly triangular, 
costa very slightly and uniformly arched, apex pointed, termen bowed, oblique, 
crenulate ; 10 and 11 arising separately from cell, not anastomosing; dark 
fuscous; a broad, white, costal streak from base to apex; cilia dark fuscous. 
Hindwings with termen rounded; white; cilia white, on apical half of termen 
barred with fuscous. Underside whitish, with suffused, fuscous, apical blotches 
on both wings. 

Queensland: Charleville, in September; one specimen. 

Gen. Ciampa, Wlk. 
This name must be adopted instead of Ceratucha, Turn. 

Ciampa glaridocrana, n. sp. 
yX&ptdoKpavos, chisel -headed. 
$ , 32 mm. Head grey ; face with a short chitinous conical projection, its apex 
chisel-shaped and horizontal. Palpi short (under 1); grey. Antennae whitish- 
grey; pectinations in male 5. Thorax grey. Abdomen and legs whitish-grey. 
Forewings narrow, oval, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, termen very 
obliquely rounded ; grey with patchy fuscous irroration; costa more densely 
irrorated ; an outwardly-oblique short fuscous line from } costa, with fuscous 
dots on veins between its apex and $ dorsum ; a fuscous discal dot at § ; post- 
median line obsolete, indicated by some dots on veins ; cilia grey. Hindwings 
broad, termen slight rounded, wavy; grey-whitish. 

The palpi and frontal process are much shorter than in C. arietaria. It is 
nearer C, heteromorpha, but in this the apex of the frontal process is flattened 
laterally, not vertically. 

Western Australia: Perth; one specimen received from Mr. L. J. Newman. 

Chlenias leptoneura, n. sp. 

Ae7rroi'€i;/H)5, with slender nerves. 

9 , 39 mm. Plead fuscous ; face with strong rounded prominence. Palpi 
1^; whitish with some fuscous scales. Antennae grey. Thorax grey; a broad, 
longitudinal, dark-fuscous bar between crests. Abdomen grey. Legs whitish; 
anterior pair and all tarsi grey. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa nearly i\. 

straight, but slightly arched towards apex, apex pointed, termen slightly bowed, 
moderately oblique ; 10 free ; grey ; veins very slenderly outlined with fuscous ; 
a suffused fuscous spot on dorsum slightly beyond middle ; cilia grey. Hindwings 
with termen scarcely rounded ; pale grey ; towards base whitish ; cilia grey- 
whitish. Underside grey. 

Western Australia: Perth; one specimen received from Mr. L. J. Newman. 



129 

Gen. Omoplatica, nov. 

<hfjL07r\aTiKos> with shoulder-blades. 

Face not projecting", rough-haired. Tongue strongly developed. Palpi 
moderate, porrect ; basal and second joints clothed with long rough hairs ; 
terminal joint long, smooth, obtuse. Antennae in male bipectinate to apex. 
Thorax not crested ; shoulder-flaps with very long hairs reaching nearly to middle 
of abdomen ; densely hairy beneath. Abdomen without crests. Femora densely 
hairy. Posterior tibiae in male not dilated. Forewings in male without fovea ; 
10 and 11 arising separately from cell, 10 connected with 9, 11 free. Hindwihgs 
normal ; cell \ \ 8 approximated to cell to beyond middle. 

In four examples the neuration is constant. The genus differs from 
Chlenias and Stibaroina in the absence of any thoracic crest, the very long 
shoulder-flaps (which may be confined to the male sex), and the shorter cell of 
the hindwings. 

Omoplatica holopolia, n. sp. 

oAo7roAto9, wholly grey. 

S, 45-46 mm. Head brownish; face pale grey. Palpi 2\\ fuscous, inner 
surface whitish; terminal joint f. Antennae whitish-grey; pectinations in male 6. 
Thorax grey, anteriorly brownish-tinged. Abdomen pale grey ; tuft and under- 
side whitish. Coxae and femora whitish; tibiae and tarsi fuscous, the latter 
with whitish angulations. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa nearly straight, 
apex acute, termen bowed, strongly oblique, slightly crenulate ; pale grey; some 
fuscous irroration on veins ; a fine, fuscous, interrupted, terminal line ; ,cilia 
grey-whitish. Hindwings with termen rounded, slightly crenulate ; grey ; towards 
base whitish; a postmedian, curved, transverse line of minute fuscous dots; a 
fine, interrupted, fuscous, terminal line ; cilia whitish. Underside whitish ; fore- 
wings with a subterminal line of minute fuscous dots, and sometimes a discal 
dot; hindwings with distinct discal dot, a postmedian line of dots, and a median 
terminal blotch, fuscous. 

Western Australia : Merredin ; four specimens received from Mr. L. J. 
Newman. 

Gen. Paralaea, Meyr. 
Proc, Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1891, p. 670. 

Paralaea promacha, Meyr. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1891, p. 671. 

This genus and species, which 1 have not seen, were accidentally omitted 
from my revision of the family. 

Western Australia: Albany. 

Fam. EPIPLEMIDAE. 

Balantiucha cyclocrossa, n. sp. 
KVKkoKpoa-cros, with rounded margin. 

$ . 21-26 mm. Plead with crown fuscous, fillet white, face dark fuscous. 
Palpi dark fuscous. Antennae white; in male with close-set whitish-ochreous 
laminae. Thorax and abdomen grey. Legs whitish; anterior pair fuscous. 
Forewings triangular, costa gently arched, apex rounded, termen rounded, 
oblique, dorsum strongly concave ; grey finely strigulated with fuscous ; absence 
of strigulation sometimes causes an indistinct pale transverse fascia from f costa 
to termen above tornus; sometimes a similar terminal line; a submarginal series 



130 



I 



of black dots between veins, sometimes obsolete towards tormis; a small semi- 
circular dorsal blotch beyond middle, fuscous, in centre grey ; cilia grey. Hind- 
wings with termen strongly and evenly rounded; as forewings, but without 
dorsal blotch ; a fine curved fuscous transverse median line. Underside grey. 

Allied to B. leucocera, Hmps., and B. leucocephala, Wlk., but differs from 
both in the absence of a denned postmedian line in forewings. The male of 
leiicocera in addition to its brown colouring may be distinguished by the strong 
triangular tuft on costa of hindwings. In the male of leucocephala the termen 
of hindwings is distinctly angled above middle. 

Queensland: Bunya Mountains, in January; four specimens. 

Fam. SCHOENOBIADAE. 

The following is a key to the Australian genera of this small family: — 

1. Palpi short, not projecting beyond frons .. .. .. .. .. Niphopyralis 

Palpi porrect, projecting beyond frons . . . . . . . . . . 2 

2. Forewings with' 2 and 3 stalked . . . . . . . . . . . . Pogoxoi-tera 

Forewings with 2 and 3 separate . . . . . . . . . . 3 

3. Forewings with 7., 8, 9 stalked . . . . . . . . . . . . Ramila 

Forewings with 7 not stalked with 8, 9 . . . . . . . . 4 

4. Hindwings with 7 and 12 anastomosing for some distance . . 5 
Hindwings with 7 and 12 not anastomosing, or at a point only . . StyphlolEpis 

5. Forewings with 6 and 7 stalked . . . . . . . . . . . . Tiiyridophora 

Forewings with 6 and 7 separate . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 

6. Forewings with 8, 9, 10 stalked . . . . . . . . . . . . Brihaspa 

Forewings with 10 separate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 

7. Posterior tibiae smooth . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 

Posterior tibiae rough-scaled . . . . . . . . . . . . Cirri] ochrista 

8. Palpi moderate, not exceeding 2, terminal joint short; shoulder -flaps 

in male with rough, spreading hairs . . . . . . . . . . Scirpophaga 

Palpi long-, usually over 3, terminal joint long; shoulder-flaps in male 

without rough, spreading hairs . . . . . . . . . . Sc^oknobius 

Gen. Brihaspa, Moore. 

Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. 666; Hmps., Proc. Zool. Soc., 1895, p. 909. 

To this genus I refer sienoptcralis, Hmps. (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9), iv., 
p. 316, 1919) ; atricostalis, Hmps. (lot. cii., p. 317) ; tinctalis, Hmps. (loc. cit., 
p. 315); and pentamiiia, Turn. (Ann. Q'land Mus., x., p. 119, 1911). I think 
Brihaspa, Patissa, Moore, and Donacaitla, Meyr., are probably congeneric. 

Gen. Tjivridophora, Warr. 

Proc. Zool. Soc, 1888, p. 311; Pimps., I.e., 1895, p. 905. 

Labial palpi porrect, long or very long; terminal joint long, bent slightly 
downwards. Maxillary palpi strongly dilated at apex. Forewings with cell 
S to -J, 6 and 7 stalked from upper angle of cell, 10 and 11 arising separately 
from cell. Hindwings with 4 and 5 approximated at origin, 7 anastomosing 
with 12. Type T. furia, Swin., from India. This has a vesicular gland on under- 
side of forewings, which is absent in the Australian species. 

Thyridophora gilva, n. sp. 
gilvits, pale yellow. 

$, ?, 30-32 mm. Head whitish. Palpi 5; pale ochreous ; inner surface 
and lower edge whitish. Antennae whitish ; in male shortly bipectinate ( 1 ) , extreme 
apex simple. Thorax pale ochreous with a few fuscous scales. Abdomen and 
legs whitish. Forewings elongate, posteriorly dilated, costa sinuate, apex rect- 
angular, termen and dorsum continuously rounded ; pale ochreous becoming 
whitish towards termen, sparsely irrorated with large fuscous scales; an indis- 
tinct fuscous ring beneath midcosta; a curved, whitish, subterminai line, free 



. 



131 

from irroration, from costa before apex to dorsum at J, edged anteriorly with 
fuscous ; sometimes a fine fuscous line in disc before and parallel to this ; cilia 
whitish with a fuscous-grey basal line. Hindwings 1^, termen rounded ; whitish 
with slight fuscous irroration towards termen ; cilia as f orewings. 

Queensland: Clermont, in September; four specimens received from Mr. E. 
J. Dumigan. 

Fam. PYRAUSTIDAE. 
Nacoleia chlorura. 

Ceratoclasis chlorura, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1887, p. 222. 
Nacoleia melanaitges, Turn., Proc. Roy. Soc. Q'land, 1912, p. 145. 

Anterior tarsi and lower half of tibiae thickened with a double row of 
dense curved scales on dorsum in male. 
North Queensland: Cooktown, Cairns. 

Nacoleia leucophrys, n. sp. 

XtvKQtfrpvs, with white eyebrows. 

$ , 20 mm. Head fuscous ; side-tufts whitish. Palpi fuscous ; base beneath 
obliquely white, sharply defined. Antennae fuscous ; in male with dorsal groove 
at f, preceded by a tuft, ciliations 1. Thorax fuscous. Abdomen fuscous; 
dorsum of second segment and underside whitish. Legs fuscous; tarsi with 
whitish annulations. Forewings white without ochreous tinge ; markings dark 
fuscous, somewhat suffused; a moderate basal patch; a transverse line at -J; a 
moderate transverse fascia at \ ; four small rings on costa at |, J, § , f ; a median 
transverse fascia broadly interrupted in middle, or obsolete also towards dorsum; 
a finely dentate subterminal line, followed by a slender white line ; a terminal 
band containing an irregular white spot above tornus close to termen; cilia 
fuscous, bases and several suffused bars whitish. Hindwings with termen 
sinuate ; as forewings but basal patch very small, without subbasal line, median 
fascia, subterminal line, and costal rings. Underside similar. 

Queensland : Yeppoon, in October ; one specimen. 

Fam. CARPOSINIDAE. 
Carposina chaetolopha, n. sp. 

XatroXo(/)o?, with mane-like crest. 

£ , 9 , 25-28 mm. Head whitish ; crown fuscous tinged. Palpi 5 ; fuscous ; 
upper edge whitish. Antennae fuscous; ciliations in male 1. Thorax fuscous 
or fuscous-whitish. Abdomen grey; base of dorsum sometimes whitish. Legs 
fuscous ; tarsi with whitish annulations. Forewings narrow, posteriorly dilated, 
costa moderately arched, apex pointed, termen nearly straight, in male strongly, 
in female moderately, oblique ; fuscous with a small but variable amount of 
whitish and ferruginous irroration ; dark-fuscous dots of raised scales, first close 
to base, second subbasal beneath fold, third on costa at t, fourth beneath fold 
at i, edged with whitish, fifth above fold slightly posterior to fourth, sixth and 
seventh placed transversely in middle, not all equally distinct ; an obscure dentate 
line from f costa to f dorsum succeeded by a paler or whitish area; an indistinct 
transverse subterminal dark shade; veins in apical area more or less outlined 
with darker scales; cilia fuscous. Hindwings with termen slightly sinuate; 
cubital pecten in male consisting of very long dense fuscous hairs extending 
beyond -? } , in female normal; pale grey; cilia pale grey. 

Western Australia : Mundaring, in June ; two specimens. A paler somewhat 
worn female, from Perth, appears to be the same species. 



132 

Carposina petraea, Meyr. 
C. culopha, Turn., is a synonym. 

Fam. TORTRICIDAE. 

[SOCHORISTA MELANOCRYPTA, Meyr. 

In male with a small hair-pencil from side of thorax directed backwards 
from beneath origin of forewing. This and the dark suffusion of underside of 
wings are absent in the female. 

Gen. Anisochorista, nov. 

ae/.o-oxco/HSTos, unequally separated. 

Palpi moderate, porrect ; second joint dilated with rough scales above and 
beneath; terminal joint short. Thorax with a strong posterior crest. Forewings 
with 3 from angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to termen. Hindwings with 2 widely remote 
from 3, 3 and 4 separate but somewhat approximated at origin, 5 widely separate 
from 4 at origin, 6 and 7 stalked. 

Distinguished from Isochorista by 4 being much nearer 3 than 5 at origin, 
and by the strong thoracic crest. The type A. callizycja, Low., has at present 
no known near ally. 

Anisochorista callizyga, Low. 

New South Wales: Katoomba, Mount Wilson. Victoria: Gisborne. South 
Australia: Mount Lofty, Mount Gambier. 

Acropolitis stenoptycha, n. sp. 

(ttcvotttvxos, with narrow fold. 
$■ t 20 mm. Head dark fuscous; lower edge of face white. Palpi H ; 
fuscous; apex and inner surface white. Antennae white with blackish annula- 
tions ; ciliations in male 1. Thorax dark fuscous irrorated with white, Abdomen 
grey. Legs whitish ; tibiae and tarsi fuscous with whitish annulations, except 
posterior pair. Forewings suboblong, costa moderately arched, apex rounded- 
rectangular, termen obliquely rounded ; costal fold in male very short and 
narrow, extending to -~ ; whitish with uneven fuscous irroration and strigulation ; 
markings dark fuscous; basal patch very ill-defined; central fascia represented 
by an irregular angulated blotch in middle of disc, connected by irregular suffu- 
sion with costa and dorsum; a suffused costal triangle with darker strigulae; a 
curved triangular blotch above tornus, its apex downwards; a spot on termen 
beneath apex; cilia whitish with basal and apical fuscous lines. Hindwings 
with termen sinuate ; pale grey ; cilia pale grey. 

Characterised by its small size, rudimentary costal fold, and the absence of 
any ochreous or ferruginous colouring. 

Queensland: Brisbane, in September; one specimen. 

Lamyrodes molyhdospora, n. sp. 
I'.oXvf^oaTropo^ leaden-spotted. 

$, $, 15-17 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreous irrorated with ferru- 
ginous. Palpi H; pale ochreous; terminal joint fuscous. Antennae blackish 
annulated with white; ciliations in male l\. Abdomen fuscous; tuft and under 
side ochreous-whitish. Legs fuscous ; anterior and middle tibiae annulated with 
ochreous-whitish ; posterior pair almost wholly ochreous-whitish. Forewings 
rather narrow, costa gently arched, apex rounded, termen very obliquely 
rounded; in male without costal fold; pale ochreous irrorated with ferruginous; 
numerous leaden metallic dots ; the ferruginous scales sometimes form an oblique 



133 

fascia from before middle of costa to tornus, and a costal blotch before apex; 
some dark-fuscous costal dots; cilia pale ochreous. -Hindwings with termen 
sinuate ; dark grey ; cilia grey. 

South Australia: Glenclg, near Adelaide, in April; two specimens received 
from Mr. J. D. O. Wilson. 

Lamyrodes stenozona, n. sp. 

orrevo^wos, narrowly banded. 

9, 18 mm. Head and thorax fuscous mixed with pale ochreous. Palpi 2; 
pale ochreous. Antennae fuscous. Abdomen fuscous; beneath pale ochreous. 
Legs pale ochreous; in anterior and middle pairs mixed with fuscous. Forewings 
rather narrow, not dilated, costa slightly arched, apex pointed, termen slightly 
bowed, very oblique ; pale ochreous with a few grey and fuscous scales ; markings 
fuscous-brown mixed with grey ; basal patch mostly obsolete, represented by 
irregular dots on costa and fold and by a few scattered dark scales; a broad 
dorsal streak from \ to middle; a narrow fascia from midcosta to tornus, its 
edges irregularly dentate ; an elongate apical patch containing two pale-ochreous 
costal dots; cilia pale ochreous, towards tornus grey. Hindwings with termen 
sinuate ; fuscous ; cilia pale fuscous with a darker basal line. 

Victoria: Daytrap, in October; two specimens. Judging from these, the 
species is variable. Type in Coll. Lyell. 

Capua castanitis, Turn. 

I have now a long series from the Queensland National Park in October 
and November, ranging from a low level to 3,500 feet. My description applies 
well to the female, but the male, which has antennal ciliations § and costal fold 
absent, shows more distinct markings. The basal patch is usually narrowdy 
edged with dark fuscous, the central fascia and costal triangle dark fuscous, the 
former rather narrow, often constricted or divided into two or three spots. 

Capua hedyma, Turn. 

I took one of each sex in the Queensland National Park, at 4,000 feet, in 
November. The female expands 25 mm. and has the forewings almost uniformly 
reddish-ochreous, the markings of the male being only faintly indicated. 

Capua microphaea, n. sp. 
fALKpocjiatos, small dusky. 

$ , 14 mm. Head pale brown. Palpi 3 ; pale brown. Antennae pale brown 
hnely annulated with dark fuscous ; ciliations in male 1-J-. Thorax, abdomen, 
and legs fuscous. Forewings suboblong, costa slightly arched, apex obtusely 
pointed, termen straight, oblique; in male without costal fold; brown-whitish 
suffused with grey ; markings fuscous-brown ; a rather large basal patch followed 
by a pale area; central fascia with anterior edge transverse, angulatcd outwards 
in disc and inwards above dorsum, from § costa to beyond middle of dorsum, 
posterior edge undefined, merging in a dark-grey suffusion, which extends to 
termen; some dark-fuscous costal dots, with a larger spot at f ; cilia grey, apices 
ochreous-whitish. Hindwings with termen scarcely sinuate; 3 and 4 connate; 
grey; cilia grey. 

Not unlike C. isographa, Meyr., but readily distinguished by the longer 
antennal ciliations. 

Queensland: National Park (3,000 feet), in November; one specimen. 



134 

Capua dyslecta, n, sp. 

%vo-\eKTo$, hard to distinguish. 

$ , 18 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous. Palpi 2\ ; whitish-ochreous 
with some fuscous irroration. Antennae whitish-ochreous with dark-fuscous 
dots on dorsal surface. Abdomen grey ; tuft very large, its apex fuscous. Legs 
whitish-ochreous with some fuscous irroration. Forewings subtriangular, costa 
moderately arched, apex round-pointed, termen slightly rounded, oblique; very 
pale ochreous with a few dark-fuscous scales, which form transverse strigulae 
towards base, and again before termen; three, moderate, whitish, transverse 
fasciae partly edged with dark-fuscous scales; first from § dorsum not reaching 
costa; second from § costa to § dorsum; third from -f costa to tornus; cilia pale 
ochreous with a few fuscous points at apices. Hindwings with termen scarcely 
sinuate ; 3 and 4 connate ; whitish ; cilia whitish. 

The distinctness of this species is not at first obvious, for the pale fasciae 
are almost invisible except under oblique illumination. 

Queensland: National Park (2,500 feet), in November; one specimen taken 
in open forest country. 

Capua catharia, n. sp. 

KaQapios, neat. 

$, 16-17 mm. Head, thorax, and antennae fuscous. Palpi 2^; fuscous, 
upper edge whitish. Abdomen and legs fuscous. Forewings moderate, not 
dilated, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, termen slightly rounded, slightly 
oblique ; grey- whitish ; markings fuscous ; a moderate basal patch, angulated 
outwards in middle, containing two obscure darker transverse lines ; a series of 
dorsal dots ; a dot on £ costa shortly beyond basal patch, giving origin to a very 
slender indistinct line to second dorsal dot; median fascia from costa before 
middle, anterior edge straight, rather narrow on costa, broadening greatly in 
disc, so that posterior edge reaches tornus ; a well-developed triangular subapical 
costal patch ; a supratornal spot ; an obscure terminal line ; cilia grey-whitish 
with basal and subapical fuscous lines. Hindwings with termen scarcely 
sinuate ; 3 and 4 connate ; whitish with numerous grey transverse strigulae ; cilia 
whitish with basal and subapical grey lines. 

Victoria:. Daytrap, in September; two specimens. Type in Coll. Lyell. 

Homona hilaomorpha, n. sp. 
Ikaofiopcjios, of cheerful appearance. 

$, 20-22. mm. Head and thorax fuscous. Palpi short (about 1), smooth 
scaled, obliquely ascending; fuscous. Antennae fuscous; ciliations very short 
(£). Abdomen grey; base of dorsum brown; underside ochreous. Legs fuscous; 
tarsi annulated with whitish-ochreous ; posterior pair, except tarsi, whitish- 
ochreous. Forewings broad, suboblong, costa with a rounded angle at f, thence 
sinuate, apex rectangular, termen straight, not oblique, rounded beneath ; 7 and 8 
connate ; whitish-ochreous strigulated and suffused with grey ; costal fold short, 
reaching to \, very broad, and approximately semicircular, fuscous; a small 
fuscous basal patch between fold and dorsum; beyond this a broad brownish- 
grey suffusion limited by a line from \ costa to tornus, angled in middle of 
disc ; a moderate fuscous-brown costal triangle, succeeded by a costal dot ; a 
double series of dark-fuscous strigulae before termen; cilia brown with a fuscous 
line beyond middle. Hindwings with termen slightly sinuate; pale ochreous 
with some fuscous strigulae, towards base and dorsum fuscous-grey; cilia 
fuscous, on middle of termen pale ochreous. 

9 , 22-24 mm. Llead and thorax brown. Forewings with termen strongly 
sinuate, apex acute, produced, termen sinuate ; purple-grey finely strigulated with 



135 

fuscous and brown ; a fuscous subcostal dot representing costal triangle. Hind- 
wings deeper ochreous. 

So far as recorded all other species of Homona have 7 and 8 of forewings 
stalked. The definition of the genus must be slightly broadened to include this 
species, which certainly must be referred here. 

Queensland: National Park (2,500-3,000 feet)., iu November; five specimens. 

Tortrix eurystropha, n. sp. 

tupvo-TpQcpo*;, broad-banded. 

'$ , 22 mm. Head brown. Palpi 2\ ; brown. Antennae grey ; dilations in 
male 1-J. Thorax fuscous-brown, paler posteriorly. Abdomen grey. Legs 
fuscous-brown; tarsi angulated with ochreous- whitish ; posterior pair ochreous- 
whitish. Forewings suboblong, costa arched to middle, thence straight, apex 
rectangular, termen straight, rounded beneath, scarcely oblique; costal fold in 
male narrow and rudimentary, but with a small triangular tuft of scales before 
its apex, which reaches to middle ; whitish-grey with brownish suffusion and 
some, dark-fuscous irroration ; markings fuscous-brown ; a moderate ill-defined 
basal patch ; central fascia and costal triangle completely fused, extending on 
costa from \ nearly to apex, narrowing rapidly in disc, but still moderately broad 
at tornus, anterior edge oblique, more strongly so below middle, posterior edge 
excavated in middle, with a rectangular bend above tornus ; a small ill-defined 
median terminal blotch ; cilia brown with a blackish subbasal line, apices whitish. 
Hindwings with termen sinuate ; whitish coarsely strigulated with grey ; cilia 
whitish, with a grey subbasal line. 

Queensland: National Park (2,500 to 3,000 feet), in October and Novem- 
ber ; two specimens. 

Tortrix lythrodana, Meyr. 

Cnephasia trissochorda, Turn., is a synonym. 

Queensland : Stanthorpe. New South Wales : Katoomba, Mount Kosciusko 
(5,000 feet). Victoria: Melbourne, Wandin, Lome, Gisborne, Mount St. 
Bernard (5,000 feet). Tasmania: Mount Wellington, Lake Fenton (3,500 feet), 
Cradle Mountain (3,000 feet), Burnie, Strahan. South Australia: Mount Lofty. 

Tortrix notophaea, n. sp. 

i/wTo</>atos, dusky-backed, 

S , 20 mm. Head and thorax brownish-fuscous. Palpi 3; brownish-fuscous. 
Antennae ochreous-whitish ; ciliations in male ^. Abdomen grey. Legs fuscous ; 
tarsi with whitish ambulations. Forewings strongly dilated posteriorly, costa 
straight near base, thence moderately arched, apex rounded-rectangular, termen 
slightly oblique, rounded beneath; costal fold narrow, reaching f ; pale brownish- 
ochreous ; dorsal area pale fuscous throughout to about £ breadth of wing 
before middle, there suddenly broadening to -|, with sharply defined edge, which 
before termen is deflected upwards to just beneath apex ; basal patch obsolete, 
but its posterior edge indicated by an indistinct pale-fuscous line indented below 
middle ; several fuscous costal dots beyond middle, a median fuscous spot at § 
confluent with dorsal fuscous area; between this and tornus several blackish 
dots ; cilia pale brownish-ochreous. Hindwings with termen scarcely sinuate ; 
pale grey ; cilia pale grey. 

New South Wales : Sydney. One specimen emerged at the Cawthron Insti- 
tute, New Zealand, from twigs of Acacia decurrens, collected at Epping, Sydney, 
and was received by me from Mr. A. J. Philpott. 



136 

Arotrophora siniocosma, n. sp. 

irivioKovfUK, with sieve-like ornament. 

$, 28 mm. Head white, ochreous tinged. Palpi 7; brownish-ochreous ; 
lower edge and internal surface, except of terminal joint, white. Antennae 
ochreous, paler towards base. Thorax whitish ; anterior and posterior edge 
partly orange. Abdomen and legs whitish. Forewings strongly dilated pos- 
teriorly, costa gently arched near base, thence nearly straight, apex rounded- 
rectangular, termen nearly straight, not oblique ; whitish-grey with numerous, 
transverse, brownish-orange strigulae, partly connected to form a fine network ; 
a white costal streak, edged towards disc with ochreous, from base nearly to 
apex ; cilia orange. Hindwings broad ; white with fine, grey-whitish, transverse 
strigulae ; cilia white. 

One of the A. ochraccella group. 

Queensland : Yeppoon, in October ; one specimen. 

SCHOENOTENES LEUCOPTERA, Turn. 

Having obtained further material, taken in the Queensland National Park 
at 2,500-3,000 feet in November, also from Bunya Mountains at 3,000 feet in 
January, I find that my Tortrix Icucoptcra must be referred to this genus. The 
forewings show tufts of raised scales, the cell is narrow posteriorly and contains 
a strong chorda, in the hindwings the cell is short (-J), 6 and 7 are connate, 
gradually diverging from base. The male shows no costal fold, and the antennal 
ciliations are 1. 

Scypiioceros tholera, Turn. 

To the description of this species should be added : — Face with a deep 
hollow above between bases of antennae ; white. 

Gen. Dicellitis, Meyr. 

Of the three Australian species I refer to this genus, D. sostrophora has 
3 and 4 of forewings stalked ; in D. theticophora and in the species described below 
these veins are approximated at origin. 

Dicellitis cavifrons, n. sp. 

cavifrons, hollow-faced. 

$ , 15-16 mm. Head fuscous; face smooth, concave, white. Palpi 2, curved 
upwards ; brown-whitish becoming fuscous towards apex. Antennae ochreous- 
whitish finely barred with dark fuscous on dorsal surface ; in male with short 
pectinations (1) to apex and shorter ciliations. Thorax fuscous. Abdomen 
grey. Legs fuscous ; tarsi annulated with whitish-ochreous ; posterior pair 
wbitish-ochreous. Forewings narrow, subovate, costa moderately arched, apex 
rounded, termen obliquely rounded; costal fold in male well developed, extending 
to |; several tufts of raised scales in disc; ochreous-whitish suffused with fuscous- 
brown, markings fuscous-brown, very indefinite; a suffused basal patch, produced 
on costa, its outer margin not angled; a large undefined suffusion in disc represent- 
ing central fascia; a small costal triangle; cilia pale fuscous, bases whitish. Hind- 
wings broad, termen not sinuate; fuscous, paler near apex and termen; cilia as 
forewings. 

Very obscure, but very distinct by its structural characters. 

Queensland: National Park (3,500 feet), in December and January; two 
specimens. 



137 

Gen. Trychnophylla, now 

Tfn>xvo<j>v\\.o<s, rough-winged. 

Palpi 1^, ascending; second joint smooth above, beneath with a large apical 
tuft; terminal joint rather long (about ^ second). Thorax with a small posterior 
crest (?). Forewings with small tufts of raised scales; 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to 
apex. Hindwings with 3 and 4 connate or short-stalked, 5 moderately approxim- 
ated at origin, 6 and 7 stalked. 

Trychnophylla taractica, n. sp. 

rafxiKTiKos, turbulent. 

£, 16 mm. Plead and thorax fuscous-whitish. Palpi fuscous; extreme 
apex and inner surface ochreous-whitish. Antennae whitish annulated with 
blackish. Abdomen fuscous. Legs ochreous- whitish ; tibiae and tarsi, except 
posterior pair, fuscous annulated with ochreous-whitish. Forewings suboblong, 
rather narrow, costa slightly arched, apex rounded, termen obliquely rounded ; 
grey mixed with whitish, finely strigulated and irrorated with dark fuscous; 
many dark-fuscous costal dots, some of which give rise to broken transverse 
lines or series of strigulae ; an interrupted terminal line ; cilia grey, bases with 
obscure paler bars. Hindwings with termen slightly sinuate; grey; cilia grey. 

Queensland : Toowoomba, in October ; one specimen. 

Gen. Apateta, nov. 

anar-qToq., novel. 

Head rough-scaled. Tongue well developed. Palpi extremely long, porrect ; 
second joint extremely long, with long rough scales above and beneath ; 
terminal joint long, smooth, apex obtusely rounded. Forewings smooth; 2 from 
before |, 3 from angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to apex; a forked median vein weakly 
developed in distal half of cell. Hindwings without cubital pecten ; cell over § , 
2 from f, 3 and 4 connate, 4, 5, 6, 7 equidistant, parallel; & weakly developed 
forked median vein in cell. 

An isolated and primitive genus. The neuration of the hindwings is of the 
primitive type that has been preserved in the Oecophoridae ; among the Tortri- 
cidae it is only known as Isotrias. 

Apateta cryphia, n. sp. 

Kfw<f>ios, hidden. 

9 , 27 mm. Head and thorax fuscous. Palpi grey with some whitish 
irroration, extreme base white. Abdomen ochreous-whitish with a broad fuscous 
bar across dorsum of each segment ; beneath fuscous with slight whitish irrora- 
tion. Fegs fuscous ; posterior pair whitish-grey. Forewings elongate, not 
dilated, costa moderately arched throughout, apex round-pointed, termen oblique, 
slightly rounded ; fuscous with a very few white scales mostly between spots and 
near fold ; two small white discal spots, first slightly beyond i> second at f ; 
ilia fuscous with a few white scales. Hindwings with termen rounded ; pale 
grey; cilia pale grey. 

This singular species at first sight suggests a Carposina. 

Western Australia: Waroona, in October; one specimen received from Mr. 
R. Illidge. 

Gen. Phricanthes, Meyr. 

Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1881, p. 636. 

Type P. aspcrmia, Meyr. This name must be adopted for Lh? genus I defined 
under the name Colocyttara. 



138 

Gen. Palaeotoma, Meyr. 

In this genus 7 and 8 of forewings are closely approximated at origin and 
for some distance. My genus Trachyptila was founded on a misapprehension. 
In the type of T. melanosticha 7 and 8 are actually stalked, but this is merely 
a structural aberration, though one that is very unusual, if not unique in this 
family. In T. phaulodes these veins, though not stalked, actually touch each 
other for some distance. Both these names are synonyms of P. siyphelana, 
Meyr. 

Fam. EUCOSMIDAE. 

Spilonota honesta, Meyr. 

Eucosma lexiconephela, Turn., is a synonym. 

New South Wales : Glen Innes, Barrington Tops. Victoria : Melbourne, 
Geelong, Gisborne. Tasmania; Hobart, Deloraine, Cradle Mountain (3,000 
feet), Zeehan. 

Acroclita ochropepla, n sp. 

wxpo7T€7r\os, in pale clothing. 

S , 12 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen pale fuscous. Palpi 2 ; white ; 
second joint with incomplete, pale fuscous, subbasal, and median, transverse bars. 
Antennae fuscous, in male thickened, ciliations imperceptible. Legs whitish ; 
tarsi annulated with fuscous. Forewings with costa gently arched, apex sub- 
rectangular, slightly produced, termen not oblique; without costal fold; whitish; 
numerous, fuscous, short costal streaks ; a large, quadrangular, very pale-fuscous 
dorsal blotch from base, extending half across disc; central fascia very pale 
fuscous, from midcosta, where it is very narrow, expanded from mid-disc to 
dorsum; where it is partly confluent with basal blotch, and extends to f ; two 
longer oblique costal streaks before apex, and an apical spot, fuscous ; ocellus 
represented by a quadrangular whitish area, margined with fuscous, and con- 
taining one or two, fine, short, longitudinal, fuscous lines ; cilia whitish, partly 
fuscous around apex. Hindwings with termen sinuate ; 3 and 4 stalked ; grey ; 
cilia grey. 

Queensland: Byfleld, near Yeppoon, in October; one specimen. 

Eucosma polyphaea, n. sp. 

TroAv^ato?, very dark. 

S, 12 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous. Palpi 2; second joint 
subascending, shortly rough-scaled ; fuscous. Antennae fuscous; ciliations in 
male \. Legs fuscous ; tarsi with obscure whitish annulations ; posterior pair 
except tarsi whitish. Forewings narrow-oblong, not dilated, costa nearly 
straight, apex subrectangular, termen sinuate ; in male with a strong costal fold 
extending to -J ; fuscous ; costa with very fine, obscure, oblique, whitish strigulae 
arranged in pairs ; ocellus represented by a large quadrangular leaden-metallic 
blotch containing some fuscous irroration ; cilia fuscous, apices of scales whitish, 
on tornus mostiy whitish. Hindwings broader than forewings, termen scarcely 
sinuate ; pale grey ; cilia pale grey. 

Queensland : Yeppoon, in October ; one specimen. 

Eucosma leucatma, n. sp. 

AevKctr/xos, smoky-white. 

3, 14 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous. Palpi H ; dark 
fuscous. Antennae fuscous; in male thickened, ciliations extremely minute, in 
fascicles. Legs fuscous ; in male middle tibiae expanded by rough hairs, posterior 
tibiae and tarsi abbreviated, the latter with long hairs on dorsum, middle and 



139 

posterior tarsi with apical joints whitish. Forewings moderately broad, strongly 
dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, apex subrectangular, termen not oblique ; 
in male with a narrow costal fold extending to middle ; fuscous-whitish ; a large, 
dark-fuscous, basal patch extending to ■£; some obscure fuscous irroration in 
disc ; a large oval ring beneath apex close to termen slenderly outlined in fuscous ; 
cilia dark fuscous, apices whitish, on tornus whitish. Hindwings with termen 
scarcely sinuate ; fuscous ; cilia whitish. 

An obscure but peculiar species with unusual secondary sexual characters. 

Queensland : Yeppoon, in October ; one specimen. 

Proschistis symploca, n. sp. 

(Tv/jLTrXoKos, interwoven. 

$ , 12 mm. Head whitish, on crown mixed with fuscous. Palpi 1-J; whitish 
mixed with fuscous. Antennae ochreous-whitish annulated with blackish ; dila- 
tions in male imperceptible. Thorax and abdomen fuscous. Legs fuscous ; tarsi 
with obscure whitish annulations ; posterior pair mostly whitish. Forewings 
moderate, posteriorly dilated, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly 
oblique ; in male without costal fold ; whitish densely irrorated with fuscous, 
which tends to be arranged in transverse striae; costa shortly strigulated 
alternately fuscous and whitish ; a large slightly darker basal patch from costa 
near base to disc at ^, thence right-angled to mid-dorsum; median fascia narrow, 
obscure, constricted in disc, from costa beyond middle to dorsum before tornus ; 
a fuscous apical spot and another, larger, oval, before termen; cilia fuscous. 
Hindwings with termen scarcely sinuate; pale grey; cilia pale grey. 

The first Australian species of the genus. Markings on forewings are very 
obscure. 

Queensland : Caloundra, in August ; one specimen. 

Laspeyresia sinapichroa, n. sp. 

G-ivaTixpoot, mustard-coloured. 

$, 14 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-yellow. Palpi short (about 1), 
slender ; pale ochreous. Antennae grey ; in male thickened, ciliations imper- 
ceptible. Abdomen grey. Legs pale ochreous. Forewings suboval, costa nearly 
straight, apex rounded, termen obliquely rounded ; ochreous-yellow ; numerous 
fine fuscous dots on costa giving rise to fine broken transverse lines of darker 
ochreous; in postmedian area spaces between these lines are occupied by leaden- 
violet lines; cilia fuscous-grey with an interrupted blackish basal line. Hind- 
wings with termen not sinuate ; ochreous-grey ; cilia pale grey with an ochreous- 
grey subbasal line. 

Nearest L. autocodes, Low. 

Queensland : Dalby, in December ; one specimen. 

Fam. ELACHISTIDAE. 
Labbia cyanogramma, Meyr. 

L, ciiphrantica, Turn., is a synonym. This species is more variable than I 
had supposed. 

North Queensland: Townsville. Queensland: Yeppoon, Brisbane, Mount 
Tambourine. New South Wales : Sydney. 

Labdia aresta, n. sp. 
ctpeo-ros* pleasing. 

3, 10-11 mm. Head pinkish- white ; face and palpi whitish. Antennae 
whitish; basal joint, two broad rings before middle, two broad rings beyond 






140 

middle, and a narrow subapical ring, blackish. Thorax pale pink with two longi- 
tudinal whitish lines. Abdomen greyish-ochreous ; tuft large, whitish-ochreous. 
Legs ochreous-whitish ; tibiae and tarsi annulated with fuscous. Forewings 
broadly lanceolate; pale pink; extreme base whitish, with a blackish subdorsal 
dot ; a suffused, straight, transverse, whitish fascia at ;--, immediately preceded 
by a median blackish dot ; a similar fascia at f, edged anteriorly by a blackish 
line; cilia pale pink, becoming whitish on dorsum. TTindwings lanceolate; pale 
grey ; cilia 4, pale grey. 

A beautiful species not like any other. 

Queensland: Yeppoon, in October; two specimens. 

Labdia phaeocala, n. sp. 
fauQtcaka>$, dark but comely. 

$ , 9 , 10 mm. Head dark fuscous; face whitish. Palpi whitish; external 
surface of second joint, and sometimes also of terminal joint, fuscous. Antennae 
dark fuscous with very fine whitish rings. Thorax and abdomen dark fuscous. 
Legs dark fuscous; tibiae and tarsi with whitish rings. Forewings moderately 
narrow, apex pointed ; ochreous-fuscous ; a broad transverse fuscous fascia 
before middle, edged anteriorly and posteriorly by a transverse whitish line ; 
apical part of disc irrorated with fuscous ; a whitish costal dot at f ; cilia fuscous, 
on apex paler with two short blackish bars. Hindwings lanceolate; grey, cilia 4, 
grey. 

Queensland: Brisbane, in October; two specimens. 

Pyroderces eupogon, n. sp. 

evjrcoyfcjy, well bearded. 

d> , 14 mm. Head ochreous-whitish. Palpi with second joint strongly 
tufted beneath at apex; fuscous; middle and apex of second joint, and internal 
surface of terminal joint, except apex, ochreous-whitish. Antennae fuscous 
with obscure whitish annulations. Thorax fuscous ; shoulder-flaps ochreous- 
whitish. Abdomen fuscous; base of dorsum ochreous tinged. Legs fuscous; 
posterior pair ochreous-whitish. Forewings moderately narrow, costa gently 
arched near base, thence straight, apex poinfed, termcn straight, strongly 
oblique; fuscous; a median streak from base, joining a moderate oblique fascia 
from i costa to dorsum before middle, continued as a broad dorsal streak to 
termen, ochreous-whitish; a longitudinally oval, dark-fuscous spot in disc before 
middle, sharply defined except on costal aspect ; a short, oblique, ochreous- 
whitish streak from costa at § ; cilia fuscous, on dorsum grey. PI indwings 
lanceolate; grey; cilia 3, grey. 

The genus Pyroderces has the same neuration as Labdia, but is distinguished 
by the rough-scaling of the forewings. The tufted palpi are unusual in the 
genus, but have been already noted in P. pogonias, Turn. 

New South Wales: Mount Wilson (3,500 feet), in November; one 
specimen. 

Stagmatophora niphocrana, n. sp. 

vtffiOKpavcK, with snow-white head. 

S , 9 mm. Head and palpi white. Antennae white with fuscous annula- 
tions ; basal joint somewhat expanded, wholly white. Thorax white; shoulder- 
flaps fuscous. Abdomen grey ; tuft whitish-ochreous. Legs fuscous ; posterior 
femora and tibial and tarsal annulations white. Forewings narrowly lanceolate; 
fuscous; costal edge whitish from J to near apex; a white streak from base 
along dorsum and termen to apex, broader from base to § dorsum, broader 



141 

again from tornus to apex, terminal portion split into two fine streaks by an 
intervening fuscous streak ; a blackish streak mixed with some white scales from 
middle of dorsal streak towards apex; cilia fuscous with two whitish lines, on 
tornus and dorsum grey. Hindwings linear-lanceolate ; grey ; cilia 6, grey. 

North Queensland: Kuranda, in June; one specimen. 

Stagmatophora haploceros, n, sp. 
awkaK€pw$, Math simple horns. 

S , 10 mm. Head and palpi white. Antennae with basal joint slightly 
enlarged ; white, towards apex grey. Thorax white ; shoulder-flaps fuscous. 
Abdomen grey. Legs fuscous; posterior pair whitish, tibiae and tarsi with 
fuscous annulations. Forewings lanceolate ; dark fuscous ; a broad white dorsal 
streak, expanded before and constricted at tornus, continued on termen nearly 
to apex, terminal part longitudinally bisected by a dark-fuscous line; a short 
oblique white streak on costa slightly beyond middle; cilia grey, bases dark 
fuscous beneath apex. Hindwings narrow-lanceolate; pale grey; cilia 6, pale 
grey. 

Very like S. niphocrana, but distinguished by the antennae not being 
annulated with fuscous, and the white mark on costa of forewings. 

Queensland: Yeppoon, in October; one specimen. 



Cosmopteryx calliochra, n. sp. 
KaXkuaxpos^ beautifully pale. 

3,2, 13-14 mm. Head whitish, crown tinged with orange, a red line above 
eyes. Palpi whitish; terminal joint with pale-fuscous subbasal and subapical 
rings. Antennae whitish, with several fuscous rings, which are better marked 
towards apex. Thorax orange-brown. Abdomen grey. Legs whitish-ochreous ; 
anterior tibiae and all tarsi with fuscous rings. Forewings narrow, apex acute ; 
orange-brown; a fine whitish line edged by some fuscous scales on fold from 
base to middle of wing*; a fine whitish costal line from base, soon diverging from 
costa in an oblique curve to join previous line at -J; a broad, very pale yellowish 
subapical transverse fascia, edged anteriorly by a whitish line, which is followed 
on costa by a short fuscous streak, and on dorsum by a silvery spot edged 
posteriorly with blackish; cilia whitish-ochreous. Hindwings narrow-lanceolate; 
pale-grey ; cilia 8, grey-whitish. 

Queensland: National Park (3,000 feet), in January; Bunya Mountains 
(3,000 feet), in January; five specimens. 

Persicoptila anthophyes, n. sp. 

av$o<j>v^, brightly coloured like a flower. 

$, 13 mm. Head whitish; side-tufts ochreous. Palpi white, terminal joint 
ochreous tinged. Antennae ochreous. Thorax reddish-ochreous, mixed with 
whitish. | Abdomen broken oil.] Legs whitish, annulated with ochreous; tufts 
on posterior tibiae very large, internally pinkish with a few fuscous scales, 
externally reddish-ochreous crossed by a white band. Forewings narrow, apex 
obtuse; 7 and 8 stalked out of 6, 7 to costa; basal half pink tinged with ochreous; 
a whitish transverse fascia just beyond middle; thence reddish-ochreous with 
some pinkish and whitish scales; a fuscous rliscal dot. edged with whitish, at f; 
extreme apex whitish-ochreous ; a suffused fuscous spot on tornus extending into 
cilia; cilia reddish-ochreous, becoming grey on dorsum. Hindwings lanceolate; 
grey-whitish ; cilia grey-whitish. 

Queensland: Yeppoon, in November; one specimen. Type in Coll. Goldfinch. 



142 

Limnoecia polycydista, n. sp. 

iro\vKv6i<TTos, most glorious. 

S, 21-22 mm. Head orange; sometimes blackish in centre. Palpi pale 
orange; terminal joint blackish. Antennae blackish with a broad white ring 
beyond middle and another at apex ; dilations in male \. Thorax black. Abdomen 
ochreous ; apex and underside dark fuscous ; tuft ochreous. Legs blackish ; 
tibiae and tarsi ringed with whitish or pale ochreous ; dorsal hairs of posterior 
tibiae orange. Forewings elongate, costa straight, apex obtuse; black; two 
orange transverse fasciae ; first rather broad, subbasal, complete or not quite 
reaching dorsum ; second beyond middle, not reaching dorsal edge ; an orange 
costal spot beyond J, sometimes connected with a smaller orange spot on tornus ; 
cilia blackish, becoming grey on dorsum, at apex apical half pale ochreous. 
Hindwings lanceolate ; dark grey ; cilia 2h, pale ochreous ; around apex grey. 

Queensland : Dalby, in December ; Bunya Mountains (3,000 feet), in 
January ; two specimens. 

Limnoecia stenosticha, n. sp. 

o-twoottlxos, narrow lined. 

8, 9 , 14 mm. Head ochreous-whitish. Palpi whitish; terminal joint 
fuscous anteriorly. Antennae with a slight basal pecten ; dark fuscous ; basal 
joint, two or three rings beyond middle, two rings before apex, and extreme 
apex whitish. Thorax pale fuscous; shoulder-flaps whitish. Abdomen grey; 
tuft whitish-ochreous. Legs fuscous, irrorated, and tibiae and tarsi annulated, 
with pale ochreous. Forewings moderate, apex pointed; fuscous, towards apex 
suffused with pale ochreous ; an oblique whitish line from costa near base to 
$ dorsum, followed by some whitish suffusion ; a similar line from § costa 
to | dorsum, slightly sinuate; a whitish line from tornus parallel to termen, 
reaching half across disc; two short inwardly-oblique white streaks from costa 
before apex; cilia on costa and apex with bases ochreous, apices dark fuscous 
forming a slight hook, on termen bases ochreous, apices whitish, junction defined 
by a fine dark-fuscous line, on dorsum grey. Hindwings lanceolate ; grey ; cilia 4, 
pale grey. 

Queensland: Coolangatta, in September; National Park (3.000 feet), in 
November; two specimens. 

Fam. HELIODINIDAE. 

Gen. Isorrhoa, Meyr. 

I think Aeoloscelis hydrographa, Meyr., and A. ancistrota, Turn., should 
be referred to this genus. They appear to be closely allied to /. loxoschema, 
Turn., and the following species. All, 1 think, have 6, 7, 8 of forewings stalked. 

Isorrhoa emplecta, n. sp. 

c/A7rA.€KTos, intricate. 

$, 2, 14-18 mm. Head whitish. Palpi white; second joint with apical, 
terminal joint with antemediaii and subapical dark-fuscous rings. Antennae 
whitish, annulated with dark fuscous. Thorax whitish, with a fuscous spot on 
each shoulder. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish; tibiae and tarsi 
with dark-fuscous rings; posterior tibiae with dense whorls of scales on dorsum, 
pinkish, apices blackish. Forewings narrow, apices obtusely pointed ; white, 
markings brownish-ochreous, mixed with dark fuscous ; a basal patch extending 
to i, its edge angled outwards; a lai-ge quadrate costal spot before middle, from 
which proceeds a line to tornus edged above with dark fuscous ; dorsal spots 
before and beyond middle sometimes connected with the preceding, the latter 
containing a dark-fuscous bar ; a suffused line beneath costa from | to apex ; a 



tmm 



143 



short dark-fuscous terminal line ; cilia brownish-ochreous, on apex with a median 
fuscous line ; on dorsum grey. Hindwings lanceolate ; grey ; cilia 3, ochreous- 
whitish. 

Queensland: Bunya Mountains (3,000 feet), in January; five specimens. 

Isorrhoa ochrochyta, n. sp. 

w^>o^vto5, pale suffused. 

9, 20 mm. Head white. Palpi whitish; terminal joint fuscous anteriorly. 
Antennae grey-whitish. Thorax fuscous mixed with dark fuscous, and in centre 
with white. Abdomen fuscous on dorsum, apices of segments barred with 
reddish-ochreous and whitish ; tuft grey-whitish ; underside white. Legs whitish ; 
tibiae and tarsi with dark-fuscous rings ; posterior tibiae and tarsi ochreous, 
with dense whorls of dark-fuscous scales. Forewings very narrow, apex acute; 
fuscous, partly suffused with whitish towards base and apex ; cilia grty. Hind- 
wings narrow-lanceolate ; grey ; cilia 8, grey. 

Queensland: Bunya Mountains (3,000 feet), in January; one specimen. 

Isorrhoa euzona, n. sp. 
€vtmvos 9 well banded. 

2, 13 mm. Head and thorax fuscous with brassy reflections; face and 
palpi brassy-whitish. Antennae fuscous. Abdomen dark fuscous; tuft ochreous- 
whitish. Legs whitish-ochreous ; tibiae and tarsi with fuscous rings, more 
broadly developed on posterior pair. Forewings moderately narrow, apex 
pointed ; fuscous with brassy reflections ; a broad transverse subbasal yellow 
fascia; a rather large triangular yellow tornal spot; cilia fuscous. Hindwings 
lanceolate ; grey ; cilia 5, grey. 

Queensland : National Park, at low level, in November ; one specimen. 

Gen. Aenicteria, now 
alvLKTTjfHos, propounding riddles. 

Tongue absent. Labial palpi long, ascending, recurved ; second joint very 
long, smooth, slightly expanded with scales at apex, terminal joint much shorter 
than second, smooth, slender, acute. Antennae with some rough hairs around 
base; in male very minutely ciliated. Posterior tibiae with a thick clothing of 
very long hairs on dorsum, and a short terminal whorl of scales; tarsal joints 
with very short terminal whorls of scales. Hindwings with 2 and 3 connate, 
4 absent. 

I have not been able to make out the neuration of the forewings, but there 
is little room for doubt that this is a new genus allied to Calk oils and 
Pachyrhabda. 

Aenicteria termiticola, n. sp. 

termiticohis, living with termites. 

$, 14 mm. Head, palpi, antennae, and thorax white. Abdomen grey; tuft 
ochreous-whitish. Legs whitish ; posterior tibiae with fuscous rings. Forewings 
narrow, costa straight, apex obtuse ; white ; markings fuscous ; a suffused spot 
on dorsum before middle ; a spot on tornus ; a dot on costa at § ; a costal spot 
on | opposite another on middle of termen ; a dark-fuscous apical dot ; cilia 
white with a dark-fuscous costal line ending in an apical hook. Hindwings 
lanceolate ; grey ; cilia 2i, grey. 

North Queensland : Meringa, near Cairns, in September ; one specimen 
received from Mr. F. ii. Taylor with the note: "From inside of stump infested 
with termites." This probably points to some strange life history, which would 
be well worth investigation. 



144 

Gen. Dolophrosyne, Drnt. 

Nov. Zool. ; 1919, p. 120. 

Head smooth. Tongue present. Palpi moderate, curved, ascending, about 
reaching vertex; second joint shortly rough-scaled; terminal joint short, acute. 
Maxillary palpi obsolete. Thorax smooth. Abdomen with a large apical tuft 
of broad scales. Femora thickened with long scales, those of posterior pair 
partly divided into two tufts from origin of spurs; posterior tarsi with short 
bristles on apices of joints. Forewiugs narrow; all veins present, 2 from J, 
3, 4, 5 approximated from angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa. Hindwings over 
one, mostly hyaline; all veins present, 2 from -f, 3 and 4 short-stalked, 5 separate, 
parallel, 6 and 7 stalked, 8 separate, not concealed. 

A curious genus with close general resemblance to the Aegeriadae, but the 
structure of the hindwings is different. It shows some but not close relationship 
to Pseudacgeria, Wlsm. 

Dolophrosyne baeteata, Drnt. 

Ibid, p. 121. 

$ , 20 mm. Head and palpi ochreous-f uscous. Antennae dark fuscous ; in 
male slightly dentate in basal half, shortly ciliated (§). Thorax dark fuscous; 
two small posterior tufts of hue ochreous hairs. Abdomen blackish; third and 
sixth segments almost entirely ochreous on dorsum; posterior edge of fourth 
and fifth segments on dorsum orange, laterally expanded; tuft three-lobed, 
central lobe pale ochreous, lateral lobes dark fuscous. Legs dark fuscous ; tarsi 
ochreous tinged; posterior femora with a median dorsal white spot. Forewings 
narrow, oblong, costa sinuate, apex and termen rounded; dark fuscous; distal 
| of costal edge ochreous ; a small, suffused, longitudinal, median, ochreous 
mark at f; cilia fuscous with an interrupted basal whitish line. Hindwings 
about 2, apex round-pointed ; hyaline ; colourless ; veins clothed with scales, 
ochreous, except towards margin, where it is replaced by blackish ; a blackish 
terminal line ; cilia blackish. 

Queensland : Yeppoon, in October ; one specimen. Mr. DurranLs specimens 
came from Duaringa. 

Fam. GLYPHIPTERYGIDAE. 

EUTIIORYBETA XANTHOPLACA. 
$ . Euthorybcta xanthoplaca, Turn., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1913, p. 201. 
$ . E. ochroplaca, Turn., ibid. 

I find that my type of E. xanthoplaca is a male, as Mr. Meyrick suggests. 
The antennae in this sex are thickened and very shortly ciliated (^). Mr. Mey- 
rick is probably correct in suggesting that E. ochropiaca is the female of this 
species. 

Queensland: Stradbroke Island, Stanthorpe. New South Wales: Ulawarra, 
Law son. 

Glyphjpteryx meteora, Meyr. 
G. chalceres, Turn., is a synonym; the points on which T relied for dif- 
ferentiation are merely varietal. 

Queensland : Brisbane, Mount Tambourine, National Park (3,000 feet). 
New South Wales: Murrurundi, Bulli, Bathurst. Victoria: Melbourne, Gis- 
borne. Tasmania: Launceston, Deloraine, Campbelltown, Hobart. South Aus- 
tralia : Mount Lofty, Wirrabara. 

Glyphipteryx lamprosema, n. sp. 

yVa/xTrpoo-^o^, brilliantly marked. 

$ , 10-12 mm. Head and thorax brassy-fuscous. Palpi slightly rough- 
scaled beneath; white, four rings and extreme apex blackish. Antennae fuscous. 
Abdomen dark fuscous; apex of tuft whitish. Legs dark fuscous; posterior 



/ 



145 

tibiae and all tarsi white-ringed. Forewings moderate, cost a slightly arched,, 
apex rounded, termen nearly straight, oblique ; 7 and 8 connate or short-stalked ; 
brassy-fuscous; two whitish dorsal spots at £ and middle; the first outwardly 
oblique, prolonged across fold, and ending in a point beneath costa ; the second 
short, transverse ; six fine costal streaks and other streaks and spots brilliant 
metallic-violet or green; first costal streak from \, strongly oblique, joining 
second dorsal spot to form a complete fascia ; second, third, and fourth oblique, 
not reaching half across disc; fifth and sixth short, arising from white dots in 
cilia near apex, more transverse, sixth ending in terminal incision ; a discal spot 
below and between second and third streaks; an erect streak from tornus ending 
below and between third and fourth streaks; a short streak on lower part of 
termen; two longitudinal black streaks, the first connecting apices of fourth and 
fifth costal streaks, the second connecting apex of third costal streak with upper 
end of terminal streak, but cut by tornal streak; cilia with bases brassy-fuscous, 
apices grey but white on apex and incision. Hindwings broadly lanceolate; grey; 
cilia 1, grey. 

Nearest G. amblycerclla, Meyr., and G. asicriella, Meyr. 

New South Wales: Ebor (4,000 feet), in January; four specimens. 

Gen. Agiton, nov. 

ayetrws-, without a neighbour. 

Head smooth. Tongue present but weak. Palpi curved, ascending, diverging, 
not reaching vertex, smooth-scaled; second joint moderate; terminal joint broad, 
but compressed antero-posteriorly, pointed. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Antennae 
short, less than \ • m male simple. Thorax smooth. Posterior tibiae shortly 
rough-haired on dorsum ; spurs long. Forewings narrow ; 2 from shortly before 
angle, 5 from near middle of cell, 7 and 8 coincident and running to costa, 
11 from f. Hindwings less than 1, spathulate; 2 and 3 stalked, 4 absent, 6 absent. 

A curious genus not near any other. 

Agiton idioptila, n. sp. 

lhioivTik.0%, with peculiar wings. 

$ , 12-14 mm. Plead and palpi ochreous-whitish. Antennae grey. Thorax 
ochreous-fuscous. Abdomen fuscous. Legs ochreous-whitish. Forewings 
elongate-triangular, strongly dilated posteriorly, costa straight nearly to apex, 
but arched before apex, apex acute, termen sinuate, oblique; ochreous-fuscous; 
four, narrow, elongate, ochreous-whitish, costal spots, first before middle, second 
beyond middle, third at -f, fourth midway between this and apex; a blackish 
ante-apical dot in disc, edged anteriorly with white ; cilia fuscous. Hindwings 
about f, strongly dilated posteriorly, apex acute; fuscous; cilia 1, fuscous. 

The shape of wings, and especially of hindwings, is peculiar. 

Queensland: National Park (2,000 to 3,000 feet), in December and January; 
six specimens. 

Fam. HYPONOMEUTIDAE. 

Gen. Aictis, nov. 

<ukt(.s, unapproachable. 

Tongue present. Antennae of male simple. Posterior tibiae smooth. Fore- 
wings with all veins present and separate, 2 from near angle, 7 to apex, 11 from 
middle of cell. Hindwings with all veins present; 6 and 7 connate, gradually 
diverging. 

Differs from Lactura, Wlk., in the close approximation of 6 and 7 of hind- 
wings. In my example the palpi are unfortunately broken off ; probably they are 
as in that genus. 



146 

Aictis erythrozona, n. sp. 

epvOpofavos, red-banded. 

£ , 20 mm. Head and antennae blackish. Thorax blackish with a red spot 
on each shoulder prolonged ventrally. Abdomen blackish. Legs blackish ; bases 
of first tarsal joints white. Forewings elongate-oval/ costa gently arched, apex 
rounded, termen very obliquely rounded; dark fuscous; a broad red subbasal 
fascia not reaching costal edge ; cilia dark fuscous. Hindwings elongate-ovate ; 
fuscous; basal red fascia not reaching dorsum; cilia fuscous. 

North Queensland : Kuranda ; one specimen received from Mr. F. P. Dodd. 

Gen. Lactura, Wlk. 

In the forewings 7 and 8 may be stalked or separate. This is a good specific 
character, but, as Meyrick has pointed out, should not be used for generic separa- 
tion. In the hindwings 4 and 5 may be stalked, connate, or separate ; here the 
structure is not always constant in the one species. Meyrick is, therefore, certainly 
correct in merging Mleza, Wlk., with this genus, but the name Lactura has 
priority. 

Lactura panopsia, n. sp. 

Trai'oijfios, very conspicuous. 

#, 24-28 mm. Head orange; face white. Palpi 1^-; red; terminal joint 
whitish sometimes tinged with red. Antennae whitish ; in male minutely ciliated. 
Thorax purple ; five whitish spots, the first four paired, the fifth posterior. 
Abdomen pale reddish. Legs whitish-ochreous ; anterior pair, and apical spots 
on femora and tibiae of middle and posterior pairs red. Forewings suboval, 
costa strongly arched, apex rounded, termen slightly rounded, oblique ; 7 and 8 
stalked, 7 to apex ; whitish-ochreous with red streaks on dorsum and between 
veins ; a wavy purple line from base of costa to micl-dorsum, and another from 
base of dorsum to midcosta, intersecting near base; a similar line from mid- 
dorsutn to -J costa, connected firstly by a line with midcosta, secondly with 
tornus, thirdly with the upper end of a terminal line from beneath apex to 
tornus ; cilia " pale reddish. Hindwings broad ; 4 and 5 widely separate (3 
examples) or nearly connate (one example) ; pale reddish; cilia pale reddish. 

Not unlike L. parallela, Meyr. 

Queensland: Bunya Mountains (3,000 feet), in January; four specimens. 

Gen. Palleura, now 

iraXXevpo*;, all smooth. 

Tongue absent. Palpi long, smooth, slender, acute, drooping. Posterior 
tibiae smooth. Forewings with 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 9 absent, 11 from \. 
Hindwings with 2 from f, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 separate, parallel. 

Palleura nitida, n. sp. 
ruiiidus, shining. 

9 , 14 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white. Antennae white ; apices of 
joints fuscous. [Abdomen broken off.] Legs white; fuscous rings on tarsi and 
apices of tibiae. Forewings moderate, costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen 
nearly straight, oblique ; smooth and lustrous ; white with ochreous-fuscous 
strigulae forming numerous fine transverse lines ; near apex these become fuscous ; 
a fuscous discal spot before middle ; cilia pale fuscous with a dark subapical 
line. Hindwings ovate-lanceolate; shining white; cilia 1, white. 

Queensland: Bunya Mountains (3,000 feet), in January; one specimen. 



147 



Fam. GRACILARIADAE. 
Acrocercops antigrapha, n. sp, 

ayrtypac&os, copied. 

3, 9, 8-10 mm. Head and thorax white. Palpi white; second joint with 
apical, terminal joint with subapical, fuscous rings. Antennae grey. Abdomen 
grey; underside white with transverse fuscous bars. Legs white; tibiae and 
tarsi with fuscous rings. Forewings narrow, apex obtuse; fuscous-brown; four 
white transverse fasciae partly edged with dark fuscous ; first subbasal ; second 
before middle ; third at |, usually as broad as the two preceding, but sometimes 
narrower towards costa; fourth narrow, subapical; a fuscous apical spot; cilia 
grey, on terminal and costal ends of fourth fascia white. Hindwihgs lanceolate; 
grey ; cilia 6, grey. 

This species, together with A. autadelpha, Meyr. ; A, macaria, Turn.; A. 
tetrachorda, Turn.; and A, symphyletes, Turn., are all very similar and need 
careful discrimination. 

. Queensland: National Park (3,000 feet), in October and November; seven 
specimens. 

Acrocercops chalcea, n. sp. 
^aX/ceo5, brassy. 

S, 10 mm Head and thorax white. Palpi white; second joint with an 
apical fuscous ring. Antennae dark grey. Abdomen dark grey ; under surface 
white. Legs whitish ; tibiae and tarsi with fuscous rings. Forewings narrow, 
apex obtuse; pale brassy; a narrow white transverse fascia at f, partly edged 
with blackish posteriorly ; beyond this disc is rather darker and not metallic ; a 
second narrow white subapical fascia preceded by a minute blackish dot on costa 
and dorsum ; a large oval oblique black posterior spot ; cilia grey, on apex white 
with fuscous apices. Hindwings linear-lanceolate; grey; cilia 10, grey. 

Queensland: National Park (3,000 feet), in November; one specimen. 



Acrocercops paralella, Turn. 

This and the following two species, which were described in my first 
entomological paper (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1894), are very closely allied. 
The types of the latter two have been, unfortunately, lost, and the original 
descriptions are defective in some particulars. I propose, therefore, to supple- 
ment them. 

S, 9, 8-10 mm. Forewings grey; a broad white dorsal streak from base 
terminating abruptly at tornus, thickened at -f dorsum for a short distance, and 
again at extremity, its upper edge partly defined by blackish ; a narrow white 
costal streak from base, black-edged beneath, leaving costa about middle and 
thence doubly black-edged, running close beneath costa to f, there obtusely bent 
and oblique to a white dot on mid-termen ; a short, similar, parallel streak from 
costa to termen succeeds this ; cilia white with a transverse blackish bar and 
apices grey at apex of wing, on dorsum grey. 

North Queensland : Cairns. Queensland : Nambour, Caloundra, Brisbane, 
Coolangatta. 

Acrocercops plebeia, Turn. 

£ , 9 , 7-10 mm. Forewings grey ; a broad white dorsal streak from base 
to tornus, where it is indented, but nearly or quite continuous with a white streak 
along termen, its upper edge straight and not black-edged, not enlarged except 
just before tornus slightly; a very narrow, white, costal streak from -J to J, 
not black-edged; two, fine, oblique, white, doubly black-edged streaks from costa 
at | and before apex to termen ; cilia white with a transverse blackish bar and 
apices blackish at apex of wing, on dorsum grey. 



/ 



148 



Queensland: Brisbane, Toowoomba, Warwick, Stanthorpe. New South 
Wales: Sydney (probably accidentally introduced), where it has lately appeared 
in such numbers as to defoliate its food-plant Acacia podalyriac folia. 

Acrocercops unilineata, Turn. 

$ , 7-9 mm. Forewings grey; a white streak along dorsum and termen from 
base, indented at tornus, upper edge straight, not black-edged ; no costal streak ; 
a fine, longitudinal, interrupted, white streak beneath apical -J of costa, edged 
beneath with black ; cilia white, a blackish apical hook, and apices black at apex 
of wing. 

Queensland : Brisbane, Coolangatta. 

Acrocercops leucomochla, n. sp. 

XevKo/Jiox^os, white-barred. 

$ , 9 mm. Head white. Palpi white; apex of second and base of terminal 
joint narrowly f viscous. Antennae fuscous ; white at base. Thorax white ; 
shoulders grey. Abdomen dark grey. Legs dark grey ; ventral surface white ; 
tarsi with fine white annulations. Forewings dark grey; a broad, white, dorsal 
streak from base, where it is half breadth of wing, continued along termen, 
indented at tornus, its upper edge straight, not black-edged; a very fine, oblique, 
black-edged, white streak from beneath f costa to dorsal streak at tornus; a 
large triangular white terminal spot continuous with dorsal streak, connected 
with costa before apex; an oblique black subapical bar, leaving extreme apex 
white; cilia white, with a short transverse bar at apex of wing, on dorsum grey. 
Hindwings linear-lanceolate; grey; cilia 12, grey. 

Also nearly related to the three preceding species. 

Queensland: One specimen, which emerged in November, from the blotched 
leaf of a scrub tree or creeper found at Yeppoon. 

Parectopa miltopepla, n. sp. 
,uiAT07re7rAo5, robed in red. 

S , 12 mm. Head whitish. Labial palpi whitish; basal half of second joint 
red. Maxillary palpi red. Antennae whitish. Thorax red. Abdomen grey. 
Legs red; posterior pair and all tarsi whitish. Forewings narrow, apex obtuse; 
bright red; four elongate, whitish, partly yellowish-tinged, costal spots partly 
edged with blackish; first small, subbasal ; second larger at £; third from \ pro- 
jecting obliquely into disc posteriorly; fourth very long, from \ to f, bisected 
by a red line, continued posteriorly beneath costa for a short distance ; a black, 
subapical, costal spot, preceded by a minute whitish dot in disc; five dorsal spots, 
yellow except the last, which is white ; first at { lt second at -|, third at middle, 
fourth at f, fifth on tornus ; cilia whitish with a bright-red median line. Hind- 
wings narrow-lanceolate; grey; cilia grey, on dorsum reddish tinged. 

This belongs to the P. formosa group; it is nearest P. ageta, Turn., but very 
distinct. 

North Queensland : Meringa, near Cairns, in January; one specimen received 
from Mr. F. H. Taylor. A better example from the same locality taken by 
Mr. G. M. Goldfinch shows that the cilia of forewings are crimson. 



Fam. PLTJTELLIDAE. 

Paraphyllis dianipha, n. sp. 

Stavt^os, snow-white right through. 

# , 14-16 mm. Head and palpi white. Antennae pale grey; basal joint 
white. Thorax fuscous ; in male with a white anterior tuft directed backwards 



149 

beneath. Abdomen grey; tuft whitish. Legs fuscous; posterior pair whitish. 
Forewings elongate-oval, apex pointed ; costal area grey with some whitish 
suffusion towards base ; a white median streak from base to apex ; a fuscous 
streak from middle of base to tornus, thence continued along termen, not reach- 
ing apex; a broad, white, dorsal streak narrowing to a point at tornus; cilia 
grey, paler towards tornus, on apex and tornus white. Hindwings broadly 
lanceolate; grey; cilia 1^, pale grey. 

New South Wales: Mittagong, in November; two specimens received from 
Mr. G. M. Goldfinch, who has the type. 

Farm TINEIDAE. 

Leucoptera euryphaea, n. sp. 

ei'/w^ruo?, broadly fuscous. 

3 , 7 mm. Head with rough hairs on anterior part of crown projecting 
forwards; white. Antennae pale grey. Thorax white. Abdomen pale grey. 
Legs white. Forewings moderately narrow, apex acute ; white ; a broad fuscous 
longitudinal streak from I costa, at its origin touching fold, but gradually 
narrowing to apex, leaving costal edge partly white ; a rather large brassy spot 
on termen, edged anteriorly with fuscous ; cilia white, on costa fuscous, on apex 
basal § dark fuscous. Hindwings lanceolate ; white ; cilia 6, white. 

Queensland: Bunya Mountains (3,000 feet), in January; one specimen. 

Phyllocnistis ephimera, n. sp. 
ifafizpos, delightful. 

$ , 9 , 6-7 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white. Antennae grey becoming 
whitish towards base. Abdomen pa*e grey. Legs whitish. Forewings dilated 
posteriorly, apex obtuse ; white ; a fine fuscous streak from costa beyond middle, 
strongly outwardly oblique, joined at an acute angle in middle of disc by a 
similar streak from dorsum before tornus, disc anterior to these suffused with 
pale ochreous-f uscous ; a transverse streak from f costa joins apex of angle 
.formed by the two preceding ;- two similar converging streaks from costa before 
apex ; these three streaks extend also through costal cilia ; cilia whitish, on apex 
a black dot with two diverging fuscous streaks, on termen basal halves pale 
ochreous-fuscous limited by a fine fuscous line, on dorsum pale grey. Hind- 
wings narrow-lanceolate; pale grey; cilia 8, pale grey. 

North Queensland: Kuranda, in June. Queensland: National Park (3,000 
feet), in October. Three specimens. 

Lyonetia lechrioscia, n. sp. 

XexpLoarKtGSi obliquely shaded. 

$ , 10 mm. Head and thorax pale ochreous-fuscous; face and palpi white. 
Antennae grey; basal joint white. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs whitish; tarsi 
with blackish rings. Forewings narrow, apex obtuse; ochreous-whitish ; rather 
broadly suffused, pale ochreous-fuscous lines; a longitudinal median line from 
base to apex, its basal portion suffusedly connected with dorsum ; three strongly 
oblique lines from costa at f, §, and -f running into median line; two similar lines 
from dorsum beyond middle; a black apical dot; cilia on costa whitish with two 
fine fuscous bars, on apex whitish with a terminal fuscous bar, beneath apex 
pale ochreous-fuscous, on dorsum grey. Hindwings linear-lanceolate; grey; 
cilia 10, grey. 

Queensland: National Park (3,000 feet), in November; one specimen. 



150 

/ Cateristis triradiata, n. sp. 

triradiatus, three-rayed. 

8 , 9 mm. Head and palpi white. Antennae grey, towards base white. 
Thorax white. Abdomen dark grey. Legs grey. Forewings elongate, apex 
rounded; white; markings pale brown speckled with black; a dot on dorsum 
near base, a second beyond this on fold, a third in disc at -} ; an outwardly oblique 
line from |- costa, joined in mid-disc by a similar line from mid-dorsum, then.ce 
produced in mid-disc to above tornus, forming a triradiate figure ; a transverse 
subterminal line confluent with the preceding; cilia whitish, around apex with 
median and apical black lines. Hindwings narrow-lanceolate ; pale grey ; cilia 6, 
pale grey. 

This appears to agree with Meyrick's definition of the genus. It is allied to 
Leucoptera, but somewhat more primitive. 

New South Wales : Mount Wilson (3,500 f eet) , in November ; one 
specimen. 

Bucculatrix gossypii, n. sp. 
gossypium, cotton. 

$ , 9 , 7-10 mm. Head and thorax whitish. Antennae whitish-grey. 
Abdomen pale grey. Legs grey ; posterior pair whitish. Forewings elongate- 
oval, apex round-pointed ; whitish, in female whitish-grey ; apical \ suffused 
with grey; four black discal dots, two at \, two at f, two subcostal, two just 
beneath fold, but these are not always all present; cilia whitish-grey with basal 
and subapical lines of black irroration. Hindwings lanceolate ; grey ; cilia 3, 
whitish-grey. 

This is not the same as B. loxoptila, Meyr., which also feeds on cotton, and 
occurs in India and Africa. 

Queensland: Rockhampton, in January and February; six specimens from 
larvae on cotton. 

Opogona confinis, n. sp. 

confinis, adjacent, similar. 

£ , 15 mm. Head and thorax yellow; face and palpi whitish. Antennae 
pale yellow; basal joint fuscous. Abdomen grey. Legs whitish; anterior pair, 
"Cxcept coxae, fuscous. Forewings elongate, apex acute ; a fuscous costal streak 
from base to -§, narrow throughout, gradually tapering to a point posteriorly ; a 
rather broad terminal line from apex to tornus, fuscous with opalescent reflec- 
tions ; cilia fuscous, on costa yellow. Hindwings lanceolate ; grey ; cilia 3, grey. 

Queensland: National Park (2,500 feet), in November; one specimen taken 
in open Australian forest. 

Dryadaula brontoctypa, Meyr. 
Queensland: Brisbane, Toowoomba. New South Wales: Sydney. 

Dryadaula glycinopa, Meyr. 

This might be mistaken for brontoctypa, Meyr. (now referred by Meyrick 
to Dryadaula) , but the markings are pale yellow, and the costal streaks fuscous 
only, if at all, on costal margin. The curious ridge of blackish scales on the 
underside of the hindwings of that species will readily distinguish it. 

Queensland : Mount Tambourine, in September and October ; National Park 
(2,500-3,500 feet), in December, January, and March. New South Wales: 
Ebor, in January ; Bulli ; Katoomba. 



151 

Erechthias acontotypa, n. sp. 
aKWTOTw&s, marked with darts. 

$ , 13 mm. Head, palpi, and antennae white. Thorax white with five dark- 
fuscous dots, two anterior, two median, and one posterior. Abdomen fuscous ; 
beneath whitish. Legs whitish; anterior pair fuscous; apical half of middle 
tarsi fuscous. Forewings elongate, apex acute ; white ; markings dark fuscous ; 
two very oblique costal streaks, first from before middle, second from f ; a spot 
on dorsum near base, a short oblique streak shortly beyond this, and a second 
streak from -J, produced in disc and confluent with a tornal spot ; a short, fine, 
black streak running longitudinally into apex ; cilia white, on costa with a brown 
basal line, which ends in an apical hook. Hindwings broadly lanceolate ; pale 
grey; cilia 2, pale grey. 

Queensland : Brisbane, in November ; one specimen. 

Narycia stenomochla, n. sp. 
arr€yofi.o)(Xm 3 narrowly barred. 

# , 18 mm, Head white. Palpi and antennae fuscous. Thorax dark fuscous. 
Abdomen pale grey ; apical segments and tuft pale pchreous. Legs fuscous ; 
posterior pair whitish-ochreous. Forewings suboval, costa rather strongly arched, 
apex round-pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; 7 absent ; ochreous-whitish ; 
markings and a few fine transverse strigulae fuscous; an outwardly curved line 
or narrow fascia from ^ costa to mid-dorsum ; a narrow fascia from f costa to 
above tornus, bent in middle and slightly enlarged above bend ; a subapical costal 
spot formed by several conjoint strigulae; cilia whitish, a fuscous bar from 
lower end of fascia. Hindwings and cilia pale grey. 

Queensland: National Park (2,500 feet), in November; one specimen. I 
have also two female examples taken in the same locality, which are probably 
the same species. In them the forewings are whiter and the fasciae broader. 

Gen. Archyala, Meyr. 

Trans. N. Z'land Inst., 1889, p. 159. 

Head loosely haired. Autennal pecten sometimes present. Labial palpi with 
second joint rough-scaled beneath; terminal joint broad, smooth, acute, com- 
pressed antero-posteriorry. Maxillary palpi long, folded. Forewings with all 
veins present; 5 and 6 stalked. Hindwings ovate-lanceolate; all veins present 
and separate. 

Type, A. paraglypta, Meyr., from New Zealand. 

Archyala dromaea, n. sp. 

SpopoLoS) an agile runner. 

$, 10 mm. Head ochreous-brown ; face whitish-ochreous. Palpi whitish- 
ochreous with a few fuscous scales. Antennae whitish-ochreous, with black annula- 
tions. Thorax ochreous-brown. Abdomen dark gey. Legs whitish-ochreous ; tibiae 
and tarsi annulated with blackish. Forewings narrow, posteriorly dilated, apex 
rounded ; ochreous-brown irrorated throughout with dark fuscous ; by coalescence 
this forms several, short, oblique, costal streaks, of these one more distinct runs 
from -J costa to fold, another from } costa is prolonged to mid-dorsum, 
and another broader from beyond middle of costa to mid-disc; cilia pale 
ochreous-brown with basal, median, and apical dark-fuscous lines. Hindwings 
broadly lanceolate; grey; cilia 1, grey. 

Mr. Meyrick kindly determined the genus for me. Archyala was instituted 
for three New Zealand species, to which he has lately added a fourth from 



152 

Darwin, North Australia. I can find no antennal pecten in my examples, but its 
absence does not justify generic separation. 

Queensland: National Park (2,000-2,500 feet), in December; three speci- 
mens, of which one is in Coll. Meyrick. 

Gen. Crypsithyris, Meyr. 

Head rough-haired. Labial palpi moderately long, slender, acute, porrect, 
diverging. Maxillary palpi long, folded. Antennae about 1 ; in male simple, 
Forewings with a large fovea in cell on underside ; its base naked ; all veins 
present, 5 and 6 stalked. Hindwings lanceolate ; all veins present and separate. 

I have not seen Meyrick's description, and have drawn up this diagnosis 
from the Queensland species. It appears allied to Monopis, Hb., but differs in 
the neuration of forewings, 

Crypsithyris illaetabilis, n. sp. 
illaetabilis, gloomy. 

$ , 12 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-brown. Palpi fuscous. Antennae 
grey. Abdomen grey. Legs ochreous-whitish ; anterior pair fuscous. Forewings 
elongate, apex pointed ; ochreous-whitish with fairly general fuscous irroration ; 
two elongate fuscous spots on fold, and a third in centre of disc ; an ill-defined 
fuscous streak on termen ; cilia ochreous-whitish with a few fuscous points. 
Hindwings lanceolate ; pale grey ; cilia 3, pale grey. 

Queensland: Brisbane, in October; two specimens, of which one is in Coll. 
Meyrick. 

I am indebted to Mr. Meyrick for the generic determination of this species 
also. He informs me that Crypsithyris is a genus of some extent in India and 
Africa. 

Tinea peristilpna, n. sp. 

7repto-Ti/\.7n/o5, with glittering margin. 

$ , 9 , 12-14 mm. Plead and palpi whitish-brown. Antennae fuscous. 
Thorax and abdomen dark fuscous. Legs fuscous; middle and posterior tarsi 
with whitish rings. Forewings narrow-oval, apex pointed; fuscous ; a pale- 
yellow fascia from J costa to -£ dorsum, narrow from costa to middle, thence 
broadly expanded to dorsum ; six slender whitish costal streaks, first from ■§ 
reaching half across disc, the remainder nearly equidistant and shorter, the 
sixth subapical, minute, a small yellowish dorsal spot before tornus from which 
proceeds a fine whitish streak almost reaching second costal streak; a similar 
streak from tornus almost reaching third costal streak ; a broad black terminal 
line containing five shining white marginal spots ; cilia fuscous. Hindwings 
elongate-ovate; grey, becoming paler towards base; cilia f, pale grey. 

Queensland: National Park (4,000 feet), in November. This beautiful and 
distinct species has very much the appearance and flight of a Glyphipieryx. I 
took four specimens one afternoon flitting round the mossy boles of the Antarctic 
Beech. 

Tinea ecdela, n. sp. 

€K^r}Xo<s, conspicuous. 

S , 14 mm, Plead and antennae dark fuscous. Palpi whitish. Thorax brassy- 
fuscous. Abdomen fuscous. Legs whitish-ochreous with some fuscous suffusion. 
Forewings narrow-oval, apex acute ; brassy-fuscous with some dark-fuscous irrora- 
tion, markings yellow edged with dark fuscous ; a very broad oblique triangle on 
dorsum from near base to middle, its apex nearly reaching costa at -J ; six very short 



153 

broad oblique costal streaks from middle to apex; a large elongate longitudinally- 
oval spot from above and before tormis almost to terminal edge ; cilia fuscous with a 
pale-yellow bar beneath apex. Hindwings broadly lanceolate ; ochreous ; apical 
third fuscous; cilia 1, ochreous, around apex fuscous. 

Allied to T. ptcrocosma, Meyr. 

Queensland: National Park (3,000 feet), in November; one specimen. 

Tinea trissoleuca, n. sp. 
TpLo-<ro\€VKQs, triply white. 

$, 10 mm. Head white. Palpi fuscous. Antennae grey. Thorax white; 
shoulders blackish. Abdomen grey. Legs whitish; anterior and middle tibiae 
and tarsi with blackish rings. Forewings elongate-oval, apex obtuse ; blackish ; 
an elongate-oval spot on costa before middle, another larger from beyond middle 
to apex, and a dorsal streak, white ; this leaves a broad median blackish streak 
from base of costa to tornus, prolonged along termen to apex, and broadly con- 
nected with mid-costa; cilia white with a small blackish apical hook. Hindwings 
lanceolate; pale grey; cilia 1J, pale grey. 

Queensland: Brisbane; one specimen. 

Tinea leptocirrha, n. sp. 

\eirTGKi,ppo<s, slightly yellowish. 

$ , 10 mm. Mead ochreous-whitish. Palpi and antennae fuscous. Thorax 
fuscous. [Abdomen missing.] Legs fuscous; posterior pair grey. Forewings 
suboval, apex pointed; pale ochreous-grey, somewhat brassy; costa and dorsum 
with narrow bands of fuscous irroration ; a transverse fascia formed by similar 
irroration connecting § costa with tornus, narrow in disc, expanded on dorsum 
and costa; cilia pale grey with brassy reflections and a few fuscous points. 
Hindwings ovate-lanceolate; grey; cilia 1, grey. 

Queensland: Coolangatta, in September; one specimen. 

Tinea phaeochrysa, n. sp. 
(^(HoxpiHros, darkly golden. 

9 , 17 mm. Head, thorax, palpi, and antennae brownish-ochreous. Abdomen 
pale grey. Legs brownish-ochreous; posterior pair whitish-ochreous. Forewings 
elongate-oval, apex obtuse; whitish-ochreous, densely strigulated with brownish- 
ochreous, smooth-scaled and lustrous, so as to appear dull golden; some tendency 
to the formation of wavy dark transverse lines, but no definite markings ; cilia 
pale ochreous. Hindwings ovate; 5 and 6 stalked; pale grey; cilia \ \ P a ^ e R re V- 

Queensland: National Park (3,000 feet), in December; one specimen. 



Tinea plagiomochla, n. sp. 

7r\ayu>iu>xlo<;. cross-barred. 

9 , 15 mm. Head ochreous-yellow. Palpi fuscous. Antennae t; grey. 
Thorax and abdomen fuscous. Legs fuscous; posterior pair whitish-ochreous. 
Forewings strongly dilated posteriorly, apex rounded ; ochreous-yellow ; a short 
transverse bar in disc above tornus; termen narrowly fuscous; cilia fuscous. 
Hindwings ovate; ochreous-grey ; cilia f, grey. 

Queensland: Eidsvold ; one specimen received from Dr. T. I>ancroft. 

F 



\ 



154 

Tinea sinapifera, n. sp. 
sinapifer, partly yellowish. 

$ , 9 , 14-16 mm. Head, thorax, and antennae fuscous. Palpi ochreous- 
whitish. Abdomen dark fuscous. Legs fuscous. Forewings witH costa rather 
strongly arched, apex pointed, termen very obliquely rounded ; purple-fuscous 
with blackish irroration in disc; a transversely elongate whitish discal spot at J ; 
a short whitish line beneath costal edge shortly before apex; a whitish line from 
tornus towards but not reaching apex, close to termen, succeeded by some blackish 
scales ; cilia fuscous with basal and subterminal whitish lines. Hindwings 
elongate-ovate ; ochreous-yellow ; a large apical fuscous blotch produced along 
dorsum ; cilia fuscous. 

Queensland: National Park (2,500-3,000 feet), in November; two 
specimens. 

Tinea scythromorpha, n. sp. 

(TKv8f>ofjLOf><f>os, of gloomy appearance. 

# , 9 , 12-14 mm. Head ochreous-whitish. Palpi 2, second joint expanded 
with rough scales towards apex and with an external series of short bristles ; 
terminal joint stout at base; whitish, anterior surface of second joint sometimes 
fuscous. Antennae fuscous. Thorax and abdomen fuscous. Legs fuscous ; 
coxae and femora whitish beneath. Forewings elongate-oval, costa moderately 
arched, apex round-pointed, termen very obliquely rounded; fuscous ; cilia 
fuscous. Hindwings elongate-ovate ; purple-fuscous ; cilia fuscous. 

Smaller than T. amaurodes, Low., from which it differs in the whitish head 
and very different palpi. In amour odes the palpi are 1-J-, very slender, almost 
filiform. 

Queensland: Coolangatta, in September; National Park (3,000 feet), in 
November and December ; five specimens. 

Fam. COSSIDAE. 

Zeuzera eumitra, n. sp. 

zviAiTpos, well banded. 

9 , 52-56 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen white. Antennae fuscous. Legs 
fuscous ; anterior tibiae and tarsi with white annulations. Forewings elongate- 
oval, costa straight to middle, thence gently arched, apex round-pointed, termen 
rounded, oblique ; white with blackish markings ; seven quadrangular costal spots 
between base and middle ; three transverse series of spots near base, first sub- 
basal, third at -J, second slightly before third; three narrow, transversely elongate, 
dorsal spots between third line and middle ; several small discal spots ; a narrow- 
transverse fascia from f costa to f dorsum, interrupted by fine white streaks on 
veins, slightly dilated between middle and dorsum ; a double subterminal series 
of spots ; three posterior costal spots, that one near apex larger ; a terminal 
series, that one on tornus with a spot in disc shortly above it ; cilia white with 
two or three small blackish bars. Hindwings with apex rounded, termen slightly 
rounded ; white ; a dark-fuscous spot, sometimes double, on dorsum near tornus, 4 

with a few variable dots on dorsum and before apex, which are not always 
developed. Underside similar. 

This fine and distinct species is the second species of Zeuzera discovered 
in Australia. 

Queensland: Brisbane, in February; two specimens from larvae boring the 
stems of Eugenia ventenatii (R. Illidge and LI. Hacker) ; National Park (2,500 



155 

feet), in January; one freshly emerged found by lantern light running along a 
root crossing a scrub track; Toowoomba, in December; one specimen (W. B* 
Burnard). 

Fam. HEPIALIDAE. 

Porina beltista, n. sp. 

/JcAtiotos, the best. 

$ , 100 mm. Thorax fuscous-ochreous. Abdomen light red. Forewings 
triangular, costa straight to middle, thence sinuate, rather strongly arched before 
apex, apex pointed, termen straight, oblique, rounded beneath; fuscous-ochreous, 
slightly darker towards base ; costa suffusedly fuscous to about f ; a suffused, 
roundish, subdorsal, pale-fuscous spot at \ ; an oblique series of irregular, 
suffused, pale-fuscous spots between § costa and mid-dorsum ; a similar series, 
but with darker central transverse marks, subterminal ; some scattered dark- 
fuscous dots posterior to this; some spots near termen similar to but paler than 
those of subterminal series; cilia concolourous. Hindwings with apex round- 
pointed, termen gently rounded ; pale red, brighter red towards base, slightly 
ochreous tinged towards apex; cilia ochreous. Underside reddish-ochreous. 

Queensland : Mount Nebo ? near Brisbane, in May ; one specimen with head 
mutilated and legs missing picked up on the road after mid-day, not quite dead, 
and in good condition otherwise. Probably it had been attacked by a bird or 
lizard. Further search resulted in the finding of one hind wing of a second moth. 
The finest species yet found of this genus, allied to P. rufescens, but with very 
different markings on forewings. 



156 



NATIVE MARKINGS ON ROCKS AT MOROWIE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By Norman B. Tindale and C. P. Mountford. 

[Read June 10, 1926.] 

Plates XVII. and XVIII. 

Recently one of us (C. P. M.) spent a fortnight in examining aboriginal 
camp-sites in the neighbourhood of Dawson, a township about sixteen miles north- 
east from Peterborough. 

There are several sites in the vicinity, notably at Mount Grainger and 
Morowie Springs. At both places are numbers of small caves and rock shelters 
which were once occupied by the natives. The long extinct aborigines of the 
district were allied to the Adelaide tribe and spoke a dialect of the so-called Meyt 
language, common to the Adelaide and Yorke Peninsula peoples. Iheir dialect 
was briefly recorded by Messrs. Valentine") and Le Brun.^ 

At Morowie, where there are permanent springs, these caves and shelters 
are numerous (pi. xvii., fig. 1), and a level piece of ground near the water was 
used as a camping place. The prevailing rocks in the vicinity are (according 
to Mr. P. S. Hossfeld, to whom a specimen was submitted for determination) 
micaceous slate. The caves are often little more than holes in the rock, but some 
form commodious chambers ; the walls of the latter are blackened with smoke 
and the floors consist largely of fine slaty debris mixed with charcoal and animal 
bones The floors of several caves were searched for buried implements with- 
out success, but on the neighbouring camping grounds several well-formed 
hammer stones (of white quartzite and of fine sandstone), a quartz knife, and 
a flint gouge were picked up. 

Rock Markings. 

No definite signs of rock intaglios were noticed, although these are found 
both in the Flinders Ranges to the north and Mallett and Burra to the south. 
However in a small cave'; on an exposed face, and also rather high up on the 
walls of a rock shelter, numerous series of markings of a special character were 
examined. 

These consist of narrow longitudinal grooves, from one to five centimetres in 
length, arranged in sets of small numbers, and cut more or less deeply into the 
slate with some stone implement. 

An enlarged view (*2 approximately) of one group of these markings is 
shown in pi. xvii., fig. 4. The piece of rock bearing it was detached; rough 
plaster casts of other markings were obtained by means of wax moulds, and 
still other markings were recorded by making rubbings on translucent paper. 
PI xviii fig. 1, shows some of the plaster casts and text fig. 1 a reproduc- 
tion (x-i) of some of the rubbings. A small quartz knife, shown in pi. xviii., 
fig. 1, was found on a neighbouring camp-site, and is capable of making similar 
grooves on the slate. 

All the markings at Morowie are strongly patinated and stained with iron 
oxide, which is believed to be an indication of age ; those on exposed surfaces 
have been partially destroyed by weatherin g and lichen growths. A t ew of the 

(1) Valentine, C, in Curr, "Australian Race," v. 5., 1886, pp. 138, 139. 

(2) Le Brun, S., I.e., ii., pp. 140, 141. 



157 



more accessible examples, shown in pi. xvii.. fig. 3. were touched up with chalk 
for purposes of photography. 

The cave shown in pi. xvii., figs. 2 and 3, is not more than 4 feet high, 
2 feet wide, and 5 feet deep (the scale shown in the figure is 6 inches long). 
The markings occur not only on the walls near the opening but also on the inside. 
A convenient rounded and projecting ledge, running obliquely along one wall, 
bears numbers of the incisions; indeed, they are so closely crowded as rather to 
obscure the grouping elsewhere evident. These markings appear not to have 
been made at one time, but on many different occasions. The commencement of 
this ledge is shown at the lower right corner of pi. xvii., fig. 3, and other less 
accessible portions are reproduced in the two larger casts shown in pi. xviii., fig. 1. 

As previously mentioned, the. markings occur in groups, ahvays of small 
numbers, although this arrangement may be regarded as obscure on the ledge 



\ / 





\ 







\ 






\V 



/ 



«l 



Fig. 1. Morowie rock markings (x|). 

referred to. In text fig. 1 all the markings from several portions of rock are 
included, each group as far as possible in its relative positions. Single cuts, 
often short and deep, occur very frequently, pairs only sparingly. Sets of three, 
four, and five are also present. In several cases two sets arc in association, and 
the group of four shown in pi. xvii., fig. 4, bears an additional mark, cutting 
the vertical ones at an angle ; this was evidently scratched last. The presence of 
fine lines over the intervals between the deep grooves in this example points to 
the use of a very fine-edged tool and the employment of numerous strokes in the 
making of some, incisions. 

Motive of Morowie Markings. 

Several views may be held as to the origin and significance of the marks. 
Their native origin cannot easily be denied. It may be claimed that they are 
idle marks produced by some native without better employment. This is dis- 
counted by their great numbers, their occurrence in several places, and their 



158 




/ 



Trans, and Proc. Row Sec S. Anstr., 1926. 



Vol. L, Plate XVTi. 




m 





_ ', .' ■ rl : , .".- .. _J : -__^£_l£^*_i 



Fig. 1. Scene at Morowie Springs. 



Fig. 2. Cave with markings on wall. 




Fig. 3. Close view of entrance, showing' 
some markings. 



Fig. 4. Morowie rock markings. (x2) 



Gilnngham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L-, Plate XVIII. 




& 



too 

E 



dillnigliHin & ( ;.■ Linut-td. I'miUM's AiU : l Jntlt" 



159 

grouping. It is possible that they are the result of the sharpening of delicate 
stone tools. There are a few objections to such a view, one is their presence 
m some places awkward of access to one desirous of giving a fine edge to a 
tool, and another the comparative softness of the slate. 

The superficial resemblance of the incisions to the "tally marks" found on 
many of the so-called "cylindro-conical and cornute stones" is, perhaps, worthy 
of notice. 

''Tally Marks" on Cylindro-conical Stones. 
In the Darling River district of New South Wales, and the north-eastern 
part of our State, several hundred of these stones have been found and deposited 
in collections. Etheridge (3) has summarized all the early records, and Pulleine < 4 > 
has supplied recent references. 

The localities and data of about 130 examples are available in literature, 
and from a _ study of these records it appears that, contrary to Etheridge's 
opinion, the incised and unincised stones (which occur in about equal numbers) 
each have a definite distribution over the above-mentioned areas. An examina- 
tion of the map (text fig. 2) shows that incised forms are prevalent over the 
south and south-western areas, that is, in part of South Australia, and along the 
courses of the Lachlan River, and of the Lower Darling in New South Wales. 
The non-incised forms arc equally widely distributed in the north and north- 
eastern areas. The occurrences along the course of the Darling River, between 
Menindee and Rourke (from whence more than half the known examples have 
been obtained, and where in some places both forms are found in association), 
also indicate a definite distribution. 

The incisions on the cylindro-conical stones from the south-western areas 
are often arranged in sets of small numbers scattered over the body of each 
stone. Such "record" stones have, for example, been noted from Popilta, near 
Wentworth, and from Bimbowrie, Outalpa, and Boolcoomata in South Australia. 

If we adopt the view, suggested many years ago and recently brought into 
prominence by Pulleine < 5 > and others, that these markings (whatever be the 
further significance of the stones) are actual "tally marks" recording events or 
objects, we may perhaps not unreasonably suggest that the Morowie markings 
represent non-portable records of a similar character. In this connection it is 
of interest to note that Freeman (6) describes an example of a cylindro-conical 
stone said to bear the "record of burials of 49 adults and 12 children." 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES XVTT. and XVIIT. 

Plate XVIT. 
Fig - , t. Scene at Morowie Springs. 
,. 2. Cave with markings on wall. 

,, 3. Close view of entrance, .showing some markings. 
,, 4. Morowie -rock markings (X2). 

Plate XVIII. 
Fig. 1. Morowie rock markings (casts) and quartz knife 



C3) Rtheridge, K., jim., Mem. Geol. Surv. N.S. Wales, Rthnol. Ser., No. 2, 1916, pp. 1-42, 

pis. i.-ix, 

< 4 > Pulleine, R., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1922, 304-307. 

<$> Pulleine, R., I.e., p. 306. 

<6> Freeman, W., Rep. Austr. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 1902 (1903), ix., p. 539. 



160 



VARVE SHALES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PERMO-CARBONIFEROUS 
GLACIAL STRATA OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By D. Mawson, Kt., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

[Read July 8, 1926. J 

A notable feature of the stratified deposits of glacial regions is the regular 
lamination of the finer fluvio-glaciai beds, due to recurrent annual contributions 
resulting from summer thaw and winter refrigeration. This remarkable char- 
acteristic, which was emphasised and of which the significance was indicated in 
the case of the Tapley Hill and other local slates in a paper (1) contributed as long 
ago as the year 1907, is now widely known under the term "varve" structure. 

Further reference to the subject and to the occurrence of varve beds in the 
Permo-Carboniferous strata of this State was made by me at the last meeting 
of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. As my paper 
was accidentally omitted from the volume of the Proceedings, these notes are 
now contributed as a record of the occurrence in strata of the later period. 
Observations on the Proterozoic varve formations are to appear elsewhere. 

The Permo-Carboniferous fluvio-glaciai deposits of this State are, for the 
most part, constituted of a sandy nature. Finer-grained silts are little repre- 
sented; at least this is so in the case of almost all the outcrops. Such conditions 
are not favourable for the development of varve structures. However, even 
the thick sandy beds do, in some areas (2), exhibit traces of lamination and con- 
temporaneous contortion. 

Fluvio-glaciai depositions in ponded waters are but rarely met with in our 
Permo-Carboniferous strata and marine depositions of this age are entirely absent. 
The localities that have come under notice where such clayey sediments occur 
are very local in extent and represent lakelets in the then glacial valleys, either 
as over-deepened, rock-bound basins or produced by moraine dams or ice 
blockages. 

OCCURRENCE NEAR MOUNT MAGNIFICENT. 

The most illustrative case examined is situated at the southern edge of 
Section 292, Hundred of Kuitpo. This is on Blackfellow's Creek, at its junction 
with the Finnis River, and just below Mount Magnificent. At this place a Permo- 
Carboniferous glacier had over-deepened its bed, burrowing over many acres m 
extent a deep basin in a Pre-Cambrian terrain. The Jatter consists of highly 
altered sediments with semi-acid igneous intrusions. 

Upon recession of the ice this rock basin was evidently occupied by a small 
lake and became gradually silted up with fluvio-glaciai sediments. These are 
now presented as hard, consolidated beds of shale and sandstone. The dominant 
feature is a straw-coloured pelitic formation of a porcellaneous nature which 
exhibits varve banding. 

Strata of a few inches to a foot or more in thickness composed of this 
porcellaneous laminated rock alternate with less conspicuous thinner bands of a 
distinctly more sandy nature. This coarse structure may represent the seasonal 
variation between summer and winter deposition, the finer laminations correspond- 
ing to the contributions of a sequence of individual thaws during that major 
cycle. The alternative explanation is that all pairs of laminae refer each to the 
sediments of a single year. The exposures are not sufficiently perfect or extensive 
to decide this point. 



161 

In order to illustrate the nature of the minor laminations actual measure- 
ments are herewith given relating to a specimen collected from a pelitic stratum. 
The figures mentioned refer to the thickness of individual laminae: — 

Coarse psammite stratum. 
2*2 inches, very fine-grained pelite. In the upper 1*4 inches of this layer 
15 very faint laminae are traceable. 



0-17 ., 


psammitic pelite. 


070 „ 


pelite. 


0-10 M 


a faint band of somewhat psammitic pelite 


070 „ 


pelitc. 


0-15 „ 


a faint band of somewhat psammitic pelite 


0-15 ., 


pelite. 


0*10 ., 


psammitic pelite. 


0*30 „ 


pelite. 


0-20 „ 


psammitic pelite. 


0-30 „ 


pelite. 


0*10 .. 


coarse psammite. 



in the field the exposure is limited on account of extensive recent alluvium 
now mantling the surface of the valley. No useful estimate of the thickness of 
the varve beds can be gleaned, for they are visible only for some 10 feet vertically 
in the bank of the creek. It is not likely that they extend to a greater depth 
lhan, say, SO feet below the visible base. 

As exposed on the north bank of Blackfellow's Creek they contain, in the 
coarser strata, occasional well soled and faintly glaciated sandstone erratics up 
to several inches in length. The beds arc not far from horizontal, dipping only 
a few degrees to the north-west. The topmost shales are bleached pure white 
owing to the leaching action of surface waters. 

OCCURRENCE NEAR NORMANVILLE. 

About half a mile east-north-east of Heycock Point, near Normanville, varve 
clays are exposed in washouts in the gullies. There is in that vicinity a Permo- 
Carboniferous valley depression cutting through a belt of Cambrian Archaeocya- 
thinae limestone, and open to the coast on the west. It has been choked with 
glacial and fluvio -glacial sediments, but is now largely re-excavated. When the 
ice withdrew from this rock-walled valley it appears to have been dammed up 
lower do>wn (to the west) either by morainic debris or by an ice face. In this 
area thus ponded, alternating sandy and clayey layers were laid down, exhibiting 
fine lamination. 

As exposed, the lower beds are light-coloured clays with obvious sandy 
laminae; occasional small erratics appear embedded therein. Somewhat higher 
up in the series several cases of local contortion were noted. Eor example, in a 
belt of 6 inches in thickness, the laminae have been remarkably puckered whilst 
above and beiow the clays lie flat and regular. In one puckered horizon a granite 
erratic 18 inches in length is embedded. This latter is an exception, however, 
for erratics are rare in the well laminated beds. 

Still higher up in the series the clays become more yellow in colour and 
finally brick-red. At the top of the section, the clays are displaced by sandy 
strata from which a considerable number of striated erratics weather out and are 
strewn on the surface. 

In this valley depression, the glacial and fluvio-glacial sediments extend from 
about sea level to an elevation of some 300 feet or more. A minimum thickness 
of the fiuvio-tdacial beds is estimated at 100 feet. 



162 

As regards the thickness of the laminae in these clays, it varies through wide 
limits. The thinnest lamination observed gave an average measurement of 
0*03 inch when measured over a thickness of several inches. The more general 
fine banding averages 0*06 inch thick for each individual lamina, whilst 0*12 inch 
in thickness is quite common. In the upper beds the banding is coarser and single 
bands an inch in thickness are not rare. 

HALLETT'S COVE. 

The third locality to which reference is here made is Hallett's Cove. Lamin- 
ated sandy and clay beds are exposed in washouts in the amphitheatre at the north 
end, and coarsely banded fluvio-glacial beds also appear resting on the polished 
pavement above Black Point. The more typical are the chocolate to salmon- 
coloured claystones and associated sandy bands forming the lower beds in the 
amphitheatre. This glacial basin was excavated to a depth that is now consider- 
ably below sea level, and upon recession of the ice remained a ponded area for 
some time at least, allowing fluvio-glacial depositions to accumulate therein. The 
total thickness of the formation certainly exceeds 50 feet, but as it extends below 
sea level its downward extension is only conjecture. 

The major structure exhibited is that of a coarse and rather irregular alterna- 
tion of pelitic and psammitic beds, such as a sandy band of, say, 3 inches in thick- 
ness, followed by a claystone stratum 8 inches thick. Superimposed on this more 
obvious feature is a fine lamination generally well shown in the somewhat sandy 
strata and less evident or absent in pure claystone. Where it was well shown 
measurement showed an average of six sandy partings to the inch, or about 
0*16 inch as the thickness of each pair of coarse and fine laminae. 

CONCLUSION. 

In conclusion, it is to be remarked that the occurrence of varve sediments in 
the local fluvio-glacial beds of Permo-Carboniferous age is further evidence in 
accordance with the general thesis advanced by myself some twenty years ago, 
namely, that lamination is to be expected in both interglacial sediments and in 
those deposited in regions bordering glaciated areas. In fact, fine lamination in 
fluvial sediments, though not certainly indicative of glacial conditions, is certainly 
corroborative evidence when taken in conjunction with other criteria. 

The original paper (1) submitted was particularly concerned in deducing- 
evidence to show that the Tapley's Hill slates and other laminated beds of the 
Adelaide Series were as surely sediments of a glacial epoch as the Sturtian Tillite 
itself, the only difference suggested being that of the severity of glaciation. 

In the north-cast of this State and in the P>arrier Ranges I have mapped 
beautifully laminated slates (practically indistinguishable from the Tapley's Hill 
slates themselves) of older age than the Sturtian Tillite horizon, which latter 
overlies them unconformably with a big erosion interval between. Boulders of 
this older varve-like slate actually appear as erratics in the Sturtian horizon of 
that area. This, in my opinion, is strong indication of glacial conditions in the 
neighbourhood in earlier Pre-Cambrian times. As geological mapping of the 
State progresses it may happen that actual tillite may somewhere be located at 
this horizon. 

REFERENCES. 

1. "The Association of Laminated Clays, Shales, and Slates with Glacial 

Deposits; their Significance and Chronological Value," by D. Mawson, 
B.E., B.Sc. Read before the Austr. Assoc. Ad. Sc, January, 1907. 

2. "Description of a New and Extensive Area of Permo-Carboniferous Glacial 

Deposits in South Australia," by W. ITowchin. Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Austr., vol. xxiv., p. 231. 



163 



A REVISION OF THE "SWEET" COLLECTION OF TRIASSIC PLANT 
REMAINS FROM LEIGH'S CREEK, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By Fredk. Chapman, A.L.S. (National Museum, Melbourne), and 
Isabel C. Cookson, B.Sc. (Melbourne University). 

[Read July 8, 1926.] 

Plates XIX. to XXIV. 

INTRODUCTION. 
As some question has arisen of late regarding the exact age of the Leigh's 
Creek fossiliferous coal shales, it was thought an opportune time to examine in 
detail the original specimens in the "Sweet" Collection determined in 1895 by 
Mr. Robert Etheridge, jun. (i) 

Since, as far as wc know, very little additional material is being collected 
irom this area, and that all the previously known specimens are in the "Sweet" 
Collection, which has been generously presented to the National Museum, Mel- 
bourne, by Dr. Georgina Sweet, it has been urged by Mr. L. Keith Ward, B.A., 
B.E., Government Geologist of South Australia, that we carry on this work. 

in consideration of Mr. Etheridge's careful examination and description of 
th<^ "Sweet" Collection, it might almost seem invidious to thus revise the col- 
lection; but in view of the fact that since then so much light has been thrown on 
this subject from the examination of the Mesozoic flora of the other States, 
especially from Queensland., by the work of Dr. Waikom, (3 > it is hoped that the 
present effort may justify itself. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT REMAINS. 

Series PTER1DOPHYTA. 

Class EQUISETAL12S. 

Fam. EOUISETACEAE. 

Genus Equisetites, Sternberg, 1833. 

Equisetites rot i fer u m, Teni son-\ V oocl s . 

PI. 'XXX. } fig. 1. 

Equisetites rotiferum, Tenisoii- Woods, 1882, p. 344; idem, 1883; Ibid, p. 66, pi. vi. T %s. 
b, 6. Waikom, 1915, p. 27, pi. i., figs. 2, 3; pi. ii., fig. 4. 

Description. — The present example is a stem which carries three nodes with 
rwa complete internodes. The total length is 4 k S cm., and the width at the nodes 
3'5 mm.; the median diameter of the internodes is slightly less, being about 
5-1 mm. The stem is distinctly striated, showing six or seven longitudinal flat- 
tened ridges. The nodes are clearly shown and the concave bases of the leaf 
sheath are very distinct. 

By examining the fossil in a favourable light the leaves are seen to be 
earmate, with the teeth sharply denticulate, but short and broad, at the base, 
the height of the leaf sheath being only 1*25 mm. 



O) Etheridge, R„ jun., 1895, pp. 138-145. pis. iv.-vi. 
<2> Waikom, A. B., 1915-1919. 



164 

Observations. — This genus was recorded by Etheridge, jun., from Leigh's 
Creek, but he regarded the specimens he examined as undeterminable. Since the 
specimens before us do not tally in measurement with those given by him, it is 
doubtful whether he examined the present example. 

As regards the original description of this species by Tenison-Woods, the 
only difference we observe is the slightly more numerous teeth, his type showing 
9 free teeth as against our 7; but this might easily be accounted for by variations 
in different parts of the same plant. 

Walkom has dealt with the species in his Queensland paper, referred to above, 
and one specimen figured by him, from Nundah Colliery, Ipswich Series, which 
determination he queries in the explanation of plate, is most like the present speci- 
men. In reference to the Nundah Colliery specimens, Walkom remarks, in regard 
to the axis, that "while these are not sufficiently good specimens to separate from 
E. rotiferimi as a distinct species, it must be noted that they show a close 
resemblance to figures of E. gracilis (Nathorst) from the Rhaetic rocks in 
Sweden given by Halle. < 3) These few specimens from Nundah and those from 
Tivoli Mine are the only ones similar to E. roiiferum which have been obtained 
from the Ipswich Series, the lowest division of the Trias-Jura rocks." 

Distribution. — Ipswich Series (Trias) : Tivoli Mine and Nundah Colliery, 
Queensland. Walloon Series (Jurassic): Walloon Mine (type locality) and 
Wallumbilla, Queensland. 

( ?) Equisetjtes sp. Stem with strobils. 
PL xix., fig. 2. 

Description. — This stem is preserved in an ochreous and porcellanised shale. 
It has a length of 10'2 cm. and a diameter of 2T5 cm. There are three faint 
nodal impressions in the length of the stem, which suggest Equisctites. Leaf 
remains are practically absent, a few vestiges of doubtful character alone sug- 
gesting their presence. In one or two cases these appear to be aciculate and 
closely adpressed to the stem. 

Several cone-like bodies, of which one is well preserved, occur on the stem. 
The latter is sessile, the point of attachment being slightly above the nodal area. 
It is ovate in form, broader at the apex. Its surface is divided into large sub- 
angular areolae of unequal size, whilst there appears to be an outer investing 
cup-like layer, the surface of which is distinctly wrinkled. 

In the occurrence of laterally disposed strobils, comparison might be made 
with Equisctites Hemingwayi of " Kidston/ 4 > in which short, ovoid strobils are 
found sessile at the nodes of the stem. A point of comparison worth noting is 
that in Kidston's species the surface of the strobil is polygonally marked very 
much as in the present specimen, although the general outline is not the same. 

Another comparison is with a strobilus figured by one of us, (5) which occurs 
laterally on the stem of Phyllotheca australis; the chief distinction is that the 
apex of the cone is flattened in the latter, instead of being obtusely pointed, and 
further, there is no indication in our specimen of the typical Phyllotheca leaf 
arrangement. 

On the whole, the affinities of this curious specimen remain obscure, and it 
will be possible to assign it to its correct systematic position only when more and 
better preserved material is available. 

(3) Halle, T. G., 1908, p. 15, pi. iii., tigs. 12-18. 

(4) Seward, A. C, 1898, p. 262, fig. 57. 

<M Chapman, F., 1904, p. 314, pi. xxviii., fig. 7. 



165 

Genus Neocalamites, Halle, 1908. 

Neocalamites hoerensis, Hisinger sp. 

PI. xix., figs. 3-5. 

Catamites hocrcnsis, Hisinger, 1836-40, p. 5, pi. xxxviii., fig. 8. 

Schizoncura hoerensis, (Hisinger) Schimper, 1869, p. 283. 

Neocalamites hocrensis, Schimper sp., Halle, 1908, p. 6, pis. L and ii. Walkom, 1915, p. 33, 
pi. ii., fig. 1; Idem, 1924, p. 79, pi. xv, fig. 1. 

Description based on three examples. — At least three specimens in the present 
collection seemed referahle to the above species. In their general measurements 
they agree with those given by Schimper for this species. The best preserved 
of our examples (a) is a stem having a length of nearly 7 cm. and a width from 
IT to 1 '5 cm. This specimen has four joints with well-marked nodes; the 
general surface of the stem appears to be an impression of the inner portion, but 
there are carbonised areas (c) which represent the outer surface. The stem is 
finely striated; this shows to best advantage in specimen (c), where the carbonised 
cortex is well preserved. 

In this and the other specimens the cicatrices of the individual leaves are 
distinctly seen; in one of the stem fragments (b) the node bears 8 or 9 distinct 
leaf scars which have a width of about 1*5 mm. The outer rim is a slightly 
raised circular ridge, within which is a depressed area, sometimes showing a 
central papilla. 

There are two instances where impressions can be observed on the inter- 
nodal portions of the stem of larger scars than those on the. node, which may 
be displaced nodal diaphragms. 

The remains of leaves are rare, but there are one or two examples which 
show close affinity with those of the type, both in the size and form of the leaf and 
in the fact that the leaves are free along their whole length. One of these incom- 
plete leaves has a length of 34 mm. and a width at the base of 2 mm. The width 
of the leaves is not constant, but varies along the length of the leaf from 2" 5 mm. 
to 1*5 mm. The midrib is a noticeable feature, and there are, in addition, less 
pronounced parallel striae. 

Comparisons. — In Schimpcr's original description the diameter of the stem 
is cited as from 3-6 mm.; in the present form it measures only 11 mm., but since 
Halle has described an associated series in which the stem measurements vary 
more greatly than the original description, and which seem to belong to one species, 
we consider our specimens may reasonably be included under that form. 

Walkom has also recorded this species from the Ipswich Series of Queensland, 
and his specimen, which he figures, has even a less diameter than ours, and 
practically half. 

At first we were inclined to consider the claims of N. mcriani, Brongniart sp., 
but in that form the leaves appear to be generally wide. 

Distribution.— Ipswich Series: Queensland. Rhaetic: Sweden. 

Farm SCHIZONEUREAE. 

Genus ScmzoNEURA, Schimper and Mugeot, 1844. 

SCHIZONEURA Sp. 
PI. xix., fig. 6; pi. xx., fig. 7. 
Schizoncura sp., a, Seward, 1908, p. 86, pi. iii., figs. 1, 2. Walkom, 1915, p. 36, pi. iv„ 
fig. 1 ; Idem, 1924, p. 80, pi. xvi. 

Description. — One of the stems which we refer to Schizoncura sp. has a 
length of 10 cm. and a width of 3 cm. In this specimen there are two nodes, a 
complete internode and portion of two others. The nodal area is defined by a 
ridge-like prominence, irregularly nodulose, and at one portion of the node, at 



166 

one extremity, there appears to be a lanceolate, leaf-like structure, lying upon the 
surface of the stem and its base adjoining the node. There is, however, no 
spreading of the lamina as is usual in Schizoneura leaves. 

The fossil is evidently a compressed stem with a carbonised layer represent- 
ing the outer surface, and this seems to be borne out by the fact that the striations 
are very much finer than those in Seward/ s South African specimen and also in 
Walkom's example from Esk, Queensland. The striations amount to as many 
as 22 in 5 mm. as against those of the pith-cast in the latter specimen, where 
there are 8 to 10. This specimen was one of those examined by Etheridge, jun., 
and which he referred to in the 1895 paper as E q ids e turn sp. 

Two other specimens are found in this series, both of which measure 4*2 cm. 
in diameter, and in which the node is very distinctly shown, together with 
depressed circular . scars. These number about 14 in the diameter, and have 
much the same appearance as some figured by Feistmantel as 5*. gondzvanensis. 

The stems now under consideration compare closely in character with that 
described by Walkom, in 1915, as SeJuzoneura sp. from the Ipswich Series, in 
which the stem measures 4 - 5 cm., but the internodes are slightly larger. 

Distribution. — Rurghersdorp Beds of the Middle Karroo or Beaufort Series : 
South Africa ; Trias. Ipswich Series : Queensland ; Trias. Walloon Series : 
Queensland ; Jurassic. 

Class FIUCALES. 
Fam. (?) OSMUNDACEAE. 
Genus Cladophlebis, Brongniart, 1849. 
Cladoftit/ebis Alrertst, Dunker sp. 
PI. xx., fig. 8. 
Ncuroptcris Albert si, Dunker, 1846, p. 8, pi. vii., figs. 6, 6a. 
Alcthopteris Albertsi, Dunker sp., Schenfc, 1871, p. 218, pi. xxvii., fig. 4. 
Cladophlebis Albertsi, Dunker sp., Seward, 1894, p. 91, pi. viii. 
Alcthopteris sp. indet., Etheridge, jun., 1895, p. 143, pi. iv., figs. 1, 2. 

Observation s .— Seward's (6) extension and modification of the original 
diagnosis runs as follows: — "Frond bipinnate, rachis flat and broad, pinnae 
linear lanceolate, alternate to opposite, pinnules falcate, contiguous, attached by 
whole of broad base, acuminate, margin entire or slightly dentate towards the 
apex." - 

Etheridge, jun., in his remarks on one of the specimens now examined, dis- 
cusses the affinities of this species, and remarks that "The nearest allies appear 
lo be A. australis, Morris; A. Rosserti, Fresh; and A. Albertsi, Schimper." As 
regards A. Albertsi, Etheridge observes that "the pinnules are of the same semi- 
falcate outline, and the secondary veins are once furcate, but collectively the pin- 
nules do not present the same degree of regularity." 

On a rc-examination of the specimens figured by Etheridge, jun., we notice 
that in fig. 2 the drawing does not quite closely follow the specimen, for the 
pinnules distinctly broaden towards the base, becoming semi-falcate in character. 

The fronds which Newell Arber (7) has figured, from the Neocomian beds 
of the Waikato Heads, Auckland, and described as Cladophlebis cf. Albertsi, 
Dunker sp., show marked resemblance to the above specimens. 

Since Etheridge, jun., has already so well described the specimen we now 
re-figure, we append his notes (8) r— J "The pinnules are short, subfalcate, curved. 



(6) Seward, A. C, 1894, p. 92. 

(?) Neweli Arbcr, & A., 1917, p. 28, pi. iv., figs. 2, X 

(8) Etheridge, R., jim., 1895, p. 143. 



167 

upwardly directed, and touching; the margins are entire towards the apex, and 
the latter obtuse. The midrib in each pinnule is continuous almost to the apex, 
where it slightly evanesces, the secondary veins are from eight to twelve in each 
pinnule, and once furcate." 

Distribution. — Wealden : Germany. Neocomian : New Zealand. Lower 
Cretaceous: Maryland, U.S.A. 

In connection with the present occurrence of C. Alberisi in Australia, it is 
of interest to note that Seward (9) mentions that "A specimen in the British 
Museum (41417) from the Douglas River Coal Seam in Tasmania is probably 
identical with the Wealden Species of Cladophlebis." This occurrence is all the 
more interesting since it points to the quite early appearance of the species in the 
Mesozoic elsewhere in Australia, the Tasmanian beds being of Trias, -Jura. age. 

Fam. THINNFELDIAE. 

Genus Thinnfeldia., Ettingshausen, 1852. 

Thinnfeldia Feistmanteli, Johnston. 

PI. xx., fig". 9 ; pi. xxi., fig. 10. 

Thinnfeldia Feisimanleli, Johnston, 1896, figs. 2, 16. 

Dicro'idium Feisimanleli, Johnston sp., Gothan, 1912, p. 78, pi. xvi., fig. 1. Ante vs., 1913, 
p. 3, pi. i., figs. 1-7. 

Thinnfeldia Feistmanteli, Johnston, Walkom, 1917, p. 17, pi. i., fig. 3; pi. ii., figs. 1, 2; 
text fig. 5; Idem, 1924, p. 81, pi. xvii., fig. If. 

Observations. — Well-preserved examples of the above species arc repre- 
sented in some abundance in the "Sweet" Collection. They are usually preserved 
in a porcellaneous shale, when the venation is beautifully shown; others occur 
in a dark foliated and carbonaceous shale. From the large pieces of frond pre- 
served it is clearly seen that the form here represented belongs to the species 
T. Feistmanteli, on account of the bipinnate nature of the frond. 

This species has not been recorded by Etheridge, jun., from the Leigh's 
Creek Series, but. he mentions the occurrence of "a few pinnules, oval to sub- 
reniform in outline/' which he refers to the species T. odontopteroides, Morris sp. 
Mr. Etheridge, jun., has also previously recorded T, odontopteroides from Leigh's 
Creek tl0) in referring to a collection obtained through the South Australian 
Geological Survey, and remarks that "The Leigh's Creek bore at present in. pro- 
gress has yielded several species of this characteristic. Australian Lower Mesozoic 
plant" ; and adds, '"The specimens exposed on the fractured surface of the bore 
core are that variety of T, odontopteroides with strictly rhomboidal pinnules and 
close-set, or, in fact, almost semi-imbricating, . but not as large as the largest 
usually found in Eastern Australia, although equal in size to some there met 
with." He further says it is even possible that "they may fall into the variety 
obiusifolia, Johnston." 

The principal rachis has an average width of 7 mm. and its surface is dis- 
tinctly rugose. This character has been noted by Walkom in Queensland forms, 
and he suggests a close resemblance to the transverse markings shown by 
Sphenopteris elegans (Heierangium Grievi), which are the result of numerous 
horizontal plates of thick-walled cells in the cortical tissue. 

From the main rachis arise the secondary branches which bear the pinnules, 
and these secondary rachae at 6 mm. from the principal rachis measure 2' 5 mm. 
in width. The pinnules seem to be uniformly of the obtuse-lobate type, almost 
cordate, and attached by the whole base to the secondary rachis. The veins are 
clearly seen to be the odontopteroid type, each starting from a common base and 
dividing once, or even twice, before reaching the margin. Some of these forms 

W Seward, A. C, 1894, p. 94. 

(10) Kthcridge, R., jun., 1891, p. 10. 



168 

when complete must have been of quite handsome dimensions, about 17 pinnules 
being counted in one pinnate series alone, while from one of the largest specimens 
we conclude that the width of the frond measured in its complete state as much 
as 22 cm. 

The actual method of growth can only be seen in the larger specimens, for 
the terminal portions differ in a marked degree from the basal by their more open 
growth and the less irregular rhomboidal form of the pinnules (pi xx., fig. 10). 

The present examination results in our noticing the complete absence of 
T. odonlopteroidcs, and we are inclined to think, in the face of the difficulty of 
naming fragments, that "the oval to subreniform pinnules" referred to 
T. odontopteroides by Etheridge, jun., may very easily be regarded as fragments 
of T. Feistmanteli, for the distinction between the two species seems to be based 
almost entirely on the pinnate character of the former and the bipinnate form 
of the latter. We also agree with Walkom, who has placed these specimens in 
the synonomy of T. Feistmanteli. 

Distribution— (?) Rhaetic : New Zealand (Owaka Creek). Trias. -Jurassic : 
Tasmania. Ipswich Series: Queensland. Walloon Series: Queensland. Middle 
Jurassic: New Zealand (Cuno Bay, Waikawa). 

Thinnfeldia lancifolia, Morris sp. 

PI. xxi., fig. 11 
Pccoptcris odonloplcroides, var. lancifolia, Morris, 1845, pi. vi., fig. 4. 
Thinnfeldia lancifolia, Morris sp., Arber, 1913, p. 346, pi. viii., fig. 7. Walkom, 1917, p. 21, 

pi. in., fig. 3; pi. iv., fig. 1; pi. vii., fig. 2; text fig. 6. Arbor , 1917, p. 49, pi. v., figs. 1, 2, ? 6. 

Walkom, 1924, p. 82, pi. xv, fig. 3. 

Observations. — There is here one example of a Thinnfeldia with elongate 
and acutely placed pinnules, which we refer to the above species. The specimen 
is preserved in a reddish shale, probably burnt, and shows sufficient characters 
to indicate its relationship to T. lancifolia. 

Distribution. — T. lancifolia occurs in both the Ipswich and Walloon Series 
in Queensland. 

FERN-LIKE PLANTS. Incertae scdis. 

Genus TAENrorTEius, Brongniart, 1828. 

Taeniopteris Dunstani, Walkom. 

PI. xxi., fig. 12. 

Taeniopteris sp. indet., Etheridge, R., jun., 1895, p. 140, pi. iv., fig. 1. 

T. Dunstani, Walkom, 1917, p. 37, pi. ix., fig. 1. 

Description. — The frond is narrow-lanceolate (?), 5 mm. wide at the base, 
gradually expanding until a maximum width of l'S cm. is reached; its length 
is 11 cm. The distal end of the leaf is, unfortunately, missing, so that the type 
of apex, as well as its total length, is unknown. The midrib is very prominent, 
having a width of 2*5 mm. ; it is longitudinally striate, and judging by its size at 
the broken end of the specimen, it would appear highly probable that it persisted 
to the apex of the leaf. 

The secondary veins arise from the midrib at an angle of about 70° and are 
mainly simple, 15 occurring in the space of 1 cm. Occasionally two adjacent 
veins join, a feature exhibited by the type and regarded by Walkom as a constant 
feature in the species. The margin of the leaf is well denned, but a distinct 
marginal vein, however, is not very evident. 

This leaf, on the whole, agrees well with Walkom' s description; it is not 
so distinctly lanceolate as in T. lenirkuliforme, Eth. fit, sp., and there seems little 
doubt that the form is identical with the Queensland plant. 

Distribution. — Ipswich Scries: Queensland. 



169 



Taeniopteris cf. Tenison-Woodsi, Etheridge fil. sp. 
PI. xxi. f fig. 13. 

Angiopteridium etms t Tcnison-Woods (non Oldham and Morris, 1863), 1883, p. 119. 

Angiopteridium Tenison-Woodsi, Etheridge, R., jun., 1892, p. 375. 

Taeniopteris Tenison-Woodsi, Eth. fil., Walkom, 1917, p. 32. text fig. 9; Idem, 1924, p. 86. 

Description,— One small, imperfectly preserved leaf is tentatively referred 
to this species. It is onlv 2' 5 cm. long, narrowly Ungulate, with a maximum 
of 6 mm. The midrib is clearly defined, traversing the entire length of the leaf, 
but the secondary veins are very indistinct. There are, however, one or two 
instances of obliquely arising veins visible, which suggest a possible affinity with 

this species. , _ , _ . , 

Distribution— Ip$vrkh Series: Queensland. Walloon Series: Queensland. 

Taeniopteris kluctuans, Etheridge fil.. 
PI. xxii., figs. 14, 15. 

Taeniopteris ( Oleandridium ? ) fluctuant, Etheridge, jun., 1895, p. 139, pi. v., figs. 1-3. 
Howchin, 1918, pp. 431, 432, figs. 1-3. 

Description of Holotvpe (now in National Museum-, Melbourne) by R. 
Etheridge jun.:— "Frond simple (as far as known), elongately lanceolate, thick, 
coriaceous, crumpled, lateral margin sinuous. Midrib thick, moderate y wide, 
and possibly longitudinally striate, secondary veins fine, straight, two m the space 
of 1-5 mm.' passing from the midrib at a right angle, sparsely furcate, and when 
so generally on leaving the midrib, very rarely in the middle of wing. 

' On re-examining the tvpe specimen we find one or two points of minor 
importance which may well be included with the original description^ and which 
in some way modify it. Thus, the midrib, which measures 2-5 mm in width in 
the main portion of the teaf and about 3 mm. at the base, is strongly vertically 
striated, and in one of the places having one of the striations, generally median 
in position, more dominant. The secondary veins are only once, divided and the 
bifurcation is usually close to the midrib, but occasionally the forking takes 
place near the margin as well as in the median area. 

This form is closely related both to T. Carruthcrsi, Tenison-Woods and 
T vittata Brongn. sp. ft differs, however, from the former m the single bifur- 
cation of the secondary veins and in the flexurcd lamina, and from the latter m 
the single bifurcation (where, according to Feistmanteltncy branch more than 
once), as well as in the shorter petiole and more parallel -sided lamina. In a 
fragment oi ironstone in this collection there is an impression of the petio ate 
end of a frond, in which one side of the lamina is preserved showing the rather 
widely spaced and basally forked veins. The edge of the loaf us undulate and 
almost crenate. There is no doubt on these characters that it is identical with 

T. ftuctuans. 

Taeniopteris wianamattae, Feistmantel sp. 

PL xxii., fig. 16. 

Macrotaeniopteris imanamattae, Feistmantel, 1878, p. 107, pi. xiii., fig. 2. Tcnison-Woods, 
1883, p. 118, pi. 10(7. 

Taeniopteris zvianamatiae, Feistm. sp., YValkom, 1917, p. 38. 

Description. ~-niz shape, as far as one can determine, of this incomplete 
specimen is broadly ovate. The veins are fine, 23 occurring in the space ot 
1 cm., and they are dichotomousiy branched towards the margin. 

Observations.— ^his species has already been recorded by Prof. Ralph 
Tate< n > from Leigh's Creek ("Sweet" Collection), and te ntativ ely "> r _^ 

(iDTatc. R., 1893, p. 355. 



170 

Etheridge, jun Jf from South Australia (Geol. Survey specimens). The 
lnassic example from Bacchus Marsh, named Taeniopteris Szvceti bv McCoy < u > 
is also referable to the above species. C14) 

Distribution.— Ipswich Series: Queensland. Triassic : Victoria (Bacchus 
Marsh). v 

Genus Stenopteris, Carruthers, 1872. 
Stenopteris elongata, Carruthers. 
PI. xxiii., figs. 17, 18. 
Stenopteris elongata, Carruthers, 1872, p. 355, pi. xxvii., fig. 1. 
Trichomanidcs spini folium, Tenis on- Woods, 1883, p. 95, pi. iii., fig. 7. 
T. spinifolia, Tcnison-Woods, Etheridge, R., fil, 1892, p. 367, pi. xviii fig S 
brenelopsis (?) sp. ind. (pars), Etheridge, R., fil, 1895, p. 145, pi. vi. ( fig.V 
Trichomaniics elongata, var. spimfolia, Shirley, 1898, p. 19, p l. y. fig 2 

\V^lkom"?017 W n ''n ^1 ^ ^ arr V ther f> Seward 1903, p. 70, pL vii./fiff's. 2,' 3; pl. xi., fig. 3. 
YYaJkom, 1917, p. h0, pl. i., fig. 1; pl. V i., f lgs , i_4 a . ' s 

Observations— A number of examples of this species are found in the 
present series, which are preserved both in the black shale and the indurated 
terra-cotta variety. 

Some of the fronds measure as much as 12 cm. in length. The usual form 
or pmnulation is towards that of the Sphenopteris type, that is, rather shorter 
and biunter than m those usually seen in Stenopteris elongata. 

The pinnules are frequently deeply incised and show bilobation. or even 
trtlobation and where the rachis is thick, it is seen to be strondy vertically 
grooved, whilst the transverse markings, very often met with in this form are 
not so much in evidence. The dichotomous branching of the rachis is well seen 
in these specimens. 

These fossil remains bear a. close comparison, on the whole to Queensland 
specimens, rather than to those from South Africa. They agree in general 
characters m the shape of the pinnulation exhibited by Dr. Walkom's specimen 
frpm Denmark Hill, Ipswich, and figured on pl. vi., fig. 4, of that author's paper 
lhey are distinct from the new species described by W. S. Dun under the name 
of Stenopteris rigida. 

The present specimens are evidently those referred to in a list bv Professor 
late, made on an exhibit of Mr. Sweet's specimens, before the 'Royal' Society of 
South Australia, on October 17, 1893, and recorded as Triehomanides lav urn 
i emson-Woods. 

Etheridge, jun./ 15 > also figures a specimen under the name of Frenelopsis ( ?) 
sp. md., which is referred to on p. 145, lac. cii\, as follows :— "The second speci- 
men appears to be the terminal portion of a branch." On examination, this 
particular specimen shows the elongate-iobate pinnules seen in Stenopteris, and 
the main rachis docs not compare closely with Frenelopsis. 

Distribution.— Ipswich Scries: Queensland (chieflv). Walloon Sorted 
Queensland (one specimen only). Hawkesbury Beds": New South Wales 
Stormberg Beds (Rhaetic): South Africa. Jurassic: Gippsland, Victoria 
(recorded by b. Chapman; examples showing the more rigid type of frond with 
narrower leaflets). 

(12) Etheridge, R., jun., 1891, pp. 10, 11, pl. ii., fig. 3 

03) McCoy, F., 1898, p. 285. 

(H) Chapman, F., 1919, p. 149. 

05) Etheridge, R., jun., 1895, pl. vi., fig. 6. 



171 

Genus Phylujptkrjs, Saporta, 1873. 

Piiyllopterjs Fejstmanteli, Etheridge fit. 

PI. xxiii., fig. 19. 

Phvlloptcris Fcistmanteli, Etheridge, R., jun., 1892^, p. 3, pi. i., figs. 1, 2. Dunstau, 1898, 
pi. v. Walkom, 1917, p. 42, text fig. 12. 

Observations. — Although Etheridge does not record this species from the 
i( Sweet" Collection of plant remains from Leigh's Creek, there is one slab show- 
ing two leaves, which we refer to the above species. Etheridge's original 
examples came from Ooroowilanie Swamp, near Nuntha Hill, Cooper's Creek, 
Central Australia, about 100 miles due north of the Leigh's Creek bore; they 
were collected by the late Government Geologist, IT. Y. L. Brown. 

In the present specimens the leaves are ovate-lanceolate, with a rather 
acuminate apex. The midrib is sulcate, but is not very conspicuous. The veins 
are rather obscure, but in places are seen to have the forking character of 
Phylloptcris rather than the anastomosing type of venation characteristic of 
Linguifolium of Arber, to which genus that author would refer the present 
species. 

Our specimen differs also from Arbcr's genotype in the absence of a strong 
midrib, and the leaf is lanceolate rather than tongue-shaped. In this we are in 
agreement with Waikom's conclusions in regard to other species of the genus. 

Dimensions.— The length of the longer leaf is 46 mm. and the width in the 
broadest part 21 mm. 

Class (?) GINKGOALES. 

Genus Psygmophyllum, Schimper, 1870. 

( ?} PsvGMorHYLLUM Etheridgei, Arber sp. 

PI. xxiii., fig. 20; pi. xxiv., fig. 21. 

Antkrophyopsis ? sp. ind., Etheridge, R., fi-L, 1895, p. 141, pi. iv., fig. 2. 

Chiropteris Etheridgci, Arber, 1917, p. 28. 

Description of Type. — In reference to the above, R. Etheridge, jun., has 
given a full description of one of the specimens before us, and in describing it 
he remarks that it is a lai-ge imperfect frond, and that there is no trace of a 
midrib, but shows elongated mesh reticulations of the secondary veins, supposing 
that it belonged to Nathorst's genus, Antkrophyopsis, to which he provisionally 
referred it. Etheridge goes on to describe it as follows:— 

"The frond now before me resembles a fish-tail in general outline and 
expands rapidly towards the distal end. The base of attachment is widely sub- 
auriculate, the sides of the frond then narrowing and suddenly expanding. The 
outer or distal extremity of the frond is unknown. There is no midrib, the well- 
marked neuration radiating and following the outline of the frond. The veins 
are equal in size, some twice and others thrice dichotomous. certain of them again 
uniting at long intervals to form an exceedingly elongated hexagonal, or rarely 
polygonal equal-sized mesh, more particularly in the basal third of the frond; 
they arc slightly thickened immediately before dichotomisation, and the branched 
or dichotomised vein then slightly bending. On the whole, allowing for the 
slightly radiate character, the veins may be said to be subparallel." 

The dimensions of the type are as follows: — Length, 12*5 cm. Greatest 
approximate breadth. near the apex of the frond, about 6 cm., the frond, however, 
being imperfect. The average breadth between the veins, which are distinct, 
i s 1 mm . 

Observations on Nezv Specimens. — There arc five additional specimens in 
the "Sweet" Collection, which, together with the type, have been presented to 
the National Museum by Dr. Georgina Sweet. One of these specimens, pre- 
served in brown sandy ironstone, is of an elongate-cuneate shape and has a length 



172 

of about 12 cm. Near the base it is constricted and again slightly expanding, 
the attaching surface being concave. The fish-tail shape referred to by Etheridge 
is not so well marked as in the type. Although the leaf margins are in most 
cases imperfect, there are indications which lead one to suppose that it was 
lacerate or slightly incised. Another specimen preserved in a somewhat cokey 
shale and appearing as if burnt, shows a fairly broad but imperfect form in 
which the venation is slightly finer than in the^two already referred to; the shape, 
as far as one can judge, may be elongate-ovate. 

The remaining specimens, which are in carbonaceous shale, are too frag- 
mentary to afford much evidence of outline, but clearly belong to the above 
species. 

The above specimen selected by Etheridge for description as referable to 
Anthrophyopsis (?) sp. indet., has been discussed by Newell Arber, (16) who 
mentions incidentally in his description of Chiropteris lacerata from the Rhaetic 
of Mount Potts, that the above species is also referable to Chiropteris, and 
designates it as C. Etheridgei, n. sp. 

Another fossil form resembling the above, but of a more broadly cuneatc 
type, was described by Carruthers from the Tivoli Coal Mine, Queensland 
(Ipswich Series), under the name of Cyclopieris cuneata; this species has been 
referred to the genus Chiropteris both by Seward and Newell Arber. 

One of the chief characters which appears to distinguish the genus Chiropteris 
from that of Psygmophyllum is the presence of the petiole in the former, a 
feature which is clearly indicated in the original figures illustrating the type. 
This character is not shown by any of our specimens, the Leigh's Creek examples 
suggesting rather a non-pctiolate form in which the base expands, a character 
which is common to the Ginkgoales and also to Psygmophyllum. 

On the interpretation that the specimen belongs to Psygmophyllum, the 
doubtful element occurs in the absence of distinct pinnatisection of the leaf, 
which, however, may be very easily due to the imperfect condition of the present 
examples. 

Distribution. — The genus Psygmophyllum dates from the Devonian and 
ranges through to the Permian. There are doubtful forms in the Rhactic. 

Genus Sphaereda, Lindley and Hutton (pars.), 1837. 
(?) Sphaereda physaliformis, n. sp. 

PI. xxiv., fig. 22. 

Description. — This seed-like organ is broadly ovate in outline and attached 
by a portion of one side to a more or less slightly sinuous stem or rachis. The 
specimen is considerably flattened by pressure during its fossilisation, but a faint 
ridge-like marking which extends partly across fhe central area of the seed, and 
which subsequently diverges, seems to show that the seed was more or less 
trigonal, as is often the case in the seeds of the living Ginkgo. 

At the point of attachment with the apex of the stem the granules on the 
seed-coat converge distinctly. On the under side of the seed, where it drooped 
from the stem, the margin is slightly re-entrant and seems to indicate the position 
and presence of a micropyle, by a depression leading on one side to a curved, 
canaliculate structure. 

The outer test, or sclerotesta, is shown by a carbonised layer, which, 
examined under a lens, is seen to be delicately granulose. Beneath this laye'r 
the surface (sarcotesta) is granulose to finely papillate over most of the area. 

Dimensions. — Length of pedicel, 18 mm.; width, 2 mm. Greatest diameter 
of seed, 25 mm.; shortest diameter, 20*5 mm. 



CHQ Newell Arber, 1917, p. 28. 



173 

Observations — Comparison has been made with cycadaceous and other seeds 
which have been referred to the Cycaclophyta, but none of the evidence seems 
to help in the present specimen. The cycadaceous megasporophytls, when 
petiolate. are affixed to a comparatively rigid stem. 

To Stenorachis, Saporta, which Professor Seward refers to the Gmkgoales, 
it bears some definite resemblance in having the ovate seed attached to a 
moderately slender curved stalk. The seeds of Stenorchia arc smaller than m 
the present form, and the sclerotesta differs in being radiately rugose or strongly 
wrinkled We therefore return to a consideration of its affinity to Sphaereda, 
I indlev and Hutton, as shown in their pi. clix., fig. 1. In their work on the 
-Fossil Flora of Great Britain/' Liudley and Hutton < 17 > figure two lorms; the 
lower figure on the plate is different from the upper, and has been referred to as 
Beania by Carruthers.< 18 > The distinction of Sphacrcda is that it has a more 
tiexuous rachis and that the lateral supporting petioles curve over the seeds m a 
partly spiral manner. j , 

in the magnificent "Bean" Collection of Jurassic plants from Yorkshire, m 
the National Museum, there are some fine examples of Sphacrcda paradoxa, 
which show a marked resemblance to the Leigh's Creek specimen. 

Shirlev has figured a seed from the Ipswich Series of Queensland which 
seems identical in generic characters with the Leigh's Creek form, under the 
name of Beania qeminala,^ and probably the remaining figures on the plate 
represent a similar form. Dr. Walkofif^ refers to Shirley's specimens as 
showing "a general resemblance to Beania gracilis, Carruthers." 

Class CONIVERALES. 

Genus Frenelopsis, Schenk, 1871. 

(?) Frenelopsis Keith- Wardi, ft. sp. 

PI. xxiv., fig. 23. 

Frenelopsis (?) sp. inch, R. Ethcridge, fi!. t 1895, p. 144, pi. vi., figs. 4, 5 (non 6). 

Description by Ethcridge: — "The hrst specimen consists of a short stem, 
giving ofT-two branches near its fractured base, then bifurcating, each bifurcation 
again dividing, one twice, and the other once, near the top of the specimen. The 
main branch bears fine longitudinal, apparently inosculating striae, but the sub- 
sidiary branches are pitted. At the bifurcation two other branches appear to 
be given off, but the connection is not altogether clear. The counterpart exhibits 
further interesting details, for the impression, here and there, when the carbonised 
vegetable matter has been removed, shows faint transverse toes, representing, 1 
believe, articulations both on the main and subsidiary branches." 

Ktheridge compared this form with Frenelopsis ranwsissiina, Fontaine, of 
the Potomac younger Mesozoic flora. The slight clue to the affinities of 
Frenelopsis mom species is in regard to the form cited above by Ethcridge, but 
even in that species there arc serious differences which separate the Leigh's 
Creek form, for the former has a definitely jointed stem and the vegetative 
growth consists of dichotomised stems, whereas in ours there appears to be a 
main rachis with lateral appendages which, in their possession of a central groove 
or midrib, appear to suggest the character of leaves. These structures also have 
a pitted surface, whereas the main rachis is sinuously striated. It is hoped that 
further specimens will be obtained which will throw additional light on the rela- 
tionship of this interesting form. ____ 

d?) Lindlcy and Mutton, 1837, pi. clix., fig. 1. 
OS) Carruthers, 1869, p. 97, pi. iv. 
tm Shirley, 1898, p. 16, pi. xx, figs. 1-5. 
(20) Walkom 19172, p. 26. 



174 

(?) Genus Akaucarites, Presl. 

PI. xxiv., figs. 24, 25. 

Desctiption.—Twa moulds in ironstone fragments are found in this collection 

which., on taking casts of them, show a striking resemblance to (1) a terminal 

shoot of a coniferous branch; (2) a cluster of (?) woody scales, suggestive of 

a cone. Further specimens may clear up doubts in regard to these. 

( ?) CONIFERALES. 

Genus Podozamttes, Braun, 1843. 
Podozamites Sweeti, n. sp. 

PL xxiv., fig. 26. 

Podozamites sp. ind., R. Etheridge, fit., 1895, p. 144. 

Description.— The characters of this species may be briefly described as 
follows:— Leaf elongate, strap-shaped., tapering at the base, apex unknown. 
Length, 9 cm.; breadth, L3 cm. The lamina traversed bv about twelve parallel 
simple veins, extending the whole length of the leaf. Margin of leaf entire. 

Observations,— The late Mr. Etheridge, jun., has already referred to this 
species as Podozamites sp. ind., and has further made these observations upon 
it. 'A single leaf of this well-known genus is in the collection, 3-J inches long, 
but still imperfect. The base of attachment is shown, and about twelve parallel 
simple veins, extending the whole length of the leaf, with the interspaces deli- 
cately striate. It is probably allied to. and may even be identical with, the 
protean species Podozamites lanceolatas" 

Comparisons.— -In comparing this leaf with the figured examples of 
P. lanceolatus, however, it seems that one outstanding differential character is 
the parallel-sided outline for the main part of the leaf. It tapers towards the 
base, as in P. lanceolatus, but this region in P. Sweeti is broader, with a deeply 
concave margin, and although the leaf narrows, a subpetiolate appearance does 
not result, 

As this form differs in some particulars from P. lanceolatus, Lindley and 
Hutton sp., (21) we are inclined to regard it as a distinct species, and we designate 
it Podozamites Sweeti, after the late Mr. Geo. Sweet, F.G.S., in memory of his 
indefatigable collecting of the Leigh's Creek fossils. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 
The following plant remains have been discussed in this paper. The 
references in parentheses refer to Etheridge's determinations in 1895 :— 
Equi setales— 

Equisetitcs rotiferitm, Tenison- Woods. 

(?) Equisetites sp. (stem with strobils). 

Neocalamitcs hoerensis, Hisinger sp. 

Schizoncura sp. a, Seward (olim Eqitisctum sp., Eth. fiL). 
Eilicales — 

Cladophlcbis Albertsi, Dunker sp. (olim Aleihopteris sp. indet., Eth. fd.J. 

Thinnfeldia Fcistmanleli, Johnston (olim '/'. odontopteroides, Eth. fiL). 

Thinnfeldia lancifoUa, Morris sp. 

Taeuiopleris Dunstani, Walkom (olim Taeniopteris sp. indet., Eth. fiL). 

T. Tc-nison-Woodsi, Eth. fiL sp. 

T. fluciitans, Eth. fiL (olim T. (? Oleandridhtm) fiuctuans, Eth. fiL). 

< 2l > See Seward, A. C, 1900. p. 243, fig. 44. 



175 

T. wianamaltae , Feistmantel sp. 

Stenopteris elongaia, Carruthers sp. (olim (?) Frcnelopsis sp. indet., pars., 

Eth. fiL). 
Phyllopteris Feislmantcli, Eth. fiL 

(?) Ginkgo ales — 

(?) Psygmophyllum Eiheridgei, Arber sp. (olim (?) Anthrophxopsis sp. 

indet., Eth. fiL). 
(?) Sphaereda physaliformis, n. sp. 

Conifer ales — 

(?) Frcnelopsis Kcith-Wardi, n. sp. (olim (?) Frcnelopsis sp. indet., pars., 

Eth. fil). 
(?) Araucarites Sp. 

(?) CONIFERALES 

Podozamites Sweeti, n. sp. (olim Podozamites sp. indet., Eth. fiL). 

Eliminating the species here described for the first time from Leigh's Creek, 
there are 10 species remaining, viz.: — 

Equisetites rotiferum, Neocalamites hoerensis, Schizoneura sp. a, Cladoph- 
lebis Albertsl, Thinnfeldia Feistmanteli, T. lancifolia, Taeniopteris 
Ditnslani, T. T enison-W oodsi , T. wionamaftac , and Stenopteris 
elongaia. 

Of these, 9 have previously occurred in the Triassic (including the Rhaetic) ; 
5 extend into the Jurassic (Equisetites rotiferum, Schizoneura sp. a, Thinnfeldia 
Feistmanteli, Taeniopteris Tenison-Woodsi, and Stenopteris elongaia). Cladoph- 
lebis Albertsl is a Cretaceous form elsewhere. 

The age of the Leigh's Creek beds may therefore be safely assumed as 
Triassic, the flora having a fair proportion of precocious Jurassic types. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Antevs, E. — 

1913 — Results of Dr. E. Mjoberg's Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Aus- 
tralia, 1910-1913. V., "Some Mcsozoic Plants. K. Svenska Vet.- 
Akad. HaudL, vol. Hi., No. 5. 

Arber, E. A. N. — 

1913 — A Preliminary Note on the Fossil Plants of the Mount: Potts Beds, 
New Zealand, collected by Mr. D. G. Lillie, Biologist to Capt. 
Scott's Antarctic Expedition in the "Terra Nova." Proc. Roy. 
Soc, Ser. B, vol. Ixxxvi., p, 344. 

1917 — The Earlier Mesozoic Floras of New Zealand. New Zealand Geol- 
ogical Survey, Palaeontoiogical Bulletin, No. 6. 

Carruthers, W.— 

1869 — On Beania, a New Genus of Cycadean Fruit from the Yorkshire 

Oolite. Geological Magazine, Dec. 1, vol. vi., pp. 97-99, pi. iv. 
1872 — In Daintree, R. Notes on the Geology of the Colony of Queensland, 

Appendix II. Notes on Fossil Plants from Queensland. Quart. 

Jour. Geo!. Soc, vol. xxviii., pp. 350-356, 358, 359, pis. xxvi., 

xxvii. 



176 

Chapman, P.— 

1904 — On a Collection of Upper Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Fossils from 
West Australia and Queensland, in the National Museum, Mel- 
bourne. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xvi. (N.S.), pt. ii., pp. 
306-335, pis. xxvii.-xxx. 

1919 — A Sketch of the Geological History of Australian Plants : the 
Mesozoic Flora. Victorian Naturalist, vol. xxxv., No. 10, pp. 
148-156. 

DUXKER, W. 

1846 — Monographic der norddcutschen Wealdenbildung. Brunswick. 
Dunstan, B. — 

1898 — On the Mesozoic Coal Measures of Starrwell, and Associated 
Formations. Queensland Geol. Survey, Publication Nos. 131. 
pis. i.-v. 

Etheridge, R. ? jun. — 

1891— Description of Some South Australian Silurian and Mesozoic Fossils. 

Reports on the Coal-bearing Area in Neighbourhood of Leigh's 

Creek (in H. Y. L. Brown's Report), pp. 9-14, pis. i.-iii. 
1892 — In the Geology and Palaeontology of Queensland (Jack and 

Etheridge). Brisbane. Text and plates. 
1892 2 — On the Occurrence of the Genus Phyllopteris, (Brongn.) Saporta 

(? Anglopteridium, Schimper), in the Mesozoic Beds of Central 

Australia. In Report on Leigh's Creek and Hergott Districts. 

Dept. of Mines, Adelaide. 
1895 — Additional Plant Remains from the Leigh's Creek Coal-field, Central 

Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xix. (for 1894-5), 

pp. 138-145, pis. iv.-vi. 
Fktstmantel, O. — 

1878 — Pakieozoische und Mesozoische Flora des oestlichen Australians. 

Palaeontographica. Suppl., vol. in., Lief, iii,, Heft 3, 1878, 1879. 

Goth an, W. — 

1912 — Ueber die Gattung Thinnfeldia Ettingshausen. Abhandl. naturhist. 
Gesellsch. Niirnberg, vol. xix., p. 67. 

Halle, T. G. — 

1908 — Zur Kenntniss der Mesozoischen Equisetales Schweden. Kungk Sv. 
Vet. Akad. Handl., vol. xliii., No. 1. 

Hisinger, W. — 

1836-40 — Lethaea Suecien s. Petrificata Sueciae iconibus et characteribus 
illustrata, et Supplementa, 39 pis. 
Hovvciiin, W. — 

1918 — The Geology of South Australia. Adelaide. 
Lindley, J., and Hutton, W. — 

1837 — The Fossil Flora of Great Britain. London. Vol. iii. 
Johnston, R. M. — 

1896— Further Contributions to the History of the Fossil Flora of Tas- 
mania, Pt. II. Papers and Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. for 1895-1896, 
pp. 57-63, 5 pis. 
McCoy, R— 

1898 — Note on an Additional Genus of Fossil Plants found in the Bacchus 
Marsh Sandstone. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. x. (N.S.), pp. 285, 
286, and text fig". 



177 

Morris, J. — 

1845 — In Strzelecki's Physical Description of New South Wales and Van 
Dicmen's Land. 

SCHENK, A. 

1871 — Beitrage zur Flora der Vorwelt, Die Flora cler nordwestdeutschen 
Wealdenformation. Palaeontographica, vol. xix., No, IV., pp. 
203-250, pis. xxii.-xxxvi. 
Sciiimper, W. P. — 

1869 — Traite de Paleontologie vegetale, vol. i. ; vol. ii., 1870-1872; vol. iii.. 
1874. 

Seward, A. C. — 

1894— Catalogue of Mesozoic Plants in the Department of Geology, British 

Museum. The Wealden Flora, Pt. I. 
1898 — Fossil Plants, vol. i. Cambridge. 
1900 — Catalogue of Mesozoic Plants in the British Museum. The Jurassic 

Flora. Vol. i. 
1903 — Fossil Floras of Cape Colony. Annals of the South African 

Museum, vol. iv., Pt. I., pp. 1-122, pis. i.-xiv. 
1908— On a Collection of Fossil Plants from South Africa. Quart. Journ. 

Geol. Soc, vol. lxiv,, pp. 83-108, pis. ii.-viii. 
Shirley, j . — 

1898 — Additions to the Fossil Flora of Queensland. Geol. Surv. of Queens- 
land, Bulletin No. 7, pp. 1-25, pis. i.-xxvii. 
Tate, R. — 

1893— Note on Exhibit. Trans. Rov. Soc. S. Austr.. vol. xvii. (for 1892-3), 
p. 355. 

Tenisox-Woods, J. E. — 

1882 — On various Deposits of Fossil Plants in Queensland. Proc. Linn. 

Soc. N.S. Wales, vol. vii.. pp. 95-98. 
1883 — On the Fossil Flora of the Coal Deposits of Australia. Proc. Linn. 

Soc. N.S. Wales, vol. viii., pp. 37-167. pis. i.-x. and xa. 
Walkom, A. B. — 

1915 — Mesozoic Floras of Queensland, Pt. I. The Flora of the Ipswich 
and Walloon Series. Equisetales. Queensland Geol. Surv. 
Publication, No. 252, pp. 1-50, pis. i.-iv. 

191/ — Mesozoic Floras of Queensland, Pt. I. The Flora of the Ipswich 
and Walloon Scries. Filicales, etc. Queensland Geol. Surv. 
Publication, No. 257, pp. 1-66, pis. i.-x. 

191 7 2 — Mesozoic Floras of Queensland, Pt. I. The Flora of the Ipswich 
and Walloon Series. Ginkgoales, Cycadophyta, and Coniferales. 
Queensland Geol. Surv. Publication, No. 259, pp. 1-48, pis. i.-ix. 

1918 — Mesozoic Floras of Queensland, Pt. II. Flora of the Maryborough 
(Marine) Series. Queensland Geol. Surv. Publication, No. 262, 
pp. 1-20, pis. i., ii. 

191 9- -Mesozoic Floras of Queensland, Pts. II. and IV. The Floras of the 
Burrum and Styx River Scries. Queensland Geol. Surv. Publi- 
cation, No. 263, pp. 1-76, pis. i.-vii. 

1924- On Fossil Plants from Bellevue, near Esk. Memoirs of the Queens- 
land Museum, vol. viii., Pt. I., pp. 77-92. pis. xv.-xxL text 
figs. 1-3. 



178 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES XIX. to XXIV. 

Plate XIX. 

Fig. 1. Equisetites roliferum, Tenison- Woods. Stem with two nodes. Nat. size. 
2. (?) Equisetites sp. Stem with strobils. Nat. size. 
,, 3. Ncocalamiics Hocrensis, Hisinger sp. Specimen A. Stem with three nodes and a 
few leaves. Nat. size. 

4. A r . Hoerensis, Hisinger sp. Specimen B. Grooved stem, with one node, showing 

leaf bases. Nat. size. 

5. N. Hoerensis, Hisinger sp. Specimen C. Stem with three nodes. Nat. size. 
., 6. Schizoneura sp. Stem with two nodes. Circ. nat. size. 

Plate XX. 
Fig. 7. Schizoncura sp. Stem with two nodes, showing impressions of leaf bases. Nat. 
size, 
,, 8. Cladophiebis Albert si, Dunker sp. Circ. twice nat. size. 

9. Thinnfeldia Feistmanteli, Johnston. Portion of frond on black shale, showing 
wrinkling of the cortex of stem. Nat size. 

Plate XXL 

Thinnfeldia Feistmanleli, Johnston. Frond in ironstone. Nat. size. 

7". lancifolia, Morris sp. Frond nat. size. 

Taeniopteris Dunsfani, Walkom. Nat. size. 

Taeniopteris, cf. Tenison-Woodsi, Etheridge fil. sp. Nat. size. 

Plate XXII. 

Taeniopteris flueiuans, Etheridge fil. An almost complete frond. Nat. size. 

Holotype. 
T. finch-tans, Etheridge fil. A fragment of a frond in ironstone. Nat. size. 

Paratype. 
T. wianamattac, Feistmantel, sp. A nearly complete frond upon which has been 

impressed the pinna of a Thinnfeldia. Nat. size. 

Plate XXIII. 

Fig, 17. Stenopter'is elongata, Ca-rruthers. Terminal portion of frond. Nat. size. 
„ 18. S. elongata, Carr. Showing branching of frond. Nat. size. 
„ 19. Phylloptcris Feistmanteli, Etheridge fil. A frond showing the characteristic acute 

apex. Nat. size. 
,, 20. (?) Psygmophylhim Etheridgei, Arbcr sp. Holotype. Nat. size. 

Plate XXIV. 

Fig. 21. (?) Psygmophyllum Etheridgei, Arber sp. Paratype. Nat. size. 

„ 22. (?) Sphaereda phy sail for mis, ^ n. sp. Holotype. Nat. size. 

„ 23. (?) Frenelopsis Keith-Wardi, n. sp. Holotype. Circ. twice nat. size. 

.. 24. (?) Araucarites sp. A group of cone scales. Nat. size. 

„ 25. (?) Araucarites sp. Probably a terminal shoot. Nat. size. 

„ 26. (?) Podozamiles Szveeti, n. sp. Nat. size. 



Fig. 


10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 


7ig, 


14. 


• > 


15. 




16. 



T;ans. and Proc. Row Soc, S. Auslr., 1926. 



Vol L-. Plate XIX. 



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l.t'i^h'.s Creek Fossil Flora. 

i.iiliinglnim & I'd. I. united, Printers, Adelaide. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L., Plate XX. 




C, Photo 



xngh's Creek Fossil Flora. 



Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



Trans, and Pn>c. Roy. SdC. S. Auslr., l'>26. 



Vol. 1... Plate XXI. 





* I 12 



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Leigh's Creek Fossil Flora. 



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Vol. L,, Plate XXI I L 



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Leigh's Creek Fossil Flora. 



Gillhlglimn i\- Cu. Limitrrl, I'rinUTs, Adrhiidr. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L. f Plate XXIV. 




F. C, Photo 



Leigh's Creek Fossil Flora. 



Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



CYLINDRO-CONICAL STONES FROM ARCOONA, PIMBA, 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By Robert Pulleine, M.B., Ch.M. 

[Read November 12, 1925.] 

The occurrence of Cylindro-Conical Stones in the region west of Lake 
Torrens is of great interest. The majority of the recorded examples of this 
form of stone culture have been obtained from the country adjacent to the 
Darling River and its tributaries. Only isolated specimens have been 
collected as far afield as Cooper's Creek and elsewhere,, the most easterly 
record to the present time being one from Marree on the northern line. 

Arcoona Station, where the specimens described in this paper were 
obtained, is in lat. 31 "5°, long. 137° E. Tt is some distance from the western 
shore of Lake Torrens and north of Pimba on the East-West line. The 




No. i. 



No. 2. 



specimens were obtained by Mr. Martin who, having seen a Darling River 
specimen in my collection, stated that they occurred in his district. He was 
kind enough to send me one in 1924, and a second in 1925, Although similar 
in outline to described specimens, they differ in the following particulars; — 

1. They arc not cupped at the base. 2. They arc devoid of markings. 
3. They are more slender, having relatively small girth in proportion to their 
length, 4. The apex is more acute. 

Of the specimens figured, No. 1 is of a rough sandstone of dark-yellow 
colour, the base being 6 inches round and the length IS inches; No. 2 is of 
a very fine sandstone, almost a quartzite, with a base of 2| inches circum- 
ference compared with a length of 15f inches. Both stones give one the 
impression of great age, and No. 2 has a thick patina of lighter colour. 



180 

ROCK CARVINGS (PETROGLYPHS) AND CAVE PAINTINGS 
AT MOOTWINGEE, N.S.W. 

By Rouert Pulleine, M.B., Ch.M. 
j Read November 12, 1925. | 

Plates XXV. to XXIX. 

In recent years the occurrence in South Australia of aboriginal rock 
carvings or petroglyphs has been recorded by Basedow (1) and Hale and 
Tindale (2) in the Flinders Range, and more recently by Campbell (3) and 
Biddle (4) at the Burra. The specimens referred to in the present paper are. 
apparently, geographically continuous with those described from the Flinders 
Range. 

The objects depicted, as seen in the photographs, were the human torm. 
animals and their tracks, and weapons of the chase. 

Mootwingee was visited in October., 1925. by Dr. Macgillivray, of Broken 
Hill, and the author. The short time at our disposal only allowed of a hurried 
survey and the photographing of the principal carvings. We were able to get, 
practically, all those on the main area of occurrence. 

The Rock Hole Hotel, which is in the vicinity of the gorge, is 84 miles by 
road north-east from Broken Hill, and 80 miles due east from the South Aus- 
tralian boundary. The carvings are in Water Reserve 639, as shown in the 
map. The site can be reached by car from Broken Hill in about four or five 
hours in good weather. 

The Field Naturalists' Club of Broken Hill has petitioned the New South 
Wales government to proclaim the whole area in which carvings and paint- 
ings occur a reserve. This is necessary to prevent destruction of the main 
rock site, which has already begun. 

The gorge in which the petroglyphs occur is a very interesting one. Cut 
out of the dense sandstone rock, it has in its bottom a chain of waterholes in 
rocky caverns sheltered from the sun and are of great capacity. The rock 
cisterns are flanked by the smooth quartzite slopes which act as a very 
efficient catchment of considerable area, so that the fall of even a few points 
of rain is sufficient to replenish the holes. The value of this and a few adjacent 
areas to the aboriginals, especially in times of drought, was inestimable, ae 
the nearest point of the Darling was at least seventy miles away. In times 
of drought they would probably be more or less obliged to remain in the 
locality on account of the water and the food animals the water attracted. 
This fact, and the existence of an extensive slope of hard, polished rock, gave 
them the leisure and the site on which to depict their ideas of form. 

It has long been observed that petroglyphs are found in places where a 
prolonged occupation in a state of leisure and inactivity has been possible, 
as would occur in the area under consideration. The petroglyphs have been 
produced by a technique which has been apparently universal — a pecking at 
the rock with a harder stone, such as a stone axe, without subsequent smooth- 
ing off. In some of the illustrations this can be easily observed. 

Some of the drawings are apparently of great antiquity, two in the bed 
of the creek especially so, and a spiral on the vertical rock face was almost 
invisible and did not come out on the photograph. The sloping rock at the 
edge of the water, more polished than the rest, is absolutely covered with 
carvings so thickly as to be indecipherable. Here evidently the rock face 



s 



181 



was from its convenient position and closeness to the water, a favourite 
drawing block for the idle aboriginal, who made new scratches regardless ot 
the old. Thus we find on this block impressions of varying degrees ot 
sharpness and antiquity. 







I PAK 




W^VWMi 



Vnootumbullm H ™" k 



00*0 



e/\ 



(ft, 13 R»ejc up*.? 



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Plan of W.L.L. 1475, County of Mootwingee. 

Scale, 2 miles to 1 inch. Approximate area, including Native Carvings, 
Stencilling, and other Inscriptions, shown thus: 0000000000 

Rock Hole Hotel, 84 miles hy road from Broken Hill and 80 miles due east of 

S.A. boundary. 

None of the petroglyphs are, apparently, very recent, and were probably 
made when the rock slope was in better condition than now, as the cleavage 
has made large longitudinal and transverse cracks, so that several blocks with 
drawings on them are movable. Apparently, too, the colonist has, between 
I860 — when Sturt formed a depot in the gorge — and the present day, helped 
in the destructive process. 

The Cave Paintings. 

Adjacent to the gorge where the petroglyphs are found are several caves 
caused by the weathering away and falling in of the sandstone. These caves 
are very large and face north. " The overhang must have been very useful for 



182 

shelter in inclement weather. It is on the lower part of the walls of these 
caves that the paintings occur. The technique, as in other localities in 
Australia, is that of stencilling, and the hand is by far the most frequent 
object. Hands of all sizes, from adults to infants, arc portrayed, boomerangs 
frequently, once a shield, and in one cave a snake 28 feet long. 

The latter may have been made by holding the same snake up more than 
once. The technique seems to have been to hold the hand with fingers widely 
separated on the white sandstone and blow red ochre over it, it is said with 
the mouth. The hand or other object therefore appears as a white object on 
a coloured ground. In two large caves visited at Mootwingec hands were 
exhibited in hundreds, while the foot, though present, was rarely shown. The 
pictures are indelibly fixed and form part of the rock. 

On Mena Murtie Station, near VVilcannia, visited en route to Mootwingee, 
a single cave was found in the Peveril Hills. Here the range is formed of 
a coarse boulder conglomerate, and in a low cave facing due south a series 
of hands was depicted by the same means, though the conglomerate was 
inferior to the white sandstone as a background. 

REFERENCES. 

1. Basedow, II., Jour. Roy. Anthropo. institute, xliv., 1914, pp. 195-211, 

pi. i., xvii. 

2. Hale, H. M.. and Ttndale, N, R., Records South Australian Museum. 

vol. in., No. 1, 1925. 

3. Campbell, T. D., Detailed Notes on the Aboriginal Intaglios near Burra, 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlix.. 1925, p. 123. 

4. Biddle, J. P. H., Aboriginal Marks on Rocks near Burra, Trans Roy 

Soc. S.A., vol. xlix., 1925, p. 121. 

Map of Mootwingee showing Rock Hole Hotel and Water Reserve 639 

to the north of it. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES XXV. to XXIX. 

Plate XXV. 
Fig. 1. Detached slab placed vertically to photograph showing lizard (varamis) 
kangaroo tracks, human figure, emu eggs, boomerangs, and other markings. 
Fig. 2. The same chalked. 

Plate XXVI. 
Fig. 1. Slab showing boomerang and human figures. 

Fig. 2. Showing large human figure, hawks, marsupial tracks, and a ladder-like 
object. 

Plate XXVII. 

Fig. 1. Showing general fissured condition of rock face with kangaroo, human 
figures, many tracks of emu and marsupials, boomerangs, etc. 

Fig. 2. Kangaroos, boomerangs, and tracks. 

Plate XXVIII. 
Fig. 1. Showing kangaroo and tracks, emu eggs, and boomerangs. 
Fig. 2. Two objects, opossum on flat rock in bed of creek, much water worn. 

Plate XXIX. 

Fig. 1. General view of large cave. The paintings are on the line behind the heads 
of the figures. 

Fig. 2. A short section of the paintings showing hands in great numbers a.nd 
marsupial tracks. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L., Plate XXV. 



^'^Mi iA. 









/i 



£■;.# /> 



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tiilliiiMliain & Co. I.intitcil, Prinl t'rs. Ailrl.'uslc. 



Trans, and Pror. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L., Plate XXVII. 




Fig. 1. 




Fig- 2. 



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Trans, and Proe. Kf»v. S<K. S, Anstr., 192rt. 



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183 

THE ABORIGINES OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA: ANTHROPOMETRIC, 
DESCRIPTIVE, AND OTHER OBSERVATIONS RECORDED AT OOLDEA. 

By T. D. Campbell, D.D.Sc., and Aubrey J. Lewis, M.E., B.S. 

[Read July 8, 1926.] 

Plates XXX. to XXXIL 

The observations recorded in this paper form a continuation of the systematic 
work by members of the University of Adelaide staff which was commenced 
during a brief preliminary survey in November, 1925. 

The number of individuals examined was not large owing to limited time and 
the smallness of the party, but in all their observations the present writers 
endeavoured to satisfy the requirements of modern anthropological research as 
far as conditions m the held permitted, and it seems to them that where the 
necessity for recording facts about our aboriginals is so obvious and urgent the 
limited scope of any observations should not be a bar to their publication. 

For the provision of certain equipment we are indebted to Professor F. Wood 
Jones and Dr. Robert H. Pulleine, while to Mr. James Way, of Ooldea, and 
Mr. A. J. McBride, of Wilgcna, our thanks are due for their interest in our under- 
taking and the facilities they so generously provided. 

The Natives.— The individuals examined in detail were about half of those 
who formed a more or less permanent camp at Ooldea, on the edge of the Nul- 
larbor Plain. They live in a partly civilised condition, seldom going far from the 
railway. Most of their food is obtained from white people, the rest by hunting. 
The adults wear many layers of clothing, which they are reluctant to discard, so 
that the identification of bony landmarks is difficult and a complete examination 
of the body for physiological and pathological data almost impossible. Iron tools 
are used for the fashioning of weapons, and their old social system seems to be 
as little practised as their stone culture. 

Many of the natives have come in from the back country during recent years 
and belong to groups which roamed the area lying between the Trans-Australian 
Railway and the Musgrave Ranges. Most of them belong to the Alinjera group, 
but a few of those recorded belong to the Willoorara group. It is very doubtful 
if there are any left at all who belong to the group originally occupying the Ooldea 
region. However, as to the actual distribution and names of the groups occupying 
this region of the State, it is expected that some definite information will be pub- 
lished in the near future. 

Names and Ages. — The number of natives dealt with in our observations 
was twenty-eight (28), of whom eleven (11) were males and seventeen (17) 
females. A general age grouping is as follows: 3 aged, 3.7 adults, 5 young adults, 
and 3 children. The ages recorded in the table are, of course, only approximate 
in most cases, but all care was taken in endeavouring to get a reasonable estimate ; 
in the younger people, inspection of their teeth helped towards accuracy. 

The key letters to the subjects, their names, ages, etc., are set out in Table I. 

Anthropometry. 

Measurements recorded.— The measurements were made in accordance with 
the recommendations of the International Agreement, Geneva (1912), for obser- 
vations on the living subject, and the series chosen is almost identical with that 
used by Professor F. Wood Jones and one of the present writers in a previous 
communication (1). The present authors feel impelled to express their con- 
currence with the opinion that some of the measurements usually recorded are 



184 

almost useless. The difficulty in ascertaining accurately such a landmark as the 
upper border of the great trochanter, for instance, the possible range of error 
in one worker's findings, as well as the difference between those of different 
workers, render the value of such figures for comparative study very doubtful. 

The actual measurements recorded in the present work are given in Table II. 
The figures given for the upper and lower extremities represent the distance of 
the landmark from the base when the subject is standing upright. 













T 


ABLE 


: I, 










Subjects examined. 






Key. 1 Sex, ' Age. White Name. 


Native Name. 


Tribe Group. 




A . 


Female j 30 Mary 


Ineeah 


Alinjera 




B . 


... , Female j 3$ Connie 


Narribingoo 


if 




C . 


... 


Female | — Lucy 


Ginomga 


" 




D . 


... 


Female j aged Judy 


Goondunya 


a 




E . 


Male 40 


Charlie 


Quicrmo 


a 




F . 


Female 


16 


Grace 


Bildah 


" 




G 


... 


Female 


35 


Nellie 


Bitji 


" 




H . 


... I Male 


40 


Long Jimmy 


linger i 


Willoorara 




I . 


Female 


15 


Lena 


Kniddendunna 


Alinjera 




J 


Female 


15 


Melva 


Kumjedah 


a 




K 


Female 


18 


TsTpllif 1 


Waller war a 
Altchena 






I. . 


... Male 


30 


Mick 


Karnga(WA.) 




M . 


Male 


25 Tommy 


Inyagoodji 


Alinjera 




N . 


Male 


35 Toby 


Wolguri 


a 




O . 


Male 


45 


Peter 


Nginina 


a 




P - 


Male 


aged 


Old Billy 


Moondal 


Willoorara 




Q 


Male 


26 


Tommy 


Nutabie 


Alinjera 




R . 


Female 


28 


Mary 


Tunguna 


" 




S . 


... 


Female 


17 


May 


Walinga 


a 




T . 




Female 


20 


Maudie 


Igidah 


ti 




U . 




Female 


35 


Lucy 


Ingnali 


a 




V . 




Female 


35-40 


Nellie 


Djilla 


Willoorara 




w . 




Female 


aged 


Topsy 


Dilgerra 


Alinjera 




X . 




Male 


50 


Bill 


Tutswai 


tt 




Y . 




Female 25 


Maggie 


Kurrikur 


a 




Z . 




Male ! 10 


Leslie 


Lijili 


a 




AA 




Female 12 


Mary 
Ernie 








BB 




Malp i 7 




















Fable 11. 




Body 




1. Stature. i 




18. Intercanthal minimum. 






2. Height to supra-sternal 






19. Bi-orbito-nasal-arc. 






notch. 


Nose 




20. Length. 






3. Shoulder height. 






21. Breadth. 






4. Arm span. 






22. Height. 






5. Sitting height. 


Ear 




23. Length. 






6. Shoulder breadth bia- 






24. Breadth. 






cromial. 


Mouth ... 




25. Breadth. 






7. Shoulder breadth bihum- 


Arm (fro 


rn 


26. Acromion. 






eral. 


1 


ase) 


27. Elbow. 


Head 




8. Length. 

9. Breadth. 






28. Wrist. 

29. Finger tip. 


Face 




10. Height 

11. Height menton-nasion. 


Leg (fro 
fc 


IT 

ase) 


30. Anterior superior spine 

31. Great trochanter. 






12. Height menton-crinion. 




32. Knee. 






13. Diameter bizygomatic. 




; 33. Ankle. 






14. Diameter minimum fron- 


Hand ... 




34. Length. 






tal. 






35. Breadth. 






15. Diameter bigonial. 


Foot 




36. Length. 






16. Interorbital maximum. 


; m : 




37. Breadth. 






17. Intercanthal maximum. 






38. Girth lower leg. 



185 

Instruments employed. — All measurements were secured with Martin's 
stature rod, spreading callipers, and sliding compass ; certain measurements were 
taken with a non-metallic millimetre tape. The full table of measurements is 
given below; the individuals are represented by the letters A to Z (AA and BB 
were not measured) as in Table L, and the measurements by the numbers given in 
Table II. All measurements are recorded in millimetres. 

Mean Values. — In the final column of Table III. are given the mean values 
of our measurements. For purposes of comparison we give below a few of the 
more important mean values alongside the results which Wood Jones and Campbell 
compiled from their own and previous workers' figures. 

Mean Values. 
Campbell and Lewis. Wood Jones & Campbell. 





Number of 




Number of 




Observation. 


Individuals. 


Mean. 


Individuals. 


Mean. 


Stature 


25 


1593-4 


309 


1636-9 


Cranial length 


25 


187 


173 


187-9 


Cranial breadth 


25 


135 


173 


137-6 


Nose height 


25 


43-2 


10 


44-6 


Nose breadth 


25 


44*8 


10 


46-3 



In deriving the mean values, subject Z, a boy of 12, has been omitted. 

Indices. — From our observations we have derived several of the more im- 
portant indices, believing" that, although the total number of individuals is not 
great, these results would be interesting when compared with those obtained by 
previous workers. The results tabulated below are placed beside those given in 
the previous paper by Wood Jones and Campbell. 



Mean of Indices. 





Nu 


Campbe 
mber of 


41 


and Lewis 


Wood Jones 
Number of 


& Campbell. 


Index. 


Ind 


ividuahs. 




Mean. 


Individuals. 


Mean. 


Cephalic 




25 




72-2 


81 


73-3 


Facial 




25 




81-7 


51 


86 


Nasal 




25 




104-6 


81 


' 100-7 


Ear 




25 




53-1 


50 


56-6 


Radio-humeral 




25 




81-5 


10 


81-4 



It will be seen from the above figures that the proportions observed in the 
present group of individuals approximate very closely to those obtained on pre- 
vious groups examined, and go to confirm the assertion that the aborigine of 
Central Australia, at any rate, belongs to a pure stock with well-defined and con- 
stant physical characters. 

lie is dolichocephalic, platyrhinic, and dolichokerkik ; the breadth of his ear 
is about half its length, while as to his face, the mean index is fairly constant, 
though there is a considerable individual variation; this was also evident from 
general and photographic observations. 



186 



it 



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t— I i— i nOLNiOCvCO^t t-h M m 



■CO r—t r-H «H* 



O CO r-i m 
; *tH CO -ri- co 



MINI! 



no cm t-h ^r 

t.'i IN. CM 00 

r-f CM 



< ^ 

-1 



O 

i — i 
U 



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C\ r-i ^ iO "1 Is f) N O h O O CO h O 
m co co NO In CM co i — i »-h ,— i t— i i— i, — f t-h r— i 

t-h v-H 1 i— ): 

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T-H T-H 1— I T-H 

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t— l t-h rOON^O\OOi- r* M H 



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t-h »- , "t'-'X^O-X^ i— < CM •— < co 



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in in 'O M K X X M CN} Q Tf K -H N O X X N X "t '• 
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CO CD CO no o s . io 



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CM CM CO O O O m CM CM CM -^r CO CM CM CM CM In t-h O CO O CD CM M In rnO-1 't O C com XU"! OcoM c 

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in CM CNJ no In co co t-h t-h t-h ^h t-h r-H t-h r-H ^h r— CJ o IN m a-. X ^ t-h CM CM 

t-H t-H t- H t-H ^^_______ r-H r— 1 

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cooinxf'j^^coinNOwxCAcxiNONOinooovroOfOininTHCN^x^^ovo^THCo 

OONNCNlCNlTHinKWOOC'THOXTH^CONIcOrOTtOCOinKNCO^NTtrOinNONNX^ 

mt\lM\ONCOCO-HHHHHHH t-H t-H Cn| ON tN IT, CN CO ^ t— CM CM 



roooioinTj-ccocoTj-ioMr- irNOco^t-coo-— iinctNoocrHCNiH-fO'dr-coOcocoin 

O CO CO NO NO O co ON co i— ON NO CO i— ( CO t-h ON CO CM CO ^t "^1" '-O CO O co X 't O CN CO th 'C NO -X rH GO 'O 
TH-CMCMiniNCOCOT-HT-HT-! t-ht-Ht-ht-ht-h r-H " CN] OMn m X CO Tt T-H CM CM 



ioNOOHCOC\XKMO\OTtioOHOTrXTt W foNNOfNlNfNlcoOOCNlOOX H X'tO 
in*^CNJ»-HO^CMCCC0CMOlNT— iOC>t^COCOCM^ 

U)COrovOKfOCOHHH-HHHH t-h -^-t cOOtNinONCO^r r-H CM CM 















rH <M 


co'rj-iniot-^oocT.o 


r-A 


CgcO^U)ONcBOiOTHC\|CO*ifl(ONQOClO 


CO 


w co ^- who n eo I] 
cocorofo rococo || 











187 

Descrjptjve Observations, 

In addition to the measurements, descriptive notes were made on each sub- 
ject examined. These included colour of skin, eyes, and hair, scars, body build, 
lips, supraorbital ridges, etc. 

For our observations on colour we were, unfortunately, not equipped with 
standard colour guides. We have, therefore, endeavoured to follow the sug- 
gestions of Hrdlicka (2). 

The presence of ochre often made it difficult to fix on a shade of colour. 

"Limbic rim." A rim of pigment around the limbus corneae was so frequent 
a finding that it was thought advisable to record its presence. 

The descriptive observations are set out in Tables IV. and V. 

Pathological Observations. — The opportunity was taken to record any 
pathological findings, but in most cases only the head and the distal parts of the 
extremities were accessible to examination. 

A large proportion of the aborigines examined had some ocular lesion.! 
Several comparatively young people had milkiness of the lens, associated with 
slight impairment of vision. Trauma had been responsible for blindness and 
corneal opacities. No signs of trachoma were observed, but many of the young 
children had subacute catarrhal conjunctivitis and marginal blepharitis. The 
prevalence of flies and the nonchalance with which the natives allow them to 
settle about the face, especially the inner canthi, may contribute to this. 
Pterygia were fairly prevalent. 

Examination of the heart was made on four of the aborigines, and the pulse 
of others were felt. There was remarkable freedom from cardiovascular dis- 
ease, as far as one could judge. 

A sick man in the camp was examined the day before lie died; he was 
stuporose and had signs of a basal pneumonia, probably terminal. No other 
cause for his condition could be discovered. 

The lesions found are recorded in the following schedule : — 

A. Slight pterygium. Small black naevi on both forearms, one on neck. 
Long linear scars on leg and behind knee (said to be due to burns). 

C. Left eye blind (from injury in early life). Fingers clubbed. 

D. Cataract in both lenses. Pulse regular, good volume and tension. 

Artery wall not thickened. .Fractured radius (old), no callus 

palpable. 
G. Pterygium in both eyes. Nebula in left cornea. Pupils very contracted. 
II. Heart and lungs : nothing abnormal detected. Second toe the longest 

in each foot. Slight baldness of vertex. 
K. Internal pterygium of left eye. 
L. Cardiovascular system : nothing abnormal detected. Fingers very 

clubbed. 
M. Slight opacity of right lens. Vision in left eye better than in right. 

Roth corneae oval o ■ Cardiovascular system: nothing abnormal 

detected. 
O. Arcus senilis in right eye. Left globe shrunken. 
P. Pterygium in right eye. Cataract in both lenses. Mitral systolic 

murmur at apex, traceable out to axilla; otherwise nothing 

abnormal detected on examination of heart. Pulse 70, regular; 

radial artery not thickened. 
O. Lipoma on left side of the forehead 2 inches above the external 

canthus. 



Subject. 
B 

c: 
n 



H 
I 

T 

k 

L 
M 

N 
() 
P 

Q 

R 

S 

T 

U 

V 

W 

X 

Y 

Z 

A A 

B 



A 
B 

C 

D 

K 

F 

G 

H 

1 

1 

k 



M 



O 

P 

o 

R 

S 
T 
U 
V 

w 

X 







Table IV. 






Skin Colour. 


Eye Colour. 


Face. 


Arm. 
Dark purple-brown 


Iris. 


Sclerotic. 


j Limbic Rim, 


Light chocolate 


Dark brown 


Dirty yellow 


Absent . . 


Medium chocolate 


— 


Very dark brown 


Yellowish 


— 


Light chocolate 


Light yellowish-brown 


Black 


Dirty yellow 


! 


Light chocolate 


Light chocolate 


Black 


Dirty yellow 


— 


Light chocolate 


Light chocolate 


Dark brown 


Dirty yellow 


. . ! Present . . 


Light chocolate 


Light grevish-brown 


Dark brown 


Dirtv yellow r 


_ | — 


-Medium chocolate 


Greyish-brown 


Dark brown 


Yellowish 


! 


Dark chocolate 


Medium chocolate 


Dark brown 


Dirty yellow 


. . 1 Yellowish-brow 


Light chocolate 


Greyish-black 


Dark brown 


Light yellowish j Yellowish-brow 


Light chocolate 


Light pu-rplish-brown 


Dark brown 


Yellowish 


Light ylwsh.-br\ 


Light chocolate 


Light greyish- brown 


Dark brown 


Yellowish 


Brown . . 


Medium chocolate 


Medium chocolate 


Dark brown 


Dirty yellow 


Wide rim 


Light chocolate 


Light grevish- chelate. 


Medium brown 


Dirty yellow 


Brown 


Dark chocolate 


Brown-black 


Dark brown 


Dirty vellow 


Present . . 


Light chocolate 


Light chocolate 


Dark brown 


Dirty veliow 


— 


Brown-black 


__ 


Medium brown 


Dirty yellow 


— 


Light chocolate 


Light chocolate 


Dark brown 


Dirtv yellow 


Slight rim 


Dark chocolate 


Dark chocolate 


Medium brown 


Dirtv yellow 


. — 


Medium chocolate 


Reddish chocolate 


Medium brown 


Light yellow 


Brown . . 


Dark chocolate 


Brown-black 


Medium brown 


Dirtv vellow 


— 


Light chocolate 


Light chocolate 


Medium browtj 


Light yellow 


— 


Dark chocolate 


Light chocolate 


Dark brown 


Dirtv vellow 


1 


Dark chocolate 


Dark chocolate 


Dark brown 


Light vellow 


. ! Present . . 


Dark chocolate 


Medium chocolate 


Dark brown 


Yellow 


. | Absent . . 


Light chocolate 


Light chocolate 


Dark brown 


Yellow .. 


Present . . 


Light chocolate 


Light chocolate 


Medium brown 


Yellow . . 


__ 


Light chocolate 


— 


— 


„ 


— 


Very light chocolate 




Dark brown 


Dirty yellowish 


Present . . 




Table V. 







; Face. 

( Amount. 

Verv scant 

! Nil* 

I Scant 

j Nil .. ., 

Moustache and whiskers 

Slight moustache 

j Sh.ght 

j Whiskers and moustache 

i Nil 

'Nil 

I Nil 

I Copious whiskers and moustache . . 

I 

\ Copious whiskers and moustache . . 

| 

j Scant whiskers, copious moustache 



Hair. 



Colour. 



Black 

Brown-black 

Black 

Black with grey 

Black with white (shaved) 



Black- 
Black 
Black 



Y 
Z 

A A 
B B 



Whiskers and moustache . . . . | Black 

Copious whiskers and moustache . . j Grey 

Copious whiskers and moustache (cut) Black 

Verv sparse 

Nil 

Nil 

Slight on upper lip 

Very sparse 

Upper lip medium, sparse 

Whiskers and moustache 



Black with grey 



Upper lip sparse 

Nil 
Nil 



1 Chest. 


Eyebrows 


1 


Amount. 


! Nil 


Very scant 


Nil 


Scant 


' Nil 


Scant 


Nil 


Scant 


— 


Medium 


I Nil 


— . 


| Nil 


Scant 


1 Marked ; grev . 


Marked 


i Nil 


Scant 


! Nil 


Scant 


! Nil 


Medium 


! Scant 


Medium 


Medium ; black 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 


Marked ; white 


Medium 


Marked 


Medium 


Nil 


Scant 


Nil 


Medium 


Nil 


Sparse 


Nil 


Medium 


Nil 


Scant 


Nil 


Scant 


Marked ; black 


Marked 


Nil 


Scant 


Nil 


Medium 





Scant 


Nil 


Scant 



Taule IV 



Body Build. 


Sup. Orb. 


! Lips 




: 
Breasts. 


F,ar Lohulc. 




Darwin. 




Ridges. 
Medium 


": Thick 








, 


Tubercle. 


dim 




Free 


Absent 


Mump . . 


Medium 


Thick 






— 




1 edium 


Medium 


Thick 




. — 


Adherent 


Absent 


Mump 


.Pronounced 


Upper, 
lower. 


thin ; 
thick- 


■ — 


Adherent 


Absent 


■luscular 


Medium 


Thick 




— 


— 


— 


Mump . , 


Medium 


Thick 




Large 


— 


— 


,ank 


Medium 


Medium 




— 


— 


— 


Muscular 


Excessive 


! Thick 




— 


- ■ 


— 


Slim; K&ok?WH*m 


Medium 


Upper, m'dium; 


Small . . 


_ 


— 






lower, 


thick 








Mump ; adolescent 


Medium 


Medium 




Medium 


— - 


— 


ilim 


Medium 


Medium 




Large 




— 


'Km 


Pronounced 


Medium 




— 






Muscular 


Pronounced 


Medium 






Free 




Absent 


vfedium 


Excessive 


Thick 




. — 


Adherent 




Absent 


vT oscular 


Pronounced 


, Thick 




— 


Adherent 




Absent 


\1 edium 


Pronounced 


; Thick 




.__ 


Adherent 




Absent 


'hick set 


Pronounced 


Thick 




— 


Adherent 




Absent 


Slim 


Excessive 


Medium 




— 


Free 




Absent 


-dim 


Medium 


Very ih 


ck '. '. 


Medium 


Adherent 




Absent 


)bese 


Pronounced 


Thick 




Large 


Adherent 


. Absent 


Jbese . . 


Pronounced 


: Medium 




— 


Adherent 




Absent 


Hint 


Pronounced 


Medium 




— 


Free 




Absent 


4 edium 


Excessive 


: Medium 




— 


Adherent 




Present 


Muscular 


Medium 


i Thick 




— 


Adherent 




Present 


> lifts 


Medium 


Medium 




___ 


Adherent 




Absent 


-dim 


Pronounced 


Thick 




-- 


— 


— 


-Vfim 


Medium 


: Medium 

Table * 


— 


— . 


— 




v. 





Nos 



Perforated septum 



Perforated septum 
Perforated septum 
Perforated septum 



Hair 



Scars. 



Eyebrows. 

Colour. 


Head. 

Character. Colour. 


Forearm. 1 




Amount. 


Colour. i 




Hack 


Medium waves . . ! 


Brown-black 


Medium 


Black 


Nil 


Black 


Deep waves . . ! 


Brown-black 


Scant 


Black 


— 


Black . . i 


Low waves 


Brown-black 


Medium 


Black 


— 


Black .. j 


Low waves 


Brown-black 


M edium 


Black 


Chest 


Black 


Low waves 


Brown-black 


Medium 


Black 


Chest, arms 




Curly 


Brown-black 


Medium 


Black 


■ — 


Black .. i 


Curly 


Brown-black 


Medium 


Black 


Chest 


Black .. j 


Curly 


Brown-black 


Medium 


Black 


Chest, both upper arms 


31ack . . ; 


Low waves 


Brown-black 


Medium 


Black 


— 


Yellowish 


Medium waves 


Dark brown 


Medium 


Black 


— 


Black 


Deep waves 


Black 


Medium 


Black 


-**- 


Black .. ; 


Deep waves 


Brown-black 


M edium 


Black 


Chest, deltoid, ante- 
cubital 


Black 


Deep waves 


Brown-black 


Medium 


Black 


Chest, deltoid, fore- 
arm, antecubital 


Black 


Low waves 


Black 


Medium 


Black 


Chest, deltoid, ante- 
cubital 


Black 


Low waves 


Brown-black 


Medium 


Black 


Chest 


Black- 


Medium waves 


Brwn. -black with grey 


Spare 


White 


Chest, both arms 


Black 


Medium waves 


Brown-black 


Medium 


Black 


Nil 


Black 


Low waves 


Dark brown 


Sparse . . 


Black 


Nil 


Light yellowish 


Medium to low waves 


Dark brown 


Medium 


Black 


— 


Black 


Deep waves 


Dark brown 


Medium 


Black 


Nil 


Black 


Deep waves 


"Medium brown 


Medium 


Black 


Chest 


Black 


Medium waves 


Medium brown 


Medium 


Black 


Chest 


Black 


Deep waves 


Dark brwn. with white 


Medium 


Black 


Chest 
j Chest, deltoid, ab- 
domen, antecubital 


Black 


Curly 


Black with grey . - 


Medium 


Black with white 


Black 


Deep waves 


Black 


Medium 


Black 


Chest, chelokl 


Black 


Curly 


Black- 


Medium 


Black 


i 




Deep waves 


Dark brown 


| Scant 


Black 


l 


Light yellowish 


Straight 


Dirty yellow (flaxen) 


i ~~ 


Dark brown 


1 _: 



190 

R, Pterygium in both eyes. Dark soft sessile mass adherent to mucous 

membrane of right cheek; not tender. 
S. Pulse regular; no thickening of wall of artery. Numerous scars on 
left knee. Second toe of right foot rudimentary, with no nail. 
Left little toe, rudimentary. Left second toe, no" nail. Extensor 
tendons of second, third, fourth, and fifth toes of left foot con- 
tracted (said to be due to burns). 
T. Both lenses cloudy. Pulse regular; radial artery not thickened. 
U. Both lenses cloudy. Nebula over left pupil. 
V. Internal pterygium in both eyes. Pulse regular; good volume and 

tension. Nose broken. 

W. Extensive arcus senilis in each eye. Pulse regular. Scar on upper lip. 

X. Left eye blind, owing to large corneal opacity and obliteration of the 

anterior chamber. Arcus senilis in right eye. Pulse normal. 

Teeth.— Notes were made on the teeth, their presence and absence, and the 

occurrence of dental caries. It is thought advisable, as these matters are of 

special dental interest, to give an account of the conditions elsewhere, and we 

hope our dental notes will shortly appear in the Australian Journal of Dentistry. 

Psychological and other Observations. 

Psychology. — Some psychological observations were also made, chiefly with 
regard to dreams; but the present writers found that effective work in this 
direction was impossible unless one had the complete confidence of the natives 
and a good speaking knowledge of their language. To objective study such as 
anthropometry and other physical observations, the mental attitude of the native 
is seldom any serious hindrance; judicious bribery will generally overcome anv 
scruples about being examined, a little patience will correct the faults of over- 
willingness. But these were fatal obstacles when one asked the native about his 
dreams; and if one considers in addition his very small English vocabulary, his 
delight at "pulling the leg" of a white man and his hope of a reward for infor- 
mation, however mendacious, one cannot but suspect all his statements. 

With a view to avoiding some of these pitfalls, a start was made at learning 
the language — some two hundred words and phrases were noted and then tested 
by repetition; and medical attention to the sick also helped in securing the con- 
fidence of the natives. 

The present writers are convinced that the needs of anthropological research, 
on our natives, especially in the neglected and important held of their psychology, 
can best be served by a long stay among them rather than by a seizes of brier 
trips or a moving expedition. 

It is not desirable to say more at present than that all the natives who 
admitted to having dreams at all, had had the "inhibition dream"; the occurrence 
of the other type dreams was variable. A number of natives denied that they 
ever dream, a statement also made by various natives from the southern parts 
of the State seen in the Adelaide Hospital. 

Photography. — Full face and profile pictures were taken of all the aborigines 
examined in detail and of several others. Cinematograph pictures were taken 
of general camp scenes and native life, and also of the details of fire-making, 
wurlie building, etc. All the photographic records have been placed in the 
anthropological section of Professor Wood Jones' department, University of 
Adelaide. 

Music. — Some experimental work was done in attempting to record native 
corroborree songs, and although the machine used was not sufficiently accurate to 
secure good recording, some interesting results were obtained. The experience 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Sue. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. U Plato XXX. 




(iillintflmni & (' n . Limitnl, IYmiU'In, A'lclaiiU. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Anstr., 1926. 



Vol. L., Plate XXXI. 




Gillinghairt & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



Trans, and Proe. Roy, Soe. S. Anstr., 1926. 



Vol. L„ Plate XXXII. 




<iiJ]inijli;!iii & t'd. Limited, I'l-inters, A<k-];ii<k*. 



191 

gained in attempting this line of work was of great value, and will no doubt prove 
useful for subsequent efforts. 

Stone Implements. — A collection was made of small chipped stone imple- 
ments. The vicinity of the Ooldea soak, although it has received much attention 
from collectors, still provides sufficient material for interesting work. The types 
of implements found correspond generally to those found on all camp sites of 
Central Australian regions. 

In the section dealing with psychological observations, we have expressed 
our views as to the desirable conditions for systematic anthropological work on 
our natives. Such results as are recorded in this paper are the fruit of only a 
fortnight's trip; it is our hope that future expeditions will have the opportunity 
of a longer stay with one group of aborigines. When there are available not 
only enthusiasm and patience but adequate time and material resources, then 
much valuable work can be accomplished. 

REFERENCES. 

1. F. Wood (ones and T. D. Campbell, "Anthropometric and Descriptive 

Observations on some Australian Aboriginals, with a Summary of pre- 
viously recorded Anthropometric Data/' Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. 
xlviiC 1924, p. 303. 

2. A. IIrdlicka, "Anthropometry," 1920. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES XXX. to XXXTI. 

Plate XXX. 
Full face and profile photographs of (from left to right) subjects P, O, R, and Q. 

Plate XXXT. 
Full face and profile photographs of ('from left 1o right) subjects V. U, T, and F. 

Plate XXXII. 

Full face and profile photographs of (from left to right) subjects S, A A, and two young 
boys not included in the tables ; their names are Lawrence and Alec, their ages four and five 
years, respectively. 



iy2 



THE WOOLTANA BASIC IGNEOUS BELT. 

By D. Mawsok, D.Sc, F.R.S. 

[Read August 12, 1926.] 
Plates XXXill. to XXXV. 

In my paper (1) entitled "The Igneous Rocks of the Mount Painter Belt" con- 
tributed some three years ago, reference was made to the occurrence of vesicular, 
basic igneous rocks of a character definitely indicating an efTusive origin. These 
were noted in situ on the Bolla Bollana Creek, but the hasty visit to the locality had 
not sufficed to establish their stratigraphical relations. Other examples, of a still 
more definite effusive character, were noted in collections made by Mr. W. B. 
Greenwood from Wooltana Station, further to the east, but the exact locality 
of the find was wanting. 

By good fortune, not long after that paper was published, an opportunity 
of a visit to Wooltana presented itself, as a result of which an extensive area of 
similar igneous types of a definitely effusive nature has been located. The main 
outcrop noted extends in a nearly north and south direction for more than six 
miles, forming a bold scarp face some hundreds of feet in vertical extent at and 
immediately west of Wooltana Head Station. These igneous rocks constitute 
the bulk of the outcrop along the high hill faces which are thereabouts presented 
to the east and form the eastern limits of that portion of the Flinders Range. 
Here the ranges composed of very ancient terraines suddenly end, and a low plain, 
underlain for the most part by Mesozoic and Recent sediments, extends to the 
east on a gentle down-grade to Lake Frome. 

There can be no doubt as to the existence of fault lines defining the limits 
of the Flinders Range in that area. As a tectonic feature the most striking of 
these lines of fault is that extending between Paralana Hot Spring and Moola- 
watana. This appears to be indicated in a sketch section accompanying a recently 
published article (2) by Dr. W< G. Woolnough. 

My inspection of the igneous formation under discussion was limited to a 
day in the field about two years ago, when making a reconnaissance of the Mount 
Painter region in company with Messrs. R. G. Thomas, B.Sc, and A. R. Alder- 
man, B.Sc. Therefore the present notes, though establishing certain fundamental 
aspects relating thereto, are not by any means as extensive as the remarkable 
occurrence warrants. Specimens were collected at Wadnamoka Well, some four 
miles to the north of the Wooltana Head Station buildings ; also at two miles 
north, at the Head Station itself, and at about two miles to the south thereof. 

Stratigraphy. 

So far as noted the rocks are all of a basic character, ranging in texture from 
that of coarse dolerite (almost gabbro) to that of hyalopilitic basalts. Many of 
them have been highly vesicular and have resulted in striking amygdaloidal types. 
All, on account of their great antiquity, have undergone considerable change, 
including uralitizatiou, serpentinization, and chloritization. Copper stains were 
noted on many of the outcrops, indicating that to some extent at least the magma 
was cupriferous. At about one and a half miles to the south-west of Wooltana 



11 ) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlvii., p. 376. 

( 2 ) "Preliminary Note on the Occurrence of large Erratic Blocks, probably of Glacial 
Origin, on the Eastern Escarpment of the Flinders Range, South Australia/' bv YV. G. Wool- 
nough, D.Sc, F.G.S., Repts. A.A.A.S., vol. xxvii. (1924), p. 81. 



iy3 



Head Station, there are abandoned mine workings in the igneous rock, evidently 
made in search of asbestos, for long-bladed forms of semi-asbestos up to 6 inches 
in length were noted in the dump. 




194 

These igneous rocks have intruded and apparently flowed over an older series 
of sedimentary roeks comprising dolomitic limestone, sandstone, and shale, which 
in turn are younger than the older components of the highly metamorphic core 
rocks of the Mount Painter belt. This older sedimentary formation with intru- 
sions of the Wooltana magma is exposed in the foot hills for miles to the north of 
the station buildings. Above the igneous series are boulder beds with glacial char- 
acteristics which form the base of a great sedimentary synclinal basin extending 
between a point about one mile west of Wooltana Head Station and the Arkaroola 
Creek to the west of the Mount Warren Hastings. 

A sketch section of the beds encountered in a transverse approximately at 
right angles to the direction of strike at a point about two miles north of the 
Head Station, actually below Mount Jacob, is included herewith. In this figure 
an approximation to the contour of the land surface is attempted. From this 
graphic representation the thickness of the beds may be roughly gauged. 

A brief description of the formations encountered successively from the base 
upwards is as f ollows : — 

1. On the low ground at the foot of the scarp are both sedimentary and 

igneous formations, the latter clearly intruding the former in "some 
cases. Later in this paper an example of a diabase from this zone is 
described at length. In this part of the section, as a result of the 
flatness of the ground thereabouts, the exposures are poor. 

2. The first strongly marked feature is a bed about 60 feet in thickness of 

reddish-coloured sandstone with included wisps of chocolate-coloured 
shale. 

3. Next conies an igneous contribution of considerable thickness, apparently 

representing iava and ash beds. These are meiaphyres of a purple hue 
and some chocolate shales which are presumed, though not proved, to 
be transformed ash beds ; also coarser tuffaceous beds in which 
particles of sedimentary and of igneous rocks are commingled. In these 
latter the somewhat rounded particles of igneous rock are all of altered 
semi-glassy basic lavas. 

The top member of this section is a lava in which vesicles make 
their appearance towards the upper limit, increasing in number until 
the rock is truly scoriaceous. This is situated just below a narrow 
top band of a dense character which is only a few inches wide, and is 
taken to represent the original chilled surface of the flow. 

This sheet dips to the north-west at an angle somewhat more than 
20 degrees. The aggregate vertical thickness of the whole of this 
formation is apparently of the order of about 300 feet. 
4. A clastic formation of about 30 feet in thickness. It appears likely that 
this represents an igneous agglomerate, though its character is some- 
what masked by secondary changes. It is composed of rock fragments 



and tmer material, the principal contributions being forms of 



X1S1C 



igneous lava. 

5. Thence follows roughly 225 feet of fragmental beds of a curious type. 
At the base there is a thin bed, between 2 feet and 3 feet in thickness, 
of purple gravels and sands, evidently water-sorted. Fluvial condi- 
tions were, however, short lived, for the remainder of the formation 
is composed of an unassorted fragmental rock in which angularity of 
the fragments is a noticeable feature. Below, the obvious contribu- 
tions are principally of a basic igneous character, but these lessen 
rapidly above, whilst ever increasing quantities of fragments of a buff- 
coloured, dolomitic limestone are presented. Blocks of this latter 
as much as 3 feet in greatest dimension were actually observed. 



195 

In the upper third of this section the fragments, for the most 
part, range from nothing up to 6 inches in diameter, and are almost 
all of the dolomitie limestone. Rut the basaltic rock and a quartzite 
were also noted in small quantity. These beds partake in sonie 
measure both of the characters of a volcanic breccia and of a tillite. 
Unfortunately the cursory inspection did not suffice to conclusively 
settle their nature, but the weight of evidence is in favour of a glacial 
and fluvio-glacial origin, 

6. From this point upwards the dip of the beds is distinctly less than of 

those below. 

Here comes in, at the base, a boulder bed packed with rather rounded 
boulders of basic igneous rock and some quartzite. The thickness is 
about 15 feet. It is so predominantly igneous that it resembles an 
igneous agglomerate, but it is more likely to be a basal water-laid con- 
glomerate developed on an older tilted surface. Above this basal 
boulder rock this section continues as a jumbled pebble bed to a total 
thickness of 70 feet. 

7. Next in the succession comes a thick series of beds, totalling roughly 

210 feet, consisting of water-sorted and partly unassorted boulder 
beds, most probably of fluvio-glacial and glacial origin. At the base 
is a little water-sorted grit striking N. 50° E. and dipping 10° to the 
N.W. This passes up into coarse fragmental beds containing large 
boulders, obvious amongst which are a pink granite, and a quartz 
porphyrv similar to types occurring in situ near Mount Painter. Frag- 
ments of basic igneous rocks are scarce, so that, in this formation, 
there is a notable change from the preceding.. 

As the top is approached the pebbles become smaller and a little 
water-sorted grit appears. Then the nature of the bed again relapses 
to an unassorted boulder-bearing type. Finally the last feature, of 
a thickness of 14 feet, is a quartzire rock evidencing fluvial activity. 

8. This section appears to be of a definitely glacial and fluvio-glacial nature. 

Resting upon the last-mentioned quartzite is a thick mass of what, by 
its penological characteristics, can be nothing else than a sandy tillite. 
Time did not permit of extending the traverse beyond the lower 
portion, but the outcrops on the hill face ahead left it fairly certain 
that the tillite continued for at least a further 420 feet in thickness. 

The base of this rock is of a friable sandy nature. Through it 
pebbles and boulders are strewn ranging up to almost_3 feet in 
diameter. In the lower part, the pebbles are almost entirely of a 
coarse pebbly and gritty quartzite showing current bedding. In 
appearance the quartzite of the boulders is quite like that of a great 
quartzite formation met with in Radium East Creek, a few miles to 
the north. The general appearance of the rock at this point is indeed 
very like certain sandy tillite of Permo-carboniferous age occurring 
at ]3acchus Marsh, in Victoria. In this case, however, a faint purple 
tone pervades the rock. 

Somewhat, higher up, granite boulders make their appearance. 
These pebbles all exhibit subdued rounding and faceting, but 
no actual glacial striae were noted. There was, however, no doubt 
in my mind at the time as to the glacial nature of these beds, for ns 
other explanation appeared adequate to produce such an association 
of fine silt and large boulders. 

It was unfortunate that time did not permit of the extension to 
the west of that particular section. However, absence of such data 



196 

us would have been forthcoming was in large measure supplied from 
observations made the following day, whilst journeying from east to 
west across the strike of the country at a point somewhat further to 
the south. This happened on a route-march from Wooltana Mead 
Station to MeLeache's Well. 

Travelling west along this line, the extension of the above forma- 
tion is again traversed in ascending succession, but the detail exposed 
is comparatively limited. First comes the igneous rock, interstratified 
with, or intruded into sedimentary beds. Then follow boulder beds 
of a distinctive tillitc-likc character, evidently representing the upper 
beds of the former section. In the upper portions, porphyry erratics 
of several types are extremely abundant. Above the glacial beds 
come laminated slates of the Taplcy's Hill type, though somewhat of 
a lighter grey colour than those of the classic locality. The presence 
of such laminated beds is important additional evidence indicative of 
a glacial origin for the boulder beds. 

The slates become more and more calcareous, culminating in 
dolomitic limestone, of which there is a great development. The 
features of this sedimentary basin are all in accord with the pre- 
sumption that they correspond to the Sturtian tillite and overlying 
horizons. The limestones were searched for fossil evidence, but 
yielded only indefinite traces such as are featured in the Brighton 
limestones. As these beds are not severely altered, it is thought that, 
were they of Cambrian or later age, a fossil record would be preserved. 

Such evidence as it is, therefore, indicates the age of the over- 
lying sediments to be the same as that of the upper beds of the Adelaide 
Series, namely, late Proterozoic. Obviously the underlying igneous 
horizon cither preceded the glacial period or was contemporaneous 
with it. If preceding it, the probability is that no considerable erosion 
interval separated the volcanic period from the ice age, else the bulky 
accumulation of volcanic material would have been removed prior to 
the advent of the glacial cycle. 

P etiological Descriptions. 

The leading types of the igneous rocks encountered are included in the 

following descriptions: — * , , ■, , H , ,, 

ft * Amygdaloidal Melaphyres. 

In these originally vesicular lavas, the steamholcs are entirely choked by- 
secondary minerals of a white or pink colour. The rocks range in colour through 
purple, reddish-brown, to grey, and are often highly vesicular, even to the extent 
of there being more vesicles than lava. In micro-section the rock is seen to varv 
from a fine-grained-, noncrystalline basalt of pilotaxitic texture, to hyalopiliti'c 
varieties in which almost hair-like laths of plagioclase are scattered through what 
was originally a glassy base. 

The antiquity of these lavas is reflected in the advanced state of alterations 
exhibited. For example, original glass is entirely converted to a dense, more or 
less opaque dusty aggregate. Pyroxene is, for the most part, uralitized in the 
basaltic lavas. Felspar laths are now aggregates of tiny secondary particles. 
which change has, in most cases, obliterated the albite twin lamellae. Both in the 
case of the glass and of the ferromagnesian minerals, a notable accompaniment 
of these changes has been the liberation of iron oxide. This may appear in the 
form of distinct grains or as the finest dust distributed througii the resulting 
paramorphs. Magnetite is abundant, but haematite as fine dust and stains is also 
generally present. It is due to the development of this ferric anhydride that the 



197 



rocks frequently assume red and purple hues. Chlorite and serpentine both figure 
amongst the alteration products. Also minute grains of epidote and occasional 
particles of calcite are of general occurrence. 

The vesicles may be all beautifully spherical or ellipsoidal or tortuous. The 
more frequent type of steamhole fillings consists of an outer zone of a reddish- 
coloured, zeolitic mineral, followed by a central rilling of calcite. In the micro- 
scope slide occasional grains of quartz may be discovered embedded in the calcite, 
also between the calcite and the pink mineral a small development of a fine scaly 
mineral, apparently sericite, may appear. The pink mineral corresponds closely 
with stilbite in its optical properties and hardness, and is, therefore, taken to he 
that mineral. 

Melaphyre 

occurring in situ at Woodnamoka Well. This is representative of dense non- 
amygdaloidal basaltic forms. 

In the hand specimen, the rock is of fine even grain and of a purple colour. 

Microscopically examined, it is evident that it was originally a fine-grained, 
but in all probability a completely crystallised, basalt. The average grain size is 
about 0T2 mm. The arrangement of the plagioclase laths is intersertal. There 
is a tendency to ophitic structure on a small scale. 

The plagioclase laths are so changed that no determinations of extinction 
angles are possible. The alteration products of the felspars include chlorite 
and very fine dust-like grains of epidote. Minute particles of a mineral of low 
double refraction may be spongy secondary albite. 

Former granular pyroxene appears as faintly greyish-brown remnants. These 
are constituted of secondary actinolite, microscopic particles of epidote, some 
chlorite, and possibly some serpentine. 

Magnetite and ilmenite are present in moderate quantities, the latter exhibit- 
ing the change to leucoxene. Certain yellowish-grey granules appear to be sphene, 
probably arising out of ilmenite. Haematite flakes and stains pervade the section. 
Calcite is clearly noticeable as fillings of veins and cavities and in scattered particles. 
Chemical Analysis. 



Analyst : W. S. Chapman. 

Per cent. 

Si0 2 (Silica) 48*46 

Al 2 O s (Alumina) . . . . 1876 



Fe 2 3 (Ferric oxide) 
FeO (Ferrous oxide) 
MgO (Magnesia) 
CaO (Lime) 
Na 2 (Soda) . . . 

K 2 (Potash) 1*89 

H 2 (Water over 100° C) 3 "55 
H 2 (Water at 100° C) .. 
C0 2 (Carbon dioxide) 
Ti0 2 (Titanic dioxide) 
PiiO S ' (Phosphoric anhydride) 
SO a (Sulphur trioxide) . . 

CI (Chlorine) 

FeS 2 (Ferric disulphide) . . 
Cr 2 O a (Chromium sesquioxide) 
MnO (Manganous oxide) 
BaO (Barium oxide) 



6*38 
3-01 
6-94 
5-00 
3*44 



■01 
-26 

1-53 
•28 
nil 
nil 
■04 
nil 
■08 
-05 



Composition of the Norm. 

Per cent. 

Quartz 1*02 

Orthoclase 1M2 

Albite 28-82 

Anorthite 23 '35 

Corundum 2*55 

Hypersthene 17*30 

Magnetite 5*57 

Ilmenite 2*89 

Haematite 2*56 

Pyrite 0*04 

Apatite 0*67 

CO, and H 2 3*82 



Total 



99*71 



Total .. 99-68 
C.LP.W. Classification: Class II., Order 3, Rang III., Sub-rang 4. 



198 



Types rather similar to this form part of the igneous contribution in the 
section traversed below Mount Jacob. In that locality they may appear as evenly 
purple in colour or exhibit greenish-grey mottlings on a purple background. In 
some cases there is fairly definite evidence of glass in the original rock. Others 
contain abundant relics of olivine. Chlorite and calcite are the more obvious 
and general secondary products. 

Amongst specimens collected from detrital material in the creek bed at 
Wooltana Head Station, and evidently descended from the hills to the west, is a 
rock, originally very similar to this melaphyre from Woodnamoka Well, but now 
very largely converted to yellow-green epidote. 

Olivine Diabase: Woodnamoka Well. 

In the hand specimen this appears as a fine, crystalline, dark-grey rock. 

Microscopically examined, it is seen structurally to represent an intermediate 
stage between basalt and dolerite. Lath-shaped plagioclases are arranged in a 
meshwork in which there is some slight preferential orientation, indicating feeble 
flow movement during the early stages of crystallization. 

Plagioclase is abundant, commonly in individuals of 1 mm. in length. Though 
larcgly broken down to minutely scaly paramorphous aggregates, indications of 
the albite twin lamellae still remain, but not of a determinative quality. The. 
change in the felspar has been towards the production of chlorite, quartz, and 
possibly albite, but a little very fine granular epidote also appears in some cases. 

Original pyroxene occupying the interspaces amongst the felspars has changed 
to pale actinolite fibres, dust-like epidote, and some chloritic or serpentinous pro- 
duct. In some cases, there appear scraps and wisps of what are taken for bleached 
remnants of the original mineral. 

Olivine in very small quantity has been present, and m odd cases residual 
unchanged minerafstill remains. The alteration has been to serpentine and iron ores. 

Calcite is very noticeable, either as a narrow border zone around scattered 
patches of chlorite or as particles distributed amongst other alteration oroducts. 

Magnetite appears as^ equant granules of noticeably small dimensions, from 
which ilmcnite can be distinguished by its development in elongated forms and 
by its partial change to leucoxene. Haematite is abundant either in association 
with the magnetite or as scattered stains. Some tiny, highly refracting, yellowish 
grains adjacent to ilmenite individuals suggest secondary sphene rather than epidote. 
Chemical Analysis. 



Analyst: A. R. Alderman, 



B.Sc. 
Per cent. 

4775 

12-77 

7-22 

4-38 

9-92 



Composition of the Norm, 

Per cent. 



SiO. (Silica) . . .- 
Al 2 6 3 (Alumina) 
Fe 2 3 (Ferric oxide) 
FeO (Ferrous oxide) 
MgO (Magnesia) 

CaO (Lime) 579 

Na a O (Soda) 3*46 

K 2 (Potash) 0-81 

H,0 (above 100° C.) .. 3*38 
IFO (at 100° C.) .... 0-43 
CO., (Carbon dioxide) .. 1*98 

TiO~, (Titania) 1*65 

PiiOs (Phosphoric pentoxide) 0*19 
MnO (Manganous oxide) 0-28 



Orthoclase 
Albite . . 
Anorthite 
Diopside 
Plypersthene 
Olivine 

Magnetite . . 
Ilmenite 
Apatite . . 
FLO and CO, 



Total 



5-00 

29-87 

16-68 

8-42 

19-50 

0-98 

10-44 

3-04 

0-67 

5-79 

100-39 



Total .. 100*19 
CI.P.W. Classification: Class III., Order 5, Rang III, Sub-rang 4. 



199 



Ophitic Olivine Diabase. 
This occurs as a dyke or sheet on flat ground about 250 yards west of the 
mail track to Parallana Station, some two miles north of Wooltana Head Station. 
In the hand specimen this rock is grey coloured with a faintly greenish tone 
and exhibits somewhat of a serpentinous appearance. 

Under the microscope it is seen to be of a coarser grain than any of the 
preceding. There is also a larger proportion of ferromagnesian minerals. The 
plagioclase is in stouter individuals, but exhibits a rectangular form, not the 
granular habit typical of the gabbros. There is a broad-scale development of 
intersertal structure and excellent ophitic intergrowth of augite and felspar. The 
structure of the rock is, therefore, coarse doleritic, and as the minerals have all suf- 
fered age changes, the term ophitic diabase is most appropriate. In addition to felspar, 
the original rock contained abundant pyroxene and a notable quantity of olivine. 

The felspars show very slight evidence of former albite twinning. They 
have been transformed more or less completely to aggregates, in which appear 
elements with optical properties apparently corresponding with the following: 
veins and flecks of chlorite, minute grains of epidote, sericitic mica in small 
amount, and particles with a refractive index about that of mizzonite which, 
however, may be residual felspar material. 

The augite still remains in part as a transparent mineral of a warm faintly- 
pink colour and high extinction angle. Unaltered ophitic individuals as much 
as 3 mm. in length are abundant. In other cases the pyroxene is dusty in appear- 
ance, due either to incipient or complete change to uralitic amphibole, or to fine 
dust-like epidote, and in places to serpentinous products. 

The olivines are represented by relics in the form of faintly-green aggregates 
of serpentine associated with iron ores. The latter are partly magnetite, but 
chiefly haematite, which has separated out in quantity around the periphery and 
along cracks in the original mineral. The average diameter of the former olivines 
is of the order of 0*5 mm. 

Scattered irregularly at intervals throughout the section, are small distinct 
granules of yellow epidote, ilmenite considerably converted to leucoxene, magnetite, 
also both stains and patches of haematite. There is a general pervasion of ser- 
pentine. Calcite is practically absent, though noted in very small amount in one place. 
The order of crystallization of the original minerals appears to have been 
ilmenite and magnetite, olivine, felspar, then pyroxene. 
Chemical Analysis. 
Analyst: A. R. Alderman, B.Sc. 

Per cent, 

Si0 2 (Silica) 45-52 

Al a 3 (Alumina) . . . . 14*39 
Fe a G 3 (Ferric oxide) .. 5*21 
FeO (Ferrous oxide) . , 6-79 
MgO (Magnesia) .. .. 12-68 

CaO (Time) 6'22 

Na 2 (Soda) 1*68 

K a O (Potash) 1-38 

H.,0 (above 100° C) . . 3 "91 
H 2 (at 100° C) .... 0-88 
CO s (Carbon dioxide ) . . nil 

Ti0 3 (Titania) . . .\ . . 1-46 
FaOfi (Phosphoric pentoxide) 013 
MnO (Maiiganous oxide) 0-22 



Composition of the Norm. 

Per cent. 

Orthoclase 7'78 

Albite 14*15 

Anorthite . . 27-80 



Diopside 

Hypersthene 

Olivine 

Magnetite 

Ilmenite 

Apatite 

Water . . 



Total 



179 

24*63 

8-74 

7-66 
2-74 
0-34 
4.79 

100-42 



Total . . 100-47 
C.I.P.W. Classification: Class III., Order 5, -Rang IV., Sub-rang 2. 



200 

A further specimen collected at Woodnamoka Well illustrates what was a 
very similar type of rock somewhat differently affected. There the plagioclases 
are saussuritized ; both zoizite and epidote appear in the products. In the 
pyroxene, much serpentine and epidote appear. 

Summary. 

At Wooltana, on the eastern escarpment of the Flinders Range, near its 
northern extremity, is an extensive outcrop of both effusive and intrusive basic 
igneous rocks, including amygdaloidal melaphyres and olivine diabases. The 
igneous rocks are closely associated with the ancient tillite horizon which, by its 
field relation, is thought to correspond with the Sturtian (late Proterozoic) tillite. 
The volcanic activity was either contemporaneous with the glaciation or preceded 
it with no great intervening time break. 

Among the igneous rocks from Wooltana are many that exhibited consider- 
able similarity to those described by Professor Howchin as occurring at Blinman. 
67 miles to the south-west. These latter are, however, reported to be all intru- 
sive, and their field relations, so far as at present known, indicate a late Cambrian 
or post-Cambrian age. But as there is yet little known of the stratigraphy of 
that region, there may be a closer correspondence in time of intrusion than is at 
present apparent. 

In conclusion, I have to thank Messrs. W. S. Chapman and A. R. Alderman 
for furnishing the analyses quoted. Also my thanks arc due to Mr. L. Keith 
Ward (Government Geologist), who, through the Mines Department, arranged 
for the execution of the former analysis. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES XXXIII. to XXXV. 

Plate XXXIII. 

Photograph of the eastern scarp of the Flinders Range as seen looking to the west-north- 
west^ one-third mile north of Wooltana Head Station. Mount Jacob is the highest point in 
the view, featured on the sky-line near the centre of the picture. 

Plate XXXIV. 
Fig. I. A polished face of amygdaloidal melaphyre from vicinity of Wooltana Head 
Station. _ In this case the vesicles are unusually spherical. The rock is dark grey in colour 
with white vesicles. Photo, natural size. 

Fig. 2. Polished face of an amygdaloidal melaphyre from near Wooltana FIcad Station. 
A purple-coloured -rock with irregular shaped vesicles occupied by white and salmon-coloured 
fillings, principally quartz and zeolite. Photo, natural size. 

Plate XXXV. 

Fig. 1. Devitrificd amygdaloidal melaphyre, from the vicinity of Wooltana Head Station. 
A deeply pigmented glassy base through which are scattered tiny hair-like plagioclases. The 
glassy base has largely broken down to minute particles of a secondary nature, but is so much 
pigmented by microscopic granules of iron oxide as to be almost opaque. The vesicles are 
occupied by quartz, calcite, and a little chlorite. Magnification x30 diameters. 

Fig. 2. A melaphyre from vicinity of Wooltana Head Station. A strong devitrined base 
rendered opaque by abundance of finely disseminated iron oxide. Plagioclase laths. Magnifi- 
cation x 60 diameters. 

Fig. 3. Diabase from Woodnamoka Well Plagioclase laths, somewhat frayed by 
secondary alterations, form a general mesh-work with some tendency to parallel arrangement. 
In the interstices between the relic felspars are the products of alteration of the fer-ro- 
magnesian constituents. Magnification x20 diameters. 

Fig. 4. Olivine diabase from an intrusion two miles north of Wooltana Head Station, 
250 yards west of the mail track to Paralalia. Note the abundant remains of granular olivine, 
much of it rendered opaque by depositions of secondary iron oxides. The remainder of the 
plate is occupied by secondary aggregates after felspar and augite. Magnification x20 diameters. 



Trans, and Proc. Rov. Soc. S. Austr., 1926. 



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201 



REVIEW OF AUSTRALIAN ISOPODS OF THE CYMOTHOID GROUP. 

Part 11.0) 

By Herbert M. Hale, Zoologist (Crustacea), South Australian Museum. 
(Contribution from the South Australian Museum.) 

[Read August 12, 1926. J 

Plates XXXVI. and XXXVII. 
Family CYMOTHOIDAE. 

The representatives of this family, when adult, are distinguished by the 
following characters: — Antennae short, not clearly divided into peduncle and 
fiagellum. Mandibles with stout, three-jointed palp. First maxillae styliform, 
with a few apical spines. Apex of second maxillae bilobed. Palp of maxilliped 
two-jointed, the terminal article as a rule furnished with hooked spines. Pleopods, 
uropods, and telson rarely with any trace of marginal hairs. Peraeopods pre- 
hensile, terminating in curved (and usually strong) dactyli. 

All the species are parasites, and in the adult state some are variable in form, 
the body being asymmetrical, twisted, or distorted. At least seven of the genera 
are represented off Australian coasts ; the keys to the Australian genera and 
species refer to adult specimens. 

In dealing with this family I wish to express thanks to Dr. K. H. Barnard, 
of the South African Museum, and to Mr. F. A. McNeill, of the Australian 
Museum, for assistance with literature not available in Adelaide, libraries. 



Key to Australian Genera. 

,a, Picon composed of six distinct segments. Exopod of first pair of 
pleopods soft, not curved over sides of pleon. 
b. Ccphalon not at all immersed in first peraeon segment, with pos- 
terior margin trilobate. Anterior margin of first peraeon segment 
trisimiatc. 

c. Peraeon relaxed and usually flattened ; posterior angles of hinder 

segments often prominently produced ; all coxal plates large 

and prominent 

cc. Peraeon compact; posterior angles of hinder segments never 

produced; coxal plates of fourth to seventh segments small .. 

bb. Cephalon more or less immersed in first peraeon segment, 

with posterior margin not trilobate. Anterior margin of first 

peraeon segment not trisinuate, 

d. Antennae somewhat compressed, not at all dilated, the bases of 

the first pair widely separated. 
e, Pleon abruptly narrower than peraeon 
re. Pleon not abruptly narrower than peraeon. 

/. Pleon rarely strongly immersed In peraeon. Carina of basos 
of posterior peraeopods more or less prominent. Upper lip 
not prominently projecting 
ff. Pleon usually strongly immersed in peraeon. Carina of 
basos of posterior peraeopods obsolete. Upper lip pro- 
minently projecting 
dd. Antennae considerably dilated, the first pair contiguous at base 
on. Pleon segments fused together. Exopod of first pair of pleopods 
hard, curved over sides of pleon 



Ncrocita 



Inilocra 



Cymothoa 



LAvoncca 



Irona 
Codonophihts 

Ourorjcuktcs 



U>Part T., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Amtr., xlix, 1925, pp. 128 185, figs. 1-28. 



202 

Nerocila, Leach. 

Nerocila, Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat., xii., 1818, p. 351; Sch. and Mean, Naturh. Tidsskr.. (3) 
xm., 1881, p. 4; Stcbhing, S. Afr. Crust., ii., 1902, p. 55 (syn.) ; Rich., Bull. U.S. Nat Mus » 
nv., 1905, p. 219. 

Pterisopodus, Boone, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., lh\, 1918, p. 219. 

The posterior margin of the cephalon is prominently trilobate, and the 
anterior margin of the first peraeon segment is correspondingly Insinuate, The 
peraeon is depressed and somewhat relaxed and all the coxal plates are large and 
prominent. 

It is known that in the Cymoihoidae, protandrous hermaphroditism occurs 
in at least four genera, one of which is Nerocila. Caiman (2 > 'remarks that ( Tn 
certain Cymothoinae the external characters of the male sex do not completely 
disappear when the individual passes into the female phase, the copttlatory 
appendage of the second pleopods sometimes remaining of conspicuous size even 
in specimens which have the marsupium filled with eggs." In fig. 1, e, f, and g are 




F 



1. 



a to e. Second pleopods of five specimens of Nerocila macleayii, respectively 17 mm., 
18-5 mm., 21 mm., 26 mm., and 33 mm. in length, showing diminution in relative length 
of male appendage as the animal grows ; the pleopod at e is that of an ovigerous 
female, but the male appendage is persistent ; / and g, second pleopods of ovigerous 
females of N. laticaitda and N. scrra, with male appendage (all 5 diam.). 



drawings of the second pleopod of an ovigerous female of each of the species of 
Nerocila occurring in Australian waters; the examples from which the organs 
were taken have a well-developed brood pouch crammed with either eggs or 
young, but, nevertheless, the "appendix masculina" is retained. An examination 
of some two score specimens of N . macleayii and N. lalicaitda indicates that the 
male appendage of the second pleopods is long in the young and steadily diminishes 
m relative size as the animals grow, and that it is commonly retained, in a thin 
and abbreviated form, in the ovigerous females of these species. Thus, in a 
specimen of N. macleayii 17 mm. in length the appendage is longer than the 
endopod, in an example 18*5 mm. in length it is a little shorter than the endopod, 
and so on, until in the adult female it is not much more than one-half as long as 
the endopod (fig. 1, a to c). 



(2) Caiman, Lankester's Treatise on Zool. (Crust.), 1909, p. 213. 



203 

Key to Australian Species. 

a. Coxal plates of seventh peraeon segment not reaching back beyond 
posterior angles of that segment. Edges of endopod of uropoda 
not serrate. 
b. Uropoda not or scarcely extending beyond apex of telson, with 

endopod sub-oval and apically rounded . . . . . . . . laticauda 

bb. Uropoda extending beyond apex of telson, with apex of endopod 
acute. 
c. Postero-latcral angles of second and third peraeon segments not 
backwardly produced; endopod of uropoda with intero-posterior 
margin very obliquely truncate and sometimes slightly concave macleayii 
cc. Poste-ro-lateral angles of second and third peraeon segments 
backwardly produced; endopod of uropods with inner margin 
slightly curved and outer margin somewhat sigmoidal . . aitstralasiae 

aa. Coxal plates of seventh segment reaching back beyond posterior 
angles of that segment; edges of endopod of uropoda conspicuously 
serrate . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . • ■ ■ serra 

As will be seen from the illustrations the maxilliped is very similar in the 
three species examined, the organs only differing in relative width, commensurate 
with the form of the animal concerned ; the maxillae also are apparently of little 
specific value. 

Nerocila laticauda, Schioedte and Meinert. 

Nerocila blainvillci ', Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidsskr., xiii., 1881, p. 78, pi. vi., figs. 11, 12 
(nee M. Edwards). 

Nerocila laticauda, Sch. and Mem., Igc. cit., p. 81, pi. vi., figs. 14. 15; Whitel., Mem. 
Austr. Mus., iv., 1901, p. 235. 

2. Ovigerous. Surface smooth or almost smooth, with a very few- 
scattered punctures. Cephalon subquadrate, a little wider than medianly long; 
eyes very obscure. First antennae a little shorter than second and composed of 
eight articles ; second antennae reaching back to level of hinder margin of 
cephalon, composed of nine articles. First article of palp of mandibles stouter 
and not much longer than second, which is longer than the third article. Peraeon 
widest at fifth segment; medial length of first segment a little greater than that 
of second to fourth segments, and subequal to that of fifth to seventh segments; 
postero-latcral portions of all segments produced outwards and backwards, those 
of the last three segments very prominently produced, in the seventh segment 
reaching back to beyond level of hinder margin of fifth pleon segment. Coxal 
plates almost wholly concealed by expanded lateral parts of peraeon segments in 
dorsal view, only a tiny portion of the. first two pairs being visible; all strongly 
carinatc; the plates of the second segment do not nearly reach to the postero- 
lateral angles of the segment and the next pair reach to the middle of the length 
of the lateral margin of their segment; those of the fourth segment scarcely 
extend beyond level of posterior angle of the third segment, those of the fifth 
and sixth reach a little beyond level of the posterior angles of the fourth and 
fifth segments, while those of the seventh segment do not attain the level of the 
posterior angles of the sixth segment. First five segments of pleon subequal in 
length and width, medianly tumid, and with pleural portions somewhat produced; 
telsonic segment subquadrate, about one-third wider than medianly long. Uropods 
not quite reaching to hinder margin of telson ; with both rami suboval, the exopod 
longer and wider than the endopod. Peracopods stout and strong, slightly 
increasing in length backwards. 

Colour during life: Dorsum dark olivaceous, with lateral portions of head, 
a diffused stripe on each side of mid-line of peraeon and pleon, and lateral margins 
of peraeon and pleon, whitish. Underside whitish. With the outer face of each 
coxal plate and the outer half of the exopod of the first pair of pleopods. sooty. 

Length, 32 mm. 



204 

Loc. — South Australia: Kingston, S.E. Coast, and PortWillunga, from Raja 
australis (S. Austr. Mus. Coll.). Western Australia; Albany (W. Austr. Mus. 
Coll.). Victoria: Port Phillip (J. B. Wilson). New South Wales : Off Botany 
Bay, 50-52 faths. ; off Wata Mooli, 70-78 faths. ; off Cape Three Points, 41-50 
f aths. ; and off Jibbon, 50-66 faths. ("Thetis" Exped.), La Perouse. Botany Bay 
(J. D. Ogilby), Port Jackson (Austr. Mus. Coll.). 

Hah. — Western, Southern, and Eastern Australia. 

There is considerable variation in the series of adult specimens of this species 
which is before me. In the example shown at a in fig, 2 (a male 23 mm. in 
length), the lateral parts of the last three peraeon segments are more expanded 
and backwardly produced, and the pleural parts of the first five pi eon segments 
are much more prominent than in the female at i. The peraeon segments are not 
at all expanded in very young articles, and, generally, the form of small 




b'iff. 2. 

Ncrocila laticauda. Adult male phase: tjt, dorsal view (21 cliam.) ; b, palp of mandible 
(19 cliam.) ; c and d, first and second maxillae (19 diam.) ; c, maxilliped (19 diam.) ; 
/ and g, first and seventh peraeopods (.5 diam.); h, second pleopod (4 diam.). 
Ovigerous female: i and j, dorsal and lateral views (11 diam.) ; k, antennae (6 diam.) ; 
/, uropod (5 diam.). Juvenile from marsupiutn : m, dorsal view (11 diam.) ; n, uropod 
(19 diam.) ; o, apex of exopod of uropod (95 diam.). 

specimens is narrower than in the adult. The extent to which the segments are 
produced is, however, by no means constant, and a few small specimens have the 
lateral parts of the peraeon segments much more expanded than in some ot the 
large ovigerous females. In the last-named the sides of the segments are occa- 
sionally scarcely at all expanded (so that all the coxal plates are visible in dorsal 
view) and the postero-lateral angles of only the sixth and seventh segments are 
backwardly produced (fig, 3 ; c). Intermediate forms between this and the greatly 
widened variety occur in other of the adults. The telsonic segment is somewhat 



205 

variable in shape, and may be subquadrate or even obscurely subcordate ; the 
posterior margin is usually gently convex or sinuate, but is occasionally concave. 

The salient features of the adult are as follows: The lateral parts of the last 
peraeon segment are always more or less widely expanded, and are produced 
backwards to at least the level of the posterior angles of the third pleon segment 
■ — usually they extend further back than this ; the lateral parts of the other segments 
are generally more or less expanded and produced backwards. The apex of each 
of the last pair of coxal plates, at most, scarcely reaches past the middle of the 
length of the lateral margin of the seventh segment. The branches of the uropoda 
are, as a rule, both suboval (sometimes the exopod is acutely rounded apically), 
and do not. reach much beyond the posterior margin of the telson. 

Tn young examples taken from the marsupium of the mother the cephalon 
is relatively much larger than in the adult, and the eyes are large. None of the 
segments of the peraeon or pleon is backwardly produced or laterally expanded. 
The uropods are of interest in that they differ somewhat considerably from those 
of the adult. The suboval endopod is scarcely one-half as long, and is one-half 
as wide again, as the lanceolate exopod ; the posterior half of the margins of 
the endopod, and the inner margin of the exopod, are furnished with hairs, and 




XTK. 



Fig. 3. 

Variation in form of Neroctia laiicauda: d, e, and /' arc outlines of 
ovigcrous females (all 2 diam.). 



the apex of the exopod bears two strong spines. The colour is whitish with the 
whole dorsum, excepting the telson. dotted with brown cbromatophores, which 
are larger on the cephalon than on the peraeon or pleon. The example figured 
at m, fig. 2, is 3T4 mm. in length, and was taken from the pouch of a female of 
the form shown at i. 

Examples only 10 mm. or so in length have the characteristic colour markings 
as described for the adult, the dark parts consisting of a great number of closely 
massed chromatophores. In specimens of this size the eyes are tiny, the exopod 
of the uropods is subacute apically, is much longer than the endopod. and reaches 
beyond the level of the obtusely angular apex of the telson. 

The specimens referred to ''Nerocila blainviUci" by Schioedte and Meinert 
were taken "ad Adelaide, Novae-Ilollandiac." but. as shown above, the two forms 
considered by these authors to be distinct species are connected by intermediate 
varieties. Milne Edwards* description indicates that A r . blainvillci is an entirely 
different species, for this author remarks ( - V) : "Espece tres-voisine de la 



(3) M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., iii., 1840, 



252. 



206 

precedents [N. bivittata] mais ayant les angles du tergum des anneaux plus 
pointus, les epimeres plus allonges (les deux dernier es p aires de passant de 
beau coup les angles du tergum eorrespondans). . . . Patrie inconnue." 

In TV. laticauda the posterior coxal plates do not nearly reach to the posterior 
angle of their segment. The coxal plates of M, bivittata, as shown in the figures 
of Schioedte and Meinert (4 > are much longer than those of the specimen figured 
hy the same authors as N. blainvillci. 

Nkrocila macleayii, White. 

Ncrocila maclcaxii, White, m DierTenb. Voy. N. Zeal., ii., 1843, p. 268; Miers, Rep. 
Zool., "Alert," 1884, p. 301; Chilton, Trans. N. Z'd. Inst., xxiii., 1891, p. 68, pi. xi. 

Ncrocila imbricata, Miers, Cat. Crust. N. Z*(L, 1876, p. 107. 

Ncrocila nova esc aland hie , Sch. and Mcin., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) xiii., 1881, p. 70, pi. v., 
figs. 10, 11. 

$ . Ovigerous. Surface glabrous, with a very few scattered punctures. 
Cephalon rounded, with posterior margin very distinctly trilobate; much wider 




Fig. 4. 

Ncrocila macleayii. Ovigerous female: a and b, dorsal and lateral views (II diam.) ; 
c, pleon of another example (H diam.) ; d, palp of mandible (19 diam.) ; e and f, first 
and second maxillae (19 diam.) ; g, maxilliped (19 diam.) ; h and i, first and seventh 
pe-raeopods (5 diam.) ; /, uropod (5 diam.). Juvenile from marsupium : k, dorsal view 
(10 diam.) ; /, uropod (29 diam.). w, Immature example, 17 mm. in length (3 diam.). 

than medianly long ; eyes small but distinct. First antennae stouter and a little 
shorter than second, composed of six articles; second antennae reaching back 
to middle of length of first peraeon segment and composed of eight articles. 
First article of palp of mandibles stouter and more than half as long again as 

(4) Sch. and Mcin., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) xiii., 1881, pi. iv., figs. 1-15. 



207 

second, which is scarcely longer than the third article. Peraeon widest at fifth 
and sixth segments; medial length of first segment distinctly greater than that of 
second, third, or fourth segment and subequal to that of fifth, sixth, 
or seventh segment; postero-lateral parts of sixth and seventh seg- 
ments backwardly produced in a narrow process with acute posterior angles; 
posterior angle of first segment very slightly produced backwards. All coxa! 
plates more or less visible in dorsal view; last three pairs obtusely carinate and 
with posterior angles acute; plates of second to fifth segments reaching to or a 
little beyond posterior angle of their segments, those of sixth and seventh seg- 
ments not nearly attaining level of posterior angles of their segments. First five 
segments of pleon subequal in length; pleural portions of first and second segments 
produced into narrow, flat processes, those of the second segment reaching back to 
level of posterior angles of fifth segment; telsonic segment subcordate, wider than 
long, Endopocl of uropods reaching slightly beyond level of apex of telson, wideb- 
and much shorter than the exopod, with lateral margins subparallel and with inner 
postcrior margin very obliquely truncate, so that the apex of the ramus is acute. 
Peraeopods moderately stout, successively increasing in length; seventh pair with 
one spine on inner margin of merus, three on inner margin of carpus, and four or 
live on inner margin of propodus. 






mtmBBg%m& 




Fig. 5. 
Nerocila macleayii clinging to tail of Temiwdon saliaror (2k diam.). 

Colour in alcohol: Dark olivaceous, sometimes with segments margined with 
paler colour, sometimes with a pale stripe on each side of mid-line of pleon- in 
some cases the stripes meet, thus forming a U-shaped marking on the telson.' 

Length, 32 mm. 

Loc— New South Wales: Port Jackson and from lllola uwla (Austr Mus 
Coll.), Port Hacking ( D. G. Stead), Shoalhaven (C. Pledley), Eden from fin 
of flymg gurnard (A. Cameron). Victoria: Warrnambool. from fins of 
Clumaera (J. L. Fcnton). Western Australia: Nornalup Inlet, on tail of 
lemnodon saltator ; Fremantle, Bunbury, and Albanv (W. Austr. Mus Coin 
No definite loc., from Sardinia neo pilchard us (J. D. Ogilby). 

Hab. — Australia and New Zealand. 

According to the series before me there is not such variation in the fully 
developed female of this species as in N. laticauda. Two ovigerous females 
however, taken from a pilchard, are but 21 mm. in length, are narrow in form' 
and have the postero-lateral angles of the sixth and seventh peraeon segments 
scarcely at all produced backwards (so that the last coxal plates attain die level 
ot the posterior angles of their segment), and the pleural processes of the first 



208 

and second pleon segments are little developed; these two specimens resemble 
very closely an immature example figured by Chilton. W Other large examples, 
which are still in the male phase, have the posterior peraeon and anterior pleon 
segments produced as in the large ovigerous females. Some o£ the last-named 
are a little wider in form than the example shown in fig. 4, and others have the 
postero-lateral angles of the fifth peraeon segment a little backwardly produced, 
so that the coxal plates of this segment also do not reach to the level of the pos- 
terior angles. As in N. laikauda, the relative lengths of the branches of the 
uropods are somewhat variable. 

The salient features of the adults of the species are as follows : — The postero- 
lateral angles of the second and third peraeon segments are never backwardly 
produced. The coxal plates of the seventh segment do not extend to the level 
of the posterior angles of that segment, except in small specimens in which the 
posterior angles of the segments are scarcely at all produced. The uropoda reach 
beyond the apex of the telson ; the endopod is very obliquely truncate, with the 
apex acute, while the exopod is narrower and usually much longer than the 
endopod. The pleural processes of the first and second pleon segments reach to 
at least the level of the hinder margin of the fifth pleon segment in large examples ; 
sometimes they are even longer. 

N. calif or nica, Schioedte and Meinert, appears to be closely related to N. 
macleayii. 

The immature example figured by Chilton (ut supra) is approximately 
20 mm. in length; a slightly younger form, 17 mm. in length, is here shown in 
fig. 4, m. In this specimen the antennae reach back to the posterior margin of 
the first peraeon segment, the uropods are much as in the "virgo" figured by 
Schioedte and Meinert, and the eyes are still large and prominent; in examples 
20 mm. or more in length the eyes are much smaller and contain fewer facets. As 
previously noted, the eyes have degenerated in specimens of N. laticauda only 
10 mm. in length. A young example of N. macleayii, 3*45 mm. in length, taken 
from the marsupium of the mother, is illustrated at k, fig. 4; the endopod of the 
uropods is wider and shorter than the exopod, and is somewhat roundly sub- 
truncate posteriorly. 

Nerocila australasiak, Schioedte and Meinert. 

Nerocila austrahisiae, Sch. and Mem., Naturh, Tidsskr., (3) xiii., 1881, p. 35, pi. vi., 
llgs. 7, 8. 

I have seen no specimens agreeing with the description of this species, which is 
evidently very closely allied to N. macleayii. According to the authors' figures 
of their single specimen, the posterior angles of all the peraeon segments are more 
or less produced backwards (although the angles of the second segment are 
apparently not at all prominent) and the endojjod of the uropods is of different 
shape. 

Length. 29 mm. 

Hal?,— Tasmania : "Hobarttown." 

Nerocila serra, Schioedte and Meinert. 
Nerocila serra, Sch. and Mem., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) xiii., 1881, p. 17, pi. L, figs. 12-14; 
Nierstrasz, Zool. Medcl, i., 1915, p. 74; Barnard, Ann. S. Af-r. Mus., xx, 1925, p. 392. 

9 . Ovigerous. About twice as long as wide. Surface glabrous, with 
tiny and rather sparse punctures. Ccphalon wider than medianly long, with 
anterior margin rounded and somewhat angular in the middle; posterior margin 
very distinctly trilobate; eyes small but distinct. First antennae a little shorter 
and stouter than second, composed of eight articles ; second antennae not reaching 
to middle of length of first peraeon segment, composed of nine articles. First 

(5) Chilton, Trans. N. Z'd. Inst., xxiii., 1891, pi. xi., fig. 2. 



209 

article of palp of mandibles stouter and a little longer than second, which is 
distinctly longer than third. Peraeon widest at fifth segment; media/length of 
first segment a little greater than that of second to fourth segments, and subequal 
in length to fifth to seventh segments. Postcro-lateral portions of all segments 
produced backwards and a little outwards, with the posterior angles acute; 
posterior angles of seventh segment reaching back almost to level of posterior 
angles of third plcon segment. Coxal plates well developed, falcate, all visible 
in dorsal view, the hinder pairs prominent; plates of second to fifth segments 
not or scarcely reaching beyond the posterior angles of their segments ; those of 
sixth and seventh segments distinctly longer than their segments, the acute apices 
of the seventh plates reaching almost to level of posterior angles of fifth plcon 
segment. First fiy e p\ con segments subequal in length; pleural parts of first and 




Kig. 6. 

Ncrocila serra. Adult male phase: a and b, dorsal and lateral views (2| diam.) ; c, 
antennae (6 diam.) ; d, palp of mandible (19 diam.) ; c and /, first and second maxillae 
19 diam.) ; g, maxilliped (19 diam.) ; h and i, first and seventh peraeopods (6 diam.) ; 
/, second pleopod (6 diam.); k, uropod (6 diam.)- /, Uropod of ovigerous female 
(6 diam.). m and /;, Second pleopod and uropod of immature example (6 diam.). 

second segments produced, narrow and apically acute, those of the second seg- 
ment reaching back to posterior angles of fifth segment; telsonic segment sub- 
cordate, with an obsolete median carina; basal width equal to medial length; 
postero-lateral margins very finely serrate. Endopod of uropods reaching beyond 
apex of telson, shorter and wider than exopod. with inner margin, and proximal 
part of outer margin, slightly convex, and with inner and outer posterior margins 
coarsely and conspicuously serrate; exopod falcate. Peraeopods moderately 
stout, successively increasing in length ; seventh pair with five stout spines (two 
of which are shorter than the others) on inner margin of merus, five spines on 
inner margin of carpus, and eight or nine on inner margin of proporlus. 



210 

Colour in alcohol : Dorsum yellowish with a blackish median stripe for whole 
length of animal, and with a blackish stripe on each side of peraeon and first five 
segments of pleon. Underside and peraeopods pale. 

Length, 20 mm. 

/^ —.Queensland: Great Palm Island, from Liitianus sp. (Dr. W. E. J. 
Paradice), Brisbane (J. D. Ogilby), Cairns (A. M. Lea). 

Hah.—- -Malay Archipelago, South Africa (Barnard), and Queensland. 

The marsupium of the female described above is filled with ova. As the 
ovigerous female is illustrated by Schioedte and Meinert, I have here figured an 
example, 22 mm. in length, in the adult male phase. This specimen differs from 
the ovigerous female in being of narrower form, in not having the posterior angles 
of the peraeon segments so much backwardly produced, and in having the last 
pair of coxal plates shorter, but nevertheless reaching beyond the posterior angles 
of the seventh peraeon segment. The pleural portions of the first and second 
pleon segments are not so greatly produced and the general colouration of the 
dorsum is darker, so that the median and lateral stripes are not prominent. 

An immature specimen 16*5 mm. in length is still more slender in form, the 
eyes are degenerate (but are larger than in adult examples), the antennae reach 
back almost to the hinder margin of the first peraeon segment, and the posterior 
angles of only the first, sixth, and seventh peraeon segments are backwardly pro- 
duced, and these but slightly ; the coxal plates are less developed, but the last pan- 
reach beyond the posterior angles of their segment. The right uropod is abnormal, 
but the left is much as in the adult, excepting that the serrations, while distinct, 
are not nearly as conspicuous (fig. 6, n). As in N, latkauda and N. macleayii, 
the male appendage of the second pleopods is relatively longer in the young than 
in large specimens (fig. 6, j and m). The postero-lateral borders of the telson are 
minutelv serrate in all examples examined. 

The type female figured by Schioedte and Meinert (22 mm. in length) 
apparently has the endopod of the uropods relatively narrower than in the Queens- 
land specimens. 

Anilocra, Leach, 

Anilocra, Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat., xii., 1818, pp. 348, 350; Sch. and Mein., Naturh Tidsskr., 
(3) xiii 1881, p. 100; Stebb., Herdman's Pearl Fish., Ceylon, Suppl. Rep., xxtn., 1905, p. £* 
(syn.) ; Rich., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., liv., 1905, p. 226. 

The posterior margin of the cephalon is trilobate, but not prominently so. 
The posterior angles of the second to sixth peraeon segments are never produced 
(but arc often produced in the preceding genus). The peraeon is rather thick 
and compact, the coxal plates of the fourth to seventh segments are somewhat 
small and do not nearly reach to the posterior angles of their segments. 

Anilocra cavicauda, Richardson. 
Anilocra cavicauda, Rich., Wash. Bur. Fish., Doc. 736 y 1910, p. 18, fig. 17. 
2 . Ovigerous. Surface smooth, with a few scattered punctures. 
Cephalon much wider than medianly long, narrowed in front of eyes and with 
anterior margin roundly subtruncate and downbent. Eyes rather large, oval, 
composite; widely separated and situate at postero-lateral portions of cephalon. 
First antennae stouter than, and about two-thirds as long as, second antennae; 
composed of eight articles and slightly geniculate at articulation of third and 
fourth articles. Second antennae reaching back to hinder margin of first peraeon 
segment and composed of ten articles. Peraeon widest at fifth segment; first 
segment longer than second or third, but shorter than any of the other segments; 
second to fifth segments successively increasing in length, the sixth being more 
than three times as long as the second segment; seventh segment subequal m 
length to fourth. None of coxal plates carinate; those of second and third seg- 



211 



meat* subquadrate in shape, reaching to level of posterior angles of their segments ; 
those of fourth to seventh segments curved, narrower than first two pairs and 
with their posterior apices far removed from the hinder angles of their respective 
segments. Sides of pleon converging from first to fifth segments, which are sub- 
equal m length; fifth segment scarcely more than two-thirds as wide as first 
segment; surface of sides of third to fifth segments concave; posterolateral 
margins of fifth segment concavely incised; telsonic segment not" much longer 
than wide, with an obsolete, longitudinal, median carina; lateral margins rounded 
and postero-lateral margins almost straight, abruptly converging to the narrowly 
subtruncate apex; basal portion tumid and sides upturned, so that the dorsum 
of the telson is scoop-shaped. Uropods reaching to level of apex of telson ; 
endopod suboval, subequal in length to, but wider than, exopod, which has the 




some of the joints. 



spi 






Fig. 7. 

Anilocra cavicauda. Ovigerous female: a and b, dorsal and lateral views (2| diam ) ' 

c antennae (6 diam.) ; d and c, first and second maxillae (19 diam.) ; f, maxilliped 

(19 diam.) ; g and h, first and seventh peraeopods (6 diam.) ; i f uropod (6 diam.}. 

Colour in alcohol: Dorsum yellow, thickly dotted with brown chromatophores, 
so that the animal appears of an olivaceous colour. 

Length, 26 mm. 

Loc. — Queensland: Port Denison (E. EL Painford). 

Hab. — Philippine Islands and Queensland. 

Two ovigerous females were collected by Mr. Rainford, who is responsible 

lor the following interesting observation concerning the habit of this species: 

"Found attacking side of occiput of rainbow fish (Pentapus selosus). Attached 
by the mouth, the parasites infest about 75 per cent, of this species of fish, always 
m the same position." As A. cavicauda was previously known from a single 
female, it is unfortunate that a larger series of specimens was not taken. 

The second female before me is 21 -5 mm. in length; in this the telson is 
more elongate than in the example described above, and has the postero-lateral 
margins slightly sinuate. In both specimens the lateral parts of the rami of the 
first three pairs of pleopods project beyond the sides of the rather narrow plcon ; 
chromaiopliores are present on the edges of the projecting portions of the 
pleopods. 



212 

Richardson's type is of larger size and narrower form (36 mm. in length 
and 10 mm in width), and has the telsonic segment much more elongate (9 mm. 
in length and 5 mm. in width) than in the Australian specimens, in these last 
the exopod of the uropods is very slightly longer than the endopod (a reverse 
condition to that ohtaining in the type) and the antennae are, apparently, less 
markedly geniculate. Richardson says that the dactyli of the first four pairs ot 
peraeopods are "inflated in the centre," but in the specimens now described tins 
inflation is very slight. The salient feature of A. cavicauda is the concave dorsum 
of the telson. , . 

A cavicauda is widely separated trom the New Caledonian species, A. 
austraiis Schioedte and Meinert.< 6 > In the last-named the exopod of the uropods 
is much longer than the endopod. while the Danish authors place it m a section 
of their key including forms which have the antennae straight and the coxal plates 
of the fourth to seventh segments carinate. 

Cymothoa, Fabricius. 

Cmwthoa Fabr., Entomol. Syst, it, 1793, p. 503; Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) 
xiv., 1884, p. 223; Rich., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., liv., 1905, p. 247. 

The cephalon is more or less immersed, but the hinder margin is not trilobate ; 
the hrst pair of antennae are widely separated basally, and are Jiiot expanded. 
The first peraeou segment has the anterior margin slightly concave or sinuate and 
the antero-lateral angles more or less prominently forwardly produced. 1 he 
coxal plates are rather thick and prominent. The pleon is abruptly narrower 
than the peraeon and is deeply immersed. The basos of the posterior peraeopods 
is expanded. 

Key to Australian Species. 

a. Antero-lateral angles of first peraeon segment not reaching to, or 
scarcely passing, level of middle of cephalon. 

b. Anterior margin of cephalon rounded il ! dica 

bb. Anterior margin of cephalon widely truncate .. .. ■■ limbata 

aa Antero-lateral angles of first peraeon segment reaching to level ot 

four-fifths of length of cephalon . . . . ** vicina 

Cymothoa indica, Schioedte and Meinert. 

Cymothoa indka, Sch. and Mein. ( Naturh. Tiddskr., (3) xiv., 1884, p. 250, pi. viii., figs. 1-4. 

5 Ovigerous. Form subovate, a little more than twice as long as greatest 
width ' Cephalon subtriangular, about one-third wider than medianly long, with 
apex verv narrowly subtruueate. Eyes obscure. First pair of antennae stouter 
than amfsubequal in length to second ; composed of eight articles ; second antennae 
reaching to hinder angles of cephalon, composed of nine articles. Second article 
of palp of mandibles a little more than twice as long as third. Peraeon widest at 
fourth and fifth segments, first segment much longer than any of the others, its 
medial length nearly equal to that of the last three segments together; antero- 
lateral angles not reaching forward to middle of length of cephalon; anterior 
margin concave, towards the sides a little sinuate, and posterior margin 
widely sinuate; second, third, and fourth segments subequal m length; 
fifth' shorter than fourth and longer than sixth or seventh segment; 
posterior angles of all segments rounded and slightly produced out- 
wards and downwards. Coxal plates with posterior margins nearly straight 
or slightly incised, not reaching quite to the posterior angles of their respective 
segments." First three segments of pleon subequal in length and width; fourth 
segment a little wider but no longer than third, and fifth wider, and longer 
than fourth; telsonic segment twice as wide as long, wider than fifth pleon seg- 
ment ; postero-lateral angles rounded and posterior m argin s inuate; disc with a 

(6) Sch. andMein., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) xiii., 1881. p. 120, pi. viii., fig. 11. 



213 

median longitudinal sulcus. Uropods reaching almost to level of hinder margin 
of telson; rami subequal in length, narrow, curved, and apically rounded. 
Peracopods strong, successively increasing in length; carina of last four pairs 
pronounced, the basos of the seventh peraeopods being only about one-third longer 
than wide. 

Colour in alcohol: Brown, becoming paler posteriorly. 
Length, 29 mm. 

Loc— Western Australia: Bernicr Island (W. Austr. Mus. Coll.). North- 
western Australia (Capt. Walcott). Queensland: N.W. Islet, Capricorn Group, 
"from pectoral fin of Mugil" (G. P. Whitley") ; Port Denison. Bowen. "from 
mouth of whiting" (E. H. Rainford). 

Hub. — India, North-western and North-eastern Australia. 

1 am greatly indebted to Mr. E. H. Rainford for a fine series of specimens 
from Queensland. 




Fig. 8. 

Cynwtkoa mdica, Ovigerous female: a and [>, dorsal and lateral views (If diam.) ; 
c t antennae (9 diam.) ; d, palp of mandible (29 diam.) ; e and /, first and second 
maxillae (20 diam.) ; g and h, first and seventh peraeopods (4 diam.) ; i first pleopod 
(4 diam.). Adult male phase: /, maxilliped (29 diam.) ; k, second pleopod (4 diam.). 

An example 20 mm. in length, in the adult male phase, has the cephalon 
almost as long as its basal width, the greater part of the first pleon segment hidden 
beneath the last peraeon segment, and the telsonic segment relatively longer than 
in the ovigerous female; also the coxal plates arc a little longer, those of the 
second, third, and fourth peraeon segments reaching quite to the posterior angles 
of these segments. The male appendage is long and tapering, and exceeds the. 
rami of the second pleopods in length. Schioedte and Meinert examined two 
specimens, an ovigerous female 20 mm. in length and one "mas adultus" only 
9 mm. in length. A small male (10 mm. in length) from Queensland is very like 
the last-named example. 



214 



Cymothoa limbata, Schioedte and Meinert. 

Cymothoa limbata, Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) xiv., 1884, p. 250, pi. yii, figs. 1,2. 

C. limbata and C. indica are both included by the Danish authors in Section ii. 
of their "Conspectus systematicus spccierum" ; (7) this section contains forms 
which have the antero-lateral angles of the first peraeon segment nearly reaching 
or slightly passing the level of the middle of the length of the cephalon. C. limbata 
differs from C. indita in that the anterior margin of the cephalon is truncate. 
The telsonic segment is distinctly longer than the remaining segments of the pleon 
together. 1 have not seen this species, which is described from a single "virgo. 

Length, 17 mm. 

Hob, — Queensland : Cape York. 

Cymothoa vicina, n. sp. 

$ . Ovigerous. Form subovai, a little more than twice as long as greatest 
width. Cephalon subtriangular, nearly half as wide again as medially long; 
anteriorly with a short, longitudinal, median sulcus; with lateral margins slightly 
sinuate and anterior margin very narrowly subtruncate. Eves distinct., rather 




Fig. 9. 

Cxmothoa vidua, type ovigerous female: a and b f dorsal and lateral views (21 

diam.) ; c antennae (9 diam.) ; d, mandible (20 diam.) ; e and f, first and seventh 

peraeopods (5 diam.); g, second pleopod (5 diam.). h, Cephalon and first peraeon 

segment of ovigerous female of C. stromalei (2 diam.). 

small. First pair of antennae stouter than and subequal in length to second pair; 
composed of eight articles; second antennae reaching to hinder angles of cephalon, 
composed of nine articles. Second article of palp of mandibles scarcely more 
than twice as long as the third. Peraeon widest at third and fourth segments ; 
first segment longer than any of the others., its medial length equal to that of the 
fifth and sixth segments together; antero-lateral angles reaching to level of tour- 
fifths of length of cephalon ; anterior margin sinuate and posterior margin very 
slightly sinuate; second, third, and fourth segments successively increasing; 
slightly in length; fifth abruptly shorter, equal in length to sixth; seventh seg- 
ment shortest; posterior angles of ail segments obtusely rounded, scarcely at all 
produced. Coxal plates with posterior margins rounded, not reaching to level of 
hinder angles of their respective segments. First four segments of pleon sub- 
equal in length and width; fifth longer and wider; telsonic segment twice as wide 
as long, a little wider than fifth segment, with postero-lateral and hin der margins 

(?) Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) xiv, 1884, pp. 225, 226. 



215 



rounded. Uropods reaching to level of apex of telson, with both branches curved 
and narrowly rounded apically; exopod longer and a little wider than endopod. 
Peraeopods strong, successively increasing in length backwards; carina of last 
tour pairs moderately produced., the basos of the seventh peraeopods being half 
as long again as wide. 

Colour in alcohol: Dark yellow. 

Length, 19 mm. 

Loc. — New South Wales: Tweed River, from a mullet (Franks). Type in 
Australian Museum, Reg. No. P8590. ' 

The male appendage of the second pieopods is retained in the single ovigerous 
female before me (fig. 9, g). This species belongs to Section iii. of the key given 
by Schioedte and Meinert (C. stromaiei, C. oestrum, etc.). but differs from the 
species placed there by these authors in not having the anterior margin of the 
cephalon broadly truncate or concave. In the accompanying figure the ccphalon 
of a specimen of C. stromaiei from New Guinea is shown for comparison. 

Livoneca, Leach. 

Livoncca, Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat., xii., 1818, p. 551; Sch. and Mem.. Naturh. Tidsskr (3) 
xiv., 1884, p. 340; Barn., Ann. S. Afr. Mus., xvii,, 1920, p. 357 (syn.). 

Cephalon more or less immersed. First pair of antennae not expanded but 
rather compressed; widely separated at the base. First peraeon segment abruptly 
longer than second (in which case the seventh segment is abruptly shorter than 
sixth) or subequal in length to other segments. Coxal plates rarely wide. 
Peraeopods subequal in length or successively increasing slightly in length back- 
wards ; carina of basos of last four pairs more or less prominent. Pleon rarely 
strongly immersed in peraeon. 



Key to Australian Species. 

a. Front of ccphalon not widely subtruncate ; second antennae much 

longer than first 
aa. Front of ccphalon widely subtruncate; second antennae not longer 

than first 

Ltvoneca RAYNAUD!!, Milne Edwards. 



raynaudii 

furgiduh 



ion 

s 



Livoncca raynaudii , M. Edw., Hist. Nat, Crust., iii., 1840, p. 262; Sch. and Mem Naturh 
Tidsskr., (3) xiv., 1884, p. 367, pi. xv, figs. 9-13; Whitelegge, Mem. Austr Mus iv 1901 
p. 236; Stebb., Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vi., 1910, p. 425; Thielemann, Munchcn Abh Akad Wiss " 
n., Suppl. 3, 1911, p. 42; Barn., Ann. S. Afr. Mus., xvii.. 1920, p. 358; Chilton Rec Cant 
Mus., L 1911, p. 309, and Trans. N. ZU lust., xliv., 1912, p. 135. 

Lironcca novac-aealandiac, Micrs, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, (4) xvii., 1876 p 228 and Cat 
Crust. N. Z'd., 1876, p. 106, pi. iii., fig. 2. 

Livoncca sleawti, Filhol., Mission dTle Campbell, iii., 1885, p. 450, pi. K\, bg. 6. 
9 . Ovigerous. Form suboval, about one and three-fourths times as 
g as wide. Cephalon immersed in first peraeon segment, subpentagonal in 
hape, slightly wider than medial length; front suddenly narrowed near apex, 
which is rounded; dorsum shallowly excavate. Eyes rather small, suboval. First 
antennae composed of eight articles ; second antennae one-half as long again as 
first, composed of twelve articles. First article of palp of mandibles a little 
longer than second and third together ; second much longer than third article, 
which bears a few setae near and at apex. Peraeon moderately convex; first 
segment slightly longer than the others, which are subequal in "length. Coxal 
plates of second to fifth segments subpendulous, of sixth and seventh continued 
almost in same plane as their segments ; plates of second and third segments almost 
or quite reaching to postero-lateral angles of their segments, and remaining 
plates not attaining hinder angles of their segments. First pleon segment 
partly concealed beneath last peraeon segment ; second to fifth segments subequal 



216 



in width, the fifth a little longer than second to fourth, which are subequal in 
length; telsonic segment a little less than twice as wide as medial length, with 
hinder margin semicircular, and with an obsolete, median carina on basal half 
of dorsum. Uropods not reaching much beyond level of middle of length of 
telsonic segment; both branches suboval and slightly tapering, the exopod a little 
larger than the endopod. Peraeopods rather stout, successively increasing in 
length backwards; basos of first three pairs with a low carina; basos of last four 
pairs with a carina, which is somewhat prominently produced near the proximal 
end. Pieopods successively decreasing in size backwards, the outer ramus of 
each longer and much wider than the inner. 

Colour in alcohol : Yellow. 

Length, 38 mm. 




Livoneca raynaitdii, Ovigerous female: a and b, dorsal and lateral views (If diam.) ; 
c antennae (6* diam.); d, palp of mandible (10 diam.); e and /, first and second 
maxillae (10 diam.) ; V apex of first maxilla (42 diam.) ; g t maxilhpcd (6i diam.) ; 
h and i, first and seventh peraeopods (31 diam.) ; /, abnormal telsonic segment of 

another specimen (ly diam.). 

$■ , Differs from the ovigerous female as follows: — Antennae relatively a 
little longer (but composed of the same number of articles), peraeopods more 
slender and form narrower, about two and one-third times longer than wide. All 
coxal plates reaching nearly or quite to level of hinder angles of their segments. 
Telson a little longer in proportion to its width and more triangular in shape. 
Male appendage of second pieopods not much shorter than large outer ramus. 
Branches of uropods with a few short hairs on inner and apical margins; exopod 
longer than endopod, sometimes reaching to level of apex of pleon. 

Length, 17*5-19 mm. 

L^.-New South Wales: Sydney (Raphael), off Cape Three Points, Jibbon, 
Wata Mooli, and Coogee. 32-78 faths. ("Thetis" Exped.), Tcrrigal (D. G. Stead), 
off Botany Bay, 33-56 faths. (C. W. Mulvcy, F. A. McNeill, and A. Living- 
stone), Port Jackson, 65-75 faths., from Zeus faber and a Scorpaemd, and off 
Green Cape, 30-40 faths., from a flathead (W. Boardman and G. P. Whitley). 
South Australia: Port Adelaide (S. Austr. Mus. Coll.). Tasmania (A. M. Lea). 

Hab— South Africa. Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. 



217 



This species is apparently not subject to very great distortion; some speci- 
mens are quite symmetrical, others are curved slightly to the left, others to the 
right. The front of the cephalon may be very narrowly subtruncate, and not or 
scarcely constricted near the apex. All the coxal plates may extend back to the 
level of the postero-lateral angles of their respective segments. 

The telsonic segment of an abnormal female is shown at /, fig. 10 ; the right 
uropod is normal, but on the left, and damaged, side two uropods (one of which 
is uniramous) have been developed. 

As remarked by Chilton L. epimcrias, Rich, C8 > from Japan, is apparently 
very close to L, raynaudii. 

Livoneca turgidula, n. sp. 

9 . Form somewhat ovate, about twice as long as greatest width. Cephalon 
not deeply immersed in first peraeon segment, slightly bent downwards anteriorly, 
and a little longer than basal width; lateral margins concave and front truncate, 
very slightly convex; dorsum with two shallow, adjoining foveae. Eyes small, 
suboval, situate at postero-lateral angles of cephalon. Antennae short, composed 
of eight articles in both pairs ; second pair more slender and a little shorter than 
first. First article of palp of mandibles as long as second and third together; 




Fig. 11. 
Livoneca turgidula, type, female: a and b, dorsal and lateral views (3 diam.) ; r, 
antennae (12 diam.) ; d and c, first and second maxillae (18 diam.) ; /, maxilliped 
(18 diam.) ; g and h, first and seventh perlaeopods (8^ diam.) ; i, uropod (8i diam.). 

third about half as long as second, with a few short: apical setae. Peraeon 
moderately convex, suboval in shape; antero-lateral angles of first segment acute, 
reaching to anterior margins of eyes, and dorsum with a deep groove on each 
side near lateral margins; first and fourth segments subequal in length, longer 
than any of the others ; second and sixth subequal in length, a little longer than 
third and fifth segments, which are subequal in length ; seventh segment abruptly 
shorter. Coxal plates thick, very narrow in dorsal view, rounded posteriorly, 
only the last pair reaching to the posterior angles of their segment. First pleon 
segment partly concealed beneath last peraeon segment ; second to fifth segments 
subequal in length and width (right lateral portion of second abnormal), as wide 
as the seventh peraeon segment; telsonic segment nearly twice as wide as medianly 
long, subrectangular in shape, with postero-lateral margins and hinder margin 
rounded ; dorsum with a low median carina, lightly excavate and shallowly pitted 



(8) Rich., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xxxvii., 1910, p. 88, fig. 13. 



II 



m 

on each side of carina. Uropods reaching to level of hinder margin of telson, 
with branches suboval in shape and subequal in length ; endopod a little wider 
than exopod. Peraeopods moderately stout, successively increasing in length; 
basos of each with a low but distinct carina. Pleopods successively decreasing 
in size backwards, the outer ramus much wider and longer than inner in the first 
two pairs, less markedly wider and longer in the three posterior pairs. 

Length, 16*5 mm. 

$ . Less robust than the female, about two and one-half times as long as 
greatest width. Male appendage of second pleopods as long as rami. 

Length, 10*5 mm. 

Loc. — Western Australia: Fremantle (type locality) and Cottesloe (L. 
Glauert). Type, female, and allotype, male, in W. Austr. Mus., Reg. Nos. 10034 
and 11126. 

This species resembles L. philippinensis, Rich., (9 > in the small size, the short 
antennae, and the irregular lengths of the peraeon segments. Richardson's species 
differs, however, in having the cephalon wider than long and rounded in front, 
the telson of different shape, etc. 

Irona, Schioedte and Meinert. 

Irona, Sch. and Mem., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) xiv., 1884, p. 381; Stebb., Herdman's Ceylon 
Pearl Fish., Suppl. xxiii., 1905, p. 27; Rich., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., liv., 1905, p. 265. 

Front of cephalon rather broadly rounded. First segment of peraeon sub- 
lunate, longer than the second. Posterior coxal plates usually wide or rather 
wide. Carina of basos of last four pairs of peraeopods obsolete. Pleon usually 
strongly immersed in the peraeon, the first segment wholly or for the greater part 
covered by the last peraeon segment. 

Irona is close to Livoneca, but one or more of the above somewhat incon- 
stant characters serve to distinguish the females of the species of the genus. No 
species has been previously noted from Australian coasts, but at least the two 
following occur : — 

Key to Australian Species. 

a. Coxal plates thick, comparatively narrow, convex fore and aft, and trans- 
versely. Eyes moderately large. Peraeopods stout . . . . . . renardi 

aa. Coxal plates thin, wide, and flat. Eyes larger. Peraeopods more slender mclanosticta 

Irona renardi, Bleeker. 
Livoneca renardi, Blcek., Acta. Soc. Scient. Indo-Neerland., ii., 1857, p. 28, pi. i., fig. 8. 
Lironeca renardi, Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) v., 1880, p. 465. 
Irona renardi, Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) xiv., 1884, p. 383, pi. xvi., figs. 10, 11. 

9 . Ovigerous. Form irregularly subovate, twice as long as greatest 
width. Cephalon strongly immersed in first peraeon segment, suborbiculate, 
about one-third wider than medial length, and with front obtuse. Eyes moder- 
ately large. Labrum about one-fourth wider than long ; slightly emarginate. 
Antennae short, the first pair stouter than second ; both composed of seven articles. 
Oral appendages stout. First article of palp of mandibles equal to second and 
third together ; third article short. Basipodite of maxillipeds twice as long as 
greatest width. Peraeon transversely convex, widest at second and third seg- 
ments; first segment sublimate, much longer than any of the others, with posterior 
margin sinuate towards sides ; antero-lateral angles narrowly rounded and reach- 
ing almost to level of anterior margins of eyes ; second segment longer than third, 
which is longer than the four posterior segments, which are subequal in length. 
Coxal plates thick, not very wide, convex transversely and fore and aft ; first 

m Rich., Bur. of Fish., Doc. No. 736, 1910, p. 24, fig. 23. 



219 

two pairs not reaching to hinder angles of their segments, and last four pairs 
extending to the posterior angles of their segments ; plates of second to fourth 
segments acutely rounded posteriorly, of fifth to seventh segments obtusely 
rounded. Picon deeply immersed in pcraeon, which covers the first two segments 
(the lateral parts of which are, however, visible in lateral view) ; lateral margins 
short, almost straight or slightly incised; telsonic segment rounded, not much 
wider than medial length, as wide as fourth pleon segment; dorsum marked with 
faint pits. Uropods reaching well beyond apex of pleon; both rami long and 
narrow, curved or a little sinuate, the endopod shorter and narrower than the 




Fig. 12. 

Irona renardi. Male: », dorsal view {2\ diatn.) ; b, second pleopod (4 diam). 
Ovigenous female: c and d, dorsal and lateral views (11 diam.) ; e, cephalon (5 a 
diam.); /, labrum (10 diam.); g f antennae (22 diam.); h and *, first and second 
maxillae (14 diam.) ; j, maxilliped (11 diam.) ; k and I, first and seventh peraeopods 
(4 diam.). m, Dorsal view of another female (2k diam.). 

exopod. Peraeopods stout, successively increasing in length backwards; dactyh 
strong ; seventh peraeopods a little longer than sixth. 

Colour in alcohol : White with small chromatophores on the telson, uropods, 
and plcopods. 

Length, 29 mm. 

$ . The form is subovate and is more slender (two and one-half times 
longer than wide) and more symmetrical, and the cephalon is relatively larger 
than in the ovigerous female. First antennae composed of eight articles, the 
second of nine.' Peraeon widest at third segment; first segment longest, with 



antero-lateral angles subacute, reaching to level of middle of length of eves. 
Coxal plates of second to fourth segments subtruncate posteriorly, of fifth to 
seventh segments obtusely rounded. All segments of pleon visible in dorsal view. 
Male appendage of second pleopods not nearly reaching to end of rami. 

Colour: Whitish, closely dotted with small chromatophores, which are most 
distinct posteriorly. 

Length, 19 mm. 

Lor.— New South Wales: Georges River, Botany Bay (J. II, Wright) under 
gill-cover of Tylosurus fcrox (D, G. Stead), Port Jackson, and Camden Haven, 
under gill-cover of Tylosurus maclcayana (Austr. Mus. Coll.). Queensland- 
Townsville, from Tylosurus sp. (Dr. W. E. J. Paradice). Western Australia- 
Fremantle (W. Austr. Mus. Coll.). 

Hab,— India, Philippine Islands and Australia ( ? Batavia-Blceker). 

The male and female described and illustrated above were taken together at 
Sans Souci, Georges River; a second ovigerous female, 24"5 mm. in length, from 
Queensland, is shown at m, fig. 12. In females which are curved to the left the 
pleon is tilted to the right, and on this side is more or less overlapped by the 
postero-lateral portion of the peraeon ; a reverse condition obtains in specimens 
curved to the right. At least the first pleon segment is concealed beneath the 
peraeon m the ovigerous female; the peraeon is not consistently subovate, and 
in one example it is suboval. 

Three males which, apparently, should be referred to this species were taken 
from Tylosiirus tnacleayana in New South Wales. The smallest of these is 
16-5 mm. in length, is three times as long as wide, and has the telson elongate, 
longer than wide; both branches of the uropods are ciliate, and the exopod is 
slightly longer and narrower than the suboval endopod. A second specimen is 
17-5 mm. m length, and is little more than two and one-half times as long as wide; 
the telson is scarcely wider than long, and the uropods are more as in the male 
described m detail above, but are relatively shorter. The third example is 23 mm. 
m length; the male appendage of the second pleopods is much shorter than the 
rami. 

Ikona melanosticta, Schioedte and Meinert. 
irova melanosticta, Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) xiv 1884 p 388 pi xvii 
figs. 3-5; Thielemann, Mimchen Abh. Akad., Wiss., ii., Suppl. 3, 1911, p. 45, pi ii figs 28 29- 
Barn., Ann. S. Afr. Mus., x, 1914, p. 373. ' ' 

2. Ovigerous. Form irregularly suboval, twice as long as greatest 
width. ^ Cephalon immersed in first peraeon segment, suborbiculate, wider than 
long, with front obtuse. Eyes large. Labrum slightly emarginate. First antennae 
much stouter than second, composed of eight articles; second pair composed of 
nine' articles. Oral appendages rather slender. First and second articles of palp 
of mandibles subequal in length, each two and three-fourths as long as third. 
Basipodite of maxillipcds two and one-half times longer than greatest width. 
Peraeon slightly convex transversely, widest at fourth segment; first segment 
sublimate, as long as the third, and a little longer than second segment, with 
posterior margin a little sinuate towards sides; antero-lateral angles rounded, 
reaching to level of eyes ; four posterior segments successively decreasing in length 
backwards. Coxal plates wide and rather thin, slightly convex fore and aft, and 
continued quite or nearly in the same plane as their segments; plates of second 
segment reaching to postero-lateral angles of their segment and remaining plates 
extending distinctly beyond hinder angles of their segments; first three pairs with 
outer margins more or less sinuate and posterior apices rounded ; last three pairs 
with outer margins convex and apices rather narrowly rounded; plates of third 
and fourth segments longer than the others. Pleon 'immersed in peraeon, the 
first segment not wholly concealed ; first four segments subequal in length, fifth 



221 



a little longer; lateral margin of anterior five segments rounded; posterior portion 
of telson membranaceous, with shallow pits, the hinder margin irregular; the 
greater part of the telsonic segment is more strongly chitinized than the hinder 
portion ; this firm portion is twice as wide as medianly long, semicircular in shape 




Fig. 13. 
Irona melanosticta. Male: a, dorsal view (3& diam.) ; b, second pleopod (6 diam.). 
Ovigerous female: c, dorsal view (3 diam.) ; d, ccphalon (84 diam.); e r antennae 
(21 diam.) ; / and g, first and second maxillae (21 diam.) ; h, maxilliped (21 dfam.) ; 
i f j, and k, first, sixth, and seventh peraeopods (6 diam.), I, m, n, and o t Dorsal views 
of other ovigerous females (2 to 3h diam.). />, Ccphalon of ovigerous female (84 
diam.) q, Dorsal view of another male (41 diam.)- 



222 



posteriorly, and faintly pitted. Left uropod abnormal, with rami rather short 
and subcqual in length; right uropod reaching well beyond apex of pleon, both 
branches thin and narrow, the exopod very slightly sinuate and longer and slightly 
wider than endopod. Peraeopods moderately stout, successively increasing in 
length backwards to the fifth pair; seventh peraeopods not longer than sixth. 

Colour in alcohol : Brownish, paler on telson. 

Length, 17 mm. 

o . The form is subovate and is more slender (two and three-fourths times 
as long as greatest width) and more symmetrical, and the cephalon is relatively 
larger than in the ovigerous female. First antennae composed of eight, and 
second of nine articles. Peraeon widest at third segment ; first segment longest, 
with antero-lateral angles rounded and not very produced. Coxal plates of second 
and third segments obtuse posteriorly, larger than the remaining pairs, which are 
narrowly rounded posteriorly; telsonic segment a little wider than medial length, 
posterior margin rounded and dorsum shallowly pitted and with a low median 
carina. Male appendage of second pleopods reaching to level of apex of inner 
ramus. Both rami of uropods reaching well beyond apex of pleon, the exopod 
longer and wider than the endopod. 





Irona mclanosticta. 



Fig. 14. 

Dorsal and ventral views of abnormal pleon of ovigerous 
female; pleopods removed (5 diam.). 



Colour: Brownish, paler on telson. 
Length, 14 mm. 

Loc. — South Australia: Port Victor (Bradley), Gulf St. Vincent, and Port 
Adelaide (S. Austr. Mus. Coll.). 

Hab. — Japan, Sandwich Islands, Australia, and South Africa. 

The coxal plates of the ovigerous female of this species are very different 
from those of /. renardi. Eighteen specimens, all taken from beneath the gill- 
covers of garfish (Hyporhamphus intermedins), are before me; the largest 
female is 25 mm. in length. The "long toms" (Tylosurus, from which some 
specimens of the preceding species were taken) do not occur in South Australia, 
but Thielemann notes that I, niclauoslicla is found on "Bclone sp." in Japan, 
and Barnard records it from "Tylosurus choram" in South Africa. 

The cephalon is somewhat variable in shape and may be apically obtuse or 
(rarely) somewhat triangular, with the antero-lateral margins sinuate (fig. 13, p). 
The form may be relatively much wider than in the examples described above 
owing to greater distortion or "telescoping" of the segments of the peraeon, as in 
the male shown at q, and in the ovigerous females at I, m, and o. The coxal plates 
are variable in size and shape, but are always thin and nearly fiat; more or less 
of the postero-lateral part of each is softer and somewhat thicker than the rest. 



223 

but in dried examples this fleshy portion shrinks and becomes thin and mem- 
branaceous. In some specimens the plcon is far more deeply immersed in the 
peraeon than in others (cf. females n and o). The hinder margin of the mem- 
branaceous posterior part of the telson of the ovigerous female is almost always 
irregular, but the more strongly chitinized, semicircular basal part is consistently 
about twice as wide as long, as in the example figured by Schioedtc and Meinert. 
In this sex the uropods are commonly abnormal on one side or the other (some- 
times on both sides), but the uropods of the male, and normal uropods of the 
female, are as described by Barnard. 

One much distorted ovigerous female presents an abnormality of some 
interest. This example is curved to the left, and the pleon (fig. 14) consists of 
only four separate segments, the fourth and fifth being fused with the telsonic 
segment, so that the fast two pairs of pleopods are attached to the underside of 
the enlarged "telson." The first three segments are twisted but distinct, and the 
fourth is represented by a short lateral piece on the right side. The lateral por- 
tions of the anterior margin of the telsonic segment are decurved. Uropods are 
wholly absent. 

Codonophilus, Haswell. 

Codonophilus, Hasw., Proc. Linn. Sac. N.S. Wales, v., 1881, p. 471, and Cat. Austr. 
Crust., 1882, p. 283. 

Ceralolhoa, Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) xiii., 1883, p. 322 (ncc Dana, 1853). 

Mcinertia, Stcbb.. Hist, of Crust., 1893, p. 354, and Mar. Invest. S. Afr, i., 1900, p. 57, 
and Ann. S. Afr. Mus, vi. t 1910, p. 424. 

The cephalon is more or less immersed, but its hinder margin is not trilobate. 
The first pair of antennae are expanded and are basally contiguous. The first 
peraeon segment has the anterior margin almost straight, or more or less strongly 
bisinuate, and the antero-lateral angles forwardly produced. The coxal plates 
are thick and prominent. The pleon is immersed in the peraeon. The first three 
pairs of peraeopods are shorter than the others; the basos of the posterior 
peraeopods is expanded. 

As before, the generic diagnosis applies to the mature adults. As noted below 
Haswell's Codonophilus was founded upon an immature specimen of Fabricius' 
Cymothoa imbricata. Unfortunately, Haswell's genus antedates Mevnertia of 
Stebbing, so that the species referred to the last-named genus must now be trans- 
ferred to Codonophilus. 

Codonophilus imbiucatus, Fabricius. 

Oniscus imbrkatus, Fabr., Mantissa Insect., i, 1787, p. 241. 

Cymothoa imbricata, Fabr., Entom. Syst, ii., 1793, p. 503, and Suppl., 1798, p. 304. 

Cymothoa banksii, Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat., xii., 1818, p. 353; M. Edw, Hist. Nat. Crust, m, 
1840 p 273; Krauss, Die Stidafrikanischen Crust, 1843, p. 66; Heller, Reise der Novara Crust., 
1868, p. 148. ... 

Cymothoa irigonocephala, Leach, he. cit. t p. 353; M. Edw, Ann. Sci Nat., (2) in, Ufctt, 
pi xi V ; figs. 1, 2, and Regne Animal (1839 ?), pi. lxv., fig. 2, and Hist. Nat. Crust, m, 1840, 
p. 272. 

Ceratoihoa triqonoccphala, Heller, he. cit., p. 148; Thomson, Trans. N. Z'd. Inst, xu, 
1879 p 233; Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, (5) v. 1880, p. 463; Hasw, Cat . Auslr Crust., 
1882 p 282; Sch. and Mein, Naturh. Tidsskr, (3) xiii, 1883, p. 358, pi xvi, figs. 1-7. 

Ceratoihoa banksii, Miers, Cat. Crust. N. ZU, 1876, p. 105; Sch. and Mein, he. crt.,p.340 f 
pi. xiv, figs. 6-21 ; Hansen, Cirolanidae, 1890, p. 68 pi. x fig. 4. 

Codonophilus argits, Hasw, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, v, 1881, p. 471, pi. xvi, figs. 1, 
le t and \g, and Cat. Austr. Crust, 1882, p. 283. 

Ceratoihoa imbricata, Miers, Zool. "Alert," 1884, p. 300 

Mcinertia imbricata, Stcbb., Hist, oi Crust., 1893, p. 354, and Mar Invest. S Afr i, 
1900, p. 58, and Ann. S. Afr. Mus, vL, 1910, p. 424; Chilton, Trans. N. Z d. Inst, xlm, 

' Mcinertia triqonoccphala, Thielemann, Miinchen Ahh. Akad. Wiss., ii., Suppl. 3, 1911, p. 35, 
pi. i, figs. 8, 9. 



224 

The following variation is evident in ovigerous females :— Cephalon sub- 
triangular, longer than wide, sometimes three-fourths as long again as basal width; 
apex obtuse or subacute, the front occasionally considerably narrowed; lateral 
margins rounded and scarcely sinuate, or emarginate. Eyes usually distinct, 
rhomboidal or suboval, usually with inner margins almost straight. 'Normally] 
the first antennae are composed of seven articles and the second of nine. Produced 
anterolateral parts of first peraeon segment wide, and apically rounded, or taper- 
ing and apically acute; anterior margin of iirst segment nearly straight (slightly 
concave or convex) or more or less bisinuate (occasionally "conspicuously so)'. 
Fifth segment of pleon with hinder margin more or less distinctly trisinuate ; 
telsonic segment about twice as wide as medial length, rarclv perfectly sym- 
metrical, with hinder margin rounded. Normally the rami of die uropods "are 
narrow, falcate, and subequal in length (fig. 15, i). 




Fig. 15. 
Codunvphihts imbrkatus. Ovigerous female: a and b, dorsal and lateral views 
(11 diam.) ; c, palp of mandible (8 diam.) ; d and c, first and second maxillae 
(8 diam.) ; /, maxilliped (6 diam.) ; f, palp of maxilliped (19 diam.) ; g and h first 
and seventh peracopods (4 diam.). i, Uropod of a smaller female (8 diam.). / and 
k, Cephalon and first peraeon segment of two other examples (H diam.). 

The smallest of the ovigerous females before me is 16-5 mm. in length, the 
largest 49 mm.; Stebbing states that the female attains a length of 57 mm. The 
ova of one of the small examples are, approximately, 2 mm. in diameter; those 
of a very large female are slightly larger. 

An ovigerous female 44 mm. in length is illustrated in fig. IS, a to h; the 
cephalon and first peraeon segment of two smaller specimens, taken from the 
tongue of a mullet, are shown at/ and k. 

The species has been recorded from the Indian Ocean, Java, New Zealand, 
Australia, and South Africa. It is moderately common in Australian waters, and 
there is before me a series of more than one hundred adult specimens from various 



225 

localities oft* the eastern, southern, and western coasts. In the majority of cases 
the host is not noted, but some labels show that the parasite occurs in the mouth 
or under the gill-cover of the yellow-tail (Trachurus declivis), schnapper (Pagro- 
somus auratiis), red gurnard (Chelidonichthys kamu), blackfish (Girella tri- 
enspidata) , trevally (Caranx georgianus), and mullet (Mugil). 

Miers (at supra, 1884) compared Fabricius" type of Cymothoa imbricata with 
the type examples of C. trigonocephala, Leach, and states that it is probable that 
the last-named species is synonymous with the first ; he adds that he keeps them 
provisionally distinct because in the type of C. trigonocephala "the head is nar- 
rower, more distinctly triangulate, with straight sides, and the anterior thoracic 
segment proportionately longer than is usual in C. imbricata." Stebbing (1900) 
remarks on the difference in the anterior margin of the first peraeon segment of 
the ovigerous females figured by Schioedte and Meinert ; the Danish authors 
show this margin as conspicuously bisinuate in the female figured by ihem as 
Ccratothoa trigonocephala and nearly straight in the female they designate C 
banksii. Jn their figures of the males of the two species, however, the condition 





Fig. 16. 

Codonophilus imbricatus, juvenile (Harwell's type specimen of C. argus): a, dorsal 

view (13 diam.) ; /;, antennae (39 diam.) ; c and d, first and sixth peraeopods (29 

diam.) ; e, second plcopod (39 diam.) ; /, nropod (39 diam.). 

appears to be reversed. In 1910 Stebbing definitely sinks Cymothoa trigono- 
cephala. Leach, in the synonymy of Meinertia imbricata, and notes that probably 
Ccratothoa trigonocephala of Schioedte and Meinert is also a synonym. The 
variability of the Australian specimens leaves one in no doubt concerning this 
last reckoning. 

Advanced young taken from the brood-pouch of a female are 4 mm. to 
4*6 mm. in length, and differ from the adult in having the form symmetrical, the 
eyes large and conspicuous, the antero-lateral angles of the first peraeon segment 
scarcely produced, and the last peraeon segment short. Also, the inner edge of 
the dactylus of the anterior peraeopods is dentate, the seventh pair of peraeopods 
is not developed, the telson is fringed with long, delicately plumose hairs, and the 
rami of the uropods are suboval in shape and fringed with long plumose hairs. 
Schioedte and Meinert give the lengths of the young of the first and second stage 
as 3*5 mm. and 3*6 mm., respectively, under the name Ccratothoa- trigonocephala, 
and as 4*2 mm. and 5 mm. under the name C. banksii. 



226 

The type specimen of Codonophilus argus, Hasw. (fig. 16), is 4 mm. in length 
("5/32 in.") and is identical with advanced brood young of Mc inertia imbricata. 
Haswell evidently made a superficial examination of the specimen upon which 
he founded his genus, for he states that the pleon has the "Terminal segment 
scale-like, acuminate/' and that the uropods are "uniramous . . . Ramus 
. . . falciform with a few scattered cilia." When the type specimen is lifted 
out of the alcohol in which it is preserved and examined under the microscope, 
the wet, fringing, plumose hairs of the uropods and apical part of the transparent 
telson tend to converge to a point (like a wet camel-hair brush), and there is little 
doubt that this conveyed the impression that the telson and uropods were apically 
acute. Further, -when the type was first examined by me the endopod of each 
uropod was closely overlying the exopod, and the matting of the marginal hairs 
held the two branches thus superimposed, producing the "uniramous" appear- 
ance ; the "few scattered cilia" were evidently some projecting ends of the plumes 
at the fringing hairs. This specimen is of importance, as it necessitates the 
sinking of the generic name Mcinertia, and the above rather obvious explanation 
is given because it is felt that it may be suspected that the example is incorrectly 
labelled as HaswclPs type. There is, however, no doubt on that score. Haswell 
figures the maxilliped and the ischium, merits, carpus, propodus, and dactylus of 
the right peraeopod of the first pair; when first now examined the type had only 
these parts missing, the basos of the first peraeopod of the right side being still 
attached. I have removed, stained, and mounted the parts here illustrated, and 
also the first and second maxillae. It is noted on the type label that the example 
was taken "from Crambessa mosaic a _, in Port Jackson, New South Wales." 

It is well to recall here that Richardson (10) remarks that Aegathoa of Dana 
"perhaps represents the young of Livoncca. The figure given by Schioedte and 
Meinert of the young female of Livoncca rcdmanni does not apparently differ 
from Aegathoa oculata (Say). 1 have not suppressed the genus, however, because 
T could not be positive of the identity of these forms." 

Ourozeuktes, Milne Edwards. 
Ourozeuktes, M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., iii., 1840, p. 275. 
Urozcacies, Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidssk-r., (3) xiv., 1884, p. 404. 

Basal half of cephalon immersed in first peraeon segment. Bases of antennae 
widely separated; first pair a little compressed. First peraeon segment medianly 
longer than any of the others. Coxal plates thick and subpendulous. Last four 
pairs of peraeopods successively increasing in length backwards. Pleon uniseg- 
mentate, moderately immersed in peraeon. 

As noted by Milne Edwards, in the young stages Ourozeuktes is similar to 
the juveniles of other Cymothoidae ; the adult female, however, is strikingly 
distinguished from all other members of the family by the following characters: — 
The dactyli of the peraeopods are rather small; the basos and ischium of the last 
four pairs are expanded, on the lower edge, in the form of a lamella furnished 
with blood vessels. The segments of the pleon, excepting at the extreme lateral 
portions, are solidly coalesced, but the suture lines are distinct. The telson is 
submembranaceous ; both the telson and the pleopods are supplied with large blood 
vessels. The exopods of the first pair of pleopods are much enlarged, over- 
lapping below, and reaching almost to, or a little beyond, the level of the apex of 
the telson, while their lateral parts are thickened and are recurved over the sides 
of the pleon ; the lamellar expansion of the protopod of the second to fifth pleopods 
is very well developed. 



UtORich., Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., liv., 1905, p. 216. 



227 

Ourozeuktes owKNir, Milne Edwards. 

Ourozeuktes owcnii, M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., iii., 1840, p. 276, pi. xxxiii., fig. 8; Heller, 
Reise der Novara. Crust., 1868, p. 148; Hasw., Cat. Austr. Crust, 1882, p. 283; Lucas, Bull. 
Soc. ent. Franc, v. 1885, p. lviii. ; Jennings, Journ. Linn. Soc, xxv, 1896, p. 329, pis. xni, xiv. 

Ourozeuktes pyriformis, Hasw., he. cit., p. 283. 

Urozcuctes oivenii, Gerstaccker, Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Band, v., Abth. 2, pi. viii., fig. 20 
(1881), and pi. xxvi, fig. 1 (1883) ; Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidsskr, (3) xiv. (1884), p. 405, pi. 
xviii., figs. 5-7. 

Urozcuctes monacanlhini, Sch. and Mein., he. eit., p. 407, pi. xviii., figs. 8, 9. 

Uroneuctes candatits, Sch. and Mein., he. cit., p. 411, pi. xviii., figs. 11, 12. 

9 . Ovigerous. Form broadly obovate. Cephalon suborbiculate, much 
wider than long and with anterior margin emarginate. Eyes distinct, rather 
small, situate laterally. First antennae stouter than second; composed of seven 
articles, the first three of which are indistinctly separated : first article as wide, 
and more than half as long, as second, which is very large, nearly as long as the 
three terminal articles together; second antennae nine-jointed, the last three 




Fig. 17. 

Ourozeuklcs ozvaiii. Ovigerous female: a and b, dorsal and lateral views (U diam.) ; 
c, antennae (8 diam.) ; d, mandible of left side, labium, and margin of labrum (8 
diam.) ; e, mandible (8 diam.) ; / and g, first and second maxillae (8 diam.) ; h, 
maxilliped (7 diam,) ; i to o, first to seventh pcraeopods (2 diam.) ; p and q, ventral 
view of first and third pleopods (2 diam.) ; r, uropod (3* diam.). 



228 

articles reaching beyond apex of first antennae. Labrum visible in dorsal view, 
emarginate. Mandibles tapering towards distal end, which is directed inwards 
and is apically acute ; below the extreme apex is a tiny, keen-edged lobe which, 
like the remainder of the cutting edge, is strongly chitinized; inner margin behind 
cutting edge produced into a thin, prominent lobe. Palp stout, the first article 
nearly as long as second and third together ; third article short. First maxillae 
styliform, with the strongly chitinized, toothed apex lying in the emargination 
of the labrum, slightly behind the apices of the mandibles. Second maxillae 
wide, transversely curved, somewhat obscurely biiobed, the inner lobe small, with 
one or two spines. Peraeon widest at third and fourth segments ; antero-lateral 
angles of first segment acutely rounded, reaching to level of middle of length 
of eyes; first four segments impressed and rugose laterally, and with antero- 
lateral portions tumid; each of last three segments shorter than any of others. 
Coxal plates of second and third segments reaching back to the postero-lateral 
angles of their segments; remaining plates not reaching to this level. First pleon 
segment partly concealed beneath last peraeon segment, with lateral parts free, 
each produced into a small lobe, which overlies the basal part of the exopod of the 
first pleopod, and reaches back to the level of the posterior angles of the third seg- 
ment ; a small lateral portion of each of the second to fifth segments free, lobular. 
Uropods reaching to apex of pleon ; protopod as long as, or longer than, rami ; 
branches of the uropod of one side apically rounded, of the other acute ; endopod 
wider, and longer or shorter, than exopod. Peraeopods each with propodus and 
dactylus short; lamellae of basos and ischium of last four pairs successively 
increasing in size backwards; basos of seventh pair (with lamella) as wide as 
long; lamella of ischium of these peraeopods very large, much longer than basos. 
Pleopocls of second to fifth pairs successively decreasing in size backwards; 
endopod of first pair much shorter and very much narrower than exopod, that of 
second and third pairs a little shorter and much narrower than exopod; that of 
fourth and fifth pairs as long as, but much narrower than exopod; endopod of all 
pleopods obliquely subtruncate posteriorly; lamellar expansion of protopod of 
second to fifth pleopods greatly developed and similar in structure to the endo- 
and exopod ; lamella of the last two pairs almost as long as exopod. 

Colour: Whitish, with a smoky median stripe on peraeon and anterior part 
of pleon, and with telson black. 
Length, 43 mm. 

§ . Form symmetrical, narrowly obovate, three times as long as greatest 
width. Cephalon large, wider than long, with anterior margin emarginate. Eyes 
large and conspicuous. First antennae stouter than second, composed of eight 
articles, the basal two of which are not conspicuously larger than the others. 
Second antennae composed of nine articles. Mandible much as in adult female, 
but with palp setose near apex. Second maxillae slender, with a single hooked 
spine at apex of terminal article. First segment of peraeon longer than any of 
the others. Pleon with six distinct segments ; telsonic segment posteriorly rounded 
and fringed with hairs. Endopod of uropods only half as long as exopod, sub- 
oval in shape; exopod elongate, rather narrow. Peraeopods not very stout and 
not expanded; each with propodus and dactylus long; propodus of first pair with 
three spines and carpus with one spine, on inner edge ; merus with a spine at 
outer distal angle and dactylus serrated on inner edge. Pleopods each with two 
lamelliform rami; male appendage of second pair longer than endopod. 

Colour : Yellow, dotted with chromatophores on cephalon, peraeon and 
first five segments of pleon ; more abundantly pigmented chromatophores form 
a dark median stripe, and another on each side. Telson transparent. Protopod 
and exopod of uropods with a line of chromatophores along outer edges. 
Length, 7 mm. 



229 



hoc. — New South Wales: Parramatta River, from Cantherines granalatus, 
Port Jackson, from Cantherines hippocrepis, etc., and Georges River, Botany 
Bay (Austr. Mus. Coll.), Laurieton, from Cantherines trachyte pis (D. G. 
Stead), Maroubra Beach, from Cantherines hippocrepis (G. P. Whitley), Kur- 
nell. Botany Bay, from Cantherines sp, (W. A. Rainbow), Port Hacking, from 
Cantherines sp. (Miss M. Henry). South Australia: Gulf St. Vincent, from 
Cantherines guntheri (A. E. Waterman) , from Cantherines hippocrepis ( F. 
K. Boase, etc., and "from a shark" (?) (Dr. Cleland), Whyalla, from 
Cantherines setosus (Dr. Souter), Port Wiilunga, from Cantherines seiosus (S. 
Howe), Largs Bay, from Cantherines sp. (A. E. Andrew). Western Australia: 
Bunbury, from Cantherines sp. (W. j. Kimbcr), Cottesloe and Swan River, 
from leather jackets, and Fremantle (W. Austr. Mus. Coll.). 

Hah.- — South-eastern, southern, and south-western coasts of Australia, 
Kerguelen (fide Jennings). 





g 

Fig. 18. 

Ouroseuktes ozvenii. Male: a, dorsal view (71 diam.) ; b, antennae (20 diatn.) ; 

c, maxilliped (40 diam.) ; d and e, first and seventh peraeopods (20 diam.) ; d' , dactylus 

of first peraeopod (40 diam.) ; f t second pleopod (20 diam.). g, Dorsal view of 

juvenile from marsupium (25 diam.). 

Seven males, one of which is described above, were found with a female 
collected in South Australia. In this female the marsupium is not completely 
developed; the males were nestling under the basal joints of the peraeopods, 
outside the oostegites. It is improbable that these males have attained their 
maximum size and development, and it may be that, as suggested by Jennings, 
protandrous hermaphroditism occurs in this genus. Males 5 to 8 mm. in length 
were found under the legs of other females in which the oostegites are not 
developed. 

Several females have juveniles in the brood pouch corresponding to the 
"pullus stadii primi" described by Schioedte and Meinert under their Urozuectes 
monacanthini; these average 2*7 mm. in length and 1*1 mm. in width, and have 
the usual characters of immature Cymothoids (fig. ISg). The modifications 
peculiar to Ourozciiktes take place during growth. 

More than fifty females of various sizes are before me; the largest is 52 mm. 
in length. In an example 11 mm. in length (fig. 19, a) -the cephalon is relatively 
larger than in more advanced specimens, the antennae and mouth parts are still 
much as in the male, and the pcraeon is not much widened. The pupodus and 
dactylus of the peraeopods are relatively shorter than in the brood young, but 



230 



much longer than in large females ; the f oliaccous expansions of the last three 
pairs are slightly developed. The pleon segments are coalesced and the telson 
is smooth and membranaceous; the pleopods and telson are not richly supplied 
with blood-vessels, but the exopods of the first pleopods reach to the end of the 
pleon. 

In very large ovigerous females the peraeon is usually relatively wider than 
in smaller egg-bearing specimens. The pleon of the adult female (when per- 
fect) is subtriangular in shape, somewhat variable in relative length, tapers to 
the narrowly rounded or narrowly subtruncate apex, and has the lateral margins 
downbent ; the apical part of the telson is, however, very often damaged and 
irregular. The ccphalon is more elongate in some specimens than in others, 
and in one instance is almost as long as its basal width. A sooty, median stripe is 
often present on the peraeon, but some examples (during life) are white, without 
pigmentation excepting on the telson ; in others the peraeon is lightly 
sprinkled with tiny chromatophores. 




a b 

Fig. 19. 

Ouroscitktes owenii. a, Young female (3 and three-fifths cliam.), b and c, Ovigerous 
females (II diam. and nat. size), d, Ovigerous female, syntype of O. piriformis, 

Haswell (nat. size). 

The characters quoted by Schioedte and Meinert as separating their 
O. monacanthini and O. caiidatus from O. owenii are unstable; the Danish 
authors founded the first species upon a single specimen 24 mm. in length from 
Sydney, and the second upon a single, badly preserved South Australian speci- 
men of the same length. It may be remarked, however, that the pleon of the 
type of 0. monacanthini is apparently relatively smaller than in any of the 
specimens now examined. Haswell applied the provisional name O. piriformis 
to two large females (fig. 19, d), which only differ from the type figure of 
O. o-wenii in having the telson more perfect (not abbreviated) and the peraeon 
relatively wider anteriorly. 

Considering that Ourozeiiktcs was described eighty-five years * ago, it 
appears, strangely enough, that no detailed note has been published concerning 
its habits. Milne Edwards' female was without data ("Patrie inconnue"), but 
Heller records the species from Sydney, and Lucas, in 1885, mentions a speci- 
men taken "dans la poche branchiate d'un Monacanthus nielanurits, Rich./' 
(?M. mcgaloiirus, Rich.) from Port Jackson. A. Gerstaecker copies M. 
Edwards' figure in the Thier-Reichs, and adds an illustration of a young stage. 
Schioedte and Meinert describe the beast under three different names and fur- 
nish the information that their (). monacanthini was taken " 'e cavitate 



abdominali' ( ?) Monacanthini vittati promptum est." Has well gives a trans- 
lation of M. Edwards' specific description, and adds a short diagnosis of the 
pear-shaped form which he considers distinct. Jennings describes a female 
said to have been obtained by a sailor fct at sea near Kerguelen Island," and fur- 
nishes figures (some of which are not very accurate) of the animal and its 
parts. Finally, occasional casual references to the genus have appeared in 
literature. 

Jennings' conjectures as to the habit of Ourozeuktes are entirely wrong; 
he decided that the "hinder limbs are very efficient swimming organs" and that 
the adult animal "has the power of living freely, though doubtless parasitic at 
times." As a matter of fact, it may be almost claimed that Ourozeuktes is an 
endoparasite, for, like Ichthyoxenus, it burrows into the sides of fishes, is for 
the greater part concealed within the body thereof and, when adult, is unable 
to leave its host. From the material in hand it would appear that leather- 
jackets (Monacanthidac) are almost always chosen; according to the reports 
of fishermen and others, Ourozeuktes is anything but rare, and is found only in 
fishes of this family. The majority of specimens in our collections have been 
removed from their hosts, but it has been possible to examine some leather- 
jackets with the parasites in situ, and the following observations result : — The 
crustacean enters the body cavity of its host some distance behind and below 
the pectoral fin ((sometimes very close to the anus), but- is never completely 
concealed, the posterior parts. of the telson and pleopods protruding through the 
entrance slit (pis. xxxvi., xxxvii.). It lies always with the venter pressing against 
the intestines of the host, and usually bores forwards and slightly inwards, so 
that in comparatively small fishes the cephalon reaches the neighbourhood of 
the liver of the host. It rests in a pouch of membrane formed by reaction of 
the injured tissues, and, normally, the only opening in this pouch is the slit 
through which the hinder parts of the parasite protrude. The membrane is 
usually whitish, but in two instances is closely dotted with black chromatophores ; 
it is for the greater part thin and fragile, but the anterior end of the cul-de-sac 
— the "feeding area"— is subjected to laceration by the mandibles, maxillae, and 
anterior dactyli, and is rugose and thickened; the mouth parts are sometimes 
scarcely removed from the liver of the fish by more than the thickness of the 
feeding area of the enveloping membrane. The entrance slit is very much 
narrower than the width of the parasite (even when the last-named is of 
moderate size), and it is thus totally impossible for the established female to 
leave its host. In small fishes the parasite, is jammed between the two halves 
of the shoulder girdle, a condition which doubtless causes the crustacean to 
assume a pyriform shape as it increases in size (fig. 19, d). In a specimen of 
one of our large species of leatherjacket (Cantherines hippocrepis) an 
Ourozeuktes has entered the body cavity close, to the vent, and has bored almost 
directly upwards and inwards, so that its mouth parts have almost pierced the 
swim-bladder of the fish; this parasite is nearly symmetrical. 

The curiously expanded posterior limbs evidently assist the parasite to main- 
tain its position, these legs being firmly pressed outwards against the soft 
enclosing membrane; the dactyli of the anterior peraeopods are hooked into the 
walls of the cavity near the feeding area. The large curved exopods of the first 
pleopods are obviously modified for the purpose of holding open the aperture 
in the skin of the fish "(pi. xxxvi.) ; these lateral branches, a'nd the plcon, together 
form a sort of funnel in which the endopod of the first pleopods and the three 
lamellae of each of the other pleopods are protected. The maxiilipcds of the 
ovigerous female are lamellar in character and, as in other members of the 
family, are no doubt utilised to promote a flow of water through the marsupium 



232 

for the aeration of the eggs and young; in all probability the lamellar expan- 
sions of the posterior peraeopods also assist respiration. 

It sometimes happens that a fish shelters two large Ourozeuktes, one on 
each side; I have before me a specimen of Cantherines granalatus, 135 mm. in 
length, in such case (pis. xxxvi., xxxvii.). The parasite on the left side is 
26 mm. in length and 16 mm. in width (fig. 19, b), and the entrance slit in the 
skin of the fish is 12 mm. in length. This example is decidedly interesting, for 
its young are in progress of leaving the maternal brood pouch; these juveniles 
are, on the average, 3 mm. in length and 1*2 mm. in width, being thus larger 
than the "pullus stadii primi" of Schioedte and Meinert. Many young still 
remain in the marsupium, some are clinging to the pleopods of the mother, and 
others have emerged and firmly attached themselves to the skin of the fish (pi. 
xxxvi.). The example on the right side is also of some interest (pi. xxxvii.). 
It appears that in its efforts to penetrate further forward into the body of its 
host this specimen has allowed the exopod of the first pleopod of the right side 
to slip inside the body cavity of the fish. This has resulted in the rupturing of 
the lower side of the membrane sac and also of the wall of the intestine, so that 
the crustacean is partly embedded in a mass of food material from the gut of the 
fish ; the posterior legs of the right side are extended outwards and the dactyli 
are hooked into the gut, but the hind legs of the other side are directed back- 
wards with the outer faces of the lamellae pressing against the undamaged side 
of the sac. The anterior end of the sac is as in normal cases. The dotted out- 
line on the photograph shows the relative size and position of this individual, 
which is 28 mm. in length and 16 mm. in width; the entrance slit is only 8 mm. 
wide. 

Leather jackets infested with Ourozeuktes sometimes appear thin and ill- 
nourished, and their flesh is flabby. The intestines and the anus often become 
displaced, the last-named moving a little to one side of the mid-line of the venter 
(pl. xxxvi.). I have removed one or two living female Ourozeuktes from their 
hosts; the parasites were singularly helpless when free and were quite unable 
to swim ; when placed in water they sank to the bottom and gropingly waved 
their limbs, but otherwise remained motionless. They proved remarkably 
tenacious of life and lived for a considerable period out of water. 

ADDENDA TO PART I. 

Akgathona similis, Richardson. 

A male of this species recently received from Mr. Glauert, of the Western 
Australian Museum, differs from the two females previously examined, and 
from the type male, in having the eyes larger and less widely separated, the 
narrowest interocular space being equal to one-sixth of the total width of the 
cephalon. The flagellum of the second antennae reaches to the middle of the 
length of the fifth peraeon segment. The palp of the maxillipeds is four-jointed. 
The male appendage of the second pleopods reaches to the level of the apex of 
the endopod. This example is 14 mm. in length and was taken from a nannygai 
(Trachichthodes affivis) caught by Mr. G. A. Goss at Frcmantle, Western 
Australia. 

Also, two gorged specimens, a male and female, were collected a short time 
ago by Mr. Stan. Howe at Port Willunga, South Australia; these arc 17 mm. 
and 19 mm. in length, respectively, and were found clinging near the anus of 
a parrot fish (Pseudolabrus). During life rhey were whitish dorsally, spotted 
with brown. The eyes of both examples are widely separated and the palp of 
the maxillipeds is four-jointed. In the male the flagellum of the second antennae 



233 



reaches back to the apex of the last coxal plates; in the female it attains to the 
level of the hinder margin of the sixth peraeon segment. The male appendage 
of the second pleopods is as in the male from Western Australia. 

Aega cyclops, Haswell. 

Included in a batch of material just received from Mr. Melbourne Ward, 
of Sydney, is a small Aega which should evidently be referred to this species. 
This example, which is a" male, agrees with Haswell's type in the form of the 
frontal lamina, antennae, pcraeopods, maxillipeds, uropods, etc. The body, how- 
ever, is slightly more slender, and the head is relatively smaller, with the eyes 
smaller and meeting for a much shorter distance (only three facets in contact) ; 
also, a lesser part of the first pleon segment is covered by the seventh peraeon 
segment, so that the last coxal plates reach only to the hinder angles of that 
pleon segment. 

The flagellum of the first antennae consists of seven articles and a terminal 
style, that of the second pair of twelve articles and a style. The telsonic 






X*H 



Fig. 20. 

Aega cyclops, male: a, dorsal view (51 diam.) ; b, maxilliped (.58 diam.) c, second 

pleopod (15 diam.) ; tt, telsonic segment and uropods (9 diam). 

segment is roundly subtriangular in shape, with the posterior half of the lateral 
margins finely serrate. 

Length, 10 mm. 

Loc. — New South Wales: South-east of Sydney, in "New Zealand area/' 
75 laths. (M. Ward). 

As previously noted, the true shape of the telson cannot be ascertained from 
an examination of the type; A. mcinerti, Miers, is apparently a closely allied 
species which has the telson apically truncate. 

Rocinela sila, Hale. 
A male dredged this year in Gulf St. Vincent closely resembles the holo- 
type. The flagellum of the first antennae consists of five articles and a terminal 
style, that of the second antennae of eleven articles and a style. The male 
appendage of the second pleopods is nearly as long as the inner ramus. During 
life the colouration was as follows: — Ccphalon margined with white, with a 
submarginal black line and with a white spot alongside intero-posterior angles 



234 

of eyes. Eyes black. Dorsum of peraeon and pleon with crowded brown 
reticulations (so that the ground colour appears pale brown) ; with a pair of 
closely approximated dark stripes on mid-line of cephalon, peraeon, and first 
five pleon segments. On each side of these median lines are two other longi- 
tudinal 'stripes, the inner of which extends from the anterior margin of peraeon 
to basal part of telson, and the outer occupies the whole length of peraeon. 
Underside subhyaline. Peraeopods and antennae subhyaline, marked with a 
few dark chromatophores ; coxal plates and basal half of uropods orange; telson., 
uropods, and coxal plates marked with black as previously described. 

Loc. — South Australia: five miles off Semaphore, 5 faths. (H. M. Hale). 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES XXXVI. and XXXVII. 

Plate XXXVI. 
Left side of a leather jacket (Canthcrines granulatu-s) showing adult female Ouroscuktcs 
ensconced in the body cavity, and juveniles (which have recently vacated the brood-pouch of 
the crustacean) clinging to the skin. Note how the protruding exopods of the first pleopods 
of the parasite hold open the entrance slit in the skin of the fish. (3 diam.) 

Plate XXXVLL 
Right side of the same fish (see pi. xxxvi.), which is burdened with a female Oitrozcuktes 
in each side of the body cavity; the dotted line shows the relative size of the parasite. 
(3 diam.) 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc, S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L., Plate XXXVI. 







WKm 



Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



Trans, and Proc, Roy. Scic. S. Austr., 1926. 



Vol. L- Plait XXXVII. 




Gillingliam & Co, l.iniilti], PrmyitfS, Aitel.iiUe. 



235 

REMARKS ON THE PROPRIETY OF INTRODUCING INSECTS TO 
CONTROL PRICKLY PEAR IN AUSTRALIA. 

By Professor T. Harvey Johnston, University, Adelaide. 

[Read August 12, 1926.] 

Australia has suffered severely as a result of the introduction of certain 
plants and animals which have found conditions so favourable in this continent 
that they have increased to such an extent as to become pests. One might men- 
tion only a few — the rabbit, rat, mouse, and fox; various parasites of stock; 
the sparrow and starling; many insects; prickly pear and many other plants 
which have become nuisances through occupying land and rendering it unfit for 
useful production except at great expense. In view of these facts, the public are 
apt to view with disfavour, '"if not with hostility, attempts to introduce any kind 
of organism, even for the purpose of controlling pests. The important question 
to be answered is whether the particular organisms will attack only the pest 
against which it is proposed to be liberated, and supposing that the pest become 
controlled, what will happen to the importation? If the new organism is restricted 
to the pest for its food supply, then the eradication of the pest must necessarily 
lead to the destruction of all plants or animals whose dietary is confined to such 
pest species. 

The natural way to control any animal or plant pest is to utilise its natural 
enemies, which may be either plants or animals. Amongst the plant organisms 
are included more especially fungi and bacteria, while amongst those belonging 
to the animal kingdom the chief are insects, though in certain cases vertebrates 
may be concerned. Such natural enemies may be predators or parasites. Since 
the various controlling agents may themselves be preyed on or parasitised by other 
organisms which control them, it is essential that any which are to be utilised 
against a pest, must themselves be maintained free from controlling agents, so 
that they may be able to exert their influence as fully as climatic conditions will 
allow. Besides, the habits of the organisms which it is proposed to introduce 
as a means for pest control must be known, so that unnecessary risks of intro- 
ducing any which may themselves become a nuisance, may not be incurred. 
Hence, general feeders must be rigidly excluded, and only such organisms utilised 
as are known to be restricted in their dietary to the particular pest species, or to 
closely related members of the group or family to which the pest belongs. Thus 
in connection with the utilisation of biological agents against the prickly pear 
(Opuntia spp.) only such should be employed as are known to be restricted 
either to one or more species of Opuntia, or at least to members of the cactus 
family to which all prickly pear plants belong. 

To Mr. Henry Tryon, formerly Government Entomologist of Queensland, 
belongs the credit for having made the first attempt to control the pest by entom- 
ological means. In 1903 he endeavoured to obtain specimens of a wild cochineal 
insect from Ceylon where it had played an important role in this connection, and 
though a few insects reached Queensland alive, they failed to become established. 
From what we now know, the reason for the lack of success was almost certainly 
the inability of that particular species to attack the common pest pear (0. inertnis) 
presented to it as a food supply, but it was not until 1913 that its very restricted 
feeding habit was especially emphasised by Tryon and myself. 

In 1911 the Queensland Government appointed a Board of Scientific Advice 
on Prickly Pear Destruction, which recommended that a small Travelling Com- 
mission should be appointed to visit those countries of the world where similar 



236 

plants occur either indigenously or in a naturalised state, in order to inquire 
whether there existed in such countries any natural enemies which might be 
introduced into Queensland to control the pest there. Mr. Tryon and the author 
of this paper were selected for that duty (1912-1914), which led us to explore, 
as well as circumstances permitted, India, Ceylon, South Africa, the Mediter- 
ranean littoral, North and South America, and the West Indies, a report to 
Parliament being published in 1914. 

From Ceylon there were forwarded by this Commission, early in 1913, con-' 
signments of a "wild" (i.e., not the true) cochineal, Dactylopius indicus, Green, 
together with a supply of its food plant, Opuntia vulgaris (monacantha)^ and a 
cochineal "nursery" was established near Colombo from which further supplies 
were sent subsequently. As a result of the field experience gained, it was pointed 
out that this insect was very restricted in its dietary; that it should control 
O. vulgaris, which was then widely distributed in the moister areas of Queens- 
land; that it was unlikely to attack any of the other kinds of Opuntia naturalised 
there ; that it would not attack any other kind of plant ; and that it would probably 
be preyed upon by a certain Australian ladybird beetle, Cryptolacmus montroumeri. 
Ail of these predictions were verified, and' the particular kind of prickly pear was 
practically exterminated within a few years in all those areas in which the insect 
wasliberated against it. A similar destructive result was brought about in South 
Africa, due to the activity of material collected in Northern India and handed over 
by the Commission to the local entomological authorities. 

_ As a result of the experience gained during its wide travels in prickly pear 
regions, the Commission recommended that certain fungi and insects should be 
introduced from North and South America, and actually "imported certain species 
from those continents. It was also recognised that cactus insects were not exer- 
cising their maximum degree of destructiveness in countries in which cacti were 
indigenous because of the amount of parasitism (and consequent control) to 
which such insects were subjected. The outbreak of war prevented the biological 
recommendations of the Commission from being adopted, and it was not until 
1920 that the writer was appointed by the Commonwealth Government, at the 
request of the Bureau of Science and Industry, to undertake the work of intro- 
ducing the various insects and fungi, under the general control of the Common- 
wealth Prickly Pear Board. Opportunity was afforded to revisit the prickly pear 
regions of North and South America (1920-1921) and to gam additional advice 
and experience regarding the proposed importations. Arrangements were made 
for their collection by senior members of the biological staff located in Southern 
US A and in Argentina, and for the necessary transportation to Australia The 
chief American centres for the investigation were in Florida and South-eastern 
lexas, where work was carried on during winter and summer respectively for 
several years, while the South American work was centred chiefly at Tucuman in 
Nordi-westera Argentina. Material was also collected in California, Arizona 
and Mexico. The general plan of campaign and the work of the various insects 
have already been detailed (Johnston, 1923; Alexander, 1925) 

It was pointed out by the Travelling Commission, after their extensive 
inquiries m prickly pear countries, that many cactus insects were verv specialised 
and tnat the association between them and the plants was extremely cfe&e in some 
cases, eg the various cochineal insects (Dactylopius spp.), some of which were 
restricted to one or two species of cacti, while others were able to feed on several 
diffeent species. Many of the other insects whose introduction was recom- 
mendea, had been specially studied by highly qualified economic entomologists in 
U -S.A who placed their experience and advice at the disposal of the Commission 
Advantage was also taken to consult the comprehensive lists compiled bv the 
Division ot Entomology of the Department of Agriculture! U^T IndStiS 



237 

the food habits of the various insects collected, and in addition, the American 
experts in each branch of entomology to which the particular insects belonged, 
were approached in regard to food habits and the possible danger arising from 
the proposed introductions, and it was only when these authorities pronounced 
favourably that such insects were listed amongst those to be recommended. All 
species were rejected from the list of proposed consignments when it was ascer- 
tained that they were not invariably restricted to cacti for their food. It was 
further pointed out by the Commission that it knew of no case of any destructive 
insect of exotic origin, accidentally or ignorantly introduced into any country 
whose d'estrucdveness, evinced in its new home, could not have been anticipated 
from a full consideration of its habits in its country of origin. 

One of the members of the Commission responsible for the above statements 
was Mr. Henry Tryon, who for so long ably filled the office of Government 
Entomologist and Plant Pathologist for Queensland, and who has a very com- 
prehensive knowledge of economic entomology. Such statements as those quoted 
above must therefore be regarded as considered judgments by one well qualified to 
make them. The other member was the writer of the present paper, who revisited 
the prickly pear regions of America in 1920, and his further experience and 
observations confirmed what was written in 1914. 

The authors of the Bulletin on "The Principal Cactus Insects of the United 
States" (1912, p. 12) mentioned that "324 species of insects are known to be 
associated with the cactus plant. These divide themselves naturally into five 
categories, as follows :— Species injuring the plant, 92; parasites of injurious 
species, 28; scavengers, 73; flower visitors, 40; species only incidentally asso- 
ciated with the plant, 91." Only a very small proportion of these has been 
introduced into Australia, the second, fourth, and fifth groups having been 
eliminated from consideration; and of the remaining two not more than 20 were 
being bred in the Prickly Pear Board's laboratories when the writer relinquished 
control,, though a number of additional species had died out either through being 
unable to adapt themselves to any of the species of prickly pear naturalised in the 
Commonwealth, or through a failure to propagate under the conditions presented 
to them. None of those which had failed to become acclimatised (to February, 
1923), other than Asphondylia and Cactoblastis, plays a very serious role in its 
native home as a primary attacking agent, though many of them are important 
scavengers capable of aggravating injuries produced by other agents. Unfortun- 
ately some very important insects, e.g., Mimorista, which seemed likely to become 
established, have failed to breed in sufficient numbers and their ultimate natural- 
isation is still doubtful. Some insects known to be restricted to cacti were not 
introduced because the injuries caused by them were so slight that they had no 
appreciable effect on the growth of the plants attacked. All those which were 
being bred in the Board's laboratories belonged to the first group referred to in 
the "Cactus Insect Bulletin." No general feeder was utilised and no insect was 
introduced except such as had been definitely pronounced by the specialists in the 
particular group of insects to which each kind belonged. 

Every species proposed to be utilised was also carefully considered by the 
two authors of the "Cactus Insect Bulletin" (Dr. Hunter and Mr, J. D. Mitchell), 
who were living at the time of the Travelling Commission's visit to U.S.A. in 
1913, and the writer's second visit in 1920, and both still recommended their 
utilisation, while Dr. Hunter actually supervised the Board's work in U.S.A. since 
1921. It should also be stated that the latter is one of the foremost American 
economic entomologists, is in charge of all the investigations regarding "southern 
field crops," i.e., warm temperature and subtropical crops, including cotton and 
sugar-cane, and is, moreover, a member of the Federal Horticultural Board, a 
small administrative body which is in control of plant quarantine and regulates 



238 

all importations of plants and insects into U.S.A. Under his control are many 
laboratories with staffs of entomologists, as well as "field staffs." Hence a pro- 
nouncement by him on the subject must carry weight. Since cotton is perhaps 
the most important crop in the main prickly pear region of Texas, and will pro- 
bably become the chief crop in the infested region in Australia, it might be 
mentioned that for many years cotton has been particularly studied in Texas as 
to its insect fauna, and entomologists are employed to inspect in a most detailed 
manner the cotton crops in certain districts in connection with the campaign 
against boll weevil and the pink boll worm; yet no cactus insect had been reported 
as attacking the cotton crop. 

The late Mr. J. D. Mitchell, co-author of the "Cactus Insect Bulletin/' was 
tor many years a "held agent" of the Bureau of Entomology in that part of Texas 
where prickly pear is most abundant, and his field observations regarding its 
insect fauna were made between 1907 and 1910 while he was engaged on work in 
connection with field crop investigations under Dr. Hunter, hence the authoritative 
significance of the statements in the Bulletin relating to cactus insects in U.S.A. 
It might be mentioned that the Travelling Commission had the advantage of Mr. 
Mitchell's company during their work in Southern Texas in 1913. 

Although very many bulletins relating to the insect fauna of various crops 
in U.S.A. have been issued by the Department of Agriculture, the writer is not 
aware of any of the cactus insects represented in the Australian introductions 
having been recorded in any of them as attacking such crops, while the host-plant 
and insect catalogue of the Bureau of Entomology, as mentioned by the Travel- 
ling Commission, did not indicate that such had been found. 

Though the specialists in the entomological section of the U.S. National 
Museum were again consulted by the writer on his visit to U.S.A. in 1920, in 
reference to the safety of introducing the various species which were subsequently 
imported, in no case was a contrary opinion expressed, though, in regard to a 
certain group of beetles previously excluded (Cactiphagus), the opinion was 
expressed that its members might also be utilised with safety, but since they were 
not prevalent in the localities where the Board's staff was engaged, and as the 
injuries caused by related insects were insignificant, no attempt was made to 
introduce them. Thanks to the kindness of Dr. Berger and Mr. Merrill, the 
entomological collection of the Florida Board of Horticulture was examined and 
the exclusive host relationship of the local cactus insects under review' was indi- 
cated just as was shown by the large national collection in Washington D.C. 

The Board's senior officer in U.S.A., Mr. J. C. Hamlin, who was previously 
inspector in the plant and insect quarantine branch of the Department of Agri- 
culture, U.S.A., was engaged for two years — November, 1920, to November, 1922 
— in the prickly pear regions of the southern portion of the Republic, and his 
experience, related to me, confirmed the opinion expressed by the Travelling- 
Commission. 

It might be pointed out that the Cactaceae constitute an extremely well-defined 
family of plants, and with one or two possible exceptions (species of Rhipsalis) 
its members were originally confined to America, as also was its specialised insect 
fauna. It might also be mentioned by way of contrast from the Australian 
experience with prickly pear, that the investigation regarding cactus insects in 
U.S.A. had for its object a study of such insects with a view to their possible 
control, since Opuntias were being utilised to some extent as a subsidiary fodder 
for stock, whereas in Australia the aim is to propagate the insects in order to 
control the plant instead of controlling the insect in order to propagate the plant. 

It is worthy of note that, with the exception of Asphondylia, the scavenging 
Hies, and the scale insects, all the species represented amongst the primary enemies 
introduced into the Commonwealth belong to genera restricted to cacti, and in all 



239 

cases both the larva and adult (excepting the adult moths which, if they feed at 
all, feed on nectar or sugary solutions as other moths and butterflies do) depend 
on these plants for their food. The scavenging flies are not all restricted to 
rotting or injured cacti, as the Stratiomyiids will breed in other decomposing 
vegetation, but the species of Volucelline flies seem to be so restricted. However, 
none of these species has propagated in Australia, and local flies (Stratiomyiids, 
Ortalids, Syrphids and Drosophilids) are serving a similar purpose, though 
probably much less effectively. 

Experience and observations regarding the behaviour of certain prickly pear 
insects outside of America may be of interest. The so-called Indian cochineal 
has been in India since 1795 — 130 years — and has not been recorded as attacking 
any kind of plant but Opiintia monacantha. Though introduced into the Cape 
Province and Natal in South Africa, and into Queensland in 1913, the species 
has failed to attack any kind of plant, including prickly pears, other than the 
species mentioned. Dr. White-Haney in 1913 found that it would not infest 
various economic plants presented to it at Dulacca (Western Queensland). 

The "Cape cochineal" introduced into Cape Colony about ninety years ago 
has restricted its attention to O. monacantha, while the various kinds of cochineal 
insect introduced by me have shown preference for certain species of prickly pear 
rather than others (Johnston, 1923; Alexander, 1925). 

The cactus Diaspid scale insects now occur in cultivated collections of cacti 
as well as In the field in many parts of the world, including New South Wales 
and Queensland, and have restricted their attention to members of the Cactaceae. 

The two beetles, Disonycha varicornis and Gcrstacckeria clathrata, intro- 
duced into Queensland in 1921-22, maintained the same restricted host relationship 
as they showed in U.S.A., where they attack only the "cholla" type of prickly 
pear. In Australia these insects died out when the supply of appropriate cactus, 
sent across with them, was eaten out. they being unable to live on any of the main 
species naturalised in the Commonwealth. 

It may be pointed out that in this continent, where such an immense mass of 
prickly pear is available for insect attack, apart from the occasional gnawing by 
grasshoppers, the plants do not 'suffer any infestation under normal conditions, 
and it is only when serious droughts are in progress that insects have been observed 
infesting such plants, and then they may attack in such numbers locally as to sicken 
the prickly pear. In other words, when most other vegetation is no longer available 
to supply the necessary plant juices, the Opiintia, which is able to maintain a 
considerable amount of succulence in spite of dry conditions, is called upon to 
provide the needs of such general feeders as the Rutherglen bug (Nyslus vinitorj 
and an Aphis. This is mentioned as additional evidence regarding the restricted 
host relationship of cacti as far as insects are concerned, since even w T ell-known 
general feeders rarely attack it in Australia. 

The remarkable egg-laying habits of some of the cactus insects — Melitara, 
Mimorista, Cactoblastis, Chelinidea, Gcrstacckeria, and Asphondylia — all support 
the view that these moths, bugs, weevils, and midges arc restricted in their dietary 
to cacti. 

In view of the authoritative expressions of opinion by scientific men, includ- 
ing eminent economic entomologists and specialists, as well as the extensive 
observations and the negative evidence detailed in this article, the writer has no 
hesitation in stating that the insects introduced into Australia are restricted to 
cactaceous plants. The caterpillars of the moths, the beetles and the bugs were given 
the opportunity to feed on various grain crops (maize, oats, wheat, barley) and 
legumes in Brisbane, but did not do so. In spite of all the evidence brought 
forward above, the Commonwealth Prickly Pear Board, in its desire to make 
assurance doubly sure, determined to carry out an exhaustive series of tests 



240 

before authorising the liberation of any particular insect. A summary of these 
tes ts— some in Australia and some in U.S.A.— with the various kinds of insects, 
carried out since the writer relinquished control of the investigations, has been 
published by my successor (Alexander, 1925). From the scientific aspect none 
of these tests were necessary, but appeared to the Board to be advisable from the 
public point of view. There need be no hesitation in liberating all or any of the 
insects therein referred to. 

A very important part of the work consisted in eliminating from the importa- 
tions all parasites and predators affecting the cactus insects in their native homes. 
It is of interest to note that certain Australian ladybirds that feed widely on soft- 
bodied scale insects (mealy bugs) readily attack the cochineal insects which 
belong to the same group (Coccidae). This applies especially to Cry ptolaemiis 
monirouzieri, mentioned as a likely enemy by the Travelling Commission in 1912. 
and referred to from time to time since then (see First Ann. Rep. of Prickly Pear 
Land Commission, 1925 (pp. 21-25), in which the widespread distribution of 
cochineal insects against prickly pear in Queensland is also mentioned (pp. 107, 8). 

As various statements have appeared in the Press and elsewhere regarding 
the introduction of <l Chico" cochineal (Dactylopius tomentosus) by Mr. T, Clerk 
from Chico, in Northern California, it might be pointed out that the Travelling 
Commission referred to its presence there in 1913. Immediately prior to my 
taking up the appointment as Scientific Controller of the Prickly Pear Investi- 
gations (June, 1920) Mr. Clerk received by post a few small packages containing 
"pads" of Opuniia with cochineal on them. As their receipt by him was a con- 
travention of the Commonwealth Plant Quarantine regulations he handed them 
to me unopened. On examination it was found that the pear was decomposed 
and practically all the insects were dead. The few living larvae present were 
transferred to fresh pear collected in the vicinity, the old material being destroyed 
on account of the danger of introducing parasites. These larvae were housed in 
my laboratory in the University, Brisbane, and tended by him and by one of my 
entomological assistants until my return from America (1921). It was from 
the progeny of these larvae that Mr. Clerk obtained the material which he privately 
bred up and distributed at Dulacca and Westwood in Queensland, some being sent 
to Mr. Froggatt, who liberated it near Scone, N.S.W. 

Subsequent consignments (1921) of the same species were received from my 
assistants in U.S.A. and bred up in the Board's laboratories along with the progeny 
of the original "Chico" strain. In official accounts no mention is made of these 
facts, and though Mr. Clerk deserved credit for his work, it must not be over- 
looked that a most important factor in its success was its preliminary handling 
by my staff. Had any of the numerous parasitic moths, flies, and beetles which 
so effectively control cochineal in America, been allowed to obtain a footing in 
the Commonwealth (as might readily have occurred but for my action when the 
material was received), the very important influence now being exerted by the 
various kinds of cochineal must have been seriously affected. 

Liter ature. 
1925 Alexander, W. B,— Natural Enemies of Prickly Pear and their intro- 
duction into Australia. Bull. 29, Commonw. Inst. Sci. and Industry, 

1912 Hunter W. tt.|wr, K and Mitchell, J. D.-The Principal Cactus 
Insects ol U.S.A. Bull. 113, Bur. Ent., U.S D A 

19^ Johnston, T H.— The Australian Prickly Pear Problem. Rep Austr 
Assoc. Adv. Sci., 16, pp. 347-401. 

1914 Johnston, T. H., and Tkyox, H._ Report of the Pricklv Pear Travelling 
Commission. Parliamentary Paper: Brisbane 



&4i 



ECOLOGICAL NOTES AND DESCRIPTION OF PREVIOUSLY UNRECORDED 
FEATURES OF ONITHOCHITON ASHBYI, B. and M., ACANTHOCHITON 
CROCODILUS, T. and A., TOGETHER WITH DEFINITIONS OF A NEW 
CALLOCHITON (POLYPLACOPHORA), 

By Edwin Ashby, F.L.S.. M.R.O.U. 

[Read August 12, 1926. J 

ONITHOCHITON ASHBYI. 

Onithochiton ashbyi, Bednall and Matthews, Proc. Mai. Soc. Lmnl, vol. vi., pt. 2, p. 92, 
1906. 

0. ashbyi, of Torr, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxxvi., p. 151, 1912. 

O. ashbyi, of Iredalc and Hull, Austr. Zool., vol. iv., pt. 4, p. 266, 1926. 

Owing to the fortunate rediscovery by the writer of this rare chiton on 2nd 
April last, one is able to add some additional information respecting it. Neither 
the original description nor the more recent one by Iredale and Hull, make any 
reference to its habitat, other than the fact it was found in this State, no infor- 
mation respecting its station and no reference is made to the existence of "eyes." 
One is also able to add to the previous knowledge of its girdle characters. As 
this is the only known species of chiton inhabiting the waters of South Australia 
that is possessed of well-developed "eyes," information respecting this feature 
is the more valuable. 

History. — Prior to the present rediscovery, only three examples had been 
found. The first, the type, was found by the writer on rocks at low water at 
Port Willunga, about the year 1896, and was placed in Bednail's hands for 
description with another novelty, taken by the writer at the same time. Bednall 
some time later sent the two, to I think Sowerby ; both were lost in the post, the 
Onithochiton was recovered at the G.P.O., London, the other specimen was never 
seen again. It was not described until 1906, or ten years after its discovery. The 
second specimen was taken about five years after the first,, at the same spot; this 
was crushed and lost on the journey to London in 1922. The third specimen was 
found by Mr. Walter Klem and identified by Dr. Torr when they were working 
together near Corney Point, Yorke Peninsula. In (?) 1918, it was taken on a 
rock in a deep hole at extreme low water. The exact spot was visited by the 
writer in company with Klem last January, but no Onithochitons were forth- 
coming. 

On April 2 another attempt was made at the original locality at Port Wil- 
lunga. The tide was an unusually low one. so that he was able to work for 
nearly half an hour quite 20 yards beyond the spot where his earlier discovery 
had been made. 

Station.— It will be seen that four out of the five known specimens have been 
taken by the writer at Port Willunga, and each of these has been adhering to a 
smooth, calcareous alga, which at that spot encrusts many of the rocks; Mr. 
Klem informed the writer that his find was on similarly encrusted rocks. Three 
of the examples have been on the pink algae, and the second specimen on the 
green; in each case the colour of the animal has harmonised with the colour of 
its host. In common with other members of the genus they cling very tightly to 
the rock, the elastic girdle being so expanded as to completely fill the small cavities 
of the rock surface, with which it corresponds so closely in colour, that it is difficult 



242 

to distinguish the animal. Their station, we may conclude, is on more or less 
exposed Vocks which at lowest spring tides are still covered with 2 feet of water 
at the bottom of the tide, and only occur on rocks that are encrusted with the 
particular alga referred to above. The discovery near Corney Point indicates that 
it may be searched for in both gulfs. 

Eye-pits. The description of the shell surface published by Iredale and Hull 

need not be repeated, as it well indicates the nodulose sculpture, but, as before 
stated, no reference is made to the "eves." Torr, in the brief notice he gives of 
this species (I.e.) says, "The 'eyes' are of a pearly appearance, set m its cream 
coloured valves." This refers to Ashby's example No. 2, which had been 
bleached by formalin and is now lost. 

"Eyes" are scattered without any definite order about the tegmentum of the 
anterior valve and a single diagonal row on each lateral area, consisting of 5 to 7 




2nvm 



3*5 tnm. 



Fig 1 Onithochiton ashbvi, Bednall and Matthews, Port \\illunga. lopotype, 
whole shell. Ashby coll Shows smooth, unsculptured surface and raised irregularly 
nodulose, lateral areas; the dark blotches on valves 2, 5, and 8 are red. Xo. 

Fig 2 CaUochiion rnfus, Ashby. Dredged in Gulf St. Vincent. Holotypc 
Ashby ""coll. Median valve showing shallow pits and ridges across pleural areas. {*) 
full valve, x7; (b) side view with strong lateral lighting to show pits, x« 2 . 

Fur 3 4canihochiton crocodiius, Torr and Ashby, Daly Head Ashby coll. 
Median' valve, showing coarse, triangular granules and coarsely toothed edging ot 
dorsal area (pinnatind). x7. 

Fi- 4 CaUochiion klcmi, Ashbv, Daly Head. Holotypc. Median valve showing 
short, broadly-ovate pits. Ashby coll. (a) side view, shell accidentally broken but 
showing pits, x8J; (b) same valve complete before accident, x/. 

-eve-pits," this row commencing near the jugum and extending to the girdle. 
There are two or three perforations present in the lateral portion of the tail valve 
which mav possibly be the remains of "eye-pits,* but the origin of these has not 
been accurately determined. The "eye-pits" in the anterior valve and lateral 
areas of the median valves are 10 /x in diameter, whereas my measurements 
of this organ in the Western Australian species 0. scholvtem, I hide, are 15 /^and 
in the type species of the Genus Tonicia (T. elegans), 25 ^ The "eye-pits m 
O ashbyi are funnel-shaped, the apex ending in a hole penetrating the tegmentum. 
The sides of these funnel-shaped apertures glisten, as if they had been washed 
with mercury or burnished with some shiny substance. Is it possible that tins 
shinv surface is the remains of the cornea? 



243 

Girdle. — Bednall and Matthews, in their description of the type, stale: 
"Girdle felty, hut under the lense covered with minute scales, irregular in size 
and shape, like grains of sand." The only reference to the girdle in Iredale and 
Hull's description is: "Girdle horny, in dried type shell." The former were quite 
correct in recognising the existence of scales, for the girdle is clothed with 
minute, arenaceous scales, but the existence of a distinct girdle fringe has hereto- 
fore been quite overlooked. Both examples examined possess a very distinct 
girdle fringe which is composed of closely packed, short, stout, glassy spicules 
with blunt apices; they measure 30 to 35 p in length and 5 /* in width. 

Measurements and Colour. — The specimen in spirit measures 9 mm. X almost 
5 mm., of which the girdle accounts for fully 2 mm. The other dry example 
measures 8 mra.X4 mm. In colour, the dry specimen is uniformly 'Tompeian 
Red" (Eidgway, pi. xiii.) ; the other has two large lateral red blotches on valves 
2, 5, and 8; the rest of the shell buffish -cream. 

AcANTJIOClIITON CROCOTULUS. 

Acani 'hoc ■Jutes crocodihts, Torr and Ashby, Trans. Rov. Soc. S. Austr.. vol. xxii., pi. 2, 
p. 216, 1898. 

A. crocodihts, of Torr, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Auslr., xxxvi., p. 161, 1912. 

Acanthochilon crocodihts, of IredaJti and Hull, Austr. Zool., vol. iv., pt. 2, p. 86, 1925. 

Amongst the material collected by Mr. Walter Klem, of Corney Point, Yorke 
Peninsula, at Daly Head, is a single median valve of this rare species. Hitherto 
this shell has only been known from the two original specimens found by Ton- 
while he and the writer were working together at Marino in this State, over 
thirty years ago, and a single valve collected by Klem. 

Station. — No information has previously been given as to the station of this 
species, and therefore the following notes will he of value. Torr and the writer 
were working well away from the shore at an exceptionally low tide; the portion 
of reef upon which we were working was covered by about 2 feet of water. Ton- 
pulled up a rock upon upperside of which, between the stems of brown algae, 
were two pale-coloured Acanthochitons, side by side. No other live example of 
this chiton has been seen or taken since. If memory serves me rightly there 
was no covering sand, as is so often the case witil members of this genus, but they 
were well exposed on the smooth rock, between the stems of growing brown algae. 
Early in, I think, 1920 a specimen was loaned to the writer by Mr. Basset Hull 
under the name of A. coxi, but although very eroded was certainly not conspecific 
with that species — he advised Hull that it was in his opinion A. crocodihts / Torr 
conhrmed this opinion later. Tn I.e., vol. xliv.. p. 286, 1920, Ashby recorded this 
occurrence, noting that Hull had it from the collection of Mr. Brazier, presumably 
from New South Wales. Iredale and Hull have recently distinguished the shell 
from that State under the name Acanthochilon crocodihts debilior. 

As no good figure of a median valve of this species has been published I 
include a photograph of the median valve from Daly Head, which has been com- 
pared with a median valve of the type. 

Callochiton klemi, n. sp. 

I am indebted to Mr. Walter Klem, after whom I have much pleasure in 
naming it, for the gift of a single median valve of a new and distinct species of 
Callochiton, which he found amongst shell-grit at Daly Head, Yorke Peninsula. 

Description of Median Valve, — Carinated, although at the juguin it is 
rounded, elevated, side slope steep and almost straight; dorsal area beaked, 



244 



longitudinally much arched and laterally rounded, unseparated by sculpture from 
the pleural area; pleural area similarly sculptured to the dorsal area except that 
portion immediately abutting on the lateral area, which is ornamented with a row 
of deep, broadly-ovate pits, numbering foe, the lateral area is strongly raised and 
crossed by several growth ridges, which are not clearly visible except by lateral 
lighting The whole surface of the shell, in all areas, is seen under 65 magnifica- 
tions binocular microscope, to be decorated with innumerable, shuttle-shapeo, 
raised, minute granules, the granules themselves being distinctly pitted, while the 
interspaces between the granules are deep and narrow grooves; the granular 
sculpture in the lateral areas is a little coarser, here a large proportion of them 
are furnished with a distinct pit with a dark centre; these may be an enlarged 
development of the megalopores or minute "eye-dots," they arc probably connected 
with the terminals of sensory fibres. The "eaves" do not overhang, are spongy, 
i.e., studded with perforations, a character that is common to members of this 
genus; the sutural laminae are joined across the middle line, but are too worn 
to allow of the determination of either the depth or the breadth of the sinus, but 
this is probably broad and shallow, neither can the slitting be accurately deter- 
mined, although the bases of three grooves is discernible in the insertion plate. 
Summary of characters present that are typical of the Genus Callochiton: — 

(a) The eaves are thickened and spongy. 

(b) The sutural laminae are united across the median line. 

(c) The insertion plate shows three grooves which may be the bases of 

three slits or due to propping. 

(d) The surface of the shell, X65, is quite characteristic of the Genus 

Callochiton. 

Comparisons. 

Is distinguished from C. platessa, Gould, and C. elongatus, Hed. and May, 
by the deep, short, wedge-shaped pits, at the junction of the pleural and lateral 
areas. From C. rufus, Ashby, in that the pits are short and deep and double the 
number. In C. rufus, the pits are shallow, widely apart, and each pit has on the 
upper side a longitudinal ridge which extends across the valve. From C. mayt, 
Tort, in that there is no longitudinal ribbing in the pleural area. 

Colour.— Between "Shrimp Pink" and "Strawberry Pink" (Ridgway, pi. i.). 

Measurement. — Lateral measurement, 3*5 mm.; longitudinally, barely 2 mm. 

Habitat. — Daly Head, between Cape Spencer and Carney Point, Spencer's 
Gulf, Yorke Peninsula. 



245 



NOTE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF MYCORRHIZA. 

By Geoffrey Samuel, B.Sc, 
Lecturer on Plant Pathology, University of Adelaide. 

[Read September 9, 1926.] 

The writer's attention has lately been drawn to the subject of mycorrhiza in 
South Australia from two different angles. 

fat one case the investigation of an obscure oat disease prevalent on the 
volcanic soil around Mount Gambier and on the black clay soil near Penola, in 
the south-east of this State, revealed extensive invasion of the roots of affected 
oat plants by a fungus with the typical characters of endotrophic mycorrhiza. 
Shortly after this discovery a recent American paper (2) was seen which 
described the widespread occurrence of a mycorrhizal fungus in the roots of 
legumes and a few other plants in America. This led to an examination of the 
roots of legumes in South Australia, and all of the twenty-seven species so 
far examined have been found to be infected with the mycorrhizal endophyte. 
The examination has been extended to the roots of other crop and fodder plants, 
and finally to common introduced weeds and native plants, the large majority of 
those so far examined being found to be infected to some extent with the fungus. 

Simultaneously with this, attention was called to the same subject by the 
behaviour of pines in "seed-spotting" tests in connection with afforestation. 
When Finns insignis seed was planted in small roughly prepared holes over 
recently cleared ground, it was found that in some of the "spots" the seedlings 
came away well and were a good green colour, whereas in others they remained 
small and yellowish. Examination of the roots of each showed the healthy pines 
to be abundantly supplied with mycorrhiza (ectotrophic), whereas in the stunted 
specimens mycorrhizal roots were lacking or poorly developed. In the carefully 
prepared soil of nursery beds the trouble was not evident, or if some pines did 
show poor growth they soon recovered, presumably owing to the spread of the 
mycorrhizal fungus to their roots from their close neighbours. There would 
naturally be no recurrence of such trouble in subsequent years of planting the 
nursery. 

Ill connection with this the roots of Eucalyptus rubida, which was the 
dominant tree on the area, were examined, and were found also to be possessed 
of an ectotrophic mycorrhiza. It would seem likely that the roots of very many, 
it not all, Eucalyptus species, may possess such mycorrhiza. 

It is with the endotrophic type of mycorrhiza that this note mainly deals, 
however. The term mycorrhiza should perhaps be used with some qualification! 
It seems usually to imply that a majority of the roots of a plant possessing it 
should be actually infected. When the roots of large numbers of plants are 
examined, however, it is found that while some species are very extensively 
invaded by the fungus, in others only one or two small laterals may be found 
infected, and all gradations between these extremes exist in others. In the present 
work a plant has been listed as possessing mycorrhiza, however small in amount 
the infection has been found. 

It remains to be investigated how far soil and other conditions determine 
the amount of infection. That they may do so to a considerable extent is evident 
from a comparsion of the roots of wheat and oat plants grown at Mount Gambier 
and near Adelaide respectively. In the former case the mycorrhizal fungus is 
extremely abundant, and the cells with arbuscles often so filled with the char- 
acteristic minute granules which are here quite green, that it is easy to see the 



24& 

infected roots with the naked eye. In the latter case, however, it often requires 
careful search to pick out infected roots. 

The determination of the presence of mycorrhiza rests in all cases upon a 
section of the root showing the characteristic non-septate mycelium ramifying 
abundantly in the inner layers of the cortex without apparently injuring the host 
cells, and forming, usually just without the endodermis, either "arbuscules" or 
"sporangioles." Vesicles were fairly abundant in some species, but were not seen 
in others ; the characteristic lemon-shaped spores have only been found on one 
occasion so far. Considerable variation exists as to the relative abundance and 
development of arbuscules, sporangioles, and vesicles in the roots of different 
plants. The details of these variations are reserved for a later paper, however. 

In this small preliminary survey the mycorrhizal endophytc as above described 
has been found in species 'belonging to the families Leguminosae, Grammeae. 
Liliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Violaceae, Geraniaceae, Euphorbiaceae. Rosaceae, 
Plantaginaccae, Compositae. The list of species examined is not given in extenso, 
since it is beyond doubt that many more species in these families, and also species 
in many other families, will subsequently be found to be infected. 

The fact that all species so far examined in the families Leguminosae and 
Gramineae (27 in the former, 30 in the latter) are infected, especially abundantly 
in the Leguminosae, renders it highly desirable that more should be known as to 
the physiological relationships existing in this peculiar partnership. As yet no 
definite proofs or disproofs of the various theories advanced have been adduced. 
Of these, that of Janse (1 ), who considered the endophyte as possibly assimilating 
free nitrogen and transmitting it to the plant, and that of McLennan (3), who 
considered (in the one case with which she worked, viz., the genus Lolium) that 
the endophyte might supply carbohydrate material from the soil, need further 
experimental investigation. 

Finally, attempts to isolate the mycorrhizal endophyte have so far failed. 
This was also the experience of Janse (1), Peyronel (5), and F. R. Jones (2). 
Peyronel (4, 5) has lately described the occurrence of mycorrhiza in wheat and 
other crop and wild plants in Italy, and linds that there is frequently an associa- 
tion of two endophytes, one of which, a Rhisoclonia, he lias been able to isolate 
with ease. So far this has not been determined in South Australia. 

It is a pleasure to record the assistance afforded by the Imperial Bureau of 
Mycology in lending the papers of Janse and Peyronel. 

References. 

(1) Janse, |. M. — "Les endophvtes radicaux de quelques plautes javanaises," 

Anii. du Jard. Bot. de Buitenzorg, xiv. (1896), 53-201, 11 pis. 

(2) Jones F R. — **A Mycorrhizal Fungus in the Roots of Legumes and some 

other Plants." Journ. Agr. Res, xxix. (1924), 459-470, 3 figs., 2 pis. 

(3) McLennan, E. I.— "The Endophytic Fungus of Lolium. II. The 

Mycorrhiza on the Roots of L. temulentum, with a discussion on the 
physiological relationships of the organism concerned." Ann. Bot., xl. 
(1926), 43-68, 3 pis. 

(4) Peyronel, B. — "Sulla normale presenza di micorize nel grano e in altre 

piantc coltivate e spontanea" Boll. Mens. R. Sta. Pat. Veg., m. 
(1922), 43-50. Abstr. in Rev. App. Myc, u\, 172. 

(5) Peyronel, B. "Prime ricerche sulle micorize endotrofiche e suha mico- 

flora radicicola normale delle fanerogame." Riv. di Biol., v. (1923), 
463-485, 11 figs., and vi. (1924), 17-53, 14 figs. Abstr. in Rev. App. 
Myc, iii., 539. 



24? 



SPECIES OF THE ISOPOD FAMILY SPHAEROMIDAE, FROM THE 
EASTERN, SOUTHERN, AND WESTERN COASTS OF AUSTRALIA. 

By W. II. Baker. 

[Read September 9, 1926.] 

Plates XXXVIII. to LIIL 

Owing to the kindness of the authorities of the Australian Museum, Sydney, 
1 have been enabled to examine the Sphaeromids in that institution. The paper 
deals with this material and with examples recently added to the South Australian 
Museum collection, as well as a few that have been forwarded from Western 
Australian Museum. Naturally, most of the specimens in. the Australian Museum 
series are shallow water forms from the eastern coast, many of the species which 
arc common on the southern coast not being represented. 

The now well-known marked sexual dimorphism occurring in this group has 
induced authors to recommend that species should be established on adult males 
only. I have kept this in view, describing females only when they exhibit some 
striking characters. 

Although the group has much resemblance to the Cymothoidae, none of the 
species seem to be addicted to parasitism; apparently Sphaeromids are, in the 
main, scavengers, and are thus of economic importance. Although some swim 
actively, most are rather sluggish; many live in sponges, etc., where the two sexes 
are often taken together, thus helping to confirm relationship in doubtful cases. 
The Australian Sphaeromids are not well known, and systematic collecting — 
which is much needed — has been neglected ; as a result, one very often has only 
single specimens to deal with, which are frequently females. 

It is with great diffidence that I introduce the new genus Cymodopsis, chiefly 
to relieve the very large genus Cymodoce, and I claim for it the same value as 
Cilicaea, Cilicaeopsis, and Paracilicaca, Six species are allotted here, and 
Cymodoce asp era, Haswcll, which might otherwise be included, I have left out, 
believing that species to be nearer to Bregmoccrella. 

Subfamily SPHAEROMINAE. 

Group Hemibranchiatae, Hansen. 

Sphaeroma terebrans, Bate. 

PI, xxxviii., figs. 11, 12. 

Sphacroma terebrans, Bate, Arm. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), vol. 17, p. 28, pi. 2. 

S. vastator, ibid, p. 28, pi. 2, fig. 4. 

S* destructor, Richardson, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, p. 282, and figs. 

S. terebrans, Stebbing, Spolia Zeylan, vol. 2, pt. 5, p. 16, pi. 4. 

S. terebrans, Barnard, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. xvii., pt. v., p. 358. 

S. terebrans, Caiman, P.Z.S., 1921, Crust., ii., p. 217. 

S. terebrans, Chilton, N.Z. Jnl. Sci. and Tech., 1919, p. 12, note. 

There are a large number of specimens in the collection, the largest, about 
8 mm. in length. In some the tubercles are quite small and the pubescence varies 
considerably. In some specimens identified by Dr. Chilton the posterior extremity 
of the abdomen is much more pointed, the primary tubercles of the thorax and 
abdomen more distinct, except the two submedian on the anterior division of the 
abdomen. The margin of the end of abdomen is turned upward, and below still 



248 

close to the tip is a distinct swelling. In some examples the end of abdomen 
appears to be turned downward. In nearly all specimens examined there is a 
distinct tubercle or dipping of an inner fold on the margin of the epimeron of the 
1st thoracic segment. Sometimes the lines marking the coalesced _ segments of 
the anterior division of abdomen are very obscure, at others, as in Stebbing's 
figure, the same statement applies to the transverse ridge on 4th segment of 
thorax, and there are frequently similar ridges on 3rd and 5th segments as 
observed by Barnard. 

The 3rd joint of antennule seems to vary, it is often as long or longer than the 
two preceding joints together. Most specimens have 4 teeth on outer ramus of 
uropod. 

With a large number of dry specimens from Queensland, there was one dif- 
fering, the posterior region of which is shown in pi. xxxviii., fig. 13. I find in 
some earlier notes on a large number of_ specimens, from the eastern coast, the 
remark, 'These seem to be all juveniles," made on account of the absence of 
appendix masculina, 1 am glad to find the explanation in the above paper of Dr. 
Caiman's. 

Sphaeroma quoyana, Ml. Edw. 

PI. xxxviii., figs. 1-10. 
Sphaeroma qiwyana, Ml. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., t. iii., p. 206. 
S. quoyana, Heller, Reise de Novara Crust, p. 137. 
S. quoyana, Haswell, Cat. Austr. Crust., p. 287. 
S. quoyana, Hedley, Austr. Assn. Adv. Sci., vol. 8, 1901. 
S. pentodon (?), Richardson, U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 54, p. 286. 
S. verrucauda, Dana, U.S. Expl. Exp. Crust., ii., p. 779, pi. Iii... fig. 6. 
S. verrucauda, Chilton, N.Z. Jnl. Sci. and Tech., 1919, p. 12. 

The body has many black dendritic markings and is obscurely granulate. 
The head is anteriorly depressed, there is a well-marked rostrum with a trans- 
verse ridge behind it. The eyes are large. 

A distinct transverse ridge is found on the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th segments of 
thorax. 

The sides of the posterior division of abdomen slope inwards sufficiently to 
allow the uropods to be almost completely hidden. 

The anterior portion of epistome is slightly excavate. 

The flagellum of the antennule has 11 joints. 

The antennal flagellum has 14 joints. 

The left mandible has a small secondary plate, the spines are 9 in number, 
the incisory plate is narrow obscurely divided into 3 lobes or teeth, the joints of 
the palp are broad and compressed. 

The 2nd maxilla has broad plates densely fringed. 

In the maxillipeds a large portion of the 2nd joint and its plate is folded 
longitudinally ; the hairs on the plate are dense and some plumose ; the coupling 
spine is a long curved setum. 

The legs are in 3 series, the 7th pair the longest. 

The 2nd pleopod has the appendix slightly exceeding the length of endopod. 
The exopod of the 3rd is without division. The 5th has the. exopod with 3 
shagreenate lobes on the distal division and one on the proximal. 

The uropods are rather small, lanceolate, the inner ramus reaches to the end 
of abdomen, the outer ramus is 4- or 5-toothed — sometimes the teeth are obsolete 
—it has a longitudinal keel below; both rami are fringed with fine hairs. 

This species is very common on the east and south coasts of Australia and 
is credited with wood destruction, but sometimes found burrowing in mud 
probably containing decaying wood or seaweed. 



249 

Exosphaeroma intermedia, n. sp. 
PI. xxxix., figs. 1-8. 

Body rather smooth, punctate, with obscure rounded areolae like fish scales 
and some minute setules. 

Head short, with a transverse ridge on the forehead. Kyes large. 

1st thoracic segment longest; the following subequal in length. The epimera 
of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th segments are subacute, those of 5th, 6th, and 7th rounded, 
the 7th not so deep. 

The posterior division of abdomen is widely dome-shaped all over, the end 
is somewhat truncate and entire. 

The two basal antennal joints are contiguous, these are short, triangulate, 
the base of triangle being the distal end, there they are a little bilobed by a small 
sulcus about the middle, 2nd joints small and short, 3rd joints narrow, flagellum 
short with 12 joints. 

Antenna moderately robust, flagellum of 13 joints, the first 5 or 6 short, the 
others becoming longer. 

Epistome somewhat quadrate, anteriorly with a mucronate apex or partially 
covered by basal antennal joints, the limbs recede. 

The right mandible is slender, not salient, the incisory plate 4-lobed, then 
follow a number of curved branched spines. The molar is prominent with 
margin fringed with numerous denticles. The palp is large, its distal joint falcate. 

1st: maxilla with inner branch short, ending in 5 large branched spines. The 
outer branch has 8 or 9 strong spines, some of which have lateral branches, the 
shaft is setose on each side. 

The 2nd maxilla has broad leaf -like lobes; their margins with many serrate 
spines. 

The maxillipcd has the basal joints narrow, the plate of the 2nd joint ends 
in a mass of branched spines with a row of similar ones on inner margin for some 
distance. The 2nd joint of palp is only separated from the 3rd by a small shallow 
cleft and is scarcely lobed, the 3rd and 4th are strongly lobed bearing setae, and 
are as in Cymodoce and other genera. 

The legs are all robust, provided with furry pads on 4th, 5th, and 6th joints, 
the first 3 pairs carry long setae on 3rd and 4th joints, but they are not so long 
or numerous as in Sphaeronta. In the remaining legs the basos and ischium bear 
longish fine hair and also some strong spines in the usual positions on those limbs. 

The pleopods arc very sphaeroma-likc, broad, the peduncles of the first 3 pairs 
have each 3 coupling spines on inner sides and furry hairs on outer. Jn the 
2nd pair the appendix much outreaches the endopod to which it is attached. 

The exopods of the 3rd and 4th pairs have each a division. There is a 
distal gap on the respiratory ramus of the 4th pair. The exopod of the 5th pair 
has prominent setuliferous lobes with hne hair on the outer margin. 

The uropods are subequal, the inner ramus is ovatc-lanccolate, the outer with 
2 teeth on the external margin with slight indications of 2 more above these. 

One male specimen, 8 mm. long, found on a clump of live coral, Vanderlin 
Island, Sir Edward Pellew Group, Gulf of Carpentaria, June, 1923, collected and 
presented by Dr. W. E. J. Paradice, Royal Australian Navy, to Australian 
Museum ; it being the type. 

Exosphaeroma bicolor, n. sp. 

PI. lii., figs. 1-5; also pi. H„ figs. 8, 10. 

Body surface nearly smooth, glabrous. The segments of thorax do not differ 

much in length. The epimera are marked off from the tergites by a faint groove 

on each side. The epimeron of 1st thoracic segment projects anteriorly beneath 

I 



250 

the eye but the posterior angle is abrupt, the lower margin is straight, the follow- 
ing 3 epimera are rounded, separate, and rather sinuate ; the last 3 are deeper 
and broader rounded, that of the 7th segment reaches down to near the level of 
the 6th. The anterior division of abdomen is a little longer than the 1st thoracic 
segment ; obscurely divided by lines into 4 segments ; the lateral margins of this 
division reach to the level of the 6th thoracic epimera. The head is short, steeply 
declivous in front; a faint swelling marlcs the place of the rostrum. The eyes 
are large and prominent with many ocelli. The posterior division of abdomen 
is moderately domed, declivous behind with a reduction in steepness near the end 
which is obtusely pointed ; the margin here is a little insinuate in vertical direction. 

The peduncular joints of the antennule are subequal in length; the 1st has 
a shallow distal notch; the flagellum has 10 joints. The joints of the antennal 
peduncle are short and stout; the flagellum carries 11 joints. 

The epistome is elongate, rounded anteriorly, its lateral limbs receding. The 
upper lip is prominent. 

The right mandible has the incisory plate rather slender, tridentate, no 
definite secondary plate, spine row well marked, with strong molar, and palp 
with compressed joints, the last narrow, falcate, it and the middle joint comb-like. 

The 1st maxilla is strong, the inner branch with 4 curved plumose setae, the 
outer branch with 4 or 5 distal, blunt teeth and a few serrate spines ; the outer 
margin of this branch bears some fine setules. The 2nd maxilla has large lobes 
bearing strong setae. 

The maxilliped has the plate of the second joint rather elongate, the distal 
setae well developed. There is an inner fold with 3 feather setae. The palp is 
large, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th joints are well lobed with rather scanty setae; these 
joints have each a setum posteriorly (as noticed in Zitzara, etc.). 

The legs are robust, well spined, with moderate furry pads on 4th, 5th, and 
6th joints. 

The 1st pleopod has the peduncle projecting more than usual on the inner 
side with 5 coupling spines which are not so crowded as usual, the outer side is 
bent down in the proximal direction. The rami are rather small. The endopod 
about as long again as broad, its outer margin slightly concave. The exopod has 
a large outstanding spine slightly curved. The 2nd pleopod also with rather 
small rami; the appendix is thick, obtuse, and over-reaches the endopod consider- 
ably. The peduncle has a strong setum on outer angle. The 3rd pleopod has the 
exopod with division near the middle of lamina. The peduncle has 3 or 4 longish 
setae on outer angle. In the 4th pleopod the endopod has few branchial folds 
(6-7), the apex is rather acute, and there is a broad shallow insinuation near by, 
and one plumose setum. The exopod carries 3 distal similar setae and a number 
of setules on the outer margin. The rami of 5th pleopod are rather narrow. The 
exopod has a distal rasp slightly prominent and 2 lobed with similar thickenings 
almost continuous on inner margin for some distance as in E. calcareus. The 
endopod has few branchial folds (6-7) and is distally truncate with a small eleva- 
tion on the inner angle. 

Uropods have the inner ramus rather broad not reaching the end of abdomen, 
subacute at end. The exopod is narrower, longer, lanceolate, very acute, reach- 
ing beyond end of abdomen. 

Length, 10 mm. 

This species is near Exosphaeroma calcareus, Dana, and E. falcatum, Tatter- 
sall. It has the habit of rolling into a ball with the outer rami of the uropods 
outstanding. The female has a less projecting abdomen than the male and the 
rami of uropods are equal in length. The specimens (8 males and 2 females) are 
from shore between tide limits, Kangaroo Island, and were collected by Mr. H. 



251 

M. Hale, Zoologist of the South Australian Museum. Type, C. 1050, South 

Austr. Mus. 

Exosphaeroma alii, n. sp. 

PI. li„ figs. 6, 7, 9. 

The body is smooth and glabrous. The head is rounded in front and very 
short. The eyes are large. The 1st segment of thorax is longest, the remaining 
are subequal in length except the last, which is shorter. The 1st epimeron has 
the lower margin nearly straight, abrupt behind, the remaining ones are nearly 
uniform in size, except 2nd and 7th, the 7th is a little smaller than and not 
reaching down to quite the level of the 6th ; they are not distinctly marked off 
from their respective tergites. The anterior division of abdomen is very short, 
the coalesced segments well marked laterally. The posterior division is not 
strongly domed, is smooth and shovel-shaped at end, and thin-walled. 

The antennule is rather large, 1st joint broad and not much produced at inner 
distal angle, 2nd joint almost half as long as 1st, 3rd a little longer than this, 1st 
joint of flagellum longer than the rest, flagellum of 8 longish jomts. The antenna 
has a few setae on 5th joint of peduncle, the flagellum is rather long, of 13 joints. 

The epistome is rather long, apically retiring and acute ; the limbs are retiring; 
the upper lip is large. 

The right mandible has a rather slender incisory process almost _ entire at 
apex, there is a minute secondary process and a spine cluster which springs from 
a common base ; the molar is large. 

The inner ramus of 1st maxilla with 4 recurved setae, the outer ramus is 
rather narrow and the distal teeth much worn in specimen. 

The 2nd maxilla is robust with spines on the outer and middle lobes more 
robust than on the inner lobe, which reaches a little beyond the other. 

The maxiliiped has narrow basal, joints, the plate of the 2nd being also 
narrow; there are 2 setae on the hinder end of 3rd joint of palp and one on the 
4th. The lobes of these joints are moderately long and setose. 

The legs are rather slender, 1st pair with rather long fine setae on usual 
joints; the rest of the legs are sparely spincd and setose. 

The peduncle of 1st pleopod has 5 coupling spines on the inner angle, the 
outer side has numerous setules, the exopod has the usual outstanding spine on 
the outer proximal angle, the outer margin of endopod is straight or slightly 
convex. The 2nd pleopod has a large endopod; the appendix is moderately 
robust tapering towards the end, and reaches nearly to the end of the fringe of 
the endopod. The peduncle has a long setum on the outer angle as well as the 
usual setules. The 3rd pleopod has large rami ; there are a few longish setae on 
the outer angle of the peduncle. The dividing line on the exopod is nearer the 
middle than the end, but not so much so as in the previous species. The endopod 
of the 4th pleopod has a very shallow, wide emargination and ^3 plumose setae 
on the end with 2 on the end of the exopod. The rami of 5th pleopods ate 
rather narrow, the exopod is subacute distally with 2 outstanding rasp-like lobes, 
the other lobes are not well marked but are similar to those of preceding species. 
The endopod is distally truncate with small prominence on the inner angle. 
Branchial folds are few on both 4th and 5th pleopods. 

The uropods have laminate rami, the inner ramus has the inner margin 
nearly straight, the outer very convex, not quite reaching the end of abdomen, 
distally subacute. The outer ramus is shorter, narrower, distally rounded, and 
on distal margin slightly serrate. 

Length, 7 mm. 

The body is whitish with much dark dendritic marking. Several specimens 
were collected at Victor Harbour in shallow water by Miss AH. 

Type, C. 1055, South Austr. Mus. 



252 

Exosphaeroma; alata, n. sp. 

PI. xxxix., figs. 9-11 ; pi. xl., figs. 1-3. 

The body, especially the head, is rough with rather scanty tubercles which 
arrange themselves more definitely on the posterior margins of thoracic segments. 

The head has a transverse, low ridge just behind the antennular region; 
behind this there are two indistinct submedian tubercles. The eyes are large. 

The 1st segment of thorax is longest, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th subequal in 
length, the last 3 shorter. The epimera, except the 1st and last, are subequal, 
the last not so deep, the penultimate one with an oblique ridge on the outer side. 

The anterior division of abdomen is short, its lateral margins are slightly 
turned up. The posterior division is at first domed, but soon shelvesaway toa 
long posterior triangular projection with very acute apex; the posterior margin 
of the cavity of the abdomen is broken by a wide notch or channel opening, this 
is roofed over by the projecting end. 

The basal antennular joints are short with rather corroded surfaces, they 
touch each other medianly ; there is a small notch on the posterior border which 
holds a small lateral portion of the epistome. The 2nd joint of peduncle is short, 
the 3rd long, the flagellum of 9 longish joints. Antennal peduncle is robust, 
flagellum of 17 short joints. The epistome is short with well projecting lateral 
angles. 

The mandibles are normal; the left with incisory plate 3 or 4 divided, 
secondary plate tririd, very small spine row and strong molar; palp of moderate 
size. 

The 1st maxilla has a small tuft of setae on the middle of the shaft besides 
the terminal setae. 

The lobes of the palp of the maxilliped are short and close together, the 
terminal joint is also short, at the posterior angles of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th joints 
there is a long setum as in Zuzara venosa. 

The legs are slender, very sparely spined, the last pair in the male are very 
long and appear to have a prehensile function ; the propodus is long and curved. 

The 1st pleopod has a peduncle with 3 coupling spines on the inner angle, 
the outer side slopes away obliquely and is destitute of fine hair. The exopod has 
a small outer proximal spine. The endopod is slightly longer than broad. The 
appendix of the 2nd pleopod reaches as far as the fringe of the endopod. The 
exopods of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th have oblique divisions. 

The uropods are very large, wing-like, both rami are somewhat wedge-shaped 
and subequal, the outer have the external margins thickened and upturned, both 
rami are minutely serrate at the distal margins and reach beyond the apex of 
abdomen. 

Length of male, 11 mm. 

The female is of typical Exosphaeroma form, mouth parts are unmodified, 
marsupial plates overlap slightly, the abdomen is not produced, the uropods are 
of ordinary size, the body is much smoother. 

This species is close to E, amplicauda, Stimpson, it is also near Isocladus, 
and if that genus is of subgeneric value, as Hansen suggests, then this also should 
bear a subgeneric designation. 

The specimens are from Mullumbimby, New South Wales, in fresh water in 
the river, L. Kesteven, Riddlemore Bridge, Parramatta River, also Miller's Point, 
Pt. Jackson. Types in Australian Museum. Sydney. 



253 

Neosphaeroma, n. gen. 

Characters mainly as in Exosphacroma, but pleopod 3 with some branchial 
folds on the cndopod. 

A small number of plumose setae on both exopod and endopod of pleopod 4. 

Endopods of pleopods 1 and 2 sometimes becoming very elongate, and that 
of No. 1 being modified in the male into an appendage of probably sexual use 
(N. laticauda). 

Exopods of pleopods 3, 4, and 5 with divisions. 

Type of genus, Neosphaeroma laticauda, Whitelegge. 

Neosphaeroma laticauda, Whitelegge. 
PI. xli., figs. 1-5. 

Cassidina laticauda, Whitelegge, "Thetis" Scientific Results N.S. Wales Isopoda, pt. i., 
p. 238. 

Hansen (Quart. Journal Microscopic Science, Oct., 1905) at page 130 says: 
"It is impossibfe for me to refer— Cassidina laticauda, Whitelegge— this species 
not only to any genus, but to any section or group of the Sphaerommae A 
specimen occurs in the collection of the South Australian Museum, a female from 
Gulf St. Vincent, which is referable to Whitelegge's species, a fact which I have 
been able to confirm by the kind loan of cotypes male and female from the Aus- 
tralian Museum. , - „ c ■ -c 

The following additions to Whitelegge's description— Thetis bcientinc 
Results, page 238 — are here given : — 

The body of the southern specimen is about twice the size of the cotypes. 

The marsupial laminae overlap and the mouth parts are unmodified. 

The 1st and 2nd pleopods are normal but in the 3rd the exopod has a division 
and the endopod carries 8 branchial folds; both rami carry many marginal 
plumose setae. 

In the 4th pleopod the exopod is 2-jointed, the endopod branchial, both rami 
with a few plumose marginal setae. 

The 5th pleopod also has a division on the exopod with 2 setuliferous_ lobes 
on the proximal portion at its inner distal angle and 3 on the terminal division. 

In the adult male (cotype of Whitelegge's) the appendages on the 7th 
sternum are well developed. 

The 1st pleopod has the endopod narrow-elongate about 2-| times as long as 
broad with its inner margin modified into a peculiar sheath-like apparatus, thus 
from near the middle of the lamina there arise 4 long setae unlike the marginal 
ones in having short pinnae; these lie in the cavity of the sheath extending to 
its distal end. 

In the 2nd pleopod the endopod is also narrow-elongate with the appendix 
long and folded on itself with a recess or ledge on the lamina. 

The 3rd pleopod has the branchial folds on the endopod. 

Except for these differences the sexes are similar. 

Neosphaeroma australe, Whitelegge. 
PI, xli, figs. 6-11. 
Sphacroma auslralis, "Thetis" Scientific Results N.S. Wales Isopoda, pt. ii., p. 250. 
The following may be added to Whitelegge's description :— 
- Posterior division of abdomen is broad and dome-shaped, gradually declivous 
to the end, the margin of which is broad, entire, and minutely serrate; from a 
posterior view, this has a broad insinuation in vertical direction. 

The epistome is elongate, the apex rather broadly rounded, the upper lip 
is large. 



254 

The appendages on 7th sternum of thorax are stout, blunt, but becoming 
attenuated in older specimens. 

The 1st pleopod has a narrow endopod not quite twice as long as broad with 
a strong ridge on the inner margin, the exopod is about as long as the endopod 
with a small proximal outstanding spine. Peduncle with 3 coupling spines on 
inner side and furry hairs on the outer. 

The endopod of the 3rd pleopod has 3 or 4 distinct branchial folds; the 
exopod has a very oblique division ending inwardly with a small emargination. 

Exopod of 4th pleopod carries 16 long plumose setae on the distal margin; 
the endopod carries 6 similar setae. 

The uropods are robust ; the inner ramus truncate at the end with a slight 
insinuation of the margin, the outer ramus is a little shorter with distal and inner 
margins serrate. 

The female resembles the male with an end of abdomen slightly broadly 
rounded. The mouth parts are unmodified with the brood in the body. In 
another specimen there were marsupial plates meeting medianly. 

Some specimens were presented by Mr. M. Ward, Sydney, to the South 
Australian Museum. Others in the collection of the Australian Museum are 
from Nelson's Bay, Port Stehpens, New South Wales. 

Neosphaeroma (?) pentaspina, n. sp. 
PI. li., figs. 1-5. 

The body is rather broad and rather flat, glabrous, integument obscurely 
areolate like sand grains. Head narrow and short, first 4 segments of thorax not 
differing much in length, 3 remaining ones becoming shorter; all the epimera 
reaching downwards to about the same level, as also do the side plates of the 
anterior division of abdomen. Anterior division of abdomen short, the coalesced 
segments almost becoming free at their lateral extremities. The posterior divi- 
sion also is rather short, evenly arched, or domed ; the posterior margin is rounded 
obtuse. 

The antcnnule is short, its 1st joint scarcely produced at the posterior distal 
angle, 2nd joint about half the length of the 1st, 3rd joint a little longer than the 
2nd, flagellum of 14 very short joints. In the antenna the peduncular joints are 
short, the 5th bears a small longitudinal row of setules, flagellum of 15 short joints. 

Epistome much shorter than in many species of Exosphaeroma, its apical 
portion retiring towards the rostral region, its lateral limbs retiring and becoming 
attenuate. 

The left mandible has the incisory plate rather short, robust, 4-toothed, the 
secondary plate is tridentate, the spine row is represented by a brush of setae 
united at the base. The molar and palp are strong. 

The inner branch of 1st maxilla has 4 feather-form curved setae, the outer 
branch with 6 or 7 curved teeth, the outer ones pectinate. The three plates of 
the second maxilla are well marked, setose, and reach the same level. The 
maxilliped has a rather broad distal plate to the second joint, it is distally well 
spined, and has a row of feather setae on the inner fold. The palp is large, the 
lobes of joints well supplied with setae, there are no conspicuous setae on the 
distal ends of posterior margins of 3rd and 4th joints. 

1st leg short, robust, basos with tuft of setules behind near proximal end, 
ischium with long setae, some of which are feather-form, merus with posterior 
process bearing long setae, also setose distally, carpus and propodus also pro- 
vided with long fine setae, dactylus short, 2-clawed. 7th leg long, sparely spined 
on setose. The pleopods are broad and large, the 1st has a rather narrow endopod 
with slight fold on inner margin, exopod broad with 5 conspicuous outstanding 



255 

spines near the outer proximal angle, peduncle with 4 slender coupling spines. 
2nd pleopod with rather thick appendix reaching beyond the end of endopod 
In the 3rd pleopod both exopod and endopod are broad, the exopod has the distal 
division occupying about one-third of the whole lamina. The 4th pleopod has 
well-developed plumose setae on both exopod and endopod. The exopod or 3th 
pleopod broadly rounded distally with one outstanding shagreenate apical lobe, 
another not outstanding lower down on the distal division, while just below is a 
smaller lobe on the proximal division. 

The uropods are lamellar, the inner ramus reaching to end of abdomen, the 
endopod is shorter, distally rounded. 

The specimens (2 males) were received dry, consequently the branchial folds 
of the pleopods were destroyed. My reason for placing the species _ in 
Neosphaeroma (?) is on account of the fringed state of the 4th pleopod rami. 

Length, 10 mm. ; breadth, 7 mm. 

Locality, off coast of New South Wales. Presented by Mr. M. Ward, of 
Sydney. 

1 ype in South Austr. Mus, Reg. No. C. 1054. 

Isocladus howensis, n. sp. 

PI. 1., figs. 7, 8. 

The body is short, glabrous, obscurely granular on the abdomen. Head short. 
1st segment of thorax a little longer than those which follow, except the last, 
which has a long process reaching to the extremity of the abdomen ; there is a 
small tubercle on each side of this. The eyes are of moderate size. The epimcra 
are abruptly turned in the vertical direction, the last being a little deeper than those 
preceding. " The anterior division of the abdomen is hidden by the 7th segment 
of thorax, the posterior division is moderately domed and tapers to an obtuse 
point, while below there is a shallow exit or channel to the cavity of the abdomen. 

The epistome is long, rounded anteriorly, and rather tumid, the upper lip 
is large and distally squared or truncate. The 1st antennular joint is short, the 
2nd a little longer than usual, the 3rd subequal to it in length, the nagellum has 
10 joints. The antenna is robust with a nagellum of 10 joints. The mandibles 
have incisory plates entire, the left has a secondary plate bifid and as large as the 
primary, the molar process is large. The legs are robust, sparely spined, but with 
furry pads on the usual joints. 

The 2nd pleopod has an appendix reaching beyond the lamina of the endopod ; 
this is not much longer than broad, and is very convex on its outer margin. The 
exopod is about the^same length, is very narrow at base, with the distal fringe of 
setae long. The 3rd pleopod has a broad endopod exceeding the exopod slightly 
in length, the exopod is also broad, the division being nearer the middle than the 
distal end. The exopod of the 4th pleopod has a few distal setae and some setules 
on the outer margin; the endopod has a distal shallow insinuation and an apical 
setum. The exopod of the 5th pleopod has 2 distal outstanding lobes, the others 
obscure. 

The uropods are moderate in size, rather thick, reaching further than the 
end of abdomen ; the rami are subequal, the outer rather sigmoid in shape. 

Length of male, 5 mm. 

The female is without dorsal process, has a more domed and less produced 
posterior division of abdomen, with 2 small submedian tubercles. The uropods 
are much smaller than in the male. 

The two specimens are from Lord Howe Island, found under stones, col- 
lected by G. P. Whitley. The type is in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

This species is very near to /. armatus, Ml. Edw. (see Tattersall, Brit. Ant 
Exp., p. 217, pi. vi., figs. 9-17). 



256 

Isocladus ( ?) eaevis, Haswell. 
PI. 1., figs. 9-12. 

Sphacroma laevis, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, vol. 5, pi. 16, p. 473. 

This is probably the female of a species of Zuzara or Isocladus. 

The posterior end of abdomen is somewhat produced ; there is an insinuation 
in the vertical direction below, but no notch or channel of any denniteness. 

The mandibles are normal (though the female examined seemed post 
ovigerous), incisory plates entire, molar large. 

The 2nd joint of the antennular peduncle is rather large, about half as long 
as the 1st, the 3rd is equal to the 2nd in length. The flagellum has 9 joints. The 
peduncular joints of the antennae are laterally compressed with 2 stiff bristles 
at the distal end of the 5th. The flagellum has 9 or 10 joints, which are long. 
The epistome is elongate. 

The maxilliped has the lobes of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th joints of palp rather short, 
and a long setum is situated at the posterior angle of the 2nd and 3rd joints, as 
seen in Z. venosa, Stebbing. 

The legs are strongly spilled, 

The pleopods have short rami as a whole. In the 1st the endopod is broader 
than long, the exopod with rather long outstanding spine ; there are 3 or 4 coupling 
spines on the inner angle of peduncle. In the 2nd pleopod the endopod is rather 
longer than broad and very convex on the outer margin. The 3rd pleopod has 
a similar endopod, distally obtuse ; the division on the exopod is quite near the 
middle. The exopod of the 4th pleopod has the division near the end, and a few 
plumose setae. Exopod of 5th pleopod also with a division. 

The rami of uropods are laminate, narrow, obtuse distally, subequal, not 
reaching quite to end of abdomen. 

Two examples from Bondi beach, New South Wales. 

Length, 6 mm., of larger specimen. 

Cymodoce gaimardii. Ml. Edw. 
PI. xlii., %. 2. 

Sphacroma gaimardii, Ml. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., t. iii., p. 209. 

There are several representatives of this fine species in the collection. As it 
does not seem to have been figured, I have illustrated an example which is pro- 
bably a young male. 

The first 3 pairs of legs are somewhat more robust than those which follow. 
The epistome is tumid anteriorly; the two basal antennular joints almost touch 
at its apex, but further forward are separated by the small pointed rostrum. 

The female (non-ovigerous) is like the male, but the posterior notch is not 
so deeply cut either in transverse or vertical direction, and the median process is 
distally rounded instead of square cut as in the male. 

Length of male, 25 mm. ; breadth, 14 mm. 

This seems to be a southern species, it has been collected at Port Phillip 
(F. E. Grant) and by Professor Cleland at Encounter Bay, South Australia. It 
has been also reported from Tasmania and Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia. 
There is a small variety of this species. 

Cymodoce aspeka, Haswell. 

PI. xlii., fig. 1; pi. xt, figs. 9-11. 
Sphacroma aspera, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, vol. v., pi. 16, p. 472. 
S. aspera, Richardson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 1909, vol. 37, p. 94. 

The body is thick-set and broad. The head is short, steeply declivous in 
front, with a dorsal slight prominence and a few small tubercles. The eyes are 



257 

moderately large. The segments of thorax are also obscurely tuberculate on 
posterior margins; these segments become much shorter behind the 1st. Ihe 
epimcra have a downward direction, the more anterior ones more acute Ihe 
anterior division of abdomen has two submedian tubercles or prominences behind. 
The posterior division has two bosses, which are clear cut on the sides ; there 
are two small tubercles below each, then it tapers to an obtusely pointed end 
with a slight incision on each side, below there is a deep channel m the vertical 

direction. , . 

The epistome is prominent at its middle third, recedes anteriorly, the upper 

lip is large. + 

The 1st antennular joint is broad with a small sulcus near the distal end; 
the flagellum has 10-12 joints, as also has the flagellum of the antenna. 

The mandibles have the incisorv plates entire and strongly chitinised. On 
the left mandible the secondary plate is well developed, the molar process is strong. 

The maxillipeds have a rather narrow basal portion, the palp has long lobes. 

The legs are slender, of usual pattern, and sparely spined. 

The endopod of the 1st pleopod is at base a little shorter than its length. 
The exopod has a projecting spine at its outer proximal angle. The endopod of 
the 2nd pleopod is slightly insinuate on its outer margin; this feature is more 
pronounced on the endopod of the 3rd pleopod. Two small plumose setae are at 
the distal end of exopod of the 4th pleopod, and its much thickened endopod has 
distally a semicircular notch. The exopod of the 5th pleopod has two projecting 
setuliferous lobes on the proximal division and three on the distal, and is ciliate 
on its outer margin. 

The uropod is slightlv fringed with hair, the rami do not reach nearly to the 
end of abdomen, the inner ramus is rather broad and distally truncate, the outer 
fo much smaller and is umbonate at the end. 

There is in the collection a specimen of 6 mm. and another of 11 mm. by 
7 mm. ; the larger is not nearly so tuberculate. 

The male is unknown. 

The specimens are from Shell Harbour, New South Wales, collected by G. 
McAndrew, July, 1923. 

Cymoboce aculeata, Hasweli. 
PI. xl, figs. 7, 8. 

Cymodoce acukata, Hasweli, Cat. Austr. Crust., p. 291. 

The body of the male is minutely granular with a thick pubescence towards 
the posterior" end. There is a well-defined ridge across the forehead. Tht 
abdomen is highlv sculptured, on the anterior division a 1st segment is distinct, 
as also are the lines indicating the other coalesced segments. There is a transverse 
row of 6 rather obscure tubercles in the median region, and the hinder margin 
has two submedian projections. The posterior division of the abdomen has 
6 transverse.lv arranged tubercles, and at the end the median process is elevated 
above the sides of the deep notch; the 3 distal ends here are obtuse and reach the 
same level. 

The 1st joint of the antennular peduncle is short and broad, its hinder distal 
process not reaching the end of the 2nd joint, which also is short; the flagellum 
has 15 joints. The antenna is longer, its flagellum has 17 joints. 

The epistome is anteriorly rounded and tumid. 

The incisory plate of the right mandible is strong and is obscurely bifid or 
trifid, a spine row is present, and the molar is rather weak. 

The legs are well spined and provided with the furry pads on meri, carpi and 
propodi in each. 



258 

The endopod of the 1st pleopod is rather longer than broad, its inner margin 
has a partial fold forming an open channel, the exopod has a strong outstanding 
spine, the peduncle has 3 coupling spines on the inner margin and fine hairs on 
the outer. 

On the 2nd pleopod the appendix is straight, slender, and reaches beyond 
the fringe of the endopod; its base is scarcely bulbous and does not project below 
over the peduncle. 

The 3rd pleopod is large with the exopod divided rather near the end. 

The uropod has subequal rami, the inner is obliquely truncated, with a small 
tubercle near the distal end. The outer ramus is distally acute, its outer margin 
straight and strongly ridged; there are small teeth on the inner margin. There 
is a small tubercle on the peduncle. 

Length of male, 19 mm. 

The female has a much less sculptured abdomen. On the posterior division 
there are two obscure submedian bosses, and the posterior notch is very much 
less cut, but with the median lobe projecting a little beyond the sides of notch. 

In a tube containing 64 specimens there were no ovigerous females, but 
young of both sexes were plentiful. 

From Jervis Bay, New South Wales. 

Cymodoce bidentata, Haswell. 
PI. xl., figs, 4-6. 
Cymodoce bidentata, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S. Wales, vol. vi,, p. 189. 
C. bidentata, Cat. Austr. Crust., p. 291. 

The sides of the body in the regions of the thorax and abdomen are nearly- 
straight, granulate, and with a rather scanty coarse pubescence, both of which are 
more pronounced posteriorly. 

lite head is long, rounded anteriorly where it shows from above parts of 
the antennules and rostrum when extended. The eyes are moderate, and there is 
a small oblong indentation on the vertex. The 1st segment of thorax is not much 
longer than those which follow. The epimera project downwards, the last 3 
being wider than the others. 

The anterior division of /the abdomen has on its posterior border 2 sub- 
median projections, flanked by 2 lateral tubercles, with 2 or 3 on each side more 
lateral and more obscure, from which spring tufts of longer setae. The posterior 
division which descends rather abruptly bears 2 tubercles, each nearly under 
the projections of the anterior portion; below these are two submedian spiniform 
tubercles tvirned upwards at their tips, and below these a median spiniform tubercle 
also upturned. The posterior notch is wide, its median process is lingulate, 
slightly bifid at the tip, and projects a little beyond the sides of the notch. 
The epistome is rather broad, a little tumid anteriorly, with acute apex. 
The 1st antennular joint is of moderate length, the 2nd small and partially 
embraced by the 1st, the 3rd joint is long, the 1st joint of the flagellum is half 
as long as it; the remaining joints are short and number 18, as also does the 
flagellum of the antenna. 

The mandibles are normal, incisory plates entire, as also is the secondary 
plate on the left; spine row is well developed. 

Maxilliped is rather small, the lobes of palp of moderate length. 

The legs are rather sparely spined, the spines being stronger on 1st pair, 

The 1st pleopod has endopod slightly longer than broad, a little insinuate on 
its inner margin towards the end, with the more proximal part of margin folded 
inwards. Exopod with proximal outstanding spine turned up at tip, 4 coupling 
spines are on the inner angle of the peduncle, and the usual furry mass of hair 



259 



on the outer side. 2nd pleopod with the appendix exceeding the endopod by 
about half. Exopod of 3rd pleopod with division rather near the end. 

The uropods are indurated and thickened, very setose and granular to 
spinuliform. The inner ramus is large and somewhat sigmoid, terminating m 
two acute teeth, one of which is subterminal and below. The outer ramus is 
small and much shorter, also with a terminal and subterminal tooth. J here is a 
small tubercle on the peduncle above. 

One male specimen from 100 faths. off Tasmania was collected by Mr. C. 
Hedley, and is in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Cymodoce uxguiculata, Barnard. 

Cymodoce unguiculata, Barnard, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., vol. x., pt. w\ p. 394, pi. xxxiv.D. 

There are in the collection three immature specimens which appear to belong 
to this species. They were taken by Mr. H. M. Hale in 5 faths. at Beachport, 
South Australia, accompanied bv a species so close to Exosphaeroma vancolor, 
Barnard, that 1 hesitate to separate it. It is interesting to note that these two 
species are from the same locality in South Africa. 

ClLlCAEA CRASSA, HaSWCll. 
PL xliii., figs. 1, 2. 

Cilicaea crassa, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S. Wales, vi., p. 186. 

The posterior division of abdomen, including the space between the two 
bosses, is so steep that it projects beyond the end, and between the two bosses 
the process of the anterior portion is seen on an inferior view, the end ot trie 
abdomen itself is trilobed, the notch widening inwardly ; the median process ot 
this is Ungulate and directed downwards. 

The exopod of uropod is best shown by the figures in two positions. 

The legs are robust, the basal (basos) joints of the more posterior ones carry 
small strong teeth on their posterior margins. 

The epistome is short and small. 

Cilicaea sptnulosa, Haswell. 

PL acEL, fig. 4. _ 

Cilicaea spinuhsa, Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, vi., 1882, p. 184, pi. m., tig. d; 
id., Cat. Austr. Crusl., 1882, p. 297. 

C. spinulosa, Whitelcgge, "Thetis" Scientific Results Isopoda, pt. ii., p. 265. 

This species has a very deep posterior notch visible from above with two 
denticles in it; a median process in this notch is very small. 

The epistome is short, small, slightly tumid medianly, with a large labrurp. 

The body is covered with a coarse pubescence which becomes thicker behind. 

The eyes are large and ovate. 

The legs are very spinose. 

CiLICAEOPSIS STYLTFERA, WhitcleggC. 

PL xlii., fig. 7. 

Cilicaea stylifera, Whitelegge, "Thetis" Scientific Results Isopoda, pt. ii., p. 267. 

The end of abdomen has a deep exit channel (of a type very common, as will 
be seen), a median lobe is perhaps very obscurely indicated. 

The epistome is short and rather broad with a small obtusely pointed knob 
on its anterior part which projects obliquely downwards. 

The eyes are small, rounded, and prominent. 



260 

Cilicaeopsis ornata, Whitelegge. 
PI. xlii., figs. 3-5. 
Cilicaca ornata, ''Thetis" Scientific Results Isopoda, pt. ii., p. 269. 
The end of abdomen has a deep and narrow channel which at its exit is roofed 
over by the acutely pointed end. 

The epistome is similar to that of C. stylifera, except that the pointed knob 
is more evident and projects forward. The spiniform tubercles are well disposed 
in transverse rows. 

The eyes are small and rounded. 

Cilicaeopsis obesa, n. sp. 

PI. xliv., figs. 8-11. 
The body is ovate, glabrous except on uropods, and very convex in both 
directions. The segments of thorax are about the same length, except the 1st. 
Viewed from above when the animal is stretched out the head shows a slight 
rostral prominence; this is excavated and wide, separating the two basal joints 
of the antennules. There is a transverse ridge on the forehead. The eyes are 
moderately large. 

The anterior division of abdomen is long and shows the sutures of suppressed 
segments plainly; the posterior margin is broadly arched. The posterior division 
is dome-shaped, has a very faint prominence medianly, and a steep descent to 
near the posterior end, which again shelves off a little, the margin having a small 
A-shaped notch visible from above and also a broad and similar shape in the 
vertical direction. The epimera are marked off by distinct sutures; that of the 
last segment is shorter than the rest. 
The epistome is short and broad. 

The basal antennular joint is scarcely excavate distally to receive the 2nd 
joint, the 3rd joint is rather long. Flageilum of 6-8 joints. Antenna with 
flagcllum of 10 joints. 

Mandible — right — with incisory plate rather slender ; there are 6 curved 
spines, a molar strong and prominent, and small palp. 

The maxilliped has the palpal joints with long lobes nearly as in Cymodoce 
tuberculosa, Stebbing. 

The legs are strong and well spincd in the 1st pair, the dactyli are stronger 
than in those following. 

The pleopods are broad. The 1st has the endopod broader than long. The 
exopod, which is narrow, has the inner distal angle almost a right angle, and it 
has an external projecting spine at the base. Peduncle with 3 obscure coupling- 
spines and the usual dense hairs on the outer side. The 3rd pleopod has a broad 
endopod a little insinuate on the inner margin and distally truncate. The exopod 
also is broad with division not so near the end as in Paracilicaca stebbingi and 
others. The exopod of the 4th is also broad, that of the 5th much narrower; 
this is mostly covered with setules at the distal end with one lobe projecting more, 
the lobe on the proximal division also projects. 

The uropod is much reduced with short inner ramus as in most species of 
Cilicaca. The exopod is expanded, thickened, short, and covered with small teeth 
which become spiniform on the margin with small hairs between them. 

This description is taken from a non-ovigerous female; in an ovigerous 
female the mouth parts are modified and the marsupial laminae overlap. 
Length, about 9 mm. 

Several females from Shell Beach, New South Wales; the type and co-types 
are in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 



261 

Cilicaeopsis corpulentis, n. sp. 
PI. xliv., figs. 1-7. 

Body very convex transversely and longitudinally, covered with a fine woolly 
tomentum which in some specimens is scanty. 

The head is broad, gradually declivous in front, with a sulfation across the 
forehead, it is about as long as the 1st thoracic segment; the antennular and 
rostral region projects a little. The segments of thorax do not differ much in 
length after the 1st. The epimera are vertical in direction, obtuse, and marked 
ofr^by distinct sutural lines; those of the. 7th segment are not so deep. 

The anterior division of the abdomen is produced behind as a process which 
is adherent and curved to the general surface and does not reach its end ; below 
this in the median region is a depression which divides the posterior division 
into 2 lobes which, though well marked, are not tumid. The posterior margin is 
broad, obtuse, with a broad shallow insinuation shown below and visible from 
behind. The cavity of the abdomen has thick walls. 

The epistome is rather small, anteriorly truncate, the upper lip large. 

The 1st antennular joint is broad and short, the 2nd joint not much embraced 
by the 1st, the 3rd joint is long. Flagellum of 18 joints. The antennal flagellum 
has 15 joints. 

The mandibles show a concentration of strength in the incisory processes; 
these are highly chitinised and distally overlap. There is a strong spine row on 
the right mandible, but the molar is small and the palp very small. The secondary 
plate on left mandible is trind. 

1st maxilla of moderate size, distal spines of outer ramus highly chitinised, 
inner ramus is comparatively feeble. 

The maxilliped is rather slender. 

The legs arc robust and strongly spined with strong dactyl! 

The pieopods are broad in general aspect. The endopod of the 1st is 
triangular, about as long as broad, with a fold on the inner margin and a small 
distal emargination like as shown by Stebbing in C. laireillei (Ceylon Fisheries). 
Exopod with strong outstanding spine, inner angle of peduncle with 3 coupling 
spines. 

The appendix on the 2nd pleopod is long and whip-like, its base is strong 
and downward depressed, its distal portion channelled with marginal setules. 

The 3rd pleopod has broad rami as in Paracilicaea. 

The 4th pleopod bears two distal plumose setae on the exopod, the endopod 
is thick and much folded. 

The uropods are much reduced, the outer ramus is subcylindrical, the inner 
is also thick and reaches to end of abdomen. 

This species is near C. dakini, Tattersall ; it also much resembles the two 
species of Paracilicaea of this account, especially P. pubesccns. Ml. Edw. In 
epistome, antennules, antennae, legs, pieopods, etc., it is difficult to distinguish 
from those of Cilicaea laireillei, Leach. 

Length, 14 mm. ; breadth, 9 mm. 

There are three specimens from Port Stephens, New South Wales. 

The type is in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Cilicaeopsis halei, n. sp. 

PI. xlii., figs. 6, 8, 9. 

Body almost glabrous; there are a few longish hairs on the uropods. 

The head is rather long, a little umbonate above. The eyes are large, The 
1st segment of thorax is a little longer than those which follow, the last is shorter 
and narrower, faintly sinuous on posterior margin. The epimera have each a 
small prominence and the lower lateral margin of 1st segment is turned up. 



262 

The anterior division of abdomen has the median region raised and is produced 
behind to 2 small projections with another median, and above, which is flanked 
by 2 obscure ones near its sides ; this division also carries 2 obscure lateral 
tubercles. The posterior division has two submedian bosses ; medianly it becomes 
abruptly declivous, then gradually so to the pointed end. There is an insinuation 
in the vertical direction which medianly is a channel, but there is no notch. 

The 1st joint of the antennule has its distal angles not much produced. The 
flagellum has 10 joints. The antenna is robust with longish peduncular joints 
and a flagellum of 11 joints. 

The epistome is anteriorly broad with a small tubercle on each side. 

The right mandible has incisory plate 2 or 3 dentate. The left is entire with 
a long bifid secondary plate. The molars are very large. 

The palp of maxilliped has long lobed joints nearly as in Cymodoce tuber- 
culosa, Stebbing. 

The legs are sparsely spined, not differing much from each other except that 
the 1st pair is a little weaker. 

The 1st pleopod is more thickened than those that follow, the external spine 
of the exopod is small and non-projecting. There are 3 coupling spines in the 
peduncle, and externally it is destitute of the group of soft hairs. The exopod 
of the 3rd pleopod has the division well towards the middle of lamina, the endopod 
is broad and its outer margin slightly insinuate. The next 2 pleopods are 
hemibranchiate, the 4th having broad rami. On the exopod of the 5th there 
are 4 setulif erous lobes, one of which is outstanding ; the external margin of this 
lamina has fine hairs. 

The uropod is as in Oilicaea, a short inner ramus with the external ramus 
much longer, slender and a little curved. 

Length, 6 mm. 

The type, which is placed in the Australian Museum, Sydney, is one female 
specimen from Port Jackson. 

This species seems to be near C. dakini, Tattersall, and C. ornata, Whitelegge. 

Paracilicaea (?) pubescens, Ml. Edw. 
PI. xliii., figs. 8-11; pi. xlviii., fig. 1. 
S phaeroma pubescens, Ml. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., t. iii., p. 209, 1840. 
Cymodocca pubescens, Haswell, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, vol. v., p. 473 pi. xvi., 
fig. 1, 1881. 

C. latreillei, Miers, Zool. H.M.S. "Alert," pp. 308-310, 1884. 

C. pubescens, Hansen, Quat. Jnl. Micro. Sci., vol. xlix., pt. i., p. 122, 1905. 

C. pubescens, Stebbing, Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. xiv., pt. i., p. 104, 1910. 

C. pubescens, Stebbing, Ceylon Pearl Fisheries, Sup Repts. No. xxiii., p. 38, 1902. 

The adult male of this species does not seem heretofore to be known. The 
following characters are taken from a specimen which, I believe, to have that 
standing : — 

The pubescence of the body is very distinctive, short, thick, the individual 
hairs are like scales on stalks ; the surface of the body is also granulate. In the 
abdomen the mesial lobe of the notch falls short of the sides. 

The mandibles are normal, rather short, with incisory processes entire, 
secondary plate and spine row on the left well developed, the molar strong. 

On the 1st leg on the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th joints the spines are numerous; 
on the others the spines, although small, are also numerous on 4th, 5th, and 6th 
joints. The dactyli are short. 

The pleopods resemble closely those of C. latreillei, including the very slight 
insinuation on the distal end of endopod of 1st pair. 

The uropods have the cilicaeform characters. 



263 



The female of this species is of a more ovate shape, the anterior division of 
the abdomen is shorter and not so much produced backwards, the bosses on the 
posterior division are not so large. The mouth parts are much altered and the 
brood is internal. These females are also scarcely to be distinguished from those 
of C tatreillei, Leach; the pubescence, of course, is very different. 

In the collection of the South Australian Museum are some specimens which 

1 refer to this species somewhat doubtfully, a juvenile (see pi. xliii., fig. 11; 

pi. xlviii., rig- 1). , _ c . 

The New South Wales specimens are from Port Jackson and Port Stephens, 

and are common on the eastern coast. 

Since writing the above I have observed two male specimens which, although 
preserving closely the structure of the female, yet, by the development of the 
appendix mas culina— -which has the long whip-like character— it would indicate 
their at least nearness to the adult state. Alternatively the inference might be 
drawn that there are 2 forms of the male. Further observation it will be seen 
is necessary. T must say that I have not seen the above Cilicaea form of male 
among specimens from the southern coast. 

Paracilicaea stebbingi, n. sp. 

PI. xliii., figs. 3-7. 

The body is smooth, glabrous. Head rounded anteriorly, rather short. Eyes 
of moderate size. % - . « 

The 1st segment of thorax is the longest, the following 3 subequal m length, 
the last 2 are shorter, the last is obscurely tuberculate on posterior margin with 

2 lateral tubercles more pronounced. Anterior division of abdomen short with 
6 distinct tubercles on the posterior margin, with 2 above laterally placed, and 
between the 2 submedian there are 2 very small ones away from the posterior 
margin and 2 lateral tubercles on each side. The suppressed segments are dis- 
tinctly marked. The posterior division is marked by 8 longitudinal ridges; there 
are two short submedian, two long outward from these, these end posteriorly m 
2 large bosses which project beyond the end of abdomen, another pair of short 
ridges then a pair of strong longer ones whose posterior ends project a little oyer 
the peduncles of the uropods. The bosses are separated by a median sulcatum 
which descends abruptlv to the posterior notch, which is deep, widening inwardly 
with a median lobe which only slightly projects but which nearly fills the widened 
basal part. The sides of the notch and the median process are slightly raised. 

The epistome is of moderate size, its apical portion forms a continuous sur- 
face with the head and basal antennular joints. The upper lip is large. 

The basal joint of the antennule has its lower distal angle produced to a point 
but falling short of the end of 2nd joint. The rlagellum has 19 joints, xhe 
antenna is moderately robust, its rlagellum has 19 joints. 

Mandibles with incisory processes entire, and strong molars; the right with 
spine row, the left with bifid secondary process besides. 

The legs are of the usual pattern, the 7th bears long spines in the usual 
positions. 

The appendages of the 7th thoracic sternum are long and slender. 

The endopod of the 1st pleopod about as broad as long with a strong fold 
on inner margin; exopod with strong proximal outstanding spine, iherc are 
5 coupling spines on the inner side of the peduncle and dense hairs on the outer 
*ide The 2nd pleopod has the appendix slender exceeding the endopod m length, 
its basal portion moderately bulbous. In the 3rd pleopod the rami are very 
broad, the exopod division is near the end. Exopod of 5th pleopod with 5 out- 
standing setuliferous lobes. 



264 

The exopod of uropod is large, curved, and subcylindrical. The endopod 
is short, not wholly visible from above. 

The female differs from the male as the figure shows. The mouth parts are 
modified and the marsupial plates overlap. 

Length of male, 11 mm. 

The specimens — two — were collected by Mr. A. R. McCulloch, from Cairns 
Reef, Cooktown, Queensland. 

Type is in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Cymodopsis, n. gen. 

Epistome variable, sometimes elongate, with a small but distinct forward 
projecting free portion. 

End of abdomen pointed obtusely, with a more or less deep exit channel to 
cavity of abdomen cut in vertical direction, the end of abdomen in a lateral view 
often projecting slightly above and beyond the immediate exit; or it may be 
regarded thus, the end of abdomen is a pointed median process which has com- 
pletely obliterated a notch. 

The endopod of 1st pleopod is usually rather narrow-elongate. 

Uropods variable, scarcely foliate, often not reaching as far as end of 
abdomen. Exopod reduced, much altered or rudimentary, the endopod remaining 
normal. 

Type of genus, Cymodopsis latifrons, Whitelegge. 

Cymodopsis latifrons, Whitelegge. 
PI xlv., figs. 1-5. 

Sphaeroma latifrons, Whitelegge, "Thetis" Scientific Results Isopoda, pt. ii., p. 252. 

The following characters may be added to those of Whitelegge: — 

The epimeral portion of the 1st thoracic segment is thickened with a swelling 
on the lower margin. All the epimera are vertical in direction and, except the 
1st, are marked off by suture lines. 

The posterior division of the abdomen is gradually declivous to an obtuse 
point where the deep channel exit is in the vertical direction. 

The epistome is of unusual shape, it has a free obtuse upper portion which 
projects obliquely downward. 

The pleopods as a whole are narrow. In the 1st the endopod is twice as 
long as broad, ciliate, and slightly folded on its inner margin. The exopod has 
a very long outstanding spine on the proximal external angle. The peduncle has 
4 coupling spines on the inner angle and the outer side has a bent appearance 
noticed in other species and is furry. The plumose setae of both rami are 
very long. 

In the 2nd pleopod the endopod is also narrow with a slight ledge near the 
inner margin, the appendix is very attenuate at the end. In the 3rd pleopod the 
endopod is more obtuse at the distal end, the plumose setae on the exopod reach 
thickly to the base of the lamina on the outer side, as also do those of the 1st and 
2nd pairs. The distal division of the exopod of the 5th pleopod has 3 outstanding 
lobes. 

The inner ramus of uropod is rather broad, distally truncate with a faint 
emargmation, the exopod is awl-shaped in outline but is a little flattened with a 
slight ridge on the underside and reaches well beyond the inner ramus. 

The female has much more slender legs than the male. The outer ramus of 
uropod is small, ovate, and much shorter than the inner. 

In the single female specimen there is no sign of brood, the marsupial plates 
are not formed, and mouth parts are normal. 



265 

Cymodopsis plumosa, Whitelegge. 
PL xlv., figs. 6-9. 

Sphaeroma plumosa, Whitelegge, "Thetis" Scientific Results Isopoda, pt. ii., p. 254. 

Body slightly hairy in tufts (the hairs plumose), convex. 

Head with a rostral prominence seen from above and another behind on the 
forehead. Eyes large, rounded, protruding. 1st segment of thorax a little 
longer than each of those that follow except the last. The epimera of 2nd, 3rd, 
4th, and 6th segments rather acute ; all arc well separated from each other. The 
last segment of thorax is much shorter. Anterior division of abdomen short, 
rather tumid medianly near posterior border. The posterior division is dome- 
shaped and has 2 obscure tubercles medianly, behind this the surface shelves 
away to an obtusely pointed end slightly insinuate at the sides, below there is a 
short channel which is rather deep. A transverse ridge near the exit of cavity 
of abdomen carries a row of curious setules with knobbed heads. 

The epistome is very long with large upper lip and a rounded apex not visible 
in a view from above. 

1st joint of antennule broad and short, minutely granular with flagellum of 
7 joints. Antennal flagellum of 10 joints. 

The mandibles are weak, incisory process 3 or 4 dentate ; a secondary plate 
is on the left mandible ; a molar is present. 

The maxilliped has its palp with moderately long lobes. 

The legs are strong and uniform with strong dactyli, sparsely spined and 
furred. 

The pleopods have the endopod of the 1st not quite twice as long as broad; 
the exopod is broad with its proximal spine weak and not projecting. There 
are 3 coupling spines on the inner angle of the peduncle and the outer side is cut 
away and non-setose. In the 2nd pleopods the appendix is indicated but not 
separate from the lamina of the endopod (this condition also occurs in a cotype 
specimen). There are only indistinct folds on the endopod of the 4th, but the 
lamina itself is large and evidently respiratory, there is a division on the exopod 
and both rami are tipped with a few plumose setae, the distal emargination of 
the endopod is shallow 7 . The Sth pleopod has endopod with oblique folds faintly 
discernable, the setuliferous lobes on the exopod are not well defined. 

The rami of the uropods are subequal in length, both distally truncate, and 
not reaching end of abdomen. 

In a female (damaged cotype) the young were in the body, the mouth parts 
were normal. In another male specimen examined, the respiratory folds were 
more developed, but the appendix was quite as much undetached as in the above, 
although the appendages of the 7th sternum were more developed. The sexes 
are similar. Length, 7 mm. 

From trawl net "Goonambee," 70-80 faths., off Port Jackson, C. W. Mulvey ; 
also one cotype, 39-46 faths., off Green Cape, New South Wales, A. A. Living- 
stone and II. A. Fletcher. A specimen is in the Adelaide Museum from Mr. 
M. Ward, Sydney. 

Cymodopsis gorgoniae, n. sp. 
PL xlv., figs. 10-13 

The* body is granulate on exposed parts, the smooth areas on segments 
indicating that the animal is capable of bending in opposition to the usual direc- 
tion, especially about the middle of the body. There are few scattered setae on 
the abdomen and epimera. It is highly calcareous. 

The head abruptly descends in front, the basal joints of the antennulcs and 
rostrum being quite underneath; on the forehead are two low tubercles with a 
smaller one behind. The eyes are medium in size and projecting. The 1st 



266 

thoracic segment is nearly as long as the 3 which follow together, the others 
are short, especially the last. The epimera are marked of! by distinct suture 
lines and are a little turned in below, those of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th are 
subacute, those of the 5th, 6th, and 7th obtuse and rounded, that of the 7th not 
reaching the level of the preceding. The anterior division of abdomen is short, 
medianly a little projecting behind, and there inclined to divide into 2 tubercles. 
The posterior division has 2 submedian bosses somewhat pointed behind with a 
rather deep sulcation between them. The end is obtusely pointed, below it shows 
an exit of channel which is rather narrow, the end being a ledge sloping upward. 

The basal antennular joint is broad and short, the 2nd joint is rather quadrate 
in shape, the 3rd is longish; the flagelrum has 6 joints. The antennal flagellum 
has 10 joints. 

The cpistome is rather tumid in the middle with small labrum. 

The mandibles and other mouth part are metamorphosed. 

The legs are long and moderately spined. 

The 1st pleopod has the rami marked with minute areolae, the exopod has 
a small outstanding spine. The endopod is a little longer than broad; the 
peduncle has 4 long coupling spines on the inner angle and the usual mass of 
hair on the outer side. In the 2nd and 3rd plcopods the endopods are broad 
and distally truncate, in the 3rd the division is near the end of exopod and the 
endopod is very convex on its outer margin. In the 4th the exopod is tipped 
with 2 or 3 setae, the endopod has a distal gap which is rather wide and one 
setum. The exopod of the 5th is narrow with 3 or 4 outstanding lobes. 

The uropod is small, indurated, and does, not reach the end of abdomen, the 
inner ramus is distally rounded, as also is the outer. 

The single specimen is an ovigerous female with marsupial plates and young 
in the body. 

In a smaller non-ovigerous female in the same tube, the ledge-like termina- 
tion of abdomen is not developed, so that there is a simple notch visible from 
behind forming the exit to channel; also in this specimen the end of inner ramus 
of uropod is truncate and the outer is more ovate and a little serrate on margin. 
The tip of epistome is also more acute. 

Length of type specimen, 6 mm., placed in Australian Museum, Sydney. 

From Long Reef, New South Wales, associated with Gorgonias. 

There may be noted two deviations in the same sex; more may be expected 
in the undiscovered male. The species is here placed in the genus Cymodopsis 
provisionally. 

Cymodopsis crassa, n. sp. 
PI. xlvi., figs. 1-11. 

The body of the female is almost glabrous, dorso ventrally thick, especially 
in the region of the 1st thoracic segment, strongly declivous anteriorly from the 
2nd thoracic segment and gradually declivous posteriorly. Epimeral portions 
of segments deep, nearly vertical in direction, the 2nd to 7th marked by distinct 
sutural lines. 

Head short, with a very slight transverse depression between the eyes. 

The segments of thorax become shorter in posterior direction, the 7th being 
very short. 

The anterior portion of abdomen is short without any projections, the pos- 
terior bears 2 conical bosses, the depression between them being shallow ; behind 
these the surface is abruptly declivous, then gradually so to the very obtusely 
pointed end which has a wide, rounded, shallow insinuation in the vertical 
direction. 

The epistome is rounded and rather tumid anteriorly, bearing a large 
upper lip. 



267 

The 1st antennular joint is short and broad, its distal end moderately 
embracing the 2nd joint, the 3rd joint is as long again as the 2nd. The flagellum 
has about 27 short setose joints, the 1st of; which is half as long as the preceding 
peduncular joint. 

The peduncle of the antenna is longer than that of the antennule, its 5th 
joint reaching its whole length beyond the peduncle of the antennule, its flagellum 
has about 20 joints sparingly setose. 

The maxillipeds have rather long palpal joints sparingly setose. 

The legs are of the usual type with strong dactyli and sparingly spined. 

The inner ramus of uropod is slightly falcate, not reaching the end of 
abdomen; it has a slight groove or slit at the end. The outer ramus is rudimentary. 

The following details refer to the male: — 

The right mandible has incisory plate obliquely entire, there follow 7 stout 
curved pectinate spines, the molar is short and strong. 

The 1st pleopod is large, with exopod longer than broad with a strong pro- 
jecting spine at the exserted proximal angle. The endopod is twice as long as 
broad. The peduncle is narrow and carries 4 coupling spines on the inner angle; 
the outer side has a dropped-down appearance and does not reach the angle of 
the exopod ; it is sparingly hairy. 

The endopod of the 2nd pleopod has a long whip-like appendix. 

The exopods of 3rd, 4th, and 5th plcopods have each a division, that of the 
4th acuminates to an acute point and that of the 5th is rather narrow with 1 
setuliferous lobe on the inner distal angle of the proximal portion and 2 on 
the terminal. 

The uropod is as in the female. 

In the female, though of large size, there arc no marsupial plates and the 
mouth parts are normal. The male specimen was much damaged, and except 
for some mounted parts has, unfortunately, been lost. The larger female 
measures 12 by 8 mm. ; it was pink in colour with very small dark spots when 
fresh. 

Dredged in about 6 faths., Gulf St. Vincent, by H. M. Hale. 

Type- in South Australian Museum, Reg. No., C. 573. 

Cymodopsis wardii, n. sp. 

PI. xlvi., fig. 12; pi. xtvii., figs. 1, 2. 

The body is rather broad. The head has a transverse ridge anteriorly which 
forms on each side a subacute angle. The eyes are large and prominent. The 
segments of thorax do not differ much in length except the last, which is very 
short. The epimera are well defined from the tergites, obliquely projecting; 
those of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th are subacute, the others more obtuse, the last is 
quite short. The anterior division of the abdomen is short and unarmed. The 
posterior division is dome-shaped with 2 submedian bosses not very strongly 
marked, and from these the surface descends rather abruptly to the pointed end 
which below is widely insinuate, in the vertical direction medianly there is a very 
short exit channel but no notch in the usual sense. The cavity of the abdomen 
is deep and the uropods are capable of a vertical position, thus acting as props. 

The epistome is very long, especially in its anterior part ; broadly rounded 
anteriorly and projects a little beyond the front of the head. 

The antennular peduncle is robust, its 1st joint broad and granular, the 
1st joint of flagellum is half as long as 3rd joint of peduncle; it is composed of 
4 long joints. The antenna also is unusually robust, its 1st joint of flagellum is 
subequal in length to the last peduncular joint; there are 11 joints. 



The right mandible has incisory process entire, is rather slender, the spine 
row and molar are well developed. The molar has some longish denticles on the 
margin. The palp is large. 

The maxilliped has the distal plate of 2nd joint large and the palp has long 
lobes to joints. 

The legs are sparsely spined, a conspicuous plumose sctum is found at the 
end of propodus of some. 

The pleopods have unusually long peduncles. 1st pleopod has endopod much 
longer than broad, the exopod with small, scarcely projecting proximal spine 
turned up at tip. Peduncle with 2 or 3 coupling spines on inner angle and 
sparely hairy on the outer side. In the 3rd pleopod the exopod is without division 
— that I could detect — and the endopod is curiously folded obliquely — this occurs 
on both. The exopod of the 5th pleopod has 3 lobes on the distal division and 
2 on the proximal; the distal division is triangular in shape, and on the outer side 
there is a group of bristles at the end of the division line. 

The uropod has a strong inner ramus which is obliquely truncate at the end 
with the inner angle produced to a point ; it does not reach the end of abdomen. 
The external ramus is very small. 

Length, 4 mm. One non-ovigerous female in bad preservation, collected 
by C. W. Mulvey, trawler "Goonambee," 78-80 faths., ofi Port Jackson. 

T} 7 P e placed in Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Cymodopsis albaniensis, n. sp. 
PI. xlvii., figs. 3-7. 

The body is short, deep, with a very coarse and scanty tomentum. The head 
is short, the eyes of moderate size. The 1st segment of thorax is longest, the 
rest becoming shorter posteriorly. The anterior division of abdomen is short, 
the suppressed segments faintly marked above but distinctly cut on the lateral 
margin. The posterior division is marked by two domes not very prominent and 
not deeply divided from each other medianly, the surface then has an abrupt 
descent to the scarcely produced and obtusely pointed end, which is very obscurely 
trilobed, the lateral lobes only visible from a side view; the exit channel from 
the cavity of abdomen is moderately deep. 

Basal antennular joint is broad, 2nd joint small, 3rd rather short, flagellum 
of 10 joints. Antenna slender, flagellum of 10 joints. 

The epistome is arcuate and a little tumid anteriorly; this portion stands 
out from the head and projects downward, so that there is a small excavation 
between it and the rostrum. 

Mandibles with incisory plates entire, the secondary plate on the left 
mandible is slightly bifid, the spines in the spine row are strong, and there is a 
large molar. 

The maxilliped is rather large, the distal plate of 2nd joint large with some 
strong dark-tipped spines on its inner fold below the apical spines, which are 
crowded; the palp is large with lobes rather long, the terminal one slender. 

The legs are robust. The 1st with very strong spines on merus, carpus, and 
propodus. the 5th with some thorn-like spines on the basos. 

The first 2 pleopods are very similar to those of C. lalrcillci and P. pubescens. 
1 here is a distal insinuation on the endopod of the 1st, which is longer than broad 
and slightly insinuate on the outer margin ; the exopod is narrow with a strong out- 
standing proximal spine ; there are 4 coupling spines on the peduncle. The 2nd 
pleopod has a long whip-like appendix. 

The uropod has a large peduncular portion, the endopod is broad at the 
base, where it is fused to this, tapering to a truncate end, which does not reach 



269 

as far as the end of the abdomen; the exopod is much narrower and shorter with 
a strong tooth on the outer side, the terminal half is minutely serrate on the 
margin. 

This species is like C. aspcra, Haswell ; it also is like the young female of 
C. latreillei, also female of P. pubescens. 

Length, 7 mm., one specimen from Albany Island, not In good preservation. 

The type is in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Cassidinella incisa, Whitelegge. 
PI. xlviii, figs. 2, 3. 

Cassidinella incisa, Whitelegge, "Thetis" Scientific Results Isopoda, pt. i., p. 242. 

The median region of the anterior division of abdomen is tumid ; the posterior 
division has 2 rather obscure bosses above ; the acute end is raised above the 
lateral processes, forming a partial channel or exit to the abdomen below. The 
acute epimera are thickened, as also are the uropods. 

The 3rd joint of the antennular peduncle is very short, and the 1st joint of 
the flagellum is subequal to it; the flagellum is short with 8 joints. The flagellum 
of the antenna has the same number of long joints; both are scarcely setose. 

The pleopods, which are those of a female, are in rather bad condition; 
both exopod and endopod of the 4th are tipped with a few plumose setae ; the 
exopod of this has a division, as also has the exopod of the 3rd pleopod. The 
pleopods themselves are narrow, but otherwise do not differ from those of 
Hemibranchiatae. 

Length, about 5 mm. 

There are in the collection three rather damaged specimens with one slide 
of pleopods. 

Collected by C. W. Mulvey, trawler "Goonamhee," 75-80 faths., off Port 
Jackson. 

Group EUBRANCHIATAE, Hansen. 
Dynamenella rubida, n. sp. 

PI. xlviii., figs. 4-7. 

The body is slightly granular or punctate, glabrous. 

Head short and rather narrow. The eyes are large. 

The 1st segment of thorax is longer than those which follow, these being 
subequal in length. 

The epimera arc vertical in direction, not showing distinct sutural lines. 

Anterior division of abdomen is quite short, the markings of coalesced 
segments obscure. 

The posterior division of abdomen is moderately dome-shaped, shelving 
away gradually to an obtusely pointed end, and which bears a small A-shaped 
notch which is partially tubular, the exit of a channel which widens inwardly. 

The epistome is elongate, apically obtuse, carrying a very broad and long- 
upper Up. 

The 2nd joint of the antennule is half as long as the 1st, the 3rd nearly as 
long as the 2nd, tumid; the flagellum has 8 short joints. The antenna is stout, 
the peduncle with short joints, flagellum of 12 short moniliform joints. 

In the maxilliped the plate of 2nd joint is subequal to the joint itself. 

The legs are short and stout, not differing much in length, with furry pads 
in the usual positions, few spines and strong dadyh. In the 7th the merus and 
carpus are subequal in length, the. propodus equal to merus and carpus together; 
the ischium is also subequal to the propodus. The fringing plumose setae on 
the pleopods are unusually long. 



270 

The exopod of the 1st pleopod is much larger than the endopod ; it, as well 
as a portion of the endopod, is indurated and areolate, there is a ledge on the 
endopod on which the contiguous part of the exopod rests. This structure is 
seen in other related species and has been noted by Barnard and others. There 
is no outstanding spine on the exopod. The endopod of the 2nd pleopod also 
has a ledge on which rests the appendix; this is thick, and reaches to the end of 
the lamina, in this case the endopod is much larger than the exopod, being about 
as long as broad. There are 4 coupling spines on the peduncle. The exopod 
of the 3rd pleopod is unjointed. Any divisions that may be on the exopods of 
the 4th and 5th pleopods are obscured by branchial folds. 

The uropod has subequal rami ; they are ovate-laminar with entire margins. 

One male specimen from Maroubra, New South Wales. The colour is 
pinkish with scattered dark markings. Length, 5 mm. 

The type is in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Cerceis tkidextata. Ml. Edw., var. intermedia, n. var. 
PI. 1., figs. 1, 2. 

Cerceis trideniata, Ml. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., t. iii., p. 221. 

C. tridentata, Baker, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol xxxii,-1908, p 153 

The posterior division of abdomen has 2 very obscure bosses, each capped 
with an obscure tubercle. The posterior notch is deep, and there is a median 
process whose free part is small, but there are indications on the integument 
of a much larger uncut base. The channel below is long and deep, the abdominal 
walls being turned in below, as also are the epimera of the thoracic segments. 

The epistome acuminates to an acute point. The upper lip has a setose 
fringe which, with the setae on the plates of the maxillipeds, covers the mandibles. 

The inner distal angle of the 1st antennular joint is produced to the end of 
the 2nd joint, which itself is also distally pointed; the outer angle is scarcely 
produced, the flagellum carries 8 or 9 joints. The antenna is slender, its flagellum 
has 12 joints. 

There are five females in the collection and one male, which apparently is 
not quite mature, as the appendix masculina is still undetached from its lamina. 
All are much smaller than the southern specimens of C. tridentata; they are 
devoid of pubescence on the abdomen, which is sometimes the case with that 
species from southern waters. 

From floating sargasso weed, south-west of Vanderlin Island, Sir E. Pellew 
Group, Gulf of Carpentaria, June, 1923, Dr. N. G. J. Paradice, R.A.N., 4 females, 
1 male; also 1 female, Bowen Jetty, Queensland, E. H. Rainford. 

Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Cerceis ovata, n. sp. 

PI. xlix. } figs. 1-5. 

The body is ovate, strongly convex, almost glabrous. 

The head is short, anteriorly there is a transverse ridge and a faint indication 
of 2 lobes, posteriorly there is a distinct median boss near the border in the 
female. 

The eyes are moderate in size. 

The first segment of thorax is a little longer than those which follow and 
these do not vary much in length ; they are marked by some obscure, short, longi- 
tudinal ridges towards the sides. 

The epimeral plates of thorax project obliquely, the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th are 
narrower than the following two, the last a little shorter. 



271 

The anterior portion of the pleon is short and squared laterally, the coalesced 
segments well marked at the sides. The posterior portion is dome-shaped, then 
tapers to an obscure end, on which is a rounded simple notch, shallow, and not 
conspicuous from above; this is the exit of a rather deep channel. 

In the male the anterior portion of the pleon has an obscure median tubercle, 
and the dome on the posterior portion is very obscurely divided into 3 lobes. 

The 1st antennular joint is broad, its outer distal angle is acute and a little 
turned outwards, the inner embraces the 2nd joint for the whole of the joint's 
length. The 3rd peduncular joint is rather longer than the 2nd. The flagellum 
carries about 13 joints. 

The peduncle of the antenna is longer than that of the antennule by the 
length of the 5th joint, its flagellum also has 13 joints. 

The epistome is elongate and tapers anteriorly to an obtuse point which 
stands out a little from the obscure rostrum. 

The right mandible is moderately robust, and has a prominent incisory pro- 
cess cut into 4 dark teeth; the secondary plate is small, also dark, and is followed 
by 4 curved spines. The molar is long, robust, and edged with small teeth. The 
left mandible has the secondary process stronger. 

The hypopharynx is more prominent than usual. 

The outer branch of the 1st maxilla has 7 strong simple spines. 

The maxilliped has the plate of the 2nd joint rather broad with few terminal 
spines; the palp is large with joints lobed and well spined. 

The legs are robust and moderately spined and of usual type. 

The 1st pleopod has the exopod more than twice as broad as long, distally 
truncate, bearing 7 strong teeth on its external border; there is only a small pro- 
jecting spine on the proximal external angle. The endopod is about twice as 
broad as long. The inner angle of peduncle has 3 coupling spines. 

In the 2nd pleopods the rami are similarly proportioned with appendix 
masculina attached to the endopod at about the middle of its inner margin, and it 
reaches beyond the plumose setae. The exopod has 12 teeth on the outer margin. 

The endopod of the 3rd pleopod reaches nearly as long as the exopod, which 
has a division line nearer the middle of the lamina than the end. 

In the 4th pleopod the exopod has a distal emargination, but a division could 
not be seen. 

The exopod of the 5th pleopod has 3 distal lobes with the division line rather 
near^the end; there is another small lobe and a few setules on the inner margin, 

The inner ramus of the uropod is broad, reaches to the end of the pleon, and 
is terminally truncate with a rounded inner angle. The outer ramus is shorter 
and distally very obtusely rounded and toothed. 

The female is much larger than the male with the posterior channel not quite 
so deep. The mouth parts are modified. The brood seems to be deep in the body. 

There are three specimens in the collection from 6 faths., Gulf St. Vincent— 
an ovigerous female and a non-ovigerous, and a male. 

Length of male, 7 mm.; female, 12 mm. long, 7 mm. broad. 

Types, with two slides, arc in the South Australian Museum. 

Exocerceis, n. gen. 
Head narrowing much anteriorly. 

Posterior division of abdomen with a notch and raised median process in the 
notch in the male. 

1st joint of antennule with distal angles not prolonged. 
Maxillipeds with long lobes on palpal joints. 
Exopod of 3rd pleopod not jointed. 



272 

Otherwise as in Cerceis. 

Type of genus, Exocerceis nasuta, Whiteiegge. 

Exocerceis nasuta, Whiteiegge. 
PL xlviii., figs. 10-12. 

Cerceis nasuta, "Thetis" Scientific Results lsopoda, pt. ii., p. 276. 

The posterior division of abdomen has a median tubercle rather obscure with 
a small furrow below it. The submcdian tubercles are keel-like. 

The epistome is convex and the very setose upper lip covers the mandibles. 

The appendix mascitlina on the 2nd pleopod is as in Cerceis, but the exopod 
in both sexes carries several strong subterminal comb-like spines. 

The exopods of pleopods 4 and 5 are unjointed. 

The rami of the uropods are broadly lamellar, serrate on margins., nearly 
equal, the outer one is slightly spoon-excavate. 

Platycerceis hyalina, n. subgen. and sp. 
PI. lii., figs. 6-11. 

The body is much compressed dorso-ventrally, smooth, almost glabrous, in 
the living state hyaline. The head is somewhat triangular, produced laterally to 
acute angles in front of the eyes; these are large with many ocelli. The seg- 
ments of thorax are all laterally produced to acute outstanding processes, which 
become more curved backwards towards the posterior region. The 7th segment 
is shorter and laterally not so much outstanding. Faint lines mark off the epunera. 
The abdomen is little convex ; the anterior division is marked in the usual way 
by the coalesced segments, and laterally is acute and projecting; the posterior 
division also acute at the sides terminates in two spiniform projections. 

The epistome is rather large, the anterior portion a little swollen, the apex 
is acute. 

The antennule has the 1st joint moderately expanded, distally it is produced 
at the inner angle, but not so far as the end of 2nd joint, 2nd joint less than half 
the length of the 1st, the 3rd joint is narrow. The 10-jointcd flagellum has the 
1st joint nearly equal in length to the 3rd peduncular joint. The antenna has the 
last joint of peduncle longest, the flagellum of 12 joints. 

The mandibles have slender incisory plates divided into 4 teeth, the molars 
and palps are large. 

The 1st maxilla has the inner branch with 4 curved feather setae and a small 
cluster of setules on its inner side; the outer branch, which is robust, has also 
some setules on its inner margin. 

The lobes of the maxilliped palp are rather short and are sparsely setose. 

The legs, except the 1st pair, are slender; there are no furry pads and spines 
are not numerous. 

The 1st pleopod has a rather broad peduncle with 3 coupling spines, which 
are broad and different from those found in such genera as Cymodoce, etc. The 
exopod is much broader than long and has no outstanding proximal spine; besides 
the plumose setae there are 6 strong teeth on the distal margin, as in Cerceis, etc. 
The endopod is small, about twice as broad as long. The 2nd pleopod is larger 
than the 1st; there are 17 strong teeth on the exopod, the endopod is larger than 
the exopod. There is a curious hump near the inner angle of the peduncle. The 
3rd pleopod has a narrow divided exopod with several distal teeth. The 4th and 
5th pleopods are narrow; all rami of these are branchial, the exopod of the 5th 
has two outstanding rasp-like lobes. 

The uropods have subequal rami, long, narrow-lanceolate, spreading, slightly 
curved outwards much exceeding the end of abdomen, strengthened by ridges 
above and below, the outer rami slightly serrate. 



273 

Length, 7 mm. ; breadth, 4 mm. One female, Gulf St. Vincent, 4 faths., taken 
by H. M. Hale. 

The type is in the South Australian Museum. 

Since the above was written a male specimen has been taken. The following 
points have been noticed: — The cpistomc is apically much more attenuate. The 
antennule has a flagellum of 18 joints and is much more robust than in the female. 
The legs have strong spines on the. propodal joints, except in the last pair, which 
is more slender. The appendages on the 7th sternum are short and thick. The 
exopod of the 1st pleopod has only 3 teeth. In the 2nd pleopod the exopod has 
9 teeth. The appendix mascnlina is very long, reaching nearly to the end of the 
abdomen, and capable of forming, with its fellow of the opposite side, a cylindrical 
tube whose wall becomes very thin distally. The colour of this elegant species 
has been observed in the fresh state: — As a ground translucent, or nearly so, with 
brownish spots and small blue elongate areas, as follows. 1 median on the head, 
4 submedian on 1st thoracic segment, 2 lateral on the 3rd, 2 submedian on the 
4th, 2 lateral on the 5th, 2 lateral on the 6th, 2 on each side of the anterior division 
of abdomen, 2 submedian and 2 lateral on the posterior division of abdomen. 
There is also a median concentration of brown and yellow, more conspicuous on 
the posterior division of abdomen, which besides has a mottled appearance. 

Haswellia anomala, Haswell. 
PI. xlviii., figs. 8, 9. 

Sphacroma anomala, Ilaswcll, Trans. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, p. 473, pi, xvi., fig. 4; also 
Cat. Austr. Crust., p. 288. 

This is the female or young of some species of Haswellia. The produced 
7th segment of thorax is very pronounced, its apex extending to the posterior 
margin of the first division of abdomen. 

The pleopods arc as in H. carnea and H. emarginata; the general aspect is 
like the female of H. emarginata, except for the produced 7th segment of thorax. 

Haswellia carnea, Haswell. 
PI. xlix., figs. 8-11. 

Calyptura carnea. Trans. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, p. 476, pi. xvii., fig. 4; also Cat. Austr. 
Crust., p. 302. 

The apex of process from 7th segment of thorax is slightly depressed, and 
below there is a broad shelf behind the cavity of the abdomen; the abdomen 
itself is very short and steep behind, its upper surface is very obscurely trilobed. 

The antennular joint has a furrow for about half its length, the inner 
margin has a recess into which the side of the anterior portion of cpistome rests. 
The epistome itself is unusually sculptured. 

The tooth on inner margin of endopod of uropod is strong and rests in a 
small recess on the abdomen close to the side of the posterior notch. The 
uropods end in dense ciliae. 

The legs are stout and very sparely spined. 

The pleopods are of Cerccis form, the 1st has endopod broader than long, 
exopod with small outstanding spine curved backwards, and scale-like markings 
on the surface; on its margin are 6 strong teeth, and the distal end is truncate; 
outer distal angle rather acute, inner rounded. On the inner side of the broad 
peduncle are 3 coupling spines and the outer side is furry. 

The margin of exopod of 2nd pair carries 14 or 15 teeth, the union of the 
short appendix to the endopod is nearer the distal end. 

The exopod of the 3rd pleopod has a division and 5 or 6 teeth on margin. 

The exopod of 4th pleopod has a blunt tooth or lobe on its outer margin 
near the base. 



274 

The exopod of the 5th pleopod has two long lobes on the distalpart, a very 
obscure division quite near the end, and a small lobe on the proximal part on 
the inner side. 

The species seems to be fairly plentiful on the New South Wales coast. 

Haswellia juxtacarnea, n. sp. 

PI. xlix., figs. 6, 7. 

There is a dried specimen in the collection from Lord Howe Island very much 

like H, carnea. * - j ,i 

The process from 7th segment of thorax is minutely rugose and there are 
depressed areas on the same ; this process completely covers the uropods as well 
as the abdomen. In an inferior view the exopods of uropods arc seen, the 
endopods being largely concealed. This curious structure of end of abdomen is 
very different from that of H. carnca, as the figure shows. There is a similar 
sculpturing of the epistome and the antennular joints as in that species. 
Length, 10 mm. Type in Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Haswellia intermedia, n. sp. 
PI. iiii., figs. 1-5. 

The body is rough and becomes distinctly granulate behind, while the 
abdomen is coarsely granulate. t 

The head is long with a small rounded projection in front visible from above. 
There is a strong ridge on each side, being the outer margins of the channels, 
which probably have a respiratory function when the animal is rolled up ; these 
reach nearly to the eyes, which are rather large. 

Of the segments of thorax the 1st and 6th are subequal in length, the 7th 
is produced to a long process reaching beyond the end of abdomen, and its base 
almost completely covers the anterior division of the abdomen. The epimera 
are downward and backward directed, each with a slight excavation at the 
extremity. The posterior division of abdomen has a median tubercle ill-defined 
and narrows considerably to the end, where there is a deep notch widening 
inwardly with a median process which fills it, leaving only lateral slits scarcely 
visible from below; the process itself is distally truncate with 1 or 2 denticles 
reaching to the opening of the notch. 

The epistome is rather long. 

The distal angles of the 1st antennular joint only partially embrace the 2nd 
joint, which is short, the 3rd a little longer than it; the nagellum has about 15 
short joints. The flagellum of the antenna has 12 joints. 

The right mandible has a slender incisory process which is obscurely dentate, 
a small secondary process, row of spines, and molar fringed with denticles. The 
1st maxilla with inner branch shorter than the outer, terminating m 4 leather- 
curved setae with a few setules on the inner margin. The outer branch 
terminates in several stout spines, none of which appear to be branched. The 
2nd maxilla is w r ell developed with its 3 lobes reaching to the same level. The 
maxilliped has narrow basal joints, the plate of the 2nd has 1 or 2 large-bodied 
setae along with those of usual size ; the lobes of palp are rather sparely setose. 

The legs are robust, are sparely spincd, and do not show any notable 
characters except that the dactyles are short. 

The pleopods are of the usual Cerceis type. The 1st pair are rather small, 
the peduncle short and square cut on outer and inner margins with 3 coupling 
spines, both rami are transverse in position, and thus are much broader than long, 
they are about the same size; the exopod with 6 distal teeth. In the 2nd pleopod 
the peduncle has a small gap or insinuation near the inner margin. The 



275 

endopod is a little larger than the exopod, the appendix is small and joins 
the endopod about the middle of the lamina. The exopod has 12 teeth on the 
distal margin. The exopod of the 3rd pleopod has a division, the endopod is 
larger and has a slight insinuation of the outer margin ; there is a small tuft of 
setae on the outer distal angle of the peduncle. The 4th and 5th pleopods are 
rather narrow ; the respiratory folds are numerous and well developed ; the 
exopod of the 5th has 3 setuliferous lobes all outstanding. 

The uropods are rather broad, moderately indurated, the inner ramus more 
so than the outer, granulate on the surface and reaching a little beyond the end of 
abdomen, the outer ramus reaching not so far as the inner, both are truncate and 
denticulate on the distal margins. 

Length, 11 mm. 

A female of this species has young well showing in the marsupium and the 
mouth parts are modified. The 7th segment of thorax is only slightly produced 
not covering the anterior division of abdomen, the posterior notch is very shallow 
and obscurely trilobed, but there is a very deep exit channel below. The uropods 
are reduced. 

This species is from Garden Island, Western Australia, and the type is 
deposited in the Western Australian Museum. 

Cassidinopsis tasmaniae, n. sp, 
Plate liii., tigs. 6-10. 
Body glabrous, not very convex, with obliquely directed epimera visible from 
above, rather smooth or faintly granulate anteriorly, capable of folding together 
with the hinge about the 5th segment of thorax. 

The head is small, there is a transverse furrow between the eyes which are 
rather small. The 1st segment of thorax is largest, considerably broader than 
the head; the 5 following segments are short, subequal in length, the 7th a little 
shorter. The anterior division of abdomen is short, projecting laterally as the 
segments of thorax. The posterior division of abdomen is convex, there is a 
median lobe with 2 converging submedian lobes not very salient, then the surface 
is gradually declivous to the pointed end, which has a shallow channel below but 
no notch. 

The epistome is broad, the apex receding between the two basal antennular 
joints viewed from below. 

The anterior parts of the 1st and 2nd antennular joints are visible from 
above; the distal angles of the 1st joint do not much embrace the 2nd, which is 
rather small, the 3rd being a little longer than it, the flagellum has its 1st joint 
longer than the rest, which are very short, numbering about 23. The antenna is 
very robust, the last 2 joints of peduncle are long, the last bent back, the flagellum 
has 20 short joints with the 1st the longest. 

The mandibles have cutting plates nearly entire, the left one with a small 
secondary plate also entire. The spine rows bear few spines, the molars being 
quite near the cutting plates. The 1st maxilla has the distal spines of the outer 
ramus very much worn, the inner ramus bears 4 strong feather spines, and there 
is a distinct articulation at about half its length. The 2nd maxilla is robust, the 
3 lobes reach to an equal level, the spines on the 2 more outer lobes are mdre 
robust than those of the inner lobe, whose attachment to the body of the limb is 
much more proximal. .The maxilliped is rather slender, the lobe of the 2nd joint 
bears coarse spines, some of which are branched. The lobes of the palpal joints 
are rather crowded together. 



276 



The 1st leg is more robust than the rest, it is without spines, but the propodus 
has a tubercle on the inner side bearing 2 small teeth. Hie remaining legs are 
sparely spined but provided with furry pads on the usual joints. 

The 1st pleopod has the peduncle rather short and crowded against the rami. 
The inner ramus is rather longer than broad and the outer about the same length ; 
there are no marginal teeth as "in Cerceis, etc., but there is an outstanding proximal 
soine as in so many Hemibranchiatae, In the 2nd pleopod the peduncle is also 
crowded up, the rami are similar to those of the 1st pair the appendix is longer 
than the endopod and originates at its base. In the 3rd pleopod the endopod 
is very convex on its outer margin, the exopod has an oblique division line rather 
near the end, on the 4th and 5th pleopods the branchial rugae are very strongly 
developed the outer ramus of the 4th with a proximal lobe has an increase ot 
surface the inner ramus also has large rugae and it is tipped with 2 plumose 
setae The outer ramus of the 5th pleopod is also provided with a proximal lobe ; 
distaily there arc 2 outstanding spinuliferous lobes with a small group on the 
inner side close to the division line. 

The uropods are lamellar, the inner ramus the larger not reaching the end of 
abdomen, the outer ramus is ovate with a slight insinuation of the margin on 
the outer side near the end. 

A female of this species is smaller and without visible brood. The mouth 
parts are normal, there is only a median lobe on the posterior division of abdomen, 
and this part is not so strongly pointed at the end. The 2nd antenna is not quite 
so robust. The 1st leg bears a few spines and there is no tubercle on the 
propodus. 

Length of male, 18 mm.; breadth, 10 mm. 

Collected by Dr. Torr at Port Arthur, Tasmania. 

The type is in the South Australian Museum, C. 1258. 

In 1908 (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxxii.) I established a genus, 
Mornloidea, knowing very little of its affinity. I now believe it to be very close 
to the present genus, and may have to be united to it ill the future. I am also ot 
opinion that the genera Cassidias, Richardson, and Buvallentima, Stebbmg, are 
closely related to Cassidinopsis, Hansen, and that these 4 genera form a group at 
least with very close affinities. 

Group PLATYBRANCHIATAE, Hansen. 
Waiteolana, n. gen. 

The bodv is narrow. The eyes are large. The epimera are uniform, vertical 
in direction/the 5th and 6th a little larger than the others. The abdomen is 
laterally contracted. 

The basal antennular joints only very partially lodge in excavations of the 
head, the anterior portions of the 1st and 2nd joints project and are visible irom 
above, as also projects the free apex of epistome. 

The mandibles and maxillipeds are of the usual structure. 

The legs arc stout and uniform. 

The endopod of 1st pleopod is nearly three times as long as broad. The 
3rd pleopod has a division line on the exopod, both rami with many marginal 
plumose setae. The exopod of the 4th pleopod has a division with a few terminal 
setae. The exopod of the 5th is also divided with 4 lobes on inner margin 
scarcely salient. The endopods of 4th and 5th pleopods, are more membraneous 
than their exopods, and there are vertical or oblique wrinkles but no transverse 
branchial folds. 



27? 

It will be seen that this genus makes a new group in the Platybranchiatae. 
I have pleasure in dedicating it to the Director of the South Australian 
Museum, Mr. E. R. Waite, who collected a single specimen of the genotype. 

Waiteolana rugosa, n. sp. 
PL L, figs. 3-6. 
The body is convex, glabrous, narrow, eroded with small sculpturings difficult 
to define, including a row of very small tubercles on the posterior margins of the 
segments of thorax. The abdomen is contracted and granulate. 

The head is transverse with a strong ridge in front with a less defined one 
behind it. The eyes are large. The small rounded tip of epistome, which is free, 
and anterior portions of basal joints of antennules are visible from above. The 
segments of thorax have their exposed parts in relief and do not differ much in 
length, except the last, which is shortest. The cpimera are vertical in direction, 
are not visible from above, and except the 1st are uniform and obtusely rounded 
below, that of the last reaching down as much as the preceding. The anterior 
division of abdomen projects a little convexly on its posterior margin; the sup- 
pressed segments are well marked. The posterior division is moderately domed 
and tapers behind to an obtuse point which carries a A-notch; below there is a 
slight insinuation in the vertical direction (in the specimen, which is somewhat 
damaged, the notch is malformed). 

The 1st antennular joint is strongly indurated, the 1st and 2nd joints have 
slight sulcations parallel to their anterior margins, the 2nd joint is half as long as 
the 1st, the 3rd is a little longer than the 2nd, the rlagellum has 7 joints. The 
antenna is robust, its peduncular joints are laterally compressed, the joints of the 
flagellum arc 7, which are strongly ciliated. 

The epistome is conical and has a small labrum. 

The left mandible has a strong entire incisory process, strong secondary 
plate, also spine row ; the molar process is small. 

The maxilliped has the 2nd joint rather large at the base, the plate is also 
broad, the palp is strong with lobes of joints moderately produced. 

The legs are stout, rather short ; there are some short teeth on merus, carpus, 
and propodus of 1st and 2nd pairs, the others are poorly spined, the dactyles 
are strong. 

The pleopods as a whole are narrow. 

The endopod of 1st pleopod is nearly three times as long as broad with a 
folded inner margin and subacute apex reaching beyond the exopod, the exopod 
is ovate and bas a small proximal outstanding spine. The appendix of the 2nd 
pleopod is slender and longer than its endopod. The exopod of the 3rd pleopod 
has a division, the endopod is longer than broad with a thickened convex outer 
margin. Both rami of the 4th pleopod have a few distal plumose setae. The 
exopod of the 5th pleopod has 4 setuliferous lobes on the inner margin. The 
exopods of the 4th and 5th pleopods are divided. The endopods of 3rd, 4th, 
and 5th pleopods are membrane-like, somewhat wrinkled in oblique direction, 
but there are no branchial folds. 

Hie uropod is indurated, the inner ramus is rather large and distally 
emarginate, the outer is small with a deep cleft. *■ 

Length, 8 mm. 

One specimen, from "Thetis" Expedition Station 57. 

The type is placed in Australian Museum, Sydney. 



278 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES XXXVIII. to LIII. 

Plate XXXVIII. 

Fig. 1 : Sphaeroma quoyana, male. Fig. 2 : id., lateral view. Fig. 3 : id., anterior region 
from below. Fig. 4 : id., left mandible. Fig. 5 : id., 1st maxilla. Fig. 6 : id., maxilliped. 
Fig 7: id., 1st leg. Fig. 8: id., 3rd leg. Fig. 9: id,, 5th leg. Fig. 10: id., 7th leg. Fig. 11: 
Sphaeroma terebrans, anterior region from below. Fig. 12: id., posterior division of abdomen, 
inferior view. Fig. 13 : abdomen of dry specimen found with S. terebrans, Queensland. 

Plate XXXIX. 

Fig. 1: Exosphaeroma intermedia, n. sp., male. Fig. 2: id,, lateral view. Fig. 3: id., 
anterior region from below. Fig. 4 : id., end of abdomen and uropod from below. Fig. 5 : 
id,, 7th leg. Fig. 6: id., 5th leg. Fig. 7: id,, maxilliped. Fig. 8: id,, 1st leg. Fig 9: 
Exosphaeroma alata, male, 1st leg. Fig. 10: id., abdomen of female. Fig. 11: id., anterior 
region from below, male. 

Plate XL. 

Fig. 1 : Exosphaeroma alata, male. Fig. 2: id., 7th leg. Fig. 3: id., end of abdomen and 
uropod from below. Fig. 4 : Cymodoce bidentata, male. Fig. 5 : id., side view of abdomen. 
Fig. 6 : id., end of abdomen and uropod. Fig. 7 : Cymodoce aculeata, male. Fig. 8 : id, anterior 
region from below. Fig. 9: Cymodoce aspera, anterior region from below. Fig. 10: id,, end 
of abdomen and uropod. Fig. 11 : id,, side view of abdomen. 

Plate XLI. 

Fig. 1 : Neosphaeroma laticanda, anterior region from below. Fig. 2 : id., end of abdomen 
and uropod. Fig. 3: id,, 1st pleopod, male. Fig. 4: id., 2nd pleopod, male. Fig. 5: id., 3rd 
pleopod. Fig. 6 : Neosphaeroma australc, male. Fig. 7 : id., antennule, antenna, and epistome. 
Fig. 8: id., end of abdomen and uropod, male. Fig. 9: id,, 1st pleopod. Fig. 10: id., endopod 
of 2nd pleopod. Fig. 11: id., 3rd pleopod. 

Plate XLII. 

Fig. 1 : Cymodoce aspera, female. Fig. 2 : Cymodoce gaimardii, male. Fig. 3 : Cili- 
caeopsis ornata, male. Fig. 4: Cilicaea spinulosa, male. Fig. 5: Cilicaeopsis ornata, end of 
abdomen and uropod from below. Fig. 6 : Cilicaeopsis halei, female. Fig. 7 : Cilicaeopsis 
stylifera, end of abdomen and uropod from below. Fig. 8: Cilicaeopsis halex, end of abdomen 
and uropod from below. Fig. 9 : id., antennule, antenna, and epistome. 

Plate XLIII. 

Fig. 1: Cilicaea crassa, male. Fig. 2: id., end of abdomen and uropod from below. 
Fig. 3 : Paracilicaea stebbingi, male. Fig. 4 : id., abdomen, female. Fig. 5 : id., anterior 
region from below. Fig. 6 : id., end of abdomen and uropod from below, male. Fig. 7 : id., 
1st pleopod, male. Fig. 8 : Paracilicaea pubescens, male. Fig. 9 : id,, anterior region from 
below. Fig. 10: id., end of abdomen and uropod, female. Fig. 11: id., end of abdomen and 
uropod, male, immature. 

Plate XLIV. 

Fig. 1: Cilicaeopsis corpulentis, male. Fig. 2: id., antennule, antenna, and epistome. 
Fig. 3: id., right mandible. Fig. 4: id., end of abdomen and uropod from below. Fig. 5: 
id., 1st leg. Fig. 6: id,, 1st pleopod, male. Fig. 7: id, f 2nd pleopod, male. Fig. 8: Cilicaeopsis 
obesa, female. Fig. 9: id, maxilliped. Fig. 10: id., anterior region from below. Fig. 11: id., 
end of abdomen and uropod from below. 

Plate XLV. 

Fig. 1 : Cymodopsis latifrons, male. Fig. 2 : id., anterior region from below. Fig. 3 : 
id., end of abdomen and uropod. Fig. 4: id., 2nd leg. Fig. 5: id., 7th leg. Fig. 6: Cymodopsis' 
plumosa. Fig. 7 : id., anterior region from below; Fig. 8 : id., end of abdomen and uropod 
from below. Fig. 9: id,, 1st pleopod. Fig. 10: Cymodopsis gorgoniae. Fig. 11: id., anterior 
region from below. Fig. 12: id,, side vie,w of abdomen. Fig. 13: id., end of abdomen and 
uropod from below. 

Plate XLVI. 

Fig. 1 : Cymodopsis crassa, female. Fig. 2 : id,, lateral view. Fig. 3 : id,, anterior region 
from below. Fig. 4: id., 1st maxilla Fig. 5: id., 2nd maxilla. Fig 6: id., maxilliped. Fig. 7: 
id., 1st leg. Fig 8: id., 7th leg. Fig. 9: id., end of abdomen and uropod from below. Fig. 10: 
id., 1st pleopod. Fig. 11: id., 2nd pleopod. Fig. 12: Cymodopsis wardi, antennal region and 
epistome. 



279 

Plate XLVII. 

Fig. 1 : Cymodopsis wardi, female. Fig. 2 : id., end of abdomen and uropod. Fig. 3 : 
Cymodopsis albanicnsis, male. Fig. 4: id., 1st leg. Fig. 5: id., 5th leg. Fig. 6: id., end of 
abdomen and uropod from below. Fig. 7: id., epistome. Fig. 8: Bregmocerella grayana, 1st 
pleopod. Fig. 9: id., 3rd pleopod. Figs. 10 and 11 represent a sphaeromid from Mast Head 
Island, Great Barrier Reef, 17 faths. ; it was dry and partially rolled up, not lending itself to 
description — Col. A. R. McCulloch. 

Plate XLVIII. 

Fig. 1 (Paracilicaea pabescens, 2nd pleopod, young male ?). Fig. 2: Cassidhiella incisa, 
antennae and epistomial region. Fig. 3: id., t end of abdomen and uropod from below. Fig. 4: 
Dynamcnella nibida, male. Fig. 5: id,, epistome and antenna. Fig. 6: id., end of abdomen 
and uropod. Fig. 7: id., 1st pleopod. Fig. 8: Haswellia anomala, female. Fig. 9: id., end of 
abdomen and uropod. Fig. 10: Exocerceis nasuta, male, posterior region. Fig. 11 : id., anterior 
region from below. Fig. 12 : id., 2nd pleopod. 

Plate XL1X. 

Fig. 1: Cerceis ovata, female. Fig 2: id., anterior region from below. Fig. 3: id., end 
of abdomen and u-ropod. Fig. 4: id., 1st pleopod, male. Fig. 5: id., 2nd pleopod. _ Fig. 6: 
Haswellia juxtacarnea. Fig. 7 : id., posterior region from below. Fig. 8 : Haswellia camea, 
anterior region from below. Fig. 9 : id., posterior region from below,. Fig. 10 : id., posterior 
region from above, process of 7th segment of thorax removed. Fig. 11: id., end of 7th seg- 
ment of thorax from below. 

Plate L. 

Fig. 1 : Cerceis iridentata, var. intermedia, male. Fig. 2 : id., anterior region from below. 
Fig. 3: Waileolana rugosa, male. Fig. 4: id., anterior region from below. Fig. 5: id., 2nd 
pleopod. Fig. 6: id., 1st pleopod. Fig. 7: IsocMdas howensis, male. Fig. 8: id., antennae and 
epistome. Fig. 9: Isoeladus ? laevis, female, anterior region from below. Fig. 10: id. t end of 
abdomen and uropod from below. Fig. 11: id., 1st leg. Fig. 12: id., 7th leg. 

Plate LI. 
Fig. 1 ; Neosphaeroma ? pentaspina, male. Fig. 2 : id., anterior region from below. 
Fig. 3: id., 5 joints of 1st leg. Fig. 4: id., 1st pleopod. Fig. 5: id., 2nd pleopod. Fig. 6: 
Exosphaeroma alii, male. Fig. 7: id., epistome, 1st and 2nd antenna. Fig. 8: Exosphaeroma 
bicolor, 1st pleopod. Fig. 9: Exosphaeroma alii, 2nd pleopod. Fig. 10: Exosphaeroma bicolor, 
7th leg. 

Plate LII. 

Fig. 1: Exosphaeroma bicolor. Fig. 2: id., side view. Fig. 3: id., uropods adjacent 
region from below. Fig. 4: id., epistome and 1st and 2nd antennae. Fig. 5: id., 2nd pleopod. 
Fig. 6: Plalycerceis hyalina, male. Fig. 7: id., u-ropod, etc. Fig. 8: id., anterior region from 
below. Fig. 9: id., 1st leg, female. Fig. 10: id., 1st pleopod, female. Fig. 11 : id., 2nd pleopod, 
male. 

Plate LIII. 

Fig. 1: Haswellia intermedia. Fig. 2: id., front view. Fig. 3: id., anterior region from 
below. Fig. 4 : id., uropod, etc., from below. Fig. 5 : id., abdomen, etc., of female from above. 
Fig. 6: Cassidinopsis tasmaniae. Fig. 7: id., anterior region from below. Fig. 8: id., 1st leg 
of male. Fig. 9: id., uropod and abdomen from below. Fig. 10: id., 2nd pleopod. 



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280 

AUSTRALIAN COLEOPTERA.— Part V. 

By Albert H. Elston, F.E.S. 
[Read October 14, 1926.] ■ 

CICINDELIDAE. 

Cicinbela jtJXGl, Blackb. 

Seven specimens, four males and three females, were taken by Mr. R. F. 
Kemp and the author last January on the Coorong near the 60-mile post from 
Meningie ; they all agree very well with the description given of the. above species 
by Blackburn. (I > The males have the green blotch on the elytra much paler 
than on the females, and on some specimens parts of the elytral markings are 
barely discernible or quite obliterated. 

This species comes nearest to C. saetigcra, Horn, but is distinguished from 
the latter chiefly by the punctuation of the elytral markings, which are very much 
finer, the pronotum and head more hairy, particularly between the eyes, the 
transverse wrinkles of the head and pronotum finer, and the scutellum not so 
acutely pointed posteriorly. 

CLERIDAE. 

Lemidia eborea, n. sp. 

Nitid; black; eight spots on elytra white, antennae (club infuscated), parts 
of legs and abdomen testaceous. Upper surface sparsely clothed with moderately 
long dark hairs, under surface with shorter griseous ones. Head wide, between 
eyes flattened and without interocular f oveae ; densely, finely and rugosely punc- 
tured. Pronotum narrower than head, slightly longer than wide, sides abruptly 
and angularly dilated near the middle and with moderately deep transverse sub- 
apical and basal depressions ; the derm is smooth, with shallow isolated punctures 
and a barely perceptible longitudinal carina in the middle. Scutellum very small 
and circular. Elytra much wider than base of prothorax and about three and a 
half times its length ; sides of anterior third parallel, thence gradually dilated to 
near apex and then abruptly rounded; with moderately large seriate punctures, 
not very crowded and becoming smaller posteriorly. Under surface almost 
impunctate. Length, 5-5*5 mm. 

Queensland: Bunya Mountains (H. Hacker). Type, in Queensland Museum. 

On one specimen (presumably the male) the forepart of the face and the 
whole of the under surface of the anterior legs are testaceous. On each elytron 
there is a small transverse humeral spot at the base, a large irregularly shaped 
one at the middle, situated near, but not touching the margin and extending more 
than half-way across to the suture, a small elongate spot midway between the 
basal and median ones, and placed nearer to the suture than the lateral margin ; 
the fourth is an oblique spot in front of the apex and almost touching the suture 
and lateral margin. The abdomen and anterior third of the intermediate and 
posterior legs are testaceous. A distinct characteristic is the entire absence of 
any f oveae between the eyes. Its nearest congener is L. simulans, Blackb., from 
which it is easily distinguished by having subapical maculae on the elytra, upper 
surface more sparsely clothed with dark hairs, the sides of prothorax more 
angularly dilated near the middle, the upper surface of same smoother, and the 
spots on the elytra ivory white. 

(1) Blackburn, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1901, p. 15. 



281 

Lemidia wilsoni, n. sp. 
Nitid ; upper surface black; antennae, part of face, prothorax (except sub- 
apical transverse impression, which is black) and parts of legs testaceous, two 
transverse bands on elytra red; under surface black with the prosternum and 
abdomen testaceous. Sparsely clothed with dark hairs, interspersed with pale, 
ones, short and semierect on body, and much longer on legs. Head wide, inter- 
ocular f ovcae shallow and divided from each other by a well-defined short carina ; 
punctures small and shallow, scattered on top but more closely placed between 
the eyes. Pronotum about as long as wide, sides contracted anteriorly and pos- 
teriorly and evenly roundly dilated at the middle, with moderately deep subapical 
and basal transverse impressions; almost smooth, with small scattered punctures. 
Scutellum small and almost round. Elytra at base wider than prothorax and about 
two and a half times its length, the humeral angles slightly tuberculate, sides 
parallel up to the middle, then slightly roundly dilated to near apex, where they 
are somewhat abruptly rounded off ; with very small, barely perceptible, seriate 
punctures. Length, 6 mm. 

North-west Victoria: Linda (F. E. Wilson). Type (unique), in author's 
collection. 

The anterior and intermediate tibiae and tarsi are mostly testaceous, the 
anterior femora are diluted with red; one transverse band on the elytra is situated 
in front of the middle and extends from the lateral margins (with which it 
touches) across to and touching the suture, the other is placed in front of the 
apex and extends from the lateral margin (with which it barely touches) across 
to and touching the suture, under each humeral angle is a small reddish spot. A 
very distinct species, its closest ally is, perhaps, L. obliquefasciata, Gorham, but 
is easily distinguished by being proportionately wider, red bands on elytra different, 
and the punctures on the elytra much finer ; in fact, those on the present species 
are almost indiscernible. 

Lemidia miniatula, n. sp. 

Nitid; black; head, antennae, prothorax, narrow margin at base and apex of 
elytra, anterior and parts of intermediate legs and parts of abdomen reddish or 
reddish-yellow. Sparsely clothed with semierect ashy pubescence. Head with 
two interocular f oveae moderately deeply impressed ; very finely and somewhat 
closely punctured, the punctures more distinct on forepart than on top. Pro- 
notum about as long as wide ; sides contracted anteriorly and posteriorly, abruptly 
and roundly dilated at middle, with moderately deep subapical and basal transverse 
impressions ; w-ith a shallow round depression on each side near the lateral margin 
at the middle; the punctures minute, more noticeable near the lateral margins 
than elsewhere. Scutellum small, transverse and rounded. Elytra at base wider 
than prothorax and about three times its length ; sides parallel up to the middle, 
then very slightly dilated to near apex, where they are individually rounded off ; 
with moderately large, deep, closely placed, seriate punctures, less distinct at the 
base and apex. Length, 4 - 5 mm. 

Victoria: Sea Lake (J. C. Goudie). Type (unique), in author's collection. 

The red markings on the elytra are of a deeper tint than on the head and 
prothorax, the whole of the anterior legs is pale, except at the thighs, which 
are slightly infuscated, the under surface of the anterior legs is mostly reddish- 
yellow and the posterior legs are black, except the knees, which are reddish- 
yellow. This species differs from L. flavipes, Lea, which has the prothorax 
longer., more of the apex of elytra red, punctures on elytra more widely spaced and 
more sharply defined, the hind legs pale, and the basal band on elytra pale flavous. 
Somewhat resembles some of the varieties of L. obliqitefasciata, Gorham, but may 



be easily distinguished from that species by the upper surface being less hairy, the 
head reddish, nitid, and almost impunctate, interocular foveae not so deeply 
impressed, and the punctures on the elytra slightly deeper and more seriate. 

Tenerus telep ii oroides, Pasc. 

This species is very variable in size, four specimens vary from 5 mm. to 8 mm. 
in length. 

New South Wales ; South Australia ; Tasmania. 

Phlogistus conspiciendus, n. sp. 

Shining black; mouth parts, antennae, the tarsi and basal half of tibiae of 
anterior legs testaceous, all the femora with bluish reflections ; clothed with rather 
long, upright hairs, more or less dark on the body and griseous on the legs, 
scutellum and a transverse fascia just behind the middle with densely arranged 
whitish hairs, and the apex of each elytron with a patch of dense, pale-golden hairs. 

Head moderately wide and rather flat, with small rugose punctures very 
closely placed. Antennae somewhat slender and reaching to the base of prothorax. 
Pronotum about as long as wide, convex, roundly dilated near the middle, abruptly 
and strongly contracted at the base, before apex with a curved and at base with a 
straight, moderately deep, transverse impression and with a shallow, but 
nevertheless distinct, fovea at the middle and touching the subapical transverse 
impression; the punctures much larger than those on head and not densely 
arranged. Scutellum round. Elytra much wider than prothorax and about twice 
its length, sides almost parallel to near apex, where they are evenly rounded off, 
the humeral and sutural angles at the base tuberculate, the former more so than 
the latter; from the base to the postmedian fasciae with very large, deep, seriate 
and rugose punctures, behind the fasciae very glossy and almost impunctate. 
Legs robust, with the posterior femora reaching apex of elytra. Length, 
12-12-5 mm. 

Queensland: Bunya Mountains (H. Hacker). Type, in Queensland Museum. 

A very distinct species with its postmedian transverse fasciae of silvery hairs 
and two apical maculae of golden hairs. Its nearest ally is P. leucocosmus, Elston, 
from which it is easily distinguished by its more robust appearance, the head more 
finely punctured and without a deep interocular fovea, the prothorax more globular 
and with the fovea in the middle smaller and not so deeply impressed, the scutellum 
densely covered with white hairs, and the punctures on the basal half of elvtra 
comparatively larger and more rugose. 



283 

ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

No. 24. 

By J. M. Black. 
[Read October 14. 1926.] 

Gramineae. 

Triodia Basedowii, E. Pritzel in Fedde Rep. 15:356 (1918). Distinguished 
from T. pungens, R.Br., by the longer flowering glume (6-9 mm. long), with the 
3 lobes blunt instead of acute, and the young branches very woolly. — Flinders 
Range and Far North. The true T. pungens does not appear to have been found 
in our State, and the type comes from tropical Australia. 

• Stipa MacAlpinei, Reader in Vict. Nat. 15:143 (1899). Found by Professor 
J. B. Cleland on burnt country near the Rocky River, Kangaroo Island. The type 
comes from near Dimboola, in western Victoria, and it has also been collected in 
Western Australia. Our specimens are comparatively small, varying from 15 to 40 
cm. high. Reader gives the height as "10 inches to 2 feet" (25-60 cm.) . This species, 
which has not hitherto been found in South Australia, is distinguished by its 
apparently annual character, the lower leaf-sheaths covered with shining almost 
scaly hairs, the 2 very unequal outer glumes and the slender awn, 12-15 cm. long. 
Reader gives the length of the awn as 13-20 cm. Synonyms are »S. compressa, 
R.Br., var. lachnocolea, Benth. (1878) ; $* lachnocolea, Hughes (1921). 

Professor Cleland gives a tradition, obtained from an old resident of the 
island, that when the earliest colonists arrived at Nepean Bay in the winter of 
1836, a bush fire had swept the adjoining country and this grass sprang up in 
great abundance. Its luxuriance led them to believe that they were looking at a 
fertile meadow, suitable for grazing and agriculture. This conviction strengthened 
their intention of making the principal settlement of the province on Kangaroo 
Island. Later in the year hot weather came and the grass withered and blew away. 
The official party, which arrived later, decided to remove the settlers to the main- 
land and fix the capital there. 

PORTULACACEAE. 

Portulaca intraterranea, n. sp. Herba robusta ascendens suculenta glabra 
30-40 cm. alta, radice crassa longa obconica forsan perenni, foliis plerisque 
alternis oblongis planiusculis 8-20 mm. longis 4-6 mm, latis, pilis stipularibus 
paucissimis caducis, floribus solitariis vel paucis terminalibus intra folia summa 
sessilibus, sepalis 5-8 mm. longis, petalis flavis calyce subduplo longioribus inferne 
connatis, staminibus 25-30, styli elongati lobis 3, seminibus nigris granu- 
lans. — P. oleracea, L. var. ( ?) grandiflora, Benth. 

A complete specimen collected on Minnie Downs, near the Warburton River, 
by Mr. L. Reese, shows this to be a much stouter and more erect plant than 
P. oleracea, and perhaps perennial at base. The other characters in which it 
differs are the sepals twice as long, the petals much exceeding the sepals, and the 
stamens about twice as many as in P. oleracea. It will be observed that Bentham 
was doubtful as to the distinction being merely varietal. His varietal appellation 
cannot be carried forward, because P. grandiflora, Hook., is already the name of a 
popular garden species. P. intraterranea appears to have constantly only 3 style- 
branches, which are considerably shorter than the style proper. The stout stems 
and branches seem to remain green, while those of P. oleracea turn red, at least 
in the Far North. Both species are called "Pigweed." 

Leguminosae. 
Swainsona Morrisiana, n. sp. Planta verisimiliter annua pilis appressis 
centrinxis sparsim instructa, caulibus brevibus erectis vel ascendentibus, foliolis 



pierisque 9 linearibus acutis 12-25 mm. longis, stipulis lineari-lanceolatis integris, 
fioribus roseis 4-8 in racemo, pedunculo nudo puberulo 12-17 cm. longo folia multo 
superante, pedicellis calycem subaequantibus bractea multo longioribus, calyce nigri- 
pubescentc 5 mm. longo, dentibus patentibus tubo dimidio brevioribus deltoideo- 
acuminatis, bracteolis minutis, vexillo 12 mm. lato rubri-venoso ecalloso, carina 
obtusa sine sacculis latcralibus alls paululo breviorc, stylo rigido oblique torto. 
harha basin dilatatam versus paulatim deminuta, ovario pubescente, legumine ignoto. 

Boolcoomatta Station (north of Olary, on Broken Hill Railway). 

Named after the collector, Mr. Albert Morris, of Broken Hill, a keen student 
of botany, and one who has devoted special attention to the genus Swainsona. 
Tt is No. 1448. 

Belongs to the section Mesotrichae, and differs from the true S. stipularis, 
F. v. M., in the narrow stipules, longer linear acute and always entire leaves, paler 
flowers, the keel without any approach to lateral pouches and the style curved to 
one side but not inflexed. It is a more slender plant and appears to be only annual. 

Swainsona adenophylla, n. sp. Planta verisimiliter perennis, pilis 
appressis centrifixis conspersa; ramis a basi lignea usque ad 70 cm. longis; foliolis 
pierisque 7, linearibus, 8-20 mm. longis, supra viridibus puberulis, infra incanis, 
margine recurvis, apice 2 lobulis rotundatis conniventibus terminatis, lobulis inter 
se glandulam vel umbonem glabrum conspicuum semi-tegentibus ; stipulis 
lanceolatis, integris ; racemis laxis 8-20-floris, subpaniculatis, pedunculo nudo, 
puberulo, 4-10 cm. longo; floribus parvis, purpureis ; calyce incano, 3| mm. longo, 
quam pedicellus longiore, dentibus subulatis tubo brevioribus ; bracteolis minutis ; 
bractea pedicello dimidio breviore; vexillo circiter 8 mm. longo et lato, callis 
duobus confluentibus praedito ; carina obtusa bi-sacculata, alis aequilonga ; stylo 
tota longitudine barbato, supra curvaturam recto et tenui, basin versus incrassato, 
conico; legumine vix maturo cylindrico, 15-20 mm. longo, circiter 4 mm. lato, 
puberulo, reticulato, secus suturam profunde impresso, stylo incurvo terminato. 

Finniss Springs (between Lake Eyre and the Marree-Oodnadatta Railway), 
coll. Francis D. Warren. Mr. Warren states in a note : — "day watercourses or 
crabholes ; purple vetch, splendid fattening feed ; very beautiful when in flower." 

A very distinct species owing to the peculiar leaflets, which terminate in 
2 small rounded lobes. These lobes, as well as the margins of which they are the 
upward continuation, are connivent or incurved, especially when dry, and thus 
somewhat conceal a large brown gland or glabrous swelling which lies between 
them at the summit of the leaflet. The leaflets might equally well be described 
as deeply notched at summit, with a gland just below the notch. The new species 
belongs to the section Mesotrichae, and has the small flowers of S, microcalyx, 
but is a much larger and stouter plant, the standard with 2 small confluent calli 
and the keel 2-pouched, both of which characters are absent in S. micro calyx , 
whose leaves are flat, cuneate and without any terminal gland. 

Indigofera Basedowii, E. Pritzel in Fedde Rep. 15:356 (1918). This name 
must replace /. longibractea, J. M. Black, in Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr. 47:369 
(1923), on the ground of priority. 

/. leucotricha, E. Pritzel, I.e. 357 (1918). This new species was described 
from specimens collected by Strehlow at Hermannsburg, C.A. It is a white- 
tomentose form with smaller snowy leaflets and dark-brown calyxes like those of 
the preceding and has hitherto been placed under /. brevidens, Benth. It is per- 
haps the same as var. uncinata, Benth. It occurs in the Flinders Range, between 
Blinman and Beltana and northward to Oodnadatta ; also at Depot Glen in the 
N.W. corner of New South Wales, and along the Finke River in Central Australia. 

Malvaceae. 
Hibiscus intraterraneus, described by me in these Trans., 1925, p. 274, appears 
to be a form of H. brae hychlae nits, F. v. M., with more deeply divided leaves than 
those described by Mueller. 



285 

Frankeniaceae, 
I was regretfully unable to incorporate in Part 2 of the Flora of South Aus- 
tralia two new species of Frankcnia described by T. A. Sprague in the Kew 
Bulletin 1925 pp. 426-7, because they did not appear to me sufficiently distinct 
from F serpyllifolia, Lindl. One of these is F. ftabellata, Sprague, from the 
Frome River, near Marree. It is differentiated from F. serpylhfoha by the 
shorter calyx-lobes with subhyaline margins, the fan-shaped petals and the fila- 
ments subulate instead of linear. The other is F. connata, Sprague, from Leigh s 
Creek, described as differing from F. ftabellata in the filaments adnate to each 
other and to the petals, larger and scarcely toothed petals, longer stigmas and 
the margins of the leaves more revolute. It is true that the petals vary somewhat 
in the breadth of the lamina, which is always more or less denticulate at summit, 
but the breadth varies even on the same plant. Much more striking to the eye 
is the variation of colour in the petals of our South Australian forms of 
F. serpyllifolia, which ranges from pale pink (drying white) to bright red. The 
leaves vary remarkably in breadth on the same plant and the revolution of the 
margins is always more pronounced in dried specimens. As regards F. connata, 
I made drawings of details from the fresh co-type of the specimen forwarded by 
me to Kew and on which Mr. Sprague founded his new species, and the drawing 
of the stamen shows the filament quite free in all its length. My field-note on 
the same specimen says :— "Petals quite distinct at first; later on claws show 
tendency to cohere." This appears to be a peculiarity of Frankenia, and I feel 
sure that adhesion of the filaments to each other or to the petals, or cohesion of 
the claws of the petals, cannot be correctly determined in dried specimens. I 
doubt whether these unions ever occur in the living plant. Mr. Sprague con- 
siders that the only specimen of true F. serpyllifolia from South Australia is one 
collected by R. Helms at Cootanoorinna (Arkaringa Creek) in 1891. The type 
came from the Nive River, Queensland. 

LOGANIACEAE. 

Logania recurva, n. sp. Frutex erectus glaber circiter 1 m. altus, foliis 
lanceolatis vel lineari-lanceolatis 2-4 cm. longis 3-8 mm. latis utraque extremitate 
angustatis sed sessilibus et semi-amplexantibus margine recurvis vel revolutis 
secus nervum medianum supra sulcatis, cymis densis planiusculis pedunculatis 
paniculam longam angustam basin versus foliosam formantibus, calyce i| mm. 
longo ciliolato, corolla 4 mm. longa faucibus annulo piloso instruct!, tubo glabro, 
capsula circiter 5 mm. longo. — L, longifolia, R.Br., var. sitbsessilis, Benth. ^ 

Mount Lofty Range; Ardrossan, Y.P. Differs from L. vaginalis 
(Labill.), F. v. M*, in the lanceolate sessile and half -clasping leaves with revolute 
margins, sometimes so much so as almost to conceal the midrib. L. vaginalis, 
which includes L. latifolia and L. longifolia, R.Br., has ovate-acuminate leaves, 
shortly petiolate and without recurved margins; the corolla-tube is minutely 
pubescent inside, while that of L. recurva is glabrous. 

Logania insularis, n. sp. Fruticulus gracilis, ramis hispidulis, foliis 
glabris ovatis vel ovato-oblongis 4-6 mm. longis 2-^-3 mrn. latis crassis obtusis 
planiusculis margine recurvis brevissime petiolatis, cymis brevibus paucifloris,, 
calyce vix 1 mm. longo ciliolato, corolla fere rotata 4 mm. diametro tantum 
faucibus minute pilosa vel papillosa, capsula 3-4 mm. longa. 

Cape Borda, Kangaroo Island. Very distinct from our other species, with 
small leaves and flowers few and small ; seems nearest to the Western Australian 
L. buxifolia, F. v. M., which is quite glabrous, with rather larger leaves without 
recurved margins. 

CONVOLVU-LACEAE. 

Ipomoea lonchophylla, n. sp. Planta verisimiliter annua partibus 
junioribus hispidula demum glabrescens, caule ascendente non volubili, foliis 



lanceolatis integris acutis 3-10 cm. longis ciliolatis, petiolis 1-6 cm. longis, floribus 
solitariis raro geminis in pedunculis 3-5 mm. longis prope medium bibracteatis. 
sepalis 10 mm. longis ovatis longe acuminatis conspicue ciliatis ceteroqui 
glabris, corolla angusta cylindrica calycem paulo excedente, lobis apice ciliolatis, 
capsula globosa calycem subaequante; seminibus 4-5 mm. longis fusco-puberulis. 

Far North, from Marree and the Alberga River to north of Cooper's Creek. 
—Central Australia. Appears to have been considered a form of /. heierophylla, 
R.Br., from which it differs in the clothing, the longer lanceolate entire leaves,' 
the larger and merely ciliate sepals, the absence of bracteoles close to the calyx, etc. 

SoLANACEAE. 

Nicotiana excelsior, n. sp. .V. suaveolem, Lehm., var. excelsior J. M 
Black, in Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 39:835, t. 70 (1915). 1 think this plant is 
worthy of specific rank. It is distinguished by its height, the stem-leaves decur- 
rent by 2 long broad wings and by the much larger flowers. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE. 

Veronica parnkalliana, n. sp. Herba perennis erecta vel ascendens 
30-40 cm. alta, nodis ramorum lineis crispo-pubescentibus a basi foliorum decur- 
rentibus signatis, foliis oppositis oblanceolatis fere glabris grosse paucidentatis 
vel integris sessilibus 1-3 cm. longis, racemis laxis 5-20-noris cum pedunculo 
glabro 8-20 cm. longis paniculas saepe corymbosas formantibus, pedicellis 6-10 mm. 
longis, calycis segmentis lanceolatis circiter 4 mm. longis, corolla calyce duplo 
longiore, lobis ovatis, capsula compressa parum emarginata calyci subaequilonga 
5-7 mm. lata loculicide dehiscente. 

Near Port Lincoln^ coll. H. H, D. Griffith, Oct., 1909. Differs from V. gracilis 
and V. distans, R.Br., in the long many-flowered paniculate racemes, the obtuse 
leaves and the usually more rigid branches. Parnkalla was the name of the native 
tribe, now practically extinct, which inhabited the greater part of Eyre Peninsula 
when the first colonists arrived. 

Myoporaceae. 
Eremophila MacGillivrayi, n. sp. Frutex robustus 2-5 mm. altus, ramis 
foliis calvcibusque dense et arete stellato-incanis, foliis alternis albis lineari- 
lanceolatis 1^-4 cm. longis 4-6 mm. latis crassiusculis planis mucronatis in petiolum 
brevissimum angustatis caducis cicatrices prominentes relinquentibus, pedunculis 
solitariis 8-12 mm. longis angulatis apicem versus incrassatis, calycis 3-4 mm. 
longi segmentis ovato-lanceolatis acutis crassis basi non imbricatis fructiferis 
10 mm. longis, corolla rubella 25 mm. longa extus sparse stellato-pubesccnte intus 
glabra, lobis 2 supremis subacutis usque ad medium connatis, lobis lateralibus 
obtusis, lobo infimo oblongo ad circiter trientem corollae soluto reflexo, staminibus 
plus minusve exsertis, filamentis parce pilosis, ovario styloque pilis ramosis dense 
lanatis, ovulis 2 subcollateralibus in quoque loculo, fructus immaturi pericarpio 
4-valvi lanato, endocarpio osseo. 

Commemorates Dr.Wm. D. K. MacGillivray, of Broken Hill, who collected 
specimens near Cordillo Downs, S.A. (north of Cooper's Creek), in Sept., 1922. 
Later the shrub was found by Professor j. B. Cleland in the same locality and on 
Arrabury Station, across the border in Queensland. It has also been collected in 
the same state on Nockatunga Station, near the Wilson River. 

This species is difficult to place in the genus, as it has the thick tomentose 
calyx, with the segments valvate at base, which characterises Bentham's section 
Eriocalyx, but the corolla is that of section Stenochilus, and the ovules are only 
2, or very rarely 3, in each cell of the ovary. Its white leaves and branches make 
it easy to recognise. 



287 



THE ABORIGINES OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 

NATIVE OCCUPATION OF THE EDEN VALLEY AND 

ANGASTON DISTRICTS. 

By Paxil S. Hossfeld, B.Sc. 

[Read October 14, 1926.] 

During the months of July and August of this year,, the writer was engaged 
in a geological survey of the district. Investigations resulted in the discovery of a 
number of native camp sites, several decorated caves, and of at least one burial 
ground (fig. 1). In addition, all information obtainable from old residents and 
records has been collected, and is presented in this paper. 

As far as could be ascertained, no records exist of the native occupation of 
this part of the Mount Lofty Ranges. It is, therefore, of extreme importance 
that such facts as can still be obtained should be placed on record before their 
collection becomes an impossibility. 

The items discussed are: — 

1. Mural Decorations. 

2. Camp Sites. 

3. Burial Grounds. 

4. Information obtained from Local Residents. 

5. Native Place Names. 

1. Mural Decorations. 

Numerous caves and rock shelters exist on Sections 139 and 212, Hundred 
of Jutland, but only three of them were found to contain drawings. These caves 
have been produced by the weathering and subsequent removal of pegmatized 
mica schist. As the drawings in each cave are of a different type, the three 
occurrences will be described separately and referred to as A, B, and C 

Cave A. 

This is much the largest of any seen in the district. It is situated on the 
south side of the River Marne, or South Rhine, on Section 139, Jutland, about 
40 feet above the level of a waterfall. The river is perennial, and breaks through 
the rocks in a short, but steep, rocky gorge. The cave itself is inaccessible except 
from the front, and even here the approach is somewhat difficult. It consists 
of an inner and an outer chamber. The front is formed by a deep, overhanging 
roof with a width parallel to the river of at least 40 feet, and is 20 feet deep and 
10 feet high. In the rear wall of this recess, a small triangular hole, large enough 
to admit a stooping man, leads to the inner cave, a chamber of much larger dimen- 
sions, with an approximate length of 58 feet and average width and height of 
12 feet. This inner cave has a more or less horizontal roof, and a floor which 
rises rapidly towards the back of the chamber. The irregular sides converge 
towards the junction of floor and roof, giving to that part of the cave a pointed 
shape. The drawings are restricted to the rear wall of the outer chamber, the 
other part of the cave showing no signs of human occupation. 

With one exception, the drawings are executed in a single colour. Three 
of them were drawn with red ochre, white being the colour used for the remainder. 



288 



Decorated Caves X Camp Sites 

O Camps -|- Burial Ground 




*^aMM 



mWPRSD of TALXTOCA 



Mount Pleasant 



Fig. 1. Map of the district, showing all the occurrences known at present. Those locali- 
ties, where natives lived within the memory of living people, are noted as camps, while those 
which can be recognised by the material left behind, are given as camp sites. 



289 



Many of the designs appear to represent human beings in various attitudes, 
several apparently holding a boomerang or a shield (fig. 2, A, B, and C). 

The drawings were photographed, but are not shown as distinctly as desired, 
partly because of the discolouration due to age, and also owing to the mass of 
names inscribed with variously coloured chalks by numerous visitors. ^ 

With the aid of sketches taken in the cave, camera lucida drawings were 
made from the photographs, and were compared, on a subsequent visit, with the 
originals, in order to ensure the greatest possible accuracy. 

It is curious that, despite the popularity of the locality as a picnic resort, 
as is shown by the exceedingly numerous inscriptions on the walls of this cave, 
the existence in it of native drawings was practically unknown. On being asked 
whether any caves occurred in the district, several local residents directed the 
writer to Cave A, but no one appeared to think that it contained drawings. Ihe 
author, however, decided to examine the cave himself, as native remains of this 
nature' have frequently been overlooked or not recognised (1). As a result of 
subsequent enquiries, Mr. H. Rogers directed the writer to Cave B, informing 
him that it contained a drawing of what appeared to be a swan. 

Although but a few yards distant from Cave B, not even the location of 
Cave C appears to have been known, as this would assuredly have attracted 
attention, owing to the numerous designs and colours employed. 

Cave B. 

This cave faces south, and is situated several hundred yards to the northward 
of Cave A. It is a rounded opening, measuring approximately 4 feet by 2 feet, 
in a vertical face of rock near the summit of a ridge north of the river. It widens 
inside and has a depth of about 8 feet. At the back two drawings, possibly of 
emus, are scratched on the wall with a soft greyish-coloured stone. Ihe designs 
terminate at the bottom of the wall t 

While the drawings in Cave A are apparently made with white clay or red 
ochre, applied as a paste with a finger or similar instrument, those in Cave B 
are scratched with a soft stone, as well as being of a different type to the former. 
At first this led the writer to doubt the native origin of the Cave B drawings, 
but the subsequent discovery of a rock shelter (Cave C) a few yards distant, m 
the eastern face of the same rock, containing many designs drawn with _ a sott 
stone, as well as some made by the smearing on of paste, lends probability to 
their having been executed by the aborigines. 

Cave C. 

This is a rock shelter, containing numerous drawings on the backwall. It 
faces east, and is situated near the top of a steep slope. It is semicircular in 
shape, approximately 12 feet wide in front and 9 feet deep. Seven distinct 
colours were recognised— black, white, grey, yellowish-brown, orange dark- 
brown, and dull red. Most of the broad drawings are apparently made by the 
application of a paste, while the line drawings are executed with a soft stone or 
charcoal (fig. 3). , . . 

A number of designs have partly faded, so that it is impossible to recognise 
their original shape. A number of others, of a more or less irregular nature, 
were not reproduced, as doubts existed as to their origin. 

This cave appears to be visited but rarely by white people, as it is practically 
free from the mutilation suffered by Cave A. 

As it was found impossible to photograph the drawings, sketches were made 
as accurately as possible, and measurements of each figure taken m several 
directions. In order to reduce the size of the plate, spaces between groups of 
drawings have been slightly compressed in some cases. 



290 




291 

Amongst the designs, a snake, corroboree circle, and the skins of several 
animals can be recognised. The majority of the drawings appear to be con- 
ventional representations of human beings. 

2. Camp Sites. 

A number of these were discovered by the writer, and yielded a good collection 
of hammer stones, chippings, and reniform slates. 

Several sites exist in close proximity to each other, on both sides of the 
River Gawler, in Sections 299 and 30 L, Hundred of Moorooroo. They are wind- 
swept, sandy areas, on the top of the low hills flanking the river. Specimens 
collected here include several slates, one of which is reproduced in fig. 4 A, some 
hammer stones, a flat stone evidently used as an anvil, a number of fragments of 
micaceous haematite of variable size, probably used for decorative purposes when 
powdered, a few chippings, and some chipped blocks of a peculiar type of rock, 
the nearest outcrops of which occur at a distance of at least nine miles. All of 
these blocks have a flat base, and are chipped to give the latter a roughly circular 
shape. The material is comparatively soft, and is composed of thin alternating 
bands of felspar and actinolite, giving the rock a characteristic striped appearance. 
The use to which these blocks were put is not known, but from the fact that they 
were found on every camp site examined in the district, and that they were trans- 
ported for some distance, indicates their value to the natives. 

The most extensive camp sites are situated on Sections 124 and 125, Hundred 
of Jutland. Here they cover several acres. They occur on the north side of 
the Saunders Creek, a perennial stream. They occupy a wind-eroded, sandy 
slope, on the west side of a rough, stony, meridional ridge. 

The country to the westward consists of grassy slopes with occasional red 
gums. At the north-eastern extremity of the site, a small, dense belt of native 
pines supplies excellent shelter. 

Hearths are very numerous. A particularly interesting one occurs near the 
northern extremity of the site. It is peculiar in that, whereas the others are 
mere heaps of stones arranged in an irregular manner, this one consists of a ring 
of stones, the two diameters of the hearth being 7 feet 6 inches and 6 feet 6 inches. 
The sand inside the ring is blackened, in contrast to the yellowish colour prevailing 
in the vicinity. 

This site yielded the majority of the hammer stones, chips, and slates collected. 
One of the hammer stones had evidently been used for pounding red ochre, as 
one half of it was still covered with this material. As in the Gawler River site, 
specimens of micaceous haematite, probably pounded and used for decoration, 
and chipped blocks of felspar-actinolite gneiss occurred. Another interesting 
feature noted was the presence of fire-cracked quartz, the presence of which oh 
camp sites has been described from Olary (2). 

Several of the slates collected were sufficiently well preserved to have 
retained the original markings incised on them by the natives. Some of these 
are reproduced in figs. 4 B and 4 C. An interesting point is the fact that several 
slates generally occurred together. In one instance, three were found in contact, 
projecting from the sand with their longer axes in a vertical direction, and in two 
other instances four slates were discovered together under the sand. One of the 
slates which has not been figured, carries incisions probably representing bird- 
tracks. 

In two instances the writer found two and three, respectively, of the slates to 
occur together. In both these cases, however, fragments of slate were scattered 
in the immediate vicinity, indicating the former existence of one or more additional 
slates. In a personal communication, Mr. P. Stapleton, of Henley Beach, states that 
twenty-eight years ago he also found, near the Patawalonga Creek, four reniform 



292 





INCHES. 



Fig. 3. Sketch of native drawings in Cave C. The seven colours employed are indicated 
as follows : — A, white ; B, yellowish-brown ; C, dark brown ; D, red ; E, black ; F, grey ; 
G, orange. An asterisk indicates that the drawings were scratched on the wall with a soft 
stone or charcoal; the majority of the remainder were executed by the application of a 
paste. A 1 is drawn in white, with two small areas of a denser white, indicated by stippling ; 
one of these areas may have been intended to represent a pouch. Eight groups, each 
limited to one colour, can be recognised. Thev are lettered as follows: — (1) A and A 1 , 
in top left-hand corner of figure; (2) A*; (3) B; (4) B* ; (5) C and C* ; (6) D and D* ; 

(7) E and E* ; (8) G*. 



293 

slates lying close together. It seems probable, therefore, that as a general rule, 
these slates were buried in groups of four. 

The prevalent material here, as elsewhere, appears to be a phylhtic slate (6). 
Instances of the use or attempted use of other material were found 

On the Gawler River site, one specimen was collected, which had. been 
fashioned from a gritty quartzite. It was imperfectly made, as, although it had 
been shaped correctly, its sides had not been smoothed off, a procedure not so 
necessary with the slate, which naturally presented a flat cleavage plane, whereas 
the fractureof the quartzite produced an irregular surface. 

On the Jutland camp sites, several well-made objects of this type, but made 
of mica schist, as well as one made of gritty quartzite, were collected. 

The chippings comprise a variety of material, including milky quartz, rock 
crystal and quartzite, all obtainable in the district, and some, such as jasper and 
chalcedony, the appearance of which strongly suggests a Central Australian 

origin. . ^_^ 

Another site, on which but few remains can be seen, is situated on bection 6/0, 
Hundred of Jutland. This area is flooded occasionally by a small creek, and little 
is left beyond a few hearths and hammer stones. 

The writer was shown two reniform slates, in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion, by Messrs. Murray Brothers, who obtained them when the foundations for 
the house were excavated. This locality is on or near Section 145, and the 
finding of these slates indicates the former existence at this spot of a native 

camp site. 

3. ESurial Grounds. 

According to accounts by a number of independent observers, a well-known 
native burial ground exists on Section 475. At various periods, local residents 
have unearthed skulls in this and other areas when digging out rabbits. 

4. Information obtained from Local Residents. 

Through the courtesy of Mrs. I. Grigg, of Springton, the writer was enabled 
to obtain some interesting information concerning the natives of the district. Mrs. 
Grigg is over 80 years of age and lived on Pewsey Vale Station as a girl. The 
notes obtained from her, together with a few additional details supplied by others, 
are given below : — 

A number of natives camped near the Pewsey Vale Head Station, 011 
Jacob's Creek. 

Another camp was situated on the South Para River, to the south-west of 
Mount: Crawford, the native name for which hill was Teetaka. The number of 
natives in this camp is said to have, at times, reached 600. 

Both of these camps were more or less permanent, but parts of the tribe 
wandered over the country at various times, ultimately returning to the main 
camp. 

The natives are believed to have disappeared over 70 years ago. 

Frequently they wore no clothing whatever; when any was worn, it con- 
sisted of a bilby — or an opossum — skin rug, which was folded once and held up 
by a string tied around the waist. The skins were prepared for use by drying 
them, and subsequently cutting two sets of closely spaced parallel straight lines 
in the inner skin. The two sets of lines were at an acute angle to each other, 
the resulting diamond pattern making the skin flexible. 

After the age of puberty, the men occasionally wore reeds, several inches in 
length, inserted into the septum of the nose. 

For corroborees they greased their hair and painted themselves with white 
and red colours. They tied leaves and feathers around the waist, and bound 
them around the head. 



294 




Fig. 4. A, Sketch of reniform slate from Section 299, Moorooroo, 
showing Incised markings. B and C, Sketches of slates from Sec- 
tion 124, Jutland, showing decoration and scratches due to sharpening 
of the concave edge. (Three-fourths natural size.) 



295 

The older men bore incisions on the shoulders and arms. These cuts were 
roughly parallel and consisted of 3 rows on the back and 3 on the arms. The 
incisions were made with glass or bone. 

One full-blood deaf and dumb native was known. He was always kept 
painted red all over by the natives. They used, for this purpose, a mixture of 
ochre and fat. 

The wurleys were constructed by placing three sticks in the ground in a 
triangular position. Big sheets of bark (red gums) were cut ofr to the wood, 
and laid against the sticks. Grass trees and rushes were cut to supply the material 
for the roof. 

The women carried their babies in nets on their backs. Nets were used also 
tor catching kangaroos, wallabies, etc. These nets were about 5 feet high and 
100 feet long. They were held in a semicircle, and the game driven into them. 

The string was made of certain kinds of grass. For the manufacture of the 
nets the natives used a stick, and made a loop, which they hitched over a toe. 

They climbed trees by cutting steps, but used iron spikes after the occupation 
of the country by Europeans made them obtainable. 

Weapons. — Some of their spears were merely sharpened pieces of wood. 
Others had barbs for a distance of 8 inches from the tip. The barbs were set in 
zig-zag fashion, and consisted of the teeth of animals. Sometimes they threw 
their spears without throwing-sticks, at other times with them; the throwing-sticks 
were about 2 feet long. The waddies had handles about 2 feet in length and a 
knob at one end, which sometimes was the size of a man's fist, but this feature 
was very variable. 

Cooking was done by scooping a hollow in the hot ashes, covering the food 
with ashes and hot coals, and generally removing it before it was completely 
cooked. The ashes were knocked off, and the animal cut open with a sharp stone. 
Sometimes the food before being covered over was placed on a layer of hot stones. 

A fleshy root, commonly referred to as 'yarn/ formed part of their food 
supply/ 1 > 

At corroborees, the women rolled opossum skins tightly together, placed them 
in a heap, and hit them with sticks. They are believed to have varied the sounds 
produced by the degree of tightness with which the skin was rolled. 

The natives had good teeth, only one old man being known to have possessed 
faulty ones. None of them had any of their teeth removed. This is in accord 
with the statements made by Dr. Campbell (4). 

The women washed their babies with ashes and water. 

The natives had one fire only, and that just in front of the opening of the 
wurley. They slept with their feet towards the fire. During cold weather the 
wurleys and fires were nearer each other. 

Only one instance of the death and burial of a native was observed. This 
was a native girl, who died at the Mount Crawford camp. She was wrapped up 
and placed on two long poles, across which other sticks had been placed. She 
was carried to the burial ground east of Eden Valley, referred to above. The 
natives howled for one night, then set off early in the morning to the burial 
ground, howling the whole of the way. At intervals more howling natives would 
appear, following the procession. 

This paper would be incomplete without a reference to the very numerous 
burnt-out, hollow red gums occurring in the district. The majority of the open- 
ings face east or north, and provide excellent shelter. Whether they were used 
as such by the natives, and to what extent they were responsible for these 
hollowed-out trees, should be the subject of further enquiries. 

<!) Miss E. Macklin, B.Sc, informs me that the plant referred to probably is Microscris 
Forstcri, Hook. 



296 

From the accounts of residents it appears that after the extinction of the 
local natives, aborigines from the River Murray paid periodical visits to this 
district. They are said to have cut bark canoes in this area, carrying them back 
to the River Murray. For this purpose they selected those red gums possessing 
especially thick bark. When arriving from the Murray, they carried with them 
bundles of mallee sticks, which they converted into spears while staying in the 
E'den Valley district. The main attraction, however, appears to have been the 
numerous opossums, the skins of which, according to the natives, were superior 
to those from any other locality. 

The last of the River Murray blacks disappeared from this region about 
fifty years ago. 

According to Messrs. Teichelmann & Schurmann. the name "Marimeyunna" 
was applied to a north-eastern tribe of natives. This very probably included those 
in the Eden Valley district. Mari— east, meyu=man. The natives in the vicinity 
of Lyndoch appear to have been referred to as the "Wirra Tribe/' or Wirra 
meyu— bushman. 

5. Native Place Names. 

Since no record of the language spoken by the extinct natives could be 
obtained, an attempt has been made to discover the meaning of any native place 
names in the district, and to determine by this means whether the language of 
these natives was related to that of the Adelaide or the Narrinyeri tribe, vocabu- 
laries of both of which exist. 

In order to guard as much as possible against imported names, the earliest 
record of their use has been determined, when obtainable. 

It will be seen that all of such native words as are incorporated in the place 
names and which have been traced, form part of the vocabulary of the Adelaide 
tribe (5). 

A large part of the following notes was supplied in a personal communica- 
tion by Mr. Rodney Cockburn, who also assisted the writer by indicating other 
sources of information. 

A list of the names selected, together with the information obtained con- 
cerning them, is given below : — • 

Cowie-aurita : The native name for Jacob's Creek, meaning "yellowish- 
brown water" (6). 

Cudlee Creek: First settled in 1838. Evolved from "kadli," meaning 
"dog." Wild dogs were very numerous there in the pioneer days (7). 

Gumeracha ; Known in 1839 as "Umeracha." Was applied by the natives 
to a fine waterhole in the River Torrens (7). 

Moculta: The native name for a hill near the township. It is now known 
as "Parrot Hill" (8). 

Moorooroo: Surveyed in 1842. Means "meeting of the waters." It is 
a settlement situated near the junction of the Jacob's Creek and the North Para 
or Gawler River (6) and (7). 

Mudla Wirra: Gazetted in 1847. Mudla=nose; Wirra=tree (5). 

Para Wirra: Known in 1846. Parri=river; Wirra=tree. It means a 
"river lined with trees." In this connection it is interesting to note that the 
native name for the River Sturt is given as "Warri Parri," and that part of the 
River Torrens flowing through Adelaide was known as "Karra Wirra Parri," 
meaning "river of the red gum forest" (5) and (8). 



297 

Poonawatta : A native name supplied to the writer by Mr. Thyer, of Eden 
Valley. It was applied by the natives to a locality a few miles to the north-west 
of the township. 

Towitta: Named in 1876. Was the native name of a permanent spring 
near the township. It may be derived from "witto-witto/' meaning "reeds" (9). 
The native name for the River Torrens near the Reedbeds was "Wito-ingga" (8). 

Teetaka: The native name for Mount Crawford, supplied to the writer 
by Mrs. I. Grigg, of Springton. 

Yatala : Sometimes spelt "Ycrtala." It means "inundated. " It was 
applied by the natives of the Weera tribe to the locality north of the River 
Torrens, from Port Adelaide to Teatree Gully (10) and (6). In the S. Austr. 
Gazette and Col. Register, May 25, 1839, an account is given of a dinner to the 
aborigines of the Adelaide and Weree tribes, the latter probably being identical 
with the Weera tribe referred to above. 

It is interesting to note that the native name for the River Torrens when in 
flood was "Yertala" (8). 

Summary. 

A number of native remains hitherto undescribed have been recorded. They 
occur in a closely settled district about 40 miles north-east of Adelaide. It is 
extremely unlikely that in the large area comprising the Mount Lofty Ranges 
these and the drawings described from the South Para near Gawler (11) should 
be the only remains of native occupation extant. A systematic search for further 
occurrences would probably be amply repaid. 

In conclusion, the writer voices his regret that these important records of 
the former native occupation should be doomed to rapid disappearance, owing 
to the mutilation which they are subjected to by visitors ignorant of their value. 

Acknowledgments. 

The writer desires to express his appreciation of the assistance and advice 
of the following:- — Mrs. I. Grigg, Springton; Messrs. Bayes and Rogers, Eden 
Valley ; Mr. Rodney Cockburn ; the Officials of the Lands and Survey Depart- 
ment ; and the Officers of the Archives Department. 

References. 

(1) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlix., p. 122. 

(2) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. L, p. 23. 

(3) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlviii., p. 74. 

(4) Dentition and Palate of the Australian Aboriginal. By T. D. Campbell, 

D.D.Sc, pp. 85-90. 

(5) Outlines of a Grammar, Vocabulary, and Phraseology of the Aboriginal 

Language of South Australia. By C. G. Teichelmann and C. \Y. 
Schiirmann. 1840. 

(6) Old Records of the Department of Lands and Survey, South Australia. 

(7) Personal communication from Mr. Cockburn. 

(8) Nomenclature of South Australia. By Rodney Cockburn. 

(9) The Australian Race, vol. ii. By E. M. Curr. 

(10) Municipal Year Book of the City of Adelaide, pp. 9, 10. 

(11) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxvi., pp. 208-211. 



298 



AUSTRALIAN HYMENOPTERA PROCTOTRYPOIDEA.— No. 5. 

By Alan P. Dodd. 

[Read October 14, 1926.] 

This paper deals mainly with the family Scelionidae, and includes a revision 
of the genera Mallateleta, Dodd, Nenroscelio, Dodd, and Miro tele nomas, Dodd ; 
several species are added to the first-named, and one new species to the last-named, 
New species are added in the genera Apegus, Foerster, and Aeolus, Foerster, and 
a new genus is proposed in this family. In the Belytidae one new genus and two 
new species are described, and in Diapriidae one new* species is included. 

The author is indebted to the South Australian Museum for the loan of 
types for re-examination; five new species are described from material received 
for identification from that institution. 

Family BELYTIDAE. 
Neobetyla spinosa, n. sp. 

9 . Length, 2*65 mm. Head, antennae, and the legs bright orange-yellow; 
thorax reddish-brown, darker on the metathorax and the sides ; petiole of abdomen 
very deep brown ; body of abdomen dusky-brown at base, bright orange for its 
posterior two-thirds, and with a faint dusky cross-stripe just beyond the middle; 
eyes black. 

Head globular, smooth and shining, with scattered very long hairs ; eyes 
small, not so long as their distance from the posterior margin ; ocelli minute ; 
antennal prominence very large and conspicuous. Antennae 15-jointed; scape 
long and slender; pedicel about twice as long as its greatest width; funicle joints 
a little narrower than the pedicel, 1 as long as the pedicel and over twice as long as 
wide, 2 distinctly shorter than 1, 6 as wide as long; club 7-jointed, the joints 
(except the last) distinctly wider than long, the first not as wide as the others. 
Thorax slender, narrower than the head, three times as long as its greatest width ; 
smooth and shining, and with scattered long hairs ; pronotum densely pubescent 
anteriorly; scutum longer than its greatest width, much narrowed in front, strongly 
depressed, the parapsidal furrows distinct ; scutcllum longer than wide, with a 
strong basal fovea ; postscutellum with a median carina, and carinated margins ; 
propodeum wider than long, with light pubescence, with a strong median carina, 
its posterior margin deeply concave, carinate, and terminating laterally in acute 
spined angles. Wings absent. Petiole of abdomen almost twice as long as wide, 
a little swollen in centre, laterally with fine pubescence and a few long hairs, its 
dorsal surface smooth and bordered by a light carina on either side ; body of 
abdomen twice as long as its greatest width, much wider than the thorax ; depressed 
at base, the depression margined by obscure carinae ; surface smooth, with scat- 
tered long bristles; composed of four segments, of which 2 (first body segment) 
occupies most of the surface, 3 and 4 short and transverse, 5 conical and as long 
as its basal width. 

South Queensland: Blackall Range, one female taken in March by H. Hackei'. 
Type, in the Queensland Museum. 

The genus Neobetyla, Dodd, formerly contained two species, N. pulchricornis, 
Dodd, and aurea, Dodd, from North Queensland. Spinosa at once differs in the 
spined posterior angles of the propodeum, which is more lightly pubescent than in 
the other two; the antennae, too, are uniform in colour in this species. The 



299 

parapsidal furrows appear to be truly absent in aurea, faint in piilchricornis, and 
rather distinct in spinosa. 

Acanthobetyla, n. gen. 

9. Head normal for the family; subglobular, the eyes small, the frontal 
prominence very large and conspicuous ; ocelli absent ; in the centre of the vertex 
between the eyes is a pair of erect short teeth. Antennae normal, 15-jointed, the 
scape slender, the club 5- or 6-jointed. Thorax strongly narrowed, its sides sub- 
parallel ; pronotum long, armed on either side in front with a sharp erect tooth; 
scutum narrow, longer than wide, strongly depressed, the parapsidal furrows 
absent; scutellum long, narrow, almost as long as the scutum, strongly depressed, 
its lateral margins raised and carinate; postscutellum short, depressed, its lateral 
margins raised and carinate; propodeum rather long, armed laterally with dense 
stiff comb-like setae. Forewings reaching apex of abdomen; broad; without 
marginal and discal cilia, and quite without venation ; not limpid but yellow, 
opaque, and parchment-like; with a transverse fold or impression before one- 
half its length, and two longitudinal impressions in the distal portion; distal 
margin concave. Hindwings linear, bristle-like, reaching to the apex of the 
petiole. Petiole of abdomen somewhat longer than wide, somewhat humped, its 
sides with stiff setae; body of abdomen of four visible segments, of which the 
basal segment occupies most of the surface; three times as wide as the thorax, 
and twice as wide as the head; less than twice as long as its greatest width; 
sharply incised at base to receive the petiole. 

Type, A. mirabilis, described herewith. 

A very peculiar genus on account of its unique wings, of which it is rather 
difficult to give an adequate description. The narrowed thorax with its reduced 
depressed sclerites is typical of wingless genera such as Betyla, Cameron, and 
Ncobetyla, Dodd. 

Acanthobetyla mirabilis, n. sp. 

$ . Length, 2*40 mm. Wholly bright ferrugineous, including the legs and 
antennae. 

Body smooth, without sculpture. Antennal scape as long as the next six 
joints combined; pedicel one-half longer than its greatest width; funicle joints 
smaller and a little narrower than the pedicel, all somewhat longer than wide, 1 a 
little the longest ; apical five or six joints gradually widening to form an ill-defined 
club, of which the three penultimate joints are plainly wider than long, the apical 
joint conical and longer than wide. 

North Queensland : Cairns district, one female taken among fallen leaves. 
A. M. Lea. Type, in the South Australian Museum. 

Family DrAPRTTDAE. 

Propentapria pulchella, n. sp. t 

9 . Length, 2'40 mm. Mack, the abdomen washed with red at apex; coxae 
dusky-brown, the legs bright red, the apical portion of the femora and tibiae 
somewhat dusky; antennal scape fuscous, red at base, the pedicel dusky, the next 
seven joints bright red, the four apical joints black. 

Head normal, subglobular; from dorsal aspect twice as wide as long; eyes 
small, from dorsal aspect not as long as their distance from the posterior margin; 
surface smooth and shining, with a few scattered small punctures giving off very 
long fine hairs. Antennae rather shortly pubescent ; scape long and slender, somewhat 
curved ; pedicel twice as long as its greatest width ; funicle 1 a little narrower and 
no longer than the pedicel, 2-6 gradually shortening, 6 somewhat longer than wide ; 
club ill-defined, 4- or 5-jointed, gradually widening to the penultimate, the joints 
as wide as long, the apical joint twice as long as the preceding. Thorax shining, 



300 

smooth, with scattered long hairs; pronotum very short medially, long laterally; 
scutum not as long as its greatest width, its anterior margin strongly convex, the 
parapsidal furrows rather delicate but complete ; parapsides feebly depressed and 
with a foveate groove along the outer margin; scutellum longer than wide, the 
basal fovea much wider than long, subdivided by three carinae into four f oveae ; 
lateral margins of scutellum with an obscure groove; propodeum long, at base 
with a short raised tooth, its dorsal surface smooth with a pair of median carinae 
which join at base ; propleurae with a foveate line near the posterior margin ; 
mesopleurae quadrate, with a delicate groove against the dorsal margin ; meta- 
pleurae with dense white pubescence, smooth at base, coarsely rugose-punctate for 
the rest. Forewings reaching a little beyond apex of abdomen; broad; subhyaline, 
with three brown bands as follows : a narrow band at the basal vein, a broad band 
suspended from the marginal and stigmal veins, and a broad less definite band 
toward the apex; venation dark; marginal vein linear, one-fifth as long as the sub- 
marginal, several times as long as the short stigmal vein. Petiole of abdomen 
2^ times as long as wide, with four dorsal carinae, the sides shortly pubescent and 
with a few long setae; body of abdomen slender, depressed at base, pointed at 
apex, the oviposital valves protruding for some distance; segment 2 (first body 
segment) over twice as long as 3-6 combined; 3 and 4 very short and transverse; 
5 rather long; 6 one-half as long as 5 ; 5 and 6 with a row of long hairs at apex, 
5 with a few long hairs at base. 

South Australia : Mount Lofty, one female, A. M. Lea. Type, in the South 
Australian Museum. 

I have recently (Linn, Soc. N.S. Wales, 1926) discussed the genus Propen- 
iapria, Dodd. The species described above differs from the three previously 
known species in the fasciatc wings, and in the basal fovea on the scutellum being 
4-foveate instead of 5-foveate. 

Family SCELIONIDAE. 

Nyleta, n. gen. 

$ , 9 . Head, from dorsal aspect, no wider than the thorax, much wider 
than long, its posterior margin straight; from lateral aspect, the frons is lightly 
convex, the vertex sharply declivous from a little behind the lateral ocelli ; from 
frontal aspect, wider than deep; frons not or hardly depressed above the antennal 
insertion, with a median carina running from the frontal ocellus, and dividing 
in the centre of the frons into two branches, which run to either antennal insertion ; 
eyes large, bare ; ocelli large, close together and separated from the eye margins by 
their own diameter; mandibles tridentate. Antennae 12-jointed in both sexes; 
bulba long, the scape slender; in the male, the flagellum filiform, the joints long 
and slender; in the female, with a 6-jointed club, the first two funicle joints very 
long. Thorax stout, from dorsal aspect slightly longer than its greatest width, 
from lateral aspect slightly longer than high, convex above; pronotum not visible 
from above, except as a thin line laterally; scutum stout, convex, its anterior 
margin truncate, the latero-anterior margins very oblique; parapsidal furrows 
absent ; scutellum large, semicircular, with foveate anterior and posterior margins ; 
postscutellum short, transverse but rather prominent, its posterior margin con- 
cave ; propodeum declivous, short, its lateral margin carinate, its lateral angles 
prominent, its posterior margin straight and carinate for some distance, this 
carina joining a fainter carina which runs obliquely outwardly from the base, 
the meson depressed and in the female hidden by the abdominal prominence, no 
true lateral carinae are present ; spiracles unusually large and prominent, situated 
in- the anterior angles of the propodeum; mesopleurae large and broad, the 
depression rather small, the area below and in front of the depression rather well 
developed; metapleurae much smaller than the mesopleurae. Forewings extending 



301 

beyond apex of abdomen; broad; normal; submarginal vein joining the costa at 
fully one-half the wing length, the marginal vein a little shorter than the 
long stigmal vein which is a little convexly curved, the postmarginal three times 
as long as the stigmal ; basal and median veins faintly marked. Legs slender, the 
last two pairs long ; meso- and metacoxae close together and widely separated 
from the anterior pair. Abdomen regularly fusiform, the apex pointed in the 
female, blunt in the male ; somewhat longer than the head and thorax united ; 
segments 2 and 3 longest, 2 a little longer than 3, each a little shorter than its 
greatest width ; basal segment in female with a short blunt prominence at base. 

Type, N. slrialiceps, described herewith. 

This genus is erected to contain a species which is not congeneric with any 
known Australian form, and which I am unable to place in a satisfactory manner. 
It has no very striking features ; the distinguishing characters are the truncate 
anterior margin of the scutum, the large spiracles of the propodeum, the large 
ocelli situated close together, and the median carina of the frons. In some 
respects it resembles Hoploteleia, Ashmead, but that genus has a deep margined 
frontal depression, and the parapsidal furrows are complete. The abdomen is 
more regularly fusiform than in any of the Australian species of Baryconns, 
Foerster, 

Nyleta striaticeps, n. sp. 

9. Length, 2*90 mm. Black; legs, including the coxae, bright golden- 
yellow, the tarsi dusky; antennal scape and pedicel clear yellow, the first two 
funicle joints suffused with yellow, the remaining joints black. 

Frons on either side with several strong striae that extend from the mouth 
to the lateral ocelli ; surface on either side of the median carina irregularly rugose 
above, smooth below ; between the ocelli the surface is rugose ; behind the ocelli 
are strong transverse striae, between which are dense shallow punctures bearing a 
conspicuous pubescence of long fine hairs; frons without pubescence; cheeks 
rather densely punctate and with light pubescence, striate toward the mouth. 
Antennal scape long and slender ; pedicel more than twice as long as its greatest 
width ; funicle 1 more slender and twice as long as the pedicel ; 2 two-thirds as 
long as 1 ; 3 one-half as long as 2 ; 4 somewhat longer than wide ; club slender, 
the joints as long or a little longer than wide. Scutum and scutellum densely sub- 
confluently punctate, the punctures moderately small, and with a pubescence of 
fine hairs ; mesopleurae punctate, the depression smooth centrally, f oveate-striate 
along its margins ; metapleurae with a median carina, smooth above the carina, 
striate below the carina, punctate against the coxae. Forewings lightly stained; 
venation deep yellow. Segment 1 of abdomen striate, its prominence smooth ; 
2 at base with strong striae which gradually fail posteriorly, laterally without 
striae but with numerous small punctures, and there are scattered punctures on 
the posterior half dorsally ; 3-6 with numerous moderately dense punctures, which 
become smaller apically ; all punctures bearing fine setae. 

8 . Frons narrowly smooth on either side of the forks of the median carina, 
laterad of this smooth area with several strong longitudinal striae which curve 
and join the median carina above the forks; punctures of scutum confluent; 
striae absent on -the metapleurae. Antennal scape clear yellow, the pedicel dusky- 
yellow, the flagellum black; pedicel fully twice as long as its greatest width; 
flagellar joints shortly densely pubescent; 1 twice as long as the pedicel, 2-9 
gradually decreasing in length, 9 one-half as long as 1, 3 slightly excised on one 
side towards base. 

South Queensland: Mount Tambourine, 2,000 feet, one female, three males, 
in January and April, A. P. Dodd. Type and allotype, in the Queensland Museum. 
Paratypes, in the South Australian Museum and the author's collection. 



Neuroscelio, Dodd. 

Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, Berlin, 79, Sept., 1913, p. 170. 

5 . Head normal ; from dorsal aspect much wider than long ; eyes moder- 
ately small, bare ; ocelli close together in the centre of the f rons and far from the 
eye margins ; mandibles near the base on the outer side with a blunt tooth or 
tubercle, bidentate, the teeth acute. Antennae 12-jointed; scape normal; funicle 
joints not long; club stout, compact, truly 7-jointed. Thorax, from dorsal aspect, 
somewhat longer than its greatest width; pronotum very narrowly visible from 
above; scutum stout, its anterior margin broadly rounded, the parapsidal furrows 
complete ; scutellum with anterior and posterior rows of foveae, its posterior 
margin almost straight; postscutellum transverse, rugose, not prominent medially; 
propodeum moderately short, rugose, with a median carina that is raised at base 
in the form of a tubercle. Forewings rather short, not extending beyond apex of 
abdomen; stigmal vein long, twice as long as the marginal, the postmarginal 
hardly developed; basal and median veins represented by thick brown lines, the 
radial vein represented by a lighter brown line and forming a false closed radial 
cell. Abdomen broadly oval, narrowed at base, rounded posteriorly; less than 
one-half longer than its greatest width; segments 1 and 2 longest, 2 somewhat 
longer than 1 and longer than 3-6 united ; 3-6 each short and transverse. 

Type, N. nervalis, Dodd, by designation. 

The striking features of this genus are the long second abdominal segment and 
very short third segment ; this latter character occurs in Telenomus, Haliday, and 
its allies. But Neuroscelio is not related to Telenomus or to Hadronotus, 
Foerster, the abdomen being much more narrowed at its base. In general appear- 
ance the type species suggests a relationship with Anteris, Foerster. The truly 
7-jointed antennal club is unusual, while the false venation is strongly developed. 
One species only is known. 

Neurosceljo nervalis, Dodd. 
Loc, cit. t p. 170. 

2. Length, 1*30 mm. Black, the abdomen deep brown; legs, including 
the coxae, golden-yellow, also the first five antennal joints. 

Antennal scape as long as the next six joints united; pedicel twice as long as 
its greatest width; funicle 1 a little shorter and narrower than the pedicel, almost 
twice as long as its greatest width, 2 as wide as long, 3 wider than long; club 
joints very transverse. Scutum and scutellum with impressed scaly reticulation; 
parapsidal furrows widening posteriorly. Forewings lightly cloudy, almost 
hyaline at base; venation fuscous. Segment 1 of abdomen longitudinally striate, 
the remaining segments smooth and shining. 

North Queensland: Cairns district, one female in May, A. A. Girault. Type, 
in the South Australian Museum. 

Apegus, Foerster. 

Up to the present, this European genus has not been recognised as occurring 
in Australia. -However, Microteleia pttlchricorpus, Dodd, should be transferred 
here, and a second species is described below. The genus is characterised, inter 
alia, by the antennae of the female having no well-defined club. 

Apegus pulciiricorpus, Dodd. 
Microteleia pulchricorpus, Dodd, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxxix., 1915, p. 449. 

Apegus squamosus, n. sp. 

9 . Length, 1 '20 mm. Black ; legs golden-yellow, the coxae fuscous ; 
antennal* scape yellow, the remaining joints fuscous somewhat suffused with 
yellow. 



Head, from dorsal aspect, transverse, the vertex rather thin, the posterior 
margin gently concave ; from lateral aspect the head is situated somewhat below 
the anterior portion of the thorax, the vertex shortly declivous posteriorly ; from 
frontal aspect wider than deep; frons not depressed above the antennae, but with 
a short blunt median carina; eyes moderately small, very wide apart, faintly 
pubescent; ocelli in a curved line, the lateral pair somewhat closer to the eyes than 
to the median ocellus ; vertex and frons with open impressed reticulation, the frons 
broadly smooth in the centre and with a few minute punctures, against the mouth 
with fine dense striae. Antennal scape long and slender, as long as the next four 
joints combined; pedicel slender, three times as long as its greatest width; 
funicle 1 a little shorter than the pedicel, 2-4 gradually shortening, 4 somewhat 
longer than wide; club hardly differentiated, the joints slightly wider than the 
funicle and distinctly, although not greatly, longer than wide. Thorax from 
lateral aspect, distinctly flattened, situated somewhat obliquelv to the head and 
abdomen, the metathorax projecting below the base of the abdomen, the scutum 
anteriorly strongly convex, the meso- and metapleurae long and narrow; from 
dorsal aspect, the thorax is flat and scarcely longer than its greatest width; pro- 
notum situated below the anterior margin of the scutum and not visible from 
above; scutum stout, flat for most of its surface but strongly convex anteriorly, 
the anterior margin very broadly rounded, with fine impressed reticulation 
anteriorly, broadly smooth on the median lobe posteriorly; parapsidal furrows 
very wide apart, parallel, failing anteriorly; scutellum short, transverse, its pos- 
terior margin straight, its surface smooth, the anterior and posterior margins with 
punctate rows ; postscutellum very short and transverse, without a median plate, 
at base with a line of punctures ; propodeum very short at meson, longer laterallv. 
unarmed, finely reticulate at base medially, with very fine lateral carinae, almost 
smooth laterally; mesopleurae smooth; metapleurae reticulate. Legs slender, the 
femora unusually so. Forewings reaching apex of abdomen; broadly rounded at 
apex; hyaline, with a broad light -brown transverse band involving the stigmal 
and portion of the marginal and postmarginal veins ; discal cilia fine and rather 
sparse, absent; venation pallid; marginal vein twice as long as the stigmal, which 
is rather short, the postmarginal somewhat longer than the marginal. Abdomen 
fusiform; somewhat narrowed at base; no longer than the head and thorax 
united; twice as long as its greatest width; segment 1 short, transverse- 2 almost 
twice as long as 1 ; 3 the longest, a little longer than 2, twice as wide as long- 
4 slightly more than one-half as long as 3, transverse; 5 shorter than, 4; 6 very 
small; 2 at base transversely depressed as in the genus Scrlio, Latreille-'l finely 
densely striate; 2 with a few fine striae at base; 2-5 with open impressed reticula- 
tion; 2 and 3 broadly smooth laterally, 4 and 5 more narrowly smooth; a verv 
few fine short hairs are present along the lateral margins. 

South Queensland : Brisbane, one female, A. P. Dodd. Type, J« the Queens- 
land Museum. *° 

Pulchricorpits and squamosus are certainly congeneric, but are abundantly 

distinct, and can be separated by means of the 'following characters: 

Head, thorax, and base of abdomen, orange-vellow ; abdomen black - 
antennae varicolored, joints 2 and 3 and 8-12 black, 4-7 pale vellowish- 

white; forewings with two bands ., .. pu\ c hrkorhu% 

Body wholly black; antennae not varicolored, joints 2-12 dusky-yellow • 

forewings with one band \ Si]UOmosus 

Mallateleia, Dodd. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxxviL, 1913, p. 151. 
Mallaielcioidcs, Dodd, ibidem, p. 152". 

9 , $ . Head, from dorsal aspect, transverse; from lateral aspect, the frons 
lightly convex, the vertex sloping sharply to the occiput ; from frontal aspect, 



304 

subcircular, wider than deep; lower frons rarely noticeably depressed, the 
depression not margined; eyes moderately large, bare; mandibles tn dentate, the 
outer teeth long and acute, the inner tooth small; maxillary palpi 4-jointed. 
Antennae 12-jointed in both sexes; in the female the funicle joints short, shorter 
than the pedicel, the club compact and 6- jointed ; in the male the flagellum monih- 
form, shortly pilose, the joints not much longer than wide, 2 a little shorter than 
1 or 3. Thorax rather stout, not much longer than its greatest width; pronotum 
visible for its entire width; scutum wider than long, the parapsidal furrows 
usually well marked, absent in one species; scutellum transverse, its posterior 
margin straight, with anterior and posterior rows of foveae; postscutellum 
unarmed, transverse, usually rather prominent, its posterior margin straight; 
propodeum sloping laterally, depressed at meson and margined on either side with 
a straight carina. Femora normal, or considerably swollen. Forewings _ not 
reaching beyond apex of abdomen, the margins almost equally inclined, the discal 
cilia exceedingly dense; without true veins, but with darker lines of fumation 
representing submarginal, a short thick marginal or stigmal, basal and median 
veins. Abdomen pyriform, broad, much narrowed at base, the apex shortly 
pointed in the female, blunt in the male ; segments all wider than long, 3 the longest 
and as long as 1 and 2 or 4-6 united. 

Type, Mallaieleia giraitlti, Dodd. 

A curious genus on account of the non-development of the venation. Its 
nearest ally in Australia is probably Anteris, Foerster, which possesses well- 
developed submarginal, marginal and stigmal veins; the short funicle joints and 
compact club in the female recall Antcris; the abdomen is of much the same type, 
but is shorter in Antcris; the scutellum in Antcris is not straight posteriorly, and 
the postscutellum bears a distinct tooth. 

Mallateleioides, Dodd, is a true synonym, the genotype possessing the false 
venation in a more marked degree than in M. giraulti. The genus is a natural 
one, and is apparently well represented in Australia, the present paper recognising 
eleven species, of which seven are described as new. 

Key to the Species of Mallaieleia, Dodd. 

1. Males •■ •* - I 

Females • * ■■ £ 

2. Parapsidal furrows absent, the scutum with large confluent punc- 

tures ; a black species * kieffcn, Dodd 

Parapsidal furrows distinct and complete; punctures of scutum 
smaller and not confluent c -," " % 

3. Body wholly black, rarely touched with red on sides of thorax . . 4 
At least the thorax partly reddish or yellowish .. .. .. 8 

4. Head with a dense rugose sculpture ; posterior half of median lobe 

of scutum with longitudinal grooves • ■ rugosiceps, n. sp. 

Head punctate or finely reticulate ; median lobe of scutum without 
grooves . . . . ■ • ■ • • • • ■ • • * ' ■ u " " 

5. Lower frons with conspicuous white pubescence; scutum without 

stiff white hairs uu 

Lower frons without conspicuous white pubescence; scutum with 
stiff white hairs . . . . - ■ ■ • ■ * ; • • • / 

6. Forewings with a hyaline spot near anterior margin at less than 

one-half its length, and the base is hyaline; segments 3-5 of 

abdomen with dense fine reticulation . . . . macuhpenms, n. sp. 

Forewings uniformly clouded ; segments 3-5 with rather dense 

punctures pilosifrons, n. sp. 

7 Head with scattered punctures and dense fine reticulation ; segments 

4 and 5 of abdomen with fine reticulation pilosiscutum, n. sp. 

Head without reticulation; segments 4 and 5 of abdomen smooth . . punciahfrons, n. sp. 
<S. Segment 3 of abdomen rather densely punctate laterally, 4 with 

numerous punctures . . . . • - - - * • • ■ , - • coliaris, n. sp. 

Segment 3 with a very few fine punctures far laterally, 4 with a 

row of fine punctures near anterior and posterior margins . - girauUi, Dodd 



305 

9. Head, thorax, and abdomen black . . . . . . . . . . 10 

At least the thorax wholly or in part reddish 11 

10. Segments 4 and 5 with fine reticulation westzvoodi, Dodd 

Segments 4 and 5 with fine punctures . . ■ . . pilosifrons, n. sp. 

11. Femora much swollen; flagellar joints 3-9 very short and transverse crassipes, n. sp. 
Femora not SAvollen; flagellar joints as long as wide .. ..12 

12. Segment 2 of abdomen densely striate; punctu-res of head dense 

and subconfluent splendida, Dodd 

Segment 2 smooth; punctures of head scattered .. .. .. 13 

13. -Head, scutum, and scutellum dark; venation apparent .. .. rjiraulti, var. 

tt . t1 foerstcri, Dodd 

Head, scutum, and scutellum clear red; venation not showing .. <jirnidti, Dodd 

Mallateleia kiefferi, Dodd. 

Arkiv fur Naturgeschichtc, Berlin, 79, 1913, p. 177, 

?. Length, 2'75 mm. Black, the propleurae washed with red; coxae 
black, the legs reddish-yellow, the femora dusky; antcnnal scape duskv, the next 
five joints testaceous, the club black; mandibles red. 

Head normal, the vertex sloping gently to the occiput; vertex, upper frons, 
and cheeks with large rather dense punctures each bearing a long fine hair; lower 
half of face hardly depressed, impunctate, except for a few scattered punctures 
laterally; mandibles very long, almost as long as the scape, tridentate, the middle 
tooth small; maxillary palpi long, 4-jointcd. Antennal scape long and slender; 
pedicel twice as long as its greatest width; funicle joints somewhat narrower 
than the pedicel, 1 one-half longer than its greatest width, 2 quadrate, 3 and 4 
transverse; club compact, 6-jointed, the joints transverse. Thorax stout, from 
dorsal aspect one-fourth longer than its greatest width ; pronotum narrowly 
visible, reticulate-punctate and with silvery pubescence; parapsidal furrows not 
indicated; scutum with large coarse confluent punctures with a faint reticulate 
tendency, and with very fine scattered pubescence; scutellum coarsely reticulate- 
punctate, the basal row of foveae very large and coarse. Forewings lightly and 
uniformly tinted, the submarginal, marginal, and median veins very faintly 
marked. Legs stout, the femora plainly swollen. Abdomen stout, somewhat 
wider than the thorax, barely twice as long as its greatest width ; segment 1 one- 
half as wide basally as posteriorly, and somewhat shorter than its greatest width; 

3 three-fifths as long as wide, a little shorter than 1 and 2 or 4-6 united ; 1 strongly 
striate; 2 smooth, with a few pin-punctures laterally; lateral margins of 1 and 2 
with dense silvery pubescence; 3 smooth, with scattered fine punctures laterally 
bearing fine hairs, and a row of sparse similar punctures toward posterior margin ; 

4 with about three rows of fine punctures at base, and scattered punctures laterally 
and posteriorly; 5 with numerous fine punctures ; 6 densely, finely punctate and 
pubescent. 

North Queensland: Cairns district, three females in April and June. Type, 
in the South Australian Museum, 

A large species easily recognised by the absence of parapsidal furrows, 
coarse punctuation of the scutum, and the swollen femora. 

Mallateleia rugosiceps, n. sp. 

2 . Length, 1-85 mm. Dull black, the abdomen somewhat brownish; coxae 
fuscous, the legs testaceous, the femora and tibiae washed with brown ; antennae 
black, the scape and pedicel deep brown. 

Frons, vertex and cheeks with a dense wavy rugose sculpture which is more 
or less longitudinal; there are a few scattered punctures, obscure on account of 
the sculpture, and scattered stiff white setae ; lower face and cheeks with strong 
striae converging to the mouth. Antennae much as in M. punciatifrons. Thorax 
stout ; pronotum f oveate-punctate and with stiff white setae ; scutum with 



306 

scattered stiff setae near the anterior margin, the surface shining, with scattered 
punctures, the median lobe for its posterior half with several irregular longi- 
tudinal grooves ; scutelium with strong anterior and posterior f oveate rows, the 
transverse disc with numerous punctures and a few short rugae; postscutellum 
very prominent, one-half as long as the scutelium, strongly f oveate ; median 
carinae of propodeum very wide apart, from lateral aspect raised posteriorly m 
the form of obtuse tubercles. Forewings lightly stained; submarginal and 
median veins faintly represented, the marginal vein marked by a faint thick 
stigma. Legs slender, the femora and tibiae not noticeably thickened. Abdomen 
wider than the thorax, somewhat less than twice as long as its greatest width ; 
segment 1 not one-half as wide basally as posteriorly ; 3 as long as 1 and 2 
or 4-6 united, two-thirds wider than long; 1 strongly striate; 2 very densely 
and rather strongly striate, but laterally the striae are sparse; 3 very densely and 
rather finely striate, the striae somewhat wavy, becoming very wavy and irregular 
laterally where scattered setigerous punctures are present ; sculpture of 4 and 5 
of dense fine irregular striae; 3-5 at base with a row of close punctures ; 4-6 with 
a few scattered fine setae ; 6 smooth. 

South Australia: Owiendana, Northern Flinders Range, one female collected 
by Hale and Tindale. Type, in the South Australian Museum. 

Distinguished by the rugose sculpture of the head, the grooves on the scutum, 
and the close fine striae of segments 3-5 of the abdomen. 

Mallateleia westwoodi, Dodd. 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Q'land, vol. xxvi., 1914, p. 92. 
$. Length, 1'95 mm. Black; femora, tibiae, and antennal scape fuscous; 

tarsi yellow. . 

Head with fine scaly sculpture, and moderately dense, not large thimble 
punctures, also short fine white pubescence. Scutum and scutelium with similar 
sculpture to the head; parapsidal furrows distinct and complete. Abdomen a 
little wider than the thorax; segment 1 striate; 2 with striae far laterally, smooth 
for the rest ; 3 smooth medially, for the rest with very fine scaly reticulation ; 
4 and 5 wholly finely sculptured. Flagellar joints somewhat longer than wide. 

North Queensland: Pentland, one male in September, A. A. Girault. 

The original description states that the type is in the Queensland Museum, 
but there is no record of its having been deposited in that institution or in the 
South Australian Museum; probably it has been lost. The above diagnosis is 
based on the original description. Evidently closely allied to the male of 
M. pilosifrons, and it might well be the male of the species herein described as 
M. pilosiscutum. 

Mallateleia pilosifrons, n. sp. 

9 . Length. 1-80 mm. Dull black; coxae fuscous, the legs bright golden- 
yellow, the femora faintly dusky; antennal scape deep red, the pedicel washed 
with red; mandibles red, the teeth dusky. 

Head normal; sloping sharply from the lateral ocelli to the occiput; lower 
face lightly depressed medially but without a definite depression; mandibles long, 
slender, tridentate ; lateral ocelli against the eyes; frons with rather numerous 
small punctures and with a noticeable pubescence of short silvery appressed hairs ; 
vertex with finer pubescence, similar punctuation, and also very finely coriaceous ; 
toward the occiput the punctures are denser, subconrluent, and arranged sub- 
transversely ; cheeks with dense punctures and silvery pubescence; against the 
mouth on the lower cheeks and frons are a few converging striae. Antennal 
scape moderately long and slender; pedicel one-half longer than its greatest 
width; funicle joints smaller and narrower than the pedicel, 1 one-half longer 
than wide, 2 as wide as long, 3 and 4 wider than long; club compact, the joints 



307 



transverse. Thorax slightly longer than its greatest width; pronotum densely 
punctate and with short silvery pubescence; parapsidal furrows well marked and 
complete,, not foveate or punctate; scutum with moderately small punctures, 
dense but not confluent, without pubescence except for scattered very short and 
fine hairs; scutellum transverse, its surface with a few punctures; postscutellum 
prominent, transverse, foveate. Legs slender, the femora not noticeably 
thickened. Forewings lightly smoky, almost hyaline at extreme base; no sign 
of venation except for a dark stigmal mark. Abdomen somewhat wider than the 
thorax, hardly twice as long as its greatest width; segment 1 one-half as wide 
basally as posteriorly, shorter than its greatest width; 3 as long as 1 and 2 or 
4-6 united two-thirds wider than long; 1 strongly striate, the striae inclined to 
tail medially; 2 for the most part smooth, striate laterally, and with a row of 
foveae at base; 3-5 uniformly punctate and without pubescence, the punctures 
not large, dense but well separated; 6 and posterior margins of 3-5 smooth. 

S_ Striae on segment 1 of abdomen strong; 2 with a few short striae at 
base ; 2 and 3 smooth, impunctate, except for light pubescence laterally and a 
scattered row of fine hairs against posterior margin; 4 and 5 with numerous 
hne punctures bearing fine pubescence; 6 densely punctate and pubescent 
Antennae black, the scape deep brown; flagellar joints each a little longer than 
wide, 1 a little longer than 3, 2 a little shorter than 3 ; pedicel a little shorter than 
fumcle 1. 

Queensland: Westwood, near Rockhampton, one female, five males in 
December, A. P. Dodd. Type, in the Queensland Museum. Allotype, in the 
South Australian Museum. Paratypes, in the author's collection. 

Although all the specimens were taken in the same locality at the same time, 
the differences m the sculpture of segment 3 of the abdomen suggest that the 
male may be a distinct species. 

Mallateleia maculipennis, n. sp. 
8. Length, 2 mm. Dull black, the thorax ventrally somewhat reddish; 
legs., including the coxae, orange-yellow ; antennal scape yellow, the pedicel and 
fumcle joints dusky-brown, the club black; mandibles yellow. 

Head much as in M. pilosifrons; upper f rons and vertex with numerous small 
punctures and dense fine impressed reticulation; behind the ocelli the reticulation 
bears a transverse appearance; lower luilf of frons with dense subconfluent 
punctures and a conspicuous pubescence of appressed silvery hairs; cheeks rather 
densely punctate and with silvery pubescence. Antennal scape slender, longer 
than the next five joints combined; pedicel one-half longer than its greatest 
width; funicle joints smaller than the pedicel, 1 one-half longer than wide, 
2 quadrate, 3 and 4 wider than long; club compact, the joints transverse. Thorax 
normal; pronotum densely punctate and pubescent; scutum with moderately 
dense, rather small punctures and scattered fine pubescence ; scutellum trans- 
verse, its disc impunctate or nearly so. and finely scaly; propodeum pubescent, 
the median carinae well apart; mesopleurae with several strong striae above the 
depression which is smooth except for a row of punctures posteriorly. Forewings 
definitely smoky, but the base is hyaline, and there is a square hyaline spot 
against the anterior margin at less than one-half its length; discal cilia exceed- 
ingly dense; venation hardly marked. Legs slender, the femora and tibiae not 
thickened. _ Abdomen somewhat wider than the thorax, twice as long as its 
greatest width; segment 1 much wider posteriorly than at base, somewhat shorter 
than its greatest width; 3 almost as long as 1 and 2 or 4-6 united, two-thirds as 
long as wide; 1 strongly striate, the striae failing laterally; 2 smooth for the most 
part, with a few strong striae laterally; 3 with dense fine longitudinal reticulation 
which changes to fine striation laterally, the median line almost smooth; 4 and 5 



308 

with fine scaly impressed reticulation; 6 smooth; 2-5 with a few fine hairs along 
the lateral margins, and a row of fine scattered hairs along the posterior margm 

° f ^Q^Sncl': Brisbane, one female, A. P. Dodd. Type, in the Queensland 

Museum. , . ,. _